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Full text of "The Imperial gazetteer of India"

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THE 

IMPERIAL GAZETTEER 

OF INDIA 



VOL. XXIII 

SINGHBHUM 

TO 

TRASHI-CHOD-ZONG 



NEW EDITION 

PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF HIS MAJESTY'S 
SECRETARY OF STATE FOR INDIA IN COUNCIL 




OXFORD 

AT THE CLARENDON TRESS 

1908 



HENRY FROWDE, M.A. 

PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD 

LONDON, EDINBURGH 

NEW YORK AND TORONTO 



INTRODUCTORY NOTES 

Notes on Transliteration 

Vowel-Sounds 

a has the sound of a in ' woman.' 
a has the sound of a in ' father.' 
e has the vowel-sound in ' grey.' 
i has the sound of i in ' pin.' 
I has the sound of i in ' police.' 
o has the sound of o in ' bone.' 
u has the sound of u in ' bull' 
u has the sound of u in ' flute.' 
ai has the vowel-sound in ' mine.' 
au has the vowel-sound in ' house.' 

It should be stated that no attempt has been made to distinguish 
between the long and short sounds of e and o in the Dravidian 
languages, which possess the vowel-sounds in 'bet' and 'hot' in 
addition to those given above. Nor has it been thought necessary 
to mark vowels as long in cases where mistakes in pronunciation 
were not likely to be made. 

Consonants 

Most Indian languages have different forms for a number of con- 
sonants, such as d, t, r, &c, marked in scientific works by the use 
of dots or italics. As the European ear distinguishes these with 
difficulty in ordinary pronunciation, it has been considered undesir- 
able to embarrass the reader with them ; and only two notes are 
required. In the first place, the Arabic k, a strong guttural, has 
been represented by k instead of q, which is often used. Secondly, 
it should be remarked that aspirated consonants are common ; and, 
in particular, dh and th (except in Burma) never have the sound of 
th in ' this ' or ' thin,' but should be pronounced as in L woodhouse ' 
and ' boathook.' 

A 2 



iv INTRODUCTORY NOTES 

Burmese Words 

Burmese and some of the languages on the frontier of China have 
the following special sounds : — 

aw has the vowel-sound in 'law.' 
6 and ii are pronounced as in German, 
gy is pronounced almost like/ in 'jewel.' 
ky is pronounced almost like ch in ' church.' 
th is pronounced in some cases as in ' this,' in some cases as in 

'thin.' 
w after a consonant has the force of uw. Thus, ywa and pwe 
are disyllables, pronounced as if written ytava and pmve. 

It should also be noted that, whereas in Indian words the accent 
or stress is distributed almost equally on each syllable, in Burmese 
there is a tendency to throw special stress on the last syllable. 

General 
The names of some places — e. g. Calcutta, Bombay, Lucknow, 
Cawnpore — have obtained a popular fixity of spelling, while special 
forms have been officially prescribed for others. Names of persons 
are often spelt and pronounced differently in different parts of India ; 
but the variations have been made as few as possible by assimilating 
forms almost alike, especially where a particular spelling has been 
generally adopted in English books. 

Notes on Money, Prices, Weights and Measures 

As the currency of India is based upon the rupee, all statements 
with regard to money throughout the Gazetteer have necessarily been 
expressed in rupees, nor has it been found possible to add generally 
a conversion into sterling. Down to about 1873 the g°ld value of 
the rupee (containing 165 grains of pure silver) was approximately 
equal to 2s., or one-tenth of a £ ; and for that period it is easy to 
convert rupees into sterling by striking off the final cipher (Rs. 1,000 
= £100). But after 1873, owing to the depreciation of silver as 
compared with gold throughout the world, there came a serious and 
progressive fall in the exchange, until at one time the gold value of 
the rupee dropped as low as is. In order to provide a remedy for 
the heavy loss caused to the Government of India in respect of its 
gold payments to be made in England, and also to relieve foreign 
trade and finance from the inconvenience due to constant and 
unforeseen fluctuations in exchange, it was resolved in 1893 to close 
the mints to the free coinage of silver, and thus force up the value of 
the rupee by restricting the circulation. The intention was to raise 



INTRODUCTORY NOTES v 

the exchange value of the rupee to is. 4d., and then introduce a gold 
standard (though not necessarily a gold currency) at the rate of Rs. 1 5 
= £1. This policy has been completely successful. From 1899 on- 
wards the value of the rupee has been maintained, with insignificant 
fluctuations, at the proposed rate of is. \d. ; and consequently since 
that date three rupees have been equivalent to two rupees before 1873. 
For the intermediate period, between 1873 and 1899, it is manifestly 
impossible to adopt any fixed sterling value for a constantly changing 
rupee. But since 1899, if it is desired to convert rupees into sterling, 
not only must the final cipher be struck off (as before 1873), but 
also one-third must be subtracted from the result. Thus Rs. 1,000 
= £100 — § = (about) £67. 

Another matter in connexion with the expression of money state- 
ments in terms of rupees requires to be explained. The method of 
numerical notation in India differs from that which prevails through- 
out Europe. Large numbers are not punctuated in hundreds of thou- 
sands and millions, but in lakhs and crores. A lakh is one hundred 
thousand (written out as 1,00,000), and a crore is one hundred lakhs 
or ten millions (written out as 1,00,00,000). Consequently, accord- 
ing to the exchange value of the rupee, a lakh of rupees (Rs. 1,00,000) 
may be read as the equivalent of £10,000 before 1873, and as the 
equivalent of (about) £6,667 a ft er x 899; while a crore of rupees 
(Rs. 1,00,00,000) may similarly be read as the equivalent of 
£1,000,000 before 1873, and as the equivalent of (about) £666,667 
after 1899. 

Finally, it should be mentioned that the rupee is divided into 
16 annas, a fraction commonly used for many purposes by both 
natives and Europeans. The anna was formerly reckoned as \\d. ; 
it may now be considered as exactly corresponding to id. The 
anna is again subdivided into 12 pies. 

The various systems of weights used in India combine uniformity 
of scale with immense variations in the weight of units. The scale 
used generally throughout Northern India, and less commonly in 
Madras and Bombay, may be thus expressed : one maund = 40 seers ; 
one seer = 16 chittaks or 80 tolas. The actual weight of a seer 
varies greatly from District to District, and even from village to 
village ; but in the standard system the tola is 180 grains Troy 
(the exact weight of the rupee), and the seer thus weighs 2-057 lb., 
and the maund 82-28 lb. This standard is used in official reports 
and throughout the Gazetteer. 

For calculating retail prices, the universal custom in India is to 
express them in terms of seers to the rupee. Thus, when prices 
change, what varies is not the amount of money to be paid for the 



vi INTRODUCTORY NOTES 

same quantity, but the quantity to be obtained for the same amount 
of money. In other words, prices in India are quantity prices, not 
money prices. When the figure of quantity goes up, this of course 
means that the price has gone down, which is at first sight perplexing 
to an English reader. It may, however, be mentioned that quantity 
prices are not altogether unknown in England, especially at small 
shops, where pennyworths of many groceries can be bought. Eggs, 
likewise, are commonly sold at a varying number for the shilling. 
If it be desired to convert quantity prices from Indian into English 
denominations without having recourse to money prices (which would 
often be misleading), the following scale may be adopted —based 
upon the assumptions that a seer is exactly 2 lb., and that the value 
of the rupee remains constant at is. 4^. : 1 seer per rupee = (about) 
3 lb. for 2S. ; 2 seers per rupee — (about) 6 lb. for 2s. ; and so on. 

The name of the unit for square measurement in India generally 
is the bigha, which varies greatly in different parts of the country. 
But areas have always been expressed throughout the Gazetteer either 
in square miles or in acres. 



IMPERIAL GAZETTEER 
OF INDIA 

VOLUME XXIII 

Singhbhum. — District in the south-east of the Chota Nagpur 
Division of Bengal, lying between 21 58' and 22 54' N. and 85 o' 
and 86° 54' E., with an area of 3,891' square miles. It is bounded 
on the north by the Districts of Ranch! and Manbhum ; on the east 
by Midnapore ; on the south by the Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar, and Bonai 
States ; and on the west by Ranch! and the Gangpur State. The 
boundaries follow the crests of the unnamed hill-ranges which wall 
in the District on every side, save for short distances where they are 
marked by the Subarnarekha and Baitaran! rivers. 

Singhbhum ('the land of the Singh family' of Porahat) comprises 
the Government estate of the Kolhan in the south-east, the revenue- 
paying estate of Dhalbhum (Dhal being the zamindar's 
patronymic) in the east, and the revenue-free estate ysica 

of Porahat in the west, while the States of Saraikela 
and Kharsawan lie in the north, wedged in between Porahat and 
Dhalbhum. The District forms part of the southern fringe of the 
Chota Nagpur plateau ; and the western portion is very hilly, especially 
in the north, where the highest points have an altitude of more than 
2,500 feet, and in Saranda pir in the south-west, where the mountains 
culminate in a grand mass which rises to a height of 3,500 feet. Out- 
lying ranges stretch thence in a north-easterly direction to a point 
about 7 miles north-west of Chaibasa. Smaller ranges are frequently 
met with, chiefly along the northern marches of Saraikela and Kharsa- 
wan and in the south of Dhalbhum on the confines of the Mayur- 
bhanj State ; but in general the eastern and east-central parts of the 
District, although broken and undulating, are comparatively open. 
The Singhbhum hills present an outline of sharp-backed ridges and 
conical peaks, which are covered with forest wherever it is protected 
by the Forest department ; elsewhere the trees have been ruthlessly 

1 This figure, which differs from that shown in the Census Report of 1901, was 
supplied by the Surveyor-General. 



2 SINGHBHUM 

cut, and the hill-sides are rapidly becoming bare and rocky. Among 
the mountains the scenery is often beautiful. The mountains west 
of Chaibasa form the watershed which drains north-eastwards into 
the Subarnarekha and south and west into the Brahman! river. 
The Subarnarekha, which flows through the whole length of Dhalbhum, 
receives on its right bank the Sanjai, which drains Porahat, Kharsawan, 
and Saraikela. The Kodkai rises in Mayurbhanj State, and with its 
affluent the Raro, on whose bank Chaibasa town is situated, drains 
the north of the Kolhan, and after passing through Saraikela, joins its 
waters with the Sanjai. The Karo and the Koel rivers drain the west 
of the District, and flow westwards into the BrahmanI river, which they 
join in the Gangpur State. The beds of all the rivers are strewn with 
boulders, which impede navigation, and the banks are generally steep 
and covered with scrub jungle ; but alluvial flats are deposited in some 
of the reaches, where vegetables and tobacco are grown. The Phuljhur 
river bursts out of Ranchl District into Singhbhum in a cascade which 
forms a pool supposed to be unfathomable, and is the subject of 
various legends ; similar pools in the Baitarani river on the borders 
of Keonjhar are held sacred, and at one about 2 miles from Jaintgarh 
Brahmans have established a shrine, where Hindu pilgrims bathe. 

The District is occupied almost entirely by the Archaean group, 
a vast series of highly altered rocks, consisting of quartzites, quartzitic 
sandstones, slates of various kinds, sometimes shaly, mica-schists, 
metamorphic limestones, ribboned ferruginous jaspers, talcose and 
chloritic schists, the last passing into potstones, basic volcanic lavas, 
and ash-beds mostly altered to hornblendic schists, greenstones, and 
epidiorites. East and south of Chaibasa there is a large outcrop of a 
massive granitic gneiss, resembling that of Bundelkhand, and traversed 
in the same way by huge dikes of basic rocks. Laterite is found in 
many places. In the east it largely covers the older rocks and is in 
its turn concealed by alluvium 1 . 

Singhbhum lies within the zone of deciduous-leaved forest and 
within the Central India sal tract, with a temperature attaining 11 5° in 
the shade, and mountains rising to 3,000 feet with scorched southern 
slopes and deep damp valleys : its flora contains representatives of dry 
hot countries, with plants characteristic of the moist tracts of Assam. 
On rocks, often too hot to be touched with the hand, are found 
Euphorbia Nivulia, Sarcostemma, Sterailia urens, Boswellia serrata, 
and the yellow cotton-tree {Cochlospermum Gossypium), while the 
ordinary mixed forest of dry slopes is composed of Atwgeissus latifolia, 
Ougeinia, Odina, Cleistanthus collinus, Zizyphus xylopyrus, Buchanania 
latifolia, and species of Terminalia and Bauhinia. The sal varies from 

1 Memoirs, Geological Survey of India, vol. xviii, pt. ii; and Records, Geological 
Survey, vol. iii, pt. iv, and vol. xxxi, pt. ii. 



PHYSICAL ASPECTS 3 

a scrubby bush to a tree 120 feet high, and is often associated with 
Odina, the mahua (Bass/a latifoliii), Diospyros, Symplocos racemosa, 
the gum kino-tree [Pterocarpus Marsupium), Eugenia Jambolana, and 
especially Wendlandia tindoria. Its common associates, Careya arborea 
and Dillenia pentagyna, are here confined to the valleys ; but Dillenia 
aurea, a tree of the Eastern peninsula and sub-Himalayas, is curiously 
common in places. The flora of the valley includes Garrinia Cowa, 
Litsaea nitida (Assamese), Amoora Rohituka, Saraca i/idica, Gnetum 
scandens, Musa sapientum and ornata, Lysiinachia peduncularis (Bur- 
mese), and others less interesting. The best represented woody orders 
are the Leguminosae, Rubiaceae (including six species of Gardenia and 
Randia), Euphorbiaceae, and Urticaceae (mostly figs). Of other orders, 
the grasses number between one and two hundred species, including 
the sabai grass {Ischaemum angustifoliuni) and spear-grass (Andropogon 
contortus), which are most abundant. The Cyperaceae number about 
50 species, the Compositae 50, and the Acanthaceae about 11 under- 
shrubs and 25 herbs. The principal bamboo is Dendrocalamus strictus ; 
and the other most useful indigenous plants are the mahua (Bassia 
laiifolia) and Dioscorea for food, Bauhinia Vahlii for various purposes, 
dsan {Terminalia tomentosa) for the rearing of silkworms, Terminalia 
Chebula for myrabolams, kusum (Schleichera Iri/uga) for lac and oil, 
and sabai grass. 

Wild elephants, bison, tigers, leopards, bears, sambar, spotted deer, 
barking-deer, four-horned antelope, wild hog, hyenas, and wild dogs 
are found ; but they are becoming scarce, owing to the hunting pro- 
clivities of the aborigines, and, with the exception of bears and some 
of the smaller animals, they are now almost entirely restricted to the 
' reserved ' forests. Poisonous snakes are numerous. Many men and 
cattle are killed by wild animals, and upwards of Rs. 700 is distributed 
annually in rewards for killing dangerous beasts. 

During the hot months of April, May, and June westerly winds from 
Central India cause high temperature with very low humidity. The 
mean temperature increases from 81° in March to 90 in April and 
93 in May; the mean maximum from 95 in March to 105 in May, 
and the mean minimum from -67° to 8o°. During these months 
humidity is not so low in this District as elsewhere in Chota Nagpur, 
though it falls to 60 per cent, in March and 56 per cent, in April. In 
the cold season the mean temperature is 67 and the mean minimum 
53 . The annual rainfall averages 53 inches, of which 9-2 inches fall 
in June, 13-4 in July, 12-4 in August, and 7-9 in September. The 
rainfall is heaviest in the west and south-west ; but, owing to the 
mountainous character of the country, it varies much in different 
localities, and one part of the District may often have good rain when 
another is suffering from drought. 



4 SINGHBHUM 

Thanks mainly to its isolated position, the District was never invaded 
by the Mughals or the Marathas. The northern part was conquered 
successively by Bhuiya and Rajput chiefs, but in 
the south the Hos or Larka (' fighting ') Kols success- 
fully maintained their independence against all comers. The Singh 
family of Porahat, whose head was formerly known as the Raja of 
Singhbhum, are Rathor Rajputs of the Solar race ; and it is said that 
their ancestors were three brothers in the body-guard of Akbar's general, 
Man Singh, who took the part of the Bhuiyas against the Hos and 
ended by conquering the country for themselves. At one time the 
Raja of Singhbhum owned also the country now included in the 
States of Saraikela and Kharsawan, and claimed an unacknowledged 
suzerainty over the Kolhan ; but Saraikela and Kharsawan, with 
the dependent maintenance grants of Dugni and Bankshahi, were 
assigned to junior members of the family, and in time the chief of 
Saraikela became a dangerous rival of the head of the clan. 

British relations with the Raja of Singhbhum date from 1767, when 
he made overtures to the Resident at Midnapore asking for protection; 
but it was not until 1820 that he acknowledged himself a feudatory 
of the British Government, and agreed to pay a small tribute. He 
and the other chiefs of his family then pressed on the Political Agent, 
Major Roughsedge, their claims to supremacy in the Kolhan, asserting 
that the Hos were their rebellious subjects and urging on Government 
to force them to return to their allegiance. The Hos denied that they 
were subject to the chiefs, who were fain to admit that for more than 
fifty years they had been unable to exercise any control over them ; 
they had made various attempts to subjugate them, but without success, 
and the Hos had retaliated fiercely, committing great ravages and 
depopulating entire villages. Major Roughsedge, however, yielding 
to the Rajas' representations, entered the Kolhan with the avowed 
object of compelling the Hos to submit to the Rajas who claimed 
their allegiance. He was allowed to advance unmolested into the 
heart of their territory, but while encamped at Chaibasa an attack 
was made within sight of the camp by a body of Hos who killed one 
man and wounded several others. They then moved away towards 
the hills, but their retreat was cut off by Lieutenant Maitland, who 
dispersed them with great loss. The whole of the northern Hos then 
entered into engagements to pay tribute to the Raja of Singhbhum ; 
but on leaving the country Major Roughsedge had to encounter the 
still fiercer Hos of the south, and after fighting every inch of his way 
out of Singhbhum, he left them unsubdued. His departure was 
immediately followed by a war between the Hos who had submitted 
and those who had not, and a body of 100 Hindustani Irregulars sent 
to the assistance of the former was driven out by the latter. In 1821 



HISTORY 5 

a large force was employed to reduce the Hos ; and after a month's 
hostilities, the leaders surrendered and entered into agreements to pay 
tribute to the Singhbhum chiefs, to keep the road open and safe, and 
to give up offenders ; they also promised that ' if they were oppressed 
by any of the chiefs, they would not resort to arms, but would com- 
plain to the officer commanding the troops on the frontier, or to some 
other competent authority.' 

After a year or two of peace, however, the Hos again became 
restive, and gradually extended the circle of their depredations. They 
joined the Nagpur Kols or Mundas in the rebellion of 1831-2, and 
Sir Thomas Wilkinson, who was then appointed Agent to the Governor- 
General for the newly formed non-regulation province of the South- 
western Frontier, at once recognized the necessity of a thorough 
subjugation of the Hos, and at the same time the impolicy and futility 
of forcing them to submit to the chiefs. He proposed an occupation 
of Singhbhum by an adequate force, and suggested that, when the 
people were thoroughly subdued, they should be placed under the 
direct management of a British officer, to be stationed at Chaibasa. 
These views were accepted ; a force under Colonel Richards entered 
Singhbhum in November, 1836, and within three months all the 
refractory headmen had submitted. Twenty-three Hopirs or parganas 
were then detached from the States of Porahat, Saraikela, and Kharsa- 
wan, and these, with four plrs taken from Mayurbhanj, were brought 
under direct management under the name of the Kolhan ; and a 
Principal Assistant to the Governor-General's Agent was placed in 
charge of the new District, his title being changed to Deputy-Com- 
missioner after the passing of Act XX of 1854, There was no further 
disturbance until 1857, when the Porahat Raja, owing largely to an 
unfortunate misunderstanding, rose in rebellion, and a considerable 
section of the Hos supported him. A tedious and difficult campaign 
ensued, the rebels taking refuge in the mountains whenever they were 
driven from the plains ; eventually, however, they surrendered (in 
1S59), and the capture of the Raja put an end to the disturbances. 

Since that year the Hos have given no trouble. Under the judicious 
management of a succession of British officers, these savages have been 
gradually tamed, softened, and civilized, rather than subjugated. The 
settlement of outsiders who might harass them is not allowed ; the 
management of the estate is carried on through their own headmen ; 
roads have been made ; new sources of industrial wealth have been 
opened out, new crops requiring more careful cultivation introduced, 
new wants created and supplied ; even a desire for education has been 
engendered, and educated Hos are to be found among the clerks of 
the Chaibasa courts. The deposed Raja of Porahat died in exile at 
Benares in 1890; and the estate, shorn of a number of villages which 



6 SINGHBHUM 

were given to various persons who had assisted the British in the 
Mutiny, was restored in 1895 as a revenue-free estate to his son Kumar 
Narpat Singh, who has since received the title of Raja. The present 
Porahat estate contains the rent-free tenures of Kera and Anandpur 
and the rent-paying tenures of Bandgaon and Chainpur. 

Dhalbhum, which has an area of 1,188 square miles, was origin- 
ally settled with an ancestor of the present zaml/iddr, because he 
was the only person vigorous enough to keep in check the robbers and 
criminals who infested the estate. It was originally part of Midna- 
pore ; and when the District of the Jungle Mahals was broken up by 
Regulation XIII of 1833, it was included, with the majority of the 
estates belonging to it, in the newly formed District of Manbhum. It 
was transferred to Singhbhum in 1846, but in 1876 some 45 outlying 
villages were again made over to Midnapore. 

There are no archaeological remains of special interest ; but there 
still exist in the south and east of the Kolhan proper, in the shape of 
tanks and architectural remains, traces of a people more civilized than 
the Hos of the present day. The tanks are said to have been made by 
the Saraks, who were Jains, and of whom better-known remains still 
exist in Manbhum District. A fine tank at Benisagar is surrounded 
by the ruins of what must have been a large town. 

The enumerated population rose from 318,180 in 1872 to 453,775 in 

1881, to 545,488 in 1891, and to 613,579 in 1901. The increase is 

„ , . due in part to the inaccuracy of the earlier censuses, 

Population. . . . r . . , , ,• • , , , 

but a great deal of it is real ; the climate is healthy 

and the inhabitants are prolific, and the country has been developed by 

the opening of the Bengal-Nagpur Railway. The recorded growth 

would have been much greater but for the large amount of emigration 

which takes place, especially from the Kolhan to the tea Districts of 

Assam and Jalpaiguri, as well as to the Orissa States. In 1901 the 

density was 158 persons per square mile, the Chaibasa and Ghatsila 

thanas having 191 and 190 respectively per square mile, while Mano- 

harpur in the west, where there are extensive forest Reserves, had only 

49. Chaibasa, the head-quarters, is ihe only town ; the remainder of 

the population live in 3,150 villages, of which 2,973 nave l ess tnan 5°° 

inhabitants. Females are 29 per 1,000 in excess of males, and the 

disproportion appears to be increasing. The Hos marry very late in 

life, owing to the excessive bride-price which is customary. The 

population is polyglot. Of every 100 persons, 38 speak Ho, 18 Bengali, 

and 16 Oriya ; Santali and Mundari are also widely spoken. Of the 

inhabitants, 336,088 persons (55 per cent.) are Animists, and 265,144 

(43 per cent.) Hindus ; one per cent, are Christians and nearly one 

per cent. Musalmans. 

The Hos (233,000) constitute 38 per cent, of the population, and with 



AGRICULTURE 7 

their congeners the Bhumijs (47,000) and Mundas (25,000) account 
for nearly half of it. Santals number 77,000 and Ahlrs 53,000, while 
the functional castes most strongly represented are Tantis or weavers 
(24,000) and Kamars or blacksmiths (11,000). Bhuiyas number 
15,000 and Gonds 6,000. Of the total, 77 per cent, are dependent on 
agriculture and 8 per cent, on industry. 

The German Evangelical Lutheran Mission, the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel, and the Roman Catholic Mission are 
making considerable progress ; their work is largely educational, but 
the number of Christians has more than doubled in the last twenty 
years. In 1901 it was 6,961, of whom 6,618 were native Christians. 

The country may be divided into three tracts : first the compara- 
tively level plains, then hills alternating with open valleys, and lastly 
the steep forest-clad mountains. In the last the . 

cultivation was formerly more or less nomadic, the 
clearances being abandoned after a single crop had been harvested 
from the virgin soil ; but this wasteful system is discouraged, and 
extensive areas have been formed into forest Reserves. The plains 
are embanked for rice cultivation, while in the intermediate tract the 
valleys are carefully levelled and grow rice, and the uplands or gord 
are roughly cultivated with millets, oilseeds, and occasionally rice. The 
best lands are those at the bottom of the valleys which are swampy, and 
either naturally or artificially irrigated. These are called berd lands 
and yield a rich crop of winter rice, occasionally followed by linseed, 
pulses, or barley. The higher embanked lands, known as bddi, grow 
early rice. The best uplands grow an annual crop, but inferior lands 
are fit for cultivation only once in four or five years. 

In 1903-4 the cultivated area was estimated at 1,280 square miles; 
932 square miles were cultivable waste, and 1,240 square miles were 
Government forests. Rice is the principal crop, occupying nearly 
three-quarters of the cultivated area ; rather more than half of it is 
winter rice. Oilseeds, principally rape and mustard and sarguja, 
account for 8 per cent, and maize for 5 per cent, of the cultivated 
area, while 20 per cent, is covered by pulses, 2 per cent, by maritd, 
and one per cent, each by millets and cotton. 

Cultivation is extending rapidly, especially near the railway, but the 
system of tillage is very primitive, and shows no sign of improvement. 
Very little advantage is taken of the Loans Acts. 

Though pasturage is ample, the cattle are poor, and the Hos take 
no interest in improving the breed. 

The ordinary method of irrigation is to throw an embankment across 
the line of drainage, thereby holding up the water, which is used for 
watering the crops at a lower level by means of artificial channels 
and percolation. In the Kolhan Government estate there arc 1,000 



8 SINGHPHUM 

reservoirs of this kind, a quarter of which have been constructed 
by Government ; and it is estimated that in the District as a whole a 
tenth of the cultivated area is irrigated in this way. 

More than half the District is still more or less under forest. In 
the Kolhan 529 square miles and in Porahat 196 square miles have 
been ' reserved ' under the Forest Act : the Reserves 
in the latter tract are managed by the Forest depart- 
ment for the proprietor's benefit. Besides this, 212 square miles of 
' protected ' forest exist in the Kolhan estate and similar forests in 
Porahat, though these have not yet been defined. The Dhalbhum 
forests, which are also fairly extensive, are managed by the proprietor 
without the intervention of the Forest department. The principal tree 
is the sal, which is very valuable owing to the hardness of its timber 
and the size of the beams which the larger specimens yield. The 
chief minor products are lac, beeswax, chob (rope of twisted bark), 
myrabolams, and salmi grass, which is used for paper manufacture and 
also, locally, as a fibre. The total receipts of the Forest department in 
1903-4 were Rs. 84,000, and the expenditure was Rs. 57,000. The 
expenditure was swelled by the cost of working-plans and of the roads 
which are being constructed in order to facilitate the extraction of 
timber. More than a third of the income is derived from the sale of 
sabai grass. 

The rocks of Singhbhum contain a number of auriferous quartz 

veins, by the disintegration of which is produced alluvial gold, found 

in the beds of some of the streams. Of late years 
JxL111.cr3.ls j 

the District has been repeatedly examined by experts, 
but the proportion of gold in the numerous reefs examined and in the 
alluvium was found to be too low for profitable working. Copper ores 
exist in many places from the confines of Ranch! to those of Midna- 
pore. The principal form is copper glance, which is often altered to 
red copper oxide, and this in turn to malachite and native copper. In 
ancient times these ores were extensively worked, but modern attempts 
to resume their extraction have hitherto proved unsuccessful. Iron 
ore is frequently found on the surface, usually on hill-slopes, and is 
worked in places. Limestone occurs in the form of the nodular 
accretions called kankar, and is used not only for local purposes but is 
also collected and burnt for export to places along the railway. 

A little coarse cotton cloth is woven, and soapstone bowls and plates 
are made. 

The chief exports are sal, paddy and rice, pulses, oilseeds, stick-lac, 
iron, tasar-s\\k cocoons, hides and sabai ^rass ; and 

communications. the chief im P orts are salt > cotton y a ™> piece-goods, 

tobacco, brass utensils, sugar, kerosene oil, coal and 

coke. Since the opening of the railway trade has considerably 



ADMINISTRATION 9 

increased, and large quantities of timber are now exported from the 
forests of the District and of the adjoining Native States. 

The Bengal-Nagpur Railway traverses the District from east to west, 
and is connected with the East Indian Railway by the Sini-Asansol 
branch. The roads from Chaibasa to Chakradharpur and from 
Chakradharpur towards Ranch!, about 50 miles, are maintained from 
Provincial funds ; about 437 miles of road are maintained by the road- 
cess committee, and 127 miles of village tracks from the funds of the 
Kolhan Government estate. 

The District has never been very seriously affected by famine ; there 
was, however, general distress in 1866, when relief was given, and 
in 1900 the pinch of scarcity was again felt. At all seasons, and 
especially in years of deficient crops, the aboriginal inhabitants rely 
greatly on the numerous edible fruits and roots to be found in the 
forests. 

There are no subdivisions. The District is administered by a 

Deputy-Commissioner, stationed at Chaibasa, who is assisted by three 

Deputy-Magistrate-Collectors. A Deputy-Conserva- AJ . 

1 } ° , , _, ., Administration. 

tor of forests is also stationed at Chaibasa. 

The Judicial Commissioner of Chota Nagpur is District Judge for 
Singhbhum. The Deputy-Commissioner has the powers of a Subor- 
dinate Judge, but the Sub-Judge of Manbhum exercises concurrent 
jurisdiction, and all contested cases are transferred to his file. A 
Deputy-Collector exercises the power of a Munsif, and a Munsif from 
Manbhum visits the District to dispose of civil work from Dhalbhum, 
where alone the ordinary Code of Civil Procedure is in force. 
Criminal appeals from magistrates of the first class and sessions cases 
are heard by an Assistant Sessions Judge, whose head-quarters are at 
Bankura. The Deputy-Commissioner exercises powers under section 
34 of the Criminal Procedure Code ; in his political capacity he hears 
appeals from the orders of the chiefs of Saraikela and Kharsawan, 
and he is also an Additional Sessions Judge for those States. Singh- 
bhum is now the most criminal District in Chota Nagpur as regards 
the number of crimes committed. They are rarely of a heinous 
character, but thefts and cattle-stealing are very common. 

Dhalbhum was permanently settled in 1800 for Rs. 4,267 per annum, 
plus a police contribution of Rs. 498. Porahat is a revenue-free estate, 
but pays Rs. 2,100 as a police contribution. This estate, including 
its dependencies of Anandpur, Kera, Bandgaon, and Chainpur, has 
recently been surveyed and settled. The average rate of rent fixed at 
this settlement was about 8| annas per acre ; in some parts it exceeded 
a rupee, but the general rate was brought down by the low rents levied 
in the wilder parts of the estate. The Kolhan Government estate was 
first settled in 1837 at a rate of 8 annas for every plough, and the total 



IO 



SINGHBHUM 



assessment amounted to Rs. 8,000. In 1853 this rate was doubled. 
In 1867 the estate was resettled after measurement for a term of thirty 
years ; only embanked rice land was assessed, at a rate of 1 2 annas per 
acre, and the total land revenue demand was fixed at Rs. 65,000. The 
last settlement was made in 1898. Uplands were assessed, for the 
first time, at a nominal rate of 2 annas per acre, and outsiders were 
made to pay double rates ; but in other respects no change was made 
in the rate of assessment. The extension of cultivation, however, had 
been so great that the gross land revenue demand was raised to 
Rs. 1,77,000, of which Rs. 49,000 is paid as commission to the mundas 
or village headmen and the mankis or heads of groups of villages. 
The average area of land held by a ryot is 4% acres, and, including the 
uplands (gora), the average assessment per cultivated acre is 8^ annas. 
The following table shows the collections of land revenue and total 
revenue (principal heads only), in thousands of rupees : — 





1 880-1. 


1890-1. 


1900-1. 


1003-4. 


Land revenue 
Total revenue 


68 

95 


7° 
i,53 


1,42 
2,89 


1,41 
2,98 



Outside the municipality of Chaibasa, local affairs are managed by 
the road-cess committee. This expends Rs. 18,000, mainly on roads; 
its income is derived from a Government grant of Rs. 10,000 and from 
cesses. 

The District contains 5 police stations or ihanas and 3 outposts. 
The force under the control of the District Superintendent consists of 
an inspector, 12 sub-inspectors, 15 head constables, and 155 con- 
stables. There is also a rural police of 1,323 men, of whom about half 
are regular chaukldars appointed under Bengal Act V of 1887, and the 
rest (all in Dhalbhum) are ghatioa/s, remunerated by service lands. In 
the Kolhan there is no regular police ; but the mdtikis and mundas 
exercise police authority and report to a special inspector, who himself 
investigates important cases. The District jail at Chaibasa has accom- 
modation for 230 prisoners. 

Education is very backward, and in 1901 only 2-5 per cent, of the 
population (4-8 males and 0-3 females) could read and write. The 
number of pupils under instruction increased from about 8,500 in 
1882-3 to 15,655 in 1892-3. The number declined to 13,469 in 
1 900-1; but it rose again in 1903-4, when 15,165 boys and 1,171 girls 
were at school, being respectively 33*4 and 2^5 per cent, of the children 
of school-going age. The number of educational institutions, public 
and private, in that year was 440, including 15 secondary, 410 primary, 
and 15 special schools. The expenditure on education was Rs. 64,000, 
of which Rs. 38,000 was met from Provincial funds, Rs. 7,000 from 



SINGPHO HILLS n 

fees, and the remainder from endowments, subscriptions, and other 
sources. 

In 1903 the District contained two dispensaries, of which one had 
accommodation for 14 in-patients ; the cases of 3,600 out-patients and 
154 in-patients were treated, and 179 operations were performed. The 
expenditure was Rs. 2,700, of which Rs. 700 was met from Govern- 
ment contributions, Rs. 1,400 from municipal funds, and Rs. 500 from 
subscriptions. 

Vaccination is compulsory only within the Chaibasa municipality. 
In the whole District the number of persons successfully vaccinated 
in 1903-4 was 19,000, or 31 per 1,000 of the population. 

[Sir W. W. Hunter, Statistical Account of Bengal, vol. xvii (1877) ; 
J. A. Craven, Final Report on the Settlement of the Kolhan Government 
Estate (Calcutta, 1898); F. B. Bradley-Birt, Chota Nagpur (1903).] 

Singla. — River of Assam, which rises in the Lushai Hills, and 
flowing northwards through the Karimganj subdivision of Sylhet Dis- 
trict falls into the Son lake 45 miles from its source. On emerging 
from this lake it is known as the Kachuya, and joins the Kusiyara, a 
branch of the Surma, a little to the east of Karimganj town. In the 
upper portion of its course it flows through jungle land, very sparsely 
peopled ; but about 8 miles north of the Sylhet boundary it enters on 
an elevated tract, which has been planted with tea, and from there to 
its junction with the Kusiyara its banks are fringed with villages and 
tea gardens. There is very little road traffic in Sylhet ; and the Singla 
is largely used as a trade route for tea, forest produce, rice, and other 
products of the country. During the rains boats of 4 tons burden can 
proceed as far as Dullabchara, but even in the dry season traffic is 
carried on in light vessels, which are towed up-stream. 

Singpho Hills. — A tract of hilly country lying to the south-east of 
Lakhimpur District, Assam, inhabited by the Singphos, or Kachins 
as they are called in Upper Burma. Their original home seems to 
have been near the sources of the Irrawaddy, but they have gradually 
moved southwards, crossing the Hukawng valley and the Patkai range, 
and have entered the valley of the Brahmaputra. The Singphos first 
settled in Assam towards the end of the eighteenth century, their 
villages being located on the Buri Dihing and on the Tengapani east 
of Sadiya. By degrees they assumed a state of semi-independence, 
and offered some resistance to our troops when Upper Assam came 
under British rule. It was then found that their villages were full of 
Assamese slaves, and no less than 6,000 were released by Captain 
Neufville, the officer in command. The Singphos live in small villages, 
several of which usually own a quasi-allegiance to one chief. Their 
houses are raised on piles, and are often 100 feet in length by 20 broad, 
with an open balcony at the end where the women of the family sit and 

VOL. XXIII. i; 



12 SINGPHO HILLS 

work. They form a large element in the population of the Hukawng 
valley which lies to the south of the Patkai range. 

Singpur. — Estate in Khandesh District, Bombay. See Mkhwas 
Estates. 

Singu. -- Northernmost township of Mandalay District, Upper 
Burma, lying between 22 16' and 22 46' N. and 95 54' and 96 21' 
E., with an area of 712 square miles, a large proportion of which is 
forest. The population was 36,986 in 1891, and 35,670 in 1901, 
distributed in 146 villages, the head-quarters being at Singu (popula- 
tion, 1,479), on tne Irrawaddy, about 40 miles north of Mandalay. 
The township contains the well-known Sagyin alabaster quarries, and 
some of the fisheries along the Irrawaddy and its backwaters are very 
valuable. Only the south of the township is cultivable ; the north is 
hilly and uninhabited. The area cultivated in 1903-4 was 50 square 
miles, and the land revenue and thathameda amounted to Rs. 1,24,000. 

Sinhgarh (' lion's fort '). — Hill fort in the Haveli taluka of Poona 
District, Bombay, situated in 18 22' N. and 73 45' E., about 12 miles 
south-west of Poona city, on one of the highest points of the Sinhgarh- 
Bhuleshwar range, 4,322 feet above sea-level, and about 2,300 feet 
above the plain. Population (1901), 1,142. On the north and south 
Sinhgarh is a huge rugged mountain with a very steep ascent of nearly 
half a mile. From the slope rises a great wall of black rock more than 
40 feet high, crowned by nearly ruined fortifications. The fort is 
approached by pathways and by two gates. The north-east or Poona 
gate is at the end of a winding ascent up a steep rocky spur ; the 
Kalyan or Konkan gate to the south-west stands at the end of a less 
difficult ascent, guarded by three gateways, all strongly fortified and 
each commanding the other. The outer fortifications, which consist 
of a strong stone wall flanked with towers, enclose a nearly triangular 
space about 2 miles round. The north face of the fort is naturally- 
strong ; the south face, which was stormed by the British in 18 18, is 
the weakest. The triangular plateau within the walls is resorted to as 
a health-resort by the European residents of Poona in the hot months 
of April and May, and has several bungalows. The fort was originally 
known as Kondhana. In 1340 Muhammad bin Tughlak is recorded 
to have blockaded it. In i486 it fell to the founder of the Ahmad- 
nagar dynasty on his capture of Shivner. In 1637 Kondhana was given 
up to Bijapur. In 1647 Sivaji acquired the fort by means of a large 
bribe to its Muhammadan commandant, and changed its name to 
Sinhgarh. In 1662, on the approach of a Mughal army under Shaista 
Khan, Sivaji fled from Supa to Sinhgarh ; and from Sinhgarh he made 
his celebrated surprise on Shaista Khan's residence in Poona. In 
1665 a Mughal force blockaded Sinhgarh, and Sivaji submitted. 
In 1670 it was retaken by Tanaji Malusre, this capture forming one of 



SINNAR TOWN 13 

the most daring exploits in Maratha history. Between 1701 and 1703 
Aurangzeb besieged Sinhgarh. After three and a half months' siege 
the fort was bought from the commandant, and its name changed to 
Bakhshindabaksh, or 'God's gift.' In 1706, as soon as the Mughal 
troops marched from Poona to Bijapur, Shankrajl Narayan Sachiv, 
chief manager of the country round, retook Sinhgarh and other forts. 
Sinhgarh remained with the Marathas till the war of 181 8, when it was 
carried by storm by General Pritzler. 

Sinjhoro. — Newly formed taluka of Thar and Parkar District, Sind, 
Bombay, lying between 25 45' and 26 20' N. and 68° 40' and 69 io' 
E., with an area of 479 square miles. The population (1 901) is about 
37,230, and the taluka contains 131 villages. Jhol is at present the 
head-quarters of the taluka, but Sinjhoro will shortly take its place. 
The land revenue and cesses amounted in 1903-4 to z\ lakhs. The 
taluka is irrigated by canals, notably the Jamrao, and produces bajra 
and cotton. 

Sinnar Taluka. —Taluka of Nasik District, Bombay, lying between 
19 38' and 19" 58' N. and 73 48' and 74 22' E., with an area of 514 
square miles. It contains one town, Sinnar (population, 7,230), the 
head-quarters; and ior villages. The population in 1901 was 75,375, 
compared with 73,138 in 1891. The density, 147 persons per square 
mile, is slightly above the District average. The demand for land 
revenue in 1903-4 was 1-7 lakhs, and for cesses Rs. 12,000. Sinnar is 
a rather bare table-land, bounded on the south by a high range of 
hills which run into Ahmadnagar District. It contains soil of almost 
every variety. The water-supply, especially in the east and in the hilly 
parts to the south, is scanty. The climate is healthy. The annual 
rainfall averages 24 inches. 

Sinnar Town. — Head-quarters of the taluka of the same name in 
Nasik District, Bombay, situated in 19 50' N. and 74 E., on the 
Nasik and Poona road. Population (1901), 7,230. It has been 
a municipal town since i860, with an average income during the 
decade ending 1901 of Rs. 7,000. In 1903-4 the income was 
Rs. 8,000. A large portion of the land around the town is irrigated, 
producing rich crops of sugar-cane, plantains, betel-leaf, and rice. 
Except 200 cotton and 50 silk looms, chiefly for weaving robes or saris, 
there is no trade or manufacture. Sinnar is said to have been 
founded about seven hundred years ago by a Gauli Raja, whose son, 
Rao Govind, built the handsome temple of Gondeshwar or Govind- 
eshwar outside the town, at a cost of 2 lakhs. It is the largest and best- 
preserved Hemadpanti temple in the Deccan. The town was at one 
time the head-quarters of the local government under the Mughal 
emperors. The earliest historical mention of Sinnar appears to be as 
Sindiner in a copperplate of 1069. Sinnar is almost invariably called 

B 2 



i 4 SINN A R TOWN 

Sindar by the peasantry. On the north-west of the town is an inter- 
esting and exquisitely carved little temple of Aieshwara in Chalukyan 
style. The town contains a Subordinate Judge's court, an English 
school, and a dispensary. 

Sinor. — Head-quarters of the taluka of the same name in the Baroda 
print, Baroda State, situated in 21 54/ N. and 73 23' E. Popula- 
tion (1901), 5,186. It possesses Munsif's and magistrate's courts, 
vernacular schools, local offices, four dharmsdlas, and several temples. 
The municipality receives an annual grant from the State of Rs. 1,100. 
Sinor is delightfully situated on the Narbada, and a noble flight of 
100 stone steps leads from the houses to the water-side. The earth- 
work of a railway line from Miyagam has been completed. 

Siohara. — Town in Bijnor District, United Provinces. See Seo- 
hara. 

Sipra. — River of Central India, also called Kshipra, or Avanti nadi, 
chiefly important for the sanctity attaching to it. The Sipra rises in 
Malwa, its nominal source being on the Kokrl Bardl hill, 12 miles 
south-east of Indore near the small village of Ujeni (22 31' N. and 
76 E.), which gains importance from its connexion with the sacred 
stream. The river flows in a general north-westerly direction, taking, 
however, a very sinuous course, so that the road from Mhow to Mehid- 
pur crosses it three times within a distance of 26 miles. Most of its 
course lies over the broad rolling Malwa. downs, between low banks, 
which admit of its waters being used for irrigation; but between 
Mehidpur and Alot it is hemmed in by high rocky banks. After 
flowing 54 miles from its source, it winds past the sacred city of Ujjain, 
with its many ghats and temples and the famous water palace of 
Kaliadeh, passing 30 miles farther north by the town of Mehidpur ; 
and after a total course of 120 miles through the territories of Indore, 
Dewas, and Gwalior, it finally enters the Chambal near Kalu-Kherl 
village at 23 53' N. and 75 31' E. Every mile of the river is marked 
by sacred spots, the reputed haunts of Rishis, or the scenes of miracu- 
lous incidents, around which a whole epic of tale and legend has 
grown up. The river itself is said to have sprung from the blood of 
Vishnu, and, as in Abul Fazl's day, is still believed to flow with milk 
at certain periods. The bed is throughout formed of hard basaltic 
trap, affording for the most part but a shallow channel to the stream, 
which rises in the rains to a considerable height, often causing much 
damage to neighbouring villages. In the hot season it ceases to flow 
entirely, though deep pools exist here and there throughout the year. 
The only affluents of importance are the Khan, which, rising about 
7 miles south of Indore and flowing through the Residency and city, 
finally joins the Sipra at Gotra village ; and the Gambhir, a large 
stream which joins it at Murla Mer, and is bridged by the Ujjain- 



SIR A TOWN 15 

Nagda line near Aslaoda and by the Rajputana-Malwa Railway near 
Fatehabad. 

Sipri. — Head-quarters of the Narwar district of Gwalior State, 
Central India, situated in 25 26' N. and 77 39' E., on a branch of 
the Gwalior Light Railway, 1,315 feet above sea-level. Population 
(1901), 5,592. In 1564 Akbar stopped here on his way from Mandu 
to hunt elephants, the whole of a large herd being captured. In the 
seventeenth century the place was granted in jdglr to Amar Singh 
Kachwaha of Narwar. He threw in his lot with prince Khusru and 
was dispossessed by Shah Jahan. Later on, however, the Sipri and 
Kolaras districts were restored to him, while his grandson AnGp Singh 
received Narwar. Sipri was then held by the Narwar chief until 1804, 
when it was seized by Sindhia, who made it over to Jado Sahib Inglia. 
It passed to the British under the Treaty of Poona (181 7), but was 
restored to Sindhia in 18 18 and has since formed part of his dominions. 
Sipri was occupied as a cantonment in 1835. On June 17, 1857, the 
troops, consisting of part of the 2nd Cavalry and 3rd Infantry, Gwalior 
Contingent, mutinied, and the Europeans were obliged to retire. The 
cantonment was abandoned in 1896. The only noteworthy buildings 
are a palace built by Sindhia in 1901 and the old barracks. Sipri has 
increased in importance as a trade mart since the opening of the 
railway, and is a centre for the distribution of forest produce. It 
contains a State post office, a British post and telegraph office, 
various courts, a police station, a school, a hospital, a custom-house, 
and a sarai. 

Sira Taluk. — Northern taluk of Tumkur District, Mysore, lying 
between 13 29' and 14 6' N. and 7 6° 41' and 77 3' E., with an area 
of 599 square miles. The population in 1901 was 77,604, compared 
with 68,327 in 1891. The taluk contains one town, SIra (population, 
4,059), the head-quarters ; and 247 villages. The land revenue demand 
in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,45,000. The taluk is lower than the rest of the 
District. From east to west it is traversed by a stream which flows 
into the Vedavati or Hagari, and whose course is marked by coco-nut 
gardens. The north-east is fertile and well watered, while in other 
parts the soil is rocky and hard. Along the west is a good deal of 
jungle. 

Sira Town. — Head-quarters of the taluk of the same name in 
Tumkur District, Mysore, situated in T3 44' N. and 76 54' E., 
33 miles by road from Tumkur town. Population (1901), 4,059. 
It was founded by the chief of Ratnagiri, but before being completed 
was captured by the Sultan of Bijapur in 1638, and formed part of the 
jdglr of Shahjl, father of Sivaji. In 1687 it came under the Mughals, 
and was made the capital of their Carnatic province south of the 
Tungabhadra. In 1757 it was taken by the Marathas, but in 1761 was 



1 6 SIR A TOWN 

captured by Haidar All. In 1766 his brother-in-law gave it up again 
to the Marathas, from whom it was recaptured by Tipu Sultan in 1774. 
It attained its greatest prosperity under Dilawar Khan, the Mughal 
governor from 1724 to 1756, when it is said to have contained 50,000 
houses. The palace erected by him formed the model for Haidar's 
and Tipu's palaces at Bangalore and Seringapatam. The fine garden 
called the Khan Bagh was kept up by Haidar, and may have suggested 
the Lai Bagh at Bangalore. Tipu forcibly deported 12,000 families 
from Slra to populate his new town, Shahr Ganjam, on the island of 
Seringapatam. The fort (from which the Bangalore fort was evidently 
copied) is well built of stone, and still remains. This, with the Jama 
Masjid of hewn stone (1696), and the tomb of Malik Rihan (165 1), are 
the principal survivals of its former greatness. There is a large tank 
for irrigation to the north, and the soil around is favourable for the growth 
of coco-nuts, the dried kernels of which are the staple article of export. 
The population are largely Kurubas, who make blankets from wool 
imported from Davangere and other parts, and export them to Wala- 
japet in the east and to Coorg and Mangalore in the west. Chintzes 
and sealing-wax used to be made, but have been superseded by articles 
of English manufacture. The municipality dates from 1870. The 
receipts and expenditure during the ten years ending 1901 averaged 
Rs. 2,300. In 1903-4 they were Rs. 3,700 and Rs. 3,000. 

Siraguppa. — Town in Bellary District, Madras. See Siruguppa. 

Sirajganj Subdivision. — Subdivision of Pabna District, Eastern 
Bengal and Assam, lying between 24 1/ and 24 45' N. and 89 15' 
and 89 53' E., with an area of 957 square miles. The subdivision is 
low-lying, but except in the Raiganj thdna to the north the drainage 
is not impeded by the high banks of dead rivers. It thus receives the 
benefit of an annual deposit of silt from the Jamuna ; and when the 
floods subside, the water flows off readily, and does not stagnate as it 
does farther east. The population in 1901 was 833,712, compared 
with 761,904 in 1891, showing an increase of 9-4 per cent. The sub- 
division contains one town, Sirajganj (population, 23,114), the head- 
quarters ; and 2,062 villages. Unlike the rest of the District, it is 
healthy, and the population is rapidly increasing, the density in 1901 
being 871 persons per square mile. The chief centres of trade are 
Sirajganj and Bera. 

Sirajganj Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same 
name in Pabna District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 
24 27' N. and 89 45' E., on the right bank of the Jamuna. Popula- 
tion (1901), 23,114, of whom 40 per cent, are Hindus and 59-5 per 
cent. Musalmans, a small number of Jains and Christians forming 
the remainder. Sirajganj was constituted a municipality in 1869. 
The income during the decade ending 1 901-2 averaged Rs. 21,000, 



SIR A SG A OX 1 7 

and the expenditure Rs. 19,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 20,000, 
of which Rs. 11,000 was derived from a tax on persons (or property 
tax), and Rs. 4,000 from a conservancy rate ; and the expenditure was 
Rs. 19,000. Sirajganj is the largest town in North Bengal and the 
most important centre of the jute trade in this area. The raw product 
is brought in from west Mymensingh, Bogra, and east Rangpur, as 
well as from other parts of Pabna, and is here pressed into bales, 
which are either railed from Goalundo or shipped by river steamer to 
Calcutta. A large number of European firms do business at Sirajganj, 
and 14 factories are established here. It also collects the agricultural 
produce of Pabna and the neighbouring Districts for export to Calcutta, 
and distributes the imports of salt, piece-goods, and other European 
wares. The town possesses the usual public buildings ; the sub-jail 
has accommodation for 34 prisoners. Sirajganj has of late somewhat 
declined in importance owing to the damage done by the earthquake 
of 1897, and to a change in the course of the Brahmaputra, which is 
now 3 miles distant from the town. The jute-mills here, which were 
among the first to be established in Bengal, have also been closed 
since the earthquake. The population was thus rather less in 1901 
than at the previous enumeration of 1891. 

Siralkoppa. — Town in the Shikarpur taluk of Shimoga District, 
Mysore, situated in 14 23' N. and 75 15' E., n miles north-west of 
Shikarpur town. Population (1901), 2,270. It is a place of trade 
between the western parts of Shimoga and the Bombay and Madras 
Districts to the north and east. It is the principal depot for jaggery, 
which is largely prepared in the taluk and exported by the merchants 
of Siralkoppa in exchange for piece-goods, blankets, &c. The munici- 
pality formed in 1880 became a Union in 1904. The receipts and 
expenditure during the ten years ending 1901 averaged Rs. 2,000 and 
Rs. 1,700. In 1903-4 they were Rs. 2,000 and Rs. 7,000. 

Sirampur. — Subdivision and town in Hooghly District, Bengal. 
See Serampore. 

Siranda. — Lake in the Miani nidbat of the Las Bela State in 
Baluchistan, lying between 25 27' and 25 35' N. and 66° 37' and 
66° 41'' E. It runs north and south, and when full is about 9 miles 
long by 2 miles broad. During the greater part of the year the average 
depth is 3 to 5 feet, but the south-west corner, called Kun, is deeper. 
On the occurrence of floods the level of the water is raised 10 or 
\2 feet. The water is brackish, the lake having been formed by the 
gradual recession of the sea. Thousands of water-fowl resort to the 
lake in the cold season, and it contains many small fish. 

Sirasgaon. — Town in the Ellichpur taluk of AmraotI District, 
Berar, situated in 21 19' N. and 77 44' E. Population (1 901), 6,537. 
A small bazar is held here once a week. 



1 8 SIR A THU 

Sirathu. — North-western iahs'tl of Allahabad District, United 
Provinces, conterminous with the pargana of Kara, lying south of the 
Ganges, between 25 30' and 25°47 / N. and 8i c 12' and 8i°3i / E., 
with an area of 250 square miles. Population fell from 129,932 in 
1891 to 129,204 in 1901. There are 251 villages and three towns, 
none of which contains a population of 5,000. The demand for land 
revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 2,07,000, and for cesses Rs. 34,000. The 
density of population, 517 persons per square mile, is a little below 
the District average. An upland ridge runs parallel to the Ganges at 
a distance ranging up to a mile nnd a half, and the low alluvial land 
below it is very rich. South of the ridge, as far as the Sasur Khaderi, 
which runs through the centre of the tahsll, the soil is of average 
quality, and well-irrigation is usual. To the south of the river well- 
irrigation is replaced by water from the numerous jhlls, and rice is 
cultivated. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was 137 square 
miles, of which 49 were irrigated. Wells supply nearly two-thirds of 
the irrigated area, and tanks most of the remainder. The Fatehpur 
branch canal serves only a few acres. 

Sirhind Canal. — A perennial canal in the Punjab, taking off from 
the Sutlej, and irrigating the high land between the Sutlej on the north- 
west and the Patiala and Ghaggar streams on the south-east, and ex- 
tending as far south as the borders of Rajputana, Bahawalpur, and the 
Blkaner State. The canal was constructed by Government, in association 
with the Native States of Patiala, Nabha, and Jlnd. The preliminary 
survey work was begun in 1867, and the canal was formally opened in 
1882, though irrigation did not commence until 1883. The area com- 
manded by the canal is 8,320 square miles, of which 4,027 are in British 
territory, and the remainder in the States of Patiala, Nabha, Jlnd, 
Faridkot, and Kalsia. The head-works are at the town of Rupar, where 
the Sutlej issues from the Siwalik Hills into the plains. Here a weir 
2,370 feet long crosses the river from bank to bank, having 12 arched 
undersluices each of 20 feet span. Extending up-stream on the east 
bank is the canal head regulator, with 13 arched openings of 21 feet 
span. About 500 feet farther up the river is the lock channel head, 
to admit of navigation between the river and canal. The crest of the 
weir is 7A feet higher than the canal bed, and along it extends a line 
of 586 falling shutters 6 feet high. When these are raised and the 
undersluices closed, the whole of the river supply is turned into the 
canal, and this is usually the case from early in October to the end 
of April. The main canal has for 39 miles a bed-width of 200 feet, 
with a depth of n-| feet, and can carry 8,000 cubic feet per second, 
or more than four times the ordinary flow of the Thames at Ted- 
dington. At the 39th mile it divides into two large branches, the 
combined branch on the we*st and the Patiala feeder on the east. The 



SIR HIND CAXAL t 9 

former, which has a bed-width of 136 feet and a capacity of 5,200 cubic 
feet per second, soon divides again into two branches. The northern of 
these, the Abohar branch, runs parallel to the Sutlej through Ludhiana 
and Ferozepore Districts, terminating after a course of 126 miles at the 
town of Govindgarh. The southern or Bhatinda branch runs through 
Ludhiana District and Patiala territory, with a length of 100 miles. 
The irrigation from these two branches is mainly in British territory, 
and the administration is entirely under the British Government, which 
retains all the revenue derived from them. They receive between them 
64 per cent, of the supply of the main line. The Patiala feeder, the 
eastern of the two large branches into which the main line bifurcates, 
runs to the town of Patiala, having a bed-width of 75 feet, and a capa- 
city of 3,000 cubic feet per second. On its way it gives off to the 
south the three Native State branches, the Kotla (94 miles long), the 
Ghaggar (54 miles), and the Choa (25 miles). These three branches 
irrigate almost exclusively State territory, and the distributaries and 
irrigation arrangements are under the States, who receive the whole 
of the canal revenue ; but the Patiala feeder and the branches are 
maintained by an officer of the Canal department as agent for the 
States, who distributes the water according to a fixed allotment, Patiala 
taking 83 per cent., Nabha 9 per cent., and Jind 8 per cent. 

The distributaries were constructed so as to penetrate the border 
of every irrigated village, and thus to save the people the expense of 
making long watercourses and the difficulty of taking them through the 
land of other villages. This system, though expensive to construct and 
maintain, has been repaid by the rapidity with which irrigation has 
spread over the country. As during the cold season the whole of the 
river supply is turned into the canal, it was necessary to provide a sub- 
stitute on the canal for the river navigation thus closed. Accordingly 
the main line, the combined branch, and 48 miles of the Abohar branch 
were provided with locks at the falls ; and from the 48th mile of the 
Abohar branch a special navigation canal to the Sutlej near Ferozepore, 
47 miles long, was constructed with a branch 4 miles long to Feroze- 
pore. The Patiala feeder was also made navigable as far as Patiala. 
There is, however, little navigation along the branches, though the main 
line from Rupar to the North-Western Railway is much used, bringing 
down a considerable amount of timber from the hills. There are 25 
flour-mills at different falls along the branches. The greater part of 
the main line and branches is bordered by rows of trees, and the strip 
of land reserved for spoil or borrow pits is generally covered with 
plantations. A telegraph line extends from the canal head down the 
main line, the two British branches, the Patiala feeder, and part of 
the two longer Native State branches. Since 1896-7 the area irrigated 
has in only one year fallen below 1,560 square miles ; the greatest area 



20 SIRHIXD CAXAL 

irrigated was 2,142 square miles in 1899- 1900, of which 1,452 were in 
British territory. The total cost of construction to the end of 1903-4 
has been 388-7 lakhs, of which 247-7 lakhs was paid by the Govern- 
ment, and 141 lakhs by the three Phulkian States. Of the cost of the 
head-works and main line, the Government paid 64 per cent, and the 
Phulkian States contributed 36 per cent. The Government defrayed 
the whole cost of the British branches, and the Native States that of 
their branches. The charges for annual maintenance are divided in 
the same way. 

The gross revenue on the British branches averages about 28 lakhs, 
and the net revenue 20 lakhs. On the Native States branches the gross 
revenue averages about 12-5 lakhs, and the net revenue about 7 lakhs. 
The return on the British capital outlay was as high as io-8 per cent, 
in 1897-8, and averaged 8 per cent, during the six years ending 1902-3. 
On the Native States capital outlay the return for these six years 
averaged 5-3 per cent. This canal is now not only a successful com- 
mercial scheme paying a handsome profit, but its advantages in years 
of drought are incalculable. It saves from famine a large tract of 
country and also provides food for exportation. Since 1896-7 it has 
been steadily paying off the accumulated interest charges. The tract 
of country irrigated is now traversed in all directions by several different 
lines of railway, some of which would not have been required if no 
canal was in existence. 

Sirhind Town {Sahrind). — Town in the Fatehgarh or Sirhind 
tahsll, Amargarh nizdmat, Patiala State, Punjab, situated in 30 3s' X. 
and 76 27' E., on the North-Western Railway. A mono-rail tramway, 
opened in February, 1907, runs from the railway station to Basi, 
5 miles distant. Population (1901), 5,415. The spelling Sirhind is 
modern and due to a fanciful derivation from sir-Hind, the ' head of 
India,' due to its strategic position. Sahrind is said to mean the ' lion 
forest,' but one tradition assigns its foundation to Sahir Rao, a ruler of 
Lahore, 166th in descent from Krishna; and Firishta implies that it 
was the eastern limit of the kingdom of Jaipal, the Brahman king of 
Ohind, but it has been confused by historians with Bhatinda or 
Tabarhind. It became a fief of Delhi after the Muhammadan con- 
quest. Refounded in the reign of Flroz Shah III at the behest of 
Saiyid Jalal-ud-dln of Bokhara, the pir or spiritual guide of that king, 
it became in 136 1 the capital of a new district, formed by dividing the 
old fief (shikk) of Samana. Flroz Shah dug a canal from the Sutlej, 
and this is now said to be the channel which flows past the town. 
Sirhind continued to be an important stronghold of the Delhi empire. 
In 141 5 Khizr Khan, the first Saiyid ruler of Delhi, nominated his 
son, the Malik-ush-Shark, Malik Mubarak, governor of Firozpur and 
Sirhind, with Malik Sadhu Nadira as his deputy. In 141 6 the latter 



SIRMVR 2i 

was murdered by Tughan Rais and other Turks, but Zirak Khan, the 
governor of Samana, suppressed the revolt in the following year. In 
1420 Khizr Khan defeated the insurgent Sarang Khan at Sirhind, then 
under the governorship of Malik Sultan Shah LodI; and it was here 
that Malik Bahlol LodI assumed the title of Sultan in 1451. Under 
the Mughal sovereigns Sirhind was one of the most flourishing towns 
of the empire, and is said to have contained 360 mosques, tombs, 
sarais, and wells. Its ruins commence about a mile from the railway 
station, and extend for several miles. In 1704 Bazid Khan, governor 
of Sirhind, bricked up alive in the town Fateh Singh and Zorawar 
Singh, sons of Gum Gobind Singh, whence the place is to this day 
held accursed by the Sikhs. In 1708 Banda Bairagi sacked Sirhind 
and killed Bazid Khan. Ahmad Shah Durrani appointed Zain Khan 
Subahdar of Sirhind in 1761; but in December, 1763, the Sikhs 
attacked the place and killed Zain Khan at Manhera, a village close 
by, and the adjacent country fell into the hands of Raja Ala Singh. 
The oldest buildings are two fine double-domed tombs, traditionally 
known as those of the Master and the Disciple, belonging probably 
to the fourteenth century. The tomb of Bahlol Lodfs daughter, who 
died in 1497, also exists. Shah Zaman of Kabul was buried in a 
graveyard of great sanctity near the town. The town contains an 
Anglo-vernacular middle school and a police post. 

Sirmur (or Nahan). — Hill State in the Punjab, under the political 
control of the Commissioner of the Delhi Division, lying amid the 
Himalayas, between 30 20' and 31 5' N. and 77 5' and 77 55' E., 
on the west bank of the Jumna and south of Simla. It has an area 
of 1,198 square miles; and its greatest length from east to west is 
50 miles, and its extreme width from north to south 43 miles. It is 
bounded on the north by the Jubbal and Balsan States ; on the east 
by the Dehra Dun District of the United Provinces ; on the south by 
Ambala District and the Kalsia State of the Punjab ; and on the west 
by territory of the Patiala State and Keonthal. 

With the exception of the Kiarda Dun or valley which forms its 
south-eastern part, the whole State is hilly. Its southern border runs 
along the crest of the Outer Siwaliks. Parallel with 
these lies the Dharthi range ; and the intervening ysica 

valley is traversed by the Markanda river which 
flows west, and by the Bata which flows east. North-east of the 
Dharthi range lies the valley of the Jalal, a tributary of the Giri, which 
traverses the State in a winding course from north-west to south-east, 
dividing it into two natural divisions, the cis-Giri on the south-west 
and the trans-Giri on the north-east. In the centre of the northern 
border rises the Chaur peak (11,982 feet), from which radiate several 
spurs, those on the west and south filling the whole trans-Giri tract 



22 SIRMUR 

with their outliers. These extend far to the south-east, rising to 8,800 
feet at Harlpur, 8,233 ^ eet at Gurwana, and 6,691 feet at Guma. On 
the north-east the Tons, a tributary of the Jumna, forms the boundary, 
separating Sirmur from Dehra Dun. Thus, the slope of the country 
is from north to south, the confluence of the Giri with the Jumna 
being only 1,500 feet above sea-level; and the whole, with hardly 
an exception, drains into the latter river. 

The greater part of the State lies on rocks of Tertiary age, with beds 
belonging to the Carbonaceous system (Krol and Blaini groups) on 
the north and north-east. The Lower Tertiary rocks are particularly 
well developed ; and the Sirmur series, which includes the Sabathu, 
Dagshai, and Kasauli groups, takes its name from the State. The 
Upper Tertiary, or Siwalik series, is largely developed in the neighbour- 
hood of Nahan, where the lower beds consist of a great mass of sand- 
stones, the Nahan group ; these are overlain by sandstones and con- 
glomerates (Middle and Upper Siwalik) containing a rich mammalian 
fauna of pliocene age 1 . 

The lower valleys of the Jumna, Tons, and Giri have a true Siwalik 
flora, corresponding to that of the Duns and tarai east of the Jumna. 
The Chaur mountain has a remarkably alpine vegetation at the higher 
levels — more so, for example, than the ranges intervening between it 
and the main ridge of the Inner Himalaya in Bashahr. 

Tigers are occasionally, and elephants rarely, met with in the Dun. 
Bears abound in the hills, and sdmbar, chital, hog deer, and musk deer 
are plentiful, but wild dogs have much diminished the game in the 
Dun and low hills. The fishing in the Giri is famous. 

The climate in the Dun is malarious in the rainy season and autumn, 
but otherwise the country is healthy and the hills enjoy a temperate 
climate. In the trans-Giri tract snow falls every winter, but it is rarely 
seen elsewhere. After December it is highly beneficial to the crops. The 
annual rainfall varies from 59 inches at Paonta to 65 inches at Pachhad, 
but generally more rain falls trans-Giri than in the west and south. 

The early history of Sirmur is almost a blank. Tradition says that 
its ancient capital was Sirmur, now a mere hamlet surrounded by 
extensive ruins, in the Kiarda Dun, whose king was 
of Silrajbansi or Solar race. Once, the legend runs, 
a woman boasted to the Raja of her acrobatic skill, and he challenged 
her to cross and recross the Giri river on a rope, promising her half 
his kingdom if she succeeded. The woman crossed in safety ; but as 
she was returning, a courtier, to save the kingdom from dismember- 
ment, cut the rope, and the woman perished in the stream. For this 
act of treachery a flood swept away Sirmur, and the Raja perished with 

1 Medlicott, ' Geological Structure of the Southern Portions of the Himalayas.' &c, 
Memoirs, Geological Survey of India, vol. iii, pt. ii. 



HISTORY 23 

all his kin, leaving the realm without a ruler. But by chance a prince 
of Jaisalmer shortly after visited Hardwar as a pilgrim, and was there 
invited by one of the minstrels of the kingdom to assume its sovereignty. 
He accordingly sent a force under his son, the Rawal or prince Sobha, 
who put down the disorders which had arisen in the State, and became 
the first Raja of Sirmur, under the title of Subhans Parkash, a title 
which the Rajas have ever since retained. Rajban became the capital 
of the new king in 1095. The eighth Raja conquered Ratesh, now 
a part of the Keonthal State, about n 50 ; and his successor subdued 
Jubbal, Balsan, Kumharsain, Ghond, Kot, and Theog, thus extending 
his dominions almost to the Sutlej. For many years these territories 
remained feudatories of the State ; but its capital was at Kalsi, in 
Dehra Dun, and the Rajas' hold over their northern fiefs appears to 
have been weak until in the fourteenth century Blr Parkash fortified 
Hath-Koti, on the confines of Jubbal, Rawain, and Sahri, the last 
of which became the capital of the State for a time. Eventually in 
162 1 Karm Parkash founded Nahan, the modern capital. His 
successor, Mandhata, was called upon to aid Khalll-ullah, the general 
of the emperor Shah Jahan, in his invasion of Garhwal, and his 
successor, Sobhag Parkash, received a grant of Kotaha in reward for 
this service. Under Aurangzeb this Raja again joined in operations 
against Garhwal. His administration was marked by a great develop- 
ment of the agricultural resources of the State, and the tract of Kola- 
garh was also entrusted to him by the emperor. Budh Parkash, the 
next ruler, recovered Pinjaur for Aurangzeb's foster-brother. Raja 
Mit Parkash gave an asylum to the Sikh Guru, Gobind Singh, per- 
mitting him to fortify Paonta in the Kiarda Dun ; and it was at 
Bhangani in the Dun that the Guru defeated the Rajas of Kahlur and 
Garhwal in 1688. But in 1750 Kirat Parkash, after defeating the 
Raja of Garhwal, captured Naraingarh, Morni, Pinjaur, and other 
territories from the Sikhs, and concluded an alliance with Amar Singh, 
Raja of Patiala, whom he aided in suppressing his rebellious Wazir ; 
and he also fought in alliance with the Raja of Kahlur when Ghulam 
Kadir Khan, Rohilla, invaded that State. He supported the Raja 
of Garhwal in his resistance to the Gurkha invasion, and, though 
deserted by his ally, was able to compel the Gurkhas to agree to the 
Ganges as the boundary of their dominions. His son, Dharm Parkash, 
repulsed the encroachments of the chief of Nalagarh and an invasion 
by the Raja of Garhwal, only to fall fighting in single combat with 
Raja Sansar Chand of Kangra, who had invaded Kahlur, in 1793. 
He was succeeded by his brother, Karm Parkash, a weak ruler, whose 
misconduct caused a serious revolt. To suppress this he rashly invoked 
the aid of the Gurkhas, who promptly seized their opportunity and 
invaded Sirmur, expelled Ratn Parkash, whom the rebels had placed 



24 SIRMUR 

on the throne, and then refused to restore Kami Parkash. Fortunately 
his queen, a princess of Goler and a lady of courage and resource, took 
matters into her own hands and invoked British aid. Her appeal 
coincided with the declaration of war against Nepal, and a force was 
sent to expel the Gurkhas from Sirmur. On the conclusion of the 
Gurkha War the British Government placed Fateh Parkash, the minor 
son of Karm Parkash, on the throne, annexing all the territories east 
of the Jumna with Kotaha and the Kiarda Dun. The Dun was, 
however, restored to the State in 1833 on payment of Rs. 50,000. 
During the first Afghan War the Raja aided Government with a loan, 
and in the first Sikh War a Sirmur contingent fought at Hari-ka-pattan. 
Under Raja. Sir Shamsher Parkash, G.C.S.I. (1856-98), the State 
progressed rapidly. Begar (forced labour) was abolished, roads were 
made, revenue and forest settlements carried out, a foundry, dis- 
pensaries, post and telegraph offices established. In 1857 the Raja 
rendered valuable services, and in 1880 during the second Afghan 
War he sent a contingent to the north-west frontier. The Sirmur 
Sappers and Miners under his second son, Major Blr Bikram Singh, 
C.I.E., accompanied the Tirah expedition in 1897. The present Raja 
(Sir Surindar Bikram Parkash, K.C.S.I.) has remodelled the courts of 
the State. He has been a Member of the Legislative Council of the Gov- 
ernor-General. The Raja of Sirmur is entitled to a salute of 11 guns. 

The only town is Nahan, the capital. There are 973 villages, or 
groups of hamlets, and the population of the State at the three enu- 

Population. merations was : ( l88r ) " 2 >37i, (1891) 124,134, and 
(1901) 135,626. It rose by 9-3 per cent, during the 
last decade, the rate of increase being greatest in the Paonta tahs'd. 
Anciently divided into fi/iojs, which were grouped into twelve waziris, 
it is now divided into four tahs'ds : Nahan, Rainka, Paonta, and 
Pachhad. More than 95 per cent, of the people are Hindus. By far 
the most numerous caste is that of the agricultural Kanets, who form 
more than 30 per cent, of the total. Western Pahari is the language 
of 78 per cent, of the population. 

In 1895 the American Presbyterian Mission of Ludhiana sent 
evangelists to commence mission work in the State, ordained mission- 
aries being also posted to Nahan from time to time. In 1902 mission 
work was, with the Raja's assent, made over to the Scandinavian 
Alliance Mission Society, which now has two missionaries posted at 
Nahan. The only Christians in the State are immigrants. 

The Kiarda Dun differs greatly from the rest of the State in its 
agricultural conditions. Formerly a wilderness of swamp and forest, 
. . constituting a bulwark against aggression from the 

plains, it was colonized by the late Raja with culti- 
vators from the submontane districts, and is now one of the richest 



FORESTS 25 

tracts in the State. It is a fertile alluvial plain, naturally well watered 
by numerous streams, and receiving a regular and sufficient rainfall. 
Its principal products are wheat and gram in the spring, and rice, 
maize, sugar-cane, ginger, and turmeric in the autumn. The hill 
tracts generally are less rich agriculturally, though poppy, ginger, 
tobacco, and turmeric are grown extensively. The forest products are 
also a source of considerable wealth to the people. The prevalent 
form of tenure may be described as ryohvari, village communities like 
those of the plains being unknown, but the ancient bhoj still exists in 
name. The area for which particulars are on record is 1,108 square 
miles, of which 388 square miles, or 35 per cent., are forest, 10 per 
cent, are not available for cultivation, 42 per cent, are cultivable waste 
other than fallows, and 4 per cent, are current fallows. The net area 
cropped in 1904 was 130 square miles. The staple food-grains of the 
State are wheat, rice, gram, maize, chulai, and mandua. The State 
is absolutely secure against famine. 

As already noted, the main feature in the agricultural development 
has been the colonization of the Kiarda Dun in the Faonta tahsll, the 
cultivated area of which rose from 11,253 acres in 1878 to 27,505 
acres in 1904. Sugar-cane cultivation was introduced into the Dun 
by the late Raja, and he also established the well-known Nahan 
iron foundry. 

The cattle, as elsewhere in the hills, are small but hardy. The 
trans-Giri cows are by far the best. Buffaloes have been imported 
of recent years, but are only kept by the well-to-do and by the Gujar 
immigrants from Jammu, who form a separate community and often 
own large herds. Goats are kept both for food and their hair, which 
is exported, and sheep for the sake of their wool and for sale, those 
of the khadu kind being the best and fetching high prices. Ponies 
are bred only in the Dun, and the State keeps a pony and a donkey 
stallion at Paonta. 

The State contains no irrigation wells or canals, but a scheme for 
taking a small canal out of the Giri river to irrigate the Dun is in con- 
templation. Springs and torrents, however, afford ample means of 
irrigation, especially in the Rainka and Pachhad tahslls, in which over 
one-third of the area is irrigated. The streams are diverted into kuhls 
or watercourses. 

The State forests are valuable. Along the western face of the Chaur 
range runs a compact belt of forest 20 miles long by 1 to 5 wide, mostly 
of oak, but also stocked in parts with fir, spruce, 
birch, and yew. Deodar occurs pure in 12 blocks, 
and occasionally blue pine. Below this belt oak and pine (P. longi- 
foliti) occur in places. Another narrow belt of oak, 23 miles long, 
covers the slopes of the Chandpur, Marolani, and Haripur ranges 



26 SIRMUR 

below 7,000 feet. The ridges between the Giri river and the Dharthi 
range are covered with scrub jungle, interspersed with pine, and, on 
the lower slopes, are sub-tropical in character. The lower hills, 
including the Kiarda Dun and the northern face of the Outer Siwaliks, 
have an area of 176 square miles, of which 104 square miles are 
stocked with sal, pure or mixed, 67 with tropical species, and 3 with 
pine. The Forest department is controlled by a Conservator, under 
whom is a considerable staff of officials, mostly trained foresters. The 
State is divided into two forest divisions, the Rajgarh or upper and 
the Nahan or lower, each with five ranges. In the former division 
the forests are classed as protected, in the latter as ' reserved,' many 
of those in the Dun being absolutely closed. Nearly all have been 
demarcated. The forest revenue in 1904 was Rs. 80,000. 

Iron is found in several places, but none of the mines is worked, 
and iron for the foundry is imported. Lead, copper, alum, and ochre 
are also known to exist, but only the last is mined at two places. Gold 
is found in minute quantities in the Run, Bata, and other streams. 
Slate quarries are worked in the Pachhad and Rainka tahslls. 

The only important industry is the foundry at Nahan, which belongs 

to the State. Started in 1867, magnetic iron, obtained from the 

Chheta mine in the Rainka tahsil, was at first 

Iradeand smelted: but the wrought iron produced could not 
communications. .,_,., & . ^ ,. 

compete with English mild steel, and the foundry 

was accordingly utilized for the manufacture of sugar-cane crushing 

mills, which found a ready market throughout the Punjab and United 

Provinces. The foundry employs 600 men, and its capacity is 75 tons 

per week. Much modern machinery has been erected. Persian 

carpets, floorcloths, and mats are made in the State jail. The only 

other industries are the making of wooden vessels, churns, blankets, 

&c, in the hills, and of coarse cotton cloth. Some cane furniture 

is also made. 

There is a considerable export of agricultural and forest produce. 
Wheat, maize, and gram are sent from the Kiarda Dun to Dehra Dun 
and Ambala, the hill produce going mostly to Simla and the neigh- 
bouring cantonments. Timber is also exported via the Jumna. Cloth, 
utensils, sugar, salt, drugs, and articles of European and Indian manu- 
facture are imported. In bad years the Nahan tahsil has to import 
grain from the plains. 

A good road leads from Barara on the North-Western Railway to 
Nahan, the capital of the State, which is also connected with the 
Rampur ferry on the Jumna by a good road. There are 82 miles of 
cart-roads in the State and, for a hilly country, communications are 
good. 

The administration is closely modelled on that of the Punjab, the 



ADMINISTRATION 27 

Raja personally exercising administrative control over the departments, 
divided into administrative, judicial, military, police, accounts, public 
works, medical, forests (including tea and other . . 

estates), jail, and foundry. Most of the principles of 
British law are observed, and almost all the Indian Acts applicable to 
the Punjab have been adopted. 

The State is divided into four tahslls. These are Nahan, comprising 
the old Dharthi and Khol wazlris ; Pachhad, the ' western ' tract, in 
which is the Sain range ; Rainka, comprising the hilly country to the 
east ; and Paonga, which contains the Kiarda Dun. Each tahsil is 
under a tahsildar. 

The highest court is that of the Council, which consists of the Raja 
as president, and five members nominated by him. The court of the 
Raja sitting alone is known as the Ijlas-i-Khas. This exercises full 
jurisdiction in civil and criminal cases, and appeals from it lie to the 
Council, but sentences of death require the confirmation of the Com- 
missioner of Delhi. Below it are the courts of the district judge and 
district magistrate. Subordinate to the former are the Munsif at 
Nahan (exercising second-class criminal powers) and the tahsildars, 
who try petty cases up to Rs. 15 in value. The district magistrate is 
collector and registrar, and the tnhsilddrs are subordinate to him 
in all but their civil judicial functions. There is also an honorary 
magistrate. Serious offences are rare. Cattle-lifting occurs in the 
tracts bordering on British territory, and matrimonial offences are 
common. 

The Imperial Service corps of Sirmiir Sappers and Miners, 197 
strong, raised in 1889, served with distinction under Major Bir Bikram 
Singh, C.I.E., in the Tlrah expedition, 1897. It was also employed in 
constructing the Khushalgarh-Kohat-Thal Railway in 190 1-2. The 
State maintains cavalry (31 strong) and a regiment of infantry (235 
strong), and possesses two serviceable guns. 

Prior to 181 3 the revenue was levied in both cash and kind. The 
area was not measured, but the amount of land which could be sown 
with a given quantity of seed formed a unit, and each unit paid a rupee 
in cash or two maunds (local weight) of grain. During the rule of 
Raja Fateh Parkash, a cash assessment was imposed on all but the 
fertile khol tracts of Harlpur and Nahan, which continued to pay in 
kind. The State share was deemed to be a sixth of the gross produce, 
with an additional cess on each unit. In 1845 the levy of revenue in 
kind was discontinued in these two tracts. Under Raja Sir Shamsher 
Parkash the State was regularly surveyed and settled in 1878, in spite 
of some opposition in the Rainka tahsil, where the people feared that 
the iron measuring chains would destroy the fertility of the soil. In 
1887 a second regular settlement was effected, but the whole area was 

VOL. XXIII. C 



28 SIRMUR 

not resurveyed. It resulted in an enhancement of 50 per cent, in the 
revenue, due to increased irrigation, the rise in prices, and the coloni- 
zation of the Dun. 

The gross revenue of the State is about Rs. 6,00,000, mainly derived 
from land revenue, forests, and tea estates. It receives Rs. 13,734 
a year from Government as compensation for the abolition of transit 
dues. 

The district board consists of 21 members, of whom 7 are nominated 
and 14 elected. It had in 1904 an income of Rs. 45,000, mainly 
derived from a local rate. The town of Nahan is administered by 
a municipal committee, consisting of 9 members, 6 elected and 3 
nominated, and a paid president. It had an income of Rs. 15,247 in 
1903, chiefly derived from octroi. 

The police, who number 129, are under an assistant district superin- 
tendent directly responsible to the Raja. The State contains 4 police 
stations, with 4 outposts. The jail at Nahan has accommodation for 
100 prisoners. 

Sirmur stands twenty-third among the Districts and States of the 
Punjab in regard to the literacy of its population, of whom 4-3 per 
cent. (6-i males and 0-3 females) could read and write in 1901. 
Secondary education is confined to Nahan town. The number of 
pupils under instruction was 280 in 1890-1, 284 in 1900-1, and 381 in 
1903-4. In the last year there were one secondary and 4 primary 
public schools, and 5 elementary private schools, with 35 girl teachers 
in the public schools. 

The State possesses two hospitals at Nahan, and six dispensaries, 
besides the jail and military dispensaries. These contain accommoda- 
tion for 76 in-patients. In 1903-4 the number of cases treated was 
49,008, of whom 754 were in-patients, and 374 operations were per- 
formed. The expenditure was Rs. 22,823, tne greater part of which 
was met from State funds. Vaccination in Sirmur is performed by 
Government vaccinators and by State officials in Nahan town. 

[State Gazetteer (in the press).] 

Sirohi State. — State situated in the south-west of Rajputana, 

lying between 24 20' and 25 17' N. and 72 16' and 73 10' E., 

with an area of 1,964 square miles. It is bounded on the north, 

north-east, and west by Jodhpur ; on the south by Palanpur, Danta, 

and Idar ; and on the east by Udaipur. The country is much broken 

up by hills and rocky ranges. The main feature is Mount Abu, the 

highest peak of which, Guru Sikhar, rises 5,650 feet above sea-level ; it 

is situated in the south of the State, and is sepa- 

Pnysical rated by a narrow pass from an adjacent ranee of 
aspects. . . .... 

lower hills, which run in a north-easterly direction 

almost as far as the cantonment of Erinpura, and divide the territory 



SI RON I STATE 29 

into two nearly equal portions. The western half is comparatively 
open and level, and more populous and better cultivated than the 
other. Both portions, being situated at the foot of this central range 
of hills, are intersected by numerous watercourses, which become 
torrents of greater or less volume in the rainy season, but are dry 
during the remainder of the year. The Aravalli Hills form a wall 
on the east, but, with the exception of the Belkar peak (3,599 feet 
above the sea), only the lower skirts and outlying spurs of this range 
are included within Sirohi limits. The only river of any importance is 
the Western Banas, which, rising in the hills not far from the town of 
Sirohi, flows first in a south-easterly and next in a south-westerly direction 
till it enters Palanpur territory a little beyond the village of Mawal ; it is 
eventually lost in the sand at the head of the Rann of Cutch. Within 
Sirohi limits this river is not perennial, and usually ceases to flow about 
the middle of the cold season, leaving pools of water here and there. 
In addition, several streams contain water for many months, such as 
the Jawai and the Sukri, which flow west into the Luni, and the Sukli, 
a tributary of the Western Banas. 

The whole of Sirohi is occupied by schists or gneisses belonging to 
the Aravalli system, traversed by dikes of granite. Mount Abu is 
formed of a highly felspathic massive gneiss with a few schistose beds. 
Traces of gold were found in some ferruginous bands of quartzose 
schist near the Rohera railway station in 1897 ; and the remains of old 
workings, which do not appear to have been more than prospecting 
trenches, are to be seen in the neighbourhood. 

The fauna is very varied. The last lion was shot on the western 
slopes of Abu in 1872, but tigers and black bears are still found on the 
Abu-Sirohi range and in the Nandwana hills in the west, though they 
appear to be becoming scarcer every year. In the same localities sambar 
(Cervus unico/or) are fairly numerous, while jungle and spur-fowl 
abound. Chita/ {Cervus axis) are met with in the south-east, and 
antelope and the Indian gazelle throughout the plains, besides the 
usual small game. 

The climate is on the whole dry and healthy, and there is a general 
freedom from epidemic diseases, in both the hills and plains. The 
heat in the plains is never so intense as in the north of Rajputana, but, 
on the other hand, the cold season is of much shorter duration and less 
bracing. The climate of Abu is very agreeable and healthy for the 
greater portion of the year. The southern and eastern districts usually 
receive a fair amount of rain, but over the rest of the State the fall is 
frequently scant. This is chiefly due to the influence of the Abu and 
Aravalli Hills on the clouds driven inland by the south-west monsoon ; 
thus at Abu the annual rainfall averages between 57 and 58 inches (of 
which nearly 5 are received in June, 21 in July, over 18 in August, 

c 2 



30 SIROHI STATE 

and 10 in September), while at Sirohi, 23 miles to the north, it is about 
21 inches, and at Erinpura, about the same distance still farther north, 
it is barely 19 inches. On Abu the rainfall has varied from more than 
130 inches in 1893 to less than n^ inches in 1899, while in the plains 
over 42 inches were registered at Sirohi in 1893 and only 5^ inches in 
1 90 1. Earthquakes are not uncommon on Abu, but as a rule the 
shocks are very slight. The people tell of a somewhat severe earth- 
quake in 1848, which damaged some of the houses and cracked one or 
two of the arches of the Delwara temples ; and a succession of severe 
shocks is reported to have occurred on October 9, 1875. 

The chiefs of Sirohi are Deora Rajputs, a branch of the famous 
Chauhan clan which furnished the last Hindu king of Delhi, PrithwT 
Raj. They claim descent from Lachhman Raj, who 
is said to have ruled at Nadol, in the Jodhpur 
State, towards the end of the tenth century. Driven thence about 200 
years later, a date which corresponds approximately with the conquest 
of Nadol by Kutb-ud-din, the Chauhans migrated to the west and 
established themselves at Bhlnmal and Sanchor, both now in Jodh- 
pur territory, and subsequently took the fort of Jalor from the Para- 
mara Rajputs. Shortly afterwards their chief was one Deoraj, and 
from him the sept is called Deora Chauhan. At this time the territory 
now known as Sirohi was held by the Paramaras, who had their capital 
at Chandravati. Constant fighting went on between the Deoras and 
the Paramaras, and, on Chandravati being taken, the latter took refuge 
on Mount Abu. This place was too strong to be attacked with success, 
so the Deoras resorted to stratagem. They sent a proposal that the 
Paramaras should bring twelve of their daughters to be married into 
the Chauhan tribe and thus establish a friendship. The proposal 
being accepted, the story runs that the girls were accompanied to 
Vareli, a village north-west of Abu, by nearly all the Paramaras. The 
Deoras then fell upon them, massacred the majority, and, pursuing the 
survivors back to Abu, gained possession of that place. This is said 
to have occurred about the beginning of the fourteenth century. Rao 
Sobha founded the old town of Sirohi in 1405 ; but as the site was 
unhealthy, his son, Sains Mai, abandoned it and built the present 
capital, a short distance to the west, in 1425. Shortly afterwards Rana. 
Kumbha of Mewar is said to have taken refuge on Abu from the army 
of the Muhammadan king of Gujarat. When that army retired, the 
Rana refused to leave such a place of vantage, and had to be expelled 
by force. During the next two centuries very little of importance is 
recorded. Rao Surthan, a contemporary of the emperors Akbar and 
Jahanglr, is described as a valiant and reckless chief ' who, in his 
pride, shot his arrows at the sun for daring to shine upon him ' ; though 
repeatedly defeated by the imperial army, he refused to acknowledge 



HISTORY 31 

the supremacy of the Mughals. Throughout the eighteenth century 
Sirohi suffered much from wars with Jodhpur, and the constant depre- 
dations of the wild Mina tribes. Rao Udaibhan, who succeeded to 
the chiefship in 1808, was returning from performing his father's 
funeral obsequies on the banks of the Ganges, when he was seized 
by Maharaja Man Singh of Jodhpur and forced to pay a ransom of 
5 lakhs. To liquidate this sum, Udaibhan levied collections from his 
subjects, and so oppressed them that in 18 16 he was deposed and 
imprisoned by a convocation of the nobles and people of the State, 
and his brother Sheo Singh was selected to succeed him. The con- 
dition of Sirohi was now critical. Many of the Thakurs had thrown 
off their allegiance and placed themselves under the protection of 
Palanpur, and the State was nigh being dismembered. The Jodhpur 
chief sent a force to liberate Udaibhan, but the expedition failed, and 
in 181 7 Sheo Singh sought the protection of the British Government. 
The Jodhpur State claimed suzerainty over Sirohi, but after a careful 
inquiry this was disallowed, and a treaty was concluded on Septem- 
ber 11, 1823. In the fifth article the territory was described as having 
' become a perfect desert in consequence of intestine divisions, the 
disorderly conduct of the evil-disposed portion of its inhabitants, and 
the incursions of predatory tribes.' A Political Agent was appointed, 
and the new regime had very beneficial results. The Minas and other 
predatory bands were put down, the Thakurs in a great measure reduced 
to submission, and a system of government was introduced. These 
objects having been attained, the Political Agent was withdrawn in 
1832. Sheo Singh's position under the treaty was that of regent only, 
but on Udaibhan's death in 1847 ne was acknowledged as chief. He did 
good service in the Mutiny of 1857 ; and the tribute, which had been 
fixed at Rs. 15,000 in the local coinage, was reduced by one-half. In 
1868 the tribute was converted to Rs. 6,881-4-0 British currency. 
Sheo Singh died in 1862, and was succeeded by his son, Umed Singh. 
The principal events of his time were the famine of 1868-9, the 
outlawry of the Thakur of Bhatana, and the predatory incursions of 
Bhils from the Marwar border. In 1870 the political charge of the 
State was transferred from an Assistant to the Governor-General's 
Agent to the Commandant of the Erinpura Irregular Force ; and the 
latter, being vested with special powers, speedily brought the Bhils to 
order and put down plundering with a strong hand. Umed Singh died 
in 1875 and was succeeded by his only son, Kesri Singh, the present 
chief, who was invested with full powers in the same year. In 1889 he 
received the title of Maharao as a hereditary distinction, and has also 
been created a G.C.I. E. and a K.C.S.I. During his rule much has 
been done to improve the condition of the State. Crime is less 
frequent, and the relations between the Darbar and the Thakurs are 



32 SIR OBI STATE 

more cordial ; the revenue has doubled, but progress has been much 
retarded by the recent famines and scarcities. The chief of Sirohi is 
entitled to a salute of 15 guns. 

The places of archaeological interest in the State are Abu ; the 
ruins of the ancient town of Chandravati (south-west of Abu Road on 
the bank of the Western Banas river) ; Vasantgarh (near Pindwara), 
an old fort where an inscription of the time of Raja Charmalat 
has been found, dated A. d. 625 ; Nandia, with a well-preserved Jain 
temple of the tenth century ; and Wasa near Rohera, where there is 
a famous temple to Surya (the sun-god) of the eleventh or twelfth 
century. 

The State contains 413 towns and villages, and the population at 
each Census has been: (1881) 142,903, (1891) 190,836, and (1901) 
'154,544. Neither of the earlier enumerations 
included the Girasias of the Bhakar, a wild tract in 
the south-east. In 188 1 they were omitted altogether, while in 1891 
their number was roughly estimated at 2,860 ; the Census of 1901 was 
consequently the first complete one ever taken in the State. The 
decrease in the population of 19 per cent, during the last decade was 
largely due to the famine of 1 899-1 900. The State is divided into 
14 tahslls and contains 5 towns : namely, Sirohi (the capital), Abu, 
Abu Road, Erinpura, and Sheoganj. Of the total population, more 
than 72 per cent, are Hindus, 11 per cent. Animists, and about 11 per 
cent. Jains. The language mainly spoken is a kind of Marwarl. 

The most numerous caste is that of the Mahajans, who number 
18,900, or over 12 per cent, of the population; they are traders and 
money-lenders, and are mostly of the Oswal and Porwal divisions. 
Next come the Rajputs (13,400); some hold land and others are in 
State service, but the majority are cultivators. The Dhers, a very low 
caste, number 11,400 ; they remove all the dead animals of the village, 
tan leather, and cultivate to a certain extent. The Rebaris (11,400) 
are herdsmen and sometimes agriculturists. The only other caste 
exceeding 10,000 is that of the Bhils. who number 10,400. They are 
one of the aboriginal races of this part of India, and are to be found 
mostly in the hilly portions of the State. Naturally idle and thriftless, 
they cultivate only rains crops, as this entails but little labour ; and 
they eke out their living by ruining the forests, by acting as guides, 
and by occasional plundering when opportunity offers. Allied to the 
Bhils, but ranking just above them in the social scale, are the Girasias 
(7,754), who are said to be descendants of Rajputs by Bhil women. 
As cultivators they are indifferent, but they possess a large number of 
cattle and goats. The main occupation of the people is agriculture, 
about 60 per cent, cultivating the land either on their own account or 
as day-labourers. 



FORESTS jj 

The soil of .Sirohi is on the whole fertile, especially in the eastern 
valley bordering the Aravallis. The principal crops are maize, bdjra, 
mung, khu/dt, and til in the autumn, and barley, 
wheat, gram, and mustard in the spring. Cotton, g lCU 
tobacco, and ja«-hemp are grown in small quantities for local con- 
sumption. On the slopes of the hills the system of cultivation known 
as walar or walra has long been practised by the Bhils and Girasias, 
and has proved most destructive to the forests. Trees are cut down 
and burnt, and the seeds of sdma, mal, and other inferior grains are 
sown in the ashes ; but the system has now been prohibited throughout 
the State. No agricultural statistics are collected, but the Darbar 
estimates the area under cultivation at about 348 square miles, and 
the irrigated area at 80 square miles. Irrigation is mainly from wells, 
of which there are 5,157 in the State ; water is drawn up by means of 
the Persian wheel called arath. During recent years four fairly large 
tanks, capable of irrigating about 4,700 acres, have been constructed; 
but the rainfall has been so scanty that till now they have been of 
very little use. 

Although a considerable portion of Sirohi is covered with trees and 
bush jungle, the forests proper may be said to be confined to the 
slopes of Abu and the belt round its base. The 
area here protected is about 9 square miles, and it 
contains a great variety of trees and shrubs. Among the most common 
may be mentioned the bamboo, mango, sin's (Albizzia Lebbek), two or 
three varieties of the dhao {Anogeissus pendula), several of the fig tribe, 
such as the bar {Fiats bengaknsis), pipal (F. religiosa), and gular 
(F. glomeratd), and showy flowering trees like the kachndr (Bauhinia 
racemosa), phdludra (Erythrina arborescens\ semal (Bo/nbax malabari- 
cum), and the dhak {Butea frondosd). The Bhakar or hilly tract to the 
south-east bears evidence of having been at one time well wooded, 
but the forests have been for the most part destroyed by Bhils and 
Girasias. The total area ' reserved ' and protected is about 385 square 
miles, and the staff usually consists of a ranger, four foresters, and 
some guards. The annual expenditure is about Rs. 5,000 and the net 
revenue the same. 

The minerals of the State are unimportant. It is said that a copper- 
mine was formerly worked in the hills above the town of Sirohi, and 
that the marble of which the Jain temples at Abu are built came from 
near the village of Jhariwao on the south-eastern frontier. Granite is 
found on Abu and is used to a considerable extent for building pur- 
poses ; but as it breaks very irregularly in quarrying, and is extremely 
hard, it is expensive to work and not well adapted for masonry. 
Limestone is quarried at Selwara near Anadra (west of Abu), and near 
Abu Road. 



34 SIR O HI STATE 

The only important manufactures are sword-blades, daggers, spears, 

knives, and bows made at the capital. Tod wrote 

_ . . . that the ' sw r ord-blades of Sirohi are as famed among 
communications. . ° 

the Rajputs as those of Damascus among the 
Persian and Turks.' 

The chief exports are til, mustard-seed, raw and tanned hides, and 
ght, while the chief imports include grain, piece-goods, salt, sugar, 
metal, tobacco, and opium. These are for the most part carried by 
the railway. The principal trade centres are Abu Road, Pindwara, 
Rohera, and Sheoganj, whence a good many of the imported articles 
are sent by road into the outlying parts of the adjoining States : 
namely, Danta, Idar, Mewar, and Marwar. 

The Rajputana-Malwa Railway runs through the eastern half of the 
State for about 40 miles, and has six stations. The total length of 
metalled roads is 20 miles, and of unmetalled roads 224 miles. 
Of these, 1^ miles metalled and 132 miles unmetalled are maintained 
by the Darbar, and the rest by the British Government or the Abu 
municipality. The most important road is that connecting Abu with 
Abu Road ; it is 1 7 miles in length, metalled throughout, and was 
constructed and is entirely maintained by Government. The grand 
trunk road from Agra to Ahmadabad runs for about 68 miles through 
Sirohi territory ; it was formerly metalled between Erinpura and 
Sirohi town, but since the opening of the railway in 1881 has been 
maintained only as a fair-weather communication. There are ten 
British post offices and four telegraph offices in the State. 

Sirohi often suffers from droughts more or less severe, but lies in 
a more rainy zone than its neighbour Jodhpur, and its wooded hills 
. generally attract a fair share of the monsoon clouds. 

The years 1746, 1785,-1812, 1833, and 1848 are said 
to have been marked by famine, but no details are available. In 
1868-9 there appears to have been scarcity rather than famine in this 
State, but owing to want of fodder from 50 to 75 per cent, of the cattle 
died. The late chief (Umed Singh) did all that his means permitted 
to assist his people and the numerous aliens who passed through on 
their way to and from the neighbouring territories ; and, excluding the 
liberal charity dispensed from His Highness's private purse, the expen- 
diture on relief appears to have been about Rs. 25,000. Famine 
prevailed throughout the State in 1899-1900 ; and the Darbar at once 
threw open the forest Reserves, established depots for the purchase of 
wood and grass, and sold grain to the poor at a cheaper rate than that 
prevailing in the market. Systematic relief, in the form of works and 
poorhouses, was started in January, 1900, and continued till October. 
The total number of units relieved was estimated at about 1,800,000, 
and the direct expenditure at nearly 1-5 lakhs. A sum of about 



ADMINISTRA TION 35 

Rs. 48,000 was advanced to agriculturists, and remissions and suspen- 
sions of land revenue amounted to Rs. 25,000 and 2 lakhs respectively. 
A large amount was also given in private charity near the railway 
centres. Scarcity was again felt in 190 1-2, but only in half the State, 
and the expenditure was about Rs. 34,000. 

The State is ruled by the Maharao with the assistance of a Diwan 
and other officials, such as the Revenue officer, the Judicial officer, 
and the Superintendent of Customs and Forests. 
In charge of each of the fourteen tahslls is a tahsildar 
with two assistants. In the administration of justice the codes of 
British India are largely followed. The lowest courts are those 
of lahsildars, who can punish with two months' imprisonment and 
Rs. 100 fine, and decide civil suits not exceeding Rs. 300 in value. 
The Judicial officer has the powers of a District Magistrate and Dis- 
trict Judge, while the Diwan has the powers of a Court of Session and 
disposes of civil suits exceeding Rs. 3,000 in value. The final appellate 
authority is the Maharao, who alone can pass sentence of death. 

The normal revenue of the State has fallen from about 4 lakhs in 
1896-7 to about 3^ lakhs at the present time; the main sources are 
customs (1 lakh), land (Rs. 68,000), court-fees and fines (Rs. 25,000), 
and excise (Rs. 20,000). The ordinary expenditure may be put at 
2-8 lakhs, the chief items being : army and police, Rs. 55,000 ; palace 
(including privy purse), Rs. 33,000 ; cost of administrative staff (civil 
and judicial), Rs. 23,000 ; stables (including elephants and camels), 
Rs. 20,000 ; and public works, Rs. 7,000. Owing largely to a series of 
indifferent years the State is in debt to the extent of about 4-5 lakhs, 
of which sum i-8 lakhs is due to the British Government, being the 
balance of the amount lent to the Darbar during the recent famine 
and scarcity. 

Sirohi has never had a coinage of its own ; the coins most common 
were known as Bhilari from having been minted in the eighteenth 
century at Bhilwara, a town in the Udaipur State. They have, 
however, been recently converted into British rupees, and since 
June, 1904, the latter have been the sole legal tender in the State. 

The land revenue tenures are 'those usual in Rajputana : namely, 
khj/sa, jag'ir, and sasan. Of the 413 villages in the State, 157 are 
khalsa, 202 jagir, and 54 sasan. In the khalsa area the cultivators have 
a permanent occupancy right so long as they pay the State demand 
regularly. The land revenue is mostly collected in kind, and the 
Darbar's share varies from one-fourth to one-third of the produce 
according to the caste of the cultivator. In parts the revenue is paid 
in cash at a rate varying from Rs. 2 to Rs. 5 per plough. Rajputs, 
Bhlls, Mlnas, and Kolis belong to the deivali band or ' protectors of 
the village,' and pay reduced rates. There are three principal classes 



36 SIROHI STATE 

of jagirdars : the relatives of the chief, the Thakurs or descendants of 
those who assisted in conquering the country, and those who have 
received grants for good service. All pay tribute varying from three- 
eighths to one-half of the income of their estates, sometimes in cash 
and sometimes in kind, besides nazardna or fee on succession, 
according to their means, and have also to serve when called upon. 
In the case of the chief's relatives, the right of adoption is not recog- 
nized ; but the Thakurs, if they have no heirs, may adopt with the 
approval of the Darbar. Those who hold land in reward for services 
do so subject to the pleasure of the chief. Sdsan lands are those 
granted to temples and members of religious castes, such as Brahmans, 
Charans, and Bhats ; they are for all practical purposes grants in 
perpetuity and are held rent-free. The Girasias, the original inhabi- 
tants of the Bhakar, still retain their bhitm rights : that is, they hold 
free of rent or at reduced rates on condition of some particular service, 
such as watch and ward of their villages, &c. Lastly, on Abu the Loks 
have certain hereditary rights and hold their lands on very easy terms. 

The military force consists of a company of 120 infantry, employed 
in guarding the jail and other miscellaneous duties at the capital, 
and 8 guns, of which 5 are serviceable. The annual cost is about 
Rs. 12,000. The cantonment of Erinpura is the head-quarters of the 
43rd (Erinpura) Regiment ; and there is a detachment at Abu, which is 
also the sanitarium for British troops of the Mhow or 5th division of 
the Western Command. There are no members of the Bombay, 
Baroda, and Central India Railway Volunteer Rifles residing in the 
State at Abu or Abu Road. 

The police force consists of 662 men, of whom 77 are mounted, 
distributed over 96 thdnas or police stations. The annual cost is about 
Rs. 43,000. The Central jail is at the capital, and a small lock-up 
is maintained in each tahsil for prisoners sentenced to not more than 
two months. 

In regard to the literacy of its population Sirohi stands first among 
the States and chiefships of Rajputana with 6-85 per cent. (12-4 males 
and o-6 females) able to read and write, a position due to the com- 
paratively large community of Europeans and Eurasians at Abu and 
Abu Road. The Darbar itself does very little to encourage education, 
the annual expenditure being about Rs. 800 : namely, the cost of main- 
taining a single school at the capital, in which Urdu, Hindi, and a little 
English are taught to about 73 boys. There are elementary indigenous 
schools in every town and large village ; a couple of railway schools at 
Abu Road ; and three schools — the high school, the Lawrence school, 
and the municipal school — at Abu. 

Excluding the Government military hospitals at Abu and Erinpura, 
five hospitals and one dispensary have been opened in the State, which 



SIRONCJIA 37 

contain accommodation for 60 in-patients. Three are maintained by 
the State, two partly by the British Government and partly from private 
subscriptions, and one is a railway hospital. In 1904 the number of 
cases treated was 28,826, of whom 275 were in-patients, and 1,671 
operations were performed. 

Three vaccinators are employed, who in 1904-5 successfully vacci- 
nated 7,161 persons, or more than 46 per 1,000 of the population, at 
a cost of about 16 pies per case. 

[J. Tod, Travels in Western India (1839); Raj put ana Gazetteer, 
vol. iii (1880, under revision) ; A. Adams, The Western Rdjputana 
States (1899); Administration Reports of the Sirohi Stale (annually 
from 1889-90).] 

Sirohi Town. — Capital of the State and head-quarters of the tahsil 
of the same name in Rajputana, situated in 24 53' N. and 72 53' E., 
about 16 miles north-west of Pindwara station on the Rajputana-Malwa 
Railway. Population (1901), 5,651. The town is said to take its name 
from the Saranwa hill, on the western slope of which it stands. It was 
built by Rao Sains Mai about 1425, taking the place of the old capital, 
a little farther to the east, which was abandoned as the site was found 
unhealthy. About 2 miles to the north is the shrine of Sarneswar 
(a form of Siva), the tutelary deity of the chiet. This was built about 
500 years ago, and is surrounded by a fortified wall erected by one 
of the Musalman kings of Malwa, who is said to have been cured of 
a leprous disease by bathing in a kfind or fountain close by. Outside 
and on the plain below are the cenotaphs of the Sirohi chiefs. The 
Maharao's palace, which has been considerably enlarged during recent 
years, is picturesquely situated on the hill-side overlooking the town. 
The place is famous for its sword-blades, daggers, and knives. It con- 
tains a combined post and telegraph office ; a well-arranged jail, which 
has accommodation for 135 prisoners, the daily average strength in 1904 
having been 118; an Anglo-vernacular primary school, attended by 
about 70 boys ; a good hospital with accommodation for 24 in-patients ; 
and a small dispensary attached to the palace. 

Siron. — Village in the Lalitpur tahsil of Jhansi District, United 
Provinces, situated in 24 52' N. and 78 20' E., 12 miles north-west of 
Lalitpur town. The place is of importance for the ruins in the neigh- 
bourhood. Remains, chiefly of Jain buildings, are scattered about and 
have been used to construct modern temples. A large slab in one of 
these contains an inscription, dated a.d. 907, from which it appears 
that this tract of country was then subject to the rule of Kanauj. 

[Epigraphia Indica, vol. i, p. 195.] 

Sironcha.— Southern tahsil of Chanda District, Central Provinces. 
In 1901 its area was 1,085 square miles, and its population was 51,148. 
The transfer of the taluks of Nugur, Albaka, and Chcrla of the 



38 SIRONCHA 

Sironcha tahsil, covering an area of 593 square miles and containing 
142 villages with 20,218 persons, to the Madras Presidency has been 
sanctioned, but further details of administration are still being con- 
sidered. In 1905 an area of 2,603 square miles of the Chanda tahsil, 
of which 2,600 were in the Ahiri zamindari estate, was transferred to 
Sironcha. The revised totals of area and population of the Sironcha 
tahsil are 3,095 square miles and 55,465 persons. The population 
in 1891 of the area now constituting the tahsil was 51,732. The 
density is only 18 persons per square mile, and the tahsil contains 
421 inhabited villages. Its head-quarters are at Sironcha, a village 
of 2,813 inhabitants, 130 miles from Chanda town by road. The area 
of Government forest in the new tahsil \s 480 square miles, while 2,254 
square miles of the Ahiri zamindari are covered by tree forest, scrub 
jungle, or grass. The northern portion of the tahsil comprised in the 
Ahiri zamindari is one of the most densely wooded and sparsely popu- 
lated areas in the Province ; to the south of this Sironcha extends in 
a long narrow strip to the east of the Godavari, and consists of a belt of 
rich alluvial soil along the banks of the river and its affluents, with 
forests and hills in the background. The population is wholly Telugu. 
The land revenue demand of the tahsil was approximately Rs. 17,00c, 
before the revision of settlement now in progress. 

Sironj District. — One of the Central India parganas of the State of 
Tonk, Rajputana. It is for certain purposes included in the charge of 
the Political Agent, Bhopal. It has an area of 879 square miles, and 
lies between 23 52' and 24 21' N. and 77 17' and 77 57' E., being 
bounded on the north, west, and east by Gwalior, on the south by 
Bhopal and Gwalior, and in the south-east corner by an outlying portion 
of Kurwai. A ridge of the Vindhyas traverses the district from north 
to south, dividing it into two distinct tracts \ that to the east is known 
as taleti (' lowland ') and that to the west as upreti (' highland '). There 
are no large rivers ; the Sind rises here, but does not attain to any size 
till it has entered the Gwalior State on the north. The population 
in 1901 was 68,539, compared with 93,856 in 1891. There are 436 
villages and one town, Sironj (population, 10,417). The principal 
castes are Chamars, Kachhls, Brahmans, Rajputs, and Ahirs, forming 
respectively about 14, 8, 6, 6, and 5^ per cent, of the total. The 
district is said to have been occupied in the eleventh century by Sengar 
Rajputs, who came to Malwa with Jai Singh Siddh-raj of Anhilvada 
Patan. In the sixteenth century their descendants opposed the advance 
of Sher Shah, who consequently devastated the country, having his 
head-quarters at the principal town, which was called after him Sherganj, 
now corrupted to Sironj. In Akbar's time, the district was one of the 
mahals of the Chanderi sarkar in the Subah of Malwa, and was granted 
mjdgir by the emperor to Gharib Das, Khichi Chauhan of Raghugarh, 



SIR PUR VILLAGE 39 

as a reward for services. From 1736 to 1754 it was held by Baji Rao 
Peshwa, and then passed into the possession of Holkar. In 1798 it was 
made over by Jaswant Rao Holkar to Amir Khan, and the grant was 
confirmed by the British Government in the treaty of 181 7. Sironj is 
the largest, and in many respects the most naturally favoured, district 
of the Tonk State. Of the total area, more than 729 square miles, or 
83 per cent., are kkdlsa, paying revenue direct to the Tonk Darbar ; and 
the kkdlsa area available for cultivation is about 603 square miles. Of 
the latter, about 128 square miles, or 21 per cent., were cultivated in 
1903-4, the irrigated area being 2 square miles. Of the cropped area, 
wheat occupied nearly 29 per cent., yV^ewr 28, gram 19, maize 8, and 
cotton 4^ per cent. The revenue from all sources is about i-6 lakhs, 
of which two-thirds is derived from the land. 

Sironj Town. — Head-quarters of the pargana of the same name 
in the State of Tonk, Rajputana (within the limits of the Central India 
Agency), situated in 24 6' N. and 77 43' E., about 200 miles south- 
east of Tonk city, and connected with the Kethora station of the Great 
Indian Peninsula Railway by a metalled road about 30 miles in length. 
Population (1901), 10,417. Sironj, in olden times, was doubtless a con- 
siderable city, situated on the direct route between the Deccan and 
Agra ; but it has decayed rapidly, and its great empty bazars and the 
ruins of many fine houses alone testify to its former importance. 
Tavernier, who visited it in the seventeenth century, spoke of it as 
being crowded with merchants and artisans, and famous for its muslins 
and chintzes. Of the muslin he wrote that it was 

' so fine that when it is on the person, you see all the skin as though it 
were uncovered. The merchants are not allowed to export it, and the 
governor sends all of it for the great Mughal's seraglio and for the 
principal courtiers.' 

This manufacture has unfortunately died out, and no recollection of its 
having once formed the staple trade of the place survives. The town 
possesses a post office, a small jail, an Anglo-vernacular school, and 
a dispensary for out-patients. 

Sirpur Taluk.— Taluk in Adilabad District, Hyderabad State, 
with an area of 2,214 square miles. The population in 1901, including 
7'agirs, was 135,694, compared with 106,745 in 1891. The taluk 
contains 435 villages, of which 49 are jdglr, and Sirpur (population, 
3,134) is its head-quarters. The land revenue in 1901 was Rs. 81,800. 
In 1905 part of this taluk was transferred to form the new taluk of 
Jangaon. It is very sparsely populated, and contains a large extent 
of cultivable waste and forests. 

Sirpur Village.— Village in the Basim taluk of Akola District, 
Berar, situated in 20 n' N. and 77 E. Population (1901), 3,809. 



4o SIR PUR VILLAGE 

The old temple of Antariksha Parsvanatha belonging to the Digambara 
Jain community has an inscription with a date which has been read as 
1406. The temple was probably built at least a hundred years before 
the date of the inscription. The tradition is that Yelluk, a Raja of 
Ellichpur, probably an eponymous hero, found the idol on the banks 
of a river, and that his prayers for permission to transport it to his 
own city was granted on condition of his not looking back. At Sirpur, 
however, his faith became weak, and he looked back. The idol 
instantly became immovable and remained suspended in mid-air for 
many years. 

Sirpur Tandur 1 (also known as the Amalddrt). — Formerly a sub- 
district in the Bidar Division of Hyderabad State, lying between 19 o 
and 19 56' N. and 77 53' and 8o° o' E., with an area of 5,029 square 
miles, of which 4,842 square miles are khdlsa, the rest hemg jdgir. It 
is bounded on the north and east by the Yeotmal District of Berar and 
the Chanda District of the Central Provinces ; on the south by the 
Karlmnagar and Nizamabad Districts of Hyderabad ; and on the west 
by the Nander District of Hyderabad and the Yeotmal District of 
Berar. The river Penganga separates it from Berar on the north, and 
the Wardha and Pranhita. divide it from Chanda on 

Phvsicfil — 

asDects ^ e east ' ^ e Sahyadriparvat or Satmala range 

traverses the sub-district from the north-west to the 
south-east for about 175 miles. Other hills in the east are of minor 
importance. 

The Penganga is the most important river. It runs along the 
western and northern borders of the sub-district, until it falls into the 
Wardha, north of the Rajura taluk. The Wardha passes along the 
eastern border of the Rajura taluk. The other streams are the Pedda- 
vagu, an affluent of the Wardha, 100 miles long, and the Kapnavarli 
and Amlun, tributaries of the Penganga, the latter rising in the 
Sahyadriparvat range. 

The geological formations are the Archaean gneiss ; the Cuddapah, 
Sullavai, and Gondwana series, the latter including Talcher, Barakar, 
Kamptee, Kota-Maleri, and Chikiala beds; and the Deccan trap 2 . 

The sub-district is clothed with scrubby jungle and brushwood, 
besides having a very large extent of forests, which contain teak, ebony, 
sandal-wood, rosewood, dhaura (Anogeissus latifolia), bilgu (Ch/oro- 
xyloti Swietenia), tamarind, mango, nun, and kuchla {Nux vomica). 

The hills abound in wild animals, such as tigers, leopards, bears, 
hyenas, wolves, wild dogs, nl/gai, and spotted deer. Wild duck, 
partridges, jungle-fowl, and peafowl are to be found everywhere. 

' The sub-district no longer exists ; see paragraph on Population below, and article 
on Adilabad District, which has taken the place of Sirpur Tandur. 
- W. King, Memoirs, Geological Survey of India, vol. xviii, pt. iii. 



SIRPUR TANDUR 



4^ 



The climate is most unhealthy, but the taluk of Edlabad is not so 
malarious as Rajura and Sirpur, and the villages on the plain are 
healthier than those situated in the hilly portions of the sub-district. 
The temperature ranges from 6o° in December to 105 in May. The 
annual rainfall for the twenty-one years ending 1901 averaged 41 
inches. In September, 1891, the Penganga rose in high flood, and 
devastated most of the villages situated on its banks. The flood con- 
tinued for three days, and people had to take refuge in trees and on high 
grounds. A large number of cattle were drowned. In 1903 a slight 
shock of earthquake was felt. 

Very little is known of the history of the sub-district prior to its 
becoming part of Hyderabad State. It is said that at one period 
the taluk of Rajura belonged to a Gond Raja, and 
subsequently passed to the Bhonslas. 

An old fort on a hill near Mahur in the Edlabad taluk contains 
a masonry palace, a mosque, and two large domed buildings. At the 
foot of a hill, west of Mahur, is the Pando Lena, a cave consisting 
of two halls, one of which contains a temple. An old temple on the 
Mahur hill, 180 feet square and 54 feet high, gives shelter to 400 
gosains and their mahant. Jagirs have been granted for the expenses 
of this temple. The Manikgarh fort is said to have been built by 
a Gond Raja. 

The number of towns and villages in the sub-district is 984. Its 
population at each Census was: (1881) 214,674, (1891) 231,754, and 
(1901) 272,815. It is divided into the three taluks 
of Edlabad, Rajura, and Sirpur, which are all very 
sparsely populated. Adilabad (Edlabad) is the only town. More 
than 76 per cent, of the population are Hindus, 18 per cent. Animists 
(Gonds), and only 5 per cent. Musalmans. About 44 per cent, of the 
people speak Telugu and 28 per cent. Marathl. The following table 
shows the distribution of population in 1901 : — 



Population. 





V 

u 

3 

»j8 

0) 
u 

< 


Number of 


n 
.2 

i5 
"3 
c 


PL, 


§a 

3 3 

Q.CT 
O "1 

Ph 


C.S « . 
t>— ON" 
MC 5X 

c«_o.2 "■ ©> 

u" 3 « C 
n" > ° *" 

+ 13-1 
- 3-5 
+ 27.1 
+ 12.9 


Number of 

persons able to 

read and 

write. 


Taluk. 


ui 

c 


H 

I 
1 


U 
be 
J3 

> 


Edlabad . 
Rajura . 
Sirpur . 
Jagirs, &c. 


2,l68 

545 
2,129 

187 


390 

99 
386 
108 


104,891 
20,649 

120,500 
26,775 


4 S 

38 

56 

M3 


L a 

"1 


Sub-district total 


5,029 


983 


272,815 


54 


+ '7-7 


2,323 



In 1905 the sub-district was constituted an independent District, 
under the name of Adilabad. It gained two taluks, Nirmal and 
Narsapur, from Nizamabad (Indur) District, and two, Chinnur and 



42 SIR PUR TANDUR 

Lakhsetipet, from Karlmnagar (Elgandal). The northern portions of 
Nirmal and Narsapur, with part of Edlabad, have been formed into a 
new taluk, Kinwat, the remaining portion of Narsapur being merged 
in Nirmal. A new taluk, Jangaon, has been formed midway between 
Sirpur and Lakhsetipet, consisting of villages from these two. 

The Kapus or Kunbls are the most numerous agricultural caste, 
numbering 46,400, or 17 per cent, of the total population. Other 
well-known agricultural castes are the Munnurs (5,300), Kolis (4,200), 
and Banjaras (3,700). The labouring castes are Dhangars or 
shepherds (15,300), Mahars or village menials (8,000), Mangs or 
leather-workers (8,000), Andhs or carriers (7,900), and Panchals or 
smiths (7,500). The last two are strongly represented in this District. 
Of the trading castes, there are 4,691 Komatis, 2,177 Vanis, and 1,213 
Marwaris. Brahmans number only 3,300. The population engaged 
in agriculture is 156,200, or 57 per cent, of the total. There were only 
3 native Christians in 1901. 

The sub-district is situated partly in the trap and partly in the granitic 
region, the chief soils being regar or black cotton, and kharab or sandy. 
Regar predominates in the Rajura taluk, and sandy 
and reddish soils in Sirpur, the Edlabad taluk being 
midway between. Hence rice and kliarlf crops are grown in Sirpur, 
the former being irrigated from tanks and wells, while in Rajura rabi 
crops predominate, and in the Edlabad taluk kharif and rabi are almost 
equally balanced. The soils at the foot of the hills and on the borders 
of the rivers are very fertile, producing wheat, cotton, and gram. 

The tenure of lands is mainly ryotwari. The khalsa lands covered 
4,842 square miles in 1901, of which 552 were cultivated, 1,633 were 
occupied by cultivable waste and fallows, 2,213 by forests, and 444 
were not available for cultivation. The staple food-crop is jozvar, 
grown on about half of the net area cropped. Rice and wheat 
occupy 4 and 3 square miles ; and oilseeds, fibres, and cotton are 
grown on 54, 29, and 25 square miles, respectively. 

The sub-district has not been surveyed, and is very thinly populated, 
containing extensive tracts of protected and unprotected forests and 
scrubby jungle, and cultivation is in a very backward condition. No 
steps have been taken to improve agricultural methods, but the cultivated 
area has increased during the past twenty years by about 8 per cent. 

The cattle bred locally are strong, and the buffaloes of the Mahur 
pargana in the Edlabad taluk are noted as first-class milkers. There 
is also a small-sized breed of bullocks, which are very fast trotters. 
Bullocks of superior quality fetch Rs. 200 a pair, and the ordinary 
cattle sell at from Rs. 75 to Rs. 100 a pair. Ponies, sheep, and goats 
are of the ordinary kind. 

The irrigated area covers only 6-| square miles, which is supplied by 



ADMINISTRA TION 4 3 

223 tanks, large and small, 99 wells, and 17 channels, all in good 
repair. The largest area under ' wet ' cultivation is in the Sirpur 
taluk. Quite recently a dam and three large tanks have been 
constructed in the Edlabad taluk, at a total cost of nearly Rs. 50,000, 
securing a revenue of Rs. 7,500. 

The sub-district has a very large extent of forests. The protected 
area covers 2,213 square miles, and the unprotected 2,000 square 
miles. It is proposed to utilize part of the cultivable 
waste for planting forests. The principal timber 
trees are teak, tunki or ebony (Dios/>yros melanoxylon), bilgu (Chloro- 
xylon Swietenia), jittigi (Dalbergla latifolid), bijasal (Pterocarpus 
Marsupium), dhaura (A/iogeissus latifolia), and rosewood. The 
income from the sale of timber in 1901 was Rs. 25,200. 

Talc, limestone, and laminated limestone of a quality superior to the 
Shahabad stone, and chalpa, a red mineral, are found in the Edlabad 
taluk. On the Rajulgutta hill in the Sirpur taluk, soapstone and iron 
occur. Coal is found near Sasti and Poona villages in the Rajura 
taluk, and experimental excavations were made in 1874-5; but satis- 
factory results were not obtained, and the work was abandoned. There 
are three coal-mines near the Sasti village. Sulphur also exists, but is 
not worked. 

There are no important hand industries. The weavers make coarse 

cotton cloth, such as dhotis and saris, for local use. 

The Rangaris or dyers print cloth for screens and 

_r ,. • , 1 • . communications. 

quilts. Ordinary agricultural implements are made 

by blacksmiths. Leathern water-bottles {chhagals) are made in Sirpur. 

The chief exports are cotton, linseed, gingelly, and some grain and 
cattle. The main imports consist of rice, salt, kerosene oil, opium, 
cloth, spices, gold, silver, brass, and copper. Komatis, Marwaris, and 
Kachchis are the principal traders. 

No railway or metalled road has been made in the sub-district. 
The old Nagpur road between Mannur and Sangri, 38 miles long, is un- 
metalled. From Edlabad to Rajura and Sirpur there is only a cart track. 

No information is available regarding famines in this area. During 
1900, when famine was raging in -the Aurangabad Division, the ryots 
here were well off; but the influx of people from the 
adjoining Hyderabad and British famine-stricken 
Districts caused some distress, and a poorhouse was opened at Edlabad 
for 800 destitute persons. It cost the State only Rs. 2,982. 

The sub-district was divided into two subdivisions — one, consisting 

of the taluk of Edlabad, under the Amaldar, corre- . . . , . x . 

,. _. __, ' , . ., . . Administration, 

spondmg to a First Talukdar, while the second com- 
prised the taluks of Sirpur and Rajura, under a Third Talukdar. 
There is a tahsildar in each of the taluks. 

VOL. XXIII. D 



44 



SIR PUR TANDUR 



The Amaldar was the chief Magistrate as well as Civil Judge of 
the sub-district. The Third Talukdar and three tahslldars exercise 
magisterial powers of the second and third class. These officers also 
preside over the subdivisional and tahsil civil courts. The Amaldar 
heard appeals from all the courts subordinate to him. There is little 
serious crime. 

Prior to the formation of Districts in 1866, the revenue of the taluks 
of Edlabad and Sirpur was farmed out, but in 1866 these taluks were 
included in Indur District. Rajura was a jagir taluk granted for the 
payment of troops. In 1867 the first two taluks were transferred to 
Elgandal District, but were made over to Indur in 1869. In 1872 
the jagir taluk of Rajura was resumed, and with the other two taluks 
was formed into an Amaldari or sub-district. The sub-district has not 
been surveyed. The average assessment on 'dry' land is Rs. 6-0 
per acre (maximum Rs. 8-1, minimum R. 0-2), and on 'wet' land Rs. 15 
(maximum Rs. 25, minimum Rs. 6). 

The land revenue and the total revenue for a series of years are 
shown below, in thousands of rupees : — 





1881. 


1891. 


1 901. 


1903. 


Land revenue 
Total revenue 


2,11 
3-03 


2,33 
3,04 


2,62 
4,66 


2,62 
3.53 



Owing to the changes in area made in 1905, the revenue demand of 
Adilabad District is now .about 6-5 lakhs. 

There is no local board in the sub-district. The" income from the 
road cess and ferries is spent on works of public utility. A small con- 
servancy establishment is maintained at the head-quarters of the sub- 
district and of the other two taluks. The total income is Rs. 3,663, 
of which Rs. 2,482 is obtained from road cess and Rs. 1,181 from 
ferries. 

The Amaldar is the head of the police, with the Superintendent 
(Mohtamim) as his executive deputy. Under the latter are 4 inspectors, 
43 subordinate officers, 155 constables, and 25 Sikh mounted police. 
These are distributed at 18 police stations. There is a jail at Edlabad, 
where prisoners are kept whose term does not exceed six months, 
those with longer terms being sent to the Central jail at Nizamabad. 
The jail has accommodation for 50 prisoners. 

The sub-district takes a very inferior place as regards the literacy of 
its population, of whom less than one per cent. (i-6 males and 
0-17 females) could read and write in 1901. The total number of 
pupils under instruction in the sub-district in 1891, 1901, and 1903 was 
360, 342, and 394 respectively. In 1903 there were four primary 



SIRS A TOWN 45 

schools. The whole of the cost, amounting to Rs. 2,290 per annum, 
is borne by the Educational department. In 1901 fees brought in 
Rs. 218. 

There are two dispensaries, at which the number of cases treated in 
1901 was 5,785, and the number of operations performed was 167. 
The expenditure was Rs. 6,616. The number of persons vaccinated in 
the same year was 397, or 1-45 per 1,000 of population. 

Sirsa Tahsil. — Tahsll and subdivision of Hissar District, Punjab, 
lying between 29 13' and 30 o' N. and 74 29' and 75 18' E., on the 
borders of the Bikaner desert, with an area of 1,642 square miles. The 
population in 1901 was 158,651, compared with 178,586 in 1891. 
The town of Sirsa (population, 15,800) is the head-quarters. It also 
contains 3 other towns and 306 villages. The land revenue and cesses 
in 1903-4 amounted to 2-9 lakhs. The whole of the tahsll is sandy, 
except the belt of stiff clay which forms the Ghaggar basin, and 
depends for its successful cultivation on the river floods, which, below 
the Otu lake and dam, are distributed over the country by the Ghaggar 
canals. There is some irrigation in the north from the Sirhind Canal, 
and in the south from the Western Jumna Canal. 

Sirsa Town (r). — Head-quarters of the subdivision and tahsil of 
the same name in Hissar District, Punjab, situated in 29 32' N. and 
75° 2 r E., on the Rewari-Bhatinda branch of the Rajputana-Malwa 
Railway, on the north side of a dry bed of the Ghaggar. Population 
(1901), 15,800. The old town of Sirsa or Sarsuti is of great antiquity, 
and tradition ascribes its origin to an eponymous Raja Saras, who 
built the town and fort about 1,300 years ago. Under the name of 
Sarsuti, it is mentioned as the place near which Prithwi Raj was 
captured after his defeat by Muhammad of Ghor in n 92 ; and accord- 
ing to Wassaf it was in the fourteenth century one of the most impor- 
tant towns in Upper India. It was taken by Timur, the inhabitants 
fleeing before him, and is mentioned in the reign of Mubarak Shall as 
the rendezvous of the expedition against the rebel fortress of Sirhind. 
In the reign of Sher Shah, Sirsa became for a time the head-quarters of 
Rao Kalyan Singh of Bikaner, who had been driven from his country 
by the Rao of Jodhpur. In the eighteenth century Sirsa was one of 
the strongholds of the Bhattis, and was taken by Amar Singh of Patiala 
in 1774, but restored to the Bhattis by the agreement of 1781. The 
town was depopulated by the great famine of 1783, and the site was 
annexed in 18 18 after the expedition sent against the Bhatti chief, 
Nawab Zabita Khan. In 1838 Sirsa, which had lain deserted since 
1783, was refounded by Captain Thoresby, who laid out the present 
town, which from 1858 to 1884 was the head-quarters of the Sirsa 
District. The ruins of Old Sirsa lie near the south-west corner of the 
modern town, and still present considerable remains, though much of 

d 2 



46 SIRSA TOWN 

the material has been used for building the new houses. It contains 
an ancient Hindu fort and tank. 

The municipality was created in 1867. The income during the ten 
years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs.23,300 and the expenditure Rs. 23,900. 
In 1903-4 income and expenditure each amounted to Rs. 18,100, 
the chief source of income being octroi. The town is a centre of the 
export trade to Rajputana, and is in a flourishing condition. Most of 
the trade is in the hands of Banias from Rajputana and the country to 
the south-east. Sirsa contains a dispensary, an Anglo-vernacular middle 
school maintained by the municipality, and an aided primary school 
for European boys. 

Sirsa Town (2). — Town in the Meja. tahsll of Allahabad Dis- 
trict, United Provinces, situated in 25° 16' N. and 82 6' E., on the 
East Indian Railway. Population (1901), 4,159. Sirsa is administered 
under Act XX of 1856. with an income of about Rs. 1,000. It is the 
most important mart in the District outside Allahabad city. The trade 
is chiefly concerned with the export of grain and oilseeds to Bengal 
and Calcutta. A middle school has 88 pupils. 

Sirsaganj. — Village in the Shikohabad tahsll of Mainpurl District, 
United Provinces, situated in 27 3' N. and 78 43' E., 6 miles north 
of Bhadan station on the East Indian Railway. Population (1901), 
4,122. The village of Sirsa is purely agricultural; but Sirsaganj. the 
market adjoining it, is the greatest centre of trade in the District. It 
consists of one principal street with a market-place called Raikesganj, 
after the Collector who improved it. Trade is chiefly in grain, cotton, 
and hides, and a small cotton gin has been opened. Sirsaganj is 
administered under Act XX of 1856, with an income of about 
Rs. 1,300. It contains a primary school with about 50 pupils. 

Sirsi State. — Thakurat in the Malwa Agency, Central India. 

Sirsi Taluka. — Eastern taluka of North Kanara District, Bombay, 
lying between 14 30' and 14 50' N. and 74 34' and 75 3' E., with 
an area of 490 square miles. It contains one town, Sirsi (population, 
6,196), the head-quarters; and 244 villages. The population in 1901 
was 53,232, compared with 53,976 in 1891. The density, 109 persons 
per square mile, is slightly below the District average. The demand 
for land revenue in 1903-4 was 1-5 lakhs, and for cesses Rs. 10,000. 
The Western Ghats rise on the western boundary of the taluka, and in 
their neighbourhood lie deep moist valleys containing rich garden land 
between hills covered with evergreen forest. The country, as far as the 
middle of the taluka, is covered with trees. Farther east, except some 
scattered evergreen patches, the forest becomes gradually thinner, and 
the trees more stunted. Sirsi is generally healthy, but is malarious 
between October and March. Water for drinking and irrigation is 
abundant. The staple crops are rice, sugar-cane, gram, mug, kutith, 



SIRUGUPPA 47 

udid, and castor-oil. Garden products comprise areca-nuts, cardamoms, 
coco-nuts, and black pepper. The tdluka forms an immense forest 
Reserve. Bamboo, teak, and sago-palm are the chief forest products. 
The annual rainfall averages ioo inches. 

Sirsi Town (i). — Head-quarters of the tdluka of the same name 
in North Kanara District, Bombay, situated in 14 37' N. and 74 50' 
E., 320 miles south-east of Bombay city, and about 60 miles south-east 
of Karwar ; 2,500 feet above sea-level. Population (1901), 6,196, 
including suburbs. The ground on which the town stands consists of 
quartz and gravel, the highest points of which are covered by a bed of 
laterite, while in the ravines on the western and northern sides there is 
micaceous schist broken through by diorite. Sirsi has been a munici- 
pality since 1866, with an average income during the decade ending 
1901 of Rs. 15,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 23,000. Every 
alternate year a fair is held in honour of the deity Mari, which lasts for 
a week, and is attended chiefly by low-caste Hindus to the number of 
about 10,000 persons. Colonel Wellesley in 1800 sent a battalion to 
Sirsi to drive out banditti. The town contains a Subordinate Judge's 
court, a dispensary, a middle school, and three other schools. 

Sirs! Town (2).— Town in the Sambhal tahsiloi Moradabad District, 
United Provinces, situated in 28 38' N. and 78 39' E., 16 miles south- 
west of Moradabad city. Population (1901), 5,894. It is administered 
under Act XX of 1856, with an income of about Rs. 1,100. There is 
a small industry of cotton-weaving. The primary school has 105 
pupils. 

Sirsilla. — Taluk in Karlmnagar District, Hyderabad State, with an 
area of 1,018 square miles. The population in 1901, including jdgirs, 
was 123,722, compared with 134,337 in 1891, the decrease being due 
to famine and cholera. The taluk contains one jdgir town, Vemal- 
wada (population, 5,372), and 178 villages, of which 24 axejagir, while 
Sirsilla (3,400) is the head-quarters. The land revenue in 1901 was 
3-9 lakhs. Rice is largely grown by means of tank and well irrigation. 
The Maner river crosses the south of the taluk. Its soils are mostly 
sandy, and well suited for kharlf crops, which are largely grown. In 
1905 a few villages were transferred from this taluk to Kamareddipet 
in Nizamabad District. 

Siruguppa. — Town in the northern corner of the Bellary taluk of 
Bellary District, Madras, situated in 15 39' N. and 76 53' E. It is 
the head-quarters of a deputy -tak si Ida/: Population (1901), 5,805. It 
stands on a narrow branch of the Tungabhadra, which splits just above 
it into two channels, enclosing between them the island of Desanuru, 
6 miles long. The picturesque reach which separates the town from 
the island is flanked for about a quarter of a mile by the old Siruguppa 
tort, while the other bank is fringed with the coco-nut palms of the 



48 SIRUGUPPA 

island. The name Siruguppa means 'pile of wealth,' and is well earned 
by the striking contrast which its rich ' wet ' land, watered by two 
branches of a channel from the river, affords to the ' dry ' land around 
it. These fields are the most fertile in the District. From them are 
sent to Bellary and Adoni large quantities of rice, plantains, coco-nuts, 
sweet potatoes, pineapples, and garlic. The town boasts a larger revenue 
assessment (Rs. 26,000) than any other in the District. It has not, 
however, advanced rapidly in size. It lost 9 per cent, of its population 
in the great famine of 1877, and during the thirty years between 1871 
and 1 90 1 the inhabitants increased by only 5 per cent. 

Sirur Taluka. — Taluka of Poona District, Bombay, lying between 
1 8° 29' and 19 2' N. and 74° and 74 35' E., with an area of 601 square 
miles. It contains one town, Sirur (population, 7,212), the head- 
quarters ; and 78 villages, including Talegaon-Dhamdhere (6,468). 
The population in 1901 was 65,992, compared with 85,222 in 1891. 
The density, no persons per square mile, is the lowest in the Dis- 
trict. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was i-6 lakhs, and for 
cesses Rs. 12,000. Sirur consists of stony uplands seamed towards the 
centre by rugged valleys, but towards its river boundaries sloping into 
more open plains. The chief features are low hills and uplands. The 
low hills are occasionally rugged and steep ; the uplands, in some parts 
poor and stony, have in other parts rich tracts of good soil. In the 
south-east corner the country opens out with gentle undulations into 
a fairly level plain. It is throughout sparsely wooded. The prevailing 
soil is a light friable grey, freely mixed with gravel. The best upland 
soils are very productive, even with a comparatively scanty rainfall, 
which averages only 22 inches annually. 

Sirur Town (or Ghodnadi). — Head-quarters of the taluka of the 
same name in Poona District, Bombay, situated in 18 50' N. and 
74 20' E., on the Ghod river. 36 miles north-east of Poona city 
and 34 miles south-west of Ahmadnagar. Elevation, about 1,750 feet 
above sea-level. Population (1901), 7,212. The country around is 
hilly and uncultivated. Sirur has been a municipality since 1868, with 
an average income during the decade ending 1901 of Rs. 12,000. In 
1903-4 the income was Rs. 13,000. It contains many money-lenders, 
traders, and shopkeepers, who trade in cloth and grain. At the weekly 
market on Saturdays large numbers of cattle and horses are sold. The 
garrison of Sirur consists of a regiment of native cavalry. The most 
notable monument in the cemetery is the tomb of Colonel W. Wallace 
(1809), who is still remembered at Sirur as Sat Purush, 'the holy 
man.' Except Brahmans and Marwaris, all the Hindus of Sirur and 
neighbouring villages worship at Colonel Wallace's tomb. At harvest- 
time the villagers bring firstfruits of grain as naivedya or 'food for the 
saintly spirit.' At a hamlet about 2 miles south of the town a Hindu 



SITABALDI 49 

fair attended by about 3,000 persons is held yearly in March or April. 
The town contains five boys' schools with 385 pupils, and two girls' 
schools with 177. A branch of the American Marathl Mission 
maintains two orphanages and four schools, including an industrial 
school. One of the late members of the mission planted an extensive 
agave plantation here, the plants having been specially procured from 
Mexico. A branch of the Salvation Army was founded in 1893. 

Sirur Village. — Village in the Bagalkot taluka of Bijapur District, 
Bombay, situated in 16 6' N. and 75 48' E., 9 miles south-west of 
Bagalkot town. Population (1901), 4,946. It contains five temples 
and a number of inscriptions dating from the eleventh and twelfth 
centuries, some of which relate to a Kolhapur family feudatory to the 
Chalukyas. 

Siruttondanallur. — Town in the Srivaikuntam taluk of Tinne- 
velly District, Madras, situated in 8° 39' N. and 78 2' E. Population 
(1901), 6,099. 

Sirvel. — Taluk of Kurnool District, Madras, lying between 14 54' 
and 1 5 26' N. and 78 22' and 78 46' E., with an area of 613 square 
miles. The population in 1901 was 73,387, compared with 65,168 in 
1891, the density being 120 persons per square mile, compared with the 
District average of 115. The taluk contains 86 villages. The demand 
for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 2,32,000. It 
is situated in the Kunderu valley, and is bounded on the north by the 
Nandyal taluk, on the west by Koilkuntla, and on the east by the Nalla- 
malais. The western half is composed of black cotton soil, and is 
commanded by the Kurnool-Cuddapah Canal, which supplies 6,200 
acres. The eastern half, adjoining the sandstone hills of the Nalla- 
malais, has a red ferruginous soil. This portion is cut up by several 
streams into narrow valleys clothed with fine jungle, and presents a 
pleasant contrast to the other portion, which is dry and arid. 'Reserved ' 
forests on the Nallamalais cover 202 square miles. 

Sisangchandli. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Sitabaldi. — Small hill and fort in Nagpur city, Central Provinces, 
situated in 21 g' N. and 79 7' E. It was the scene of an important 
action in 181 7. War between the British and the Peshwa of Poona 
had begun on November 14 ; but Appa Sahib, the Bhonsla Raja of 
Nagpur, was nominally in alliance with the British, and Mr. (afterwards 
Sir Richard) Jenkins was Resident at his court. On November 24, 
however, Appa Sahib received in public darbar a golden standard sent 
by the Peshwa and the title of general-in-chief of the Maratha armies. 
This was held to be a declaration of hostility ; and the Subsidiary force 
at Nagpur, consisting of the 20th and 24th Madras Infantry, both very 
weak, 3 troops of Bengal cavalry, and 4 six-pounder guns, occupied 
Sitabaldi, a position consisting of two eminences joined by a narrow 



50 SlTABALDI 

neck of ground about 300 yards in length, that to the north being 
smaller than the other. Here during the night of November 26 and 
the following day they were attacked by the Nagpur troops, numbering 
18,000 men, of whom a fourth were Arabs, with 36 guns. Numerous 
charges were repulsed, until at 9 a.m. on the 27th the explosion of an 
ammunition cart threw the defenders of the smaller hill into confusion, 
and it was carried by the enemy. The advantages afforded by the 
position to the British troops had now to a large extent been lost, the 
larger hill being within easy musket-range of the smaller. Officers and 
men were falling fast, and the enemy began to close in for a general 
assault on the position. At this critical moment the cavalry com- 
mander, Captain Fitzgerald, formed up his troops outside the Residency 
enclosure below the hill, where they had been waiting, charged the 
enemy's horse and captured a small battery. The dispirited infantry 
took heart on seeing this success, and the smaller hill was retaken by 
a combined effort. A second cavalry charge completed the discomfiture 
of the enemy, and by noon the battle was over. The British lost 367 
killed and wounded. In a few days the Resident was reinforced by 
fresh troops, and demanded the disbandment of the Nagpur army. 
Appa Sahib himself surrendered, but his troops prepared for resistance ; 
and on December 16 was fought the battle of Nagpur over the ground 
lying between the Nag river, the Sakardara tank, and the Sonegaon 
road. The Maratha army was completely defeated and lost its whole 
camp with 40 elephants, 41 guns in battery, and 23 in a neighbouring 
depot. The result of this battle was the cession of all the Nagpur 
territories north of the Narbada, and Northern Berar. 

Sitakund (1). — Hot springs in the head-quarters subdivision of Mon- 
ghyr District, Bengal, situated 4 miles east of Monghyr town. The 
springs, which are enclosed in masonry reservoirs, are visited by large 
numbers of pilgrims each year, especially at the full moon of Magh. 

Sitakund (2).- — tillage in the head-quarters subdivision of Chitta- 
gong District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 22 38' N. and 91 
39' E., 24 miles north of Chittagong town. Population (1901), 1,329. It 
gives its name to a range of hills running north from Chittagong town, 
which reaches its highest elevation (1,155 feet) at Sitakund. In the 
vicinity are the famous temples of Sambhunath, Chandranath, Laban- 
akhya, and Barabakund, which are picturesquely situated on hill-tops 
or in romantic glens, and are visited by pilgrims from all parts of 
Bengal. The largest gathering takes place at the Siva Chaturdasi 
festival, when some 20,000 pilgrims assemble. The Purl Lodging- 
House Act is in force, and a good supply of drinking-water is provided. 
A feature of the locality is the inflammable gas which issues from 
crevices in the rocks. There are some Buddhist remains which are 
held sacred by the hillmen. 



SITAMAU STATE 51 

Sitamarhi Subdivision. — Northern subdivision of Muzaffarpur 
District, Bengal, lying between 26 16' and 26 53' N. and 85 11' and 
85 50' E., with an area of 1,016 square miles. The subdivision is 
a low-lying alluvial plain, traversed at intervals by ridges of higher 
ground. The population rose from 924,396 in 1891 to 986,582 in 1901, 
when there were 971 persons per square mile. In spite of the fact that 
it is particularly liable to crop failures and bore the brunt of the famine 
of 1896-7, this is the most progressive part of the District and has been 
growing steadily since the first Census in 1872 ; it attracts settlers both 
from Nepal and from the south of the District. The subdivision con- 
tains one town, Sitamarhi (population, 9,538), the head-quarters; and 
996 villages. Bairagnia, the terminus of a branch of the Bengal and 
North-Western Railway, is an important market for the frontier trade 
with Nepal. The subdivision is noted for its breed of cattle, and an 
important fair is held annually at Sitamarhi in March-April. 

Sitamarhi Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same 
name in Muzaffarpur District, Bengal, situated in 26 35' N. and 
85 29' E., on the west bank of the Lakhandai river. Population 
(1901), 9,538. A large fair lasting a fortnight is held here about the 
end of March, and is attended by people from very great distances. 
Siwan pottery, spices, brass utensils, and cotton cloth form the staple 
articles of commerce ; but the fair is especially noted for the large 
quantity of bullocks brought to it, the Sitamarhi cattle being a noted 
breed. Tradition relates that the lovely Janaki or Sita here sprang to 
life out of an earthen pot into which Raja Janaka had driven his plough- 
share. Sitamarhi is situated on a branch of the Bengal and North- 
Western Railway, and is also connected by road with the Nepal frontier, 
Darbhanga, and Muzaffarpur. The Lakhandai river is spanned by a 
fine brick bridge. The town has a large trade in rice, sakhwa wood, 
oilseeds, hides, and Nepal produce. The chief manufactures are salt- 
petre and the janeo or sacred thread worn by the twice-born castes. 
Sitamarhi was constituted a municipality in 1882. The income during 
the decade ending 190 1-2 averaged Rs. 9,900, and the expenditure 
Rs. 7,800. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 12,000, half of which was 
derived from a tax on persons (or property tax) ; and the expenditure 
was Rs. 8,000. The town contains the usual public offices ; the sub- 
jail has accommodation for 26 prisoners. 

Sitamau State. — One of the mediatized States of the Central India 
Agency, under the Political Agent in Malwa, lying between 23 48 
and 24 8' N. and 75 i5 / and 75 32' E., with an area of about 
350 square miles, of which 239 square miles, or 68 per cent., have been 
alienated in jagir grants. It is bounded on the north by the Indore 
and Gwalior States ; on the south by Jaora and Dewas ; on the east by 
the Jhalawar State in Rajputana ; and on the west by Gwalior. The 



52 SITAMAU STATE 

place after which it takes its name was founded by a Mlna chief, Satajl, 
the name Satamau, or village of Sata, having been metamorphosed into 
the more orthodox name of Sitamau. The State is situated on the 
Malwa plateau, and its geological conditions, flora, and fauna are the 
same as elsewhere in that region. The only stream of importance is 
the Chambal, which forms the eastern boundary, and is used as a 
source of irrigation. 

The Sitamau chief is a Rathor Rajput belonging to the Jodhpur 
family, and closely related to the Rajas of Ratlam and Sailana. The 
Sitamau State was founded by Kesho Das, a grandson of Ratan Singh 
of Ratlam, who in 1695 received a sanad (grant) from Aurangzeb con- 
ferring upon him the parga?ms of Titroda, Nahargarh, and Alot. Of 
these parganas, Nahargarh and Alot were seized by the chiefs of 
Gwalior and Dewas respectively, during the Maratha invasion. On the 
settlement of Central India, after the Pindari War, Sir John Malcolm 
mediated between Daulat Rao Sindhia and Raja. Raj Singh of Sitamau, 
and the latter was confirmed in the possession of his land on paying 
a yearly tribute to Sindhia of Rs. 33,000, which in i860 was reduced 
to Rs. 27,000. For services rendered in the Mutiny of 1857, Raja 
Raj Singh received a khilat of Rs. 2,000. In 1865 he ceded all land 
required for railways free of compensation, and in 1881 relinquished his 
right to levy transit dues on salt, receiving a sum of Rs. 2,000 annually 
as compensation. He died without issue, and was succeeded by 
Bahadur Singh, selected from another branch of the family by the 
British Government, and installed in 1885. The Gwalior Darbar 
raised an objection, contending that they should have been consulted, 
and also claimed succession dues {tiazarand). It was ruled, however, 
that Sitamau being a mediatized chiefship of the first class, the primary 
contention was not tenable, while succession dues were payable to 
the British Government only and not to Gwalior. In 1887 Bahadur 
Singh abolished all transit dues in his State, except those on opium and 
timber. He died in 1899 and was succeeded by Shardul Singh, who 
only lived ten months. The present chief, Ram Singh, was selected by 
Government to succeed him in 1900. He is the second son of the 
Thakur of KachhI-Baroda (see Bhopawar Agency), and was born in 
1 880 and educated at the Daly College at Indore. The ruler bears the 
titles of His Highness and Raja, and receives a salute of 1 1 guns. 

The population of the State has been : (1881) 30,939, (1891) 33,307, 
and (1901) 23,863. In the latest year Hindus numbered 21,406, 
or 90 per cent, of the total; Musalmans, 1,517; Jains, 781; and 
Animists, 159. The density is 68 persons per square mile. The 
population decreased by 28 per cent, during the decade ending 1901. 
The State contains one town, Sitamau (population, 5,877), the capital ; 
and 89 villages. The principal dialect is RangrI or Malwl, spoken by 



SIT AM A U TOWN 53 

98 per cent, of the population. The most numerous castes are Brah- 
mans and Rajputs, each numbering about 4,000. Agriculture supports 
48 per cent, of the total, and general labour 12 per cent. 

The rich black soil which prevails produces excellent crops of all 
ordinary grains, and also of poppy grown for opium. Of the total area 
°f 35° square miles, 70, or 20 per cent., are under cultivation, 10 square 
miles, or 13 per cent, of this area, being irrigated and 60 ' dry ' ; of the 
remainder, 7 square miles are capable of cultivation, the rest being 
jungle and irreclaimable waste. Of the cropped area, 61 square miles 
produce cereals, 7 poppy, and 2 cotton. Irrigation is confined to poppy 
and vegetables. 

Trade and commerce have expanded considerably since the opening 
of the Rajputana-Malwa Railway and the construction of the metalled 
road between the Mandasor station on that line and the town of 
Sltamau, a distance of 18 miles. A British post and telegraph office 
has been opened at Sltamau town. 

The State is divided for administrative purposes into three tahsils — 
Sltamau, Bhagor, and Titroda — each under a tahslldar or naib-tahsildar, 
who is collector of revenue and magistrate for his charge. 

The Raja has full powers in all revenue, civil judicial, and general 
administrative matters. In criminal cases he exercises the powers of 
a Sessions Court in British India, but is required to submit all sentences 
of death, transportation, or imprisonment for life to the Agent to the 
Governor-General for confirmation. The British codes, modified to 
suit local needs, have been introduced into the State courts. 

The normal revenue is 1-3 lakhs. Of this, Rs. 80,000 is derived from 
land, Rs. 31,000 from tribute paid by feudatory Thakurs, and Rs. 13,000 
from customs dues. The principal heads of expenditure are : chief's 
establishment, Rs. 23,000; general administration, Rs. 11,000; public 
works, Rs. 5,000 ; police, Rs. 8,000 ; tribute to the Gwalior State, 
Rs. 27,000. The income of alienated lands amounts to 1-7 lakhs. The 
incidence of land revenue demand is Rs. 3 per acre of cultivated land, 
and 13 annas per acre of the total area. British rupees have been the 
State currency since 1896. 

No troops are kept up by the State. A police force was organized 
in 1896, and a jail has been opened. Sltamau town contains one 
school, with about 200 pupils, and a dispensary. 

Sltamau Town. — Capital of the State of the same name in Central 
India, situated in 24 i' N. and 75 21/ E., on a small eminence 
1,700 feet above sea-level. Sltamau is 132 miles distant by road from 
Indore. It is connected with the Mandasor station of the Rajputana- 
Malwa Railway by a metalled road 18 miles in length, and is 486 miles 
from Bombay. Population (1901), 5,877. The town is surrounded by 
a wall with seven gates, and its foundation is ascribed to a Mina chief, 



54 SITAMAU TOWN 

Satajl (1465). It fell later into the hands of the Gajmalod Bhumias. 
These Bhumias were Songara Rathors, who came into Malwa and took 
Sitamau from its original owners about 1500. About 1650 Mahesh 
Das Rathor, father of Ratan Singh, was journeying from Jhalor to 
Onkarnath, and was forced to stop at Sitamau, owing to his wife's 
illness. She died here, and he asked the Gajmalod Bhumias for 
permission to erect a shrine to her memory, but they refused. He 
treacherously invited them to a feast, murdered them, and seized 
Sitamau. The connexion thus established between this place and the 
Rathor clan caused Ratan Singh to get it included in his grant of 
Ratlam. 

Laduna, situated 3^ miles from Sitamau, on the edge of a fine tank, 
was the chief town from 1750 to 1820, Sitamau being too open to 
attack by the Marathas. The town contains a school, a guesthouse, 
a dispensary, and a British post and telegraph office. 

Sitapur District. — District in the Lucknow Division of the United 
Provinces, situated between 27 6' and 27 54' N. and 8o° 18' and 
8i° 24' E., with an area of 2,250 square miles. It is bounded on the 
north by Kherl ; on the east by the Kauriala or Gogra river, which 
separates it from Bahraich ; on the south by Bara Bankl and Lucknow ; 
and on the west and south-west by the Gumtl, across which lies Hardol. 

The eastern portion is a low damp tract, much of which is under 
water in the rains, but the remaining area is a raised upland of more 
stable character. Numerous streams intersect the 
aspects District, flowing generally from north to south, but 

with a slight inclination to the east. In the lowland 
or gdtijar the watercourses are variable, but the channels in the uplands 
are more stable. The Gumti and the Kauriala or Gogra, which form 
the western and eastern boundaries respectively, are both navigable 
Most of the upland area is drained by the Kathna and Sarayan, which 
are tributaries of the Gumtl, and the Sarayan also receives the Beta and 
Gond. Through the centre of the ganjar flows the Chauka, a branch 
of the Sarda, which now brings down little water, as the main stream 
of the Sarda is carried by the Dahawar, a branch separating the north- 
east corner of the District from Kherl. The Dahawar and Gogra unite 
at Mallanpur, but the junction of the Chauka and Gogra lies beyond 
the southern border of the District. There are many shallow ponds 
and natural reservoirs which are full of water during the rains, but 
gradually dry up during the hot season. 

Sitapur exposes nothing but alluvium, and kaiikar or nodular lime- 
stone is the only stony formation found. 

The District is well wooded in all parts, though it contains no forests 
and little jungle, except the sandy stretches near the rivers, which are 
clothed with tall grass or tamarisk. Mangoes, jack-fruit, and a kind of 



SIT A PUR DISTRICT 55 

damson form the principal groves, while sliisham (Dalbergia Sissoo) and 
tim (Cedre/a Toona) are the chief timber trees. Species of fig, acacia, 
and bamboos are also common. 

The spread of cultivation has reduced the number and variety of the 
wild animals. No tigers have been shot for the last thirty years, and 
leopards are very rarely seen. A few wolves, an occasional jungle-cat, 
and jackals and foxes are the only carnivorous animals. Wild hog 
have been almost exterminated by the Basis, who eat them. A few 
nilgai and antelope are still found. The rivers abound in fish, and the 
larger streams contain crocodiles and the (iangetic porpoise. 

Apart from the ganjar, which is malarious, the District enjoys a cool 
and healthy climate. The mean temperature ranges from about 45 in 
the winter to 95 in the summer. Even in May and June the maximum 
heat seldom rises to no°, and frost is common in the winter. 

The annual rainfall averages about 38 inches, evenly distributed in 
all parts of the District. Great fluctuations occur from year to year ; 
in 1877 the total fall was only 20 inches, while in 1894 it was nearly 64 
inches. 

Little is known of the history of Sitapur. Legends connect several 
places with episodes in the Mahabharata and Ramayana. There is the 
usual tradition of a raid by a general of the martyred 
Saiyid Salar. The rise of Rajput power, according to 
the traditions of the great clans which now hold the District, was some- 
what later than in Southern Oudh, and the influx continued till the 
reign of Aurangzeb. The Rajputs generally found the soil occupied by 
Pasis, whom they crushed or drove away. Under the early Muham- 
madan kings of Delhi the country was nominally ruled by the governor 
of Bahraich, but little real authority was exercised. In the fifteenth 
century the District was included in the new kingdom of Jaunpur. 
About 1527 Humayun occupied Khairabad, then the chief town; but 
it was not until after the accession of Akbar that the Afghans were 
driven out of the neighbourhood. Under Akbar the present District 
formed part of four sarkars : Khairabad, Bahraich, Oudh, and Luck- 
now, all situated in the STibah of Oudh. Khairabad was held for some 
time by the rebels of Oudh in 1567, but throughout the Mughal period 
and the rule of the Nawabs and kings of Oudh the District is seldom 
referred to by the native historians. Early in the nineteenth century 
it was governed by Hakim Mahdl Ah Khan, the capable minister of 
Naslr-ud-dln Haidar, and some years later Sleeman noted that it was 
unusually quiet as far as the great landholders were concerned. At 
annexation in 1856 Sitapur was selected as the head-quarters of one 
District, and Mallanpur as the head-quarters of another, which lay 
between the Chauka and Gogra. 

Sitapur figured prominently in the Mutiny of 1857. In that year 



56 



SITAPUR DISTRICT 



three regiments of native infantry and a regiment of military police 
were quartered in Sitapur cantonments. The troops rose on the morn- 
ing of June 3, fired on their officers, many of whom were killed, as were 
also several military and civil officers with their wives and children in 
attempting to escape. Ultimately many of the fugitives succeeded in 
reaching Lucknow, while others obtained the protection of loyal zamin- 
dars. On April 13, 1858, Sir Hope Grant inflicted a severe defeat on 
the rebels near Biswan. Order was completely restored before the end 
of that year ; the courts and offices were reopened, and since then 
nothing has occurred to disturb the peace. 

The District contains a number of ancient mounds which still await 
examination. A copperplate grant of Gobind Chand of Kanauj was 
discovered in 1885, but few objects of interest have been obtained here. 
There are some Muhammadan buildings at Biswan and Khairab\d, 
and Nimkhar is a famous place of pilgrimage. 

Sitapur contains 9 towns and 2,302 villages. Population is rising 
steadily. At the four enumerations the numbers were: (1872) 

932,959, ( l8 8i) 958.25 1 . ( l8 90 1.075,413, and 
(1901) 1,175,473. There are four tahslls — Sitapur, 
Biswan, Sidhauli, and Misrikh -- each named from its head- 
quarters. The principal towns are the municipalities of Sitapur, 
the District head-quarters, and Khairabad. The following table 
gives the chief statistics of population in 1901 : — 



Population. 



Tahsil. 


V 
u 
t« 

3 . 

O* CO 

E 

< 


Number of 


c 


03 

3 
O. 



0- 


1-1 


Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween 1891 
and 1 goo. 


Number of 

persons able to 

read and 

write. 


w 

C 


(A 

V 

> 


Sitapur 
Biswan 
Sidhauli . 
Misrikh . 

District total 


57° 

565 

502 
613 


3 

1 

2 
3 


608 

501 
544 
649 


311,264 
297,277 

299,492 
267,440 


546 

526 

597 

436 


+ 6.9 
+ 9-3 
+ 1 1-3 

+ IO-O 


10,302 
4 6,I2 

5,727 
7,238 


2,250 


9 


2,302 


1,175,473 


522 


+ 9-3 


29.39 1 



About 85 per cent, of the total are Hindus and nearly 15 per rent. 
Musalmans. The District is thickly populated, and the increase be- 
tween 1 89 1 and 1 90 1 was remarkably large. Eastern Hindi is spoken 
by almost the entire population, Awadhi being the ordinary dialect. 

The Hindu castes most largely represented are the Chamars (tanners 
and cultivators), 159,000; Pasls (toddy-drawers and cultivators), 
130,000; Brahmans, 114,000; Ahirs (graziers and cultivators), 106,000; 
Kurmis (agriculturists), 89,000 ; Lodhas (cultivators), 45,000 ; Muraos 
(market-gardeners), 39,000; and Rajputs, 41,000. Among Musalmans 
are Julahas (weavers), 39,000 ; Shaikhs, 21,000; Pathans, 16,000; and 
Behnas (cotton-carders), 14,000. Agriculture supports 75 per cent, of 



AGRICULTURE 



57 



Agriculture. 



the total population, and general labour 5 per cent. Rajputs and 
Musalmans hold most of the land, their estates being often of con- 
siderable size. Brahmans, Kurmls, Ahirs, Chamars, and Pasls are the 
chief cultivators. 

There were 548 native Christians in 1901, of whom 525 were 
Methodists. The American Methodist Mission was opened in 1864. 

Sitapur, though naturally very fertile, is still backward compared with 
Southern Oudh. Holdings are large, rents are to a considerable extent 
paid in kind, and high-caste cultivators, who do not 
labour with their own hands, are numerous. Along 
the Gumti is found a tract of light soil which is inferior ; but east of this 
the centre of the District is composed of a good loam, stiffening into 
clay in the hollows. The sandy soil produces bdjra and barley, while 
in the richer loam sugar-cane, wheat, and maize are grown. In the 
lowlands west of the Chauka rice is largely grown, as the floods are 
usually not too severe to injure the crop. Between the Chauka and 
the Gogra, however, the autumn crop is very precarious, and during 
the rains the gdnjar, or lowland, is swept by violent torrents. In this 
tract even the spring cultivation is poor. 

The land tenures are those commonly found in Oudh. About 
48 per cent, of the whole area is held by talukdars, and sub-settlement 
holders have only a small share in this. Single zamlnddrs hold 1 1 per 
cent., and joint zamlnddrs and pattlddrs the rest. The main agricul- 
tural statistics for 1903-4 are given below, in square miles : — 



Tahsil. 


Total. 


Cultivated. 


Irrigated. 


Cultivable 
waste. 


Sitapur 
Biswan 
Sidhaull 
Misrikh 

Total 


570 
565 
502 
613 


415 
416 
362 
43 ^ 


88 

36 
98 

94 


62 

45 
5i 
94 


2,250 


1,625 


316 


252 



Wheat is the most important crop, covering 416 square miles, or a 
fourth of the net cultivated area. Pulses (294), rice (250), gram (240), 
kodo/i and small millets (210), barley (208), and maize are also largely 
grown. Of non-food crops the chief are poppy (27), sugar-cane (43), 
and oilseeds (41). 

There has been a very considerable increase in the area under 
cultivation during the last forty years, amounting to about 35 per cent., 
and waste land is still being broken up as new tenants are obtained. 
In addition to this the area bearing a double crop has trebled. 
Improvements in the methods of agriculture and the introduction of 
better staples are noticeable, but are not proceeding very rapidly. In 
the autumn, rice is taking the place of the inferior small millets ; but 



58 SITAPUR DISTRICT 

the variety grown is that which ripens early, not the more valuable late 
rice. Wheat is being cultivated more largely than barley ; and the 
area under tobacco, poppy, and garden crops is rising. There is a 
steady demand for advances under the Land Improvement and 
Agriculturists' Loans Acts ; a total of 31 lakhs was lent during the ten 
years ending 1900, out of which, however, 1-2 lakhs was advanced in 
the famine year, 1896-7. The loans in the next four years averaged 
Rs. 5,300. An agricultural bank of some importance has been founded 
by the Khattri talukdar of Muizzuddlnpur. 

Although no particular breeds are distinguished, the cattle of the 
District are superior to those of Southern Oudh. Animals of good 
quality are regularly imported and prevent deterioration, though the 
absence of care in mating is as marked here as elsewhere. The gdnjar 
provides excellent pasture. Ponies are largely used as pack-animals, 
though they are of an inferior type. The District board maintained 
a stallion from 1894 to 1896, but the experiment was not a success. 
Sheep are comparatively scarce, while goats are kept in large numbers 
for milk, for penning on land, and for their hair. 

In 1903-4, 316 square miles were irrigated, jhils and tanks supplying 
192 square miles, wells 113, and other sources 11. Facilities are lack- 
ing in the sandy tract adjoining the Gumti, while irrigation is seldom 
required in the eastern lowlands. Even in the central loam tract 
permanent sources of water-supply are rare ; and the District is thus 
badly protected in seasons of drought, as the jhils, which are the most 
important source of supply, fail when they are most needed. There 
has, however, been some increase in the number of wells, especially 
since the famine of 1896. Temporary wells can be made in most parts 
when necessary, except in the sandy tract. The wells are worked to a 
large extent by hand labour, a number of men combining to draw water 
in a large leathern bucket. In the east, where the spring-level is 
higher, the lever is used. Irrigation from tanks is carried on by means 
of the swing-basket. Small streams are used in a few places to supply 
water, their channels being dammed as required. 

Kankar or calcareous limestone is found in block and in nodular 
form. It is used for making lime and for metalling roads, and was 
formerly employed as a building stone. 

Few manufactures are carried on, and these are chiefly confined to 

the preparation of articles in common use for the local market. Cotton 

cloth is woven in several places, and cotton prints 

a .ana are also made. The District produces some fine 
communications. . ... 

specimens of wood-carving, and a little art pottery 
is made at Biswan. 

Sitapur exports grain, oilseeds, raw sugar, and opium, and imports 
piece-goods, yarn, metals, and salt. The export trade has expanded 



ADMINISTRATION 59 

largely since the opening of the railway, and also received an impetus 
from the famine of 1896, when a surplus was available. The town of 
Sitapur is the chief trading centre, and substantial bazars are springing 
up at other places along the railway. Towns at a distance from the 
line, especially those which are not situated on metalled roads, are 
declining in importance. Important fairs are held at Nimkhar and 
Khairabad. 

The Lucknow-Bareilly metre-gauge State Railway (worked by the 
Rohilkhand and Kumaun Railway) passes through the centre of the 
District from south to north. A branch of the Bengal and North- 
western Railway from Burhwal in Bara Bank! to Sitapur town has 
been projected. Communications are fairly good, especially in the 
upland area. In the ganjar the floods during the rains make boats the 
only means of communication. There are 576 miles of roads, of which 
134 are metalled. The latter are in charge of the Public Works depart- 
ment, but the cost of all but 56 miles is met from Local funds. Sitapur 
town is the centre of the principal routes, which radiate to Lucknow, 
Shahjahanpur, and other places. Avenues of trees are maintained on 
229 miles. 

Disastrous floods sometimes cause distress in the east of the District, 
but the defective means of irrigation render the greater part of it more 
subject to drought. The great famine of 1783-4 was 
long remembered ; and in 1837, i860, and 1869 
scarcity was experienced. In 1877 the rains failed, and relief works 
were opened, while large numbers were fed in poorhouses. The exces- 
sive rainfall of 1894 caused much damage to the crops, and test relief 
works were opened early in 1895. In that year the rains ceased early, 
and in 1896 they failed to a still greater extent, and severe famine 
followed, which lasted till August, 1897. Numerous relief works were 
opened, advances were made for the construction of wells, revenue was 
suspended to the extent of 3 lakhs, and Rs. 67,000 was ultimately 
remitted. Much of the distress was, however, due to the inrush of 
paupers from areas worse affected, and the District recovered rapidly. 

The Deputy-Commissioner usually has a staff of four Assistants, one 
of whom is a member of the Indian Civil Service, .... 
while the other three are Deputy-Collectors recruited 
in India. A tahsildar is stationed at the head-quarters of each tahsll, 
and there are two officers of the Opium department. 

Civil work is in the hands of two Munsifs, a Subordinate Judge, and 
an Assistant Judge. The District of Kherl is included in the jurisdic- 
tion of the Civil and Sessions Judge of Sitapur. Crimes of violence 
are common, and dacoities are frequent, though they are usually not of 
a professional type. Burglary and theft are, however, the commonest 
offences, and Basis are responsible for a large share of the crime. 

VOL. XXIII. E 



6o 



SlTAPUR DISTRICT 



After the restoration of order in 1858 the District was formed in its 
present shape. No details have been preserved of the first summary 
settlement in 1856, which set aside the rights of the talukdars to a 
large extent. At the summary settlement which followed the Mutiny 
the talukdars were restored, and the demand fixed on the basis of the 
accounts under native rule was 9-4 lakhs. The first survey and regular 
settlement were carried out between 1862 and 1872 by various officers 
who employed different methods. The work was rendered difficult by 
the fact that in an unusually large area the rents were paid in kind and' 
not in cash. Attempts were made to frame standard rates ; but these 
failed at first by not making sufficient allowance for local variations, 
and considerable modifications were necessary. Where cash-rents were 
found, they were used to estimate the value of grain-rented land, and 
estimates of produce were also made. The result was an assessment of 
13 lakhs. As in the rest of Oudh, the Settlement officer sat as a civil 
court to determine claims to rights in land, but the work was on the 
whole lighter than in the southern Districts. The next revision was 
carried out between 1893 and 1897. There was no resurvey or formal 
revision of records, and the cost was extremely small. Rents in kind 
were still prevalent, only about 40 per cent, of the area assessed being 
held on cash rents. The latter were also found in many cases to be 
insecure, having been frequently fixed at excessively high rates, while in 
other cases they were special rates for particular crops. The valuation 
of the grain-rented land was thus extremely difficult ; but in some 
localities the record of the produce of this land was found to be fairly 
accurate, while the accounts of estates managed by the Court of Wards 
and those of some private landholders were also available. The result 
was an assessment of 15-4 lakhs, excluding villages liable to diluvion. 
This demand represented 46 per cent, of the assumed rental ' assets,' 
and an incidence of Rs. 1-3 per acre, varying from R. o-8 to Rs. i-8 in 
different parganas. 

Collections on account of land revenue and revenue from all sources 
have been, in thousands of rupees : — 





1880-1. 


1890-1. 1900-1. 


1903-4- 


Land revenue . 
Total revenue . 


13,35 
15-92 


13,00 14,98 
17,25 21,44 


16,06 
23,69 



There are two municipalities, Sitapur and Khairabad, and six towns 
are administered under Act XX of 1856. Local affairs elsewhere are 
managed by the District board, which had an income of 1-3 lakhs in 
1903-4, chiefly derived from rates. The expenditure in the same year 
was 1 -4 lakhs, including Rs. 60,000 spent on roads and buildings. 

The District Superintendent of police has a force of 3 inspectors, 



SIT A PUR TOWN 6 1 

101 subordinate officers, and 358 men distributed in n police stations, 
besides 116 municipal and town police, and 2,467 rural and road police. 
The District jail contained a daily average of 378 prisoners in 1903. 

Sitapur takes a low place in regard to the literacy of its inhabitants, 
of whom only 2-5 per cent. (4-6 males and 0-2 females) could read and 
write in 1901. The number of public schools increased from 145 with 
5,481 pupils in 1880-1 to 169 with 6,463 pupils in 1900-1. In 1903-4 
there were 215 such schools with 9,009 pupils, of whom 401 were girls, 
besides 19 private schools with 232 pupils. About 1,300 pupils had 
advanced beyond the primary stage. Five schools are managed by 
Government and 188 by the District and municipal boards. The total 
expenditure on education was Rs. 53,000, of which Rs. 41,000 was 
provided from Local funds, and Rs. 8,000 by fees. 

There are n hospitals and dispensaries, with accommodation for 185 
in-patients. In 1903 the number of cases treated was 103,000, includ- 
ing 2,571 in-patients, and 3,950 operations were performed. The ex- 
penditure amounted to Rs. 16,000, chiefly met from Local funds. 

About 78,000 persons were successfully vaccinated in 1903-4, 
representing the very high proportion of 66 per 1,000 of population. 
Vaccination is compulsory only in the municipalities. 

[S. H. Butler, Settlement Report (1899); H. R. Nevill, District 
Gazetteer (1905).] 

Sitapur Tahsil.— Head-quarters tahsll of Sitapur District, United 
Provinces, comprising the parganas of Pirnagar, Khairabad, Ramkot, 
Sitapur, Laharpur, and Hargam, and lying between 27 19' and 27 51' 
N. and 8o° 32' and 8i° i' E., with an area of 570 square miles. Popu- 
lation increased from 291,190 in 1891 to 311,264 in 1901. There are 
608 villages and three towns — Sitapur (population, 22,557), the Dis- 
trict and tahsll head-quarters, Khairabad (13,774), and Laharpur 
(10,997). The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 3,91,000, 
and for cesses Rs. 64,000. The density of population, 546 persons 
per square mile, is above the District average. The tahsll lies chiefly 
in the central upland portion of the District, but a strip on the north- 
east extends into the damper low-lying tract. The Sarayan is the 
principal river, crossing the western part, while its tributary, the Gond, 
rises in the centre. The lowlands are drained by the KewanI and a 
small tributary called the Ghagra. In 1903-4 the area under cultiva- 
tion was 415 square miles, of which 88 were irrigated. Tanks and 
jhlls supply four-sevenths of the irrigated area, and wells most of the 
remainder. 

Sitapur Town.— Head-quarters of the District of the same name, 
and cantonment, in the United Provinces, situated in 27 34" N. and 
8o° 40' E., on the Lucknow-Bareilly State Railway, and on metalled 
roads from Lucknow and Shahjahanpur. Population (1901), 22,557, °f 

E 2 



62 SIT A PUR TOWN 

whom 3,603 reside in cantonments. At annexation in 1856 the town 
was a small place, and its growth has been rapid. The town and 
station are prettily situated and well laid out. Besides the usual 
offices, it contains male and female hospitals, and a branch of the 
American Methodist Mission. Sltapur has been a municipality since 
1868. During the ten years ending 190 1 the income and expenditure 
averaged Rs. 32,500 and Rs. 30,500, respectively. In 1903-4 the in- 
come was Rs. 38,000, chiefly derived from octroi (Rs. 16,500) and rents 
and market dues (Rs. 13,000); and the expenditure was Rs. 53,000. 
This is the chief commercial centre in the District, with a large 
export trade in grain, the principal market being called Thompson- 
ganj, after a former Deputy-Commissioner. There are five schools, 
attended by about 500 pupils. The cantonment is garrisoned by a 
portion of a British regiment. During the ten years ending 1901 the 
income and expenditure of cantonment funds averaged Rs. 12,000. 
In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 14,000, and the expenditure Rs. 17,000. 

Sitpur. — Village in the Alipur tahsll of Muzaffargarh District, Pun- 
jab, situated in 29 14' N. and 70 51' E., 3 miles from the Chenab, 
and 11 miles south of Alipur town. It is the only place of any 
antiquity in the District, and in the fifteenth century became the capital 
of the Nahar dynasty, a representative of whom receives a small allow- 
ance for looking after the family tombs. Sitpur was formerly on the 
west bank of the Indus, but a change in the course has transferred it to 
the east bank. In the eighteenth century the Nahars were expelled 
from Sitpur by Shaikh Raju Makhdum, from whom it was taken by 
Bahawal Khan II of Bahawalpur. It came into the possession of the 
Sikhs in 1820. The town, which is completely enclosed by a thick 
screen of date-palms, is very irregularly built, and has a dilapidated 
appearance. The only building of importance is the tomb of Tahar 
Khan Nahar, decorated with encaustic tiles. Sitpur formerly possessed 
a considerable manufacture of paper, but the industry is practically 
extinct. A certain amount of kamdngari work — painting over varnished 
wood or paper — is applied to bows, saddles, paper shields, and toys. 

Sittang (or Paunglaung). — River of Burma, flowing midway be- 
tween the valleys of the Irrawaddy and the Salween. It is separated 
from the former by the Pegu Yoma, and from the latter by the Paung- 
laung range of hills ; and it follows, like both these streams, a southerly 
course. It rises east of Yamethin District at about 20 N. latitude, 
and is fed by affluents from the Yoma on the west, and from the Karen 
Hills and the Paunglaung range on the east. It winds through Toun- 
goo District, and between Pegu and Thaton, and spreads out almost 
imperceptibly, after a course of about 350 miles, into the northern apex 
of the Gulf of Martaban, at a point equidistant from the ports of Ran- 
goon and Moulmein. Its trend is more or less parallel to that of the 



SIVAGANGA ESTATE 63 

Rangoon- Mandalay Railway, the oldest section of which (Rangoon to 
Toungoo) was originally known as the Sittang Valley line. Of the 
towns on its banks the two most important are Toungoo, the head- 
quarters of the District of that name, and Shwegyin, a municipality, 
formerly the head-quarters of what was known as the Shwegyin District. 
At Myitkyo, a village on its lower reaches, the Sittang is connected 
by the Pegu-Sittang Canal with the Pegu River on the west ; and 
farther south again, at Mopalin, the Sittang-Kyaikto Canal unites it 
with Kyaikto and other portions of Thaton District in the south-east. 
Both these canals are primarily intended for navigation. There are no 
regular irrigation works connected with the Sittang. The river has not 
yet been bridged, but bridges are in course of construction at Toungoo 
and at the point where the railway to Moulmein crosses it. The river 
has long been remarkable for the bore or tidal wave which sweeps up 
its mouth from time to time and occasionally does considerable damage. 

Sittang-Kyaikto Canal. — A navigable canal in Thaton District, 
Lower Burma, 13 miles in length, running north-west and south-east 
and connecting Wimpadaw on the Sittang river with Kyaikto, a sub- 
divisional and township head-quarters in the west of Thaton District. 
The canal was commenced in 1882-3, and was opened to traffic 
towards the close of 1893, having cost about 10 lakhs. In 1894 the 
lock at Wimpadaw collapsed, and a new lock was built at Mopalin on 
the Sittang in 1897. There is also a lock at Kyaikto. An attempt was 
made to extend the canal eastwards, with a view of carrying it on to 
Moulmein, but the erosion of the sea-coast in the neighbourhood 
caused the project to be abandoned. 

Sittwe. — Arakanese name of the Akyab District and Town, 
Burma. 

Sivaganga Estate. — A permanently settled zamlndari estate in the 
Ramnad subdivision of Madura District, Madras, lying between 9 30' 
and io° 17' N. and 78 5' and 78 58' E., with an area of 1,680 square 
miles. Population (1901), 394,206. The peshkash payable by the 
zamlndar to Government (including cesses) amounts to 3 lakhs. For- 
merly the estate was part of the neighbouring zamlndari of Ramnad, 
the territory of the chief called Setupati, or ' lord of the causeway ' 
leading to the sacred temple of Rameswaram ; but about 1730 one of 
these Setupatis was forced to surrender two-fifths of his possessions 
to the poligdr of Nalkottai, who thenceforth became independent and 
was known as the Lesser Maravan, Maravan being the caste to which 
both he and the Setupati belonged. During the latter part of the 
eighteenth century the rulers of Sivaganga were involved in the strug- 
gles of greater powers. In 1773 the country was reduced by the 
British, the Raja was killed at Kaliyarkovil, and his widow was forced 
to flee to Dindigul, where she remained under the protection of Haidar 



64 SIVAGANGA ESTATE 

All. Later, she was restored to the zamlndari, and in 1803 the perma- 
nent settlement was made with one Udaya Tevan of the family. The 
subsequent history of the estate has been a tale of mismanagement and 
litigation, one of the succession suits having lasted a very long time 
and cost a great deal of money. At present its resources are being 
developed by European lessees who, in consideration of having paid off 
the last zamltiddr's debts and made him an allowance for life, obtained 
a lease of the entire estate for a term of thirty years. The present 
zamlndar is a minor under the Court of Wards. 

Sivaganga Tahsil. — Zamlndari tahsil in the Ramnad subdivision 
of Madura District, Madras, which, together with the Tiruppattur and 
Tiruppuvanam tahslls, makes up the Sivaganga Estate. The popu- 
lation in 1 901 was 155,909, compared with 146,549 in 189 1. The 
tahsil contains one town, Sivaganga (population, 9,097), the head- 
quarters of its deputy- fa/isl/ddr ; and 520 villages. It is an unbroken 
level plain, mainly of red soil, and is fairly fertile. The crops are 
irrigated chiefly from the Vaigai and from river-fed tanks. 

Sivaganga Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsil and zamlndari of 
the same name in Madura District, Madras, situated in 9 51' N. and 
78 30' E., about 10 miles from Manamadurai station on the South 
Indian Railway. Population (1901), 9,097. It is a Union and the 
head-quarters of a deputy-tahsllddr. Brass fancy articles, especially 
excellent figures of lizards, scorpions, and the like, are manufactured. 
The town is a pleasant place, and in its fertile red soil grow most of 
the trees and plants of the eastern coast. It contains the palace of the 
zamlndars of Sivaganga, and is the head-quarters of the European 
lessees who now have possession of their estate. 

Sivaganga Hill. — A sacred hill with a conical peak, 4,559 feet 
high, in the north-west of Bangalore District, Mysore, situated in 
13 11' N. and 77 14' E. Its Puranic name is Kakudgiri. This was 
one of the points to which the- new Lingayat faith spread early in the 
twelfth century. The north face is covered with sacred buildings. The 
two finest temples, those of Gangadharesvara and Honna-Devamma, 
are formed out of large natural caverns, and the Patala Ganga is the 
principal of eight sacred pools on the hill. At the summit are two 
pillars, from beneath one of which about a quart of water oozes on the 
day of the winter solstice, half of which is devoted to the god, and half 
sent to the palace at Mysore. The village of Sivaganga, where the 
guru resides, is at the northern base. 

Sivagiri Estate. — A zamlndari situated mainly in the north-west of 
the Sankaranayinarkovil taluk of Tinnevelly District, Madras, with an 
area of nearly 125 square miles, excluding 30 square miles of forest on 
the slopes of the Western Ghats. Population (1901), about 58,000. 
It is one of the ancient estates of the Presidency, and pays a peshkash 



SIVASAMUDRAM 65 

of Rs. 55,000 and land cess amounting to Rs. 5,000. About 50,000 
acres are under cultivation, of which a little over a fourth is ' wet,' the 
remainder being ' dry.' The income of the estate is about Rs. 1,84,000, 
and at present, owing to the minority of the proprietor, it is managed 
by the Court of Wards. Sivagiri is the only town of importance. 

Sivagiri Town. — Chief town of the zamindari of the same name in 
the Sankaranayinarkovil taluk of Tinnevelly District, Madras, situated 
in 9 20' N. and 77 26' E. It is a Union, with a population (1901) of 
18,150. 

Sivakasi. — Town in the Sattur taluk of Tinnevelly District, Madras, 
situated in 9 27' N. and 17 48' E., 12 miles from Sattur, and midway 
between that town and Snvilliputtur. It is a Union, with a population 
(1901) of 13,021. Many of the Shanan merchants are well-to-do, their 
trade being chiefly in tobacco, cotton, and jaggery (coarse sugar). 
Sivakasi was the scene of the outbreak of the disturbances of 1899, 
which arose out of a dispute as to the right of the Shanans to enter the 
local temple. Several lives were lost in these riots, and a punitive 
police force of 100 men under a special Assistant Superintendent is 
now stationed in the town. 

Sivasamudram ('Sea of Siva'). — An island in the Cauvery river, 
in the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore District, Madras, situated in 
12 16' N. and 77 13' E. It has given its name to the famous Falls 
of the Cauvery, which lie on either side of it and which are described 
in the account of the river. The stream on both sides is very rapid 
and is fordable in only one place, and that with difficulty, even in the 
hot season. The island is thus a place of great natural strength, and 
was consequently in ancient days the site of a considerable town. 
Tradition ascribes the original foundation to a petty king from Malabar 
in the sixteenth century. His son and grandson held it after him, and 
it was then deserted for some years until reoccupied by a Mysore chief- 
tain called Ganga Raya. Some picturesque stories were gleaned about 
him and his successors by Buchanan 1 when he visited the place in 
1800. They seem to have greatly extended the fortifications, remains 
of three lines of which still exist, to have built the temples and palaces 
with the ruins of which the island is strewn, and to have bridged 
the two arms of the river which surround it. The place remained 
in their family for only three generations, and they were then forcibly 
dispossessed by another local chieftain. The town shortly afterwards 
fell into ruins. In 1800 it was inhabited only by two Muhammadan 
hermits, other people being afraid of the demons and tigers which were 
declared to haunt it. In 18 18 it was granted to a native gentleman 
named Ramaswami Mudaliyar, who cleared away the jungle with which 
it had become overgrown and rebuilt the old bridges leading to it. 
1 Mysore, Canara, and Malabar, vol. i, p. 406 ff. '.Madras reprint, 1870). 



66 SIVASAMUDRAM 

Two temples, which are elaborately sculptured and contain inscrip- 
tions, still stand on the island. There is also the tomb of Pir Wall, 
a Muhammadan saint, which is much reverenced by Musalmans and 
is the scene of a large annual festival. 

Siwalik Hills (' Belonging to Siva '). — A range of hills in Northern 
India, running parallel to the Himalayas for about 200 miles from 
the Beas to the Ganges ; a similar formation east of the Ganges 
separates the Path, Patkot, and Kotah Duns (valleys) from the outer 
range of the Himalayas as far as KaladhungI, where it merges into 
them, and is believed to reappear still farther east in Nepal. In the 
United Provinces the Siwaliks lie between the Jumna and Ganges, 
separating Saharanpur District from Dehra Dun, while in the Punjab 
they cross the Sirmur (Nahan) State and Ambala and Hoshiarpur 
Districts. This part of the range is irregular and pierced by several 
rivers, of which the Ghaggar on the west is the largest. West of 
the Ghaggar the hills run like a wall, separating Ambala from the 
long narrow valley of the Sirsa river in Nalagarh State, until they are 
cut through by the Sutlej at Rupar. Thence the range runs with a 
more northerly trend through Hoshiarpur, where it terminates near the 
Beas valley in a mass of undulating hills. Beyond the Sutlej there is 
merely a broad table-land, at first enclosed by sandy hillocks, but 
finally spreading into minor spurs. The southern face, in the United 
Provinces, rises abruptly from the plains and is scored by the bare 
stony beds of the watercourses which rush down in the rains. On the 
northern side is a more gentle descent into the elevated valley of 
Dehra Dun, which separates this range from the Himalayas. The 
greatest height does not exceed 3,500 feet, and the range is about ten 
miles broad. A road from Saharanpur to Dehra crosses these hills by 
the Mohan pass, but has lost its importance since railway communi- 
cation was opened through the eastern termination near the Ganges. 
Geologically, the Siwaliks are separated from the Outer Himalayas by 
a continuous reversed fault. They contain Tertiary strata consisting of 
fresh-water deposits, celebrated for the fossil remains found in them 
and described by Falconer and Cautley. The lower hills are thickly 
clothed with sal (Shorea robusta) and sain (Terminalia tomentosa), 
while on the higher peaks a cooler climate allows pines to flourish. 
Wild elephants are found, and also tigers, sloth bears, leopards, hyenas, 
various kinds of deer, and hog. The term Siwalik has been applied 
by Muhammadan writers to the area lying south of the hills as far as 
Hansi, and also to the Himalayas. 

[Falconer and Cautley, Fauna Antigua Siva/ensis (London, 
1846-9-66).] 

Siwan Subdivision. — Central subdivision of Saran District, 
Bengal, lying between 25 56' and 26 22' N. and S4 o' and 



SKINNER ESTATES 67 

84 47' E., with an area of 838 square miles. The subdivision is 
an alluvial tract, intersected by numerous rivers and water-channels. 
The population in 1901 was 801,744, compared with 800,738 in 
1891. This is the most densely populated part of the District, sup- 
porting 957 persons per square mile. It contains one town, Siwan 
(population, 15,756), the head-quarters; and 1,528 villages. 

Siwan Town (or Allganj Sewan). — Head-quarters of the sub- 
division of the same name in Saran District, Bengal, situated in 
26 13' N. and 84 21' E. Population (1901), 15,756. Superior 
pottery is manufactured here, and the town is noted for its brass- 
ware. Siwan was constituted a municipality in 1869. The income 
during the decade ending 190 1-2 averaged Rs. 9,600, and the 
expenditure Rs. 8,500. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 11,000, 
mainly derived from a tax on persons (or property tax) ; and the 
expenditure amounted to the same sum. The town contains the 
usual public offices ; the sub-jail has accommodation for 32 prisoners. 

Siwrae. — Ancient site in Bahawalpur State, Punjab. See Sarwahi. 

Siyana..— Town in the District and tahsil of Bulandshahr, United 
Provinces, situated in 2 8° 37' N. and 7 8° 4' E., 19 miles north-east 
of Bulandshahr town. It is being connected by a metalled road 
with Bulandshahr and Garhmuktesar. Population (190 1), 7,615. The 
name is said to be a corruption of Sainban or ' the forest of rest,' 
because Balarama, brother of Krishna, on his way from Muttra to 
Hastinapur, slept here one night, and was hospitably entertained by 
fakirs, who had excavated a tank in the centre of a vast forest. The 
town gave its name to a mahal or pargana recorded in the Ain-i- 
Akbari. After the British conquest it was the head-quarters of a 
tahsildar and Munsif up to 1844. It is now of small importance, 
but has been improved lately, and the mud huts are being replaced 
with brick houses. It is administered under Act XX of 1856, with 
an income of about Rs. 1,800. There was formerly some trade in 
samower, but it is declining. Indigo is still made in a small factory. 
A middle school with a boarding-house is attended by about 160 pupils. 

Skinner Estates. — A group of estates held by the descendants 
of Lieutenant-Colonel James Skinner, C.B., in the Districts of Hissar, 
Delhi, and Karnal, Punjab. The area of the estates is 251 square 
miles in Hissar, 2-6 in Delhi, and 21-4 in Karnal; and the total 
revenue of the estates in Hissar is Rs. 62,683. James Skinner, the 
son of a Scottish officer in the East India Company's service and a 
Rajput lady, was born in 1778 and received his first commission from 
De Boigne, the famous Savoyard adventurer, who had organized 
Sindhia's brigades. After many years' service under the Marathas, 
during which he was employed against the adventurer George Thomas, 
Skinner joined the British forces under Lord Lake in 1803, and 



68 SKINNER ESTATES 

received the command of 2,000 of Perron's Hindustani Horse, who 
came over to the British after the battle of Delhi. This body served 
with great distinction under Skinner for thirty years, and is now repre- 
sented by the 1st Lancers and 3rd Cavalry (Skinner's Horse) of the 
Indian Army. Rising to be a Lieutenant-Colonel in the British 
service, Skinner obtained large grants of land in the Delhi territory, 
and settled at Hansi in Hissar District, where he died in 1841. He 
built St. James's Church at Delhi in fulfilment of a vow. Major 
Robert Skinner, his younger brother, also served under Perron and 
eventually entered the Company's service. 

Soalkuchi. — Village in the Gauhati subdivision of Kamrup Dis- 
trict, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 26 n' N. and 91 37' E., 
on the north bank of the Brahmaputra, about 15 miles west of Gauhati 
town. It is a port of call for the river steamers and an important 
trading centre, the principal articles of export being silk cloths, jute, 
and mustard. Unlike most of the Assamese, the people of Soalkuchi 
have a keen commercial instinct, and act as middlemen and carriers in 
the mustard trade. The principal commercial castes are the Shau or 
Shaha, the Dhobi, and the Tanti. The local products include boats 
and muga silk. 

Sobraon. — Village in the Kasur tahsll of Lahore District, Punjab, 
situated in 31 11/N. and 74 52' E., on the crest of the high bank 
overlooking the Sutlej lowlands, near the south-east corner of the 
District. Population (1901), 4,701. Opposite this village, on the 
east bank of the river, in Ferozepore District, lies the famous battle- 
field where Sir Hugh Gough gained his decisive victory of February 
10, 1846, which brought to a close the first Sikh War, and led to the 
occupation of Lahore by a British force. The Sikhs had taken up 
a strong position on the east side of the Sutlej, protecting the Harlke 
ford, while their rear rested upon the village of Sobraon. The battle 
took place on the Ferozepore side, where the Sikhs gallantly held their 
earthworks until almost their last man had fallen. Comparatively few 
made their way back across the river. This battle immediately cleared 
the whole left bank of the Sutlej of Sikh troops, and the victorious 
army crossed into the Punjab by a bridge of boats opposite Ferozepore 
and took possession of Lahore. 

Sodhra {Sohdra). — Town in the Wazlrabad tahsll of Gujranwala 
District, Punjab, situated in 32 29' N. and 74 14' E., on the left 
bank of the Chenab, 5 miles east of Wazlrabad on the North-Western 
Railway. Population (1901), 5,050. Sodhra, which is administered 
as a ' notified area,' is a place of some antiquity, and had given its 
name to the Chenab, or to that part of it which lies in the plains, prior 
to the invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni. The river then flowed close 
under the town on the north, but is now over a mile away. 



SOHAGPUR TAHSIL 69 

Sofale (Safale). — Village in the Mahlm taluka of Thana District, 
Bombay, situated in 19 34' N. and 72 50' E., on the Bombay, 
Baroda, and Central India Railway, 8 miles south-east of Mahlm town. 
Population (1901), 769. The fact that Abul Fida (1320) mentions a 
Sefareh in India and a Sefareh in Africa as ports of inter-commu- 
nication seems to show that Sofale was the Konkan terminus of the 
trade with the African coast that probably reached back to prehistoric 
times. 

Sohagpur Tahsil (1). — Southernmost tahsil of the Rewah State, 
Central India, lying between 22 38' and 23 36' N. and 8o° 45' and 
82 1 8' E., with an area of 3,535 square miles. The tahsil lies in the 
hilly tract and possesses little soil of agricultural value. The forests 
are considerable, and the sale of lac and timber yields about 3 lakhs 
a year, salai {Boswellia serrata) being the prevailing tree. The most 
important product is, however, coal obtained from the Umaria mine. 
The population was 311,000 in 1891 and 241,345 in 1901, giving the 
low density of 68 persons per square mile. The predominant race in 
the tahsil are the Gonds, to whom the country belonged when the 
Baghels obtained possession. The tahsll contains one town, Umaria 
(population, 5,381), and 1,190 villages, the head-quarters being at 
Sohagpur. The land revenue is Rs. 27,000. 

Sohagpur Village. — Head-quarters of the tahsll of the same name 
in the Rewah State, Central India, situated in 23 19' N. and 8i° 
24' E., 2 miles from Sahdol station on the Katni-Bilaspur section of 
the Bengal-Nagpur Railway. Population (1901), 2,126. It is a place 
of some commercial importance. The chief exports are wheat, rice, 
mustard, and linseed. Salt, jaggery, sugar, tobacco, cotton, cloth, 
yarn, and kerosene oil are imported. The value of the exports is 
about 8 lakhs a year, and that of the imports 4 lakhs. Almost in the 
centre stands a large palace, a heterogeneous mass of buildings 
surrounding a large courtyard. It is constructed partly of brick and 
partly of stone, the latter being almost entirely taken from older 
structures, while the numerous pillars employed have all been taken 
from temples, and differ in ornamentation and appearance. Among 
these remains are many Jain sculptures. One mile south-east of the 
present village are the ruins of an- older settlement, full of old remains. 
One temple in a moderate state of preservation resembles those at 
Khajraho in style, and probably dates from the twelfth century. 
A figure of Ganesh is cut over the door of the sanctuary, which is 
profusely ornamented with carving. The spire is graceful and of 
curvilinear form, not unlike those at Khajraho. The sculpture is fine, 
but in many cases grossly obscene. 

Sohagpur Tahsll (2). — Eastern tahsil of Hoshangabad District, 
Central Provinces, lying between 22 10' and 22 59' N. and 77 55' 



7o SO HAG PUR TAHSIL 

and 78 44' E., with an area of 1,243 square miles. The population in 
1901 was 125,863, compared with 139,936 in 1891. The density is 
101 persons per square mile. The tahsll contains two towns, Sohagpur 
(population, 7,420), the head-quarters, and Pachmarhi (3,020) ; and 
429 inhabited villages. Excluding 433 square miles of Government 
forest, 61 per cent, of the available area is occupied for cultivation. 
The cultivated area in 1903-4 was 397 square miles. The demand 
for land revenue in the same year was Rs. 1,61,000, and for cesses 
Rs. 15,000. The northern portion of the tahsll is an open black-soil 
plain, much scoured by the action of the numerous streams flowing 
down to the Narbada. A low range of hills separates the valley of 
the Narbada from that of the Denwa, and south of this again rise the 
masses of the Satpura Hills, culminating to the east in the Pach- 
marhi plateau. Sohagpur is the poorest and least fertile tahsll in 
the District. It contains two jagirdari estates and part of a 
third. 

Sohagpur Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsll of the same name, 
Hoshangabad District, Central Provinces, situated in 22 42' N. and 
78 12' E., on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, 494 miles from 
Bombay. Population (1901), 7,420. Sohagpur was created a munici- 
pality in 1867. The municipal receipts during the decade ending 
1901 averaged Rs. 10,200. In 1903—4 they were Rs. 12,000, of which 
three-fourths was derived from octroi. A considerable export trade in 
grain and timber takes place from Sohagpur ; and a large proportion 
of the population are engaged in cotton-weaving and dyeing. The 
water of the river Palakmati, on which the town stands, is considered 
to be especially valuable in dyeing operations. About 40 betel-vine 
gardens are cultivated in the vicinity of the town, and the leaf is 
exported to other Districts. Sohagpur possesses an English middle 
school and a dispensary. 

Sohawal. — A small sanad State in Central India, under the 
Political Agent in Baghelkhand, lying between 24 $■$' and 24 50' N. 
and 8o° 35' and 8o° 49' E., with an area of about 213 square miles. 
It is separated into two sections by the petty State of KothI, the 
northern section itself being also much intermingled with parts of 
Panna. The chief is a Baghel Rajput, connected with the Rewah 
family. Maharaja Amar Singh of Rewah had two sons, one of whom, 
named Fateh Singh, revolted in the sixteenth century, and seizing 
Sohawal, founded an independent chiefship, which was originally of 
considerable extent, including Blrsinghpur (now in Panna), KothI, and 
other tracts in the neighbourhood. On the rise of Panna, under 
Chhatarsa.1, Sohawal became tributary, but retained its independence. 
Later on, however, Jagat Raj and Hirde Sah, sons of Chhatarsa.1, 
actually seized much of its territory, while the KothI chief, taking 



SOHTONG 7 t 

advantage of these disturbances, threw off his allegiance, and attacked 
and killed the Sohawal chief, Prithlpal Singh. On the establishment 
of British supremacy in the beginning of the nineteenth century, 
Sohawal was held to be subordinate to Panna. But a separate sanad 
was granted to Rais Aman Singh in 1809, on the ground that the State 
had existed before Chhatarsal's rise to power and had remained inde- 
pendent throughout the supremacy of All Bahadur of Banda. The 
present chief, Bhagwant Raj Bahadur, succeeded in 1899, and in 1901 
received the title of Raja as a personal distinction, the ordinary title 
being Rais. 

The population of the State has been: (1881) 37,747, (1891) 
43> 8 53, and (1901) 37,216, giving a density of 175 persons per square 
mile. The decrease of 15 per cent, during the last decade is due to 
famine. The State contains 183 villages. Hindus number 31,645, or 
85 per cent. ; Animists (chiefly Gonds, Kols, and Mavaiyas), 4,574, 
or 13 per cent. ; and Musalmans, 993. Baghelkhandi is spoken by 
80 per cent, and Bundelkhandi by 17 per cent, of the inhabitants. 
Agriculture supports about 95 per cent, of the total population. The 
soil of the State is fertile and bears good crops of all the ordinary 
grains. About in square miles, or 52 per cent, of the total area, are 
cultivated, while 54 square miles, or 25 per cent., are cultivable but 
not cultivated ; the rest is jungle and waste. A peculiar custom, not 
uncommon in other parts of Baghelkhand, prevails of regularly relin- 
quishing a village site every twelve or sixteen years. The sites are 
assessed at the rate of Rs. 20 per acre per annum on the abandoned 
land during the first four years succeeding its abandonment, and at 
Rs. 12 in succeeding years. 

For administrative purposes the State is divided into two tahsi/s, 
with head-quarters at Sohawal and Sabhapur, and the estate of Rai- 
gaon, which is held in jagir by a junior branch of the Sohawal family, 
the present holder being Lai Raghubansman Prasad Singh, fifth in 
descent from Lai Sarabjlt (Sarup) Singh, who received it as a service 
jagir from his elder brother, Rais Mahipat Singh. The Sohawal chief 
exercises limited powers. All ordinary administrative matters are in 
his hands, but cases of serious crime are dealt with by the Political 
Agent. The revenue is Rs. 46,000, and the cost of administration 
about Rs. 34,000. 

The capital, Sohawal, is situated in 24 35' N. and 8o° 46' E., on the 
left bank of the Satna river, and on the Satna-Nowgong high road, 
5 miles from Satna station on the East Indian Railway. Population 
(1901), 2,108. 

Sohdra. — Town in the Wazlrabad tahsll of Gujranwala District, 
Punjab. See Sodhra. 

Sohiong. — Petty State in the Khasi Hills, Eastern Bengal and 



72 SOHIONG 

Assam. The population in 1901 was 2,014, and the gross revenue 
in 1903-4 was Rs. 600. The principal products are millet, rice, and 
potatoes. 

Sohna (Sondh). — Town in the District and tahsil of Gurgaon, 
Punjab, situated in 28 15' N. and 77 5' E., 15 miles south of 
Gurgaon town. Population (1901), 6,024. It is of no commercial 
importance, but claims considerable antiquity. It has been occupied 
in succession by the Kambohs, the Khanzadas, and the Rajputs ; and 
traces of all three settlements are found in the extensive ruins which 
surround it. Sohna was taken in the eighteenth century by the 
Jats of Bharatpur, who built a large fort, now in ruins. It has a 
mosque dating from 1561, and its hot springs are famed for their 
medicinal properties. The municipality was created in 1885. The 
income and expenditure during the ten years ending 1902-3 aver- 
aged Rs. 5,800 and Rs. 5,900 respectively. In 1903-4 the income 
was Rs. 4,800, chiefly derived from octroi ; and the expenditure 
was Rs. 5,800. It possesses a vernacular middle school and a dis- 
pensary. 

Sojat. — Head-quarters of a district of the same name in the State 
of Jodhpur, Rajputana, situated in 25 56' N. and 73 40' E., on the 
left bank of the Sukri river, a tributary of the Luni, about 7 miles 
north-west of Sojat Road station on the Rajputana- Mai wa Railway. 
Population (1901), 11,107. The town is walled, and possesses a post 
and telegraph office, an Anglo-vernacular school, and a hospital. The 
principal manufactures are saddles, bridles, swords, daggers, and 
cutlery ; and there is a considerable trade in cotton, wool, grain, and 
drugs. Sojat is a very old town, and is said to take its name from 
the local goddess, Sejal Mata. It was once depopulated, but was 
reoccupied about 1054, and passed into the possession of the Rathors 
about 400 years later. It suffered severely from plague in 1836, when 
it was infected by hundreds of refugees from Pali. 

Sojitra.— Town in the Petlad taluka, Baroda prant, Baroda State, 
situated in 22 32' N. and 72 46' E. Population (1901), 10,578. 
In ancient times Sojitra was the seat of rule of a Rajput principality. 
The town is administered by a municipality, receiving an annual grant 
from the State of Rs. 2,200, and possesses Anglo-vernacular and 
vernacular schools, a dispensary, and the usual public offices. Weaving 
and the manufacture of brass and copper pots and locks are the chief 
industries, while a little wood-carving is done, and there is a flourishing 
trade in tobacco and grain. The patidars who live in and close to 
Sojitra form a vigorous and intelligent community. 

Solah Sarai ('Sixteen inns'). — The suburbs of the town of 
Sambhai., in Moradabad District, United Provinces, are not included 
in the municipality of that name, but are administered separately under 



SO MA AT ALE 73 

Act XX of 1856. They form a scattered area, with a population 
(1901) of 10,623; and a sum of about Rs. 1,000 is raised annually 
and expended on watch and ward and on conservancy. 

Solani. — River of the United Provinces, which rises in the Siwalik 
Hills (30 13' N., 77 59' E.) from the highest point of the Mohan 
pass, flows south and south-east through Saharanpur District, and 
then winds through a corner of Muzaffarnagar, joining the Ganges 
after a course of about 55 miles. The upper part of the river and 
most of its tributaries are mere watercourses, almost dry except during 
the rains, when they carry off the drainage of the Siwaliks in rushing 
torrents. Near Roorkee a magnificent aqueduct of brick, with fifteen 
arches, each 50 feet wide, conveys the water of the Upper Ganges 
Canal at a height of 24 feet above the bed of this river. The Solani 
has done much damage by floods and changes in its course. In 
Muzaffarnagar this was intensified by percolation from the Ganges 
Canal, but drainage cuts have improved the tract. 

Sola Singhi (or Chintpurni).— Mountain range in Hoshiarpur 
District, Punjab, forming the eastern boundary of the Jaswan Dun. 
It commences at a point close to Talwara, on the Beas river, and runs 
in a south-eastward direction between the Districts of Hoshiarpur 
and Kangra. The range as it passes southwards increases steadily 
both in width and elevation, until it reaches its highest point at the 
small hill station of Bharwain, 28 miles from Hoshiarpur town on 
the Dharmsala road and 3,896 feet above the sea. At this point the 
ridge is 14 miles across. Thence it continues till it crosses the valley 
of the Sutlej, its northern slope sinking gradually into the Beas basin, 
while the southern escarpment consists in places of an abrupt cliff 
about 300 feet in height. The space between its central line and the 
level portion of the Jaswan Dun is occupied by a broad table-land, 
thickly clothed with forest, and intersected by precipitous ravines, 
which divide the surface into natural blocks. Another range of hills 
in Hoshiarpur District, which continues the line of the Sola Singhi 
and finally crosses the Sutlej into Bilaspur, terminates in the hill 
of Naina Devi, with its famous temple. 

Solon. — Hill cantonment in Simla District, Punjab, situated in 
30 55" N. and 77 7' E., on the southern slope of the Krol mountain, 
on the cart-road between Kalka and Simla, 30 miles from the latter 
station. Ground was acquired for a rifle range in 1863-4, and barracks 
were afterwards erected. Solon is the head-quarters of a British 
infantry regiment during the hot season. Population (March, 1901), 61. 

Somamale. — Mountain in the Padinalknad taluk of Coorg, South- 
ern India, situated in 12 n' N. and 75 45' E., the highest in Kadyet- 
nad. It is sacred to Male Tambiran, and overlooks the Kodantora 
pas-;. It is about 6 miles south-east of Tadiandamol. 



74 ROM AST1 PUR 

Somastipur. — Subdivision and town in Darbhanga District, Bengal. 
See Samastipur. 

Someswari. — River in the Garo Hills District, Eastern Bengal 
and Assam. It rises to the north of Tura station, and flows east as far 
as Darangiri. Here it turns south and debouches on the plains of 
Mymensingh, through which it makes its way to the Kangsa river, 
88 miles from its source. It is navigable up-stream as high as Siju, 
where further progress is barred by rapids. Valuable outcrops of coal 
and lime have been discovered in the Someswari valley, but owing to 
difficulties of transport they still remain unworked. In its course 
through the hills the river flows through gorges of great natural beauty, 
where precipitous cliffs are clothed with dense tropical vegetation. 

Somnath (Deo Pattan, Prabhas Pattan, Veraval Pattan, or Pattan 
Somnath). — Ancient town in the State of Junagarh, Kathiawar, Bombay, 
situated in 20 53' N. and 70 28' E., at the eastern extremity of 
a bay on the south coast of the peninsula of Kathiawar. Population 
(1901), 8,341. The western headland of the bay is occupied by the 
port of Veraval, which gives to the locality its more common name 
of Veraval Pattan. On the edge of the sea, nearly half-way between 
the two towns, stands a large and conspicuous temple, dedicated to Siva. 
A few hundred yards behind this temple is the reservoir called the 
Bhat Kund, the traditional scene of the death of Krishna. Farther 
inland rises the wild hill district called the Gir, and in the remote 
distance stands out the sacred mountain which the people of Kathiawar 
delight to call the ' royal Girnar.' The country near Somnath is full 
of memorials of Krishna, the principal centre of interest being a spot 
to the east of the town, where, near the union of three beautiful 
streams, the body of the hero is said to have been burnt. 

Somnath is a gloomy place — a city of graves and ruins. On the 
west the plain is covered with Musalman tombs, on the east are 
numerous Hindu shrines and monuments. The town was protected 
on the south by a fort, and on the remaining three sides by a deep 
trench cut out of the solid rock. The fort, situated on the shore 
within a few feet of high-water mark, does not depart in any important 
particular from the general design of Gujarat fortresses. It is square 
in form, with large gateways in the centre of each side, outworks or 
barbicans in front of these, and second gateways in the sides of the 
outworks. Somnath is now especially famous for the manufacture 
of door-locks made of wood and iron. It is the head-quarters of 
a mahal or revenue division, with the courts of revenue and judicial 
officers. Though some wealthy bankers and merchants reside here, 
the moneyed classes have mostly betaken themselves to the neigh- 
bouring port of Veraval. 

Before its capture by Mahmud of Ghazni (1024-6), little is known 



SO M PET A TAHSIL 75 

of the history of Somnath. In the eighth century this part of Kathi- 
awar is said to have been in the hands of a line of Rajput princes 
bearing the surname of Chavada. These chiefs probably owned 
allegiance to powerful Chalukyas or Solankis, who reigned at Kalyan 
in the Deccan. Mahmud of Ghazni, after his invasion, left behind him 
a Muhammadan governor at Somnath. Subsequently the Vajas (a sub- 
branch of the Rathor tribe) acquired Somnath and revived the glories 
of the ancient fane. But it was again overthrown by Ulugh in 1298. 
From this date Muhammadan supremacy prevailed. Afterwards, on 
the downfall of the Muhammadan power, Somnath was ruled at 
different times by the Shaikh of Mangrol and the Rana of Porbandar, 
but was finally conquered by the Nawab of Junagarh, in whose hands 
it remains. 

Somnathpur. — Village in the Tirumakudal - Narsipur taluk of 
Mysore District, Mysore, situated in 12° 16' N. and 76 53' E., on the 
east bank of the Cauvery, 12 miles from Seringapatam. Population 
(1901), 1,468. It is noted for the Chenna-Kesava temple, the most 
complete existing example of the ornate Chalukyan style, erected in 
1269 by Soma, an officer under the Hoysala king Narasimha III. He 
also founded the agrahara that formerly surrounded it. Though not 
on the scale of the Halebid and Belur temples, it rivals them in the 
perfection of its sculpture, and is one of the chief architectural monu- 
ments of the Mysore country. 

Sompalle. — Village in the Madanapalle taluk of Cuddapah District, 
Madras, situated in 13 51/ N. and 7 8° 16' E. Population (1901), 
3,656. It is known locally for its manufacture of glass bangles, which 
are made from alkaline earth found in the neighbourhood and are in 
considerable demand all over the District. It contains an old Vaish- 
nava temple dedicated to Chennakeswaraswami, in which are some 
exquisite stone carvings. In front of this stands a monolithic lamp- 
post of very graceful proportions, upwards of 50 feet in height. The 
temple is included in the list of ancient monuments selected for con- 
servation by Government, some portions of it being unique. 

Sompalle was formerly the seat of a local chief. During the days 
of the Vijayanagar kings his family obtained five villages as an estate, 
and the grant was continued by the Sultans of Golconda on condition 
that he did military service, when called upon, with 400 foot-soldiers. 
The villages were resumed by the Marathas in 1756, but given back 
the next year. The chief was expelled in Haidar All's time by Mir 
Sahib, but again possessed himself of his estate during Lord Corn- 
wallis's campaign against Tipu. The last survivor of the family was 
a pensioner of the British for many years. 

Sompeta Tahsll. — Zamlndari tahsll in Ganjam District, Madras, 
lying between i8°45 / anc * 19° 4' N. and 84 22' and 84 40' E., south 

VOL. XXIII. f 



7 6 SO M PET A TAHSlL 

of the Ichchapuram tahsll and east of Parlakimedi, with an area of 
283 square miles. It is separated from Parlakimedi by Mahendragiri, 
and is bounded on the east by the Bay of Bengal. The tract of 
country along the coast produces coco-nuts extensively, which are 
exported to Cuttack and other places. The population in 1901 was 
102,690, compared with 95,932 in 1891. It contains one town, Som- 
peta (population, 6,455), the head-quarters; and 347 villages. The 
demand for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 was Rs. 47,100. Lacquer- 
work on wood is done at Mandasa, the chief village of the zamlti- 
ddri of the same name. Baruva, the chief village of another estate, is 
one of the three seaports of the District. The other important estates 
in the tahsll are Jalantra, which was sold to satisfy its late proprietor's 
debts and has been purchased by the Maharaja of Vizianagram, and 
Budarasingi, which is heavily involved in debt. The Sompeta Agency 
consists of the Jarada, Mandasa, and Budarasingi Maliahs, which are 
held by the zamlndars of the estates of those names under separate 
sanads ; and the Jalantra Maliahs, which have been attached owing 
to the interference of their former proprietor in the internal affairs of 
the Maliahs, and are now under Government management. 

Sompeta Town. — Head-quarters of the Sompeta zamlndari tahsll 
in Ganjam District, Madras, and of a District Munsif, situated in 
1 8° 56' N. and 84 36' E., near the trunk road from Madras to Cal- 
cutta, with which it is connected by a road 2 miles in length. Popula- 
tion (1901), 6,455. 

Somvarpet (also called Nagarur). — Head-quarters of the Nanjaraj- 
patna taluk of Coorg, Southern India, situated in 12 36' N. and 
75° 52' E., 26 miles north of Mercara. Population (1901), 1,745. The 
name means ' Monday market,' a fair being held on that day. The 
water-supply and dispensary were provided from private contributions. 
The municipal income in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,300 and the expenditure 
Rs. 2,100. 

Son River (Sanskrit, Suvarna or ' gold ' ; likewise called Hiranya- 
Vaha or Hiranya- Vdhu ; the Sonos of Arrian ; also identified with the 
Erannoboas of Arrian). — A large river of Northern India, which, flow- 
ing from the Amarkantak highlands (22 42' N., 82 4' E.), first north 
and then east, joins the Ganges 10 miles above Dinapore, after a 
course of about 487 miles. 

The Son rises near the Narbada at Amarkantak in the Maikala 
range, the hill on which its nominal source is located being called 
Sonbhadra or more commonly Sonmunda. It possesses great sanctity, 
the performance of sandhyd on its banks ensuring absolution and the 
attainment of heaven even to the slayer of a Brahman. Legends about 
the stream are numerous, one of the most picturesque assigning the 
origin of the Son and Narbada to two tears dropped by Brahma, one 



SON RIVER 77 

on either side of the Amarkantak range. The Son is frequently men- 
tioned in Hindu literature — in the Ramayanas of Valrniki and Tulsi 
Das, the Bhagwat, and other works. 

Soon after leaving its source, the Son falls in a cascade over the 
edge of the Amarkantak plateau amid the most picturesque surround- 
ings, and flows through Bilaspur District of the Central Provinces till it 
enters the Rewah State at 23 6' N. and 8i° 59/ E. From this point 
till it leaves the Central India Agency after a course of 288 miles, the 
stream flows through a maze of valley and hill, for the most part in 
a narrow rocky channel, but expanding in favourable spots into magni- 
ficent deep broad reaches locally called dahdr, the favourite resorts of 
the fisher caste. Following at first a northerly course, near its junction 
with the Mahanadi river at Sarsi it meets the scarp of the Kaimur 
Hills and is turned in a north-easterly direction, finally leaving the 
Agency 5 miles east of Deora village. In Central India three affluents 
of importance are received : one on the left bank, the Johilla, which 
likewise rises at Amarkantak and joins it at Barwalu village ; and two 
which join it on the right bank, the Banas at 23 17' N. and 8i° 31' E., 
and the Gopat near Bardi. In the United Provinces the Son flows for 
about 55 miles from west to east across Mirzapur District, in a deep 
valley never more than 8 or 9 miles broad, often narrowing to a gorge, 
and receives from the south two tributaries, the Rihand and Kanhar. 
During the dry season it is shallow but rapid, varying in breadth from 
60 to 100 yards, and is easily fordable. The Son enters Bengal in 
24 31/ N. and 83 24/ E., and flows in a north-westerly direction, 
separating the District of Shahabad from Palamau, Gaya, and Patna, 
till, after a course within Bengal of 144 miles, it falls into the Ganges 
in 25 40' N. and 84 59' E. 

So far as regards navigation, the Son is mainly used for floating down 
large rafts of bamboos and a little timber. During the rainy season, 
native boats of large tonnage occasionally proceed for a short distance 
up stream ; but navigation is then rendered dangerous by the extra- 
ordinary violence of the flood, and throughout the rest of the year 
becomes impossible, owing to the small depth of water. The irrigation 
system in South Bihar known as the Son Canals is served by this 
river, the water being distributed west to Shahabad and east to Gaya 
and Patna from a dam constructed at DehrI. In the lower portion of 
its course the Son is marked by several striking characteristics. Its bed 
is enormously wide, in some places stretching for three miles from 
bank to bank. During the greater part of the year this broad channel 
is merely a waste of drifting sand, with an insignificant stream that is 
nearly everywhere fordable. The discharge of water at this time is 
estimated to fall as low as 620 cubic feet per second. But in the rainy 
season, and especially just after a storm has burst on the plateau of 

f 2 



78 SON RIVER 

Central India, the river rises with incredible rapidity. The entire rain- 
fall of an area of about 21,300 square miles requires to find an outlet 
by this channel, which frequently proves unable to carry off the total 
flood discharge, calculated at 830,000 cubic feet per second. These 
heavy floods are of short duration, seldom lasting for more than four 
days ; but in recent years they have wrought much destruction in the 
low-lying plains of Shahabad. Near the site of the great dam at Dehri 
the Son is crossed by the grand trunk road on a stone causeway ; and 
lower down, near Koelwar, the East Indian Railway has been carried 
across on a lattice-girder bridge. This bridge, begun for a single line 
of rails in 1855, and finally completed for a double line in 1870, has 
a total length of 4,199 feet from back to back of the abutments. 

The Son possesses historical interest as being probably identical with 
the Erannoboas of Greek geographers, which is thought to be a corrup- 
tion of Hiranya- Vdhu, or ' the golden-armed ' (a title of Siva), a name 
which the Son anciently bore. The old town of Palibothra or Patali- 
putra, corresponding to the modern Patna, was situated at the con- 
fluence of the Erannoboas and the Ganges ; and, in addition, we know 
that the junction of the Son with the Ganges has been gradually re- 
ceding westwards. Old channels of the Son have been found between 
Bankipore and Dinapore, and even below the present site of Patna. In 
the Bengal Atlas of 1772 the junction is marked near Maner, and it 
would seem to have been at the same spot in the seventeenth century ; 
it is now about ten miles higher up the Ganges. 

Son Canals. — A system of irrigation works in the Districts of 
Shahabad, Gaya, and Patna, Bengal, which derive their supply from 
an anicut across the Son river at Dehri. The idea of using the 
waters of the Son for irrigation originated about fifty years ago with 
the late Colonel C. H. Dickens, and for many years the subject was 
under discussion. The project was undertaken by the East India 
Irrigation and Canal Company, but was handed back to Government 
in 1868, and work was not actually commenced until the following 
year. Sufficient progress had been made in 1873 to allow of water 
being supplied through cuts in the banks of the Arrah canal to relieve 
the drought of that year, and the canals were completed a few years 
later. They carry a maximum volume of 6,350 cubic feet per second. 
About 80 per cent, of the irrigation lies in Shahabad, n per cent, in 
Gaya, and 9 per cent, in Patna District. 

The general plan of the works comprises the Dehri anicut, a main 
western canal branching off above the anicut on the left bank, and 
a main eastern canal branching off on the right. The anicut, or weir, 
which is 12,500 feet in one undivided length, and is, consequently, one 
of the longest weirs in existence, consists of a mass of uncemented 
rubble stone, with two core walls of masonry founded on shallow wells. 



SON CANALS 79 

The work was greatly facilitated by the presence of excellent building 
stone a few miles from the site. Scouring sluices were provided at each 
flank and at the centre. Those at the centre have since been filled up. 
The flank sluices serve to maintain clear channels in front of the canal 
head sluices, and they facilitate the regulation of the height of the water 
in the pool above the weir. The vents are operated, by means of 
shutters 20 feet 6 inches in length, on a system devised by the late 
Mr. C. Fouracres, by which the shock of the up-stream shutter when 
rising is taken by hydraulic tubular struts. The system has worked 
well, and there is a very complete control of the river even when it is 
in moderate flood. The total cost of the anicut, which was finished 
in 1875, amounted to about 15 lakhs. 

The total length of the main canals is 218 miles, of the branch canals 
r49 miles, and of the distributaries 1,217 miles. The western main 
canal supplies the Arrah, the Buxar, and the Chausa canals, which all 
branch off within the first 12 miles. The main canal is continued for 
a total distance of 22 miles, as far as the grand trunk road, 2 miles 
beyond Sasaram. Its prolongation for a farther distance of 50 miles 
to the frontier of the District, towards Mirzapur, was commenced as 
a relief work during the scarcity of 1874-5, but never completed. The 
chief engineering work is the siphon-aqueduct of twenty-five arches, 
by which a formidable hill-torrent, called the Kao, is carried under the 
canal. The Arrah canal branches off at the fifth mile, and follows 
the course of the Son for 30 miles, when it strikes northwards, running 
on a natural ridge past the town of Arrah, and finally falls into a branch 
of the Ganges after a total course of 60 miles. It is designed for navi- 
gation as well as irrigation, but no permanent communication has been 
opened with the main stream of the Ganges. To allow for a total fall 
of 180 feet, 13 locks have been constructed. Besides four principal 
distributaries, the main offshoots are the Bihiya canal, 30 miles long, 
and the Dumraon canal, 40 miles. The Buxar canal leaves the main 
western canal at its twelfth mile, and communicates with the Ganges 
at Buxar, after a course of 55 miles; it also is intended for navigation. 
The total fall is 159 feet, which is facilitated by twelve locks. Gaya 
and Patna Districts are served to a smaller extent by the eastern main 
canal, which was originally intended to run as far as Monghyr, but at 
present stops short at the Punpun river, a total length of only 8 miles. 
The Patna canal leaves the main canal at the fourth mile, and follows 
the course of the Son till it joins the Ganges at Digha, between Banki- 
pore and Dinapore. Its total length is 79 miles, of which 43 miles lie 
within the District of Gaya, and 36 in Patna. 

The area irrigated in 1903-4 was 790 square miles. In 1902-3 the 
net revenue was 8-74 lakhs, giving a return of 3-27 per cent, on the 
capital expenditure ; while in 1903-4 the receipts amounted to 13- 24 



80 SON CANALS 

lakhs and the working expenses to 5-38 lakhs. The capital outlay up 
to March 31, 1904, was 267 lakhs. The main canals are navigable, 
and the estimated value of cargo carried in 1902-3 was 10-2 lakhs ; 
Rs. 19,000 was realized as navigation tolls in that year and Rs. 23,000 
in 1903-4. 

Sonagir. — Hill in the Datia State, Central India, situated in 25 44' 
N. and 78 25' E., 5 miles from the town of Datia. It consists of 
a small ridge of gneiss, on the summit and slopes of which more than 
a hundred Jain temples have been erected. Seen from a distance, 
the hill presents a picturesque appearance, with its numerous shrines 
perched amid great crags of granitic rock; but closer examination leads 
to disillusion. The structures are all of the degraded modern type, 
none as it stands dating back farther than the end of the seventeenth 
century. They are all built of brick with inelegant white stucco rect- 
angular bodies, bulbous ribbed Muhammadan domes, and pine-cone 
spires, the doors and windows ornamented with the foliated Muham- 
madan arch and curved Bengali eave and roof. They lack entirely the 
purity and homogeneity of older temples, and are disappointing. 

Sonah. — Town in the District and tahsll of Gurgaon, Punjab. See 

SOHNA. 

Sonai River. — River of Assam, which rises in the Lushai Hills 
and, after a tortuous northerly course of 60 miles through Cachar Dis- 
trict, falls into the Barak. As far as Maniarkhal it flows through jungle 
land, but in the lower part of its course its banks are fringed with 
villages. The most important of these are Palanghat and Sonaimukh. 
Boats of 4 tons burden can proceed as far as Maniarkhal during the 
rains, but the river is not largely used as a trade route. 

Sonai Village. — Village in the Nevasa taluka of Ahmadnagar Dis- 
trict, Bombay, situated in 19 23" N. and 74 49' E., about 24 miles 
north-by-east of Ahmadnagar city. Population (1901), 5,393. Sonai 
is a busy market, surrounded by a rich plain, and divided by a water- 
course into the peth occupied by merchants and the kasba or agricul- 
tural quarter. It contains an American Mission church built in 1861. 

Sonair. — Town in Nagpur District, Central Provinces. See Saoner. 

Sonamganj. — Subdivision of Sylhet District, Eastern Bengal and 
Assam. See Sunamganj. 

Sonamukhi. — Town in the Bishnupur subdivision of Bankura 
District, Bengal, situated in 23 19' N. and 87 36' E. Population 
(1901), 13,448. Sonamukhi was formerly the site of a commercial 
residency and of an important factory of the East India Company, 
where weavers were employed in cotton-spinning and cloth-making. It 
is now the local centre of the shellac industry. It lies on the road 
between Bishnupur and Panagarh station on the East Indian Railway. 
It was constituted a municipality in 1886. The income during the 



SOXARGAOX Si 

decade ending 1901-2 averaged Rs. 5,300, and the expenditure Rs. 
5,200. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 6,000, mainly derived from a 
tax on persons (or property tax) ; and the expenditure was Rs. 5,000. 

Sonapura. — River in Lakhimpur District, Eastern Bengal and 
Assam. See Dibru. 

Sonapuria. — River in the Khasi and Jaintia Hills District, Eastern 
Bengal and Assam. See Digru. 

Sonar. — River in the Central Provinces, the centre of the drainage 
system of the Vindhyan plateau comprising the Districts of Saugor and 
Damoh, with a northward course to the Jumna. It rises in the low- 
hills in the south-west of Saugor (23 22' N. and 78 37' E.), and 
flowing in a north-easterly direction through that District and Damoh, 
joins the Ken in Bundelkhand, a short distance beyond the boundary 
of Damoh. Of its total course of 116 miles, all but the last 4 miles 
are within the Central Provinces. The river does not attain to any 
great breadth and flows in a deep channel, its bed being usually stony. 
It is not navigable and no use is made of its waters for irrigation. The 
valley of the Sonar, lying in the south of Saugor and the centre of 
Damoh, is composed of fertile black soil formed from the detritus of 
volcanic rock. The principal tributaries of the Sonar are the Dehar 
joining it at RehlT, the Gadherl at Garhakota, the Bewas near Narsingh- 
garh, the Kopra near Sltanagar, and the Bearma just beyond the 
Damoh border. Rehli, Garhakota, Hatta, and Narsinghgarh are the 
most important places situated on its banks. The Indian Midland 
Railway (Blna-Katnl branch) crosses the river between the stations of 
Patharia and Aslana. 

Sonargaon. — Ancient Muhammadan capital of Eastern Bengal, 
situated in 23 40' N. and 90 36' E., in the Narayanganj subdivision 
of Dacca District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, near the banks of the 
Meghna, 15 miles east of Dacca city. Sonargaon was the residence of 
the Muhammadan governors of Eastern Bengal from 1351 to 1608, 
when the capital of the whole province was transferred to Dacca. The 
only remaining traces of its former grandeur are some ruins in and near 
the insignificant village of Panam, about 6 miles east of Narayanganj. 
Hard by is Mograpara, where there was a mint, and Amlnpur, the 
croribdri or residence of the Nawab's banker, whose descendants are 
still living. Hamchadi is said to have been the residence of the 
commander-in-chief; and a neighbouring village, Ranljhl, is associated 
with the name of Ballal Sen's mother. While Sonargaon was the seat 
of government, it was a place of considerable commercial importance 
and was famous for its cloths and muslins ; it was the eastern terminus 
of the grand trunk road made by Sher Shah. 

[Cunningham, Archaeological Survey of India Reports, vol. xv, 

PP- 135-45-] 



82 SOiVDA 

Sonda. — Village in the Sirsi td/t/ka of North Kanara District, 
Bombay, situated in 14 44/ N. and 74 49' E., 10 miles north of Sirsi 
town. Population (1901), 231. Sonda, now a small village, was, 
between 1590 and 1762, the capital of a family of Hindu chiefs. The 
only objects of interest are its old fort, and Smarta, Vaishnav, and 
Jain monasteries. The fort is ruined and deserted, and its high walls 
are hidden by trees and brushwood. The masonry shows traces of 
considerable architectural skill. The posts of the gateway are single 
blocks 14 to 16 feet long, and in the quadrangle are several ponds 
lined with large masses of finely dressed stone. Perhaps the most 
remarkable of the fragments is a trap slab, 1 2 feet square and 6 inches 
thick, perfectly levelled and dressed, which rests on five richly carved 
pillars about 3 feet high. Except this slab, which is locally believed to 
be the throne, not a vestige is left of the palace of the Sonda chiefs. 
The town is said to have had three lines of fortifications, the innermost 
wall being at least 6 miles from the modern Sonda. The space within 
the innermost wall is said to have been full of houses. In the two 
spaces surrounded by the outer lines of wall the houses were scattered 
in clumps with gardens between. A religious festival with a car- 
procession takes place in April-May, attended by from 2,000 to 3,000 
people. The Sonda chiefs were a branch of the Vijayanagar kings, 
who settled at Sonda (1570-80). In 1682 SambhajT led a detachment 
against Sonda, but apparently without effect. During 1745 to 1762 the 
place suffered much from Maratha attacks. In 1764 Haidar All took 
and destroyed Sonda, and compelled the chief to take shelter in Goa 
with his family and treasure. The representative of the Sonda family 
still holds a position of honour in Goa. 

Sone. — River and canal system in Bengal. See Son. 

Sonepat Tahsil (So/iJ>at). — Northern tahsil of Delhi District, 
Punjab, lying between 28 49' and 29 14' N. and 76 48' and 
77 13' E., with an area of 460 square miles. It lies to the west 
of the Jumna river, which separates it from the Meerut and Buland- 
shahr Districts of the United Provinces. The population in 1901 was 
203,338, compared with 189,490 in 189 1. It contains the town of 
Sonepat (population, 12,990), the head-quarters; and 224 villages. 
The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 4-1 lakhs. The 
eastern portion of the tahsil lies in the Jumna lowlands. The upland 
plateau to the west is irrigated by the Western Jumna Canal. 

Sonepat Town (Sonpat ; Sanskrit, Suvarnaprasthd). — Head- 
quarters of the tahsil of the same name in Delhi District, Punjab, 
situated in 29 N. and 77 i' E., on the Delhi-Ambala-Kalka Railway, 
28 miles north of Delhi. Population (1901), 12,990. One popular 
tradition avers that this is one of the five towns mentioned in the 
Mahabharata which Yudhishthira demanded from Duryodhana as the 



SONGIR 83 

price of peace. Another ascribes its foundation to Raja Soni, 
thirteenth in descent from Arjuna, a brother of Yudhishthira. It is 
of no commercial importance. The municipality was created in 1867. 
The income and expenditure during the ten years ending 1902-3 
averaged Rs. 14,300. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 16,000, chiefly 
derived from octroi ; and the expenditure was Rs. 16,400. The town 
possesses an Anglo-vernacular middle school, a Government dispensary, 
and a cotton-ginning and pressing factory which in 1904 employed 130 
hands. 

Sonepet. — Head-quarters of Maharaja Sir Kishen Prasad Bahadur's 
jagir taluk, Parbhani District, Hyderabad State, situated in 19 2' N. 
and 76 29' E., on the Wan river. Population (1901), 5,759. The 
town suffered much from the inundation of the Wan in 1891, and the 
famine of 1900. It contains a State post office, a police station, and 
two private schools with 200 pupils. Silk saris and fine cotton and 
silk fabrics are made here, and exported far and wide, and about one- 
third of the population subsist by weaving. The town is walled and is 
an important centre of trade. 

Songadh. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Songarh. — Head-quarters of the taluka of the same name, Navsari 
prant, Baroda State, situated in 21 10' N. and 73 36' E., on the 
Tapti Valley Railway. Population (1901), 2,533. It is of historic 
interest as the place where the Gaikwars first fixed their head-quarters. 
Formerly it must have been a flourishing town, and vast ruins still 
remain. The fort of Songarh is situated to the west of the town on 
a small hill, but the only portion of the defences still kept in repair is 
the entrance at the north end. In the lower part of the enclosed space 
are the ruins of what must have been a handsome palace with several 
storeys. This fort was originally seized from the Bhlls, some families 
of whom still hold jaglrs in connexion with it. The town possesses a 
magistrate's court, a dispensary, and a special boarding-school for the 
boys and girls of the forest tribes. The boys are trained in carpentry 
and agriculture on a model farm attached to the school, where experi- 
ments in cultivation and sericulture are also being carried out. 
Songarh is administered as a municipality, with an annual grant 
from the State of Rs. 800. 

Songir. — Town in the Dhulia taluka of West Khandesh District, 
Bombay, situated in 21 5' N. and 74 47' E., 14 miles north of Dhulia. 
Population (1901), 4,303. Songir, like Dhulia, has passed through the 
hands of the Arab kings, the Mughals, and the Nizam. From the 
Nizam it came to the Peshwa, who granted it to the Vinchurkar, 
from whom it fell into the hands of the British Government in 18 iS. 
Not long after the occupation of Songir by the British, the Arab 
soldiers, of whom there were many at that time in Khandesh, made an 



84 SONGIR 

attempt to recover the town and did actually take possession of a 
portion of it, but were eventually repulsed and completely defeated. 
Songlr has a local reputation for its brass and copper ware. Coarse 
woollen blankets and cotton cloths are also woven. The fort is partly 
commanded by a hill about 400 yards to the south ; the north and 
south ends are of solid masonry, and the walls of uncut stone are in 
good order in a few places. Of the inner buildings hardly a trace 
remains. There is a handsome old reservoir, and a fine old well. The 
municipality, established in 1869, has been recently abolished. The 
town contains a boys' school with 200 pupils. 

Sonmiani. — Seaport in the Miani nidbat of the Las Bela State, 
Baluchistan, locally known as Miani, situated in 25 25' N. and 66° 
36' E. It is 50 miles from Karachi by land, and stands on the east 
shore of the Miani Hor, a large backwater extending westward in 
a semicircle, about 28 miles long and 4 miles broad, and navigable as 
far as Gagu. Sonmiani contained a population of 3,166 in 1901, 
chiefly fishermen (Mohana), Hindu traders, and a few artisans. Before 
the rise of Karachi, Sonmiani was important as a place through which 
much of the trade of Central Asia was carried via Kalat. In 1805 it 
was taken and burnt by the Joasmi pirates. A British Agent was 
stationed here in 1840-1. Exports have much decreased, and are at 
present confined chiefly to salted fish, fish-maws, and mustard-seed. 

Sonpat. — Ta/isI/ and town in Delhi District, Punjab. See Sonepat. 

Sonpur State. — Feudatory State in Bengal, lying between 20 
32' and 21 n / N. and 83 27' and 84 16' E., with a total area of 
906 square miles. The State was transferred from the Central Pro- 
vinces to Bengal in 1905. It lies to the south of Sambalpur District 
on both sides of the Mahanadi river, between Patna on the west and 
Rairakhol on the east. The head-quarters are at Sonpur, 54 miles 
distant from Sambalpur by road. The country consists of an undu- 
lating plain, with small isolated hills scattered over its surface. The 
Mahanadi flows through its centre, and other rivers are the Ong and 
Suktel, a tributary of the Tel. The Jlra bounds Sonpur to the north 
and the Tel to the south, all these rivers being affluents of the Maha- 
nadi on its right bank. The surface soil has been impoverished by- 
erosion from the rivers. The forests are not extensive, and do not 
contain valuable timber. Copperplate inscriptions found in the neigh- 
bourhood of the town, and attributed to the later Gupta kings and the 
Ganga kings of Kalinga, prove that Sonpur was colonized by the 
Hindus at an early period of history ; and the extensive ruins of houses, 
temples, and wells show that it was formerly a much more important 
place than it is at present. Nothing definite is known of its history 
prior to about 1556, when it was conquered by Madhukar Sah, fourth 
Raja of Sambalpur, and settled on his son Madan Gopal, of whom the 



SONPUR STATE 85 

present ruling family are the direct descendants. They are Chauhan 
Rajputs by caste. The grandfather of the present chief, Niladhar 
Singh Deo, obtained the title of Raja Bahadur for services rendered to 
the British Government during the Sambalpur insurrection. He died 
in 189 1, and was succeeded by his son Pratap Rudra Singh Deo, who 
obtained the same title in recognition of the improved methods of 
administration introduced by him. He died in 1902, and was suc- 
ceeded by his son Raja Blr Mitrodaya Singh Deo, then 28 years old, 
a young man of considerable intelligence and promise, who had for 
some time taken an active part in the administration. A Political 
Agent has been appointed by the Bengal Government for the manage- 
ment of its relations with the State. The population in 1901 was 
169,877, having decreased by 13 per cent, during the previous decade- 
The density is 188 persons per square mile. The State contains one 
town, Sonpur (population, 8,887), an d 899 inhabited villages. Binka, 
lying on the Mahanadi between Sambalpur and Sonpur, is a place of 
some importance. The inhabitants of the State are practically all 
Oriyas, and speak that language. Gahras or Ahirs, Brahmans, Dumals, 
Bhulias, and Kewats or boatmen are the principal castes. The large 
proportion of Brahmans may be attributed to the patronage of the 
great-grandfather of the present Raja, and of his father, who was 
a Sanskrit scholar. 

The soil is sandy and its fertility has been reduced by erosion. 
About 197 square miles, or 22 per cent, of the total area, were culti- 
vated in 1904. Rice occupied 167 square miles, and other crops are 
mung, kultlii, and til. The State contains 1,698 tanks, from which 
nearly 34 square miles can be irrigated. The forests are situated prin- 
cipally along the borders. Sal (Shorea robustd) is the principal timber 
tree, and most of the other common species also occur. The exports 
of forest produce are inconsiderable, as there is a good market for them 
in the State itself. No minerals are worked at present. The weaving 
of coarse cotton and tasar silk cloth are the only industries, and the 
exports consist almost solely of agricultural produce. Before the con- 
struction of the Bengal-Nagpur Railway, when the Mahanadi was the 
main outlet for the trade of Sambalpur, both Sonpur and Binka, were of 
some importance as places of call and transhipment, and numbers 
of boatmen were employed in the carriage of goods on the river. The 
through traffic has now practically vanished, but the produce of Sonpur 
is taken either up to Sambalpur or down to Cuttack. Sonpur is con- 
nected by surface roads with Sambalpur, Bolangir, Rairakhol, and Baud, 
and Binka with Barpali. The State manages its own public works. 

The revenue of the State in 1904 was Rs. 1,20,000, of which Rs. 46,000 
was derived from land, Rs. 18,000 from forests, and Rs. 23,000 from 
excise. The State has been surveyed, but no regular settlement has 



86 SONPUR STATE 

been made, and the village headmen hold on leases granted to them in 
1888. The incidence of land revenue is 5 annas 4 pies per cultivated 
acre. The expenditure in 1904 was Rs. 1,20,000, the main heads 
being Government tribute (Rs. 9,000), expenses of the ruling family 
(Rs. 62,000), general administration (Rs. 13,000), and police (Rs. 9,000). 
The tribute is liable to revision. The educational institutions comprise 
29 schools with 2,109 pupils, including two English middle schools with 
59 pupils, a vernacular middle school, two girls' schools, and a Sanskrit 
school with 12 scholars. The expenditure on education in 1904 was 
Rs. 4,500. At the Census of 1901, 1,758 persons were returned as 
literate, one per cent. (2-1 males and o-i females) being able to read 
and write. Dispensaries have been established at Sonpur and Binka, 
and 23,600 patients were treated in them in 1904. 

Sonpur Town. — Head-quarters of the Feudatory State of the same 
name in Bengal, situated in 20 51' N. and 83° 55' E., on the Maha- 
nadi river at its junction with the Tel, 54 miles by road south of 
Sambalpur station on the Bengal-Nagpur Railway. Population (1901), 
8,887. The town contains two large tanks and a temple of Mahadeo, 
in which copperplates have been found giving the name of a king who 
reigned here in the tenth century. Coins and other remains are also 
found on the site, indicating that Sonpur was a comparatively large 
town at an early period. When the Mahanadi was the highway be- 
tween Sambalpur and Cuttack, Sonpur was a place of considerable 
importance, of which the transfer of trade to the railway has partially 
deprived it. There is some local traffic on the river, and various 
industries are carried on in the town, among which may be mentioned 
the manufacture of brass images, gold-, silver-, and copper-work, silk 
and cotton cloth weaving, and the manufacture of iron implements. 
Sonpur possesses two English middle schools with 55 pupils, a girls' 
school, and a Sanskrit school. 

Sonpur Village. — Village in the head-quarters subdivision of Saran 
District, Bengal, situated in 25 42" N. and 85 12" E., on the right 
bank of the Gandak, close to its confluence with the Ganges. Popula- 
tion (1901), 3,355. It is an important station on the Bengal and 
North-Western Railway, which crosses the Gandak by a fine bridge 
connecting Sonpur with HajTpur on the left bank. There are railway 
workshops which employ some 1,000 hands. The Sonpur fair, or 
Harihar Chattar me/a, is held at the confluence of the Gandak and 
Ganges at the November full moon, and is probably one of the oldest 
fairs in India. It was at Sonpur that Vishnu is reputed to have rescued 
the elephant from the jaws of the crocodile ; and it was here that Rama, 
when on his way to Janakpur to win Slta, built a temple to Harihar 
Nath Mahadeo, which is still largely frequented by pilgrims. The fair 
lasts for a fortnight, but is at its height for two days before and after 



SORAB 87 

the full moon, when Hindus bathe in the Ganges and thus acquire 
exceptional merit. Immense numbers assemble, and goods and 
animals, especially elephants, horses, and cattle, are exposed for sale. 
A cattle show is held at the fair, which is the largest elephant market 
in India. In days gone by the Sonpur race meeting was one of the 
most famous on this side of India, but many causes have combined to 
rob the meeting of its former glories. It is still, however, one of the 
pleasantest picnic gatherings in India for Europeans, who meet in camp 
under the shade of a magnificent mango grove and amuse themselves 
with races, dances, polo, tennis, and visits to the fair, which presents 
Indian life under many interesting aspects. 

Sonthal Parganas. — District in Bengal. See Santal Parganas. 

Sonthals. — Tribe in Bengal. See Santal Parganas. 

Sooree. — Subdivision and town in Birbhum District, Bengal. See 
Suri. 

Sopara.— Ancient town in the Bassein taluka of Thana District, 
Bombay, situated in 19 25' N. and 72 48' E., about 3^ miles north- 
west of Bassein Road and about the same distance south-west of Virar 
on the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway. Population 
(1901), 486. Sopara is said to have been the capital of the Konkan 
from 500 B.C. to a.d. 1300. It is still a rich country town, with a 
crowded weekly market. Under the name of Shurparaka, it appears in 
the Mahabharata as a very holy place, where the five Pandava brothers 
rested on their way to Prabhas. According to Buddhist writers, 
Gautama Buddha, in one of his former births, was Bodhisattva of 
Sopara. This old Indian fame gives support to the suggestion that 
Sopara is Solomon's Ophir. Jain writers make frequent mention of 
Sopara. Under the names Soparaka, Soparaya, and Shorparaga, it is 
mentioned in old inscriptions, about the first or second century B. c. 
The author of the Periplus in the third century a. d. mentions Ouppara 
between Broach and Kalyan as a local mart on the coast. 

Sorab. — North-western taluk of Shimoga District, Mysore, lying 
between 14 13' and 14 39' N. and 74 53' and 75 18' E., with 
an area of 443 square miles. The population in 1901 was 71, 493, 
compared with 70,047 in 1891. The taluk contains one town, Sorab 
(population, 1,622), the head-quarters; and 307 villages. The land 
revenue demand in 1903-4 was Rs. 2,11,000. The Varada river runs 
through the west, at one point near Banavasi leaving and re-entering 
the taluk. From the south it receives the Dandavati, which drains the 
east. The principal hill is Chandragutti (2,794 feet) in the west. 
Except in the west the country is gently undulating, with rice-fields 
and gardens in the valleys. Above the 'wet' lands are stretches of 
open 'dry-crop' fields called hakkal, and in the highest ground are 
kans, patches of virgin evergreen forest. On account of this the wood- 



88 SORAB 

land scenery is unique, as the kans are detached in small portions 
with clearly demarcated margins, due to the distribution of laterite. 
Outside, on the higher ground, the soil is only about 4 inches in depth, 
while within, 15 feet from the edge, it is deep and rich enough to 
support the largest forest trees. These kans are full of wild pepper, 
but more value is attached to the fagm'-psdm, from which toddy is 
extracted by the Halepaikas. Rice, jaggery, and areca-nuts are the 
principal products of the taluk. The best areca gardens are in the 
south and west. When the areca-palms reach a certain height, betel 
and pepper-vines are trained up the stem. Rice and sugar-cane of 
good quality are grown everywhere. The rice-fields are ploughed up as 
soon as the crop has been cut, while the ground is still damp, and are 
left fallow till the early rain in May, no Vaisakh crop being raised. 

Soraon. — The westernmost of the three trans-Gangetic tahsils of 
Allahabad District, United Provinces, comprising the parganas of 
Mirzapur Chauhari, Soraon, and Nawabganj, and lying between 25 32' 
and 25 45' N. and 8i° 36' and 8i° 58' E., with an area of 260 
square miles. Population fell from 186,876 in 1891 to 186,758 in 
1901, the rate of decrease being the lowest in the District. There 
are 423 villages and two towns, including Mau Ai.mma (population, 
6,769). The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 3,01,000, 
and for cesses Rs. 41,000. The tahsll has a higher density, 718 
persons per square mile, than any in the District except that which 
contains the city of Allahabad, and parts of it are more thickly 
populated than any rural area in the United Provinces. The upland 
portion consists of remarkably fertile soil, overspread with a network of 
Jlnls, which supply water for rice cultivation. Excellent sugar-cane 
and rice are grown. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was 163 
square miles, of which 68 were irrigated. Tanks or jhils supply one- 
fourth of the irrigation, and wells most of the remainder. 

Sorath.— Prant or division of Kathiawar, Bombay, situated in 
the south-west corner of the peninsula, and including, among others, 
the chiefships of Junagarh, Porbandar, and Jafarabad. The area 
is 5,217 square miles, and the population in 1901 was 677,987. The 
revenue in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 53,99,349. 

Soron. — Town in the Kasganj tahsll of Etah District, United 
Provinces, situated in 27 54' N. and 78 45' E., on the Burhiganga, 
an old bed of the Ganges. It is the junction of a branch of the 
Cawnpore - Achhnera Railway from Kasganj with a branch of the 
Rohilkhand and Kumaon Railway which passes through Budaun to 
Bareilly. Population (190 1), 12,174. Soron is a place of considerable 
antiquity. According to tradition it was known as Ukala-kshetra, but 
after the destruction of the demon, Hiranya Kasyapa, by Vishnu, in 
his Boar incarnation, the name was changed to Sukara-kshetra {Siikar 



S0U2W SUBURBS 89 

or ' wild boar '). A mound, known as the kila or fort, marks the 
site of the ancient town. A temple dedicated to Sita and Rama, and 
the tomb of a Muhammadan saint, Shaikh Jamal, stand on the mound; 
but large antique bricks strew the ground on all sides, and the founda- 
tions of walls may be traced throughout. The temple was destroyed 
during the fanatical reign of Aurangzeb, but restored towards the close 
of the last century by a wealthy Bania, who built up the vacant interstices 
between the pillars with plain white-washed walls. The architectural 
features of the pillars resemble those of the quadrangle near the Kutb 
Minar at Delhi. Numerous inscriptions by pilgrims in the temple bear 
date from a. d. 1169 1 downward. Soron lies on the old route from the 
foot of the hills to Hathras and Agra, and has some pretensions as 
a trading mart ; but it is chiefly important for its religious associations 
and as the scene of frequent pilgrim fairs. Up to the seventeenth 
century the Ganges flowed in the channel now known as the Burhi- 
ganga ; and devout Hindus, after visiting Muttra, come on to Soron 
to bathe in the stream, which here forms a considerable pool, lined with 
handsome temples and ghats. The pool is now fed by an irrigation 
channel. The most important bathing, however, takes place in the 
Ganges itself, 4 miles north of Soron. The road to Budaun crosses 
the Burhiganga by a fine stone bridge. There are many substantial 
houses and fifty or sixty temples shaded by fine plpa/-trees, and thirty 
large dhhrmsalas or resthouses for pilgrims ; some of these, exquisitely 
carved in Agra stone, attest the wealth and piety of pilgrims from 
the Native States of Gwalior and Bharatpur. The town also contains 
a dispensary, a municipal hall, and a branch of the Church Missionary 
Society. Soron has been a municipality since 1868. During the ten 
years ending 1901 the income and expenditure averaged Rs. 10,000. 
In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 15,000, chiefly derived from octroi 
(Rs. 8,000); and the expenditure was Rs. 20,000. The trade is 
largely devoted to supplying the wants of the pilgrims ; but sugar- 
refining is increasing in importance, and a great deal of cotton yarn 
is spun here as a hand industry. The municipality supports two 
schools and aids two others with a total attendance of 243 pupils. 

South Arcot. — District in Madras. See Arcot, South. 

South Barrackpore. — Town in the Twenty-four Parganas District, 
Bengal. See Barrackpore. 

South Canara. — District in Madras. See Kanara, South. 

South Dum-Dum. — Town in the Twenty-four Parganas District, 
Bengal. See Dum-Dum. 

South Kanara. — District in Madras. See Kanara, South. 

South Suburbs. — Town in the Twenty-four Parganas District, 
Bengal. See Calcutta, South Suburbs. 

1 A. Cunningham, Archaeological Survey Reports, vol. i, p. 267. 



9° 



SOUTH SYLHET 



South Sylhet. — Subdivision of Sylhet District, Eastern Bengal 
and Assam. See Sylhet, South. 

Southern Division (Bombay).— A Division of the Presidency of 



Bombay, lying between 



i3° 5/ 



and 19 8' N. and 7 2° 51' and 



76 32' E., with an area of 24,994 square miles. It comprises the 
Konkan Districts, as well as Belgaum, Dharwar, Bijapur, and North 
Kanara. During the last thirty years population has increased by 

8 per cent.: (1872) 4,693,629, (1881) 4,370,220, (1891) 5,008,063, 
and (1901) 5,070,692. In the last decade, owing to plague, the in- 
crease was only one per cent. The density of population is 203 persons 
per square mile, compared with an average of 151 for the Presidency. 
In 1 90 1 Hindus formed 89 per cent, of the population, Musalmans 

9 per cent., while Jains numbered 73,069, and Christians 35,154. 
The area, population, and revenue of the Districts are : — 



District. 


Area in square 
miles. 


Population, 
1901. 


Land revenue 
and cesses, 

. IO03-4, 
in thousands 
of rupees. 


Belgaum .... 
Bijapur .... 
Dharwar .... 
North Kanara . 
Kolaba .... 
Ratnagiri 

Total 


4,649 
3,669 
4,602 

3,945 
2,13' 
3,99S 


993,976 

735,435 
1,113,298 

454,490 

605,566 

1,167,927 


17,17 
15,35 
27,08 

10,77 
13,48 

9,-7 


24,994 


5,070,692 


93,i2 



Kolaba and Ratnagiri lie in the Konkan, where the rainfall is 
plentiful ; Kanara is half above and half below the Ghats. The 
Division contains 50 towns and 7,527 villages. The largest towns 
are Hubli (population, 60,214), Belgaum (36,878, including canton- 
ments), Dharwar (31,279), Gadag (30,652), and Bijapur (23,811). 

The chief places of commercial importance are Hubli and Dharwar. 
Bijapur is a place of historical interest, and has many archaeological 
remains dating from the time when it was an independent Muham- 
madan kingdom. Saundatti-Yellamma in Belgaum is an important 
place of pilgrimage. 

The Political Agencies shown in the table on the next page are 
under the supervision of the Commissioner of this Division. The 
head-quarters of the Commissioner are at Belgaum. 

Southern Maratha Country (or Bombay Carnatic).— This is the 
portion of the old Karnata, the Kanarese country, included in the 
Bombay Presidency (see Carnatic), and comprises the Districts of 
Belgaum, Bijapur, Dharwar, and North Kanara above the Western 
Ghats, with the Native States of Kolhapur and the Southern Maratha 
Agency, making up a total area of 5,074 square miles, with a popu- 



SOUTHERN MARATHA /AG IRS 



9i 



lation (1901) of 370,265 persons. For the first six centuries of the 
Christian era the country seems to have been ruled by a number 
of petty dynasties, of whom the Kadambas and Gangas are the best 
known. The early Chalukyas, the Rashtrakutas, and the Western 
Chalukyas next held sway, and, were displaced by the Hoysalas who 
disputed the overlordship with the Yadavas of Deogiri. From the 
eleventh to the thirteenth century all real power was in the hands 
of local chiefs, among whom the Kadambas of Goa and Hangal 
and the Rattas of Saundatti occupied a leading place. Under the 
Vijayanagar empire (c. 1336-1565) these petty chiefships maintained 
themselves with more or less formal acknowledgement of the central 
power. Late in the sixteenth century the Bijapur kings began to 
conquer the country ; but their progress was interrupted by conflict with 
the Portuguese and the nascent power of the Marathas, who soon 
ousted the Bijapur governors from these dominions and whose name 
has prevailed in the descriptive title of the country. 



Agency- 


Name of State. 


Area in 
square 
miles. 


Population, 
1 901. 


Revenue, 

1903-4, 

in thousands 

of rupees. 


Kolaba . 
Savantvadi 

Bijapur 

Dharwar 


Janjira . 

Savantvadi 

ijath . . . 

j Daflapur 

Savanur 

Total 


324 

926 

885 

96 

70 


85414 

217,732 

61,868 

6 ,797 
18,446 


5,04 
4>33 

j 3,52 
88 


2,301 


39o,257 


13,77 



Where it adjoins the Deccan plains, the Bombay Southern Maratha 
Country is, like them, a treeless, flat tract, scantily watered and inter- 
spersed with rocky hill ranges. Farther south the western portion is 
covered with forest, which is dense on the line of the Western Ghats, but 
opens out to permit of cultivation where the country becomes more 
level. Farther east again is a well-watered and fertile plain, supplied 
with numerous irrigation reservoirs, beneath which are valuable spice 
gardens and irrigated crops. 

Southern Maratha Jagirs. — A group of States in Bombay, 
under the Political Agent of Kolhapur and the Southern Maratha 
Country, comprising the following jagirs : Jamkhandi, Kurandvad, 
Miraj, Mudhol, Ramdurg, and Sangli. Kurandvad and Miraj have 
each two branches, known as the Senior and Junior States. Except 
Mudhol, the jagirs belong to Konkanasth Brahmans of the Patvardhan 
and Bhave families. The ancestors of the Patvardhans received the 
territories jointly as a grant from the Peshwa in 1763; and although 
the family remained undivided for some years, its three representatives 
resided separately at Miraj, Tasgaon, and Kurandvad. By 1812 the 

VOL. XXIII. g 



92 SOL 'THER^ ' MA RA THA J AG IRS 

power of the Patvardhan family had excited the jealousy of the Peshwa, 
who attempted to strip them of their rights : and in that year, there- 
fore, they placed themselves under the protection of the British Govern- 
ment. The jagirs are divided into a large number of isolated patches, 
scattered over the countrv between the Bhima and the southern frontier 

J t 

of the Presidency. In physical aspects they do not differ materially 
from the adjacent British Districts. Geologically, the northern States 
belong to the Deccan trap series, while those in the south are situated 
within the region of Archaean gneiss. The total area is 2,985 square 
miles, and the total population in 1901 was 626,084, compared with 
639,270 in 1891. The States contain 30 towns and 583 villages. 
Hindus number 545,294, Musalmans 52,502, Jains 27,714, and Chris- 
tians 542. The jagirs have no ethnical unity, the population being in 
parts Maratha. and in parts Kanarese. 

Southern Shan States. — A group of Native States in Burma. 
See Shan States, Southern. 

Spiti (Pitt). — Himalayan waziri or canton of the Kulu subdivision 
of Kangra District, Punjab, lying between 31° 42' and 32 59' N. and 
77 26' and 78 42' E., with an area of 2,155 square miles. The 
population (1901) is only 3,231, or less than 2 persons per square 
mile. Spiti is completely hemmed in by lofty mountain ranges with 
an average elevation of 18,000 feet, which divide it from Lahul on the 
west, Bashahr on the south, Great Tibet on the east, and Ladakh on 
the north. It includes the upper valley of the Spiti river, which, 
rising in the Western Himalayas, at about 16,000 feet, flows south-east 
into Tibet, and thence enters Bashahr at an elevation of 11,000 feet, 
and ultimately finds its way into the Sutlej ; the upper valley of the 
Para river, which also enters Tibet and then falls into the Spiti, their 
united streams equalling the Sutlej in volume at their junction with 
that river : the valley of the Isamp, whose waters fall into the Indus ; 
and the eastern half of the Upper Chandra valley. Of these four 
valleys, only that of the Spiti is inhabited. The most important 
tributary of the Spiti river is the Pin, which rises in the angle of the 
Mid-Himalayan and Manirang ranges, and joins the Spiti after a course 
of 45 miles, a short distance above Dankar, the principal village of 
the valley. The mountains of Spiti are yet more lofty than in the 
neighbouring country of Lahul. In the Outer Himalayas is one peak 
of 23,064 feet, and many along the whole line are considerably over 
20,000. Of the Mid-Himalayas, two peaks exceed 21,000 feet, and 
in the southern range the Manirang is 21,646 feet in height. From 
the main ranges transverse lines of mountains project far into the 
valley on either side, leaving in many cases only a narrow gorge, 
through which flows the Spiti river. Even these minor ranges contain 
peaks the height of which in many instances exceeds 17,000 feet. The 



SPIT/ 93 

mean elevation of the Spiti valley is 12,981 feet above sea-level. 
Several villages are situated at an elevation of upwards of 13,000 feet, 
and one or two as high as 14,000 feet. Scarcely any vegetation clothes 
the bare and rocky mountain slopes ; yet the scenery is not devoid 
of a rugged grandeur, while the deep and peculiar colour of the crags 
often gives most picturesque effects to the otherwise desolate landscape. 
Red and yellow predominate in the rocks, contrasting finely with the 
white snowy peaks in the background and the deep blue sky overhead. 
The villages stand for the most part on little flat plateaux, above the 
cliffs of the Spiti river ; and their white houses, dotted about among 
the green cultivated plots, afford rare oases in the desert of stony 
debris which covers the mountain sides. There is practically no 
rain, but the snowfall in winter is very severe. The mean temperature 
of the Upper Spiti valley is 1 7 in January and 6o° in July. 

The history of Spiti commences with the first formation of the 
kingdom of Ladakh, after which event the valley seems for a while 
to have been separated from that government, and attached to some 
other short-lived Tibetan principality. About 1630 it fell into the 
hands of Sinagi Namgyal, king of Ladakh, who allotted it to his third 
son, Tenchbog. Soon afterwards, it became a part of the Guge princi- 
pality, which lay to the east, in what is now Chinese Tibet ; and it did 
not again come under the dominion of Ladakh till about 1720. In 
that year the king of Ladakh, at the conclusion of a war with Guge 
and Lhasa, married the daughter of the Tibetan commander, and 
received Spiti as her dower. Thenceforward the valley remained 
a province of Ladakh ; but, from its remote and inaccessible position, 
it was practically left for the most part to govern itself, the official 
sent from Leh usually disappearing as soon as the harvest had been 
gathered in and the scanty revenue collected. Spiti was always liable to 
be harried by forays ; but the people, being an unwarlike race, preferred 
the payment of blackmail to the armed defence of their barren valley. 

After the Sikhs annexed the neighbouring principality of Kulu in 
1 84 1, they dispatched a force to plunder Spiti. The inhabitants, 
in accordance with their usual tactics, retreated into the mountains, 
and left their houses and monasteries to be plundered and burnt. The 
Sikhs retired as soon as they had. taken everything upon which they 
could lay hands, and did not attempt to annex the valley to Kulu, 
or to separate it from Ladakh. In 1846, however, on the cession 
of the trans-Sutlej States to the British after the first Sikh War, the 
Government, with the object of securing a road to the wool districts 
of Chang Thang, added Spiti to Kulu, giving other territory in exchange 
to the Maharaja of Kashmir. In the same year, Captain (afterwards 
Sir A.) Cunningham and Mr. Vans Agnew demarcated the boundary 
between Spiti, Ladakh, and Chinese Tibet. Since that date, the 

G 2 



94 SPITI 

valley has been peacefully governed by the native hereditary ruler or 
nono, supported by the Assistant Commissioner of Kulu. The nono 
is assisted by five elders or gatpos, and practically manages all the 
internal affairs of the canton in accordance with the Spiti Regulation 
(No. I of 1873). The British codes are not applicable to Spiti, unless 
specially extended. 

The people are Tartars by race and Buddhist by religion, and 
extensive monasteries often crown the lower ridges overhanging the 
villages. The principal and richest monastery is at Ki ; that of 
Tangiut receives members of the nonets family ; while at Dankhar 
is a less important monastery. The monks of these three all belong 
to the celibate Gelukpa sect. At Pin is a smaller monastery, belong- 
ing to the Dukhpa sect, which permits marriage, and the descendants 
of its inmates still practise singing and dancing as allowed by their 
founder. Talo contains an extensive himasarai, built by the gods 
in a single night. As this was not constructed by Buddhists, it does 
not rank as a monastery (gonpa). It possesses a remarkable collection 
of nearly life-size idols, and one of Chamba 16 feet high. Unlike the 
gonpas, which are all built on lofty eminences, it stands on a level spot 
and contains about 300 monks. The monasteries, which are endowed 
with tithes of grain {pun) levied from every field, are extensive buildings, 
standing apart from the villages. In the centre of the pile are the 
public rooms, consisting of chapels, refectories, and storerooms ; round 
them cluster the separate cells in which the monks live. Each 
landholder's family has its particular tasha or cell in the monastery 
to which it is hereditarily attached ; and in this all the monks of the 
family — uncles, nephews, and brothers— may be found living together. 
The monks ordinarily mess in these separate quarters, and keep their 
books, clothes, cooking utensils, and other private property in them. 
Some mess singly, others two or three together. A boy monk, if he 
has no uncle to look after him, is made a pupil to some old monk, and 
lives in his cell ; there are generally two or three chapels — one for 
winter, another for summer, and a third perhaps the private chapel 
of the abbot or head lama. 

The monks meet in the chapel to perform the services, which 
ordinarily consist of readings from the sacred books ; a sentence is 
read out and then repeated by the whole congregation. Narrow 
carpets are laid lengthways on the floor of the chapel, one for each 
monk ; each has his allotted place, and a special position is assigned 
to the reader ; the abbot sits on a seat of honour, raised a little above 
the common level of the floor ; the chapels are fine large rooms, 
open down the centre, which is separated from the sides by rows 
of wooden pillars. At the far end is the altar, consisting of a row 
of large coloured figures, the images of the avatar or incarnation of 



SPITI 95 

Buddha of the present age, of the coming avatar of the next age, and 
of the gurus Rimbochi, Atisha, and other saints. In some chapels 
a number of small brass images from China are ranged on shelves 
on one side of the altar, and on the other stands a bookcase full 
of the sacred books, which are bundles of loose sheets printed from 
engraved blocks in the fashion which has been in use in Tibet for many 
centuries. The walls all round the chapel are painted with figures 
of male or female divinities, saints, and demons, or hung with pictures 
on cloth with silk borders ; similar pictures on cloth are also suspended 
across the chapel on ropes. The best pictures are brought from Great 
Tibet as presents to the monastery by monks who return from taking 
the degree of gdang at Lhasa, or who have been living for some years 
in one of the monasteries of that country. They are painted in a very 
quaint and conventional style, but with considerable power of drawing 
and colouring. Huge cylindrical prayer-wheels, which spin round at 
a slight touch of the finger, stand round the room, or on each side 
of the altar. In the storerooms among the public property are kept 
the dresses, weapons, and fantastic masks used in the chain or religious 
plays ; also the drums and cymbals, and the robes and quaint head- 
dresses worn by the superior monks at high ceremonies. 

The refectory or public kitchen is only used on the occasion of 
certain festivals, which sometimes last several days, during which 
special services are performed in the chapels. While these festivals 
last, the monks mess together, eating and drinking their fill of meat, 
barley, butter, and tea. The main source from which the expense of 
these feasts is met is the ///// (tithe), which is not divided among the 
monks for everyday consumption in the separate cells. To supply his 
private larder, each monk has, in the first place, all he gets from his 
family in the shape of the produce of the ''lama's field' or otherwise; 
secondly, he has his share, according to his rank in the monastery, 
of the bula or funeral offerings and of the harvest alms ; thirdly, 
anything he can acquire in the way of fees for attendance at marriages 
or other ceremonies or in the way of wages for work done in the 
summer. The funeral offerings made to the monasteries on the death 
of any member of a household consist of money, clothes, pots and 
pans, grain, butter, &c. ; the harvest alms consist of grain collected by 
parties of five or six monks sent out on begging expeditions all over 
Spiti by each monastery just after the harvest. They go round from 
house to house in full dress, and standing in a row, chant certain 
verses, the burden of which is — ' We are men who have given up the 
world, give us, in charity, the means of life ; by so doing you will 
please God, whose servants we are.' The receipts are considerable, 
as each house gives something to every party. On the death of 
a monk, his private property, whether kept in his cell or deposited 



cj6 SPITI 

in the house of the head of the family, goes not to the monastery, but 
to his family — first to the monks of it, if any, and in their default, 
to the head or kdtig chimpa. When a monk starts for Lhasa, to take 
his degree, his kang chimpa is bound to give him what he can towards 
the expenses of the journey, but only the well-to-do men can afford 
it. Many who go to Lhasa get high employment under the Tibetan 
government, being sent to govern monasteries, &c, and remain there 
for years ; they return in old age to their native monastery in Spiti, 
bringing a good deal of wealth, of which they always give some at 
once to their families. 

The cultivated area in Spiti is only 2 square miles. The principal 
crop is barley. The exports include cereals, manufactured cloth, yaks, 
and yaks' tails. The imports comprise salt, tobacco, madder, and 
tea from Lhasa ; wool, turquoises, amber, and wooden vessels from 
Kanawar ; coarse cloth, dyes, and soda from Ladakh ; and iron from 
Mandi and Kanawar. h. handsome breed of ponies is imported from 
Chamarti. There are no police, schools, or dispensaries. The 
shortest route to Spiti from Kulu is over the Hamta pass (14,200 feet), 
up the Chandra valley over the Great Shigri glacier, and then over the 
Kanzam La or pass (14,900 feet), so that this is beyond question the 
most inaccessible part of the British dominions in India. Uankhar 
is the chief village and the head-quarters of the no/10. 

Sravana Belgola. — Village in the Channarayapatna taluk of 
Hassan District, Mysore, situated in 12 51' N. and 76 2c/ E., 8 miles 
south-east of Channarayapatna. Population (1901), 1,926. This is 
the chief seat of the Jain sect in Southern India, being the residence 
of the principal guru. At the top of Vindhyabetta or Indrabetta, 
400 feet above the village, stands the colossal statue of Gomata, 57 feet 
high, surrounded by numerous sacred buildings. On Chandrabetta 
there are also many temples, and between the two hills a splendid tank 
(be/go/a). According to the tradition of the Jains, Bhadraba.hu, one 
of the Srutakevali, as the' immediate successors of the personal dis- 
ciples of Vardhamana or Mahavlra are called, died here in a cave on 
Chandrabetta, while leading a migration to the South from Ujjuin, to 
escape a twelve years' famine which he had predicted. He is said 
to have been accompanied as his chief attendant by the Maurya 
emperor, Chandra Gupta, who had abdicated the throne and, in 
accordance with Jain rules, adopted the life of a hermit. These events 
are borne out by rock inscriptions of great antiquity, though without 
a date. The grandson of Chandra Gupta, it is said, paid a visit to the 
spot, and the present town arose out of his encampment. The oldest 
bastl on the hill is one dedicated to Chandra Gupta. Its fagade is 
sculptured with ninety scenes from the lives of Bhadrabahu and 
Chandra Gupta ; but these are more modern, dating perhaps from 



SRlGOBINDPUR 97 

early in the twelfth century. The gigantic statue was erected, accord- 
ing to inscriptions at its foot in Nagarl, Old Kanarese, Grantha, 
and Vatteluttu characters, and in the Marathi, Kanarese, and Tamil 
languages, by Chamunda Raya. He was minister and general to the 
Ganga king Rachamalla, and the date of the statue is probably 983. 
The name of the sculptor may have been Aritto Nemi. The surround- 
ing enclosures were erected, as stated at the foot of the statue, by 
Ganga Raja, general of the Hoysala king Vishnuvardhana, their date 
being n 16. The image is nude and stands erect, facing the north, 
being visible for many miles round the country. The face is a remark- 
able one, with a serene expression ; the hair is curled in short spiral 
ringlets all over the head, while the ears are long and large. The 
figure is treated conventionally, the shoulders being very broad, the 
arms hanging straight down the sides, with the thumbs turned out- 
wards. The waist is small. From the knee downwards the legs are 
somewhat dwarfed. The feet are placed on the figure of a lotus. 
Representations of ant-hills rise on either side, with figures of a creep- 
ing plant springing from them, which twines over the. thighs and arms. 
These symbolize the complete spiritual abstraction of a yati, absorbed 
and motionless during his long period of penance. Though by no 
means elegant, the image is not wanting in majestic and impressive 
grandeur. ' Nothing grander or more imposing,' says Mr. Fergusson, 
'exists anywhere out of Egypt, and even there no known statue sur- 
passes it in height.' It was probably cut out of a rock which projected 
high above the hill, or the top of the hill itself may have been cut 
away. The figure has no support above the thighs. The Jain estab- 
lishment was maintained by successive dynasties, until, in common 
with others, it was shorn of many of its privileges and emoluments by 
Tipu Sultan, and is now in a reduced condition. Brass vessels are 
made in the place, and there is some local trade. The municipality 
formed in 1893 became a Union in 1904. The receipts and expendi- 
ture during the eight years ending 1901 averaged Rs. 470 and Rs. 360. 
In 1903-4 they were Rs. 500 and Rs. 1,400. 

Sravasti. — Ancient city in Northern India, the site of which is 
uncertain. See Set Mahet. 

Srigobindpur. — Town in the Batala tahsll of Gurdaspur District, 
Punjab, situated in 31 41" N. and 75 29' E., on the north bank of 
the Beas, 30 miles from Gurdaspur town. Population (1901), 4,380. 
It is a place of great sanctity among the Sikhs, having been founded 
by Guru Arjun, who bought the site, built the town, and called it after 
his son and successor, Har Gobind. The municipality was created in 
1867. The income and expenditure during the ten years ending 
1902-3 averaged Rs. 6,300 and Rs. 6,100 respectively. In 1903-4 
the income was Rs. 4,600, chiefly from octroi ; and the expenditure was 



9 8 SRIGOBINDPUR 

Rs. 6,400. The town is of little commercial importance, and its chief 
trade is in sugar, of which there are several refineries. The municipality 
maintains an Anglo-vernacular middle school and a dispensary. 

Sriharikota. — Island in the Gudur taluk of Nellore District, 
Madras, lying between 13 29/ and 13 59' N. and 8o° 1 1' and 8o° 21' E. 
Population (1901), 11,149. It i- s a l° n g> l° w bank of alluvial deposit, 
rising a few feet above sea-level, 35 miles in length and 6 miles wide 
at its broadest part. It is washed on the east by the Bay of Bengal 
and on the west by the Pulicat Lake, and stretches from Coromandel 
on the south to Dugarazupatnam on the north, where it is separated 
from the mainland by a narrow channel. The island, which was 
transferred from the District of Madras City in 1865, contains eighteen 
Government villages, one shrotriem, and one zamindari village. It is 
covered with dense jungle, which forms one of the chief sources of 
supply of firewood for the Madras market, the wood being transported 
by a tramway 13 miles long and carried to Madras by the Buckingham 
Canal. Casuarina grows well on the sandy soil. The climate is 
unhealthy, and there is much elephantiasis. Along the Pulicat Lake 
a narrow strip of land is under rice, and round the huts scanty crops 
of ragi are raised. The island is one of the homes of the Yanadis, 
a forest tribe numerous in this District. 

Srikurmam (' Holy tortoise '). — Place of pilgrimage in the Chica- 
cole taluk of Ganjam District, Madras, situated in 18 i6'N. and 84 
if E., 9 miles south-east of Chicacole. Population (1901), 6,510. 
The temple is dedicated to the Tortoise incarnation of Vishnu. It was 
formerly a Saiva shrine, but is said to have been changed into a Vaish- 
nav place of worship by the celebrated Hindu reformer Ramanuj- 
acharya. The gateways and pillars of the granite verandas round the 
temple are of great architectural beauty ; and it contains many old 
inscriptions in Telugu and Devanagari characters, which cover a period 
of 800 years from the eleventh century and afford unique material 
regarding the history of various early dynasties, such as the Gangas, 
Matsyas, Silas, and Chalukyas. The most important festival at Sri- 
kurmam is the Dolotsavam, held annually in March, at which about 
20,000 pilgrims are present. 

Sri Madhopur. — Twn in the Danta Ramgarh tahsll of the Sambhar 
nizamat of the State of Jaipur, Rajputana, situated in 27 28' N. and 
75 36' E., about 40 miles north of Jaipur city. Population (1901), 
6,892. The streets are laid out on the same rectangular plan as at the 
capital. The town possesses 6 schools attended by about 330 boys, 
and a hospital with accommodation for 4 in-patients. 

Srlmushnam. — Village in the Chidambaram taluk of South Arcot 
District, Madras, situated in n° 23' N. and 79 24' E. Population 
(1901), 3,918. It has an old Vaishnav temple, which is considered to 



SRINAGAR CITY 99 

rank next to that at Srirangam in point of sanctity. The idol of 
Bhuvarahaswami in it is alleged to be self-created. The shrine is said 
to have been destroyed three times during the Kali Yuga, and to have 
been rebuilt as it now is by Achyutappa Naik of Tanjore. Among 
some fine carvings in a black stone (probably trap) are four well- 
executed figures, said to represent Achyutappa Naik and his three 
brothers. The local history of the temple relates that the locality 
where it is situated was called Snmushnam ('destruction of prosperity') 
because Vishnu lived there after rescuing the world from the depths 
of the ocean, whither it had been carried by the demon Hiranyaksha. 
The drops of water which ran off his body when he emerged from the 
sea made the reservoir attached to the shrine. There are two great 
annual festivals. At one of them the idol is taken to bathe in the sea 
at the point on the shore opposite the supposed meeting-place, out at 
sea, of the waters of the Vellar and the Coleroon. 

Srinagar City. — Capital of Kashmir State, situated in 34° 5' N. and 
74 50' E., at an elevation of 5,250 feet above sea-level. The city lies 
along the banks of the Jhelum, with a length of about 3 miles and an 
average breadth of 1^ miles on either side of the river. Originally 
houses were confined to the right bank of the river, and the site 
possesses many advantages, strategical and economic. It is not known 
when the extension on the left bank took place, but the royal residence 
was transferred to it in the reign of Ananta, 1028-63. 

Modern Srinagar, on the right bank of the Jhelum, occupies the 
same position as the ancient city of king Pravarasena II, who ruled at 
some period of the sixth century. Kalhana, in his 
famous chronicle, says that the city contained 
3,600,000 houses, and, writing of his own times, he states that there were 
mansions reaching to the clouds. Later Mirza Haidar and Abul Fazl 
mention the lofty houses of Srinagar built of pine-wood ; and Mirza 
Haidar says that the houses had five storeys, and that each storey con- 
tained apartments, halls, galleries, and towers. The city lies cradled 
between the hill of Sarika, now corrupted into Han Parbat, and the 
hill of Gopa (Gopadri), now commonly known as Takht-i-Sulaiman or 
' Solomon's throne.' Beyond the hills lies the exquisite Dal Lake, the 
never-failing source of food as well as pleasure to the citizens. In 
Hindu times the Harl Parbat was not fortified. The present fort on 
the summit is quite modern, and the bastioned stone wall enclosing the 
hill was built by Akbar. There are various legends regarding the temple 
known to the Hindus as Sankaracharya, which crowns the picturesque 
peak of the Takht-i-Sulaiman. The superstructure is not ancient ; but 
the massive and high base of the temple is probably very old, and is 
connected witli the worship of Jyeshtharudra, in whose honour the 
legendary king Jalauka built a shrine. 



ioo SKIN AGAR CITY 

There are not many buildings of note in Srlnagar. On the left bank 
stands the Shergarhi, the modern palace of the Dogra rulers, where the 
Maharaja and his family live and the State officials work. The site was 
chosen by the Afghan governors for their fortified residence. Across 
the river is the finest ghat in Srlnagar, the Basant Bagh, with grand 
stone steps pillaged from the mosque of Hasanabad, a reversal of the 
more common conditions in Kashmir, for most of the modern buildings 
in the valley are formed of materials robbed from the old Hindu 
temples. Lower down on the right bank is the beautiful mosque of 
Shah Hamadan, one of the most sacred places in Kashmir. As usual, 
it was built on the foundations of a Hindu temple, and a Hindu idol 
in a niche in the stone foundation is daily worshipped by the Hindus. 
It is constructed of deodar-wood beautifully carved. The pagoda-like 
roof is surmounted by a curious finial capped with brass, and the four 
corners of the roof are finished by a kind of gargoyle with large wooden 
tassels attached, a form of construction which distinctly suggests 
Buddhist influence. Next in sanctity to the Shah Hamadan is the 
great mosque, or Jama Masjid, a short distance from the right bank 
of the Jhelum, between the bend of the river and the Hari Parbat. 
This is a Saracenic building of some grandeur, with cloisters, about 
1 20 yards in length, supported by grand pillars of deodar 30 feet in 
length, resting on stone foundations, once part of Hindu temples. The 
Jama Masjid has passed through many vicissitudes. Originally built 
by the great king Zain-ul-abidin, it was many times destroyed by fire, 
and was many times rebuilt, once by Shah Jahan. It was repaired 
by the Afghan Muhammad Azim Khan. The Sikhs closed the mosque 
for twenty-three years, but their Musalman governor, Shaikh Ghulam 
Muhi-ud-dln, reopened it. The ground on which it stands is still sacred 
to Buddhists from Ladakh and to the Hindus. Nearly opposite to the 
Shah Hamadan is the stone mosque founded in the reign of Jahangir 
by his queen Nur Jahan. This was rejected by the Kashmiris on 
account of the sex of the founder, and has always been appropriated 
to secular uses. Other notable religious buildings of the city are the 
shrine of Makhdum Sahib below the Hari Parbat, and those of Plr 
Dastglr and the Nakshbandi. 

Srlnagar means the city of Sri or Lakshmi, the goddess of fortune ; 
but to the people of the valley the city is still known as Kashmir, 
a name full of meaning, inasmuch as until quite recent years the 
welfare of the villagers was subordinated to the selfish interest of the 
city people, and Srlnagar was in fact as well as in name Kashmir. 

Admirably situated on a navigable river, with canals leading to the 
Dal and Anchar Lakes, in a neighbourhood of extraordinary fertility, 
and recently endowed with an excellent water-supply, the city of the 
goddess of fortune is liable to cruel visitations of fires, floods, earth- 



DESCRIPTION 101 

quakes, and cholera. The wooden houses are an easy prey to fire ; 
and every man, woman, and child carries a potential instrument for 
a conflagration in the kangar, or kangri, and the beds of straw very 
quickly start a fire. Easily lighted, these fires are very difficult to 
extinguish, as the wretched lanes are narrow and tortuous, and the 
people very helpless and inert. Twice, in the time of the late Maharaja 
Ranblr Singh, the greater part of the city was burnt down, and before 
his accession Srinagar had been destroyed by fire sixteen times. Within 
the last ten years there have been two serious fires. One broke out 
near the second bridge and destroyed nearly a mile of the city, and 
the other burnt down the chief emporium of trade, the Maharajganj. 

The city chokes the course of the Jhelum ; and when continuous 
warm rain in the southern mountains melts the snows, the river comes 
down in high flood and great loss is caused to the lower parts. In 
1893 there was a memorable flood; but luckily the climax came in 
daytime and only seventeen of the city people were killed, sixteen from 
drowning and one from the falling of a house. The first bridge, the 
Amiran Kadal, stood, though it was submerged ; but the second bridge, 
the Hawa Kadal, succumbed and carried away the other five bridges 
which span the river. The old-fashioned and picturesque Amiran 
Kadal has now been replaced by a handsome masonry bridge. The 
flood of 1893 was surpassed by the yet more serious inundation of 1903. 

The valley is liable to earthquakes, and since the fifteenth century 
eleven great earthquakes have occurred, all of long duration and 
accompanied by great loss of life. The last two assumed their most 
violent form in an elliptical area of which Srinagar and Baramula were 
the focuses. In 1885 the shocks lasted from May 30 till August 16. 
There was a general panic and the people slept out of doors. Just 
as the style of house in Srinagar lends itself to conflagration, so does its 
very frailty enable it to bend before the shock of the earthquake. 

In the great famine of 1877-9, though the city did not suffer to 
the same extent as the villages, it is stated that the population was 
reduced from 127,400 to 60,000. 

Epidemics of cholera are unfortunately frequent. In the nineteenth 
century there were ten visitations, that of 1892 probably proving the 
most disastrous; 5,781 persons died at Srinagar and the mortality in 
one day rose to 600. All business was stopped, and the only shops which 
remained open were those of the sellers of white cloth for winding-sheets. 
The epidemics were rendered more terrible by the filthy habits of 
the people and the neglect of sanitation. Since 1892, conditions have 
improved. A good water-supply has enabled the authorities to keep 
subsequent epidemics in hand, and well-drained airy streets are replac- 
ing the squalid alleys. Streets have been paved and many narrow pits 
and excavations have been filled in, but much still remains to be done. 



102 SR IN AGAR CITY 

In spite of drawbacks, the population has risen from 118,960 in 

1891 to 122, 618 in 1901. Of this total, 27,873 are Hindus and 94,021 

_ , ,. Musalmans. The mean density is 15,^27 persons 

Population. .. . } . . n 

per square mile, an increase of 451 since 1891. 

The Kashmiris are notoriously a prolific race, and families of ten to 
fourteen are not uncommon. 

The once famous shawl industry is now only a tradition. The 
trade received its death-blow in 1870, when war broke out between 
Germany and France ; and the lingering hope of 
revival was shattered by the famine of 1877-9, when 
the poor weakly shawl-weavers died like flies. A full description of 
shawl-weaving will be found in Moorcroft's Travels, vol. ii, chap. iii. 
The State took Rs. 20 per annum from employers of shawl-weavers per 
head, an impost of 30 per cent, on the manufactured article, and an 
export duty of Rs. 7-15 on a long shawl and Rs. 5-13 on a square 
shawl ; but the weavers earned only one or two annas per diem. 
According to M. Dauvergne, the Kashmiri shawl dates back to the 
time of the emperor Babar. The first shawls which reached Europe 
were brought by Napoleon, at the time of the campaign in Egypt, as 
a present for the future empress Josephine, and from that time shawls 
became fashionable. The shawl was made of the finest wool (pashm), 
obtained from the goats of the Tibetan mountains, the best material 
coming from the Tian Shan (Celestial Mountains) and Ush Tarfan. 
The finest shawls were manufactured between the years 1865 and 1872. 
Prices ranged from Rs. 150 to Rs. 5,000 (British rupees). From 1862 
to 1870 the export of shawls averaged 25 to 28 lakhs per annum, 
and when the trade was at its zenith 25,000 to 28,000 persons were 
engaged in the manufacture. 

Many of the shawl-weavers who survived the famine of 187 7-9 
have now found occupation in the manufacture of carpets, and several 
Europeans carry on this business. The work is of good quality, 
and the pattern after being designed by the artist is recorded. The 
description (tallni) contains a series of hieroglyphs, intelligible only 
to the craft, indicating numbers and colours. The man who reads 
these calls out to the rows of sickly men and boys who sit at the 
loom, 'lift five and use red,' or 'lift one and use green'; but neither 
he nor the weavers have any idea as to what the pattern of the fabric 
will be. Many persons are employed in embroidering felts or namdas. 
The best are imported from Yarkand, but felts of a somewhat inferior 
description are manufactured locally. The coloured felts embroidered 
in Srinagar are perhaps the most artistic of the local textiles. Calico- 
printing is extensively carried on. Coarse locally manufactured cloth 
is used, and the patterns are similar to the shawl designs. The dyes 
employed are indigo, safnower, and madder. 



INDUSTRIES to;, 

The lacquered work, or papier mache, once had a great reputation, 
but at present the industry is in a somewhat reduced condition. The 
amount of real papier mache made from the pulp of paper is small, 
and the lacquer-workers chiefly apply their beautiful designs to smooth 
wood. These designs are very intricate, and the drawing is all free- 
hand. The skill shown by them in sketching and designing is remark- 
able. The work is known as kari-kalamddni, as the best specimens 
of the old work were pen-boxes {kalamdan) ; but a variety of articles, 
such as tables, cabinets, and trays, are now made, and the richer 
classes decorate their ceilings and walls. Papier mache has perhaps 
suffered more than any other industry from the taste of the foreign 
purchaser, and copal and other European varnishes are now largely 
used. 

The silver-work is extremely beautiful, and some of the indigenous 
patterns, the chinar and lotus leaf, are of exquisite design. The silver- 
smith works with a hammer and chisel, and will faithfully copy any 
design that may be given to him. Complaints are very common regard- 
ing the quality of the silver put into the work, and some simple system 
of assay would be a boon, not only to the purchaser but also to the 
manufacturer. 

Perhaps the most effective product is the copper-work. The copper- 
smith works with a hammer and chisel, and many of the present 
coppersmiths are men who used once to work in silver. They also 
work in brass. Their designs are quaint and bold, and they are very 
ready to adopt any new pattern that may be offered to them. The 
copper-work of Srinagar is admirably adapted for electro-plating, and 
some smiths now turn out a finer kind of article specially for that 
purpose. A large demand has arisen for beautiful copper trays framed 
as tables in carved walnut-wood, and the carpenter is now the close 
ally of the coppersmith. Of the enamel work the enamels on brass are 
the best, though the enamelled silver-work is very pretty. A develop- 
ment in recent years has been the clever imitation of Tibetan teapots 
and bowls, and of Yarkand and Kashgar copper vessels. After manu- 
facture, these are buried in the earth or otherwise treated to give an 
appearance of age. 

The woodwork perhaps lacks the finish of Punjab carving, but the 
Kashmiri carver is second to none in his skill as a designer. He 
works with a hammer and chisel, and a great deal of the roughness and 
inequality of his pieces is due to the difficulty of obtaining seasoned 
walnut-wood. The carving is now much bolder than it was formerly, 
the patterns are larger and the carving very deep. Beautiful ceilings of 
perfect design, cheap and effective, are made by a few carpenters, who 
with marvellous skill piece together thin slices of pine-wood. This is 
known as khatamband. A great impetus has been given to this industry 



io 4 SRI N AGAR CITY 

by the builders of house-boats, and the darker colours of the walnut- 
wood have been mixed with the lighter shades of the pine. A good 
specimen of modern woodwork is found in the well-known shrine of 
Nakshbandi not far from the Jama Masjid. A few of the khatamband 
ceilings have been introduced into England. 

There is a large trade in leather. Hides are prepared in the villages 
by the Watals and are then brought to Srlnagar, where they undergo 
further preparation. The leathern portmanteaux and valises made in 
Srlnagar stand an amount of rough usage which few English solid 
leather bags would survive. 

The furriers of Srlnagar chiefly depend for their livelihood on the 
business given to them by sportsmen, who send in skins to be cured. 
The recent law for the protection of game, under which the sale of 
skins and horns is prohibited, has curtailed the business of the furriers. 

The lapidaries possess very great skill, and are especially proficient 
as seal-cutters. 

Kashmir was once famous for its paper, which was much in request 
in India for manuscripts, and was used by all who wished to impart 
dignity to their correspondence. The pulp from which the paper is 
made is a mixture of rags and hemp fibre, obtained by pounding these 
materials under a lever-mill, worked by water-power. Lime and some 
kind of soda are used to whiten the pulp. The pulp is then placed in 
stone troughs or baths and mixed with water, and from this mixture 
a layer of the pulp is extracted on a light frame of reeds. This layer is 
the paper, which is pressed and dried in the sun. Next it is polished 
with pumice-stone, and its surface is glazed with rice water. A final 
polishing with onyx stone is given, and the paper is then ready for use. 
It is durable and in many ways excellent, but it cannot compete with 
the cheap mill-paper of India. 

The boating industry closely concerns the people of the city. Ex- 
cluding boats owned by private persons and used for private purposes, 
there are about 2,400 boats employed in trade and passenger traffic. 
The greater portion of the grain and wood imported by river is brought 
in large barges not unlike canal barges. These are towed or poled 
up-stream and drop down the river with the current. There are two 
kinds of barge. The larger will carry a cargo of 800 to 1,000 maunds, 
while the smaller can carry 400 maunds. One of the most common 
form of boats is the dunga, a flat-bottomed boat, about 50 to 60 feet in 
length, and about 6 feet in width, drawing about 2 feet of water. 

A high school is maintained by the State with an average daily 

attendance of 326 in 1900-r, and several primary schools are scattered 

about in the various muhallas. Excellent results 

are said to be attained ; but though the quality may 

be good, the quantity is small. 



SRIXGER7 T05 

There is an excellent State hospital in Srinagar, at which about 

11,000 in-patients and 28,000 out-patients are treated in the year, and 

two branch dispensaries which deal with 32,000 out- 

11 a l •.. 1 i.j Medical, 

patients annually. A zanana hospital was completed 

in 1899 at a cost of Rs. 40,000. 

In medical as well as in educational work Srinagar is fortunate in 
enjoying as auxiliaries to the State schools and hospitals the noble and 
unselfish services of the Church Missionary Society. The history of 
the mission is interesting, and recalls the honoured names of Robert 
Clark, Elmslie, Maxwell, and Downes. Opposed, despised, and perse- 
cuted, these good men stuck bravely to their work ; and the small 
and almost hopeless beginning made in 1865 by Dr. Elmslie, without 
a habitation and without friends, has grown into a well-equipped force 
which plays a civilizing part in the lives of the people. Outward 
opposition has given place to genuine admiration, and in 1893 the 
present Maharaja presided at the opening of the women's wards of the 
mission hospital. The leper asylum has been made over to the care 
of the mission. At the beginning of 1902 this had 76 patients, and 
69 others were admitted during the year. In the same year the Medical 
Mission treated 14,515 out-patients and 1,151 in-patients, paid 36,969 
visits, and performed 3,147 operations. Apart from the work done at 
the hospital, the missionaries tour in the most remote parts of the State. 

Srinagar Town. — Town in Garhwal District, United Provinces, 
situated in 30 13' N. and 78 46' E., on the left bank of the Alak- 
nanda, at an elevation of 1,706 feet above sea-level. Population (1 901), 
2,091. The old town was founded in the seventeenth century and 
became the capital of Garhwal ; but it was washed away in 1894 in the 
flood caused by the bursting of the Gohna lake. The new town has 
been built on a higher site, and is well laid out. Srinagar ranks next 
to Kotdwara in importance, and owes its trade chiefly to its 
position on the pilgrim route. It contains a fine hospital and a police 
station, and is administered under Act XX of 1856, with an income of 
about Rs. 1,100. A private school has 198 pupils. 

Sringeri. — A jaglr in the west of the Koppa taluk of Kadur 
District, Mysore, lying between 13 22' and 13 28' N. and 75 17' 
and 75° 23' E., with an area of 44 square miles. Population (1901), 
10,656. The jaglr contains one town and 259 villages. The Tunga 
river runs through it from south-west to north-east, and the country is 
pure Malnad or highland. The annual rainfall averages 150 inches. 
Sringeri town is situated in 13 25' N. and 75 19' E., on the Tunga, 
15 miles from Koppa. Population (1901), 2,430. The dominant 
institution of the place is the math established by the great Hindu 
reformer Sankaracharya in the eighth century, which is the seat of the 
Jagad Guru, the high-priest of the Smarta Brahmans. Madhava or 



106 SRINGERI 

Vidyaranya, the head of the tnath at that time, was instrumental in 
founding the Vijayanagar empire in 1336, and was its first minister. 
Sringeri (Sringa-giri, or Rishya-Sringa-giri) is said to have been the 
place where the Rishi Vibhandaka performed penance, and where 
Rishya Sringa, a celebrated character of the Ramayana, was born, who 
grew up to man's estate without having ever seen a woman. He was 
allured away to the North, and eventually became the priest of Dasa- 
ratha, and performed the great sacrifice which resulted in the birth 
of Rama. According to an inscription, the tract was granted as 
an endowment of the math, by Harihara, the first king of Vijaya- 
nagar, in 1346. Venkatappa Naik of Keladi claims in inscriptions to 
have rescued the jaglr out of unlawful hands and restored it to the 
math in 1621. The revenue is estimated at Rs. 50,000 a year, which is 
supplemented by Rs. 12,000 from the Mysore State. A municipality 
was established in 1888. The receipts and expenditure during the ten 
years ending 1901 averaged Rs. 2,400. In 1903-4 the receipts rose to 
Rs. ir, 000, and the expenditure to Rs. 10,000. 

Srinivaspur. — North-eastern taluk of Kolar District, Mysore, lying 
between 13 12' and 13 36' N. and 78 6' and 78 24' E., with an 
area of 325 square miles. The population in 1901 was 58,812, com- 
pared with 46,463 in 189 1. The taluk contains one town, Srinivaspur 
(population, 3,153), the head-quarters; and 341 villages. The land 
revenue demand in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,42,000. The south is drained by 
the Palar river and the north by the Papaghni. On the north and 
north-east are ranges of hills connected with the Eastern Ghats. In 
the south-east rise the low flat hills marking the Kolar auriferous 
band. 

Srlperumbudur. — Town in the Conjeeveram taluk of Chingleput 
District, Madras, situated in 12 59' N. and 79 57' E., on the western 
trunk road 25 miles west-south-west of Madras city. Population 
(1901), 5,481. It is important as the birthplace, about a. d. 1016, of 
Sri Ramanujacharya, the great religious reformer of the Vaishnav sect. 
A shrine to him in the town attracts an immense number of pilgrims 
from all India. It is executed in the beautiful style of early Vijayanagar 
architecture, and the sculpture is excellent. Ramanuja, a Brahman by 
birth, was noted even as a boy for his studious habits and meditative 
reserve. When a youth he went to Conjeeveram to study under 
Yadava Prakasa, the great teacher of the Advaita system of thought, 
which was adopted mostly by the devotees of Siva. But he grew to 
differ from his master, and, attaching himself to the then rising Vaish- 
navite creed, wrote commentaries embodying the principles of what is 
known as the Visishta- Advaita philosophy, or ' qualified non-dualism.' 
In contradistinction to the professors of the Advaita doctrine, he held 
that the divine soul and the human soul are not absolutely one, but are 



SRI RANG AM jo 7 

closely connected. According to him, everlasting happiness was not to 
be obtained by knowledge alone, however profound ; a devout observ- 
ance of public and private worship was likewise essential. His culture 
and personal charm drew around him a host of disciples ; and in his 
lifetime he founded no less than 700 colleges, and sought to secure the 
permanence of his system by establishing 89 hereditary priestships, 
several of which still exist. While returning to Srirangam from a tour, 
he was confronted by an edict of the Chola king requiring the signature 
of all Brahmans in his dominions to a profession of the Saivite religion. 
Ramanuja resisted and fled, and found an asylum with Vittala Deva, 
the Jain king of Mysore, whom he converted. After twelve years in 
Mysore, the death of the Choia king enabled Ramanuja to return to 
Srirangam, where he died. 

Srirampur. — Subdivision and town in Hooghly District, Bengal. 
See Serampore. 

Srirangam. — Town in Trichinopoly District, Madras, situated in 
io° 52' N. and 78 42' E., 2 miles north of Trichinopoly city, and almost 
in the centre of the island formed by the bifurcation of the Cauvery 
into the two branches known as the Cauvery and the Coleroon. At the 
western (upper) end of the island is the Upper Anicut, and at the east- 
ern end the Grand Anicut, described in the article on the Cauvery. 
The island is about 19 miles in length, and in its widest part about \\ 
miles broad, the soil being alluvial and very fertile. It is, however, 
subject to inundations from the Cauvery and Coleroon, especially at its 
lower (eastern) end. The trunk road to Madras runs northwards from 
Trichinopoly across the island, connecting the land on either side by 
line bridges. The island (see Trichinopoly District) played a con- 
siderable part in the wars of the eighteenth century. 

Srirangam was made a municipality in 187 1, and comprises several 
villages, of which Srirangam and Jambukeswaram are the most im- 
portant. The population, which has doubled in the last thirty years, 
is (1901) 23,039, of whom as many as 22,834 are Hindus, Musalmans 
numbering only 42, and Christians 163. The income and expenditure 
of the municipality during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged about 
Rs. 28,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 33,800, mostly derived 
from the taxes on land and houses ;and the expenditure was Rs. 35,100. 
The municipality maintains a hospital, which accommodates 24 in-patients 
and has a maternity ward with four beds. The buildings now in use 
were repaired and terraced by Raja Sir Savalai Ramaswami Mudalivar 
in 1886 at a cost of Rs. 10,000, the former buildings having been 
damaged by fire in 1884. Preliminary surveys for a drainage scheme 
for the place are in progress. 

The town is chiefly famous for its great temple dedicated to Vishnu. 
The temple and the town are indeed almost conterminous, the greater 

VOL. xxiii. 11 



ioS SKlRANGAM 

portion of the houses having been erected inside the walls of the former. 
The temple is the largest in Southern India, and consists of seven 
enclosures one within the other, the outermost wall of the seventh 
measuring 1,024 yards by 840. In the centre of the innermost enclosure 
is the shrine of Ranganathaswami, who is represented as reclining on 
the folds of the serpent Adisesha and screened by his hood. The dome 
over the shrine has been recently repaired and richly gilt. None but 
Hindus can enter the three inner enclosures. The fourth, in which is 
the thousand-pillared mantapam or hall, measures 412 yards by 283. 
This hall of a thousand columns measures 450 feet by 130 and contains 
some 940 pillars, being incomplete in parts. It is the Darbar Hall of 
the deity during the annual Vaikunta Ekadasi festival, which takes 
place in December or January. A large panda/ or covered enclosure is 
then erected in front of it, and the processional image is brought to it 
from the inner shrine through the northern entrance of the second 
enclosure, called the Paramapadavasal or the ' gate of heaven,' which is 
only opened on this one occasion in the year. In booths round the 
panda/, which is handsomely decorated, various figures of gods and 
mythical personages and other articles are exposed for sale. In front 
of the thousand-pillared mantapam is a smaller hall, called Seshagiri 
Rao's mantapam, in which there are some fine carvings in stone 1 . As 
usual, the temple possesses many jewels, some of which are good 
specimens of goldsmith's work. The various pieces of armour which 
cover the idol from head to foot are perhaps the best, the others being 
of a type familiar at Southern India temples. Several of the oldest were 
given by Vijayaranga Chokkanatha, Naik of Madura. There is also 
a gold plate presented by the present King-Emperor when he visited 
the place as Prince of Wales in 1875. European visitors, on giving 
sufficient notice, are generally allowed to see the jewels, or, at any rate, 
some of them, by the courtesy of the trustees. 

Over the entrances to the fourth enclosure are three gopuraius 
(towers), of which the eastern is the finest. It is known as the vellai 
or 'white' gopuram and is 146A feet in height. There is at present 
no gate or gopuram on the western side of this enclosure. Tradition 
states that one formerly existed, but that it was blocked up because 
the people living near used to enter by that way and commit thefts 
in the temple. The outer three enclosures are crowded with houses 
and bazars. 

Mr. Fergusson points to this temple as the most conspicuous illustration 

of the way in which many South Indian temples have gradually grown 

up around a small central shrine. The various stages of circumvallation 

represent successive increases in the wealth and popularity of the shrine, 

1 Drawings of these and other portions of this temple and of that at Jambukeswaram 
will be found in the Journal of Indian Art and Industry, vol. viii (1899). 



SRIRANGAM 109 

and there is a corresponding increase in the size and ornamentation of 
the outer buildings as compared with those within. It may be added 
that the temple does not seem to have been completed in the manner 
intended by the last of its series of builders. The outer wall contains 
four unfinished gopurams. That on the southern side, which is the first 
seen by visitors from Trichinopoly, is of large proportions and, if com- 
pleted, would have risen to the height of 300 feet. This unfinished but 
gigantic structure is perhaps the most impressive object in the whole 
temple. 

Several saints are seputed to have resided here, and the images of 
some of them are set up in different parts of the enclosure. The Hindu 
reformer and philosopher Ramanuja lived and died here early in the 
twelfth century. The inscriptions on the walls go back to the first half 
of the tenth century, to the reign of the Chola king Madurai-konda Ko 
Parakesarivarman, alias Parantaka I ; but the greater portion of the 
temple can hardly have been constructed as early as this. An in- 
scription of Sundara Pandya recites that he took Srirangam from a king 
who is called the moon of Karnata, and plundered the capital of 
Kathaka. A similar incident is recounted in the Tirukkalikkunram and 
Jambukeswaram inscriptions. The Kathaka king can hardly refer to 
a king of Cuttack, the most obvious explanation, but probably describes 
the noted chieftain Kopperunjinga, who had great power in the Carnatic 
at this time. The moon of Karnata was the Hoysala king Someswara 
(literally the 'god of the moon'), who, having conquered the Chola 
country, built a city called Vikramapuram 5 miles to the north of 
Srirangam. The site of this city is the present Samayapuram. The 
Sundara Pandya of the inscription has been identified, by a copperplate 
grant of Someswara dated in 1253, with Jatavarman Sundara Pandya 
Deva, who ascended the throne in 1250 or 1251. Other inscriptions 
relate to the Chola, Pandya, Hoysala, and Vijayanagar dynasties. 

About half a mile to the east of the Vaishnav pagoda is another re- 
markable temple, dedicated to Siva, and known by the name of Jambu- 
keswaram. It is a compound of the words jambu, the Sanskrit name 
of the tree known in Tamil as naval (Eugenia Jambolana), and Iswara, 
a name of Siva. The image of the deity is placed under a jambu- 
tree, which is much venerated and is said to be several hundred 
years old. The image is also known as one of the five elemental 
lingams, the element in this case being water, which surrounds the 
lingam on all sides. Mr. Fergusson considers that this building far 
surpasses the Vaishnav temple in beauty and as an architectural object, 
and thinks that, being all of one design, it was probably begun and 
completed at one time. There are five enclosures in the building. 
In the third is a coco-nut grove, in which is a small tank and temple, 
whither the image from the great Vaishnav pagoda was formerly brought 

H 2 



no 5 RIKA. VGA.)/ 

for one day in the year. This practice has been abandoned, owing 
to quarrels between Saivites and Vaishnavites. Traces of a wall, 
which was built in consequence to mark the boundary between 
Srlrangam and Jambukeswaram, are still visible. In the fourth en- 
closure, which measures 812 yards by 497, is a large hall with 796 
pillars, and to the right of it a little tank with a gallery round it in 
which are 142 columns. The tank is fed by a perpetual spring. The 
fifth or outer enclosure contains four streets of houses. Inscriptions 
seem to show that the temple was in existence about a.d. iooo. 

Srirangavarapukot. — Zamindari tahsil and town in Vizaga- 
patam District, Madras. See Srungavarappukota. 

Srisailam. — Famous temple in the Nandikotkur taluk of Kurnool 
District, Madras, situated in 16 5' N. and 78 53' E. It lies in 
the midst of malarious jungles and rugged hills on the northernmost 
plateau of the Nallamalais, overlooking a deep gorge through which 
flows the Kistna river. The ruined wells and tanks and the remains 
of walls and ancient buildings which lie around show that the neigh- 
bouring country was once prosperous. The place appears to have 
been inhabited till the fifteenth century, and was deserted after the 
Musalman conquest. There are three routes to the temple : that 
through Atmakur and Nagaluti in the Nandikotkur taluk, which is the 
one most frequently used ; that by Bommalapuram in the Markapur 
taluk ; and that across Nilganga ferry over the Kistna river, which is 
followed by pilgrims from Hyderabad territory. The temple is 660 
feet long by 510 feet broad. The walls are elaborately sculptured 
with scenes from the Ramayana and Mahabharata. In the centre 
stands the shrine of Mallikarjuna, the name by which Siva is wor- 
shipped here. The temple is under the management of Sri Sankar- 
acharya, priest of the Pushpagiri math, to whom it was handed over 
by Government about 1841, when the authorities ceased to manage 
religious institutions. The priest has leased out the revenues and 
takes no interest in the temple ; and the result is that the buildings are 
in bad order and falling to pieces, and the lessees levy all sorts of con- 
tributions from the numerous pilgrims who attend the grand Sivaratri 
festival in the months of February and March every year. The temple, 
which was richly endowed in former days, is now very poor, as it was 
plundered by a band of robbers in the eighteenth century, and the 
iua/us attached to it were resumed by the Musalmans when they obtained 
possession of the District. 

Srivaikuntam Taluk. — South-eastern taluk of Tinnevelly District, 
Madras, lying between 8° 17' and 8° 48' N. and 77 48' and 78 10' E., 
with an area of 542 square miles. The population rose from 287,603 
in 1891 to 321,534 in 1901, the density being nearly 600 persons 
per square mile. Srivaikuntam is second only to the Tinnevelly taluk 



SRI J r IL L IPUTTUR TA LUK 1 1 1 

in the literacy of its inhabitants, and it has the largest Christian com- 
munity (over 54,000) in the District. It contains an unusually large 
number of interesting places, chief of which are Tiruchendur (popula- 
tion, 26,056), a famous Saivite shrine on the coast ; Kulasekarapatnam 
(19,898) and Kavalpatnam (11,746), two decayed ports with a large 
population of Musalman Labbais ; Srivaikuntam (10,550), the head- 
quarters ; Alvar Tirunagari (6,630), which contains two noted 
Vaishnavite temples ; the two smaller towns of Sattankulam (6,953) 
and Siruttondanallur (6,099) '■> Nazareth, a centre of native 
Christians ; Kaval and Kolkai, celebrated as the early capitals of 
the Pandyan dynasty ; and Adichanallur, the most interesting pre- 
historic burial-place in Southern India. The number of villages is 134. 
The demand for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 
Rs. 6,30,000. The soils consist of black cotton soil in the north ; 
red sand and red clay to the south and west ; the ten', or blown sand, 
founded upon the sandstone and claystone ridges parallel to the coast ; 
and, lastly, the rich alluvial belt of the Tambraparni Valley. Four 
main channels, two on either bank of the river leading from the 
Marudur and Srivaikuntam dams, irrigate the taluk directly, besides 
supplying a large series of tanks. To the south the country is covered 
with thousands of palmyra palms. 

Srivaikuntam Town (' Vishnu's holy heaven '). — Head-quarters 
of the taluk of the same name, in Tinnevelly District, Madras, situated 
in 8° 38' N. and 77 55' E., on the left bank of the Tambraparni 
river, 18 miles below Tinnevelly town. It is a Union, with a popu- 
lation (1901) of 10,550. It contains a fine and richly endowed 
Vaishnav temple, the annual festival at which attracts large crowds. 
An enclosure in the town surrounded by mud walls and known as 
the ' fort ' is occupied by a peculiar subdivision of the Vellala caste, 
called the Kottai ('fort') Vellalas, who keep their womenkind strictly 
secluded within the four walls of the enclosure and marry only within 
their own subdivision. Their number, as might be expected, is 
dwindling in consequence of this restriction. There is a fine iron 
bridge over the dam across the Tambraparni at Srivaikuntam. 

Srivardhan. — Town in the State of Janjlra, Bombay, situated in 
18 4' N. and 73 4' E., about 12 miles south of Janjlra village. 
It appears in the writings of early European travellers as Ziffardan. 
Population (1901), 5,961. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, 
under Ahmadnagar and afterwards under Bijapur, Srivardhan was a 
port of consequence. It has still a considerable trade, which consists 
chiefly of betel-nuts of a superior kind, highly valued at Bombay. 
An annual fair is attended by about 3,000 persons. The income of 
the municipality is about Rs. 3,000. 

Srivilliputtur Taluk. — North-western taluk of Tinnevelly District, 



ii2 SRlVILLIPUTTUR TALUK 

Madras, lying between 9° 17' and 9 42' N. and 77 2c/ and 77 51' E., 
with an area of 585 square miles. The population in 1901 was 
205,745, compared with 190,517 in 1891, or a little more than 350 
persons per square mile. The taluk contains four towns, Srivil- 
liputtur (population, 26,382), the head-quarters, Rajapalaiyam 
(25,360), Settur (14,328), and Varttirayiruppu (13,131); and 94 
villages. The demand for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted 
to Rs. 4,11,000. The soils in rather more than half, including the 
villages lying to the west, belong to the red clay or loam and sand 
series, while the easterly villages form a portion of the cotton soil 
plain. The country to the west undulates considerably, owing to 
the numerous streams which descend from the Western Ghats and 
supply a large number of tanks. 

Srivilliputtur Town (or Nachiyarkovil). — Head-quarters of the 
taluk of the same name in Tinnevelly District, Madras, situated in 
9 30' N. and 77° 37' E., 24 miles from the Sattur railway station 
on the South Indian Railway. It is a famous place of pilgrimage, 
and contains a large -Vaishnav temple with a high tower and hand- 
some sculptures. Tirumala Naik of Madura (1623-59), tne most 
famous of his line, built for himself a small palace here, in which the 
taluk offices are now located. The town was constituted a municipality 
in 1894. The municipal receipts and expenditure during the eight 
years after the council was constituted averaged Rs. 16,900 and 
Rs. 16,800 respectively. In 1903-4 the income, most of which was 
derived from the house and land taxes and tolls, was Rs. 19,000 and 
the expenditure Rs. 17,000. The population (1901) is 26,382, con- 
sisting of 24,943 Hindus, 933 Christians, and 506 Musalmans. A 
large number of the Brahmans are Vaishnavites, and several of them 
depend on the temple for their livelihood. 

Srungavarappukota Tahsll. — Tahsil in Vizagapatam District, 
Madras, lying between 17 54' and 18° 17' N. and 82 55' and 
83 20" E., partly on and partly below the Eastern Ghats, with a 
total area of 438 square miles. The hill country in it is included in 
the Agency tract. The population in the ordinary portion is 137,724 
and in the Agency tract 4,293, making a total of 142,017 (1901), 
compared with 133,343 in 1891. The tahsil contains one town, 
Srungavarappukota (population, 5,862), the head-quarters ; and 266 
villages. The demand for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 was 
Rs. 17,200. The ordinary portion presents no features of interest. 
The small portion in the Agency tract is very hilly, rising to a height 
of 5,200 feet in Galikonda (' windy hill'). At Anantagiri (about 2,800 
feet) is a coffee plantation managed by the Vizianagram estate, 
and a bungalow. The hills are as a rule well wooded, the lower 
slopes being 'reserved' by the Vizianagram estate, but the higher 



SVBANSIRl 113 

ranges are usually open rolling savannahs covered with long 'bison 
grass.' Between Galikonda and Anantagiri lies Harris Valley, the scene 
of an attempt made about fifty years ago to establish a sanitarium 
for the troops stationed in the District, which was rendered a failure 
by malarial fever, as the site of the camp was badly chosen. Had 
the men been stationed 1,000 feet higher up the hill the experiment 
might have proved successful. 

Srungavarappukota Town.— Head-quarters of the tahs'il of the 
same name in Vizagapatam District, Madras, situated in 18 7' N. and 
83 8' E., at the foot of the Ghats. Population (1901), 5,862. 

Suadi. — Head-quarters of Gangpur State, Bengal, situated in 
22 8' N. and 84 2' E., on the lb river. Population (1901), 2,185. 
Suadi contains the residence of the chief, a court-house, a jail with 
accommodation for 50 prisoners, a school, and a dispensary with 
accommodation for in-patients. 

Sualkuchi. — Trade centre in Kamrup District, Eastern Bengal 
and Assam. See Soalkuchi. 

Suar. — North-western tahsll in the State of Rampur, United Pro- 
vinces, lying between 28 53' and 29 io' N. and 78 55' and 79 14' E., 
with an area of 191 square miles. Population (1901), 104,667. There 
are 255 villages and two towns: Tanda (population, 7,983) and Suar 
(2,738), the tahsll head-quarters. The demand for land revenue in 
1903-4 was Rs. 3,81,000, and for cesses Rs. 46,000. The density of 
population, 548 persons per square mile, is below the State average. 
A large portion of the tahsll lies in the tarai or moist submontane area. 
In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was 114 square miles, of which 
14 were irrigated, chiefly by small canals drawn from the numerous 
streams which cross the tahsll. 

Subankhali.— Village in Mymensingh District, Eastern Bengal and 
Assam. See Subarnakhali. 

Subankhata. — Village in the Gauhati subdivision of Kamrup 
District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 26 47' N. and 
91 25' E. A fair is held here in the cold season, which is largely 
attended by the Bhotias, who bring down ponies, blankets, wax, and 
lac for sale, and purchase cotton cloth and other articles. A detach- 
ment of military police, consisting of 31 officers and men, is stationed 
at Subankhata during the cold season. 

Subansiri. — A great river in the north-east of Assam, which con- 
tributes to form the main stream of the Brahmaputra. Its source has 
never been explored ; but it is supposed to rise far up among the 
mountains of Tibet, and to flow for a long distance in an easterly 
direction before it turns south to break through the northern mountain 
barrier of the Assam Valley. It enters Lakhimpur District from the 
Miri Hills through a gorge of great beauty, and, still flowing south, 



ii 4 SUBANSIRI 

divides the subdivision of North Lakhimpur into two almost equal 
portions. Before it reaches the Brahmaputra, it forms, together with 
the channel of the Luhit, the large island known as the Majuli char, 
and finally empties itself into the main stream, at the western end of 
Sibsagar District. In the hills the bed of the river is greatly broken 
up by rocks and rapids ; but it is navigable by small steamers in the 
plains. Boats of 4 tons burden can proceed to the frontier of Lakhim- 
pur at all seasons of the year, and small steamers ply twice a week to 
Badati in the cold season, and twice a month to Bordeobam during 
the rains. Tea, rubber, mustard, potatoes, pulse, rice, canes, and 
timber are brought down the river, and gold can be washed from its 
sands, though all attempts to find the matrix of these deposits have 
hitherto proved fruitless. The river is too wide to bridge, except at an 
enormous cost, but it is crossed by eleven ferries. 

Subarnakhali. — Village in the Tangail subdivision of Mymensingh 
District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 24 33' N. and 
89 49' E., on the Jamuna river, 44 miles west of Naslrabad, with 
which place and Jamalpur it is connected by tolerably good roads. 
Population (1901), 1,317. A considerable export and import trade in 
jute is carried on. 

Subarnarekha (' the streak of gold '). — River of Bengal. Rising 
10 miles south-west of Ranch! town, in RanchI District, in 23 18' N. 
and 85 n' E., it flows towards the north-east, leaving the main plateau 
in a picturesque waterfall called Hundrughagh. From this point it 
forms the boundary with Hazaribagh District, its course being east- 
wards to the tri-junction point with Manbhum District. From this 
point the river bends southwards into Singhbhum, then passes into the 
State of Mayurbhanj, and afterwards enters Midnapore District from 
the north-west. It traverses the jungle in the western tract of this 
District till it reaches Balasore, through which it flows in a tortuous 
southern course, with gigantic windings east and west, until it finally 
falls into the Bay of Bengal, in 21 34' N. and 87 21' E., after a course 
of 296 miles, having drained an area of 11,300 square miles. The 
chief tributaries of the Subarnarekha in Chota Nagpur are the Kanchi 
and Karkarl, both joining it from the west. The river is navigable by 
country craft for about 16 miles from its mouth, up to which point it is 
also tidal, and the bed is studded with islands. During the rains rice 
boats of 2 tons burden make their way into Mayurbhanj. The border- 
ing country is cultivated to within a few miles of the sea in the cold 
season. The Subarnarekha is fordable only at places within Balasore 
District ; it is embanked here in its lower reaches. 

Subathu. — Hill cantonment in Simla District, Punjab. See Sa- 
bathu. 

Subrahmanya (or Pushpagiri). — Village in the Uppinangadi taluk 



SUGH 115 

of South Kanara District, Madras, situated in 12° 41' N. and 75 36' E., 
at the foot of a celebrated mountain, the correct name of which is 
Fushpagiri, on the border of that District and Coorg. The mountain, 
which is two-pointed, precipitous, and of peculiar shape, is one of the 
most prominent heights in these parts, resembling, as seen from 
Mercara, a gigantic bullock hump. Elevation, 5,626 feet above the 
sea. On its summit are many ancient stone cairns. In the village is 
an old and famous Saivite temple, and it is one of the chief centres of 
serpent-worship in Southern India. To the cattle fair held at the time 
of the annual festival in November-December it has been estimated 
that 50,000 cattle are usually brought, mainly from Mysore. 

Suburbs of Calcutta. — See Calcutta, Suburbs of. 

Suchindram. — Village and shrine in the Agastlswaram taluk 
of Travancore State, Madras, situated in 8° 9' N. and 77 27' E., 8 
miles north-west of Cape Comorin on the high road to Trivandrum. 
Population (1901), 2,470. In the centre of the village is the famous 
shrine of Sthanumalaya Perumal, a Saivite manifestation of the Hindu 
Triad, which is accorded the first rank among State shrines by the 
Travancore government, and is visited by thousands of worshippers 
during the annual car festival. 

Sudamda Dhandhalpur. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Sudasna. — Petty State in Mahi Kantha, Bombay. 

Sudharam. — Head-quarters of Noakhali District, Eastern Bengal 
and Assam, situated in 22 49' N. and 91 7' E., on the right bank of 
the Noakhali khal. It is named from Sudharam Muzumdar, an early 
settler, who dug a fine tank still in existence. Population (1901), 
6,520. Sudharam was constituted a municipality in 1876. The 
income and expenditure during the decade ending 190 1-2 averaged 
Rs. 8,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 12,000, of which Rs. 3,000 
was derived from a tax on persons (or property tax) and Rs. 5,000 
from a conservancy rate; and the expenditure was Rs. 11,700. The 
town contains the usual public offices ; the jail has accommodation for 
149 prisoners. 

Sugh {Srughna). — Village in the Jagadhri tahsil of Ambala District, 
Punjab, situated in 30 9' N. and 77 23' E., in a bend of the old bed 
of the Jumna, now a part of the Western Jumna Canal, close to 
Jagadhri and Buriya towns. Population (1901), 378. Srughna is 
mentioned by Hiuen Tsiang, the Chinese pilgrim of the seventh 
century, as a town 3^ miles in circuit, the capital of a kingdom and the 
seat of considerable learning, both Buddhistic and Brahmanical. He 
describes the kingdom of Srughna as extending to the mountains on 
the north, and to the Ganges on the east, with the Jumna flowing 
through the midst of it. The capital he represents as having been 
partly in ruins ; but General Cunningham thought that there is 



n6 SUGH 

evidence in the coins found on the spot to show that it was occupied 
down to the time of Muhammadan conquest. He thus describes the 
extent and position of the ruins : — 

' The village of Sugh occupies one of the most remarkable positions 
that I have seen during the whole course of my researches. It is 
situated on a projecting triangular spur of high land, and is surrounded 
on three sides by the bed of the old Jumna, which is now the Western 
Jumna Canal. On the north and west faces it is further protected by 
two deep ravines, so that the position is a ready-made stronghold, 
which is covered on all sides, except the west, by natural defences. 
In shape it is almost triangular, with a large projecting fort or citadel 
at each of the angles. The site of the north fort is now occupied by 
the castle and village of Dayalgarh. The village of Amadalpur stands 
on the site of the south-east fort, and that of the south-west is unoccu- 
pied. Each of these forts is 1,500 feet long and 1,000 feet broad, and 
each face of the triangle which connects them together is upwards of 
half a mile in length, that to the east being 4,000 and those to the 
north-west and south-west 3,000 feet each. The whole circuit of 
the position is therefore 22,000 feet or upwards of 4 miles, which is 
considerably more than the 3^ miles of Hiuen Tsiang's measurement. 
But as the north fort is separated from the main position by a deep 
sandy ravine, called the Rohara nullah, it is possible that it may have 
been unoccupied at the time of the pilgrim's visit. This would reduce 
the circuit of the position to 19,000 feet or upwards of 3^ miles, and 
bring it into accord with the pilgrim's measurement. The small village 
of Sugh occupies the west side of the position, and the small town of 
Buriya lies immediately to the north of Dayalgarh.' 

Suhagpore. — Tahs'il and village in Rewah State, Central India. 
See Sohagpur. 

Suhma.— Ancient kingdom of Bengal. See Tamralipta. 

Suigam. — -Petty State in the Political Agency of Palanpur, Bombay. 
See Palanpur Agency. 

Sui Vehar. — Site of a ruined Buddhist tower in the Bahawalpur 
State, Punjab, situated in 29 18' N. and 71 34' E., 6 miles from 
Samasata station on the North-Western Railway. An inscription 
found here is dated in the eleventh year of Kanishka's reign. 

[Joi/mat, Asiatic Society, Bengal, vol. xxxix, pp. 65-70 ; Indian 
Antiquary, vol. x, pp. 324-31.] 

Sujangarh. — Head-quarters of the nizamat and tahsil of the same 
name in the State of Blkaner, Rajputana, situated in 27 42' N. and 
74 29' E., about 72 miles south-east of Blkaner city and within half 
a mile of the Marwar border. Population (1901), 9,762. The old 
name of the place was HarbujI-ka-kot or the fort of HarbujI, a Rajput 
hero ; and the present town was founded by Maharaja Surat Singh 
(1788-1828), being named after Siijan Singh, the twelfth chief of 
Blkaner. The fort, which is about 200 feet square, with walls from 



SUJANPUR TIRA it- 

<5 to 6 feet in thickness, is said to have been built by the Thakur of 
Sandwa, who once owned the place, and whose estate is now situated 
a little to the west, and was altered and improved by Sfirat Singh. 
The town contains several fine houses belonging to wealthy traders ; 
a substantial bungalow which was occupied from 1868 to 1870 by a 
British Political officer specially deputed to put down dacoity, which 
was very rife on the triple border of Bikaner, Jaipur, and Marwar; 
a combined post and telegraph office, a jail with accommodation for 
66 prisoners, an Anglo-vernacular school attended by 90 boys, and 
a hospital with accommodation for 7 in-patients. About 6 miles to 
the north-west is the Gopalpura hill, 1,651 feet above sea-level, or 
about 600 above the surrounding plain ; and legend says that where 
the village of Gopalpura now stands there was in old days a city 
called Dronpur, built by and named after Drona, the tutor of the 
Pandavas. Near Bidasar, a little farther to the north, a copper-mine 
was discovered about the middle of the eighteenth century, and was 
worked for a short time, but the ore was not rich enough to repay 
expenses. The mine is, however, now being professionally examined. 
The Chhapar salt lake, 8 miles north of the town, is no longer worked. 
The Sujangarh tahsil contains 151 villages, almost all of which are 
held in jaglr by Bidawats or Rathor Rajputs descended from Blda, 
the brother of Blka, the founder of the State. Indeed, almost the 
whole of this tract was taken by Blda from the Mohil Rajputs, a branch 
of the Chauhans, and it is often called Bidawati. 

Sujanpur. — Town in the Pathankot tahsil of Gurdaspur District, 
Punjab, situated in 32 19/ N. and 75 37' E., 23 miles north-east 
of Gurdaspur town, and 5 miles from Pathankot on the North Western 
Railway. Population (1901), 5,687. It has a considerable shawl- 
making industry, and is a local centre for the disposal of agricultural 
produce. The Punjab Sugar Works and Carbonic Acid Gas Factory, 
which employed 117 hands in 1904, produces sugar, rum, and carbonic 
acid for aerated waters. Wraps of wool and cotton are made in the 
town. The municipality was created in 1867. The income and 
expenditure during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 5,600. 
In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 5,500, chiefly from octroi; and the 
expenditure was Rs. 5,000. It maintains a vernacular middle school 
and a dispensary. 

Sujanpur Tira. — Village in the Hamlrpur tahsil of Kangra 
District, Punjab, situated in 31 50' N. and 76 31' E., on the Beas. 
Population (1901), 5,267. The place derives the second part of its 
name from the Tira or 'palace' commenced by Abhaya Chand, the 
Katoch king of Kangra, in 1758. His grandson, Sujan Chand, founded 
the town, and Sansar Chand, the great Katoch ruler, completed it and 
held his court here. The site is picturesque, with a fine parade-ground 



ti8 SUJANPUR TlRA 

and grassy plain surrounded by trees ; but the palace, a highly finished 
building of regal proportions, has fallen into disrepair since the Katoch 
family took up its residence in Lambagraon. 

Sujawal. — Talnka in Karachi District, Sind, Bombay, lying be- 
tween 24 27' and 24 53' N. and 68° \ and 68° 18' E., with an area 
of 267 square miles. Population rose from 29,501 in 1891 to 33,251 
in 1 90 1. There are 65 villages, but no town. The land revenue 
and cesses amounted in 1903-4 to Rs. 1,10,000. Sujawal is the 
head-quarters. The td/uka lies on the left bank of the Indus, which 
forms its western boundary. The chief feature is a wide expanse of 
perennial marshes, forming a chain of depressions running from north 
and west to south as far as the Gungro canal. Elsewhere, the soil 
is the usual alluvial loam deposited by the Indus. Irrigation is derived 
either direct from the Indus or from the Plnjari canal ; and the most 
important crops are rice, bajra, mu?ig, and gram. 

Sukesar. — Mountain in Shahpur District, Punjab. See Sakesar. 

Suket. — Native State in the Punjab, under the political control 
of the Commissioner, Jullundur Division, lying in the Himalayas, 
between 31 13' and 31 35' N. and 7 6° 49' and 77 26' E., north of 
the Sutlej river, which separates it from the Simla Hill States. It has 
an area of 420 square miles, and contains two towns and 28 villages. 
The population in 1901 was 54,676, of whom 54,005 were Hindus. 
The estimated revenue is 11 lakhs, of which Rs. 11,000 is paid 
as tribute to the British Government. Part of the land revenue is 
still realized in kind. Suket included the territory which now forms 
the Mandl State until about 1330, when a distant branch of the ruling 
family assumed independence. The separation was followed by frequent 
wars between the two States. The country eventually fell under Sikh 
supremacy, which was exchanged for that of the British Government 
by the Treaty of Lahore in 1846 ; and in. that year full sovereignty was 
conceded to the Raja, Ugar Sen, and his heirs. A sanad conferring 
the right of adoption was granted in 1862. Raja Ugar Sen died in 
1875, and was succeeded by his son, Rudra Sain, who was born about 
1828. Raja Rudra Sain was deposed in 1878 in consequence of mis- 
government, and was succeeded in 1879 by his son, Dusht Nikandan 
Sain, during whose minority the administration was carried on by a 
native superintendent, assisted by a council. The Raja came of age 
in 1884, and now administers the State himself. He receives a salute 
of 11 guns. A small force of 23 cavalry and 63 infantry is maintained. 

Sukkur District.— District in Sind, Bombay, lying between 27 5' 
and 28 26' N. and 68° 15' and 70° 14' E., with an area of 5,403 
square miles. It is bounded on the north by the Upper Sind Frontier 
District and the Bahawalpur State of the Punjab ; on the east by the 
States of Bahawalpur and Jaisalmer ; on the south by Khairpur State 



SUKKUR DISTRICT ng 

and Larkana District ; and on the west by the Larkana and Upper 

bind Frontier Districts. Until August, 1901, Sukkur formed part of 

Shikarpur District, which consisted of 14 talukas. Seven lalukas were 

then detached to form the District of Larkana, and the name of the 

remaining District was changed from Shikarpur to Sukkur. The 

general aspect is that of a vast alluvial plain, broken 

only at Sukkur and Rohri by low limestone hills, Physical 

i_- 1 i 1 1 r 1 ' aspects. 

which tend to preserve a permanent bank for the 

Indus at those places. The Indus once flowed past these hills near 

the ancient town of Akor, and was diverted into its present channel 

through the Bukkur hills by some natural convulsion. Large patches 

of salt land, known as ka/ar, occur frequently, especially in the upper 

part of the District ; and towards the Jacobabad frontier barren tracts 

of clay and ridges of sandhills, covered with caper and thorn jungle, 

constitute a distinctive feature in the landscape. The desert portion 

of the Rohri subdivision, known as the Registan, possesses extensive 

sandhills, bold in outline and often fairly wooded. 

The Indus alluvium occupies most of the District. The town of 
Sukkur is built on a low hill of Kirthar limestone, identical with the 
Spintangi limestone of Baluchistan. The same rock forms a range 
of hills east of the Indus. A boring made at Sukkur in the hope 
of discovering oil penetrated through a thickness of shales and lime- 
stones greatly exceeding 1,000 feet, beneath the Spintangi ; these lower 
rocks are lithologically similar to the Ghazij of Baluchistan, which 
occupies the same relative position. 

Besides the common vegetation of Sind, the mango, mulberry, apple, 
pomegranate, and date grow freely ; among timber trees are the pipal, 
mm, ber, siras, tali, bahan, babul, and kandi. The bush of Rohri jungle 
consists principally of tamarisks, and reed grasses are abundant ; while, 
as in all parts of Upper Sind, the kirar, ak, and pan are ubiquitous. 

The wild animals found are the hyena, hog, wolf, fox, jackal, gazelle, 
and hog deer. Lynx are occasionally met with in the Rohri sub- 
division. The birds and water-fowl are those common to Sind. 
Crocodiles are common in the Eastern Nara. 

The climate is hot and dry, with a remarkable absence of air 
currents during the inundation season ; and it is, in consequence, very 
trying to a European constitution. The hot season commences in 
April and ends in October ; it is generally ushered in by violent 
dust-storms \ the cold season begins in November and lasts till March. 
The maximum, minimum, and mean temperatures in the shade are on 
an average 120 , 6i°, 8i°. The transition period from the hot to the 
cold season is very sudden at Rohri. The annual rainfall at Sukkur 
town averages only 4-4 inches, occurring irregularly in the cold season 
and during the south-west monsoon. 



i2o SUKKUR DISTRICT 

The history of the Upper Sind Districts has been given in the 
historical survey of the province of Sind. Ruled until the Muham- 
niadan invasion of 712 by a Brahman dynasty of 
Aror (or Alor), 5 miles from the modern town of 
Rohri, this portion of Sind was for some time a dependency of the 
Ummayid Khalifs and the Abbasids. Conquered by Mahmud of 
Ghazni in 1025, the District passed a few years later to the Sumra 
dynasty, and then to the Samma and Arghun rulers of Sind. Under 
the emperors of Delhi, a Sindi tribe, the Mahars, asserted themselves 
by driving out the Jatoi tribe of Baloch who were settled on the 
western bank of the Indus, but were themselves displaced some years 
later by the powerful Daudputras, another Sindi tribe, who, led on by 
their Plr, Sultan Ibrahim Shah, inflicted a severe defeat on the 
Mahars, sacked their town of Lakhi, and founded a new capital for 
Upper Sind at Shikarpur. In the eighteenth century, the Kalhora 
chiefs held sway over the Upper Sind Districts till the Afghan invasion 
in 1 78 1. Between 1809 and 1824, their successors, the Talpur Mirs, 
recovered Burdika, Rupar, and Sukkur from the Durrani kingdom, 
and finally captured Shikarpur, in time to prevent that town falling 
into the hands of the Sikhs under General Ventura. In 1833, during 
the Talpur rule, Shah Shuja, the dethroned Afghan monarch, made 
an expedition into Upper Sind to recover his lost territory. He 
marched with a force via Bahawalpur towards Shikarpur, and gained 
a victory which resulted in the payment to him by the Mirs of 4 lakhs, 
and Rs. 50,000 for his officers of state, while 500 camels were made 
over for the king's use. The Shah subsequently marched on his 
expedition against Kandahar; but, being defeated by Dost Muhammad, 
he retreated to Sind and proceeded to Hyderabad, where he obtained 
sufficient money from the Mirs to enable him to return to Ludhiana 
in the Punjab. 

In 1843, on the conquest of the province by the British, all northern 
Sind, with the exception of that portion held by the Khairpur Mir, All 
Murad Talpur, was formed into the Shikarpur Collectorate and the 
Frontier District. In the previous year (1842), the towns of Sukkur, 
Bukkur, and Rohri had by treaty been ceded to the British in per- 
petuity. In 1 85 1, Mir All Murad Talpur, of Khairpur, was after a full 
and public inquiry convicted of acts of forgery and fraud, in unlawfully 
retaining certain lands and territories which belonged of right to the 
British Government. The forgery consisted in his having destroyed 
a leaf of the Koran in which the Naunahar treaty, concluded in 1842 
between himself and his brothers, Mirs Naslr and Mubarak Khan, was 
written, and having substituted for it another leaf, in which the word 
'village' was altered to 'district,' by which he fraudulently obtained 
possession of several large districts instead of villages of the same 



POPULATION 



121 



name. On January i, 1852, the Governor-General of India (the Marquis 
of Dalhousie) issued a proclamation depriving the Mir of the tracts 
wrongfully retained, and degrading him from the rank of Rais (or lord 
paramount). Of the area so confiscated, Ubauro, Buldika, Mlrpur, 
Saidabad, and other parts of Upper Sind on the left bank of the Indus, 
now forming the greater part of the Rohri subdivision, were added 
to Shikarpur District, which in 1901 was divided into Sukkur and the 
new District of Larkana. 

The principal antiquities are the ruined town and fort of Aror and 
the old stronghold of Mathelo. The latter, situated on rising ground 
7 miles south-east of Ghotki railway station, is said to have been 
founded by a Rajput 1,400 years ago. In the old Hindu city of Vijnot, 
4 miles south of Reti railway station, are found carved slabs, brick 
foundations, &c. In the vicinity are the old sites of Ther Sarwahi and 
Pattan Minar. The principal Musalman remains worthy of note are 
the Jama Masjid and War Mubarak of Rohri and Plr Musan Shah's 
Masjid at Ghotki. An ancient mosque at Ubauro is ascribed to the 
middle of the sixteenth century. Hakrah, about 2§ miles from Rohri, 
contains the ruins of an ancient town. 

The area now constituting the District had in 1891 a population 
of 474,477. In 1 90 1 the number had increased to 
523,345, or by 10 per cent., dwelling in 5 towns and 
606 villages, 
table : — 



Population. 



The taluka distribution is shown in the following 



Taluka. 


u 
u 

* a 

< 


Number of 


c 

13 

"3 
0. 


Oh 


U 

|'i 
33 

220 

147 

309 
58 

139 
29 
92 


Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween 1891 
and 1901. 


Number of 

persons able to 

read and 

write. 


a 
■i 

O 
H 


0? 

V 

be 

> 


Shikarpur . 

Naushahro x<\bro 

Sukkur 

Rohri 

Ghotki 

Mlrpur Mathelo 

Ubauro 

District total 


492 
408 
302 

M97 

518 

1,720 

466 

5,403 


I 

I 
I 
I 
I 

5 


88 

87 

54 

69 
129 

100 
79 

606 


108,097 
7^036 

94, OI 5 
85,oS 9 
72,019 
49,991 
43,098 


+ 24 

+ 7 
+ 13 
+ 5 
+ 6 

+ 4 

+ 5 


".433 

3,oi8 

4,303 

2,353 

1,234 

440 

971 


523,345 


97 


+ 10 


23,752 



Hindus form 27 per cent, of the total, and Musalmans 72 per cent. 
The density is 97 persons per square mile, the MTrpur Mathelo taluka 
being the least thickly populated, owing to its containing wide tracts of 
uncultivable desert. The towns are Shikarpur, Sukkur, Rohri, and 
Ghotki. The ordinary language is Sindl, spoken by 93 per cent, 
of the population. Baluchi and Siraiki are also spoken. 

The Hindus of the District are, with few exceptions, Lohano traders, 
a few Bhlls being found in Mlrpur Mathelo. Among Musalmans, 



122 



SUKKUR DISTRICT 



Baloch number 75,000, the principal tribes being the Burdis, Chan- 
dias, Jatois, Lasharis, and Marris. The Mahars, who once owned 
a great portion of the District, number 11,388, while the Siimras 
(23,000), Sammas (106,000), and the fishing caste of Muhanas (14,000), 
are the only other divisions of numerical importance. Arabs, including 
Kalhoras, are represented by 29,000. The Dahars of Khairpur 
Daharki in the Ubauro ialuka, formerly Hindus, who came from Tonk 
Jodah near Delhi in the eleventh century and became converts to 
Islam, are an interesting section of the Musalman population. Details 
of the proportion of the population supported by different occupations 
are not available for Sukkur District. In the old Shikarpur District 
agriculture supported 58 per cent., industries 31 per cent., and com- 
merce 2 per cent. 

Of 450 Christians in 1901, 51 were natives, mostly Roman Catholics. 
Two missions are at work in the District : namely, the Punjab-Sind 
branch of the Church Missionary Society, which commenced work 
in Sukkur in 1885 ; and a branch of the Church of England Zenana 
Mission, established in 1889, which maintains two Hindu girls' schools, 
a Muhammadan girls' school, an English school for boys and girls, 
a female dispensary, and an orphanage for boys. 

The soils in the Rohri subdivision are in some places very rich. 

The stiff heavy soil saturated with moisture, known as sailabi, is found 

chiefly in the Shikarpur subdivision. It requires no 
Agriculture. c ,. \ , 

water from seedtime to harvest. 

The total cultivable land is estimated at 2,726 square miles, of which 

1,106 are occupied. The chief statistics of cultivation in 1903 are 

shown below, in square miles : — 



Taluka. 


Total. 


Cultivated. 


Irrigated. 


Waste. 


Forests. 


Shikarpur . 


494 


243 


122 


153 


46 


Naushahro Abro 


401 


180 


109 


78 


69 


Sukkur 


300 


H3 


88 


17 


82 


Rohri 


1,496 


515 


79 


922 


21 


Ghotki 


519 


175 


63 


I40 


126 


Mirpur Mathelo 


1,721 


189 


35 


121 


23 


Ubauro 

Total 


469 


139 


59 


188 


30 


5>4°°* 


1.584 


605 


1,619 


397 



* This differs from the area shown iii the Census of 1901, being based upon more recent 
information. 

The principal crops, with the area under each, are rice (87 square 
miles), wheat (249), joivar (262), bajra (37), pulses, chiefly lang and 
gram (67), and oilseeds (47 square miles). About half of the total 
area under rice is in Naushahro Abro. Wheat is grown mainly in 
Rohri and Ghotki. Cotton, fruits, and vegetables are also extensively 
grown. Large advances have been made under the Land Improve- 



TRADE AND COMMUNICATIONS 123 

ment and Agriculturists' Loans Acts, amounting during the decade 
ending 1903-4 to more than 7 A lakhs, of which 1-3 lakhs was advanced 
in 1899-1900, i\ lakhs in 1902-3, and 1-4 lakhs in 1903-4. 

Owing to the extension of irrigation, a large amount of land has been 
brought under cultivation during the last twenty-five years. Rice is 
more largely cultivated, and ground-nuts are being introduced as an 
alternative crop to joivdr with considerable success. 

The domestic animals comprise camels, horses, buffaloes, bullocks, 
sheep, goats, mules, and donkeys. The camels are mostly imported 
from Jaisalmer and Thar and Parkar, while good ponies of medium 
height are procurable in all parts of the District. Most of the animals 
which change hands at the annual Shikarpur horse show come from 
Jacobabad or from across the frontier. Mule-breeding is becoming 
popular, most of the animals being bred from Government donkey 
stallions. 

Of the total area cultivated, 605 square miles, or 39 per cent., were 
irrigated in 1903-4. The various classes of irrigation sources are 
Government canals (141 square miles), private canals (408 square 
miles), wells (8 square miles), and other sources (47 square miles). 
Irrigation is also effected in some parts by lets or inundations of the 
Indus, which are a source of fertility in the Rohri subdivision. In 
other parts they are apt to be excessive, and protective embankments 
have been erected in many villages to prevent the wholesale destruc- 
tion of crops. The chief canals, all of which are fed by the Indus, 
are the Sind Canal, irrigating 166 square miles, Begari (78), Sukkur 
Canal (53), Nara Supply Channel (13), and Mahi Wah (74). The total 
cultivable area commanded by the irrigation works is 1,096 square 
miles. 

The forests of Sukkur cover an area of about 400 square miles, 
and are valuable only as fuel and timber reserves. They fringe the 
banks of the Indus and are in charge of a divisional Forest officer. 
The important trees are the pipal, nim, ber, siras, tali, bahdn, babul, 
and kandi. The bush jungle consists for the most part of tamarisk. 
The forest receipts in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 94,000. 

The manufactures include earthenware, metal vessels, coarse cotton 
cloth, and leathern articles. The towns of Ghotki and Khairpur 
Daharki are noted for their manufactures of pipe- 
bowls, snuff-boxes, scissors, and cooking pots. Tasar comm ^i^ons. 
silk is manufactured at Rohri. The former trade 
through the Bolan Pass has almost entirely ceased, goods from Afghan- 
istan and Central Asia taking the railway route. Sukkur and Shikar- 
pur are the only two important trade centres. The former has a large 
trade by rail and boat with the Punjab in wheat, timber, iron, and 
piece-goods. The traders of Shikarpur have direct dealings with 

VOL. XXIII. 1 



i2 4 SUKKUR DISTRICT 

Afghanistan, Bahrein, Cutch, Constantinople, China, and Japan in 
carpets, pearls, silks, silver-work, and fancy work. Both towns carry on 
a large import trade in wool from Afghanistan. 

Besides the trunk roads which connect Sukkur with the adjoining 
Districts of Upper Sind, Larkana, Hyderabad, and Karachi, and with 
the Native States of Khairpur and Bahawalpur, the North-Western 
Railway runs through the District on both banks of the Indus, with 
a branch from Sukkur towards Quetta. The new line, styled the 
Kotri-Rohri Railway, on the left bank of the Indus, is an addition 
made in the last decade. The Indus is also a convenient and cheap 
means of water communication, and bears large numbers of country 
boats. The total length of metalled roads outside the municipal limits 
of Sukkur and Shikarpur is 8 miles, and of unmetalled roads 1,370 
miles. They are all maintained by the local authorities. The chief 
roads are the Hyderabad-Multan road, running north for 73 miles, the 
Sukkur-Jacobabad road (38 miles), and the road from Rohri to Khair- 
pur (16 miles). Avenues of trees are maintained on these three roads. 

The talukas are for administrative purposes grouped into three sub- 
divisions — Rohri, Mirpur, and Shikarpur — in charge 
of two Assistant Collectors and a Deputy-Collector. 
The Collector is ex-officio Political Agent of the Khairpur State. 

A District and Sessions Judge and a Joint Judge sit at Sukkur ; and 
the civil judicial staff includes 5 Subordinate Judges. The District 
and Sessions Judge exercises jurisdiction also over Larkana District. 
Rohri possesses a resident magistrate ; and both Shikarpur and Sukkur 
have city magistrates. The Subordinate Judges exercise jurisdiction 
in suits of Rs. 5,000 in value or less within local limits. The first-class 
Subordinate Judge at Sukkur can hear suits of any value within the 
limits of Sukkur, Larkana, and Jacobabad Districts, excepting suits 
against Covernment. The District and Joint Judges hear suits and 
appeals of any value arising within the three Districts. Theft and 
cattle-stealing are the commonest forms of crime. 

In the Rohri subdivision the maurusi tenure is found, under which 
the tenants possess an hereditary right of occupancy. This tenure 
resembles the aforament prevailing in parts of Portugal and the beklem- 
reght in the province of Groningen described by M. de Lavaleye in the 
first volume of the Cobden Club Essays. The tenant pays a quit-rent 
to the proprietor, which differs in different villages, but seldom exceeds 
6 or 8 annas per acre, and cannot be enhanced. The settlement of 
the Government demand is made direct with the tenant, who is entered 
in the register as an occupant, the amount of quit-rent payable to the 
proprietor being also recorded. Other tenures are the zamlndari and 
pattadari. The former is equivalent to a charge on cultivation, payable 
in cash or in kind to the zamlndar. The latter has arisen out of grants 



A D\riXTSTRA TTOX 



T2 5 



under leases of reduced assessment, made by the Afghan government 
to Pathan settlers, and is now equivalent to the assignment of a fixed 
proportion of the revenue to the alienees. Jaglr lands are found in 
every taluka of the Rohri subdivision, and in a small portion of the 
Shikarpur subdivision, amounting altogether to 479 square miles. 
The first survey settlement was introduced into the District between 
1862 and 1873, and has been revised every ten years. The survey 
rates at present in force are : garden land, Rs. 4-2 (maximum Rs. 6-8 
and minimum Rs. 3) ; rice land, Rs. 4-2 (maximum Rs. 5 and mini- 
mum Rs. 3) ; 'dry' land, Rs. 2-1 1 (maximum Rs. 3-8 and minimum 
Rs. 1-12). 

Collections on account of land revenue and revenue from all sources 
have been, in thousands of rupees : — 



1880-1. 


1890-1. 


igoo-i. 


« 903-4- 


Land revenue . . 2 1 ,43 
Total revenue . . 27,60 


46,10 

57, IO 


53, '4 
6 7. 34 


22,04 
29,47 



Note. — The figures for the three earlier years represent the old District of 
Shikarpur ; the figures for 1003-4 are for the present District of Sukkur. 

There are five municipalities in the District : Sukkur, Shikarpur, 
Ghari Yasin, Rohri, and Ghotki. The local affairs of the rest of 
the District are managed by the District board at Sukkur and seven 
taluka boards, with receipts of more than 1-2 lakhs in 1903-4. The 
expenditure in the same year was likewise 1-2 lakhs, of which about 
Rs. 50,000 was spent on roads and buildings. The principal source of 
income is the land cess. 

The District Superintendent of police has an Assistant Superinten- 
dent and four inspectors. There are 13 police stations in the District. 
The total number of police is 712, of whom 11 are chief constables, 
115 head constables, and 586 constables. 

The District jail at Shikarpur has accommodation for 433 prisoners. 
A new District jail is now being built at Sukkur town. There are six 
subsidiary jails, with accommodation for 108 prisoners. The total 
daily average number of prisoners in 1904 was 439, of whom 5 were 
females. 

The District stands last but one among the twenty-four Districts ot 
the Presidency in respect of the literacy of its population, of whom 
1 «7 per cent. (5-7 males and 0-9 females) are able to read and write. 
In 1 880- 1 there were 104 schools with an attendance of 7,087 pupils. 
The number of passes rose to 19,738 in 1891 and to 26,388 in 1901 
before the formation of Larkana District. In 1903-4 there were 466 
schools with 1 7,485 pupils. Of these institutions, one is a high school, 
six are middle schools, and two are technical and other special schools. 

1 2 



126 SUKKUR DISTRICT 

The high school and a Saturday afternoon drawing-class for masters 
are supported by Government, 1 1 1 schools are managed by the local 
and municipal boards, 170 are aided, and one is unaided. The 
expenditure incurred on education is about \\ lakhs, of which 
Rs. 21,000 is derived from fees. Of the total amount, 67 per cent, is 
devoted to primary schools. 

Besides several private medical institutions, there are three hospitals 
and six dispensaries in the District, with accommodation for 132 
in-patients. In these institutions, 96,980 cases were treated in 1904, 
of whom 1,441 were in-patients, and 4,536 operations were performed. 
The total expenditure was Rs. 23,800, of which Rs. 12,900 was 
contributed by the local boards and municipalities. 

The number of persons successfully vaccinated in 1903-4 was 
15,751, representing a proportion of 30 per 1,000, which exceeds the 
average for the Presidency. 

[A. W. Hughes, Gazetteer of the Province of Sind (1876).] 

Sukkur Taluka (Sakhar).— Taluka of Sukkur District, Sind, 
Bombay, lying between 27 41' and 27 58' N. and 68° 38' and 
69 2' E., with an area of 302 square miles. The population rose 
from 83,543 in 1891 to 94,015 in 1901. The taluka contains one 
town, Sukkur (population, 31,316), the head-quarters; and 54 villages. 
The density, 309 persons per square mile, is the highest in the District. 
The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 2-3 lakhs. 
Irrigation depends chiefly on the Sukkur and Sind Canals, which, 
however, cannot reach the high-lying portions of the taluka. The 
tract on the left bank of the Indus is poorly served with canals, and 
so far it has not been possible here to regulate irrigation from the river. 

Sukkur Town (Sakhar). — Head-quarters of Sukkur District, Sind, 
Bombay, situated in 27 42' N. and 68° 54' E., on the right or western 
bank of the Indus, opposite Rohri. Midway between these two towns 
lies the island fortress of Bukkur, and a little southward the wooded 
island of Sadh Bela. Sukkur is a station on the North-Western 
Railway, which here crosses the Indus to Rohri by the fine Lansdowne 
Bridge, constructed on the cantilever principle. 

A range of low limestone hills, utterly devoid of vegetation, slopes 
down to the river ; and it is on this rocky site that New Sukkur, as 
distinguished from the old town of the same name about a mile distant, 
is partly situated. Scattered about are the ruins of numerous tombs ; 
and at the western side of the town, overlooking the river, is the lofty 
minaret of Mir Masum Shah, erected, it is supposed, about 1607. 
The town is well drained and clean. In 1834 the population was 
estimated at only 4,000; in 1872 it had risen to 13,318; in 1881 to 
275389; in 1891 to 29,302; and in 1901 to 31,316. Muhammadans 
number 11,386; Hindus, 19,313; Christians, 339. 






SUKKUR TOWN 127 

The trade of Sukkur, both local and transit, is still considerable, but 
no trustworthy details are available. It has suffered from the com- 
pletion of railways on both banks of the Indus to Karachi, and the 
consequent through booking of export produce. Statistics of the traffic 
on the Indus appear to have been regularly kept from 1855-6 to 
1 86 1-2, by an officer of the Indian Navy. In 1855-6, 600 boats 
proceeded up river with a total tonnage of 7,750 ; and in 1861-2, 1,232, 
with a tonnage of 20,232, discharged at the Sukkur port. In the same 
years, 629 and 1,714 boats left Sukkur, with cargoes amounting to 
8,000 and 16,317 tons, respectively. The downward exports comprise 
silk, cotton cloth, raw cotton, wool, opium, saltpetre, sugar, dyes, and 
brass utensils. The upward traffic includes piece-goods, metals, wines 
and spirits, and country produce. There is a large local trade between 
Sukkur and Shikarpur. The town possesses no special manufactures, 
except a considerable boat-building industry. It has an aided technical 
school with an attendance of 27, and 13 other schools, of which 9 
are for boys with 1,034 pupils, and 4 are for girls with 181 pupils. 
Besides the offices of the District authorities, the town contains a 
Subordinate Judge's court, a civil hospital, and a dispensary. 

Old Sukkur seems to be a place of no great antiquity, though it 
contains the ruins of numerous tombs and mosques. Among the 
former is the tomb of Shah Khair-ud-din Shah, which is said to have 
been erected about 1758. New Sukkur owes its existence to the 
stationing of European troops here in 1839, at the time when Bukkur 
fort was made over to the British ; and it was rapidly converted into 
a prosperous and busy town. In 1845, after a fatal epidemic of fever 
among the garrison, New Sukkur was abandoned as a station for 
European troops ; but it is now of greater importance than before, 
as the centre of railway communication with Karachi, Multan, and 
Quetta. A chain of forts protects the approach to the Lansdowne 
Bridge, while the repairing shops of the North-Westem Railway in the 
Adam Shah quarter are protected for rifle-defence. The water-supply 
is drawn from a group of wells near the Lansdowne Bridge, and is 
pumped up to tanks near the water-tower, which stands on the highest 
point of the limestone rocks of Sukkur. Among the chief buildings 
of New Sukkur are the municipal office and library, used as a signal- 
station during the period of existence of the Indus flotilla, three 
churches, and the railway institute. Little is known of Old Sukkur in 
the days of Afghan rule ; but it is believed to have been ceded to 
the Khairpur Mlrs some time between the years 1809 and 1824. In 
1833 it was the scene of a conflict between Shah Shuja-ul-mulk, the 
dethroned Durrani sovereign, and the Talpur Mlrs, the latter being 
defeated. In 1843 01d Sukkur, together with Karachi, Tatta, Bukkur, 
and Rohri, was yielded to the British in perpetuity. 



iz8 SUKKUR TOWN 

The municipality, established in 1862, had an average revenue dur- 
ing the decade ending 1901 of 3 lakhs. In 1903-4 the income was 
2 lakhs, composed chiefly of octroi (Rs. 94,000), bandar or port fees 
(Rs. 24,000), rent of houses and lands (Rs. 11,000), and house tax 
(Rs. 10,000) ; while the expenditure amounted to i-6 lakhs, including 
Rs. 50,000 for administrative charges, Rs. 47,000 for extraordinary 
charges and debt, Rs. 21,000 for education, and a similar sum for 
conservancy. 

Suklatlrtha (or Shukla Tirth). — Milage in the Broach tdluka of 
Broach District, Bombay, situated in 2i°45" N. and 73 7' E., on the 
northern bank of the Narbada, 10 miles from Broach city. Population 
(1901), 2,348. The most important fair in the District is held here 
every year, about November, on the occasion of the full moon of the 
month Kartik. It lasts for five days, and on an average 25,000 people 
attend. Within a short distance of each other are three sacred ghats, 
or tirthas — -the Kavitirtha, the Hunkareshwartirtha, and the Sukla- 
tirtha. There is a temple at Hunkareshwartirtha. The name of 
Hunkareshwar is said to have been given to the god because with 
a cry of ' hun ' the image came up from the water of the Narbada. 

The following is the legendary account of the discovery of Sukla- 
tlrtha. In former times men were aware that somewhere on earth was 
a spot holy enough to purify from all sin : but none, even the wisest, 
knew where it lay. A certain king of Ujjain, Chanakya, growing old 
and thinking over the evil of his life, longed to find out this Suklatirtha, 
or purifying spot. He therefore told the crows, whose feathers were 
at that time white, and who alone of birds had leave to enter the 
realms of the gods, to fly to Varna, the ruler of the infernal regions, 
and to tell him that king Chanakya was dead. The crows were to 
listen to the plans of the god Yama for the treatment of the king's 
soul, and were to discover from his words the locality of Suklatirtha. 
They were able, on their return, to tell the king to start down the 
stream of the Narbada, in a black-sailed boat, and when the blackness 
left his sail and it became white, he might know that he had reached 
his goal. The king obeyed ; and after passing down-stream for several 
days, looking in vain for a change in the colour of his sail, he suddenly 
saw it flash white and knew that his journey was over. Leaving his 
boat he went on shore, bathed, and was purified. Yama, however, 
hearing of the deception practised upon him, was angry, and forbidding 
the crows to appear again in the realms of the gods, tarnished their 
plumage with stains, from which till this day they have failed to free 
themselves. There is more than one instance in legend or ancient 
history of men in high position coming to Suklatirtha for purification. 
Perhaps the best known is that of Chandragupta and his minister 
Chanakya. coming to be cleansed from the guilt of the murder of 



SULEKERE 129 

Chandragupta's eight brothers. So, also, in the beginning of the 
eleventh century, Chamund, king of Anhilvada, heart-broken at the 
loss of his eldest son, came as a patient to Suklatlrtha and remained 
there till he died. The ceremony of launching a boat with black sails 
in the hope of absolution from sin was, as noticed by Mr. Forbes, once 
practised at Suklatlrtha. But the pilgrims of these days use instead of 
a boat a common earthen jar containing a lighted lamp, which, as it 
drifts down the stream, carries away with it their guilt. 

Sulaiman Range (28 31' to 32 4' N. and 67°52'to 70 17' E.).— 
Range of mountains in North-Western India, about 250 miles long, 
lying between the Gomal river on the north and the Indus on the 
south, which separates the North-West Frontier Province and Punjab 
from Baluchistan. Its backbone consists of a main ridge running north 
and south, flanked on the east by parallel serrated ranges. On the 
Baluchistan side these flanking ranges gradually take an east and west 
direction to meet the Central Brahui range. The height of the range 
gradually decreases to the southward. The geological formation of 
the southern parts is distinct from that of the northern. In the former, 
sandstones, clays, and marls predominate ; in the latter, pale marine 
coral limestone rests on Cretaceous sandstone. Petroleum has been 
worked in the Marri hills. On the southern slopes vegetation is 
scarce : in the central part olives abound ; farther to the north the 
higher elevations are covered with edible pine (c/u'/g/wza), the fruit 
of which is collected and sold. In this part of the range much 
magnificent scenery is to be found, of which the extraordinarily narrow 
gorges constitute the most striking feature. These clefts afford a means 
of communication with the Punjab, the principal routes being through the 
Gat, Zao, Chuharkhel Dhana, and Sakhi Sarwar Passes. The highest 
point of the range, 11,295 feet above the sea, is known to Europeans 
as the Takht-i-Sulaiman ('Solomon's throne') and to natives as Kasi 
Ghar. Sir Thomas Holdich describes the takht as a ziarat or shrine, 
situated on a ledge some distance below the crest of the southernmost 
bluff of the mountain. It is difficult of approach, but is nevertheless 
annually visited by many pilgrims, both Hindu and Muhammadan. 
The inhabitants in the northern parts of the range are Afghans, and 
in the south Baloch. About thirty miles north-west of Fort Sandeman 
lies the picturesque little sanitarium of Shinghar. Farther south is the 
Punjab hill-station of Fort Munro (6,363 feet), in Dera Ghazi Khan 
District. Straight-horned markhor {Capra falconeri) are to be found at 
the higher and mountain sheep (Ovi's vignei) at the lower elevations. 

Sulekere. — The largest tank in Mysore next to the Man Kanave 
reservoir {see Hagari). It is in the middle of the Channagiri taluk 
of Shimoga District, and is said to be 40 miles round. It receives the 
drainage of 457 square miles, and is formed by a dam in a narrow 



130 SULEKERE 

gorge on a stream called the Haridra. or Haridravati, which runs into 
the Tungabhadra at Harihar. The tank or kere is said to have been 
constructed in the eleventh or twelfth century by a sule or dancing-girl, 
whence its name. She was a king's daughter, and having formed 
a connexion with some divinity, built as an act of expiation the tank, 
which, however, submerged the city of her father, and she was cursed 
by him. The channels from the tank supply hundreds of acres 
planted with sugar-cane. 

Sulkea. — Suburb of Howrah city in Howrah District, Bengal. 
See Salkhia. 

Sultanabad. — Taluk in Karimnagar District, Hyderabad State, 
with an area of 287 square miles. The population in 1901, including 
jdglrs, was 131,624, compared with 130,548 in 1891. The number 
of villages is 146, of which 41 axejdgir, Sultanabad (population, 1,339) 
being the head-quarters. The land revenue in 1901 was 1-9 lakhs. 
Rice is largely raised by tank-irrigation. 

Sultanganj. — Village in the head-quarters subdivision of Bhagalpur 
District, Bengal, situated in 25 15' N. and 86° 45' E., close to the 
Ganges and near the East Indian Railway. Population (1901), 4,410. 
Sultanganj is conspicuous for two great rocks of granite, one of which 
on the river bank is crowned by a Musalman mosque. The second 
and larger one is occupied by a temple of Ghaibnath Siva, and is a 
place of great holiness in the eyes of Hindus, few persons of position 
passing the place without making offerings to the idol. The river here 
impinges on a stone cliff, which is believed to be the scene of the loves 
of the river nymph and the god Siva. Close to the railway station are 
an ancient stiipa and extensive remains of a Buddhist monastery, where 
a number of figures have been exhumed. The town, which is served 
by rail and river, is a flourishing mart. 

[Archaeological Survey Reports, vol. xv, pp. 24-31.] 

Sultanpur District. — District in the Fyzabad Division of the 

United Provinces, lying between 25 59" and 26 40' N. and 8i° 32' 

and 82 41' E., with an area of 1,713 square miles. It is bounded on 

the north by Bara Bank! and Fyzabad ; on the east by Azamgarh and 

Jaunpur ; on the south by Jaunpur and Partabgarh ; and on the west 

by Rae Bareli and Bara Bank!. With the exception of a gradual and 

scarcely perceptible slope from north-west to south-east, the surface 

of the country is generally level, being broken only 

ysl ^ a by ravines in the neighbourhood of the rivers by 

which its drainage is effected. The scenery is of 

a varied character. Many spots along the Gumti are exceedingly 

pretty ; but for the most part the country on both banks of that river 

is a dreary, bleak, and ravine-cut tract, occasionally relieved by mango 

groves. The centre of the District consists of highly cultivated and 



SULTANPUR DISTRICT 131 

well-wooded villages; while in the south, in strong contrast to this 
fertile tract, are widespread arid plains and swampy jhlh and marshes. 
The chief river is the Gumtl, which enters the District at its north- 
western corner and, after flowing in an exceedingly tortuous south- 
easterly course through the centre, passes out at the south-east. Its 
bed lies below the surface of the country, and is at first badly defined, 
but high banks are found in the latter part of its course. There are 
several small streams, the chief being the Majhol, which forms part 
of the boundary between Fyzabad and Sultanpur. A number of 
shallow jhlh or swamps are found, but none of considerable size or 
importance. 

The geological formation of the District is entirely alluvial, but 
kankar or calcareous limestone is common. 

The flora presents no peculiarities. The only jungle of any size 
surrounds Ramnagar in the south-west, though a few patches of dhak 
(Butea frondosa) are found elsewhere. Sultanpur is, however, well 
wooded, and contains magnificent groves of mango, jamun (Eugenia 
Jambolana), and tnahua (Bassia latifolia). 

Wild animals are very few in number ; the chief are wolves, jackals, 
and in places nilgai and wild hog. Small game, such as partridge and 
quail, and in the cold season water-fowl and snipe, are common ; and 
fish abound in the rivers, jhlh, and large tanks. 

The climate is mild and healthy. West winds prevail from October 
to June, gradually increasing in strength as the hot season approaches. 
The average monthly temperature ranges from 65 in January to 90° 
or ioo° in May. Frosts are uncommon. 

Over the whole District the annual rainfall averages 43 inches, the 
north receiving slightly more than the south. Great variations are not 
uncommon; in 1877 the fall was only 13 inches, and in 1894 as much 
as 91 inches. 

Popular legend, as usual in Oudh, connects several places in the 
District with episodes in the Ramayana. The old town of Sultanpur 
bore the name of Kusabhavanpur, after Kusa, son 
of Rama, who is said to have founded it. At the 
period of the Muhammadan conquest the District was held by the 
Bhars ; but no places of importance were situated within it, and no 
references to it can be traced in the Persian historians. Local tradition 
asserts that Kusabhavanpur was conquered by Ala-ud-din ; but the 
name of the conqueror is probably a mistake. The District formed 
part of the Jaunpur kingdom in the fifteenth century, and on the 
downfall of the Lodi dynasty became incorporated with the Delhi 
empire. Under the redistribution made by Akbar the present area 
fell partly in the Subah of Oudh and partly in that of Allahabad, but 
250 years later the whole District came under the Nawab of Oudh. 



im SULTANPUR district 



J 



In 1856, when Oudh was annexed, a District of Sultanpur was formed, 
which included portions of what are now Bara Bankl and Rae Bareli 
Districts, while additions have been made to it from Fyzabad. The 
District assumed its present shape in 1869. 

The only noteworthy incident in the history of the District since 
annexation is the revolt of the troops stationed at Sultanpur canton- 
ment during the Mutiny of 1857. Anticipating an outbreak, the 
European ladies and children were dispatched on June 7 to Allahabad, 
which they ultimately succeeded in reaching in safety, after a good 
deal of rough treatment and plundering at the hands of the villagers. 
On June 9 the troops, consisting of one regiment of native cavalry 
and two of infantry, rose in rebellion and fired on their officers, killing 
Colonel Fisher, the commandant of the station, and Captain Gibbings. 
Two civilian officers, Mr. A. Block and Mr. S. Stroyan, also lost their 
lives, one being drowned and the other shot while attempting to cross 
the Gumti. A few survivors were sheltered by the Raja of Dera, who 
remained loyal throughout, while other talukddrs espoused the cause 
of the rebels. Several actions were fought in the District before the 
close of the year, but it was not till November, 1858, that order was 
fully restored. 

Many ancient mounds are found, which are connected by local 
tradition with the Bhars. Some of them have yielded Buddhist 
remains, but no regular excavations have been made. The chief 
sacred places connected with the story of the Ramayana are Sitakund, 
a bathing ghat on the Gumti close to Sultanpur ; and Dhopap, lower 
down the same river. At the latter place are the ruins of a fort built 
by Sher Shah, which is known as Shahgarh. 

The District contains 2,458 villages and only one town, the houses 
of the people being scattered in small hamlets. The population at the 
four enumerations was as follows : (1869) 1,040,227 ; 
(1881)957,912 ; (1891) 1,075,851 ; (1901) 1,083,904. 
It is probable that the Census of 1869 overstated the actual number; 
but the District suffered from famine in 1877-8. There are four tahslls 
— Sultanpur, Amethi, Musafirkhana, and Kadipur — each named 
from its head-quarters. Sultanpur, the head-quarters of the District, 
is the only municipality. The chief statistics of population in 1901 are 
shown in the table on the next page. 

Hindus form 89 per cent, of the total population and Muhammadans 
1 1 per cent. Population is very dense everywhere, and emigration to 
the Colonies and to other parts of India is common. Considerable 
sums are remitted annually to their homes by the emigrants. The 
AwadhI dialect of Eastern Hindi is spoken almost universally. 

Brahmans are the most numerous caste, numbering 159,000, or 
1 7 per cent, of the total. Other castes numerically important are : 



AGRICULTURE 



*33 



Chamars (tanners and cultivators), 140,000 ; Ahlrs (graziers and culti- 
vators), 129,000; Rajputs, 87,000 ; Muraos (market-gardeners), 42,000 ; 
Kurmis (agriculturists), 38,000 ; Pasis (toddy-drawers), 38,000 ; and 
Koris (weavers), 35,000. Among Musalmans are found Rajputs, 
26,000; Julahas (weavers), 11,000; Shaikhs, 10,000; and Pathans, 
8,000. Agriculture supports 81 per cent, of the total population. 
Rajputs hold about 90 per cent, of the land, the three main clans 
being the Rajkumars, Bandhalgotls, and Bachgotis. Brahmans, Raj- 
puts, Ahirs, Kurmis, Muraos, and Chamars are the chief cultivating 
castes. 



Tahstl. 


Area in square 
miles. 


Number of 


C 

_0 

a 
0. 



(X 


c'5 
c 
•a « 

3 3 

Q.CT 

w 
PL, 


Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween 1891 
and iqoi. 


Number of 

persons able to 

read and 

write. 


(A 

c 

O 

H 


in 

V 

> 


Sultanpur . 
Amethi 
Musafirkhana 
Kadlpur 

District total 


508 
366 

397 
442 

i.7'3 


I 
I 


828 
455 
434 
74' 


340,211 
217,207 
261,036 
265,450 


67O 

593 
658 

601 


+ 2-8 

- 0.9 

+ 3-9 
- 3-3 


8,289 
4,096 
5,674 
4,437 


2,458 


1,083,904 


633 


+ 0.7 


22,496 



Agriculture. 



In 1901 there were 75 native Christians, of whom 57 were females : 
61 persons belonged to the Anglican communion. A branch of the 
Zanana Bible and Medical Mission was established in 1891. 

The Gumti is bordered by a fringe of sandy land much broken 
by ravines. Farther inland, on both banks, the soil becomes a level 
fertile loam, which gradually changes both in the 
north and in the south to stiff clay. The whole 
of the riparian area is liable to suffer from the effects of floods and 
from water-logging after years of excessive rain. In the clay tracts 
the valuable late rice is the staple crop, while elsewhere other cereals, 
pulses, and millets are largely grown. Great plains of barren usar 
land are found in the southern clay tract, the largest areas lying in 
the south-west. There is a little alluvial soil in the bed of the Gumti, 
especially in the western part of the District. 

The tenures are those common to Oudh. Talukdari estates include 
about 60 per cent, of the total .area. About 80 per cent, is in the 
hands of sub-settlement holders or under-proprietors. Complex mahals, 
or revenue units extending to more than one village, are found in small 
numbers. The main agricultural statistics for 1903-4 are given in 
the table on the next page, in square miles. 

Rice is the most important crop, covering 399 square miles, or 40 
per cent. of the cultivated area. The other food-crops arc gram 
(207 square miles), wheat (172), barley (156), and peas and masur 



134 



SULTANPUR DISTRICT 



(109). Sugar-cane was grown on 28 square miles; but some of the 
Rajput clans have a prejudice against its cultivation. Poppy occupied 
13 square miles, and a little indigo is still grown. 



Tahsil. 


Total. Cultivated. Irrigated. 


Cultivable 
waste. 


Sultanpur 

Ametrn .... 

Musafirkhana . 

Kadlpur .... 


508 304 
366 191 

397 231 
442 263 


138 
98 
96 

151 


58 

39 
46 

33 


Total 


1,7*3 989 


483 


176 



Between the first and second regular settlement the cultivated area 
increased by nearly 8 per cent., and there has since been a further 
expansion. The rise in the area double cropped is still larger ; and 
the tendency seems to be to grow more of the inferior food-crops, such 
as peas and gram, which can be sown after an autumn crop has been 
reaped, while the area under wheat, which requires a period of fallow, 
has decreased. Sugar-cane and poppy are increasing in favour. There 
is a small but steady demand for advances under the Land Improve- 
ment and Agriculturists' Loans Act, which amounted to a total of 
2-7 lakhs during the ten years ending 1900, the loans in 1896-7 
accounting for i-8 lakhs. In the next four years the loans averaged 
Rs. 3,200 annually. 

The cattle bred locally, as in all the Districts of Southern Oudh, are 
exceptionally poor, and animals of a better class are imported. The 
ponies are also of inferior quality, but a stallion has recently been 
supplied by Government to encourage horse-breeding. Sheep and 
goats are kept in large numbers, chiefly for their manure. 

The cultivators depend to a very large extent on natural tanks or 
jhlls for water to irrigate their land. In 1903-4 tanks and jhlls 
supplied 252 square miles, wells 225, and other sources 6. Irrigation 
from wells is the most reliable form, as the jliils dry up in years when 
they are chiefly needed. The number of masonry wells is increas- 
ing, and temporary wells can be constructed in most parts. In the 
famine year of 1897 advances amounting to Rs. 80,000 were given 
for this purpose, and more than 600 masonry wells were also made. 
The usual method of raising water from wells is by means of a 
leathern bucket drawn by bullocks, or, in the east of the District, 
by hand labour. Where the spring-level is higher, a pot and pulley 
are employed. In the case of tanks water is raised by the swing- 
basket. 

Ka/ikar, or nodular limestone, is the chief mineral product, and 
is used for metalling roads and for making lime. Saline efflorescences 
are collected and used for making glass. 



ADMINISTRA TION 135 

A little coarse cotton cloth is woven in a number of villages to 
meet the local demand. Metal vessels manufac- 
tured at Bandhua have a good reputation. Trade and 

.,.,,. . communications. 

The chief exports are grain, while the imports in- 
clude piece-goods, salt, and metals. The traffic on the Gumtl was once 
considerable, but has declined with the construction of roads and rail- 
ways. Sultanpur, Gaurlganj, Raipur, and Bazar Sukul are the chief 
markets. An annual fair and agricultural show are held at Sultanpur. 

The main line of the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway crosses the 
south-west corner of the District, and a branch from Fyzabad to 
Allahabad passes through the centre from north to south. The loop- 
line from Benares to Lucknow traverses the extreme east. Road com- 
munications are fairly good. Out of a total length of 857 miles, 
99 miles of road are metalled. The chief routes are from Sultanpur 
town to Allahabad, Fyzabad, and Raipur, with a branch to Gaurlganj. 
Avenues of trees are maintained on 70 miles. 

The District has escaped fairly well from drought. In unfavourable 
years the poorer classes suffer from the effects of high prices, but 
distress has been severe only in 1877-8 and 1896-7. 
The drought of 1877 caused a failure of the autumn 
crops. Relief works were opened in 1878, but were not much resorted 
to. The harvest failed also in 1896, but a liberal system of advances 
enabled the people to sow a large area for the spring harvest, which 
turned out well. Revenue to the amount of Rs. 60,000 was remitted. 

The Deputy-Commissioner is usually assisted by five Deputy-Collec- 
tors recruited in India. An officer of the Opium department is 

stationed in the District, and a tahslldar at the . , . . ± A . 
. . _ , , , ;, Administration, 

head-quarters of each tahsil. 

There are two regular District Munsifs and a Subordinate Judge for 
civil work. A scheme for the appointment of village Munsifs was 
introduced in 1902. The District is included in the Civil Judgeship 
of Rae Bareli and in the Sessions division of Fyzabad. Criminal work 
is generally light, and dacoity and other serious forms of crime are 
almost unknown. Crimes of violence are fairly common, but there 
is little combination among the people, so that riots are rare. 

The records of the first summary settlement perished in the Mutiny. 
It involved large reductions in the estates held by talukdars. A second 
summary settlement was made on the restoration of order, the demand 
amounting to 9 lakhs. The first regular settlement, preceded by 
a survey, was completed between 1863 and 1870. In the southern 
part of the present District the assessment was based on the actual 
rent-rolls, checked by applying assumed rates selected from rates found 
to be paid. The northern portion, then included in Fyzabad, was 
assessed entirely at assumed rates. A revenue of 12-4 lakhs was fixed : 



T3 6 



SULTANPUR DISTRICT 



but bad seasons and inequalities in the assessment made a revision 
of the demand necessary in the north, which resulted in a reduction 
of Rs. 36,000. The settlement courts also decided a very large 
number of disputed claims to land. The second regular settlement 
was carried out between 1892 and 1898 by the Deputy-Commissioner 
in addition to his regular work. At this revision the assessment was 
made on the actual rent-rolls, corrected where necessary. The new 
revenue amounts to 14-9 lakhs, representing 46 per cent, of the net 
'assets.' It falls at an incidence of Rs. 1-5 per acre over the whole 
District, varying from Rs. 1-4 to Rs. 8 in different parganas. 

Collections on account of land revenue and revenue from all sources 
have been, in thousands of rupees : — 





1 880- 1. 


1890-1. 1 900- 1. 1903-4. 


Land revenue 
Total revenue . 


10,68 

u,99 


",77 T 4,i? M.66 
15,96 19=83 2 °^5 



Outside the municipality of Sultanpur, local affairs are managed 
by the District board, which in 1903-4 had a revenue and expenditure 
of i-i lakhs. Rates are the chief source of income, and the expendi- 
ture included Rs. 50,000 spent on roads and buildings. 

There are 13 police stations ; and the District Superintendent of police 
has under him a force of 3 inspectors, 79 subordinate officers, and 306 
constables, besides 15 municipal police, and 2,383 rural and road police. 
The District jail contained a daily average of 222 prisoners in 1903. 

The District is very backward as regards the literacy of its popu- 
lation, of whom only 2-1 per cent. (4-1 males and o-i females) could 
read and write in 1901. The number of public schools rose from 
103 with 3,476 pupils in 1880-1 to 157 with 8,268 pupils in 1900-1. 
In 1903-4 there were 171 such schools with 8,464 pupils, of whom 
71 were girls, besides 53 private schools with 492 boys and 52 girls. 
Only 887 pupils had advanced beyond the primary stage. Two schools 
are managed by Government and 117 by the District and municipal 
boards. The total expenditure on education was Rs. 36,000, of which 
Rs. 31,000 was provided from Local funds, and Rs. 5,000 by fees. 

There are eight hospitals and dispensaries, with accommodation for 
62 in-patients. In 1903 the number of cases treated was 30,000, 
including 670 in-patients, and r,32o operations were performed. The 
expenditure amounted to Rs. 9,000, chiefly met from Local funds. 

About 35,000 persons were successfully vaccinated in 1903-4, repre- 
senting a proportion of 32 per 1,000 of population. Vaccination is 
compulsory only in the municipality of Sultanpur. 

[F. W. Brownrigg, Settlement Report (1898) ; H. R. Nevill, District 
Gazetteer (1903).] 



SULTANPUR TAHSIL r37 

Sultanpur Tahsil (i). — Central tahsil of Sultanpur District, United 
Provinces, comprising the parganas of Miranpur and Baraunsa, and 
lying between 26 2' and 26 31' N. and 8i° 49' and 82 22' E., with 
an area of 508 square miles. Population increased from 330,964 in 
1891 to 340,211 in 1901. There are 828 villages, but only one town, 
Sultanpur (population, 9,550), the District and tahsil head-quarters. 
The demand for land revenue in 1903—4 was Rs. 4,27,000, and for 
cesses Rs. 69,000. The density of population, 670 persons per square 
mile, is the highest in the District. Through the centre of the tahsil 
flows the Gumtl, in a tortuous course. Floods are often caused in its 
valley, but do not extend far ; and the rest of the country is an elevated 
tract of fertile soil. The southern portion contains a number of large 
jhlls or swamps. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was 304 square 
miles, of which 138 were irrigated, wells and tanks ox jhlls being of 
almost equal importance as a source of supply. 

Sultanpur Town (1).— Head-quarters of Sultanpur District and 
tahsil, United Provinces, situated in 2 6° 15' N. and S2 5' E., on the right 
bank of the Gumtl, and on a branch of the Oudh and Rohilkhand 
Railway and on the Fyzabad-Allahabad road. Population (1901)1 
9,550. Tradition relates that a town was founded on the left bank 
of the river by Kusa, son of Rama, and called Kusabhavanpur after 
him. One of the kings of Delhi named Ala-ud-dln, whose identity 
is uncertain, destroyed the place because its Bhar inhabitants had 
murdered some Saiyids, and raised a new town called Sultanpur. 
Early in the eighteenth century a cantonment sprang up under native 
rule on the present site, and the old town began to decline. It was 
finally razed to the ground after the Mutiny on account of the be- 
haviour of the inhabitants. After the pacification of Oudh a detach- 
ment of British troops was stationed at Sultanpur for a time ; but all 
troops were removed in 1861. The present town and civil station 
occupy the site of the old cantonments. They have been well laid out 
and improved by successive Deputy-Commissioners. Besides the usual 
offices, there are male and female hospitals, a town hall, and a poor- 
house. Sultanpur has been a municipality since 1884. During the 
ten years ending 1901 the income and expenditure averaged Rs. 13,500. 
In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 25,000, chiefly derived from octroi 
(Rs. 10,000) and sale of land (Rs. 7,000) ; and the expenditure was 
Rs. 20,000. There are two good grain markets ; and the trade of the 
place, which had suffered from the absence of a railway, is likely to be 
improved by the new line which passes through it. An agricultural 
show is held annually. There are two boys' schools with 350 pupils, 
and a small girls' school with 13. 

Sultanpur Tahsil (2). — Tahsil of the Kapurthala State, Punjab, 
lying between 31 9' and 31 23' N. and 75 3' and 75 32' E., with an 



i38 SULTANPUR TAHSIL 

area of 1 76 square miles. The population increased from 73,023 in 1S91 
to 75,945 in 1901. It contains one town, Sultanpur (population, 
9,004); and 176 villages. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 
amounted to 2-5 lakhs. The tahsil is the most fertile in the State. 
The greater portion of it lies in the Beas lowlands, and the rest con- 
sists of a sandy plain beyond the reach of floods. In the main portion 
the cultivation depends on irrigation from wells. 

Sultanpur Town (2). — Town in the Sultanpur tahsil of Kapurthala 
State, Punjab, situated in 31 13' N. and 75 12' E., 16 miles south of 
Kapurthala town. Population (1901), 9,004. Founded in the eleventh 
century by one Sultan Khan Lodi, said to have been a general of 
Mahmud of Ghazni, it lay on the great highway from Lahore to Delhi, 
and was a famous place in the Jullundur Doab. It contains a sarai 
built by Jahangir, and two bridges, one attributed to Jahanglr and one 
to Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb and his brother, Dara Shikoh, were brought 
up here. Sultanpur was burnt in 1739 by Nadir Shah, and is only now 
regaining its prosperity, while its trade in grain and cloth is increasing. 
It has a middle school and a dispensary. 

Sultanpur Village ( 1 ). — Village in the Shahada tahtka of West Khan- 
desh District, Bombay, situated in 21 38' N. and 74 35' E., about 
10 miles north of Shahada, on the site of a ruined city with an old fort 
and walls enclosing about a square mile. Population (1901), 340. 
Its present name is said to date from 1306, when Malik Kafur, on his 
way to conquer the Deccan, stopped here for some time. It was 
included in Gujarat till, in 1370, it was taken by Malik Raja (1370-99), 
the first Faruki king of Khandesh. Muzaffar, the Gujarat king, 
hastened to recover it, and Malik Raja was forced to retire to Thalner. 
In 141 7 the joint forces of Malik Nasir of Khandesh (1399-1437) and 
Ghazni Khan of Malwa invested Sultanpur, but retired on the advance 
of the Gujarat army. In 1536, according to a promise made while 
a prisoner, Muhammad III made over Sultanpur and Nandurbar to 
Mubarak Khan Faruki of Khandesh. Under Akbar (1600) Sultanpur 
was a mahdl of the sarkar of Nazurbar or Nandurbar. The local 
story of the destruction of Sultanpur is that Jaswant Rao Holkar, 
escaping from Poona, formed an alliance with the Bhils, and plundered 
such of the people as would not acknowledge him as their ruler. 
Lakshman Rao Desai, the chief man of Sultanpur, refused a demand 
for money ; but Holkar, receiving an offer from another resident, with 
his Bhil allies, entered the town, and won over the garrison. The 
Bhils were let loose, the town was laid waste, and except one man all 
the people fled. The state of the place, deserted but not decayed, and 
with clearly marked roads, avenues, and gardens, supports the truth of 
this story. Besides the fort, originally an intricate building of mud 
faced with brick, there are the remains of a great mosque known as the 



SUN AM TOWN i 39 

Jama Masjid, of no particular merit, and now, like the other ruins, 
dismantled to supply building materials for the neighbouring villages. 
Outside the village is a ruined temple of Mahadeo. Opposite the usual 
camping ground is a small well-preserved temple built by Ahalya Bai 
Holkar, regent of Indore. To the east of the village a garden, from 250 
to 300 yards square, is enclosed by a brick-faced mud wall 3 feet thick, 
and entered by a striking brick gateway 30 feet high. The most 
interesting ruin is the mansion of Lakshman Rao Desai, once a hand- 
some house, with a well-watered garden. 

Sultanpur Village (2).— Village in the Kulu subdivision and head- 
quarters of the Kulu tahsil, Kangra District, Punjab, situated in 
31° 58' N. and 77 io' E., at the junction of the Beas and Sarvari and 
below the Bhubhu pass, at an elevation of 4,092 feet. Population 
(1901), 1,609. ^ was founded in the seventeenth century by the Kulu 
Raja, Jagat Singh. The place is an important depot for the trade 
between the Punjab and Leh and Central Asia. It has an out-still for 
the manufacture of country spirit, a vernacular middle school, and a 
Government dispensary, under an assistant surgeon. The village was 
nearly destroyed by the earthquake of April 4, 1905. 

Sumpthar. — State in Central India. See Samthar. 

Sunabdeo. — Hot spring in West Khandesh District, Bombay. See 
Ram Talao. 

Sunam Tahsil. — Westernmost tahsil of the Karmgarh nizamat, 
Patiala State, Punjab, lying between 29 44' and 30° 14' N. and 75 40' 
and 76 12' E., with an area of 486 square miles. The population in 
1 90 1 was 121,498, compared with 122,484 in 1891. It contains the 
town of Sunam (population, 10,069), the head-quarters; and 122 
villages. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 2*5 
lakhs. 

Sunam Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsil of the same name in 
the Karmgarh nizamat, Patiala State, Punjab, situated in 30 8" N. 
and 75 52' E., 43 miles south-west of Patiala town, with which it is 
connected by a metalled road, and on the Ludhiana-Jakhal branch of 
the North-Western Railway. Population (1901), 10,069. The town 
has little local trade, but the construction of the railway will probably 
revive the decaying manufacture of cotton goods for which it used to 
be famous. Though now of little importance, Sunam played a great 
part in the history of the Punjab after the Muhammadan invasions, and 
Albiruni mentions it as famous before that period. The ancient town, 
called Surajpur, stood near the Surajkund, or ' pool of the Sun,' and 
traces of it still remain. Eiroz Shah brought a canal to the town. 
In 1398 Timur attacked it, and, though it appears again as a depen- 
dency of Sirhind under Akbar, it never regained its old importance. 
The modern town lies on the site of the fort of Sunam about a mile 

VOL. XXIII. K 



Mo • SUN AM TOWN 

away. It has an Anglo-vernacular middle school, a police station, 
and a dispensary. 

Sunamganj. — Subdivision in the north-western corner of Sylhet 
District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, lying between 24*" 33' and 25 13' N. 
and 90 56' and 91° 49' E., with an area of 1,493 square miles. The 
population in 1901 was 433,752, compared with 413,381 in 1891, 
an increase of nearly 5 per cent., which was a little higher than the 
rate for the whole District. The south-west monsoon sweeping up the 
Surma Valley is checked by the precipitous wall of the Khasi Hills 
and pours down in torrents of rain on the plain beneath. The greater 
portion of the subdivision is thus completely submerged in the rains, 
and is able to support only a comparatively sparse population, 291 
persons per square mile, compared with 416 in the whole District. 
Sunamganj consists of a level plain, much of which lies too low for 
cultivation, being covered with a dense jungle of reeds and grasses. 
Excellent fodder is obtained in the swamps in the cold season, and 
they are resorted to by cattle graziers in considerable numbers. The 
drying of fish is also an industry of some importance, and large 
quantities of this malodorous product are exported to the Khasi Hills. 
The staple food-crops are dman, a long-stemmed variety of rice grown 
in marshy ground, and boro rice, which is reaped before the floods rise. 
The principal centres of trade are Sunamganj (population, 3,530), 
the head-quarters, and Chhatak, where there is a large traffic in 
lime, which is quarried in the Khasi Hills and burnt on the banks of 
the Surma river. Sunamganj, situated on the left bank of the Surma 
river, is a place of call for steamers. The subdivision is usually in 
charge of a native magistrate, and for administrative purposes is divided 
into the four thanas of Sunamganj, Chhatak, Dirai, and Dharmapasha. 
It contains one town, Sunamganj ; and 2,493 villages. The demand on 
account of land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 was Rs. 80,000. 

Sundarbans. — A vast tract of forest and swamp, extending for 
about 1 70 miles along the sea face of the Bay of Bengal from the estuary 
of the Hooghly to that of the Meghna, and running inland to a distance 
of from 60 to 80 miles. The most probable meaning of the name is the 
'forest of sundrp (Heritiera littoralis), this being the characteristic 
tree found here. The tract lies between 21 31' and 22 38' N. and 
88° 5' and 90 28' E., with an area of 6,526 square miles, of which 
2,941 are included in the District of the Twenty-four Parganas, 
2,688 in Khulna, and 897 in Backergunge. 

The Sundarbans forms the lower part of the Ganges delta, and is 

intersected from north to south by the estuaries of 

asDects river, the most important, proceeding from west 

to east, being the Hooghly, Matla, Raimangal, 

Malancha, Haringhata, Rabnabad, and Meghna. The tract through 



SUNDARBANS 141 

which they flow is one vast alluvial plain, where the process of land- 
making has not yet ceased and where morasses and swamps, now 
gradually rilling up, abound. The rivers are connected with each other 
by an intricate series of branches, and the latter in their turn by 
innumerable smaller channels ; so that the whole tract is a tangled 
network of streams, rivers, and watercourses enclosing a large number 
of islands of various shapes and sizes. Cultivation is confined to a 
fringe of reclaimed land situated along the northern boundary, except 
in Backergunge, where some of the clearings extend almost down to 
the sea. 

The flat swampy islands are covered with dense forest, the most 
plentiful and important species being the sundri, which thrives most 
where the water in the channels is least brackish. Towards the north 
the forests contain a rather dense undergrowth, but elsewhere this 
is very scanty. In the north some mangroves, chiefly Kandelia and 
Bruguiera, are found scattered along the river banks; farther south, as 
the influence of the tide increases, they become more numerous, 
Ceriops and Rhizophora now appearing with the others, till at length 
the riparian vegetation is altogether mangrove. By this time too, 
sundri and its associates largely disappear from the interior forests, 
which are now mainly composed of geod (Excoecaria Agallocha). 
Nearer the sea this in turn gives way to mangroves. This pure man- 
grove forest sometimes extends into the tide ; but at other times it 
is separated from the waves along the sea face by a line of low sand- 
dunes, on which reappear some of the swamp forest species, ac- 
companied by a few plants characteristic of other Asiatic shores, such 
as Erythrina indica, Thespesia populnea, Ficus RumpAu, and others 
for which the conditions in the swampy islands of the interior seem 
to be unsuited. 

The wild animals include tigers, which cause much destruction, 
rhinoceros (now nearly extinct), buffalo, hog, spotted deer (Cervus axis), 
barking-deer (Cervulus muntjac), and hog deer (Cervus porcinus). The 
rivers are infested with crocodiles, which are dangerous to man and 
beast ; and the cobra, python, and many other varieties of snakes 
are found. In the cold season, geese, duck, and other birds con- 
gregate in large numbers on the sandbanks. 

The average annual rainfall varies from about 82 inches in the west 
to over 200 inches in the east. Cyclones and storm-waves occur from 
time to time. The worst of the recent calamities of this nature was 
in 1870, when a great part of Backergunge and the adjoining Districts 
was submerged, the depth of water in some places being over 10 feet. 
An account of this catastrophe is given in the article on Backergunge 
District. 

Nothing is known of the Sundarbans until about the middle of the 

K 2 



i 4 2 SUNDARBANS 

fifteenth century, when a Muhanmutdan adventurer, named Khan Jahan, 
or Khanja All, obtained a jaglr from the king of Gaur, and made 
extensive clearances near Bagherhat in Khulna ; he 
appears to have exercised all the rights of sovereignty 
until his death in 1459. A hundred years later, when Daud, the last 
king of Bengal, rebelled against the emperor of Delhi, one of his Hindu 
counsellors obtained a Raj in the Sundarbans, the capital of which, 
Iswaripur, near the Kaliganj police station in Khulna, was called 
Vasohara and has given its name to the modern District of Jessore. 
His son, Pratapaditya, was one of the twelve chiefs or Bhuiyas who held 
the south and east of Bengal, nominally as vassals of the emperor, but 
who were practically independent and frequently at war with each other. 
He rebelled but, after some minor successes, was defeated and taken 
prisoner by Raja Man Singh, the leader of Akbar's armies in Bengal 
from 1589 to 1606. 

It is believed that at one time the Sundarbans was far more exten- 
sively inhabited and cultivated than at present ; and possibly this may 
have been due to the fact that the shifting of the main stream of the 
Ganges from the Bhaglrathi to the Padma, by diminishing the supply of 
fresh water from the north, rendered the tract less fit for human habita- 
tion. Another cause of the depopulation of this tract may be found in 
the predatory incursions of Magh pirates and Portuguese buccaneers 
in the early part of the eighteenth century. It is said that in 1737 the 
people then inhabiting the Sundarbans deserted it in consequence of 
the devastated state of the country, and in Rennells map of Lower 
Bengal (1772) the Backergunge Sundarbans is shown as 'depopulated 
by the Maghs.' The most important remains are the tomb of Khan 
Jahan and the ruins of Shat Gumbaz and Iswaripur in the Bagher- 
hat subdivision of Khulna District, the temple of Jhatar Dad in the 
Twenty-four Parganas, and the Navaratna temple near Kaliganj 
police station in Khulna. 

The majority of the present inhabitants have come from the Districts 
immediately to the north of the Sundarbans, and consist chiefly of low- 
caste Hindus and Muhammadans, the Pods being 
op a ion. t k e most num erous Hindu caste in the west and the 
Namasudras or Chandals towards the east. The Muhammadans, who 
are numerous in the east, belong mostly to the fanatical sect of Farazis. 
In the Backergunge Sundarbans there are some 7,000 Maghs who came 
originally from the Arakan coast. Between the months of October and 
May crowds of wood-cutters from Backergunge, Khulna, Faridpur, 
Calcutta and elsewhere come in boats and enter the forests for the 
purpose of cutting jungle. The coolies whom they employ to do 
jungle-clearing, earthwork, &c, come from Hazaribagh, Blrbhum, 
Manbhum, Bankura, and Orissa. There are no villages or towns, and 



TRADE AND COMMUNICATIONS T43 

the cultivators live scattered in little hamlets. Port Canning was at 
one time a municipality, but is now nearly deserted ; Morrelganj in 
the Khulna District is an important trading centre. 

The reclaimed tract to the north is entirely devoted to rice culti- 
vation, and winter rice of a fine quality is grown there ; sugarcane and 
areca-palms are also cultivated in the tracts lying in 
Khulna and Backergunge Districts. When land is 
cleared, a bandh or dike is erected round it to keep out the salt water, 
and after two years the land becomes fit for cultivation ; in normal 
years excellent crops are obtained, the out-turn being usually about 
20 maunds of rice per acre. 

The Sundarbans contains 2,081 square miles of 'reserved' forests in 
Khulna District, and 1,758 square miles of 'protected' forests in the 
Twenty-four Parganas. These are under the charge 
of a Deputy-Conservator of Forests, aided by two 
assistants, whose head-quarters are at Khulna. The characteristics 
of the forests have been described above. They yield an immense 
quantity of timber, firewood, and thatching materials, the minor 
produce consisting of golpata (A T ipa fruHcans), hantal [Phoenix palu- 
dosa), tial, honey, wax, and shells, which are burned for lime. The 
' protected ' forests in the Twenty-four Parganas are gradually being 
thrown open for cultivation, and 466 square miles were disforested 
between the years 1895 and 1903. The gross receipts from the 
Sundarbans forests in 1903-4 were 3-83 lakhs, and the net revenue 
2-71 lakhs. 

At Kaliganj, in Khulna District, country knives, buffalo-horn 

combs, and black clay pottery are made. 

Rice, betel-nuts, and timber are exported to Trade and 
' r communications. 

Calcutta. 

Port Canning on the Matla river is connected with Calcutta by rail ; 
but, apart from this, the only means of communication are afforded by 
the maze of tidal creeks and cross-channels by which the Sundarbans 
is traversed. These have been connected with one another and with 
Calcutta by a system of artificial canals (described under the Calcutta 
and Eastern Canals), which enable Calcutta to tap the trade of 
the Ganges and Brahmaputra valleys. Regular lines of steamers for 
passengers and cargo use this route, while the smaller waterways give 
country boats of all sizes access to almost every part of the tract. 
Fraserganj at the mouth of the Hooghly river has recently been 
selected as the site of a permanent wireless telegraphy station, the 
object of which is to establish communication with vessels in the Bay 
of Bengal. 

The tracts comprised in the Sundarbans form an integral part of the 
Districts in which they are included. The revenue work (except its 



i 4 4 SUNDARBANS 

collection) was formerly in the hands of a special officer called the 
Commissioner in the Sundarbans, who exercised concurrent jurisdic- 
tion with the District Collectors ; but this appoint- 
ment has recently been abolished, and the entire 
revenue administration has been transferred to the Collectors concerned. 
The earliest known attempt to bring the Sundarbans under cultiva- 
tion was that of Khan Jahan. More recent attempts date from 1782, 
when Mr. Henckell, the first English Judge and Magistrate of Jessore, 
inaugurated the system of reclamation between Calcutta and the 
eastern Districts. Henckellganj, named after its founder by his native 
agent, appears as Hingulganj on the survey maps. This area was then 
a dense forest, and Mr. Henckell's first step was to clear the jungle ; 
that done, the lands immediately around the clearances were gradually 
brought under cultivation. In 1784, when some little experience had 
been gained, Mr. Henckell submitted a scheme for the reclamation of 
the Sundarbans, which met with the approval of the Board of Revenue. 
Two objects were aimed at : to gain a revenue from lands then utterly 
unproductive, and to obtain a reserve of rice against seasons of drought, 
the crops in the Sundarbans being very little dependent upon rainfall. 
The principal measure adopted was to make grants of jungle land on 
favourable terms to people undertaking to cultivate them. In 1787 
Mr. Henckell was appointed Superintendent of the operations for 
encouraging the reclamation of the Sundarbans, and already at that 
time 7,000 acres were under cultivation. In the following year, 
however, disputes arose with the zamindars who possessed lands 
adjoining the Sundarbans grants ; and as the zamindars not only 
claimed a right to lands cultivated by the holders of these grants, but 
enforced their claims, the number of settlers began to fall off rapidly. 
Mr. Henckell expressed a conviction that, if the boundaries of the 
lands held by the neighbouring zamindars were settled, the number of 
grants would at once increase ; but the Board of Revenue had grown 
lukewarm about the whole scheme, and in 1790 it was practically 
abandoned. Several of the old grants forthwith relapsed into jungle. 

In 1807, however, applications for grants began to come in again ; 
and in 181 6 the post of Commissioner in the Sundarbans was created 
by Regulation IX of that year, in order to provide an agency for 
ascertaining how far neighbouring landholders had encroached be- 
yond their permanently-settled estates, and for resuming and settling 
such encroachments. From that time steady progress was made 
until, in 1872, the total area under cultivation was estimated at 1,087 
square miles, of which two-thirds had been reclaimed between 1830 
and 1872. The damage done by the disastrous cyclone of 1870 led 
to the abandonment of many of the more exposed holdings, and in 
1882 the total reclaimed area was returned at only 786 square miles. 



SUNEL 145 

Since then rapid progress has again been made, and in 1904 the total 
settled area had risen to 2,015 square miles. 

Settlements of waste lands have, until recently, been formed under 
the rules promulgated in 1879, the grants made being of two classes: 
namely, blocks of 200 acres or more leased for forty years to large 
capitalists who are prepared to spend time and money in developing 
them ; and plots not exceeding 200 acres leased to small capitalists for 
clearance by cultivators. Under these rules one-fourth of the entire 
area leased was for ever exempted from assessment, while the remaining 
three-fourths was held free of assessment for ten years. On the expiry 
of the term of the original lease, the lot was open to resettlement for 
a period of thirty years. It was stipulated that one-eighth of the entire 
grant should be rendered fit for cultivation at the end of the fifth year, 
and this condition was enforced either by forfeiture of the grant or by 
the issue of a fresh lease at enhanced rates. Almost the whole of the 
area available for settlement in Khulna has already been leased to 
capitalists ; in Baclcergunge 479 out of 645 square miles have been 
settled, and in the Twenty-four Parganas 1,223 out °f 2 >3 QI square 
miles. Experience has shown that this system has led to the growth 
of an undesirable class of land speculators and middlemen, and to the 
grinding down of the actual cultivators by excessive rents. Land- 
jobbers and speculators obtained leases for the purpose of reselling 
them ; in order to recoup his initial outlay the original lessee often 
sublet to smaller lessees in return for cash payments ; and the same 
process was carried on lower down the chain, with the result that the 
land was eventually reclaimed and cultivated by peasant cultivators 
paying rack-rents. It was accordingly decided in 1904 to abandon 
this system and to introduce a system of ryotwari settlement, as an 
experimental measure, in the portions of the Sundarbans lying in the 
Districts of Backergunge and the Twenty-four Parganas. Under this 
system small areas will be let out to actual cultivators, assistance being 
given them by Government in the form of advances, as well as by 
constructing tanks and embankments and clearing the jungle for 
them. 

[J. Westland, Report on Jessore (Calcutta, 1874) ; F. E. Pargiter, 
Revenue History of the Sunderbans from 1765 to 1870 (Calcutta, 1885).] 

Sundarvadi.— Another name of Savantvadi, Bombay. See Vadi. 

Sundoor. — Native State in Bellary District, Madras. See Sandur. 

Sunel. — Town in the Rampura-Bhanpura district of Indore State, 
Central India, and head-quarters of the Sunel pargana, situated in 
24 22 r N. and 76 o' E., one mile from the bank of the Au river, 
a tributary of the Kali Sind. Population (1901), 3,655. The place 
belonged in the eleventh century to the Gahlot Rajputs, some of whom 
still live in 'the neighbourhood; and under Akbar it became the chief 



r46 SUNEL 

town of a mahdl in the sarkdr of Gagraun in the Siibah of Malwa. 
In 1 743 it was included in the territory made over to Sawai Jai Singh 
of Jaipur, passing in 1739 to tne Marathas. It was then held by the 
Ponwars of Dhar, who assigned it in jdglr together with Agar to 
Sivajl Shankar Orekar, minister of Dhar State. In 1800 it was tem- 
porarily seized by Jaswant Rao Holkar. Later it fell to Sindhia, who 
was called in by Rang Rao Orekar, then at feud with the Dhar chief. 
In 1804 it again passed to Holkar, in whose possession it has since 
remained. The place was sacked by Tantia Topi in 1857. A temple 
situated in the town was built in 1753, and a large religious fair is held 
yearly in March. A municipality has lately been constituted. Besides 
the pargana offices, a school, a dispensary, and British and State post 
offices are maintained here. 

Sunet. — Ruins in the District and taksil of Ludhiana, Punjab, 
situated in 30 53' N. and 75 50' E., 3 miles south-west of Ludhiana 
town. A large mound clearly marks the ancient site of an important 
city. Cunningham concludes from the coins here discovered that the 
town of Sunet must have been in existence before the Christian era, 
and that it continued to flourish during the whole period of the Indo- 
Scythians and of their successors who used Sassanian types, down to 
the time of Samanta Deva, the Brahman king of Kabul or Ohind. 
On the other hand, from the absence of coins of the Tomar Rajas of 
Delhi and of the Muhammadan dynasties, it is inferred that Sunet 
was destroyed during the invasions of Mahmud Ghazni, and never 
reoccupied. 

{Archaeological Survey Reports, vol. xiv, p. 65.] 

Sunth. — State in the Political Agency of Rewa Kantha, Bombay, 
lying between 22° 55' and 23 33' N. and 73 45' and 74 10' E., with 
an area of 394 square miles. It is bounded on the north by the 
Kadana State of Rewa Kantha and the States of Dungarpur and 
Banswara of Rajputana ; on the east by the Thalod tdluka of the 
British District of the Panch Mahals ; on the south by Sanjeli State 
under Rewa. Kantha and by the Godhra tdluka of the Panch Mahals ; 
and on the west by Lunavada State. To the north the country is 
fairly flat and open, crossed by several small streams on their way 
north to the Mahl ; to the south it is rugged, covered with long craggy 
lines of hill. The Mahl flows through the north-west, and the Panam 
through the south-west corner of the State. Near the centre the small 
stream of Chibota passes by the village of Sunth, and towards the east 
the Suki flows past the village of Rampur. A range of hills, of no great 
height, running in a curve from the Panam river in the south to the 
Mahl in the north, divides the State into two parts. Besides this 
principal range, many other hills run in parallel lines from north to 
south. The climate is generally unhealthy and malarious. 



SUNTH i47 

The family of the chief of Sunth, Poriwar or Paramara by caste, 
claims to belong to the Mahipawat branch of the famous Malwa 
dynasty. The dynasty was driven from Ujjain (it is stated in the 
tenth century a.d.) ; and, according to the Sunth bards, Jhalam Singh, 
a Ponwar from Mount Abu, established his power at Jhalod in the 
Panch Mahals, and gave his name to the town. There is a legend 
that the emperor, hearing of the exceeding beauty of the daughter of 
Jhalam Singh, Rana of Jhalod (the fifth in succession from Jhalam 
Singh, the founder of the dynasty at Jhalod), demanded her in 
marriage ; and that on Jhalam Singh declining the alliance, he was 
attacked by the Mughal army, defeated, and killed. His son, Rana 
Sunth, fled for safety to the Sunth jungles, then under the sway of a 
Bhll chief called Sutta. In the year 1255 Sunth defeated Sutta, and 
took possession of his capital, called Brahmapuri. He changed its 
name to Sunth, and established his own dynasty. According to 
another tradition, the Sunth family is said to have come from Dhar in 
Malwa, when that principality was conquered by the Muhammadans. 
From 1443 the State was tributary to the Ahmadabad Sultans, and, on 
their decline, received some additions of territory. In 181 9 Sunth was 
overrun by Sindhia's troops, and would have been either annexed or 
laid waste had not the British Government interfered. Through the 
medium of Sir John Malcolm it was arranged that, on condition of 
Sindhia withdrawing his troops, Sunth should pay a tribute of Rs. 6,100. 
The control of the State, vested in the British Government under this 
arrangement, was in 1826 made over to the Rewa Kantha Political 
Agent. The chief is entitled to a salute of 9 guns. The family 
follows the rule of primogeniture for succession, and holds a sanad 
authorizing adoption. 

The population was: (1881) 52,822, (1891) 74,275, and (1901) 
39,956, showing a decrease of 46 per cent, during the last decade, due 
to the famine of 1899- 1900. The State contains one town, Rampur 
(population, 3,338); and 87 villages. Hindus number 38,211 and 
Muhammadans 1,552. The capital is Rampur, situated on the range 
of hills that crosses the State from north to south. 

The only arable land is in the valleys, where the soil, well charged 
with moisture, yields without manure two crops a year of ordinary 
grain. Maize is the staple ; and millet, pulse, gram, wheat, and in a 
few well-favoured spots sugar-cane, are also grown. The forests yield 
a large supply of timber. Irrigation is carried on from tanks and wells. 
In 1903-4 the value of exports from the State was 2 lakhs and of 
imports Rs. 90,000. 

The chief has power to try his own subjects for capital offences with- 
out the permission of the Political Agent. He enjoys a revenue of 
about \\ lakhs, and pays a tribute of Rs. 5,384-9-To to the British 



t 4 8 SUNTH 

Government. The State contains one municipality, Rampur, with an 
income in 1903-4 of Rs. 228. There is no organized military force, 
but a body of 13 Arabs act as guards of the palace, 5 men of the 
foot police act as gunners in addition to their ordinary duties, and 
39 pattawats hold villages on feudal tenure. In 1903-4 the police 
numbered 155. The State contains one jail, and a dispensary, 
treating annually about 6,000 patients. There were, in 1903-4, n 
schools with 494 pupils, of whom 60 were girls. 

Supaul Subdivision. — Northern subdivision of Bhagalpur District, 
Bengal, lying between 25 59' and 26 34' N.and 86°24°and 87°8 / E., 
with an area of 934 square miles. The subdivision is a continuation of 
the great alluvial plain of North Bihar, its northern frontier consisting 
of the marshy submontane tract known as the tarai. The population 
in 1901 was 510,900, compared with 481,562 in 1891. It contains 
482 villages, of which Supaul is the head-quarters ; but no town. 
The subdivision is the most progressive part of the District and, after 
the head-quarters subdivision, the most thickly populated, the density 
being 547 persons per square mile. 

Supaul Village. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same 
name in Bhagalpur District, Bengal, situated in 26 6' N. and 86° 36' E. 
Population (1901), 3,101. The village, which is an important mart, 
contains the usual public offices ; the sub-jail has accommodation for 
18 prisoners. 

Surada. — Zamhidari tahsil in the interior of Ganjam District, 
Madras, consisting of the Bodogodo zamlndari and some Agency 
tracts, with an area of 198 square miles. The population in 1901 was 
23,230, compared with 20,380 in 1891. They live in 198 villages. 
The demand for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 was Rs. 9,350. 
The head-quarters are at Surada, which is situated in the adjoining 
Government taluk of Goomsur. The country is most picturesque, 
being diversified with wild hills and valleys buried in thick forest. The 
only places of commercial importance are Bodogodo and Gazilbadi. 
A weekly market is held every Thursday at the latter ; and the 
products of the neighbouring hills, such as saffron, oilseeds, red gram, 
kamela d)e, arrowroot, and sikdyi, are brought to it for export to 
Berhampur. 

Suraha Tal. — Lake in Ballia. District, United Provinces, 4 miles 
north of Ballia town, situated in 25 51' N. and 84 ir/ E. Its 
shape is that of a thick crescent lying north and south, and its area 
varies from 13 square miles in the rains to over 4 during the dry season. 
Boro or summer rice is largely sown round the edge in the spring, 
and in the deeper parts of the lake the weed siwar, which is used for 
refining sugar, grows abundantly. Fish are plentiful and are caught 
by sinking nets stretched on conical frameworks, the fish being speared 



SURASENA 1 4m 

as they try to escape. In the cold season teal and duck are common. 
The lake is drained by a channel called Katihar, which leads south to 
the Ganges ; but when the Ganges rises, its waters flow back into the 
lake. In the cold season the Katihar is temporarily dammed to hold 
up sufficient water for irrigating the crops on the banks of the lake, 

Surajgarh. — Chief town of the estate of the same name in the 
Shekhawati niza?nat of the State of Jaipur, Rajputana, situated in 28 
r8"N. and 75 45' E., about 98 miles north of Jaipur city. Population 
(1901), 5,243. The Thakur pays a tribute of about Rs. 8,400 to the 
Jaipur Darbar. The town possesses a combined post and telegraph 
office, and 6 elementary indigenous schools attended by 120 boys. 

Surandai. — Town in the Tenkasi taluk of Tinnevelly District, 
Madras, situated in 8° 59' N. and 77 25' E. It is a Union, with a 
population (1901) of r 1,810. It carries on a considerable trade in 
pulse and other grain with Tinnevelly town and other places in the 
District. 

Surapur Taluk. — Taluk in Gulbarga District, Hyderabad State. 
Including jaglrs, its area in 1901 was 664 square miles, and its popula- 
tion 105,702, compared with 101,185 in 1891. It contains one town, 
Surapur (population, 8,271), the head-quarters; and 181 villages, of 
which 48 are jagir. The Kistna river forms its southern boundary. 
The land revenue in 1901 was 1-7 lakhs. 

Surapur Town.— Head-quarters of the taluk of the same name in 
Gulbarga District, Hyderabad State, situated in 16 31' N. and 7 6° 
46' E. Population (1901), 8,271. The town belonged to the Rajas 
of Surapur, the last of whom revolted during the Mutiny of 1857, and 
the samasthan was made over to the Hyderabad State as a gift after 
the restoration of order. It contains a Munsif s court, a dispensary, an 
English middle school, a girls' school, a post office, a branch British 
post office, and the ' New Darbar,' a large building built by Colonel 
Meadows Taylor during his residence here. 

Surasena. — The ancient name of a tract of country in Northern 
India, round Muttra. According to the Puranas it was the name of 
the grandfather of Krishna, whose history is closely connected with 
Muttra. The inhabitants of the tract were called Saurasenas, and 
Arrian mentions the Saurasenoi as possessing two large cities, Methora 
(Muttra) and Cleisobora or Cyrisobora (not certainly identified) \ 
while the Jobares river (Jumna) flowed through their territory. Pliny 
describes the Jomanes as flowing between Methora and Carisobora. 

1 Lassen {Ind. Alt., vol. i, p. 127 n. 3) suggests that this is equivalent to Krishna- 
pura, which he places at Agra. Cunningham {Ancient Geography of India, p. 375^ 
identifies it with Brindaban. Muttra, Agra, and Brindaban are all on the right bank 
of the Jumna. See also M r Crindle, Ancient India as described by Mcgasthenes and 
Arrian, pp. 140-1 and note. 



t 5 o SURA SEN A 

Varaha Mihira, the Sanskrit geographer of the sixth century A.n., 
makes several references to the Saurasenas, who are placed in the 
Madhya Desa or ' middle country.' The name has been applied to 
a variety of Prakrit, called Saurasena, which appears to have been the 
ancestor of the present language described as Western Hind! in the 
Linguistic Survey of India. In later times part of this tract was called 
Braj or Braj Mandal, a name which still survives (see Muttra 
District). 

Surashtra. — The Sanskrit name given to Kathiawar. 

Surat Agency. — A small group of Native States in Bombay, 
under the superintendence of the Political Agent, Surat, with an area 
of 1,960 square miles, consisting of the Sid! (Musalman) principality 
of Sachin, which comprises a number of isolated tracts within the 
British District of Surat; the estates of the Rajas of Bansda and 
Dharampur, situated in the hilly tracts between the Districts of 
Khandesh, Nasik, Thana, and Surat ; and a tract known as the Dangs 
recently added to the Agency. Population (1901), 1 79,975- The 
Agency contains 2 towns and 644 villages. Hindus number 173,613 
and Muhammadans 5,537. The aggregate revenue of the States in 
1903-4 was about 12^ lakhs. 

Surat District. — District in the Northern Division of the Bombay 
Presidency, lying between 20 17' and 21° 28' N. and 72 35' and 
73 29' R., with an area of 1,653 square miles. It is bounded on 
the north by Broach District and the Native State of Baroda ; on 
the east by the States of Baroda, RajpTpla, Bansda, and Dharampur ; 
on the south by Thana District and the Portuguese territory of Daman ; 
and on the west by the Arabian Sea. A broad strip of Baroda 
(Gaikwar's) territory separates the north-western from the south-eastern 
portion of the District. 

Surat District consists of a wide alluvial plain, stretching between 

the Dans hills and the coast, from the Kim river on the north to 

the Damanganga on the south, a distance of about 

Physical g Q m j] es f ne CO ast-line runs along the Arabian 

aspects. 

Sea where it begins to narrow into the Gulf of 

Cambay. Small hillocks of drifted sand fringe the greater part of 

the shore, in some parts dry and barren, but in others watered by 

springs, enclosed by hedges, and covered with a thick growth of 

creepers and date-palms. Through the openings of the river mouths, 

however, the tide runs up behind the barrier of sandhills, and floods 

either permanently or temporarily a large area (estimated at 100,000 

acres in 1876 and at 12,019 acres in 1904) of salt marshes. Beyond 

spreads a central alluvial belt of highly cultivated land, with a width of 

about 60 miles in the north, where the river Tapti, carrying down a 

deposit of loam, forms a deep and fertile delta ; but as the coast-line 



SURA T DISTRICT i 5 1 

trends towards the south, the hills at the same time draw nearer to the 
coast, and restrict the alluvial country to a breadth of little more than 
15 miles on the Daman border. The deep loam brought down by the 
Tapti gives a level aspect to the northern tract ; but farther south, 
a number of small and rapid rivers have cut themselves ravine-like 
beds, between which lie rougher uplands with a scantier soil and 
poorer vegetation. In the hollows, and often on the open plain, rich 
deposits of black cotton soil overlie the alluvium. The eastern border 
of the District consists of less fruitful lands, cut up by small torrents, 
and interspersed with mounds of rising ground. Here the huts of 
an ill-fed and almost unsettled peasantry replace the rich villages of 
skilled cultivators in the central lowland. On the border, this wild 
region passes gradually into the hills and forests of the Dangs, an 
unhealthy jungle which none but the aboriginal tribes can inhabit 
save at special periods of the year. The Dangs are leased from 
Bhil chiefs. 

The average elevation of the District is not much more than 150 feet 
above sea-level. In the north are chains of flat-topped hills which 
reach a height of between 200 and 300 feet ; south of the Tapti a 
series of high lands separate the plains of Surat from those of Khandesh. 
Five miles from the ruined fort of Pardi is the hill of Parnera, with 
an estimated elevation of 500 feet above the sea. Except the Kim and 
the Tapti in the north, the District has no large rivers ; but in the 
south are deep and navigable creeks, which form admirable outlets for 
produce, and supply a secure shelter to the smaller coasting craft. The 
Kim rises in the Rajplpla hills and, after a course of 70 miles, falls into 
the Gulf of Cambay. Its waters are useful for neither navigation nor 
irrigation. The Tapti gives rise to the largest alluvial lowland in the 
District ; but its frequent floods have caused great loss of life and 
damage to property. The course of this river through Surat District 
is 50 miles in a direct line, but 70 miles including windings. For 
32 miles it is tidal, and passes through a highly cultivated plain, but 
it is navigable only as far as Surat, 20 miles from its mouth. The 
Warli is a considerable tributary. Of creeks, the northernmost formed 
by the Slna river has on its right bank, about 4 miles from the coast, 
the harbour of Bhagva. Farther south, about 8 miles north of the 
Tapti mouth, the Tena creek runs inland for about 8 miles. Four 
miles north of the Ambika in the west of Jalalpur is the large inlet 
known as the Kanai creek. The District contains no natural lakes, 
but reservoirs or tanks cover a total area of 16 square miles. With 
one exception they consist of small ponds, formed by throwing horse- 
shoe embankments across the natural lines of drainage, and are used 
for irrigation. The reservoir at Palan has an area of 153 acres. 

Three geological formations occur in the lands of Surat District. 



152 SURAT DISTRICT 

Of these, the lowest is the Deccan trap ; the middle is the Tertiary, 
represented by gravel, conglomerates, sandstone, and limestone, with 
and without Nummulites ; the highest is the recent, represented by 
cotton soil, alluvium, and river-beds. The Deccan trap extends from 
the hilly country on the east as far west as Tadkesar, about 22 
miles north-east of the city of Surat. From Tadkesar, though its 
limit is concealed by the alluvium of the plains, the trap appears to 
strike south by west, coming out upon the sea-shore near Bulsar. The 
formation consists mostly of basalt flows with some intercalations of 
laterite, intersected by numerous dikes, most of them porphyritic. 
Intervening between the trap and the Tertiary is laterite, which is 
also interbedded with the lower beds of the Tertiary. The Tertiary 
includes representatives of the groups known in Sind as Upper Kirthar 
(Spintangi of Baluchistan), Gaj, and Manchhar (Siwaliks of the sub- 
Himalayas). The Tertiary beds spread in gentle undulations under 
a large portion of the District. In every case they form a fringe to 
the rocky trap country and border the alluvium of Gujarat, by which 
on the west they are concealed. The lower beds of the series, those 
which correspond with the upper part of the Kirthar group in Sind, are 
of middle eocene age (Lutetian). They contain bands of limestone, 
usually sandy and impure, abounding in Nummulites and other fossils, 
resting on laterite and containing numerous intercalations, towards their 
base, of ferruginous lateritic clays. The Nummulitic series includes 
beds of agate conglomerate, apparently of considerable thickness. The 
upper beds, including representatives of the Gaj and Manchhar, are 
principally of miocene age. They consist of gravel with a large propor- 
tion of agate pebbles, sandy clays, and calcareous sandstone, frequently 
nodular. The gravels are often cemented into a conglomerate. Fossils 
both of marine and terrestrial origin occur in some of the beds. 
Alluvium extends over a considerable portion of the District, conceal- 
ing and covering up the rocks in the low ground, and forming the high 
banks which overhang all the larger streams at a little distance from 
the sea. Throughout almost the entire District the surface of the 
ground consists of ' black soil,' resulting from the decomposition of the 
basalt or of an alluvium largely made up of basaltic materials. In 
Surat, as in nearly all the lands surrounding the Gulf of Cambay, 
the wells often yield brackish water, owing to the presence of salt in 
the Tertiary sediments, principally in those of the upper division '. 

The common toddy-yielding wild date-tree grows more or less freely 
over the whole District. Near village sites and on garden lands, groves 
of mango, tamarind, banian, limbdo (Ale/ia Azadirachta), plpal (Ficus 

1 A. B. Wynne, ' Geological Notes on the Surat Collectorate,' Records, Geological 
Survey of India, vol. i, pp. 27-32 ; W. T. Blanford, ' Geology of the Taptee and 
Lower Nerbudda,' Memoirs, Geological Survey of India, vol. vi, pt. iii. 



HISTORY 153 

religiosa), and other fruit and shade trees are commonly found. The 
mangoes of some Surat gardens approach the Bombay ' Alphonso ' and 
' Pairi' in flavour and sweetness. There are no good timber trees. 
The babul is found in small bushes in most parts of the District, 
springing up freely in fields set apart for the cultivation of grass. Wild 
flowering-plants are not numerous, the commonest being Hibiscus, 
Abutilo/i, Sida, Clerodendron, Phlomis, Sa/vadora, Celosia, and Leucas. 

The fauna of Surat includes a few tigers, stragglers from the 
jungles of Bansda and Dharampur, besides leopards (which are found 
throughout the District), bears, wild hog, wolves, hyenas, spotted 
deer, and antelope. Otters and grey foxes are also met with. Duck, 
wild geese, teal, and other wild-fowl abound during the cold season 
on the ponds and reservoirs ; and hares, partridges, and quail are 
common. 

The climate varies greatly with the distance from the sea. In the 
neighbourhood of the coast, under the influence of the sea-breeze, 
which is carried up the creeks, an equable temperature prevails ; but 
from 8 to 10 miles inland the breeze ceases to blow. The temperature 
rises in places to 109 in April, the minimum being 44 in December. 
The mean temperature at Surat city is 82 . 

The coast possesses a much lighter rainfall than the interior, the 
annual average ranging from 35 inches in Chorasi to 72 inches in 
Pardi. The average at Surat city for the twenty-five years ending 1903 
amounted to 39-5 inches. In the District it varies from 38 to 80 
inches. Pardi in the south and Mandvi in the north-east have a 
bad reputation for unhealthiness, as shown by the proverb, 'Bagvada 
is half death ; Mandvi is whole death.' 

Surat was one of the earliest portions of India brought into close 
relations with European countries, and its history merges almost 
entirely into that of its capital, long the greatest 
maritime city of the peninsula. Ptolemy, the Greek 
geographer (a. d. 150), speaks of the trade centre of Pulipula, perhaps 
Phulpada, the sacred part of Surat city. The city itself appears to 
be comparatively modern, though the Musalman historians assert that 
at the commencement of the thirteenth century Kutb-ud-din, after 
defeating Bhlm Deo, Rajput king of Anhilvada, penetrated as far 
south as Rander and Surat. The District then formed part of the 
dominions ruled over by a Hindu chief, who fled from his fortress 
at Kanrej, 13 miles east of Surat city, and submitted to the Musalman 
conqueror, so obtaining leave to retain his principality. In 1347, 
during the Gujarat rebellion in the reign of Muhammad bin Tughlak, 
Surat was plundered by the troops of the king. In 1373 Firoz Tughlak 
built a fort at Surat to protect the place against the Bhlls. During the 
fifteenth century no notice of Surat occurs in the chronicles of the 



154 SURAT DISTRICT 

Musalman kings of Ahmadabad. Tradition generally assigns the 
foundation of the modern city to the beginning of the sixteenth 
century, when a rich Hindu trader, GopI by name, settled here, and 
made many improvements. As early as 151 4 the Portuguese traveller 
Barbosa describes Surat as a very important seaport, ' frequented by 
many ships from Malabar and all other parts.' Two years before 
the Portuguese had burnt the town, an outrage which they repeated 
in 1530 and 1531. Thereupon the Ahmadabad king gave orders for 
building a stronger fort, completed about 1546. In 1572 Surat fell 
into the hands of the Mirzas, then in rebellion against the emperor 
Akbar. Early in the succeeding year Akbar arrived in person before 
the town, which he captured after a vigorous siege. For 160 years the 
city and District remained under the administration of officers appointed 
by the Mughal court. During the reigns of Akbar, Jahangir, and Shah 
Jahan, Surat enjoyed unbroken peace, and rose to be one of the first 
mercantile cities of India. In Akbar's great revenue survey the city is 
mentioned as a first-class port, ruled by two distinct officers. 

After 1573 the Portuguese remained undisputed masters of the Surat 
seas. But in 1608 an English ship arrived at the mouth of the Tapti, 
bringing letters from James I. to the emperor Jahangir. Mukarrab 
Khan, the Mughal governor, allowed the captain to bring his merchan- 
dise into the town. Next year a second English ship arrived off 
Gujarat, but was wrecked on the Surat coast. The Portuguese en- 
deavoured to prevent the shipwrecked crew from settling in the town, 
and they accordingly went up to Agra with their captain. In iboy 
the son of the last Musalman king of Ahmadabad attempted unsuccess- 
fully to recover Surat from the Mughals. Two years later a small fleet 
of three English ships arrived in the Tapti ; but as the Portuguese 
occupied the coast and entrance, the English admiral, Sir H. Middleton, 
was compelled to anchor outside. Small skirmishes took place between 
the rival traders, until in the end the English withdrew. In 161 2, how- 
ever, the governor of Gujarat concluded a treaty, by which the English 
were permitted to trade at Surat, Cambay, Ahmadabad, and Gogha. 
After a fierce fight with the Portuguese, they made good their position, 
established their first factory in India, and shortly afterwards obtained 
a charter (farmdn) from the emperor. Surat thus became the seat 
of a presidency of the East India Company. The Company's ships 
usually anchored in a roadstead north of the mouth of the Tapti, called 
in old books ' Swally ' or ' Swally Hole,' but correctly Suvali. Con- 
tinued intrigues between the Portuguese and the Mughals made the 
position of the English traders long uncertain, till Sir Thomas Roe 
arrived in 161 5, and went on to Ajmer, where Jahangir then held 
his court. After three years' residence there, Roe returned to the 
coast in 1618, bringing important privileges for the English. Mean- 



HISTORY 155 

while the Dutch also had made a settlement in Surat, and obtained 
leave to establish a factory. 

Early travellers describe the city as populous and wealthy, with 
handsome houses and a busy trade. The fifty years between the 
establishment of the English and Dutch and the accession of Aurang- 
zeb were remarkable for increasing prosperity. With the access of 
wealth the city improved greatly in appearance. During the busy 
winter months lodgings could hardly be obtained owing to the influx of 
people. Caravans passed between Surat and Golconda, Agra, Delhi, 
and Lahore. Ships arrived from the Konkan and the Malabar coast ; 
while from the outer world, besides the flourishing European trade, 
merchants came from Arabia, the Persian Gulf, Ceylon, and Acheen 
in Sumatra. Silk and cotton cloth formed the chief articles of export. 
European ships did not complete the lading and unlading of their 
cargoes at Surat ; but having disposed of a part of their goods, and laid 
in a stock of indigo for the home market, they took on board a supply 
of Gujarat manufactures for the eastern trade, and sailed to Acheen and 
Bantam, where they exchanged the remainder of their European 
and Indian merchandise for spices. The Dutch in particular made 
Surat their principal factory in India, while the French also had a 
small settlement here. 

Under Aurangzeb the District suffered from frequent Maratha raids, 
which, however, did little to impair its mercantile position. The 
silting up of the head of the Cambay Gulf, the disturbed state of 
Northern Gujarat, and the destruction of Diu by the Maskat Arabs in 
1670, combined to centre the trade of the province upon Surat. Its 
position as ' the gate of Mecca ' or the ' blessed port ' {Bandar 
Mubarak) was further increased in importance by the religious zeal 
of Aurangzeb. But the rise of the predatory Maratha power put a 
temporary check on its prosperity. The first considerable Maratha 
raid took place in 1664, when Sivaji suddenly appeared before Surat, 
and pillaged the city unopposed for three days. He collected in that 
short time a booty estimated at a million sterling. The English and 
Dutch factories were bravely defended by their inmates, who succeeded 
in saving a portion of the city. Encouraged by this success, the 
Maratha leader returned in the year 1669, and once more plundered 
Surat. Thenceforward for several years a Maratha raid was almost an 
annual certainty. The Europeans usually retired to their factories on 
these occasions, and endeavoured, by conciliating the Marathas, to 
save their own interests. Nevertheless the city probably reached its 
highest pitch of wealth during this troublous period at the end of the 
seventeenth century. It contained a population estimated at 200,000 
persons, and its buildings, especially two handsome mosques, were not 
unworthy of its commercial greatness. In 1695 it is described as 'the 

VOL. XXIII. 1, 



156 SURAT DISTRICT 

prime mart of India,— all nations of the world trading there ; no ship 
trading in the Indian Ocean but what puts into Surat to buy, sell, or 
load.' 

But the importance of Surat to the English East India Company 
declined considerably during the later part of Aurangzeb's reign, partly 
owing to the growing value of Bombay, and partly to disorders in the 
city itself. In 1678 the settlement was reduced to an agency, though 
three years later it once more became a presidency. In 1684 orders 
were received to transfer the chief seat of the Company's trade to 
Bombay — a transfer actually effected in 1687. During the greater part 
of this period the Dutch were the most successful traders in Surat. 

From the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, the authority of the Delhi 
court gradually declined, and the Marathas established their power 
up to the very walls of Surat. The governors nominally appointed by 
the Mughals employed themselves chiefly in fighting with the Hindu 
intruders for the country just beyond the gates. At length, in 1733, 
Teg Bakht Khan, governor of the city, declared himself independent ; 
and for twenty-seven years Surat remained under a native dynasty. 
For the first thirteen years of this period Teg Bakht Khan maintained 
unbroken control over the city; but after his death in 1746 complete 
anarchy for a time prevailed. The English and Dutch took an active 
part in the struggles for the succession, sometimes in concert and 
sometimes as partisans of the rival competitors. In 1759 internal 
faction had rendered trade so insecure that the authorities at Bombay 
determined to make an attack upon Surat, with the sanction of the 
Marathas, now practically masters of Western India. After a slight 
resistance the governor capitulated, and the English became supreme 
in Surat. For forty-one years the government of the new dependency 
was practically carried on by the conquerors, but the governors or 
Nawabs still retained a show of independence until 1800. The earlier 
years of English rule brought prosperity again to the city, which 
increased in size, owing partly to the security of British protection and 
partly to the sudden development of a great export trade in raw cotton 
with China. The population of the city was estimated at 800,000 
persons, though this figure is doubtless excessive. Towards the close 
of the century, however, the general disorder of all Central and 
Western India, and the repeated wars in Europe, combined to weaken 
its prosperity. Two local events, the storm of 1782 and the famine of 
1790, also contributed to drive away trade, the greater part of which 
now centred in Bombay. 

In 1799 the last nominally independent Nawab died, and an 
arrangement was effected with his brother by which the government 
became wholly vested in the British, the new Nawab retaining only the 
title and a considerable pension. The political management of Surat, 



POPULATION 157 

up to May 14, rSoo, had first been under an officer styled 'Chief for 
the Affairs of the British Nation, and Governor of the Mughal Castle 
and Fleet of Surat,' and subsequently under a lieutenant-governor. 
The last of these was Mr. Daniel Seton, whose monument is in the 
cathedral at Bombay. By the proclamation of Jonathan Duncan, 
dated May 15, 1800, Surat District was placed under a Collector, 
Mr. E. Galley, and a Judge and Magistrate, Mr. Alexander Ramsay, 
one of whom, generally the Judge, was also in political charge of the 
titular Nawabs and the small chiefs in the neighbourhood as Agent to 
the Governor of Bombay. The arrangements of 1 800 put the English 
in possession of Surat and Rander. Subsequent cessions under the 
Treaties of Bassein (1802) and Poona (181 7), together with the lapse of 
the Mandvi State in 1839, brought the District into its present shape. 
The title of Nawab became extinct in 1842. Since the introduction of 
British rule Surat has remained free from external attacks and from 
internal anarchy, the only considerable breach of the public peace 
having been occasioned by a Musalman disturbance in 18 10. During 
the Mutiny of 1857 Surat enjoyed unbroken tranquillity, due in great 
measure to the steadfast loyalty of its leading Muhammadan family, 
that of the late Saiyid Edroos. 

The District contains many buildings upwards of three centuries old. 
Some of the mosques have been constructed out of Jain temples, as, for 
example, the Jama Masjid, the Mian, Kharwa, and Munshi's mosque at 
Rander. Specimens of excellent wood-carving are to be found on 
many of the older houses in Surat city. There are famous Dutch and 
English cemeteries outside the city. Vaux's tomb at the mouth of the 
Tapti deserves mention. The tomb bears no inscription, but in the 
upper part is a chamber used by the English in former times as a 
meeting-place for parties of pleasure. Vaux was a book-keeper to 
Sir Josiah Child, and finally rose to be Deputy-Governor of Bombay. 
He was drowned in the Tapti in 1697. 

The Census of 185 1 returned the total number of inhabitants at 
492,684. The population at each of the last four enumerations 
was: (1872) 607,087, (1881) 614,198, (1891) Population# 
649,989, and (1901) 637,017. The decline in the 
last decade was due to the famine of 1899-1900. The area, population, 
&c, of the eight talukas in 190 1 are given in the table on the next page. 
The District contains 770 villages and 8 towns, the largest being 
Surat City, the head-quarters and chief commercial centre, Bulsar, 
Rander, Bardoli, and Pardi. The density of population is 385 
persons per square mile, and it thus stands second for density among 
the 24 Districts of the Presidency. The Mandvi taluka is sparsely 
peopled, on account of the unhealthiness of the climate. The lan- 
guage in ordinary use is GujaratI, spoken by 608,254, or 95 per cent. 

L 2 



t 5 8 



SURA T DISTRICT 



of the population. Hindus form 86 per cent, of the total ; Musalmans, 
8 per cent. ; Parsls and Jains, 2 per cent. each. 





£ 


Number of 




1* 


V 







C3 






c 


D-— ■ 


cc - . 


•s u 


Tatuka. 


9 
C" c/i 

«S 
V 

1- 

< 


xa 

c 


H 

1 


n 

01 

> 


Populatio 


d& 

3 3 
O.CT 
O t/1 

On 


Percentage 
variation 

population 

tween l8<; 

and 1901 


Number c 
persons abl 
read anc 
write. 


Olpad . 


323 


11S 


58,748 


182 


— 12 


IO.328 


Mandvi 




279 


1 


136 


42,450 


152 


— 21 


2,768 


Chorasi 




102 


2 


65 


169.IOO 


1,658 


+ 6 


35- I2 i 


Bardoli 




222 


1 


123 


80,678 


363 


- 4 


8,841 


Jalalpur 




1 88 


. . . 


91 


81,182 


432 


+ 3 


10,362 


Chikhli 




l6S 


1 


61 


59,692 


355 


- 8 


4,911 


Bulsar 




20S 


1 


95 


83,476 


401 


- 5 


7,808 


Pardi . 




>6 3 


1 


81 


61,691 


378 


+ 6 


5,554 


District 


total 


1.653 


8 


770 


637,017 


385 


— 2 


85,693 



The chief cultivating castes are the Anavla Brahmans (25,000), 
Kunbls (38,000), and Kolis (100,000). Rajputs (9,000), Musalman 
Bohras (15,000), and a few Parsls are also to be found among agricul- 
turists. Of the aboriginal races, Dublas (78,000) with their numerous 
sections, Dhodias (51,000), and Chodhras (30,000) are the most im- 
portant. The leading artisan classes are Ghanchis (oilmen, 12,000), 
Golas (rice-huskers, 8,000), Khattris (weavers, 11,000), and Kumbhars 
(potters, 11,000). The Vanls or traders number 12,000. Among 
depressed classes, the Dhers (30,000) are numerically important. The 
Dhers of Surat are active and intelligent, and are largely employed by 
Europeans as domestic servants. Surat, in spite of the commercial 
importance of its chief town, is still essentially a rural District. Nearly 
60 per cent, of the population are supported by agriculture, while the 
industrial class forms 35 per cent. 

The Christian population of Surat District in 1901 was 1,092. Of 
these, about 600 are native Christians. A branch of the Irish Pres- 
byterian Mission has been established in Surat city since 1846, and 
maintains 2 high schools, 18 primary schools, an orphanage with 125 
inmates, and a printing-press, established by the London Missionary 
Society in 1820, which published thirty-six English and vernacular 
books in 1904. In 1894 the Dunker Brethren, an American mission, 
was established at Bulsar, and now maintains an orphanage, a 
technical school, and several village schools. 

The soils, all more or less alluvial in character, belong for agricul- 
tural purposes to three chief classes : black, light, and the besar or 
medium. Apart from the Olpad taluka, where 
black soil is most common, two broad belts of black 
soil run through the District. Of these, one passes along the sea-coast, 



AGRICULTURE 



*59 



the other through the Pardi and Chikhli talukas near the foot of the 
eastern hills. Light soil is commonest near the banks of the Tapti, 
Ambika, and Auranga rivers. This is the richest soil of the District, 
producing in rapid succession the most luxuriant crops. Patches of 
besar are to be found in almost every part of the District. The most 
striking feature in agriculture is the difference between the tillage 
of the ujli or fair races, and that of the kala or dark aboriginal cultiva- 
tors. The dark races ordinarily use only the rudest processes ; grow 
little save the coarser kinds of grain, seldom attempting to raise wheat 
or millet ; and have no implements for weeding or cleaning the fields. 
After sowing their crops they leave the land, and only return some 
months later for the harvest. As soon as they have gathered in their 
crops, they barter the surplus grain for liquor. In the more settled 
parts of the District, however, the dark races are now improving their 
mode of tillage. The fair cultivators, on the other hand, who own the 
rich alluvial soil of the lowlands, are among the most industrious and 
intelligent in Western India. 

The District is almost entirely ryolwdri, with some inam lands. The 
chief statistics of cultivation in 1903-4 are shown below, in square 
miles : — 



Taluka. 


Total 
area. 


Cultivated. Irrigated. 


Cultivable 
waste. 


1 

Forests. 


Olpad . 

Mandvi 

Chorasi 

Bardoli 

Jalalpur 

Chikhli 

Bulsar 

Pardi . 


312 

280 
114 
222 
186 
I68 
208 
163 


190 

'SO 

83 

!95 
120 

J 33 
162 
141 


5 

1 
2 
4 
4 

4 

2 


9 
3i 

■> 

2 

5 

13 
10 

1 


63 

1 

I 

4 
3 


Total 


1,653* 


M74 


22 


73 


72 



v The area for which statistics are not available is 36 square miles. The figures of 
area are based upon the latest information. 

Rice and jowar are the staple crops, with an area of 157 and 172 
square miles respectively. Rice is grown chiefly on the black or red 
soil in the neighbourhood of tanks or ponds, with val or castor oil as 
a second crop. Jowar is largely grown in the northern part of the 
District. Cotton covers 154 square miles, chiefly in the Tapti valley; 
it is also spreading south. Kodra forms the food of the poorest classes. 
Among pulses the most important is tur (37 square miles); val 
occupies 74 square miles. Wheat and bajra occupy 56 and 14 square 
miles respectively. In the south of the District castor oil is extensively 
cultivated. Efforts have from time to time been made to improve the 
staple of the local cotton, and an improved variety ol sugar-cane from 



160 SURAT DISTRICT 

Mauritius was introduced in 1836. It is now the favourite crop in 
irrigated land in the Jalalpur and Bulsar talukas. There is an experi- 
mental farm in the District, but the results so far attained are not 
sufficiently important to claim notice. During the decade ending 
1903-4, nearly 9 lakhs were advanced to cultivators for land improve- 
ments and the purchase of seed and cattle, of which 4-1 lakhs was lent 
in 1899-1900 and 2-5 lakhs in the two succeeding years. 

The indigenous or talabda bullock is generally of medium size, and 
is used chiefly for agricultural purposes. The large muscular bullocks 
or hedia are brought from Northern Gujarat. A third class of bullock, 
small but hardy and swift, is much used in harness. The cows and 
buffaloes of the District are much esteemed — the cows for their appear- 
ance and the buffaloes for their yield of milk. 

The Bulsar taluka is famous for its breed of patiri goats, which are 
good milkers, and are highly prized in Bombay. 

Of the total cultivated area, 22 square miles, or 3 per cent., were 
irrigated in 1903-4: 13 from tanks and 9 from wells. The chief sources 
are: Government works, 301 in number; wells, 7,147; tanks, 1,114 J 
'others,' 42. Of the total irrigated area, about 3,200 acres are under 
sugar-cane. 

There are no fresh-water fisheries, but the rivers contain fish of large 
size. The sea fisheries employ a fleet of many hundred boats. 

Though on the whole well clothed with trees, the District does not 
possess many revenue-yielding trees, except toddy-palms, which are 
tapped for liquor. In the Chikhli taluka a small area under teak has 
been set apart as a forest Reserve. A rough hilly tract in the east and 
north-east of Mandvi is the only area suitable for forest. The total 
area of forests is 72 square miles, which is almost entirely in the charge 
of the Forest department, represented by a divisional Forest officer 
assisted by an Extra-Assistant Conservator. The forest revenue in 
1903-4, including the revenue from the Dangs, was Rs. 37,500. 

Surat is well supplied with building stone. Good material for road 
metal, though scarce, can be obtained at from Rs. 3 to Rs. 3^ per 
100 cubic feet from Pardi and Bulsar. Ironstone is common, but 
iron is not worked. Metallic sand accumulates at the mouths of rivers, 
and is used instead of blotting-paper by the writing classes. Agate 
or carnelian, locally known as hakik, is obtained from the trap and 
sold to the lapidaries of Cambay. 

The brocades of Surat, worked with gold and silver flowers on a silk 

ground, had a reputation in former times. Surat city was also famed 

for its coarse and coloured cottons, while Broach had 

iraaean & name f or mus ij ns> From Surat also came elegant 

communications. ° 

targets of rhinoceros hide, which was brought over 

from Africa, and polished in Surat until it glistened like tortoise-shell. 



TRADE AXD COMMUNICATIONS 161 

The shield was studded with silver nails and then sold at a price vary- 
ing from Rs. 30 to Rs. 50. Ship-building was at one time an important 
industry, to a great extent in the hands of the Parsis. The largest 
vessels were engaged in the China trade, and were from 500 to 1,000 
tons burden. Many of the ships were built on European lines. They 
were mostly manned by English crews and flew the English flag. The 
sea-borne trade from the ports has greatly fallen off of late years. 
The industries of Surat city suffered from the damage done to the 
houses and workshops in the great fire of 1889, when property valued 
at 25 lakhs was destroyed. At the present time the weaving of cotton 
and silk goods is the chief industry of the District. There are three 
steam factories in Surat city, containing 34,290 spindles and 180 looms, 
which spin and weave annually nearly 3 million pounds of cotton yarn 
and about half a million pounds of cotton cloth. They employ 1,288 
persons. Except among the aboriginal tribes, hand-weaving is every- 
where common. Silk brocades and embroideries are still manufactured 
in Surat city. They have a widespread reputation, and exhibit skill 
of a high order. Nowhere in the Presidency are finer fabrics woven 
on hand-looms. There is one salt-work in the District, which yields 
annually 300,000 maunds, valued at £>\ lakhs. 

Trade centres chiefly in the towns of Surat and Bulsar, as well as in 
the seaport of Bilimora (Baroda territory). The total value of the 
exports from the seven seaports which afforded an outlet for the 
produce of the District in 1874 amounted to nearly 44^ lakhs, and that 
of the imports to 7 lakhs. These figures include the value of com- 
modities shipped and received at Baroda ports. The two principal 
seaports are Surat city and Bulsar. The value of the exports from 
these taken together was 13 lakhs in 1903-4; and of the imports 
about 18 lakhs. The exports include grain, cotton, pulse, makua fruit, 
timber, and bamboos ; the imports include tobacco, cotton-seed, iron, 
coco-nuts, and European goods. 

There are 462 miles of road, of which 100 miles are metalled, con- 
necting the principal towns with the railway. Of the metalled roads, 
2\ miles of provincial and 70^ of local roads are maintained by 
the Public Works department. Avenues of trees are maintained along 
190 miles. The only important bridges for cart traffic are those over 
the Tapti at Surat, and over the Tena creek near Olpad. The Bombay, 
Baroda, and Central India Railway runs through the District parallel to 
the coast for about 60 miles, crossing the Tapti at Surat city on a fine 
iron-girder bridge. The Tapti Valley Railway, 155 miles in length, 
which joins Surat to the Great Indian Peninsula system at Amalner 
in Khandesh District, was opened in 1900. It traverses the District 
for 1 1 miles. 

History records severe famine in the years 1623, 1717, 1747, and 



i6 2 SURAT DISTRICT 

1803. From the commencement of British rule, however, until 1899 
no famine was sufficiently intense to cause suffering to the people. 
. Owing to the failure of the late rains in 1899 distress 

rapidly developed ; and, in December of that year, 
there were 4,700 persons on relief works. By March, 1900, the 
number had increased to 15,000. In July, 1900, there were 35,000 on 
the works, including 29,000 in receipt of gratuitous relief. Surat, 
however, escaped the severity of the famine in the adjoining Districts. 
The total increase in the number uf deaths from all causes during the 
famine was 30,000, and the population decreased 2 per cent, between 
1891 and 1901. The total expenditure in connexion with famine relief 
in this and the adjacent District of Broach exceeded 48^ lakhs, and 
4 lakhs of land revenue was remitted in Surat District. It is calculated 
that over 50,000 cattle perished in the drought. Floods on the Tapti 
river have frequently caused great damage to Surat City, in the article 
on which some particulars of the most disastrous floods are given. 

The District is divided into three subdivisions, in charge of an 
Assistant Collector and two Deputy-Collectors. It contains 8 talukas : 
namely, Bardoli, Bulsar, Chikhli, Chorasi, Jalalpur, Mandvi, 
Olpad, and Pardi. Bardoli includes the petty sub- 
division (l>e//ia) of Valod. The Collector is Political 
Agent for Sachln State, which is administered by the Assistant Col- 
lector, subject to his control. The States of Bansda and Dharampur 
and the Dangs estate are also under his political control, the Assistant 
Political Agent for the latter estate being the divisional Forest officer. 

The District and Sessions Judge, with whom is associated a Judge of 
a Small Cause Court, is assisted by one Assistant Judge and four Sub- 
ordinate Judges, sitting one at Olpad, two at Surat, and one at Bulsar. 
There are twelve officers to administer criminal justice. The city of 
Surat forms a separate magisterial charge under a City Magistrate. The 
District is remarkably free from crime, offences against the excise law 
being the most numerous. 

At the time of annexation, the garasids, or large landowners of Surat, 
claimed, as the representatives of the original Hindu proprietors, a share 
of the land revenue, and levied their dues at the head of an armed force. 
In 18 1 3 Government undertook to collect the amount of these claims by 
its own officers. In addition to the garasids, there were numerous desais 
or middlemen to whom the land revenue was farmed under the old 
regime. To decrease the power and influence of these desais, the British 
Government (18 14) appointed accountants to each village, who collected 
the revenue direct from the cultivators, thus rendering the practice of 
farming unnecessary. No change was made in the old rates until 1833, 
when, in consequence of the fall in prices, they were revised and con- 
siderably reduced. In 1S36 committees were appointed to divide the 



ADMINISTRA TION 



16: 



soil into classes and fix equitable rates; and between 1863 and 1882 
the survey settlement was introduced, which raised the total revenue 
demand from 18^ to 2\\ lakhs. A revision was made between 1897 
and 1905. The new survey found an excess in the cultivated area of 
4 per cent, over the amount shown in the accounts, and the settlement 
enhanced the total revenue by 4 per cent., or nearly one lakh. The 
average rates of assessment are : ( dry ' land, Rs. 2-1 1 (maximum scale, 
Rs. 7-8; minimum scale, R. 1); rice land, Rs. 8-1 (maximum scale, 
Rs. 7-8; minimum scale, Rs. 1-4); and garden land, Rs. 8-11 (maxi- 
mum scale, Rs. 12 ; minimum scale, Rs. 5). 

Collections on account of land revenue and revenue from all sources 
have been, in thousands of rupees : — 





1880-1. 


1 890- 1. 


1900-1. 


1903-4. 


Land revenue 
Total revenue . 


30,63 
41,29 


27,62 
49,65 


22,55 

42,74 


30,80 
55,26 



There are four municipalities in the District : namely, Surat, Rander, 
Bulsar, and Mandvi. Outside of these, local affairs are managed by 
the District board and eight taluka boards. The receipts of the local 
boards amounted in 1903-4 to about 3 lakhs, and the expenditure to 
2\ lakhs, including one lakh spent on roads and buildings. 

The District Superintendent of police is assisted by 2 inspectors. 
There are altogether 1 1 police stations. The total number of police- 
men is 881, under 11 chief constables, besides 14 mounted police 
under 2 daffaddrs. There are 9 subsidiary jails and 9 lock-ups in 
the District, with accommodation for 208 persons. The daily average 
number of prisoners in 1904 was 69, of whom 5 were females. 

Surat stands second among the twenty-four Districts of the Presi- 
dency for the literacy of its inhabitants, of whom 13-3 per cent. (24-5 
males and 2-4 females) could read and write in 1901. In 1 880-1 the 
District contained 293 schools with 19,363 pupils. The latter had 
increased to 28,658 in 1890-1, and to 31,902 in 1900-1. In 1903-4 
the District possessed 480 schools, attended by 31,719 pupils, includ- 
ing 6,363 girls. Of these institutions, 6 are high schools, 26 middle, 
341 primary, and one a special industrial school. Of the 374 public 
institutions, 2 are managed by Government, 312 by local or muni- 
cipal boards, 36 are aided, and '24 unaided. The total expenditure 
on education in 1903-4 amounted to nearly 2\ lakhs, of which 64 per 
cent, was devoted to primary education. 

In 1904 the District possessed one hospital and twelve dispen- 
saries, including one for women at Surat. These institutions con- 
tain accommodation for 120 in-patients. Including 1,541 in-patients, 
the number of persons treated in 1904 was 86,000 and the number 



1 64 SURAT DISTRICT 

of operations performed 2,721. The expenditure on medical relief was 
Rs. 39,000, of which Rs. 17,000 was met from Local and municipal 
funds. 

The number of persons successfully vaccinated in 1903-4 was 
16,091, representing the proportion of 25-3 per 1,000 of population, 
which is slightly above the average for the Presidency. 

[Sir J. M. Campbell, Bombay Gazetteer, vol. ii (Surat and Broach) 

(i877).] 

Surat City. — Head-quarters of Surat District, Bombay, and the 

former seat of a Presidency under the East India Company, situated in 

21 12' N. and 72 50' E., on the southern bank of the river Taptij 

distant from the sea 14 miles by water, 10 miles by land. It was 

once the chief commercial city of India, and is still an important 

mercantile place, though the greater portion of its export and import 

trade has long since been transferred to Bombay. Surat is a station 

on the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway, 167 miles from 

Bombay. 

During the eighteenth century Surat probably ranked as the most 
populous city of India. As late as 1797 its inhabitants were estimated 
at 800,000 persons ; and though this calculation is 
doubtless excessive, the real numbers must have 
been very high. With the transfer of its trade to Bombay the num- 
bers rapidly fell off. In 181 1 an official report returned the popula- 
tion at 250,000 persons, and in 1816 at 124,406. In 1847, when the 
fortunes of Surat reached their lowest ebb, the number of inhabi- 
tants amounted to only 80,000. Thenceforward the city began to 
retrieve its position. By 185 1 the total had risen to 89,505; in 
1872 it stood at 107,855; in 1881 at 109,844; in 1891 at 109,229; 
and in 1901 at 119,306. It is now the third largest city in the 
Presidency. The population in 1901 included 85,577 Hindus, 22,821 
Muhammadans, 5,754 Parsis, and 4,671 Jains. The Parsis and high- 
caste Hindus form the wealthy classes ; the Musalmans are in 
depressed circumstances, except the Bohras, many of whom are 
prosperous traders, and whose head, called ' the Mulla of the Bohras,' 
resides here. Fondness for pleasure and ostentation characterize all 
classes and creeds in Surat alike. Caste feasts and processions are 
more common and more costly than elsewhere. Fairs, held a few 
miles away in the country, attract large crow r ds of gaily dressed men 
and children in bright bullock-carts. The Parsis join largely in these 
entertainments, besides holding their own old-fashioned feasts in their 
public hall. The Bohras are famous for their hospitality and good 
living. The extravagant habits engendered by former commercial 
prosperity have survived the wealth on which they were founded. 

Surat lies on a bend of the Tapti, where the river suddenly sweeps 



SURAT CITY 165 

westward towards its mouth. In the centre of its river-front rises the 
castle, a mass of irregular fortifications, flanked at each corner by large 
round towers, and presenting a picturesque appear- 
ance when viewed from the water. Planned and 
built in 1540 by Khudawand Khan, a Turkish soldier in the service 
of the Gujarat kings, it remained a military fortress under both Mughal 
and British rule till 1862, when the troops were withdrawn and the 
buildings utilized as public offices. With the castle as its centre, 
the city stretches in the arc of a circle for about a mile and a quarter 
along the river bank. Southward, the public park with its tall trees 
hides the houses in its rear ; while on the opposite bank, about a mile 
up the river on the right shore, lies the ancient town of Rander, 
now almost a suburb of Surat. Two lines of fortification, the inner and 
the outer, once enclosed Surat ; and though the interior wall has nearly 
disappeared, the moat which marks its former course still preserves 
distinct the city and the suburbs. Within the city proper the space 
is on the whole thickly peopled ; and the narrow but clean and well- 
watered streets wind between rows of handsome houses, the residences 
of high-caste Hindus and wealthy Parsis. The suburbs, on the other 
hand, lie scattered among wide open spaces, once villa gardens, but 
now cultivated as fields. The unmetalled lanes, hollowed many feet 
deep, form watercourses in the rainy season, and stand thick in dust 
during the rest of the year. The dwellings consist of huts of low- 
caste Hindus or weavers' cottages. West of the city, the site of the 
old military cantonment is now occupied by the police, whose parade 
ground stretches along the river bank. Suburban villas, the property 
of wealthy residents of the city, are springing up along the Dumas 
and Varachha roads. 

The annals of Surat city, under native rule, have been briefly given 
in the article on Surat District. During the seventeenth and eigh- 
teenth centuries Surat ranked as the chief export 

,. ,-tt a/-, ■ c History, 

and import centre of India. After the assumption of 

the entire government by the British in 1800, prosperity, which had 
deserted the city towards the close of the eighteenth century, for 
a time reappeared. But the steady transfer of trade to Bombay, com- 
bined with the famine of 1813 in Northern Gujarat, continued to 
undermine its commercial importance; and by 1825 the trade had 
sunk to the export of a little raw cotton to the rising capital of the 
Presidency. In 1837 two calamities occurred in close succession, 
which destroyed the greater part of the city and reduced almost all 
its inhabitants to a state of poverty. For three days in the month 
of April a fire raged through the very heart of Surat, laying 9,373 
houses in ruins, and extending over nearly 10 miles of thoroughfare, 
in both the city and the suburbs. No estimate can be given of the 



1 66 SURAT CITY 

total loss to property, but the houses alone represented an approximate 
value of 45 lakhs. Towards the close of the rainy season in the same 
year, the Tapti rose to the greatest height ever known, flooded almost 
the whole city, and covered the surrounding country for miles like a 
sea, entailing a further loss of about 27 lakhs. This second calamity 
left the people almost helpless. Already, after the fire, many of the 
most intelligent merchants, both Hindu and ParsI, no longer bound to 
home by the ties of an establishment, had deserted Surat for Bombay. 
In 1838 it remained 'but the shadow of what it had been, two-thirds to 
three-fourths of the city having been annihilated.' From 1840 onward, 
however, affairs began to change for the better. Trade improved and 
increased steadily, till in 1858 its position as the centre of railway 
operations in Gujarat brought a new influx of wealth and importance. 
The high prices which ruled during the American Civil War again 
made Surat a wealthy city. The financial disasters of 1865-6 in 
Bombay somewhat affected all Western India, but Surat nevertheless 
preserved the greater part of its wealth. In 1869 tne municipality 
undertook a series of works to protect the city against floods. In 1883 
Surat was again inundated, and damage caused to the extent of 
20 lakhs. The loss of human life, however, was small. The city 
suffered from another extensive fire in 1889. At the present day, 
though the fall of prices has reduced the value of property, the well- 
kept streets, the public buildings, and large private expenditure, stamp 
the city, which has benefited by the construction of the Tapti Valley 
Railway, with an unmistakable air of steady order and prosperity. 

The English church, built in 1820 and consecrated by Bishop Heber on 

April 17, 1825, stands upon the river bank, between the castle and the 

custom-house, and has seats for about 100 persons. 

Buildings and r [^ ie Portuguese or Roman Catholic chapel occupies 
a site near the old Dutch factory. The Armenians 
once had a large church, now in ruins. The Musalmans have several 
mosques, of which four are handsome buildings. The Nav Saiyid 
Sahib's mosque stands on the bank of the Gopi lake, an old dry 
tank, once reckoned among the finest works in Gujarat. Beside the 
mosque rise nine tombs in honour of nine warriors, whose graves were 
miraculously discovered by a local Muhammadan saint. The Saiyid 
Edroos mosque, with a minaret, which forms one of the most conspicu- 
ous buildings in Surat, was built in 1639 by a rich merchant, in honour 
of an ancestor of Shaikh Saiyid Husain Edroos, C.S.I., who died in 
1882. The Mirza Sami mosque and tomb, ornamented with carving 
and tracery, was built about 1540 by Khudawand Khan. The Parsis 
have two chief fire-temples for their two subdivisions. The principal 
Hindu shrines perished in the fire of 1837, but have since been rebuilt 
by pious inhabitants. Gosavi Maharaja's temple, built in 1695, was 



TRADE t6 7 

renewed after the fire at a cost of Rs. 1,50,000. Two shrines of 
Hanuman, the monkey-god, are much respected by the people. Speci- 
mens of excellent wood-carving are to be found on many of the older 
houses. 

The tombs of early European residents, including those of the Dutch, 
and the more modern ones of the Mullas of the Bohras, form some of 
the most interesting objects in Surat. Among the first named are 
those of many of the English 'Chiefs of Surat.' On the right of the 
entrance to the English cemetery is the handsome mausoleum of 
Sir George Oxenden and his brother Christopher. It is a large two- 
storeyed square building with columns at each angle ; in the two 
eastern ones are staircases to the upper storey, over which is a skeleton 
dome of masonry in the form of a Maltese cross rendered convex. 
Christopher died on April 18, 1659; and Sir George, who in a 
long Latin epitaph is styled 'Anglorum in India, Persia, Arabia, 
Praeses, Insulae Bombayensis Gubernator,' died on July 14, 1669, 
aged 50. The earliest tomb is that of Francis Breton, President of 
Surat, who died on July 21, 1649. Among the many tombs with 
curious inscriptions is one to ' Mary, the wife of Will. Andrew Price, 
chief of the Affairs of Surat, &c.,' who, it is said, 'through the spotted 
veil of the small-pox, rendered a pure and unspotted soul to God,' 
April 13, 1 761, aetat. 23. The tombs have been carefully looked after 
of late years. In the Dutch cemetery, which adjoins the English, there 
are also some curious and handsome tombs. One in particular to 
Baron Van Reede, Commissary-General of the United Netherlands 
East India Company for India, who died on December 15, 1691, once 
cost the Company Rs. 9,000 for repairs. Other buildings of historic 
interest in Surat are the English and Portuguese factories, and the 
house occupied by the Sadr Adalat before its transfer to Bombay. 

The sea-borne trade of Surat has declined from a total estimated 
value of 156 lakhs in 1801 to 30 lakhs in 1903-4 ; namely, imports 
17! lakhs and exports 12L The export trade is 
markedly decreasing. The principal articles of export 
are agricultural produce and cotton. The land-borne trade, however, 
since the opening of railway communication with Bombay and the 
interior, has increased considerably. The port of Surat used to be at 
Suvali, 1 2 miles west the city ; but the sea-borne trade is now carried 
in small country craft which pass up the river to Surat. The station 
of the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway is outside the city, 
surrounded by a rising suburb. 

The organization of trade-guilds is highly developed in Surat. The 
chief of these guilds, composed of the leading bankers and merchants, 
is called the Mahajan or banker-guild. Its funds, derived from fees on 
cotton and on bills of exchange, are spent partly on animal hospitals 



1 68 SURAT CITY 

and partly on the temples of the Vallabhacharya sect. The title and 

office of Nagarseth, or chief merchant of the city, hereditary in a 

Srawak or Jain family, has for long been little more than a name. 

Though including men of different castes and races, each class of 

craftsmen has its trade-guild or panchdyat, with a headman or referee 

in petty trade disputes. They have also a common purse, spending 

their funds partly in charity and partly in entertainments. A favourite 

device for raising money is for the men of the craft or trade to agree 

to shut all their shops but one on a certain day. The right to keep 

open this one shop is then put up to auction, and the amount bid 

is credited to the guild fund. There is a considerable hand industry 

in the spinning and weaving of cotton cloth, some of the very finest 

textures in Gujarat being made here. Three mills have also been 

opened in the city, one of these having commenced work as early as 

1866. The nominal capital of the mills in 1904 was nearly 20 lakhs, 

and there were 180 looms and 34,290 spindles at work, employing 

1,288 persons daily. 

The municipality was established in 1852. The receipts during the 

ten years ending 1901 averaged 5 lakhs. In 1903-4 the income was 

. , . . . .. Rs. 4,85,900, chiefly derived from octroi (ii lakhs), 
Administration. / j 1 j / 1 1 , , i_v ■, . 

tax on houses and land (nearly \ lakh), and other 

taxes (\\ lakhs). The expenditure was 4A lakhs, including general 
administration and collection of taxes (Rs. 31,000), public safety 
(Rs. 23,000), water and public health and conservancy (2 lakhs), and 
public institutions (Rs. 25,000). The municipality has opened a 
number of excellent roads, well lighted, paved, and watered. It has 
constructed works for the protection of the city from floods, and for 
lessening the risk of fire. Systems of drainage, conservancy, and public 
markets have also been undertaken. 

Two hospitals provide for the indigent poor ; and there is one such 
institution for sick or worn-out animals. The clock-tower on the Delhi 
road, 80 feet in height, was erected in 187 1 at the expense of Khan 
Bahadur Barjorj! Merwanji Frazer. The Andrews Library is well 
patronized. In 1903-4 there were 4 high schools with 1,315 boys, 
and a mission high school with 56 girls. Of these schools, one is 
a Government high school with accommodation for 500, established in 
1842. There were also 4 middle schools and an industrial school, 
with 412 and 88 pupils, respectively; 25 vernacular schools for 
boys with 4,693 pupils, and 16 for girls with 1,659 pupils. There are 
5 printing presses and 5 weekly newspapers. Besides the Collector's 
and Judge's courts, the town contains a Small Cause court, two Subor- 
dinate Judges' courts, a civil hospital, a hospital for women and 
children, and a dispensary. The hospital is a handsome building 
of two storeys with a clock-tower. In the municipal gardens stands 



surg Ana i6 9 

the Winchester Museum, which contains specimens of Surat silks and 
embroidery, and a few samples of forest produce. 

Suratgarh. — Head-quarters of a tahstl and nizdmat of the same 
name in the State of Bikaner, Rajputana, situated in 29 20' N. and 
73 54' E., on the left bank of the Ghaggar river, and on the Jodhpur- 
Blkaner Railway, 113 miles north-by-north-east of Bikaner city, and 
88 miles south-west of Bhatinda. Population (1901), 2,398. The 
town is named after Maharaja Surat Singh (1 788-1 828), who is said to 
have founded it about 1800. It possesses a fort, a post office, a verna- 
cular school attended by 62 boys, and a hospital with accommodation 
for 7 in-patients. Two miles to the north-east are the ruins of Rang 
Mahal, said to have been the capital of a Johiya Rajput chief; a step- 
well made of bricks z\ feet square has been found here. The tahsil 
contains 126 villages, and was formerly called Sodhawati, as it was 
part of the territory occupied by the Sodha Rajputs. They were, how- 
ever, expelled by the Bhati Rajputs, and the majority of the population 
are now Jats and Raths. 

Surgana. — A petty Koll State situated in the north-west corner of 
Nasik District, Bombay, with an estimated area of 360 square miles. 
Like the Dangs, Surgana State is full of spurs of hills and waving 
uplands, once covered with dense forest, now partly cleared and 
stripped of most of their valuable timber. The chief forest trees are 
teak, black-wood, khair, and tivas. Minor forest products include 
fruit, gums, honey, lac, and roots. Except in April and May the 
climate is unhealthy, and in the hot season water is scarce and bad. 
The annual rainfall averages 70 inches. 

The ancestors of the Surgana deshmukh appear to have been KolTs, 
who lived in the fastnesses round Hatgarh. During Muhammadan 
rule a nominal allegiance was claimed from them, and they were 
entrusted with the duties of preventing the wild Bhils and Kolls of the 
Dangs from passing above the Western Ghats, of rendering military 
service when required, and of keeping open the roads that ran through 
their territory. Under Maratha rule, on the deshmukh refusing to pay 
any revenue, his country, along with the Dangs, was reckoned as rebel 
land. But as Surgana lay on one of the high roads between the 
Deccan and Surat, great efforts were made to conciliate the chief. 
The Surgana deshmukh continued independent until 18 18, when the 
British Government, in retaliation for an attack made on a British party, 
sent an expedition against the chief, who was seized and hanged, his 
cousin being recognized as the head of the State. This led to disputes 
about the succession, which were not settled till 1842. The chiefship 
descends in the line of one brother, while the descendants of another 
brother have an equal share in the revenues, independent of all control. 
The eldest son is not necessarily chosen to succeed. The chief 



170 SURG ANA 

manages the State in person and resides at Surgana (population, 959), 
52 miles from Nasik city. The State contains 61 villages, of which 
15 are alienated. The population was 12,398 in 1891 and 11,532 in 
1901, representing a density of 32 persons per square mile. The 
Hindus (11,222) are chiefly Kolis (4,000) and Kunbls (6,000). Their 
language is a dialect of Marathi. 

The soil chiefly consists of a loose rich black loam, which, though 
generally of little depth, is very fertile. The richest tracts are at the 
bottom of the valleys. The staple of food is ndgli, an early crop raised 
on the slopes of the hills by hand labour ; kodra, rice, and sdva are 
also grown. About 20,000 acres are under cultivation. There are no 
special forest reserves. The roads passable for beasts of burden are 
from Hatgarh in Nasik District to Bulsar in Surat ; there is also a cart 
track from Surgana to Bansda. The only traffic is in timber. The 
deshmukh rules the State with the help of his diwan, subject to 
the orders and instructions of the Collector of Nasik as Political 
Agent. Civil disputes and petty offences are settled by the deshmukh 
with the diwan. Criminal charges are tried without any regular 
procedure or fixed rules. Serious cases are referred to the Political 
Agent. 

The revenue in 1903-4 exceeded Rs. 19,000, the average being 
Rs. 28,000, chiefly derived from excise (Rs. 8,000). The land revenue 
of the State (Rs. 4,000) is raised by a tax on ploughs, according to 
the system known as autbandi. Survey operations were commenced 
in 1895-6, but were suspended in the famine years and are still in 
abeyance. The forest revenue is Rs. 3,000. The police number 13. 
The deshmukh pays no tribute. Since 1881 the State has allotted 
about Rs. 7,500 to public works. The expenditure on education is 
limited to the maintenance of one school with 22 pupils in 1903-4. 
Surgana contains no dispensary, but the deshmukh himself keeps 
a few medicines for free distribution. 

Surguja. — Feudatory State in the Central Provinces, lying between 
22 38' and 24 6' N. and 82 31' and 84 5' E., with an area of 
6,089 1 square miles. Till 1905 it was included in the Chota Nagpur 
States of Bengal. It is bounded on the north by the Mirzapur District 
of the United Provinces and the State of Rewah ; on the east by the 
Palamau and Ranch! Districts of Bengal ; on the south by the Jashpur 
and Udaipur States and the District of Bilaspur ; and on the west by 
Korea State. 

Surguja may be described in very general terms as a secluded basin, 
walled in on the north, east, and south by massive hill barriers, and 
protected from approach on the west by the forest-clad tract of Korea. 

' This figure, which differs slightly from the area shown in the Census Report of 
1901, was supplied by the Surveyor-General. 



SURGUJA 171 

Its most important physical features are the Ma in pat, a magnificent 
table-land forming the southern barrier of the State, and the Jamirapat, 
a long winding ridge which is part of its eastern boundary. From the 
Jamirapat, isolated hill ranges and the peculiar formations locally 
known as pats rise to an elevation of 3,500 and 4,000 feet, forming on 
the north the boundary of Palamau and blending on the south with the 
hill system of northern Jashpur. In the valley of the Kanhar river 
there is an abrupt descent of 900 feet from the table-land of the east to 
the fairly level country of central Surguja, which here divides into two 
broad stretches of fertile and well-tilled land. One of these runs south 
towards Udaipur, and separates the Mainpat from the wild highlands of 
Khuria in Jashpur \ the other trends to the west and, opening out as it 
goes, forms the main area of cultivated land in the State. The principal 
peaks are Mailan (4,024 feet), Jam (3,827 feet), and Partagharsa 
(3,804 feet). The chief rivers are the Kanhar, Rehar, and Mahan, 
which flow northwards towards the Son ; and the Sankh, which takes 
a southerly course to join the Brahmam. The watershed in which all 
these rivers rise crosses the State of Surguja from east to west, and 
extends through the States of Korea and Chang Bhakar farther into the 
Central Provinces. None of the rivers is navigable, and the only boats 
used are the small canoes kept at some of the fords of the Rehar and 
Kanhar. The table-land and hill ranges in the east of the State are 
composed of metamorphic rocks, which here form a barrier between 
Surguja and Chota Nagpur proper. In central Surguja this meta- 
morphic formation gives place to the low-lying carboniferous area of the 
Bisrampur coal-field ; and this again is succeeded farther west by coarse 
sandstone, overlying the metamorphic rocks which crop up here and 
there. The chief tree is the sal (Shorea robusta), which abounds every- 
where. Tigers, leopards, bears, wild buffaloes, bison, and many kinds 
of deer are found. 

The early history of Surguja is obscure ; but, according to a local 
tradition in Palamau, the present ruling family is said to be descended 
from a Raksel Raja of Palamau. In 1758 a Maratha army in progress 
to the Ganges overran the State, and compelled its chief to acknow- 
ledge himself a tributary of the Bhonsla Raja. At the end of the 
eighteenth century, in consequence of the chief having aided a rebellion 
in Palamau against the British, an expedition entered Surguja ; and, 
though order was temporarily restored, disputes again broke out between 
the chief and his relations, necessitating British interference. Until 
1818 the State continued to be the scene of constant lawlessness; but 
in that year it was ceded to the British Government under the provi- 
sional agreement concluded with MudhojT Bhonsla of Berar, and order 
was soon established. In 1826 the chief was invested with the title 
of Maharaja. The present chief, who attained his majority in 1882, 

vol. xxiii. M 



1 72 SURGUJA 

received the title of Maharaja Bahadur in 1895 as a personal distinction. 
The State pays Rs. 2,500 annually to Government as tribute, but this 
amount is subject to revision. The chief archaeological remains are 
the stone gateways, rock caves, and tunnel on Ramgarh Hill, and the 
deserted fortress at Juba. 

The recorded population increased from 182,831 in 1872 to 
270,311 in 1881, to 324,552 in 1891, and to 351,011 in 1901 ; 
but the earlier enumerations were very defective. The people live in 
1,372 villages, and the density is 58 persons per square mile. Hindus 
number 204,228; Animists, 142,783; and Muhammadans, 3,999. 
The majority of the inhabitants are Dravidian aborigines, the most 
numerous castes being Gonds (83,000), Goalas and Pans (30,000 each), 
Kaurs and Oraons (29,000 each), Raj wars (18,000), Korwas (16,000), 
Kharwars (14,000), and Bhumijs (10,000), while among other abori- 
ginal tribes Bhuiyas, Cheros, Ghasis, Mundas, Nagesias, and Santals are 
also represented. 

Practically, the entire population is dependent on agriculture. The 
soils and systems of tillage are similar to those in Ranch! and Palamau 
Districts, but many of the aboriginal tribes on the hills and plateaux 
practise ' shifting ' cultivation. The principal crops grown are rice and 
other cereals, including wheat, barley, oats, maize, mama, gondii, 
and kodon ; also gram and other pulses, oilseeds, cotton, san-hemp, and 
flax. Cultivation is extending, but large tracts are still covered with 
unreclaimed jungle. The State contains extensive grazing grounds, 
to which large herds of cattle from Mirzapur and Palamau are sent 
every year. 

The forests are of the same general character as those of Palamau ; 
they consist chiefly of sal, but, owing to distance from the railway, 
they are at present of very little value. The principal jungle pro- 
ducts other than timber are lac, tasar silk, and catechu. It has been 
estimated that the coal-measures of the Bisrampur field occupy an area 
of about 400 square miles, but no systematic prospecting has been 
done. Traces of lead are found. 

There are fair roads from Bisrampur to the border of the Udaipur 
State and to Lerua, and a road from Dora to Partabpur. Altogether 
410 miles of roads are maintained by the State, but these are chiefly 
fair-weather tracks. An extensive trade in jungle products, oilseeds, 
and ghi is carried on by means of pack-bullocks. 

The relations of the chief with the British Government are regulated 
by a sanad granted in 1899, and reissued in 1905 with a few verbal 
changes due to the transfer of the State to the Central Provinces. 
Under this sanad the chief was formally recognized and permitted 
to administer his territory subject to prescribed conditions, and the 
tribute was fixed for a further period of twenty years, at the end of 



SURGUJA 173 

which it is liable to revision. The chief is under the general control of 
the Commissioner of Chhattisgarh as regards all important matters 
of administration, including the settlement and collection of land 
revenue, the imposition of taxes, the administration of justice, arrange- 
ments connected with excise, salt, and opium, and disputes in which 
other States are concerned ; and he cannot levy import and export 
duties or transit dues, unless they are specially authorized by the Chief 
Commissioner. He is permitted to levy rents and certain other 
customary dues from his subjects, and is empowered to pass sentences 
of imprisonment up to five years and of fine to the extent of Rs. 200 ; 
but sentences of imprisonment for more than two years and of fine 
exceeding Rs. 50 require the confirmation of the Commissioner. 
Heinous offences calling for heavier punishment are dealt with by the 
Political Agent, Chhattisgarh Feudatories, who exercises the powers of 
a District Magistrate and Assistant Sessions Judge; the Commissioner 
occupies the position of a Sessions Court in respect of such cases, 
while the functions of a High Court are performed by the Chief Com- 
missioner. 

The revenue of the State in 1904-5 was Rs. 1,27,000, of which 
Rs. 72,000 was derived from land and Rs. 23,000 from excise. The 
expenditure in the same year was Rs. 1,26,500, including Rs. 34,000 
expended on administration, Rs. 12,000 on domestic charges, and 
Rs. 8,000 on public works. The land revenue demand is Rs. 80,000 ; 
and the State is divided for revenue purposes into 2 2 tappas or parganas, 
of which 6 are maintenance grants held by the junior branches of the 
chiefs family, 4 belong iojdglrddrs or ildkaddrs, and the remaining 12 
are in the immediate control of the Maharaja himself. The collection 
of revenue in the latter is made through tahsilddrs, while the rent for 
the ildkaddri and maintenance tenures is paid direct into the State 
treasury by the holders. The ildkaddrs hold their lands in perpetuity 
and pay rent to the Maharaja ; and the jdglrddrs also hold in per- 
petuity on payment of a quit-rent with certain feudal conditions, which 
for the most part have fallen into disuse. Both these tenures are 
resumable by the Maharaja, on the failure of direct male heirs to the 
grantee. The State contains 18 thdnas, and the police force consists 
(1904-5) of 25 officers and 134 men, maintained at a cost of Rs. 10,000. 
In addition, there is a body of rural police, called goraits, who are 
remunerated by grants of land and are also paid in kind. The State 
jail is at Bisrampur, and prisoners sentenced to terms of imprisonment 
not exceeding two years are detained there. The only schools in the 
State are 11 pdthsdlas ; and in 1901 only 900 persons could read and 
write. There is a charitable dispensary at Bisrampur, at which 2,150 
out-patients were treated during 1904-5; a fine new building, which 
will be used for a dispensary and hospital, has recently been con- 

M 2 



i 7 4 SURGUjA 

structed. Vaccination is carried on by licensed vaccinators, and 
14,400 persons were successfully vaccinated in 1904-5. 

[Sir W. W. Hunter, Statistical Account of Bengal (1877), vol. xvii ; 
and Memoirs, Geological Survey of India, vol. vi.] 

Suri Subdivision. — Southern subdivision of Blrbhum District, 
Bengal, lying between 23 33' and 24 7' N. and 87 10' and 87 58' E., 
with an area of 1,107 square miles. The eastern part of the subdivision 
presents the appearance of the ordinary alluvial plains of Lower Bengal ; 
but towards the west the ground rises, and this portion consists of 
a rolling country with undulating uplands of laterite. The popula- 
tion in 1901 was 535,928, compared with 470,229 in 1891, the density 
being 484 persons per square mile. It contains one town, Suri (popu- 
lation, 8,692), the head-quarters; and 1,981 villages. 

Suri Town. —Head-quarters of Blrbhum District, Bengal, situated 
in 23 54' N. and 87 32' E., on the summit of a gravel ridge, 3 miles 
south of the Mor river. Population (1901), 8,692. Suri was consti- 
tuted a municipality in 1876. The income during the decade ending 
1901-2 averaged Rs. 11,000, and the expenditure Rs. 10,000. In 
1903-4 the income was Rs. 16,000, of which Rs. 5,000 was derived 
from a tax on persons (or property tax), and Rs. 3,000 from a con- 
servancy rate ; and the expenditure was Rs. 14,000. The town contains 
the usual public offices ; the District jail has accommodation for 290 
prisoners, the principal industries being oil-pressing, aloe-pounding, 
newar and carpet-making. A large cattle and produce show is held 
annually in January or February, at which prizes are given. Palanquins 
and furniture are made in the town, and cotton- and silk-weaving are 
carried on in the villages of Alunda and Karidha in the neighbourhood. 

Suriapet. — Taluk in Nalgonda District, Hyderabad State, with an 
area of 687 square miles. Including jdglrs, its population in 1901 was 
175,436, compared with 148,103 in 1891. The taluk contains 192 
villages, of which 10 a.r e Jagtr ; and Suriapet (population, 4,418) is the 
head-quarters. The land revenue in 1901 was 3-1 lakhs. Rice is 
extensively raised by irrigation from tanks, wells, and channels. In 
1905, 15 villages from Suriapet were transferred to the new taluk of 
Pochamcherla. 

Suriban. — Village in the State of Ramdurg, Bombay, situated in 
I 5° 53' N. and 75 27' E. It is noted as the place where in 1858 
Mr. Manson, Political Agent of the Southern Maratha Country, was 
murdered by the Nargund chief. Mr. Manson had incurred much ill- 
will from his connexion with the Inam Commission, but his frank and 
kindly disposition gave him considerable influence with the Bombay 
Carnatic chiefs. Hearing that the Nargund chief had placed guns on 
his fort, Mr. Manson moved with great speed to the threatened quarter, 
leaving his escort behind and taking with him only a dozen troopers 



SURMA RIVER 175 

of the Southern Maratha Horse. He came to Ramdurg, where a half- 
brother of the Nargund chief received him cordially, but advised him 
not to go to Nargund or through Nargund territory, as the country all 
round was unsafe. In spite of this warning, Mr. Manson pressed for- 
ward that night to Suriban. Meanwhile the Nargund chief, who was 
greatly incensed at a letter sent by Mr. Manson from Ramdurg, and 
who feared that the Political Agent had full knowledge of his treason, 
went towards Ramdurg with seven or eight hundred horse and foot. 
On the way, hearing that Mr. Manson was at Suriban, he turned aside 
and came to the village about midnight. A band of armed men sur- 
rounded the village, came close to the spot where the party was asleep, 
killed the sentry, and rushed upon Mr. Manson, who was roused from 
sleep in his palanquin, fired his revolver at his assailants and wounded 
one, but was immediately overpowered in the palanquin ; his head was 
cut off and taken to Nargund, where it was exposed on the town gate, 
and his body was thrown into the fire that had been kindled by his 
party. Ten of Mr. Manson's party were killed and eleven wounded. 
On May 30 Lieutenant La Touche came from Kaladgi to Suriban with 
a party of the Southern Maratha Horse and recovered Mr. Manson's 
body. 

The villages of Suriban, Manihel, and Shivapeth have been con- 
stituted a municipality, with an income in 1903-4 of Rs. 2,300. The 
population of these three villages in 1901 was 5,260. Suriban contains 
a dispensary. 

Surma. River. — River of Assam, giving its name to the southern 
of the two valleys which originally constituted that Province. It rises 
on the southern slopes of the great mountain range which forms the 
northern boundary of Manipur. From there it flows for about 180 
miles in a south-westerly direction till it reaches British territory at 
Tipaimukh. The upper part of its course, where it is known as the 
Barak, lies through narrow valleys shut in on either side by hills that 
rise steeply from the river ; and for a short distance it forms the boun- 
dary between the Naga Hills and Manipur. At Tipaimukh it turns 
sharply to the north, and for some distance divides Cachar from Mani- 
pur in a line almost parallel to that taken by the river in its downward 
sweep. Near Lakhipur it turns west and enters Cachar District, through 
which it flows with an extremely tortuous course till Sylhet is reached 
at Badarpur. A few miles west of that place the river divides into two 
branches. One stream, known as the Surma, flows near the foot of the 
Khasi and Jaintia Hills past Sylhet, Chhatak, and Sunamganj, and then 
turns again towards the south. The second branch is known at first 
as the Kusiyara, but after its confluence with the Manu it again divides 
into two branches. The northern arm, called the Bibiyana and after- 
wards the Kalni, rejoins the Surma on the borders of the District near 



xyfi SURMA RIVER 

Ajmiriganj. The lower branch of the Barak, resuming the name by 
which the river is known in Manipur and Cachar, passes Nabiganj and 
Habiganj, and falls into the Surma a little west of the latter place. 
The total length of the Surma, measured along the northern arm of 
the river from its source to its confluence with the old stream of the 
Brahmaputra near Bhairab Bazar, is about 560 miles. The Barak 
receives numerous tributaries, the most important being on the north 
the Jiri, Jatinga, Bogapani, and Jaoukata, and on the south the 
Sonai, Dhaleswari, Singla, Langai, Manu, and Khowai. In the 
upper part of its course it flows in a very deep channel, and, though 
rain in the hills often makes the river rise many feet in a few hours, it 
seldom overflows its banks. Lower down, where the bed of the river 
is not so deep, its waters sometimes spread over the surrounding 
country, and the floods of both the Surma and the Kusiyara are said 
to do some damage. In a low-lying District like Sylhet, which receives 
an enormous rainfall, it is practically impossible to confine rivers within 
embankments ; and the only works of this nature constructed on the 
Surma are a small embankment along the north bank of the Kusiyara 
from Fenchuganj to Manikkona, and a raised road from Noakhali to 
Sylhet along the south bank of the Surma. Prior to the construction 
of the Assam-Bengal Railway, the Surma, with its numerous branches, 
was practically the only means of communication between Cachar and 
Sylhet and the outside world ; and it still takes a large share in the 
carrying trade of the country. During the rainy season, large steamers 
proceed up the Kusiyara to Silchar, while steamers of lighter draught 
ply between Silchar and Lakhipur, and from Markhali near the western 
border of Sylhet past Sunamganj and Chhatak to Sylhet town. In the 
cold season the large steamers go to Chhatak, and only small steamers 
can pass up the Kusiyara to Silchar, as at that time of the year there 
is very little water in the river. The surface of all the numerous chan- 
nels of this river is dotted with native boats of various shapes and sizes 
at all seasons of the year, and in that part of its course where it flows 
through or in the neighbourhood of the hills the scenery is extremely 
picturesque. Its importance as a trade route has caused many local 
marts to spring up on its banks. The most important of these are — 
on the river prior to its bifurcation, where it is known as the Barak — 
Lakhipur, Silchar, Siyaltek, and Badarpur, where it is spanned by a 
magnificent railway bridge. On the Surma, or northern branch, are 
Kanairghat, Sylhet, Chhatak, Dwara Bazar, and Sunamganj ; while on 
the Kusiyara are Karlmganj, Fenchuganj, Balaganj, Manumukh, and 
Ajmiriganj. These are, however, only the more important centres of 
local trade. Throughout the whole of its course in the plains the banks 
of the various branches of the river are lined with villages, and there 
are numerous markets of less importance. 



SURUL 



'77 



Surma Valley and Hill Districts Division. — Division in the 
Province of Eastern Bengal and Assam, consisting of the upper valley 
of the Surma or Barak, together with the section of the Assam Range 
which bounds it on the north, and the Lushai Hills, a tract of moun- 
tainous country lying south of Cachar. It lies between 22 19/ and 
26 48' N. and 90 45' and 94 50' E., and covers an area of 25,481 
square miles. The head-quarters of the Commission are at Silchar 
Town. The population of the Division at the last four enumerations 
was: (1872) 2,165,943, (1881) 2,546,241, (1891) 2,879,251, and (1901) 
3,084,527. The density is only 121 persons per square mile, but the 
lowness of this figure is due to the inclusion of the hill tracts ; and 
the plains alone support 357 persons per square mile. In 1901 Hindus 
formed 44 per cent, of the population, Muhammadans 43 per cent., and 
Animistic tribes 12 per cent. Other religions included Buddhists (554) 
and Christians (19,751), of whom 18,807 were natives. The division 
contains five Districts, as shown below : — 





Area in 
square miles. 


Population, 
1901. 


Land revenue 
and cesses, 

1903-4, 

in thousands 

of rupees. 


Sylhet 

Cachar 

Lushai Hills 

Naga Hills 

Khasi and Jaintia Hills 

Total 


5-388 

3»769 

7,227 

3,070 
6,027 


2.241,848 
455,593 

82,434 
102,402 

202,250 


10,90 

5,M 
30* 

58* 


25,481 


3,084,527 


•7, 2 9 



* Including house tax. 

Sylhet and the Cachar plains are a fertile and highly cultivated valley. 
The Hill Districts consist for the most part of sharply serrated ridges 
covered with forest or bamboo jungle, though in the Khasi Hills there 
is a fine grassy plateau between 5,000 and 6,000 feet above the level 
of the sea. The Division contains eight towns, the largest being 
Svlhet (population, 13,893), Silchar (9,256), and Shillong (8,384). 
Trade in Sylhet is to a great extent carried by water; and some of the 
river-side marts, such as Balaganj, Chhatak, Habiganj, Ajmiriganj, 
Sunamganj, and Karimganj, are places of considerable importance. 
Baniyachung was the most populous village in the old Province of 
Assam ; and Cherrapunji, on the southern face of the Khasi Hills, has 
the reputation of possessing the heaviest recorded rainfall in the world. 

Sursati. — River in the Punjab. See SaraswatT. 

Surul. — Village in the head-quarters subdivision of Birbhum Dis- 
trict, Bengal, situated in 23 40' N. and 87 40' E., in the south of the 
District, about 5 miles north of the Ajay river. Population (1901), 



178 SURUL 

1,558. The village is noteworthy as the site of an old commercial 
residency, formerly the centre of the Company's trade in Blrbhum. 
During the latter years of the eighteenth century, from \\ to 6-| lakhs 
of rupees was annually expended on the mercantile investment at Surul. 
The first Commercial Resident, Mr. Cheap, who exercised magisterial 
powers, has left behind him the name of ' Cheap the Magnificent.' He 
introduced indigo cultivation into the District, improved the manu- 
facture of sugar by means of apparatus brought from Europe, and 
established a private firm, which flourished until within the last few 
years. When the Company gave up their commercial dealings, the 
residency at Surul was abandoned. The ruins crown the top of a small 
hill. The trade in indigo and sugar is now extinct. 

Susunia. — Hill in the head-quarters subdivision of Bankura Dis- 
trict, Bengal, situated in 22 43' N. and 86° 49' E., and rising to 1,442 
feet above sea-level. It runs due east and west for 2 miles, and is 
covered with heavy tree jungle except on its south face, where it was 
formerly quarried for building stone. 

Suthalia. — Thakurdt in the Bhopal Agency, Central India. 

Sutlej River (Saf/aJ ; the Zaradros of Ptolemy and Arrian ; the 
Sutudri or Satadru of the Vedas, ' flowing in a thousand channels '). — 
One of the ' five rivers ' of the Punjab from which the Province derives 
its name. Rising near the more westerly of the Manasarowar Eakes 
in Tibet in 30 20' N. and 8i° 25' E., at a height of 15,200 feet, the 
Sutlej flows in a north-westerly direction along the southern slopes of 
the Kailas mountains to the Chinese frontier outpost at Shipki. Here 
its elevation is 10,000 feet above the sea. Thence turning south-west- 
by-south it enters the Kanawar valley in Bashahr State, receiving the 
waters of the Li or river of Spiti near Dahlang. Its course in Kanawar 
is 80 miles. After leaving that valley it flows west-south-west through 
deep gorges in the hills, separating the Saraj tahs'il of Kulu and Mandl 
State on the north from the Simla Hill States on the south. In this 
reach lie Rampur, the capital of Bashahr, and Bilaspur town. Then 
winding through Bilaspur State the Sutlej enters the Jaswan Dun in 
Hoshiarpur, and turning suddenly south-east, past the town of Anand- 
pur-Makhowal in that District, pierces the Siwaliks at Rupar, after 
a course of 160 miles from the western extremity of Kanawar. In the 
hills, the Sutlej is crossed by bridges at Wangtu, Rampur, Lohri, and 
Seoni. At Rupar it takes a sudden bend to the west, and debouching 
upon the plains divides the Jullundur Doab from the Sirhind plateau. 
At the south-west corner of Kapurthala State (31 n' N. and 75 4' E.) 
the sluggish waters of the Bein and the broad stream of the Beas flow 
into the Sutlej. From this point the united stream preserves an almost 
uniform south-westerly course, dividing the Bari Doab to the north 
from the sandy plains of Ferozepore and Bahawalpur to the south, 



UPPER SUTLEJ CANALS 179 

until after receiving the Chernb at Madwala it joins the Indus at 
Mithankot in Muzaffargarh District. The total length of the river is 
900 miles. In the plains it is fringed by a fertile lowland valley, 
confined on either side by high banks leading to the naturally barren 
table-lands that form the watersheds of the Ravi to the north and the 
Jumna to the south. The lower valley of the Sutlej is less fertile, and 
closely resembles the deserts of Rajputana. As soon as it enters the 
plains the river is robbed of half its waters by the Sirhind Canal, 
which takes off at Rupar from the southern bank of the river, and 
irrigates large tracts in Ludhiana and Ferozepore Districts and the 
adjacent Native States. Soon after the Beas joins the Sutlej, the 
Upper Sutlej system of inundation canals takes off from its northern 
bank to irrigate parts of Lahore and Montgomery Districts. Finally, 
the Lower Sutlej Canals draw off most of the remaining water to 
irrigate the rainless tracts of south-west Multan. The river is open 
to small craft all the year round, but there is little traffic above Feroze- 
pore. It is bridged by the North- Western Railway at Phillaur, Kasur, 
and Adamwahan in Bahawalpur. 

After it leaves the hills the river is never called Sutlej by the people, 
and it has changed its course more than once in historical times. The 
history of those changes can be traced with considerable probability 
and detail. In the time of Arrian, the Sutlej found an independent 
outlet into the Rann of Cutch. In the year a.d. iooo it was a tributary 
of the Hakra, and flowed in the Eastern Nara. Thence the former 
bed can be traced back through Bahawalpur and Blkaner into the 
Sirsa tahsll of Hissar, until it is lost near Tohana. From Tohana to 
Rupar this old bed cannot be traced ; but it is known that the Sutlej 
took a southerly course at Rupar, instead of turning west, as now, to 
join the Beas. Thus the Sutlej or the Hakra — for both streams 
flowed in the same bed — is probably the lost river of the Indian desert, 
whose waters made the sands of Blkaner and Sind a smiling garden. 
By 1245 the Sutlej had taken a more northerly course, the Hakra had 
dried up, and a great migration took place of the people of the desert — ■ 
as it thus became — to the Indus valley. The course then taken by 
the Sutlej was apparently a continuation of the present course of the 
Ghaggar. About 1593 the Sutlej left the Ghaggar and went north 
once more. The Beas came south to meet it, and the two flowed in 
the same channel under various names — Macchuwah, Hariani, Dand, 
Niirni, Nili, and Gharah. Then the Sutlej once more returned to its 
old course and rejoined the Ghaggar. It was only in 1796 that the 
Sutlej again left the Ghaggar and finally joined the Beas. 

Sutlej Canals, Upper. — An Imperial system of four inundation 
canals in the Punjab, known as the Katora, Khanwah, Upper Sohag, 
and Lower Sohag (or Lower Sohag and Para) Canals. They take off 



180 UPPER SUTLEJ CANALS 

from the right bank of the Sutlej river, and irrigate the low-lying land 
bounded on the north by the old dry bed of the Beas, which separates 
it from the tracts commanded by the Bari Doab Canal. The tract 
commanded by the Katora Canal lies in Lahore District, and the 
remainder in Montgomery. 

The canals existing at the end of 1903-4 aggregated 325 miles in 
length with 394 miles of distributaries, and carried an aggregate supply 
of 4,935 cubic feet per second. During the five years ending 1903-4 
they irrigated an average annual area of 409 square miles and yielded 
an average gross revenue of 3-5 lakhs or, inclusive of the land revenue 
due to irrigation (which is credited to the canals in the accounts), 
5-4 lakhs per annum. The average annual working expenses during 
the same period were 3-6 lakhs. There was, therefore, an annual profit 
of i-8 lakhs. No capital expenditure was recorded against the canals 
till 1854-5 ; up to the end of 1903-4 it has amounted to 17 lakhs. 

The Katora Canal has a bed-width of 55 feet, and an authorized 
discharge of 685 cubic feet per second. It was made in 1870-1, and 
follows the bed of a nullah for 21 miles, when it separates into three 
channels called the Pakhoki, Atari, and Chunian distributaries. The 
Khanwah has a bed-width of 65 feet, and an authorized full supply of 
1,290 feet per second. The date of first opening is not known; it is, 
however, recorded that the canal was improved by Mirza Khan, 
a minister of the emperor Akbar, but it was neglected by his succes- 
sors, and silted up. In the time of Ranjlt Singh, Dlwan Radha Ram 
repaired the head and cleared the channel, and the canal flowed from 
1807 to 1823. It was again neglected till 1841, when Fakir Chiragh- 
ud-din, under the orders of Maharaja Sher Singh, had the canal 
repaired, and it was in flow when taken over by the Irrigation depart- 
ment on the annexation of the Punjab. The Upper Sohag Canal has 
a bed -width of 60 feet, and an authorized discharge of 1,540 cubic feet 
per second. It appears to have been made in 1827, and worked till 
1840, when it was neglected; and nothing further was done to it till 
1855, when, the canal having been taken over by the Irrigation depart- 
ment, the channel was again put into working order. The Lower 
Sohag Canal has a bed-width of 90 feet, and an authorized discharge 
of 1,420 cubic feet per second. It may be said to date from 1816, 
when the first attempt to irrigate was made by means of a dam across 
the Sohag nullah, which caused it to overflow its banks. In 1831 
another dam was made, and the water was led on to the lands of 
Jawand Singh at Dlpalpur, who is said to have obtained a 'large return 
from the water. After some fighting the dam was demolished in 1835 ; 
and from that date the canal existed only in name, irrigation being 
effected on only 3,000 acres by lifts by means of a narrow cut 20 feet 
wide. In 1885-6 the present regular canal was opened. The canal 



LOWER SUTLEJ INUNDATION CANALS t8t 

follows generally the Sohag nullah for 33 miles, till it gives off the 
Para nullah. The canal continues in the form of two branches, one 
along the Para nullah and the other along the Sohag nullah. The 
channel, however, was not formed in the bed, but consists of an 
artificial cut, which is crossed and recrossed by the tortuous dry 
nullahs. The canal was constructed mainly for the purpose of bringing 
under cultivation 142 square miles of Government waste. This area 
was colonized by allotting parcels of land to chosen peasants from 
adjacent over-populated Districts. For the purpose of allotment the 
land was divided into squares, 27-7 acres in area, and each allotment 
consisted of 4 squares or 1 1 1 acres. The canals being dry in the cold 
season, the colonists were required to construct wells, at least one well 
per holding being necessary. 

Sutlej Inundation Canals, Lower. — An Imperial system of 
inundation canals in the Punjab, taking off from the right bank of the 
Sutlej and irrigating part of Multan District. They were for the most 
part constructed in the middle of the eighteenth century by the Daud- 
putras, a powerful tribe who were in possession of this part of the 
country from the downfall of the Mughals to the rise of Ranjlt Singh ; 
but one of the largest, the Dlwanwah, was excavated in 1831 by Dlwan 
Sawan Mai, who also enlarged and improved several others. Excluding 
the Hajiwah canal, whose history is separate from that of the rest, 
there were 19 of these canals in 1850; these, however, have been 
gradually amalgamated, and in 1903 there were only three — the 
Mailsi, Muhammadwah-Sardarwah, and Bahawalwah-Lodhran canals — 
of which the last two will probably be amalgamated. The gross cultiv- 
able area commanded by these canals is 1,414 square miles, of which 
424 are at present irrigable. The canals generally flow from April to 
October ; but since the Sirhind Canal came into full operation the 
supply of water at the commencement and end of the flood season has 
been considerably reduced, and the actual area irrigated in the five 
years ending 1903-4 was only 263 square miles. The normal autumn 
crop is sown and matured with canal water alone ; but for the spring 
harvest only the preliminary waterings required for ploughing and 
sowing are given from the canal, and further irrigation is supplied from 
wells. The maximum discharge is 5,000 cubic feet per second, and 
the total length of main canals is 394 miles and of distributaries 
328 miles. Properly designed channels are of only recent construc- 
tion, and have still to be provided on the Mailsi canal. Until recently 
canal clearance was effected by the labour of the cultivators ; this 
system was, however, finally abolished in 1903 and rates are now paid. 
No capital account is kept for these canals. The gross revenue for 
the three years ending 1903-4 averaged 3-8 lakhs, and the net revenue 
Rs. 83,000. 



1 82 LOWER SUTLEJ INUNDATION CANALS 

The Hajiwah canal is included in the Lower Sutlej system. It was 
a private canal constructed in the time of Ranjit Singh, and its 
administration was taken over by Government in 1888 in consequence 
of the mismanagement of the owners. This action was authorized by 
the terms of a deed executed in 1886, under which Government had 
given the owners a grant of 60,000 acres of land served by the canal, 
and it was upheld by the Privy Council in 1901. The canal has a bed- 
width of 30 feet, an average supply during the flood season of 500 
cubic feet per second, and a length of 39 miles. The average area 
irrigated is only 53 square miles, as the alignment is defective. 

Sutna. — Town in Rewah State, Central India. See Satna. 

Suvali (the 'Swally' of the old records). — Seaport of Surat, in 
the Olpad fd/uka of Surat District, Bombay, situated in 21 io / N. and 
7 2 39' E., about 12 miles west of Surat city, outside the mouth of 
the Tapti, with a good roadstead and deep water. Population (1901), 
1,692. The channel, about 1^ miles in breadth and 7 miles in length, 
lies between the shore and a long strip of land dry at low water ; 
' Suvali hole ' is a cove which cuts into the land about the middle of 
this channel. With the arrival of large European ships, which had 
often to remain in the Tapti for several months, Suvali became the 
seaport of Surat. In 1626 it was already a place of importance. In 
the fair season (September to March) the Yams pitched their booths 
and tents and huts of straw in great numbers, resembling a country fair 
or market. Here they sold calicoes, China satin, porcelain, mother-o'- 
pearl and ebony cabinets, agates, turquoises, carnelians, and also rice, 
sugar, plantains, and native liquor. For some years all ships visiting 
the Tapti were allowed to anchor at Suvali, but so great were the 
facilities for smuggling that, before many years had passed (1666), the 
privilege was limited to English, French, and Dutch. About half a mile 
from the sea ' the factors of each of these nations built a convenient 
lodging of timber, with a flagstaff in front, flying the colours of its 
nation.' On the sea-shore was a European burial-ground, where, 
according to one account, was laid Tom Coryat, the eccentric traveller 
and author, who, says Terry, ' overtook death by drinking too freely of 
sack' in December, 16 18, and was buried under a little monument 
like one of those usually made in our churchyards. The more authentic 
version affirms that Coryat was buried near Surat. Towards the end of 
the eighteenth century Suvali was no longer a place of anchorage, 
its place being taken by the roads, a league south of the river mouth. 

Suvanna Bhumi. — Legendary area in Lower Burma. See Thaton 
Town. 

Suvarnadrug. — Island fortress in the Dapoli taluka of Ratnagiri 
District, Bombay. See Harnai. 

Suvarnavati. — River in Mysore. See Honnu-hole. 



SWAT STATE 183 







Swabi Tahsll. — Easternmost tahsil of Peshawar District, North 
West Frontier Province, lying between 33 54' and 34 22' N. and 72 
12' and 72 45' E., with an area of 467 square miles. It forms, with 
the Mardan tahsil, the Yusufzai subdivision. It consists of a level 
plain intersected by two considerable streams, the Naranji Khwar and 
Badri, and many smaller ravines. The population in 1901 was 144,513, 
compared with 130,687 in 189 1. It contains 94 villages, including 
Swabi, the head-quarters. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 
amounted to Rs. 3,00,000. The principal tract in the tahsll is the 
Razzar, occupying its north-eastern half, which is so called after the 
branch of the Mandanr Pathans which holds it. The central portion 
is held by the Sadozai and the eastern extremity by the Utmanzai, both 
branches of the Mandanr. The tahsll was formerly known as Utman 
Bulak. 

Swally. — Former seaport of Surat, Bombay. See Suvali. 

Swat State. — One of the tracts comprised in the Dir, Swat, and 
Chitral Agency, North-West Frontier Province, lying between 34 40' 
and 35 N. and 72 and 74 6' E. It forms the valley of the Swat 
river, which, rising in the lofty ranges bordering on Chitral, flows south- 
south-west from its source to Chakdarra, thence south-west to the 
Malakand, thence north-west to its junction with the Panjkora, thence 
south-west again till it meets the Ambahar, thence south-east to Abazai 
in Peshawar District. Below its junction with the Panjkora the valley 
is not, politically speaking, Swat but Utman Khel. Swat is divided into 
two distinct tracts : one, the Swat Kohistan, or mountain country on 
the upper reaches of the Swat river and its affluents as far south as 
Ain ; and the other, Swat proper, which is further subdivided into Bar 
('Upper') and Kuz ('Lower 1 ) Swat, the latter extending from Landakai 
to Kalangai, a few miles above the junction of the Swat and Panjkora 
rivers. The area of Swat, including Swat Kohistan, is about the same 
as that of Dir ; but the river valley does not exceed 130 miles in length, 
with an average breadth of about 12 miles. The valley contains a 
series of rich alluvial tracts, extensively cultivated and extending for 
70 miles along the river banks, while in the Kohistan are vast forests 
of deodar. Starting from an elevation of 2,000 feet, at the junction 
of the Swat and Panjkora rivers, the valley rises rapidly, and the peaks 
to the north range from 15,000 to 22,000 feet above the sea. The 
climate of the lower valleys is malarious and unhealthy, especially in 
autumn. 

The histories of Dir, Swat, Bajaur, and Utman Khel are so 
inextricably intermingled that it has been found impossible to treat 
them separately. 

The first historical mention of these countries is made by Arrian, 
who records that in 326 B.C. Alexander led his army through Kunar, 



1 84 SWAT STATE 

Bajaur, Swat, and Buner ; but his successor, Seleucus, twenty years 
later made over these territories to Chandragupta. The inhabitants 
were in those days of Indian origin, Buddhism being the prevailing 
religion ; and they remained thus almost undisturbed under their own 
kings until the fifteenth century. They were the ancestors of the non- 
Pathan tribes — e. g. Gujars, Torwals, Garhwis, &c. — who are now con- 
fined to Bashkar of Dir and the Swat Kohistan. 

The invasion of the Yusufzai and other Pathan tribes of Khakhai 
descent, aided by the Utman Khel, then began ; and by the sixteenth 
century the Yusufzai were in possession of Buner, Lower Swat, and the 
Panjkora valley ; the Gigianis and Tarkilanris had established them- 
selves in Bajaur, and the Utman Khel in the country still occupied by 
them. The advent of these Pathan invaders introduced the Muham- 
madan religion throughout these countries. At this time the emperor 
Babar, by a diplomatic marriage with the daughter of Malik Shah 
Mansur, the head of the Yusufzai clans, and by force of arms, 
established his sovereignty throughout Bajaur (except Jandol), the 
Panjkora valley as far as its junction with the Bajaur, and Lower Swat. 
Upper Swat, which was still held by the aboriginal Swatis under Sultan 
Udais or Wais, tendered a voluntary submission, claiming protection 
from the invader, which Babar gave. In Humayun's reign, however, 
the advance was continued, and the Yusufzai overran the Sherlngal 
portion of Dir and Upper Swat as far as Ain, beyond which they have 
scarcely advanced to this day. Humayun's yoke was rejected by them, 
and even Akbar in 1584 could exact no more than a nominal submis- 
sion. Such degree of peace as obtains among independent Pathan 
tribes was enjoyed by the Yusufzai and their neighbours, until a fruitful 
cause of dissension arose in Dir in the person of a religious reformer 
named Bazld, called by his adherents the Pir-i-Roshan, whose chief 
opponent was Akhund Darweza Baba, the historian of the Yusufzai. 
The heresy of the Pir and the constant depredations of the combatants 
on either side at length compelled interference. Zain Khan, Kokaltash, 
was deputed by the governor of Kabul to bring the tribes to reason, 
and after five years' fighting and fort-building he effected in 1595 a 
thorough conquest of the country. By 1658, however, in which year 
Aurangzeb ascended the throne, the lesson had been forgotten. The 
tribes refused to pay revenue, declared their independence, and main- 
tained it till the time of Nadir Shah, whose successors, Ahmad Shah 
Durrani and Timur Shah, kept their hold on the country. The grasp 
was not altogether lost by those who came after ; and, when Azim Khan 
attacked the Sikhs in 1823, the Yusufzai sent a large contingent with 
his army. They were defeated, and Ranjit Singh entered Peshawar, 
but did not essay a farther advance into the northern hills. 

In 1829 the colony of Hindustani fanatics, which still exists in the 



SWAT STATE 185 

Amarzai country, was founded by Mir Saiyid Ahmad Shah of Bareilly. 
But the austerities enjoined by the Mir were his undoing. A con- 
spiracy was formed ; his chief followers were murdered in a single- 
night, and he himself was hunted down and killed at Balakot in 
Hazara in 1831. The primacy then passed to Abdul Ghafur, the 
famous Akhund, who established himself in 1835 at Saidu in Upper 
Swat, where he lived until his death in 1877, the most powerful man in 
the country. 

On the establishment of British rule in the Peshawar valley (1849), 
no attempt was made to penetrate into the hill country. But the raids 
of the tribesmen in British territory, and the asylum which they afforded 
to outlaws and desperadoes, could not be suffered to pass unnoticed ; 
and punitive expeditions were sent in 1849 against the Utman Khel, 
and in 1852 against both this tribe and the inhabitants of Sam Ranizai, 
the country between the District border and the Malakand Pass. 
Severe punishment was inflicted in the second expedition. The year 
of the Mutiny (1857) passed off without disturbance, a refuge in Swat 
being actually denied to the mutineers of the 55th Native Infantry by 
the Akhund, who, however, adopted this course for reasons of local 
policy, not from love of the British Government. In 1863 took place the 
expedition against the Hindustani fanatics resulting in what is known 
as the Ambela campaign, in which the united forces of Swat, Bajaur, 
Kunar, and Dir were arrayed under the banner of the Akhund against 
the invading force. In 1866 another small expedition was sent to 
punish the Utman Khel, after which there was peace on the border till, 
in 1878, force had again to be used. The Guides were sent against 
the people of Ranizai and the Utman Khel, with complete success in 
the restoration of order. Early in 1877 the Akhund died ; and his son, 
attempting to succeed to his position, was bitterly opposed by the 
Khan of Dir. The whole country as far as Nawagai in Bajaur was 
embroiled ; and in the confused fighting and tortuous diplomacy that 
followed Umra. Khan of Jandol, a scion of the royal house of Bajaur, 
took a prominent part. Allying himself first with the Mian Gul, the 
son of the Akhund, by 1882 he had conquered and taken from the 
Khan of Dir nearly half his country. In 1882 the Mian Gul became 
jealous and fell out with Umra Khan, making terms with the Khan of 
Dir. Umra Khan's position was rendered more difficult next year by 
the arrival in the Utman Khel country of a religious leader, said to 
have been sent from Kabul to thwart him, and known as the Makrani 
Mulla. His denunciations effected in 1887 a combination of the whole 
country-side, including Dir, Nawagai, Swat, Utman Khel, Salarzai, and 
Mamund, against Umra Khan. But the allies were defeated, quarrelled 
one with another, and dispersed ; and by 1890, the Mulla having fled 
the country, Umra. Khan was master of the whole of Dir territory, the 



1 86 SWAT STATE 

Khan (Muhammad Sharif) being in exile in Swat. Ever since 1884 
Umra Khan had been coquetting with the British authorities, in the 
hope of being furnished with rifles and ammunition. In 1892 he 
accepted, in return for a subsidy, the task of keeping postal communi- 
cations open with Chitral, and thereafter began to intrigue, on the death 
of the great Mehtar Aman-ul-mulk, in the affairs of that country. The 
Asmar boundary commission in 1894 augmented the coolness between 
the Government and Umra Khan, which came to open hostility in the 
next year {see Chitral), and as a result of his defeat Umra Khan fled 
in 1896 to Kabul. The Khan of Dlr at once returned to power and 
entered into agreements with the Government for keeping the Chitral 
road open, without toll, as also did the clans of Swat, subsidies being 
granted to both. In the year after the Chitral expedition, the Political 
Agency of Dlr and Swat was constituted, and posts were built at 
Chakdarra, in Lower Swat, the Malakand, and Dargai in the Ranizai 
country. Chitral was shortly added as an apanage of the Agency, 
having hitherto been connected with Gilgit. The disturbance of the 
country caused by the events of 1895, the intrigues of Afghan officials, 
and the natural animosity of the religious classes after a period of 
apparent calm, during which the title of Nawab was conferred on the 
Khan of Dlr, led to the rising of 1897, in which a determined effort 
was made by the tribesmen, mustered by the Mulla Mastan ('Mad 
Mulla') of Swat, to storm the posts at Chakdarra and the Malakand. 
Their attacks were repulsed, though not without difficulty ; and in the 
punitive operations which followed columns were sent to enforce the 
submission of the Mamunds in Bajaur, the Yusufzai of Swat, and the 
Bunerwals. No action against Dlr was necessary, for the Nawab had 
been able to restrain his people from overt hostility. 

In 1 90 1 a railway was opened from Naushahra to Dargai at the foot 
of the Malakand Pass. Tribal lighting has continued intermittently, 
but no event of importance took place in the Agency after 1897, 
until the death of the Nawab of Dlr in 1904. His eldest son Aurang- 
zeb (Badshah Khan) has been recognized as the successor, but the 
succession is disputed by Mian Gul Jan, his younger brother. 

Swat proper is now peopled by the Akazai branch of the Yusufzai 
Pathans (about 150,000 in number), and the Kohistan by Torwals and 
Garhwis (estimated at 20,000). The Yusufzai comprise various clans. 
On the left bank of the river lie the Ranizai and Khan Khel in 
Lower Swat, and the Sulizai and Babuzai in Upper Swat. On the 
right bank are the Shamizai, Sabujni, Nikbi Khel, and Shamozai in 
Upper Swat, and in Lower Swat the Adinzai, Abazai, and Khadakzai 
clans. All the clans on the right bank, except the two last named, are 
collectively known as the Khwazozai ; and all except the Ranizai on 
the left are collectively called the Baezai. The whole valley and the 



SWAT RIVER CANAL 187 

Kohistan are well populated ; but before 1897 the Swati Pathans had 
not the reputation of being a fighting race, and owing to the un- 
healthiness of the valley their physique is inferior to that of Pathans 
generally. The language of the people is the pure Yusufzai Pashtu, 
except in the Kohistan, where the Torwals and GarhwTs speak dialects 
of their own, which is said to resemble very closely the dialect of 
Hindkl used by the Gujars of Hazara. 

The people are by religion Muhammadans of the Sunni sect, those 
of the Kohistan, as recent converts, being peculiarly ignorant and 
fanatical. The shrine of the great Akhund of Swat, at Saidu, is one of 
the most important in Northern India. Born of Gujar parents, probably 
in Upper Swat, Abdul Ghafur began life as a herd-boy, but soon 
acquired the titles of Akhund and Buzurg by his sanctity, and for 
many years resided at Saidu, where he exercised an irresistible influence 
over the Yusufzai and their neighbours. His grandsons have inherited 
some of his spiritual influence. The offerings at the Akhund shrine 
and subscriptions received from their followers afford them a consider- 
able income. A still living religious leader is the Mulla Mastan, or 
' Mad Mulla ' (also called the sartor or ' bare,' literally ' black-headed,' 
fakir), Sad-ullah Khan. By birth the son of a Bunerwal malik and a 
great athlete in his youth, he spent some years at Ajmer and returned 
to Buner in 1895. His piety soon made him widely known in the 
Swat and Indus Kohistan, and his religious fervour earned him his title 
of Mastan. 

Swat River (Sanskrit, Suvastu ; Greek, Souastos or Souastene). — 
River of the North-West Frontier Province, formed by the junction at 
Kalan in the Swat Kohistan of the Gabral and Ushu. The former 
rises on the east of the Badugai pass, and the latter comes down from 
the higher hills of Bashkar to the north. From Kalan the Swat river 
flows almost due south for about 68 miles, but at Manglaur turns 
abruptly to the south-west and west for 24 miles until it is joined by 
the Panjkora. The united waters then sweep in a great curve south- 
westwards to Abazai in Peshawar District, where they emerge to the 
north of the Mohmand hills into the Peshawar valley. Here the river 
spreads south-east in several streams over the plain, joining the Kabul 
river at Nisatta after a total course of about 400 miles. Fed by 
glaciers and snow, it has a considerable volume in the summer months, 
but shrinks after the middle of September, until in midwinter it is 
fordable almost everywhere. In Peshawar District the Swat River 
Canal takes off from the river, and a scheme for tunnelling under the 
Malakand Pass and bringing its waters to the eastern part of Yusufzai 
is under consideration. 

Swat River Canal. — A perennial irrigation work in Peshawar 
District, North-West Frontier Province, taking off from the right 

VOL. XXIII. N 



1 88 SWAT RIVER CANAL 

bank of the Swat river at Abazai, and irrigating about 155,000 acres. 
The place of a weir is taken by a natural reef stretching across the 
river below the head regulator. The regulator has seven openings of 
6 feet each, and is protected at each end by fortified blockhouses, 
forming one of the chain of frontier posts garrisoned by the border 
military police. The main channel has a width of 31 feet and a depth 
when full of 7-35 feet ; it can carry a supply of 865 cubic feet per 
second. In a total length of 22A miles there are no less than 21 
drainage works, which carry under or over the canal the water of the 
numerous mountain torrents that intersect its course. These are for 
the most part crossed by massive stone aqueducts, and the canal 
banks for some distance above and below these crossings are of a great 
height. About 186 miles of distributary channels have been aligned 
on the watersheds between the torrents, the most important being the 
trans-Kalpani distributary, which has a discharge of 94 cubic feet 
per second and a length of nearly 14^ miles, and in which there are 
fourteen drainage works of importance. 

The tract commanded by the canal is that portion of the dry, 
sparsely populated Yusufzai plain which is bounded on the north by the 
canal itself, on the west and south by the Swat and Kabul rivers, and 
on the east by the Mokam nullah, a tributary of the Kalpani. The 
country rises so rapidly on the north of the canal up to the foot of the 
hills that it cannot be brought under command. The canal tract itself 
is cut up by innumerable nullahs running generally from north to 
south, and carrying the drainage from the hills on the north to the 
Swat and Kabul rivers on the west and south. The great cost of 
the canal was due to the difficulty of taking it across these channels, 
some of which are of great size. 

The main canal was opened in 1885, and the trans-Kalpani dis- 
tributary in 1899. The Naushahra minor, a channel irrigating two 
grass farms near Naushahra, was constructed in 190 1. The area 
irrigated in both harvests during the three years ending 190 1-2 
averaged 161,000 acres, and in 1903-4 it was 159,000 acres. The 
total capital expenditure to the end of March, 1904, was 41-4 lakhs. 
The canal was originally sanctioned as a protective work, no profit 
being anticipated, owing to the high cost of construction. The whole 
accumulated interest charges were, however, paid off in fifteen years, 
and the net revenue in 1903-4 (Rs. 4,57,000) exceeded 10 per cent, on 
the capital expended. The canal has thus become a remunerative 
investment to Government, besides contributing in no small degree to 
the peace of the border. It fails, however, to touch the part of Yusuf- 
zai between the main channel and the border hills to the north, where 
water is badly needed ; and it is accordingly proposed to drive a tunnel 
through the Malakand range and tap the Swat river near Chakdarra. 



SYLHET DISTRICT 

183 

As the river is fed from the snows, it attains its greatest volume in the 
summer months, and thus water would be abundant just at the time 
it is most needed. A canal would be made from Dargai, with branches 
running west to Abazai, the head of the parent canal, and south east to 
the Indus at Pehur and the Kabul river at Jahanglra. These branches 
would practically command all of Peshawar District north of the- Swat 
and Kabul rivers which is not already canal-irrigated — an area of about 
600 square miles. 

Syambazar.— Village in the Arambagh subdivision of Hooghly 
District, Bengal, situated in 22 54' N. and 87 34' E. Population 
(rc)oi), 3,494. Its weavers are famous for their tasar silk fabrics, and 
it carries on some trade in tasar cocoons and ebony goods. Badan- 
ganj, a village about a mile distant, has a large timber trade. It has an 
old sarai or resthouse dating, according to an inscription on it, from 

i747-_ 

Syaranagar. — Village in the Barrackpore subdivision of the 
District of the Twenty-four Parganas, Bengal, situated in 22 50' N. 
and 88° 24' E., on the east bank of the Hooghly river, with a station 
on the Eastern Bengal State Railway, 19 miles north of Calcutta. 
Population (1901), 102. A short distance east of the station are the 
ruins of an old fort surrounded by a moat, 4 miles in circumference, 
built in the eighteenth century by a Raja of Burdwan as a refuge from 
the Marathas. The fort now belongs to the Tagore family of Calcutta, 
and its ramparts are studded with thick date plantations. A Sanskrit 
college and a charitable dispensary are maintained by Maharaja 
Sir Jotindra Mohan Tagore. Syamnagar lies within the Garulia 
municipality. 

Sydapet. — Subdivision, taluk, and town in Chingleput District, 
Madras. See Saidapet. 

Sylhet District (Srihatta).— District on the south-west frontier of 

Eastern Bengal and Assam, lying between 23 59' and 25 13'' N. 

and 90 56' and 92 36' E., with an area of 5,388 square miles. 

It is bounded on the north by the Khasi and Jaintia Hills ; on the 

east by Cachar ; on the south by the Lushai Hills and the State of Hill 

Tippera ; and on the west by the Eastern Bengal Districts of Tippera 

and Mymensingh. Sylhet consists of the lower valley of the Barak or 

Surma river, a rich alluvial tract about 70 miles wide, 

bounded north and south by mountains, and open- .Pnysical 

J L aspects, 

ing westwards to the plain of Eastern Bengal. The 

greater part of the District is a uniform level, only broken by clusters 

of little hillocks called /lias, and intersected by a network of rivers and 

drainage channels. During the rainy season, from June to October, 

the torrents that pour down from the surrounding hills convert the 

entire western part into a sea of water. The villages are, as a rule, 

x 2 



i go SYLHET DISTRICT 

built on the banks of the rivers, which, as is the case in most alluvial 
tracts, are raised by the annual flood deposits to a higher level than 
that of the surrounding country, and stand out above the waste of 
waters like islands in a lake. The central and eastern portion con- 
sists of a broad plain, covered with rice-fields, and dotted over with 
hamlets embowered in groves of fruit trees and bamboos. On the 
north the Khasi Hills rise abruptly like a wall from the level of 
the plain. On the south the Tippera Hills throw out eight spurs 
into the valley, the highest of which is about 1,000 feet above 
sea-level. In their natural state these hills are overgrown with grass 
and low scruh jungle, but many have been cleared for the cultivation 
of tea. 

The river system of Sylhet is constituted by the Barak or Surma, 
with its many tributaries and offshoots. This river enters the District 
from Cachar, and forthwith bifurcates into two branches. One, under 
the name of the Surma, flows beneath the hills bordering the north of 
the District ; the other, called the Kusiyara, runs in a south-westerly 
direction, and the two unite again near the south-western boundary 
to fall into the estuary of the Meghna. The principal tributaries on 
the north bank are the Lubha, the Bogapani, and the Jadukata, while 
from the Lushai and Tippera Hills come the Singla, the Langai, the 
IManu, and the Khowai. There are no lakes in the ordinary meaning 
of the term, but the low-lying haors, or swamps, are a peculiar feature 
of the District. During the rains they become filled with water ; 
but in the cold season this dries up, except in the very centre of the 
basin, and the land affords excellent pasturage or can be sown with 
mustard or early rice. The submerged area is being steadily reduced 
by the deposit of silt, and in course of time these basins will no doubt 
be raised above flood-level. 

The plain presents the usual characteristics of an alluvial tract, but 
the process of deltaic formation has proceeded slowly, and the town 
of Sylhet is only 48 feet above sea-level. The low ranges of hills are, 
for the most part, composed of sandstone of Upper Tertiary origin, 
and the tilas are formed of layers of sand, clay, and gravel, highly 
indurated by a ferruginous cement. 

The vegetation of the plains of Sylhet does not differ materially from 
that of Eastern Bengal. The marshes are covered with grasses and 
reeds, and during the rainy season with floating islands of aquatic 
plants and sedges. The low hills are clothed with scrub, and towards 
the south with forest. 

Wild animals are not common, except at the foot of the hills, 
where elephants, tigers, leopards, wild hog, and deer are found. Teal 
and wild duck abound in the low-lying marshy country to the west, 
and in the Jaintia plains to the east ; and wild geese, jungle-fowl and 



HISTORY 191 

pheasants are common. The rivers swarm with fish, and the drying of 
fish forms an important industry. Excellent mahseer fishing is to be 
had in the streams issuing from the northern hills. 

The climate is characterized by extreme humidity. The winter 
is milder than that of the Assam Valley, but there is no hot 
season, and the heavy precipitation during the rains keeps the 
air unusually cool. The country is fairly healthy, except at the 
foot of the hills in the north and south, where malaria is not un- 
common. 

The monsoon clouds sweeping up the valley are stopped by the 
precipitous face of the Khasi and Jaintia Hills, and descend in torrents 
of rain. In the north of the District the annual fall averages between 
200 and 250 inches; but towards the south the effect of the mon- 
soon is less pronounced, and the normal rainfall is only about 100 
inches. The whole of the western portion of the District is under 
water during the rains ; but these floods are looked upon as a matter 
of course, and the water, when it subsides, leaves behind a layer of 
fertilizing silt. Severe shocks of earthquake were felt in Sylhet in 
January, 1869, and October, 1882, but the damage done was inconsider- 
able in comparison with the havoc wrought by the earthquake of 
June 12, 1897. Nearly all the masonry buildings in the north of the 
District were wrecked, the banks of the rivers caved in, the earth was 
furrowed by cracks and fissures, and bridges and embanked roads were 
destroyed. The total number of deaths reported was 545; but had the 
catastrophe occurred at night, this number would have been very 
largely increased. The majority of these casualties were due to drown- 
ing, but cases are said to have occurred in which people were actually 
swallowed up by the earth. 

The District was at one time divided into at least three petty king- 
doms : Gor, or Sylhet proper, Laur, and Jaintia ; and the country 
south of the Kusiyara seems to have been under the 
control of the Raja of Hill Tippera. Gor was con- 
quered by the Muhammadans in ad. 1384, the last Hindu king, Gaur 
Gobind, being overcome more by the magic of the fakir, Shah Jalal, 
than by the prowess of the officer in command of the expedition, 
Sikandar GhazT. After the death of Shah Jalal, Gor was included in 
the kingdom of Bengal and placed in charge of a Nawab. In the reign 
of Akbar it passed with the res.t of Bengal into the hands of the 
Mughals ; and, in the time of this emperor, Laur was also conquered, 
though its rulers were for some time entrusted with the charge of the 
frontier, and were exempt from the payment of land revenue. Gor and 
Laur were included in Bengal when the British obtained the Dlwani of 
that Province in 1 765. Jaintia was never conquered by the Muham- 
madans, and retained its independence till 1835, when it was annexed 



192 SYLHET DISTRICT 

by the British Government, as no satisfaction could be obtained for 
the murder of three British subjects, who had been kidnapped and 
sacrificed to the goddess Kali. 

During the early days of British rule, Sylhet, lying on the outskirts of 
the Company's territories, was much neglected. The population was 
turbulent, means of communication were difficult, and the arts of 
civilization were in a backward condition. The savage tribes living 
to the north and south of the valley disturbed the peace of the plains, 
and there were continual disputes as to the boundary between British 
territory and the Native State of Hill Tippera. On the south the 
offending tribes were the Ktikis and Lushais. In 1844 the Kukis 
raided and secured 20 heads, and three years later killed 150 persons ; 
but the scene of the massacre was, after careful inquiry, found to be 
beyond the frontier of the District. Another raid was committed 
in 1849, an d an expedition was sent into the hills in the next year, 
which kept the country quiet for a time. The Lushais, however, broke 
out again in 1862, 1868, and 187 1. The expedition sent into the hills 
in 1 87 1 had a most salutary effect; and, though further expenditure of 
life and money was required before the tribe was finally subdued, no 
raids have been committed on the plains of Sylhet since that date. 
At the beginning of the nineteenth century robbery and murder were 
also common on the northern frontier, but the Khasis were soon 
pacified after the annexation of the Assam Valley, and the last outbreak 
took place in 1831. In 1857 a party of sepoy mutineers from Chitta- 
gong entered the District from Hill Tippera, but were defeated at Latu 
and driven into Cachar. The District originally formed part of the 
Dacca Division of Bengal, but in 1S74 it was placed under the charge 
of the newly appointed Chief Commissioner of Assam. 

Sylhet contains few archaeological remains of interest. The mosque 
of Shah Jalal in Sylhet town is, however, deeply venerated ; and at 
Phaljor vsxpargana Baurbhag there is a piece of stone which is said to 
be Sati's left leg, which fell there when she was hewn in pieces by 
Vishnu, while her neck is said to have fallen near Sylhet town. 

The District, which is by far the most populous in Assam, contains 
5 towns and 8,330 villages. The population at each of the four last 

„ , . enumerations was: (1872) 1,719,539, (1881)1,969,009, 

Population. / o \ a 1 \ 00 tm 

(1891) 2,154,593, and (1901) 2,241,848. Ihe com- 
paratively small increase during the last intercensal period is due to 
the unhealthiness of the North and South Sylhet subdivisions, where 
the population outside tea gardens decreased by about 4 per cent. 
The District includes five subdivisions : North Sylhet, with head- 
quarters at Sylhet town ; South Sylhet, with head-quarters at 
Maulavi Bazar ; and Sunamganj, Habigan.i, and Karimganj, with 
head-quarters at places of the same name. 



POPULATION 



193 



The following table gives particulars of area, towns and villages, and 



population according to the Census of 1901 : — 



Township. 



North Sylhet 
Sunamganj . 
Habiganj 

South Sylhet 
Karlmganj . 

District total 



V 






cd 


Number of 


3 






ST ! 






c — 


tn 


tn 




B 
O 


J2 


< 
1,055 


H 


> 




1,956 


',493 




2 ,493 


952 




',935 


840 




1,022 


1,04s 




924 


5,388 


5 


8,33o 



3 
a. 
o 

(X, 



463,477 
433,752 

555,o 01 
379,158 

410,460 



2,241,848 



§B 
'•§£ 

■as 

Oh 



439 
291 

583 
45' 
392 



416 



•5.2 3.m 

c coo o 

.2.2 ~ ^ 
etf ctf <u »rt 

'C-3 £ c 

03 o.# as 

> o ~ 

D. 



-3-9 
+ 4-9 

+ 9-9 

+ 2.5 

+ 67 



+ 4-0 



E 5 

3 Q 



2tj 



v 
a. 



23,590 
I3,96l 

27,194 
14,504 
18,270 



97,5'9 



Nearly 53 per cent, of the population in 1901 returned themselves 
as Muhammadans, and nearly 47 per cent, as Hindus. 

Bengali is the common speech of the people, and was returned by 
92 per cent, of the population, though the local dialect known as 
Sylhet! differs materially from the language spoken in Bengal proper. 
Five per cent, speak Hindi and one percent. ManipurT. In spite of the 
importance of the tea industry, the proportion of foreigners is much 
lower than in most of the plains Districts of Assam ; in 1901 they 
formed only 7 per cent, of the whole. 

The respectable Hindu castes are much more strongly represented 
in Sylhet than in other Districts of Assam. In 1901 Brahmans num- 
bered 40,000 and Kayasths 64,000, but many of these have probably 
a somewhat doubtful title to the names. The Navasakha or functional 
castes, traditionally nine in number, from whose hands water can be 
taken by Brahmans, are found here as in Bengal. Those most strongly 
represented are the Baruis or betel-leaf growers (16,000), the Goalas or 
cowherds (14,000), the Napits or barbers (21,000), and the Telis or 
oil-pressers (30,000). The chief cultivating caste of Sylhet is the 
Das (164,000), but the Jugis or weavers (79,000) have almost entirely 
forsaken the loom for the plough. The Shahas (34,000) are by 
tradition liquor-sellers, but have now taken largely to general trade. 
The fishing and boating castes are represented by the Dom-Patnis 
(73,000), the Kaibarttas (44,000), and the Namasudras or Chandals 
(132,000). The tribes most largely represented are the Manipuris, the 
Tipperas, and the Haijongs. The last-named people are only found in 
any numbers in the Garo Hills and in the adjacent Sunamganj sub- 
division. Their language is akin to Bengali and they profess to be 
Hindus, but there is probably a considerable admixture of hill blood in 
their veins. Members of European and allied races in the District 
numbered 317 in 1901. Nearly 82 per cent, of the population in that 



i 9 4 



SYLHET DISTRICT 



year were supported by agriculture, a proportion which, for Assam, is 
comparatively low, and is accounted for by the presence of the fishing 
and functional castes in considerable numbers. The proportion of 
priests is also large. 

Members of the Welsh Presbyterian Mission are stationed at Maulavi 
Bazar, Sylhet, and Karimganj, and there is a Roman Catholic priest at 
Badarpur ; but the total number of native Christians in the District 
in 1 90 1 was only 394. 

The soil consists, for the most part, of a blue clay, which becomes 
black on the borders of the swamps, or haors ; but the character of 
the crop depends more upon the level of the land, 
the liability to flood, and the rainfall than upon the 
constituents of the soil in which it is grown. Rice, which is the staple 
crop, falls into two classes, early and late. Early rice includes aus and 
sailbura, or boro, a variety which is sown on low land when the water 
subsides in November and is reaped in the spring. Late rice consists 
of sail, which is sown about May, transplanted two months afterwards, 
and reaped in December ; and aman, a long-stemmed variety, which is 
sown in April or May, and ripens towards the end of the year. 

The following table shows the area of settled and cultivated land, in 
square miles : — 



Agriculture. 



Subdivision. 


Area shown in the revenue 
accounts. 


Forests. 


Settled. 


Unsettled. 


Cultivated. 


North Sylhet . 

Sunamganj 

Habiganj .... 

South Sylhet 

Karimganj 

Total 


9 -'9 

'.345 

929 

670 
774 


126 
148 

23 
170 

2 74 
741 


J ( 


103 


4.647 


3,77° 


103 



The estimated area (in square miles) under the principal crops in 
1903-4 was rice 3,220, linseed 108, mustard 58, and sugar-cane 23. 
The cultivation of jute is believed to be extending, and it is thought 
that there are about 9,200 acres under that fibre; but, in the absence 
of definite measurements, all these figures have to be received with 
caution. Cotton is grown by the hill trioes, and minor crops include 
///, linseed, tobacco, China millet, and different kinds of pulse. 

The greater portion of the District is permanently settled, and there 
are no means of ascertaining the extent to which cultivation is increas- 
ing. Little has been done to improve the quality of the staple crops or 
to introduce new varieties, and the system of making loans to agricul- 
turists is still in its infancy. In recent years the District has, however, 



AGRICULTURE j 9 S 

witnessed a great development of the tea industry. The tea plant was 
first discovered growing wild in 1856, and gardens were opened out in 
the following year; but some time elapsed before capital was attracted 
to Sylhet to any considerable extent. In 1875 tne out-turn of manu- 
factured tea was only 470,000 lb. By 1882 it had risen to 4,660,000 lb., 
but this was barely a third of the yield in Cachar or Sibsagar. Since 
then the industry has grown rapidly in importance. In 1904 there were 
124 gardens with 72,497 acres planted out, which yielded 39,000,000 lb. 
of manufactured tea, and gave employment to 194 Europeans and 
79)397 natives, nearly all of whom had been brought from other parts 
of India. The majority of the gardens are situated in the south of the 
District, on the low hills projecting into the plain from Tippera and in 
the intervening valleys. As in Cachar, the yield of leaf is large, but the 
flavour is not as good as that of Assam tea. The largest companies are 
the Consolidated Tea and Lands Company, with head-quarters in the 
Balisira valley ; the Chargola Tea Association, in the Singla valley ; 
and the Langla Tea Company, in the South Sylhet subdivision. 

No attention is paid to stock-breeding, and the cattle are poor, 
undersized animals. During the dry season they are herded in the 
haors or turned loose to graze on the rice stubble; but in the rains, 
when the country is under water, they are fed on cut grass or straw. 
Buffaloes are, as a rule, imported from Bengal. Goats are usually 
kept for food or sacrificial purposes. 

Artificial irrigation is only used for the boro crop, which is sown in 
the cold season. The water lying in the centre of a basin is retained 
by an embankment, and then distributed through small channels over 
the neighbouring fields. 

The plains portion of the District has been almost denuded of 
timber ; but the low hills are still to some extent covered with forest, 
the greater part of which is, however, included within the limits of 
the permanently settled estates. There are two Reserves, situated 
in the south-east corner of the Karlmganj subdivision, which cover an 
area of 103 square miles; and the total area of Government waste or 
'unclassed' state forest amounts to 177 square miles. There is a 
considerable demand for timber in both Sylhet and the neighbouring 
Districts of Eastern Bengal, but the bulk of the supply is obtained 
from Cachar, Hill Tippera, or private land. The most valuable timber 
trees are jarul or ajhar {Lagerstroemia Flos Reginae) and nahor 
(Mesi/a ferrea). 

No minerals are worked within the District, though the excellent 
limestone extracted from the hills immediately beyond the northern 
border is generally burnt on the banks of the Surma and other rivers, 
and is known to the trade by the name of 'Sylhet lime.' 

Apart from tea, the industries of Sylhet are in a somewhat languish- 



iy6 SYLHET DISTRICT 

ing condition. The Manipuri women settled in the District weave 

cotton cloth, handkerchiefs, and mosquito curtains ; but weaving is 

not practised, as in the Assam Valley, as a home in- 

lraaeana dustry, and even the professional weaving castes have 
communications. ; *' f . ° 

largely abandoned that occupation for agriculture. 

At the village of Laskarpur there was formerly a colony of Muhamma- 
dans who inlaid iron weapons with silver and brass scroll-work, or lac 
with feathers and talc ; but these industries have almost died out. The 
famous sitalpati mats are still made ; and there is a trade in bangles 
cut from shells, basket-work furniture, leaf umbrellas, and other things 
of that nature. Boat-building has always been important in Sylhet. 
Mr. Lindsay, the Collector in 1778, built one ship of 400 tons burden 
and a fleet of twenty craft which carried rice to Madras ; and large 
numbers of boats are still made every year. Blacksmiths forge hoes, 
billhooks, and axes ; and rough pottery is made, but not in sufficient 
quantities to satisfy the local demand. In pargana Patharia there is 
a manufacture of agar attar, a perfume distilled from the resinous sap 
of the agar tree {Aqiti/aria Agallocha), which is much esteemed by 
Oriental nations, and is exported via Calcutta to Turkey and Arabia. 
The only factory, besides those in which tea is manufactured, is 
a saw-mill at Bhanga Bazar, which in 1903 gave employment to one 
European and 50 natives. 

The trade of the District is very considerable. The principal 
imports are cotton piece-goods, gram and pulse, metals, kerosene and 
other oils, salt, sugar, spices, and unmanufactured tobacco. The chief 
exports are rice, hides, oilseeds, lime and limestone, and tea. The 
bulk of the trade is with the neighbouring Province of Bengal, and is 
carried by country boats, which travel along the numerous waterways 
into almost every corner of the District. Steamers, however, have 
a large share, and the amount carried by the Assam-Bengal Railway 
is steadily increasing. The largest mart is at Balaganj on the 
Kusiyara. Other important places are Chhatak, where there is a big 
business in lime, oranges, and other products of the Khasi Hills ; 
Habiganj, Sunamganj, Ajmiriganj, and Karimganj, which is con- 
veniently situated on both the river and the railway. Sylhet Town 
is still the largest place ; but it is steadily declining in importance, as 
the bed of the river has silted up and steamers are no longer able to 
come so far in the dry season, while it is far removed both from the 
principal centres of the tea industry and from the railway. In addition 
to these established marts, there are a large number of bi-weekly 
markets at which the villagers dispose of a great deal of their produce. 
Some of the wealthiest traders are Marwaris, but they do not here 
enjoy the pre-eminence to which they have attained in the Assam 
Valley. Many of the natives of Sylhet, more especially the Shahas, 



TRADE AND COMMUNICATIONS 197 

are keen and enterprising men of business, and there are a large 
number of traders from the neighbouring Districts of Bengal. Rice 
is exported in considerable quantities to the tea gardens of Cachar ; 
and the trade with Hill Tippera, which lies to the south, is valued at 
about 6 lakhs a year. The chief imports from this State are timber, 
bamboos, and raw cotton ; the most important exports are fish, gram 
and pulse, salt, tobacco, and kerosene and other oils. 

The Assam-Bengal Railway runs for 120 miles through the south of 
the District between Chandura and Badarpur, connecting it with the port 
of Chittagong, and, by means of the steamer service between Chandpur 
and Goalundo, with Calcutta. A light railway has also been sanctioned 
from Dwara Bazar on the Surma river to the Maolong coal-field in the 
Khasi Hills. The India General Steam Navigation Company and the 
Rivers Steam Navigation Company run a daily service of steamers during 
the rainy season from Calcutta up the Kusiyara into Cachar. Small 
steamers also run from Karlmganj by the Langai to Langai ghat, up the 
Manu to Chatlapur, along the Doloi to Kurma, and from Markhali near 
the western border of the District past Sunamganj and Chhatak to Sylhet 
town. During the cold season the large steamers proceed to Chhatak ; 
beyond that point there is not enough water in the Surma for steamer 
traffic in the dry season. Through traffic continues to go from Markhali 
to Silchar, but small feeder-steamers have to be employed, as the river 
contains very little water. The total length of unmetalled cart-roads 
maintained in 1903-4 was 1,559 miles, of metalled roads 7 miles, and of 
bridle-paths 118 miles. With the exception of 22 miles of road and 118 
miles of bridle-path, which were under the charge of the Public Works 
department, and the roads within municipal limits, all are maintained 
from Local funds. Water is, however, the recognized means of trans- 
port and locomotion, and in many parts of the District roads would 
be liable to obstruct the drainage and would thus have a prejudicial 
effect upon cultivation. During the dry months a large number of cold- 
season tracks are made over the fields. The most important lines of 
communication are those from Sylhet to Silchar via Karlmganj and 
Badarpur, and to the Kulaura railway station via Fenchuganj ; and the 
roads that connect Maulavi Bazar and Habiganj with the railway. 
Large sums of money have also been spent on the construction of the 
Sunamganj-Pagla road, and the road from Salutikar to Companyganj, 
which is a section of the route from Sylhet to Shillong. Both of these 
roads have been made across the line of drainage, and are exposed to 
enormous pressure from the floods that pour down from the hills. 
Except in the immediate vicinity of tea gardens, there is hardly 
any cart traffic, and goods taken by land are, as a rule, carried by 
coolies. 

Like the rest of Assam, Sylhet has been free from scarcity during 



198 SYLHET DISTRICT 

the past century ; but it is said that nearly one-third of the population 

died in 1781 from the effects of a famine, caused by a flood which swept 

_, . away the produce of an unusually bountiful harvest. 

Famine. T J v .. J . . , 

In 190 1 some distress was caused in the western 

part of the District by the failure of the harvest of the previous year, 

and a few thousand rupees were distributed in relief by the local 

authorities. 

For general administrative purposes, the District is divided into five 

subdivisions : North Sylhet, which is in the immediate charge of the 

.... ± . Deputy-Commissioner ; South Sylhet and KarIm- 
Admmistration. r J , . . . . , , , _ 

ganj, which contain a considerable European popu- 
lation and are in charge of members of the Indian Civil Service ; and 
Habiganj and Sunamganj, which are usually entrusted to native 
magistrates. The superior staff includes the usual officers, but the 
number of Subordinate magistrates is larger than generally in Assam. 
This is rendered necessary by the density of the population and the 
complexity of the land revenue settlement. 

Sylhet differs from the rest of Assam and resembles Bengal in its 
arrangements for the administration of civil justice. The District 
Magistrate and his Assistants do not, as elsewhere, exercise civil juris- 
diction powers, this branch of the work being entrusted to the District 
Judge assisted by two Sub-Judges and ten Munsifs. The peculiar 
features of the revenue settlement give rise to a large number of rent 
and title suits, and unfortunately the parties concerned not unfrequently 
take the law into their own hands. In 1903 there were no less than 
402 cases of rioting, a few of which were attended with loss of life. 
A special feature of the District is the river dacoities committed by 
bands of armed men, who attack boats loaded with merchandise. 
Detection is extremely difficult, as the robbers leave no tracks, and can 
quickly cross the frontier of the Province. Burglaries and thefts are 
not uncommon. The Sessions Judge of Sylhet exercises the same 
functions in Cachar, and the High Court at Calcutta is the chief 
appellate authority for both civil and criminal cases. 

In 1582 the land revenue of Sylhet is said to have been assessed by 
the Mughals at Rs. 1,67,000: but the greater part of this seems to 
have been absorbed in the defence of the frontier, and the District 
apparently yielded little revenue beyond a few elephants, spices, and 
wood. When it passed into the hands of the East India Company, 
the revenue demand was fixed by Mr. Holland in 1776 at 2\ lakhs; 
but considerable difficulty was experienced in collecting this amount, 
though it was declared to be by no means an oppressive assessment. 
Payment was made in cowries, more than 5,000 of which went to one 
rupee, and the management of this unwieldy medium of circulation 
occasioned much loss and trouble. In 1789 Sylhet was measured 



ADMINISTRATION 



199 



up in a very perfunctory manner by the Collector, Mr. Willes, and an 
assessment imposed of nearly 3* lakhs. This assessment was subse- 
quently made permanent, but it only applied to 2,100 square miles, 
large areas of waste being altogether omitted. Two features dis- 
tinguish the Permanent Settlement as here effected from that carried 
out in most of the Districts of Bengal. The leases were issued after 
the land had been, in theory at any rate, surveyed and demarcated, 
and were given, not to large zamlnddrs, but to the actual tillers of the 
soil. The result is that all land not included in the Permanent Settle- 
ment or subsequently alienated is claimed as the property of Govern- 
ment, and the number of estates and proprietors is extraordinarily 
large. Altogether there are nearly 50,000 permanently settled estates, 
more than 21,000 of which pay a revenue of less than one rupee, while 
less than 500 pay one hundred rupees or over. Considerable uncer- 
tainty has always existed as to the exact boundaries of the areas 
included within the Permanent Settlement, and it is quite certain that 
its provisions have, from time to time, been extended to land to which 
it did not originally apply. Of the various kinds of temporarily settled 
estates, the largest class is that known as Ham, or land not included 
in the Permanent Settlement, for which notices or Hams calling for 
claimants or objectors were issued in 1802. These estates, which are 
scattered all over the District, covering an area of 108,000 acres, have 
been settled from time to time, the last settlement having been con- 
cluded in 1902. The rates assessed varied from \\ annas per acre for 
waste to Rs. 2-10 for the best class of homestead, and produced an 
enhancement of 36 per cent., chiefly owing to large extensions of 
cultivation. Land has also been taken up for tea in Sylhet under 
the different rules prescribed from time to time. A full account of the 
various tenures in force in the District will be found in the Introduc- 
tion to the Assam Land Revenue Manual. The Jaintia Parganas, 
which lie between the Jaintia Hills and the Surma river, were, however, 
never included in the Permanent Settlement. They cover an area of 
about 484 square miles, and formed part of the territory of the Jaintia 
Raja till 1835, when he was deprived of them as a punishment for 
atrocities committed by him on British subjects. They were last 
resettled in 1898, the rates imposed varying from Rs. 2-10 per acre of 
first-class homestead to 3 annas per acre for waste. 

The land revenue and total revenue of the District are shown in the 
table below, in thousands of rupees : — 





1880- 1. 


1890-1. 


1 goo- 1. 


1903-4. 


Land revenue 
Total revenue 


4,89 
n,93* 


6,34 
18,75 


7,77 
2i,77 


8,42 
22,88 



Exclusive of forest revenue. 



2oo SYLHET DISTRICT 

Outside the towns of Sylhet and Habiganj, which are under muni- 
cipal law, the local affairs of the subdivisions are managed by boards, 
presided over by the Deputy-Commissioner or the Subdivisional officers, 
and composed of Europeans elected by the managers of tea gardens, 
and natives, most of whom are elected by the members of the chaukldari 
panchayats. The expenditure of these five boards in 1903-4 exceeded 
3! lakhs, nearly one-half of which was laid out on public works and 
one-third on education. The chief source of income was, as usual, 
local rates. 

For the purposes of the prevention and detection of crime, the 
District is divided into 31 investigating centres. The police force in 
1904 consisted of 84 officers and 533 constables, with 5,158 chaukidars 
or village watchmen. In addition to the Sylhet District jail, there are 
jails at each of the subdivisional head-quarters, which can collectively 
accommodate 162 males and 12 females. 

Education has made more progress in Sylhet than in most of the 
Districts of the Province. The number of pupils under instruction 
in 1880-1, 1890-1, 1900-1, and 1903-4 was 11,508, 26,913, 40,269, 
and 35,144 respectively. During the past thirty years there has 
been a great development of education, and the number of scholars 
in 1903-4 was more than five times the number in 1874-5. At the 
Census of 1901, 4-3 per cent, of the population (8-i males and 0-4 
females) were returned as literate. This proportion was exceeded only 
by the neighbouring Districts of Cachar and the Khasi and Jaintia Hills. 
There were 872 primary and 64 secondary schools, and one special 
school, in the District in 1903-4. The number of female scholars 
was 1,664. The great majority of the pupils under instruction were 
only in primary classes, and no girl had advanced beyond that stage. 
Of the male population of school-going age, 16 per cent, were in the 
primary stage of instruction, and of the female population of the 
same age one per cent. The proportion of Muhammadans under 
instruction to those of school-going age for boys was 12 and for 
girls less than one per cent. There is an aided second-grade Arts 
college in the town of Sylhet. The total expenditure on education 
in 1903-4 was Rs. 2,52,000, of which Rs. 60,000 was derived from 
fees. Of the direct expenditure, 36 per cent, was devoted to primary 
schools. 

The District possesses 5 hospitals and 41 dispensaries 1 , which con- 
tain accommodation for 56 in-patients. In 1904 the number of cases 
treated was 302,000, of whom 800 were in-patients, and 10,300 opera- 
tions were performed. The expenditure was Rs. 55,000, the greater 
part of which was met from Local and municipal funds. 

The proportion of persons successfully vaccinated in 1903-4 was 

1 Includes one dispensary, details of which are not available. 



SOUTH SYLHET 201 

40 per 1,000, or about 4 per 1,000 less than the average for the whole 
Province. Vaccination is compulsory only in the town of Sylhet. 

[Sir W. W. Hunter, A Statistical Account of Assam, vol. ii (1879) ; 
B. C. Allen, District Gazetteer of Sylhet (1906).] 

Sylhet, North. — Head-quarters subdivision of Sylhet District, 
Eastern Bengal and Assam, lying between 24 36' and 25 11/ N. and 
91 38'' and 92 26' E., with an area of 1,055 square miles. On the 
north it is bounded by the Khasi and Jaintia Hills. The north-east 
corner of the subdivision, which is known as the Jaintia Parganas, 
originally formed part of the territories of the Jaintia Raja. The greater 
part of North Sylhet consists of a flat plain, but a little to the east 
of Sylhet town low hills crop up above the alluvium. The general 
level of the country is higher than in the west of the District, but the 
enormous rainfall precipitated on the face of the hills renders the low 
land at their foot quite unfit for anything but cold-season cultivation. 
The average fall at Sylhet town is 157 inches, while at Lalakhal, which 
is nearer the hills, it is over 100 inches more. The population in 
1891 was 482,341, which by 1901 had fallen to 463,477, a decrease 
of nearly 4 per cent., as compared with an increase of 4 per cent, in 
the District as a whole. The cause of the decrease appears to have 
been a severe epidemic of malarial fever in 1897 and 1898; but the 
population is still dense, there being 439 persons per square mile, as 
compared with 416 in the District as a whole. The subdivision con- 
tains one town, Sylhet (population, 13,893), the District head-quarters ; 
and 1,956 villages. The staple food-crop is transplanted rice. There 
are 22 tea gardens, which in 1904 had 7,684 acres under plant and 
gave employment to 15 Europeans and 7,211 natives. For adminis- 
trative purposes the subdivision comprises the three thanas of Sylhet, 
Kanairghat, and Balaganj, and is under the immediate charge of the 
Deputy-Commissioner of the District. The demand on account of 
land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 was Rs. 3,47,000. 

Sylhet, South.— Subdivision in the south of Sylhet District, 
Eastern Bengal and Assam, lying between 24 7' and 24 40' N. and 
91 37' and 92 15' E., with an area of 840 square miles. The general 
appearance of the subdivision is that of a level plain, into which three 
spurs project from the Tippera hills. As in the east of Sylhet, the 
rainfall is very heavy, but the average at Maulavi Bazar (104 inches) 
is considerably less than in the north of the District. The popula- 
tion rose from 369,641 in 1891 to 379,158 in 1901 ; but the whole of 
this increase was due to the tea-garden population, which numbered 
about 70,000, and the village population decreased by nearly 4 per cent. 
The density is 45 1 persons per square mile, which is considerably above 
the average for the District as a whole. The head-quarters are at Maulavi 
Bazar (population, 2,481), situated on the Manu river at the northern 



202 SOUTH SYLHET 

extremity of a range of low hills. It contains a small jail and the 
courts, but is otherwise of little importance. The staple food-crop is 
sail, or transplanted winter rice. The cultivation of tea is an important 
industry; in 1904 there were 55 gardens with 33,410 acres under plant, 
which gave employment to 102 Europeans and 38,555 natives. The 
Assam-Bengal Railway runs through the south of the subdivision, but 
the principal rivers, such as the Kusiyara and Manu, are also largely 
used as trade routes. For administrative purposes South Sylhet is 
divided into the three thanas of Maulavi Bazar, Kamalganj, and 
Hingajiya, and contains 1,022 villages. The subdivisional magistrate 
is almost invariably a European. The demand on account of land 
revenue and cesses in 1903-4 was Rs. 2,27,000. 

Sylhet Town. — Head-quarters of the District of the same name 
in Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 24 53' N. and 91 52' E., 
on the right bank of the Surma river. The road from Shillong to 
Cachar runs through the town ; but Sylhet is somewhat inaccessible 
to the outside world, as during the dry season steamers cannot come 
up the river, and the nearest railway station is 30 miles away. This 
inaccessibility reacts unfavourably upon its trade. The town is steadily 
declining in importance, the population at the last four enumerations 
being: (1872) 16,846,(1881) 14,407,(1891) 14,027, and (1901) 13,893. 
Sylhet was the capital of a Hindu Raja, who was conquered at the end 
of the fourteenth century by the Muhammadans. They were materially 
assisted in this enterprise by the fakir Shah Jalal, whose mosque is 
situated a little to the north of the town. The place does not appear 
to have ever been of great importance, and is described by Mr. Lindsay, 
Collector in 1778, as an inconsiderable bazar, the houses of the inhabi- 
tants being fantastically built and scattered upon the rising ground 
and numerous hills, so buried in groves as to be scarcely discernible. 
This characteristic persists to the present day, and the general appear- 
ance of the place is distinctly rural. The average rainfall is heavy 
(157 inches), and the climate is fairly cool and healthy even in the 
rains. Most of the masonry buildings were destroyed by the great 
earthquake of 1897, when 55 people perished in the ruins. They have 
since been rebuilt, and few traces of this catastrophe are now to be 
seen. Sylhet is the head-quarters of the ordinary District staff, and 
of the Sessions Judge of the Surma Valley, and contains the largest 
jail in the Province, with accommodation for 658 persons. The con- 
victs are employed in oil-pressing, surfi/ii-pounding, weaving, carpentry, 
and bamboo- and cane-work. A branch of the Welsh Presbyterian 
Mission has for some time been located in the town, and there is 
a wealthy and important Hindu akhra or monastery. 

Sylhet was constituted a municipality under (Bengal) Act V of 1876 
in 1878, and (Bengal) Act III of 1884 was subsequently introduced in 



TAD PATH I TALUK 203 

1888. The municipal receipts and expenditure during the ten years 
ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 23,000. In 1903-4 the income was 
Rs. 33,000, including tax on houses and lands (Rs. 9,000) and tolls 
(Rs. 7,400) ; and the expenditure was Rs. 22,000, chiefly incurred on 
conservancy (Rs. 6,800) and public works (Rs. 3,500). The local 
manufactures include leaf umbrellas, shell bracelets, sltalpati mats, 
basket-work furniture, mosquito curtains, and cotton cloth. All of 
these are, however, home industries, and the general trade of the place 
is declining. The principal educational institutions are two high schools 
and a second-grade college founded by Raja Girish Chandra Roy, 
a zamlndar of the District, in 1892, which in 1903-4 had an average 
daily attendance of 35 students. There are four small printing presses 
in the town, at which two papers and two magazines are published. 

Syriam. — Early European factory in Burma. See Hanthawaddv 
District. 

Tabayin. — South-western township of Shwebo District, Upper 
Burma, extending from the Mu river to the Upper Chindwin Dis- 
trict, between 22 24' and 22 49' N. and 94 50' and 95 34" E., with 
an area of 615 square miles. The township is fiat in the east, but 
broken up by low hills in the west. The population was 32,908 in 
1891, and 39,340 in 1901, distributed in 221 villages. The head- 
quarters are at Tabayin (population, 380), about 7 miles west of the 
Mu, and nearly 25 miles from Shwebo town. The area under cul- 
tivation in 1903-4 was 57 square miles, and the land revenue and 
thathameda amounted to Rs. 75,700. 

Tada-u. — South-eastern township of Sagaing District, Upper Burma, 
stretching southwards from the Irrawaddy, between 21 29' and 21 55' 
N. and 95 44' and 96 2' E., with an area of 310 square miles. The 
population was 39,477 in 1891, and 46,661 in 1901, distributed in 157 
villages, the head-quarters being at Tada-u (population, 1,327), a thriving 
village, a mile or so due south of the remains of the ancient city of 
Ava. Pinya, a village south of Tada-u, is the site of an old capital 
of the Shan dynasty. South again of Pinya is a village called Myin- 
zaing, another old Shan capital. A fair quantity of wheat is produced 
in the township, portions of which, however, are very dry and sterile. 
There are a few barren hills and ridges, but the country is generally 
level. The area cultivated in 1903-4 was 117 square miles, and the 
land revenue and thathameda amounted to Rs. 1,15,400. 

Tadiandamol.— The highest mountain in Coorg, Southern India 
(5,729 feet), situated in 12 13' N. and 75 40' E., in the south-west 
of the Padinalknad taluk. 

Tadpatri Taluk. — North-eastern taluk of Anantapur District, 
Madras, lying between 14 32' and 15 n' N. and 77 45' and 78 
9' E., with an area of 641 square miles. The population in 1901 was 

vol. xxiii. o 



204 TADPATRI l^ALUK 

109, 421, compared with 112,656 in 1891. The decrease is due to 
repeated visitations of cholera during the decade. There are 93 vil- 
lages and two towns in the taluk : Tadpatri (population, 10,859), on 
the Penner river, the head-quarters; and Yadiki (7,389), where there is 
a deputy-taksildar. The demand for land revenue and cesses amounted 
in 1903-4 to Rs. 2,28,000. The country is flat, except on the eastern 
boundary, where the low range of the Errakonda Hills separates it from 
Cuddapah and Kurnool, and on the western frontier, where another 
range divides it from the rest of the District. The Penner flows through 
the centre of the central plain thus formed, and on either side of it 
stretch wide sheets of black cotton soil, the most fertile in the District. 
There is hardly any red earth in the taluk. Cotton is the principal 
crop ; a fine kind of cholam is also grown. 

Tadpatri Town. — Head-quarters of the taluk of the same name 
in Anantapur District, Madras, situated in 14 55' N. and 78 1' E., 
on the right bank of the Penner river, i\ miles from the railway station 
at Nandialpad. Population (1901), 10,859. It is said to have been 
founded in the sixteenth century by Ramalinga Nayudu, a subordinate 
of the Vijayanagar kings. After the battle of Talikota, the country 
round it was subdued by the Golconda Sultan and a Muhammadan 
governor appointed. Afterwards it was captured by Morari Rao, and 
later by Haidar All. It is a considerable trading centre, and is noted 
for its silk and cotton cloths. It is also a place of much sanctity. Its 
founder built the temple on the river bank dedicated to Rameswara. 
His son, Timma Nayudu, erected another temple to Chintalarayaswami. 
These two shrines are elaborately decorated with sculptures which are 
some of the finest work extant of the Vijayanagar period. They are 
executed in a close-grained greenstone that lends itself to minute 
finish. In the centre of the town another fine temple is now under 
construction by the local Chettis. Experts consider that it will be as 
fine a piece of workmanship as its ancient neighbours. Much of the 
design is being copied from the older work. Tadpatri was greatly dam- 
aged by a high flood which swept down the Penner in 1851. Three- 
fourths of the town was washed away, and much of the temple on the 
river bank was brought to the ground. 

Tagara. — Ancient name of Thair or Ter, in Osmanabad District, 
Hyderabad State. 

Tagaung. — River-side township in the north of the Ruby Mines 
District, Upper Burma, lying between 23 15' and 24 i' N. and 95 58 
and 96 2>2> E., with an area of 616 square miles. The population was 
7,129 in 1891, and 8,609 m IQOI > distributed in 71 villages, and is 
almost exclusively Burman. Tagaung (population, 781), on the Irra- 
waddy, the site of an ancient Burmese capital, is the head-quarters. 
The township is flat and but little cultivated. In 1903-4 only 2,000 



TAINGAPATAM 205 

acres were under cultivation, and the land revenue and thathameda 
amounted to Rs. 18,000. 

Taikkala. An ancient capital in the Bilin township of Thaton 
District, Lower Burma, the ruins of which lie between Ayetthema and 
Kinyvva in 1 7 2' N. and 97 2' E. Its Pali name is Golamattika- 
nagara, and it is described as follows in the Kalyani inscriptions :— 

'At that time a king, called Sirimasoka, ruled over the country of 
Suvanna Bhiimi. His capital was situated to the north-west of the 
Kelasabhapabbatachetiya. The eastern half of this town was situated 
on an upland plateau, while the western half was built on a plain. This 
town is called, to this day (a.d. 1476), Golamattikanagara, because it 
contains many mud-and-wattle houses resembling those of the Gola 
people. The town was situated on the sea-shore. Thus the Religion 
was established in this country of Ramannadesa by the two theras 
(Sona and Uttara) in the 236th year that had elapsed since the attain- 
ment of Parinirvana by the Fully Enlightened One.' 

Hitherto the theory has been that, at the conclusion of the Third 
Buddhist Council, Sona and Uttara were sent as missionaries to Taik- 
kala ; and that during the fifth century a.d. Buddhaghosha, who is 
reputed to have brought a complete set of the Tripitaka from Ceylon, 
repaired to the same town. Doubt has, however, been thrown on these 
traditions. 

Taikkala has been identified with the Takola of Ptolemy and the 
Kalah of the Arabian geographers, and with the Takkala of Professor 
Lassen, who, however, marked it erroneously on his map a few miles 
to the north of Tavoy. Up to the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries 
it was a great seaport. The seashore is now about 12 miles to the 
west ; but cables, ropes, and other relics of sea-going vessels are 
frequently dug up in the vicinity of the ancient capital. 

Taikkyi.— Northern township of Hanthawaddy District, Lower 
Burma, lying between 17 3' and 17° 47' N. and 95 45' and 96 12' E., 
with an area of 898 square miles. The population was 48,084 in 1891, 
and 73,263 in 1901, dwelling in 470 villages. The western portion of 
the township is low-lying and thickly populated ; the eastern abuts on 
the Pegu Yoma, and has comparatively few inhabitants. The density 
is only 81 persons per square mile, as against the District average of 
160. The proportion of Karens in the township is high. The head- 
quarters are at the village of Taikkyi (population, 1,643), on tne Ran- 
goon-Prome railway, 41 miles from Rangoon. The area cultivated in 
1903-4 was 262 square miles, paying Rs. 3,62,000 land revenue. 

Taingapatam (the Rutlam of the early European traders). — Port in 
the Vilavankod taluk of Travancore State, Madras, situated in 8° 14' N. 
and 77 io' E., at the mouth of the Kuliturai river. Population 
(1901), 1,105. It was one of the first possessions of the Dutch in 
Travancore. 

o 2 



2o6 TAJPUR 

Tajpur. — Town in the Dhampur tahsil of Bijnor District, United 
Provinces, situated in 29 io' N. and 7 8° 29' E., 27 miles south-east of 
Bijnor town. Population (1901), 5,015. The town is chiefly noted as 
the residence of the leading Taga family in the District, some members 
of which have embraced Christianity. The Tajpur estate was acquired 
in the eighteenth century, and further extended in the nineteenth for 
services rendered to the newly established British administration. In 
1857 the zamindar or chaudhri of Tajpur remained loyal, and was 
rewarded by the title of Raja and by remissions of revenue. The 
present Raja, lives in a fine house built after the European fashion, and 
is a member of the Provincial Legislative Council. Tajpur contains 
a dispensary maintained by the Raja, a primary school with 79 pupils, 
and an aided girls' school with 32 pupils. 

Tajpuri. — Petty State in Mahi Kantha, Bombay. 

Takht-i-Sulaiman (' Solomon's throne '). — A shrine (zidrat) on the 
mountain of the Sulaiman range, North-West Frontier Province, known 
as the Kaisargarh or Kasi Ghar, but usually called by Europeans the 
Takht-i-Sulaiman, situated in 31 41' N. and 70 E., at an elevation of 
11,295 feet above the sea-level. Tradition says that Solomon halted on 
a ledge some distance below the crest on the southernmost bluff of the 
Kaisargarh to take a last look over India, whence he was carrying off 
an Indian bride to Jerusalem. The shrine marks the spot. The takht, 
which was attempted by members of Elphinstone's mission to Kabul in 
1809, was first climbed by a European in 1883. 

[T. Holdich, The Indian Border/and, chap, iv (1901).] 

Taki. — Town in the Baslrhat subdivision of the District of the 
Twenty-four Parganas, Bengal, situated in 22 35' N. and 88° 55' E., 
on the Jamuna, river. Population (1901), 5,089. Taki is the centre of 
a considerable rice trade. It was constituted a municipality in 1869. 
The income and expenditure during the decade ending 190 1-2 aver- 
aged Rs. 2,200 and Rs. 2,100, respectively. In 1903-4 the income 
amounted to Rs. 2,300, derived chiefly from a tax on persons (or 
property tax); and the expenditure was Rs. 1,900. 

Tal State. — Thakurdt'm the Malwa Agency, Central India. 

Tal Town {Tal Mandawal). — Head-quarters of the pargana of the 
same name in the Jaora State in the Malwa. Agency of Central India, 
situated in 24 43' N. and 75 23' E., 18 miles by a fair-weather 
road from Jaora station on the Rajputana-Malwa Railway. Popula- 
tion (1901), 4,954. The exact date of the foundation of the town is 
unknown, but tradition assigns it to 1243. In the sixteenth century 
the Mughal Subahdar of Malwa, assisted by the Doria Rajputs, con- 
quered it. It remained under Mughal control up to 1683, but sub- 
sequently passed to some Ponwar Rajputs, from whom it was seized 
by Holkar in 181 o. Holkar retained possession until 181 8, when it 






TALAINGS 207 

was assigned to Ghafur Khan under the treaty of Mandasor. A muni- 
cipality was created in 1902. Its average annual income, which is 
derived from local cesses, amounts to Rs. 1,000. 

Talagang Tahsil. — Tahsil of Attock District, Punjab, lying be- 
tween 32 34/ and $5° I2 ' N. and 71 48' and 72 32' E., with an area 
of 1,198 square miles. The population in 1901 was 92,594, compared 
with 94,027 in 1891. It contains 86 villages, of which Talagang 
(population, 6,705) is the head-quarters. The land revenue and cesses 
in 1903-4 amounted to 1-4 lakhs. The Sohan river forms the 
northern boundary, and the land along its banks is very fertile, and 
is irrigated by wells. Generally speaking, the tahsil is a table-land 
intersected by deep ravines. Towards the south it becomes more 
broken and hilly, and in the south-west culminates in the peak of 
Sakesar (5,010 feet above the sea), the highest point in the Salt Range. 

Talagang Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsil of the same name 
in Attock District, Punjab, situated in 32 55' N. and 72 28' E. 
Population (igor), 6,705. It was founded by an A wan chieftain, about 
1625. The place is healthily situated on a dry plateau, well drained 
by ravines, and has an extensive trade in grain, the staple product of 
the neighbourhood. Shoes worked with tinsel, which are worn by 
Punjab women, are largely exported to distant places. Striped cotton 
cloth {susi) is also made in considerable quantities, both for home use 
and for exportation. Talagang formerly had a small cantonment, which 
was abandoned in 1882. It possesses an Anglo- vernacular middle school 
and a Government dispensary. The municipality was abolished in 1886. 

Talagaon. — Town in Amraoti District, Berar. See Talegaon. 

Talagunda. — Village in the Shikarpur taluk of Shimoga District, 
Mysore, situated in 14 25' N. and 75 15'' E., 2 miles north-east of 
Belgami. Population (1 901), 1,005. The original form of the name is 
Sthanagundur. It was an agrahara founded on the outskirts of the 
capital city Belgami by the Kadamba king, Mukkanna or Trinetra, 
perhaps in the third century. Finding no Brahmans in the south, 
he obtained from Ahichchatra 12,000 Brahmans of thirty-two fami- 
lies, or according to other accounts 32,000 Brahmans, and settled 
them here. The place is rich in ancient inscriptions, the most 
important of which is on a pillar in front of a ruined temple. It 
is of about the fifth century, beautifully engraved in what are called 
'box-headed' characters, and contains in well-composed Sanskrit verses 
the only apparently authentic account that has been found of the origin 
and rise of the Kadamba dynasty, with other important historical in- 
formation. There are mounds all over the site marking the ruins of 
the old agrakdra. 

Talaings. — The remnant left of the Peguan or Mon race, which 
from the beginnings of Burmese history peopled the southern portion 



208 TALAINGS 

of Burma, and was in constant opposition to the kingdoms of Prome, 
Pagan, and Toungoo. The Takings belong to a totally different 
ethnical branch from the majority of the inhabitants of Burma : i. e. 
they are of Mon-Anam and not of Tibeto-Burman origin. They come 
of the same prehistoric stock as the Was, the Palaungs, and the Riangs 
of the Shan States, the Khmers of Cambodia, and the Hkamuks of 
Siam ; but their connexion with these tribes is probably remote. After 
having more than once gained the upper hand in Burma, they were 
finally conquered by the Burmans shortly before the British began 
to take an active political interest in the affairs of the country, and 
about sixty years before the East India Company acquired any terri- 
tory within its limits ; and since then they have been largely absorbed 
into the Burman population. In 1901 the number of persons who 
returned themselves as Talaings was 321,898; in 1891 it had been 
nearly half as great again. The Talaings are now numerous only 
in the country round the mouths of the Irrawaddy, the Salween, 
and the Sittang, which adjoins the ancient Mon capitals of Pegu 
and Thaton. In Amherst District, where they number 132,285, they 
constitute nearly half the total. Like the Burmans, they are Buddhists ; 
and in customs, pursuits, dress, and physical characteristics they are now 
practically indistinguishable from the Burmese population among whom 
they live. The Taking language has been placed in the north Cam- 
bodian group of the Mon-Anam family. It has no tones, and is some- 
what more guttural than Burmese, from which it differs considerably in 
structure. As a vernacular, it is being slowly superseded by Burmese. Of 
the Talaings in 1901 only 155,100, or less than half, retained Taking as 
the language ordinarily used by them. The origin of the name Taking, 
which was bestowed upon the race by their Burman conquerors, is doubt- 
ful. The theory deriving it from Talinga (a name said to have been given 
to the race on account of the admixture of immigrant Telugu blood from 
Madras) seems open to question. The Talaings call themselves Mun. 
Talakad.— Town in the Tirumakuckl-Narsipur taluk of Mysore 
District, Mysore, situated in 12 n' N. and 77 2' E., on the north 
bank of the Cauvery, 28 miles south-east of Mysore city. Population 
(1901), 3,857. The Sanskrit form of the name is Takvanapura. It is 
of great antiquity, having been the capital of the Ganga kings from the 
third to the eleventh century. It was then taken by the Cholas, who 
overthrew the Ganga power. Under them it received the name of 
Rajarajapura, after the reigning Chola king. About 1 1 16 it was taken 
by the Hoysaks, who drove the Cholas out of Mysore. During their 
period it contained seven towns and five maths. The associated town 
of Mayilangi or Malingi, on the opposite side of the river, was called 
Jananathapura. After the Hoysala power had come to an end, in the 
middle of the fourteenth century, the place passed into the hands of 



TALAKONA 209 

local chiefs who were tributary to Vijayanagar. Hither the viceroy of 
Seringapatam retired on being ousted by the Raja of Mysore in 16 10. 
According to tradition, the latter was eager to gain possession of 
a costly jewel belonging to the viceroy's wife. In order to secure 
it he marched upon Talakad, which was taken by escalade. But 
the Rani threw the jewel into the river, and drowned herself oppo- 
site Malingi, at the same time uttering the threefold curse — ' Let 
Talakad become sand ; let Malingi become a whirlpool ; let the 
Mysore Rajas go without heirs.' The old city of Talakad is now 
completely buried beneath hills of sand, stretching for nearly a mile 
in length, only the tops of two pagodas being visible. More than 
thirty temples are said to lie beneath the sand. That of Klrtti- 
Narayana is occasionally opened with great labour to allow access 
for certain ceremonies. The most imposing temple left uncovered 
by the sand is that of Vedesvara. The yearly advance of the sand- 
hills, which drove the inhabitants to abandon their homes and retreat 
farther inland, has been somewhat checked of late by planting creepers 
and trees. But the people do nothing, deeming it useless to fight 
against the curse. A municipality was formed in 1899. The receipts 
and expenditure during the two years ending 1901 averaged Rs. 800 
and Rs. 500. In 1903-4 they were Rs. 1,700 and Rs. 1,800. 

Talakona. — Valley, waterfall, and temple in the Vayalpad taluk 
of Cuddapah District, Madras, situated in 13 47' N. and 79 14' E., 
in the Palkonda Hills. The approach to the place runs first over 
uneven country, dotted in the hollows with rice and sugar-cane cultiva- 
tion, and interspersed with numerous little tanks and immense many- 
stepped wells. Farther on the richer land gives place to tracts of scrub 
jungle, gram-fields, and fine tamarind-trees, lapsing, as one approaches 
the foot of the Palkonda Hills, into thicker jungle and rocky eminences 
crowned with giant tors and boulders in grotesque confusion. After 
passing the last inhabited village outside the belt of forest with which 
the hills are fringed, the path ascends gradually, crossing stony streams 
and stretches of sand marked everywhere with the tracks of satnbar, 
spotted deer, and wild hog, until it reaches the entrance to the deep 
cleft in the hills in which is situated the waterfall of Talakona. 
Through dense bamboo jungle, shaded by wild mangoes and other 
large trees, the way leads along the stream, which hurries from the 
waterfall until it gains a little open space cleared on the bank of 
the torrent round a small temple and a resthouse. As evening 
falls, jungle-fowl call to each other from all parts of the thick under- 
growth on either side of the stream, sambar bell in the forest on 
the slopes, and the owners of the cattle grazing in the forest drive 
them into enclosures strongly fenced with thorns and lighted with 
fires to keep off prowling tigers. 



2 ro TALAKONA 

The path to the falls leads along the edge of the stream through 
thick growth relieved by clumps of date-palms and the handsome 
sulphur-yellow flowers of the wild hemp. Passing two ancient mango- 
trees known as Rama and Lakshmana, it rapidly ascends the side 
of the beautiful little valley at the bottom of which the stream hurries 
along. Immediately overhead rise the cliffs, clothed with trees for 
two-thirds of their height, but above that consisting of a deep scarp 
of bare red rock, the colours of which are in wonderful contrast to 
the varied shades of green of the forest below. Beneath is the stream, 
visible now and again through the tangled growth. As it ascends, 
the path gradually narrows until it is only a yard or so wide as it clings 
to the side of the valley, and then it suddenly turns and faces the 
waterfall. The stream above which the path has been running here 
precipitates itself from the top of the red scarp on the crest of the hills, 
falls some 70 or 80 feet down a dark hollow on to a black ledge of 
rock, striking it in a smother of spray, and thence, in numerous smaller 
falls, hurries to the foot of the valley below the path. To bathe in this 
fall and in another higher up the cliff purifies from all sin ; and on 
Sivaratri day, in the last week of February, thousands of people con- 
sequently brave the tiring journey hither through the jungle and the 
real and fancied perils which beset it. Arrived at the spot, they first 
pass through the fall just described, when the water comes rattling and 
stinging on their shoulders like large hailstones. Then they cross the 
ledge on to which it dashes and gain a path which leads to the upper 
fall. This path passes a cave, through which (it is said) a local person- 
age of great sanctity used to travel by underground ways to the holy 
temple of Tirupati, and up hundreds of steps, which have an aspect of 
great antiquity and must have taken years of expensive work to put 
in position. At the top, the river runs placidly along over a flat 
rocky bed. A hundred yards farther on is the upper fall. It is 
only about 12 feet high and rolls quietly over the edge of its rocky- 
bed to a platform below, and thence from a clear pool falls some 
60 feet to an inaccessible hollow. 

At the time of the festival the scene here is one to be remem- 
bered : smooth black rocks, green trees, and blue sky above ; the 
fall curving over the lip of the little hollow ; the bathers in white 
and red cloths, their bodies glittering with drops of water ; and the 
priest reciting the appropriate words as each in succession passes 
under the falling water and sees his sins flowing through the pool 
below and down the glen to be carried through the plains to the 
all-absorbing sea. 

After bathing in the two falls the pilgrims journey back in their 
wet clothes to the little temple already mentioned at the entrance 
to the valley, and there lie prostrate before the god, sometimes for 



TALBAHA T 211 

hours, till they have a vision, which is regarded as the message of 
the deity to the worshipper. Hundreds of them may be seen there, 
lying face downwards in their wet clothes for hours, shivering with 
cold but waiting patiently for the message. A large proportion of 
them are childless wives or those who have no male offspring, and 
they undertake this toilsome pilgrimage in the hope that they will 
thereby be blessed with a son. 

Talamba. — Town in the Kabirwala tahsll of Multan District, 
Punjab, situated in 30 31' N. and 72 15' E., 2 miles from the 
modern left bank of the Ravi, and 51 miles north-east of Multan city. 
Population (1901), 2,526. The present town is built of bricks taken 
from an old fortress, a mile to the south. This stronghold once 
possessed great strength, and its antiquity is vouched for by the size of 
the bricks, described by Cunningham as similar to the oldest in the 
walls and ruins of Multan. It has been identified with a place taken 
by Alexander, and again with the Brahman city mentioned by Arrian 
in a similar connexion. Talamba is said to have been taken by 
Mahmud of Ghazni. Timur plundered the town and massacred the 
inhabitants, but left the citadel untouched. The site was abandoned, 
according to tradition, in consequence of a change of course of the 
Ravi, which cut off the water-supply about the time of Mahmud 
Langah (1510-25). The town was plundered by Ahmad Shah. Cun- 
ningham describes the ruins as consisting of an open city, protected on 
the south by a lofty fortress, 1,000 feet square. The outer rampart of 
earth has a thickness of 200 feet and a height of 20 feet ; and a second 
rampart of equal elevation stands upon its summit. Both were 
originally faced with large bricks. The municipality was created in 
1874. The income during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged 
Rs. 2,100, and the expenditure Rs. 2,300. In 1903—4 the income 
was Rs. 1,800, chiefly from octroi; and the expenditure was Rs. 1,800. 
The town has a vernacular middle school, maintained by the munici- 
pality, and a dispensary. It is a centre of the local trade, and has 
some reputation for stamped floorcloths. 

Talbahat. — Town in the Lalitpur tahsll of Jhansi District, United 
Provinces, situated in 25°3 / N. and 78 26' E., on the Great Indian 
Peninsula Railway and on the Cawnpore-Saugor road. Population 
(1901), 5,693. The place was of importance in the Bundela annals. 
A fort and palace were built on a rocky range east of the town by 
Bharat Sah, Raja of Chanderl, in 1618. In iSir it was captured by 
Colonel Baptiste on behalf of Sindhia, through the treachery of the 
commander, after a three months' siege. The fort was reduced to its 
present state of ruin by Sir Hugh Rose in 1858, but still contains some 
interesting frescoes. East of the fort is a fine lake of 528 acres, 
formed by two small dams, which supplies water for rice and wheat 



2 1 2 TALBAHA T 

cultivation. The town is well drained, and is administered under 
Act XX of 1856, with an income of about Rs. 600. There is a small 
industry in blanket-weaving. A school has 75 pupils. 

Talcher. — One of the Tributary States of Orissa, Bengal, lying 
between 20 52' and 21 18' N. and 84 54' and 85 16' E., with an 
area of 399 square miles. It is bounded on the north by the States of 
Bamra and Pal Lahara ; on the east by Dhenkanal ; and on the south 
and west by Angul District. The Brahman! river traverses the State, 
and Talcher village, which contains the Raja's residence, is pictur- 
esquely situated on a bend on its right bank. The State contains a 
coal-field, of which a thorough examination was made in 1875. It 
was then reported that there is no seam of workable thickness and 
fairly good quality ; that a final and thorough exploration could only be 
effected at a considerable expense ; that the local consumption would 
never suffice to support a proper mining establishment ; and that with 
the long and costly land carriage no class of coal equal to Ramganj 
coal could compete successfully at the Orissa ports with coal sent from 
Calcutta by sea. The project for utilizing the Talcher coal-beds has, 
therefore, been abandoned for the present. Iron and lime are also 
found near the banks of the Brahman! river, which separates Talcher 
on the east from Pal Lahara and Dhenkanal. Small quantities of gold 
are found by washing the sand of the river, but little profit accrues to 
the workers. 

The Raja claims a Rajput origin and descent from the Jaipur ruling 
family. The State has an estimated revenue of Rs. 65,000, and pays 
a tribute of Rs. 1,040 to the British Government. The population 
increased from 52,674 in 1891 to 60,432 in 1901, distributed in 293 
villages, and the density is 151 persons per square mile. All but 
179 of the inhabitants are Hindus. The most numerous castes are 
Chasas (17,000) and Pans (10,000). Talcher village is connected by 
fair-weather roads with Pal Lahara and Angul, and is an important 
mart. The State maintains a middle vernacular school, 2 upper 
primary and 61 lower primary schools, and a charitable dispensary. 

Talegaon. — Town in the Chandur taluk of Amraot! District, Berar, 
situated in 20 41' N. and 78 8' E. Population (190 1), 6,220. It 
was formerly the head-quarters of the present Chandur ta/uk, but the 
iahsJldar's courthouse was removed to Chandur on the Great Indian 
Peninsula Railway. The town is known, to distinguish it from other 
towns and villages of the same name, as Talegaon-Dashasahasra {vulgo, 
Dashasar), or ' Talegaon of the ten thousand.' The story goes that the 
wife of the jagirdar and the wife of a wealthy merchant entered into 
competition in the weekly market for a fine pumpkin. The contest 
between wealth and dignity ended in the vegetable being knocked 
down to the merchant's wife for ten thousand rupees. But a more 



TALGRAM 213 

credible legend connects the epithet with the former population of 
the town. 

Talegaon-Dabhade. — Town in the Maval taluka of Poona District, 
Bombay, situated in 18 43' N. and 73 41' E., 20 miles north-west of 
Poona city, on the south-east branch of the Great Indian Peninsula 
Railway. Population (1901), 5,238. Talegaon takes its second name 
from the family of Dabhade, its hereditary patels, who played a fore- 
most part in the Maratha conquest of Gujarat during the first part 
of the eighteenth century. The most distinguished member, Khande 
Rao Dabhade, was appointed Senapati, or commander-in-chief, in 
1716. The present representative ranks as a first-class Sardar in the 
Deccan. Talegaon was the farthest point reached by the British force 
sent from Bombay in 1779 to restore Raghunath Rao to Poona as 
Peshwa. Finding the town burnt before them and being surrounded 
by a Maratha army, they threw their guns into the large tank, retreated 
by night to Wadgaon, three miles farther west, and there agreed to 
a humiliating capitulation. In 1817, five days after the battle of 
Kirkee, two British officers, brothers of the name of Vaughan, while 
on their way from Bombay to Poona, were seized and hanged here 
by the roadside. Their graves are 20 yards off the road. The muni- 
cipality was established in 1866, and had an average income during 
the decade ending 1901 of Rs. 7,100. In 1903-4 the income was 
Rs. 6,800. The large tank to the west of the town provides an ample 
supply of drinking-water. The town contains a dispensary, three boys' 
schools with 190 pupils, and one girls' school with 132. Two schools 
are maintained by the local branch of the Methodist Episcopal Mission. 

['The Bakhar of the Dabhades,' Times of India, February 2, 1907.] 

Talegaon-Dhamdhere. — Village in the Sirur taluka of Poona 
District, Bombay, situated in 18 40' N. and 74 9' E., 20 miles north- 
east of Poona city. Population (1901), 6,468. The Maratha family of 
Dhamdhere has long held the foremost place in Talegaon, and its name 
is given to the town to distinguish it from Talegaon-Dabhade in the 
Maval taluka of Poona District. A weekly market is held on Mondays. 
The annual fair in February-March is attended by about 3,000 people, 
to visit the shrine of Natha, a saint who lived in SivajI's time. The 
village possesses many temples, a dispensary, and 4 schools with 162 
boys and 9 girls. A branch of the Salvation Army is stationed here. 

Talgram (' village of tanks '). — Town in the Chhibramau tahsll of 
Farrukhabad District, United Provinces, situated in 27 2' N. and 
79 39' E., 24 miles south of Fatehgarh. Population (1901), 5,457. 
Talgram was the chief town of a pargana under Akbar, and from 
annexation to 1844 it was the head-quarters of a tahsll. It is admin- 
istered under Act XX of 1856, with an income of Rs. 600. Trade is 
local. There are two schools with 150 pupils. 



2i 4 TALIKOTA 

Talikota. — Town in the Muddebihal taluka of Bijapur District, 
Bombay, situated in i6° 28' N. and 76 19' E. Population (1901), 
6,610. There is a local industry in superior carpets oxjajat?is. The 
celebrated battle of Talikota was fought on the right bank of the 
Kistna, about 30 miles south of the town, on January 23, 1565, in 
which the power of the Hindu empire of Vljayanagar was destroyed by 
a confederacy of the Musalman Sultans of the Deccan. The battle was 
named after Talikota, as it was the place from which the allies marched 
to meet the Vijayanagar army. About 1750 the third Peshwa gave the 
town as a saranjam estate to his wife's brother, Rastia, who built the 
markets called Anandrao and Kailas Pyati. On the fall of the Peshwa 
in 1 81 8, Rastia made Talikota his head-quarters and built the present 
mansion, two mosques, and a temple of Siva. The Jama Masjid is 
a ruined building with Jain pillars. A modern mosque is called Panch 
Plr, as it contains five tombs said to belong to five officers of the Delhi 
army. The tombs are venerated by both Hindus and Musalmans, the 
Hindus referring them to the Pandavas, probably on account of their 
number. The temple of Siva is old, and contains a lingam and some 
Jain images. Slates are found in the bed of the river. 

Taliparamba. — Town in the Chirakkal taluk of Malabar District, 
Madras, situated in 12 3' N. and 75 22' E. Population (1901), 7,849. 
It contains a sub-magistrate's and District Munsifs court, and a brass- 
roofed temple which is one of the best in the District. 

Taloda Taluka.— Taluka of West Khandesh District, Bombay, 
lying between 21 30' and 22 2' N. and 73 58' and 74 32' E., with 
an area of 1,177 square miles. It contains one town, Taloda (popula- 
tion, 6,592), the head-quarters; and 193 villages. The population in 
1901 was 33,881, compared with 56,775 in 1891. The decrease is 
due to emigration to neighbouring States, scarcity of water, and the 
prevalence of a virulent type of cholera during the last famine. This is 
one of the most thinly populated tdlukas in the District, with a density 
of only 29 persons per square mile, the District average being 142. 
The demand in 1903-4 for land revenue was i-i lakhs, and for cesses 
Rs. 8,000. Taloda includes six petty Mehwas estates, and is situated 
in the extreme north-west of the District. The most striking natural 
feature is the bold outline of the towering Satpuras stretching from east 
to west, with a belt of thick forest infested by wild beasts along their 
foot. The prevailing soil is rich black loam. Where the land is tilled 
and open, the climate is not unhealthy ; but in the villages along the 
base of the Satpuras and in the west it is extremely malarious, and, 
except during April and May, unsafe for Europeans. The annual 
rainfall averages about 30 inches. 

Taloda Town. — Head-quarters of the Taloda taluka of West Khan- 
desh District, Bombay, situated in 21° 34' N. and 74 13' E., 62 miles 



TAMBRAPA RNI 2 1 5 

north-west of Dhulia. Population (1901), 6,592. Taloda is the chief 
timber market of Khandesh, and has also a considerable trade in rosha 
grass (Andropogon schoena nlhu s), oil, and grain. The best wooden 
carts of Khandesh are manufactured here, costing about Rs. 40 each. 
The town, which was constituted a municipality in 1867, had an 
average income during the decade ending 1901 of Rs. 5,000. In 
1903-4 the income was Rs. 5,400. The town contains a dispensary, 
and a boys' school with 180 pupils. 

Talsana. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Tamadaw. — Western township of Shwebo District, Upper Burma, 
on the Upper Chindwin border, lying between 22 46' and 23 8' N. 
and 94 50' and 95 23' E., with an area of 598 square miles. It 
consists for the most part of broken country with low hills. The 
population was 13,845 in 1891, and 19,634 in 1901, distributed in 145 
villages, Tamadaw (population, 199), a village in the east, being the 
head-quarters. The area cultivated in 1903-4 was 55 square miles, 
and the land revenue and thathameda amounted to Rs. 48,700. 

Tambraparni.— River in Tinnevelly District, Madras. The deri- 
vation of the name has been much discussed. One etymology is 
from the Sanskrit tdmra, ' copper,' and vama, ' colour,' from the 
colour of the sand in its bed. It rises on the slopes of the peak 
Agastyamalai in the Western Ghats, in 8° 37' N. and 77 15' E., and 
after a course of some miles through this range descends to the plains 
in five beautiful falls at Papanasam, a very sacred spot. Higher up, in 
the heart of the hills, it forms another fall called the Bana-tlrtham, 
which is equally sacred but, being with difficulty accessible, is less 
frequented. From Papanasam it runs eastward across Tinnevelly 
District, receiving a number of tributaries which, like itself, rise in 
the Ghats. The chief of these is the Chittar, 45 miles long. It 
eventually falls into the Gulf of Manaar in 8° 40' N. and 7 8° 9' E., 
after a course of 70 miles, during which it drains 1,739 square miles. 

The Tambraparni receives a supply from both monsoons, and is 
thus almost a perennial stream and of great use for irrigation. Eight 
dams cross it. Seven of these were made by former native govern- 
ments and are believed to date from the fifteenth century. The eighth 
and lowest, at Srivaikuntam, was suggested by Mr. Puckle, a former 
Collector, and was begun in 1867. It is 1,380 feet long, and feeds 
channels on both banks of the river, filling a large series of tanks in 
which the supply was formerly precarious, and also watering other land 
directly. The irrigation revenue has by this means been raised from 
Rs. 80,000 to over 2 lakhs, which gives a return of over 6 per cent, on 
the capital of 15 lakhs laid out on the system. The Marudur dam, 
higher up the stream, irrigates on an average 30,000 acres of first and 
second crop, and the other six water 71,000 acres between them. 



2 1 6 TAMER A 1\ I RNI 

One-tenth of all the irrigable area in Tinnevelly depends upon the 
Tambraparni. Its valley is the wealthiest portion of the District, and 
the land there is some of the most valuable in the Presidency. 

Several of the chief towns of the District stand upon the banks of 
the Tambraparni. Five miles below Papanasam are Ambasamudram and 
Kallidaikurichi, opposite one another and connected by a bridge built 
by public subscription in 1840 ; 20 miles farther down Tinnevelly and 
Palamcottah are similarly connected by the Sulochana bridge, built in 
1844 by Sulochana Mudaliyar, a rich landowner and high official of 
the District ; and there is a third bridge over the Srlvaikuntam dam. 
Near the mouth of the river is Kolkai, the first capital of the Pandyas, 
the earliest seat of Dravidian civilization, and once a famous seaport. 
The silt from the river ruined its career as a port and it is now five 
miles from the sea ; its place was taken by Kayal, where Marco Polo 
landed, but this also silted up and the Portuguese then established 
Tuticorin as the chief port on this coast. The pearl and ' chank ' 
{Turbinella rapd) fisheries off the mouth of the Tambraparni were once 
very famous, being frequently mentioned in early Tamil literature. 

Tamkuhi. — Estate situated in the BastI and Gorakhpur Districts of 
the United Provinces, and in the Muzaffarpur, Darbhanga, Saran, and 
Gaya Districts of Bengal, comprising 253 villages. The income is 
about 2-8 lakhs, and the land revenue and cesses payable to Govern- 
ment 1-4 lakhs. The owners are Bhuinhars, claiming descent from 
a Rajput who married a Bhuinharin. The founder of the family was 
Fateh Sahi, Raja of Hathwa. in Saran District, who resisted the British 
after the battle of Buxar in 1764, and was forced to take refuge in the 
jungles on the bank of the Great Gandak in Gorakhpur, where he had 
another estate, then included in the dominions of the Nawab of Oudh. 
He acquired a large property, which was mostly dissipated by his sons. 
About 1830-40 a grandson recovered part of the ancestral estate, and 
settled at Salemgarh in Gorakhpur District, founding a separate family. 
Another grandson retained Tamkuhi and greatly increased his estates. 
He obtained the title of Raja, which is hereditary. The present Raja, 
Indrajlt Pratap Bahadur Sahi, was born in 1893, and the estate is 
now under the management of the Court of Wards. 

Tamluk Subdivision. — Eastern subdivision of Midnapore District, 
Bengal, lying between 2 1° 54' and 22°3i'N. and 87°38 / and 88°n'E., 
with an area of 653 square miles. The subdivision is a fertile tract, 
stretching along the estuary of the Hooghly, and producing rich crops of 
rice. The population in 1901 was 583,238, compared with 534,958 in 
1 89 1, the density being 893 persons per square mile. This is the 
most crowded part of the District. It contains one town, Tamluk 
(population, 8,085), tne head-quarters; and 1,578 villages, of which the 
most important is Geonkhali, a considerable centre of trade. 



TAMLUK TOWS 217 

Tamluk Town. -Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same 
name in Midnapore District, Bengal, situated in 22° 18' N. and 
87° 56' E. The population in 1901 was 8,085, compared with only 
5,849 in 1872. Tamluk or Tamralipta, as it is called in Sanskrit, was 
the capital of an ancient kingdom known as Tamralipta or Suhma. 
The earliest kings belonged to the Peacock dynasty and were Rajputs 
by caste ; but on the death of Nisanka Narayan of this line, the throne 
was usurped by Kalu Bhuiya, the founder of the existing line of 
Kaibartta Rajas. Tamluk figures as a place of great antiquity in the 
sacred writings of the Hindus. It first emerges in authentic history as 
a port, being the place whence the Chinese pilgrim Fa Hian took ship 
to Ceylon in the early part of the fifth century. Another celebrated 
pilgrim from China, Hiuen Tsiang, speaks of Tamluk in the seventh 
century as still an important harbour, with ten Buddhist monasteries, 
1,000 monks, and a pillar erected by king Asoka, 200 feet high. 
Indigo, silk, and copper (tamra), the last of which gave its name to the 
place, were the traditional articles of export from ancient Tamluk. 
Hiuen Tsiang found the city washed by the ocean ; the earliest Hindu 
tradition places the sea 8 miles off, and it is now fully 60 miles distant. 
The process of land-making at the mouth of the Hooghly has gone on 
slowly but steadily, and has left Tamluk an inland village on the banks 
of the Rupnarayan river. Under the rule of the ancient Peacock 
dynasty, the royal palace and grounds are said to have covered an area 
of 8 square miles, fortified by strong walls and deep ditches. No 
trace of the ancient palace is now discernible, except some ruins to 
the west of the palace of the present Kaibartta Raja, which is built 
on the side of the river, surrounded by ditches, and covers the more 
moderate area of about 30 acres. The old city lies under the river 
silt ; even the great temple is now partly underground, and the remains 
of masonry wells and houses are met with at 18 to 21 feet below the 
surface. A considerable number of old silver and copper coins bearing 
Buddhist symbols have recently been discovered in the midst of debris 
from the crumbling banks of the Rupnarayan. The principal object 
of interest at Tamluk is a temple sacred to the goddess Barga Bhima, 
or Kali, situated on the bank of the Rupnarayan. The skill and 
ingenuity displayed in its construction still command admiration. The 
shrine is surrounded by a curious threefold wall which rises to a height 
of 60 feet, its width at the base being 9 feet. The whole is covered 
with a dome-shaped roof. Stones of enormous size were used in its 
construction. On the top of the temple, although dedicated to the 
wife of Siva, is the sacred disk ichakrd) of Vishnu, surmounted by 
the form of a peacock. The idol is formed from a single block of 
stone with the hands and feet attached to it. The goddess is repre- 
sented standing on the body of Siva and has four hands. Outside the 



2i8 TAMLUK TOWN 

temple, but within its enclosure, is a keli-kadamba tree, supposed to 
have the virtue of redeeming wives from barrenness. Numbers of 
women flock hither to pray for offspring, suspending pieces of brick 
to the tree by ropes made of their own hair. There is also a Vaish- 
nav temple at Tamluk which, in shape and construction, resembles 
that of Barga Bhlma. 

Tamluk is still a place of considerable importance as the centre of 
the boat traffic on the Rupnarayan. It was constituted a municipality 
in 1864. The income during the decade ending 190 1-2 averaged 
Rs. 7,900, and the expenditure Rs. 7,200. In 1903-4 the income was 
Rs. 9,000, of which Rs. 3,000 was derived from a tax on persons 
(or property tax) ; and the expenditure was Rs. 8,000. The town 
contains the usual public offices ; the sub-jail has accommodation for 

15 prisoners. 

[Sir W. W. Hunter, Orissa, vol. i (1872), and Statistical Account of 
Bengal, vol. iii (1876).] 

Tamralipta (or Suhma). — Ancient kingdom of Bengal, comprising 
the modern Districts of Midnapore and Howrah. The earliest rulers 
belonged to the Peacock dynasty of Rajputs, who were supplanted 
by Kaibarttas. The capital was at Tamluk, a famous port of ancient 
times and a great stronghold of Buddhism. 

Tamrapurni.— River in Tinnevelly District, Madras. See Tambra- 
parni. 

Tamu.- Township in the Upper Chindwin District of Upper 
Burma, lying between 23 35' and 24 20' N. and 94 i' and 94 $$' E., 
with an area of 960 square miles. The population was 4,426 in 1891, 
and 5,264 in 1901, made up of Burmans, Shans, and Chins in the 
proportions of 33, 9, and 7, and inhabiting 48 villages. Tamu (popu- 
lation, 905), in the north of the valley, is the head-quarters. The 
inhabited area lies mostly along the valleys of the Khampat and Yu 
streams, both of which rise in the mountains of Manipur, and flow, 
one in a northerly, the other in a southerly direction, to meet and run 
eastwards into the Chindwin. The area cultivated in 1903-4 was 

16 square miles, and the land revenue and thathameda amounted to 
Rs. 14,000. 

Tanakpur. — Trading centre in the Champawat tahsil of Almora 
District, United Provinces, situated in 29 4' N. and 8o° 7' E., at the 
foot of the Himalayas, near the Sarda river. A railway from Tanakpur 
to Pilibhit is under consideration. Population (1901), 692. The 
village was founded in 1880, when the older mart of Barmdeo was 
washed away by floods. This is now one of the most important places 
at which the traders from Tibet meet the merchants of the plains. 
Borax and wool are brought down by the Bhotias, who carry back 
sugar and cloth. There is also a large trade with the hill tracts of 



TANAWAL 219 

Almora District and Nepal, from which turmeric, chillies, and g/il are 
exported, while sugar and salt are imported. Tanakpur is situated in 
the Bhabar ; and the timber, catechu, hides, honey, and minor forest 
produce of that tract are collected here for sale. The trading season 
lasts only from November to May, and by the middle of June the 
place is deserted. The bazar contains a large and increasing number of 
stone houses and shops, while huts are erected annually by the smaller 
traders. Tanakpur is the winter head-quarters of a subdivisional 
officer. 

Tanawal (Tunawal). — A tract of mountainous territory in the 
extreme north-west corner of Hazara District, North-West Frontier 
Province, lying on the east of the Indus, between 34 15' and 34 23' N. 
and 7 2 52' and 73° 10' E. The Siran river flows through it from 
north to south. In the latter part of Akbar's reign Tanawal was over- 
run by the Yusufzai Pathans, and it is still partly peopled by Afghans ; 
but it became nominally a dependency of Kashmir under the Durranis. 
Its real rulers, however, were the Tanawalis, a tribe of Mughal descent 
divided into two septs, the Pul-al and Hando-al or Hind-wal. The 
former held the tract east of the Siran ; and its chief founded Blr when 
the Mughal power was decaying, but internal dissensions led to the 
intervention of the governor of Kashmir. Meanwhile, the Hind-wal 
sept had gained power and its chief, Nawab Khan, defied the Durranis, 
but met his death at the hands of Sardar Azim Khan in 1818. His 
son, Painda Khan, played a considerable part in the history of his time 
and vigorously opposed the Sikhs, but lost all his territory except the 
tract round Amb. On his death in 1840 his son, Jahandad Khan, 
recovered part of it through the favour of Gulab Singh of Kashmir 
and the British Government. Thus the present semi-independent 
estate comprises the territory formerly held by the Hind-wal Tanawalis. 
It has an area of 204 square miles, with a population (1901) of 31,622. 
It is bounded on the north by the Black Mountain, on the west by the 
Indus, on the south by the Haripur and Abbottabad tahslls, and on 
the east by the Mansehra tahsll of Hazara District. It belongs partly 
to Nawab Sir Muhammad Akram Khan, K.C.S.I., chief of Amb, and 
partly to Ata Muhammad Khan, Khan of Phulra. Since the annexa- 
tion of Hazara, the administration of Tanawal has been practically in 
the hands of these chiefs, their authority being legally defined by 
Regulation II of 1900, by which civil, criminal, and revenue adminis- 
tration is vested in them, the only exceptions being offences against the 
state and murder. Both the chief of Amb and the Khan of Phulra 
are Tanawalis of the Hind-wal section, the former being a grandson of 
Painda Khan, and the latter a great-grandson of Madad Khan, younger 
brother of Painda Khan. 

The title of Nawab was bestowed on Muhammad Akram Khan in 

VOL. XXIII. p 



2 2o TANA1VAL 

1868, partly as a reward for his father's services during the Mutiny, and 
partly in recognition of his personal courage and loyalty in the Hazara 
expedition of 1868. At the same time he received a cash allowance 
of Rs. 500 a month, which he has enjoyed ever since. In 1871 he 
became a C.S.I., and in 1889 a K.C.S.I. He also enjoys a jaglr of 
the annual value of Rs. 9,000 in the Haripur tahsll of Hazara District. 
Amb, the place from which he takes his title, is situated on the western 
bank of the Indus, in his independent territory, and is a winter 
residence, his summer head-quarters being at Shergarh near the eastern 
extremity of Upper Tanawal. 

Tanda Tahsll. — North-eastern tahsll of Fyzabad District, United 
Provinces, comprising the parga?ias of Tanda and Birhar, and lying 
along the Gumti, between 26 9' and 26°4o' N. and 82 27' and 83 8' 
E., with an area of 365 square miles. Up to 1904 the tahsll also 
included pargana Surhurpur, area 144 square miles. The population 
of the former area decreased from 369,781 in 1891 to 350,342 in 1901, 
and that of the present area according to the Census of 1901 is 
249,412. There are now 735 villages and three towns, including 
Tanda (population, 19,853), the tahsll head-quarters. The demand 
for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 4,24,000, and for cesses Rs. 68,000, 
decreased by the transfer of Surhurpur to Rs. 2,97,000 and Rs. 47,000 
respectively. The tahsll, as reduced, supports 684 persons per square 
mile, or somewhat below the District average. There are a few small 
alluvial tracts along the Gogra, but most of the tahsll lies in the 
uplands, consisting of two distinct portions. A strip above the river 
lies high and is well cultivated and fertile, but it slopes into a tract of 
marshy land which is badly drained and easily becomes waterlogged. 
Of the old area, 330 square miles were under cultivation in 1903-4, of 
which 189 were irrigated. Wells are a more important source of supply 
than j'hlls or swamps. 

Tanda Town (1). — Head-quarters of the tahsll of the same name in 
Fyzabad District, United Provinces, situated in 26 34' N. and 82 40' E., 
on the bank of the Gogra, and 1 2 miles by road from Akbarpur station 
on the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway. Population (1901), 19,853. 
The town was granted by the emperor Farrukh Siyar to one Muhammad 
Hayat and rapidly rose in importance. At the close of the eighteenth 
century Saadat AH Khan, Nawab of Oudh, was interested in its 
prosperity and established a number of officials here. It became one 
of the most noted weaving centres in India, producing muslins which 
rivalled those of Dacca. European merchants settled in the place and 
introduced new methods and improved patterns. The trade suffered 
during the American Civil War, but has since recovered. Tanda con- 
tains the usual offices, and also a branch of the Wesleyan Methodist 
Mission and a dispensary. It has been administered as a municipality, 



TANDA-URMAR 221 

together with the adjacent town of Mubarakpur, since 1865. During 
the ten years ending 1901 the income and expenditure averaged 
Rs. 8,000. Tn 1903-4 the income was Rs. 16,000, chiefly derived 
from a tax on circumstances and property (Rs. 8,400) and a grant from 
Government of Rs. 3,500, while the expenditure was also Rs. 16,000. 
There are more than 1,100 looms in the town, and a number of dyeing 
and printing houses. Various kinds of cotton cloth are produced, 
including some woven from dyed yarn, while the cloth used for printing 
is imported. The fine flowered muslin called jamdaiii, for which the 
place was famous, is still made by a few weavers, but the market is very 
limited. Some of the best varieties are partly woven with silk or silver 
wire. There are three schools with 227 pupils. 

Tanda Town (or Tanra) (2). — Ancient town in Malda District, 
Eastern Bengal and Assam, the capital of Bengal after the decadence 
of Gaur. Its history is obscure, and the very site of the city has not 
been accurately determined. It is certain that it was in the immediate 
neighbourhood of Gaur, and south-west of that place, beyond the 
Bhaglrathi. Old Tanda has been utterly swept away by the changes 
in the course of the Pagla. The land which subsequently re-formed at 
or near the old site is known by the same name, and is recorded in the 
District records as Tanda or Tanra. According to Stewart {History of 
Bengal, ed. 1847, P- 95)> Sulaiman Shah Kararani, the last but two of 
the Afghan kings of Bengal, moved the seat of government to Tanda 
in 1564, eleven years before the final depopulation of Gaur. Though 
never a populous city, Tanda was a favourite residence for the Mughal 
governors of Bengal until the middle of the following century. In 
1660 Shah Shuja, when hard pressed by Mir Jumla, Aurangzeb's 
general, retreated from Rajmahal to Tanda, in the vicinity of which 
town was fought the decisive battle in which the former was finally 
routed. After this date Tanda is not mentioned in history, and it was 
subsequently deserted by the Mughal governors in favour of Rajmahal 
and Dacca. 

Tanda Town (or Tanda Badridan) (3). — Town in the Suar tahsll of 
the State of Rampur, United Provinces, situated in 28 58' N. and 78 
57' E., on the road from Moradabad to NainI Tal. Population (1901), 
7,983. The place, as its name implies, was originally an encampment 
of Banjaras or grain-carriers, who still form the chief inhabitants. They 
purchase unhusked rice in the Kumaun hills and in the Tarai, and 
carry it to Tanda on ponies. There it is husked by women and sent 
to the Moradabad railway station. Tanda contains dispensaries for 
medical treatment by both European and indigenous methods, and 
a tahslli school. It is also the head-quarters of a subdivision of the 
Suar tahsil. 

Tanda-Urmar. — The two towns of Tanda and Urmar are situated 

p 2 



222 TANDA-URMAR 

within a mile of one another in the Dasuya tahsll of Hoshiarpur Dis- 
trict, Punjab, in 31° 40' N. and 75 38' E., and form with their suburbs 
a single municipality. Their joint population was, in 1901, 10,247. 
The suburbs contain a shrine of the saint, Sakhi Sarwar. They form 
an entrepot for country produce and cotton goods, and good pottery 
is made. The municipality was created in 1867. The income and 
expenditure during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 5,400. 
In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 5,800, chiefly derived from octroi ; and 
the expenditure was Rs. 5,400. The municipality maintains an Anglo- 
vernacular middle school and a Government dispensary. 

Tando. — Subdivision of Hyderabad District, Sind, Bombay, com- 
posed of the Guni, Badin, Tando Bago, and Dero Mohbat talukas. 

Tando Adam (or Adam-jo-Tando). — Town in the Tando Alahyar 
taluka of Hyderabad District, Sind, Bombay, situated in 25 46' N. 
and 68° 42' E., on the North-Western Railway. It was founded about 
1800 by one Adam Khan Marri, whence its name. Population (1901), 
8,664. There is some trade in silk, cotton, grain, oil, sugar, and ghl. 
The municipality, established in i860, had an average income of about 
Rs. 15,000 during the decade ending 1901. In 1903-4 the income 
was also Rs. 15,000. Tando Adam contains three cotton-ginning and 
pressing factories employing 636 operatives, a courthouse, five schools, 
one of which is for girls, and a dispensary. 

Tando Alahyar Taluka.— Taluka in Hyderabad District, Sind, 
Bombay, lying between 25 7' and 25 49' N. and 68° 35' and 69 2' 
E., with an area of 690 square miles. The population in 1901 was 
87,990, compared with 76,385 in 1891. The density, 128 persons 
per square mile, exceeds the District average. There are 3 towns — 
Tando Alahyar (population, 4,324), the head-quarters, Tando Adam 
(8,664), and Nasarpur (4,511); and 107 villages. The land revenue 
and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to nearly x\ lakhs. The taluka con- 
sists of a high plateau, of irregular oblong shape, with wide sandy 
spaces in the east. The chief crops are bajra, sesamum, and tobacco. 

Tando Alahyar Town (or Alahyar-jo-Tando). — Head-quarters of 
the taluka of the same name in Hyderabad District, Sind, Bombay, 
situated in 25 27" N. and 68° 46' E., on the Hyderabad-Balotra branch 
of the Jodhpur-Bikaner Railway. Population (1901), 4,324. The 
local trade includes sugar, ivory, silk, cloth, cotton, oil, and grain. It 
was founded about 1790 by a son of the first sovereign of the Talpur 
dynasty. Under the Talpurs, the town attained considerable commercial 
importance ; but it has declined in modern times, especially since the 
opening of the railway line in 1861 between Kotri and Karachi, which 
diverted the trade of northern Sind. Cotton is extensively grown in 
the neighbourhood, while raw silk, metal pots, and ivory are largely 
imported ; silk-weaving and ivory-work form the chief industries. The 



TANG AIL SUBDIVISION 223 

principal building is the fort. The municipality, established in 1856, 
had an average income during the decade ending 1901 of about Rs. 
15,000. The income in 1903-4 was also Rs. 15,000. There are four 
schools, of which one is for girls, one cotton-ginning and pressing 
factory employing 140 operatives, and a dispensary. 

Tando Bago. — Tdluka in Hyderabad District, Sind, Bombay, lying 
between 24 35' and 25 2' N. and 68° 46' and 69 22' E., with an area 
of 697 square miles. The population in 1901 was 74,876, compared 
with 63,627 in 1891. The number of villages is 141, of which Tando 
Bago is the head-quarters. The density, 107 persons per square mile, 
is a little below the District average. The land revenue and cesses 
in 1903-4 amounted to about 2 lakhs. The tdluka is a low-lying and 
well-watered alluvial plain, apt to suffer from floods rather than from 
drought. Most of the irrigation is from canals, and the chief crops 
are rice, cotton, sugar-cane, wheat, and barley. 

Tando Masti Khan.— Town in the State of Khairpur, Sind, 
Bombay, situated in 27 26' N. and 68° 42' E., about 13 miles south of 
Khairpur town, on the North-Western Railway. The main road from 
Hyderabad to Rohri runs through the town. Population (1901), 6,465. 
The town was founded about 1803 by Wadero Masti Khan. To the 
south are the ruins of Kotesar, supposed to have been once a populous 
place. On the western side are the shrines of Shah Jaro Pir Fazl 
Nango and Shaikh Makai. 

Tando Muhammad Khan. — Head-quarters of the Guni tdluka of 
Hyderabad District, Sind, Bombay, situated in 25 8' N. and 68° 35' E., 
on the right bank of the Fuleli canal, 21 miles south of Hyderabad 
city. Population (1901), 4,635. As the seat of an Assistant Collector, 
the town contains a courthouse and the usual public buildings. The 
municipality, established in 1856, had an average income during the 
decade ending 190 1 of about Rs. 18,000. In 1903-4 the income 
was Rs. 12,500. The local trade includes rice and other grain, silk, 
metals, tobacco, dyes, saddle-cloths, matting, and drugs ; and there is 
a transit trade in rice, jowar, l>djra, and tobacco. The manufactures 
comprise copper- and iron - ware, earthenware, silk, thread, blankets, 
cotton cloth, shoes, country liquor, and articles of wood. Tando 
Muhammad Khan is said to have been founded by Mir Muhammad 
Talpur Shahwani, who died in 1813. The town contains a dispensary 
and three schools, of which one is for girls. 

Tandur. — Head-quarters of thej'agfr taluk of the same name in the 
Kodangal taluk of Gulbarga District, Hyderabad State, situated in 
1 7 15' N. and 77 34' E., on the Nizam's State Railway. Population 
(1901), 5,930. The Kagna river flows one mile south of the town. 

Tangail Subdivision. — South-western subdivision of Mymensingh 
District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, lying between 23 57' and 24 48' 



224 TANG AIL SUBDIVISION 

N. and 89 40' and 90 14' E., with an area of 1,061 square miles. 
The population in 1901 was 970,239, compared with 859,475 in 1891. 
Except on the east, which contains part of the Madhupur jungle, the 
subdivision is an alluvial tract, subject to annual inundations and 
deposits of fertilizing silt from the Brahmaputra with its affluents and 
offshoots. It contains one town, Tangail (population, 16,666), the 
head-quarters, and 2,030 villages, and is the most densely populated 
part of the District, supporting 914 persons per square mile, against an 
average of 618 for the whole District. There is an important market at 
Subarnakhali, and the terminus of the railway at Jagannathganj 
falls within the subdivision. 

Tangail Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same 
name in Mymensingh District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 
24 15' N. and 89 57' E., on the Lohajang, a branch of the Jamuna. 
Population (1901), 16,666. It is the centre of a considerable trade, 
especially in European piece-goods. Tangail was constituted a muni- 
cipality in 1887. The income during the decade ending 1901-2 
averaged Rs. 7,400, and the expenditure Rs. 6,800. In 1903-4 the 
income was Rs. 10,000, mainly derived from a property tax and con- 
servancy rate ; and the expenditure was Rs. 9,000. The town contains 
the usual public offices ; the sub-jail has accommodation for 18 pri- 
soners. The chief educational institution is the Pramatha Manmatha 
College with 98 students on its rolls at the end of 1904 ; it was estab- 
lished in 1900, and is maintained, at an annual cost of Rs. 5,000, at 
the expense of its founder. It is affiliated to the Calcutta University 
and teaches up to the F.A standard. 

Tangasseri. — British village within the limits of the State of 
Travancore, situated in 8° 54' N. and 76 35' E., adjoining Quilon. 
Until 1906 it was administered as part of the Cochin taluk of Malabar 
District, Madras ; but in that year it was transferred to the newly 
formed District of Anjengo, and placed under the administrative con- 
trol of the Resident in Travancore and Cochin. Total area, about 
99 acres; population (1901), 1,733. It Was formerly a Portuguese 
and a Dutch settlement, and the inhabitants are mostly Roman Catho- 
lics. The collection of customs, port dues, and other revenues in the 
place is farmed out to the Travancore Darbar. Civil jurisdiction 
over it still belongs to the District MunsiPs court at Anjengo, under 
the District Court of South Malabar. The place has a resident sub- 
magistrate. A lighthouse stands on the seashore, with a light visible 
for 18 miles. 

Tangi. — Town in the Charsadda talis! I of Peshawar District, North- 
West Frontier Province, situated in 34 17' N. and 71 42' E., 29 miles 
north of Peshawar city. Population (1901), 9,095. The Swat river 
runs west of the town, and the Swat River Canal, with the famous 



TANJORE DISTRICT 225 

Jhindi aqueduct, is about 3 miles off. The inhabitants are Muham- 
madzai Pathans. Faction is rife, and the place owes its importance to 
its proximity to the independent tribe of Utman Khel, against whom it 
has always held its own. 

Tanglu. — One of the principal peaks in the Singalila spur of the 
Himalayas, in the head-quarters subdivision of Darjeeling District, 
Bengal, situated in 27 2' N. and 88° 5' E., at a height above sea-level 
of 10,074 feet. The Nepal frontier road runs over the hill, and there 
is a staging bungalow for travellers, available on application to the 
Deputy-Commissioner of Darjeeling. The Little Rangit river rises 
under this mountain. 

Tanjore District {Tanjdvur). — A coast District in the south of the 
Madras Presidency, lying between 9 49' and n° 25' N. and 78 47' 
and 79 52' E., with an area of 3,710 square miles. On the north the 
river Coleroon separates it from Trichinopoly and South Arcot Dis- 
tricts ; on the west it is bounded by the State of Pudukkottai and 
Trichinopoly District ; and on the south by the District of Madura. 
Its sea-board is made up of two sections, one extending 72 miles from 
the mouth of the Coleroon to Point Calimere in the south, and the 
other bordering the Palk Strait for 68 miles from Point Calimere to 
Madura District in the south-west. The small French Settlement of 
Karikal is situated about the middle of the former of these sections. 

The northern and eastern portions of Tanjore form the delta of the 

river Cauvery, which, with its numerous branches, intersects and 

irrigates more than half the District. This tract 

comprises the whole of the taluks of Kumbakonam, Physical 

. aspects. 

Mayavaram, Shiyali, and Nannilam, and parts of 

Tanjore, Mannargudi, Tirutturaippundi, and Negapatam. It is the 
best irrigated, and consequently the most densely populated and per- 
haps the richest, area in the Presidency. The southern portion of the 
District stands about 50 feet higher, and is a dry tract of country com- 
prising the whole of the Pattukkottai taluk, the southern portion of 
Tanjore, and the west of Mannargudi. 

The delta is a level alluvial plain, covered, almost without a break, 
by rice-fields and sloping gently towards the sea. The villages, which 
are usually half hidden by coco-nut palms, stand on cramped sites 
but little above the level of the surrounding cultivation, like low islands 
in a sea of waving crops. It is devoid of forests, and has no natural 
eminences save the ridges and dunes of blown sand which fringe the 
sea-coast. These ridges are neither wide nor high, for the south-west 
monsoon is strong enough to counteract the work done by the north 
cast winds, which would otherwise gradually spread the hillocks far 
inland ; and the heavy rainfall on the coast during the latter monsoon 
saturates the sand and prevents it from being carried as far as would 



226 TAN/ORE DISTRICT 

otherwise be the case. Some protection is also afforded by a belt 
of screw-pine jungle which runs between the sand ridges and the arable 
land along a great part of the coast-line. The southern sea-board of 
the Tirutturaippundi taluk, west of Point Calimere, is an extensive salt 
swamp several miles wide and usually covered with water. 

The non-deltaic portion of the District is likewise an open plain 
which slopes to the east and is also destitute of hills. A small part of 
it lying to the south and south-west of Tanjore city rises, however, 
somewhat above the surrounding level and forms the little plateau 
of Vallam. This is the pleasantest part of the District, and here, seven 
miles from Tanjore city, the Collector's official residence is situated. 

Except the Coleroon and the branches of the Cauvery, the District 
contains no rivers worthy of particular mention ; but a few insignificant 
streams cross the Pattukkottai taluk. The irrigation from the two 
former rivers is noticed in the section on Irrigation below. 

Unfossiliferous conglomerates and sandstones occupy a large part 
of the District to the south and south-west of Tanjore, where they 
lie, when their base is visible, on an irregular surface of gneiss. Above 
them are disposed, in a series of flat terraces, lateritic conglomerates, 
gravels, and sands, which gradually sink below the alluvium. All the 
northern and eastern tracts are composed of river, deltaic, and shore 
alluvium, and blown sands. 

The crops of the District are briefly described below. Its trees 
present few remarkable features. Bamboos and coco-nut palms are 
plentiful in the delta, palmyras and the Alexandrian laurel on the 
coast, tamarind, jack, and nim in the uplands of the south, while the 
iluppai (Bass/a longifolia) and the banyan and other figs are common 
elsewhere. There is, however, a general deficiency of timber and fire- 
wood, which in consequence are largely imported. 

The larger fauna of Tanjore present little of interest. Except in the 
scrub jungle near Point Calimere and in very small areas near Vallam, 
Shiyali, and Madukkur, where antelope, spotted deer, and wild hog are 
met with, there are no wild animals bigger than a jackal. Jackals and 
foxes are very common, and the ordinary game-birds are found in fair 
quantities. The rice-fields afford good snipe-shooting. 

The climate of the District is healthy on the whole, though hot and 
relaxing in the delta. As the latter widens, the increased breadth of 
the irrigated land causes more rapid evaporation of the water with 
which it is covered, and hence the country is cooler towards the sea. 
The delta is naturally well drained, and does not therefore suffer in 
point of climate as much as might be expected from the wide extension 
of irrigation within it. The mean temperature at Negapatam on the 
coast of the deltaic tract is 8o°. The neighbourhood of Vallam is 
the healthiest and the coolest part of the District, resembling the Pattu- 



HISTORY 227 

kkottai taluk in dryness. The latter presents a contrast to the delta, 
inasmuch as the heat is less in the inland and greater in the sea-board 
tracts. The great exception to the general healthiness of the District 
is the swamp stretching west from Point Calimere. That promontory 
was at one time considered a sanitarium, but it is now said to be 
malarious from April to June. 

The annual rainfall in the District as a whole reaches the com- 
paratively high average of over 44 inches. It is lowest in Arantangi 
(35 inches) and highest in Negapatam (54 inches). Tanjore city 
receives only 36 inches on an average. Most of the rain falls during 
the north-east monsoon, which strikes directly on the more northerly of 
the coast taluks, and throughout these the rainfall is consequently 
higher than inland ; but the south-west rains also reach as far as this 
District, and are occasionally heavier than those received from the 
north-east current. 

The District has rarely suffered much from scarcity of rain, but 
serious losses from floods and hurricanes have been not infrequent. 
Of these disasters, the most serious was the flood in the Cauvery in 
1853, which covered the delta with water and, though few lives were 
lost, did immense damage to property. A flood in 1859 fortunately 
did little harm, but in 187 1 a hurricane caused much loss of life 
and property on land and sea. There have been several inundations 
in more recent times, but the regulators constructed across the branches 
of the Cauvery have now done much to minimize the effect of such 
calamities. 

Up to the middle of the tenth century the District formed part 
of the ancient Chola kingdom. During the reign of Rajaraja I 
(985-1011), perhaps the greatest of that dynasty, 
the Cholas reached the zenith of their power, their 
dominion at his death including almost the whole of the present 
Madras Presidency, together with Mysore and Coorg and the northern 
portion of Ceylon. Rajaraja had a well-equipped and efficient army, 
divided into regiments of cavalry, foot-soldiers, and archers. He 
carried out a careful survey of the land under cultivation and assessed 
it, and beautified Tanjore with public buildings, including its famous 
temple. During his time, if not earlier, the civil administration also 
became systematized. Each village, or group of villages, had an 
assembly of its own called the mahasabha ('great assembly'), exer- 
cising, under the supervision of local officers, an almost sovereign 
authority in all rural affairs. These village groups were formed into 
districts under district officers, and the districts into provinces under 
viceroys. Six such provinces made up the Chola dominions. The 
kingdom which Rajaraja thus established and unified remained intact 
until long after his death. His immediate successors were, like him- 



228 TAXJORE DISTRICT 

self, great warriors and good administrators. Tanjore owes to them 
the dam (called the Grand Anicut) separating the Cauvery from 
the Coleroon, the great bulwark of the fertility of the District, which 
is described below under Irrigation, and also the main channels 
depending upon it. 

During the thirteenth century Tanjore passed, with most of the 
Chola possessions, under the rule of the Hoysala Ballalas of Dora- 
samudra and the Pandyas of Madura. The District probably shared 
in the general subjection of the south to the Muhammadan successors 
of Malik Kaffir's invasion till the close of the fourteenth century, when 
it became part of the Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagar, which was then 
rising into power. During the sixteenth century one of the generals of 
that kingdom declared himself independent, and in the early part of 
the seventeenth century a successor established a Naik dynasty at 
Tanjore. The kings of this dynasty built most of the forts and Vaish- 
nav temples in the District. The tragic end of the last of the line 
forms the subject of a popular legend to this day. He was besieged by 
Chokkanatha, the Madura Naik, in 1662. Finding further defence 
hopeless, he blew up his palace and his zanana, and with his son 
dashed out against the besiegers and fell in the thickest of the fight. 
An infant son of his, however, was saved, and the child's adherents 
sought aid from the Muhammadan king of Bijapur. The latter 
deputed his general, Venkajl, half-brother of the celebrated Sivajl, to 
drive out the usurper and restore the infant Naik. This Venkajl 
effected ; but shortly afterwards he usurped the throne himself, and 
founded (about 1674) a Maratha dynasty which continued in power 
until the close of the eighteenth century. For seventy years his 
successors maintained a generally submissive attitude towards the 
Muhammadans, to whom they paid tribute occasionally, and engaged 
in conflict only with the rulers of Madura and Ramnad. 

The English first came in contact with Tanjore in 1749, when they 
espoused the cause of a rival to the throne and attacked Devikottai, 
which the Raja eventually ceded to them. The Raja joined the 
English and Muhammad All against the French, but on the whole 
took little part in the Carnatic Wars. The capital was besieged in 
1749 and 1758, and parts of the country were occasionally ravaged. 
In 1773 the Raja fell into arrears with his tribute to the Nawab of 
Arcot, the ally of the English, and was also believed to be intriguing 
with Haidar Ah of Mysore and with the Marathas for military aid. 
Tanjore was accordingly occupied by the English, as the Nawab's 
allies, in 1773. The Raja was, however, restored in 1776, and con- 
cluded a treaty with the Company, by which he became their ally 
and Tanjore a protected State. In October, 1799, shortly after his 
accession, Raja Sarabhojl resigned his dominions into the hands of 



POPULATION 229 

the Company and received a suitable provision for his maintenance. 
Political relations continued unchanged during his lifetime, but he 
exercised sovereign authority only within the fort and its immediate 
vicinity, subject to the control of the British Government. He died in 
1832 and was succeeded by his only son Sivajl, on whose death with- 
out heirs in 1855 the titular dignity became extinct, and the fort and 
city of Tanjore became British territory. 

The present District of Tanjore is made up of the country thus 
obtained, and of three small settlements which have separate histories. 
These latter are : firstly, Devikottai and the adjoining territory, which 
had been previously acquired by the English Company from the Tanjore 
Raja in 1749; secondly, the Dutch settlements of Negapatam and 
Nagore and the Nagore dependency, of which the first two were 
taken by the Dutch from the Portuguese in 1660 and annexed to 
the British dominions in 1781. and the third was ceded by the Raja to 
the Company in 1776; and, lastly, Tranquebar, which the Danes had 
acquired from the Naik Raja of Tanjore in 1620, and which they 
continued to hold on the payment of an annual tribute until 1845, 
when it was purchased by the Company. 

The chief objects of archaeological interest in the District are its 
religious buildings. Numerous temples of various dates are scattered 
all over it. Those at Tiruvalur, Alangudi, and Tiruppundurutti are 
mentioned in the Devaram, and must therefore have been in existence 
as early as the seventh century a. d. Inscriptions in Old Tamil and 
Grantha characters occur in many of them. These refer mostly to the 
Chola period, and none has been found earlier than the tenth century. 
There are a few grants by Pandya kings. The Mannargudi and 
Tiruvadamarudur temples contain inscriptions of the Hoysala kings 
and some Vijayanagar grants, and many records of the later Naiks 
and Marathas exist. Of all the temples in the District perhaps the 
most remarkable is the great shrine at Tanjore, built by Rajaraja I, 
which is interesting alike to the epigraphist and to the student of 
architecture, being a striking monument of eleventh-century workman- 
ship, and abounding in inscriptions of the time of its founder and his 
successors. It is noticed more fully in the article on Tanjore City. 
At Kumbakonam is an ancient temple dedicated to Brahma, a deity to 
whom shrines are seldom erected. The Tiruvalur temple is another 
remarkable building. 

The density of population averages 605 persons per square mile, 
and the District is the most thickly populated in the Presidency. 
The taluks of Kumbakonam, Negapatam, and Maya- 
varam, which consist of the rich and closely culti- 
vated ' wet ' lands of the delta, rank respectively fourth, fifth, and sixth 
in the Presidency in the density of their inhabitants to the square mile. 



230 



TANJORE DISTRICT 



The population of the District was 1,973,731 in 1871 ; 2,130,383 in 
1881 ; 2,228,114 in 1891 ; and 2,245,029 in 1901. In the decades 
ending 1891 and 1901 it increased less rapidly than that of any other 
District, owing chiefly to the very active emigration which took place to 
the Straits, Burma, and Ceylon. In Pattukkottai, the most sparsely 
peopled taluk, the advance in the period ending 1901 was as high as 
9 per cent. ; but this is thought to have been due less to any extension 
of cultivation than to the temporary immigration of labourers for the 
construction of the railway extension from Muttupet to Arantangi. Of 
the total population in 1901, Hindus numbered 2,034,399, or 91 per 
cent. ; Musalmans, 123,053, or 5 per cent.; and Christians, 86,979, or 
4 per cent. These last have increased twice as rapidly as the popula- 
tion as a whole. The District contains eleven females to every ten 
males, a higher proportion than is found anywhere else except in 
Ganjam, which is largely due to emigrants leaving their women behind 
them. The prevailing vernacular everywhere is Tamil. 

The number of towns and villages in the District is 2,529. The 
principal towns are the municipalities of Kumbakonam, Tanjore 
City (the administrative head-quarters), Negapatam, Mayavaram, and 
Mannargudi. Kumbakonam and Tanjore are growing more rapidly 
than other urban areas, the rate of increase of their population during 
the decade ending 1901 being respectively 10 and 6 per cent. ; but in 
the same period the population of Negapatam declined. The District 
is divided into the nine taluks of Tanjore, Kumbakonam, Maya- 
varam, Shiyali, Nannilam, Negapatam, Mannargudi, Tirutturaip- 
pundi, and Pattukkottai, each of which is called after its head-quarters. 
Statistics of these, according to the Census of 1901, are subjoined :— 



Taluk. 



Mayavaram . 

Shiyali 

Kumbakonam 

Negapatam 

Nannilam . 

Tanjore 

Mannargudi 

Tirutturaippundi 

Pattukkottai 

District total 



V 


Number o 


s*s 








c~ 


t/i 




— p 




b£ 


It " 


S 


rt 


u 





i-£ 


< 


2 


> 


283 


186 


171 


I 


96 


342 


2 


307 


240 


2 


189 


293 


2 


242 


689 


4 


362 


301 


I 


!93 


4»5 


3 


143 


906 


2 


792 


3,710 


*9 


2,5 ID 





U 


_• 


Sji 


_0 


gl 


Id 


•5 


3 
C 


3 3 


O 


o.~ 


fc 


1/1 




ft* 


247,019 


873 1 


116,563 


682 


375.03 1 


1,097 


217,607 


907 


214,788 


733 , 


4°7,°39 


59 J 


188,107 


625 I 


182,981 


377 


295,894 


327 

605 


2,245,029 



- E r, "• . 

We e -x o 

a'S'*i c "* 

u-C 3 t a 

£$1" 



+ 0-9 

- 2-7 

- 0.7 

— 1-2 

-0-6- 

- o-8 

— o-o 

+ 1.9 

+ 8-9 



+ o- 



v ta a h 

G C h > 
3 O £ " 



26,208 

10,236 

43»256 

2?,773 
22,212 

44, J 5 6 
18,023 

14,456 

18,608 



226,928 



Of the Hindu population, the most numerous castes are the field- 
labourer Paraiyans (310,000) and Pallans (160,000), and the agriculturist 
Vellalas (212,000), Pallis (235,000), and Kalians (188,000). Castes 



POPULATION 231 

which occur in greater strength here than in other Districts are the Tamil 
Brahmans, whose particular stronghold is Kumbakonam ; the Kar- 
aiyans, a fishing community ; the Nokkans, who were originally rope- 
dancers but are now usually cultivators, traders, or bricklayers ; and 
the Melakkarans, or professional musicians. A large number of Maratha 
Brahmans, who followed their invading countrymen hither, are found 
in Tanjore city. 

Less than the usual proportion of the inhabitants subsist from the 
land, but agriculture as usual largely predominates over other occupa- 
tions. Tanjore is not, however, an industrial centre ; and the per- 
centage of those who live by cultivation is reduced merely by the large 
number of traders, rice-pounders, goldsmiths, and other artisans who 
are found within it. It also includes an unusually high proportion of 
those who live by the learned and artistic professions or possess inde- 
pendent means. 

The Christian missions of Tanjore, both Protestant and Roman 
Catholic, are of unusual interest. The latter date from the days of 
St. Francis Xavier, who is said to have preached at Negapatam in the 
sixteenth century ; but it is doubtful whether the District was ever 
within the sphere of his personal activities. In the seventeenth century, 
however, the Portuguese certainly conducted missionary enterprise from 
Negapatam. But, as happened elsewhere, after the decline of the 
Portuguese power in India the various missionary societies were in- 
volved in disputes and their influence declined. The rivalry between 
the Goanese and the other missions has in recent years been put an 
end to by a Concordat, under which a few towns have been left to the 
Goanese under the Bishop of Mylapore, while the river Vettar has been 
made the boundary between the Jesuit mission under the Bishop of 
Madura and the French mission under the Bishop of Pondicherry. The 
Roman Catholic missions have been far more successful in proselytizing 
than those belonging to Protestant sects, their converts numbering 
86 per cent, of the Christian community. 

The first Protestant missionaries to visit the District were the 
Lutherans, Pliitschau and Ziegenbalg, who were sent out by the king 
of Denmark to Tranquebar in 1706. They were the first translators 
of the Bible into Tamil, and the mission founded by them was of no 
little importance throughout the eighteenth century. The most famous 
of its missionaries was Swartz. He was at one time chaplain to the 
English troops at Trichinopoly, but subsequently he connected himself 
with the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, and eventually 
returned to Tanjore as an English chaplain and founded the English 
mission there. Later, the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 
succeeded the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge as a mis- 
sionary organization in Tanjore. Eventually the Tranquebar Danish 



232 TAX/ORE DISTRICT 

Mission, which had long been declining, was in 1841 succeeded by the 
Dresden Society, which, under the name of the Leipzig Evangelical 
Lutheran Mission, has extended its operations to most of the stations 
formerly worked by its predecessor. A Methodist mission was estab- 
lished at Mannargudi in the third decade of the last century. 

More than half of the District consists of the delta of the Cauvery. 
This is almost entirely composed of alluvial soil, which in the west is 

. . a rich loam and gradually becomes more arenaceous 

Agriculture. .... . , . , , • -, , 

till it terminates in the blown sands of the coast ; 

a small tract of land between the Vettar and the Vennar is a mixture 
of alluvial soil and limestone. Rice is grown on these lands in both 
June and August, so as to take advantage of the two rainy seasons. 
The fertility of the delta depends almost entirely on the silt which is 
brought down by the Cauvery, but so rich is this deposit that the use 
of manure is extremely rare except occasionally in the case of double- 
crop lands. It would, .however, perhaps be more freely used if it were 
less expensive. The richest lands tend to lie towards the apex of the 
delta, where the rice-fields of Tiruvadi are called, by a Virgilian metaphor, 
' the breast of Tanjore ' ; and the fertility of the country decreases as 
the coast is reached, the deposits of silt from the water at the tail ends 
of the irrigation channels being neutralized by the influx of drainage 
water. The produce is poorest towards the south-west, a fact due both 
to the incompleteness of the irrigation system and to the greater dis- 
tance the water has to travel and the consequent reduction in the 
amount of silt carried. 

Except along the sandy coast of Pattukkottai, the non-deltaic part of 
the District is made up of red ferruginous soil, the irrigation of which 
depends on rain-fed tanks and precarious streams. In the delta by far 
the greater part of the land is under ' wet ' cultivation, and ' dry crops ' 
are frequent only outside it. The most fertile pieces of unirrigated 
land are the padugais, or strips of cultivation lying between the margins 
of the rivers and the flood embankments, which are annually submerged 
for some days by the silt-laden water. Tobacco, plantains, and bamboos 
are generally grown on these exceptionally rich fields. 

Land in Tanjore is mainly held on ryohvari tenure, the zamlnddri 
and inam areas covering only 1,239 square miles out of the District 
total of 3,710. Statistics for 1903-4 are given in the table on the 
next page, in square miles. 

Rice is the staple grain of the delta, being raised on 1,683 square 
miles, or 77 per cent, of the cropped area there ; it is indeed the most 
widely grown cereal in every taluk, though its preponderance is less in 
Tanjore and Pattukkottai. The rice chiefly consists of varieties of the 
two main kinds, usually known as kar and pisanam. Kdr rice is sown 
in June and reaped in September, while pisanam ripens more slowly 



AGRICULTURE 



; jj 



and is cut in February after seven months' growth. The latter com- 
mands a higher price ; but the kar rice requires more water, can be grown 
at a more favourable season of the year, and thus yields a much more 
abundant crop. Except between Tiruvadi and Kumbakonam, it is not 
usual to cultivate two crops on the same plot of land in the same year ; 
indeed seven-eighths of the delta consists of single-crop land. Over 
wide areas, however, the ryots adopt what is called udu cultivation, 
which consists in sowing two varieties of seed mixed together — one 
a quick-growing kind which matures in four months, and the other a 
kind which requires six months to ripen. The chief 'dry' cereals 
are varagu, cambu, and ragi ; the principal pulse, red gram ; and the 
most important industrial crops, gingelly and ground-nuts. In the non- 
deltaic area varagu is the grain most extensively cultivated, the area 
under it being 97 square miles. Some cholam is grown in Pattukkottai, 
Tanjore, Mannargudi, and Kumbakonam. Coco-nut palms and plan- 
tains are numerous ; and in the last-named taluk a moderate extent is 
cultivated with the Indian mulberry as a ' dry crop.' 



Taluk. 


Area 
shown in 
accounts. 


Cultivated. 


Irrigated. 


Cultivable 
waste. 


Forests. 


.Mayavaram . 
Shiyali . 
Kumbakonam 
Negapatam . 
Nannilam 
Tanjore 
Mannargudi . 
Tirutturaippundi . 
Pattukkottai . 

Total 


284 

17' 
343 
240 
294 

578 
300 
484 

74' 


241 
134 

279 
194 

250 

391 

245 

282 

4°3 


193 
94 
231 
143 
210 
162 

165 
124 
166 


2 
3 

5 
9 
2 

36 
9 

28 
1 10 


4 

5 
10 


3,435 


2,419 


1,488 


204 


19 



Except in the Tanjore and Tirutturaippundi taluks, where consider- 
able areas are unfit for cultivation, almost every yard of the delta has 
long been under the plough. Little extension of the area tilled is 
therefore possible. Nor have the agricultural methods in vogue shown 
any noteworthy advance, two matters which hinder improvement being 
that much of the District is owned by absentee landlords who sublet 
their properties, and that in a great deal of the rest the holdings have 
been minutely subdivided. Wells are not required, and there is little 
waste land to be reclaimed, and consequently the advances under the 
Loans Acts have never been considerable. 

The delta is so closely cultivated that it contains little grazing ground, 
and consequently few cattle or sheep are bred. Such animals as are 
reared locally are usually small, and plough bullocks are largely imported 
from elsewhere, chiefly from Mysore and Salem. An inferior class of 
ponies is bred in small numbers at Point Calimere. 



234 TAXJORE DISTRICT 

Of the total area under cultivation, 1,488 square miles, or 74 per 
cent., were irrigated in 1903-4. Of this extent, by far the greater 
portion (1,261 square miles) was watered from Government canals; 
the area supplied by tanks was only 194 square miles, and by wells 
30 square miles. The tanks and wells number respectively 734 and 
7,628, and are of comparatively small importance. They are found 
almost entirely in the upland tracts of the Tanjore and Pattukkottai 
taluks. 

As has been mentioned, the Cauvery and its branches are the princi- 
pal source of irrigation, nearly 98 per cent, of the area watered from 
canals being supplied from them. The works which have been con- 
structed to render the water of this river available for irrigation are 
referred to in the separate account of it. Briefly stated the position 
is this. The Cauvery throws off a branch, called the Coleroon, which 
forms the northern boundary of the District. This branch runs in 
a shorter course and at a lower level than the main stream, and conse- 
quently tends to draw off the greater part of the supply in the river. 
Two anicuts (or dams) have therefore been constructed to redress this 
tendency. One, called the Upper Anicut, crosses the Coleroon at the 
point where it branches off, and thus drives much of its water into 
the Cauvery ; and the other, known as the Grand Anicut, is built 
across a point at which the two rivers turn to meet one another and 
through which much of the supply in the Cauvery used to spill into 
the Coleroon. Together these two dams prevent the Coleroon from 
robbing its parent stream of the water which is so vitally important 
to the cultivation of Tanjore. The supply thus secured is distributed 
throughout the delta by a most elaborate series of main and lesser 
canals and channels. Many of these, including the Grand Anicut 
itself, were constructed by former native governments ; but the Upper 
Anicut and the many regulators and head-sluices which now so 
effectually control the distribution of the water are the work of English 
engineers. The Coleroon now serves mainly as a drainage channel 
to carry off the surplus waters of the Cauvery, but the Lower Anicut 
built across the latter part of its course irrigates a considerable area in 
South Arcot and also about 37 square miles in Tanjore. 

There are no forests of any importance in the District. In the taluks 
of Tanjore, Tirutturaippundi, and Shiyali, a few blocks of low jungle 
covering altogether 19 square miles are 'reserved'; but the growth 
in these is dense only at Vettangudi and Kodiyakadu, and the timber 
is not of any great value. The blocks are of some use as grazing land 
and for the supply of small fuel. 

Tanjore contains few minerals of importance. Quartz crystals are 
found at Vallam, and laterite and limestone (kankar) are abundant in 
the south-west of the District. In the Tanjore taluk yellow ochre is 



TRADE AND COMMUNICATIONS 235 

found, and gypsum of poor quality near Nagore. Along the Fudu- 
kkottai frontier iron is met with, but it is doubtful whether it could be 
remuneratively worked. 

The chief industries are weaving of various kinds and metal-work. 
Formerly Tanjore enjoyed a great reputation for its silks, but the 
District has suffered considerably from the decay of 

the textile industries which has followed the intro- Trade and 
, . , . . . . . . communications. 

auction of mineral dyes and the increasing importa- 
tion of cheap piece-goods from Europe. The dyers have suffered 
most, and this once prosperous craft is now virtually extinct, the 
weavers doing their own dyeing or buying ready-dyed thread. The 
cotton- and carpet-weaving were once of some note, but have declined 
equally with, if not more than, the silk industry. Kornad and Ayyam- 
pettai, once famous centres of silk- and carpet-weaving, have greatly 
diminished in activity and importance. On the other hand, the weav 
ing of the best embroidered silks, such as the gold- and silver-striped 
embroideries and the gold-fringed fabrics of Tanjore and Kumbakonam, 
shows no signs of becoming involved in the general decay. 

In metal-work Tanjore is said to know no rival in the South but 
Madura. The Madura artisan, however, devotes himself mainly to 
brass, whereas in Tanjore brass, copper, and silver are equally utilized. 
The subjects represented are usually the deities of the Hindu pantheon 
or conventional floral work. The characteristic work of the District 
is a variety in which figures and designs executed in silver or copper 
are affixed to a foundation of brass. The demand for these wares is 
almost entirely European. The chief seats of the metal industry are 
Tanjore city, Kumbakonam, and Mannargudi. 

Among minor industries the bell-metal of Pisanattur and the manu- 
facture of musical instruments and pith models and toys deserve 
mention. The pith models of the temple at Tanjore are well-known. 
The printing presses at Tanjore and Tranquebar employ a large num- 
ber of hands, and in this respect the District is second only to Madras 
City and is rivalled only by Malabar. 

As distinguished from arts, manufactures are few. The South 
Indian Railway workshops, which for nearly forty years have been 
located at Negapatam, have contributed much to the prosperity of that 
now declining town. 

Tanjore has the advantage from a commercial point of view of being 
situated on the coast and of being intersected by numerous railways. 
It possesses altogether fifteen ports, of which Negapatam is by far 
the most important. Tranquebar, Nagore, Muttupet, Adirampatnam, 
and Ammapatam are, however, ports of some pretensions. The chief 
centres of land trade, besides Negapatam, are Tanjore, Kumbakonam, 
Mayavaram, and Mannargudi. Most of the trade, both by land and 

VOL. XXIII. Q 



236 TAN/ORE DISTRICT 

sea, is in the hands of the Chettis and the Musalman community of 
the Marakkayans, the latter being very prominent in the coast towns. 

The railways naturally take a large share in the carriage of articles 
of internal and general inland trade, and the local distribution of 
commodities is effected by weekly markets managed either by private 
agency or by the local boards. The chief articles of inland export 
are rice, betel-leaf, ground-nuts, oil, metal vessels, and cloths. The 
ground-nuts are sent to Pondicherry for export to Europe by sea, but 
the other commodities go by rail to all parts of Southern India. The 
inland imports are mainly salt from Tuticorin, gingelly and cotton seed 
from Mysore and Tinnevelly, kerosene oil from Madras, tamarinds 
and timber from the West Coast, and ghi, chillies, pulses, and lamp-oil 
from the neighbouring Districts. 

The total exports by sea in 1903-4 were valued at 117 lakhs. Of 
this, Ceylon took rice to the value of 6\ lakhs and half a lakh's worth 
of coco-nuts. Most of this trade was conducted from Negapatam. 
Besides rice, the principal exports from that port were cotton piece- 
goods, live-stock, g/il, cigars, tobacco, and skins. Large quantities 
of all these articles are the produce of other Districts and are only 
brought through Tanjore for shipment. The imports in the same year 
amounted to 54 lakhs. At Negapatam the most important of these 
were areca-nuts, timber, and cotton piece-goods, while Adirampatnam 
and Muttupet received a fair quantity of gunny-bags and areca-nuts. 
The trade of Negapatam is mostly with Ceylon, the Straits Settlements, 
and Burma ; but it deals to a small extent with the United Kingdom 
and Spain. The other ports either subsist on traffic with Ceylon or 
confine themselves to coasting trade. The District is not at present 
as important a centre of maritime commerce as formerly ; for the 
development of the port of Tuticorin has deprived it of much of its 
commerce, and the opening of the railway from the northern Districts 
of the Presidency has resulted in the carriage by land of many classes 
of goods which were formerly imported by sea at Negapatam. 

Tanjore is unusually well supplied with railways, all of them on 
the metre gauge. The South Indian Railway, the direct route between 
Madras and Tuticorin, traverses the District from north to west, 
passing through the towns of Mayavaram, Kumbakonam, and Tanjore. 
An older line connects Tanjore with Negapatam, and this has recently 
been extended to the neighbouring port of Nagore. A railway branches 
off from Mayavaram and runs southward as far as Arantangi, a total 
distance of 99 miles. This was constructed jointly by the District 
board and the Government as far as Muttupet, and was owned by them 
in common till 1900, when the board acquired the exclusive ownership 
by purchase and commenced the further extension to Arantangi. The 
funds for its original construction and for the extension now in progress 



A DMINISTRA TION 2 3 7 

were raised by the levy of a cess of three pies in the rupee of the 
assessment on land in occupation, in addition to the cess of nine pies in 
the rupee collected for local purposes under the Local Boards Act. 
The undertaking was the first of its kind in India, and has proved 
such a financial success, the profits earned in 1902-3 being 4§ percent, 
on the capital outlay, that other District boards are following the 
example and levying a cess for similar purposes, and the Tanjore board 
itself is contemplating the extension of its system. The French port of 
Karikal has been linked with Peralam on the District board railway, 
and a short branch from Tanjore to the Pillaiyarpatti laterite quarry, 
5 miles in length, is used for bringing road-metal to the main line. 

The total length of metalled roads in the District is 206 miles, and of 
unmetalled 1,531. Of these, 1,407 miles are lined with avenues of 
trees. With the exception of 182 miles of the unmetalled tracks, 
the whole of them are maintained from Local funds. The proportion 
of metalled to unmetalled roads is very low, owing to the extreme 
scarcity among the alluvial deposits, of which so much of the District 
consists, of any kind of stone suitable for road-making. The roads 
are often interrupted by the many rivers and channels which intersect 
the delta, and numerous bridges have accordingly been erected. That 
across the Grand Anicut, built in 1839, and consisting of thirty arches 
of a span of 32 feet each, is the most considerable of these. 

More than half of the District is protected from famine by the 
irrigation system already referred to. The devastations of Haidar All 
in 1 781 caused perhaps the only real scarcity of food 
it has ever known. In the great famine of 1877, 
while in other Districts people were dying by thousands of want which 
no human power could alleviate, not only was the relief required in 
Tanjore insignificant in amount, but the high prices of grain which 
prevailed brought exceptional prosperity to the owners of the unfailing 
lands of the delta. The crops, it is true, were lost in the Pattukkottai 
taluk and the uplands, but the inhabitants of these tracts found work 
in the fields of the neighbouring delta. This south-east corner of the 
District is poorly protected, but the proximity of the irrigated land 
in the delta prevents the people from ever suffering seriously. 

The District is divided into six administrative subdivisions. Of the 
officers in charge of them, two or three are members of the Indian 
Civil Service, the others being Deputy-Collectors 
recruited in India. The three subdivisions of Tan- 
jore, Kumbakonam, and Pattukkottai consist only of the single taluk 
after which each is named ; the Negapatam subdivision includes the 
taluk of that name and also Nannilam ; the Mannargudi subdivision is 
made up of Mannargudi and Tirutturaippundi taluks ; and the Maya- 
varam subdivision of that taluk and Shiyali. At the head-quarters of 

o. 2 



238 TAXJORE DISTRICT 

each taluk there is a tahsllddr and a stationary sub-magistrate, and 
deputy-ta/isi/ddrs with magisterial powers are posted in every taluk 
except Shiyali. The superior staff of the District varies slightly from 
the normal. Owing to the amount of work caused by the elaborate 
irrigation system, two Executive Engineers are necessary, one at 
Tanjore and the other at Negapatam. A Civil Surgeon resides at 
Negapatam (where there is a considerable European population), in 
addition to the District Medical and Sanitary officer ; but the forests of 
Tanjore are of such small extent that for forest purposes the District 
is attached to Trichinopoly. 

Civil justice is administered by a District Judge, three Sub-Judges, 
and eleven District Munsifs. The people of Tanjore, like those of 
other wealthy areas in the Presidency, are extremely litigious, and the 
work of the courts is heavy. In addition to suits of the usual classes, 
cases under the Tenancy Act VIII of 1865 are very frequent, especially 
in Kumbakonam. They are mostly due to the system of absentee 
landlordism and sub-tenancies which has grown up round the ryotwari 
tenure in this wealthy District. Serious crime is less common in 
Tanjore than in any other District in the Presidency, and ordinary 
thefts constitute more than half of the total number of cases. 

From the earliest times, as far as can be ascertained, the mirdsi 
system, which is in some essentials similar to the ryotwari tenure, 
obtained in Tanjore District as a whole. It is probably as old as 
the Chola dynasty, but it can only be proved to date back to Maratha 
times. The system appears to have been based on a theory of joint 
communal ownership by the villagers proper (the mirasiddrs) of all the 
village land, and in former times often involved the joint management 
of the common lands or their distribution at stated intervals among the 
villagers for cultivation. But in spite of this communistic colouring 
the system always involved a scale of individual rights to specific shares 
in the net fruits (however secured) of the general property, and herein 
lay all the essential elements of private ownership of land. It was only 
a matter of detail to be settled in the village whether a villager's share was 
described in terms of crops or lands, and it seems to have come about 
gradually that lands were everywhere assigned permanently as the share 
and private property of the mirdsiddr. Such a system was equally 
well adapted for the taxation of the villagers in a body or of each 
individual ryot. 

Under the early Maratha rulers the productive capacity of all the 
' wet ' lands in each village was assessed in the gross at a certain 
quantity of grain or grain standard, which was divided between the 
state and the cultivator at certain rates of division (vdram), the state 
share being converted into money at a commutation price fixed each 
year. The ' dry ' lands were assessed at fixed rates, or had to pay the 



AD MINIS TRA TION 239 

value of a fixed share of the actual harvest each year according to the 
nature of the crop grown. The revenue history of the District has 
largely consisted of variations in the grain standard of the ' wet ' lands 
and modifications in the rates of division and commutation price. 
The ryots had gradually succeeded in reducing their payments con- 
siderably before the short period of Muhammadan rule (1773-6); but 
the iron hand of Muhammad All succeeded in exacting a larger land 
revenue than has, as far as we know, ever been obtained before or 
since. He altered the system by demanding a specified share, not of 
the estimated produce or grain standard, but of the actual harvest. 
The restored Marathas tried to retain this system, but were com- 
pelled by popular resistance to return to the old grain standard. From 
1 781 to the cession to the English a new pathak system was introduced 
by leasing the revenue of one or more villages to farmers (pathakdars), 
with the object of encouraging cultivation after the desolating effects of 
Haidar All's invasion. This was for a time successful in its object, but 
quickly became a source of abuse, and was abolished as soon as the 
British obtained the country. The latter began by reviving Muham- 
mad All's system (1800-4), in order to gather information about the 
real productive power of the land, and then levied money rents imposed 
in gross on the ' wet ' lands of the whole village on leases of varying 
lengths till 1822-3. In that year the productive value of the 'wet' 
lands in each village was elaborately recalculated and a money assess- 
ment was thereby fixed on each village, which was to vary with con- 
siderable variations in the price of grain. This was called the olungu 
settlement, and it was extended to nearly the whole of the District, 
some villages being permitted to pay a grain rent on the old Maratha 
system and some to pay the value of a share of the actual harvest. It 
was followed in 1828-30 by the mottamfaisal settlement, which was 
accompanied by a survey and was intended to resemble the scientific 
ryotwdri settlements of other Districts. In effect, however, it consisted 
only in a modification of the olungu assessments, together with a rule 
that whatever changes there might be in the price of grain the new 
assessments were not to vary. The assessments were also distributed 
in a few villages among the actual fields. This settlement was at 
first applied only to a part of the District, the rest remaining under the 
olungu ; but it was extended to all but a few villages of exceptional 
character in 1859. The olungu ryots were at that time at a great 
disadvantage owing to the high prices, and gladly acquiesced in the 
change. Pallas (title-deeds) to individual ryots were first given in 
1865, and from that date the revenue system of the District hardly 
differed in principle from that found elsewhere. Meanwhile varying 
policies had been adopted in the administration of the less important 
' dry ' lands ; but both ' wet ' and ' dry ' were brought into line with 



240 



TANJORE DISTRICT 



the rest of the Presidency by the new settlement of 1894. As a 
preliminary to this settlement a survey commenced in 1883, by which 
accurate measurements of the fields were first obtained. The survey 
disclosed that the actual area under cultivation was 5 per cent, more 
than that shown in the accounts ; and the settlement enhanced the total 
revenue by 7,2, per cent., or about 15-^ lakhs of rupees. The present 
average assessment per acre on ' dry ' land is Rs. 1-7-8 (maximum Rs. 7, 
minimum 4 annas), that on ' wet ' land in the delta Rs. 7 (maximum 
Rs. 14, minimum Rs. 3), and in non-deltaic tracts Rs. 3-6-1 1 (maximum 
Rs. 7, minimum Rs. 3). 

The revenue from land and the total revenue in recent years are 
given below, in thousands of rupees : — 





1880-1. 


1 890- 1. 


1 900- 1. 


1903-4. 


Land revenue . 
Total revenue . 


49.97 
69.76 


S 3. 1 ' 
76,51 


70,47 
99,4 s 


68,25 
104,92 



There are five municipalities in the District : namely, Tanjore City, 
Kumbakonam, Negapatam, Mayavaram, and Mannargudi. Beyond 
municipal limits local affairs are managed by the District board and 
the six taluk boards of Tanjore, Kumbakonam, Negapatam, Maya- 
varam, Mannargudi, and Pattukkottai, the charge of each of the latter 
being conterminous with one of the administrative subdivisions already 
mentioned. The total expenditure of these boards in 1903-4 was 
about 15 lakhs, the principal item being the District board railway 
and its extension, on which 7 lakhs was spent. Apart from the 
municipalities, 19 groups of villages have been constituted Unions, 
administered by panchayats under the supervision of the taluk boards. 

The control of the police is vested in the District Superintendent at 
Tanjore City, an Assistant Superintendent at Negapatam being in 
immediate charge of the five southern taluks. The force numbers 
1,184 constables, working in 75 stations under 18 inspectors. The 
reserve police at Tanjore city number 96 men. There are also 2,013 
rural police. The District jail is at Tanjore city, and 18 subsidiary 
jails have accommodation for 358 prisoners. 

According to the Census of 1901, Tanjore District stands next to 
Madras City in regard to literacy, io-i per cent, of the population 
(20-3 per cent, of the males and 0-9 per cent, of the females) being 
able to read and write. There is not much difference among the 
various taluks in this respect, except that Pattukkottai is far behind 
the others. The total number of pupils under instruction in 1 880-1 
was 29,125 ; in 1890-1, 47,670 ; in 1900-1, 61,390; and in 1903-4, 
70,938. On March 31, 1904, the District contained 1,182 primary 
schools, 78 secondary and 7 special schools, besides 3 training schools 



TANJORE TALUK 241 

for masters and 3 Arts colleges. The girls in these numbered 8,092. 
There were, besides, 585 private schools, 52 of these being classed as 
advanced, with 13,334 pupils, of whom 1,302 were girls. Of the 1,273 
institutions classed as public, 1 1 were managed by the Educational 
department, 153 by local boards, and 27 by municipalities, while 596 
were aided from public funds, and 486 were unaided but conformed to 
the rules of the department. The great majority of pupils are in 
primary classes ; but the number who have advanced beyond that 
stage is unusually large, the District in this respect, as in education 
generally, being in advance of all others except Madras City. Of the 
male population of school-going age 25 per cent, were in the primary 
stage of instruction, and of the female population of the same age 
4 per cent. Among Musalmans (including those at Koran schools), 
the corresponding percentages were 99 and 13. There are 158 
special schools for Panchamas in the District, with 4,114 Panchama 
pupils of both sexes. The Arts Colleges are the Government College 
at Kumbakonam, St. Peter's College at Tanjore, and the Findlay Col- 
lege at Mannargudi. The total expenditure on education in 1903-4 
was Rs. 5,22,000, of which Rs. 2,53,000 was derived from fees. Of 
the total, Rs. 2,43,000 (47 percent.) was devoted to primary education. 

Sixteen hospitals and 22 dispensaries, with accommodation for 398 
in-patients, are maintained by the local boards and municipalities. A 
medical training school is attached to the hospital at Tanjore city. 
In 1903 the number of cases treated was 411,000, of whom 5,200 were 
in-patients, and 17,000 operations were performed. The expenditure 
was Rs. 87,000, the greater part of which was met from Local and 
municipal funds. 

In 1903-4 the number of persons successfully vaccinated was 
34 per 1,000 of the population. Vaccination is not compulsory except 
in the five municipalities. 

[F. R. Hemingway, District Gazetteer (1906).] 

Tanjore Taluk. — Western taluk and subdivision of Tanjore 
District, Madras, lying between io° 26' and io° 55' N. and 78 47' and 
79 22' E., with an area of 689 square miles. The population in 1901 
was 407,039, compared with 410,447 in 1891. There are 362 villages 
and four considerable towns: Tanjore City (population, 57,870), the 
head-quarters of both the District and the taluk; the sacred town of 
Tiruvadi (7,821) ; Vallam, where the Collector resides (7,590) ; and 
Ayyampettai (9,454), famous for its carpets and mats. The demand 
for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 10,16,000. 
The taluk differs from others in the District in the large number of the 
thief-caste Kalians it contains. It is divisible into two well-marked 
sections, the first including much of the apex of the Cauvery delta, 
and the second running up in the south and west to dry uplands 



242 TAX/ORE TALUK 

resembling those of the Pattukkottai taluk. These two tracts are 
sharply contrasted, and the taluk contains some of the best land in the 
District and also large tracts of the worst. There is more ' dry ' land 
than irrigated, and 47 per cent, of the former is assessed at R. 1 an 
acre or less. Rice is more widely grown even here than any other 
crop ; but a large area is under cambu, ragi, ground-nuts, and red gram, 
the last of which is an unusual grain in this District. 

Tanjore City (Tanjavur). — Head-quarters of the District and taluk 
of the same name in Madras, situated in 10^47' N. and 79 8' E., on 
the main line of the South Indian Railway, 218 miles from Madras 
and 226 from Tuticorin. The population in 1871 was 52,175; in 1881, 
54,745; in 1891, 54,390; and in 1901, 57,870. Tanjore now ranks 
as the eighth largest town in the Presidency. Eighty-five per cent, of 
the population are Hindus, there being only 3,600 Musalmans, 4,796 
Christians, and 154 Jains. Tanjore was successively the capital of the 
Chola, Naik, and Maratha powers. It stood a siege by Chanda Sahib 
and the French in 1749, and by the French under Lally in 1758, and 
was afterwards captured by Colonel Joseph Smith in 1773, though 
it was restored in 1776 to the Maratha Raja. In 1799, when Sara- 
bhojl, the Raja of Tanjore, ceded his territory to the British by treaty, 
he retained the city in his own hands. It lapsed to the British 
Government in 1855 on the death of his son, Sivajl, without heirs. 
Four surviving queens, besides other members of the family, still occupy 
the palace in the centre of the fort. There are two halls in this palace, 
known as the Maratha and Naik Darbar Halls, in the latter of which 
stands a statue of SarabhojT by Chantrey. The building also contains 
an armoury, and a library of 22,000 volumes in several Indian and 
European languages, principally Sanskrit. 

Within the great fort, now dismantled, is a smaller erection called 
the Sivaganga fort. It encloses the sacred Sivaganga tank and the 
famous Brihadiswaraswami temple. The inscriptions on the walls of 
the latter ascribe its construction to the Chola king, Rajaraja I, in the 
eleventh century. It is built on a well-defined and stately plan, which 
was persevered with till its completion, an unusual feature in Dravidian 
temples. It consists of two courts, of which the first, originally 
devoted to minor shrines and residences, was converted into an arsenal 
by the French in 1772, and has not been reappropriated to sacred 
purposes. The temple proper stands in the second courtyard, sur- 
mounted by a tower 200 feet high. The carvings on this tower are all 
Vaishnavite, but everything in the courtyard, as well as the idol itself, 
is Saivite. Strangely enough, there is a figure on the northern side of 
the tower which appears to be that of a European, the popular expla- 
nation of which anachronism is that the eleventh-century architect 
foresaw the advent of the British. In front of the temple is a huge 



TANJORE CITY 243 

monolith representing Siva's bull Nandi, and behind it is a shrine 
dedicated to Subrahmanya, 'as exquisite a piece of decorative archi- 
tecture as is to be found in the South of India.' The great temple 
contains a very large number of ancient inscriptions of the Chola and 
other dynasties. Most of these have been deciphered, and many have 
been published in the second volume of Dr. Hultzsch's South Indian 
Inscriptions. 

Under the native dynasties, Tanjore was considered the home of the 
fine arts. It still produces skilful artisans. In metal-work and in the 
manufacture of musical instruments the place is perhaps unrivalled in 
the Presidency ; and its silk-weaving, lace, embroidery, jewellery, pith- 
work, and artificial garlands have a deservedly high reputation. 

Tanjore was made the District head-quarters in i860, five years after 
it came into the hands of the British, and possesses the usual staff of 
officials. There is a District jail which will hold 333 prisoners, with 
room in its hospital and observation cells, respectively, for 15 and 
19 more. The present city consists of the fort and two suburbs, 
Karantattangudi in the north, where the Brahman quarter is situated, 
and Manambuchavadi in the south-east, where Europeans reside. 
The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, the Methodists, the 
Lutherans, and the Roman Catholics all have mission stations here. 
The first of these is the successor of the mission founded in 17 78 by 
the famous Swartz, who resided chiefly in Tanjore from that date to 
his death in 1798, and to whose memory a marble monument by 
Flaxman, representing Raja Sarabhoji's last visit to the dying mission- 
ary, stands in the Swartz Church within the fort. St. Peter's College, 
founded as an English school by Swartz in the eighteenth century, rose 
to be a second-grade college in 1864 and a first-grade college ten years 
later. It was affiliated to the University of Madras in 1880, and has 
an average attendance of 130 in the college classes and 238 in the 
lower classes. It has throughout been managed by the Society for 
the Propagation of the Gospel. There are also an English high school 
maintained by private agency, a training school for teachers, and 
a technical institute. 

Tanjore was constituted a municipality in 1866. The receipts and 
expenditure during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 1,33,000 
and Rs. 1,34,000 respectively. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 1,03,000, 
including the house and land taxes (Rs. 27,000), the vehicle and 
animal tax (Rs. 7,500), tolls (Rs. 17,000), water rate (Rs. 19,000), 
and markets and slaughter-houses (Rs. 11,500). The main heads of 
expenditure were water-supply (Rs. 20,000), conservancy (Rs. 21,500), 
roads and buildings (Rs. 10,700), and education (Rs. 11,000), out of 
a total of Rs. 96,000. The city is now supplied with water pumped 
from wells sunk in the bed of the Vennar. The works were opened 



244 TAN JO RE CITY 

in 1895 an d cost about 3^ lakhs. The expenditure on water-supply 
for the succeeding eight years, inclusive of extensions, averaged 
Rs. 26,600, and the receipts Rs. 15,900. A system of drainage for the 
fort was carried out in 1840 during the Raja's time ; and a scheme for 
the disposal of the sewage on a farm at a cost of Rs. 3,34,000 has been 
investigated, but is in abeyance for want of funds. The principal 
hospital was founded and endowed by public subscription in 1880, 
and is under the management of the District board. It contains 144 
beds, and has attached to it a medical school, the staff of which was 
recently reorganized and considerably strengthened. 

Tank Tahsil. — Subdivision and tahsil of Dera Ismail Khan 
District, North-West Frontier Province, lying between 32 and 32 
30' N. and 70 4' and 70 43' E., with an area of 572 square miles. 
It is bounded on the west by Wazlristan, and occupies the north- 
western corner of the District, at the foot of the Sulaiman Hills. The 
country long lay uninhabited, there being little to tempt any settlers in 
so barren a tract ; but it was finally occupied by Pathan tribes from 
the western hills. The tahsil was formerly a semi-independent State, 
and its Nawabs belonged to the Kati Khel section of the Daulat Khel 
clan, the most powerful of the original settlers, who gradually expelled 
all the rest. The last Nawab, Shah Nawaz Khan, who died in 1882, 
is said to have been twentieth in descent from Daulat Khan, who gave 
his name to the tribe. His family first assumed the tribal headship in 
the person of Katal Khan, great-grandfather of Shah Nawaz. His son, 
Sarwar Khan, a remarkable man, devoted himself throughout a long 
reign to the amelioration of his territory and his tribesmen. Under 
his sway the Daulat Khel changed from a pastoral to an agricultural 
people, and they still revere his memory, making his acts and laws the 
standard of excellence in government. Sarwar Khan towards the end 
of his life found it necessary to tender his submission to the Sikhs, 
after their occupation of Dera Ismail Khan, and his tribute was fixed 
at Rs. 12,000; but before his death (1836) it was gradually enhanced, 
as the Sikh power consolidated itself, to Rs. 40,000 per annum. 
Sarwar Khan was succeeded by his son Aladad Khan ; and at the 
same time Nao Nihal Singh, who was then in Bannu, raised the 
demand to a lakh. Aladad Khan was unable to meet the demand 
and fled to the hills, where he found a refuge among the Mahsuds. 
Tank was then given in j'dgfr to Nao Nihal Singh ; but Aladad kept 
up such a constant guerrilla warfare from the hills that the Sikh grantee 
at last threw up his possession in disgust. Malik Fateh Khan Tiwana 
then for a time seized Tank, but he was ousted by Daulat Rai, son of 
Diwan Lakhi Mai, the Sikh governor ; and it was made over to three 
dependants of the Nawabs of Dera, Shah Nawaz Khan, the son of 
Aladad (who had died meanwhile), being left a beggar. In 1846, 



TANS A LAKE 245 

however, the exiled chief attached himself to Lieutenant (afterwards 
Sir Herbert) Edwardes, who procured his appointment by the Lahore 
Darbar to the governorship of Tank. After the annexation of the 
Punjab, the British Government confirmed Shah Nawaz Khan in his 
post as governor ; and he thenceforward enjoyed a semi-independent 
position, retaining a portion of the revenues, and entrusted with the 
entire internal administration, as well as with the protection of the 
border. The results, however, proved unsatisfactory, as regards both 
the peace of the frontier and the conduct of the administration. 
A scheme was accordingly introduced for remodelling the relations of 
the State. The Nawab's income was increased, but he was deprived 
of all administrative powers, retaining only those of an honorary 
magistrate. Tank thus became an ordinary tahsll of Dera Ismail Khan 
District. It consists of a naturally dry and uninviting plain, intersected 
by ravines and low ranges of stony hills which here and there traverse 
the plain. By assiduous cultivation, however, it has acquired an aspect 
of prosperity and greenness which distinguishes it strongly from the 
neighbouring tahsll of Kulachi. The population in 1901 was 48,467, 
compared with 43,725 in 1891. The head-quarters are at Tank Town 
(population, 4,402), and the tahsll also contains 78 villages. The land 
revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 67,000. 

Tank Town. — -Head-quarters of the subdivision and tahsll of 
the same name in Dera Ismail Khan District, North-West Frontier 
Province, situated in 32 13' N. and 70 32' E. Population (1901), 
4,402. It stands on the left bank of a ravine which issues from 
the Tank Zam pass, 40 miles north-west of Dera Ismail Khan town. 
It was founded by Katal Khan, first Nawab of Tank. A mud wall 
surrounds the town, 12 feet in height and 7 feet thick, with nume- 
rous towers and two or three gates, but it is in bad repair. The 
fort, now in ruins, is an enormous pile of mud about 250 yards 
square. The walls, faced with brick, enclose a citadel 40 feet high. 
Tank was declared a 'notified area' in 1893. The municipal in- 
come in 1903-4 was Rs. 11,500, chiefly derived from octroi; and 
the expenditure was Rs. 9,100. Timber and ghl are brought down 
from the hills of Waziristan in considerable quantities, while the 
exports include grain, cloth, tobacco, and other luxuries. Sir Henry 
Durand, Lieutenant-Governor of the Punjab, lost his life here in 
1870, from injuries received while passing on an elephant under 
a gateway. He was buried at Dera Ismail Khan. The military 
garrison has lately been withdrawn, and the post is now held by 
border military police. 

Tanna. — District and town in Bombay Presidency. See Thana. 

Tansa Lake. — An artificial lake in Thana District, Bombay, lying 
between 19 32' and 19 36' N. and 73 14' and 73 iS' E., 53 



246 TANS A LAKE 

miles north-east of Bombay City. It has been constructed by throw- 
ing a dam across the Tansa river at a point behind the Mahuli 
hills. It was completed in 1892 and has a catchment area of 52^, 
and a water area of 5A square miles, with a storage capacity of about 
18,000 million gallons. The dam is 118 feet high and 1^ miles long. 
The existing aqueduct has a carrying capacity of 42 million gallons 
a day. The works cost nearly a crore and a half. 

Tantabin. — Karen township of Toungoo District, Lower Burma, 
lying between 18 35' and 19 4' N. and 96 27' and 97 9" E., 
with an area of 647 square miles. It extends from the Sittang river 
to the mountain barrier bounding Karenni ; and all but the plain of 
the Sittang in the west, some 10 miles broad, is hilly and populated 
by Karens. The rice lands in the plain are cultivated by the Burmans, 
while the Karens practise taungya or shifting cultivation on the high- 
lands. The population was 18,478 in 1891, and 24,686 in 1901, 
equally divided into Karens (three-fourths of whom are Christians) 
and Burmans. The number of villages is 159, Tantabin (population, 
994) being the head-quarters. The area cultivated in 1903-4 was 
45 square miles, paying Rs. 48,000 land revenue. 

Tanuku Taluk. — Delta taluk of Kistna District, Madras, lying 
between 16 35' and 16 59' N. and 8i° 23' and 8i° 50' E., with 
an area of 371 square miles. The population in 1901 was 238,758, 
compared with 204,048 in 1891. It contains 174 villages, of which 
Tanuku is the head-quarters. The demand on account of land revenue 
and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 11,79,000. The taluk is very 
fertile, and is commanded by the irrigation system from the Godavari 
river. Nidadavolu, at the end of the main canal and on the railway, 
contains a large rice factory. The chief crops are rice, other cereals, 
oil-seeds, and sugar-cane. 

Taping. — River of Burma, which rises in China about latitude 25 
N., and flows in a south-westerly direction through the Kachin Hills 
and Bhamo District into the Irrawaddy, which it reaches 2 miles 
above the town of Bhamo. It enters the Irrawaddy plain at Myothit, 
and up to this point is navigable for launches in the rains. The river 
is about 150 miles in length, its course in British territory being about 
one-third of its total length. In the flood season the stream is erratic, 
and villages on its banks have at tines been washed away by the 
shifting of its channel. 

Tappa. — Thakurdt in the Bhopai. Agencv, Central India. 

Tapti. — One of the great rivers of Western India. The name is 
derived from tap, ' heat, ? and the Tapti is said by the Brahmans to 
have been created by the sun to protect himself from his own warmth. 
The Tapti is believed to rise in the sacred tank of Multai (mulfapi, 
' the source of the Tapti ') on the Satpura plateau, but its real source is 



TAPTI 247 

two miles distant (21° 48' N. and 78 15' E.). It flows in a westerly 
direction through the Betiil District of the Central Provinces, at first 
traversing an open and partially cultivated plain, and then plunging 
into a rocky gorge of the Satpura Hills between the Kalibhit range 
in Nimar (Central Provinces) and Chikalda in Berar. Its bed here is 
rocky, overhung by steep banks, and bordered by forests. At a dis- 
tance of 120 miles from its source it enters the Nimar District of the 
Central Provinces, and for 30 miles more is still confined in a com- 
paratively narrow valley. A few miles above Burhanpur the valley 
opens out, the Satpura Hills receding north and south, and opposite 
that town the river valley has become a fine rich basin of alluvial soil 
about 20 miles wide. In the centre of this tract the Tapti flows 
between the towns of Burhanpur and Zainabad, and then passes into 
the Khandesh District of Bombay. In its upper valley are several 
basins of exceedingly rich soil ; but they have long been covered by 
forest, and it is only lately that the process of clearing them for cultiva- 
tion has been undertaken. 

Shortly after entering Khandesh the Tapti receives on the left 
bank the Purna from the hills of Berar, and then flows for about 
150 miles through a broad and fertile valley, bounded on the north 
by the Satpuras and on the south by the Satmalas. Farther on the 
hills close in, and the river descends through wild and wooded country 
for about 80 miles, after which it sweeps southwards to the sea through 
the alluvial plain of Surat District, becoming tidal for the last 
30 miles of its course. The banks (30 to 60 feet) are too high for 
irrigation, while the bed is crossed at several places by ridges of 
rock, so that the river is navigable for only about 20 miles from the 
sea. The Tapti runs so near the foot of the Satpuras that its tribu- 
taries on the right bank are small ; but on the left bank, after its 
junction with the Purna, it receives through the Girna (150 miles 
long) the drainage of the hills of Baglan, and through the Bori, the 
Panjhra, and the Borai, that of the northern buttress of the Western 
Ghats. The waters of the Girna and the Panjhra are dammed up 
in several places and used for irrigation. On the lower course of 
the Tapti floods are not uncommon, and have at times done much 
damage to the city of Surat. The river is crossed at Bhusawal by 
the Jubbulpore branch of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, at 
Savalda by the Bombay-Agra road, and at Surat by the Bombay, 
Baroda, and Central India Railway. The Tapti has a local reputa- 
tion for sanctity, the chief lirthas or holy places being Changdeo, 
at the confluence with the Purna, and Bodhan above Surat. The 
fort of Thalner and the city of Surat are the places of most historic 
note on its course, the total length of which is 436 miles. The port 
of Suvali (Swally), famous in early European commerce with India, 



248 TAPTI 

and the scene of a famous sea-fight between the British and the 
Portuguese, lay at the mouth of the river, but is now deserted, its 
approaches having silted up. 

Tapun. — Northern township of Tharrawaddy District, Lower Burma, 
bordering on Prome District, lying between i8° 15' and 18 47' N. and 
95° 22' and 95 58' E., with an area of 694 square miles. Except 
in the east, where the forests of the Pegu Yoma cover the ground, 
it is a level plain. The population was 60,127 in 1891, and 67,589 
in 1 90 1. It contains 327 villages, of which the largest is Tapun 
(population, 1,697), tne head-quarters, lying 9 miles to the west of 
the railway line, which runs north-west and south-east through the 
township. The area cultivated in 1903-4 was 97 square miles, paying 
Rs. 1,20,000 land revenue. 

Tarabganj. — Southern tahsll of Gondii District, United Provinces, 
comprising the parganas of Nawabganj, Mahadeva, Digsir, and 
Guwarich, and lying between 26 46' and 27 10' N. and 8i° $$' 
and 82 18' E., with an area of 627 square miles. Population fell 
from 385,560 in 1891 to 364,993 in 1901. There are 546 villages 
and three towns, Nawabganj (population, 7,047) and Colonelganj 
(6,817) being the largest. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was 
Rs. 4,17,000, and for cesses Rs. 43,000. The density of population, 
582 persons per square mile, is considerably above the District average. 
A small portion of the tahsll lies in the central upland, but most 
of it is included in the tarhar or lowland tract. A small ' reserved ' 
forest of about 15 square miles is situated in the east of the tahsll. 
In ordinary years irrigation is required only for the more valuable 
crops, and in seasons of excessive rain considerable damage is caused 
by floods or blight. The southern boundary is formed by the Gogra, 
which has a very variable channel. The Chamnai, Manwar, Tirhi, 
and Sarju or Suhell also drain this tahsll. In 1903-4 the area under 
cultivation was 367 square miles, of which 93 were irrigated, wells 
being the chief source of supply. 

Taragarh. — Old hill fortress overlooking Ajmer City. 

Tarahuwan. — Village in the Karwl tahsll of Banda District, United 
Provinces. See KarwI Town. 

Tarai. — Southern portion of Nairn Ta.1 District, United Provinces, 
comprising the parganas of Bazpur, Gadarpur, Kichha, Kilpurl, Nanak- 
mata, and Bilherl, and lying between 2 8° 45' and 29 26' N. and 
78 5' and 8o° 5' E., with an area of 776 square miles. Population 
fell from 137,396 in 1891 to 118,422 in 1901. There are 404 villages, 
but no town. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 70,000, 
and for cesses Rs. 1,700. The density of population, 153 persons per 
square mile, is lower than in the adjacent tracts to the south. The 
Tarai is a damp malarious region which can be safely inhabited only 



TARANA 249 

for certain parts of the year, except by the Tharus and Boksas. The 
drainage of the Outer Himalayas, after sinking to an unknown depth in 
the boulder-beds of the Bhabar, reappears here in a line of springs which 
gradually form into small streams, from which canals are drawn. Rice 
is the great staple of cultivation. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation 
was 195 square miles, of which 38 were irrigated, chiefly from canals. 
Most of the Tarai is managed as a Government estate, and the rents 
amount to about 2-5 lakhs in addition to the revenue stated above. 

Tarakeswar. — Village in the Serampore subdivision of Hooghly 
District, Bengal, situated in 22 53' N. and 88° 2' E. Population (1901), 
1,032. Tarakeswar is famous for its shrine dedicated to Siva, which 
is resorted to by large crowds of pilgrims all the year round. This 
temple is richly endowed with money and lands, supplemented by 
the offerings of wealthy devotees. It is under the management of a 
mahant or priest, who enjoys its revenues for life. Two large religious 
gatherings are held annually at Tarakeswar. The first of these, the 
Sivaratri, takes place in February ; and the ceremonies enjoined on 
this occasion are considered by the followers of Siva to be the most 
sacred of all their observances. The three essential rites of the 
Sivaratri are : fasting during the day, holding a vigil during the night 
and worshipping Siva as the marvellous and interminable lingam, 
thereby typifying the exaltation of Siva-worship over that of Vishnu 
and Brahma. It is estimated that 20,000 people visit the shrine on the 
occasion of this festival. A fair held at the same time continues for 
three days. The second great religious festival is the Chaitra Sankranti 
(or New Year's eve) falling in April, which is also the day of the 
swinging festival. The temple is then visited by persons who come for 
penance, or to lead a temporary ascetic life, in fulfilment of vows made 
to Siva at some crisis of their lives. The swinging festival of the 
present da)- is a very harmless affair compared with what it was 
formerly ; the votaries are merely suspended by a belt, instead of by 
hooks pierced through the flesh. The fair on this occasion lasts six 
days, and is attended by some 15,000 people. A branch of the East 
Indian Railway from Seoraphuli to Tarakeswar was opened in 1885, 
and the village can also be reached by the Tarakeswar-Magra Railway. 

Tarana. — Head-quarters of a pargana in the Mehidpur district of 
Indore State, Central India, situated in 23 20' N. and 76 5' E., 44 
miles from Indore city, and 8, miles from Tarana Road station on 
the Ujjain-Bhopal Railway. Population (1901), 4,490. Under Akbar, 
it was the head-quarters of a mahal in the Sarangpur sarkdr of the 
Subah of Malwa, and was known as Naugaon. In the later Mughal 
revenue papers it appears as Naugama-Tarana. The large number of 
fine trees which surround it and the numerous traces of old foundations 
show that it was at one time a place of considerable size. At present 



250 TAR AN A 

it consists of a small partially ruined Muhammadan fort, surrounded 
by poorly built houses, none of which is of any size. The town came 
into the possession of Holkar in the eighteenth century, and appears 
to have been included in the personal jaglr of the famous Ahalya Bai, 
who built the temple of Tilbhandareshwar and is said to have planted 
a large number of trees. On the marriage of Jaswant Rao Phanse with 
her daughter Mukta Bai, Tarana was granted him in jaglr and 
remained in the Phanse family until 1849, when it was resumed owing 
to the misconduct of Raja Bhao Phanse. Tarana was created a muni- 
cipality in 1902. Besides the pargana offices, a State post office, a 
police station, a school, a dispensary, and an inspection bungalow are 
situated in the town. 

Taraon. — One of the Chaube JagIrs in Central India, under the 
Political Agent in Baghelkhand, with an area of about 26 square miles, 
surrounding the fort of Taraon formerly held by the Rajas of Panna. 
On the creation of the Chaube JagIrs in 181 2, Taraon fell to Chaube 
Gaya Prasad, son of Gajadhar, fourth son of Ram Kishan. The 
present holder is Chaube Brij Gopal, who succeeded his brother, 
Chaturbhuj, in 1894. The population in 1901 was 3,178. There are 
13 villages. Of the total area, 12 square miles, or 49 per cent., are 
cultivated. The revenue of the estate is Rs. 10,000. Taraon or 
Tarahuhan, the chief place, is situated in 24 59' N. and 8o° 57' E., 
one mile from Karwi station on the Jhansi-Manikpur section of the 
Great Indian Peninsula Railway; population (1901), 670. The present 
jdglrddr, however, resides at Pathraundi, 5 miles north-west of Taraon ; 
population (1901), 444. 

Tarapur. — Town in the State of Cambay, Bombay, situated in 22 
29' N. and 72 44' E., about 12 miles north of Cambay town. Popu- 
lation (1901), 4,438. Tarapur is a station on the railway, and contains 
a dispensary and a school. 

Tarapur-Chinchani. -Port and group of two villages in the Mahim 
and Dahanu talukas of Thana District, Bombay, situated in i9°52 / N. 
and 7 2 41' E. The village of Chinchani lies on the north bank 
and Tarapur on the south bank of the Chinchani-Tarapur creek, 15 
miles north of Mahim. Population (1901), 7,051, largely consisting 
of Pars! and Warn money-lenders. Chinchani is a very old town, 
the Chechijna of a Nasik cave inscription of the first century. In the 
Pars! quarter of Tarapur there is a fire-temple built about 1820 by 
a well-known ParsI contractor, Vikaji Mehrji. Tarapur is a seaport. 
The value of trade in 1903-4 was 15! lakhs ; namely, imports 6 lakhs 
and exports 9^ lakhs. The imports consist chiefly of rice, salt, sugar, 
kerosene, and iron; and the exports, of rice, unsalted fish, and firewood. 
The villages contain a dispensary, and an English middle school with 
29 pupils. 



TARN TAR AN TAHSIL 251 

Tarikere Taluk.— Northern taluk of Kadur District, Mysore State, 
lying between 13 30' and 13 54' N. and 75 35' and 76 9' E., with 
an area of 468 square miles. The population in 1901 was 79,472, 
compared with 72,352 in 1891. The taluk contains two towns, 
Tarikere (population, 10,164), the head-quarters, and Ajjampur 
(2,164) ; and 236 villages. The land revenue demand in 1903-4 was 
Rs. 1,38,000. The Baba Budan range enters the south-west, its slopes 
being covered with heavy forest, partially cleared for coffee plantations. 
Along the north are the Ubrani hills, at one time covered with thick 
bamboo jungle. The annual rainfall averages 31 inches. Black cotton 
soil prevails in the east, which is bare of trees, but yields line crops of 
wheat, cotton, Bengal gram, great millet, &c. On the red soil of other 
parts ragt and pulses are grown. Iron ore is worked in the Ubrani 
hills, and at Lingadahalli at the western foot of the Baba Budans. 
Near Ajjampur are old gold-workings ; and mining has been recently 
revived in the Kadur-Mysore mines, under European management, but 
so far without much success. 

Tarikere Town. — Head-quarters of the taluk of the same name 
in Kadur District, Mysore, situated in 13 43' N. and 75 49' E., on 
the Shimoga branch of the Mysore State Railway. Population (1901), 
10,164. The old town was at Katur, to the north-west, and was 
founded at the end of the twelfth century by the Hoysalas. The 
descendants of the chief on whom it was bestowed fortified Kaman- 
durga on the Baba Budans. The place was captured by the king of 
Vijayanagar in the fourteenth century, and given to one of his generals. 
From this family it was taken by the Sultan of Bijapur. The Katur 
territory was next given by the Mughals to the chief of Basavapatna, 
who built the town and fort of Tarikere in 1659. The Taiikere poligdrs 
continued in power till subdued by Haidar Ali in 1761. The head of 
the family escaped from Mysore in 1830, and took a leading part in the 
rebellion which then broke out. His son continued at large, creating 
disturbances, till 1834, when he was caught and hanged. The town 
has considerably increased since the construction of the railway in 
1899. The municipality dates from 1870. The receipts and expendi- 
ture during the ten years ending 1901 averaged Rs. 8,800 and Rs. 7,800 
respectively. In 1903-4 they were Rs. 11,000 and Rs. 9,000. 

Tarkessur. — Village and place of pilgrimage in Hooghly District, 
Bengal. See Tarakeswar. 

Tarn Taran Tahsil.— Tahsil of Amritsar District, Punjab, lying 
between 31 io' and 31' 40' N. and 74 $$' and 75 17' E., with an 
area of 597 square miles. It forms a triangle with its base resting on 
the Beas, which divides it from the State of Kapurthala. The country 
west of the high bank of the river is a level plain with a soil of fertile 
loam, traversed from north to south by two natural drainage channels, 

VOL. XXIII. R 



252 TARN TAR AN TAHSIL 

and irrigated by the Bari Doab Canal. The population in 1901 was 
325,576, compared with 305,127 in 1891. The town of Tarn Taran 
(population, 4,428) is the head-quarters. It also contains the town of 
Vairowal (5,439) and 338 villages. The land revenue and cesses 
in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 4,72,000. 

Tarn Taran Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsll of the same 
name in Amritsar District, Punjab, situated in 31 27' N. and 74 56' E., 
on the Amritsar-Patti branch of the North-Westem Railway. Popula- 
tion (1901), 4,428. A metalled road connects the town with Amritsar, 
which is 14 miles to the north. Tarn Taran is the chief town in the 
Amritsar Manjha, or upland tract; but its importance is entirely 
religious, and centres round the sacred tank, said to have been dug by 
Arjun, the fifth Guru of the Sikhs, which is 300 yards square, with a 
paved walk running round it. Ranjit Singh greatly revered the temple 
at Tarn Taran, which was originally built in 1 768, and overlaid it with 
plates of copper gilt, besides richly ornamenting it. On the north side 
of the tank stands a lofty column, erected by prince Nao Nihal Singh. 
The water of the tank is supposed to cure leprosy, and lepers come to 
it even from places beyond the Punjab. The leper asylum outside and 
the large leper quarter within the city testify more to the fame of the 
tank than to its healing qualities. The asylum was handed over to 
the care of the Mission to Lepers in India and the East in 1903. The 
Sobraon branch of the Bari Doab Canal flows within a short distance 
of the town, and from this the great tank is supplied with water through 
a channel constructed at the expense of the Raja of Jind. A fair is 
celebrated monthly, especially in the months of Chait and Bhadon, 
when large crowds assemble. The municipality was created in 1875. 
The income during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 7,700, 
and the expenditure Rs. 7,400. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 10,300, 
chiefly from octroi ; and the expenditure was Rs. 9,300. The chief 
industries are the manufacture of iron vessels and wooden cotton- 
presses. The trade of the town is not important. It has three middle 
schools, a Government dispensary, and a female mission hospital. 

Tarvai.— Taluk of Warangal District, Hyderabad State, formed in 
1905 from the northern villages of the former Pakhal taluk. The 
number of khalsa villages is 155, of which Tarvai (population, 97) is 
the head-quarters. The land revenue is only Rs. 27,800. It is very 
thinly populated and has a large area of forest. 

Tasgaon Taluka.— Taluka of Satara District, Bombay, lying 
between 16 48' and 17 13' N. and 74 24' and 74° 5 8 ' E -. with an 
area of 325 square miles. It contains one town, Tasgaon (population, 
10,975), tne head-quarters ; and 48 villages, including Bhilavdi (7,651) 
and Palus (5,070). The population in 1901 was 92,412, compared 
with 93,185 in 1 89 1. The density, 284 persons per square mile, is 



TA SHKUR GHAN 2 5 3 

somewhat above the District average. The demand for land revenue 
in 1903-4 was i«6 lakhs, and for cesses Rs. 13,000. The south-east is 
interspersed with many patches of Sangli and Miraj States. The whole 
of the taluka is rather low, especially the land near the meeting of the 
Yerla and the Kistna. The northern and eastern portions are rocky 
and barren, crossed by ranges of low hills which branch from the 
Khanapur plateau. The west and south-west on and near the great 
rivers form a continuation of the rich plain of the eastern Valva, and 
like it are well wooded with mango and babul. The only important 
rivers are the Kistna, forming the western boundary, and the Yerla, 
which enters the taluka from the north. Near the Kistna and Yerla the 
soil is rich black; towards the north-east it is rocky and barren. The 
annual rainfall at Tasgaon town averages 25 inches. It is slighter and 
more variable in the east of the taluka. 

Tasgaon Town. — Head-quarters of the taluka of the same name 
in Satara District, Bombay, situated in 17 2' N. and 74° 36' E., on the 
Southern Mahratta Railway. Population (1901), 10,975. The town 
stands on rising ground, on the north bank of a stream which flows 
into the Yerla about 4 miles to the south-west. It was originally 
surrounded by walls, now ruined, and was entered by four gates. 
Within stands the mansion of the Patvardhan family, likewise enclosed 
by walls and three fortified gates, of which the northernmost was 
blocked up in 1799 on the death of Parasu Rama Bhau, the greatest of 
the Patvardhans. A fine temple of Ganpati, about a century old, 
stands at a little distance from the mansion. The municipality, con- 
stituted in 1867, had an average income during the decade ending 
1901 of Rs. 7,800. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 7,700. The town 
contains a Subordinate Judge's court, an English school, and a 
dispensary. 

Tashkurghan. — Town in Afghan-Turkistan, situated in 36 42' N. 
and 67 41' E. ; 1,495 f eet above the sea. It is the largest and richest 
place in the province, and the principal trade mart between Central 
Asia and Kabul. It is practically unwalled, though it possesses an 
Ark or citadel. Like Mazar-i-Sharif, the provincial capital, it is rather 
a mass of inhabited orchards than an ordinary town ; and the ground 
it covers (5 or 6 miles by 2 or 3 miles) is enormous compared with the 
population, which consists of not more than 4,000 families, chiefly 
Uzbegs and Tajiks. There are from 450 to 500 shops. The streets 
are only 10 or 12 feet wide, but are fairly straight, intersecting each 
other at right angles. The houses are mostly domed, though wood is 
fairly plentiful, there being many chinars and poplars, as well as fruit 
trees, in the vicinity. Drinking-water is obtained from the Tashkur- 
ghan river, by covered conduits, which take off above the town. The 
grain production of Tashkurghan is small ; there is abundance of 

r 2 



254 TASHKURGHAN 

excellent land, but not enough water to irrigate it. Fruit and vege- 
tables are plentiful, and immense numbers of sheep are pastured in the 
surrounding country. Tashkurghan is the head-quarters of a district of 
the same name. 

Tatta Subdivision. — Subdivision of Karachi District, Sind, Bom- 
bay, composed of the Karachi, Tatta, Mirpur Sakro, and Ghora- 
bari tdlukas. 

Tatta Taluka (7>W<?). — Taluka of Karachi District, Sind, Bombay, 
lying between 24 31/ and 25 27' N. and 67 34' and 68° 24' E., with 
an area of 1,229 square miles. The population in 1901 was 41,745, 
compared with 37,086 in 1891. The taluka contains one town, Tatta 
(population, 10,783), the head-quarters; and 35 villages. The land 
revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 62,000. The taluka is 
about 60 miles long, the alluvial portion consisting of a narrow irregu- 
lar tract between the Indus and the Kohistan mahal. The northern 
portion is rather hilly, and in the south the Malki hills skirt the western 
side. The taluka contains several dhands or lakes, fed by rainfall, 
which occasionally overflow and do considerable damage. Irrigation 
is derived from six main canals and their branches. The chief crops 
are rice, sugar-cane, wheat, barley, Jou>ar, bajra^ and til. 

Tatta Town ( Thato ; known among the inhabitants as Nagar 
Thato). — Head-quarters of the taluka of the same name in Karachi 
District, Sind, Bombay, situated in 24 45' N. and 67 58' E., about 
7 miles west of the right bank of the Indus, and about 50 miles east of 
Karachi. Population (1901), 10,783. The town is built on a slight 
eminence in an alluvial valley at the foot of the Makli hills. It would 
appear to have been at one time surrounded by the waters of the 
Indus ; and to this day, after the subsidence of the annual inundation, 
numerous stagnant pools are left. A bad form of fever prevails at 
particular seasons of the year. It was mainly from this cause, com- 
bined with the unwholesome water of the place, that the British troops 
stationed here in 1839 suffered serious mortality. Tatta is most easily 
and speedily reached from Karachi by the North- Western Railway as 
far as Jungsbahi, whence a metalled road, 13 miles long, leads directly 
to the town. The municipality, established in 1854, had an income 
during the decade ending 1901 averaging about Rs. 24,000. In 1903-4 
the income was Rs. 30,600. The tcwn is the head-quarters of an 
Assistant Collector, and contains a middle school and a dispensary. 
Other modern buildings are the Steele Hall and a library. 

Tatta has played a very important part in the history of Sind, and 
was one of the Samraa capitals. When Akbar annexed Sind, Tatta 
was under the rule of Mirza Jam Beg, who was allowed to retain it as 
a jciglr. In 1739 it was ceded to Nadir Shah of Persia, and was 
subsequently acquired by the Kalhoras, from whom it passed to the 



TATTA TOWN 255 

Talpur Mlrs. The population of Tatta fell off very much during the 
eighteenth century. Alexander Hamilton, who visited the place in 
1699, calls it a large and rich city, about 3 miles long and i-| broad. 
He states that 80,000 persons had, a short time previous to his visit, 
died of the plague, and that one-half of the city was in consequence 
uninhabited. It is also related by Pottinger that, when Nadir Shah 
entered Tatta at the head of his army in 1742, there were 40,000 
weavers, 20,000 other artisans, and 60,000 dealers of various kinds. 
In 1837 Captain J. Wood (of the Indian Navy), who had good oppor- 
tunities of judging in this respect, estimated the entire population at 
not more than 10,000. The present trade of Tatta consists mostly of 
silk and cotton manufactures and grain. Lttngls (scarves or shawls), 
a thick, rich, and variegated fabric of cotton and silk, are still made, 
but not to the same extent as formerly. Coarse cotton fabrics, both 
plain and coloured, are also woven to some extent, but they have been 
largely superseded by the cheaper Manchester and Bombay goods. In 
1758 a factory was established at Tatta by the East India Company, 
but it was withdrawn in 1775. Again, m T 799> another commercial 
mission was attempted, but this, like the former, terminated unsatis- 
factorily. In 1837 the total silk and cotton manufactures of Tatta 
were valued at Rs. 4,14,000, and the imports of British goods at 
Rs. 30,000. At present, the entire value of the local import trade, 
comprising upwards of twenty-five different articles, averages between 
4 and 5 lakhs, the largest items being cotton cloth, rice, and sugar. 
The exports are also considerable, consisting of rice, ghl, grass, vege- 
tables, fresh fruit, and wool. As regards the transit trade, a portion of 
the grain received from the Sujawal, Jati, and Shahbandar talukas finds 
its way through this town to Karachi and the neighbouring hill 
country. The bulk of the road traffic of Central and Lower Sind passes 
through Tatta. 

Among the ancient remains of Tatta may be mentioned the Jama 
Masjid and fort. The site is undoubtedly of great antiquity, and it 
has by some been supposed to be the Patala of the ancients. Outram 
assigns the foundation of the present town to the year 1445, but other 
writers state that it was not founded before 1522. The general opinion 
is that the former date is the more correct, and that the town owes its 
rise to a prince of the Samraa dynasty, Jam Nizam-ud-din (commonly 
called Jam Ninda), whose tomb is to this day pointed out among 
others on the Makli hills. In 1555 Tatta is said by Postans to have 
been pillaged and burnt by Portuguese mercenaries, and in 1592 it was 
again destroyed during the invasion of Sind by Akbar. The Jama 
Masjid, by far the finest building in Tatta, is supposed to have been 
commenced in 1644 by order of the Mughal emperor, Shah Jahan, as 
a memorial of his regard for the inhabitants, he having been permitted 



256 TATTA TOWN 

to pay his devotions in the former chief mosque during his flight from 
his father Jahangir. The building is rectangular in shape, 315 feet 
long by 190 feet wide, and covers a space of 6,316 square yards. The 
interior is beautifully painted in encaustic, the delicacy and harmony 
of the colouring being remarkable ; there are also some very elegant 
specimens of perforated stonework in different parts of the mosque. It 
is said to have cost 9 lakhs ; but it would, in all probability, have long 
since fallen into decay, had not the inhabitants of Tatta, by sub- 
scriptions raised among themselves, assisted by a money grant from 
the British Government, put the building into substantial repair. On 
the southern outskirts of the town stands the Dabgar Masjid, the 
oldest mosque in Tatta, built in 1509. It contains remains of very 
good tile-work. The fort of Tatta was commenced about 1699, during 
the reign of Aurangzeb, by Nawab Hafiz-ullah, but it was never 
completed. The foundation has now been almost entirely removed 
to provide material for building purposes. 

Tattamangalam. — Town in the Chittur taluk of Cochin State, 
Madras, situated in io° 41' N. and 76 42' E. Area, 5A square miles; 
population (1901), 6,222, of whom 79 per cent, are Hindus and 20 per 
cent. Musalmans. It is a place of some trade, which is chiefly in the 
hands of the Musalmans. 

Taungbaing.— State in the Northern Shan States, Burma. See 
Tawngpeng. 

Taungdwingyi Subdivision. — Eastern subdivision of Magwe 
District, Upper Burma, comprising the Satthwa, Myothit, and 
Natmauk townships. 

Taungdwingyi Town.— Head-quarters of the subdivision of the 
same name in the Satthwa township of Magwe District, Upper Burma, 
situated in 20 N. and 95 33' E., in the centre of the country watered 
by the Yin and its tributaries, rather more than 40 miles to the south- 
east of Magwe town. Population (1901), 5,941. Taungdwingyi 
was occupied in the expedition of 1885-6, and was until 188S the 
head-quarters of a District made up of the greater part of what is 
now Magwe District. The town is a fairly prosperous trade centre, 
has a large bazar, and does a steady trade in cart-wheels and lacquered 
wood ware. It was constituted a municipality in 1887. During the 
ten years ending 1901 the income and expenditure averaged a little 
more than Rs. 12,000. In 1903-4 the receipts were Rs. 15,300, bazar 
rents, &c, producing Rs. 12,100; and the expenditure was Rs. 14,900, 
the chief items of outlay being Rs. 3,800 on the town hospital and 
Rs. 2,900 each on conservancy and public works. The hospital has 
30 beds. A jail is still maintained at Taungdwingyi, one of the 
survivals from the time when the town was the head-quarters of a 
District. 



TAUNGTHUS 257 

Taunggyi. — Head-quarters of the Superintendent and Political 
officer of the Southern Shan States, Burma, situated in 20 47' N. and 
96 58' E., 105 miles from the railway, on a small plateau in the 
Yawnghwe State, at an elevation of 5,000 feet above sea-level. On the 
north the aspect is open, giving fine views of the Yawnghwe and Lawk- 
sawk States ; on the other three sides the station is shut in by hills. 
The public buildings comprise the residency, a darbar hall, the usual 
Government offices, and a school for the sons of Shan chieftains, 
erected in 1901, and at present attended by about 70 boys. Taunggyi 
has 8 miles of metalled roads within its limits, and an unmetalled 
circular road 6i miles in length runs round the station. There are 
large bazar buildings in the native quarter ; and the market, held every 
five days, is largely attended, as the town is at the head of the cart- 
road from the railway, and is thus a distributing centre for a con- 
siderable area. A pure and abundant supply of water has been 
obtained at a cost of Rs. 83,000 from a spring on the hills in the neigh- 
bourhood. The water is brought in by a canal, and its distribution by 
pipes to the public buildings, police lines, and town is being carried 
out at Government expense, and also from funds subscribed by the 
Shan chiefs as a memorial to Her late Majesty Queen Victoria. 
Expenditure on public objects in the station is ordinarily met from 
a fund known as the Taunggyi improvement fund, which in 1903-4 
had an income of Rs. 10,000, one-half derived from thathameda and 
the other half from bazar and slaughter-house fees. Experimental 
cultivation of imported fruit has been successfully carried out in the 
Government orchard, from which trees are distributed throughout the 
States at nominal prices. The population of Taunggyi in 1901 was 
2,816 ; but in November, 1904, this total had risen to 3,452, of whom 
1,525 were Shans, 1,328 natives of India (including soldiers and 
police), and the rest Burmans, Chinese, and Europeans. The station 
is healthy, the temperature in 1903 varying from 37 in December to 
87 in April. 

Taungtha. — Central township of Myingyan District, Upper Burma, 
stretching from Meiktila District to the Irrawaddy, between 21 o' 
and 21 26' N. and 95 10' and 95 39' E., with an area of 516 square 
miles. The greater part consists of high ground, sloping down in the 
west towards the river, on which cotton, jowar, beans, and sesamum 
are grown. The population was' 57,975 in 1891, and 57,729 in 1901, 
distributed in 203 villages. The head-quarters are at Taungtha 
(population, 2,175), a small market on the railway, which traverses the 
township. In 1903-4 the area cultivated was 172 square miles, and 
the land revenue and thathameda amounted to Rs. 1,19,000. 

Taungthas. — A tribe of Upper Burma. See Pakokku District. 

Taungthus ('Hill people'). — A tribe of Karen origin, inhabiting 



258 TAUNGTHUS 

the eastern border of Burma and the western border and centre of 
the Southern Shan States. In 1901 the Taungthus numbered 168,301. 
They are a widely scattered people, being found all along the eastern 
highlands between 16 and 22 N. latitude ; but their two main centres 
are in the country round about the lower reaches of the Salween, and 
in the neighbourhood of the Southern Shan State of Hsahtung, the 
Myoza or administrator of which is a Taungthu. Amherst and Thaton 
are the two Lower Burma Districts which contain most Taungthus. 
The latter District is said to have been their original home ; and one 
of their legends has it that when in the eleventh century the king of 
Thaton was carried away captive to Upper Burma and his kingdom was 
broken up, a number of Taungthus went north and founded a new 
Thaton (Hsahtung) in the Shan States. The Taungthus speak a 
language which is closely allied to Karen. Their name for themselves 
is Pa-o. They are a sturdy, thickset race, swarthier in the south 
than their neighbours. The men dress like Shans, in the ordinary 
jacket and loose trousers. The women have, as is the general rule 
among the eastern hill tribes, a costume of their own. The upper 
garment resembles the Karen thindaing or sleeveless smock, and in 
Thaton is of dark blue cloth trimmed with red ; under this are worn 
a skirt reaching to the knee, and usually leggings of cloth, though these 
are dispensed with in the south. The head-dress consists of a turban 
of tasselled cloth, which is held in position with hairpins and silver 
bands. The Taungthus are nominally Buddhists and have monasteries ; 
but spirit-worship is very rife among them, and village and house fiats 
are regularly propitiated. They have a written character, differing 
in this respect from all the eastern highlanders, with the single excep- 
tion, perhaps, of the Lolos. 

Taungup. — Northernmost township of Sandoway District, Lower 
Burma, lying between 18 38' and 19 32' N. and 94° o' and 94 44''E., 
with an area of 1,510 square miles. The head-quarters are at the 
village of Taungup (population, 1,707), about 6 miles from the mouth 
of the Taungup river, which flows from the Arakan Yoma westwards 
into the sea almost opposite the southern extremity of the island of 
Ramree. With the exception of a few stretches of rice land along the 
river valleys, the township is a mass of hills cut up towards the coast by 
creeks. In 1901 it contained 225 villages, and a population of 32,948, 
compared with 29,088 in 1891. The inhabitants of the eastern hill 
areas are largely Chins. The area cultivated in 1903-4 was 37 square 
miles, paying Rs. 40,800 land revenue. 

Tavi. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Tavoy District. — District in the Tenasserim Division of Lower 
Burma, lying between 13 16' and 15 6' N. and 97 46' and 99° 12' E., 
with an area of 5,308 square miles. On the north lies Amherst Dis- 



TAVOY DISTRICT 259 

trict ; on the south Mergui ; on the east the Siamese frontier ; and on 
the west the Bay of Bengal. It is a rugged tract, 150 miles long and 50 
miles broad at its widest part, composed entirely of 
hills, save for the well-cultivated basin of the Tavoy ys *f a 

• 1 rrM 1 "11 SISpCCiS. 

river and a narrow strip along the sea-coast. The hill 
ranges run generally north and south. One divides the Tavoy river 
from the sea ; a second, farther east, forms the watershed between that 
stream and the Tenasserim river ; while a third, beyond the Tenasserim 
to the east, rises as a barrier between the District and Siam. The 
highest point in the District is a peak known as Myinmoletkat 
(6,800 feet), on the borders of Mergui District. It lies in the central 
range, as also does Nwalabo (' bullock's hump '), a hill nearly 6,000 feet 
in height. The Tenasserim in the south and the Tavoy river in the 
north are the two main waterways. The main branch of the Tenas- 
serim river has its source in Myinmoletkat, and, flowing first northwards, 
turns sharply to the east at about the latitude of Tavoy town, and 
thence runs southwards into Mergui District. It is not navigable in 
the dry season except by canoes. The Tavoy river, which rises in 
the extreme north of the District, and flows due south past Tavoy 
town to the sea, is navigable by steamers of light draught up to 
Tavoy, and thence for about 40 miles by boats. There are no other 
waterways of importance. About 10 miles off the coast, in the latitude 
of Tavoy town, are three groups of islands known as the Moscos, 
rocky and uninhabited, but of economic value as yielding the edible 
bird's-nest of commerce. 

The District has never been carefully examined by a geologist. The 
mountain ranges appear to be granite, probably of Palaeozoic age. 
The intervening valleys have occasional patches of clay slate, more 
or less altered by igneous action. The hills along the coast contain on 
their east side an abundance of micaceous iron ore and clay ironstone ; 
and nearly opposite Tavoy, on the west bank of the river, is an elevated 
ironstone ridge. The plains are composed of a stiff clay, sometimes 
highly ferruginous. 

The principal timber and other trees are referred to below under the 
head of Forests. Medicinal plants are said to be very numerous. 
Besides those dealt with elsewhere, mention may be made of cinnamon, 
the castor-oil plant, sarsaparilla, and the sea coco-nut, the last said 
to be useful as an astringent. There are several vegetable dyes. 

The wild animals include elephants, rhinoceros, tigers, leopards 
(the ordinary, the black, and the clouded), the tsine or hsaing (Bos 
sondaia/s), sdmbar, hog deer, barking-deer, the Malay bear, hog, and 
five or six sorts of monkeys. The tapir, though rarely seen, is known 
to exist, the serow has been shot close to Tavoy, and the orang-outang 
is reported to have been found in the hills. The birds include peafowl, 



260 TAVOY DISTRICT 

the pheasant, and the hornbill. Fish abound in great variety. Croco- 
diles are numerous in the rivers, and the sea-beach is frequented by 
turtles. 

The climate is on the whole pleasant, the intense heat of the hot 
season being moderated by sea-breezes. During the cold season the 
thermometer at midday scarcely ever reaches 92 in the shade, and 
occasionally in the early morning falls as low as 57 . Between 
December and February dense fogs prevail in the mornings till about 
9 o'clock. In April there are occasional squalls of wind and rain, and 
about the middle of May violent thunderstorms occur and the south- 
west monsoon sets in. After this electric disturbances are rare till 
October, when the rainy season ends in much the same way as it 
began. Maungmagan, a village on the sea-coast, about 9 miles north- 
west of Tavoy town, is frequently visited as a sea-bathing resort during 
the hot months. It boasts of a fine sandy beach and its surroundings 
are agreeable. 

As elsewhere along the coast, the rainfall is very heavy. The average 
fall, which for the three years ending March, 1904, was 228 inches, 
is somewhat higher in the north than in the south of the District. At 
Launglon it has been known to reach 252 inches, the highest recorded 
in the Province. 

Tavoy District has at various times formed a portion of the 
dominions of the kings of Siam, Pegu, and Ava, but its early history is 
involved in great obscurity. The first settlers were 
probably Siamese, but at a very early date a colony 
of Arakanese are said to have established themselves. These latter 
have left their mark on the language of the District (Tavoyan dialect), 
which possesses archaic features of its own. The earliest written 
accounts of the country state that the Burmese king Narapadisithu, 
who came rather as a preacher of religion than as a conqueror, founded 
Kyethlut in Kwedaung Bay, not far from the Tavoy river, in a.d. 1200. 
The same monarch is credited with the building of the pagoda on 
Tavoy Point. Anxious to connect their religion with the great Asoka, 
Buddhist writers assert that, in 315 B.C., that monarch ordered the 
construction of a pagoda in what is now Tavoy town. Many years 
after this the country was subject to Siam, and still later to the sove- 
reigns of Pegu, from whom it passed to Burma ; but up to a compara- 
tively recent date it suffered continually from Siamese invasions. 
About 1752 the ruler of Tavoy became an independent prince, and 
made overtures to the East India Company ; but the terms proposed 
by the Company were too exorbitant from a pecuniary point of view 
to find acceptance. Soon afterwards (1757), Tavoy again became a 
province of Siam ; but in 1759 it surrendered to Alaungpaya, the great 
Burmese conqueror, who a few months later was carried, dying, from 



POPULATION 



261 



Siam to Burma, close to the Tavoy border, to expire within two days' 
journey of Martaban. 

From 1 760 until the signing of the Treaty of Yandabo in February, 
1826, the country was torn by internal rebellions and attacks from the 
Siamese. During the first Burmese War, in 1824, an expedition was 
dispatched against the District, which ended in Tavoy being handed 
over to Sir Archibald Campbell's troops. In 1829 a revolt broke out, 
headed by Maung Da, the former governor; but this was speedily 
suppressed, and since then the District has remained in the undis- 
turbed possession of the British. For some years a body of troops 
was stationed in Tavoy town ; but the District has for many years now 
been guarded solely by police, who were able, with some help from 
Rangoon, to suppress a rising which took place in April, 1888. 

The most famous pagoda is the Shinmokti, a few miles south of 
Tavoy town, containing an image, near which are a stone and a banyan- 
tree, all three supposed to have miraculously floated across the ocean 
from India. The building is 58 feet high, and 300 feet in circum- 
ference at the base. On Tavoy Point, on the right bank of the Tavoy 
river, is the Shinmaw, only 9 feet high, founded in a.d. 1204, and said 
to contain a tooth of Gautama. North of Tavoy is the Shindatwe, 
a shrine of very early date, built on the spot upon which a holy relic of 
Buddha is said to have alighted after a lengthy flight through the 
air. In addition to these, there are ten pagodas in the town and 
suburbs of Tavoy, and nineteen others in the District, all of more or 
less sanctity, and some supposed to be of great antiquity. The ruins 
of Old Tavoy or Myohaung stand a few miles to the north of the 
existing town. 

The population rose from 71,827 in 1872 to 84,988 in 1881, 94,921 
in 1891, and 109,979 in 1901. The principal 
statistics of area and population in 1901 are given 
below, by townships : — 



Population. 



Township. 


u 

3 . 

CJ 1 r/} 

'A 

OJ 

u 

< 

1,842 
2,340 

335 
791 


Number of 


e 


"3 

O. 


g'i 

'Z v 

9 3 

t/i 

Oh 


Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 

tween 1891 

and 1001. 


Number of 

persons able to 

read and 

write. 


oi 

c 



I 


a 

be 

> 


Yebyu . 
Tavoy . 
Zaunglon 
Thayetchaung 

District total 


55 
.64 
112 

9 1 


1 2,550 

33,8iS 
33,187 
30,424 


i 
M 

99 
38 


+ I 1 

+ 31 
+ 22 
— 1 


1,130 
8,469 

5,249 
4,667 


5,3o8 


I 


322 


109,979 


21 


+ l6 


I9'5I5 



During the last decade the population increased by 16 per cent., a 
rate somewhat below the Provincial average. The District is not one 



262 



TA VOY DISTRICT 



which attracts any considerable amount of immigration, either Burman 
or foreign, and the greater part of the increase may be looked upon as 
attributable to natural factors. Tavoy Town, the head-quarters, has 
a population of 22,371, and stands eighth among the towns of the Pro- 
vince in point of numbers ; but the District has no other collection of 
houses containing a population of over 2,000. As regards density, 
Tavoy is, after Northern Arakan, Mergui, and Salween, the most thinly 
populated District of Lower Burma. Nearly the whole population is 
gathered in the basin of the Tavoy river, which is divided among 
the four townships, most of it being apportioned between Thayet- 
chaung and Launglon. In all, 96 per cent, of the people are Buddhists 
and 2 per cent. Christians. The rest are Animists, Musalmans, or 
Hindus. About 95 per cent, of the people talk Burmese (the majority 
using what is known as the Tavoyan dialect, akin to Arakanese), and 
Karen is widely spoken in the hills. 

About 89 per cent, of the people returned themselves in 1901 as 
Burmans, and 8 per cent, as Karens, the latter occupying the hills 
in the east and south. More than 1,100 persons were enumerated 
as Takings ; the remainder were mostly Zairbadis or Chinese. Only 
200 of the inhabitants were shown as Siamese, though no doubt much 
of the population was formerly of that race. The population directly 
dependent upon agriculture in 1901 was 64,600, or 59 per cent, of 
the total, as compared with the Provincial percentage of 67. Of 
these, 26,801 were dependent upon taungya (shifting) cultivation 
alone. 

The American Baptist Union has missions for Karens and Burmans. 
The Tavoy mission was started in 1828, and has 23 churches and 
21 schools. The number of native Christians in 1901 was 1,612. 

The District is generally hilly outside the valley of the Tavoy 
river, and nearly half the cultivators practise tautigya-cu\.\\r\g, burn- 
ing the forest and passing on after a crop or two 
has been taken from the land. In the lowlands 
the early rice (kaukkyi) obtains ample water from the heavy rainfall, 
and is cultivated as elsewhere in the ' wet ' areas of the Province. 
May in, or hot-season rice, is grown to a small extent. 

The following table gives the main agricultural statistics of the 
District for 1903-4, in square miles : — 



Township. 


Total area. 


Cultivated. 


Irrigated. 


Forests. 


Yebyu 
Tavoy 
Launglon 
Thayetcliaung 

Total 


1,842 

2,34° 
335 
791 


22 
27 
70 
59 


0.6 

0.4 


- 4,960 


5>3° s 


178 


I 


4,960 



FORESTS, ETC. 263 

Rice is the principal crop, occupying 135 square miles, or three- 
fourths of the whole area cultivated, in 1903-4. About 44 square 
miles are planted with fruit or palm trees, of which the areca and the 
dani palm are the most important, the latter occupying 7,000 acres. 
On the small remaining area cotton, san-hemp, cardamoms, tobacco, 
and coffee are grown. The average extent of a rice holding in the sur- 
veyed area is about 7 acres in the case of kaing land, and about half 
an acre in the case of triayin. Garden-land holdings range somewhat 
higher. 

The cultivated area has increased steadily since 1 880-1, when it 
was only 117 square miles. Comparatively little use has been made 
of the Land Improvement and Agriculturists' Loans Acts since 1899, 
when over Rs. 2,000 was advanced to villagers in the Yebyu town- 
ship on account of failure of crops. 

There are no tanks of importance, nor are there any inland fisheries 
in the District. Sea-fishing is, however, carried on freely all down 
the coast, and the fishery revenue yielded Rs. 16,500 in 1903-4. Only 
about one square mile is irrigated. 

Cows and buffaloes of a fairly good quality are largely bred, and 
goats to a small extent. A few ponies are imported from Siam via 
Myitta. There are about 90 grazing reserves within the limits of 
the District, comprising 31 square miles. 

The chief timber trees of Tavoy are thingan {Hopea odorata), which 
grows sometimes to the height of 250 feet and is largely used for 
boat-building ; pyingado {Xylia dolabriformis), ex- 
ported to Calcutta for sleepers ; padauk (Pterocarpus 
indicus) and kokko {Albizzia Lebbek), ornamental woods in demand 
in England and America ; pyinma (Lagerstroemia Flos Reginae), and 
anan {Fagraea fragrans). Gamboge and camphor trees are found, 
and the cashew-apple is plentiful. Timber extracted for trade pur- 
poses is dragged by elephants to the Tavoy river and thence floated 
to Tavoy. There are forest revenue stations at Yebyu, Tavoy, and 
Sinbyubyin, all on the banks of that stream. The ' reserved ' area 
is 960 square miles, and the area of ' unclassed ' forests about 4,000 
square miles. The revenue of the South Tenasserim Forest division, 
which includes also Mergui District, was Rs. 53,000 in 1903-4, and 
the expenditure was a lakh. 

Tin is worked to a small extent, about a ton (valued at Rs. 1,700) 
being exported yearly. The coolies employed in the tin-mining in- 
dustry are all Burmans, natives of the tin-bearing localities. Salt is 
manufactured from sea water, the annual out-turn being between 240 
and 280 cwt. A European syndicate is prospecting for gold. 

The town of Tavoy is noted for its silk-weaving, and its longyis 
(waistcloths) are well-known throughout Burma for their strength 



264 TAVOY DISTRICT 

and permanency of colour. The raw silk used by the local weavers 

is obtained from Rangoon. One viss (about 3^ lb.) costing Rs. 24, 

with Rs. 3-12 as wages for spinning, Rs. 4-4 for 

Trade and dyeing, and Rs. q for weaving, will make four 
communications. J ° ' _, J _,, D , f 

longyis, sold at Rs. 10 each. The number of weavers 

returned at the last Census was 1,282. There are five rice- and 

timber-mills, all in Tavoy town. Pottery is manufactured in a 

quarter of Tavoy called Olokpyin, and a little metal-work is done 

in the town. 

The trade of the District passes almost entirely through Tavoy town 
and Sinbyubyin. rice, salt, and timber being the staples of export. 
The only land trade route of importance is that which leads from 
Tavoy eastwards through Myitta, near the Siamese frontier, into Siam. 
The total value of the exports by this route in 1903-4 was Rs. 2,800, 
that of imports Rs. 2,400. The principal items of export are manu- 
factured piece-goods, and of import precious stones ; but the total 
trade is insignificant. It is registered at Myitta. 

There are 195 miles of metalled roads, of which 187 are main- 
tained from Provincial funds, and 8 from the District cess fund. 
The latter also maintains 74 miles of unmetalled tracks. The most 
important highway is that leading from Tavoy town to the Siamese 
frontier via Myitta, 107 miles. Others are the roads from Tavoy to 
Sinbyubyin, from Tavoy to Yebyu, and from Kamyawkin to Maung- 
magan. The Tavoy river is navigable as far as Tavoy town by ships 
drawing 8 feet. The weekly mail steamer of the British India Steam 
Navigation Company, running between Rangoon and Mergui, calls 
at Sinbyubyin near the mouth of the river, and a launch conveys 
passengers and cargo to Tavoy town, 26 miles farther up-stream. A 
fortnightly steamer of the same company connects the port with Moul- 
mein, and a coasting steamer plying between Rangoon and Penang 
calls once in eighteen days each way. There are five licensed ferries. 

The District is in charge of a Deputy-Commissioner, who is also 

District Magistrate and District Judge, as well as ex-offuio Collector 

of Customs and Port Officer. It is divided into four 
Administration. . . , T . , ,., 

townships — \ebyu, 1 avoy, Launglon, and lhayet- 

chaung — which are in charge of township officers or wyo-oks, but 
differs from most Burma Districts in having no subdivisions. Under 
the myo-oks are the rural officials. The number of village headmen 
is about 200. Tavoy forms, with Amherst and Mergui, a Public Works 
division, and, with Mergui, a Forest division, the head-quarters of the 
latter being at Tavoy town. 

For judicial purposes the District forms part of the Tenasserim 
civil and sessions division. Except in the case of the Tavoy town- 
ship court (which is presided over by a township judge, who sits 



ADMINISTRA TION 



265 



fifteen days in the month at Tavoy and fifteen at Mergui), all the 
judicial work of the District is done by the executive officers, assisted 
at Tavoy by a bench of honorary magistrates. The Tavoy township 
judge is invested with Small Cause Court powers with respect to 
suits of the value of Rs. 50 or less arising in Tavoy town. The 
crime of the District presents no special features. 

The District was settled in 1904-5. The following rates were 
fixed for a term of fifteen years from July, 1906: on ordinary rice 
land, Rs. 2 to Rs. 4-8 per acre ; on mayin rice land, R. 1 to 
Rs. 2 ; on garden land, R. 1 to Rs. 5 ; on miscellaneous cultivation, 
Rs. 1-8 ; on dani palms, Rs. 3 to Rs. 4 ; and 2 annas on each soli- 
tary fruit tree. The rates on ordinary rice land have been fixed for 
a term of only five years; at the expiration of that period the minimum 
rate is to be reduced to 14 annas an acre, while the maximum rate 
is to be raised to Rs. 6. 

The land revenue has been rising steadily during the past two 
decades. The following table shows its growth as well as the growth 
of the total revenue since 1880-1, in thousands of rupees : — 



• 


1880-1. 


1890-1. 1900-1. 


1903-4. 


Land revenue 
Total revenue . 


1.08 
2,21 


1,30 2,04 
2,53 3,9' 


2,16 
4,4' 



The District cess fund had an income of Rs. 24,800 in 1903-4, 
chiefly derived from the cess on land revenue ; and the main item 
of expenditure was Rs. 5,000 devoted to education. Tavoy Town 
is the only municipality. 

On Reef Island at the mouth of the Tavoy river stands a light- 
house, which consists of a masonry tower 25 feet high, painted white 
and surmounted by a fixed dioptric white light, visible in clear weather 
at a distance of 12 miles. The lighthouse was completed in 1883. 

The District Superintendent is the only superior police officer. 
There are 6 police stations and 6 outposts ; and the force consists 
of 2 inspectors, 5 head constables, 15 sergeants, and 192 constables. 
The number of military police is 96, of whom 64 are stationed at 
Tavoy town, and the rest at Yebyu and Myitta. The District jail 
at Tavoy has accommodation for 132 male and 6 female prisoners. 
The industries carried on in it are carpentry, bamboo and cane- 
work, mat and coir-rope making, tailoring, polishing, and a little 
blacksmith's work. The out-turn is sold to the public. 

The proportion of persons able to read and write in 1901 was 
17-7 per cent. (31-2 males and 4-4 females). The standard of educa- 
tion is thus comparatively low for Burma. The number of pupils in 
the District schools was 2,498 in 1880-1 ; 3,772 in 1890-1 ; 5,149 



266 TA VOY DISTRICT 

in 1 900-1 ; and 6,748 in 1903-4, including 1,325 girls. There were 
6 secondary, 63 primary, and 169 elementary (private) schools in the 
last year. The total cost of education in 1903-4 was Rs. 16,900, 
towards which the Tavoy municipality contributed Rs. 3,000, the 
District cess fund Rs. 5,000, and Provincial funds Rs. 4,200. The 
American Baptist Mission has an Anglo-vernacular school for Karen 
boys and girls. 

The only hospital is at Tavoy town, in which 20,661 cases were 
treated in 1903, including 496 in-patients, and 487 operations were 
performed. It has 35 beds, and its income is derived almost entirely 
from municipal funds, which contributed Rs. 4,500 in 1903. 

Vaccination is compulsory only within the limits of the Tavoy 
municipality. In 1903-4 the number of persons successfully vacci- 
nated was 13,754, representing 125 per 1,000 of population. 

Tavoy Township. — Township of Tavoy District, Lower Burma, 
lying between 13 18' and 14 i8'N. and 98 11' and 99 12' E., with an 
area of 2,340 square miles. The population was 25,760 in 1891, and 
33,818 in 1 90 1. In the latter year it contained one town, Tavoy 
(population, 22,371), the head-quarters of the District and township; 
and 64 villages. It was then known as the Central township. The 
only place of importance besides Tavoy is Myitta (population, 533), in 
the north-east, near the Siamese border, where there is a station for 
registering the trade between Burma and Siam. Except for a strip of 
plain land in the west in the valley of the Tavoy river, the township 
is a mass of forest-clad hills. Between a third and a fourth of the 
inhabitants outside the limits of Tavoy municipality are Karens, who 
inhabit the hill areas in the east. The area cultivated in 1903-4 was 
27 square miles, paying Rs. 33,000 land revenue. 

Tavoy Town. — Head-quarters of the District of the same name in 
Lower Burma, situated in 14 5' N. and 98 12' E., on the left bank 
of the Tavoy river, 30 miles north of its mouth and 7 from the sea- 
coast on the west, from which both town and river are separated by 
a low range of hills. The town is low-lying, and all except the central 
portion is liable to be flooded at high tides. On the west it is flanked 
by the river, and towards the south-west rice- and timber-mills extend 
from the centre of the town along the bank for a distance of about 
2 miles. To the north and south stretches the valley of the Tavoy 
river ; to the east a narrow strip of plain land separates the urban area 
from the outlying spurs of the hill system, of which the Nwalabo peak 
is a prominent feature. Tavoy is well laid out, with three main 
thoroughfares parallel to the river. All the Government buildings are 
in the centre, except the jail and military police barracks, which 
are situated on higher ground to the east. The town is well wooded 
throughout and abounds in gardens. The houses of the people are 



TAVOY TOWN 267 

mostly of timber, with roofs of dani, the leaf of the Nipa palm. The 
large open square which formerly existed in the centre of the town has 
been built over, and there are no traces of the old fort. 

The present town of Tavoy was founded in 1 75 1, but it is probable 
that the province had earlier capitals. The remains of what must have 
been important cities have been found in various parts of the District, 
and the ruined site of Old Tavoy or Myohaung has been traced a few 
miles to the north of the existing town. Comparatively early in the 
first Burmese War a force was dispatched to seize the southern portion 
of Tenasserim ; and in 1824 Tavoy was occupied without resistance, 
and has never since passed out of the possession of the British. The 
town attained its existing dimensions in 1896, when the Letwegyun 
and Kyaukmaw circles of the Tavoy township were transferred to the 
Tavoy municipality. Its present area is about 8 square miles. 

The population of Tavoy town in 1872 was 14,469. In 1881 it had 
fallen to 13,372, in 1891 it was 15,099, and by 1901 it had risen to 
22,371 persons. The increase during the past decade (numerically 
greater than that of any other town in the Province except Rangoon) 
is somewhat remarkable, in view of the fact that there has been 
nothing in the shape of railway enterprise to promote trade and attract 
the rural population into municipal limits. Between 1872 and 1881 
there was a decrease in population of over a thousand ; but since 
1 88 1 the prosperity of the town has, if growth ot population is any real 
guide, been steadily on the increase. The 22,371 persons enumerated 
in 1 90 1 consisted of 231 Christians, 375 Hindus, 88 t Musalmans, 
no Animists, and 20,774 Buddhists. There has been an increase 
under each religion since 1891, fairly evenly divided. In the steady 
growth of its Buddhist population Tavoy differs from all the larger 
towns of Burma. 

The trade of Tavoy, which is not of great importance, is carried on 
chiefly with the ports of Rangoon, Mergui, and Calcutta, and with the 
Straits Settlements. The principal exports in 1903-4 were rice, valued 
at 8 lakhs, sent for the most part to the Straits, and silk waistcloths, 
valued at 3 lakhs, to Rangoon. Other goods were salt (Rs. 62,000), 
timber (Rs. 58,000), and dani leaves for thatch (Rs. 39,000). The 
principal imports, mainly from Rangoon, were raw silk, valued at 
2\ lakhs ; tobacco and piece-goods, each a lakh and a half; and sugar, 
kerosene oil, twist and yarn, and/// seed, each about a lakh in value. 
It is interesting to note that the trade of the port, though not large, is 
growing. The total value of imports and exports of foreign and 
coasting trade, which in 1890-1 was 15! lakhs, had risen in 1900-1 to 
2o| lakhs, and in 1903-4 to 36 lakhs. 

Silk-weaving is the main industry of the town, and there were 995 
looms in Tavoy in 1903. The manufacture of pottery, cotton-weaving, 

VOL. xxiii. s 



268 TAVOY TOWN 

and gold- and silver-work are also carried on. The five rice and timber 
mills employed 140 male adults and 30 female adults in 1904. The 
out-turn from the rice-mills is exported mainly to the Straits, whereas 
timber is sent to Rangoon and Calcutta. Tavoy has a municipality, 
which was constituted in 1887. The receipts and expenditure of the 
municipal fund during the ten years ending 1901 averaged Rs. 30,000. 
In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 39,000, of which one-third was derived 
from the house tax and one-third from market dues. The expenditure 
was Rs. 33,600, the chief items being conservancy (Rs. 13,000), hos- 
pital (Rs. 5,600), and education (Rs. 3,000). The port limits, which 
were defined in 1875, extend to Tavoy Point at the mouth of the river. 
The income of the Port fund in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 3,700. 

Tawngpeng (Burmese, Taungbaing). — One of the Northern Shan 
States, Burma, lying between 22°4o' and 23 12' N. and 96 52' and 
97 28' E., with an area of 778 square miles. It is bounded on the 
north by Mongmit, on the east by North Hsenwi, and on the south 
and west by Hsipaw. The State forms a small compact mass of hills 
with a deeply indented boundary. The Nam Tu river runs through it 
from north to south, cutting off from the rest a strip on the eastern 
side, about 10 miles broad and 30 long. This part is fairly level and 
undulating ; west of the Nam Tu the country is a maze of hill ridges, 
only the valleys in the south-west having sufficient level ground for 
lowland rice cultivation. The principal industry of the State is the 
production and manufacture of tea (see Northern Shan States). 
Le rice is cultivated in the Mongngaw valley in the south-west of the 
State, but elsewhere what rice is grown is practically all taungya. Of 
the history of Tawngpeng little is known, and such chronicles as exist 
are almost wholly legendary. Two successive Sawbwas, Hkun Hsa 
and Hkun Kyan, rebelled against king Mindon, and both paid for 
their indiscretion with their lives. The next Sawbwa was murdered by 
a rival, Kwan Kon, who remained on good terms with Mandalay, but 
was succeeded by Hkam Mong, a weak-minded ruler, who refused to 
meet the British in 1887, and was deposed. His son, Ton Mong, was 
put in his place by the Government in 1888. He died in 1897, and 
was succeeded by the present Sawbwa. The population in 1901 was 
22,681, distributed in 274 villages. The majority of the inhabitants 
are Palaungs, to which race the Sawbwa belongs. They inhabit the 
hills west of the Nam Tu, and their total in 1901 was about 16,000. 
The Shan population is confined for the most part to the valleys on 
either side of the river, and numbers about 5,000. Kachins, to the 
number of 1,500, are settled on the hills east of the river, and there is 
a sprinkling of Lisaws. The revenue consists mainly of thathameda 
and a tax on tea (levied on the bullock-load). In 1903-4 the tea tax 
brought in Rs. 62,000 ; thathameda, Rs. 40,000; and licence fees of 



TEHRI STATE 269 

various kinds, Rs. 8,000 ; in all Rs. 1,10,000. The expenditure in that 
year included Rs. 77,000 devoted to the privy purse, Rs. 13,000 spent 
on administration and salaries, and Rs. 20,000 tribute to the British 
Government. The capital of the State is at Namhsan (population, 
912), a large village situated about 5,000 feet above the sea at the 
northern end of one of the main hill ridges. It is the head-quarters 
of an officer who has been recently stationed in Tawngpeng to 
supervise the Sawbwa's financial affairs. Other important villages in 
Tawngpeng are Mongngaw in the south-west, Wingmau in the west, 
and Saram a few miles north-west of Namhsan. 

Taxila. — Ruins in Rawalpindi District, Punjab. See Shahdheri. 

Taze. — Western township of Shwebo District, Upper Burma, 
stretching from the Mu river to the borders of the Upper Chindwin 
District, between 22 53' and 23 22' N. and 94° 54' and 95 30' E., 
with an area of 531 square miles. Its western portions are hilly, its 
eastern flat. The population was 19,477 in 1891, and 28,382 in 1901, 
distributed in 152 villages, Taze (population, 1,719), a village in the 
south-east corner, a few miles west of the Mu, being the head-quarters. 
In 1903-4 the area cultivated was 49 square miles, and the land 
revenue and thathameda amounted to Rs. 53,900. 

Teesta. — River of Eastern Bengal. See TIsta. 

Tehri State (or Tehrl-Garhwal). — Native State under the political 
superintendence of the Government of the United Provinces, lying 
between 3o°3 / and 31 18' N. and 77° 49' and 79 24' E., with an area 
of 4,200 square miles. It is bounded on the north by the Punjab 
States of Rawin and Bashahr, and by Tibet ; on the east and south by 
Garhwal District; and on the west by Dehra Dun. The State lies 
entirely in the Himalayas, and contains a tangled series of ridges with 
innumerable spurs separated by narrow valleys. The general direction 
of the main ridges is from north-east to south-west, radiating from 
a lofty series of peaks on the border of Tibet, which vary in height 
from 20,000 to 23,000 feet above sea-level. The State contains the 
sources of both the Ganges and the Jumna, and these two rivers 
receive the whole drainage. The Ganges rises in a glacier, called 
Gaumukh, at a height of 13,570 feet, and at first bears the name of 
Bhagirathi. A large affluent called the Jadhganga or Jahnavl, which 
rises in Tibet, joins the Bhagirathi at Bhaironghatl. The Bhagirathi 
flows south-west and then south-east, and joins the Alaknanda at 
Devaprayag, after which the combined stream is called Ganges. The 
Alaknanda and Ganges form part of the southern boundary between 
Garhwal District and Tehri State. West of the lofty peak of Bandar- 
punch rises the Jumna, which flows south-west and then forms the 
western boundary of the State. The Supin rises north of the same 
peak, and after receiving the Rupin assumes the name of Tons 

s 2 



270 TENET STATE 

(Northern). Jamnotri and Gangotri, near the sources of the two 
great rivers, are important places of pilgrimage. 

Nothing is known of the geological formation of the State, except as 
the result of single traverses across it, which show the same general 
structure and composition as in the neighbouring parts of Dehra 
Dun and Garhwal Districts. 

The flora of the State includes the vast series found in the Hima- 
layas, ranging from the sub-tropical species which grow in the outer 
ranges of low hills to the alpine flowers in the north. 

Tigers are found in small numbers in the north of the State, and 
leopards are common in the west. Black bears and wild dogs occur 
in some localities. Antelope, sambar or jara/t, spotted deer, barking- 
deer, and musk deer are also found, besides several species of wild 
goats and goat antelopes. 

Meteorological observations are not recorded, but the climate 
resembles that of Garhwal District. The valleys and lower hills are 
subject to a very great range of temperature. Snow falls as low as 
4,000 feet in the winter. 

The early history of the State is that of Garhwal District, the 
two tracts having formerly been ruled by the same dynasty. Parduman 
Shah, the last Raja of the whole territory, was killed in battle, fighting 
against the Gurkhas; but at the close of the Nepalese War in 1815, 
his son, Sudarshan Shah, received from the British the present State of 
Tehrl. During the Mutiny Sudarshan Shah rendered valuable assistance 
to Government. He died in 1859 without legitimate issue, and in 
accordance with the terms of the treaty the State lapsed ; but his eldest 
illegitimate son, Bhawanl Shah, was allowed to succeed, and he sub- 
sequently received a sanad giving him the right of adoption. Bhawanl 
Shah died in 1872, and his son and successor, Pratap Shah, in 1887. 
The present Raja, Sir Klrti Shah, K.C.S.I., was installed in 1894. He 
married a granddaughter of Maharaja Jang Bahadur of Nepal. 

An ancient trident bearing an inscription stands near the village of 
Barahat 1 , which is locally assigned to some Tibetan Raja. 

The State contains 2,456 villages, but no town proper. Population 
is increasing rapidly. The numbers at the three enumerations were 
as follows: (1881) 199,836, (1891) 241,242, and (1901) 268,885. The 
whole State forms a single tahs'il. Tehrl, the capital, is the only place 
of importance. More than 99 per cent, of the population are Hindus. 
The low density, 64 persons per square mile, is explained by the 
mountainous nature of the country. In 1901, 6,020 persons were 
recorded as able to read and write. The language usually spoken is 
Central Pahari. 

Almost the entire population is composed of three castes : Rajputs 
1 Journal, Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. v, p. 347. 



TEHRI STATE 271 

(161,000), Brahmans (55,000), and Doms (48,000). The two first are 
divided into Khas Rajputs and Brahmans, who are regarded as 
autochthonous, and Rajputs and Brahmans descended from emigrants 
from the plains. There are a few Bhotias in the north of the State. 
Agriculture supports 88 per cent, of the total. 

There are no Christian missions in Tehrl, and in 1901 only seven 
native Christians were enumerated. 

Cultivation resembles that in the British Districts of Garhwal and 
Almora. It is practically confined to terraces on hill-sides, and to 
small alluvial areas in river-beds. Detailed statistics are not available, 
but the total area cultivated is about 70 square miles. Rice, small 
millets such as jha?igord and mandna or mama, and wheat are the 
staple food-crops ; potatoes are also largely grown. A little tea is 
produced in the west of the State. Irrigation is provided by small 
channels drawn from streams, about 20 square miles being supplied in 
this way. The cattle of the State are small and hardy. 

The forests of Tehrl are very valuable. An area of 141 square miles, 
which has been leased to the British Government, yields valuable chlr 
(Finns longifolia) and other timber. The other trees are deodar, sal 
(Shorea robustd), and various kinds of oak and pine. Boxwood is 
common in the north of the State, but is little used. Since 1884 a 
forest service has been organized on the same lines as in British India, 
with excellent results. In 1903-4 the forest revenue amounted to 
1-75 lakhs, while the expenditure was only Rs. 23,000. 

Tehrl exports timber, forest produce, g/u, rice, and potatoes, and 
imports piece-goods, sugar, salt, iron, brass vessels, pulses, spices, and 
oil. A little borax passes through the State from Tibet, and salt is 
imported from the same country. There are no manufactures, except 
small industries of blanket-weaving and tanning. Mussoorie is the 
chief mart supplying the State. Timber is rafted down the rivers ; 
but other merchandise is carried entirely on pack-animals or by coolies. 

There are about 263 miles of road, but these are not practicable for 
wheeled traffic. The chief lines are from the capital to Mussoorie, 
to Hard war, to Devaprayag, and to Gangotri. 

The Raja has full powers within the State, and the Commissioner 
of Kumaun is the Political Agent to the Government of the United 
Provinces for Tehrl. Executive authority is vested in an officer called 
the Wazlr. Revenue cases are disposed of by a lahsllddr and three 
Deputy-Collectors, one of the latter being stationed at Rawain. There 
are two magistrates of the third class, sitting at Devaprayag and 
Kirtinagar ; the Deputy-Collectors have ordinarily powers of the second 
class ; and the Wazlr and one magistrate exercise first-class powers. 
Sentences of death are passed by the Raja alone. Crime is very light. 
Civil suits are heard by the Deputy-Collectors ; and there are two civil 



272 



TEHRI STATE 



courts iii addition. Appeals lie in all cases to the Raja, who frequently 
transfers them to the Wazlr or to the first-class magistrate. A limited 
jurisdiction is exercised by the nwafldars of Saklana. 

The land revenue and total revenue of the State for a series of 
years are shown below, in thousands of rupees : — 





1880-1. 


1 890- 1. 


1900-1. 


1903-4. 


Land revenue 
Total revenue . 


85 
1,13 


78 
1,58 


83 
2,80 


95 

4) 2 5 



The chief items in 1903-4 were: forests (1-75 lakhs), land revenue 
and cesses (Rs. 95,000), stamps, excise, and presents (Rs. 65,000), 
fines (Rs. 24,000), and interest on promissory notes and loans 
(Rs. 15,000). The expenditure of 2-75 lakhs included: privy purse 
(1-2 lakhs), administration (Rs. 39,000), and forests (Rs. 23,000). 

No proprietary rights are recognized in land except in the case of 
the Saklana fief. Land is divided into irrigated and unirrigated, the 
latter being further divided into four classes according to quality. 
Separate rates are assessed on each class ; the rates have not been 
revised for many years. The chief items of miscellaneous revenue are 
tolls on pilgrims carrying water from Gangotri, and excise. The latter 
consists of licence fees for the sale of country liquor and hemp drugs. 
The principal public buildings are the Raja's palace, the courts and 
offices, and the jail. The expenditure on roads and buildings in 1903-4 
amounted to Rs. 30,000. 

An infantry force, 113 strong, is maintained, and the State possesses 
two cannon, which are used only on ceremonial occasions. 

A small force of police is maintained at Tehrl, Kirtinagar, and 
Devaprayag. Outside of these places police duties are performed by 
village headmen, who report to the J>afwdris as in the British Districts 
of the Kumaun Division. A new jail has recently been constructed 
capable of holding 250 prisoners, but the number at any one time is 
only about 20. 

In 1 90 1 only 2-2 per cent, of the population (4-4 males and oa 
females) were able to read and write. The number of schools rose from 
3 with 203 pupils in 1 880-1 to 5 with 303 pupils in 1 900-1. In 1903-4 
there were 13 schools with 512 pupils. The expenditure was Rs. 8,600. 
Two hospitals are maintained by the State, at which 9,000 patients 
were treated in 1903, including 64 in-patients, and 43 operations were 
performed. The total expenditure was Rs. 4,000. 

Although vaccination is not compulsory, its benefits are thoroughly 
appreciated, and 10,000 persons were vaccinated in 1903-4, repre- 
senting 38 per 1,000 of population. 
{Annual Administration Reports?^ 
Tehrl Town.— Capital of the State of Tehrl, United Provinces, 



TEKARI RAJ 273 

situated in 30 23' N. and 78° 32' E., at the junction of the Bhaglrathi 
and Bheling rivers. Population (1901), 3,387. Tehrl stands at an 
elevation of 2,278 feet above the sea, and in the summer great heat is 
experienced. The Raja then resides at Pratapnagar, which stands on 
a ridge 8,000 feet above the sea, at a distance of about 9 miles. Tehrl 
was a small village when, in 181 5, Raja Sudarshan Shah took up his 
residence there. It occupies the tongue of land between the two 
rivers, three-quarters of a mile in length and half a mile in breadth. 
The bazar lies in an old river bed, which divides the town into two 
portions. All the courts, the dispensary, and the school are built on a 
ridge to the south, while the members of the ruling family live on 
a ridge to the north. On a still higher ridge stands the Raja's palace, 
which commands the whole town. There are several temples and 
dharmsalas for the accommodation of pilgrims. About Rs. 4,000 is 
raised annually from octroi. Tehrl is the chief commercial centre in 
the State, and there is a busy market at which the products of the 
plains and imported goods are sold. The high school has 220 pupils. 

Tejpura. — Petty State in MahI Kantha, Bombay. 

Tekari Raj.— Estate in Gaya District, Bengal. The Tekari Raj 
was founded by a small landed proprietor, named Dhlr Singh, at the 
beginning of the eighteenth century. His son, Sundar Singh, a 
Babhan, took advantage of the confusion created by the invasion of 
Nadir Shah in 1739 to lay hands on all property within his reach that 
he was strong enough to keep. The title of Raja was conferred on 
him by Muhammad Shah, emperor of Delhi, as a reward for the 
assistance he rendered to All Vardi Khan, Subahddr of Bengal and 
Bihar, in resisting an invasion of the Marathas. His adopted son 
Buniad succeeded him, but was treacherously drowned by Kasim All 
in 1762 in revenge for his allegiance to the British. At the time 
Buniad's son, Mitrajit, who was only a few months old, was with 
difficulty saved from Kasim All's emissaries. After Kasim Ail's defeat 
at the battle of Buxar, Mitrajit was made over by Dalll Singh, his 
father's diwan, in whose charge the boy had been placed, to the British 
commanding officer. He was subsequently restored to his estates and 
became a stanch friend to the British, assisted in quelling the Kolhan 
rebellion, and was honoured with the title of Maharaja. He died in 
1840, when the Raj was divided between his two sons, the elder, Hit 
Narayan, getting a 9 annas share, and the younger, Mod Narayan, 
7 annas. 

Five years later Hit Narayan received the title of Maharaja ; but 
being a man of religious turn of mind, he became an ascetic and left 
his vast property in the hands of his wife, Mahara.nl Indrajlt Kunwar, 
who with her husband's consent adopted Maharaja Ram Narayan 
Krishna Singh as her son, and on her death left the property to his 



274 TEA' ART RAJ 

widow, MaharanI Rajrup Kunwar. The latter appointed as her suc- 
cessor her daughter, Radheswarl Kunwar, who died in 1886, leaving 
a minor son, Maharaj Kumar Gopal Saran Narayan Singh. The 9 
annas share of the Tekari estate was brought under the management 
of the Court of Wards on his behalf, and remained under its charge till 
1904. During this period, much has been done for the development of 
the resources of the property. As many as eighteen irrigation systems 
have been taken in hand, which have resulted in an increase to the 
rent-roll of over half a lakh of rupees. The two most important of 
these are the Jaru canal and Jaxnu. pain in the Chakand mahal. The 
former added Rs. 20,000 to the rent-roll, while the expenditure incurred 
was only Rs. 5,000 ; and by the improvement of the latter, at a trifling 
expenditure, the income of the mahal was increased by Rs. 10,000 per 
annum. This portion of the estate was brought under settlement 
between the years 1893 and 1898, when it was found to contain 551 
villages with a total area of 309 square miles. More than two-thirds 
of it is under cultivation, and nearly half of the cultivated area is 
iirigated; the chief crop is winter rice. Closely connected with the 
fact that irrigation is required over large tracts, and that the necessary 
works can only be constructed and maintained at the landlord's 
expense, is the prevalence of the bhaoli system of produce rents (see 
Gaya District), which alone can furnish the necessary incentive to 
the landlord. About 70 per cent, of the cultivated lands is held on 
this system ; in the rest of the estate the average cash rent per acre is 
Rs. 4-9 for ryots holding at fixed rates, Rs. 4-6 for occupancy ryots, 
and Rs. 2-8 for non-occupancy ryots, the average size of the holdings 
of the three classes of tenants being 4-1 acres, 3-1 acres, and 1-3 acres 
respectively. The current demand for land revenue and cesses in 
1903-4 was 2 lakhs and Rs. 60,000 respectively. The rent-roll is 
about 7-34 lakhs ; but it fluctuates greatly from year to year, owing to 
so much of the amount being payable in kind. 

The 7 annas share of the estate, which, as already stated, was held 
by Mod Narayan Singh, passed on his death to his two widows, who 
transferred the property in 1870 to a nephew of their late husband, 
Babu Ram Bahadur Singh. The latter received the title of Raja in 
1888, but died before being invested with the Mi/at and was succeeded 
by a granddaughter. On her death six years later, the estate devolved 
on her daughter, Rajkumari Bhubanesvar Kunwar, who is still in 
possession of it, though, being a minor, she is under the guardian- 
ship of her grandmother. The 7 annas share contains 715 villages, 
with an area of 523 square miles ; the rental is about 6 lakhs. 

[History of the Tekari Raj (Calcutta, 1880) ; C. J. Stevenson-Moore, 
Fitial Report on the Survey and Settlement Operations in the Tekari 
Wards Estate (Calcutta, 1899).] 



TE LING ANA 275 

Tekari Town. — Town in the head-quarters subdivision uf Gaya 
District, Bengal, situated in 24 56' N. and 84 50' E., on the left bank 
of the Morhar river, about 16 miles north-west of Gaya town. The 
population fell from 11,532 in 1891 to 6,437 in 1901, owing to a 
furious outbreak of plague at the time of the Census and the conse- 
quent general exodus of the inhabitants. The town is noted as con- 
taining the seat of the Tekari Raj. It was constituted a municipality 
in 1885. The income during the decade ending 1901-2 averaged 
Rs. 8,800, and the expenditure Rs. 7,700. In 1903-4 the income was 
Rs. 6,700, mainly from a tax on houses and lands ; and the expendi- 
ture was Rs. 6,100. 

Tekkali Tahsll. — Zamindari tahsll in the south-east of Ganjam 
District, Madras, consisting of the Tarla zamindari and several other 
proprietary estates, and lying between 18 30' and 18 53' N. and 84 
9' and 84 31' E., on the coast of the Bay of Bengal, with an area of 
275 square miles. The population in 1901 was 124,626, compared 
with 115,553 in 1891. The tahsll contains one town, Tekkali (popu- 
lation, 7,557), the head-quarters; and 350 villages. The demand for 
land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 was Rs. 56,500. It is the driest 
area in the District, chiefly depending upon rainfall and rain-fed 
tanks. The soil is generally fertile, but owing to the want of sufficient 
irrigation the crops occasionally fail. 

Tekkali Town. — Town in the Tekkali zamindari tahsil oi Ganjam 
District, Madras, situated in 18 36" N. and 84 14' E., on the Parla- 
kimedi light railway and 5 miles off the trunk road. It is also called 
Raghunathapuram in memory of Raghunath Deo, an ancient pro- 
prietor of the Tekkali estate. Population (1901), 7,557. It is the 
head-quarters of the deputy -ta list Ida r and of the proprietors of the 
Fata Tekkali and Nandigam estates. A town hall has been built 
to commemorate the coronation of the King-Emperor. 

Teliagarhi. — Pass in the Santal Parganas District, Bengal, lying 
between the Rajmahal hills on the south and the Ganges on the 
north, and formerly of great strategic importance as commanding the 
military approaches to Bengal. The ruins of a large stone fort still 
exist, through which the East Indian Railway passes ; the fort, which 
seems never to have been completed, was constructed in the eighteenth 
century by a Teli zamindar who was forcibly converted by the 
Muhammadans. 

Telingana (Telingd, Trilinga, i.e. the three lingams of Siva at 
Kalahasti, Srisailam, and Draksharama. The term originally denoted 
the tract of country in which these three famous temples were 
situated). — A name applied vaguely by the Muhammadans to the 
country of the Telugus, in the north-eastern portion of the Madras 
Presidency. Its northern boundary was apparently the Godavari river. 



276 TE LING AN A 

which separated it from the kingdom of Kalinga. A somewhat 
more precise name for it was Andhra, but this was sometimes used 
to include Kalinga and the other provinces which the Andhra kings 
conquered. The Peutingerian Tables, presumed to be earlier than 
Ptolemy, omit all mention of Kalinga, but speak of Andrae Indi. 
Ptolemy (a.d. 150) mentions Kalinga but not Andhra. The Puranas 
mention both, as do Pliny and Hiuen Tsiang (a. d. 630). At the 
latter date, Andhra was recognized as one of the six great divisions of 
the South. The Andhras were Buddhists by religion, but patronized 
Brahmans as well. Their curious leaden coins are still found in 
considerable numbers in the valley of the Kistna. For the Andhras, 
see History of Bombay, Berar, and Mysore. 

Tellicherry Subdivision. — Subdivision of Malabar District, Madras, 
consisting of the Kottayam, Chirakkal, and Kurumbranad taluks. 

Tellicherry Town (Talacheri). — Head-quarters of the Kottayam 
taluk of Malabar District, Madras, situated in n° 45' N. and 75 29' 
E., on the coast, 42 miles north of Calicut, and 457 miles by rail 
from Madras city. Besides the divisional and taluk offices, the town 
contains the District Court of North Malabar, a church, a second- 
grade college founded by Mr. Brennen in 1862, a branch of the 
Bank of Madras, Roman Catholic and German Protestant mission 
establishments, and the old fort of the East India Company, now used 
for public offices. 

Tellicherry does not appear to have been of any importance before 
the end of the seventeenth century, when the East India Company 
established a factory here with the object of commanding the 
pepper trade of North Malabar. The site, which had previously 
been occupied by a French mud fort, was granted by the Kolattiri 
Raja in 1683 or 1684. In 1708 the Raja was induced to build the 
Tellicherry fort, which he handed over to the Company for the pro- 
tection of their factory ; and during the first half of the eighteenth 
century the factors obtained from various Rajas many small grants of 
land with administrative privileges within them. They also secured 
the monopoly of the trade in pepper and cardamoms in Kolattanad, 
Kadattanad, and Kottayam. The factory thus became the prin- 
cipal British trading station on the West Coast. The growth of its im- 
portance is illustrated by a treaty dated 1737, by which the Kolattiri 
Raja agreed to be guided by the ' Sahib English Company ' in all his 
transactions with European nations, and by an agreement dated 1741, 
in which the Randattara district was mortgaged to the Company, who 
thereby became directly concerned in its administration. In the 
struggle with France, Tellicherry was the centre of the successful 
opposition offered to La Bourdonnais on the West Coast ; but during 
the early Mysore Wars the Company's operations were narrowed, and 



TENALI TOWN 277 

in 1766 the factory was reduced to a residency. In 1780 the town 
was besieged by Haidar's general Sardar Khan, but after a two years' 
struggle the siege was eventually raised in 1782 by the arrival of relief 
from Bombay under Major Abington. Tellicherry then became the 
base for the operations above the Ghats, until it was superseded as a 
military post by Cannanore. 

At present Tellicherry ranks as the third port of Malabar. The 
value of the imports in 1903-4 was 40 lakhs, and of the exports 
103 lakhs. It is the chief outlet for the pepper and coffee grown 
on the Ghats ; but the traffic in both has declined during the decade, 
the value of the coffee exports having fallen from 66 lakhs in 
1890-1 to 33 lakhs in 1900-1, and of the pepper from 29 lakhs to 
25 lakhs. The trade in sandal-wood and coco-nut products has, how- 
ever, increased. The imports consist chiefly of rice from Bengal and 
Burma, and coffee and pepper from neighbouring ports. The popula- 
tion of the town in 1901 was 27,883 (15,252 Hindus, 10,958 Muham- 
madans, and 1,671 Christians). The municipality was created in 1869. 
The income during the decade ending 1900 averaged Rs. 44,000, 
and the expenditure nearly Rs. 45,000, of which 39 per cent, was laid 
out on education. In 1903-4 the income and expenditure were 
Rs. 50,900 and Rs. 51,000 respectively, the chief receipts being from 
the taxes on houses and lands and from school fees. 

Tenali Taluk. — Subdivision and taluk of Guntur District, Madras, 
formerly known as Repalle. It lies on the right bank of the Kistna, 
and extends between i5°45 / and 16 26' N. and 8o° 31' and 8o° 54' E., 
from the sea to within a few miles of the Sitanagaram and Mangalagiri 
hills, with an area of 644 square miles. The population in 1901 was 
288,127, compared with 222,757 in 1891. Tenai.i, on the East Coast 
Railway, the head-quarters, is a Union of 10,204 inhabitants ; and 
there are 150 villages. The demand on account of land revenue and 
cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 15,73,000. With the exception of 
a slight sandstone ridge at Kolakalur, the taluk is wholly composed 
of river alluvium, and in fact lies below flood-level and needs to be 
protected by embankments. Almost the whole is irrigated by channels 
from the Kistna river, and it is the richest taluk in the Presidency. 
Except along the canals and the few roads, travelling is difficult in 
dry weather, and quite impossible throughout the greater part of it 
during the monsoons. 

Tenali Town. — Head-quarters of the taluk of the same name in 
Guntur District, Madras Presidency, situated in 16 15' N. and 8o° 38' 
E., on the East Coast Railway. Population (1901), 10,204. Since the 
advent of the railway, new streets have been laid out and houses built, 
and the town gives promise of further considerable extension. In the 
temples at Tenali are some inscriptions which have not yet been 



278 



TENALI TOWN 



deciphered ; and the town is reputed to be the birthplace of Garla- 
pati Ramalingam, one of the eight poets who adorned the court of 
king Krishna Deva of Vijayanagar. 

Tenasserim Division. — The southernmost Division of Lower 
Burma, lying between 9 58' and 19° 29' N. and 95 48' and 99° 40' 
E. On the north it is conterminous with Upper Burma ; on the 
east with Karenni and Siam ; on the west it is bounded by the Pegu 
Division, the Gulf of Martaban, and the Bay of Bengal ; and in the 
south it borders on the Malay Peninsula. While its length from north 
to south exceeds 500 miles, its width is seldom greater than 100 miles. 
Towards the south it tapers to Victoria Point, extending along the 
narrowest part of the Malay Peninsula, in one place at a distance of 
only 10 miles from the Gulf of Siam. The islands belonging to the 
Division extend farther south than the mainland, as far as 9 38' N. 
The Division comprises six Districts, four — namely, Mergui (the 
southernmost), Tavoy, Amherst, and Thaton — lying along the 
coast, and Salween and Toungoo (the northernmost) in the 
interior. 

The population of the Division, which has its head-quarters at 
Moulmein, was 576,977 in 1872, 772,620 in 1881, 912,051 in 1891, 
and 1,159,558 in 1901. Its distribution by Districts in 1901 is shown 
below : — 



District. 


Area in 
square miles. 


Population, 
1901. 


Land revenue, 

1903-4, 

in thousands 

of rupees. 


Toungoo 
Salween . 
Thaton . 
Amherst . 
Tavoy 
Mergni . 

Total 


6,172 

2,666 

5,o79 
7,062 

5.3o8 

9,789 


279,315 
37,837 
343,5 10 
300,173 
109,979 
88,744 


6,35 

24 

ii,39 

6,96 

2,16 
1,66 


36,076 


'.' 59.558 


28,76 



The Division contains 4,663 villages and 8 towns, the more impor- 
tant of the latter being Moulmein (population, 58,446), Tavoy 
(22,371), Toungoo (15,837), Thaton (14,342), and Mergui (11,987). 
Of these, the first two are trading centres of considerable importance. 
The predominant race are the Burmans, who numbered 459,637 in 
1 90 1, and are distributed throughout the Division. The Karens 
(297,084), are also widely diffused, though they are not found as a rule 
in the tracts near the sea. Takings (practically confined to Thaton 
and Amherst) numbered 208,694. Taungthus form a considerable 
portion of the population of Thaton District, and in the Division as 
a whole number 41,913. Shans, who inhabit Toungoo District 
chiefly, were returned in 1901 as numbering 18,591. Siamese live in 



TENASSERIM VILLAGE 279 

the border country in the south, and the islands of the Mergui 
Archipelago are the haunt of the vagrant Salons. Divided according 
to religion, the population of the Division was composed in 1901 of 
993,300 Buddhists, 44,840 Animists (mostly Karens), 37,524 Musal- 
mans, 45,435 Hindus, and 38,269 Christians (in great part Karen 
converts). Of the Christians, 36,250 were natives. The representa- 
tives of other religions were numerically insignificant. 

Unlike the Arakan Division, Tenasserim was at no time of its known 
history a political entity. At the accession of Wariyu, king of Marta- 
ban, it was partly Burmese and partly Siamese territory, with the 
Sal ween river as boundary. Wariyu, however, extended his sway in 
the thirteenth century over the greater part of the present Division. 
Ceaseless struggles ensued in subsequent years between the Taking 
and Siamese kingdoms, the latter gaining all but the present Toungoo 
District in the seventeenth century. The rise of Alaungpaya, however, 
put an end once and for all to the Siamese power. In 1826 the 
country south of the Salween was ceded to the British by the Treaty 
of Yandabo, and the remainder — Toungoo, Salween, and part of 
Thaton — was occupied after the second Burmese War in 1852. 

Tenasserim Township. — Easternmost township of Mergui Dis- 
trict, Lower Burma, and the only one without a sea-board. It lies 
between ir° 11' and 13 28' N. and 98 51/ and 99 40' E., with 
an area of 4,033 square miles. It is a stretch of very hilly jungle 
country, consisting of the basins of the Great and Little Tenasserim 
rivers. The population was 8,385 in 1891, and 10,712 in 1901, of 
whom 43 in every hundred spoke Burmese, 40 Karen, and 16 Siamese. 
The Burmese spoken is much purer than in Mergui, perhaps owing 
to there being a large number of the descendants of Alaungpaya's 
army of invasion. There are 114 villages and hamlets, including 
Tenasserim, the head-quarters. The area cultivated in 1903-4 was 
only 22 square miles, of which rather more than half was under rice, 
and the rest orchards and palm groves. The land revenue amounted 
to Rs. 20,500. 

Tenasserim Village (Burmese, Taninthayi). — Head-quarters of the 
township of the same name, in Mergui District, Lower Burma, situated 
in 12 6' N. and 99 3' E., at the confluence of the Great and Little 
Tenasserim rivers, 45 miles up-stream from Mergui. The village is on 
low ground, on the site of the ancient city. On a height above it is the 
courthouse, commanding a fine view of both rivers and the forest-clad 
hills around. For several hundred years Tenasserim was the principal 
port of Siam, and the gateway of the most direct route to the Far East, 
commodities being brought to it by sea from India and the Persian 
Gulf to meet those carried overland from Siam and China. The 
elephant mart is still pointed out across the river, and there are 



2 8o TENASSERIM VILLAGE 

remains of walls enclosing an area of 4 square miles. In the centre 
of this enclosure stands a granite pillar, which is variously ascribed 
to the Siamese, who are said to have founded the city in 1373, 
and to the Burmese conqueror Alaungpaya, who destroyed it on 
his victorious march through Siam in 1759. It is much visited by 
women, who plaster it with gold-leaf. On the same hill as the 
courthouse are two ancient pagodas, near one of which was recently 
found a stone inscription commemorating the building of the pagoda 
by king Byinnya Ran, who reigned at Pegu from 1491 to 1526. The 
village now contains barely a hundred houses. 

Tenkarai. — Former name of a taluk in Tinnevelly District, Madras, 
now called SrIvaikuntam. 

Tenkarai. — Town in Madura District, Madras. See Periyakulam. 

Tenkasi Taluk. — Taluk in Tinnevelly District, Madras, lying be- 
tween 8° 49' and 9 9' N. and 77 13' and 77 38' E., at the foot 
of the Western Ghats, with an area of 374 square miles. The popula- 
tion in 1 90 1 was 174,430, compared with 154,940 in 1891, the density 
being 466 persons per square mile. It contains three towns, Tenkasi 
(population, 18,128), the head-quarters, Kadaiyanallur (13,939), ar >d 
Surandai (11,810) ; and 92 villages. In physical features it resembles 
on a smaller scale the neighbouring taluk of Ambasamudram. It is 
well watered by the Chittar, and the affluents of this river are crossed 
by numerous anicuts, or dams, feeding irrigation channels and tanks. 
The demand for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 
Rs. 2,87,000. 

Tenkasi Town (Te;i, 'south,' and Kasi— Benares). — Head-quarters 
of the taluk of the same name in Tinnevelly District, Madras, situated 
in 8° 58' N. and 77 19' E., 33 miles from Tinnevelly town, with 
which it is now connected by the branch line of the South Indian 
Railway from that place to Quilon, and on the main road from 
Tinnevelly to Travancore through Ariankavu. It is a Union, with 
a population (1901) of 18,128, and is a busy trade centre. The 
place is of great sanctity, as appears from its name, and possesses a 
fine temple containing some excellent sculptures. Three miles from 
Tenkasi is situated the famous waterfall and sanitarium of Kuttalam. 

Teonthar Tahsil.— Tahsit of the Rewah State, Central India, 
lying between 24 45' and 25 12' N. and 8i° 16' and 8i° 58' E., 
to the north of the Kaimur range, with an area of 816 square miles. 
The soil is of more than average fertility, and a certain amount of 
poppy is grown. The tahsil is divided into two sections by the 
eastern extension of the Panna range known locally as the Binjh 
Pahar, two-thirds lying in the fertile plain below the range. The Tons 
river and some tributary streams leave the high-level plateau in a 
series of magnificent cascades at Piawan, Purwa, Chachai, Kevati, 



TERI TAHSIL 28 t 

and Biloni. The population was 139,697 in 189 1, and 105,154 in 
1901, giving a density of 129 persons per square mile. The tahsll 
contains 505 villages, the head-quarters being at Teonthar. The 
land revenue is 3-3 lakhs. 

Teonthar Village. — Head-quarters of the tahsll of the same 
name in Rewah State, Central India, situated in 24° 59' N. and 8i° 
41' E., 30 miles by a fair-weather road from Dabhaura station on 
the East Indian Railway. Population (1901), 1,593. A school and 
a dispensary are situated in the place. 

Ter. — Town in Osmanabad District, Hyderabad State. See Thair. 

Terakanambi. — Town in the Gundalpet taluk of Mysore Dis- 
trict, Mysore, situated in n° 49' N. and 76 47' E., 7 miles east of 
Gundalpet. Population (1901), 2,597. The town is evidently of great 
antiquity, though its early history is somewhat obscure. There is a 
general agreement that its name was formerly Trikadambapura, and 
that it grew out of a village called Kudugallur, where the kudugallu 
or ' boundary stones ' of three great countries met. On the point 
of junction a temple to Trikadamba was erected, it is said, in the 
sixth century. It probably marked the common boundary of the 
Ganga, Kerala, and Kadamba territories. After the Hoysalas, the 
early Vijayanagar kings added to the city, and the chiefs of Ummattur 
held it. It was taken by the Raja of Mysore in 1624. The fort 
was destroyed by the Marathas about 1747. There are many deserted 
temples and disused tanks. Krishna Raja III removed the principal 
god to Mysore, and the importance of the town has been super, 
seded by Gundalpet. 

Terdal. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same name in 
Sangli State, Bombay, situated in 16 30' N. and 75 5' E., on the 
right bank of the Kistna river. Population (1901), 6,125. Terdal 
is a large trade centre. The weaving of saris, dhotis, and blankets 
is the chief local industry, and there was formerly a considerable 
trade in copper and brass vessels. The temples of Prabhuswami 
and Nemnath (Jain), built in 1187, are the most important. Terdal 
is administered as a municipality, with an income of Rs. 3,000, and 
contains a dispensary. Formerly it was a walled town, but the battle- 
ments are now in ruins. 

Teri Tahsll.— Tahsll of Kohat District, North- West Frontier Pro- 
vince, lying between 32 48' and 33 44' N. and 70 33' and 72 1' E., 
with an area of 1,616 square miles. The population was 94,363 in 
1901, and 85,460 in 1S91. The tahsll contains 166 villages, its head- 
quarters being at a village of the same name. The land revenue 
and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 95,000. Teri is inhabited 
by the Khattak tribe of Pathans, whose present chief, Khan Bahadur 
Abdul Ghafur Khan, Khan of Teri, holds the whole tahsll in jdg'ir 



282 TERI TAHSIL 

at a quit-rent of Rs. 20,000 in perpetuity, while as between the 
Khan and the zatnlnddrs the demand is revised when the term of 
each settlement expires. The country, though hilly, is fairly well 
cultivated. The Khattaks are a fine race, who make excellent soldiers; 
and though naturally wild and impatient of control, they are settling 
down under British rule into peaceable agriculturists and carriers. 

Tezpur Subdivision. — Subdivision of Darrang District, Eastern 
Bengal and Assam, lying between 26 31' and 27 o' N. and 92 
19' and 93 47' E., with an area of 2,173 square miles. The sub- 
division consists of a narrow strip of land between the Brahmaputra 
and the Himalayas, a large portion of which is still uncultivated, 
the density in 1901 amounting to only 77 persons per square mile. 
The total population recorded at that Census was 166,733, or nearly 
40 per cent, more than the figure for 1891, 119,490. This rapid 
increase is chiefly due to the tea industry, and more than a third 
of the population live on the plantations. The country a little to 
the north of Tezpur town is particularly suitable for the growth of 
tea; and in 1904 there were 61 gardens with 29,001 acres under plant, 
which gave employment to 71 Europeans and 38,814 natives. On the 
expiry of their agreements, many of the coolies settle down to cultiva- 
tion in the villages, and the subdivision has to a great extent been 
colonized by this agency. The foot of the hills is clothed with ever- 
green forest, nearly 300 square miles of which have been declared 
Government Reserves, but the trade in timber is at present incon- 
siderable. The average rainfall at Tezpur town is 73 inches in the 
year, while nearer the hills it is between 90 and 100 inches. The 
subdivision contains one town, Tezpur (population, 5,047), the 
head-quarters of the District and subdivision ; and 492 villages. The 
assessment for land revenue and local rates in 1903-4 amounted to 
Rs. 3, 8 r, 000. Tezpur differs materially from Mangaldai, the other 
subdivision of Darrang ; for the last twenty years it has been healthy 
and progressive, while Mangaldai has steadily receded. 

Tezpur Town. — Head-quarters of Darrang District, Eastern 
Bengal and Assam, situated in 26 37' N. and 92 47' E., on the 
right bank of the Brahmaputra. The town is small, but is steadily 
growing in size. Population (1901), 5,047. Communications with the 
outside world are maintained chiefly by the river steamers which ply 
between Calcutta and Dibrugarh ; but the north trunk road passes 
through the town, and a light railway runs from Tezpur ghat to 
Balipara, about 20 miles north. Tezpur is said to have been the 
capital of a mythical Hindu prince, Bana Raja, who engaged in 
a sanguinary conflict with Krishna. His palace is popularly believed 
to have stood on a site now occupied by the Deputy-Commissioner's 
office, and numerous carved stones and pillars are found lying about 



THABEIKKYIN TOWNSHIP 283 

the town. A little to the west are the ruins of a large stone temple 
which was evidently erected many centuries ago. The material em- 
ployed was granite, and some of the shafts, which are 8 feet high and 
5^ feet in circumference, were hewn from a single block of stone. 
In its original condition this temple must have been a fine example 
of the mason's art ; but it has been utterly destroyed, and hardly 
one stone is left standing upon another. The town has been laid 
out with great taste and judgement, and presents a pretty and park- 
like appearance. The houses of the European residents are built on 
low hills along the river front, from which on a clear day a mag- 
nificent view is to be obtained of the Himalayan snows. The native 
quarter lies farther away. Tezpur is the head-quarters of the Dis- 
trict staff, and, in addition to the usual public buildings, contains 
a lunatic asylum, a hospital with 40 beds, and a jail with accom- 
modation for 310 persons. The convicts are principally employed 
in weaving, bamboo and cane work, oil-pressing, and .ra^/z/'-pounding. 
The town was formed into a municipality in 1893. The municipal 
receipts and expenditure during the nine years ending 1902-3 averaged 
Rs. 17,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 17,000, chiefly derived 
from fees from pounds and markets (Rs. 5,100) and a grant from 
Provincial revenues (Rs. 5,000), while the expenditure of Rs. 16,000 
included conservancy (Rs. 5,300) and public works (Rs. 5,000). There 
are no manufactures of any importance, but the bazar contains the 
warehouses of several substantial merchants who sell grain, piece- 
goods, salt, and oil, and buy rubber, mustard, and other country 
produce. The chief educational institution is a high school, which 
in 1903-4 had an average attendance of 189 boys. A small detach- 
ment of military police is stationed in the town, and 101 members 
of the Assam Valley Light Horse are resident in the District. 

Thabaung. — Northernmost township of the Bassein subdivision of 
Bassein District, Lower Burma, lying between 16 35' and 17 16' N. 
and 94 23' and 95 5' E., and skirted by the Bay of Bengal on 
the west, with an area of 1,118 square miles. The western half is 
cut up by the spurs of the Arakan Yoma, but the rest is a dead level. 
It contains 440 villages. The population was 38,924 in 1891, and 
47,802 in 1 90 1, nearly a fourth being Karens. The head-quarters are 
at Thabaung (population, 686), about 30 miles north of Bassein town, 
on the right bank of the Bassein river. In 1903-4 the area under 
cultivation was 81 square miles, paying a land revenue of Rs. 1,13,000. 

Thabeikkyin Subdivision.— Subdivision of the Ruby Mines 
District, Upper Burma, comprising the two river-side townships of 
Thabeikkvin and Tagaung. 

Thabeikkyin Township.— River-side township in the south- 
western corner of the Ruby Mines District, Upper Burma, lying be- 

VOL. XXIII. T 



284 THABEIKKYIN TOWNSHIP 

tween 22 42' and 23 18' N. and 95 58' and 96 20' E., with an 
area of 688 square miles. The population was 8,123 m I 89 I > an d 
9,787 in 1901, distributed in 74 villages, and is almost exclusively 
Burman. Thabeikkyin (population, 1,554), a village on the left bank 
of the Irrawaddy, 130 miles above Mandalay, the terminus of the 
metalled road from Mogok to the river, is the head-quarters. The 
greater part of the township consists of undulating country, gradually 
rising from the Irrawaddy to the foot of the Ruby Mines mountains. 
About 3,000 acres were under cultivation in 1903-4, and the land 
revenue and thathameda amounted to Rs. 10,000. 

Thabyegan. — Township in the Hanthawaddy District of Lower 
Burma, lying between 16 42' and 16 59' N. and 96 17' and 96 41' E. 
Since 1901 its limits have been curtailed; its area in 1903 was 
314 square miles, and its population, according to the Census of 
1901, was 51,390, living in 155 villages. The head-quarters are at 
the village of Thabyegan (population, 1,320), on the Pagandaung 
creek, about 2 miles from where that stream flows into the Pegu 
river. The area cultivated in 1903-4 was 225 square miles, paying 
Rs. 4,37,000 land revenue. 

Thair (Ter). — Town in the District and taluk of Osmanabad, 
Hyderabad State, situated in 18 19' N. and 7 6° 9' E., on the Tirna 
river, 12 miles north-east of Osmanabad. Population (1901), 7,327. 
There are some very interesting remains, said to be connected with 
the ancient city of Tagara. It contains a police station and a school, 
and is composed of twelve wadis or hamlets, being really an overgrown 
village. A project is under consideration for the construction of a 
canal from the river close by. 

[J. F. Fleet, Journal, Royal Asiatic Society (1901); H. Cousens, 
Archaeological Survey 0/ India, Annual Report (1902-3), p. 195.] 

Thakeswari. — Place of pilgrimage in Goalpara District, Eastern 
Bengal and Assam. See Tukreswari. 

Thakurbari. — Place of pilgrimage in Sylhet District, Eastern 
Bengal and Assam. See Dhakadakshin. 

Thakurdwara Tahsil. — Northern tahsil of Moradabad District, 
United Provinces, conterminous with the pargana of the same name, 
lying between 28 56' and 29 16' N. and 78 39' and 78 55' E., with 
an area of 240 square miles. Population fell from 121,174m 1891 to 
116,814 in 1 90 1. There are 261 villages and one town, Thakur- 
dwara (population, 6,111), the tahsil head-quarters. The demand for 
land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,87,000, and for cesses Rs. 32,000. 
The density of population, 487 persons per square mile, is below the 
District average. The tahsil is a submontane tract, cut up by nume- 
rous small streams, none of which is of importance. The Ramganga, 
into which they fall, flows near the western border. The staple crop is 



THAL 285 

rice, but sugar-cane is also grown largely. In 1902-3 the area under 
cultivation was 164 square miles, of which 14 were irrigated. Wells 
and rivers each supply about two-fifths of the irrigated area. 

Thakurdwara Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsll of the same 
name in Moradabad District, United Provinces, situated in 29 12' N. 
and 78 52' E., 27 miles north of Moradabad city. Population (1901), 
6,111. The town was founded in the reign of Muhammad Shah 
(1719-48), and was plundered by the Pindari, Amir Khan, in 1805. 
It contains a iahsili, a police station, a dispensary, and a branch of 
the American Methodist Mission. It is administered under Act XX 
of 1856, with an income of about Rs. 1,300. The tahslll school has 
83 pupils. 

Thakurgaon Subdivision. — Northern subdivision of Dinajpur 
District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, lying between 25 40' and 26 23' 
N. and 88° 2' and 88° 39' E., with an area of 1,171 square miles. 
The subdivision is an alluvial tract, through which several rivers pursue 
a southerly course. The population in 1901 was 543,086, compared 
with 531,408 in 1 89 1, the density being 464 persons per square 
mile. It contains 1,990 villages, of which Thakurgaon (population, 
1,658) is the head-quarters ; but no town. Important fairs are held 
annually at Nekmard and Alawakhawa. There is a fine temple at 
Kantanagar. 

Thakurgaon Village. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the 
same name in Dinajpur District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated 
in 2 6° 5' N. and 88° 26' E., on the Tangan river. Population (1901), 
1,658. It contains the usual public offices ; the sub-jail has accommo- 
dation for 18 prisoners. 

Thai. — The great steppe lying between 30 30' and 32 o' N. and 
70 30' and 72 E., in the Sind-Sagar Doab, Punjab. It stretches 
southward from the foot of the Salt Range for 150 miles towards the 
apex of the doab as far as the border of Muzaffargarh District, and 
comprises most of the cis-Indus territory of Mianwali and part of the 
Khushab tahsll of Shahpur District, being bounded on the west by the 
high bank of the Indus and on the east by that of the Jhelum. In 
places its width exceeds 50 miles. A scanty rainfall, a treeless sandy 
soil, and a precarious and scattered pasturage mark this out as one of 
the most desolate tracts now remaining in the Punjab. Much of it 
is real desert, barren and lifeless, and devoid not only of bird and 
animal life, but almost of vegetation. At first sight the Thai appears 
a uniformly monotonous desert, but in reality its character varies. The 
northern Thai has a substratum of hard level soil, the surface of which 
is covered by a succession of low sandhills with a general north and 
south direction ; and its appearance is that of a sandy rolling prairie, 
covered in the rare years of good rainfall with grass and stunted bushes. 

T 2 



286 THAL 

Cultivation is carried on only in small patches, water is from 40 to 
60 feet below the surface, and the sparse population depend chiefly 
on their flocks and herds. It is traversed from west to east by the 
Sind-Sagar branch of the North-Western Railway, which turns abruptly 
south at Kundian and runs parallel with the Indus down the western 
border of the Thai. The eastern part of the steppe is called the Thai 
Kalan or ' Great Thai ' ; and here a line of high sandhills, running 
north-east and south-west, alternates with narrow bottoms of soil, 
stiff and hard in places, but more often covered with sand. Towards 
the west the hills become lower and less sandy. Agriculture here 
replaces pasturage as the occupation of the people, and in the Leiah 
tahsil a broad strip of nearly level ground runs down from Fatehpur 
towards Mirhan. This tract is called Daggar in the north and Jandi 
Thai in the south. The main feature of the Daggar is its central core 
— a narrow strip of firm, flat, cultivable soil, which runs, like a river, 
from north to south down its centre. From the line of wells in this 
portion the Daggar takes its name. The good land ends near Khan- 
pur in a region of smooth sand, to be succeeded near Karor by another 
fertile strip, which forms a core similar to the Jandi Thai. There is 
little doubt that the Indus once flowed down the middle of the Thai. 
Last we come to the Powah, a strip of upland some 3 miles broad 
forming the high bank of the Indus. In the north this bank rises 
abruptly 40 feet from the river level ; but towards the south it gradually 
gets lower, until it disappears at Kot Sultan. Large villages, whose 
lands lie in the riverain tract below, are built on the Powah, where 
the floods are less likely to reach them. The Thai is peopled by 
Jat tribes with scattered septs of Sial, Khokhar, and other Rajputs, 
and it was for a time under the Hot Baloch chiefs of Mankera. That 
its natural characteristics have a depressing effect on the people is 
hardly a matter of surprise, and they are, to use their own expression, 
'camel-hearted.' The tract will probably be irrigated by the projected 
Indus Canal. 

Thai Subdivision. — Subdivision of Kohat District, North-West 
Frontier Province, consisting of the Hangu Tahsil. The sub- 
divisional officer is also Political officer for the following tribes : Orakzai 
west of Fort Lockhart, Zaimukhts, Biland Khel and Kabul Khel 
Wazlrs. 

Thai Village. — Military outpost in the Hangu tahsil of Kohat 
District, North-West Frontier Province, situated in 33 20' N. and 
70 34' E., on a branch of the North-Western Railway. Thai is a 
depot for the through trade with Northern Afghanistan which passes 
along the Kurram valley. It also does some local trade with the 
tribesmen of independent territory adjoining. The village lies on the 
left bank of the Kurram river, at the extreme limit of British territory, 



THAN 287 

and gives its name to a subdivision of the District. The fort is 
garrisoned by detachments of native cavalry and infantry under a 
British officer. A new border military police post and civil resthouse 
were built here in 1905. 

Thal-Chotiali.— A former District of Baluchistan, the north-eastern 
part of which has been merged since 1903 in Loralai District and 
the southern and western parts in Sim District. 

Thalghat (or Kasaraghat). — Pass in the Western Ghats, on the 
boundary of Thana and Nasik Districts, Bombay, situated in 19 43' N. 
and 73 30' E., 65 miles north-east-by-north of Bombay city. The 
Thalghat is, for purposes of trade, one of the most important in the 
range of the Western Ghats, and as an engineering feat is rivalled only 
by the Borghat farther south. It is traversed by two lines of com- 
munication, road and rail. The road is the main line between Bombay 
and Agra. It still conveys a large traffic coastwards in grain, and 
eastwards in salt and sundries. The railway is the north-eastern 
branch of the Great Indian Peninsula line. The summit of the railway 
incline is 1,912 feet above the level of the sea; the maximum gradient 
is 1 in 37 ; and the extreme curvature is 17 chains radius. 

Thalner. — Village in the Shirpur taluka of West Khandesh District, 
Bombay, situated in 21 15' N. and 74 58' E., on the Tapti river, 
28 miles north-east of Dhulia. Population (1901), 317. According 
to an old grant, Thalner was in the possession of the Gaulis or Ahlrs 
in 1 1 28. Late in the fourteenth century (1370-99) Malik Raja 
Faruki chose it as his head-quarters. In 1498 it was invested by 
Mahmud Begara of Gujarat, and by him it was granted to one of his 
courtiers. At Thalner the Khandesh king, Miran Muhammad Khan, 
was defeated by Changez Khan of Gujarat in 1566. It passed to the 
Mughals in 1600. In 1750 the Peshwa received the fort; and after 
having been held by Holkar for some years, it was captured in 181 8 
by the British. The capture of Thalner was preceded by severe 
fighting, an active resistance being offered to Sir Thomas Hislop, who 
came to take possession. In storming the fort Major McGregor of the 
Royal Scots and Captain Gordon were killed. Their tombs are at 
Thalner. There are ten Muhammadan tombs of some little interest. 
The inscriptions are undecipherable, but they would seem to show 
that the tombs are of Faruki kings, of whom four — Malik Raja (1399), 
Malik Nasir (1437), Miran Adil Khan (1441), and Miran Mubarak 
Khan — were buried at Thalner. The village contains a boys' school 
with 137 pupils. 

Than. — -Village in the State of Lakhtar, Kathiawar, Bombay, 
situated to the north of the main road from Wadhwan to Rajkot. 
Population (1901), 1,327. The village is surrounded by a fort. It is 
interesting for its traditions rather than for the few antiquarian remains 



288 THAN 

now existing. The following description of the place is condensed 
from an account supplied by Major J. W. Watson : — 

Than is one of the most ancient places in India, and the whole of 
the neighbourhood is holy ground. Than itself derives its name from 
the Sanskrit sihan, ' a place,' as though it were the place, hallowed 
above all others by the residence of devout sages, by the magnificence 
of its city, and by its propinquity to famous shrines, such as that of 
Trineteshwara, now called Tarnetar, the famous temple of the Sun at 
Kandola, and those of the Snake brethren Vasuki and Banduk, now 
known as Wasangi and Bandia Beli respectively. 

Than is situated in the part of Surashtra (Kathiawar) known as the 
Deva Panchal — so called, it is said, from having been the native 
country of Draupadi, the wife of the five Pandava brothers, from which 
circumstance she was called Panchali ; and because it is peculiarly 
sacred, it is called the Deva Panchal. Nor is Than famous in local 
tradition alone. One of the chapters of the Skanda Purana is devoted 
to Trineteshwara and the neighbourhood, and this chapter is vulgarly 
called the Than Purana or Tarnetar Mahatmya. Here we learn that 
the first temple to the Sun was built by Raja Mandhata in the Satya 
Yug. The city is said then to have covered many square miles, and 
to have contained a population of 36,000 Brahmans, 52,000 Vaisyas, 
72,000 Kshattriyas, and 90,000 Sudras, in all 250,000. 

In 1690 Kartalab Khan, viceroy of Gujarat, stormed the town and 
levelled the old temple. The present temple is built on the former 
site. Than was visited also by Krishna and his consort Rukmini, who 
bathed in the two tanks near the town, whence one has been called 
Pritam, a contraction from priyatam, ' the beloved,' after Krishna, so 
named as being the beloved of the Gopls ; and the other Kamala, after 
Lakshml, whose symbol is the kamala or lotus blossom. The central 
fortress was called Kandola, and here was the celebrated temple of the 
Sun. Immediately opposite to Kandola is another hill, with a fort 
called in more recent times, Songarh ; and another large suburb was 
named Mandva. Within a few miles was the shrine of the three-eyed 
god Trineteshwara, one of the appellations of Siva ; and close to this, 
the celebrated ku?id, by bathing in which all sins were washed 
away. This tank was called the Papnashan or ' sin-expelling,' as the 
forest in which it was situated was called the Papanodanu-vana, or 
the ' forest of the sin-destroyer.' Close to Than are the Mandhav hills, 
distinguished by this name from the rest of the Thanga range of which 
they form a part ; and the remains of Mandhavgarb, such as they are, 
may be seen close to the shrine of Bandia Beli, the modern name 
of Banduk, one of the famed Snake brethren. 

An account of the remains at present existing will be found in 
Dr. Burgess's Archaeological Survey of IVestem India. 



THANA DISTRICT 289 

Thana Agency. — Political charge, consisting of a Petty State in 
the District of Thana, Bombay. See Jawhar. 

Thana District. — District in the Northern Division of the Bombay 
Presidency, lying between 18 53' and 20 22' N. and 72 39/ and 73 
48' E., with an area of 3,573 square miles. It is bounded on the 
north by the Portuguese territory of Daman and by Surat District ; on 
the east by the Western Ghats ; on the south by Kolaba District ; and 
on the west by the Arabian Sea. 

Thana consists of a distinct strip of low land intersected by hilly 

tracts, rising to elevations varying from 100 to 2,500 feet. Towards 

the east and north-east the country is elevated, 

covered with trees, and but scantily cultivated. ysica 

' J aspects. 

Near the coast the land is low, and, where free from 

inundation, fertile. North of the Vaitarna river, whose broad waters 
open a scene of exquisite loveliness, the shores are flat, with long, sandy 
spits running into muddy shallows, while the hills also recede ; so that, 
a little north of the great marsh of Dahanu, the general aspect 
resembles Gujarat rather than the Konkan, while the language also 
begins to change from Marathi to Gujarati. Along the whole line of 
coast the soil is fertile, and the villages are exceedingly populous. In 
the north-east the hills are covered with forest, and the valleys but 
partially cultivated ; the villages are seldom more than scattered 
hamlets of huts ; and the population consists mainly of uncivilized 
aboriginal tribes, many of whom still wander from place to place as 
they find land or water to suit their fancy. Inland, the District is well 
watered and well wooded. Except in the north-east, where much of it 
rises in large plateaux, the country is a series of flat, low-lying rice 
tracts broken by well-marked ranges of hills. Salt marshes are an 
important feature of this part of the District ; and in them the reclama- 
tion of land for cultivation is going on steadily though slowly. The 
Vaitarna, rising in the Trimbak hills in Nasik District opposite the 
source of the Godavari, is the only considerable river. The sacredness 
of its source, so near the spring of the Godavari, the importance of its 
valley, one of the earliest trade routes between the sea and the North 
Deccan, and the beauty of the lower reaches of the river, brought 
to the banks of the Vaitarna some of the first Aryan settlers. It is 
mentioned in the Mahabharata as one of the four holy streams. The 
river is navigable for small craft from Agashi to Manor, though deep 
and rapid in the rains. The Ulhas, rising in the ravines north of the 
Borghat, flows into the Bassein creek, after a north-westerly course ot 
about 80 miles. The other rivers are of little consequence — shallow 
during the cold season, and in the hot months almost dry. Except the 
Bassein creek, which separates the island of Salsette from the mainland 
and is navigable throughout its whole length, most of the inlets of the 



2 9 o THAN A DISTRICT 

sea, though broad and deep at their mouths, become shallow water- 
courses within 10 miles of the coast. 

There are no natural lakes ; but the Vehar. Tulsl, and Tansa 
reservoirs, formed artificially, supply Bombay city with water. The 
Vehar reservoir, about 15 miles from Bombay, between Kurla and 
Thana, covers an area of about 1,400 acres. It is formed by three 
dams, two of which are built to keep the water from flowing over 
ridges on the margin of the basin that were lower than the top of the 
main dam. The quantity of the water supplied by the reservoir is 
about 8,000,000 gallons a day, or a little more than ro gallons per head 
for the population of Bombay. Within the watershed of the reservoir, 
tillage or the practice of any handicraft is forbidden, and the wildness 
of the surrounding country keeps the water free from the risk of con- 
tamination. The water is excellent, and bacteriological examination 
shows that the growth of weeds has exercised no appreciable effect 
upon its quality. The cost of the Vehar reservoir, and of laying the 
pipes into Bombay, was over 37 lakhs. As apprehension was felt that 
the quantity of water drawn from the gathering ground of Vehar 
(2,550 acres) might prove too small for the wants of Bombay, the 
neighbouring Tulsl reservoir was excavated at a cost of 4^ lakhs and 
its water kept ready to be drained into Vehar. In 1877 a new scheme 
was undertaken for bringing an independent main from Tulsl to the 
top of Malabar Hill in Bombay, which was carried out at a cost of 
33 lakhs. This source of supply gives an additional daily allowance 
of 6 gallons per head for the whole population of the city, and provides 
for the higher parts of Bombay which are not reached by the Vehar 
main. The Pokarna reservoir, about 2 miles north-west of Thana town, 
was constructed to supply drinking-water to Thana in 1 880-1. The 
Varala tank at Bhiwandi and the water-works at Murbad are important 
artificial reservoirs. The Tansa reservoir is elsewhere described. 

From the Thalghat to the extreme south the Western Ghats form 
an unbroken natural boundary. Besides the main range and its 
western spurs, ranges of hills are found all over the District. Among 
the most considerable are those running through Salsette from north 
to south, the Daman range, in which is Tungar, and the range running 
from north to south between the Vaitarna and the Bassein creek. 
There are also several more or less isolated hills, many of them in 
former times forts of strength and celebrity. The two most striking 
in appearance are Mahuli and Malanggarh. 

There are a number of islands along the sea margin of Thana 
District. The largest of these is Salsette, whose western belt is formed 
of what was formerly a string of small islets. Historians speak of the 
island of Bassein ; and a narrow creek, the Supari Khadi, still runs 
between the island and the mainland, crossed by the railway and the 



PHYSICAL ASPECTS 291 

bridges at Bolinj and Gokhirve. In the Bassein tahtka is the island of 
Arnala, containing a well-preserved fort — Sindhudrug or the 'ocean 
fort ' — with Musalman remains, Sanskrit and Marathl inscriptions 
above the east gate, and an old Hindu temple inside. 

Except in alluvial valleys, Thana District consists entirely of the 
Deccan trap and its associates. The special geological features 
from Bassein northwards are the traces of extensive denudation and 
partial reproduction of land. Of the line of hot springs that occur 
along the west coast, Thana has four representatives in Mahim, Vada, 
Bhiwandi, and Bassein. Except those in Mahim, almost all are either 
in the bed of, or near, the Tansa river. 

The vegetation of the District is essentially Konkan in character. 
The toddy palm is very common in the coast talukas. Thana has 
a great variety of forest trees, and among its fruit trees the grafted 
mangoes of the coast orchards reach a high pitch of excellence. They 
are of three known varieties: Alphonso, Pa iri, and Raival ' ; the first 
two are believed to have been brought from Goa. The garden trees 
of Bassein yield about ten varieties of plantains. The District is rich 
in fine flowering plants, such as Capparis, I??ipatie?is, Vitis discolor, 
Crotalaria, Smithia, Erythrhia, Blumea, Senecio, Sqpubia, and Ipo/tiaea. 

In the beginning of the fourteenth century there were, according to 
Friar Oderic, a number of ' black lions ' in the District. Tigers and 
leopards are found in decreasing numbers in the forests on the slopes 
and in the valleys of the Ghats. Hyenas, jackals, and porcupines 
are common, and bison and chltal are seen occasionally. Crocodiles 
are found in the estuaries, such as the mouth of the Kalyan creek, and 
in the deeper fresh-water pools, and are numerous in the Vehar lake. 
The District is infested with snakes, both venomous and harmless. 

For fully half the year the climate is exceedingly moist, and the 
District is generally unhealthy. There are no great variations in 
temperature during the different seasons of the year, the air being 
cooled by sea winds during the hot months and in the south-west 
monsoon. The mean annual temperature is 83 , ranging from 58 in 
January to 103 in April. Except on the coast, October and November 
are malarious months, owing to the drying of the monsoon moisture. 
The cold season is short and mild. Two shocks of earthquake have 
been noted in the District, one in 1849 and the other in 1877. The 
latter was preceded by a noise ' like cannon being trotted along the 
road.' 

The rainfall is heavy and is entirely derived from the south-west 
monsoon. Along the coast north of Bassein it averages from 62 to 
69 inches, and at Bassein 83 inches. Frequently continuous rain causes 
damage to the embankments of the fields and the seed-beds of rice, 
washing away transplanted crops, and otherwise doing much mischief. 



292 THANA DISTRICT 

The Shahapur taluka has the heaviest fall (in inches), and the 
minimum is in Umbargaon petha (62 inches). The rainfall over the 
whole District averages 92 inches. 

In the third century B.C. Asoka's edicts were engraved at Sopara in 
this District. After Asoka, the Andhrabhrityas ruled the Konkan, in- 
cluding Thana. To them succeeded the Sah dynasty, 
or Western Kshatrapas, and a revival of the former 
Mauryan dominion was subsequently overthrown by the Chalukyas of 
Kalyan. From 810 to 1260 the District was part of the possessions 
of the Silaharas, who made their capital at Purl (Elephanta), the former 
seat of the Mauryas in the Konkan. The Silaharas were probably of 
Dravidian origin. In their time (c. 1300) the Musalmans overran the 
coast ; but their supremacy was hardly more than nominal until about 
1500, when the Gujarat kings established themselves firmly. They soon 
came into collision with the Portuguese, who at this time appeared upon 
the coast, and after a struggle established themselves at Bassein in 1533 
and built a fort. Their acquisitions spread along the coast and brought 
them into hostility with the Ahmadnagar king who held Kalyan and 
the interior, and the Koll chiefs of Jawhar. The possessions of the 
Ahmadnagar kings passed to the Mughals. In 1666 SivajT seized the 
south-east of Thana and attacked the Portuguese in Salsette, and by 
1675 he was the undisputed ruler of the interior as far as Kalyan ; but 
a little later the Mughals regained a footing, and in 1694 they attacked 
the Portuguese. The Sidis of Janjlra commanded the Musalman fleet ; 
and the naval wars between them and the Marathas often imperilled 
the safety of the island of Bombay. Arab pirates devastated the Portu- 
guese possessions, and after Aurangzeb's death Angria subdued the 
country from the Borghat to Bhiwandi. About 1731 the power of both 
Angria and the Sidl appears to have declined through internal dis- 
sensions, on which the Peshwa's central government came to the front. 
By 1739 he had deprived the Portuguese of all their possessions, in- 
cluding the ports of Thana and Bassein. The expense of maintaining 
Bombay induced the English to make an effort to obtain Salsette by 
treaty, and, this failing, they took it by force in 1774. In 1775 Raghu- 
nath Rao Peshwa ceded Bassein and its dependencies to the British. 
Jealousy of the French, who had entered into negotiations with the 
Peshwa, induced the Bombay Government to attack the Marathas ; but 
being obliged to oppose Haidar All in Madras, they restored their con- 
quest, Bassein and its dependencies, on the mainland of Thana, by the 
Treaty of Salbai, in 1782. In 1817 the Peshwa ceded the northern 
parts of the present District in return for British support, and, war 
breaking out almost immediately, the rest was annexed. Since then, 
operations to put down the Koll robbers, which extended over several 
years, and police measures to punish occasional gang robberies by 



POPULATION 



293 



the same tribe, have been the only interruptions to the peace of the 
District. 

The archaeological remains in Thana District are mainly Hindu. 
The most interesting Portuguese remains are the forts and churches 
at Bassein and at Mandapeshvar, Ghodbandar, and other places in 
Salsette. The chief Musalman remains are mosques, tombs, and 
reservoirs at Bhiwandi and Kalyan. The principal Buddhist remains 
are caves at Kanheri, Kondivati, and Magathan in Salsette, and at 
Lonad in Bhiwandi, the Kanheri caves being of special interest. Brah- 
manic remains include caves at Jogeshvari and Mandapeshvar in Sal- 
sette ; temples at Ambarnath in Kalyan, Lonad in Bhiwandi, and Atgaon 
in Shahapur ; and caves at Palu Sonala in Murbad. Other remains, 
either Buddhist or Brahmanic, are a rock-cut temple at Vashali in Shaha- 
pur ; caves or cells at Indragath in Dahanu, and at Jivdhan in Bassein. 

In 1846 the population of the District is said to have been 593,192 ; 
in 1872 it was 847,424; in 1881, 908,548; in 1891, 904,860; and in 
190 1, 811,433. The recent enumerations show an 
apparent decrease, which is due to the transfer of the 
Panvel taluka to Kolaba District between 1881 and 1891 and of the 
Karjat taluka to the same District before 1901. The adjusted popula- 
tion for the present area was in 1872, 673,560 ; in 1881, 725,305 ; in 1891, 
819,580 ; and in 1901, 811,433, the actual decrease being one per cent. 
The District is divided into nine tdlukas, with area and population as 
follows : — 



Population. 













1- 









In 


Number of 


c 


O . 


° C.S- 


■+-■*• 


Talukc 


s 

I. c~ 






.0 

D. 


g'e 


Percentage 
variation i 

population 
tween 189 
and 1901. 


umber 
ons able 
ead and 
write. 


GO 

c 


u 









> 


Pi 


O 7) 

Oh 


£ £2 h 

D. 


Dahanu* 


644 


212 


129,815 


202 


- 3 


5>52 6 


Mahlm 


4O9 


I 


I8 7 


82,562 


202 


- 4 


3,7 1 2 


Vada f 


566 




221 


7°>895 


125 


— 1 


1,609 


Shahapur 


6lO 




197 


83,881 


138 


- 9 


2,206 


Bassein 


223 


I 


90 


80,251 


360 


+ 5 


4> 2 5 s 


Bhiwandi 


249 


I 


I96 


77,44° 


3" 


— 1 1 


2,852 


Kalyan 


. 276 


I 


224 


77>o87 


279 


- 4 


3.103 


Murbad 


350 




I7 1 


62,569 


179 


~~ 5 


i,833 


Salsette 
Distric 


246 


1 




128 


i4 6 »933 


597 


+ 16 


18,009 


■ total 3,573 


7 


1,626 


8u,433 


227 


+ 1 


43,108 



* Including Umbargaon peiha. 

f Including Mokliada petha s which, since 1901, has been transferred to it from 
the Shahapur taluka. 

There are seven towns — Bandra, Bassein, Bhiwandi, Kalyan, 
Kelve-Mahim, Kurla, and Thana, the head-quarters — and 1,697 
villages. The density is 227 persons per square mile, Salsette con- 
taining the maximum, 597. Marathi is spoken by 88 per cent, of 



294 THAN A DISTRICT 

the population. According to religion, Hindus form 90 per cent, of 
the total, Musalmans and Christians 5 per cent. each. 

The population of Thana consists very largely of primitive tribes, 
such as the Varlis (89,000), Thakurs (51,000), Kathkaris (22,000), 
and Kathodis (13,000), and the more progressive aborigines the Agrls 
(84,000) and Kolis (86,000). The first four .for the most part lead 
a wandering life in the jungle, subsisting by the collection and sale 
of forest produce or raising a scanty crop by rude methods of culti- 
vation. The Agrls are salt-makers and cultivators, while the Kolis 
living on the coast are sailors and fishermen. These castes and tribes 
are animistic, and worship non-Brahmanic spirits and deities. Even 
Parsis, Jews, Musalmans, and Christians make offerings to these local 
deities. Except a few who proceed to Bombay during the dry season, 
chiefly as labourers and cartmen, the people seldom leave their homes 
in search of work. Their labour seems not to be in much demand 
outside the District, probably because their fever-stricken constitutions 
prevent them from competing with the able-bodied labouring classes 
of Poona, Satara, and Ratnagiri. Much of this want of strength is due 
to the weakening climate, malarious forests, the strain and exposure in 
planting rice, and the immoderate use of spirituous drinks. Of out- 
side labourers who come to Thana for work, the most important class 
are Deccan Kunbis (108,000) and Mahars (44,000), of whom the 
former are known in the District as ghdtis or ' highlanders.' They 
generally arrive in the beginning of the fair season, trooping in hundreds 
down the Borghat and other passes. Many find employment as grass- 
cutters in Salsette, Kalyan, and Mahim. The chief palm-tapping caste 
is the Bhandari (14,000), common throughout the Konkan. In the 
higher ranks, the chief Brahman caste is the Konkanasth (6,000), and 
Prabhus or writers are numerous (5,000). Traders come from Gujarat 
and Marwar, and are chiefly Vanls (10,000), including Bhatias (780), 
and Parsis (5,000). Agriculture supports 65 per cent, of the total popu- 
lation ; of the rest, 4 per cent, are supported by industry and 2 per cent, 
by general labour. Fishermen and fish-curers number 14,000. The 
cultivators are mainly Kunbis and Agrls. 

In 1 90 1 the Christian population comprised 601 Europeans and 
Eurasians and 42,000 native Christians, of whom 29,000 were Roman 
Catholics. The unusually large number of native Christians is a relic 
of Portuguese dominion. As the original converts were not obliged to 
give up caste distinctions, their descendants have retained many of them, 
and a Thana Christian can still tell to what caste his family belonged 
before conversion. The Christians of several villages in the Bassein taluka 
claim descent from Brahmans. Indeed, Christians of some castes 
commonly call themselves Christian Bhandaris, Kunbis, or Kolis, as 
the case may be ; and members of different castes do not, as a rule, inter- 



A GRICUL TURE 295 

marry, though the restriction in this respect is not so rigid as among 
Hindus. All of them have Portuguese names ; and they show their 
attachment to their faith by contrihuting very largely to their churches 
and to the support of their priests. All Christian villages on the coast, 
and a good number inland, have their churches ; and where a congrega- 
tion is not large enough to keep a resident priest, one priest serves two 
or three churches. At many of the Salsette churches annual fairs or 
festivals are held, to which the Christians flock in great numbers. 
Numerous Hindus and Parsis also attend, as some of the shrines have 
a reputation for working cures, which is not confined to Christians, 
and obtains for them many heathen offerings. The upper classes dress 
as Europeans, the lower generally with jacket and short drawers of col- 
oured cotton, and a red cloth cap; the women of the lower classes dress 
like the Marathas, and, when they appear at church, wear a voluminous 
white shawl or mantle. Their houses are generally tiled, and often two- 
storeyed, and frequently washed in colours outside. Many of these Chris- 
tians are employed as clerks and shopmen in Bombay; but they pride 
themselves on differing from their brethren of Goa in refusing to enter 
domestic service. They live by cultivation, fishing, toddy-drawing, and 
every other employment open to similar classes of Hindus. A few mem- 
bers of the best families enter the priesthood. In Salsette very many, 
and in Bassein a few, of the state grants to village headmen are held 
by Christians. In religious matters the Thana Christians belong to two 
bodies, those under the jurisdiction of the Archbishop of Goa and those 
under the jurisdiction of the Vicar Apostolic of Bombay. The latter 
are a small body, not numbering more than 5,000 souls. Their spiritual 
matters are managed chiefly by members of the Society of Jesus. Be- 
sides Bandra, where they have a church of St. Peter and two native 
orphanages, they have churches and vicars at the villages of Man, 
Kanchavli, Gorai, Juhu^ Wadoli, and Nirmal. There are nine churches 
and one chapel with a resident priest in Bassein under the jurisdiction 
of the Bishop of Daman. At Malyan is a branch of the German Baptist 
Brethren Mission of Surat, and at Sanjan is a small boarding-school 
belonging to another mission, which has done good work with children 
of both sexes. The American Methodist Episcopalian Mission main- 
tains a small branch at Kasara in the Shahapur tdluka, as also does 
the Pentecostal Mission at Vasind. 

The main division of soil is into ' sweet ' and ' salt.' ' Sweet ' land is 
either black or red ; the black is known as shet, meaning the level rice 
lands, and the red as malvarkas, that is, the flat tops 
and slopes of trap hills. Rice lands belong to two 
classes, bandhni and malkhandi. Bandhni lands are either banked 
fields which can be flooded, or low-lying fields without embankments, 
in which water lies during the rains. The low-lying fields are the most 



296 



THANA DISTRICT 



productive, as the rain-water leaves a rich deposit. Malkhandi lands 
are open fields in which no water gathers and which have no embank- 
ments. In many places along the coast, especially in the garden lands 
of Bassein and Mahim, the black soil is lighter and more sandy than 
in the interior. 

The District is almost entirely ryotwdri, only about 6 per cent, being 
indm or j'dgir. About one per cent, is owned by izafatdars and \ per 
cent, by khots. The chief statistics of cultivation are as follows, in 
square miles : — 



Talnka. 


Total 
area. 


Cultivated. 

294 

137 
229 

220 

88 

148 
161 
128 


Irrigated. 


Cultivable 
waste. 


Forests. 


Dahanu 

Mahim 

Vada . 

Shahapur 

Bassein 

Bhiwandi 

Kalyan 

Murbad 

Salsette 


• 


64I 

409 

567 
610 
219 
249 
276 
350 
249 


1 
2 
2 

4 

2 


38 
36 
21 
26 
13 

5 
6 
6 

25 


194 

121 
202 
210 

79 
76 

53 

83 
24 




Total 


3.570* 


i,5 28 


Si 


176 


1,042 



* The area for which statistics are not available is 102 square miles. The total 
area is based upon the latest information and differs by three miles from that given 
in the Census Report of 1901. 

Among the crops, rice holds the first place with an area of 493 
square miles; next come rdgi and vari with 81 and 25 respectively, 
mostly sown in the Shahapur and Murbad talukas and in the Mokhada 
petha of the Vada tdluka. The cultivation of rice is carried on exten- 
sively in embanked fields. Inferior cereals, oilseeds, pulses, and san- 
hemp are grown on the uplands and in the north of the District ; gram 
or vdl occasionally follows sweet rice as a catch-crop. There is a large 
trade in forage with Bombay. The gardens and orchards of the coast 
also contribute largely in vegetables and fruits to the same market, to 
which they supply excellent mangoes and plantains. 

Two influences, sea encroachment and land reclamations, have for 
centuries been changing the lands along the coast. Of the encroach- 
ments, the most remarkable are at Dahanu, where the sea has advanced 
about 1,500 feet; and at the mouth of the Vaitarna, where since 1724 
four villages have been submerged. Of the land reclamations, most 
have been made in small plots, which, after yielding crops of ' salt ' rice 
for some years, gradually become freed from their saltness, and merge 
into the area of 'sweet' rice land. Most of the embankments built 
to keep back the sea are believed to be the work of the Portuguese, 
having been constructed partly by the Government and partly by 
the European settlers to whom the Government granted large estates. 
In this, as in other respects, the Portuguese did much to improve 



FORESTS, ETC. 297 

the coast districts. The supply of rab manure is now much improved, 
owing to the action of the local authorities in pressing a more econo- 
mical system of tree and shrub-lopping upon the cultivators. Efforts 
have recently been made in the Mahlm taluka to introduce oil engines 
and long channels for garden cultivation. From the beginning of 
British rule, salt wastes have been granted for reclamation on specially 
favourable terms. During the decade ending 1903-4 the cultivators 
found it necessary to borrow only 2-5 lakhs under the Land Improve- 
ment and Agriculturists' Loans Act. Of this sum, Rs. 89,000 was 
advanced in 1899- 1900. 

Except in Mokhada, the east of Vada, and Shahapur, little attention 
is paid to the breeding of cattle. In Mokhada care is taken in the 
selection of bulls, which are bought from Nasik graziers, the Kanadas 
cattle from the hills or the Nasik border being considered the best. 
The ponies bred locally are chiefly undersized. There are no special 
varieties of sheep or goats. 

Along the coast the water-supply is abundant, and the water, though 
brackish, is not unwholesome. Inland, water can be had for the 
digging, but the people are so poor that wells are few and the supply of 
water scanty. The chief irrigation consists of flooding the rice lands 
during the rains by means of the small streams that drain the neigh- 
bouring uplands. In the dry season some irrigation is carried on 
from rivers and unbricked wells. About 8^ square miles were irrigated 
in 1903-4, chiefly from wells ; and there were 5,057 wells and 22 tanks 
used for irrigation. 

The sea fisheries of Thana are important and very productive. The 
supply of fresh fish for the market of Bombay and of dried fish for 
the Deccan supports a large section of the popula- . . 

tion, chiefly Kolls. The oysters of Kalu in the north 
of the District bear an excellent reputation. Of the pearls, which are 
mentioned by Pliny (a.d. 77) and by Al Idrisi (a.d. 1135), specimens 
are still found in the Thana creek. 

Forest administration is under the control of three divisional Forest 
officers, assisted by three subdivisional Forest officers. The forests 
of Thana, which supply Bombay with a large quan- 
tity of firewood, yielded a revenue of Rs. 64,700 Forests ' &c * 
in 1 870-1, and about 3-7 lakhs in 1901. In 1903-4 the income 
was 3-8 lakhs. Together with those of Kanara and Khandesh, they 
are the largest and most valuable in the Presidency. About 1,028 
square miles have been provisionally gazetted as 'reserved' and 213 
square miles as « protected ' forest. The timber trade is chiefly in the 
hands of Christians of Bassein, Musalmans, and Parsis. The District 
has a great variety of forest trees. The forest products are timber, fire- 
wood, charcoal, bamboos, kdrvt, am, and other barks, apta and temburni 



29 8 THANA DISTRICT 

leaves. Much of the forest is chiefly valuable as supplying grazing, the 
income derived from fodder and grazing in 1903-4 being Rs. 11,000. 

Thana is destitute of workable minerals. The laterite which caps 
many of the highest hills, such as Prabal and Mahuli, bears traces 
of iron, and where charcoal has been burnt lumps of clay resem- 
bling iron slag may be found. The water in many springs also shows 
signs of iron. But iron ore is nowhere found in paying quantities. 
The only other mineral of which there are traces is sulphur, found 
in the hot springs at Vajrabai in Bhiwandi. 

Next to agriculture, the making of salt is the most important in- 
dustry of the District. There are 99 salt-works with an out-turn in 
1903-4 of 2,300,000 maunds, yielding a revenue of 

Trade and - lakhs The sa lt-workers are chiefly Agris. Thana 
communications. ,.,,,, c . 

salt is made by the solar evaporation ot sea-water. 

Ordinary brass-work and pottery are important industries. Hand-loom 
weaving by Portuguese or native Christians, who made cotton cloth, 
including the particular striped variety known as Thana cloth, is now 
practically extinct. The Musalmans of Thana and Bhiwandi weave 
silk and cotton goods, but the industry suffers from proximity to the 
Bombay mills. There are at Kurla two spinning and weaving mills, 
owned by public companies, with 81,000 spindles and 1,715 looms, 
which produce 11,000,000 lb. of yarn and nearly 5,000,000 lb. of 
cloth for the Indian and foreign markets. During 1904 the average 
number of daily workers was 4,502. There is also a bone-mill which 
employs 100 hands and manufactures bone manure. Of other in- 
dustries the cleaning of agave fibre and the manufacture of paint 
may be mentioned, while a large number of people are employed in 
lime-burning and brick-making. 

From the earliest historical times there has always been an ocean 
trade to the coast of Thana and caravan traffic through the Ghat 
passes. Since the establishment of railway communication with the 
interior, the roads and tracks of the District have carried only local 
traffic, which is still considerable. The chief articles of export are 
rice, salt, wood, lime, and dried fish. Cotton cloth, grain, tobacco, coco- 
nuts, sugar, and molasses are the chief articles of import. The annual 
value of the sea-borne trade of the ports in 1903-4 was : imports 
55 lakhs, and exports 57 lakhs. The leading traders are Konkani 
Musalmans, Gujarati and local Varus, and Bhatias. Numerous fairs 
are held in the District. 

Along the sea-coast, and up the creeks, sailing vessels and canoes 
form a ready means of communication. In three directions the Dis- 
trict is crossed by railways. To the north, the line of the Bombay, 
Baroda, and Central India Railway skirts the coast for a total dis- 
tance of 95 miles. East and west, the Great Indian Peninsula Railway 



AD MINIS TRA TION 299 

runs for 24 miles, and then dividing, runs north-east by the Thal- 
ghat to Nasik and south-east by the Borghat to Poona. Two main 
lines of road run eastward, the Agra road across the Thalghat to 
Nasik and the Poona road by way of the Borghat. Since the estab- 
lishment of Local funds, many new lines of roads have been made ; 
and in 1903-4 there were 708 miles of roads in the District, of 
which 327 miles were metalled. Of the latter, 133 miles of Provin- 
cial and 139 miles of local roads are maintained by the Public Works 
department. Avenues of trees have been planted along 357 miles. 

During the nineteenth century three causeways were made between 
the islands in the neighbourhood of Bombay city. The first joined 
Sion in Bombay with Kurla in Salsette, the second joined Mahlm in Bom- 
bay with Bandra in Salsette, and the third joined Kurla in Salsette with 
Chembur in Trombay. The Sion causeway was begun in 1798 and fin- 
ished in 1805 at a cost of Rs. 50,000. In 1826 its breadth was doubled, 
and it was otherwise improved at a further outlay of Rs. 40,000. The 
Sion causeway is 935 yards long and 24 feet wide. In 1841 Lady Jam- 
setji Jljlbhoy offered Rs. 45,000 towards making a causeway between 
Mahlm and Bandra. The work was begun in 1843, and before it was fin- 
ished Lady JamsetjT increased her first gift to Rs. 1,55,800. The cause- 
way was completed at a total cost of Rs. 2,04,000, and was opened in 
1845. It is 3,600 feet long and 30 feet wide, and in the centre has 
a bridge of 4 arches, each 29 feet wide. The Chembur causeway was 
built about 1846, and is 3,105 feet long and from 22 to 24 feet wide. 

Thana, like the rest of the Konkan, is practically free from the effects 
of drought. The earliest famine of which information is available took 
place in 16 18. In that year at Bassein the famine 
was so severe that children were openly sold by their 
parents to Musalman brokers, until the practice was stopped by the 
Jesuits. The great famine of 1790 interrupted the progress of Sal- 
sette. The exodus caused by Maratha raids in the Deccan led to 
scarcity in the Konkan in 1802. Of seasons marked by more or 
less general dearth, the chief are: 1839, when remissions of about 
3 lakhs had to be granted; 1848, when most of the 'salt' rice crop 
failed owing to high spring-tides. In 1899 the rainfall was unfavour- 
able and caused distress in some parts of the District, but the area 
affected was only one-tenth of the total. 

The District is divided into three subdivisions, in charge of two 
Assistant Collectors and one Deputy-Collector. It comprises the 
tahtkas of Bassein, Bhiwandi, Dahanu, Kalyan, .-'-'.'.• 
Mahim, Murbad, Salsette, Shahapur, and Vada, 
the petty subdivisions (pefhas) of Umbargaon and Mokhada being- 
included in the Dahanu and Vada talukas. The Collector is ex-officio 
Political Agent of the Jawhar State. 

vol. xxiii. u 



3 oo THANA DISTRICT 

The administration of justice is under the District and Sessions 
Judge, whose jurisdiction, except during the monsoon months, includes 
Kolaba District. He is assisted by one Assistant and six Subordinate 
Judges. There are altogether 31 officers to administer criminal justice. 
The commonest offences are theft and house-breaking. Offences under 
the Railway Act, which are tolerably frequent, are tried by the Assistant 
Collector in charge of Bassein, Dahanu, and Salsette, as railway 
magistrate. 

Besides the regular survey tenure common to the Presidency, a 
considerable number of villages, chiefly in the Salsette taluka, are held 
on the khoti tenure. The khots, who are leaseholders of a certain 
number of villages, obtained their land from the British Government at 
an early period of its rule. Another kind of leasehold tenure, known 
as iza/at, is found in most parts of the District, and is a variety of the 
service tenure of hereditary officials. The lands are now held on the 
survey tenure, the izdfatddr having a position analogous to that of 
superior holders. Other lands, lying either on the coast or along the 
larger creeks, are held on the shilotri tenure. Shilotri lands are those 
which have been reclaimed from the sea and embanked, and of which 
the permanence is dependent on the embankments being kept up. 
These reclamations are known as khars. The tenure is of three 
sorts. First, shilotri proper, under which the khdr belongs to the 
person by whom it was reclaimed. The shilotridars are considered 
to have a proprietary right ; they let out their lands at will, and, accord- 
ing to old custom, levy a maund of rice per bigha, in addition to the 
assessment for the repair of the outer embankments. The second 
class of shilotri lands are those in which Government either reclaimed 
the khars in the first instance, or subsequently became possessed of 
them by lapse. Except that they pay an extra rate, which is spent 
in repairing the embankments, the cultivators of these khars hold 
their lands on the same condition as survey occupants. The third 
class of shilotri lands comprises those in which reclamations were made 
by association of cultivators on special terms arranged with Govern- 
ment. Many forms of assessment were in force when Thana was 
ceded to the British, and continue in use of groups of villages. They 
can usually be traced to the Hindu chiefs who held the country before 
the arrival of the Musalmans. Rice lands were, without measurement, 
divided into parcels or blocks which were estimated to require a certain 
amount of seed, or to yield a certain quantity of grain. The system 
has several names, dhep, hi/?iddba?idi, mudabandi, kdsbandi, takbandi, 
and tokdbandi, though the leading principle of all is the same. The 
levy of a plough cess, a sickle cess, or a pickaxe cess, which, till 
the introduction of the revenue survey, was the form of assessment 
almost universal in hill and forest tracts, seems also to date from 



ADMINISTRA TION 30 r 

early Hindu times ; and the practice of measuring palm and other 
garden lands into blghas seems to belong to the pre-Musalman rulers. 
Finally, the Kanarese term shilotar shows that from early times special 
rules have been in force to encourage the reclamation of salt wastes. 
During the sixteenth century the officers of the Ahmadnagar king- 
dom are said to have measured the rice land and reduced the state 
share to one-sixth, and in the uplands to have continued the levy of 
a plough cess. The husbandmen were treated as proprietary holders. 
Early in the seventeenth century Malik Ambar, the Ahmadnagar 
minister, introduced a new system based on that of Todar Mai. 
According to Major Jervis, Malik Ambar's chief innovation was to 
make the settlement direct with the village instead of with the 
hereditary revenue superintendents and accountants. His next step 
was to find out the yield of the land. With this object he 
arranged the rice lands into four classes. Later in the seventeenth 
century Sivajl, by his minister Annajl Dattu (1668-81), divided 
the lands into twelve classes. The Portuguese, in Bassein and 
Salsette, leased the land to fazendeiros, or hereditary farmers of 
land, at a foro or quit-rent ; but the payment by tenants to pro- 
prietors was regulated on the ancient system. The eighty-seven years 
(1730-1817) of Maratha management form three periods : thirty years 
during which no change was introduced ; thirty years when fresh 
surveys were made, new cesses were levied, and revenue farming 
became general ; and twenty-seven years when revenue farming was 
universal. In 1774, when Salsette and Karanja were acquired by 
the British, the people were in great misery and revenue was 
largely in arrears. In 1798-9 a new system was introduced. All the 
petty taxes levied by the Portuguese and Marathas were abolished, 
and the Government demand was fixed at one-third of the average 
produce of all lands except shilotri lands, which were charged with 
one-fifth. From the cession of the Peshwa's possession in 181 7 to 
the completion of the original survey settlement in 1886 the revenue 
history also belongs to three periods : eighteen years (1817-35) in which 
the establishment of a system of village accounts was substituted 
for one of revenue farmers, and rates were revised j seventeen 
years (1835-52) of further reductions; and since then, the revenue 
survey. 

In 1895 a resettlement was undertaken which was completed in 
1904. The survey found that the cultivated area had increased by 
10,000 acres, and the settlement enhanced the total revenue by nearly 

4 lakhs of rupees to 14 lakhs. The average rates are : ' dry ' land, 

5 annas (maximum Rs. 2-2, minimum 2 annas); rice land, Rs. 3-1 r 
(maximum Rs. 8-10, minimum Rs. 1-6) ; and garden lands, Rs. 1-10 
(maximum Rs. 5-8, minimum n annas). 

U 2 



3 o2 THANA DISTRICT 

The collections on account of land revenue and total revenue have 
been as follows, in thousands of rupees : — 





1880-1.* 


1890-1. 


igoo-i. 


1903-4. 


Land revenue 
Total revenue 


I5>12 

27,80 


13,36 

28,87 


12,94 
29,89 


15,68 
33>36 



* In 1880-1 the District included two talukas since transferred to Kolaba. 

The District contains seven municipal towns : namely, Thana, 
Kurla, Bandra, Bassein, Kelve-MAHiM, Bhiwandi, and Kalyan. 
Outside these, local affairs are under the District board and nine taluka 
boards. The expenditure of these boards in 1903-4 was 2\ lakhs, of 
which nearly half was spent on roads and buildings. The income 
amounted to 3 lakhs, the land cess being the chief item. 

The District Superintendent, with the aid of one Assistant Super- 
intendent, 2 inspectors, and 12 chief constables, controls the police 
of the District. There are 14 police stations. The force in 1904 
numbered 610 men, working under 152 head constables. Besides 
the District jail, called a ' special ' jail as it accommodates long-term 
convicts to the number of 730, there are n subsidiary jails and one 
lock-up in the District with accommodation for 102 prisoners. The 
daily average prison population in 1904 was 681, of whom 38 were 
females. 

Thana stands ninth among the Districts of the Presidency in the 
literacy of its population, of whom 5-2 per cent. (9-1 males and 1-3 
females) could read and write in 1901. In 1855-6 there were only 
17 schools in the District, attended by 1,321 pupils. By 1881 the 
number of schools had risen to 178, attended by 8,872 pupils, who in 
1891 had increased to 17,984. In 1901 the number was 13,191, but 
the decrease was due to changes in the District area. In 1903-4 the 
District had 301 schools, of which 48 were private, attended by 15,843 
pupils, of whom 2,653 were gi r ^ s - The public institutions included 
3 high, 9 middle, and 241 primary schools. Of the 253 public 
institutions, one is managed by the Educational department, 186 by 
the local boards, 42 by municipalities, while 23 are aided and one 
unaided. The total expenditure on education in 1903-4 was nearly 
if lakhs, of which 54 per cent, was devoted to primary education. 

In 1904 the District possessed one hospital, 14 dispensaries, and a 
leper home. The Thana civil hospital was established in 1836, and 
the first dispensary was opened at Bandra in 1851. These institu- 
tions contain accommodation for 126 in-patients, 35 being in the 
leper home. Including 652 in-patients, the total number treated was 
115,000, and the operations performed numbered 2,137. The 
expenditure on medical relief was Rs. 51,000, of which Rs. 16,000 



THAN A TOWN 303 

was contributed by Local and municipal funds. A lunatic asylum at 
Navapada had 310 inmates in 1904, and is overcrowded. 

The number of persons successfully vaccinated in 1903-4 was 
19,120, representing the proportion of 23-6 per 1,000, which is slightly 
below the average for the Presidency. Since 1900 vaccination has been 
compulsory in Bandra and Kurla towns. 

[Sir J. M. Campbell, Bombay Gazetteer, vol. xiii (Parts i and ii), and 
vol. xiv (1882).] 

Thana Town. — Head-quarters of Thana 1 )istrict, Bombay, and also 
of the Salsette taluka, situated in 19 12' N. and 72 59' E., on the 
Great Indian Peninsula Railway, 2 1 miles north-east of Bombay city. 
Population (1901), 16,011. Thana is prettily situated on the west 
shore of the Salsette creek, in wooded country. The fort, the Portu- 
guese cathedral, a few carved and inscribed stones, and several reser- 
voirs, are now the only signs that Thana was once an important city. 
At the close of the thirteenth century the fortunes of Thana seem to 
have been at their highest. It was the capital of a great kingdom, 
with an independent ruler. It was celebrated for producing tanus/ii, 
a kind of striped cotton cloth, which is still known as Thana cloth. In 
13 1 8 Thana was conquered by Mubarak Khilji, and a Muhammadan 
governor was placed in charge. A few years later four Christian 
missionaries were murdered here by the new rulers. In 1529, terrified 
by the defeat of the Cambay fleet and the burning of the Bassein 
coast, ' the lord of the great city of Thana ' became tributary to the 
Portuguese. This submission did not save him in the war that 
followed. The city was thrice pillaged, twice by the Portuguese and 
once by the Gujaratis. It was then, under the treaty of December, 
1533, made over to the Portuguese. Under Portuguese rule Thana 
entered on a fresh term of prosperity. In 1739, with the loss of 
Bassein, the Portuguese power in Thana came to an end. In 177 1 
the English, urged by the news that a fleet had left Portugal to recover 
Salsette and Bassein, determined to gain possession of Thana. Nego- 
tiations for its cession failing, a force was dispatched to take it by 
force. On December 28, 1774, the fort was stormed, and the greater 
part of the garrison put to the sword. 

Thana has been a municipal town since 1863, with an average 
income during the decade ending 1901 of Rs. 37,000. In 1903-4 the 
income was Rs. 38,000. The only public works of importance are the 
Pokarna water-works which supply the town. Thana being less than an 
hour's journey from Bombay, many Government officials and business 
men now reside there, visiting Bombay daily. The town contains the 
usual public offices, a Sub-Judge's court, a civil hospital, and a dis- 
pensary. The chief Portuguese building is the fort, now used as a 
jail. It was built in 1737. Besides the civil hospital and a dispensary, 



3 o4 THANA TOWN 

there is an asylum for lunatics in Navapada, about one mile from the 
railway station. The chief educational institutions are the Bairamji 
Jijlbhoy High School opened in 1880, an English school for girls, and 
an English middle school for boys. The number of pupils at these in 
1903-4 was 253, 79, and 69 respectively. The town also contains 
4 vernacular schools for boys with 505 pupils, and 2 for girls with 185. 

Thana Bhawan. — Town in the Kairana tahsll of Muzaffarnagar 
District, United Provinces, situated in 29 35' N. and 77 25' E., 
18 miles north-west of Muzaffarnagar town on an unmetalled road. 
Population (1901), 8,861. In the Ain-i-Akbari the pargana is called 
Thana Bhim ; but the present name is said to be derived from an old 
temple of BhawanI, which is still much resorted to. The town was 
a centre of disaffection in 1857, when the inhabitants, headed by their 
KazI, Mahbub All Khan, and his nephew, Inayat All, broke into open 
rebellion. Among other daring feats, they captured the tahsilt, then at 
ShamlT, and massacred the 1 1 3 men who defended it. Thana Bhawan 
was soon after taken by the Magistrate, with some Sikh and Gurkha 
levies, after a fight of seven hours. The walls and gates were levelled 
to the ground and no further disturbances took place. The town 
decayed after the Mutiny, but the population has increased during the 
last thirty years. It contains a primary school, and some seventeenth- 
century mosques and tombs. It is administered under Act XX of 
1856, the income from house tax being about Rs. 2,500. 

Thandaung. — Hill station in the Toungoo township of Toungoo 
District, Lower Burma, situated in 19 3' N. and 96 36" E., 22 miles 
east-north-east of Toungoo town, with which it is connected by road. 
It stands on a ridge surrounded by picturesque scenery, 4,200 feet 
above the sea, and contains a large </tf/£-bungalow, an hotel, and a 
steadily increasing number of private residences. In 1901 its inhabi- 
tants numbered less than 50, but the total has risen since then. No 
records of temperature are kept in the station, but the thermometer 
rises little above 70 in the hot season. The rainfall is very heavy 
during the monsoon. Steps are being taken to improve the means of 
communication between Toungoo and Thandaung, and there is every 
prospect that Thandaung will be a useful sanitarium for the residents 
of Lower Burma. 

Thandiani. — Small hill sanitarium in the Abbottabad tahsll of 
Hazara District, North-West Frontier Province, situated in 34° 15' N. 
and 73 22' E. It was established for the convenience of officers 
stationed at the neighbouring cantonment of Abbottabad, and contains 
some European houses and a small bazar, which are occupied only 
during the summer months. 

Thanesar Tahsll (Thaneswar). — Northern tahsll of Karnal Dis- 
trict, Punjab, lying between 29 55' and 30 15' N. and 76 36' and 



THANESAR TOWN 305 

77° 17' E., on the west bank of the Jumna, with an area of 599 square 
miles. The population in 1901 was 173,208, compared with 177,442 
in 1891. It contains the towns of Thanesar (population, 5,066), the 
head-quarters, Ladwa (3,518), and Shahabad (11,009); ar >d 418 
villages. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 
2-8 lakhs. Thanesar practically coincides with the old Pipli tahsll of 
Ambala District, from which it was transferred in 1897. On the east 
it has a narrow frontage along the Jumna. The fertile riverain low- 
lands average about 6 miles in width. The western boundary of this 
tract is the old bank of the Jumna, and from the crest of this bank the 
country slopes away westwards. The uplands are intersected by several 
torrent beds, and the soil, especially to the south, is for the most part 
stiff and infertile. Dhak jungle abounds. The Markanda country 
on the north-west has the advantages of a lighter soil and fertilizing 
floods. 

Thanesar Town (Thaneswar). — Head-quarters of the tahsll of 
the same name in Karnal District, Punjab, situated in 29 59' N. and 
76 50' E., on the banks of the Sarasvvati, and on the Delhi-Umballa- 
Kalka Railway. Population (1901), 5,066. It is famous as the most 
sacred place in the holy land of Kurukshetra, its name meaning 
'the place of the god' (sthaneshwara). In the time of Hiuen Tsiang, 
Thanesar was the capital of a Vaisya (Bais) dynasty, which ruled parts 
of the Southern Punjab, Hindustan, and Eastern Rajputana. In 
a.d. 648 a Chinese ambassador sent to Harshavardhana of Thanesar 
found that the Senapati Arjuna had usurped his kingdom, and the 
dynasty then became extinct. Thanesar, however, continued to be 
a place of great sanctity ; but in 10 14 it was sacked by Mahmud of 
Ghazni, and, although recovered by the Hindu Raja of Delhi in 1043, 
it remained desolate for centuries. By the time of Sikandar Lodl it 
had, however, been in some measure restored, for that emperor pro- 
posed to make a raid on it to massacre the pilgrims. In 1567 Akbar 
witnessed its great fair ; but Aurangzeb desecrated the shrine and built 
a castle in its sacred lake, whence his soldiers could fire on pilgrims 
who attempted to bathe. At the annexation of the cis-Sutlej territory, 
the town and neighbourhood were in the possession of a Sikh family ; 
but they lapsed to the British Government in 1850. Thanesar was the 
head-quarters of a British District till 1862, but has since steadily 
declined in importance. The municipality was created in 1867. The 
income during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 7,900, and 
the expenditure Rs. 7,300. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 8,900, 
chiefly derived from octroi ; and the expenditure was Rs. 8,200. The 
town has a vernacular middle school and a dispensary. The bathing- 
fairs held here on the occasion of solar eclipses are sometimes attended 
by half a million pilgrims. 



3 o6 THAR 

Thar.— Subdivision of Thar and Parkar District, Sind, Bombay, 
composed of the Mithi, Diplo, Chachro, and Nagar tdhikas. 

Thar and Parkar. — District in the east of Sind, Bombay, lying 
between 24 13' and 26 15' N. and 68° 51' and 71 8' E., with an 
area of 13,941 J square miles. It is bounded on the north by the State 
of Khairpur ; on the east by the States of Jaisalmer, Malani, Jodhpur, 
and the Rami of Cutch ; on the south by the Rann of Cutch ; and on 
the west by Hyderabad District. 

The District of Thar and Parkar may be divided into two portions — 

the one called ' Pat,' or plain of the Eastern Nara, including the Nara 

subdivision ; and the other the ' Thar ' or desert. 

Physical ^e former, in its western part, rises from 50 to 

£LSD6ClS 

100 feet above the level of the Sind plain, and some 
of the sandhills in it may be 100 feet higher, but they are not so 
elevated as in the Thar. Formerly, this part of the District exhibited 
a dry and arid appearance, owing to the insufficient supply of water in 
the Nara ; but since the construction of the Eastern Nara Canal, and 
the consequent additional flow of water brought down by it, the valley 
of the Nara is now covered with jungle and marsh. Through this 
portion flow the Jamrao and Mithrao Canals, the former recently con- 
structed, the latter an artificial stream running to the westward of the 
Nara, but in some degree parallel to it for a distance of about 80 miles. 
In many parts beds of rivers long dried up are found intersecting the 
arid tract of the Thar ; and these would seem to show that the waters 
of the Indus, or of some of its branches, once flowed through it, fertiliz- 
ing what is now a wilderness, and finding their way to the sea either by 
one of the eastern mouths, or through the Rann or great salt marsh 
of Cutch. Quantities of bricks and pottery have also been found in 
various places scattered over the surface. 

The Thar, or desert portion, consists of a tract of sandhills, which 
present the appearance of waves, running north-east and south-west ; 
these hills become higher towards the west, and are composed of a fine 
but slightly coherent sand. To the south-east, again, of the Thar is the 
Parkar tract, which differs from the former in possessing hill ranges of 
hard rock, the highest being not more than 350 feet above the sur- 
rounding level. There are sandhills also in this portion ; but towards 
the east they become less elevated, and merge at last into a large open 
plain of stiff clay, through which, in places, limestone occasionally 
crops out. The peninsula of Parkar, which in its extreme south- 
eastern direction juts out into the Rann of Cutch, is flat and level, 
except in the immediate vicinity of Nagar Parkar, where there is an 
extensive area of elevated land known as the Karunjhar hills, 
composed mostly of syenite rock. 

1 This was the area in 1905-6. 



THAR AND PARKAR 307 

The common trees of the Nara valley are the babul, nim, pipal, lai, 
siriha, and kirir, while the jar, kumbhat, kandi, raueri, and a few other 
species flourish in the desert tracts. It is remarkable that, owing to 
differences of soil, the trees grown in one portion of the District cannot 
thrive in the other. 

The principal wild animals are the hog, p/idrd or hog deer, chinkara 
or gazelle, wolf, jackal, fox, jungle-cat, hare, otter, <xrc. Among birds 
are the bustard, the tilur, geese, wild-fowl of many varieties, such as 
the mallard, widgeon, whistling teal, snipe, coot, water-hen, adjutant, 
pelican, flamingo, and various kinds of wading birds. Other birds 
found are the grey and black partridge, sand-grouse of several varieties, 
plover, and quail, the eagle, vulture, kite, several kinds of hawks, crows, 
owls, &c. Snakes are very common, especially in the hot season, and 
crocodiles abound in the Dhoro Naro in the Nara valley. The wild 
hog, black partridge, and water-fowl are met with only in the Nara 
tract. The gurkhar or wild ass frequents the Parkar, and the hyena 
and lynx are found in the Thar. 

The fisheries are confined entirely to the Nara and the dandhs fed 
by it, the fish most commonly caught being the jerki singaro, dambhro, 
marko, popri, gandari, goj (eels), chitori, haili, 7iiakar, patno, and kitro. 

The climate of the desert tract is somewhat similar to that of Cutch, 
and is subject to great variations of temperature, being excessively hot 
in the summer and very cold in the winter, the cold increasing as the 
sandhills are approached. From the beginning of November to the end 
of February the weather is pleasant and bracing, after which the hot 
winds set in, accompanied with heavy dust-storms. The glare and 
heat during the summer months are intense. The mean annual tem- 
perature at Umarkot is 76 , at Parkar 84 , and at Mithi 7 6°. The 
climate of the Nara valley is temperate, but very malarious. 

The rainfall is not equal throughout the extensive area of the 
District, being heavier in Parkar than in either the Nara or Umarkot 
tahtkas. The average yearly fall at Umarkot and Nagar Parkar 
for three years ending 1903 was found to be 6 and 9 inches, mostly 
supplied by the south-west monsoon in July and August. Taken as 
a whole, the rainfall is heavier than in other parts of Sind. 

Very little is known of the early history of the District. The desert 
portion and Parkar were formerly under the exclusive administration 
of the Political Agent in Cutch. - The Soda Rajputs, 
the upper class of the District, who are said to be 
descended from Paramara Soda, are supposed to have come into this 
part of Sind from Ujjain about 1226, when they quickly displaced the 
rulers of the country. Other authorities, however, state that they did 
not conquer the country from the Sumras, the dominant race, before 
the beginning of the sixteenth century. The Sodas, in their turn, 



3 o8 THAR AND PARKAR 

succumbed to the Kalhoras about 1750, since which period the District 
has been subject more or less to Sind. On the fall of the Kalhora 
dynasty, it came under the domination of the Talpurs, who built a 
series of forts in order to overawe the warlike population. In the 
Mithi and Islamkot tracts, the Talpurs are said by Raikes to have 
exacted two-fifths of the produce of the land ; but no regular revenue 
system was introduced till the years 1830 and 1835, when disturbances 
at once took place. The Mirs sent a large force to reduce the people 
to submission ; and several chiefs were taken prisoners, and not released 
until they had paid heavy fines. The Thar and Parkar District was for 
a long time the head-quarters of banditti, who made plundering ex- 
cursions into Cutch and other neighbouring Districts. The British 
Government therefore interfered in 1832, and through the agency of 
Captain (afterwards General) Roberts suppressed the marauders. Posts 
of mounted men were retained in the country for the preservation of 
order until the conquest of Sind itself in 1843. 

The inhabitants of this District then evinced a desire to be placed 
under Cutch ; and with this view the divisions of Baliari, Diplo, Mithi, 
Islamkot, Singala, Virawah, Pitapur, Bhodesar, and Parkar were in 1844 
made over to that State. Umarkot, Gadra, and other tracts on the 
Nara became a portion of Hyderabad District, or rather formed part 
of the subdivision of Mlrpur. All emoluments from revenue-free lands 
enjoyed by patels or headmen, as well as cesses on Hindu marriages, 
were abolished, and the chiefs were further forbidden to bear arms. 
In consequence, it would seem, of these prohibitions, the District was 
in 1846 in open rebellion. But quiet was soon afterwards restored; 
and the Soda Rajputs, who appear to have been the prime movers in 
this disturbance, were called upon by Government to state their 
grievances, of which the following is a brief outline. They contended 
for their right of levying a tax of Rs. 26-i on every marriage among the 
Kirar Baniyas, and also a fee of one rupee's worth of cloth for enforcing 
debts due to that caste. They complained that the fields they formerly 
enjoyed revenue free were either reduced in number or taken away 
altogether from them, and they maintained that in times of scarcity 
they were entitled to exemption from all payment of duties on opium 
and grain. They asserted their right as Sodas to receive food when 
travelling from Baniyas without any payment, and that this caste was 
also bound to supply them with bedsteads and coverlets. They further 
desired to be permitted to receive, as formerly, a portion of the Umarkot 
customs. The Government, in reply to this list of grievances, allowed 
the Sodas, as compensation for the fees derived by them from the Kirar 
Baniyas, the annual interest at 5 per cent, on the sum of Rs. 14,000, 
and permitted several of the tribe to hold a certain number of fields 
revenue free, provided they undertook to cultivate them. They also 



POPULATION 309 

received a share in the Umarkot customs, but the rest of their demands 
were not complied with. 

In 1856 the desert portion of the District, together with Parkar, 
which had been administered by the Assistant Political Agent in Cutch 
since 1844, was incorporated in the province of Sind. In 1859 a 
rebellion broke out in the District, necessitating the dispatch of a 
military force under Colonel Evans from Hyderabad to quell it. This 
officer in May of that year occupied the town of Nagar Parkar, 
and captured the Rana, driving back in the following month a large 
body of Kolis, who had ventured to attack the place. The Rana 
and his minister were in 1868 tried for sedition, and convicted, the 
former being sentenced to fourteen years' and the latter to ten years 
transportation. From that period down to the present time, Thar and 
Parkar has enjoyed peace and quietness. 

The remains of several old temples are to be seen in the Parkar 
portion of the District. One of these is a Jain temple, 14 miles north- 
west of Virawah, which contained an image of great sanctity and repute 
known under the name of Gori. Near the same place, also, are the 
remains of an ancient city called Pari Nagar, covering 6 square miles 
in area and strewn with marble pillars. It is reported to have been 
founded in a. d. 456 by Jeso Paramara of Balmir, and to have 
been very wealthy and populous ; its final decay is said to have taken 
place some time during the sixteenth century. The ruins of five or six- 
Jain temples still exist, displaying some excellent sculpture and beauti- 
fully executed designs. Another ruined city is Ratakot, situated on 
the Nara, south of the town of Khipra, and distant about 20 miles 
from the village of Ranahu. Near Mirpur Khas are the ruins of Kahu, 
which is said to have been a large town during the period of Sumra 
and Samma rule in Sind. Kahu is variously supposed to have been 
destroyed as a result of the tyranny of King Dolora of Aror, or by 
Alla-ud-din of Delhi. There are several forts in different parts of the 
District, such as those of Islamkot, Mithi, Naokot, and Singala; but 
they are, comparatively speaking, of modern erection, having been built 
for the most part under the Talpur dynasty. They are now fast falling 
into decay, and the materials are used for building purposes. The 
chief object of interest to the archaeologist is the ruined city of 
Brahmanabad, supposed to have been destroyed by an earthquake in 
the eighth century, and containing numerous relics of that period. 

The population of the District has been: (1872) 230,038, (1S81) 
2 57 5 5 6 5 5 (i 8 9i) 35 8 , l8l > and H 01 ) 3 6 3, 8 94 5 showing a rise of 58 per 

cent, in thirty years. This great increase is largely „ . . 
, , .. . r ° _ . , , „_. : Population. 

due to the immigration from the Punjab and Rajput- 

ana of settlers on the lands newly made available for cultivation by 

the construction of the Jamrao Canal and other irrigation works. Since 



3 l ° 



THAR AND PARKAR 



i 90 i the population has further increased to 389,714, and is now 
(1906) distributed in talukas as follows : — 







Number of 


c 


Q.JL 









3 






_0 


§"s 


£0= =00 


v m § a 






Taluka. 


m V 

c — 

*8 

u 
u 

< 


to 

c 




V 

si 

> 


~3 
a. 



■4-t a; 
Si 5 

O u, 
Oh 


Percent 
variat 

populat 
tween 
and 


Numb 

persons 

read 

wrt 


Umarkot . 


1,461 


1 


no 


49,118 


34 


+ M 


385 


Khipro 


2,249 


• • > 


I2 5 


54,681 


24 


+ 16 


498 


Sanghar 


830 


• < < 


72 


40,34! 


49 


— 2 


3'8 


Miipur Khas 


457 


I 


135 


37> 2 73 


82 


+ 34 


772 


[amesabad . 


5°5 


• • • 


1S4 


24,038 


48 


+ 25 


445 


Pithoro 


481 




128 


37,713 


78 




) Not 
^ available. 


Sinjboro 


479 


■ • . 


131 


37, 2 3o 


78 




Mithi . 


1^63 




46 


26,154 


17 


-29 


5'7 


Diplo 


i»5°3 




4 2 


16,886 


11 


-29 


92 


Chachro 


2,795 




40 


40,925 


ifi 


-17 


214 


Nagar 

District total * 


1,618 




3 1 


25,355 


16 


-38 


39 8 


13,94' 


2 


1,044 


389,714 


28 


+ 2 


... 



* Since the Census of igoi two new talukas— Pithoro and Sinjhoro— have been 
constituted. 

The mean density of the population is 28 persons per square mile, 
the lowest average of any District in the Bombay Presidency. The 
languages spoken are Sindi and Kachhl (a dialect of GujaratI spoken 
in Cutch). Formerly, when the District was administered by the 
Political Agent of Cutch, official correspondence was carried on in 
Gujarat!. Sindi is spoken by 229,893 persons, or 63 per cent, of the 
population. Musalmans form 58 per cent, of the total, and Hindus 
42 per cent. 

The Musalman population is largely composed of Baloch (60,000), 
among whom the Rind tribe are an important element, and of Samma 
Sindls (52,000). Among Hindus, the trading Lohanas (32,000) are 
conspicuous here as elsewhere in Sind, and there are 16,000 Rajputs. 
The Soda tribe, formerly the dominant race in Thar and Parkar, are 
of Rajput origin, and warlike in character ; many of them enjoy jagirs or 
political pensions from the British Government. The rest are mainly 
low-caste or wild tribes, such as Dhers (31,000), Kolis (13,500), and 
Bhlls (21,000). The Bhlls rank very low in the social scale, and, like 
the Kolis, are much addicted to theft. The Udejas, who came originally 
from the west of Sind, are noticeable among the nomadic tribes of 
the District ; they are a fine athletic race, well behaved, and inclined 
to turn to agricultural pursuits. Criminal tribes under the names 
of Wasan, Khaskheli, Kiria, and Rajar, known as Hurs or Lurs, are 
found in the District ; but, taken as a whole, the inhabitants are now 
a peaceable folk, neither so litigious nor so quarrelsome as the rest of 
the Sind population. They place great reliance on paiichayat awards. 



AGRICULTURE 



3" 



Agriculture supports 60 per cent, of the population, and industries 
18 per cent. 

The District contains only 30 Christians, of whom 5 are natives. 
The Zanana mission secured a grant for a schoolhouse in 1905. 

There are throughout Thar and Parkar District three seasons in 
which agricultural operations are carried on, namely, kharif, rain, and 
adhawa ; but the times of sowing and reaping differ 
somewhat in the Nara tracts from those in the Thar 
or desert portion of the District. These differences can be best 
exhibited in a tabular form, and the two following tables are accordingly 
given, which show also the various crops produced in each season : — 

Nara Tracts 



Agriculture. 



Seasons. 


Time when 


Description of crop. 


Sown. 


Reaped. 


i . Kharif . 

2. Rabi 

3. Adhawa . 


June to middle 
of August. 

Middle of Sep- 
tember to end 
of December. 

February. 


Middle of Octo- 
ber to middle 
of December. 

January to April. 

April and May 


Rice, jowar, bajra, til, 
cotton, tobacco, hemp, 
&c. 

Wheat, barley, sarihu, 
jambho, and kumba. 

Cotton, jowar, mung, 
and melons. 





Thar 


and Parkar 






Time when 




Seasons. 




Description of crop. 


Sown. 


Reaped. 


1. Kharif . 


[une and July. October and No- 


Jowar, biljra, til, and 




vember. 


mung. 


2. Rabi 


October and No- 


MarchandApril. 


Wheat, barley, jambho, 




vember. 




sirsit, and kitrar. 


3. Adhawa . 


January. 


May and June. 


Cotton, jowar, mung, 
and water-melons. 



The prevailing soil is a light loam called by the natives gasar, a 
medium between stiff clay and fine sand. 

The chief statistics of cultivation in 1903-4 are shown in the 
table on the next page, in square miles. 

Owing to the construction of the Jamrao Canal and its branches, the 
cultivation of the District is increasing yearly. About 23 per cent, 
of the cultivable area is occupied and cultivated. The chief crops are : 
rice (116 square miles), jowar (17 square miles), bajra (711 square 
miles), wheat (160 square miles), cotton (172 square miles), and oil- 
seeds (64 square miles) ; pulses, fruits, and vegetables are also grown. 
Wild products include elephant-grass (Typha elephantind), from which 
hand-fans are made ; paban or lotus plant ; and various grasses from 



312 



THAR AND PARKA R 



which ropes and mats are manufactured. Rice and wheat are mostly 
cultivated in the irrigated areas. 



Taluka. 


Total 
area. 


Cultivated. 


Irrigated. 


Waste. 


Forests. 


Umarkot 


1,461 


3*7 


S3 


240 


35 


Khipro 


2,249 


383 


"7 


95 


22 


Sanghar 


829 


'73 


70 


514 


8 


Mlrpur Khas 


45 6 


280 


127 


136 


... 


Jamesabad . 


5°S 


274 


H3 


187 


... 


Pithoro 


479 


34o 


126 


98 


3 


Sinjhoro 


480 


291 


116 


98 


... 


Mithi 


1,563 


'95 


.. . 


201 




Diplo 


1,503 


48 


... 


128 




Chachro 


2,795 


57o 




5 1 




Nagar 

Total 


1,618 


428 


... 


291 


... 


13,938 


3,299 


782 


2,039 


68 



Experiments attended with satisfactory results have been made in 
introducing superior descriptions of wheat and cotton, a soft white 
variety of the former having been introduced in the Nara valley, where 
the area under this cereal averages some 30,000 acres annually. The 
American-Dharwar cotton has showed fair promise, especially where 
sown on land irrigated by silt water, and the Assam and Egyptian 
varieties have been cultivated with some success. During the decade 
ending 1903-4 more than 2 lakhs was advanced to cultivators under 
the Land Improvement and Agriculturists' Loans Acts, of which 
Rs. 61,000 was advanced in 1902-3 and Rs. 29,000 in 1903-4. 

Among domestic animals the only remarkable kind is a species of 
white ass, capable of carrying considerable loads, which is reported 
to be indigenous but may have been originally introduced from Persia. 

Of the total area cultivated, 782 square miles, or 24 per cent., were 
irrigated in 1903-4. The canal system, which is confined solely to 
that part watered by the Nara, there being no rivers or canals in the 
Thar and Parkar proper, includes the Mithrao, Jamrao, and Eastern 
Nara. The Eastern Nara is a natural channel, and most probably 
at some remote period the outlet to the sea of the waters of some 
great river like the Indus, together with its branches, the Thar, Chor, 
and Umarkot Canals. The area irrigated by the main channel is 
62 square miles and by the branches over 161 square miles, of which 
the Thar supplies 80 square miles. The Mithrao Canal was com- 
menced in 1858-9, in order to irrigate the western or more elevated 
portions of this District. It is upwards of 93 miles in length (or with 
its branches, 155 miles), having its head in the Makhi dandh or weir. 
It supplies 237 square miles. The Jamrao Canal, which irrigates 
365 square miles in this District, was opened in 1 899-1900. The 
supply is perennial. 



TRADE AND COMMUNICATIONS 313 

The forests are of little importance. A few tracts recently ' reserved ' 
supply timber, fuel, and fodder, but the supply largely exceeds the 
demand. In 1903-4 the forest receipts amounted to Rs. 3,622, of 
which over 78 per cent, was derived from grazing and fodder. The 
forests are in charge of the Deputy-Commissioner, who is ex-officio 
Divisional Forest Officer. 

Salt-pans were worked to a small extent near Bakar until 1878, when 
they were closed. Soda is obtained from the dandhs and exported ; 
and chiroti, a sulphate of lime or gypsum, is found near Ghulam Nabi- 
jo-got. In the Umarkot plains there is a very large extent of pat 
or salt waste, especially on the north-west side, bordering on Khipro 
and Hala. All along the Nara are dandhs for about 56 miles, from 
which much salt is produced, mostly used for the curing of fish. The 
manufacture or removal of salt, however, is strictly prohibited through- 
out the District. The only licit sources of supply are the deposits 
at Dilyar and Saran. In the Diplo and Mithi tdlukas, extensive salt 
lakes contain almost unlimited supplies of this commodity. 

The manufactures consist of woollen blankets and bags, camel 

saddles and covers, and coarse cotton cloths. Woollen rugs are 

manufactured by the Baloch who have settled in 

the Nara valley and the desert. Women are very Traoeana 

J J communications, 

skilful in silk and cotton embroidery work, but the 

prices realized scarcely repay the labour. There are two cotton-cleaning 

and pressing factories at Mirpur Khas and one at Shadipali. There 

are two rice-husking machines at Shadipali, and one at Dhoro Naro, 

with an annual out-turn of 345,420 maands. Salt is manufactured at 

Dilyar and Saran. 

The District manufacturers have no direct communication with 
Karachi or Bombay, but the European and native firms of Karachi 
keep agents at Mirpur Khas, Shadipali, Dhoro Naro, and Umarkot. 
The exports from Thar and Parkar consist principally of grain, wool, 
ghl, camels, horned cattle, hides, fish, salt, soda, and pan or pana, 
a kind of reed from which fans are made. The grain (chiefly rice 
and wheat), cattle, goats, and sheep are sent to Gujarat, Palanpur, 
and Jodhpur • hides and wool to Hyderabad ; ghl to Cutch and 
Gujarat ; and salt, fish, soda, and pan to Hyderabad and Karachi. 
The chief imports are cotton, metals, dried fruits, dyes, piece-goods, 
silk, sugar-candy, and tobacco. 

A fair is held yearly at the town of Pithoro, near Akri, in the month 
of September, in honour of Pithora, a spiritual guide among the Meng- 
war community, and is attended by about 20,000 people, principally 
of that tribe. Several other small fairs are held in various parts of 
the District. 

In addition to a number of roads which place the District in direct 



3 i4 THAR AND PARKA R 

communication with Hyderabad, the railway line between Hyderabad 
and Shadipali, which has been converted into a narrow-gauge line, has 
been pushed through the District to Jodhpur and Bikaner, and has 
been connected with the Rajputana-Malwa line at Marwar junction 
since 1901. 

Travelling in Thar, the desert portion of the District, is very tedious 
and difficult, owing to the sandhills which have constantly to be 
crossed. Umarkot, the chief town, is connected with Hyderabad by 
a good road, bridged throughout, except between Garhar and Saseb- 
kethal. The lengths of road maintained by the Public Works depart- 
ment and the local boards are respectively 329 and 2,206 miles, 
all unmetalled. The length of roadside avenues is estimated at 128 
miles. 

The Thar and Parkar District is in charge of a Deputy-Commissioner, 

who is ex-officio District Judge and Superintendent of police, assisted 

by two Deputy-Collectors, one in charge of each of 
Administration. ., ,,. . • m. n - . • . ., 

the two subdivisions. I he District comprises the 

talukas of Chachro, Diplo, Khipro, MIrpur Khas, Mithi, Nagar, 

Jamesabad, Sanghar, and Umarkot, together with the two newly 

formed talukas of Pithoro and Sinjhoro. 

The chief judicial authority is vested in the Deputy-Commissioner, 
who exercises the jurisdiction of a District Judge. The Sessions Judge 
of Hyderabad acts as Sessions Judge for the District. Appeals lie 
from him to the Judicial Commissioner at Karachi. Under him are 
Deputy-Collectors, who, in their judicial capacity, try civil cases up to 
Rs. 2,000 in value ; there are also 7 mukhtiarkdrs, empowered to 
decide civil cases up to Rs. 200 in value in the Nara subdivision and 
Rs. 1,000 in the Thar. Civil courts are situated at the head-quarters 
of talukas. The crime most rife is cattle-lifting. The Criminal Tribes 
Act (XXVII of 1 871) was extended to the Hurs, a semi-religious sect 
of desperadoes, who for several years terrorized all Sind, and were 
finally shot down or captured in 1896. 

In the Mithi and Islamkot tracts, the Talpurs are said to have 
formerly exacted two-fifths of the produce of land ; but no regular 
revenue system was introduced by the British till the years 1830 and 
1835, when disturbances at once took place. In 1850 the Umarkot 
and Nara divisions were leased to Soda zamlndars on a light settle- 
ment ; and at the end of 1854 the Commissioner of Sind, Mr. (the 
late Sir Bartle) Frere, introduced in the Thar a fixed assessment on 
a ten years' lease. Before that time the Government share was fixed 
annually after an inspection of the fields and an estimate of the crop. 
The District is now under the irrigational survey settlement, fixed 
in almost all the talukas for a period of ten years. The present land 
revenue rates per acre are: garden land, Rs. 2-11 (maximum Rs. 3, 



ADMINISTRA TION 



3 ' 5 



minimum Rs. 2-3) ; rice land, Rs. 2-10 (maximum Rs. 3, minimum 
Rs. 2-3) ; 'dry' land, R. r-15 (maximum Rs. 2-6, minimum Rs. 1-6). 

The collections on account of land revenue and revenue from all 
sources have been, in thousands of rupees :■ — ■ 





1880- 1. 


1890-1. 


1 900- 1. 


I903-4- 


Land revenue 
Total revenue 


3.»3 

34S 


5.69 
7,60 


ii,45 
12,64 


I5,i7 
17,56 



There are three municipalities, Umarkot, Mithi, and Mirpur Khas. 
Outside these, local affairs are managed by the District board and 
8 taluka boards. The total receipts and expenditure of these boards 
in 1903-4 were more than one lakh, of which Rs. 41,000 was spent 
on roads and buildings. 

The Deputy-Commissioner is ex-officio Superintendent of police, and 
has an Assistant Superintendent and 2 inspectors. 1 There are 24 
police stations. The total number of police is 606, of whom 14 are 
chief constables, 129 head constables, and 463 constables. The entire 
force is mounted. In addition to the subsidiary jail at Umarkot, there 
are 10 other subsidiary jails, in which 182 prisoners can be accom- 
modated. The daily average number of prisoners in 1904 was 42, 
of whom one was a female. 

Compared with other Districts of the Presidency, Thar and Parkar 
stands last in education. The Diplo and Chachro talukas are the 
most backward. The literate population in 1901 numbered only 3,639 
persons (or 10 per 1,000), including 37 females. In 1 880-1 there 
were n schools with an attendance of 799 pupils; in 1 890-1 the 
number of pupils rose to 2,650. In 1903-4 there were 164 schools 
with 4,733 pupils, of which 63 were maintained by local boards, 5 by 
municipalities, 27 were aided and 69 were private schools. In the 
Umarkot technical school, instruction is given in carpentry and smith- 
work. At Sanchor, schools for boys and embroidery classes for girls 
have been started among the Hurs. The total expenditure on educa- 
tion in 1903-4 was Rs. 34,000, of which Rs. 87 was derived from fees. 

There are 7 dispensaries with accommodation for 50 in-patients. 
In 1904 the number of cases treated was 20,088, of whom 190 were in- 
patients, and 665 operations were performed. The total expenditure 
was Rs. 9,683, of which Rs. 6,103 was met from Local and municipal 
funds. 

The number of persons successfully vaccinated in 1903-4 was 8,501, 
representing a proportion of 21-8 per 1,000, which is below the 
average for the Presidency. 

[A. W. Hughes, Gazetteer of the Province of Si 'nd (1876).] 

1 Since 1 906 a police officer has been appointed to the office of District Superintendent. 
VOL. XXIII. X 



,16 THAR AD 



j 



Tharad.— Petty State in the Political Agency of Palanpur, Bombay. 
See Palanpur Agency. 

Tharoch.— One of the Simla Hill States, Punjab, lying between 
3 o° 55' and 31 3' N. and 77 37' and 77 51' E., on the bank of the 
Tons. It has an area of 67 square miles, and the population in 1901 
was 4,411. Tharoch formerly formed part of Sirmur State. When 
it fell under the dominion of the British, Thakur Kami Singh was the 
nominal chief; but, on account of his great age and infirmities, his 
brother Jhobu conducted the administration. In 1819 a sanad was 
bestowed on Jhobu, conferring the State on him and his heirs after 
his brother's death. This sanad was confirmed in 1843 by another 
granted to Thakur Ranjlt Singh, in which claims for forced labour 
(begar) were commuted for a payment of Rs. 288. The present chief 
is Thakur Surat Singh, during whose minority the administration is 
in the hands of the Wazir. The revenue is estimated at Rs. 40,000. 

Tharrawaddy District.— District in the Pegu Division of Lower 
Burma, lying between 17 31' and 18 47' N. and 95 15' and 96 10' E., 
with an area of 2,851 square miles. It is bounded on the north by 
Prome District; on the east by the Pegu Yoma ; on the south by 
Hanthawaddy District ; and on the west by the Irrawaddy river, which, 
running in a south-easterly and southerly direction, separates it from 
Henzada. Tharrawaddy consists chiefly of alluvial 
Physical plains of a flat and uninteresting character. On 

the western border near the river there is a good 
deal of marsh land ; on the east the hills of the Pegu Yoma, dividing 
it from Pegu District, reach an altitude of about 2,000 feet. This 
eastern range forms the parting between the Irrawaddy and Sittang 
rivers, and is thickly covered with forests. The Irrawaddy skirts the 
District for 46 miles on the western border. The only other river 
of importance is the Myitmaka, which, rising in a lake known as the 
Inma in the south of Prome District, and fed by streams from the 
Pegu Yoma in the east, runs southward for 53 miles, entering Hantha- 
waddy District at Myitkyo, where it becomes the Hlaing, and finally 
flows into the sea as the Rangoon river. The Myitmaka is important 
as forming the channel of the timber trade of the District. The 
watershed between the Myitmaka and the Irrawaddy is low and 
indistinct. 

The soil of the low-lying portion is alluvial, and its geological history 
is no doubt a history of the two rivers which drain it. The main 
geological features of the Pegu Yoma have been described in the 
separate article on the range. None of the hills can be assigned to 
an era earlier than the Miocene or Middle Tertiary. Though low 
in altitude, the Pegu Yoma is steep and difficult to cross, owing to the 
heavy rainfall which tends to wash away the top soil. A curiosity 



THARR. I WADD 1 ' DISTRICT 3 1 7 

of this range is the natural granite bridge called Kyauktad;!, or ' stone 
bridge,' which stretches for a length of 560 feet over a chasm, and is 
quite bare of all vegetation. 

There are no mangrove or tidal forests in the District. True 
evergreen forests are practically unknown, so that the constituents of 
the vegetation fall under varieties of deciduous forests (described under 
Pkgu District) and savannah forests bordering the Irrawaddy 
(described under Hanthawaddy District). 

Among the wild animals found are elephants, tigers, leopards, 
rhinoceros, bison, tsine or hsaing {Bos sondaicas), thamin or brow- 
antlered deer, bears, and feathered game such as peafowl, pheasant, 
partridge, snipe, ducks, &c. 

The climate is comparatively mild and damp, though in the plains 
in April, which is the hottest month, the thermometer rises at times 
to 103 in the shade. Rain generally falls at the latter end of this 
month, though it cannot be relied on till May, when the heat is certain 
to be allayed by thunder showers, the precursors of the monsoon, 
which begins about the first week in June and continues with little 
interruption till October. During the latter month the showers 
become scantier, and gradually cease altogether till the following May, 
except perhaps for a slight fall about Christmas. The average annual 
rainfall for six years at the principal recording stations is given below 
in order of latitude, from south to north : Tharrawaddy, 79 inches ; 
Monyo, 64 inches ; Okpo, 61 inches; Gyobingauk, 60 inches; Zigon, 
58 inches; Tapun, 49 inches; and Nattalin, 57 inches. It will be 
noted that there is a well-marked decrease northwards, and the 
protective influence of the Arakan Yoma in the west makes itself 
more and more felt. The rainfall is on the whole reliable, and serious 
scarcity is unknown. The riverain portion of the District is subject 
to floods from freshes in the Irrawaddy, but these are never of a really 
serious character. 

In the eighteenth century Tharrawaddy was the name for a consider- 
able tract of country lying between the Irrawaddy and the Pegu Yoma, 
of which the present District now forms only a 
part. When the Pegu province was annexed after 
the second Burmese War, Tharrawaddy and what is now Henzada 
District formed a single District called Tharrawaw, and the history 
of Henzada and Tharrawaddy is identical up to the year 1878. 
Previous to annexation Tharrawaddy had been a portion of the 
Talaing kingdom of Pegu, which was added to the Burmese empire 
by Alaungpaya in 1753. Apart from this it has no special history: 
it seems never to have had any independent political existence, and 
the inhabitants would appear to have taken no prominent part in the 
wars between the Burmans and the Peguans. At the beginning of 

x 2 



3 



i S THARRA WADD \ ' DISTRICT 



the nineteenth century Tharrawaddy was the apanage of a scion 
of the royal house, who subsequently became infamous under the 
title of Prince Tharrawaddy. Clever and open-hearted, but ambitious 
and cruel, this lordling turned his grant into a nest of robbers, of 
whom he made use in 1S37 to dethrone his brother Bagyidaw. 
Tharrawaddy has long been notorious for the ill repute of its inhabi- 
tants, and there can be no question that this criminal taint is largely 
a legacy from the myrmidons of this aristocratic ne'er-do-well. During 
the first Burmese War no resistance was offered to the advance by 
river of Sir Archibald Campbell. In the second war, after the annexa- 
tion of the province of Pegu (including Tharrawaddy District), the 
line of such resistance as there was appears to have followed the 
western bank of the river. The chief source of disturbance in these 
parts was the disbanding of the Burman police, of which force each 
thugyi controlled several hundreds. Deprived of occupation by the 
conquest of the province, and encouraged and led by men holding 
commissions from the court at Ava, these ^v-police kept the whole 
country south of the Akauktaung in a ferment. In Tharrawaddy 
a man named Gaung Gyi was the leader. An hereditary thugyi of 
a small circle, he had been deposed by the Burmese government for 
refusal to pay his quota of tax, and a relative of his was appointed 
in his stead. This relative he expelled at the breaking out of war, 
and, being secretly supported by the Burmese court, he was able to 
establish something like a reign of terror in the District. It was not 
till 1855 that, by the united exertions of Captains D'Oyley and David 
Brown, he was forced to fly into Burmese territory. The District has 
had various head-quarters : Tharrawaddy, Henzada, Myanaung, and 
Henzada in succession. In 1878 the present District was formed with 
its existing head-quarters, a cluster of official buildings surrounded by 
paddy-fields, without any recommendations, either political, com- 
mercial, or geographical. There are no important pagodas, and what 
archaeological remains there are have hitherto received but little 
attention. 

The population increased from 171,202 in 1872 to 272,001 in 

lati n l8Sl ' 339,24 ° in l891 ' and 395>57° in i9 QI - Its 
distribution in 1901 is shown in the table on 

the next page. 

Like Henzada and Prome, Tharrawaddy would seem to have 

exhausted its attractions for immigrants, for the increase during the 

past decade has been small. It remains to be seen whether the new 

railway to Henzada and Bassein, a portion of which passes through 

it, will accelerate the increase in the future. After Ma-ubin, Henzada, 

Hanthawaddy, and Sagaing, however, Tharrawaddy is still the most 

thickly populated District in Burma, with a density of 139 persons 



AGRICULTURE 



319 



per square mile. The five towns are Letpadan, Gyobingauk, 
Thonze, ZIgon, and Minhla. The first three are municipalities, and 
have grown largely within recent years, the railway being responsible 
for the rise in each case. The majority of the population (378,600) 
are Buddhists. Compared with the adjoining Districts of Pegu and 
Hanthawaddy, the total of Musalmans (3,100) and Hindus (8,500) is 
small. It is higher, however, than in Prome, its neighbour to the north, 
and the foreign element is strong enough to keep the total number 
of females below that of males. Burmese speakers in 1901 numbered 
nearly 358,000, and Karen was spoken by nearly 21,000 persons. 





V 
u 
re 


Number of 


a 

c 
_; 


U 

OJ ■ 

§6 


age of 
on in 
on be- 
1891 
QOI. 


er of 
able to 
and 
te. 






Township. 


•P 


c 




SP 


re c> 
"3 " 


— d 


cent 
riati 
jlati 
een 
nd 1 






V 

< 



H 


> 




a. 


O.CT 

w 
PUi 

138 
107 




22" 

CD 
Q. 


Tharrawaddy . 
Letpadan . 


391 

.5,26 


I 

I 


228 
21^ 


53,94° 
56,098 


J +29 


3°,°I3 


Minhla . 


627 


1 


46s 


86,939 


! 39 


+ 16 


24,846 


Monyo 


182 


... 


172 


39,964 


219 


+ I 5 


",655 


Gyobingauk 


43 1 


2 


411 


9 l ,°4° 


21 1 


+ 8 


25,8()2 


Tapnn 

District total 


694 


5 


327 


67,589 
395,57° 


97 


+ 12 


16,985 


2,851 


1,819 


139 


+ 17 


I09,36l 



Note. — The Tharrawaddy township was formed after the Census of igoi. 

Burmans form the greater proportion of the population (355,500). 
Karens are numerous (21,200), and there is a fair sprinkling of Shans. 
On the other hand, the District, unlike Hanthawaddy and Pegu, shows 
very few Takings. The return of castes shows that railway con- 
struction must have been responsible for the presence of a large 
number of the Hindus enumerated at the Census of 1901. Tharra- 
waddy has a large agrarian community. In 1901, 301,710 persons, 
or 76 per cent, of the population, were returned as dependent, either 
as actual workers or otherwise, on agriculture. Only 9,100 persons 
were supported by taungya or ' hill-slope ' cultivation. 

The number of Christians (4,301) is fairly large. Of the total, 4,138 
are natives. Missions have been established by the Roman Catholics 
at Thonze and Gyobingauk, and by the American Baptists at Tharra- 
waddy, Thonze, and Zigon. More progress is made by the missionaries 
among the Karens than among the Burmans. 

The soil of Tharrawaddy is extremely fertile, and, with the abundant 
rainfall usually received, requires little manure and no irrigation, 
except on the high banks of creeks, where primitive 
wheels are used to raise water for crops of betel-vine, 
vegetables, maize, c\:c. The cultivated portion falls naturally into 
several tracts : the country bordering the hills, where cultivation is 



Agriculture. 



320 



THARRA IV ADD Y DISTRICT 



sparse, but on the increase ; the great central paddy plain, which 
stretches east of the Myitmaka stream ; and the submerged tract 
between that river and the Trrawaddy, where the soil is a rich clay, 
but where continual floods are liable to destroy the crops. Taking 
rainfall as a basis for further differentiation, the six most northerly 
circles of the District may be classified together as a fourth natural 
tract. They receive only about two-thirds the amount of rain that 
falls in the circle of Thonze, and are, moreover, farther from their 
market. Thus their produce and profits are diminished at the same 
time, and economically they stand on a footing different from the rest 
of the District. 

There is nothing distinctive or peculiar in the methods of cultivation 
in the plains. Rice is grown in the usual way, by transplantation. 
In the submerged tracts certain lands are flooded when the river 
rises, and rice cannot be transplanted till late in September. These 
lands are known as tdse, and, notwithstanding the late transplan- 
tation, their yield is double that of adjacent unflooded land. In 
the hills taungya or ' hill-slope ' cultivation is resorted to, while garden 
and orchard produce is very successful along the banks of the 
streams. 

The holdings are mostly small, and the cultivators fall under the 
class of peasant proprietors. There is no distinct landlord class : 
the husbandman ordinarily works his own land, and if that is not 
sufficient to employ him rents another piece from his neighbour. 

The following table exhibits, in square miles, the main agricul- 
tural statistics for 1903-4 : — 



Township. 


Total area. 


Cultivated. 


Forests. 


Thanawaddv 


39 1 


97 


' 


Letpadan 


526 


I i 2 




Minhla 


627 


177 




Monvo .... 


182 


55 


- 1-349 


Gyobingauk . 


43i 


189 




Tapun .... 

Total 


694 


97 




2,851 


727 


1 ,349 



The principal crops in the order of their importance are rice, 
orchard and garden produce, peas, tobacco, and miscellaneous food- 
crops, including vegetables, sesamum, sugar-cane, and maize. The 
cultivated area was 555 square miles in 1891, and 685 square miles 
in 1 90 1. Garden cultivation occupied 20 square miles of the total 
in 1 903-4, and rice 687 square miles, the principal kinds being 
kankkyi, kauknge, kaukhnyin, and ngakyauk, all harvested during the 
cold season. Kaukkyi furnishes the best table rice ; it is, however, 
more liable to damage from floods and drought than any other kind, 



AGRICULTURE 321 

and the price is generally Rs. 10 per 100 local baskets higher than 
for ordinary rice. Kauknge has a shorter seed than kaukkyi, but 
includes many varieties. It is the rice referred to in market quota- 
tions. Kaukhnyin is a long glutinous rice which is not boiled but 
steamed, and forms the morning meal of the agricultural classes. It 
is also much used for making seinye or rice beer. Vegetables in- 
clude sweet potatoes, brinjals, and tomatoes. The usual fruits of 
Lower Burma are grown in the orchards, such as mangoes, jack- 
fruit, plantains, pineapples, marian plums, coco-nuts, and guavas. 
The greater part of these orchards are situated in the Tapun and 
Gyobingauk townships. The cultivation of all crops is on the in- 
crease, except in the case of sesamum, the growth of which has 
been discouraged of late by frequent floods. There has been an 
increase in sugar-cane, which may be accounted for by the fact that 
new grants are planted with this crop before the soil is ready to 
go under the plough for rice cultivation. The extension in the area 
under rice may be attributed to the opening of the new railway line 
to the Irrawaddy, and to local causes such as the construction of 
the Paukkon-Aingtalok embankment, and the absence in late years 
of high floods in the Bilin and Shwelaung circles. About 4,700 acres 
of tobacco are grown on the alluvial soil near the Irrawaddy. 

There has been no improvement either in quality by selection of 
seed, or in kind by the introduction of new varieties. Havana tobacco 
seed is distributed by Government, but has attained no success 
hitherto. The Land Improvement and Agriculturists' Loans Acts 
appear to be appreciated by the cultivators, for the annual advances 
vary from Rs. 13,000 to Rs. 23,000. Advances are most popular 
in the townships of Gyobingauk and Tapun. 

Horned cattle, including bullocks and buffaloes, present no special 
peculiarities of breed, but the latter are more used for ploughing 
than the former. Ponies are fairly plentiful, but the climate is not 
very suitable for horseflesh. Two Government stallions are, how- 
ever, kept at the head-quarters of the District. Goats are bred to 
a small extent. Fodder is plentiful, and from December to June 
cattle are allowed to wander freely over the country ; it is only in 
September, when the young rice plants are being transplanted, that 
grazing grounds are really needed. There are 437 of these, covering 
an area of 48,110 acres. 

There is no artificial irrigation ; tanks and wells are used solely 
for storing drinking-water for man and beast, the largest reservoir 
being that at Gyobingauk. Artesian wells are in contemplation at 
several places ; in fact, one or two have already been sunk, but they 
are not yet in working order. The District contains a number of 
inland fisheries, both along the Irrawaddy and in the basin of the 



322 THARRAWADDY DISTRICT 

Myitmaka. That yielding the largest revenue is known as the Tanbin- 
gyaung fishery in the Letpadan township ; that covering the largest 
area is at Pangabin in the Monyo township. Practically the whole 
of the fish-supply is consumed locally. The fishing industry is profit- 
able, but is not susceptible of much development. 

Three chief types of forest may be distinguished. The first of these 
is the forest of the Pegu Yoraa. This great mass of woodland, in 
which teak of the best quality is found in the greatest 
abundance, lies on the western slopes of the Pegu 
Yoma. Here the forests are of the upper mixed deciduous type, in 
which teak is found associated with Xylia dolabriformis (pyingado), 
Bombax insigne, lagerstroemia Flos Reginae, Homalium tomentosum, 
and many other species. Cutch is plentiful in the northern parts of 
the District, where the rainfall is lighter than in the south. Bamboos 
of many kinds form a characteristic feature of these forests. The 
second main type of forest is known as indaing. The Yoma forests 
are frequently skirted by a stretch of indaing, on laterite soil, the chief 
timber tree present being in (Dipterocarpus tubenulatus), which is 
associated with ingyin (Pentacme siamensis), Melanorrhoea usitala, 
Slrychnos Nitx-vomica, &C The third main type may be denomi- 
nated the plain forests. These are situated on the alluvial plains, 
which are more or less inundated with water during the rains. Teak 
is not always found in them, and when present is usually of inferior 
quality. The District contains 736 square miles of 'reserved' forests, 
and 613 of 'unclassed.' Regular working-plans are in force for 698 
square miles of Reserves. There are 494 acres of regular planta- 
tions, and 19,362 of taui/gya ; these are chiefly of teak. The Myitmaka 
is the main timber-rafting river of the District. Sanywe, a village on 
the banks of this stream, is the depot where the teak and other timber 
destined for Rangoon is measured and passed. The total revenue from 
the forests of Tharrawaddy in 1903-4 was 13-5 lakhs. 

A forest school was opened in 1899 m Tharrawaddy, at which 
Burman Forest subordinates are trained in their duties. The course 
lasts two years, and the number of students admitted annually is 
twelve. Though intended primarily for Government servants, private 
students are allowed to enter the school. The divisional Forest officer 
is director of the school, and there is a teaching staff of one European 
and two Burman instructors. 

Minerals of value have never been discovered, but pottery clay and 
laterite are found, as they are almost everywhere in Lower Burma. 
Both are worked under a licence from the Government ; but the busi- 
ness of extraction is taken up as a subsidiary occupation in the dry 
season, and not as a special means of livelihood. 

Cotton-weaving is carried on in almost every large village in the 



TRADE AND COMMUNICATIONS 323 

Zigon subdivision, but the industry is declining owing to the intro- 
duction of cheap clothing materials of foreign manu- 
facture imported from Rangoon. Even at the existing ra e . a " 

1 b 111 communications, 

looms, where rough pasos, iongyis, and blankets are 

the chief articles produced, imported twist and yarn are used instead 
of homespun cotton. The produce of these looms is confined to the 
requirements of the family. Occasionally, however, cotton dusters in 
fancy check are exhibited for sale in the markets, but not in any large 
quantity. Gold- and silversmiths are plentiful, who turn out rings, 
necklaces, nagats, nadaungs, bangles, anklets, bowls, and betel-boxes 
in the precious metals ; their handiwork is not, however, thought equal 
to that of their brethren in Prome. Iron and pottery are worked, 
but only for domestic purposes. The latter industry is suffering, it 
is said, from the competition of foreign-made metal cooking pots. 
Mat-weaving is carried on, the material chiefly used being bamboo, 
though the more expensive thinbyu mats, prized for their softness 
and flexibility, are sometimes woven ; bamboo matting for the walls 
of huts is also manufactured, but is being driven out by corrugated 
iron. The use of sewing machines is becoming common in all the 
principal towns. There are five steam saw-mills in the District, each 
of which employs between 30 and 40 hands. 

Rangoon is the natural market for such of the produce as is ex- 
ported, including paddy, timber, and vegetables. The chief imports 
are European goods of all sorts, wearing apparel, piece-goods (cotton 
and silk), besides dried fish and oil and salt from the neighbouring 
Districts. The channels of trade are the railway, and the Irrawaddy 
and Myitmaka rivers. The transport of timber and bamboo fol- 
lows the waterways chiefly, but an enormous amount of paddy is 
taken down by the railway in the season. Boat traffic is, however, 
a much cheaper means of transport than rail, partly because the rolling- 
stock of the railway is unable to cope with the volume of paddy traffic, 
and partly because the boat-owner does not have to pay demurrage 
if the rate current on his arrival at the market does not happen to 
suit him. Trading is not confined to one class or one nationality ; 
practically all members of the community engage in it, to some 
extent at any rate. Brokers and money-lenders figure largely in all 
business transactions. The larger brokers get advances from Rangoon 
firms on mortgage security, and buy paddy on a fixed commission; the 
lesser men get smaller contracts from them and a smaller commission. 
Others again only introduce sellers to the brokers. It is not uncom- 
mon for one man to combine several businesses and to have several 
partners. Such combination, further complicated by a defective system 
of account-keeping, is a frequent cause of litigation. Timber is worked 
by contracts under the forest department. The actual and nominal 



324 THAR R A WADD Y DISTRICT 

contractor is generally financed by some sleeping partner, who takes 
little or no active part in the extraction of the logs. Considerable for- 
tunes are amassed by judicious investment ; and a rich man in this 
District may, in most cases, safely be presumed to have made his 
money by paddy or timber trading, or from lawsuits arising out of 
dealings in connexion with one or other of these commodities. 

The District is crossed by 61 miles of the railway from Rangoon to 
Prome, with 13 stations on this portion of the line. A branch of 26 
miles has recently been opened from Letpadan westwards to Tharra- 
waw on the Irrawaddy, opposite Henzada, being part of an extension 
to Bassein. The main line connects all the most important trade 
centres in the District : namely, Zlgon, Gyobingauk, Minhla, Letpadan, 
and Thonze. About 211 miles of metalled roads are maintained, of 
which 161 are kept up from Provincial funds. The chief of these 
is the Rangoon-Prome road, mile 70 to mile 139, and various loops 
and diversions from this thoroughfare, e.g. from Zlgon to Tapun and 
Gyobingauk, and from Minhla to Letpadan. The 50 miles of metalled 
roads kept up by Local funds are principally town roads and footpaths. 
There are 19 miles of unmetalled roads, of which 15 miles (from 
Sanywe to Thayetchaung) are provided for from Provincial, and the 
remainder from Local funds. The chief means of communication 
by water is the Irrawaddy river, navigated by the Irrawaddy Flotilla 
Company's steamers, and the Myitmaka with its tributary creeks which 
are capable of carrying boats with a load of several hundred bags of 
rice in the wet season as far as the railway line, but are practically 
dry from November to May. A steam ferry plies between Tharra- 
waw and Henzada, connecting the two sections of the new railway. 
There are also seventeen boat ferries on the Myitmaka river, two 
on the Kantha creek, and one on the Irrawaddy. 

Tharrawaddy District is divided into two subdivisions. The northern, 
Zlgon, comprises three townships : Gyobingauk, Tapun, and Monyo. 
The southern, Tharrawaddy, also comprises three : 
Tharrawaddy, Letpadan, and Minhla. With the 
exception of Tapun and Monyo, all these townships have their head- 
quarters on the railway. They are in the charge of Burman magistrates, 
who are responsible for the preservation of order and the collection of 
revenue. 

At head-quarters are a treasury officer and an akunwun (in subordi- 
nate charge of the revenue administration of the District), and a super- 
intendent of land records with a staff of 4 inspectors and 45 surveyors. 
The District forms (with Prome) the Tharrawaddy Public Works 
division, being divided into two subdivisions, Tharrawaddy and Let- 
padan. It also forms the Tharrawaddy Forest division, with two 
subdivisional officers at Zlgon and Tharrawaddy. 



AD MINIS TRA T10N 3 2 5 

Civil judicial work is disposed of by nine regular courts : the District 
court, the subdivisional courts at Tharrawaddy and Zigon, and the 
six township courts. All business in the District court is transacted by 
the District Judge, who divides his time between Tharrawaddy and the 
adjoining District of Prome. Special township judges do the civil work 
in all the townships except Monyo. There are 681 village headmen, 
of whom 29 have received special civil powers, and dispose of about 
ten cases each annually. 

The criminal work is divided between the District, subdivisional, 
and township magistrates and the Divisional and Sessions Judge of 
Prome, who visits Tharrawaddy about once in two months to try such 
cases as are committed to him. There are 18 headmen with special 
criminal powers. Tharrawaddy has long had a bad reputation for the 
more serious forms of crime, especially dacoity, robbery, and cattle- 
theft. These, however, have considerably declined, and the most 
serious crimes now prevailing are murder and grievous hurt, especially 
by stabbing ; in almost every case the use of intoxicating liquors is 
found to be the exciting cause. The decline ot cattle-theft and violent 
crimes affecting property is due to the stringent enforcement of the 
Village Act and the energy of the police. The civil work calls for 
no special comment except with regard to its steadily increasing 
volume. 

Before the annexation of Pegu the land revenue of Tharrawaddy 
was insignificant in comparison with that of the adjacent District of 
Henzada, the receipts from the tax on plough oxen or rice land being 
only Rs. 970, compared with Rs. 76,440 collected in the last-named 
District. The past fifty years have bridged over this marked difference. 
The first revenue settlement was undertaken more than forty years ago, 
when the rates varied from R. 1 to Rs. 2 per acre. By 1880, the area 
cultivated and the land revenue had doubled ; and in that year a 
summary increase of 4 annas per acre was made on all land except 
in the tracts remote from the railway. Between 1880 and 1884 a de- 
tailed settlement was effected. The rates then proposed, which varied 
from Rs. 2-4 to 12 annas per acre on rice land, came into force 
in 1884-5. The assessment was revised in 1900-2. The present 
rates vary from Rs. 3-4 to R. 1 per acre of rice land ; garden land 
pays from Rs. 2 to Rs. 2-8 ; and sugar-cane grown as a ya crop, 
Rs. 4 per acre. The average extent of a holding is 11 acres. The 
system of collection was originally through the medium of circle 
f/u/gyis, of whom there were at one time 61. The jurisdictions of 
these officials were often unduly large; but the remuneration of a 10 
per cent, commission attracted a class of men with a good education 
and a knowledge of surveying, superior in every way to the village 
headman, or ywathugyi, who not infrequently collected the revenue for 



326 



THARRA WADD Y DISTRICT 



the circle (or taik) thugyi, but drew no commission. The system of 
collection by village headmen is now being introduced as circles fall 
vacant. At present there are seventeen circles in which there are 
circle thugyis, who draw full commission, while fourteen circles have 
recently been broken up, and the revenue in them is now collected 
by 338 village headmen. 

The following table shows, in thousands of rupees, the growth of the 
revenue since 1 880-1 : 





1880-1. 


1890-1. 


1900-1. 


1903-4. 


Land revenue 
Total revenue 


3,50 
8,70 


5,7o 
9.9° 


8,50 
15,98 


11,22 
2 3,27 



The total revenue for 1903-4 includes Rs. 3,77,000 from capitation tax 
and Rs. 5,17,000 from excise. 

There is a District cess fund, maintained chiefly by a levy of 10 per 
cent, on the total land revenue, and administered by the Deputy-Com- 
missioner, for the upkeep of roads and the provision of other local 
necessities. Its income in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,60,700, and of this total 
Rs. 63,000 was spent on public works. 

There are three municipalities, Thoxze, Letpadan, and Gvobin- 
gauk ; and two town committees, ZIgon and Minhla. 

The police are under a District Superintendent, who has two sub- 
divisional officers with jurisdictions corresponding to the civil sub- 
divisions. The strength of the civil police force has been recently 
considerably augmented, and now consists of the following : 4 inspec- 
tors, 3 chief head constables, 9 head constables, 43 sergeants, and 406 
constables. There are 1 1 police stations and 4 police outposts in the 
District. Military police are stationed at Letpadan, Minhla, Monyo, 
Gyobingauk, ZTgon, and Tapun, and also at the District head-quarters. 
There are no jails or reformatories, convicted prisoners being sent 
to the Rangoon and Insein jails to serve out their sentences. There is, 
however, a lock-up for the temporary detention of prisoners at the 
District head-quarters. 

The standard of education is high even for Burma. Although the 
proportion of literate males, 48-4 per cent., does not exceed that of the 
illiterate, as it does in a few of the Upper Burma Districts, it is higher 
than in any other District of Lower Burma except Thayetmyo. For 
males and females together the proportion is 27-6 per cent. Education 
is chiefly in the hands of religious bodies, Buddhist monks, French 
Roman Catholic priests, and American Baptist missionaries. The 
number of pupils was 2,615 in 1SS1, 5,646 in 1891, and 9,421 in 1901. 
In 1903-4 there were 21 secondary, 146 primary, 130 elementary 
(private), and 3 special schools, attended by 10,470 pupils (1,870 



THARRAWADDY T01I.Y 327 

females). The expenditure on education was Rs. 52,300; of which 
Rs. 23,800 came from the District cess fund, Rs. 7,300 from municipal 
funds, and Rs. 6,800 from Provincial funds. The fees amounted 
to Rs. 14,200. Educational progress has been steady during the 
past five years. Secondary education has declined in the Letpadan 
and Gyobingauk townships, but has increased in Minhla and Monyo. 
The growth in the popularity of education is much more marked in 
primary than in secondary schools, the latter remaining stationary, 
while the former have increased by nearly 15 per cent, since 1900. 
Female education has increased by 52 per cent, in the same period. 

The District possesses 8 hospitals, containing 96 beds, as well as 
2 railway dispensaries. In 1903 the number of cases treated was 
68,748, of whom 1,770 were in-patients, and 1,058 operations were 
performed. The hospitals are maintained almost entirely from Local 
(town and municipal) funds, the expenditure on them amounting to 
Rs. 29,000 in 1903. 

Vaccination is compulsory only in the three municipalities. In 
1903-4, 11,428 persons were successfully vaccinated in the urban 
and rural areas, representing 29 per 1,000 of population. 

[E. A. Moore, Settlement Reports (1902 and 1903).] 

Tharrawaddy Subdivision. — Southern subdivision of Tharra- 
waddy District, Lower Burma, comprising the Tharrawaddy, Let- 
padan, and Minhla townships, with head-quarters at Tharrawaddy town. 

Tharrawaddy Township. — Southern township of Tharrawaddy 
District, Lower Burma, lying between 1 7 31' and 17 58 N. and 95 ^ 
and 96 5' E., with an area of 391 square miles. In 1901 it formed 
part of the Letpadan township. The population in 1901 of the area 
separated was 53,940, distributed in 228 villages and one town proper, 
Thonze (population, 6,578). The head-quarters are at Tharra- 
waddy Town. The township is level throughout, except in the east, 
where it abuts on the Pegu Yoma. There were 97 square miles culti- 
vated in 1903-4, paying Rs. 2,13,000 land revenue. 

Tharrawaddy Town. — Head-quarters of Tharrawaddy District, 
Lower Burma, situated in 17 40' N. and 95 48' E., on the Rangoon- 
Prome railway, 68 miles from Rangoon in a north-westerly direction. 
Population (1901), 1,693. Tharrawaddy may be regarded more or less 
as a suburb of the municipality of Thonze, 2 miles to the south, with 
which it is connected by road and railway. The Rangoon-Prome road 
passes through the town, which occupies a well-wooded and com- 
pact area, but low-lying. It contains a hospital, the usual District 
head-quarters offices, the Forest school, the residences of the local 
officials, and some mission buildings. The roads are good and well 
lighted, the cost of lighting being met from the District cess fund. It 
is said to have been selected as the head-quarters on account of its 



328 THARRAWADDY TOWN 

good water-supply, after attempts to establish the District court first 
at Gyobingauk, and then at Kunhnityvva, had failed owing to bad water 
in those places. It is named after an ancient capital, which existed 
about 7 miles to the east of Gyobingauk, where traces of the moats and 
walls may still be seen. 

Thasra.— North-eastern taluka of Kaira District, Bombay, lying 
between 22 38' and 22 58' N. and 73 3' and 73 23' E., with an area 
of 257 square miles. It contains one town, Dakor (population, 9,498), 
and 96 villages. The population in 1901 was 73,980, compared with 
75,622 in 1891. The density, 288 persons per square mile, is much 
below the District average. The head-quarters are at Thasra. The 
land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to more than 2-1 lakhs. 
To the north and north-west the upland is bare of trees and poorly tilled. 
Towards the south the plain, broken only by the deep-cut channel of 
the Shedhi, is rich and well wooded. The water-supply is scanty. 

Thato. — Tahika and town in Karachi District, Sind, Bombay. 
See Tatta. 

Thaton District. — A sea-board District in the Tenasserim Division 

of Lower Burma, lying between 16 28' and 17 51/ N. and 96°39' and 

98 20' E., and comprising the greater part of the country on each side 

of the lower reaches of the Salween river, with an area of 5,079 square 

miles. Its shape may be described as a four-sided figure, fairly regular, 

save for an indentation in the north caused by Salween District, of 

which the base or south-eastern side is inclined at a slope of rather 

less than 45 ° to the line of the equator ; the angles at its four corners 

lie roughly at the four quarters of the compass. The northern angle is 

formed by the junction of the Salween and Thaungyin rivers, of which 

the latter forms the north-eastern boundary of the District, dividing 

it from Siam. The eastern angle is a point on the Thaungyin river 

about 70 miles to the south-east of its junction with the Salween. The 

south-eastern boundary, dividing it from Amherst District, is defined 

for the most part by the Hlaingbwe and Gyaing rivers, and the 

southern angle is marked by the junction of the latter of these streams 

with the Salween. The south-western boundary is the Gulf of Marta- 

ban ; and the mouth of the Sittang river, which flows into the sea to 

the west of the Salween, lies at the western angle of the District. The 

north-western boundary divides Thaton from the Districts of Pegu, 

Toungoo, and Salween, and runs for the greater part of its length along 

the valleys of the Sittang and Salween and their tributaries. The 

District is intersected by a number of hill ranges, which may be divided 

into three main groups. In the east and north-east 

Physical towards the Siam frontier is the Dawna range, its 
aspects. . ° ' 

ridges varying in height from 1,000 to 5,500 feet, 

which cuts off the valley of the Thaungyin river from the rest of the 



THATON DT STRICT 329 

District. The range starts in the extreme north, and runs in a general 
south-easterly direction down the edge of Thaton and Amherst towards 
the Malay Peninsula. Divided from this range by a plain stretching 
for 50 to 60 miles across the valleys of the Salween and the Hlaingbwe 
is a much smaller system of hills, which may be regarded as the upper 
end of the well-defined Taungnvo range separating the Ataran valley 
in Amherst District from the seaboard townships. In Thaton District 
this upland is continued in the Martaban hills, starting opposite Moul- 
mein on the farther side of the Salween and running, first north-west 
and then north, into Salween District. From this range to the sea on 
the west extends a rice plain, intersected by countless tidal creeks, and 
stretching up to the Sittang. In the north-west of the District, between 
this second nidge and the Sittang estuary is a limestone range (part of 
the Paunglaung system), which enters the District from the north and 
branches into spurs ending at Kyaikto and Bilin. The western spur 
is known as the Kelatha hills, and rises to an altitude of 3,650 feet 
opposite the village of Sittang. It is practically isolated from the main 
mass of the Paunglaung system. 

Thaton is watered from end to end by numerous streams. The 
easternmost is the Thaungyin river, which rises in Amherst District, 
runs in a north-westerly direction, dividing Burma from Siam, and 
finally, after a course of about 200 miles, meets the Salween river in 
the north of the District. It is useful for floating down forest produce, 
but its numerous rapids detract from its value. The Hlaingbwe rises 
in the wedge of country between the Thaungyin and Salween rivers, 
where the Dawna range takes off, and flows for 120 miles to meet the 
Haungtharaw river in the south. Here the combined streams, under 
the name of the Gyaing, form the south-eastern border of the District, 
and run for 45 miles in a general westerly direction to join the 
Salween just above Moulmein. The Salween itself enters Thaton 
in its northern corner, separating it for some distance from Salween 
District. At about 17 20' N. latitude it enters the Pa-an township, 
and thence its channel divides the District roughly into two halves, 
east and west. It pursues its southerly course down to Moulmein, 
where its waters are divided by the Bilugyun island into the two main 
mouths through which it flows into the sea. A few miles above Moul- 
mein it is joined from the west by the Donthami (or Binhlaing) river, 
which rises in the hills on the northern border of the District, and 
winds down the eastern edge of the Martaban range. The area to the 
west of the Martaban hills is intersected by a network of tidal creeks, 
which give internal communication between Moulmein, Thaton, the 
Bilin, Kyaikto, and the Sittang. This tract is watered by only one 
large river, the Bilin, which rises in Salween District, and flowing 
between the Martaban and Bilin hills, enters the Gulf of Martaban 



33 o THATON DISTRICT 

after a course of 280 miles. The Sittang, for the last 40 miles of its 
course, forms the western boundary of the District. It has done much 
damage lately by eroding the rice plain on the left bank near its 
mouth, destroying about 5,000 acres annually, while new land has been 
thrown up in Hanthawaddy and Pegu Districts on the opposite bank. 
Pe< r u has thus gained an area not far short of 100 square miles during 
the past twenty years. 

Very little is known of the geology of Thaton. The Martaban and 
Dawna hills are of laterite, and the Bilin and Kelatha hills of a 
limestone formation, belonging to what has been denominated the 
Moulmein series of rocks. Isolated limestone hills, of the age of the 
Carboniferous limestone of Europe, occur frequently in the north- 
eastern portion of the District, illustrating the denudation to which 
the Palaeozoic beds of the Salween valley have been subjected. The 
low-lying tract to the south-west of the District has emerged within 
historical times from the sea ; but it is not clear how far this has been 
due to the elevation of the sea-bottom, and how far to the level of the 
land being raised by deposits of silt. 

The flora is of the type ordinarily met with in the wet areas of Lower 
Burma (see Hanthawaddy District). The main timber trees are 
referred to below under the head of Forests. 

A few wild elephants are to be found in the north-west and north- 
east of the District. Leopards abound, and venture at times into the 
purlieus of Thaton town. Tigers are not numerous, but bears are 
common. The barking-deer and hog deer are fairly plentiful in parts. 
Near Pagat on the Salween the serow is found in the hills. The 
District is remarkable for the scarcity of wild-fowl of all kinds. Very 
few of the migratory ducks appear to visit it. 

The climate, though moist and oppressive, is in general salubrious, 
exhibiting no extremes of heat or cold ; and the littoral tract generally 
enjoys a cool breeze from the Gulf of Martaban. The average mean 
temperature in Thaton for four typical months during the decade 
ending 1901 is as follows : January, 74 ; April, 84 ; July, 77 ; October, 
82 . The rains are heavier in Thaton than in any other District in 
Burma, except, perhaps, Tavoy and Sandoway. The average annual 
rainfall recorded for the six years ending 1901 was 201 inches at 
Thaton and 196 inches at Bilin, a village a little farther north but 
about the same distance from the coast. 

The District comprises the larger portion of the ancient kingdom 

of the Mons or Takings, known in Pali literature as Ramannadesa, 

a name famous in sacred legend as the first reposi- 

History. ^ Qf ^ Buddhist scriptures in Burma. Tradition 

points to Thaton town as the cradle of Buddhism in Burma; but 

Dr. Forchhammer has shown weighty reasons for placing the earliest 



HISTORY 331 

Taking capital rather at Taikkala or Kalataik, which he identifies 
with the Golamattikanagara of the Kalyani inscriptions. This interest- 
ing place lies at the foot of a hill range in the Bilin township, the 
eastern and western slopes of which are still covered with ruins in an 
advanced state of decay, and is indubitably of great age. At the same 
time there can be no question that the present town of Thaton is a 
site of considerable antiquity, and it is probable that the ancient ruler 
Thamala proceeded westwards from here to found the city of Pegu. 
The town of Martaban (Burmese, Moktama), exactly opposite Moul- 
mein on the right bank of the Salween, is said to have been built 
about the same time as Pegu, namely a. d. 575. Whether Martaban 
or Thaton remained the capital of the eastern section of the Takings 
after the foundation of Pegu is doubtful ; but during the eleventh 
century Anawrata, the king of Pagan, overran Pegu and is said to have 
demolished the city of Thaton, so that it seems probable that the seat 
of government was even then at that town. In any case Martaban was 
refounded in 1269 by a king of Pagan, and probably succeeded politi- 
cally to the position which Thaton had filled in the past. The 
Burmese monarch left one Aleinma as governor of Martaban. He 
was replaced for an act of insubordination, but shortly afterwards re- 
appeared on the scene with some Shan followers, slew his successor, 
and resumed the government of the province, presumably as a vassal 
of Siam, which had long disputed this territory with the Takings. 
In 1 28 1 a native of Martaban arose, killed Aleinma, and was recog- 
nized as governor by the Siamese under the name of Wariyu. 
Wariyu joined the king of Pegu in driving out the king of Pagan, but 
shortly afterwards turned on his Taking ally and annexed the kingdom 
of Pegu. In the reign of his successor the kingdom of Martaban 
extended from Tenasserim to Prome and Bassein, and during the 
endless Burmo-Siamese wars the capital was frequently besieged and 
captured. It came with the rest of the Taking cities under Burmese 
dominion at the time of Alaungpaya, and was the point where that 
great warrior's forces assembled prior to the expedition against the 
Siamese which culminated in his death. It was easily occupied by 
the British in the first Burmese War in 1824, but was afterwards given 
up, what is now Thaton District, with the exception of that part of it 
lying east of the Salween, being returned to Burma. In the second 
Burmese War Martaban was occupied by a force under General 
Godwin in 1852, and held till the end of the war, when the whole 
District was taken over by the British. After forming for many years 
portions of the old Shwegyin and Amherst Districts, Thaton was 
eventually constituted a separate Deputy-Commissioner's charge in 
1895, and since then its limits have not been altered. The annexation 
of Upper Burma was the signal in 1885-6 for a somewhat serious 

VOL. XXIII. v 



33* 



THATON DISTRICT 



rising in the west of the District, which was not suppressed till the 
assistance of the troops had been called in. 

The highest point of the Kelatha range, known as the Kelatha peak, 
is crowned by a pagoda built at the end of the fifteenth century by 
king Dhamacheti (who is also credited with having set up the Kalyani 
inscriptions at Pegu). Another eminence on a range farther to the 
east bears the Kyaiktiyo pagoda, one of the four most sacred shrines 
of Burmese Buddhism. This pagoda, which is about 15 feet high, is 
built on a huge rounded egg-shaped boulder, perched on the very sum- 
mit, and overhanging the edge of a projecting and shelving tabular 
rock, which rises perpendicularly from the valley below. Pious Buddhists 
believe that it is retained in its position solely by the power of the relic, 
a hair of Gautama, enshrined within it. Other pagodas of archaeo- 
logical interest are the Thagya pagoda at Thaton, the Kyaikkalunpun at 
Sittang, the remains of the 1,000 pagodas at Kyaikkatha, the Tizaung 
pagoda at Zokthok, and the Zingyaik on the hills of the same name 
north-west of Martaban. There are also caves containing innumerable 
images of Buddha of all sizes at Kawgun, Dhammatha, Bingyi, and 
Pagat. Besides Thaton, Taikkala, and Martaban, the District has in 
Sittang (near the mouth of the Sittang river) a town once prominent 
in the history of Burma. Like Martaban, Sittang was once a famous 
fort and the seat of government ; but, as in the case of Martaban, little 
now remains to bear witness to its former importance. 

The population of the District, as recorded at the last four enumera- 
tions, was as follows: (1872) 165,077, (1881) 229,941, (1891) 266,620, 
and (1901) 343,510. The principal statistics of area 
and population for 1901 are given in the following 
table, according to townships : — 



Population. 





11 

u 

3 


Number of 





u 

V . 

— 1 

5^ 






oi- 






Township. 


Sjj 


n 

c 


en 


be 


3 


E 


*s .2 "" 0* 


n tj et p 

S c a f 










D. 


3 3 


u 'C 3 z. c 


3 O OJ 




u 

< 


H 


> 





74 


v fag-fa 

p- - cL 


V 

a. 


Kyaikto 


607 


I 


'39 


45,oS2 


+ 55 


12,086 


Bilin . 


937 




224 


55> 112 


59 


+ 13 


10,761 


Thaton 


4'7 


I 


1 S3 


67,928 


163 


+ 80 


"-977 


Paung 


353 


... 


142 


55.Q7 1 


156 


+ 19 


8,358 


Pa-an 


730 


... 


277 


76,59! 


105 




4-545 


Hlaingbwe 

District total 


2,035 
5.°79 


2 


208 


•13,726 
343,5io 


21 


+ 54 
+ 29 


M34 


M73 


68 


49,161 



Thaton, the District head-quarters, and Kvaikto are the only two 
towns. The population has more than doubled in the past thirty years. 
This high rate of increase is largely due to immigration into the fertile 
rice-bearing areas along the Sittang and the Gulf of Martaban. The 



AGRICULTURE m 

only District supplying immigrants on a considerable scale is Amherst, 
though there has been a certain influx also from the Shan States and 
Siam. Indian immigrants number nearly 14,000, three-fifths of whom 
come from Madras and more than one-fifth from Bengal. There are 
altogether about 13,000 Hindus and 7,000 Musalmans. Christians 
number nearly 2,100, but the great majority of the population are 
Buddhists. Burmese is the vernacular of about one-third of the people, 
Karen of about another third. Of Taking speakers there are about 
35,000, and of Taungthu speakers rather more than 32,000. 

The most numerous race is the Karen, which numbered 124,800 in 
1901, forming three-fourths of the population of that part of the District 
which lies east of the Salween, and about one-fourth of that of the 
rest of the District. Burmans number 73,400. They compose roughly 
two-thirds of the population of the Kyaikto subdivision in the north- 
west, and one-third of that of the Thaton subdivision in the south-west. 
East of the Salween they are few in number. The total of Takings 
is 74,600 ; they inhabit the southern townships of Pa-an and Paung, 
south of Thaton town. An important tribe are the Taungthus, more 
largely represented than in any other District of Lower Burma. Their 
total in 1 901 was 37,400. They form about a fifth of the population 
of the Paung and Pa-an townships in the south, and of the Thaton 
township in the centre of the District. They also inhabit the hills 
in the Bilin townships, spreading over into Toungoo and Salween Dis- 
tricts. The Siamese number nearly 10,000 and the Chinese about 
3,000. In 1901 about 74 per cent, of the population were found to 
be engaged in, or dependent on, agriculture. About one-seventh of the 
agricultural population is supported by taungya or 'hill-slope' cultivation. 

The number of native Christians is just over 2,000, mostly Karen 
Baptist converts. There is an American Baptist mission at Thaton. 

The agricultural conditions are determined chiefly by the heavy 
rainfall, and by the peculiarities of the numerous streams and rivers 
thus fed. The soil is generally fertile, especially in . 

the alluvial plains, in the south and west between the 
hills and the sea, from which the bulk of the rice comes ; and it may 
be said that cultivation is successfully practised wherever the water- 
supply is sufficient to develop, without overwhelming, the crop. The 
chief need in the low-lying sea-board areas is not irrigation but drainage. 
Many drainage schemes have been proposed, and some have been 
executed, chiefly by private enterprise. In the north eastern portion 
of the District a series of small valleys or basins is found, in the bottom 
of which water remains more or less the whole year round. Rice is 
planted on the sloping sides of the basins and at different levels as the 
water falls. Irrigation is called into play here also, but generally on 
a small scale. 

Y 2 



334 



THATON DISTRICT 



Cultivation is found on the banks of rivers at those points where 
the floods are usually not so severe as to prevent the development of 
a crop, and taungya cultivation is practised by Karen tribes in the 
hilly parts of the District. The main crop is rice. Beyond this there 
is little but garden cultivation. In addition to the ordinary kaukkyi 
(cold-season) and may in (hot-season) rice, three special kinds are culti- 
vated, known as shansaiv, tazvla, and patd. The last of these, like 
mayin, needs to be irrigated. Tazvla rice, which depends on the later 
rains for success, is also irrigated sometimes, whereas shansaw is an 
early rice. The whole system of tillage adopted is one of following 
the water as it falls ; and, if successful, the lower the ground the more 
generous the soil is likely to be, and the larger the out-turn that may 
be expected. 

The following table gives the main agricultural statistics of the 
District for 1903-4, in square miles: — 



Township. 


Total area. 


Cultivated. 


Irrigated. 


Forests. 


Kyaikto 

Bilin .... 

Thaton 

Paung 

Pa-an 

Hlaingbwe 

Total 


607 

937 
4'7 
353 
73o 
2,035 


I20 
123 

207 

224 

188 

81 


2 
3 

7 


V 2,267 


5,079 


943 


12 


2,267 



Of the total area cultivated in 1903-4, rice occupied 871 square 
miles, garden cultivation 45 square miles (mostly in the Pa-an, Paung, 
and Thaton townships), and sugar-cane 4,600 acres (nearly all in the 
Bilin township). Garden cultivation is of various kinds. Plantains 
are plentiful ; durians (900 acres) are largely grown near Thaton town 
and in the Paung township; and areca palms occupy 2,100 acres, 
mostly in the Bilin and Thaton townships. 

The assessed area has increased by 38 per cent, since the formation 
of the District. Much of this increase is due to survey, but still there 
is no doubt that cultivation is extending with rapidity. In 1 880-1 the 
total cultivated area was about 384 square miles ; in 1 890-1 it was 
about 539; and by 1900-1 it had risen to 872 square miles. 

No demand exists for loans under the Land Improvement and Agri- 
culturists' Loans Acts, which is attributed by the local officers to the 
prosperity of the people. In the past, however, free recourse was had 
in bad years to agricultural advances. In 1895-6 the loans aggregated 
Rs. 16,900, and in 1896-7 Rs. 9,250. 

Cattle-breeding is extensively practised, though cattle are also freely 
imported from Siam, and buffaloes and goats are reared to a small 
extent. The District is famous for its trotting bullocks, but their 



FORESTS, ETC. 335 

qualities appear to be due rather to training than to breed. The area 
set apart for grazing grounds is nearly 100 square miles, which is ample 
for the requirements. 

There are no Government irrigation works. Irrigation is practised 
in the north-eastern areas, but generally on a small scale. The Thaton 
township possesses several drainage canals, of which the most important 
is that known as the Danukyaikkaw, connecting a small stream running 
close to Thaton (called the Sa chaung) with the Bilin river. In 1903-4 
about 12 square miles were irrigated, the greater part lying in the Pa-an 
township. 

The District contains 72 fisheries, of which the Shwelanbo fishery 
in the Kyaikto township is the most important. The revenue derived 
from them in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 41,500. In his report on the 
operations of 1894-5, the Settlement officer wrote as follows : — 

' In Thaton nearly every holding has its tank, used till the harvest is 
over for drinking purposes, and when the paddy has been either sold 
or carted home the tank is baled out and the fish taken.' 

The forests fall within two divisions, namely, the Thaungyin and the 
West Salween, the Salween river being the dividing line. The most 
important clothe the Dawna range along the north- 
east boundary of the District : in fact, it may be said 
that those on the eastern slopes of this range include some of the most 
valuable teak forests in Burma, the greater part of which have been 
' reserved.' Many other valuable species of trees are also found on 
the eastern hills, such as padauk {Fterocarpus indicus), pyinma (Lager- 
stroemia Flos Reginae), kanyin (Dipterocarpi/s laevis), thingan (Hopea 
odorata), and kaunghmu (Parashorea stellata) ; but the weight of their 
timber and the numerous rapids and other obstacles to navigation that 
exist in the Thaungyin and Salween rivers render their exploitation 
impossible. The forests on the west of the Dawna range are much 
drier and poorer in quality ; but extraction is easy, and as a consequence 
most of the timber which has not been 'reserved' has been removed 
from them. The vegetation to the west of the Salween is of a more 
varied but less valuable character. Evergreen forests grow on the 
alluvial lands bordering the coast, but are of little importance from 
an economic point of view. Tropical evergreen and mixed forests 
occur farther inland, and are often found intermingled. These forests 
comprise about 200 species of trees, including teak, pyinma, pyingado 
(Xy/ia dolabriformis), and thingan. Many kinds of bamboo are also 
met with, which form the undergrowth for the loftier tree vegetation. 

About 500 acres of a large teak plantation in the Thaungyin division 
lie in Thaton District. The other teak plantations cover only 177 acres. 
The forest receipts in 1903-4 amounted to r^ lakhs. The total area of 
'reserved' forests is 118 square miles, and that of ' unclassed ' forests 



33 6 THATON DISTRICT 

2,149 square miles. All the main streams are utilized for the floating 
of timber. 

The only mineral of commercial importance in the District is lime- 
stone, which is obtainable from several hills in the Pa-an township and 
gives rise to a considerable industry of lime-burning, notably along the 
banks of the Donthami stream. The stone is extracted either by 
hammering or by the action of fire, and is burnt in brickwork kilns. 
It is then packed in gunny-bags holding from 100 to 150 lb. by coolies, 
who are hired at the rate of Rs. 3-8 per 100 bags. The actual pro- 
cess of lime-burning is generally carried on by Burmans. The out- 
turn in 1903-4 was about 670 tons. Most of the lime produced 
is taken down the Donthami river to Moulmein, the rest being 
consumed locally. Pottery clay, laterite, and sandstone are also 
obtained in the District. Quite recently granite quarries have been 
discovered in the Kyaikto township, and it is proposed to develop 
them. 

By far the greater part of the population is engaged in agriculture 
and cattle-breeding, and manufactures may be said to be almost non- 
existent. Salt is made in the sea-board townships, 

ra e . a °. the methods used being the same as those described 
communications. 

under Amherst District. In the littoral and 

riverain villages fishing and fish-curing afford occupation for a con- 
siderable section of the community, and the village of Hlaingbwe 
enjoys some celebrity for the mats which it produces. 

The chief export is paddy. The produce of the Kyaikto sub- 
division finds its market in Rangoon during the wet season, and 
generally speaking in Moulmein during the dry ; that from the rest 
of the District is sent down to Moulmein. The route from Kyaikto 
to Rangoon is by the Kyaikto-Sittang Canal, and thence via Pegu. 
The paddy for the Moulmein market is carried by the Bilin, Donthami, 
and Salween rivers. The Bilin-Martaban road and the tramway from 
Thaton to Duyinzeik also play an important part in the carriage of 
paddy. Teak timber and firewood are sent out of the District ; but, 
with the exception of lime, Thaton has practically no other export 
of importance. A small but fairly steady trade is carried on with 
Siam. Some of it passes through Amherst District, but a fair pro- 
portion goes direct through Tedawsakan on the Siamese frontier. 
Three main trade routes converge at Tedawsakan, known as the Pa-an, 
the Kwanbi, and the Yinbaing routes. Registration is effected at 
Pa-an, Kwanbi, and Yinbaing, all either on or near the eastern bank 
of the Salween. In 1903-4 the total value of the imports and exports 
across the Siamese frontier was 8 lakhs and 6-8 lakhs respectively. 
The principal imports were nearly 3,000 head of cattle, valued at over 
1 \ lakhs, and silver (4 lakhs) ; while the chief exports were European 



ADMINIS TRA TION 3 3 7 

cotton piece-goods (r^ lakhs), silk piece-goods (| lakh), and silver 
( 2 | lakhs). 

A light railway or tramway, 8 miles long, built in 1883, runs along 
a metalled road from Thaton town to Duyinzeik on the west hank 
of the Donthami river, whence a steam-launch plies on week-days 
to Moulmein. A railway from Pegu to Martaban is now in process 
of construction. It will run to the west of the existing road between 
Kyaikto and Martaban, which is the main artery of the District. The 
principal roads are as follows : Martaban to Kyaikto (83 miles), 
passing through Thaton and Bilin ; Thaton to Pa-an (24 miles) ; Pa-an 
to Naunglon (n miles); Hlaingbwe to Shwegun on the Salween 
(14^ miles); Yinnyein to Kyettuywethaung on the Donthami river 
(15! miles); and Alu to Upper Natkyi (38 miles), continued north- 
wards into Salween District. About 151 miles of road are maintained 
from Provincial revenues, and about 26 miles from the District cess fund. 

A navigable canal, 13^ miles long, connects Kyaikto with the 
Sittang river, and is served by a steam-launch which runs daily in 
connexion with a service to Shwegyin and Pegu. Launches ply from 
Moulmein as far as Duyinzeik on the Donthami river and to Kywegyan, 
two miles from Paung ; and also to Shwegun on the Salween. Most 
of the other rivers are navigable by country boats for some part of 
their course. There are eighteen leased ferries. 

The District consists of three subdivisions, each of which is divided 
into two townships. The Pa-an subdivision consists of that part of 

the District which lies east of the Donthami river ; 

. . . . „ , TT ,. Administration, 

and its townships, Pa-an and Hlaingbwe, lie respec- 
tively to the west and east. The remainder of the District is divided 
into the Kyaikto and Thaton subdivisions. The latter is the southern- 
most of the two, and includes Thaton and Paung. Of the two 
townships of the Kyaikto subdivision, Kyaikto is the western and 
Bilin the eastern. The subdivisions and townships are in charge 
of the usual executive officers, under whom again are about 428 
village headmen. The only Forest officer is the subdivisional officer 
at Thaton, who works under the Deputy-Conservator in charge of the 
West Salween Forest division. The District is included in the 
Martaban Public Works division, with subdivisions at Thaton, Kyaikto, 
and Pa-an. 

Thaton used to form, with Amherst, the charge of a District Judge, 
with head-quarters at Moulmein ; but an Additional District Judge, 
who is also judge of the Thaton subdivisional court, has recently been 
posted to Thaton. At Hyaikto there is a subdivisional judge in 
addition to the subdivisional officer ; at Pa-an the subdivisional officer 
is ex-offia'o judge of the subdivisional court ; and the township officers 
of Hlaingbwe and Pa-an are similarly judges for their respective 



33 8 THATON DISTRICT 

township courts. There are now four whole-time civil township 
judges— one each at Kyaikto, Bilin, Thatong, and Paung. Sessions 
cases are tried by the Sessions Judge of Tenasserim. The District 
has a bad reputation for cattle-theft and dacoity. Gambling cases are 
also very numerous, especially in the Kyaikto subdivision. 

The formation of Thaton District dates only from 1895, an( l it 
is impossible to give a complete account of the revenue history of the 
tracts composing it previous to that date. The tract now known 
as the Pa-an subdivision formed part of Amherst District from the 
annexation of Tenasserim in 1826 till 1895. The chief landmarks 
in its revenue history are the introduction of the acre system in 1842-3 
by the Commissioner, Major Broadfoot (who thirty years later was 
still known as the 'Acre Mingy 7'), Captain Phayre's settlement in 
1848-9, Captain Horace Browne's settlement in 1867-8, and a 
summary enhancement which took place in 1879-80. The first two 
of these measures produced a considerable falling-off in revenue, and 
the last two a substantial increase. The Thaton and Kyaikto sub- 
divisions were annexed in 1852, and at first formed part of Shwegyin 
District ; but the former, then known as the Martaban subdivision, 
was transferred in 1866-7 to Amherst, of which it remained a part till 
the formation of Thaton District. Its revenue history up till that 
date, however, remains distinct, and may be separately traced. After 
annexation the land was reported fertile, and a rate of Rs. 2—8 per 
acre was imposed. In 1863 this rate was lowered by Colonel Phayre 
to Rs. 2 ; and when the subdivision was included in Amherst, various 
rates from Rs. 2 to 12 annas per acre were levied. Revenue was 
first collected in the Kyaikto subdivision in 1853-4 at the rate of 
Rs. 2 per acre. In 1859-60 the assessment was raised in part of the 
subdivision to Rs. 2-8, and reduced elsewhere to Rs. 1-8 and 
Rs. 1-4. In 1863-4 the rates were again lowered, and a further 
reduction took place in 1864-5. In 187 1-2 further changes were 
effected, and in 1880-r a summary enhancement was sanctioned. A 
holding survey of the Kyaikto subdivision was made in 1889, which 
resulted in an increase of revenue exceeding 45 per cent. In the year 
of the formation of the District as now constituted, the assessed area 
was returned at 685 square miles, with a net revenue demand of 
7-6 lakhs, giving an average rate of Rs. i-n-8 per acre. Settlement 
operations in the tracts now composing the District were completed 
in 1896-7. In 1898-9, the year after the revised rates had fully come 
into force, the area of assessed land in the District was reported as 
847 square miles, and the net revenue demand as 11 lakhs, which 
gave an average rate of Rs. 2-0-3 P er acre - The increase in area 
was due partly to extension of cultivation, and partly to the supple- 
mentary survey introduced during those years. About half the 



ADMINISTRATION 339 

increase of revenue may be set down to the enhanced rate introduced 
after settlement. The rates on rice land vary at present from 8 annas 
to Rs. 2-12 per acre, except in the Kyaikto subdivision, where they 
rise to Rs. 3-8 per acre ; and on garden land from R. 1 to Rs. 5 
per acre. Miscellaneous cultivation is taxed at rates ranging from 
Rs. 1-8 to Rs. 3, dam-palm plantations are assessed at Rs. 3 per 
acre, and sugar-cane at from Rs. 1-8 to Rs. 4, except Madras sugar- 
cane, on which the higher rate of Rs. 5 is levied. The average area 
of a holding of rice land is 15 \ acres, that of garden land 1^ acres. 

Land revenue brought in nearly 11 lakhs in 1900-1, and 11-4 
lakhs in 1903-4. The total revenue from all sources increased 
from 16-8 lakhs in 1900-1 to 18-5 lakhs in 1903-4. 

The income of the District cess fund for the maintenance of roads 
and various local needs amounted to 1-5 lakhs in 1903-4, of which 
Rs. 61,000 was spent on public works. There are two municipalities, 
Thaton and Kyaikto. 

The District is divided into three police subdivisions, corresponding 
with the civil subdivisions. The Superintendent of police has under 
him an Assistant-Superintendent, 4 inspectors, and 10 head constables ; 
and the civil police force consists of 38 sergeants and 273 constables, 
distributed in 13 police stations and 4 outposts. A force of military 
police, 170 strong, belonging to the Toungoo battalion, is stationed 
at the various township head-quarters. The District possesses no jail. 
Prisoners sentenced to long terms of imprisonment are sent to 
Moulmein to serve out their sentences. 

Thaton District is still backward as regards education, a fact which 
may be attributed to the preponderance of the Talaing, Karen, and 
Taungthu elements in its population. In 1901 the percentage of 
literate persons for each sex was 23-5 in the case of males and 4-1 
in that of females, or 14-3 for both sexes together. The proportion 
of male literates is lower than in any District of Burma proper, except 
Bhamo, Northern Arakan, and Salween. The total number of pupils 
has increased from 11,337 in 1900-1 to 14,225 in 1903-4 (including 
2,005 gi^ s )- I n the last year there were 3 special, n secondary, 
211 primary, and 329 elementary (private) schools. Neither of the 
two municipal towns contains schools worthy of special mention. 
That educational progress is being made, however, is shown by the 
fact that since 1896-7 the number of public schools has more than 
trebled, while the number of pupils has more than doubled. Special 
schools are maintained for Karens and Talaings under deputy-inspectors 
belonging to these races. The total expenditure on education in 
1903-4 amounted to Rs. 23,900, of which Rs. 1,900 was provided from 
municipal funds, Rs. 17,700 from the District cess fund, Rs. 2,150 
from Provincial funds, and Rs. 2,150 from fees. 



34Q THATON DISTRICT 

There are three hospitals, with accommodation for 39 in-patients. 
In 1903-4 the number of cases treated was 23,041, of whom 509 were 
in-patients, and 455 operations were performed. The total income 
amounted to Rs. 31,600, towards which municipal funds contributed 
Rs. 26,700, and Local funds Rs. 4,100. 

Vaccination is compulsory only in the municipal towns of Thaton 
and Kyaikto. In 1903-4 the number of persons successfully vacci- 
nated was 3,129, representing 10 per 1,000 of population. 

[E. Forchhammer, Notes on the Early History and Geography of 
British Burma (1883) ; Taw Sein Ko, Notes on an Archaeological Tour 
through Ramamiadesa (1893) ; A. Gaitskell, Settlement Reports (1896 
and 1897); Captain H. Des Voeux, Settlement Report (1868).] 

Thaton Subdivision. — Subdivision of Thaton District, Lower 
Burma, consisting of the Thaton and Paung townships. 

Thaton Township. — Township in Thaton District, Lower Burma, 
lying between 16 47' and 17 13' N. and 97 8' and 97 30' E., with 
an area of 417 square miles. It is bounded on the west by the Gulf of 
Martaban. The population was 37,713 in 1891, and 67,928 in 1901, 
showing an increase of no less than 80 per cent. The township con- 
tains one town, Thaton (population, 14,342), the head-quarters ; and 
183 villages. It is hilly in the east, but in the west a flat alluvial plain 
stretches away to the Gulf of Martaban. The area cultivated in 
1903-4 was 207 square miles, paying Rs. 3,00,600 land revenue. 

Thaton Town. — Head-quarters of the District of the same name 
in Lower Burma, situated in 16 55' N. and 97° 22' E. Its name 
Thaton is believed to be a corruption of Saddhama (sat-dharma, i.e. 
' good law '), and may be connected with the legendary fame of the 
city as a repository of the Buddhist scriptures. The town is pic- 
turesquely situated at the very foot of the forest-clad slopes of the 
Martaban hills, wedged in between a hill ridge and a stretch of level 
alluvial land, about 10 miles in width, which separates it from the Gulf 
of Martaban. Flat and well wooded, shut in on the east, but open 
to the cold-season breeze from the north and the south-west monsoon, 
which blows across the rice flats from the sea, Thaton enjoys a climate 
which is on the whole pleasant and salubrious. The rainfall is heavy, 
but the town is well drained ; and the heat, which rarely rises above 
95 , is generally tempered by cool air currents. 

Thaton was in ancient times a flourishing port and the capital of an 
independent kingdom, known in Pali literature as Ramannadesa. This 
was the country of the Mons, who, since their final conquest by the 
Burman king Alaungpaya in the middle of the eighteenth century, have 
come to be known as Takings. Tradition likewise points to Thaton 
as the centre and mother city of the Taungthus, who still form a con- 
siderable element in the population, as they do also in the Shan State 



THATON TOWN 341 

of Thaton or Hsahtung farther north ; but as regards the part played 
by this people in the past in Thaton the legends cannot be accepted 
without reserve. Trustworthy dates concerning the history of Thaton 
are, in fact, extremely few, and the town's early history may be briefly 
disposed of. 

It appears from Buddhist writings preserved in Ceylon and elsewhere 
(particularly the Mahavanso) that at the third great synod held at 
Pataliputra (the modern Patna), it was determined to send missionaries 
to all lands to preach the doctrines of Buddhism ; and accordingly two 
missionaries, Sona and Uttara, were dispatched to Suvanna Bhumi, 
which is identified with the country of which Thaton was the capital. 
About the middle of the fifth century a.d., a copy of the Buddhist 
scriptures was brought over to Suvanna Bhumi from Ceylon by Bud- 
dhaghosha, a learned native of Bihar. Both these traditions have, 
however, been doubted 1 , and there is reason for discrediting the belief 
of the Burmans, that the earliest form of Buddhism in Burma was of 
the Southern School. In the eleventh century, in the reign of king 
Manuha, the town was sacked after a famous siege by Anawrata, the 
Burman king of Pagan, who took away with him many elephant-loads 
of relics and manuscripts, as well as the most learned of the priesthood. 
So thorough was the work of destruction that Thaton henceforward 
figures hardly at all in either legend or history. It is true that 
Sir Arthur Phayre identified Thaton with the port called Xeythoma 
which was visited by Nicolo de' Conti about 1430, but the identifica- 
tion appears to be exceedingly uncertain. It seems more probable 
that at that date Thaton had long since ceased to be upon the sea- 
coast, and the port in question is more likely to have been Sittang. 

The date at which the sea began to withdraw from Thaton is not 
exactly known, but is probably indicated by the foundation of Pegu 
and Martaban, the cities which took its place, the one as a capital and 
the other as a seaport. These towns are said to have been founded by 
emigrants from Thaton in a.d. 573 and 575, respectively; and it seems 
safe to infer that Thaton was already in its decadence when Anawrata 
finally accomplished its ruin. Though in the past Thaton itself has 
usually been identified as the landing-place of Sona and Uttara, and 
later of Buddhaghosha, it should be mentioned that Dr. Forchhammer 
has shown weighty reasons for placing the scene of these events, if they 
actually occurred, at Taikkala or Kalataik, at the foot of the Kelatha 
hills. 

Little remains at the present day to attest the ancient magnificence 

of Thaton, except the ruins of the city walls. The chief remains of 

pagodas are situated between the site of the citadel and the south 

wall. At present the largest is a modern one, of the usual form, built 

1 See V. A. Smith, Indian Antiquary, 1905, p. 1S0. 



342 THATON TOWN 

over an old one and called the Shwesayan. Near it are three square 
ones. The principal of these, known as the Thagya or Muleik pagoda, 
lies on the eastern side of the great pagoda, and still exhibits signs 
of having once been a beautiful and elaborate structure. It is built 
entirely (as are almost all pagodas in that part of the country which 
was inhabited by the Talaings) of hewn laterite. The whole face of 
the pagoda has been carved in patterns, but the most remarkable part 
is the second storey ; into the face of this are let red clay entablatures, 
on which various figures are depicted in relief. Few now remain, and 
they are much mutilated and covered with whitewash ; the scenes and 
costumes depicted, however, are very curious. 

The population of Thaton, which had dwindled in 1853 to a village 
of thirty or forty houses, was 14,342 in 1901, and is increasing steadily. 
A large proportion of the non-Burman inhabitants are Taungthus. 
There are a few Karens and a good many natives of India. The 
increase in population during the past twenty years is due, in large 
measure, to the communication established in 1883 with the outer 
world by the 8 miles of light railway which connect the town with 
Duyinzeik on the Donthami river, whence a steam-launch (run by the 
Irrawaddy Flotilla Company) plies daily to Moulmein. The town 
is also connected by a metalled road with Kyaikto on the north-west 
and Martaban on the south-east. Thaton possesses a flourishing 
market, a District courthouse, civil and military police lines, and 
a municipal hospital. It has been administered since 1887 by a 
municipal committee, composed of five ex-officio and ten nominated 
members. The income and expenditure of the municipal fund during 
the ten years ending 1901 averaged Rs. 25,500 and Rs. 23,500 respec- 
tively. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 38,000, the principal sources 
being house tax (Rs. 4,700) and market dues (Rs. 18,000). The 
expenditure was Rs. 57,000, the most important items being adminis- 
tration (Rs. 6,800), roads (Rs. 4,500), and hospital (Rs. 25,000). 

Thaungdut. — Shan State in the Upper Chindwin District of Burma. 
See Hsawnghsup. 

Thayetchaung. — Coast township in the south of Tavoy District, 
Lower Burma, lying between 13 16' and 14 2' N. and 98 13' and 
9S 44' E., with an area of 791 square miles. The population was 
30,673 in 1891, and 30,424 in 1901. In the latter year it was known 
as the South-eastern township, and contained 91 villages, one of the 
largest of which was Thayetchaung (population, 1,108), the head- 
quarters, which lies close to the left bank of the Tavoy river, about 
15 miles nearer the sea than Tavoy town. Except near the sea, the 
township is very hilly. The population is for the most part Burman, 
but there is a fair proportion of Karens. The area cultivated in 
1903-4 was 59 square miles, paying Rs. 78,000 land revenue. 



THAYETMYO DISTRICT 343 

Thayetmyo District. — District of the Minbu Division, Burma, 
lying between 18 52' and 19 59' N. and 94° 24' and 95 52' E., with 
an area of 4,750 square miles. It is bounded on the north by Minbu 
and Magwe Districts; on the south by Prome; on the east by Ya- 
methin and Toungoo ; and on the west by Sandoway. Its natural 
boundaries are the main ridges of the two great ranges, the Arakan 
Yoma on the west and the Pegu Yoma on the east. From these main 
ranges the hills trend east and west to form the Irrawaddy watershed. 

The Irrawaddy flows down the centre of the District from north 

to south, and with its tributaries drains the whole. Of its affluents 

on the west the most important are the Pani, the 

Maton, and the Made. The Maton rises in the Physical 

. . . aspects. 

Arakan Yoma in the latitude of Minbu, and runs 

for about 35 miles in a southerly direction, to the point where it is 
joined by the Mu, then turning south-east to join the Irrawaddy, a 
short distance above Kama, in the south of the District, after a farther 
course of about 65 miles. The Pani, which rises in the extreme north- 
west corner of the District, flows into the Maton 10 miles from its 
mouth. The country between the Pani and the Irrawaddy is cut up 
by unimportant watercourses, which are liable to sudden floods during 
the rains, but at other times are practically dry. South of the Maton 
is the Made, which runs for about 40 miles from the Yoma to join the 
Irrawaddy at Kama, but is insignificant in the dry season. On the 
eastern slopes of the Irrawaddy valley the principal tributaries are 
the Kyini and the Butle. The former rises in the hills which separate 
the Sinbaungwe from the Allanmyo township, and, joined by numerous 
affluents, empties itself into the Irrawaddy at Allanmyo, after a course 
of about 50 miles. South of it is the Butle, nearly 60 miles in length, 
rising in the Pegu Yoma at the south-east corner of the District, and 
flowing due west to join the Irrawaddy 10 miles below Thayetmyo. 
It is swelled from the south by several streams which drain the whole 
of the south-eastern portion of the District. The Arakan Yoma 
averages about 4,000 feet in height, twice exceeding 5,000 feet. The 
Pegu Yoma on the east is much less lofty, rising but once above 
2,000 feet, and tailing off towards the north. The hills that divide 
the narrow river valleys on either side of the Irrawaddy rarely attain 
any considerable altitude. 

The western portion of the District is occupied by a series of shales 
and limestones (either Upper Cretaceous or Tertiary), known as Chin 
shales. To the east of these come shales and limestones containing 
Nummulitics, and farther east still are marine sandstones, among 
which petroleum occurs in small quantities, and clays of miocene age. 
East of the Irrawaddy the ground is covered by alluvium and sand- 
stone containing fossil wood. 



344 THAYETMYO DISTRICT 

The flora of Thayetmyo is for the most part characteristic of the dry 
zone. Teak is plentiful, and cutch is not uncommon. Large tracts 
are covered with dry scrub jungle, and the cactus is very plentiful. 

Barking-deer and wild hog are common throughout the District. 
The brow-antlered deer (tkamin) is found in the plains ; and in the 
thicker forests near the Yoma, bison, buffaloes, tigers, elephants, bears, 
and rhinoceros abound. Peafowl are scarce, but silver pheasants are 
found in considerable numbers in the hills. 

The climate has the drier characteristics of Upper Burma, and shows 
more marked variations than the neighbouring delta. The tempera- 
ture falls as low as 42 in the nights of the cold season, and sometimes 
rises above 105 at noon in the hot season ; but the range in the 
hottest and coldest months is roughly from 77 to 103 , and from 
55° to 85 respectively. The District is accounted fairly healthy, 
though statistics show that cholera breaks out occasionally in places 
when the river recedes far from the villages, and the inhabitants are too 
lazy to get a better supply of water than is afforded by stagnant pools 
and contaminated streams. Fever is prevalent in the upper valleys of 
the tributaries that pour down from the Arakan Yoma. 

The rainfall is scanty and capricious, and crops are frequently 
destroyed by untimely drought. The records at the head-quarters of 
the townships for the last ten years give averages varying from 31 inches 
at Minhla and Sinbaungwe (bordering on the dry zone) to 49 inches at 
Mindon, near the foot of the Yoma, and closer to the wetter areas of 
the delta. 

Little is known of the early history of the District, which is rarely 
mentioned in Burmese annals. After the conversion of the people to 
Buddhism, its southern tracts appear to have be- 
longed to the kingdom of Tharekhettra (Prome), the 
northern portion being administered from the modern Salin or Pagan. 
The town of Mindon, at the foot of the Arakan Yoma, was founded 
by a fugitive king of Prome, on the destruction of his capital by the 
Takings (about the middle of the eighth century a. d.). The same 
monarch again rose to power at Pagan, and a considerable portion of 
the District was for more than 500 years included in the kingdom 
which he founded. The governors of Thayetmyo were appointed from 
Pagan during this period ; but the fall of the Pagan dynasty was 
followed by a long period of internal revolts, and the hold over 
Thayetmyo was in all probability of the lightest. The District was 
found parcelled out among various governors when it was annexed 
with the rest of Pegu in 1852, and was then formed into a subdivision 
of Prome District. In 1870 it was made into a separate Deputy- 
Commissioner's charge, and its boundaries were extended by the 
Upper Burma subdivision of Minhla after the annexation in 1886. 



POPULATION 



345 



The head-quarters of this portion of the District are at Minhla, where 
the remains of the old Burmese fort, now used as a bazar, mark the 
point at which the first resistance was offered by the Burmans to the 
advance of the British in 1885. The fort was taken by storm, and 
the position on the opposite side of the river was destroyed by 
dynamite. The sites of the old British frontier forts are still traceable. 
The disturbances that followed on the annexation of Upper Burma 
were not without their effects in Thayetmyo, and for several years after 
1886 the District was harried by gangs of dacoits. Nga Swe, the most 
notorious disturber of the peace in this region, was killed, however, in 
1888, and after that the country gradually quieted down. 

The most noted pagodas are the Shweandaw, a few miles north of 
Thayetmyo town (founded in 1167); the Shwemyindin or Shwesu- 
taungbyi, in the Kama township (said to have been erected in a. i>. 100) ; 
and the Shwethetlut, in the town of Thayetmyo (built in 1373). The 
last named is remarkable as being hollow. Its name means ' the 
saving of the golden life,' and it was erected by a king of Ava as a 
thank-offering for the preservation of his life when taken prisoner by 
the king of Arakan in Thayetmyo. The alternative name of the 
Shwemyindin pagoda, Shwesutaungbyi (meaning ' prayers fulfilled '), 
bears testimony to its reputed efficacy in responding to petitions. 

The population, excluding the Minhla subdivision (annexed in 1886), 
was 156,816 in 1872, 169,560 in 1881, 194,637 in 1891, and 174,646 
in 1901. That of the District, including Minhla, 
decreased from 250,161 in 1891 to 239,706 in 1901. 
Its distribution in 1901 is given in the table below : — 



Population. 



Township. 


u 
u 
ni 
3 

'SB 

V 

< 
192 

708 

575 
490 

i,873 
912 


Number of 


c 


*3 

a, 
a 

0. 


ga 

w 


Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween 1891 
and 1961. 


Number of 
persons able to 
read and 
write. 


CO 

c 


H 

I 

I 

2 


1/) 
b« 

> 

106 

251 
201 
290 

J 05 

322 


Thayetmyo 
Mindon 
Kama 
Minhla . 
Sinbaungwe 
Allanmyo . 

District total 


37,599 
30,350 
39,57o 
42,120 

23,395 
66,672 


196 

43 
69 
86 
12 
73 


- IO 

- 13 

- 4 

+ 26 

+ 6 

- 13 


I 2,464 

7,237 
10,553 
10,060 

6,521 

!5,7o7 


4,75° 


1,275 


239,706 


5° 


- 4 


62,542 



The decline in population since 1891 is due for the most part to 
emigration into the delta country, and is not likely to continue long. 
Nearly 9,000 persons born in the District have migrated of late years 
to Ma-ubin and Pyapon, more than 6,000 to Prome, and about 4,500 
to Tharrawaddy. There are two towns (Thavetmvo, the head- 
quarters, and Allanmvo) with more than 10,000 inhabitants, but the 



346 THAYETMYO DISTRICT 

number of large villages is inconsiderable. The great majority of 
the inhabitants are Buddhists, though Animists (for the most part 
Chins) exceeded 15,000 at the last Census. Hindus and Musalmans 
totalled a little below 2,500 each; and there were 881 Christians, of 
whom the British troops stationed at Thayetmyo furnished a consider- 
able proportion. Emigration among the able-bodied men has caused 
Thayetmyo to figure among the few Lower Burma Districts in which 
the females outnumber the males. The proportion in 1901 was 1,015 
of the former to 1,000 of the latter. Burmese is spoken by 89 per 
cent, of the population. The only other language used to any extent 
is Chin, which had over 20,000 speakers in 1901. 

With the exception of 19,700 Chins, nearly the whole of the indige- 
nous population of the District are Burmans. The majority of the 
Chins (about 12,000) inhabit the Arakan Yoma, and are closely allied 
to the Chins of Kyaukpyu and Sandoway. There is, however, also a 
small settlement, about 8,000 strong, to the east of the Irrawaddy in 
the Pegu Yoma. In all 172,300 persons, or 72 per cent, of the total 
population, were in 1901 classed as agricultural, and more than a 
quarter of this total were dependent on taungya or 'hill-slope' culti- 
vation alone. 

The only Christian mission that works regularly in the District is 
the American Baptist Union, which has a school at Thayetmyo and 
labours among the Chins. The Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel had a school in the District in 1901, but did no outside 
mission work. Native Christians numbered 448 in 1901. 

Rice cultivation is confined to the shallow valleys between the low 
hills, which radiate through the District and form its most striking 
physical feature ; and it is only along the Maton 
stream and in one or two spots in the Allanmyo 
township that the conformation of the country is at all suited to the 
growing of rice on an extended scale. At the same time the valleys 
secure the benefit of the drainage from the hill slopes, and, given 
a good rainfall, are not infertile. The monsoon is, however, so capri- 
cious, and the opportunities for irrigation from perennial streams so 
small, that the rice crop is seldom considerable. The hill-sides are 
moreover themselves cultivated for ' dry crops,' and much of the 
fertilizing matter which in richer country is carried into the paddy- 
fields is thus withheld. The system of cultivation prevalent does not 
present any marked peculiarities, but it may be noted that the area of 
the average holding (4 acres) is very small compared with the mean in 
other Districts. The paddy-fields have to be ploughed at the very 
first opportunity, and the crop planted as early as possible, to minimize 
the risk of failure due to the absence of rain late in the season ; and 
for the same reason only the rapidly maturing kinds of rice are grown. 



AGRICULTURE 



347 



For ploughing, bullocks are used ; but the shallowness of the soil is 
against the use of the te (or iron plough), and the fields are usually 
prepared with the tun (or harrow), and sometimes smoothed over with 
the kyandon (or clod-crusher). A special feature is the practice of 
making the nurseries in waste land, apart from the holding, where the 
plants have the advantage of a virgin soil and the cultivator that of 
a larger planting area. When the ordinary wet-season crops fail, 
mayi?i or hot-season rice is grown here and there (especially on the 
Maton stream), the water being raised from the rivers by means of 
ingenious undershot wheels such as may be seen on the Chindwin and 
the Taping. Taungya rice is extensively cultivated on the hill-sides. 
In the Mindon valley on the Maton the ground is very suitable for 
mixed cultivation, and great pains are taken in the production of 
onions. Both the large-leaved and pointed-leaved kinds of tobacco 
are grown, the former producing a heavier crop, the latter a finer 
tobacco. The plants are set out about 2 feet apart in ground well 
prepared with the tun and kyandon. 

The main agricultural statistics of the District for 1 903-4 are given 
below, in square miles : — 



Township. 


Total area. 


Cultivated. 


Irrigated. 


Forests. 


Thayetmyo 
Mindon . 
Kama 
Minhla . 
Sinbaungwe 
Allanmyo 

Total 


192 

708 

575 
490 

1,873 
912 


25 
35 
5° 
4 1 
36 
85 


I 

2 

6 
3 

1 1 


- 3,34! 


4,750 


272 


23 


3,34i 



Despite the meagre rainfall, the most important crop is rice, which 
occupied 138 square miles out of the 272 square miles cropped in 
1903-4 \ Other food-grains are millet, maize, and gram. Tn parts 
of the District millet {pyaung) largely takes the place of rice in a dry 
year, and in Minhla is almost as common as rice. In 1903-4 about 
8,700 acres of maize were cropped. Sesamum is the principal oilseed. 
It is grown very extensively throughout the District, covering 47,000 
acres in 1901, and is popular, inasmuch as it does not require a great 
deal of rain, and commands a high price. Cotton (12,500 acres) is 
also largely grown on the hill-sides, and finds a ready market in the 
Ywataung ginning mills. The coarse soap, which is manufactured 
from the cotton seed, is slowly finding a market, and the use of cotton- 
seed oil in place of sesamum oil is extending. Tobacco (5,900 acres) 
is increasingly cultivated in the alluvial land along the Irrawaddy and 



VOL. XXIII. 



1 Excluding taungya areas. 
Z 



34 S THAYETMYO DISTRICT 

Maton rivers, the other main kaing or river-bed crops being onions 
and chillies. Experiments have been made with Havana tobacco, but 
have not met with as much success as in the richer silt of the delta. 
The area under gardens is 4,700 acres, the greater part consisting of 
plantain groves. 

Cultivation extends but slowly in Thayetmyo, for there is little waste 
land suitable for rice, and the poor soil of the uplands requires long 
periods of rest. A slight expansion of the rice area may be expected 
when the resources of the District in the matter of irrigation are fully 
developed ; but, apart from that, it may be said that the agricultural 
population and out-turn have almost reached their limits. 

While fully recognizing the difference between 6 per cent, and 
60 per cent, interest, the Thayetmyo husbandman dislikes the in- 
exorable punctuality with which he has to pay the instalments of 
advances taken from Government, and still prefers as a rule to 
patronize the local usurer. It is satisfactory to note, however, that 
in a really bad year the cultivators who have lost or sold their cattle 
apply freely for loans from Government. The amounts advanced 
under the Agriculturists' Loans Act during the two years ending 1901 
were Rs. 4,270 and Rs. 3,950 respectively, and the average has risen 
since then to Rs. 7,000. 

Cattle-breeding is carried on throughout the District, but on a large 
scale only in the northern portion. There are no peculiar varieties 
of breed. Pony-breeding is practised to a small extent, but it is 
seldom that an animal of any real value is produced. Sheep are not 
bred outside Thayetmyo town, and goats are reared only by natives 
of India. The grazing grounds are unlimited in extent, but not very 
suitable in character ; and in many parts cattle suffer severely from 
want of good fodder in a dry season, for, although several fodder 
crops are grown, the people cannot afford to devote much land to 
them. 

There are not many perennial streams, and only a few small tanks 
dependent on the rainfall. Wells are very little used, except for the 
more valuable kaing crops. Several irrigation schemes are under 
discussion, but the area which can be served by any one system, 
in such broken country, is comparatively small. Irrigation by means 
of a water-wheel is practised in some of the riverain villages. About 
half the irrigated area is in the Myede subdivision (watered by the 
Butle), and another quarter in the Kama township (watered by the 
Made, Pani, and Maton). In 1903-4 the area irrigated was about 
23 square miles, all rice land. Of this total, 20 square miles were 
irrigated from private canals, the remainder from tanks and wells. 
The fisheries of the District are small and unimportant. They 
brought in a revenue of a little more than Rs. 5,000 in 1903-4. 



FORESTS, ETC. 349 

The forest growth is, as determined by the climate, of the ' dry ' 
indaifig type in the north and near the river, improving in quality and 
density southwards and away from the river up to 
the Yoma on either side. On the east the Pegu 
Yoma and its foothills are covered with excellent teak forest, the value 
of which is, however, diminished by the poor floating qualities of the 
streams. On the west the Yoma is much higher, and the vegetation 
passes into the evergreen type, with climbing bamboo and towards 
the north the india-rubber fig (Eici/s elastica). The greater part of 
the District is, however, of low elevation, and has been heavily worked 
for taungya ('hill-slope') cultivation for so long that large trees are 
scarce, especially where the trade in timber has assisted in the work 
of destruction. The species found are therefore quick-growing soft 
woods, and large areas are covered by the my in bamboo, in which 
there is a large trade. Cutch is everywhere abundant, but reduced 
to scrub or trees not older than the taungya rotation. Reserves in 
this lower ground cover 196 square miles. Along the Yomas there 
are also 445 square miles of teak Reserves : in all, a total of 641 square 
miles. The area of 'unclassed' forests is estimated at 2,700 square 
miles, which gives a total forest area for the whole District of 3,341 
square miles. Besides teak and cutch {Acacia Catechu), pyingado 
(Xy/ia dolabriformis), in (Dip/erocarpus tuberculatus), padauk (Etero- 
carpus indicus), and other valuable timber trees are found in fair 
quantities. The net forest revenue in 1903-4 was about 2-6 lakhs. 

The only known mineral products are petroleum oil, clay, laterite, 
limestone, and steatite. Coal is said to have been extracted many 
years ago a few miles south of Thayetmyo town at Tondaung, now, as 
its name implies, a centre of the lime industry. The lime is burned 
in kilns on the bank of the Irrawaddy, and finds a ready local market 
at from Rs. 10 to Rs. 15 per 100 baskets. The annual production 
is nearly 4,000 tons. Oil is known to exist at Padaukpin, 8 miles 
west of Thayetmyo town, but there is nothing to show that the oil-field 
is a rich one. The laterite of the District is not of a good quality. 
Steatite is found in the Arakan Yoma, but has not been extracted to 
any considerable extent. The local production of salt is forbidden, 
though saline earth suitable for the industry occurs in places. Near 
Thayetmyo, and elsewhere in the District, pottery clay is found, which 
is used for the manufacture of rough pots for domestic use or the 
local market. The natmi, or spirit fire, near Kama has attained 
a certain local celebrity. Gas of unknown origin filters here through 
cracks in the earth, and is said to ignite of itself. In places small 
mud pagodas have been erected by the pious at the site of this 
phenomenon. 

Cotton-weaving is carried on here and there throughout the District, 

z 2 



350 THAYETMYO DISTRICT 

but silk-weaving is confined to one small village in the Thayetmyo 
township. Wood-carving is pursued on a small scale, and has not at- 
tained any celebrity ; on the other hand, the silver- 
Trade and sm iths of Thayetmyo town produce beautiful work, 
communications. , , , , -^ , ™ L 

equal to the best that Rangoon can show. Iney 

display taste in conception and great skill in execution, and their 
reputation is well deserved. The rough pottery of the District has 
no outside sale, but the manufacture of coarse mats woven from split 
bamboos forms a source of livelihood for a considerable section (over 
2,500) of the population. These mats are made in two sizes and are 
exported in large quantities to Lower Burma. The establishment of 
a steam cotton-ginning mill at Ywataung in 1896 has practically 
extinguished the old hand-gin industry. There were said to be 4,000 
of the old-fashioned machines in 1881, but these have now mostly 
disappeared. The Ywataung factory is managed with some enterprise. 
The cleaned cotton is baled by hydraulic pressure and sent to the 
Rangoon market ; the seed is then crushed and the oil extracted. A 
coarse soap is produced from the seed, but has not yet found a ready 
market. During the cotton harvest the mill runs day and night, and 
the hands in the busy season number hundreds. The price of raw 
cotton at the mill gates is about Rs. 20 per roo viss. In the slack 
cotton season the power is applied to saw-mills. Saw-pits unaided by 
steam have not been altogether ousted, and several are profitably worked 
at Thayetmyo and Allanmyo, the sawn timber being sold locally. 

The principal imports and exports enter and leave the District by 
the steamers of the Irrawaddy Flotilla Company. Of the former the 
most important are paddy, rice, fish, ngapi, oil, and piece-goods. The 
chief exports are mats (bamboo), cotton, sesamum oil, tobacco, onions, 
lime, and cattle. Thayetmyo, Allanmyo, and one or two of the 
southern river villages are the main trade centres, from which the 
goods are distributed by cart, and in the rains by the Maton stream. 
Cattle are brought in during the dry season from Taungdvvingyi over- 
land, and are taken for sale between Allanmyo and Prome by the 
Government road. The cotton goes to Rangoon, the trade in it being 
practically in the hands of a single Indian firm, and natives of India 
have secured a liberal share of the petty business of the two main 
bazars of the District. 

There are no railways, but the steamers of the Irrawaddy Flotilla 
Company connect with the railway termini at Prome, Myingyan, 
Sagaing, and Mandalay. The ferry steamers between Thayetmyo and 
Minbu in the north, and Prome in the south, touch at the principal 
riparian villages, and there is a small steam-ferry service between 
Thayetmyo and Allanmyo on the east bank. Of the tributaries of 
the Irrawaddy, the Maton is the only stream which has any con- 



ADMINISTRATION 351 

siderable boat traffic. During the rains boats go beyond Mindon, 
which during the dry season obtains its supplies by the Public Works 
road running westwards from Thayetmyo and metalled for half its 
length of 45 miles. The other main roads are those from Ywataung 
to Tindaw (38^ miles), on the way to Toungoo, with a branch from 
Kyaukpadaung to Thanbulla (10 miles). Thirty miles of the Prome- 
Myede road lie within the District. In addition to these, 165 miles 
of track are maintained, following the line of what were first designed 
as military roads in the interior. All the roads are kept up from 
Provincial funds. 

There is no record of any famine in the District. In 1896-7 there 
was a bad season in the Minhla subdivision, but the people refused to 
accept work offered to them at famine-work rates. Cattle-breeding in 
this portion of the District is carried on extensively, and it is pro- 
bable that the people could tide over one year in any circumstances 
short of complete failure of both the main crops. The labour market 
in the delta is open to all, and the high wages (paid generally in 
kind) attract many agriculturists from the southern half of the Dis- 
trict even in a good year, while in a bad year nearly all the men 
move southwards. 

The District is divided into three subdivisions— Thayetmyo, Minhla, 
and Myede — each in charge of a subdivisional officer ; and six town- 
ships — Thayetmyo, Mindon, Kama, Minhla, Sin- . . x A . 

1 . . ' ' , . , ' _ ' . Administration. 

baungwe, and Allanmyo — of which the first three 

belong to the Thayetmyo, the fourth and the fifth to the Minhla, and 
the sixth to the Myede subdivision. Thayetmyo forms (with Minbu 
and Magwe Districts) a Public Works division with two subdivisional 
officers in the District, and is the head-quarters of the Thayetmyo 
Forest division. The number of village headmen at the commence- 
ment of 1904 was 705, but a few circle thugyis are left in the District. 

Thayetmyo is in the jurisdiction of the Divisional and Sessions 
Judge, Bassein Division. The Deputy-Commissioner is District Judge. 
There are no whole-time township judges, as in the adjoining Districts 
of Lower Burma; and no additional township judges except in the 
township court, Thayetmyo, where the treasury officer sits as additional 
judge, and exercises Small Cause Court powers in the town. The 
subdivisional officer, Myede, has Small Cause Court jurisdiction in 
Allanmyo. Habitual cattle-thieves form a large portion of the popula- 
tion on the east of the river. Murders are very rife, especially during 
the hot season. Dacoity and robbery are not common, but gambling 
in the southern part of the District is almost universal, and is the 
subject of frequent prosecutions. Civil litigation is mainly concerned 
with petty money or land suits. 

Before the annexation of Pegu there was no real system of iand