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Full text of "The imperial gazetteer of Scotland; or, Dictionary of Scottish topography, compiled from the most recent authorities, and forming a complete body of Scottish geography, physical, statistical, and historical"

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VOL. I. 





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A view of Scotland, introductory to a copious Gazetteer, must necessarily be very general. 
Every natural, political, and ecclesiastical division of the country, each great cluster of 
islands, every chain of heights and remarkable mountain or hill, each lake and river and 
arm of the sea, every city, town, village, and conspicuous mansion, and every interesting 
object, be it what it may, a landscape, an antiquity, a natural curiosity, or a work of art, 
are so fully noticed in their regular places, that a general article has no scope for de- 
scription, and needs not even to be studded with references. Yet such a rapid geogra- 
phical outline as shall indicate the mutual relations of the parts, some details which 
refer strictly to the country as a whole, and a few particulars which, while belonging to 
only some localities or to classes of objects, could not, without frequent repetition, be 
inserted in the body of the work, will form both suitable and pleasing materials for our 


Scotland is bounded, on the north, by the great North sea ; on the east, by the German 
ocean; on the south-east, by the liberties of Berwick, and by England; on the south, by the 
Sol way frith and the Irish sea; and on the west, by the Atlantic ocean. The line of its 
boundary on the south-east, from a point 3j miles north of Berwick to the head of the Sol- 
way frith at the embouchure of the Sark, measures, inclusive of sinuosities, about 97 miles. 
This line has very numerous but not great windings; and, over great part of its length, is 
very capricious, and not physically marked. The curious reader may trace it by reference to 
our articles on the counties of Berwick, Roxburgh, and Dumfries, whose southern boundary- 
lines are identical with this. Popular language is utterly at fault in speaking of Scotland as 
the part of Britain which lies north of the Tweed; that river running in the interior till 18 
miles before it reaches the sea, and having on its left bank, for the last 4 of these miles, the 
liberties of Berwick. Scotland, as to its mainland, lies between 54° 41' and 58° 41' north 
latititude, and 1° 43' and 5° 38' west longitude; and, including its islands, it extends to 
60° 49' north latitude, and 8° 55' west longitude. 


The greatest length of the mainland, in a line due north, or very nearly so, is from the 
Mull of Galloway to Cape Wrath, and measures 274 miles. The greatest length of it in any 
possible direction is from the Mull of Galloway to Dunnet-head, and measures 280 miles. 
Its breadth, from St. Abb's-head in Berwickshire to the point of Knap in Argyleshire, is 134 
miles; from the mouth of the South Esk in Forfarshire to Ardnamurchan-point in Argyle- 
shire, is 137 miles; and from Buchanness in Aberdeenshire to the extrenrity of Applecross 
in Boss-shire, is 146 miles. North of the Moray frith, the greatest breadth, from Duncansby- 
head to Cape- Wrath, is only 70 miles; and the least from the Dornoch frith to Loch-Broom, 
is 36. The whole country is so penetrated by friths and inlets of the sea, that it constantly 
and very widely varies in breadth, and has no spot which is upwards of 40 miles inland. 
The area, partly as ascertained by the Ordnance survey, partly as computed on the best other 
authorities, is 19,639,377 statute acres, or about 30,685 square miles. This excludes all sea- 
inlets beneath low-water mark, but includes about 155,000 acres of inland lakes. The 
Ordnance survey has long been in progress, and, at the end of 1864, had completed 15,400 
square miles. The report to the Board of Agriculture made the area, exclusive of water, to 
Us 18,944,000 acres, or 29,600 square miles; and estimated the cultivated lands at 5,043,450 
acres, — the uncultivated at 13,900,550. 





From the liberties of Berwick, the coast extends, along Berwickshire and part of Hadding- 
tonshire, north- west ward to near North Berwick; and there, over a commencing width of 11 
miles, it yields to the long westward indentation of the frith of Forth. Over the greater 
part of this distance it is bold and rocky, presenting a firm rampart against the attacks of the 
sea, and offering few points where even fishing-boats may approach. On the north side of 
the Forth, it makes an almost semicircular sweep round the most easterly land of Fifeshire 
to St. Andrew's-bay ; it thence trends northward to the north-east extremity of Fife ; and it 
there gives place to the indentation of the frith of Tay. Between the Forth and the Tay, and 
over a considerable part of Forfarshire to the north, it is in general low and sandy, wearing 
alternately the softest and the tamest aspects. From Buddonness, on the north side of the 
entrance of the Tay, all the way along Forfarshire, Kincardineshire, and part of Aberdeen- 
shire, to Buchanness, its direction is north-north-eastward, slightly variegated by sinuosities. 
Over the next 18 miles, it trends northward and north-north-westward, to Kinnaird-head ; 
and between that promontory and Duncansby-head in the extreme north-east, it recedes to 
the vast extent of between 70 and 80 miles, admitting a triangular gulf or enormous bay, 
called the Moray frith. On the south side of this gulf, it stretches almost direct to the west, 
and on the other side it extends to the north-east; but at the inner extremity of the gulf, it 
is confusedly and entirely broken by the friths of Beauly, Cromarty, and Dornoch. From 
Duncansby-head it undulates 14 miles in a prevailing direction of north-west by west to 
Dunnet-head in the extreme north ; it thence stretches 4 miles south-westward to the indenta- 
tion of Thurso-bay ; and from this bay to Cape-Wrath, in the extreme north-west, and in 
nearly the same longitude as the entrance of the bay, it describes, over a distance of about 
50 miles, a small segment of a circle, the curvature being inland, but, besides having a rugged 
outline, is broken in three places by the inroads of respectively Loch-Tongue, Loch-Eribole, 
and Durness-bay. Over nearly all the north it is bold and dangerous, abutted with rocky 
headlands, crowned with frowning cliffs, torn into fissures, and assailed by very generally a 
tumbling and chafed sea. 

From Cape-Wrath to the Mull of Kintyre, a distance of about 30 miles more than from the 
meridian of the liberties of Berwick to that of Duncansby-head, and comprising the whole 
west boundary of the mainland, the coast, as to its general direction, diverges very little from 
the straight line southward, or from a line a point or two westward of south; but over nearly 
its whole extent, it is so torn and shattered by inroads of the sea, yields to so many large 
and variform indentations, and, amidst its curious and ever-recurring recesses, leaps so mazily 
over the inner line of the Hebridean islets and islands, that it defies description and bewilders 
an uninitiated tourist. Its aspect is throughout wild and highland, alternately picturesque, 
grand, sublime, and savage. Toward the Mull of Kintyre the coast becomes narrowed with 
the continent, or rather with the long peninsula which projects from it, running down to the 
Mull into a point or headland ; and there, over a commencing width of 35 or 40 miles, 
measured south-eastward to Ayrshire at Ballantrae, it recedes in the large, many-bayed, and 
curious gulf which forms the frith of Clyde. From Ballantrae to the Mull of Galloway, a 
distance of 37 miles, it describes the segment of an ellipsis, the curvature being toward the 
sea, but is broken a few miles south of Ballantrae by the entrance of Loch-Ryan. Over this 
distance it is rocky, beetling, and inhospitable, but not high, and is curiously perforated with 
large and numerous caverns. From the Mull of Galloway to a point 31 miles north-east by 
east, it yields successively to the large ingress of Luce-bay, the considerable one of Wigton- 
bay, and the smaller one of the estuary of the Dee, and comes down only in the headlands 
by which these friths are separated. After passing the estuary of the Dee, it begins to be 
confronted with the coast of England ; and thence onward, it is identified with the shore of 
the Solway frith. 


In enumerating the principal capes, promontories, and other headlands, we shall follow the 
ooast-line in the order in which we have just traced it. St. Abb's-head is in the middle of 
the coast-line of Berwickshire, and forms the most projecting, bold, and conspicuous piece of 
sea-board between the liberties of Berwick and the frith of Forth. Fast Castle-head is 3i 


miles to the north-west. WMtberry-head and Gulane-point, are in Haddingtonshire, — 
the latter some distance within the frith of Forth. Fifeness, a low, sandy, naked headland, 
is the termination of the peninsula of Fife. Buddonness, similar to the former, and Red-head, 
a beetling and bold promontory, are in Forfarshire. Todhead, Garron-point, Finnonness, and 
Girdleness, are in Kincardineshire, — the last at the mouth of the Dee, and at the end of a 
range of the Grampians. Buchanness is the most easterly land in Aberdeenshire, and even 
in Scotland. Rattray-point, Cairnbulg-head, and Kinnaird-head, are in the same county, — . 
the two last at the entrance of the Moray frith. Knock-head is in Banffshire. Coulard- 
hill and Burgh-head are in Elginshire. Chanonry-point, at the entrance of the Beauly frith, 
is in Ross-shire. Cromarty-point, at the entrance of the Cromarty frith, and Tarbatness, the 
termination of the long narrow peninsula between the Cromarty and the Dornoch friths, 
belong to Cromartyshire. Ord of Caithness, Clytheness, Noss-head, Duncansby-head, Dun- 
net-head, and Holborn-head, are in Caithness, — the three last looking across the Pentland 
frith to the Orkney Islands. Strathey-point, Whiten-head, Far-out-head, Cape- Wrath, and 
Assynt-point, are in Sutherlandshire, — the last on its west coast, and the three first on its 
north. Rhu-more is on the west coast of Cromarty. Udrigal-head, and Rhu-Rea-head, are 
on the west coast of Ross-shire. Ardnamurchan-point, the most westerly ground on the 
mainland, — the Mull of Kintyre, at the entrance of the Clyde, and of the Irish channel, — 
and Lamont-point and Toward-point, the southern terminations on the east and the west of 
the district of Cowal, on the Clyde, — are in Argyleshire. Clough-point, on the Clyde, is in 
Renfrewshire. Kirkcolm-point, at the entrance of Loch-Ryan, — Corsewall-point, at the north- 
west extremity of the Rhinns of Galloway, — and the Mull of Galloway and Burrow-head, at 
the southern extremities of Scotland, — are in Wigtonshire. Ross-head, between Wigton and 
Kirkcudbright bays, — Balcarry-point, at the west side of Auchencairn-bay, — Almerness-point, 
between that bay and the estuary of the Urr, — and Southerness-point, at the extreme south 
east of Galloway, — are in Kirkcudbrightshire. 


The German ocean, where it washes the mainland of Scotland, is closed up on the east 
side by Denmark, the entrance to the Baltic, and Christiansand in Norway. The North sea 
and the German ocean, where they girdle the northern and western shores, are — as we shall 
afterwards see — thickly occupied by the archipelagoes of Scotland, and both tamed in the 
fury of their billows, and to a considerable extent stripped of their superincumbent vapours, 
by the numerous and boldly screening islands, before they reach the main shore. From just 
the same circumstance, too, or owing to currents, whirlpools, shoals, rocks, valuable winds, 
and intricacy of channel, among the girdlings of the islands, or between them and the main- 
land, these seas are not a little difficult and dangerous of navigation. And, owing to the 
gullets and narrow sounds, which serve like funnels for the wind between high grounds, and 
to the great number and magnitude and power of the rocky or mountainous obstructions 
which are presented to the breeze and the tide, and to the labyrinth of paths, and the posi- 
tions of successive or alternate propulsion, vexation, opposition, and becalming which have to 
be traversed by a current, the seas likewise exhibit in the frequent storms of winter, or amidst 
a gale on the longest and far extending day of the hyperborean summer, scenes of awful sub- 
limity, which would appal almost any sensitive person except a native of the islands or of the 
mainland sea-board. The Irish channel, where it washes the Mull of Kintyre, looks up the 
frith of Clyde, and sweeps along the Rhinns of Galloway from Corsewall-point to the Mull 
of Galloway, is curtained on its west or south-west side by the county of Antrim, the entrance 
of Belfast loch, and the county of Down in Ireland, is 13 miles broad at the Mull of Kintyre, 
and 21 at Portpatrick, and may be viewed as having an average breadtli along Wigtonshire 
of 24 or 25 miles. At the point where it expands into the Irish sea, or immediately off the 
Mull of Galloway, the tides, which come in one slow and majestic current across the Atlantic, 
which encounter the long, vast obstruction of Ireland, and which sweep round the ends of 
that country into the Irish sea by the opposite inlets at the Mull of Kintyre and at St. 
George's-channel, run against each other in a tumult of collision, and produce, even in calm 
weather, a tumbling, troughy sea, which no landsman loves to traverse. Resulting from the 
same causes, the tidal currents in the adjacent parts of the Irish sea, and above all in the 
Solway frith, are the most curious in the world. Some miles southward of the Galloway 
coast, where the efflux is felt from both the Galloway estuaries and the Solway frith, or even 


some miles southward of the extreme land of the Mull of Galloway, where the current is less 
powerful, a Glasgow and Liverpool steamer of the old build might, in certain stages of the 
tide, have paddled away northward for a couple of hours, and scarcely preserved herself 
from being swept toward the Isle of Man. The Irish sea, where it washes Galloway, looks 
direct southward to the Isle of Man, and the north coast of North Wales; and the Solway 
frith, from the line 22 miles wide where it commences between Balmae-head at the entrance 
of Kirkcudbright-bay and St. Bees-head in England, to the narrow point where it terminates 
at the mouth of the Sark, is all the way flanked on the English side by Cumberland, and over- 
looked at intervals on that side by the towns of Whitehaven, Workington, Maryport, and 

The penetrations which the great encincturing marine waters of Scotland make in the shape 
of gulfs, bays, friths, and what are called lochs, are so numerous that a full list of them 
would task a reader's powers of endurance quite as severely as the continuous perusal of three 
or four pages of a pocket English dictionary. All the important and interesting ones, too, 
are so fully noticed in their respective places in the Gazetteer, that even they need be 
enumerated only with the view of indicating their mutual and relative positions. 

Belhaven-bay, between Dunbar and Whitberry-head in Haddingtonshire, though a com- 
paratively small marine inlet, is the only noticeable one on the east coast south of the Forth. 
The frith of Forth divides all Fifeshire, a detached part of Perthshire, and part of Clackman- 
anshire on the north, from all Lothian, East, Mid, and West, and part of Stirlingshire on the 
south ; and it makes several interior indentations, the chief of which are Aberlady-bay in East- 
Lothian, Musselburgh-bay in Mid-Lothian, and Inverkeithing and Largo-bays in Fifeshire. 
St. Andre w's-bay, at the mouth of the Eden, cuts the eastern part of Fifeshire into two 
peninsulas, the larger on the south, and the smaller on the north. The frith of Tay divides 
Forfarshire on the north from Fifeshire on the south, and afterwards penetrates considerably 
into Perthshire. Lunan-bay makes but a small indentation on the coast of Forfarshire, yet is 
attractive for its beauty, and valuable as anchoring-ground. Montrose basin is a curious 
landlocked lagoon behind the town which gives it name. The Moray frith is greatly the 
broadest gulf in Scotland, having part of Aberdeen, all Banff, Elgin, and Nairn, and part of 
Inverness on one side, and Cromarty, Boss, Sutherland, and Caithness on the other, and 
measuring in a line, which may be considered its mouth, from Kinnaird-head to Duncansby- 
head, about 76 miles. Spey-bay makes a comparatively short and slender incision between 
Banff and Elgin. Burgh-head-bay forms a noticeable expansion between Elgin and Nairn. 
The Beauly frith, opening from the inner extremity or angle of the Moray frith, penetrates, 
first south-westward and then westward, between Nairn and Inverness on the one side, and 
Ross and Cromarty on the other; and it sends off from its south side, near the town of Inver- 
ness, the navigation of the Caledonian canal. Cromarty frith, opening with a narrow entrance 
from the Moray frith a few miles north of the mouth of the Beauly frith, describes a demi- 
semicircle to the town of Dingwall, and forms the best harbour on the east coast of Great 
Britain, and one of the finest in the world. The Dornoch frith extends westward between 
Ross and Sutherland. Wick-bay makes a large semicircular indentation, on the east coast of 
Caithness, immediately north of Noss-head. 

The Pentland frith, strictly a strait or sound, intervenes between the mainland and the 
Orkney archipelago, — forms the marine highway in the extreme north, to vessels going round 
Scotland, — and, on account of its powerful tidal currents, and its rugged and broken coasts, 
is of difficult and very perilous navigation. Thurso-bay broadly indents the middle of the 
north coast of Caithness. Lochs Tongue, Eribole, and Durness make sharp, considerable 
incisions, at rapid intervals, on the north coast of Sutherland. Lochs Inchard, Laxford, 
Assynt, Eynard, Broom, Little Broom, Greinord, Ewe, Gair, Torriden, Kishorn, Carron, 
Ling, and some others, curiously cleave into fragments the west coast of Sutherland and 
Ross. The Minch, a broad sound or little sea, intervenes between the mainland at Suther- 
land and Ross, and the archipelago of the Long Island; and the Little Minch, a much 
narrower sound, intervenes between that archipelago and the group of Skye. The Kyle and 
the sound of Sleat — the former a confined and winding strait, and the latter gradually ex- 
pansive — separate Skye from the mainland along the coast of Inverness. Lochs Hourn, 
Nevish, and Nuagh, opening off from these straits, run-eastward into the mainland. The 
sound of Mull, a narrow strait, extends south-eastward between Morvern in Argyleshire and 
the island of Mull. Loch-Linnhe, a large and long sound, stretches north and south between 
Lorn in Argyleshire and the island of Mull ; and is thickly sprinkled witli islands and isleta 


belonging to the Mull group of the Hebrides. Lochs Ed, Leven, Crinan, and Etive branch 
away from it, and run far into the interior, — the first leading the way from the west to the 
navigation of the Caledonian canal. The sound of Jura, extending north and south, inter- 
venes between the district of Knapdale and the island of Jura; and the sound of Isla, ex- 
tending in the same direction, forms a narrow stripe between Jura and Isla. The frith of 
Clyde, previously to its being ramified into a labyrinth of straits, sounds, and elongated bays, 
rolls its great gulf of waters between the long peninsula of Kintyre on the west and the 
coast of Ayrshire on the east; and, in Its higher waters, it encloses the various islands of 
Buteshire, cleaves southern Argyleshire into a series of wildly Highland and singular pen- 
insulas, makes a considerable cleft in Dumbartonshire, and, as to its main channel, divides 
the counties of Argyle and Dumbarton from those of Ayr and Eenfrew. Loch-Eyan and 
Luce-bay invade Wigtonshire on a line with each other, Dut on opposite sides, — make such a 
mutual advance as to leave a comparatively narrow isthmus between their inner extremities, 
— and divide the Ehinns of Galloway from the rest of Wigtonshire. Wigton-bay makes a 
long inroad between the two great political divisions of Galloway. Fleet, Kirkcudbright, 
and Auchencairn bays, and the estuary of the Urr, indent the coast of Kircudbrightshire. 
And the estuary of the Nith divides, for a considerable distance, the stewartry of Kirkcud- 
bright from the county of Dumfries. 


The islands of Scotland are very numerous, and, in many instances, are large and im 
portant. The greatest archipelago, that of the Hebrides, extends along nearly the whole 
west coast of the mainland. It is broadly distinguishable into two divisions, the outer and 
the inner, but is capable of subdivision into five groups. Three of these press close upon the 
coast, the group of Isla and Jura on the south, that of Mull in the centre, and that of Skye 
on the north, — the last separated from the second by the seas which wash the far-projecting 
Point of Ardnamurchan on the mainland, and the first and second so concatenated as to 
admit a line of separation chiefly by their geognostic properties. The fourth, largest, most 
northerly, and far-stretching group, lies quite away from the mainland, and even from the 
group of Skye, separated from the northern part of the former by the Minch, and from the 
western skirts of the latter by the Little-Minch. It consists of about 140 islands and islets, 
is about 140 miles in aggregate length, and lies so compactly as to be popularly viewed as 
one, and conventionally called the Long-Island. The fifth group is very small, lies to the 
far-west in profound loneliness, amidst a desert of waters, and draws attention chiefly by the 
romance of its situation and character. — consisting only of St. Kilda, itself more an islet than 
an island, and a tiny sprinkling on the bosom of the sea around it of dark, coarse gems, which 
pendulate between the character of islets and that of mere rocks. These groups are all fully 
treated in the article Hebrides. Another archipelago, that of Orkney, is separated at its 
south end by the Pentland frith, 6 miles broad, from the north coast of Caithness, or extreme 
north of the mainland of Scotland. Its islands and islets lie somewhat compactly; but are 
divisible into two groups, the larger and more compact on the south, the smaller and more 
dispersed on the north-east, — the two separated by a sound which bears on the east side the 
name of Stronsa frith, and on the west side that of Westra frith. A full general description 
of the whole will be found in the article Orkney. An islet called Stroma, lies in the Pent- 
land frith, 4 miles north-west of Duncansby-head. A third archipelago, that of Shetland, 
lies 48 miles north-north-east from Orkney. About two-thirds of its whole superficies is 
amassed in a very long island, of surpassingly irregular outline, and in several places very 
nearly dissevered, called the Mainland. Yell sound, a winding strait, separates this island 
on the south from the other chief island on the north, but is, in some places, thickly strewn 
with islets. One small island, Fowla, lies quite away to the west from the main group. 
Another, called Fair-Island, lies about half-way between that group and the Orkneys. All 
the details of a general description are given in the article Shetland. 

The other principal islands of Scotland are Mugdrum, in the frith of Tay ; the Isle of May, 
Inchkeith, Cramond, Inchcolm, Inchgarvey, Inchmickry, Craigleith, Lamb, Fidra, and the 
Bass, in the frith of Forth; and Arran. Bute, Great Cumbrae, Little Cumbrae, Sanda, Devar, 
Pladda, Lamlash, Lady-Isle, and Ailsa-rock, in the frith of Clyde. Of seaward rocks and 
sandbanks, the chief are Car-rock, 11 mile north-east of Fifeness ; Bell-rock, 12 miles east 
of Buddonness; Marr's-bank, a shoal, 30 miles east of the Bell-rock; Murray -bank, a sand- 


bank 10 miles east of Montrose; the Long-Forties, a shoal, extending from the exterior side 
of Murray-bank, in a line nearly parallel with the coast, to within 70 miles of Kinnaird- 
head; Outer-Montrose-pits, a shoal, 90 miles east of Montrose; Covesea-skerries, a reef a 
mile off the coast of Drainie in Elginshire ; the Pentland-skerries, at the east end of the 
Pentland frith ; Lappoch-rock, between Lady-Isle and Irvine harbour, iu the frith of Clyde ; 
and the Big and Little Scaurs, rocks at the middle of the entrance of Luce-bay. 


The dangers of navigating the seas of Scotland are very great; yet artificial means of 
mitigating them, till quite a recent period, were few and inefficient. But now, to say no- 
thing of improvements in navigation itself, of the aids furnished by steam-tugs, and of the 
refuge presented by the Caledonian and the Crinan Canals, immense protection is afforded 
by beacon-towers and lighthouses. All these, of course, are well known to nautical men 
frequenting the Scottish coasts. But the lighthouses, by both their situation and their 
variety, possess interest for general readers. Several of them stand on wild reefs washed 
all round by the sea; and one of these, on the Bell-rock, is as remarkable a structure as any 
in the world. Most are situated so high on bold promontories or beetling sea-cliffs as to be 
visible at great distances; all have distinctive lights; and six are double. About 70 belong 
to particular harbours, or are local. Nine were erected by the Commissioners of Northern 
Lights between 1861 and 1867 ; and the following, with the date and cost of their 
erection, were under the Commissioners in 1861, — Little Ross, Kirkcudbrightshire, 1843, 
£8,478; Mull of Galloway, 1830, .£8,378; Corsewall-point, 1817, £7,835; Loch Ryan, 
1847, £4,241; Pladda Island, 1790; Devar Island, Campbelton, 1854, £4,916; Sanda 
Island, 1850, £11,931; Mull of Kintyre, 1787; Rhinns of Islay, 1825, £8,056; Sound of 
Islay, 1859, £7,437; Lismore, 1833, £11,229; Sound of Mull, 1857, £6,277; Ardnamur- 
chan, 1849, £13,738; Sound of Sleat, 1857, £4,527; Kyleakin, 1857, £6,210; South 
Rona, 1857, £5,063; Skerryvore, 1844, £86,977; Barrahead, 1833, £13,087; Usheniish, 
South Uist, 1857, £8,809; Island-Glass, Harris, 1789; Stornoway, 1852, £6,380; Cape 
Wrath, 1828, £13,550; Dunnethead, 1831, 9.135; North Unst, 1855, £32,478; Whalsey- 
skerries, 1856, £21,750; Bressay-sound, 1858, £5,163; Sumburgh-head, 1821, £10,087; 
North Ronaldshay, 1854, £12,927 ; Start-point, Sanday, 1806; Hoy, 1851, £15,880; Can- 
tickhead, Hoy, 1858, £5,661; Pentland-skerries, 1794; Nosshead, 1849, £12,149; Tarbat- 
ness, 1830, £9,361; Cromarty-point, 1846, £3,203; Chanonry-point, 1846, £3,571; Cove- 
sea-skerries, 1846, £11,514; Kinnaird-head, 1787; Buchanness, 1827, £11,912: Girdle- 
ness, 1833, £11,940; Bell-Rock, 1811, £61,331; Isle of May, 1816; Inchkeith, 1804. 
Those erected between 1861 and 1867 are in the sound of Jura, in Islay, near Easdale, in 
Loch Eil, Butt of Lewis, Monach islands, Stronsay frith, Holburn Head, and St. Abb's Head. 


Hundreds and even thousands of parishes in England so closely or exactly resemble one 
another in all their features of landscape, that a sufficiently graphic description of one might 
be subscribed successively with the names of all. But so wondrously diversified is the sur- 
face of Scotland, that each of all its parishes, except a few, has some broad distinctive features 
of its own, each of the great majority might be the subject of a picture replete with in- 
dividuality, and each of very many offers to the painter entire groups of scenes, sometimes 
multitudinous clusters, which are rich in the peculiarities of their respective elements. Any 
general description of such a country is in the highest degree susceptible of colouring from 
the bias of aversion or of favourable predilection. Scotland has spots as lusciously lovely 
or as superbly magnificent as ever poet sang, and spots as unutterably dreary or as inhos- 
pitably sequestered as ever a dreaming or misanthropic anchorite conceived; and, in respect 
both to scenery and to climate, can probably exhibit some actual tract of territory to justify, 
or at least to countenance, on the one hand, each sneer or sarcasm which has been written 
against her by illiberal prejudice, and, on the other, each of the most impassioned panegyrics 
which have been sung upon her by patriotic and enthusiastic admiration. To be fully under- 
stood, the country must be seen or studied in minute detail. No general description of it 
can be made the vehicle of very distinct ideas. Only such readers as acquaint themselves 
with it through some such medium as a copious Gazetteer, can be said to comprehend it,— 


examining it piece by piece in such large districts as those of counties and grand divisions, 
and then looking in detail at its parishes, its principal mountains, its lakes, its rivers, and all 
its various interesting objects. Whoever shall peruse the present work, first in the great and 
comprehensive articles, and next in the multitudinous briefer articles which exhibit the in- 
dividual objects and describe the minute features of the grand picture, must rise, we should 
hope, from the perusal with conceptions of the surface of Scotland incomparably clearer than 
if he had read any conceivable amount of consecutive description. He will be surprised, 
perhaps bewildered, by the amount of variety ; he will be delighted, or even thrilled, by the 
frequency with which scenery occurs, ever new or peculiar, and addressing itself by turns, or 
in combinations, to every power of taste, from the love of the calmly beautiful to the sturdiest 
and sternest capacity for the awfully sublime ; he will wonder to discover many a fairy nook 
or striking lusas naturce in a district which probably rash satire had pronounced repulsive 
even to a savage; and when he reflects how spiritedly and copiously Wordsworth and Scott 
and many other masters of song have written upon Scottish landscape, he will conjecture 
how mighty an impulse they must have felt, and how resistlessly they were hurried along, 
and into what a whirl of poetic excitement they were carried, in the careering of their 
descriptive poetry. But he must be aided, in this introductory article, by such a general 
view of the surface of the country as, though unneeded and useless for the purposes of 
description, will indicate to him the prevailing characteristic of each great district, and assi-t 
him to see the mutual connexion of counties, mountain systems, valleys, and the basins of the 
great rivers. 

Scotland, then, as to its mainland, is naturally and very distinguishably separated both 
into two and into three great divisions. The two great divisions are the Highlands and the 
Lowlands, so noticed and traced in separate articles in the body of this work, that they need 
not be further mentioned. The three great divisions are, the Southern, lying south of the 
friths of Forth and Clyde, and of the valley of the Forth and Clyde canal, — the Central, 
lying north of this line, and south of the Glenmore-nan-albin, or great Glen of Caledonia, 
occupied by a chain of slender lakes, and traversed by the Caledonian canal, — and the 
Northern, lying north and north-west of the Glenmore-nan-albin. 

Though the Southern division is all comprehended in what are called the Lowlands, and 
contains much champaign country, or many of the districts which obtain in Scotland 
the name of plains, it contains very little level ground except in the alluvial tracts, — the 
luxuriant Scottish ' haughs ' and ' holms,' — along the courses of the greater rivers. Its 
southern extremity, comprising all Wigtonshire except a belt on the north, is strictly neither 
mountainous nor lowland, a remarkably tumulated expanse, — a sea of hillocks, very thinly 
crested with wood, and wearing the hues of constant hesitation between wilderness, green 
pasture, and arable cultivation. Along the north of Wigtonshire, but chiefly in the adjacent 
portions of Kirkcudbrightshire and Ayrshire, from the head of Wigton-bay on the east, to 
the sea at Loch- Ryan, and to the frith of Clyde opposite Ailsa-Craig, commences a system of 
mountains which are often called the Scottish Southern Highlands, and which form the 
grandest feature of the southern division of the mainland. This system extends in a broad 
phalanx of spurs and ridges cut \>y gorges and glens quite across the kingdom in the direction 
of north-east by east, to the Cheviots on the boundary of Roxburghshire, and there passes on 
to Northumberland. It attains its highest altitudes about mid-distance in the country, and 
thence sends off huge spurs northward to the great bend of the Clyde round Tinto, north- 
north-eastward to the abrupt stoop of the Pentland-hills, a few miles south of Edinburgh, 
and north-eastward to the termination of the Moorfoot-hills in the vale of Gala-water. From 
the western end up to the central masses, no regular ridge can be traced ; the mountains there 
forming an elevated region unmarked by order, and penetrated in various directions by deep 
long gorges and vales. East of the central heights, a distinctly marked but deeply serrated 
ridge, constituting an uniform water-shed, and shooting up in a continued series of summits, 
runs along the northern boundary of Dumfries-shire and Liddesdale, and afterwards bends 
north-eastward and northward along the boundary with England, to the vicinity of Yetholm. 
The heights, in a few instances, have sharp and pinnacled outlines, or present a bare and 
rocky aspect; but, in general, they are soft in feature and in dress, angularities being rounded 
away from side and summit, and verdure successfully struggling to maintain ascendency over 
heath. On their south side they run far down in lateral ridges, and frequently subside with 
comparative suddenness, allowing the parallel narrow valleys to open boldly and sweepinglv 
out into a great plain. In their main broad line they occupy the northern parts of Kirkcud- 


brightshire and Dumfries-shire, and the southern parts of the counties of Ayr, Lanark, 
Peebles, Selkirk, and Roxburgh. Their altitude, in the central masses, averages nearly 
3,000 feet above sea-level, and in other parts, varies from 700 or 800 feet to a little upwards 
of 2,000. 

The great plain, or rather champaign country, whicb lies between these mountains and the 
Solway frith, exhibits on the east a considerable expanse of level ground, — in the centre, an 
agreeable variety of flats and gentle hilly ridges, — -and in the west, an irregularly tumulated 
surface. Greatly the boldest variety in this quarter, is the ridge of the Criftel-hills, which 
lifts a grand summit in the immediate flank of the Solway, at the mouth of the estuary of the 
Nith, and thence runs inland in a considerable ridge of 10 or 12 miles. The broad spurs 
toward Edinburgh and Gala-water, fill all Peebles-shire and Selkirkshire. They are quite as 
irregular as the main line of the Southern Highlands, not so bold, more softly dressed, and 
forming over a considerable space a hugely undulated expanse of verdure. As they become 
identified with the Moorfoot-hills in the south of Mid-Lothian, they lose much of both their 
greenness and their altitude. After the intervention of the vale of the Gala, they rise sud- 
denly up in a broad and very moorish ridge, which takes the name of the Lammermoor-hills, 
occupies the northern part of Berwickshire, and the southern part of East-Lothian, and ex- 
tends in a direction north of east to the German ocean at St. Abb's-head. An irregular 
triangle, formed by the east end of the main line of the Southern Highlands, and the spurs 
onward to the coast of the Lammermoors, constitutes the basin of the parent-stream and the 
affluents of the Tweed. This, over a large part of its extent, is identical with the dells, 
and glens, and valee of the mountain-territory; but in the eastern and southern divisions of 
Berwickshire, and a small part of the north-eastern division of Roxburghshire, it forms the 
largest plain in Scotland, an expanse of very slightly undulated ground, closely resembling 
many districts in England, — the luxuriant, calmly pretty, garden-looking Merse. 

Intervening between the South Highlands and the friths of Forth and Clyde, the great 
champaign grounds of Lothian and Strathclyde extend from sea to sea, — the former a hang- 
ing plain, declining to the north, and picturesquely variegated with hill and rising ground, — 
the latter a great valley, opening broadly out from among the glens and vales of the High- 
lands, stretching westward in agreeable undulations which decline on both sides to a line 
along the centre, and becoming pent up in the west between the Lennox-hills and a ridge in 
Renfrewshire. The water-shed between these two great champaign districts is everywhere 
very slightly marked, and contains less hill, and greatly less boldness and variety, than 
several ridges or congeries of heights in the interior of Lothian. An insulated range, vacillat- 
ing in character between hill and mountain, commences behind Greenock, at the west end of 
the valley of the Clyde, and runs southward near the west coast to the hill of Knockgeorgan, 
700 feet high, about 3 miles north of Ardrossan bay. Mistie-Law, near the middle of this 
range, rises 1,558 feet above sea-level. From the heights north of Ardrossan, the water- 
shed makes a circular sweep to the south, with the concave side to the west, enclosing in a 
sort of amphitheatre the great hanging plain of Ayrshire, frequently but very slightly tumu- 
lated, containing much level ground, and, in its southern part, several bold heights, and hav- 
ing a prevailing declination to the west. This water-shed, after leaving the insulated chain 
from Greenock to Ardrossan, is for a long way of very inconsiderable elevation; and where 
it forms the boundary-line between Lanarkshire and Ayrshire, it is so low as to admit, from 
some points on the east bank of the Clyde in the centre of Clydesdale, not more than 120 or 
160 feet above sea-level, a view of the heights of Arran, distant 50 miles in the frith of 
Clyde ; but over its southern half, it becomes identified, for some distance, with the water- 
shed of the main line of the Southern Highlands, and then sweeps westward to the sea, 
immediately on the left bank of the outlet of Girvan-water. The extreme north of the 
southern division of Scotland, or that which forms the middle part of the common boundary 
between it and the central division, is a strath or belt of low land, stretching along the 
south base of the Lennox-hills, from the head of the estuary of the Forth between Grange- 
mouth and Stirling, to a point a little above the head of the estuary of the Clyde, between 
the village of East Kilpatrick and the vicinity of Glasgow. This strath is identical, at its 
west end, with the valley of the Clyde; in the chief of its central part, it forms a detached 
district of Dumbartonshire ; and in its east end, and the rest of its central part, it constitutes 
the plain of Stirlingshire. 

The Lennox-hills, which skirt the central division of the kingdom between the Forth and 
the Clyde, extend from Stirling to Dumbuck, immediately above Dumbarton, in the direction 


of west-south-west. Along the north side, a moorish descent terminates, over the western 
half, in a narrow and richly variegated vale, chiefly traversed by the river Endrick, and 
partly declining to Loch-Lomond and the river Leven, — and over the eastern half, in a flat 
broad belt of carse-ground, which is very sinuously watered by the river Forth, and which, 
after sweeping past a narrowed part at Stirling-castle, becomes identified with the plain of 
(Stirlingshire. The mountains beyond extend over a vast region ; occupy, with their inter- 
vening vales and lakes, the whole of the middle and western portions of the central division 
of Scotland; and press closely on the whole flank of the Glenmore-nan-albin. One of the 
highest summits of the region, as well as of all Scotland, is Bennevis, 4,380 feet above sea- 
level, situated on the south-east side of Loch-Eil, near the entrance of the Caledonian canal. 
The boundary of the most mountainous part of the region extends south-westward from this 
monarch-height to Ben-Cruachan, on the south side of Loch-Etive; it runs thence south- 
eastward to the mountains of Arroquhar, on the east side of Loch-Long, one of the most 
northerly branches of the frith of Clyde; it extends thence eastward to Benlomond, at the 
sources of the Forth ; it thence passes on in the direction of east-north-east to Benledi, on the 
west side of Loch-Lubuaig ; it thence diverges eastward to the enormously-based Bengloe, 
in latitude 56° 50' and west longitude 3° 40'; it runs thence due east to the lofty ridge of 
Lochnagar, nearly in latitude 57° and west longitude 3" ; it extends thence northward, to 
the water-shed between the sources of the river Deveron and those of the Aven; it thence 
passes on westward to the northern extremity of Loch-Ness; and it thence extends south- 
westward, along the flank of the whole of Glenmore-nan-albin, to Bennevis. All the country 
comprehended within these boundaries, excepting Strathspey and a few deep glens, lies pro- 
bably at a minimum of 1,000 feet above sea-level; it embosoms multitudinous scenes of grand 
and magnificent beauty, and of alternately savage arid picturesque sublimity; it has many 
tracts which afford rich pasture, and not a few which are finely feathered over with forest ; 
it even contains many well-sheltered spots small individually, but considerable in the aggre- 
gate, which are available for agriculture; but over by far the greater part of its extent, it 
either sends up wild and untameable summits to the clouds, or is an impracticable region of 
rocky steeps, unproductive moors, and extensive bogs. 

Large tracts of continuous mountain lie on all sides, except the north-west, immediately 
beyond the boundaries we have indicated, and form, jointly with the great territory within 
these boundaries, the upland district of the central division of Scotland ; but, though equally 
inhospitable, they are much inferior in mean height, and, in general, have less boldness, 
angularity, and rockiness of surface. The greatest range of the whole region cuts it from 
west to east into not very unequal parts, forms all the way a water-shed between streams 
respectively on the north and on the south, has a breadth of from 12 to 25 miles, runs at no 
great distance south of the 57 th parallel, extends from Bennevis by Loch-Ericht, and along 
the northern boundary of the counties of Perth and Forfar, to Mount-Caerloch in Kincar- 
dineshire, 18 miles west by north of Stonehaven, and thence sends off two hilly ridges to the 
coast, one terminating at Stonehaven, and the other at Girdleness. It thus bristles up as a 
stupendous rampart from sea to sea, sends up many summits 3,000 feet above sea-level, has 
probably a mean altitude, west of Caerloch, of 2,500 feet, measures in length from Bennevis 
to Girdleness about 100 miles, and, besides being turned at the east end of its forking hilly 
ridges by the great north road and the Aberdeen railway, is pierced in three places with 
gorges or passes which admit the transit of military roads. Another range commences in the 
vicinity of Loch-Lydoch, several miles from the south side of the former range, in west lon- 
gitude 4° 35', and runs south-south-westward to Benloe, and thence southward, by the moun- 
tains of Arroquhar, along the west side of Loch-Long and the frith of Clyde, to a soft and 
gentle termination at Toward-point, the eastern peninsular headland of the district of Cowal. 
This range is not more than 50 miles in length, and, in Cowal, it is not more than 6 in mean 
breadth, and considerably less than 2,000 feet in the average height of its summits ; but, north 
of Arroquhar, it is from 12 to 15 miles broad, sends up numerous summits to the height of 
nearly 3,000 feet, and forms a water-shed between the streams which flow respectively to the 
German and the Atlantic .oceans. The section of the mountain district lying east of this 
range, and south of the great central range from Bennevis to Caerloch, somewhat nearly 
resembles in outline the figure of a quadrant, and contains many elevations, such as Ben- 
lomond, Benvenu, Benledi, Benvoirlich, Benlawers, and Schihallion, which rise about 3,000 
feet or upwards, and in one instance even 4,000 feet, above sea-level. Its mountains, in 
some cases, are isolated ; but, in general, they run in lateral spurs or offshoots eastward frotn 


the south and north range, and more or less parallel with the great central range. These 
are short in the southern part of the district, but they gradually increase from 10 to 15 or 18, 
and even to upwards of 20 miles, in the north ; and the glens which they there enclose are 
generally very deep, in part high above sea-level, have a contracted narrowness on the west, 
but usually expand into vales toward the east, contain aggregately a large amount of arable 
land and forest, and embosom a great proportion of the loveliest far-famed scenery of the 

Between the northernmost screen of these glens and the great east and west central 
mountain-range, extends the vale of Rannoch, traversed along the east by the tumultuous 
river Tummel, and occupied on the west by Loch-Eannoch ; and from the west end of this 
lake, past the northern termination of the north and south great range, away south-westward 
to the spurs of Bencruachan, extends the moor of Bannoch, an immense level bog lying 
about 1,000 feet above the level of the sea, a dismal wilderness occupying an area of about 
400 square miles. The section of country south and south-west of this, north of the penin- 
sula of Knapdale and Kintyre, and west of the north and south mountain-range, measures 
about 40 miles by 25, and, with the exception of the stupendous mass of Bencruachan and 
some attendant heights, is a series of table-lands, elevated from 500 to 700 feet above sea- 
level, separated by narrow and deep glens ploughed up by water-courses, and covered partly 
with heath and grass, and partly with moorish soil and bog. The glens, though deep, are, 
in general, open, or expand into vales, and, in common with the banks of far-stretching bays 
and marine lochs, are subject to the plough or luxuriant in wood. The long narrow penin- 
sula of Knapdale and Kintyre, extending nearly 50 miles southward, with a mean breadth of 
about 7 miles, rises at its southern extremity to an altitude of about 1,000 feet above sea- 
level, but elsewhere is very moderately and even gently hilly, has many interspersions of 
plain and valley, and wears an arable, sheltered, and softly picturesque appearance. 

From the north side of the great central range, at a point north-north-west of Bengloe, a 
range upwards of 30 miles in length, and about 10 or ll in mean breadth, goes off in the 
direction of north by east, to the stupendous mountain-knot of the Cairngorm heights — ac- 
cording to some authorities, the loftiest in Britain — and there forks into two branches, the 
one extending north-eastward, and lowering in its progress, along the right flank of the upper 
basin of the Deveron, and the other, under the name of the Braes of Abernethy, running 
northward between the vale of the Aven and the valley of the Spey, to the terminating and 
lofty heights of Cromdale. This range, except near the north end of its divergent branches, 
is unpierced by any road or practicable pass; and, from the Cairngorm group to its junction 
with the great central range, has a mean altitude of probably about 3,000 feet. In the 
triangle, the two greater sides of which are formed by the Glenmore-nan-albin, and the 
western moiety of the great central range, stretches north-eastward a range 30 miles in length, 
and considerable in breadth, called the Monadh-Leadh mountains. These heights commence, 
at their south-west end, in the Corryarrick mountains, 18 miles north-east of Bennevis ; they 
divide in their progress into two branches, which enclose the glen of the river Findhorn, and 
terminate nearly due east of Inverness ; and they possess an extreme altitude above sea-level 
of not much more than 2,000 feet. The south side of the east end of the great central 
range from Caerloch to Bengloe, and the ends facing the south-east and east of the lateral 
offshoots of the great range north and south, have a broad fringe of shelving upland, which, 
in a general view, may be described as descending in tiers, or as forming a declination by 
successive gradients to the Lowlands. This fringe — mountainous on the inner side, and 
merely hilly in the exterior — varies in breadth from 3 to 8 miles toward the south, and from 
6 to 12 miles toward the north; it is everywhere chequered or striped with glens and vales, 
bringing down the roaring and impetuous streams cradled among the alps to the champaign 
country below ; it exhibits, as seen from a distance, a magnificently varied breastwork thrown 
round the Highlands; and it encloses in its glens and vales a surpassingly rich assemblage of 
scenery, a vast aggregate area of picturesque and romantic forest, and not a small proportion 
of excellent arable ground. 

Along the whole south-east side of this far-stretching and myriad-featured declivity, from 
the Forth between Stirling and Aberfoil to the German ocean at Stonehaven, a distance of 
about 80 miles, extends the plain of Strathmore, or the Great Valley, from 1 mile to 16 miles 
in breadth, over the most part from 6 to 8, and almost everywhere level and in fine cultiva- 
tion. This grand strath sends off to the German ocean at Montrose, a short one of kindred 
character ; farther north it becomes narrowed, and assumes the name of the Howe of Mearns ; 


and at the point where it is crossed by the river Tay, it looks down a transverse valley 
watered by that stream. But over nearly all its length, it is flanked along its south-cast side 
by ranges of heights which, in some places, almost vie with the Grampians along the north- 
west side, and in others wear the aspect of soft and gentle hills. The most considerable 
range, called the Ochils, extends from a point 2 miles from the river Forth, and about 4 
miles from Stirling, in the direction of east-north-east, to the frith of Tay ; it is 24 miles in 
length, and has a mean breadth of about 12 miles; and it is loftiest toward the Forth, and 
attains an extreme altitude of 2,300 feet above sea-level. Another range, called the Sidlaw- 
hills, is continuous of the Ochils, except for the intervention of the valley of the Tay ; it rises 
abruptly up a little below Perth, in a surpassingly picturesque height of 632 feet above sea- 
level, and extends to a point some miles south of Montrose, sending up, over the earlier half 
of its progress, numerous summits upwards of 1,000 feet in altitude, and afterwards forming 
naturally moorish terraces which now are either arable or, for the most part, clothed witli 
wood. South-eastward of the Ochils, all the way to the German ocean, the surface is 
singularly rich in the calm and soft beauties of landscape, and exhibits an interminable blending 
of valley, slope, and gentle hill ; its boldest variety being an isolated table-ridge, a few miles 
from the Ochils, 4 miles in length, and shooting up at the extremities into beautifully out- 
lined summits, respectively 1,466, and 1,721 feet high. Eastward from the south end of the 
Sidlaws, and along the north shore of the frith of Tay to the vicinity of Dundee, stretches 
the Carse of Gowrie, a level expanse of wheat-bearing soil, unsurpassed in strength and rich- 
ness. The surface elsewhere between the Sidlaws and the sea, is partly diversified with the 
soft low heights called Laws, and partly consists of sandy downs, but in general is a waving, 
well-cultivated plain. 

North of the great central mountain-range from Bennevis to the German ocean, and east 
of the strictly Highland region, some high hilly ridges run eastward to near the sea, and send 
aloft numerous summits of mountainous aspect and altitude. The surface of the ridges and 
of the intervening tracts, alternately pleases and tantalizes by incessant change ; it abounds 
in rocky ruggedness, steep declivities, and niggard moorlands; and it admits the dominion 
of the plough only or chiefly on the low grounds of its glens and valleys. The country lying 
to the north-east, and terminating in Kinnaird-head, at the entrance of the Moray frith, has 
plains which, in some instances, run 10 or 12 miles inland from the sea, and swell into hills, 
most of which are graceful in outline, and beautifully verdant, while some are ploughed to the 
summit, and all, with one exception, rise less than 600 feet above the level of the sea. The 
country lying along the Moray frith to the north-east end of the Glenmore-nan-albin, has a 
breadth between the Highlands and the sea of only from 12 to 18 miles; its level ground 
along the sea-board runs 9 miles inland in the vicinity of the Spey, but elsewhere is seldom 
more than 2 miles broad; its interior district is traversed seaward by lofty offshoots of the 
mountain region beyond; and its sea-board on the Beauly frith is a barren moor 10 miles by 
from 2 to 3, — the famous moor of Culloden. The Glenmore-nan-albin extends north-east 
and south-west, in a straight line from sea to sea; it is 60 miles in length from Loch-Eil to 
the Beauly frith ; and it is principally occupied by three long stripes of fresh-water lake, 
aggregately upwards of 37 miles in length. 

The northern or third great division of Scotland, with the exception of two comparatively 
small portions, is all Highland. One of the low tracts consists of the peninsulas respectively 
north and south of the Cromarty frith, and of a tract round the head of that frith from 2 to 
about 4 miles in breadth, which unites them. The southern peninsula, seaward from an 
isthmus which nowhere rises more than 50 feet above sea-level, swells on its west side into a 
flat-backed height, which, with a mean breadth of 2 miles, extends northward to the coast. 
The northern peninsula, though much and roughly variegated with high moorish grounds, 
and lifting up in one place a bold rampart on the coast, is crossed by the fine plain of Fearn, 
stretching from Tain to the most northerly bay of the Cromarty frith. The other low dis- 
trict is a somewhat variegated level, comprehends about four-fifths of the whole of Caithness, 
and will be quite understood, as to both its character and its relative position, by reference to 
the article on that county. The mountain region, while vast in area and multitudinous in 
feature, exhibits such masses and congeries of heights, and is so undisposed in ridges or 
ranges, that only a longer description than the patience of most readers could endure would 
serve to depict it. Its greatest elevation extends across nearly its centre, from Ben-Wyvis 
on the east, to Loch-Torridon on the west, and sends aloft its summits from a base lying at 
probably 1,500 feet above sea-level. On the north side of this line, or toward Cape- Wrath, 


the elevation decreases more than on the south, or toward the peninsula of Morvern. On its 
west side occur most of those long and narrow indentations of the sea noticed in the sections 
on the coasts and the marine waters ; remarkable for rendering so desolate a region inhabit- 
able, and especially for their being of a class which occurs nowhere else in the world except 
on the coasts of Norway, Greenland, Iceland, and the hyperborean country around Hudson's 


Most of the running waters of Scotland, owing to the prevalence of mountain, and the 
frequent penetrations of the sea, have small length of course, and are not generally designated 
rivers. Yet though very numerous, and, for the most part, individually unimportant, they 
will be found distinctly noticed in the articles on counties, and fully described in the alpha- 
betical arrangement. We can here, without useless repetition, only name the principal 
streams, and state their locality and direction. 

South of the west end of the Southern Highlands, or in two cases in Wigtonshire, and in 
the third between that county and Kirkcudbrightshire, the Luce, the Bladenoch, and the 
Cree run south-eastward to the Irish sea. South of the main range of the Southern High- 
lands, the Dee, the Urr, the Nith, the Annan and the Esk run southward to the Solway 
frith. In the large triangular district, two sides of which are formed by the main range of 
the Southern Highlands, and by the long spur to St. Abb's-head, and whose aggregate basin 
comprehends about 1,870 square miles, the Tweed, aided chiefly by the affluents of the Gala, 
the Teviot, and the Whitadder, runs eastward, north-eastward, and northward, to the German 
ocean. The Lothians and the plain of Stirlingshire are drained north-eastward or northward 
to the frith of Forth, principally by the Tyne, the Esk, the Leith, the Almond, the Avon, 
and the Carron. Ayrshire is drained in a direction more or less westerly to the frith of 
Clyde, by the Stinchar, the Girvan, the Doon, the Ayr, the Irvine, and the Garnock. The 
basin of the Clyde, comprehending an area of 1,200 square miles, is drained in a direction 
north of west to the head of the frith of Clyde, by its cognominal stream, whose chief affluents 
are the Douglas, the Avon, the Kelvin, and the Leven. The Forth, drawing greatly the 
majority of its head-waters from the central division of Scotland, fed principally by the Teith, 
the Allan, and the Devon, and draining an area of 574 square miles, flows eastward to its 

The streams which, throughout both the central and the northern divisions of Scotland, 
run westward to the Atlantic, are all individually too inconsiderable to bear separate mention. 
Those which drain the district east of the Ochil-hills are chiefly the Leven and the Eden, — 
the former eastward to Largo-bay, and the latter north-eastward to St. Andrew's-bay. A 
vast territory lying immediately south of the great central range of mountains, and compre- 
hending large portions of both the Highlands and the Lowlands, is drained to the extent of 
2,396 miles, chiefly eastward, and partly southward, by the Tay and its tributaries, the 
prinfeipal of which are the Tummel, the Isla, the Almond, and the Earn. The north-east 
corner of this territory is drained eastward to the German ocean, chiefly by the South-Esk 
and the North-Esk. In the district immediately north of the central mountain-range, and 
east of the Cairngorm mountain-knot, the Dee and the Don run eastward to the sea at Aber- 
deen. In the district lying between this and the eastern half of the Moray frith, the Deveron 
runs northward to that frith, and the Ythan and the Ugie eastward to the German ocean. 
The district enclosed by the great central mountain-range, the north-east branch of the 
Cairngorm ramification, the Moray frith, and the Glenmore-nan-albin, is drained to the ex- 
tent of 1,300 square miles, north-eastward to the sea by the Spey, to the extent of 500 miles 
northward to the frith by the Findhorn, and to a less extent for each stream, northward to the 
frith by the Nairn, and westward to Loch-Lochy, near the west end of the Glenmore, by the 

In the great northern division of Scotland, the chief streams eastward are the Beaulv to 
the head of the Beauly frith, the Conan to the head of the Cromarty frith, the Oykell to the 
bead of the Dornoch frith, the Brora, the Helmsdale, the Berriedale, and the Wick ; and the 
chief streams northward are the Thurso, the Forss, the Halladale, and the Naver. Of all the 
rivers, the Clyde alone is navigable by sea-craft for any considerable distance above the 
estuary; and even it possesses this high property only in consequence of great artificial 
deepening and embanking, and over a distance of but about 12 miles. 



The lakes of Scotland, are very numerous, and, in many instances, are large, and singularly 
rich in scenery. The principal, for extent or scenic attractions, are Ken, drained by a 
cognominal stream, the chief affluent of the southern Dee ; Skene, 1,300 feet above sea-level, 
drained by a remote tributary of the Annan, forming the magnificent cataract called the 
Orey-Mare's-Tail ; St. Mary's-Loch, and the Loch of the Lows, drained by the classic Yarrow, 
a remote affluent of the Tweed; Doon, drained by its cognominal stream; Lomond, drained 
by the western Leven, the tributary of the Clyde; Leven, drained by the eastern Leven; 
Conn and Ard, drained by the Forth; Katrine, Achray, Vennachoir, Voil, and Lubnaig, 
drained by the Teith, the chief affluent of the Forth ; Tay, Earn, Lydoch, Ericht, Eannoch, 
Tummel, Garry, Lows, Clunie, and Quiech, drained by the Tay and its affluents; Loch-Lee, 
drained by the North-Esk; Awe, Avick, Shiell, and Eck, south of the central mountain-range, 
and near the west coast ; Laggan, Ouchan, and Treag, drained by the Spean ; Lochy and 
Archaig, drained by the Lochy, into Loch-Eil ; Garry, Oich, Ness, and Ruthven, drained by 
the Ness into the Beauly frith; Duntalliak, drained by the Nairn; Affrick, drained by the 
Beauly; Maree, Fuir, Shallag, Fannich, Rusk, Luichart, Monar, Glas, Moil - , and Slin, in 
Ross-shire; Shin, Naver, Furan, Baden, Loval, and More, in Sutherland; and Stenness in 
the mainland of Orkney. The area in square miles, of 26 of the principal, is respectively 
of Lomond, 45; Ness, 30; Awe, 30; Shin, 25; Maree, 24; Tay, 20; Archaig, 18; Shiell, 
16; Lochy, 15; Laggan, 12; Monar, 12; Fannich, 10; Ericht, 10; Naver, 9; Earn, b; 
Rannoch, 8; Stenness, 8; Leven, 7; Ken, 6; Lydoch, 6; Fuir, 6; Loval, 6; Katrine, 5; 
Glas, 5; Doon, 4i; and Luichart, 3. 


Without supplying a geological map, and writing twentyfold more copiously than our space 
will admit, we could not give an adequate view of the distribution of the rocks and minerals of 
Scotland. But from ' Malte Bran's and Balbi's Systems of Geography Abridged : Edinburgh, 
Adam and Charles Black, 1840,' we shall extract a summary, which will please the scientific 
reader by its clearness, and the popular one by its wealth of information; and then we shall 
exhibit in a brief summary the names and localities of all the rarer minerals of the country. 

" In a general point of view," says that work, " Scotland may be separated, geologically 
as well as geographically, into three portions. By passing a line on the map nearly straight, 
from Stonehaven, through Dunkeld to the middle of the Isle of Bute, and thence with a 
slight curve to the Mull of Kintyre, we shall have traced the southern boundary of the 
primary non-fossiliferous system of rocks. Another line, but more irregular than the former, 
drawn from St. Abb's-head, passing near Peebles, Abington, Sanquhar, New Cummock, to 
about Girvan, will have a general parallelism with the former line, and will have the older 
greywacke, now named the Cumbrian system, lying to the south, and extending to the bor- 
ders; while the land included between the two lines comprehends the old red sandstone, and 
great central coal basin of Scotland. We shall first notice the stratified systems of those 
three divisions of the country, beginning with the oldest. 

" That extensive tract of Scotland which constitutes the northern division, is composed 
chiefly of primary stratified rocks, namely, gneiss, mica slate, chlorite slate, and clay slate, 
with subordinate masses of hornblende slate, talc slate, and primitive limestone. These, 
often with granitic centres, rise into magnificent mountains, of which the Grampians form a 
part. In many of these deposits, particularly in the mica slate, garnets of a brown colour 
are very abundant. The mountains of the Trosachs, so effectively described by Sir Walter 
Scott, are chiefly composed of mica slate. Li these primary deposits no organic remains have 
ever been discovered. But these are not the only stratified formations which constitute this 
extensive district. The old red sandstone fringes the extremities of the land, commencing 
about Fochabers, on the east side of the Moray frith; extending on both sides of Loch-Ness 
within a short distance of Fort-Augustus, and then proceeding northwards with a variable 
breadth through Fortrose, Tain, and Dornoch; expanding the whole breadth of Caithness, 
and constituting the principal formation of the Orkney Isles. On the western side of the 
mainland, the old red sandstone is deposited in numerous patches on the gneiss formation, as 
at Loch Broom, Gairloch, and Applecross. 


" The newer secondary rocks have been but very sparingly observed in Scotland; yet it is 
rather a curious fact, that the few patches which have been discovered, are superimposed 
generally on the old red sandstone, and have not been seen reposing in their uninterrupted 
order in the secondary series. Thus the lias shales, highly micaceous, and some of the upper 
beds of the oolitic system, occur at the mouth of the Cromarty frith from Dunrobin-castle 
to the Ord of Caithness, at Applecross and other points on the mainland, — and in the Western 
Isles, on the borders of Mull, the south and east of Skye, and near the Cock of Arran, on a 
small coal deposit. The equivalent of the fresh-water deposits of the wealds of Sussex, 
geologically situate above the oolitic group, and below the chalk, is seen near Elgin in Moray, 
and Loch-Staffin in Skye. In the central and southern divisions of Scotland, those newer 
groups of rocks have not been detected. 

" In tracing the geological features of the country in the ascending order of the groups, 
and confining ourselves to the geographical divisions pointed out, we next come to the transi- 
tion or greywacke system, now divided into two principal sections, — the lower or Cumbrian, 
and the upper or Silurian. So far as is hitherto ascertained, the Silurian division is unknown 
in Scotland; but the Cumbrian rocks, nearly destitute of organic remains, cover the principal 
part of the great area of the south of Scotland. These greywacke strata stand at high angles 
of from 60° to 90° from the horizon, and consist chiefly of coarse slaty strata, seldom divisible 
into thin roofing slates, and often alternating with arenaceous and coarse conglomerates. 
Amongst these strata limestone is seldom found; and when it is, the quality is inferior. In 
the division of the island of which we now treat, coal and its accompaniments are known in 
very few places. Coal is, however, worked at Canoby, and on the borders at the Carter-Fell. 
The only other rock formation found in connection with the old transition group here (with 
the exception of igneous rocks), is a red sandstone, ascertained, in some situations, to be the 
old red, but in some other places considered to be the new red sandstone, particularly in 
Dumfries-shire, where the surfaces of the slabs have curious impressions, supposed to be those 
of the feet of a species of tortoise. 

" In the central division of Scotland is placed the great coal basin ; but adhering to our 
rule of marking the successive formations in the ascending order, we shall first treat of the 
old red sandstone, the most ancient rock in this subdivision of the country. This rock abuts 
against the line of the primary rocks, and stretches across the whole country, from the 
German ocean to the Atlantic, pursuing a south-westerly and north-easterly direction. From 
the northern line of division it stretches south to the frith of Tay, bearing through Dunning, 
near Stirling, to Dumbarton, and thence through the Western Isles, Bute and Arran, and is 
wrapped nearly round the extremity of the mainland at the Mull of Kintyre. The old red 
sandstone thus forms a long, uninterrupted, and extensive fertile valley. In the north-western 
part it rises into hills, in the sides of one of which, Uam Vor, are deep and hideous fissures, 
the effect of some convulsion. It is more irregularly distributed on the southern boundary 
of the middle division, commencing on the east about Dunbar, and stretching westerly on the 
line of the transition range of Moorfoot and Lammermoor-hills beyond Middleton, where it is 
interrupted by a range of trap, but is again found in the country round Lanark. This for- 
mation appears to be of vast thickness, especially in the northern part of the division, and 
may, it is supposed from recent observation, be divided into three portions, the lower, the 
middle, and the upper beds. In what are considered the lower strata, the remains of fishes 
have been found in a high state of preservation, and also large scales and other remnants of 
a sauroid character, such as those of the holoptychus. The well-known Arbroath pavement 
belongs to the old red sandstone series. 

" The most important group in the central district is the coal formation, consisting of lime- 
stone, ironstone, freestone, coal, and clays. Its extent from east to west is bounded only by 
the extremities of the land. To the north it is cut off from the old red sandstone by a range 
of trap hills, crossing the country from east to west. On the south it is bounded by the 
greywacke and old red sandstone. Its breadth averages 40 miles ; and it is in length about 
70. The mountain limestone forms generally the basis of this group; though it is frequently 
found interstratified with other members of the series, and abounds with countless numbers 
of organic remains. Below the mountain limestone, however, but belonging to the same 
group, a bed of limestone is worked at Burdiehouse, near Edinburgh, in which the organic 
remains differ essentially from those of that just named. These remains consist of many of 
the plants which distinguish the coal formation; but it also includes the teeth, scales, and 
other bones of fish, which partake of the reptile character, some of which must have been of 



marantic dimensions 

Small fishes (the paleoniseus, &c.) are also found in a fine state of pre- 
The same limestone has been found in other parts of the country, and is of 
superior quality to the common limestone for mortar, plaster, and the smelting of iron. The 
clay ironstone is found in beds and nodules, the workable kinds containing from 27 to 45 per 
cent, of iron. The kind termed black-band is in high request. From this ore a vast quantity 
of pig-iron is smelted. The coal is found in beds, varying from a few inches to 40 feet in 
thickness ; and one bed in Ayrshire is about 100 feet thick, interrupted only by thin seams 
of shale from 1 to 3 inches, and is extracted in great quantity, and used as fuel for domestic 
purposes, the burning of lime, smelting of iron, working of steam-engines nn sea and 
land. One variety, cannel-coal, is of superior quality for the preparation of gas. From 
the fire-clay are manufactured fire-brick and gas retorts; and the sandstone furnishes an in- 
exhaustible store of substantial and beautiful material for building. These several deposits 
contain in abundance the impressions of the vegetables which distinguish the carboniferous 
period; and what is remarkable, the remains of animals, the same as noted as occurring in the 
Burdiehouse limestone, are found in the shales, and even in the coal itself. In this district, 
no strata newer than the carboniferous system is known to exist; all is covered over with 
accumulations of clays, gravels, sands, and soiL 

" Having thus noticed the direction and geographical position of the several stratified 
formations of Scotland, we now come to treat briefly of the unstratified system. And in 
order to bring this department more clearly to the apprehension of the general reader, we 
must remark, that the unstratified rocks are of igneous origin. They were, in fact, melted 
volcanic matter, which had burst through the stratified deposits, which were thus elevated 
into mountain-ranges ; the strata being at the same time raised on edge to various angles 
with the horizon. This being the case, we consequently find that the unstratified follow the 
same course with the stratified mountains, since the former were the elevating cause of the 
latter. Now granite, an igneous rock, is more generally found connected with the primary 
non-fossiliferous than with the succeeding formations, forming centres in gneiss and mica 
slate, and rising above them in magnificent pinnacles. It is therefore in the primary region 
that granitic mountains may be expected to predominate. Of this we find an instance in the 
Grampian chain, which stretches in a north-east and south-west direction, intersecting the 
country. The granite is most largely developed on the north-east side of the country. It 
there commences about the parallel of Stonehaven, extends northward to Peterhead and 
Banff, and, in a westerly direction, along the courses of the Dee and the Don, and still con- 
tinues along the banks of the Tilt, Loch Ericht, Loch Lydoch, and terminates in this line 
near Oban and Fort- William. From the latter rises Ben-Nevis, composed of granitic sienite. 
But this is not the only range. Another may be traced commencing, in the north, between 
Thurso and Portskerry, which passes along, at irregular distances, near Loch Baden, the 
neighbourhood of Dornoch, Loch Oich, on the line of Loch Ness, and terminates in a lofty 
mountain at the head of Loch Sunart, on the west coast. Granite is found in several of the 
Western Isles, as in Rum, and is magnificently displayed in the Isle of Arran. Goatfell and 
the surrounding peaks are of granite. The granitic summits of these mountains form the 
highest land in Britain. Ben-Nevis is 4,373 feet above the level of the sea, and Ben-Macdhu 
rises about 17 feet higher. Though the granitic formation covers a greater area, and rises 
to a greater altitude in the north than in the south of Scotland, yet the latter is not deficient 
in this interesting rock. It rises through the older greywacke (the Cumbrian system) in 
Dumfries-shire; and occupies a great space in New Galloway, and in Kirkcudbright, and 
near Kirkmaiden, in the form of dykes. In some of those mountains, stones fit for the 
purposes of the jeweller have been found. The mountain Cairngorm, in Inverness-shire, has 
long been celebrated for its rock crystal, of a smoke- brown colour, and named Cairngorm from 
its locality, which, when cut by the lapidary, is highly esteemed for its colour and brilliancy, 
and is employed for seals, brooches, and other ornamental purposes. Topazes of a light blue 
colour, and sometimes of very large size, have occasionally been found on the same mountain, 
and also beryl (aqua marine), more rarely. 

" Unstratified rocks of every other kind also prevail in Scotland; including all the varieties 
of trap (commonly named whinstone), basalt, greenstone, compact felspar, pitchstone, por- 
phyries, and amygdaloids, which in many parts display ranges of symmetrical columns, some- 
times of great extent, — as at Arthur-Seat near Edinburgh, in several parts of the coast of 
Fife, in the islands of Eigg, Arran, Lamlash, and in the incomparable Staffa. But we shall 
attend to the distribution of these rocks throughout the country. They are connected with 


the older greywaeke and red sandstones of the south of Scotland. Trap forms a great part 
of the Cheviots on the borders, and passes northwards into the districts of Dunse, Coldstream, 
Kelso, Melrose, Selkirk, and Roxburghshire, rising into beautiful dome-shaped hills. Hou- 
nam-Law, the Eildons, and Ruberslaw (the last, near 1,500 feet high), may be cited as ex- 
amples. But in the great central valley of Scotland, beginning at Montrose on the east 
coast, trap hills appear in patches in the old red sandstone, passing in an irregular line to the 
frith of Tay, from the south-eastern extremity of which they proceed in a south-westerly 
course, without interruption, but varying greatly in breadth, through Dunning, Kinross, and 
Stirling, to Dumbarton. Another line, but less continuous, commences about Cupar, near 
St. Andrews, along the coasts of Fifeshire, and appears in groups about Linlithgow, Bathgate, 
near Glasgow, onwards to Paisley, and thence to Greenock, where it is greatly expanded, 
and turns north to the banks of the Clyde, nearly opposite the Dumbarton range. A third 
parallel range, also in interrupted masses, commences at Dunbar, is continued in the Pentlands, 
Tinto, and other hills in Lanarkshire, and in Ayrshire about Kilmarnock, Ayr, and New Cum- 
nock. In Galloway, trap is in some parts greatly expanded. A few of those localities may be 
mentioned, as we are not aware that any public notice has yet been given of its existence in 
those parts. A dyke of greenstone occurs near Kirkcolm point in greywaeke, at the western 
extremity of Loch Ryan ; Cairn-Pat, between Stranraer and Port-Patrick, is also greenstone ; 
and thence, the greywaeke of the whole coast to the Mull of Galloway is intersected by 
dykes and hills of several varieties of trap. On the northern side of Loch Ryan, it is seen 
involved amongst the roofing slates of the Cairn ; and a range of trap hills extends thence, 
rising through the greywaeke, flanking the edge of the loch, taking a south-easterly direction, 
passing by Castle-Kennedy to the north, and onwards to New-Luce. Here it expands to an 
enormous extent in every direction ; to the south it approaches Glenluce-bay. At Knocky- 
bay, a short distance north of New-Luce, a lead mine was at one time worked, but becoming 
unproductive, was abandoned. It may, however, be observed, that the greatest development * 
of trap is in the great central coal district, where it has fractured the strata, and raised the 
edges of the coal seams to the surface, an important natural operation, by which coal and its 
other useful accompaniments, ironstone, limestone, and building materials, have been made 
known and accessible. In the trap rocks of Scotland many interesting minerals are found. 
The far-famed Scotch agate or pebble abounds in nodules included in trap, near Montrose, 
Perth, and other places ; and many of the most beautiful of the zeolites are found among the 
hills around Dumbarton, the opposite side of the Clyde, and in many other localities. 

" The coal-fields constitute the principal mineral treasures of Scotland. The great coal 
district extends across the island from the eastern corner, or, as the district is termed in Low- 
land Scotch, the ' East Neuk ' of Fife, to the mouth of the Clyde in Dumbartonshire on the 
west, and into East-Lothian on the east. It is not, however, continuous throughout the 
whole distance, but consists rather of a succession of large detached coal-fields. Its superficial 
extent has been estimated at nearly 1,000 square miles; and it has also been calculated that, 
according to the present consumption, it may be worked with advantage during 3,000 years. 
The Fife coal-field, north of the Forth, extends from Stirling to St. Andrews, and is in some 
places 10 miles broad. The richest portion of it lies between Dysart and Alloa. The 
Lothian coal-field, on the south and east of Edinburgh, is about 25 miles in length, with a 
breadth of five or six, and covers an area of 80 square miles. To the westward of Edinburgh 
there is no coal for several miles ; but at Bathgate, workable beds are found, which extend 
westward, with some interruptions, to the neighbourhood of Glasgow, forming the great 
coal-field of Lanarkshire. The Clyde and the Forth form the boundaries of this field ; but 
beyond Blantyre, the coal extends on the south side of the Clyde to the Cathkin-hills. After 
passing Glasgow, the coal-field stretches westward from the south bank of the Clyde, and 
occupies the valley in the line of the Ardrossan canal, extending through Renfrewshire to 
Dairy in Ayrshire; the most southerly point being at Girvan. Several small fields occur at 
different parts of the south of Scotland, particularly at Sanquhar, in Dumfries-shire, and 
Canoby, in the same county, on the borders of England. Coal is found also at Brora in 
Sutherlandshire, and Campbelton in Kintyre, but in insignificant quantities. Besides the 
fossil fuel yielded by the coal-fields, ironstone of excellent quality abounds in many of them ; 
and is smelted to a great amount, and manufactured into articles suited for every useful pur- 
pose, at the great works of Carron, Shotts, Cleland, Airdrie, Clyde, Wilsontown, Muirkirk, 
Glenbuck, and some other places. It is the abundance and cneapness of coal in its vicinity 
that has enabled Glasgow to rival Manchester as a manufacturing emporium. 


" Next to the coal and ironstone, the most valuable mineral product of Scotland is lead, of 
which there are rich mines at Leadhills and Wanlockhead, in the Lowther-hills, on the borders 
of Lanarkshire and Dumfries-shire. Lead is also procured at Dollar in Clackmannanshire, 
Strontian in Argyleshire, Belleville in Inverness-shire, and Leadlaw in Peebles-shire. A 
considerable quantity of silver is extracted from the lead. Particles of gold have frequently 
been found in the small streams among the Lowther-hills, and also immediately under tho 
vegetable soil which covers the surface of the latter. Scotland abounds in quarries of the 
finest building materials, particularly sandstone. Hence the beauty of the numerous public 
edifices which adorn its cities and towns. The principal sandstone quarries are Craigleith, a 
little to the west of Edinburgh ; Binnie, near Uphall, Linlithgowshire ; Humbie, near South 
Queensferiy, also in Linlithgowshire; Giffneugh, near Glasgow, Lanarkshire; Longannet, 
near Kincardine, Perthshire; and Milnefield or Kingoodie, near Longforgan, Perthshire. 
Roofing-slates, only inferior to those procured in Wales, are quarried extensively at Balla- 
chulish, and in the island of Easdale, both in Argyleshire. Granite is brought from Aberdeen 
to pave the streets of London ; and the granite of Kirkcudbright has been partly used in the 
construction of the Liverpool docks. Variegated or veined marble, of a beautiful appearance, 
is found in Sutherlandshire, at Glentilt in Perthshire, at Tiree in Argyleshire, at Muriston in 
West-Lothian, and. in other places," 

Oetohedral alum occurs at Hurlet near Paisley, at Creetown in Galloway, and in the vicinity 
of Moffat; rock-butter, at Hurlet; compact gypsum, in the Campsie-hills ; fibrous gypsum, in 
Dumbartonshire, in the vicinity of Moffat, and on the banks of the Whitadder; foliated fluor, 
in various situations, but rarely, though abundant in England ; conchoidal apatite, or aspar- 
agus stone, near Kincardine, in Ross-shire, and in the Shetland isles; common arragonite, or 
prismatic limestone, in the lead mines of Leadhills, and in secondary trap-rocks in various 
situations; fibrous calc-cinter, the alabaster of the ancients, in Macallister's-cave in Skye; 
slate-spar, imbedded in marble in Glen-Tilt, and in Assynt ; common compact lucullite, or 
black marble, in some hills of Assynt; stinkstone, or swinestone, in Kirkbean, and the 
vicinity of North-Berwick; white domolite, in beds containing tremolite, in Iona; and 
brachytypous limestone, or rhomb-spar, near Newton-Stewart and on the banks of Loch- 

Foliated brown-spar occurs in the lead mines of Leadhills and Wanlockhead; columnar 
brown-spar, on the banks of Loch-Lomond, and near Newton-Stewart ; prismatic or electric 
calamine, at Wanlockhead; pyramid o-prismatic baryte, or strontianite, at Strontian in Argyle- 
shire ; foliated prismatoidal baryte, or celestine, at Inverness, and in the Calton-hill of Edin- 
burgh; white lead-spar, and black lead-spar, at Leadhills; indurated, friable, and green 
earthy lead-spars, prismatic lead-spar, or sulphate of lead, and radiated prismatic blue mala- 
chite, or blue copper, at Leadhills and Wanlockhead ; fibrous common malachite, at Sandlodge, 
in the mainland of Shetland ; radiated cobalt-mica, or cobalt-bloom, at Alva in Stirlingshire, 
and in the limestone of the coal measures in Linlithgowshire ; earthy blue iron, on the sur- 
face of peat mosses in Shetland; scaly graphite, in Strath-Beauly in Inverness-shire, and in 
the coal formation near Cumnock; foliated chlorite, in Jura; earthy chlorite, along with 
common chlorite, at Forneth-cottage in Perthshire; other chlorites, variously, and in abun- 
dance; common talc, in Perthshire, Aberdeenshire, and Banffshire; indurated talc, or talc- 
slate, in Perthshire, Banffshire, and Shetland; and steatite, or soapstone, in the limestone of 
Iona, and the trap-rocks of the Lothians, Arran, Skye, and some other places, 

Diatomous schiller-spar occurs in the serpentine of Fetlar and Unst in Shetland, and of Portsoy 
in Banffshire, in the greenstone of Fifeshire, in the porphyritic rock of Calton-hill, and in the 
trap of Craig-Lockhart, near Edinburgh ; hemiprismatic schiller-spar, or bronzite, jn Skye, and 
near Dimnadrochit in Inverness-shire; prismatoidal schiller-spar, or hypersthene, in Skye 
and Banffshire; kyanite in primitive rocks at Boharm in Banffshire, and near Banchory in 
Aberdeenshire, and in mica-slate near Sandlodge in the mainland of Shetland; fibrous preh- 
nite, in veins and cavities in the trap of Castle-rock, Salisbury-Crag, and Arthur-Seat, 
Edinburgh, of Bishopton and Hartfield in Renfrewshire, of Cockney-burn and Loch-Hum- 
phrey in Dumbartonshire, of the vicinity of Beith in AjTshire, and of Berwickshire, Mull, and 
Raasay; rhomboidal zeolite, or chabasite, in crystals in the vesicular cavities of the Mull and 
Skye trap; mealy zeolite, or mesotype, near Tantallan-.castle in Haddingtonshire, and in 
Mull, Skye, and Canna; pyramidal zeolite, or apophyllite, in the trap-rocks of Skye, some 
other species of zeolite, variously, and in abundance; adularia, a rare sub-species of prismatic 
felspar, in the granite of Arran ; compact felspar, a more common sub-species, in the Pentland 



hills, in the Ochil hills, in Tinto, and in Papa-Stour in Shetland; other sub-species of 
prismatic felspar, in numerous localities ; sahlite, a sub-species of pyramido-prismatic augite, 
in Unst, Tiree, Harris, Glentilt, Glenelg, and Eannoch; asbestous tremolite, in Glentilt, 
Glenelg, Iona, Shetland, and other places; common tremolite in Glentilt, Glenelg, and 
Shetland; rock-cork, a kind of asbestos, in veins in the serpentine of Portsoy, and in 
the red sandstone of Kincardineshire, in small quantities at Kildrummie in Aberdeen- 
shire, and in plates in the lead veins of Leadhills and Wanlockhead ; flexible asbestos, or 
amianthus, in the serpentine of Portsoy, Lewis, and Harris, of Mainland, Unst and Fetlar in 
Shetland, and in some other places; and rigid or common asbestos, in the serpentine of 
Shetland, Long-Island, and Portsoy. 

Epidote or pistacite occurs in the syenite of Arran and of the Shetland mainland, in the 
gneiss of Sutherland, in the trap of Mull and Skye, in the quartz of Iona and Eona, and in 
the porphyry of Glencoe and other districts ; common zoisite, in Shetland, Glenelg, and the 
banks of Loch-Lomond; common andalusite, in the primitive rocks of Aberdeenshire, Banff- 
shire, and Shetland; saussurite, between Ballantrae and Girvan; common topaz, in an 
alluvium in the granite and gneiss districts of Mar and Cairngorm; schorlous topaz, or 
schorlite, in Mar; beryl, along with topaz and rock-crystal, in an alluvium among the Cairn- 
gorm range ; common amethyst, in greenstone and amygdaloid, in many localities ; rock or 
mountain crystal — a variety of which is the Scottish Cairngorm stone — in the alluvium of the 
Cairngorm district, in drusy cavities in the granite of Arran, and in various other geognostic 
and topographical positions ; rose or milk quartz, in the primitive rocks of various districts ; 
conchoidal hornstone, in the Pentland-hills ; common calcedony, in most of the trap dis- 
tricts; carnelian, in most of the secondary trap districts, solitarily or in agate; striped jasper, 
in the clay porphyry of the Pentland-hills ; porcelain jasper, among pseudo-volcanic rocks in 
Fifeshire; agate jasper, in the agates of central Scotland; precious and common garnet, 
variously in primitive rocks; prismatic garnet, or cinnamon-stone, in gneiss near Kincardine 
in Eoss-shire ; prismatoidal garnet, or grenatite, in Aberdeenshire and Shetland ; and com- 
mon zircon and hyacinth, in Galloway, Inverness-shire, Sutherland, Shetland, and other 

Common sphene, or prismatic titanium-ore, occurs in the syenite of Inverary, in Criffel and 
other Galloway-hills, and in some other parts of Scotland; rutile, or prismato-pyramidal 
titanium-ore, in the granite of Cairngorm, and the quartz of Killin and Bengloe ; prismatic 
wolfram, in the island of Kona; iron sand or granular magnetic iron-ore, in the trap-rocks of 
various districts ; micaceous specular iron-ore, at Fitful-head in Shetland, in clay-slate near 
Dunkeld, and in the mica-slate of Benmore ; red hematite, or fibrous red iron-ore, in veins in 
the secondary greenstone of Salisbury-Crags, and in the sandstone of Cumber-head in Lan- 
arkshire; columnar red clay iron-ore, among other pseudo-volcanic productions in Fifeshire; 
pea-ore, or pisiform brown-clay iron-ore, in the secondary rocks of Galston ; bog iron-ore, in 
various parts of the Highlands and Islands ; scaly brown manganese-ore, near Sandlodge in 
Shetland; grey manganese-ore, near Aberdeen; octahedral copper, in the serpentine of Yell, 
and the sandstone of Mainland in Shetland ; prismatic nickel pyrites, or copper-nickel, at 
Leadhills and Wanlockhead, and in the coal-field of Linlithgowshire ; nickel ochre, in the 
same localities as the last, and at Alva; prismatic arsenic pyrites, at Alva; magnetic or 
rhomboidal iron pyrites, in Criffel, Windyshoulder, and other Galloway hills; yellow or 
pyramidal copper pyrites, near Tyndrum in Perthshire, and in the Mainland of Shetland; 
grey copper, or tetrahedral copper-glance, at Sandlodge in Shetland, at Airth in Stirlingshire, 
at Fassney-burn in Haddingtonshire, and in the vicinity of Girvan ; vitreous copper, or pris- 
matic copper-glance, in Ayrshire, at Fassney-burn, and in Fair Isle ; rhomboidal molybdena, 
in granite and syenite at Peterhead, in chlorite-slate in Glenelg, and in granite at the head 
of Loch-Creran ; molybdena ochre, along with the last, at the head of Loch-Creran ; grey 
antimony, or prismatoidal antimony-glance, in greywacke at Jamestown in Dumfries- shire, 
and among primitive rocks, accompanied by green fluor, in Banffshire; yellow zinc-blende, 
at Clifton near Tyndrum ; and brown zinc-blende, at Clifton, and in small veins with galena, 
in the Mid-Lothian coal-field. 

Amber, or yellow mineral resin, is found on the sea-beach ; petroleum, or mineral oil at 
St. Catherine's well in the parish of Liberton, and in Orkney ; asphaltum, or slaggy mineral 
pitch, in secondary limestone in Fifeshire, and in clay ironstone in Haddingtonshire: indu- 
rated lithomarge, in nidular portions, occasionally in secondary trap and porphyry rocks; 
mountain soap, in secondary trap in Skye; chiastolite, in clay-slate near Ballachulish in 


Argyleshire; iserine, in the sand of the Don and the Dee; and pinite, in porphyry in Ben- 
gloe and near Inverary. 


Scotland, in a botanical view, may be conveniently divided into three regions, — the frigid, 
the middle, and the genial. The frigid region comprises only the shoulders and summits of 
lofty mountains, or of alpine tableaux, which are covered for most part of the year with snow ; 
and it contains no sort of vegetation, except some of the minute lichens and mosses which almost 
everywhere rostel on the surface of bare rocks, and assist the first processes of disintegra- 
tion. The middle region extends downward from the lowest limits of mere lichens and 
mosses, to the upmost limits of cultivated plants. Much of it, especially on the primitive 
rocks, both stratified and amorphous, presents a sparse savage mixture of the useful and the 
useless in indigenous herbage ; but much also, especially on the trap and the Cumbrian rocks, 
abounds in good sward, and constitutes excellent sheep pasture. The upper parts are only 
a degree or two less barren than the frigid region ; the middle parts are variously sprinkled, 
patched, or covered with coarse grasses, heaths, and alpine herbs; and the lower parts are 
much diversified with brown moors, verdant expanses, and pine forests. The genial region 
comprises all the country below the limits which can be reached by the plough. Its chief 
constituents are the dry deep soils on the skirts of mountains and the sides of hills, — the 
straths, the outspread plains, and the undulating surfaces incumbent on the secondary rocks, 
— and the carses, the haughs, and the holms, in the bottoms of glens and valleys, along the 
course of streams. The parts of it not under cultivation, excepting bogs, sands, and 
similar wastes, are remarkable either for rich verdure or for luxuriance and variety of general 
vegetation; and the other parts, at least in all the best districts, exult in gorgeous intermix- 
tures of meadow, corn-field, garden, shrubbery, park, and grove. Some of its crop plants, 
in fine situations, thrive so high as 1,500 feet above sea-level; but wheat, even in the most 
favourable circumstances, can seldom reach maturity at a greater height than 600 feet. 

Many plants are peculiar to Scotland, as distingushed either from all the rest of the United 
Kingdom, or from all or most of the rest of the world. Some belong to the lichens and mosses 
of the frigid region, and some to the cryptogams of the other regions ; but these, though curious 
to botanists, possess little interest for general readers. We shall notice only the principal 
peculiar phaenogams; and, as the great majority of them belong to the middle region, so that 
they cannot be instructively classified on any topographical principle, we may name them in 
the order of their natural families, — descending from the most complicated exogens to the 
simplest endogens. 

Of the ranunculus family there are the alpine crowfoot and the rooting marsh-marigold. 
Of the cruciferous family are the rock draba, the daisy-leaved ladies'-smock, the Greenland 
scurvy -grass, and the hispid rock-wall-cress. Of the violet family is the pleasing violet. Of 
the carnation family are the alpine lychnis, the cerastium-like stitehwort, the scape-bearing 
stitch wort, the fascicled sandwort, the tetrandrous mousear-chickweed, and the sagina-Hke 
spurrey. Of the leguminous family are the mean milk-vetch, the mountain field milk-vetch, 
and the silky uralian milk-vetch. Of the rose family are the grey dog-rose, the golden 
cinquefoil, and the three-toothed-leaved cinquefoil. Of the saxifrage family are fourteen 
saxifrages, the drooping, the brook, the pedatifid, the hairy, the broad-petalled, the stripped, 
the pigmy, the dense, the lively green, the clammy moss-like, the mossy moss-like, the pretty 
moss-like, the narrow-leaved moss-like, and the longish-stalked. Of the umbelliferous family 
are the golden chervil and the sparrow masterwort. Of the valerian family is the Pyrenean 
valerian. Of the composite family are the alpine sow-thistle, the fair crepis, the northern 
antennaria, the alpine erigeron, the one-flowered erigeron, and six hawkweeds, the peranthus- 
leaved, the soft-leaved, the honeywort-like, the villous, the small-toothed, and the lungwort- 
like. Of the heath family are the blue menziesia and the black-berried alpine bear's grape. 

Of the gentian family is the snow gentian. Of the borage family is the tuberous comfrey. 
Of the figwort family are four speedwells, the rocky, the shrub-like, the bristled, and the ob- 
tuse-leaved alpine. Of the labiate family is the woolly thyme. Of the primrose family is the 
Scottish androsace. Of the amentaceous family are twenty-two willows, the shining, the 
glaucous, the woolly, the sand, the phylica-leaved, the plum-leaved, the myrsine-like, the 
veiny-leaved, the bilberry-leaved, the keel-leaved, the little tree, the withered-pointed, the 
silky rock, the phillyrea-leaved, the slenderer, Borer's, Davall's, Dickson's, Don's, Stuart's, 


Anderson's and Foster's. Of the coniferous family are the hooked-coned pine and the High- 
land Speyside pine. 

Of the orchis family are the inborn corallorrhiza and the white-flowered gnat-like gymna- 
denia. Of the smilax family is the whorl-leaved Solomon's seal. Of the asphodel family is 
the narrow-leaved victorial garlic. Of the rush family are the arched luzula, the spiked 
luzula, and four rushes, the many-headed, the supine, the chestnut, and Gesner's. Of the 
rope-grass family is the seven-angled pipewort. Of the sedge family are the rufous club-rush, 
the slender cotton-grass, the headed cotton-grass, the alpine trichophorum, and eleven carices, 
the curved, the slender, the russet, the banded-spiked, the brown-spiked, the scorched alpine, 
the rare-flowered, the rye-like, the dotted-fruited, Vahl's, and Mielichofer's. And of the grass 
family are the northern hierochloe, the alpine foxtail, the alpine cat's-tail, Micheli's cat's-tail, 
the glornerated deschampsia, the smooth-leaved deschampsia, the close calamagrostis, the reed- 
like schedonorus, the long-leaved giant brome-grass, the alpine poa, the zigzag poa, the grey 
poa, and the awnless arrhenatherum. 

But the large majority of Scotland's wild plants are common to it with England ; and the 
most conspicuous of these occur either as weeds on the tilled lands of its genial region, or as 
inhabitants of that region's woods and wastes. Mr. Watson, speaking of this, says, — " It is 
the region where flourish the trees and bloom the flowers rendered classic by our poets, and 
not the less loved by many of us, that their very commonness has made them familiar by 
vernacular names, without the aid of botanical systems or a dead language. It is, par ex- 
cellence, the land of the daisy and cowslip, the oak and hawthorn, the hazel copse and the 
woodbine bower ; the region of fruits and flowers, where the trees of the forest unite a grace- 
ful beauty with strength and majesty, and where the fresh green sward of the pasture, com- 
mingling with the yellow waves of the corn-field, tell us that here at least, ' the cheek of 
spring smiles in the kiss of autumn.' The downs and chases, in early spring, are covered 
with the countless blossoms of the golden gorse, or the more gaudy broom, and empurpled 
with the different kinds of heath during summer and autumn. Little indeed as we may re- 
gard these shrubs, in Sweden and North Russia the gorse is prized as we prize the myrtles 
of the south ; and our common heaths are unknown over a wide extent of Europe. A climate 
in which the heat of summer is rarely excessive, and where rain and clouds are so frequent, 
is unadapted to the spontaneous growth of fruits; and we accordingly find our native pro- 
ductions poor in the extreme. The wild cherry, crab, bullace, and native pear are the 
arborescent fruit-trees. The raspberry, strawberry, blackberry, sloe, hazel-nut, hip, and haw, 
form a very indifferent catalogue for our shrubby and herbaceous fruit-plants. The cran- 
berry, bilberry, and crowberry, with the fruit of the rowan and juniper, common to the culti- 
vated region and the one above it, are greatly surpassed by one fruit, almost peculiar to the 
latter, namely, the cloudberry. The changes produced by cultivation on some of the first 
mentioned fruits, it is unnecessary to detail. Lastly, the different kinds of gooseberries and 
currants cultivated in our gardens are probably derived from species indigenous to Britain, 
and are very apt to spring up in our woods and hedges from translated seeds." 

In Shetland, in Orkney, in the Hebrides, and in most of the Highlands, the range of culti- 
vated plants is comparatively narrow ; but in most of the Lowlands, and in some nooks of the 
Highlands, it is as broad and various as the conditions of soil, climate, and market economy 
will permit. Cultivation in all departments, from the sturdiest indigen to the most tender 
exotic, is so well understood by multitudes of Scotchmen that our foresters, our farmers, and 
our gardeners have extensively won the reputation, in other countries, of being the most skil- 
ful in the world. A large proportion of our farms are cropped, not only with rotations of all 
things most compensating in the nearest markets, but with varieties or hybrids of these most 
suitable to the specialities of soil and place; many of our woods, especially of the more recent 
ones, contain fine admixtures and luxuriant forms of native and foreign trees; many parks 
and shrubberies are currently adorned with specimens of rare or recently-discovered hardy 
exotics, almost as soon as these can be obtained ; and not a few of the best gardens, private 
as well as public, in the various departments both of the open ground and of the glazed cover, 
are absolute museums of foreign botany. We manifestly have not space for even the shortest 
select list of Scotland's cultivated plants ; and must content ourselves with naming the chief 
Scottish varieties of the three common cereal farm-plants, as indications of the care which is 
taken to produce or discover new good varieties, and to adapt them to circumstances. 

Of oats there are the Hopetoun oat, a famous variety which originated about twenty-five 
years ago in East Lothian ; the early Angus oat, extensively cultivated in the north-eastern 


districts; the late Angus oat, extensively cultivated in the central districts; the Cupar-G range 
oat, a prolific but late sub-variety of the late Angus ; the Blainslie oat, of variable reputation 
during about fifty years past for high and late situations in the south-eastern districts; the 
Drummond oat, adapted to strong clay soils, and cultivated in some parts of Perthshire; the 
Magbiehall oat, which originated long ago in Peebles-shire; and the Dyock oat, which 
originated about twenty-three years ago in the vicinity of Aberdeen, and has been found well 
suited, in all parts of the kingdom, to poor soils in cold high situations. Of barleys there are 
bere or bigg, extensively cultivated in the Hebrides and Highlands, and peculiarly suitable 
for exposed light grounds ; the Scotch barley, which admits of great latitude in the time 
of sowing, and was once in pre-eminent favour with brewers and distillers; and the Annat 
barley, which originated twenty-three years ago in the Carse of Gowrie, and has superior 
qualities, though inferior adaptation, to the universally favourite Chevalier. And of wheat 
there are the common white wheats of East Lothian, the Carse of Gowrie, Morayshire, and 
other districts, all called Scotcli white wheats, but perceptibly differing from one another in 
qualities and adaptation ; Hunter's wheat, which originated on a moor in Berwickshire, and 
has long been famous in the south-eastern districts ; Mungoswells wheat, which originated 
about twenty-five years ago in East Lothian, and contests the palm with Hunter's; the white 
golden drop wheat, which originated twenty years ago in the Carse of Gowrie, and has a 
medium character between the common-eared wheats and the turgid ones; the Hopetoun 
wheat, which originated twenty-two years ago in East Lothian, and has challenged much 
attention in comparative experiments ; and the white-bearded Shanry wheat, which originated 
about twenty years ago in Perthshire, and is a very superior winter bearded wheat. Many 
other varieties and subvarieties, less known or of less value, might be added ; and the Scottish 
varieties and hybrids of some other field-plants are correspondingly numerous. 


The zoology of Scotland comprises multitudes of interesting species which are common to 
it with other countries, but very few interesting species or varieties which are peculiar to itself. 
Its zoophytes, and some of its worms, present many attractions to naturalists, but scarcely 
any to general observers. Some of its entozoons and its insects possess a sad interest to 
stock farmers, for the diseases they create in sheep and cattle; and many of its insects and 
its land molluscs possess a similar interest to arable farmers, gardeners, orchardists, and 
foresters, for the injuries or the destruction they inflict on crops; but none of these are 
peculiar. The crustaceans, the sea molluscs, and the salt-water fishes yield an abundant 
trade to fishermen and fishmongers. The fresh-water fishes afford ample sport to anglers, as 
well as some curious study to naturalists; and a beautiful one of them, called the vendace, 
peculiar to a single lake in the parish of Lochmaben, is not a little interesting to all classes 
of observers. The reptiles, happily, comprise few species; but among these are a profusion 
of the odious toad and great plenty of the noxious viper. 

The birds, including the migratory as well as the stationary, amount to nearly three 
hundred species. Among the aquatic birds are wild ducks, wild geese, the gannet, the wild 
swan, gulls, terns, guillemots, sand-pipers, snipes, the heron, the bittern, and the stork. 
Among the predatory birds are owls, hawks, the kestril, the raven, the magpie, the butcher- 
bird, the osprey, and the eagle. Among the singing birds are linnets, larks, the thrush, the 
starling, the bulfinch, the goldfinch, the seskin, the blackbird, and the blackcap. And 
among the game birds are the woodcock, the partridge, the blackcock, the red grouse, the 
grey ptarmigan, the quail, the landrail, the pheasant, and the plover. The capercailzie, or 
cock of the wood, who once walked our mountains as king of the gallinaceous tribes, and was 
exterminated by the excessive pursuit of sportsmen about the middle of last century, has of late 
years been reintroduced from Sweden to several upland estates, and may possibly become 
once more a familiar inhabitant of our highland wastes. The domesticated fowls comprise 
all the approved kinds of poultry, both economical and ornamental, in fine selection and 
under good management; but do not present any peculiar, or at least remarkable, Scottish 

The wild mammals comprise sixteen sea-species and thirty-seven land-species. Seals are 
particularly numerous. The common rabbit, the common hare, and even the alpine hare are 
abundant. The roebuck, the fallow deer, and the red deer are carefully preserved in the 
Highlands, and form a prime object of interest to sportsmen. The principal other native 


mammals are the fox, the wild cat, the otter, the marten, the polecat, the stoat, the weasel, 
the mole, the brown rat, the common mouse, the field mouse, the squirrel, the hedgehog, the 
common bat, and the long-eared bat. At a former period, the bear, the wolf, and the curious 
white Caledonian ox were denizens of Scotland; but the bear was exterminated in the eleventh 
century, the last wolf was killed in the year 1686, and the Caledonian ox now survives 
only in small numbers, under careful keeping, in the parks of Hamilton Castle in Lanarkshire, 
Taymouth Castle in Perthshire, and Chillingham Castle in Northumberland. Two domestica- 
ble species of foreign quadrupeds also have recently been introduced as curiosities, — the 
bison into the park of Taymouth Castle, and the alpaca into that park and the park of Buch- 
anan House in Stirlingshire. 

The common hog of the Hebrides and the Highlands is a direct descendant of the wild 
hog of the ancient Caledonians, very small in size, of an uniform grey colour, with a shaggy 
coat of long hairs and bristles, and feeding on the hills without any artificial shelter in the 
same manner as mountain sheep. The Orkney hog and the Shetland hog are somewhat 
similar, but very ugly, very mischievous, and scarcely larger than an English terrier. The 
Lowland Scotch hog is a dingy, long-legged, lumpish, uncouth, thriftless animal of many 
subvarieties, passing up by imperceptible gradations from the size of the Highland hog to a 
size very much greater; but, though at a recent period quite general throughout the southern 
and the eastern counties, it is now, in a main degree, obliterated and supplanted by multi- 
tudes of crossings with the Chinese and the English breeds. 

The Highland pony, or small native horse of the Highlands, lives almost wholly in the open 
air, in winter as well as in summer, and is a short-legged, sure-footed, sagacious traverser of 
the mountain and the bog. The sheltie or Shetland pony is so small as to seem almost like 
a toy, but very symmetrical and very docile, and has a strength and an endurance enormously 
greater than might be expected from its size. The Galloway horse originated in Wigtonshire, 
— it is said, from some Spanish horses which were thrown ashore in the wreck of one of the 
ships of the celebrated Armada. It is an elegant, stout, sure-footed, mountain-scaling crea- 
ture, commonly not quite fourteen hands high. But it began long ago to be generally sub- 
jected to cross-breeding, with the view of enlarging it into fitness for the plough ; and now, 
except in a few instances in such remote situations as the island of Mull, it has everywhere 
become extinct. Yet in lingering recollection of its excellence, the name of galloway con- 
tinues to be given to every kind of horse which is supposed to resemble it in size and hardi- 
ness. The Clydesdale horse originated about 150 years ago in the central parts of Lanark- 
shire, in a steady assiduous process of crossings between the native horse and the Flemish 
one. It has for many years been quite common throughout all the best districts of the 
Lowlands; and it possesses such eminent value both on the road and on the farm as to be quite 
equal, or more than equal, for required work at minimum cost, to all the best English heavy 
draught breeds combined. 

The Hebridean sheep is very small in size, thin, lank, and of comparatively little value, 
with wool of various colours from bluish-grey to deep russet. The Shetland sheep is small, 
handsome, wild, active, and hardy, with a fleece of soft, short, cottony wool, adapted to very 
fine manufactures. The Highland sheep is the descendant of an ancient race, with yellow 
face, yellow legs, and a dishevelled unequal fleece, but is now nearly extinct. The black-faced 
or heath sheep was introduced from Northumberland many centuries ago to the southern 
counties of Scotland, and from these about the middle of last century to all the Highlands, 
western, central, and northern, away even to the Pentland frith. It is a hardy animal, valu- 
able for its mutton, but with a coarse fleece. The best subvarieties of it are those of Peebles- 
shire. The Cheviot sheep has existed from time immemorial on the Cheviot mountains, and 
has thence been spread over the southern highlands of Scotland, and over large tracts of the 
central and the northern highlands, — in some places supplanting the black-faced sheep, and 
in others competing with it for popular favour. It differs materially from that sheep in at 
once character, habit, and adaptation, — particularly in having shorter and finer wool, a more 
docile disposition, and a distaste for pastures which are over -run with heath or not freely 

All the native Scotch breeds and sub-breeds of bovine cattle, excepting three, are of the 
class called middle-horned ; the three excepted breeds being hornless, and all the others hav- 
ing horns of intermediate size between short and long. The Shetlanders are the smallest, 
but have no superiors or even equals in the quality of their beef. The North Highlanders, 
including those of Orkney and Caithness, are much larger than the Shetlanders, but also 


much coarser and far less handsome ; yet they comprise two sub-breeds in Sutherlandshire, 
the Dunrobins and the Skibos, which have a high reputation. The West Highlanders or 
Kyloes are a shaggy race, far superior to the North Highlanders, and also older and more im- 
proved ; nevertheless, in consequence of being very widely diffused throughout the Highlands 
and Hebrides, they comprise many sub-breeds of very various value. The Falklands are an 
old celebrated Fifeshire breed, supposed to have been introduced from the south of England 
by some of the kings of Scotland, who occasionally resided at Falkland; but they have be- 
come very scarce, and are likely soon to disappear. The runts, as they are contemptuously 
called, of Aberdeenshire and Fifeshire, are large, ill-shaped, half-haggard creatures, yielding 
beef which is bad for the retail butcher, but suits well to be salted and shipped. The Ayr- 
shires make bad returns in the shambles, but have a high fame, long an unrivalled one, for the 
dairy; and besides being the pet-cattle of Ayrshire, are extensively diffused through the 
neighbouring counties as far as West Lothian. Of late years, however, they have been ex- 
tensively outrivalled, in other parts of the southern Lowlands, by the English short-horns. 
The Buchan doddies, the Angus humlies, and the Galloway cattle, the three hornless breeds 
— the first abounding in the northern and central parts of Aberdeenshire, the second spread 
over all Forfarshire, all Kincardineshire, the south-eastern part of Aberdeenshire, and many 
parts of Fifeshire, and the third spread over all Wigtonshire, all Kirkcudbrightshire, the 
southern part of Ayrshire, and a considerable part of Dumfries-shire — are all excellent beef- 
yielding breeds, well known and much appreciated in the English markets, — the Galloways 
alone constituting one-third of all the cattle of Smithfield from March till July. 


The climate of Shetland, of Orkney, and of the Hebrides has, in the case of each, some 
marked peculiarities, which are noticed in the articles devoted to their description. Even 
that of the mainland, owing to the bold and remarkably varied contour of the country, is so 
singularly various, as to offer matter for distinctive remark in notices of most counties, and 
even of not a few parishes. 

In a general view, the heat, in consequence of the country's insularity, and of its frequent 
and long indentations by the sea, is much higher in winter, and more moderate in summer, 
than in the same latitudes on the continent. The temperature, except in moorlands in the 
interior, and the more mountainous districts, seldom remains long at the freezing-point; nor, 
in any part of the country, does it often rise to what is called Indian heat, or to an intensity 
which incommodes the labour of the field. The extremes, so far as they have been observed, 
are 92° of Fahrenheit, and 3° below zero ; but, in the case of both, are rarely and very briefly 
approached. The ordinary greatest range of the thermometer is between 84° and 8°. The 
mean annual temperature for the whole country is from 45° to 47°; and at the lowest is 
41° 11, — at the highest 50° 32. Nor does the average descend as the observer moves north- 
ward, or to the vicinity or into the interior of the Highlands. For the mean temperature of 
Dumfries, deduced from the observation of 9 years, is 42° 327 ; that of Glasgow, as deter- 
mined by Professor Thomson, is 47° 75 ; that of Edinburgh, as determined by Professor Play- 
fair, is 47° 7 ; that of St. Andrews, deduced from the observation of 8 years, is 48° 01 ; that 
of Perth, deduced from the observation of 9 years, is 48° 131 ; that of Aberdeen, deduced 
from the observation of 10 years, is 47° 648; and that of Liverness, deduced from the obser- 
vation of 13 years, is 48° 09. 

The range of the barometer is often both great and rapid, and averages throughout the 
mainland 2-82 inches, or from 36'92 to 28"10. Snow is less copious, though probably more 
frequent, in its falls than in the south of England; and rain, on the average, is less than in 
the west of England. The joint quantity of the two has an annual mean amount for the 
kingdom of from 30 to 31 inches, but differs widely on the east and on the west coast, — 
varying, on the former, from 22 to 26 inches, and, on the latter, from 35 to 46 inches. At 
Dumfries, the mean annual quantity, as deduced from the observation of 7 years, is 33'54 
inches ; at Glasgow, from the observation of 31 years, 22-4 inches ; at Perth, from the 
observation of 9 years, 23"01 inches; at Aberdeen, from the observation of 4 years, 27 - 37 
inches ; and at Inverness, from the observation of 7 years, 26"21 inches. The average number 
of days in the year on which rain or snow falls, is variously stated to be, on the east coast, 
135 and about 145, and on the west coast, 200 and 205. The least humid district in the 
Lowlands, is East-Lothian ; and the most humid, Ayrshire. Thick fogs, and small drizzly 



rains, visit the whole country, chiefly in spring and autumn, and during the prevalence of east- 
erly winds ; and, in many localities, the fogs lie along a champaign country like seas of fleecy 
vapour, with the hills and loftier uplands appearing like islands on their bosom. Snow, ex- 
cept in the milder districts of the Lowlands, generally begins to fall about the middle of 
November, and seldom ceases its periodical visits till March or April. 

The winds are to a high degree variable, both in force and direction; and, in the High- 
lands and Southern Highlands, produce not a few curious phenomena in connexion with the 
peculiar configuration of localities. They often rise to gale and storm, and in some places 
even to tempest; and about the period of the equinoxes, are more violent than in England. 
Those from the west are in autumn and the early part of winter, the most prevalent, and, in 
general, they are the highest; and those from the north-east prevail from the beginning 
of March till May or June, and are often keen and severe. At St. Andrews, the winds are 
westerly, except in the spring and early summer months, when those which are easterly pre- 
vail; at Perth, during 9 years ending with 1833, the winds were from the west and norths 
west, on 1,197 days, from the east and south-east, on 996, from the south and south-west, on 
957, and from the north and north-east, on 137 ; and at Inverness, as the result of 13,800 
observations, made during 21 years preceding 1825, the proportions of the winds in parts 
of 1,000, were westerly and south-westerly, 478, easterly and north-easterly, 237, northerly 
and north-westerly, 205, and southerly and south-easterly, 80. These instances, however, in- 
dicate in but a general way the comparative prevalence of the different winds throughout 
Scotland, and afford no index whatever to it in peculiar localities. 

On the whole, the climate of Scotland, as compared with that of England, is cold, wet, and 
cloudy, occasions lateness in harvest to the average amount of at least three weeks, and pre^ 
vents the remunerative cultivation of hops, and several other valuable vegetables. Yet, over 
by far the greater part of the area of the country, it is to the full as healthy. Mr. Malthus 
says, — " We are pretty confident, from extensive observation in different countries, that the 
proportion of the population that reaches 70 or 80 years of age, and the vigour then remain- 
ing, are greater in Scotland than almost anywhere else.'' 


The agriculture of Scotland, in common with that of England, continued till the latter part 
of last century in a very rude condition. Jethro Tull, the inventor of the drill husbandry, 
rose among the farmers of his clay like a preceptor among children. He pursued agricultural 
improvement with the fervour of a passion, lavished upon it toil and wealth and genius, and 
effected greater achievements for it than any other man who ever trode the British soil. Yet 
he encountered a hurricane of derision from his contemporaries, and sank unhonoured and 
heart-crushed into the grave ; and though an Englishman, he began to acquire even posthu- 
mous reputation through the instrumentality of a Scotchman. He extended his experiments 
through many years, published the first portion of his principal work, the " Horse-Hoeing 
Husbandry," in 1731, and died in 1740. His system was first brought into notice in 1762, 
by Mr. Dawson, a tenant-farmer, at Frogden in Roxburghshire; and even then it had to 
fight its way to fortune. " When Mr. Dawson first settled at Frogden,'' says the Agricultural 
Report of Northumberland, " the whole of that district was under the most wretched system 
of management, and the farmers unacquainted with the value of turnips, artificial grasses, or 
lime. At first his practice met with many opponents, and was ridiculed by the old, the 
ignorant, and the prejudiced; but his superior crops and profits soon made converts, the 
practice in a few years became general, and this district is now amongst the best cultivated in 
the kingdom, the land treble in value, and the aspect of the country greatly improved." 

The progress of agricultural improvement, thus powerfully impelled by the establishment of 
the drill husbandry, was afterwards grandly accelerated by the proceedings of the Highland and 
Agricultural Society, founded in 1784, and by those of the Board of Agriculture, with the 
celebrated Sir John Sinclair as its first president, formed in 1794; and from that time till the 
present, throughout all the best districts of the Scottish Lowlands, it has been so rapid and 
manifold as to make the unpractised head giddy to contemplate it, but happily is so well 
known to all classes of persons most interested in it that it does not need to be described, 
Some of its most striking features, in nearly the order of their development, have been the 
improving of the breeds of sheep and cattle, the field-culture of the potato, the routine use of 
turnips in the feeding of live stock, the general practice of liming, the establishment of regular 


green and white crop rotations, the introduction of Swedish turnips and of spring and sum- 
mer wheats, the invention of new agricultural implements and the improvement of old ones, 
the enclosing of commons and wastes, the reclaiming of bogs and morasses, the sheltering and 
economising of bleak and upland tracts with plantations, the organizing of farriery and the 
adapting of it to the farm, the multiplication of agricultural societies, the establishing of 
agricultural shows and agricultural schools, the introduction and ordinary use of special 
manures, the practice of subsoil draining, the marrying of agriculture to chemistry, geology, 
phytology, and other sciences, and the exalting of all the affairs of the farm, the commonest 
and humblest as well as the most rare and lordly, to their position of true dignity as at once 
the most complicated, the most scientific, the most physically useful, and the most morally 
benign of all human arts. In the Highlands and Islands, however, the progress has been 
very much less and exceedingly various. 

The characteristics of the agriculture of Scotland as distinguished from that of the other 
parts of the empire, are, in the words of M'Culloch, — " 1st, The nearly universal prevalence 
of leases of a reasonable endurance, and containing regulations as to management, which, 
while they do not improperly shackle the tenant, prevent the land from being exhausted pre- 
viously to the termination of the lease ; 2d, The absence of tithes, and in most cases, also, of 
poor-rates, and of all oppressive public burdens ; 3d, The prevention of assignment and sub- 
letting by tenants and the descent of the lease to the heir-at-law ; and 4th, The general 
introduction of thrashing-machines, and the universal use of the two-horse plough and one- 
horse cart." These characteristics, however, have full place only in the Lowlands. Charac- 
teristics more or less different, in many cases widely so, exist in the Highlands and Islands. 
A barbarous system of mixed husbandry, with " infield " and " outfield," prevailed there till 
a very recent period, — under miserable circumstances, and with most pitiable appliances ; and 
this, though improved in some instances and revolutionized in others, has very extensively, 
in the most upland regions, been displaced altogether by a system of mere sheep farming, 
which has turned thousands of the human population adrift, and converted many a peopled 
glen into an utter solitude. 

The soils of Scotland, as might be expected from the peculiarities of its surface and geology, 
are often very various in even a single field, and much more in extensive districts. Yet they 
have, in many instances of both the excellent and the inferior, long and broad expanses of 
uniformity; and, while in aggregate character poorer than those of England, they vie in their 
rich tracts with the wealthiest in the three kingdoms, and have prompted and tutored, over 
their penurious tracts, a keenness of georgic skill, and a sturdiness in the arts of husbandry, 
which have made Scottish farmers the boast of Europe. The carses of Stirling, Ealkirk, and 
Gowrie, most of the three Lothians, the Merse, Clydesdale, and Strathearn, large portions of 
Fifeshire, Strathmore, Annandale, Nithsdale, Kyle, Cunningham, and the low grounds along 
the Moray and the Cromarty friths, and even some straths and very numerous haughs in the 
mountainous districts, are highly productive, and can bear comparison with the best tracts of 
land in England. According to Sir John Sinclair's digest of the productive soils, or of those 
on lands fully or partially cultivated, the loams amount to 1,869,193 English acres, the rich 
clays to 987,070, the gravelly soils to 681,862, the cold or inferior clays to 510,265, the im- 
proved mossy soils to 411,096, the alluvial haugh or carse land to 320,193, and the sandy 
soils to 263,771, — in all, as we stated at the outset, 5,043,450 English acres. 

The distribution of land, the kinds, quantities, and produce of aration crops, the amount of 
the several kinds of live stock, and the extent of bare fallows, sheep pastures, home-stead 
occupancies, woods, and wastes, have been the subject of many conjectural estimates and 
conflicting statements, — all defective and unsatisfactory; but at length, in 1853, by special 
exertions of the Highland and Agricultural Society, under sanction of the Government, they 
were closely ascertained in three counties, and have subsequently been extended all over the 
kingdom. The general results are given at the close of this Introduction (see page Ixv). 
The following summary of the average results for 1855 and 1856 may however exhibit them 
in a fresher point of view to our readers. Of the entire surface of the soil of Scotland 23,697 
per cent, is cultivated, and 76,321 uncultivated, barren, in pasture, or in bogs, lochs, rivers, 
ponds, roads, and habitations. Of the entire cultivated surface, 64,545 per cent, is under a 
rotation of crops, and in occupancy at a rent over £20 in eight counties, and over £10 in all 
the others, and 35,454 per cent, either in holdings under these values, or in orchards, private 
and nursery gardens, plantations, pleasure grounds, &c. Of the former, the following is the 
approximate average distribution for 1855 and 1856: 


per cent. 

In Grass and Hay under") .„ KQ „ 
rotation, . . j-«*oab 
Oats, . . . 26-3904 

Turnips, . . 12-989 

per cent 

Wheat, 6-696 
Barley, 4-954 
Potatoes, 4-249 

per cent. 
Beans, Pease, and Vetches, 1-738 
Mangold Wurzel, & Rape, > 

Flax and Turnip Seed, j 02b 
Summer Fallow, . 056 

81-9754 15-899 

Besides carrots, cabbage, and other vegetables, grains, or roots. 





1-820 99-6944 


For a number of years past, the condition of the cotton, woollen, flax, and silk factories of 
Scotland has been the subject of regular half-yearly reports by a government inspector; so 
that any person who desires to have an intimate view of their extent, progress, fluctuation, 
and economy may obtain it by examining a series of those reports. We can afford to note 
only the most important general facts, and to note even these in only the briefest terms. 

In 1835, the total number of factories was 425, with 17,721 power-looms ; in 1838, it was 
492, with 9,734 horse-power in steam, and 5,421 in water ; in 1850, it was 550, with 13,857 
horse-power in steam, and 6,004 horse-power in water; and in 1856, it was 530, with 19,699 
horse-power. In 1838, there were 192 cotton factories, with 8,340 horse-power, and 35,576 
workers, — 112 woollen factories, with 1,823 horse-power, and 5,076 workers, — 183 flax 
factories, with 4,845^ horse-power, and 17,897 workers, — and 5 silk factories, with 148 horse- 
power, and 763 workers. In 1850, there were 168 cotton factories, with 1,683,093 spindles, 
23,564 power-looms, and 36,325 workers, — 182 woollen factories, with 224,129 spindles, 
247 power-looms, and 9,464 workers, — 188 flax factories, with 303,125 spindles, 2,529 
power-looms, and 28,312 workers, — and 5 silk factories, with 36,652 spindles, and 841 
workers. In 1856, there were 152 cotton factories, with 9,971 horse-power, 21,624 power- 
looms, and 34,698 workers, — 204 woollen factories, with 3,260 horse-power, 800 power- 
looms, and 10,175 workers, — 168 flax factories, with 6,346 horse-power, 4,011 power- 
looms, and 31,722 workers, — and 6 silk factories, with 122 horse-power, and 837 workers. 
No similar statistics have been obtained since 1856. 

Of the 192 cotton factories which were in operation in 1838, 107 with 4,146 horse-power 
were in Lanarkshire, 58 with 1,921 in Eenfrewshire, 7 with 554 in Perthshire, 4 with 617 
in Aberdeenshire, 4 with 338 in Ayrshire, 4 with 417 in Dumbartonshire, 3 with 130 in 
Stirlingshire, 2 with 70 in Buteshire, 1 with 58 in Dumfries-shire, 1 with 55 in Kirkcud- 
brightshire, and 1 with 34 in Linlithgowshire. Of the 112 woollen factories, 24 with 285 
horse-power were in Clackmannanshire, 18 with 249-| in Ayrshire, 17 with 310 in Boxburgh- 
shire, 15 with 199 in Selkirkshire, 7 with 292 in Aberdeenshire, 7 with 99 in Perthshire, 7 
with 115 in Stirlingshire, 3 with 60 in Dumfries-shire, 3 with 101 in Lanarkshire, 2 with 24 
in Kirkcudbrightshire, 2 with 26 in Eenfrewshire, 1 with 16 in Berwickshire, 1 with 6 in 
Edinburghshire, 1 with 91 in Fifeshire, 1 with 7 in Forfarshire, 1 with 4 in Kincardineshire, 
1 with 8 in Linlithgowshire, and 1 with 12 in Wigtonshire. Of the 183 flax factories, 96 
with 2,376 horse-power were in Forfarshire, 46 with 989 in Fifeshire, 13 with 238 in Perth- 
shire, 8 with 60j? in Kincardineshire, 7 with 244 in Edinburghshire, 4 with 628 in Aberdeen- 
shire, 3 with 46 in Ayrshire, 3 with 192 in Eenfrewshire, 2 with 40 in Lanarkshire, and 1 
with 32 in Linlithgowshire. And of the 5 silk factories, 3 with 106 horse-power were in 
Lanarkshire, 1 with 30 in Eenfrewshire, and 1 with 12 in Edinburghshire. 

An important act of parliament was passed in 1833, regulating labour in factories, and 
enforcing care for the education of children-workers. The last report on Scotland 
for 1853 says on the latter subject, — " The factories in which children have hitherto 
been employed reckon among their number some of the most important works in Scotland ; 
and the owners of such factories, so far from considering their schools a trouble, take the 
greatest pride and pleasure in showing them ; for while they profit by the labours of the 
children, they do not forget that they have a duty to perform in return, not by carrying out 
the requirements of the act as if it were intended to be a mere matter of form, but by appoint- 
ing efficient teachers, furnishing them with the means of imparting the instruction so necessary 
to the welfare of the children in after-life, and by taking care that it is done. Such is the 
character of most of the factory schools maintained in the larger class of works in which 
children have hitherto been employed in Scotland; and in most of them the adults have the 


choice of participating. In small works, the same means, of course, are wanting ; but there 
are few even of them in which the provision for the instruction of the children may not be 
considered satisfactory." The following table gives a classified view of the factory-workers, 
as to age and sex, at four periods : — 

Number of Children. 









No. of Males. No. of Females 
between 13 & 18. above 13. 



No. of Males 
above 18. 





Males & Females. 

Hand-loom weaving — which deeply affects by far the largest class of the population inter- 
ested in manufactures — was made the subject of commission inquiry in 1838, and of reports 
returned to the House of Commons in February, 1839. The inquiry was made in two terri- 
torial divisions ; one over all Scotland south of the Forth and Clyde, including Kilsyth and 
Campsie on the further side of the connecting canal ; the other, over what the report calls 
the east of Scotland, but over, in point of fact, very nearly every site of a loom not included 
in the former division. The following table indicates, as exhibited in the report, the number 
of separate trades or fabrics in the country south of the Forth and Clyde, the locality of each 
fabric, the number of looms employed in each, and the average rate of nett wages earned in 
each department, and distributed into two classes, — the first being the average nett amount 
earned, by adult skilled artisans, on the finer qualities of the fabric, — the second being the aver- 
age nett amount earned by the less skilled and younger artisans, on the coarser qualities of 
the fabric. 




Clear Weekly Wages. 

Districts where woven. 




1st Class. 

2d Class. 

Pullicates, ginghams, 

Lanarkshire, especially in Airdrie, 

stripes, checks, &c, 

Lanark, and Glasgow; also at 
Girvan and other places on the 

west coast. 




7s. Od. 

4s. 6d. 

Shawls, zebras, &c, 

Paisley, Glasgow, &c. 

1802 to 

Paisley, Glas- 
gow and Ed- 



10s. 6d. 

6s. Od. 

Plain muslins, 

Lanarkshire, Glasgow, Irvine, 

Hamilton, Eaglesham, &c. 




7s. 6d. 

4s. 6d. 

| Fancy muslins, silk 

Silk gauzes 

Paisley and 

gauzes, &c, 

Renfrewshire and Lanarkshire. 

in 1760. 

Glasgow 7 . 


9s. 6d. 

6s. Od. 

Thibets and tartans, 

Thibets in Lanarkshire ; a few tar- 
tans in Dalmellington, Straiton, 

Thibets in 

Glasgow and 

Sanquhar, and Hawick. 




7s. Od. 

5s. 6d. 

Carlisle ginghams, 



7s. 6d. 

4s. 6d. 


South-east of Scotland, Galashiels, 
Hawick, Jedburgh, &c. 

Hawick, and 



16s. 6d. 

lis. Od. 


Kilmarnock, Glasgow, and Lass- 

Glasgow, and 



18s. Od. 

lis. Od. 

Sailcloths, coarse lin- 

Port-Glasgow, Leith, and Mussel- 

Port - Glasgow, 

ens, and haircloth, 


Leith, and 



13s. Od. 

10s. Od. 


The report on the country north of the Forth, the Clyde, and the connecting canal, dis- 
tributes the fabrics generally into woollen, linen, and cotton. The weavers were employed 
on carpets in factories, and on hard and soft tartans, and tartan shawls, in their own cottages; 
and " were in a condition similar to that of the other labouring classes in the country." The 
manufacture of tartans was seated chiefly at Stirling and its vicinity, and at Aberdeen, em- 
ployed probably 2,500 looms, and might be considered as very prosperous, and likely to im- 
prove. The linen manufacture employed about 26,000 looms ; and might be distributed into 
harness work, heavy work, and ordinary work. The harness work, as damask table-cloths, table- 
covers, and napkins, was carried on almost exclusively in and near Dunfermline; had doubled 
the number of its looms since 1826 ; employed in 1838 about 3,000; exported nearly half of its 



produce to the United States ; and yielded average weekly wages of about 8s. 6d. The heavy 
work, as sail-cloth, broad-sheetings, floor-cloth, and some kinds of bagging, was seated princi- 
pally in Dundee, Arbroath, Aberdeen, Montrose, and Kirkcaldy ; employed about 4,000 
looms, — all in factories ; and yielded weekly wages, in not rare cases, of 15s., and of not less 
than 8s. 6d. average. The ordinary work, as dowlas, common sheetings, and osnaburghs, 
might be considered as the staple linen manufacture of Scotland ; was seated principally in For- 
farshire ; employed from 17,000 looms in summer, to 22,000 or 23,000 in winter, — nearly all 
in small detached buildings adjacent to the weavers' cottages ; and yielded average weekly 
wages of from 6s. to 7s. 6d. to the first class, and from 4s. to 5s. 6d. to the second. The 
cotton manufacture employed about 5,000 looms ; and, next to Perth, which was its principal 
seat, was carried on chiefly at Dunblane, Auchterarder, Balfron, and Kinross. The weavers, 
except at Perth, and in a few instances at Kirkcaldy and Aberdeen, were employed wholly 
by Glasgow manufacturers ; and at Kinross, Dunblane, and Auchterarder earned not more 
than 4s. of average weekly wages. 

Printfields and bleachfields have not figured so largely in public statistics as could be 
wished. One reason of this may be that they are rather an appendage of manufacture than a 
department of it, — belonging quite as much to mere art as to productive industry ; and an- 
other may be that they have been very fluctuating, partly from the influence of taste, partly 
from the progress of chemistry, and partly on account of their restriction, in place or season, 
to large continuous supplies of pure water. Still, being essential to the prosperity of the 
great manufactures with which they are connected, they have been largely though variously 
maintained by modern Scottish enterprize. In 1846, there were 74 of them in S6otland. 
They are situated in the counties of Dumbarton, Eenfrew, Lanark, Ayr, Stirling, Perth, and 
Linlithgow ; and those in the parishes of Bonhill and Neilston, the former in the vale of the 
Leven, the latter in that of the Levern, may be taken as a fair specimen of the whole. 

The paper-manufacture of Scotland is considerable, and is distributed through the excise 
collections of Aberdeen, Ayr, Dumfries, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Haddington, Linlithgow, 
Montrose, and Stirling. The number of paper mills in 1842 was 48 ; in 1848, 49 ; in 1854, 
51 ; in 1860, 52. The quantity of paper made in 1842 was 17,065,666 lbs. ; in 1848, 
24,800,705 lbs. ; in 1854, 36,857,719 lbs. ; in 1860, 47,520,910 lbs. The quantity made 
in England and Wales, in 1860, was 166,739,390 lbs. ; in Ireland, 9,314,985 lbs. 

The mineral trade is great. The output of coals, in 1854, was 7,448,000 tons, from 368 
collieries; in 1857, 8,211,473 tons, from 425 collieries ; in 1864, 12,700,000 tons, from 490 
collieries. The output of iron ore, chiefly in Lanarkshire, Ayrshire, and the south-west of 
Fifeshire, was 2,500,000 tons in 1857, and 2,225,000 in 1859; and the produce in pig iron 
was 918,000 tons in 1857, and 960,550 in 1859. The demand for iron sank increasingly 
below the produce from 1857 till 1865, but rose to it in 1866. The output of lead ore, from 
mines in Lanarkshire, Dumfries-shire, Kirkcudbrightshire, Argyleshire, and Perthshire, was 
1,931 tons in 1856, and 1,946 in 1859 ; the produce in metallic lead was 1,416 tons in 
1856, and 1,347 in 1859 ; and the produce in silver, extracted from the lead ore, was 5,232 
ounces in 1856, and 4,022 in 1859. Cast iron goods are largely produced at the Carron 
works, at places in Lanarkshire, and at some other places. 

The soap-trade, though employing no great multitude of hands, possesses interest for the 
connection of its statistics with general economy. The number of licensed soap-makers in 
Scotland in 1850 was 25,— in 1860, 26. The number of pounds weight of silicated soap 
made in 1850 was 36,390,— in 1851, 7,150 ; of other hard soap, in 1850, 16,038,905,— in 
1851, 15,206,064 ; of soft soap, in 1850, 6,847,577,— in 1851, 7,150,119. The manufac- 
ture of the silicated soap was confined to Glasgow ; and that of the other soaps was distri- 
buted among Glasgow, Greenock, Paisley, Leith, Prestonpans, Linlithgow, Dunfermline, 
Aberdeen, and Ayr. 

A considerable glass manufacture is carried on at Glasgow, Alloa, Leith, and Portobello. 
A considerable manufacture of earthenware is carried on at Glasgow and Greenock. Lea- 
ther-making, together with shoe-making, saddlery -work, and glove-making, are of consider- 
able extent, and considerably diffused. — Sugar-refining is largely carried on at Glasgow, 
Greenock, and Leith.— Animal charcoal, consisting of calcined bovine bones, is manufactured 
for the uses of the sugar-refiner, and also for saturating iron bars with carbon to make blis- 
tered steel. — Agricultural implements, machinery, hats, jewellery, and all the articles of ordi- 
nary-artificership, are prominent. — Ship-building is more or less important at many of the 
greater ports, and even at some of the smaller ones, and is very conspicuous on the Clyde. 



The extent of the tobacco and snuff manufacture of Scotland is indicated by the quantity 
of tobacco entered at the Scottish ports for home consumption. This in 1852 was 3,575 
pounds weight manufactured, and 2,233,439 pounds weight unmanufactured ; and the gross 
amount of duty on it was ,£353,360. More than half of the whole quantity was imported 
at Glasgow ; and the next quantities, named in decreasing order, were at Leith, Montrose, 
Aberdeen, Arbroath, Dundee, Wick, and Banff. The number of licensed manufacturers of 
tobacco and snuff, in 1860, was 125; and that of licensed dealers in tobacco and snuff, 

The number of quarters of malt made in Scotland in 1850 was 571,635 ; in 1851, 531,935; 
in 1853, 530,593; in 1860, 672,941. The number of quarters used by brewers and victual- 
lers in Scotland in 1851 was 133,590 ; in 1853, 165,955 ; in 1864, 245,775. The number 
of licensed brewers in Scotland in 1851 was 146; in 1864, 118. The number of licensed 
victuallers in Scotland in 1851 was 14,752; in 1864, 12,138. The number of maltsters in 
Scotland in 1851 was 919; in 1860, 478. The number of distillers of spirits in Scotland 
in 1815 was 27; in 1825, 329; in 1836, 222; in 1846, 175; in 1864, 115. The number 
of rectifiers of spirits in Scotland in 1815 was 2; in 1825, 7; in 1836 and 1860, 9. The 
number of gallons of spirits distilled lawfully in Scotland in 1708 was 50,844, — and in 
1791, 1,696,000. The number in 1802—1815, when the duty fluctuated between 3s. lO^d. 
and 8s. 0£d. per gallon, varied from 1,344,835 to 3,589,435. The number in 1816, when 
the duty stood at 9s. 4±d. was, 2,145,366. The number in 1817—1823, when the duty 
stood at 6s. 2d., varied from 3,062,820 to 3,547,199. The number in 1824—1826, when the 
duty stood at 2s. 4|d., rose from 5,908,373 to S,563,994. The number in 1827—1830, when 
the duty stood at 2s. 10d., varied from 7,243,819 to 10,117,097. The number in 1831— 
1839, when the duty stood at 3s. 4d., varied from 7,979,088 to 10,222,650. The number 
in 1840—1852, when the duty stood at 3s. 8d., varied from 7,650,272 to 11,638,429. The 
number in 1853, when the duty was 3s. 8d. and 4s. 8d., was 10,359,926. The number in 
1854, when the duty was 4s. 8d., 5s. 8d., and 6s., was 9,862,318. The number in 1855, 
when the duty was 6s., 7s. 10d., and 8s., was 11,283,636. The number in 1856 and 1859, 
when the duty stood at 8s., was 12,001,098 and 13,190,865. And the number, in 1864, 
when the duty had been 4 years at 10s., was 14,869,564. Of the 10,359,926 gallons dis- 
tilled in 1853, 5,330,714 were from malt only, 4,113,581 from malt mixed with unmalted 
grain, and 915,631 from sugar or molasses mixed with unmalted grain. The number of 
gallons exported to foreign parts, in 1851, was 194,073 ; in 1854, 366,625 ; in 1857, 
2,061,579; in 1864, 3,581,037. In 1852, 2,267,419 gallons were exported from Scot- 
land to England, 1,008,857 were exported from Scotland to Ireland, and 25,598 were 
imported from Ireland into Scotland. The number of gallons exported into England 
and Ireland in 1864 was 4,682,732 ; and the number of gallons of home-made spirits 
imported thence into Scotland, in the same year, was 51,929. Illicit distillation had be- 
come so prevalent in Scotland, in 1820, when the duty stood at 6s. 2d., that it is supposed 
to have supplied more than one-half of the spirits actually consumed ; but by the reduction 
of the duty to 2s. 4Jd., and by the establishing of new regulations for giving additional secu- 
rity to the revenue, it fell rapidly off almost to extinction ; and, notwithstanding an increase 
of the duty in a few years to 3s. 4d., and afterwards by gradation to 10s., it has never re- 
acquired any consequence. In 1856, when the duty stood at 8s., only 48 detections were 
reported, and many of these were of a trifling character. The force employed then for keep- 
ing down illicit distillation consisted of 35 officers and 71 assistants, and cost .£11,882 
a-year. One cause which operates against smuggling is the strong, general, active disappro- 
bation of the landlords and the large occupiers of land ; and another is a prevailing taste, 
among consumers, for a better flavour and quality of spirits than the smuggler usually 


Scotland's exports consist principally of machinery, hardware, iron, coals, herrings, and the 
produce of her textile manufactures; and her imports consist principally of the raw materials 
for her cotton and linen fabrics, and of articles of colonial and foreign produce, which are 
demanded by the growing taste and luxuriousness of her population. To enumerate sub- 
ordinate articles, or those included in this general classification, would be to write a list of 
goods as long, tasteless, and tiresome, as that of a vender of all wares. Till about the year 


1755, when the exports amounted in value to £535,576, and the imports to £465,411, Scot- 
land's commerce was almost as unknowing of foreign lands as her own hardy mountaineers, 
and as cold and cheerless as their climate and their dress. But from that period, and especially 
from a decade before the close of last century, it has progressively, though not uniformly, moved 
on to importance. The following is an account of the official and declared value of the im- 
ports into and the exports from the Scottish ports, from 1824 to the latest period at which 
the accounts are made up separately from those of the ports of England and Ireland : — 

Official Value of Exports. 


British and Irish 





Produce and 

and Colonial 


Value of 













































































































































































The amount of customs from Scotland was, in 1836, £1,129,802 ; in 1844, £1,915,990 ; 
in 1850, £1,949,030 ; in 1855, £2,042,396 ; in 1860, £2,453,045 ; in 1864, £2,826,827. 
The head-ports, in 1864, named in the order of the magnitude of their customs, were Green- 
ock, Glasgow, Leith, Port-Glasgow, Aberdeen, Dundee, Kirkcaldy, Perth, Arbroath, 
Grangemouth, Montrose, Troon, Alloa, Dumfries, Inverness, Banff, Ayr, Peterhead, Wick, 
Campbelton, Ardrossan, Borrowstownness, Stranraer, Lerwick, Kirkwall, Wigton, and Storno- 
way. But Granton also, in 1866, from being a sub-port, was made ahead port. 


The salmon fisheries of Scotland have long been extensive and famous, both yielding a 
large supply of prime fish for home consumption, and affording a considerable quantity for 
exportation to England ; but they have materially declined during the last thirty years, and 
probably are now worth something less on the average than £150,000 a-year. The haddock 
fisheries, along the east coast, for the supply of fish both in a fresh state and in a half-cured 
state, have of late years become important, and may be regarded as inexhaustible. Whitings, 
skates, flounders, rock cod, and cuddies also are abundant. Turbot occur in the frith of 
Clyde and in the Moray frith. The lythe is extensively fished on the west coast. Soles, 
mullets, and garnets are scarce. Crabs are common ; cockles abundant ; lobsters not infre- 
quent ; shrimps and prawns rare ; oysters very plentiful in small limited beds, but elsewhere 
not to be found. Several kinds of fish form no small part of the staff of life to the inhabi- 
tants of many parts of Shetland, Orkney, and the Hebrides. But by far the most important 
of the Scottish fisheries, both for market value, and for diffused connexion with general 
economy, are those of herrings, cod, and ling. 


" Two centuries ago," said the Messrs. Anderson of Inverness in 1850, " the Dutch were 
in the habit of sending as many as 1,500 and even 2,000 busses of 30 tons each, to prosecute 
the herring fishery off the coast of Shetland, besides several hundred doggers of about 60 
tons burden to fish for cod and ling. For the latter, also, they carried on an extensive barter 
with the Shetland fishers. Towards the end of the 17th century, the Dutch herring busses, 
from wars with this country, and other causes, had decreased to 500 or 600, and they con- 
tinued to diminish still farther during the 18th century, and have now almost disappeared 
from our coasts. Yet seventy years ago, they had 200 busses employed on the Shetland 
fishings ; and the Danes, Prussians, French and Flemings, as many more ; while the English 
had only two vessels and the Scotch but one. Public societies for the encouragement of the 
British fisheries have been formed at various times in this country, since the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth, previous to the society now established ; but they were short lived, and their suc- 
cess was very partial. No attention was bestowed on the herring fishery till the year 1750, 
when a company was incorporated; which, however, eventually broke up, with a loss of 
£500,000 sterling. The present British Fishery Society was established in 1780. Parlia- 
ment has frequently granted bounties for the encouragement of the fisheries; but as, till of 
late, these were paid on the tonnage, and not on the quantity of fish taken, vessels went out 
rather to catch the bounty than any thing else. For some years back, bounties for fishing 
herring have been found quite unnecessary, and are now discontinued. Several fishing vil- 
lages, as Tobermory, Ullapool, and Pulteney-Town, near Wick, owe their origin to the Bri- 
tish Fishery Society." We may add, that, for the last quarter of a century, a large public 
grant has been annually made for building and repairing quays and piers connected with the 
Scottish fisheries. 

The herring fishery in Scotland and the Isle of Man, during 1864, yielded less than an 
average catch. The quantity cured in the years 1860, 1861, 1862, 1863 and 1864 was 
681,193,— 668,828,— 830,904,— 654,816,— and 643,650 barrels; the quantity branded, 
231,913,— 265,347,— 346,712,— 276,880,— and 217,392 barrels; the quantity exported, 
377,970,— 390,313,— 494,910,— 407,761,— and 364,507 barrels. A fee upon the brand was 
introduced in 1856, and was expected to cause a considerable decrease in the number of 
barrels branded, but did not prove to have that effect. The amount estimated to accrue 
from the fee at the time of its been imposed, was £3,280 ; and the amount actually received 
from it in 1864 was £3,628, — and in the years 1859 — 1864 an average of £4,163 a-year. 
The export of herrings hitherto has been chiefly to Prussia and the Baltic, but promises now 
to be greatly extended. The cod, ling, and skate fishery in Scotland and the Isle of Man 
during 1864 yielded 3,370,974 fish ; which was less by 420,287 than in 1863. The quantity 
cured dried was 107,758 cwts., or 21,967 less than in 1863; cured in pickle, 7,963 barrels, 
or 626 more than in 1863; and exported, of cured dried, 46,461 cwts., or 6,275 less 
than in 1863. The number of boats employed in the fisheries, in 1864, was 13,331 ; the 
number of fishermen and boys, 43,484; the number of fish-curers, 1,026; the number of 
coopers, 1,816 ; the number of other persons, about 44,426 ; the value of the boats, £328,136 ; 
the value of the nets, £472,566 ; the value of the lines, £74,953. The fisheries are distri- 
buted into the districts of Glasgow, Greenock, Rothesay, Ballantrae, Inverary, Loch Carron 
and Skye, Loch Broom, Stornoway, Shetland, Orkney, Wick, Lybster, Helmsdale, Cromarty, 
Findhorn, Buckie, Banff, Fraserburgh, Peterhead, Montrose, Anstruther, Leith, Eyemouth, 
and Isle of Man. The district most productive in herrings is Wick ; and the three districts 
next to it in productiveness are Stornoway, Peterhead, and Helmsdale. The district most 
productive in cod and ling is Shetland ; and the three districts next to it are Orkney, Storno- 
way, and Fraserburgh. The district richest in the aggregate value of boats, nets, and lines, is 
Anstruther ; and the three districts next to it are Wick, Buckie, and Eyemouth. The Isle of 
Man district belongs to Scotland only so far as to include the Scottish fishings in the Solway 
Frith and the Irish Channel; and the items of it all, for 1864, were 34,164 barrels of her- 
rings; 2,500 head of cod and ling; 628 boats; 2,550 fishermen and boys ; 79 fish-curers ; 
17 coopers; and £65,178 value of boats, nets, and lines. 


The shipping of Scotland, at a comparatively recent period, was inconsiderable ; and even 
so late as 1656 comprised only 137 vessels, of from 250 to 300 tons each, and aggregately 
5,736 tons. In 1760, the vessels employed in the foreign and coasting trade, and in fisheries, 


were 999 in number, and 53,913 in tonnage. In 1800, the number was 2,415, carrying 
171,728 tons, and employing 14,820 seamen. In 1828, the number carrying more than 100 
tons each was 983 ; the number carrying less than 100 tons each was 2,160; and the aggre- 
gate tonnage of both classes was 300,836. On the 31st of December, 1840, the number of 
vessels belonging to Scotland was 3,479, of an aggregate tonnage of 429,204 tons, and manned 
by 28,428 men. The number of vessels built in Scotland, in the year ending 5th January, 
1841, was 263, of an aggregate tonnage of 42,322 tons. On the 31st December, 1850, the 
vessels belonging to Scotland were 1,278 sailing vessels under 50 tons each, and aggregately 
of 38,531 tons; 2,154 sailing vessels above 50 tons each, and aggregately of 452,864 tons ; 
38 steam-vessels under 50 tons each, and aggregately of 1,064 tons; and 131 steam- 
vessels above 50 tons each, and aggregately of 29,763 tons. The number of vessels built in 
Scotland in 1851 was 136, of aggregately 30,000 tons. On the 31st December, 1864, the 
vessels belonging to Scotland were 1,073 sailing vessels under 50 tons each, and aggregately 
of 32,771 tons; 1,953 sailing vessels above 50 tons each, and aggregately of 575,778 tons; 
106 steam-vessels under 50 tons each, and aggregately of 2,709 tons; and 295 steam-vessels 
above 50 tons each, and aggregately of 112,559 tons. 


The number of Banks of Issue in Scotland in 1838 was twenty-nine, but now is only 
twelve. Eight of these, the Bank of Scotland, the Boyal, the British Linen, the Commer- 
cial, the National, the Union, the Clydesdale, and the City of Glasgow, have their capital, 
not in shares, but in stock transferable to any amount, and do not require to lodge lists of 
partners. The date of institution, the name, the number of partners, the number of branches, 
the paid-up capital, and other particulars of the several banks, as they stood in December, 
1864, are as follow ; with the difference that the figure in the last column of the second, 
third, and sixth denotes ex-dividend : — ■ 







Bank of Scotland, 60 

Eoyal Bank, 74 

British Linen Company, 798 52 

Commercial Bank, 805 76 

National Bank of Scotland, 1,455 72 

Union Bank of Scotland, 1,060 103 

Aber. Town & County Bank, 529 31 

North of Scot. Banking Co., 1,249 34 

Clydesdale Banking Co., 1,302 60 

City of Glasgow Bank, 1,000 94 

Caledonian Banking Co., 725 16 

Central Bank of Scotland, 421 9 

Paid up 
















10 April and Oct. £100 £218 
7J Jan. and July 100 153 15 

11 June and Dec. 100 230 10 

11 Jan. and July 100 236 
10 & 1 Jan. and July 100 220 

8 June and Dec. 100 186 
10 March and Sep. 6 13 10 
10 May and Nov. 3£ 8 5 

9 Feb. and Aug. 100 208 
7 Feb. and Aug. 100 142 10 

10 August 21 5 2 6 

12 i September 40 

The following table shows the amount of bank notes which the several banks are authorized 
by law to issue, and the average amount of their bank notes in circulation, and of coin held 
by them, during thirteen periods of four weeks, from December 12th, 1863, to November 
12th, 1864, and from December 10th. 1864, to November 11th, 1865, as published in the 

Bank of Scotland, 
Eoyal Bank, 
British Linen Company, 
Commercial Bank of Scotland, 
National Bank of Scotland, 
Union Bank of Scotland, 
Aberdeen Town & County Bank 
Nortli of Scotland Banking Co., 
Clydesdale Banking Company, 
City of Glasgow Bank, 
Caledonian Banking Company, 
Central Bank of Scotland, 








, 70,133 































































The actual circulation of the banks on the first Saturday of 1856 and 1865, was as fol- 
lows,— the Bank of Scotland in 1856, £418,533,— in 1865, £482,534; the Royal Bank in 
1856, £254,080, — in 1865, £539,647; the British Linen Company in 1856, £514,554, — in 
1865, £499,786; the Commercial Bank in 1856, £526,944,— in 1865, £550,598; the Na- 
tional Bank in 1856, £359,177,— in 1865, £455,652 ; the Union Bank in 1856, £538,706, 
—in 1865, £583,313; the Aberdeen Bank in 1856, £123,079,— in 1865, £135,441; the 
North of Scotland Bank in 1856, £203,358,— in 1865, £203,689 ; the Clydesdale Bank in 
1856, £160,574,— in 1865, £355,355; the City of Glasgow Bank in 1856, £242,948,— in 
1865, £365,244; the Caledonian Bank in 1856,- £73,603,— in 1865, £69,975; the Central 
Bank in 1856, £61,282, — in 1865, £57,952. The aggregate circulation of bank notes in 
Scotland, some time after 1856, was shared also by five other Banks which do not now exist. 
These were the Perth Bank, which had a circulation of £45,515 in May 1857, when it was 
incorporated with the Union ; the Western Bank, which had a circulation of £422,089 in 
November 1857, when it stopped payment; the Edinburgh and Glasgow Bank, which had a 
circulation of £137,104 in June 1858, when it was incorporated with the Clydesdale; the 
Eastern Bank, which had a circulation of £37,440 in January 1863, when it was incorpo- 
rated with the Clydesdale; and the Dundee Bank, which had a circulation of £38,616 in 
February 1864, when it was incorporated with the Royal. 

On the 20th November, 1864, there were in Scotland 54 savings' banks, having 58 unpaid, 
and 131 paid officers. The amount of security given by the unpaid officers was £14,400, by 
the paid officers £31,610. The salaries and allowances of the paid officers amounted to 
;£7,6S0. The annual expenses of management, inclusive of all salaries, was £9,622. The 
number of accounts remaining open was 159,319 ; the total amount owing to depositors, 
£2,221,001 ; the total amount invested with the commissioners for the reduction of the 
national debt, £2,819,201 ; the amount in the hands of treasurers, £26,291 ; the average 
rate of interest paid to depositors, £2 19s. Id. ; the total amount of the separate surplus fund, 
£1,751 ; the annual number of receipts from depositors, 297,195 ; the annual number of pay- 
ments to depositors, 177,422 ; the average amount of receipts from depositors, £3 Is.; the 
average amount of payment to depositors, £5 16s. 9d. An Act for depositing small sav- 
ings in such post-offices as might be authorized by the Postmaster-General, was passed in 
1861 ; and the number of post-office savings' banks in Scotland in January 1866 was 374. 


The roads of Scotland, till about the middle of last century, were so few and bad, that 
three-fourths of the whole country were inaccessible to a wheeled vehicle. The Highlands, 
in particular, could be traversed only by their own chamois-moving mountaineers, and, even on 
their least upland grounds, were sublimely uncognizant of both the motion and the mechanism 
of a wheel ; and at enormous cost and labour — as will be found detailed in our article on the 
Highlands — they were literally revolutionized in political, social, and agricultural character, 
simply by their being pierced and traversed with roads, and brought into acquaintance with 
the unpoetic cart. Both turnpike and subordinate roads are now ramified through most dis- 
tricts to an amount so nearly co-extensive with the wants of the country, that the absence of 
them in any locality is, in most instances, evidence of its being a tract of moorish or mountain 
waste ; and, as Sir H. Parnell remarks, in his Treatise on Roads, " in consequence of the ex- 
cellent materials which abound in all parts of Scotland, and of the greater skill and science 
of Scottish trustees and surveyors, the turnpike roads in Scotland are superior to those in 
England." A parliamentary paper of November 1858 shows the extent of turnpike road in 
counties, but contains no return for Orkney and Shetland, and includes in Inverness-shire the 
highland or military roads of Sutherlandshire, Ross-shire, Nairnshire, Morayshire, Banffshire, 
Aberdeenshire, Argyleshire, and Buteshire. According to this document, the extent of road 
in Aberdeenshire is 448 miles, in Ayrshire 735, in Banffshire 130, in Berwickshire 176, in 
Caithness-shire 136, in Clackmannanshire 37, in Dumbartonshire 63, in Dumfries-shire 349, 
in Edinburghshire 423, in Fifeshire 389, in Forfarshire 191, in Haddingtonshire, 145, in In- 
verness-shire 943, in Kincardineshire 96, in Kinross-shire 52, in Kirkcudbrightshire 249, in 
Lanarkshire 448, in Linlithgowshire 66, in Morayshire 89, in Nairnshire 19, in Peebles-shire 
122, in Perthshire 337, in Renfrewshire 177, in Roxburghshire 195, in Selkirkshire 28, in 
Stirlingshire 135, and in Wigtonshire 50. The total of turnpike roads was thus 6,233 miles ; 



and in 1858-9 it was under 243 trusts, and yielded a revenue of £204,677 from tolls and 
£33,371 from other sources. 

Owing to almost constant, and generally bold, inequality of surface, Scotland offers few 
facilities for the construction of canals ; yet it has six of these works, two of which connect 
the eastern and the western seas, while the features of the others combine interest with utility. 
The Caledonian canal extends from the vicinity of Inverness on the north-east, to Corpach, 
near Fort-William, on the south-west, a distance of 60^ miles, 37A of which are through 
Lochs Ness, Oich, and Lochy : and communicates between the Beauly Frith and the head of 
Loch-Eil. The Forth and Clyde canal extends from the Frith of Forth or mouth of the Car- 
ron, at Grangemouth, to Bowling-bay on the Clyde, a distance of 35 miles ; and sends off a 
small branch to Glasgow, and a smaller one to the mouth of the Cart, to communicate by that 
river with Paisley. The Edinburgh and Glasgow Union Canal extends from Port-Hopetoun 
at Edinburgh, to the Forth and Clyde Canal at Port-Downie, near Falkirk, a distance of 31^ 
miles. The Monkland Canal extends from the basin at the north-east extremity of Glasgow, 
to Woodhall, about 2 miles south-east of Airdrie, a distance of 12 miles ; and communicates 
at its west end by a cut of a mile in length with the basin of the Glasgow branch of the Forth 
and Clyde canal. The Crinan canal lies across the northern extremity of the long peninsula 
of Knapdale and Kintyre, is about 9 miles in length, and connects Loch Fyne with the 
Western Ocean. The Glasgow, Paisley, and Ardrossan canal was projected to extend from 
Port-Eglinton, on the south side of Glasgow, to the harbour of Ardrossan, but has been 
executed only to Johnstone, a distance of 11 miles. Another canal, 18j miles in length, 
went from Aberdeen harbour to Inverury, but was bought up and superseded by the Great 
North of Scotland Railway Company. The cost of the seven canals was nearly .£2,500,000. 
The Caledonian and the Crinan have recently been much improved, and appear to be of 
permanent value ; the Forth and Clyde also is of lasting consequence as a ship communica- 
tion between the eastern and the western seas ; but the others have been rendered compara- 
tively worthless, and the Forth and Clyde itself has been greatly depreciated, by the forma- 
tion of railways. The revenue of jointly the Caledonian and the Crinan, in the year ending 
30 April 1865, was £9,107, — in the previous year, £10,476; the expenditure, in the year 
ending 30 April 1865, £10,216, — in the previous year, £10,994. The interests of the Forth 
and Clyde and the Monkland are now associated with those of the Caledonian railway. 

The projecting of railways in 1845 rose to a mania, and concocted many schemes which could 
not be put into execution. It subsequently made provision for many good lines, and went 
on to spread an excellent net-work over much of the southern and central parts of the king- 
dom. It rose again, in 1865, to such a height of speculation as alarmed shareholders in the 
main constructed lines affected by it; and by a compromise early in 1866, some very costly 
schemes then entertained were suspended or withdrawn. The aggregate of railway open at 
the end of 1853, was 987 miles, — at the end of 1859, was 1,428 miles, — at the end of 1864, was 
2,105 miles; and of the last, 928 miles were double, and 1,177 single. Other lines and 
branches, of considerable aggregate extent, were formed in 1865; and others, as from 
Stranraer to Girvan, from Muirkirk to Douglas, from Sanquhar to Lamington, from Kil- 
marnock to Neilston, from Glasgow to Busby, from Butherglen to Coatbridge, from Cle- 
land to Mid-Calder, from Ratho to Dunfermline, from Campsie to Gartness, from Callander 
to Oban, from Crieff to Comrie, from Crieff to Methven, from Dundee to Forfar, and from 
Aboyne to Braemar, were either opened or in progress in 1866. The railway system, in 
1866, went northward to Bonarbridge, and promised both to go through the Great Glen to 
Loch Linnhe, and to go through Caithness to the Pentland frith. 

A number of the earliest executed of the Scottish railways have been either materially 
superseded, greatly modified, or entirely absorbed by subsequent railways. Such are the 
Paisley and Renfrew, depreciated by the Glasgow and Paisley ; the Edinburgh and Dalkeith, 
mainly superseded by the North British ; the Pollock and Govan, absorbed by the Caledonian ; 
the Kilmarnock and Troon, intertwined with the Glasgow and Southwestern ; and several 
railways of the Lanarkshire mineral- field, variously altered and absorbed by the Caledonian, 
the Edinburgh and Glasgow, and the Monkland. A number of other railways also, which 
were planned or executed as separate undertakings, and which can still be described as sepa- 
rate works, have been conjoined by lease, amalgamation, or working with other railways, so 
as to be practically treated in the manner of branches. Thus the Glasgow and Coatbridge, 
the Wishaw and Coltness, the Clydesdale Junction, the Glasgow and Neilston, the Glasgow 
and Greenock, the Glasgow General Terminus and Harbour, the Rutherglen and Coatbridge, 


the Lesmahago, the Cleland and Morningside, the Lanark and Douglas, the Wilsontown, the 
Granton and Leith, the Symington and Peebles, the Dumfries and Lockerby, are included in 
the Caledonian. Thus also the Edinburgh and Bathgate, the Stirling and Dunfermline, the 
Wilsontown and Coltness, the Glasgow and Milngavie, and the Glasgow and Helensburgh, 
are included in the Edinburgh and Glasgow ; and that again, was amalgamated, in August 
1864, with the North British. Thus also the Glasgow and Ayr, the Kilmarnock and Car- 
lisle, the Dalmellington, the Ayr and Girvan, the Bridge of Weir, the Muirkirk, the Castle- 
Douglas and Dumfries, the Kirkcudbright, and the Portpatrick are included in the Glas- 
gow and Southwestern. Thus also the Monkland and Kirkintilloch, the Ballochney, the 
Slamannan, the Airdrie and Bathgate, and the Bathgate and Morningside are included in 
the Monkland; and that, again, became connected, in 1865, with the North British. Thus 
also the Edinburgh and Hawick, the Berwickshire, the Peebles, the Leadburn and Dol- 
phinton, the Selkirk and Galashiels, the Galashiels and Peebles, the Border Union, the 
Border Counties, the Devon Valley, the Kinross-shire, the West of Fife, the St. Andrews, 
and the Edinburgh, Perth, and Dundee, are included in the North British. Thus also the 
Dunblane and Callander, the Crieff Junction, the Dundee and Perth, and the Dundee and 
Newtyle are included in the Scottish Central; and that, again, was amalgamated, in 1865, 
with the Caledonian. Thus also the Scottish Midland, the Dundee and Arbroath, the Ar- 
broath and Forfar, the Meigle and Alyth, and the Aberdeen are included in the Scottish 
Northeastern. Thus also the Denburn Valley, the Aberdeen Junction, the Aberdeen and 
Turriff, the Inverury and Old Meldrum, the Afford Valley, the Banff and Turriff, the Banff- 
shire, the Formartine and Buchan, the Keith and Dufftown, the Morayshire, and the Strath- 
spey are included in the Great North of Scotland. And thus also the Inverness and Aber- 
deen Junction, the Findhorn and Inverness, the Perth and Dunkeld, the Inverness and Perth 
Junction, and the Ross-shire, are included in the Highland. 

The railways in operation on the 31st December 1864, were returned as the Caledonian, 
with 206 miles double and 153 single; the Edinburgh and Glasgow, 115 double and 31 
single; the Glasgow and Southwestern, 169 double and 81 single; the Monkland, 13 double 
and 59 single; the North British, 228 double and 252 single ; the Scottish Central, 70 double 
and 43 single; the Forth and Clyde, 30 single; the Leven and East of Fife, 19 single; the 
Scottish Northeastern, 115 double and 28 single ; the Deeside, 32 single; the Great North 
of Scotland, 5 double and 221 single ; and the Highland, 7 double and 226 single. 

At the 31st December 1864, the total amounts which had been raised from shares and 
loans by the principal railway companies were as follow : — Aberdeen and Turiff, £120,876 ; 
Alford Valley, £111,022; Alyth, £44,000; Arbroath and Forfar, £230,350; Ayr and 
Maybole, £43,000; Banff and Turriff, £76,875; Banffshire, £77,476; Berwickshire, 
£131,150; Blane Valley, £21,479; Bridge of Weir, £29,725; Busby, £38,935 ; Caledonian, 
£10,453,442 ; Castle Douglas and Dumfries, £244,532 ; City of Glasgow Union, £14,510; 
Crieff and Methven, £7,205; Crieff Junction, £57,000 ; Deeside, £254,216 ; Devon Valley, 
£20,018; Dumfries and Lockerby, £117,210; Dunblane and Callander, £78,212; Edin- 
burgh and Bathsrate, £251,656; Edinburgh and Glasgow, £5,266,497; Esk Valley, £2,056; 
Findhorn, £10,973; Formartine and Buchan, £461,479; Forth and Clyde, £236,940; 
General Terminus and Glasgow Harbour, £212,595 ; Glasgow and Milngavie, £28,400; 
Glasgow and Southwestern, £4,922,314; Great North of Scotland, £1,808,486; 
Greenock and Wemyss Bay, £149,455 ; Inverness and Aberdeen Junction, £1,377,731 ; 
Inverness and Perth Junction, £908,045 ; Inverury and Old Meldrum, £24,755 ; Keith 
and Dufftown, £55,081; Kilmarnock and Troon, £40,000; Kirkcudbright, £75,928; 
Leadburn and Dolphinton, £18,494; Leslie, £33,719; Leven and East of Fife, £136,170; 
Maybole and Girvan, £147,419; Monkland, £935,457; Montrose and Bervie, £33,428 ; 
Morayshire, £150,248; North British, £10,756,930 ; Peebles, £129,000; Portpatrick, 
£556,622; St. Andrews, £26.300; Scottish Central, £2,940,556; Scottish Northeastern, 
£3,245,278; Strathspey, £230,182. 


Scottish coinage cannot be traced higher than the twelfth century. During the whole of 
the Scoto-Saxon period, Scottish money was of the same fashion, weight, and fineness as the 
English, bore the same denominations, and was, in all respects, coequal with it in value. 
David IT., amid the feebleness and wretched circumstances of his reign, coined groats, 


half-groats, pennies, and half-pennies of silver, but so debased the coinage, that it was, for 
the first time, prohibited in England, or rated at a depreciated standard. The amount ot 
deterioration was one-fifth of the whole value ; and was estimated nearly at that proportion 
in the calculations of the English. David's successors not only followed his example, but 
carried out the principle of it with a boldness and a rapidity of expansion which excite sur- 
prise. Three, two, and one of the English pennies successively, and soon, became equal to 
four of the Scottish. The money of Scotland was at length carried so far along the career of 
deterioration, as, about the year 1600, to become only one-twelfth of the English in value ; and, 
at this miserably depreciated rate, it has ever since stood in abstract or comparative reckoning. 

Robert II., who ascended the throne in 1371, introduced gold pieces, and coined £17 12s. out 
of one pound of gold. Mary coined royals of 10, 20, and 30 shillings, generally known under 
the name of Crookston dollars. James VI. coined merks, half-merks, quarter-merks, half-quar- 
ter-merks, nobles, and half-nobles. Charles II. coined pieces of 4 merks and 2 merks, dollars of 
56 shillings each in value, half-dollars, quarter-dollars, half-quarter-dollars, and sixteenths of 
dollars. James VII. coined 40 and 10 shilling pieces ; and William and Mary pieces of 60, 40, 
20, 10, and 5 shillings. At the epoch of the Union nearly £900,000 existed in Scotland in 
the different coins of various nations ; and the whole specie was recoined in uniformity with 
the English standard, and, with very little addition of paper currency, put into circulation, to 
the permanent exclusion of the old and wofully depreciated coins. — Copper money, or billon, 
generally known by the name of black money, was introduced to Scotland a century and a- 
half before it appeared in England. The copper coins of James II., III., IV., and V., — the 
largest of which is about the size of a modern shilling, but very thin, — were probably intended 
to pass for groats and half-groats. Mary coined placks, or fourpenny pieces ; and James VI. 
coined bodies, or twopenny pieces, and hardheads, or threepenny pieces ; and Charles II., and 
William and Mary, besides repeating parts of the former coinage, coined bawbees. 

The early weights and measures of Scotland were derived chiefly from England, during the 
12th century ; and whatever may have been their variety, they long continued to serve every 
practical end among an uncommercial people. The parliament, desirous to maintain uniformity, 
appointed standards in the several departments ; and assigned the keeping of the standard ell to 
Edinburgh, that of the reel to Perth, that of the pound to Lanark, that of the firlot to Linlith- 
gow, and that of the jug to Stirling. Yet these standards seem to have been very carelessly 
kept ; and they did not prevent the usages of Scotland from becoming discrepant with those of 
England, or even from assuming various and perplexing local peculiarities. An uniformity 
of weights and measures was, from time to time, desiderated and attempted as a great social 
benefit ; it was decreed by the act of Union to extend over both divisions of the United King- 
dom ; and it was pleaded and abstractly exhibited in numerous elaborate pamphlets, which were 
fruitlessly lauded by the learned, and coolly neglected or stolidly gazed at by the ignorant. 
In spite of both laws and logic, the people remained so wedded to their practices, that, till 
the recent introduction of imperial weights and measures, dissimilarities which arose during the 
torpidity and ignorance of the feudal times, continued with many of the properties of an 
intricate puzzle to perplex our theorists and embarrass our dealers. 


The revenue of Scotland, as to both its absolute amount and its relative proportion to that 
of England, has to the full kept pace with the increasing prosperity of the country. It 
amounted at the period of the Union, to £110,694 ; in 1788, to £1,099,148; in 1839, to 
£4,701,271; in 1848, to £5,916,983; in 1851, to £6,154,804; in 1864, exclusive of the 
post-office, to £8,382,687. The revenue from customs, in 1848, was £2,035,771 ; in 1851, 
£1,944,554 ; in 1858, £2,266,440 ; in 1864, £2,826,827. The revenue from excise, in 1848, 
was £2,395,253; in 1851, £2,755,378; in 1861, £3,470,426 ; in 1865, £4,062,196. The 
revenue from stamps, in 1848, was £576,544; in 1851, £547,872 ; in 1858, £621,202 ; in 
1865, £809,669. The revenue from land and assessed taxes, in 1848, was £287,771 ; in 
1851, £289,867 ; in 1858, £213,532 ; in 1865, £207,055. The revenue from property and 
income tax, exclusive of that from property in public funds, was, in 1847, £465,722 ; in 
1857, £1,339,835; in 1861, £926,626; in 1864, £723,766. The revenue from the post- 
office, in 1848, was £164,383 ; in 1851, £175,009 ; in 1860, £300,662. The chief items of ex- 
cise tax, in 1865, were £173,690 on licences, £274,401 on malt, and £3,570,654 on spirits. 
The divisions of property and income tax, in 1864, were £408,258 on real property, £37,754 on 
occupancy of real property, £248,973 on trades and professions, and £28,781 on public salaries. 



Till the reign of James I., all persons who held any portion of ground, however small, by 
military service of the Crown, had seats in the Scottish parliament. The small barons were 
afterwards excused from attendance, and represented by " two or more wise men, according 
to the extent of their county." Parliament appointed the time of its own meetings and ad- 
journments, nominated committees to wield its powers during recesses, possessed not only a 
legislative but an executive character, exercised a commanding power in all matters of govern- 
ment, appropriated the public money and appointed the treasurers of the exchequer, levied 
armies and nominated commanders, sent ambassadors to foreign states and appointed the 
judges and courts of judicature, and even assumed power to alienate the regal demesne, to 
restrain grants from the Crown, and to issue pardons to criminals. The King, even so late 
as in the person of James IV., was only the first servant of his people, and acted under the 
direction of parliament ; he had no veto in the parliament's proceedings ; nor could he 
declare war, make peace, or conduct any important business of either diplomacy or govern- 
ment without that assembly's concurrence. The constitution of the country had much more 
the character of an aristocracy than that of a limited monarch}'. The nobility — who were 
dukes, marquises, earls, viscounts, and barons — were hereditary members of parliament ; but 
they formed one house with the knights and burgesses, and occupied common ground 
with them in all deliberations and decisive votes. The nobles and other members of parlia- 
ment were checked in their turn by the common barons, just as they checked the king ; and 
even the common barons, or the landholders, were, to a large extent, checked in turn by 
their vassals. A jury of barons, who were not members of parliament, might sit on a lord's 
case, of even the gravest character, and might decide it without being unanimous in their 
verdict ; and the vassals of a baron so completely involved or concentrated all his available 
power, in their own fidelity and attachment, as to oblige him, in many respects, to act more in 
the character of the father of his clan than in that of a military despot. The king, too, — 
while denied nearly all strictly royal prerogatives by the constitution of the country, — was 
indemnified for most by the accidents of its feudal institutions. He acquired considerable 
interest among the burgesses and lower ranks in consequence of the abuse of power by the 
lords and great landowners ; and when he had sufficient address to retain the affections of the 
people, he was generally able to humble the most powerful and dominant confederacy of the 
aristocrats ; though, when he did not acquire popularity, he might dare to disregard the 
parliament only at the hazard of his crown or his life. 

The kings, — aided by the clerg) r , whose revenues were vast, and who were strongly jealous 
of the power of the nobility, — eventually succeeded in greatly diminishing, and, at times, 
entirely neutralizing, the aristocratical power of parliament. A select body of members was 
established, from among the clergy, the nobility, the knights, and the burgesses, and called 
" the Lords of the Articles ;" it was produced by the bishops choosing 8 peers, and the peers 
8 bishops, by the 16 who were elected choosing 8 barons or knights of the shires, and 8 com- 
missioners of royal burghs, and by 8 great officers of state being added to the whole, with the 
Lord-chancellor as president ; its business was to prepare all questions, bills, and other matters, 
to be brought before parliament ; and the clerical part of it being in strict alliance with the 
king, while the civilian part was not a little influenced by his great powers of patronage, it 
effectually prevented the introduction to parliament of any affair which was unsuited to his 
views, and gave him very stringently all the powers of a real veto. This institution seems to 
have been introduced by stealth, and never brought to a regular plan ; and as to its date 
and early history, it baffles the research, or at least defies the unanimity, of the best informed 
law writers. Yet " the Lords of the Articles " were far from being wholly subservient to the 
Crown ; for they not only resisted the efforts of Charles I. to make them mere tools of his 
despotism, but went freely down the current which swept that infatuated monarch to his 
melancholy fate ; and, at the Revolution, they waived all ceremony about getting from the 
fanatical idiot, James VII., a formal deed of abdication, and promptly united in a summary 
declaration that he had forfeited his crown. Before the Union there were four great officers 
of state, the Lord High-chancellor, the High-treasurer, the Privy-seal, and the Secretary, — 
and four lesser officers, the Lord Clerk-register, the Lord-advocate, the Treasurer-depute, and 
the Justice-clerk, — all of whom sat, ex officio, in parliament. The privy council of Scotland, 
previous to the Revolution, assumed inquisitorial powers, even that of torture ; but it is now 
swamped in the privy council of Great Britain. 


The Scottish nobility, since the Union, return from among their own number 16 peers to 
represent them in the upper house of the imperial parliament. Between the Union and the 
date of the Reform bill, the freeholders of the counties, who amounted even at the last to 
only 3,211 in number, returned to the House of Commons 30 members ; the city of Edin- 
burgh returned 1 ; and the other royal burghs, 65 in number, and classified into districts, 
returned 13. The Parliamentary Reform act in 1832, added, at the first impulse, 29,904 to 
the aggregate constituency of the counties ; but it allowed them only the same number of 
representatives as before, — erecting Kinross, Clackmannan, and some adjoining portions of 
Perth and Stirling, into one electoral district, conjoining Cromarty with Ross and Nairn 
with Elgin, and assigning one member to each of the other counties. The same act enfran- 
chised various towns, or erected them into parliamentary burghs, increased the burgh con- 
stituency from a pitiful number to upwards of 31,000, and raised the aggregate number of 
representatives from 14 to 23. 

The officers of state for Scotland in recent times are the Keeper of the Great Seal, the 
Lord-Privy-Seal, the Lord-Clerk-Register, the Lord Advocate, and the Lord- Justice- Clerk. 
The supreme civil court, a court both of law and of equity, is the Court of Session. This 
originated in the reign of James V., but was modified at the Union, and has been materially 
altered even since the commencement of the present century. An account of its constitution, 
together with notices of the other metropolitan civil courts, will be given in our article on Edin- 
burgh. The supreme criminal court is the High Court of Justiciary, consisting of the Lord- 
Justice-General or the Lord-Justice-Clerk and five other judges, who also are judges of the 
Court of Session. This court sits in full at Edinburgh, as occasion requires, for the three 
Lothians and for reference-cases from the rest of Scotland; and it holds regular circuit courts, 
by distribution of its members, at Jedburgh, Dumfries, Ayr, Glasgow, Inverary, Stirling, 
Perth, Aberdeen, and Inverness. The inferior courts of law are the baillie courts in burghs, 
and the sheriff courts and justice of peace courts in counties. The magistrates of burghs 
vary in title and number, according to the set of each burgh ; but the magistrates of counties 
comprise, in every instance, lord-lieutenant, deputy-lieutenants, sheriff, sheriff-substitute, and 
justices of peace. 


Scotland was anciently divided and subdivided into so many jurisdictions, and underwent 
such frequent changes in their limits, that any successful attempt to enumerate them would 
be insufferably irksome and almost wholly uninstructive. The names of some of the larger 
jurisdictions continue to be used, and serve aptly to designate subdivisions of extensive 
counties ; and other ancient names are, in several instances, popularly applied to whole coun- 
ties in preference to the modern and legal designations. The counties — or, more properly', 
the sheriffdoms or shires — have, for upwards of half-a-century, been 32 in number. But 
they are excessively, and even ridiculously, various in extent ; and, in many instances, are as 
grotesquely outlined, and even hewn into detached pieces, as if sheer merry-andrewism had 
presided over their distribution. An enormous addition, too, is made to the puzzle of their 
intertracery by parishes — which in most parts of Scotland constitute the only available sub- 
division — being, in very many instances, made to overleap the county boundary-line, and to 
lie, either compactly or detachedly, in two or even three shires. These evils, however, have 
been practically remedied by three devices, — placing two small neighbouring counties under 
one sheriff, — dividing large or populous counties into two or more districts, with each its own 
sheriff-substitute, — and placing detached or intersecting tracts under the administration of 
the functionary by whose proper territory they are surrounded. The first and the second of 
these devices, with the exception of Cromartyshire being joined to Ross-shire, and of Lanark- 
shire being divided into three wards, are quite recent, or indeed are only now in the course 
of being carried out; but they will no doubt be found, as the third has done, to contribute 
greatly to convenience and efficiency ; though certainly the first and the third together pro- 
duce the collateral disadvantage of rendering the limits of a county in regard to its admini- 
stration exceedingly different from these limits in regard to its statistics. The anomaly of 
Kirkcudbrightshire being, not a shire but a stewartry, is scarcely worthy of mention ; for it 
relates only to a name, and it wins diminishment or aggrandizement from that name exactly 
as one thinks of the feudal steward of a limited jurisdiction, or the princely the royal steward 
of broad Scotland. 


Two of the counties — Bute and Orkney — consist entirely of islands ; the former of those 
in the frith of Clyde, the latter of the Orkney and the Shetland archipelagoes. Three — 
Argyle, Inverness, and Eoss — consist chiefly of territory on the mainland, and partly of the 
islands of the Hebrides. Two counties — Clackmannan and Kinross — comprehend each less 
than 84 square miles ; seven — Linlithgow, Bute, Nairn, Renfrew, Dumbarton, Cromarty, and 
Selkirk — comprehend less than 266 ; four — Inverness, Argyle, Perth, and Ross — comprehend 
more than 2,590 ; and four — Aberdeen, Sutherland, Dumfries, and Ayr — comprehend more 
than 1,040. The following table gives the names of the shires in the order of their size, 
beginning with the largest, and states the ancient names, whether of subdivisional or of co- 
extensive application. 

Shires. Ancient Names. 

Inverness, Lochaber, Badenoch, Moidart, Arisaig, Morer, Knoydart, Glenelg, Strathglass, and 

parts of Moray, Strathspey, and Ross, besides Skye, and other Hebridean islands. 
Argyle, Cowal, Kintyre, Knapdale, Lorn, including Appin, Kingarloch, Ardnamurclian, 

Suinart, Lochiel, Glenorehy, Morvern, and Ardgower, besides Mull, Isla, Jura, 

and other Hebridean islands. 
Perth, Perth, Stormont, Strathearn, Gowrie, Athole, Breadalbane, Monteith, Glenshiel, Ran- 

noch, Balquidder. 
Ross, East-Ross, Ard-Ross, Kintail, Lochalsh, Kishorn, Toridon, Gairloch, Lochbroora, 

Strathcarron, and Black Isle, besides Lewis and other Hebridean islands. 

Aberdeen, Mar, Buchan, Garioch, Formartin, Strathbogie. 

Sutherland, Sutherland, Strathnaver, Assynt, Edderachvlis, and Lord Reay's country. 

Dumfries, Nithsdale, Annandale, Eskdale, and Ewesdale. 

Ayr, Cunningham, Kyle, and Carrick. 

Lanark, Clydesdale. 

Forfar, Angus, including Glenisla, Glenesk, and Glenprosen. 

Orkney, Orkney Islands and Shetland Islands. 

Kirkcudbright, East-Galloway. 

Caithness, Caithness. 

Roxburgh, Teviotdale and Liddesdale. 

Banff, Strathdeveron, Boyne, Enzie, Balveny, and Strathaven. 

Stirling, Stirling, and part of Lennox. 

Fife, Fife and Forthryfe. 

Berwick, Merse, Lammermoor, and Lauderdale. 

Elgin, Central part of Moray, and part of Strathspev 

Wigton West Galloway. 

Kincardine, Meamg. 

Edinburgh, Mid-Lothian. 

Peebles, Tweeddale. 

Haddington, East-Lothian. 

Selkirk, Ettrick Forest. 

Cromarty, Ross. 

Dumbarton, Lennox. 

Renfrew, Strathgryfe, and part of Lennox. 

Nairn, Moray, &c. 

Bate, Bute, Arran, &c. 

Linlithgow West-Lothian. 

Kinross, Part of Forthryfe, ) p.. 

Clackmannan Strathdevon, j" ' e ' 


Clear, judicious, comprehensive statistics of crime in Scotland have been produced since 
1836, both in annual totals and in quinquennial averages. We shall give the summaries of 
them in three tables, with reference to respectively the numbers of the criminals, the classes 
of their offences, and the state of their education. And first, as to the numbers of the 
criminals : — 

Average of 1836-40 
Average of 1841-45 
Average of 1845-50 
Average of 1851-55 
Average of 1856-60 
Average of 1861-'64 

Next, as to the classes of offences : 

Committed for trial or 


Total convicted 

Convicted under 



outlawed, or 

aggravation of pre- 






found insane. 

vious convictions. 




















































Average of Average of Average of Average of Average of Average of 

Offences against tbe person, .... 
Offences against property with violence, 
Offences against property without violence, 
Malicious offences against property, 
Forgery and offences against the currency, 
Other offences not included in the above classes, 











































And next, as to the offenders' years and state of education : 

Average of 1836-40, 
Average of 1841-45, 
Average of 1846-50, 
Average of 1851-55, 
Average of 1856-60, 
Average of 1861-64, 

Offenders of or under 



Could read or 

Could read and 

Had superior 

sixteen years ot 


read nor write. 

write imperfectly. 

write well 


Males. Females, 








Males. Fern. 

461 94 








66 2| 

496 115 








61 2% 

512 126 








71 3| 

450 109 








76 4 

343 102 








74 5 

257 54 








89 5J 



Compulsory assessment for the poor has been statutory in Scotland since so remote a period 
as 1576 ; but was allowed to lie almost wholly in abeyance, for sake of the resources of the 
kirk-session or of voluntary assessment, till the passing of a special act by the imperial parlia- 
ment in 1845. The total of paupero-parochial combinations, or of territoral divisions regard- 
ed parochially for the purposes of pauper economy, is 883 ; and the number of those contri- 
buting organizedly for the support of the poor, when the new act came into operation, was 
only about 230; but the number in 1846 was 445,— in 1848, 602,— in 1850, 644,— in 
1852, 671,— in 1856, 716,— in 1860, 749,— in 1864, 770. Anyone of four modes of as- 
sessment is permitted ; but the first of these, which allows a parish to distinguish lands and 
heritages into two or more classes, according to the purposes for which they are used or oc- 
cupied, and to assess the tenants or occupants of each class in such different rates as may 
seem just and reasonable, is the one generally preferred, having been adopted in no fewer 
than 746 of the 770 organized parishes of 1864. 

The sums received from all sources for the relief and management of the poor were, in 1836, 
£171,042 ; in 1840, £202,812 ; in 1845, £258,814 ; in 1849, £583,613 ; in 1852, £541,889 ; 
in 1856, £651,000; in 1860, £671,515; in 1864, £776,455. The expenditure yearly in 
various years, together with the rate per head on the population according to the previous 
census, and the rate per cent, on real property according to the return of 1843, was as follows : — 


Year ending 
Feb. 1, 1846, 
May 14, 1848, 
May 14, 1850, 
May 14, 1852, 
May 14, 1855, 
May 14, 1860, 
May 14, 1864, 

Relief of 
poor on 
the roll. 



Relief of 





Total ex- 

Rate per 

on pop. 

Rate per 
cent, on 







s. d. 

£ s. d. 





2 3 

3 3 4 






4 ljf 

5 16 9 







4 5 

6 4 94 







4 1 

5 14 11| 







4 21 

6 11 3i 






4 7 

7 2 3^ 






5 0} 

8 5 2A 

The following table gives the personal statistics of these years under various heads- 


Year ending. 
Feb. 1, 1846, 
May 14, 184S, 
May 14, 1850, 
May 14, 1852, 
May 14, 1855, 
May 14, 1860, 
May 14, 1864, 

J, {. 

ex-, a <o 

■s Z 3»J 

° 3 c =s 
t. o 'C « 
w a. - ^» 

5 £2 o> 







5 o.a 






1 C2 o 
K P 2 o 







Poor-houses are provided by single populous parishes, or by groups of contiguous parishes. 
In August 1864- there were 53 in operation, aggregately containing accommodation for 12,895 
inmates; serving for 263 parishes, which had a population of 1,683,065 in 1861, and oc- 
cupied on the 1st of July 1864 by 7,165 paupers. These poor-houses are for Edinburgh, 
Canongate of Edinburgh, St. Cuthberts of Edinburgh, Glasgow, Govan, Barony of Glasgow, 
Aberdeen, Old Aberdeen, Athole, Ayr, Black Isle, Campbelton, Cunningham, Dalkeith, 
Dumfries, Dundee, Dunfermline, Dysart, Easter Ross, Falkirk, Forfar, Galashiels, Greenock, 
Hawick, Inveresk, Inverness, Jedburgh, Kelso, Kirkcaldy, Kirkcudbright, Kirkpatrick-Flem- 
ing, Kyle, Latheron, North Leith, South Leith, Liff and Benvie, Linlithgow, Lochgilphead, 
Lorn, Maybole, New Monkland, Old Monkland, Mull, Nairn, Paisley, Abbey of Paisley, 
Peebles, Perth, Rhinns of Galloway, Skye, Stirling, Thurso, Upper Nithsdale, and Upper 
Strathearn. In August 1864, also, 13 other poor-houses, for the use of 85 parishes, which 
had a population of 245,431 in 1861, were in progress. 


The following table shows, for each of the counties, and for the whole kingdom, the amount 
of the population of Scotland in the years 1801, 1811, 1821, 1831, 1841, 1851, and 1861, 
with the increase or decrease per cent, during each ten years, decrease being indicated by 
the sign ( — ). 




; or d 


e per 






































































































































Dumbarton, , 










































Elgin or Moray, 






























107, 1S7 























— 1 










































— 3 
























































— 1 



Orkney and Shetland, 








— 1 

















— 1 






























10 2 

Ross and Cromarty, 





























. 5.3SS 























































Totals, . . 1,608,420 1,S05,SC4 2,091,521 2,364,386 2,620,184 2,S8S,742 3,062,294 12 16 13 11 10 6.0 

The number of males and females in each county, and the number of inhabited houses, of 
uninhabited houses, and of houses in the course of erection, together with some other statis- 
tics of county population, will be found stated in our articles on the several comities. The 
average number of rooms to a house, of rooms to a family, of persons to a house, and of per- 
sons to a room, the per centage of families occupying one room with no window, and of fa- 
milies occupying one room with only one window, the number of persons to a square mile, 
and the number of acres to a person, in every county of Scotland in 1861, are shown in the 
followinsr table:— 



Average No. Average No. Average No. 
Counties. of Rooms of Rooms of Persons 

to a House, to a Family, to a House. 

Aberdeen, 4-2 2-6 67 

Argyle, 31 2-5 57 

Ayr, 3-7 2-2 7-7 

Banff, 32 27 5-3 

Berwick, 3-4 2-8 5-7 

Bute, 4-8 2-9 7-0 

Caithness, 2-6 2-1 5'5 

Clackmannan, 3'8 2-3 7-1 

Dumbarton, 4-8 2-5 8-8 

Dumfries, 3'5 2-7 57 

Edinburgh, 7'6 29 11-3 

Elgin, 3-7 3-0 5-2 

Fife, 3-5 2-5 5-9 

Forfar, 4-8 2-3 87 

Haddington, 36 2-8 5-5 

Inverness, 28 2-4 53 

Kincardine, 33 27 5-1 

Kinross, 3-3 2 7 4-8 

Kirkcudbright, 4-1 32 5-8 

Lanark, 6"3 22 13.5 

Linlithgow, 3-3 2-1 7-1 

Nairn, 3-2 2-7 4-9 

Orkney & Shetland, 2 2 1-7 55 

Peebles, 3-7 3-1 5-7 

Perth, 4-2 2-6 6-0 

Renfrew, 7-3 2-2 148 

Ross and Cromarty, 2-7 2-3 5-1 

Roxburgh, 4-1 2-7 6-9 

Selkirk, 4-3 2-8 7-1 

Stirling, 4-0 2-4 7-4 

Sutherland, 2-8 2-5 5-1 

Wigton, 3-6 2-8 6-1 

Total of Scotland, 4-3 2-5 77 

Per Centage Per Centage 
Average No. of Families of Families Number of Number of 
of Persons in one Room in one Room Persons to a Acres to a 
to a Room. with no with only 1 Square Mile. Person. 
Window. Window. 


; 81 
































The Universities of Scotland are, in most particulars, sufficiently noticed in our articles on 
St. Andrews, Glasgow, Aberdeen, and Edinburgh, the cities in which they are situated. All, 
except that of Edinburgh, existed before the Reformation ; and that of St. Andrews is illus- 
triously associated with the name of Melville, and makes an honourable figure in the history 
of the revival of literature. They formerly differed from one another in parts of their con- 
stitution, and laboured all more or less under disadvantages ; but they were brought nearly 
to uniformity, and materially altered and improved, by a comprehensive act, passed in 1856. 
A commission was then appointed, to continue till 1st January 1862, or, by order of the 
Queen and privy council, for a year longer, to unite the two of Aberdeen into one, to orga- 
nize a new government for all, to revise the powers, privileges, and endowments of each, to 
found new professorships where necessary, and to make rules for admission of students, 
course of study, manner of teaching, fees, examinations, and degrees. Each of the univer- 
sities has now a chancellor, a rector, a principal, a senatus academicus, and a general council, 
and is governed by a university court. The senatus academicus consists of the principal 
and the professors, confers degrees, and, subject to the control of the university court, super- 
intends discipline and administers property. The general council consists of the chancellor, 
the university court, the professors, and all alumni who are off the roll of students, and up- 
wards of 21 years of age; and it takes part in the election of office-bearers, according to pro- 
visions of the act, and makes representations to the university court on all questions affecting 
the university's prosperity. The university courts vary somewhat from one another in 
constitution, and will be noticed in our articles on the universities' seats. The professors 
prior to 1851, required to be members of the Established church; and the principals, except 
of St. Andrews, prior to 1856, required to be clergymen ; but all are now free from restriction. 

The students have ever been treated without reference to creeds or sects. Sums were 
issued to the Universities, from the Consolidated Fund, for compensation under the Copy- 
right act, from J 845 to 1865, amounting to £44.640 ; sums were voted to the Universities, 


by Parliament, for their proper uses, from 1845 to 1865, increasing from .£7,079 to .£16,282 
a-year, and amounting to .£175,576 ; and payments were made for buildings of the Univer- 
sities, superintended by the Office of Works, in the same years, to the amount of £35,705. 

The public schools of Scotland were almost all, for some time, on the parochial system. 
This was established, by act of parliament, toward the close of the 17th century ; it theoreti- 
cally required that there should be at least one school in each parish ; and, except in the remote 
Highland districts, it was very promptly and generally adopted. It seemed to be well suited 
to the educating of the people ; it was worked vigorously, with good results ; and it earned 
for Scotland the fame of being the best-educated country in the world ; yet it was slowly and 
reluctantly discovered to possess many defects, both intrinsic and extrinsic ; it required to be 
supplemented, in sequestered districts, by many appliances ; it was superseded, in the large 
towns, by burgh-schools and association academies ; and, though continuing to confer im- 
portant advantages, it eventually allowed other and younger countries to overtop Scotland in 
educational celebrity. Great efforts were made by the Established Church, at various times 
and in various forms, in most parts of Scotland, but especially throughout the Highlands, to 
supply its deficiencies. One of the grandest of these efforts began so early as 1704, in the 
organization of the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge ; and another grand one 
■was developed in 1824, in the appointing of a Committee of Assembly, with the character of 
a Board, to form and superintend schools. The Pree Church also, from the time of its for- 
mation in 1843, made strong exertion to have a school in connexion with each of its congre- 
gations ; and it carried out the exertion so successfully as to have 712 in 1851. The Episco- 
palians and the Roman Catholics likewise, in proportion to their numbers, made scarcely 
less efforts ; other religious bodies, particularly the United Presbyterians, in many of their 
congregations, achieved much ; and large numbers of influential persons, in various capaci- 
ties as patriots or philanthropists, individually or in association, accomplished more. The 
Committee of Privy Council on Education came to the aid of the schools in 1839, and, from 
that year till the end of 1864, made grants of £508,3S5 to those connected with the Estab- 
lished Church, £394,929 to those connected with the Pree Church, £43,487 to those con- 
nected with Episcopalians, and £23,354 to those connected with Roman Catholics. But dis- 
satisfaction with the working of the grants and with the classification of the schools extensively 
existed ; a desire for a national school system was widely felt ; and a Commission to inquire 
into the schools was appointed, in 1864, by the Crown. The first report of the Commission 
■was dated in March 1865, but contained only the oral-evidence taken till that date; and 
the second report was expected to be ready for presentation to Parliament, in time to admit 
of action upon it before the end of the session of 1866. 

The number of children, from 5 to 15 years of age, attending school during the first week 
of April 1861, was 441,166; but that number excluded all scholars then absent from ill 
health or other causes, all scholars receiving instruction at home through tutors or gover- 
nesses, and all scholars attending such schools, as, on account of Spring agricultural 
operations, are shut during the month of April ; and the number of scholars of all ages, at 
that date, was 479,856. The number of schools visited by the government inspectors, be- 
tween 1 September 1863 and 31 August 1864, for examination connected with annual 
grants, was 1,382 schools, with 1,632 school-rooms; for examination unconnected with 
grants, 181 schools, with 183 school-rooms; in all, 1,563 schools, with 1,815 school-rooms. 
Of the 1,563 examined on account of grants, 867 were of the Established Church, and had 
89,433 children present at examination, 983 certificated teachers, and 1,077 pupil teachers ; 
392 were of the Pree Church, or of other non-Established churches, and had 45,290 chil- 
dren present at examination, 488 certificated teachers, and 493 pupil teachers; 82 were of 
the Episcopal Church, and had 9,758 children present at examination, 85 certificated teachers, 
and 136 pupil teachers; and 41 were Roman Catholic, and had 7,850 children present at 
examination, 50 certificated teachers, and 99 pupil teachers. Of the 181 examined uncon- 
nectedly with grants, 146 were of the Established Church, and had 2,673 children present; 
14 were of the Free Church, or of other non-Established churches, and had 1,092 children 
present; 20 were of the Episcopal Church, and had 1,117 children present; and 1 was 
Roman Catholic, and had 345 children present. Of the 1,382 examined for annual grants, 
163 of the Established Church, 110 of the Pree Church, 22 of the Episcopal Church, and 
14 of the Roman Catholic ones, had ladies' committees to superintend instruction in domestic 
industry. The number of school-houses erected with aid of parliamentary grants, from 1839 
till the end of 1864, was 364 of the Established Church, with accommodation for 34,044 


scholars ; 305 of the Free Church, and of other non-Established churches, with accommoda- 
tion for 25,113 scholars, and 16 of the Episcopal Church, with accommodation for 2,054 
scholars; or 695 in all, with accommodation for 61,211 scholars. The total cost of erection 
of these schools was £288,904 ; and the proportion of this furnished by parliamentary grants 
was £95,449. 

Parochial schools have now no existence, or merely a nominal one, in large or considerable 
towns ; but they continue to be prominent in all smaller towns, and throughout the rural 
districts. The majority of parishes have each one parochial school ; some have two ; a few 
have three, or even four. The schoolmasters, prior to 1861, required to be members of the 
Established Church, and were under the jurisdiction of the presbyteries of their bounds ; but, 
in terms of an Act of that year, may now belong to other communions, are qualified for 
office by a testing examination on the part of examiners appointed by the university courts, 
and, in cases of immoral conduct or cruelty, are under the jurisdiction of the sheriff. The 
parochial schoolmasters are appointed by the parochial heritors and clergymen, with the 
reservation that, if two or three candidates are sent to the examiners, the one whom they 
certify to be the best qualified is held to be elected ; and prior to the Act of 1861 they had 
a maximum salary of £34 4s. 4^d., but now have a minimum of £35, and a maximum of 
£70, or, in cases of two or more schools in one parish, a minimum for all of £50, and a 
maximum of £80. About 250 of the schoolmasters, in 1865, were in receipt of Privy Coun- 
cil grants ; and a large number of them, particularly throughout the counties of Aberdeen, 
Banff, and Elgin, have considerable receipts from endowments or special bequests. The total 
number of parochial schools, in 1851, was 937; and in 1865, including 38 female ones, 
was 1,057. 

The Established Church schools, in a general sense, include all the parochial schools, and 
all others which accept examination by the Church's presbyteries ; and, in a special sense, 
consist of those which receive support or aid from the Church's funds. The number reported 
to have been examined during 1864 was 2,614, with 202,583 children on their roll; and 
the number known or computed to have been under presbyterial supervision, was not fewer 
than 3,000, with about 260,000 children on their roll. The number which received support 
or aid from the Church's funds, in that year, was 172 mixed schools and 34 female schools, 
together with 95 sewing-schools attached to the former ; the number of children attending 
them was 19,417 on week days, together with upwards of 2,000 for their Sabbath instruc- 
tion ; and the amounts received by their teachers were .£3,655 from the Church's funds, and 
£6,851 from other sources. The Free Church schools, in 1865, comprised 570 which re- 
ceived grants from the Church's funds, and about 200 which did not receive such grants. 
The 570 were classified into 434 congregational schools, 100 side and industrial schools,' 30 
missionary schools, 4 grammar schools, and 2 normal schools ; they were conducted by 594 
teachers, and attended by 61,172 scholars; and, exclusive of the two normal ones, they re- 
ceived from the Church's funds, £8,972. The schools of other religious bodies, in 1851 — 
for we have not complete statistics of them at a later date — were 61 of the United Presby- 
terian Church, with 5,807 scholars, 2 of the Reformed Presbyterian Church, with 355 
scholars, 36 of the Episcopal Church, with 2,658 scholars, 4 of Independents, with 424 
scholars, 1 of Baptists, with 167 scholars, and 32 of Roman Catholics, with 5,673 scholars. 
The Established Church has two normal schools, the Free Church has two, and the Episcopal 
Church has one. These schools are colleges for teachers, training them in both the prin- 
ciples and the practice of teaching ; but they serve, at the same time, as great seminaries for 
children ; and all are aided with Privy Council grants. The two of the Established Church 
had 109 male students, and 101 female students in March 1865 ; received annually, for a 
course of years, £500 from the Church's funds ; received, in 1864, £8,450 from Privy 
Council grants; and received, from 1839 till 1863, a total of £103,999 from Privy Council 
grants. The two of the Free Church had 116 male students and 127 female students in 
March 1865 ; received, in 1864, £9,968 from various sources ; and received, from 1839 till 
1863, a total of £105,439 from Privy Council grants. The one of the Episcopal Church 
had 13 students in March 1865, and received, from 1839 till 1S"63, a total of £4,215 from 
Privy Council grants. 

The burgh schools, as a class, are much superior to the parochial schools; they exist in 
most towns of more than 3,000 or 4,000 inhabitants ; they are generally under the patronage 
of the local authorities, and those of the larger burghs commonly bear the name of high 
schools or grammar schools, have a plurality of well-qualified teachers, afford a wide scope of 

education, and possess, for the most part, a fair or respectable amount of emoluments. — Some 
endowed schools, such as the Wallace academy in Closeburn, the Dollar institution in Dollar, 
the Madras academy in Cupar-Fife, and the Madras college in St. Andrews, are large and 
well-equipped establishments. — Very many schools in small towns, in villages, and in rural 
districts receive support, in a variety of degrees, from heritors or other wealthy persons. 
Subscription schools likewise make a considerable figure, but are exceeding varied in size, in 
specific object, and in almost every other character. Some of these, and also some of the 
previous class, are designed for particular descriptions of children ; some are in connexion 
with factories or other public works ; and many are of so general or miscellaneous a nature 
as to be incapable of classification. 

Keformatory schools, certified under act of parliament, for the reclaiming of young offen- 
ders, were began in 1854, and amounted to 14 in 1864. Eight of these were for boys, and 
C for girls; 12 were Protestant, and 2 Roman Catholic. The average number of their in- 
mates, in 1864, was 757 boys and 258 girls; the average cost of each inmate, £16 10s. 34d. ; 
the amount contributed to them from parliamentary grants, £15,369. — Ragged or industrial 
schools, for reclaiming outcast children, were of earlier origin ; they amounted, in 1851, to 
21, with 1,182 male, and 795 female scholars; they afterwards became, in some degree, sup- 
plementary to the reformatory schools ; and the number of them, in 1864, certified under act 
of parliament, was 19, with 565 boys and 257 girls under detention. 

Schools of art, under government sanction, in 1851, were 3, attended by 998 scholars, 214 
of whom were upwards of 15 years of age ; and in 1864 were 9, attended by 11,188 scholars, 
and receiving £1,190 of grants from the Science and Art Department. There were 4 navi- 
gation schools in 1864; and these were attended, in the previous year, by 8,103 scholars. 
Scientific classes, for instruction in many departments of physical science, varying from ele- 
mentary to advanced, are held in connexion with numerous schools and institutions. 

The school statistics of the Census of 1851 were very copious and minute ; and when mea- 
sured by the amount of population at that time, they still throw much light on the educational 
condition of the kingdom ; yet they are now available mainly in their leading figures, and 
not much in their details. The number of day-school scholars, according to direct returns 
from the schools, was 368,517 ; but by computation for missions and oversights, was 412,678. 
The number of public day schools was 3,349, with 280,045 scholars ; of private day schools, 
1,893, with 88,472 scholars; of Sabbath schools, 3,803, with 292,459 scholars; of evening 
schools for adults, 438, with 15,071 scholars; and of institutions of a character intermediate 
between educational and literary, 221. The number of day schools, public and private, in 
which geography was taught to boys was 2,899, ancient languages 1,511, modern languages 
581, mathematics 1,321, drawing 324, music 710, industrial occupations 50 ; and the number 
in which geography was taught to girls was 2,910, ancient languages 188, modern languages 
662, mathematics 65, drawing 298, music 915, industrial occupations 809. The number of 
the public schools which were parochial was 937, with 75,955 scholars; which were burgh 
schools 88, with 11,484 scholars ; which otherwise were supported by taxation 14, with 1,461 
scholars; which were endowed 491, with 39,537 scholars; which were supported by reli- 
gious bodies, 1,385, with 114,739 scholars; which were connected with factories, collieries, or 
ironworks, 56, with 7,408 scholars ; which were supported or aided by subscription, 378, with 
29,461 scholars. The number of scholars in the Sabbath schools belonging to the Estab- 
lished Church was 76,233 ; to the Free Church, 91,328; to the United Presbyterians, 
54,324; to the Reformed Presbyterians, 2,571; to the Episcopalians, 3,706; to the Inde- 
pendents, 12,593; to the Evangelical Union, 1,853; to the Baptists, 2,506; to the Metho- 
dists, 5,908; to the Roman Catholics, 13,015. 


Scotland has long had the reputation of pre-eminent intellectuality. Her children have 
equalled or excelled those of most modern countries in almost every department of learning 
and art. A goodly proportion of them are known on the roll of fame to the ends of the 
earth, and will continue to figure on it till the end of time. Among her mathematicians and 
physicists may be mentioned the Gregorys, Maclaurin, Simpson, Black, Hutton, Robison, 
Ferguson, Playfair, Ivory, and Leslie; among her ethical writers, Reid, Smith, Beattie, Os- 
wald, Campbell, Lord Karnes, Lord Monboddo, Brown, and Stewart ; among her physicians 


and anatomists, Cullen, the Gregorys, the Monroes, and Abercromby ; among her divines, 
Leighton, Macknight, Brown, Hill, Dick, Moncrieff, Thomson, Chalmers, and Wardlaw; 
among her engineers, Watt, Murdoch, Eennie, and Telford ; among her agriculturists, 
Sinclair, Dickson, Ayton, Coventry, and Smith; among her historians, Fordun, Barbour, 
Buchanan, Robertson, Hume, Smollett, and Tytler ; among her antiquaries, Lord Hailes, 
Geddes, Pinkerton, Chalmers, and Jamieson ; among her critics, Blair, Karnes, Campbell, and 
Jeffrey ; among her painters, Runciman, Jamieson, Raeburn, Thomson, Wilkie, and David 
Scott ; among her novelists, Smollett, Mackenzie, Gait, Scott, "Wilson, and Lauder ; and among 
her poets, Ossian, Ramsay, Thomson, Drummond, Armstrong, Beattie, Ferguson, Burns. 
Tannahill, Leyden, Motherwell, Scott, Byron, and Wilson. 

The Lowland Scotch are eminently a reading people, and, in proportion to their bulk, have 
probably a very considerably larger number of public libraries than any other in the world 
Subscription libraries — sometimes two or more in number, and generally large, select, and 
comparatively rich in literature — exist in most of the large towns ; parochial and congre- 
gational libraries, for the most part pervaded by religiousness of character, exist in villages, 
hamlets, and in rooms attached to the crowded chapel of the city, or the solitary rural church 
or meeting-house ; private circulating libraries, or libraries on private adventure, for letting 
out books to promiscuous readers, are usually of a light character, and abound in city, town, 
watering-place, and every locale or resort of the intellectually frivolous ; circumambulating 
libraries, or such as keep detachments of a very large and excellent library in garrison through- 
out the country, and periodically move them from post to post, are in full and benign posses- 
sion of extensive territories ; Sabbath-school and other juvenile libraries, exist in great num- 
bers, for the use of the young ; and a public news-room, for blending literature with 
commerce, and with mental recreation, is to be found even in many a village, and in almost 
everything which can fairly be called a town. 

The book-trade of Scotland, with very few exceptions, is confined to Edinburgh and Glas- 
gow, so that sufficient notice of it is contained in our articles on these two cities. The num- 
ber of stamps issued to newspapers in Scotland, in the year ending September, 1836, was 
2,654,438; in the year ending 5th January 1839, 4,228,370; and in the year ending 
31st December, 1852, 6,656,922 at a penny and 229,197 at a halfpenny. The amount from 
newspaper stamps, in 1861, was ^£18,1 12 ; in 1865, .£15,574. In 1866, 23 newspapers were 
published in Glasgow, 15 in Edinburgh, 7 in Aberdeen, 6 in Dundee; 4 each in Paisley, 
Perth, and Stirling ; 3 each in Ayr, Cupar-Fife, Dumfries, Elgin, Falkirk, Greenock, Inver- 
ness, and Leith ; 2 each in Alloa, Arbroath, Ardrossan or Saltcoats, Crieff, Dumbarton, 
Kelso, Kirkcaldy, Kirkwall, Lockerby, Montrose, Peterhead, Rothesay, St. Andrews, Stran- 
raer, and Wick ; and 1 each in Airdrie, Annan, Anstruther, Banff, Blairgowrie, Brechin, 
Campbelton, Castle-Douglas, Dalkeith, Dunfermline, Forres, Fraserburgh, Galashiels, Had- 
dington, Hamilton, Hawick, Huntly, Invergordon, Jedburgh, Kilmarnock, Kinross, Kirkcud- 
bright, Langholm, Linlithgow, Moffat, Nairn, Peebles, Portobello, Portsoy, Selkirk, and 
Stonehaven. Fourteen were published daily, 3 thrice a- week, 9 twice a-week, 116 weekly, 
2 fortnightly, and 4 monthly. 


The Established church of Scotland is strictly presbyterian. Each parish is governed by a 
kirk- session, consisting of the minister and several lay-elders. A number of parishes, varying 
from 3 to 39, send each its minister and a ruling elder to form a presbytery, and are, on a 
common footing, under its authority. Several presbyteries contribute or amass all their mem- 
bers to form a synod, and are individually subject to its review or revision of their proceed- 
ings. All the presbyteries, in concert with the royal burghs, the four universities, and the 
Crown, elect representatives, who jointly constitute the General Assembly. This is the 
supreme court ; and will be found noticed in our article on Edinburgh. The Synods, 16 in 
number, are exceedingly dissimilar in the extent of their territory, and the amount of their 
population ; and the presbyteries, 84 in number, have also a very various extent, and are 
distributed among the synods in groups of from 3 to 8. 

The number of parishes strictly political, whose aggregate limits comprise the whole king- 
dom, and whose ministers derive their income either from teinds or from some tantamount 
provision, is 925. But 21 of these are collegiate charges, each having two ministers; and 
several also have each two churches. There are likewise in connexion with the Establishment, 


in the Highlands and Islands, 42 places of worship, which originated in a procedure of the 
Government in 1823 for Scottish church-extension, and are called government or parlia- 
mentary churches, — in the Lowlands, about 1!J8 places of worship, which originated at various 
times and in various ways, in the enterprise of individuals, congregations, or societies, and ex- 
cept in cases which we shall immediately specify, are called chapels-of-ease, — and in the 
Highlands, in the Islands, or in parts of the Lowlands contiguous to the Highlands, 41 places 
of worship, which originated in efforts of a missionary character, and are called missions of the 
Committee of the General Assembly for managing the Royal Bounty. By an act of parliament 
passed in 1844, any non-parochial place of worship connected with the Establishment, on 
security of sufficient endowment for the stipend of its minister, and with the consent of a 
majority of the heritors affected by it, may be erected by the Court of Teinds into a quoad 
sacra parish church, having the same constitution and status, in government by kirk-session, 
in rule over a specified territory around it, and in representation in the superior courts, as a 
strictly political or quoad civilia parish church ; and in virtue of that act, 101 of the parlia- 
mentary, mission, and chapel churches were, prior to May 18C5, made quoad sacra parochial. 
The total number of places of worship connected with the Establishment in 1866, was 214 ; 
and 132 of them still ranked as chapels of ease. 

The main support of the quoad civilia parish ministers is derived from tithes, called in 
Scotland teinds. The amount for each minister is assigned in chalders of grain ; so that its 
money-value is variable; but this is determined each year by the average-prices of the pre- 
vious year's grain crops in the county, officially struck by the sheriff with the help of a jury, 
and called the fiars. Scottish teinds are all predial, and are divided into parsonage or the 
greater teinds, consisting of the tithe of victual or grain, and vicarage or the lesser teinds, 
consisting of the tithe of grass, flax, hemp, butter, cattle, eggs, and some other articles. The 
tithes of fish are, in a few places, exigible ; but, along with all the vicarage teinds, they are 
very inconsiderable. The parsonage teinds are held by the Crown, by universities, by pious 
foundations, by lay titulars, or by the proprietors of the lands from which they are due; and, 
with the limitation that those of one parish cannot, to any amount, be transferred to another 
parish, they are, in all cases, exigible as payment of the stipends which have been provided 
by law, or which may, in future, be awarded by the Court of Teinds. In 1838, those which 
belonged to the Crown amounted in value to £38,051 0s. 4d. formerly belonging to the 
bishops, £5,323 3s. lid. formerly belonging to the chapel royal, and £2,523 5s. lOd. for- 
merly belonging to the abbacy of Dunfermline, — in all, £45,897 10s. Id. Of this sum, 
£30,155 17s. 8d. was appropriated to ministers' stipends. Of the unappropriated amount, 
the free yearly surplus, after necessary deductions, was only £10,182 4s. 8d., and the actual 
receipt, in consequence of mismanagement, was a pitiful trifle. Teinds belonging to other 
parties than the Crown, amounted to £281,384 14s. Of this sum, £146,942 was appro- 
priated to ministers' stipends, leaving £138,186 17s. 6d. unappropriated. Any minister in 
whose parish there are unappropriated teinds is entitled, after an interval of twenty years 
from the date of the last augmentation of stipend out of them, to apply to the Court of 
Teinds for another augmentation. From 1838 till 1851, applications for augmentation 
were made from 141 parishes, and augmentations to the aggregate amount of £4,571 were 

In 872 parishes, payment of the stipends is made from the teinds ; in each of 196 of these, 
the teinds are less in value than £158 6s. 8d. ; and in each of about 220, while amounting to 
£158 6s. 8d. and upwards, they are so low as to have been all appropriated. In those whose 
teinds are less in value than £158 6s. 8d., the stipend is raised to that amount or upwards, 
by payment from the exchequer. In quoad civilia burgh parishes, stipend is for the most 
part paid from the burgh funds ; and in Edinburgh and a few other towns, it is paid from 
funds specially levied under act of parliament. In the case of the parliamentary churches, 
whether parochial or not, the stipend is a fixed allowance for each of £120 from the ex- 
chequer ; and in the case of the chapels-of-ease, it is paid chiefly from seat-rents, and, in 
some instances, partly from the church-door collections. Except in a few peculiar cases, the 
ministers of quoad civilia parishes, either altogether or partly landward, are entitled to manses 
and glebes ; and, in a few instances, they receive a money allowance in lieu of one or both. 
In parishes which, while the teinds are low, confer no right to either manse or glebe, an 
allowance is made from the exchequer, to raise the stipend to £200 ; and in those which, in 
the circumstances, confer a right only to a manse, or to a glebe, but not to both, an allow- 
ance from the same source makes the stipend £180. Ministers of the parliamentary churche« 


are entitled by law each to a house and half-an-acre of garden ground ; and, in the majority 
of instances, they have been provided by the heritors with glebes. In numerous parishes 
the ministers have rights of grazing, or cutting turf and peats, and several other privileges of 
aggregately little value. In quoad civilia country parishes, the area of the churches belongs 
to the heritors, and is generally divided by them among the tenants and cottagers on their 
estates ; and when a surplus, or disposable number, of the seats is let, the proceeds are, in 
some instances, appropriated by the heritors for their private use, and, in others, given to the 
poor. In quoad civilia burgh parishes, seat-rents are, in general, exacted for all, or nearly 
all, the pews ; and are either employed for stipend, or drawn as common burgh revenue. In 
the parliamentary churches, seat-rents were originally designed to be generally exigible, and 
to be applied in maintaining the repair of the churches and manses ; but they are, in every 
case, collected with difficulty, and, in some instances, have been entirely abandoned. The 
aggregate amount of the stipends of the ministers of the Establishment, exclusive of assist- 
ants and missionaries, on an average of 7 years preceding 1836, was, from parsonage teinds, 
£179,393 10s. 3d., — from vicarage teinds, so far as thev were paid in money, or had been 
valued, £712 19s. 8d.,— and from other sources, £51,345 5s. 0d.,— in all, £231,451 4s. lid. 
The aggregate annual value of glebes, exclusive of a few not valued, was £19,168 15s. 3d. 
The income of the church, from voluntary contributions, during the year ending 15th April, 
1862, for schools, missions, and other schemes, was £50,202 14s. 5d. 

The Free church of Scotland disputes with the Established church the palm of numbers 
and of influence, and even claims to be the true historical national church. It was constituted 
in May, 1843. Upwards of 500 ministers, a considerable number of preachers and of theo- 
logical students, and a vast body of all classes of the people, at that time left the Establish- 
ment and formed the Free church. The main cause of the disruption is briefly stated in our 
article on Auchterarder. The constitution and government of the Free church are in all 
respects the same as those of the Established church, excepting onty, or at least chiefly, the 
absence of patronage, the want of state connexion, and the machinery of finance. Even the 
distribution and the very nomenclature of the synods, the presbyteries, and the congregations, 
in as far as circumstances could be made to admit, are the same as in the Establishment. 
The number of synods at the date of the General Assembly in 1865 was 16 ; of presbyteries, 
71; of organized congregations, 833; and of preaching stations, 71. The number of 
places of worship at the date of the census in 1851 was 889. A guaranteed stipend is paid, 
by equal dividend of the yearly proceeds of what is termed the sustentation fund, to each of 
the ministers of the Free church, except those of a few recent or peculiarly situated congre- 
gations, and this amounted for 1864 to £138. But a further sum accrues from other funds, 
and raised the average stipend in 1864 to £184 10s. ; a still further sum, to any amount, is 
paid by as many congregations as can afford to give it; and 657 of the ministers in 1864 
had also manses. The amount raised by the Free church in the year ending 31st March, 
1865, for the sustentation fund, was £118,083 9s. lid.; for building purposes, £41,821 
13s. 6|d. ; for congregational objects, £113,338 12s. lfd. for missions and education, 
£70,207 16s. 6d ; for miscellaneous purposes, 13,579 0s. lOd ; altogether, £357,030 12s. ll±d. 

The United Presbyterian church is next in bulk to the Free church. It comprises the 
congregations of the United Secession church and the Eelief church, which were united in 1846, 
and which, previous to the formation of the Free church, were the two largest dissenting 
bodies in Scotland. Its government is strictly presbyterian ; but it has only one synod, and 
the representation there is the same as in its presbyteries, consisting of the minister or minis- 
ters and one lay-elder from each congregation. There belonged in 1865 to this church 31 
presbyteries and 590 organized congregations ; but the presbyteries vary in size from the in- 
clusion of only 7 congregations to the inclusion of so many as 74 ; and five entire presby- 
teries, portions of two others, comprising altogether 103 congregations, are out of Scotland. 
The total of United Presbyterian regular congregations in Scotland, therefore, is 487 ; but 
many of these are large ; and there are some mission churches and some preaching stations. 
The total number of United Presbyterian places of worship in Scotland in 1851 was 465. 
The disbursements for all congregational purposes are managed on the voluntary principle, 
and the aggregate income for them, including extraordinary as well as ordinary, amounted in 
1858 to £129^079 ; in 1864 to £178,858. Ministers' stipends, in the larger charges, range 
from £300 to £700 ; in the medium charges, range from £120 to £300 ; and in the smaller 
charges, receive a supplement from a central fund, included among the benevolent schemes, 
and aiming to raise the minimum to £120. The sums contributed in the United Presbyterian 

church during the year ending 31st December, 1864, for missionary objects and for other 
ultra-congregational purposes, amounted to £50,690 13s. lid. 

The Reformed Presbyterian church comprises 6 presbyteries and 45 congregations — one 
of the latter in England. The Reformed Presbyterian church in Scotland comprises 2 pres- 
byteries and 1 1 congregations — all Scotch. The Synod of United Original Seceders com- 
prises 4 presbyteries and 27 congregations — 2 of the latter in Ireland ; but in 1851 it had in 
Scotland 36 places of worship, a number of which afterwards became connected with the 
Free church. The Scottish Episcopal Church is distributed into 7 dioceses, and comprises 
at present 163 congregations. There are likewise in Scotland 8 English Episcopalian con- 
gregations. The Independents in connexion with the Congregational Union of Scotland 
have at present in Scotland 101 congregations; the Evangelical Union and affiliated churches 
53; the various bodies of Baptists, about 78 ; and theWesleyan Methodists, about 34. But many 
of all these classes of congregations, Independent, Union, Baptist, and Methodist, are very 
small. There are likewise about 110 other congregations, either Protestant or at least not 
Roman Catholic, of very diversified name and character, rarely more than 5 or 6 of them 
grouped into a denomination, and so many as about 10 or 12 standing alone; and what all 
these are may be proximately seen from the statistical table, which we subjoin of the Census 
of 1851 ; but nota few of them, besides being very small, are fluctuating and ephemeral. The 
Roman Catholic body in Scotland is distributed into three districts or quasi-dioceses, and 
comprises at present 128 places of worship and 182 priests. 

The following table shows the total church-accommodation and church-attendance in Scot- 
land, as returned to the Census officers in 1851, including an estimate for returns defective 
and for others known to be missing ; — 

Number of Places open for Worship on Sunday, 


lumber of 

March 30, 1851 

Number of attendants a. 


of worship 

and Number of Sittings thus 

made available. 

public worship on Sunday 

and Sittings. 

March 30th, IS 


Keligious Denominations. 

Places ope) 





After- Even- 
















Protestant Churches: 

Presbyterian — 

Established Church, 












Keformed Presbyterian Cli., 












Original Secession Cliurcli, 












Relief Church, 












United Presbyterian Church, 












Free Church, 












F^iscopal Church, 




































Society of Friends, 






























Wesleyan Methodists- 

Original Connexion, 












Primitive Methodists, 












Independent Methodists, 












Wesleyan Reformers, 






Glassites or Sandemanians, 












New Church, 





















Evangelical Union, 












Isolated Congregations- 
























City Mission, 























Christian Disciples. 












Christian Reformation, 






Reformed Christians, 








Free Christian Brethren. 









Primitive Christians, 






























Reformed Protestants, 













Christian Chartists, 









Denomination not stated, 









Other Churches: 

Roman Catholics. 












Catholic and Apostolic Church 












Latter-day Saints or Mormons, 


































A satisfactory outline of the ecclesiastical history of Scotland would occupy twenty or fifty 
times more space than we can spare. Its greatest elements would be critical remark on the 
date of the introduction of Christianity to Scotland ; a view — partly given in our article on 
Icolmkill — of the character, discipline, and history of the Culdees ; an examination of the rise 
and expansion of diocesan episcopacy ; an exhibition of the inroads, methods of conquest, 
early condition, successive development, history, institutions, and corruptions of Romanism ; 
a careful tracery of the multitudinous events of the Reformation, and of the struggles which 
presbyterianism maintained against popery, and against protestant prelacy, till the Revolution ; 
and a rapid sketch of the rise and early history of each of the Scottish dissenting sects. Much 
of the most interesting parts of each of these elements, excepting the first, will be found 
interspersed with the body of our work ; and, wherever it occurs, will be clearly understood 
without the aid of connecting links of narrative. Very frequently, however, in connexion 
with the monastic class of the Romish institutions, allusions and names occur which, as the 
institutions were in some instances peculiar to Scotland, will not be intelligible except with 
the aid of some explanatory statements. 

The conventual orders, or different bodies of the regular clergy of the Romish church in 
Scotland, were very various, and were early introduced. The friars, while they lived in con- 
vents, were professedly strolling mendicants ; and, in consequence of their astutely watching 
every opportunity of visiting the sick in their clerical character, and sedulously improving it, 
in their mendicant capacity, for drawing largesses and bequests from the wealthy, they 
amassed an incredible amount of property, and eventually made themselves the envy of the 
nobility, who could not cope with them in opulence and influence, — of the secular or paro- 
chial clergy, who were ostensibly provided for, and saw the friars superseding them, — and of 
the monks, or second great class of the conventual orders, who were forbidden, by most of 
their rules, to go out of their monasteries, and could receive only such donations as excessive 
fanatics carried to their cells. Yet all the other great classes— which were canons-regular, 
monks, nuns, and canons-secular, — made acquisitions of property which were exceedingly and 
even monstrously great, in their circumstances, and which appeared moderate only when 
compared with those of the friars. 

The canons-regular of St. Augustine had 28 monasteries in Scotland, and were first estab- 
lished at Scone, in the year 1114, by Atewalpus, prior of St. Oswald of Hostel, in Yorkshire, 
and introduced at the desire of Alexander I. — The canons-regular of St. Anthony wore 
neither an almuce nor a rochet, both of which were used by the other canons-regular, and 
they called their houses hospitals, and their governors preceptors ; but they had in Scotland 
only one monastery, noticed in our article on Leith. — The red friars pretended to be canons- 
regular, but were denied the title by many of their adversaries ; and they variously bore the 
names of Mathurines, from their house at Paris, which was dedicated to St. Mathurine, of 
Trinity friars, and of friars 'De Redemptione Captivorum,' from their professing to redeem 
Christian captives from the Turks. Their houses were called hospitals or ministries, and their 
superiors 'ministri;' their mode of living was similar to that of the canons of St. Victor at 
Paris ; their habit was white, with a red and blue cross patee upon their scapular ; and one-third 
of their revenue was expended in ransoming captives. They were established by St. John of 
Malta, and Felix de Valois ; their first Scottish foundation was erected in Aberdeen, by 
William the Lion ; and they had in Scotland 6 monasteries in 1209, and 13 at the Reforma- 
tion. — The Premonstratenses had their name from the principal monastery, Premonstratum, 
in the diocese of Laon in France ; and were also called Candidus Ordo, because their garb 
was entirely white. They followed the rule of St. Augustine, a copy of which they fabled to 
have been delivered to them in golden letters by himself ; and were founded by St. Norbert, 
an archbishop of Magdeburg, who procured for himself, and his successors in the see, the title 
of primate of Germany. Their monasteries in Scotland were six. 

The Benedictines, or Black monks, had their names respectively from that of their founder, 
and from the colour of their habit. St. Benedict, or Bennet, was born at Nirsi, a town of 
Italy, about the year 480, and was the first who brought monachism into estimation in the 
west. Five orders who followed his rule liad monasteries in Scotland. — The Black monks of 
Fleury had 3 Scottish monasteries ; and took their name and origin from the abbacy of 
Fleury la Riviere, on the river Loire, in France. — The Tyronenses, the second order of 
Benedictines, had 6 Scottish monasteries ; and took their name from their first abbey, Tyro- 
nium, or Tyron, in the diocese of Chartres in France, where they were settled in 1109 under 
the auspices of Bstrou, Earl of Perche and Montagne. — The Cluniacences, the third order of 



Benedictines, had 4 monasteries in Scotland, and originated with Berno, who began to reform 
the Benedictines, or to frame some new constitutions, about the year 940, and who built a new 
abbey near Cluny, or Cluniacum, in Burgundy, 4 leagues from Macon. — The Cistertians, or 
Bernardines, the fourth order of Benedictines, had their names respectively from their first 
house and chief monastery at Cistertium, in Burgundy, and from St. Bernard, one of their earli- 
est chief abbots, whose zeal succeeded in founding upwards of 160 monasteries. They originated 
in 1098, with Robert, abbot of Molesme, in the diocese of Langres in France ; and were called 
White monks in contradistinction to the other orders of Benedictines, and in consequence of 
retaining onlv the black cowl and scapular of St. Bennet, and having all the rest of their 
habit white. Of thirty provinces into which they were divided, Scotland was one, and it con- 
tained 13 of their monasteries. — The monks of Vallis-caulium, Vallis-olerum, or Valdes-cheux, 
were established in 1193, by Virard, at the place which gave them name, in the diocese of 
Langres, between Dijon and Autun ; they were a professed reform of the Cistertians, and 
very austere; and they were introduced to Scotland, in 1230, by Malvoisin, bishop of St. 
Andrews, and had here 3 monasteries. 

The Carthusian monks were established, in 1086, by Bruno, a doctor of Paris, and a canon 
of Rheims, in the wild mountains of Grenoble in France ; they originated professedly in 
miracle, and manifestly in excessive superstition, and were characterized by very great aus- 
terities ; they were introduced to England in 1180, but they had in Scotland only one 
monastery, founded near Perth, in 1429, by James I., after his captivity in England. — The 
Gilbertines were, in the first instance, all nuns ; but they afterwards had accessions from the 
canons-regular, who were domiciled under the same roofs as the nuns, but in separate apart- 
ments. Gilbert, their founder, was born in the reign of William the Conqueror, and was the 
son of a gentleman of Normandy, and lord of Sempringham and Tynrington in Lincolnshire ; 
and he is said to have spent all his substance and patrimony in such acts of charity as were 
dictated by his diseased religion, and particularly in converting distressed and poor young 
women into nuns of his order. The nuns were bound to observe constant silence in the 
cloister ; and they were not admitted to their novitiate till they were 15 years of age, and 
could not be professed before having fully on their memory the psalms, hymns, and antiphona 
used in the Romish ritual. Though the Gilbertines had 21 houses in England, they had only 
one in Scotland, situated on the river Ayr, founded by Walter III., Lord High-steward of 
Scotland, and supplied with its nuns and canons from Syxle in Yorkshire. 

The Templars, or Red friars, were an order of religious knights, and followed the rule ot 
St. Augustine, and the constitution of the canons-regular of Jerusalem. They were estab- 
lished at Jerusalem in 1118, by Hugo de Paganis, and Gaufrigus de Sancto Aldemaro; they 
professed to defend the temple and city of Jerusalem, to entertain Christian strangers 
and pilgrims, and to protect them while in Palestine ; and they received from Baldwin II., 
king of Jerusalem, a residence in the vicinity of the temple, or its site, and thence had their 
name of Templars. To a white habit which, in every particular, distinguished their exterior, 
Pope Eugenius III. added a red cross of stuff sewed upon their cloaks ; and from this they 
were called Red friars. They had enormous possessions, and numbered, throughout Chris- 
tendom, upwards of 9,000 houses. In Scotland the} 7 had houses, farms, or lands, in almost 
every parish ; and, in particular, they possessed very many buildings in Edinburgh and Leith, 
and had upwards of 8 capital mansions in the country. They are believed to have been in- 
troduced to Scotland by David I. ; those in this country and in England were under the 
government of one general prior ; and in common with all the other communities of their order, 
they were, in the year 1312, condemned for certain great crimes, by a general council held 
at Vienne in France, and were formally suppressed by Pope Clement V. 

The Knights of St. John of Jerusalem closely resembled the Templars in professed charac- 
ter, and were a sort of noble military monks. Certain merchants of the city of Melphi, in the 
kingdom of Naples, who traded to Palestine, built, under permission of the Caliph of Egypt, 
a monastery and a church for the reception of Christian pilgrims, and paid the Caliph tribute 
for his protection ; and they subsequently added two churches, dedicated respectively to the 
Virgin Mary and Mary Magdalene, and used them for the pompously charitable reception, 
the one of women, and the other of men. When Jerusalem was taken by Godfrey of Bouil- 
lon, Gerard of Martiques, a native of Province in France, built, in 1104, a still larger church, 
and an hospital for pilgrims and the sick, and dedicated them to St. John. The soldier- 
monks of the original erections were put in possession of these buildings, and took from them 
the names of Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, Knights-Hospitallers, and Johannites. After 


being expelled from Jerusalem by Saladin, they retired to the fortress of Margat in Phenicia, 
and subsequently settled, at successive epochs, at Acre or Ptolemais, and in the islands of 
Cyprus, Rhodes, and Malta ; and in the last of these they continued, and from it took the 
name of the Knights of Malta, till their power was broken, and the island captured, during 
the last European war. They were inveterate and sturdy foemen of the Turks, and figure 
largely in the military history of the Ottoman empire. Their members, excepting some 
illegitimate sons of kings and princes, were all gentlemen, who proved by charters, or other 
authentic documents, their nobility of descent by both father and mother, for four genera- 
tions. They took the three ordinary monastic vows, and wore a black habit, with a cross of 
gold, which had eight points. Their houses were called preceptories, and the principal officers 
in them preceptors. On the suppression of the order of Templars, the Knights of St. John 
got many of their Scottish lands and tenements, and, in consequence, are frequently con- 
founded with them in Scottish history. Their chief dwelling in Scotland was at Torphichen 
in Linlithgowshire. When buildings belonging to them were feued out to seculars, they used 
great care that the cross of their order should constantly surmount the houses, in evidence 
that the possessors were subject to them, and were amenable only to their courts. The 
same practice was previously observed by the Templars ; and it accounts for the great 
number of crosses which, till a late date, might have been seen, and which, in some instances, 
still exist, on the tops of old buildings in Edinburgh, Leith, and Linlithgow. 

The Dominicans, or Black friars, have, for six centuries, been one of the most considerable 
of the Romish orders of regular clergy. They are often called Preaching friars, from the 
circumstance of their having longer attended to preaching than any of the other orders. 
They may preach anywhere without obtaining the permission of the bishops ; they are allowed 
to confess all noblemen and ladies without the consent of their curates ; and they everywhere 
administer the sacraments, and are exempted from all ecclesiastical censures. Their habit 
is a white gown and scapular. Their founder was St. Dominic, the infamous projector or 
institutor of the inquisition. This monster devoted himself and his followers to what he 
and his fellow-Romanists called the conversion of heretics ; and he preached and conducted 
the earliest of the sanguinary crusades against the amiable Waldenses. The order was 
divided into 45 provinces; of which Scotland was the 18th, and contained 15 convents. 
Though they were professedly mendicants, they were found, at the breaking up of their 
Scottish communities, to have amassed in this country a shameful amount of property. 

The Franciscans, or Grey friars, also professed mendicants, had their two leading names 
from their founder, and from the colour of their habit; and affected to assume the title of Friars 
Minors or Minorites, as if deeming themselves the least or meanest of their function. Their 
founder was St. Francis of Assize in Italy, a merchant, and a consummately frantic fanatic, 
who flourished at the commencement of the 13th century ; and their superiors were called 
Custodes or Wardens. They were divided into Conventuals and Observantines ; the latter 
of whom were a reform, in 1419, by Bernardine of Sienna, and had their name from profess- 
ing, to observe St. Francis' rule more strictly than the Conventuals, by always walking bare- 
footed, and not wearing any linen. The Conventuals were introduced to Scotland in 1219, 
and had 8 convents in the country. The Observantines were introduced by James I., in a 
colony from their vicar-general at Cologne, and had here 9 convents. — The Carmelites, or 
White friars, were the third order of wandering mendicants. They absurdly pretend to trace 
up their origin to the schools of the prophets in the age of Elijah ; and they have their second 
name from the colour of their outer garment, and their first from Mount Carmel in Syria, 
which abounds in dens, caves, and other sorts of hiding-holes, and was a favourite retreat 
both of some of the earliest anchorites under the Christian dispensation, and of numerous 
pilgrims during the period of the crusades. St. Louis, king of France, when returning from 
Palestine, brought some of the Mount Carmel ascetics to Europe, and gave them an abode in 
the outskirts of Paris. The Carmelites were divided into 32 provinces, of which Scotland 
was the 13th ; and they were introduced to this country in the reign of Alexander III., and 
had here 9 convents. 

The nuns of Scotland were few compared either with the Scottish male regulars, or with 
their own proportionate number in other lands. Those who followed the rule of Augustine 
had only two convents in this country, the one of Canonesses, and the other of Dominican 
nuns. The Benedictine or Black nuns followed the rule of Benedict, were founded by his 
sister St. Scholastica, and had in Scotland 5 convents. The Bernardine or Cistertian nuns 
likewise followed the rule of St. Benedict, and had 13 convents. The nuns of St. Francis, 


or Claressos, were founded by Clara, a lady of Assize in Italy, who received from St. Francis 
himself a particular modification of his rule, full of rigour and austerity ; and they had in 
Scotland only two houses. 

The Secular canons, or conventual bodies of the secular clergy, formed communities which 
were called Prsepositura;, or Collegiate churches, and were governed by a dean or provost. 
Each collegiate church was instituted for performing religious service, and singing masses for 
the souls of the founder and patrons, or their friends ; it was fitted up with several degrees 
or stalls which the officiates occupied for an orderly or systematic singing of the canonical 
hours ; it had for its chapter the governing dean or provost and the other canons, who bore 
the name of prebendaries ; and, in general, it was erected either by the union and concen- 
tration in it of several parish churches, or by the union and concentration of several cha- 
plainries instituted under one roof. The number of Collegiate churches in Scotland was 33. 
— Hospitals, for receiving strangers and travellers, or for maintaining the poor and the infirm, 
were the lowest order of ecclesiastical establishments, and had the accompaniment of a church 
or chapel. Keith gives a list of 28 which existed in Scotland ; but says he is convinced the 
list might be vastly augmented. 


The number and variety of Druidical remains in Scotland are very great ; and they abound 
most in the recesses of Perthshire among the spurs of the Grampians, indicating these deep 
seclusions to have been the principal Scottish seat of the aboriginal superstition. Druidical 
altars are of two sorts, — flat stones, which are either upright or recumbent, — and cromlechs, 
which consisted each of several stones usually placed upon their respective edges, and always 
supporting a large broad stone, so as to possess, jointly with it, a rude resemblance to a 
massive modern table ; and the altars of both sorts are numerous, and, for the most part, are 
connected with Druidical circles, or other Druidical works, — though the cromlechs occasion- 
ally appear in some deep solitude without any accompaniment. Druidical cairns differ from 
the better known sepulchral cairns, and may be distinguished from them by their connexion 
with other Druidical works, by their being usually fenced round the base with a circle of 
stones, by their being approached along an avenue of upright stones, and by their having 
each on its summit a large flat stone, on which the Druid fires were lighted. Rocking stones, 
which are huge blocks so poised as to be easily moved, or made to oscillate, and which excite 
the wonder of the vulgar, and have provoked controversies among the learned, are, in some 
instances, supposed to be natural curiosities, but on the whole are generally allowed — whether 
of natural or of artificial origin — -to have been made the tools of the degenerate Druidical 
priesthood, for imposing on the savage and the superstitious ; and though not numerous, 
they occur with sufficient frequency to occupy a commanding place among the country's 
earliest antiquities. Druidical circles have, to a very great amount, been removed, since the 
epoch of georgical improvement, to make way for the plough ; yet they continue to exist in 
such wondrous plenty, and such great variety, as to render continued notices of them, in ac- 
counts of parishes, monotonous and tiresome. 

Sepulchral remains of the earliest inhabitants of Scotland, though they have to an enormous 
amount been swept away by the same cause which has thinned the Druidical circles, are still 
very numerously traceable in almost every part of both the continent and the islands, and 
may be considered under the several distinctions of barrows, cairns, cistvaens, and urns, — the 
two former constituting tumuli, and the two latter their most remarkable contents. The 
tumuli, in most instances, are circular heaps, resembling flat cones ; and, in many instances, 
are oblong ridges, resembling the upturned or inverted hull of a ship. Most of them are com- 
posed of stones ; many of a mixture of stones and earth ; some wholly of earth ; and a few 
wholly or chiefly of sand. Cairns and barrows are mutually distinguished by the former 
being of stones and the latter of earth; and both, when they are conical and covered with 
green sward, are vulgarly called hillocks. The tumuli are of uniform general character in all 
parts of Scotland and in England, the cairn prevailing in the northern division of the island, 
and the barrow in the southern, owing simply, as would seem, to the respective abundance 
on the surface of the countries of lapidose and of earthy substances; and, in the very numer- 
ous instances in which they have been opened and explored, they have been found to contain 
the ashes, the hair, or the bones, of human bodies, either nakedly interred, or carefully shut 
up in cistvaens and urns. The cistvaen, in strict accordance with the meaning of the word 


in the British language, is a stone chest ; it is very various in size, and even diversified in 
form ; it contains, for the most part, ashes and bones, and occasionally an urn ; and it verv 
generally, among both the vulgar and the learned, bears the name of a stone-coffin. Urns 
are found generally in tumuli unenclosed in cistvaens, but occur also beneath the surface of 
level ground ; they are composed usually of pottery, and sometimes of stones ; they are of 
different shapes and sizes ; and, according to the taste of the times or the ability of the 
parties concerned with them, are variously ornamented. — An occasional connexion, dictated 
apparently by policy, exists between the sepulchral tumuli and the Druidical circles ; and a 
connexion, both more frequent and more natural, exists between these tumuli and the British 

Akin to the simple and more common and plenteous sepulchral tumuli, are some large 
sepulchral cairns, which denote the fields of ancient conflicts. Besides being of comparatively 
large bulk, and having a comparative multiplicity of contents, these cairns are characterized 
by the vicinity of fragments of swords, of bows, and of flint-pointed arrows ; they have, on 
the whole, thrown a faint light on the remote martial history of Scotland ; and by the plu- 
rality of their occurrences among the bases of the mountain-rampart of the Highlands, they 
have contributed, along with some cognate antiquities, to evoke much controversy on the 
questio vexata as to the scene of the celebrated battle of the Grampians. Some of these 
cairns, which still remain, are called Cat-stanes ; and the same name — which seems plainly to 
be derived from the British Cad, or the Scoto-Irish Cath, ' a battle ' — is applied, in various 
instances, to single stones. — Numerous stones of memorial, or rude pillars, apparently very 
ancient, and raised by the same people as the Cat-stanes, exist in every district, and, in allu- 
sion to their upright position, are traditionally called standing-stones ; they are in their 
natural state, without the mark of any tool, and, of course, are very various in form ; they 
frequently appear single, and frequently, also, in groups of two, three, four, and even a greater 
number ; and in general, from their wanting inscriptions and sculpturings, they have failed to 
transmit the events which they were reared to commemorate. Another class of standing- 
stones are of a later date, and are of two species, — the one triumphal, and set up to commem 
orate some happy national event, such as a victory over the Danes ; the other Bomishly monu- 
mental, and erected with the double design of noting the scene of a disaster, and of bespeaking 
the prayers of passengers for the souls of persons who, in the course of the disaster, were slain 
or otherwise perished. Both kinds have sculptured on them the figure of a cross, with vari- 
ous knots of grotesque scroll-work, vulgarly denominated Danish-Tangles ; and, in some 
instances, they are charged with a kind of hieroglyphics. 

•British strengths, consisting of circular and oval hill-forts, and other safeguards, are sur- 
prisingly numerous. Their situation in reference to the districts they command, their mutual 
or relative positions, and the accommodations attached to them, all indicate that they were 
constructed rather for the purpose of protection against the attacks of neighbouring and con- 
sanguineous tribes, than for that of repelling or checking an invading enemy. They occupy 
eminences in districts which, even in the earliest ages of Scottish population, must have been 
the most habitable and fructiferous ; they frequently appear in compact or contiguous groups 
of three, four, and even a larger number ; and they are so disposed in their groupings, that a 
view of all is obtained from the site of each, and that a larger and stronger one commands the 
rest from the centre, and seems to have been the distinguished post of the chief. The larger 
strengths were in many instances converted, at the Roman invasion, into Roman posts ; and 
the groups are often chequered with Roman camps, which seem to have been constructed in 
astute perception of the nature of the ground, with the evident purpose of watching and over- 
awing them. The forts are exceedingly various in area, strength, and details of construction ; 
but, in general, they consist of an interior central building, one, two, or three concentric 
ramparts, and one or two exterior ditches. Two ranges of small forts, each, in general, 
perched on the summit of a dome-like hill, or conical rising ground, extend along the north 
side of Antoninus' wall, — the one between the friths of Forth and Clyde, and the other along 
the face of the country on the north bank of the Forth ; both, in the case of each of their 
forts, bear the name of Keir, evidently a corruption of the British Caer, ' a fort ; ' and they 
appear, from local and comparative circumstances, as well as from an intimation by Tacitus, 
to have been the only Caledonian posts erected with the design of opposing the Roman pro- 
gress. The ramparts of all the British forts were composed of dry stones and earth, with- 
out any appearance of mortar or cement ; and they varied in outline, from the circular 
or oval, to the wavingly irregular, according to the figure of the hills whose summits they 


crowned. Connected with some of the forts, were outworks on the declivity of the hills 
below, which were probably designed to shelter the cattle belonging to the defenders of 
the fort. 

Subterranean safeguards, or hiding-holes, have been discovered in many parts of Scotland, 
and seem, in most instances, to have been constructed, or improved and adopted, by the pris- 
tine people during a rude age. A few of them are entirely artificial ; consisting of one, two, 
or three apartments of various dimensions, but generally very small ; constructed entirely 
underground of large rude stones, without any cement ; and containing, in most cases, une- 
quivocal relics of having been human abodes. Natural caves, which abound on the rooky 
coasts, and among the cliffy dells and ravines of Scotland, have very numerously been im- 
proved by artificial means into places of great strength : and, in some instances, they are of 
large capacity, and retain distinct vestiges of enlargement, or modelling within, and especially 
of fortification by various contrivances without. Other caves, chiefly of small capacity, and 
in very sequestered situations, are replete with interest as the known or reputed hiding-holes 
of the patriotic Scots during the Baliol usurpation, and especially of the devoted Covenanters 
during the Stuart persecution. 

Scottish antiquities of Roman origin are so well known and understood, and, in all their 
great instances, are so fully described in the body of our work, that they require no particu- 
lar illustration. Any separate and consecutive notice of them which could throw light on 
their interesting features, would be a sketch — necessarily too expansive for our available space 
— of the history and the scenes of Agricola's campaigns, and of the actions of Lucius Urbicus. 
The chief of them are Antoninus' wall, separately noticed in the alphabetical arrangement ; 
roads or causeways, which intersected the whole territory south of Antoninus' wall and ran 
up in decreasing ramifications to the Mora)' frith, and are noticed in our articles on counties 
and districts ; and quadrangular camps, fortified stations, bridges, and innumerable minor 
antiquities, profusely noticed in probably two-thirds of all the considerable articles in our 
work. — Pictish antiquities are curious rather for their obscureness and singularity, than for 
either their number or their imposing character. The principal are uncemented conical towers, 
vulgarly called Piets' houses, and vitrified forts, similar in form to the hill-forts of the Bri- 
tons. A species of building, attributed, though doubtfully, to the Picts, is very common in 
Ireland, but exhibits only two specimens in Scotland, respectively at Abernethy and at Brechin. 
This is a tall, slender, cylindrical tower, coned at the top, very curious as a piece of architec- 
ture, but the subject of mazy and manifold disputations as to its designed use. 

Inaugural stones are a class of monuments intimately associated with the most distinguished 
archaeology of the Scoto-Irish and the Irish, and were used in the inauguration of the chief- 
tains of the Irish clans. The chief Scottish antiquity of this class is the famous coronation- 
stone, now in Westminster, but anciently located successively at Dunstaffhage and at Scone, 
and noticed in our article on the former of these places.— Earthen works, additional to the 
barrows of the Britons, are a miscellaneous class of antiquities, and of various date and 
origin. Small circular retrenchments are not infrequent, and are supposed to be Danish forts. 
Elongated, flattened mounds, occur in a few instances, bear the name of Bow-butts, and are 
believed to have been constructed and used for the exercise of archery. Moats, or large 
artificial moundish hillocks, platformed on the summit, and ascending at a regular gradient on 
the sides, were places for the administration, over considerable districts, of public justice ; and 
court-hills, not very dissimilar to them in appearance, were the sites of the baronial courts 
previous to the demolition of the feudal system. Both are very common in Scotland ; and 
sometimes, or even very generally — according to the belief, at least, of local antiquaries- — the 
characters and uses of the two are concentrated in one object, — the same mound beinsr both 
moat and court-hill. " These moat and court-hills," says Grose, " serve to explain the 
use of those high mounts still remaining near our ancient castles, which were probably 
judgment-seats, but have been mistaken for military works, a sort of ancient cavaliers, raised 
to command the moveable towers, so commonly used for the attacks of fortresses. I, among 
others, for want of having seen and considered these moat and court-hills, was led to adopt 
that idea." 

The ecclesiastical antiquities of Scotland consist of monasteries, collegiate churches, and a 
few chapels, parish churches, and hospitals ; and appear all to be of not higher date than the 
12th century. The religious buildings of the Culdees seem, for a considerable time, at least, 
to have been plain, fragile, and of very primitive workmanship ; and even toward the close of 
the Culdee epoch, they probably were, in no instance, of a kind either to resist the influences 


of time by their durability, or to woo the cares of the conservator by their architectural 
attractions. Our ecclesiastical antiquities are, in consequence, all Romish ; and considered 
as works of art and magnificence, they are by no means inferior in point of execution to those 
of England. The most exquisite specimens are the abbeys of Melrose, Kelso, and Jedburgh, 
and the church of Elgin ; specimens of great beauty are the abbeys of Dunfermline and 
Paisley; very handsome specimens are the abbeys of Dundrennan and Newabbey ; the grand- 
est specimens — those which best combine architecture with amplitude — are the abbeys of 
Holyrood and Arbroath ; and the specimens in the highest state of repair are the cathedral 
of St. Mungo in Glasgow, the church of St. Magnus in Kirkwall, and the church of St. 
Giles in Edinburgh. Each of these, as well as of every other, whether extant or extinct, 
which presents in landscape or in history any feature of interest, our work fully notices and 
describes in its appropriate place. 

The ancient border-houses, fortalices, and castles of Scotland, though small, seem to have 
been very numerous. Major says there were two in every league. Most of them are re- 
markably similar to one another ; in general each is a high square tower, surmounting a 
beetling rock or other abrupt eminence; and many of them overhanging some stream or the 
sea. The towers are, for the most part, extremely strong, often from 13 to 15 feet thick in 
the walls ; and they rise in height to 3 or 4 stories, each story vaulted, and the whole covered 
with a vaulted roof. At every angle, re-entering as well as salient, is a turret, supported 
like the guerites at the salient angles of modern bastions ; at each end of the tower, adjoining 
the roof, is commonly a triangular gable, the sides diminishing by a series of steps called 
crow steps ; and near the top of the tower usually runs a cornice of brackets, like those which 
support machicollations. At the bottom of most of the towers was the prison or pit, a deep, 
dark, noisome dungeon, to which the miserable prisoners were let down by ropes ; and an 
iron door to the chief entrance to the tower was also no infrequent means of security. In 
some instances, a tower was double, — two being built together at right angles with each other, 
constituting a figure somewhat like that of the letter L or T, and forming a kind of mutual 
defence or partial flank. As luxury and security increased, both these towers, and the single 
or more common one, were enlarged with additional buildings for lodgings, frequently sur- 
rounded by walls, and in some instances, as in those of Linlithgow-palace and Loudoun- 
castle, eventually made the mere nucleus of modern, magnificent, princely mansions. The 
old towers were often the abodes of an almost incredibly large number of inmates; and as 
they were sparingly lighted through very small windows, they must have been as gloomy as 
unwholesome. When any of them were taken by an enemy, they were usually burned ; but 
as they were little else than mere masses of stone, they suffered no damage except a little 
besooting or singeing ; and, immediately afterwards, undergoing repair, and receiving a 
boastful though rude emblazonry of their owners' arms, and the date of their own disaster 
and renovation, they, in some instances, exhibit to the eye a curious tracery and surprising 
profusion of inscriptions, armorial bearings, and miscellaneous devices. 


The aborigines of Scotland seem, beyond any reasonable doubt, to have been clans of the 
same Gaelic origin as those who, in the most early ages, settled in England. Scotland, at 
the epoch of Agricola's invasion, may be viewed as a mirror which reflects back the condition 
of England at the earlier era when Julius Cassar introduced the Roman arms to Britain, and 
also that of Gaul at the still remoter period when Roman ambition subdued the common 
parent of the British nations. Caledonia, in its largest extent, from the Tweed and the 
Eden on the south, to Dunnet-head in Caithness on the north, was distributed among twenty- 
one tribes of Britons. Those on the east coast, or Lowlands, owing to the greater fertility 
of the soil, must have been more numerous and potent than those of the western or Highland 
districts ; and all, accordantly with ancient Celtic usage, were mutually independent, and 
could be brought into union or co-operation only by the pressure of danger. 

The Ottadini — whose name seems to have been derived from the Tyne or Tina — occupied 
the whole coast-district between the southern Tyne and the frith of Forth, comprehending 
the half of Northumberland, the whole of Berwickshire and East-Lothian, and the eastern 
part of Roxburghshire ; and had their chief town at Bremenium, on Reed-water, in North- 
umberland. The Gadeni — whose name alludes to the numerous groves which adorned and 
fortified their territory — inhabited the interior country immediately west of that of the 


Ottadini, comprehending the western part of Northumberland, a small part of Cumberland, 
the western part of Roxburgh, all Selkirk and Tweeddale, much of Mid-Lothian, and nearly 
all West-Lothian ; and they had Curia, on Gore-water, for their capital. The Selgovse — ■ 
whose country lay upon " a dividing water," and who gave name to the Sol way — inhabited 
the whole of Dumfries-shire, and the eastern part of Galloway, as far as the Dee ; and had, 
as their chief towns, Trimontium at Brunswark-hill in Annandale, Uxellum at Wardlaw-hill 
in Caerlaveroek, and Caerbantorigum at Drummore, in the parish of Kirkcudbright. The 
Novantes — who are supposed to have taken their name from the abundance of streams in 
their country- — possessed all central and western Galloway, between the Dee and the Irish 
sea ; and had, as their principal towns, Lucopibia on the site of the present Whithorn, and 
Rerigonium on the north shore of Loch-Ryan. The Damnii inhabited all the expanse of 
country from the mountain- ridge which divides Galloway and Ayrshire on the south, to the 
river Earn on the north, comprehending all the shires of Ayr, Renfrew, and Stirling, all 
Strathelyde, and a small part of the shires of Dumbarton and Perth ; and had the towns of 
Vanduaria on the site of Paisley, Colania in the south-eastern extremity of Strathelyde, Coria 
in Carstairs, Alauna on the river Allan, Lindun near the present Ardoch, and Victoria on 
Ruchil-water in Comrie. The Horestii inhabited the country between the Forth and the 
Tay, comprehending all Fife, Kinross, and Clackmannan, the eastern part of Strathearn, and 
the district west of the upper Tay, as far as the river Brand. The Venricones possessed the 
territory between the Tay and the Kincardineshire Carron, comprehending the Gowrie, Stor- 
mont, Strathmore, and Strathardle, sections of Perthshire, all Forfarshire, and the larger part 
of Kincardineshire; and had their chief town, Or or Orrea, on the margin of the Tay. The 
Taixali inhabited the northern part of Kincardineshire, and all Aberdeenshire to the Deveron ; 
and had Devana, at the present Normandykes on the Dee, for their capital. The Vacomagi 
possessed the country between the Deveron and the Beauly, comprehending Braemar, nearly 
all Banffshire, the whole of Elginshire and Nairnshire, and the eastern part of Inverness-shire; 
and had the towns of Ptoroton or Alata Castra at the mouth of the Beauly, Tuessis on the 
east bank of the Spey, and Tamea and Banatia in the interior. 

The Albani — whose name seems to allude to the height and ruggedness of their mountains, 
and who, in consequence of their becoming subjugated by the Damnii, were afterwards called 
Damnii-Albani — inhabited the interior districts between the southern mountain screen of the 
loch and river Tay, and the mountain- chain along the southern limit of Inverness-shire, com- 
prehending Breadalbane, Athole, Appin, Glenorchy, and a small part of Lochaber. The 
Attacotti possessed the country between Loch-Fyne and the commencement of the Lennox 
or Kilpatrick hills, comprehending Cowal and the greater part of Dumbartonshire. The 
Caledonii Proper inhabited the interior country between the mountain range along the north 
of Perthshire, and the range of hills which forms the forest of Balnagowan in Ross, compre- 
hending all the middle parts of Ross and Inverness. A vast forest, which extended north- 
ward of the Forth and the Clyde, and which covered all the territory of this tribe, gave to 
them their name, originally Celyddoni and Celyddoniaid, ' the people of the coverts,' and, 
owing to the greatness of the area which it occupied, occasioned its Romanized designation 
of Caledonia to be afterwards applied strictly to all the country north of the Forth and the 
Clyde, and loosely, but at a later date, to the whole kingdom. The Cantae — so named from 
the British Caint, which signifies an open country — possessed Easter Ross and Cromarty, or the 
district lying between the Beauly and the Dornoch friths. The Logi — who probably drew 
their name from the British Lygi, a word which was naturally applied to the inhabitants of a 
sea-coast — possessed the eastern part of Sutherland, or the country between the Dornoch frith 
and the river Helmsdale. The Carnabii, who, like a cognominal tribe in Cornwall, derived 
their name from their residence on remarkable promontories, occupied the country north of 
the Helmsdale, or a small part of Sutherland, and all Caithness, except the north-west corner. 
The Catini, a small but warlike tribe, from whom the Gaelic inhabitants of Caithness and 
Sutherland at the present day are ambitious of proving their remote descent, inhabited the 
narrow territory, partly in Caithness and partly in Sutherland, between the Forse and the 
Naver. The Mertse possessed the interior of Sutherland. The Carnonacse possessed the north 
and west coast of Sutherland, and the west coast of Cromarty, from the Naver round to 
Loch-Broom. The Creones — whose name was expressive of their fierceness — possessed the 
coast between Loch-Broom and Loch-Duich. The Cerones inhabited the whole west coast 
of Inverness, and the Argyleshire districts of Ardnamurehan, Morven, Sunart, and Ardgower, 
or the coast between Loeh-Duich and Loch-Linnhe. The Epidii — who derived their appel- 


lation from the British Ebyd, ' a peninsula,' and from whom the Mull of Kintyre anciently 
had the name of the Epidian promontory — occupied the whole country enclosed by Loch- 
Linnhe, the territory of the Albani, Loch-Fyne, the lower frith of Clyde, the Irish sea, and 
the Atlantic ocean. 

The Caledonian tribes, at the epoch when history introduces them to notice, appear to have 
been little raised, in their social connexions, above the condition of rude savages, who live on 
the milk of their flocks or the produce of the chase. According to the doubtful and darkly- 
tinted intimations of Dio, indeed, they possessed wives and reared their children in common, 
they lived in the most miserable hovels, they chose to live in a state of almost entire nudity, 
and they practised, like the heroes of more ancient times, a system of mutual plunder and 
professional robbery. Herodian concurs in exhibiting them in these sombre and repulsive 
hues at even so late a period as the 3d century. Yet, according to all testimony, they were 
brave, alert, and acquainted with various arts ; they had remarkable capacity for enduring 
fatigue, cold, and famine ; they were famous alike for speed in conducting an onset, and for 
firmness in sustaining an attack. Their vast stone monuments, too, which still remain, their 
hill-forts of such ingenious and elaborate construction as could not even now be taken by 
storm, and the gallant stand which they systematically opposed to the disciplined valour of 
l»ie Roman armies, exhibit them in lights quite incompatible with an alleged state of unmiti- 
gated barbarism. But though advanced in civilization very little beyond the first stage, they 
had scarcely any political union. They are said by Dio to have been literal democrats, act- 
ing as clans, and adopting any public measure only by common consent, and by an universally 
and equally diffused authority ; but they may be allowed, on the one hand, to have rejected 
the coercion of any chieftainship or autocracy or monarchic power, and, on the other, to have 
placed themselves, like the American Indians, under the aristocratic sway of their old men. 
Their armouries were generally furnished with helmets, shields, and chariots, and with spears, 
daggers, swords, battle-axes, and bows. The chiefs in command, or in bravery, alone used 
the helmet and the chariot ; and the common men fought always on foot, with shields for 
defence, and with all sorts of the offensive weapons for attack. Their chariots were some- 
times aggregated for making a vehicular onslaught, and were drawn by horses which are said 
to have been small, swift, and spirited. Their vessels for navigating the inland lakes, and 
even the seas which surround and so singularly indent the country, consisted only of canoes 
and currachs. The canoe seems to have belonged to a period preceding the epoch of record ; 
it was the stock of a single tree, hollowed out with fire, and put into motion by a paddle ; 
and it has frequently been found in marshes and drained lakes, and occasionally of a construc- 
tion remarkably skilful and polished. The currach was certainly in use among ihe Britons of 
the south, and very probably was in use also among the Britons of Caledonia, in the days of 
Julius Caesar ; and is described by him as having its body of wicker-work covered with 
leather, and as accommodated with a keel, and with masts of the lightest wood. The 
currachs are even called little ships ; they were pushed boldly out into the far-spreading sea ; 
and were frequently, or rather currently, employed in invasions from the wooded north or 
' the Emerald Isle ' upon the shore3 which became seized and fortified by the Romans. 
Adamnan, in his Life of St. Columba, describes the currach which that apostle of Scotland 
employed in his voyages, as possessing all the parts of a ship, with sails and oars, and 
with a capacity for passengers ; and he adds, that in this roomy though seemingly fragile 
vessel, he sailed into the North sea, and, during fourteen days, remained there in perfect 

In the year 78, Agricola, at the age of 38, commenced his skilful military career in Britain. 
His first and second campaigns were employed in subduing and Romanizing Lancashire, and 
the territory adjacent to it on the south and the east. His third campaign, conducted in the 
year 80, carried the Roman arms to the Taw, ' an expanded water,' ' an estuary,' probably 
the Solway frith. In his fourth campaign, or that of 81, he overran all the eastern and 
central lowlands, to the Forth and the Clyde. In his fifth, or in 82, he invaded " that part 
of Britain which is opposite to Ireland," or lower Nithsdale and the whole extent of Gallo- 
way. In the summer of 83, he crossed the Forth at what is now called Queensferry, and 
almost immediately experienced alarms from learning both that the tribes in his rear had 
dared to act offensively, by attacking the strengths he had erected for protection of his con- 
quests, and that the tribes in his front menaced him with confederation and a vigorous re- 
sistance ; but he pushed forward among the Horestii, found the clans for the first time in 
mutual co-operation, was assailed by them at Loch Orr in Fife, in the very gates of his camp, 


lepelled and broke them after a furious engagement, and, without much further trouble, 
brought all the Horestii under his yoke. In 84, he passed up Glendevon, through the open- 
ing of the Oehil-hills, and defiling toward " Mons Grampus," or the Grampian hill, which he 
saw before him, ho found the Caledonians, to the number of 30,000, confederated, and under 
the command of Galgacus, already encamped at its base ; and he there fought with them a 
battle so obstinate that only night forced it to a termination, so discouraging to the aborigines 
that they retired to the most distant recesses of their impervious country, and so curious in 
archaeology as to have occasioned a thousand disputes, and no small expenditure of learning 
and research, in attempts to fix its precise theatre. The Lowlands south of the lower Tay, 
and the Earn, being now all in his possession, and a powerful body of the tribes of the con- 
quered district enrolled with him as auxiliaries, a voyage of discovery and of intimidation was 
ordered by him round the island, and was achieved by the safe return of the Roman fleet to 
the Forth. Agricola was now recalled, through the envy of the Emperor Domitian ; and the 
silence of history during the 35 years which followed, at once intimates the absence of any 
events of interest, and evinces the power of Agricola's victories as a general, and the wisdom 
of his measures as a statesman. 

In 120, the Emperor Adrian built the celebrated wall between the Tyne and the Solway ; 
and, though he did not relinquish the conquered territory north of these waters, he practically 
acknowledged himself to hold it by a partial and comparatively insecure tenure. The Ottadi- 
ni, the Gadeni, the Selgovse, and the Novantes, had neither domestic tumult nor devastation 
from invaders to engage their attention ; they had learned the arts of confederation, and 
were strong in numbers and in union ; they began to feel neither overawed nor restrained 
by the Roman stations which were continued in their territory ; and they broke out into in- 
surrections, and ran southward in ravaging incursions, which the Romans had not leisure to 
chastise, or even effectually to check. In 139, the year after Antoninus Pius assumed the 
purple, Lollius Urbicus was deputed as the propraetor of Britain, to quell a general revolt, 
and reduce the inhabitants to obedience ; and, in 140, he marched northward to the friths, 
tranquillized the tribes beyond them, and even began successfully to bring under the power 
of his arms the whole Lowland eountiy northward, as far as the Beauly frith. With the 
view of overawing the tribes to the south, as well as of repelling the wild clans who ranged 
among the mountain-fastnesses on the north, he constructed the great work, from Carriden on 
the Forth to Dunglass on the Clyde, which is described in our alphabetical arrangement 
under the title Antoninus' Wall. Iters, or highways, were carried in many ramifications 
through the country south of the wall, and in several lines along or athwart the conquereu 
country to the north ; and stations were established in multitudinous commanding positions, 
for garrisoning the Roman forces, and maintaining the natives under a continual pressure 
Scotland was now divided into three great sections, — the district south of Antoninus' wall, 
which was incorporated with the Roman government of South Britain,. — the Lowland 
country, between Antoninus' wall and the Beauly frith, which is said to have been now 
erected into a Roman province, under the name of Vespasiana, — and nearly all the High- 
land district, north of Loch-Fyne, or the most northerly indentation of the Clyde, which 
still retained its pristine state of independence, and began to wear distinctly the name of 

The tranquillity of the subjugated tribes, till the death of Antoninus, in 161, about which 
time probably Lollius Urbicus ceased to be propraetor, sufficiently indicates the vigour of the 
administration throughout all the Roman territory. Disturbances which broke out immedi- 
ately on the accession of Marcus Aurelius to the empire, were speedily quelled by Calphurni- 
us Agricola, the successor of Lollius Urbicus ; yet they were followed by the evacuation, on 
the part of the Romans, of the whole province of Vespasiana. The tribes beyond Antoninus' 
wall, thrown back into a state of independence, slowly nursed their energies for invasion,—- 
made, in 183, predatory incursions beyond the wall, — regularly, toward the close of the 
century, overran the Roman territory, — entered, in 200, into a treaty with the Lieutenant of 
Severus, — and, in 207, renewed their hostilities, and provoked the emperor to attempt a re- 
conquest of their country. Early in 209, Severus, after making imposing preparations, 
marched at the head of a vast force into North Britain, found no obstruction south of Anto- 
ninus' wall, and even penetrated into the territories of the Caledonians without encountering 
much resistance. The tribes, unable to oppose him, sued peace from his clemency, surren- 
dered some of their arms, and relinquished part of their country. He is said to have felled 
woods, drained marshes, constructed roads, and built bridges, in order to seize them in their 


fastnesses, — to have lost 50,000 men in destroying forests, and attempting to subdue the 
physical difficulties of the country, — to have subjected his army to such incredible toils as 
were sufficient to have brought a still greater number of them to the grave without feeling 
the stroke of an enemy. Caracalla, his son and successor, is supposed by some to have faintly, 
while Severus lived, followed up his policy, and to have fought with the Caledonians on the 
banks of the Carron ; but early in 211, after Severus' decease, he relinquished to them the 
territories which they had surrendered to his father, secured to them by treaty independent 
possession of all the country beyond the wall, and took hostages from them for their conserva- 
tion of the international peace. 

The Caledonians, henceforth for nearly a century, cease to mingle in Roman story. They 
appear not to have interested themselves in the affairs of the Romanized Britons ; and they 
were little affected by the elevation of Ca3sars or the fall of tyrants, by Carausius' usurpation 
of Romanic Britain, or by its recovery at his assassination as a province of the empire. But 
the five Romanized tribes south of the northern wall, though too inconsiderable to figure as 
a part of the Roman world, and for a time too poor and abject to draw the notice of their 
own quondam brethren, eventually became sufficiently Romanized, and carried onward in 
social improvement, and surrounded with the results of incipient civilization and industry, to 
be objects of envy to the poorer and more barbarous clans who retained their indepen- 
dence. In 306, the earliest date at which the Picts are mentioned, or any native names than 
those of the aboriginal British tribes are introduced, "the Caledonians and other Picts," after 
appearing to have made frequent predatory irruptions, and to have been menacing the south 
with a general invasion, provoked a chastisement from the Roman legionaries, and were com- 
pelled by Constantius, at the head of an army, to burrow anew behind the vast natural ram- 
part of their Highland territory. In 343, the Picts are said, on doubtful authority, to have 
made another inroad, and to have been repelled by a short campaign of the Emperor Constans. 
In 364, the Picts, who in that age were divided into two tribes by the names of Dicaledones 
and Yecturiones, — the Attacotti, who still retained their ancient British name and position 
on the shores of Dumbarton, — and the Scots, who are first noticed in history in 360, who 
were a transmarine and erratic people from Ireland, and who appear to have made frequent 
predatory invasions of the Roman territories from the sea, and to have formed forced settle- 
ments on the coast, — all three simultaneously made an incursion more general and destructive 
than any which had yet defied the Roman arms in Britain. Theodosius was sent, in 367, 
into Britain, to restore tranquillity, and is said, though erroneously, to have found the Picts 
and the Scots in the act of plundering Augusta, the predecessor-city of the modern London. 
In two campaigns of 368 and 369, he drove the invaders, wherever he really found them, 
back to the northern mountains, repaired the wall of Antoninus, and erected the country 
lying between that wall and the southern one into a Roman province, under the name of 
Valentia, additional to four which already existed in South Britain. 

The Picts and the Scots, forgetting, in the effluxion of a quarter of a century the punish- 
ment inflicted on them, and emboldened by the peril with which the empire was menaced by 
the continental hordes, again in 398, burst forth like a torrent upon Lowland Britain ; but, 
by the energy of Stilicho, the Roman general, they were again stemmed, driven back, and 
flung behind another renovation of the great northern wall. But early next century they 
trod down every barrier, and began a system of incessant and harassing incursion, which 
amounted, on each occasion, to little or nothing less than temporary conquest. In 408, the 
British provincials were so awed and alarmed by them, that they assumed a sort of indepen- 
dence in self-defence, called earnestly to Rome for help, and were told by their masters to rulf 
and defend themselves. In 422, aided by a legion which was sent in compliance with a re- 
newed and wailing cry for assistance, they are said to have repelled the invaders, to have 
repaired, for the last time, the fortifications by which the Picts had been overawed, and to 
have, in consequence, won a respite of some years from the disasters of invasion. And, in 
446, pressed anew by the Pictish foe, and abjectly acknowledging themselves for the first 
time to be Roman citizens, they made a vain appeal to their ruined masters for protection, 
and were despondingly told that Rome could no longer claim them as her subjects, or render 
them assistance as her citizens. 

At the period of the Roman abdication, the sixteen tribes who ranged unsubdued beyond 
the wall of Antoninus, and then bore the denomination of the Picts, were the only genuine 
descendants in North Britain of the Caledonian clans. They acquired, from their independence, 
paramount inportance, when the country ceased to be overawed by the Roman power ; and 


during the four succeeding centuries of the North-British annals, they figured as the dominat- 
ing nation. The five Romanized tribes of Valentia, who had long enjoyed the privilege of 
Roman citizenship, speedily assumed independence, and organized for themselves a separate 
and national government. Early after the Roman abdication, the Angles, or Anglo-Saxons, 
on the one hand, settled on the Tweed, and began gradually to oblige the Ottadini to re- 
linquish for ever their beautiful domains; and the Scots from Ireland, on the other, colonized 
Argyle, commenced to spread themselves over all the circumjacent districts, and entered a 
course of tilting with the Pictish government, which after the bloody struggles of 340 years, 
ended in its destruction. The history of all these four parties, between the years 446 and 
S43, belongs to what, with reference to the power which predominated, may distinctly and 
appropriately be called the Pictish period, and is briefly sketched in our article Pictavia. 

The fate of the eastern ones of the five Romanized tribes of the province of Valentia after 
the Roman abdication, differed widely from that of those in the west. The Ottadini and the 
Gadeni, left in possession of the country from the Forth to the Tweed, and between the 
sea and the midland mountains, seem not to have erected themselves into an independent 
and dominant community, but to have resumed the habits and the policy of the early British 
clans ; and when they saw their country early invaded by the Anglo-Saxons, more as settlers 
than as plunderers, they, with some bravery, but with little skill and less concert, made re- 
sistance when attacked, till, through disunion, ebriet}', and unmilitary conduct, they speedily 
became subdued and utterly dispersed. The Selgovse, the Novantes and the Damnii, with 
the fugitive children of the other two tribes, erected their paternal territories into a compact 
and regular dominion, appropriately called Cumbria, or Regnum Cambrensi, or Cumbrensi. 
This Cumbrian kingdom extended from the Irthing, the Eden, and the Solway, on the south, to 
the upper Forth and Loch-Lomond on the north, and from the Irish sea and the frith of Clyde, 
eastward to the limits of the Merse and Lothian ; and, with the usual inaccuracy of the 
Middle ages, it was frequently and almost currently made to bear the name of the kingdom 
of Strathcluyd or Strathclyde. Its metropolis was Alcluyd or Aldehyde, ' the rocky height 
on the Clyde,' to which the Scoto-Irish subsequently gave the name of Dun-Briton, ' the for- 
tress of the Britons,' a name easily recognisable in the modernized word Dumbarton. On 
the south-east, where the open country of Teviotdale invited easy ingress from the Merse, 
the kingdom suffered speedy encroachments from the Saxons; and, along that quarter, though 
inland from the original frontier, and screened interiorly by a vast natural rampart of moun- 
tain-range, an artificial safeguard, called the Catrail, ' the partition of defence,' was con- 
structed : see article Catrail. 

From 508 to 542, Cumbria, or Strathclyde, acknowledged the authority and exulted in 
the fame of some extraordinary original, who figures as the redoubtable King Arthur of 
romance, who imposed the name of Castrum Arthuri, upon Alcluyd, or Dumbarton, and has 
bequeathed a tenfold greater number of enduring names to Scottish topographical nomencla- 
ture than any other ancient prince, and who, whatever may have been the real facts of his 
history, seems to have achieved many feats, to have received a treacherous death-wound on 
the field of battle, and to have altogether bewildered by his character and fate the rude 
romancing age in which he figured. In 577, Rydderech, another noted king of Strath- 
clyde, but noted for his munificence, defeated Aidan of Kintyre on the height of Arderyth. In 
years between 584 and 603, the Cumbrians, aided by the confederacy of the Scoto-Irish, 
fought four battles against the intrusive and invading Saxons, and were twice victorious, and 
twice the vanquished. On many occasions, they had to fight with the Picts attacking them 
from the north ; on some, with their occasional allies, the Scots, attacking them from the 
west ; and, on a few, with the Cruithne of Ulster, and other Irish tribes, attacking them on 
the south-west and south. In 750, the Northumbrian Eadbert seems to have traversed 
Nithsdale and seized Kyle ; and, in 756, that prince, jointly with the Pictish Ungus, seized 
the metropolis, though not the castle, of Alcluyd. Yet the descendants of the Romanized 
Britons were not conquered. Their reguli or chiefs, indeed, often ceased, from civil broil or 
foreign conflict, to succeed in unbroken series ; but, when the storm of war had passed away, 
they soon reappeared, to wield anew the seemingly extinct power. The Cumbrians, though 
unable to prevent considerable encroachments on all sides within their ancient frontiers, and 
though slowly diminishing in the bulk and the power of their independence, remained a 
distinct people within their paternal domains long after the Pictish government had for ever 

A body of Saxons, a people of Gothic origin, the confederates of those Angles who first 


set foot on South Britain in 449, debarked on the Ottadinian shore of the Forth immediately 
after the Roman abdication. Amid the consternation and the disunitedness of the Ottadini, 
the new settlers rather overran the country than subdued it ; and, though they seem to have 
directed neither their attacks nor their views northward of the Forth, they are said to have 
formed settlements along the coast of its frith, almost as far as to the east end of Antoninus' 
wall. In 547, Ida, consanguineous with the new settlers, one of the most vigorous children 
of the fictitious Woden, and the founder of the Northumbrian monarchy, landed, without op- 
position, at Flamborough, and, acting on a previous design, pointed his keen-edged sword to 
the north, carried victory with him over all the paternal domains of the Ottadini, and paused 
not in a career of conquest, and of compelling subjugation, till he had established a consolidated 
monarchy from the Humber to the Forth. After the defeat of the Cumbrians in 603, Ethel- 
fred, the second successor of Ida, took possession of the borders of the SelgovEe, and com- 
pelled the western Romanized Britons in general to acknowledge the superior energy and 
union of the Saxons. Edwin, the most potent of the Northumbrian longs, assumed the 
sceptre in 617 ; he acquired a fame of which tradition has spoken with awe ; he struck re- 
spect or awe into the hearts of Cumbrians, Picts, Scots, and English ; he appears to have, in 
some points, pushed his conquests from sea to sea, and to have made large accessions to his 
kingdom on the south and west ; and he strengthened or occupied in some new form in the 
north, that notable " burgh " or fortification which, as par excellence his, survives in the castle 
of Edinburgh, the magnificent metropolis of all modern Caledonia. Egfrid, v$io was the 
third in subsequent succession, and ascended the throne in 671, was successful in several 
enterprises, particularly in an expedition in 684, against the unoffending Irish ; but at his 
overthrow and death in 685, at Dunnichen, by the Picts, he bequeathed destruction to his 
government inward from the Solway, and downward to the south of the Tweed, and effectu 
ally relieved the Scots and the Strathclyde Britons from the terror of the Northumbria- 
Saxon name. 

The quondam subjects of the diminished kingdom remained in Lothian and the Merse, but 
probably did not distinctly acknowledge any particular sovereign. The Northumbrian rulers 
had, for several successions after Egfrid, little connexion with the territory of modern Scot- 
land ; but, though they never reacquired all the ascendency which he lost, they began, about 
the year 725, to be again strong along the Solway and in Southern Galloway ; and, before 
the close of 75.6, they had formed settlements in Kyle and Cunningham, and disputed with 
the Strathclyde Britons the possession of the central Clyde. From the moment of the 
sceptre beginning to possess its ancient burnished brilliance, it was wielded, for several 
reigns, by feeble and careless hands, and it speedily became lustreless, rusted, and broken. 
Ethelred, the last of these dowdy monarchs, having been slain during an insurrection in 
794, Northumbria, during the 33 following years, became the wasted and distracted victim 
of anarchy, and was thenceforth governed by earls, under the sovereign authority of the 
English kings. The Cruithne of Ulster, who had made frequent incursions on the shores 
of the lower Clyde, took advantage of the Northumbrian weakness to form at length a 
lasting settlement on the coast of Galloway. The Anglo-Saxons, during the Pictish period, 
left, in the Gothic names of some places on the Solway, and of many between the Tweed 
and the Forth, indubitable traces of their conquests, their settlements, and their national 

The history of the Scots, or Scoto-Irish, from the date of their definitive settlement in the 
country of the ancient British Epidii, in 503, to that of their being united to the Picts, and 
becoming the ascendant section in North Britain, is more perplexed and obscure than almost 
any passage of equal interest in the records of nations. They were too rude to possess the 
art of writing, and too restless to endure the repose of study ; and when they found a bard 
able and willing to speak of them to posterity, they were permitted by their narrow views of 
social order to show him only the names and the personal nobleness of their reguli and chief- 
tains as the elements of their fame. Even the genealogy and the series of their kings have 
been flung into nearly inextricable confusion by the contests of the Scottish and of the Irish 
antiquaries for pre-eminence in antiquity. Of their origin, and of their colonizing the ancient 
Epidia, or the territory of the present Kintyre and Lorn, as clear an account as can be fur- 
nished will be found in our article Dalriada. They probably obtained original footing in 
Argyle from silent sufferance; and by natural increase, and frequent accessions of new imr- 
migrants from the Irish Dalriada, they may have become nursed into strength in the strong 
recesses of the west, before the Picts were refined enough to suspect any danger from theij 


vicinity. The vast natural power of all their frontiers, the thinness of the hostile popula- 
tion on the sides where they were unprotected by the sea, the facility for slow and insensiblo 
but steady and secure encroachment among the mountain districts on the east and the north, 
the great distance of the seat of the Pictish power, and the intervention of the stupendous 
rampart of the Highland frontier between the operations of that power and the aggres- 
sions of settlement or slow invasion half-way across the continent, — these must have been 
the grand causes of the Scots eventually acquiring energy and numbers, and a theatre of 
action great and ample enough to enable them to cope with the dominant nation of North 
Britain, and to conduct negociations and achieve enterprises which resulted in their own 

Kenneth, who succeeded to the throne of the Scots in 836, was the grandson by his mother 
of the Pictish kings Constantine and Ungus II., who died respectively in 821 and 833. On 
the death of Uven, the son and the last male heir of Ungus, in 839, Kenneth claimed the 
Pictish crown as his by right of inheritance. Two successive and successful competitors kept 
it five years from his grasp ; but both wore it amid disturbance and in misery ; and the last 
met a violent death at Forteviot, the seat of his power. Kenneth could dexterously take ad- 
vantage of such confusions as arose from the loss of a battle or the death of a king, to achieve 
an important revolution ; and finding no man bold enough again to contest his claim, he 
easily stepped into the vacant throne. In his person a new dynasty, and a consolidation of 
popular interests among two great people who had hitherto been at variance, began. The 
Scots and the Picts were congenial races, of a common origin, and of cognate tongues ; and 
they readily coalesced. Their union augmented the power of both, and, by the ascendency 
of the Scots, gave at length their name to all Pictavia and Dalriada, and to the accessions 
which afterwards were made by the two great united territories. The Scottish period, or 
that of Scottish ascendency previous to Saxon intermixture, extended from the union of the 
Scottish and the Pictish crowns in 843, to the demise of Donald Bane in 1097. During this 
period, the ancient territories of the Selgovse, the Novantes, and the Damnii, became colo- 
nized by successive hordes of immigrants from Ireland, who gave their settlements the name 
of Galloway, and who, by a strange fortune, became known under the appellation of the 
ancient Picts. Caledonian Northumbria, or the beautiful district of Lothian and the Merse, 
after a series of bloody struggles for upwards of two centuries and a half, became integrated 
with Scotland by the lasting connection of rightful cession and mutual advantage ; and even 
the kingdom of Cumbria, or Strathclyde, degenerated so much from its former vigour that 
large part of it was subdued by the English, who afterwards transferred it to the Scots to be 
held as a fief of England. See the article Cumbria. 

The next great period is the Scoto-Saxon, extending from 1097 to 1306. In the former 
period, the Gaelic Scots predominated; in this, the Saxon-English or Anglo-Saxon. A new 
people now came in upon the old ; a new dynasty ascended the throne ; a new jurisprudence 
gradually prevailed ; new ecclesiastical establishments were settled ; and new manners and a 
new speech overspread the land. Malcolm Canmore, the last but two of the strictly Scottish 
Icings, married an Anglo-Saxon princess, and became the father of Edgar, who, by means of 
an Anglo-Norman army, and after a fierce contest, enforced his title to a disputed crown, 
and commenced the Scoto-Saxon dynasty. Under Malcolm Canmore, the domestics and re- 
lations of his queen aided her powerful influence round the royal seat in introducing Saxon 
notions ; some Saxon barons fled, with their dependants, into Scotland, from the violence of 
the Norman conquest ; numerous fugitives were afforded an asylum by the king, from insur- 
rections which he fomented in the north of England ; vast numbers of young men and women 
were forcibly driven northward by him during his incursions into Northumberland and Dur- 
ham ; and preliminary movements, to a great aggregate amount, and with a great cumulative 
influence, were made toward a moral and social revolution. When Edgar, aided by the re- 
sults of these movements, brought in a force from without altogether foreign in speech and 
character to the Scots, and entirely competent in power to overawe them, and perfunctorily 
to settle their disputes by placing their leader on the throne, he rendered the revolution 
virtually complete — introducing in a mass a commanding number of foreign followers to mix 
with the native population, and treat them as inferiors, and throwing open a broad ingress for 
a general Anglo-Saxon, Anglo-Norman, and Anglo-Belgic colonization. So great and rapid 
was the influx of the new people, that, in the reign of David I., the second in succession 
after Edgar, men and women of them are said — somewhat hyperbolically, no doubt — to have 
been found, not only in every village, but in every house of the Scottish or Scoto-Saxon, 


dominions. So powerful, though peaceful an invasion was necessarily a moral conquest, a 
social subjugation ; and its speedy aggregate result was to suppress the Celtic tongue and 
customs, or coop them up within the fastnesses of the Highlands, — to substitute an Anglo- 
Norman jurisprudence for the Celtic modes of government,— and to erect the pompous and 
flaunting fabrics and ritual of Roman Catholicity upon the ruins of the simple though event- 
tually vitiated Culdeeism which had so long been the glory at once of Pict, of Dalriadic Scot, 
of Romanized Briton, and of Galloway Cruithne. 

At the accession of Edgar, or the commencement of the Scoto-Saxon period, Scotland, 
with the exception of its not claiming the western and the northern islands, possessed nearly 
its present limits, — the Solway, the Kershope, the Tweed, and the intervening heights form- 
ing the boundary-line with England. Northumberland and Cumberland were added as con- 
quered territories by David I. ; but they were demanded back, or rather forcibly resumed, 
by Henry II., during the minority of Malcolm IV. All Scotland may be viewed as temporarily 
belonging to England, when Henry II. made captive William I., the successor of Malcolm IV., 
and obliged him to surrender the independence of his kingdom ; but, in 1189, it was restored 
to its national status by the generosity of Richard I., and settled within the same limits as pre- 
vious to William's captivity ; and throughout the remainder of the Scoto-Saxon period, it retained 
an undisturbed boundary with England, conducive to the general interests of both kingdoms. 
Lothian on the east, and Galloway on the south-west, were, at this epoch, regarded by foreign 
powers as two considerable integral parts of Scotland ; and though so far consolidated with 
the rest of the country as to afford but slight appearance of having been settled by dissimilar 
people and governed by different laws, yet they were so far considered and treated by the 
kings as separate territories, that they were placed under distinct jurisdictions. In 1266, the 
policy of Alexander III. acquired by treaty the kingdom of Man, and the isles of the Hebri- 
dean seas, and permanently annexed the latter to the Scottish crown. When the great 
barons were assembled in 1284, dolefully to settle the dubious succession to the throne, they 
declared that the territories belonging to Scotland, and lying beyond the boundaries which 
existed at the accession of Edgar, were the Isle of Man, the Hebrides, Tynedale, and Pen- 
rith. In 1290, the Isle of Man passed under the protection of Edward I. Even essential 
Scotland, the main territory of the kingdom, was so deeply imperilled at the close of the 
Anglo-Saxon period, that she could be preserved from the usurping and permanent grasp of 
insidious ambition only by a persevering and intensely patriotic struggle ; and she was at 
length re-exhibited and settled down in her independence, and reinstamped, but in brighter 
hues, with the colourings of nationality, by the magnanimity and the indomitableness of her 
people supporting all the fortune and all the valour of Robert Bruce, the founder of a new- 
dynasty of her kings and the introducer of a new epoch in her history. An outline of her 
annals from the days of Bruce downward, sufficiently full to be in keeping with that which 
we have now sketched of the earlier periods, will be found in the historical section of our 
article on Edinburgh. 












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Banff, . 

Berwick, . 

Bute, . 



Clackmannan, . 



Edinburgh, . 


Fife, . 




Kincardine, . 

Kinross, -. 


Lanark, . 

Linlithgow, . 



Zetland, . 




Ross and Cromart; 

Roxburgh, . 





.'>' - 







AAN, or Aes, a stream of the eastern Grampians. 
It rises on the north side of Mount Battock, within 
the border of Aberdeenshire, and runs about 10 
miles north-eastward to a junction with the Feugh, 
in the parish of Strachan, Kincardineshire. The 
name is a corruption of Aven. See the article Aven 
or Avon. 

ABBEY, a village in the vicinity of Cambusken- 
netli Abbey, on the north-west border of Clackman- 
nanshire. The tract around it is in dispute between 
the parish of Stirling and the parish of Logie. See 
Cambuskenneth. Population of the village in 
1861, 227. 

ABBEY, a small village on the banks of the 
Tyne, about a mile east of Haddington. Here, in 
1178, a Cistertian nunnery was founded and richly 
endowed by Ada, the mother of Malcolm IV. ; and 
here, in 1548, the parliament met and gave their 
sanction to the marriage of Queen Mary with the 
Dauphin of France. Scarcely a trace of the con- 
vent now remains. 

ABBEY, any district around the remains or the 
site of a great ancient monastic edifice. Thus there 
is a special district of Abbey around the abbey of 
Cambuskenneth. There is an ecclesiastical district 
of Abbey around the abbey of Arbroath. There is 
a parish of Abbey around the abbey of Paisley. 
And there is a district known in Scottish law as 
emphatically the Abbey, and possessed of the privi- 
leges of a sanctuary for debtors, around the abbey 
and palace of Holvrood. See the article Holthood. 

ABBEY-BATHAN'S. See Abbey-Salnt-Bath- 

ABBEY-BURN, a stream of Kirkcudbrightshire. 
It runs about 6 miles southward, through the parish 
of Eerrick, past Dundrennan abbey, to the Solway 
frith, at a point a little east of Abbey Head. Burn- 
foot, at its mouth, is a free port, and might easily 
be made a commodious harbour. See Rekrick. 

ABBEY-CRAIG, a craggy, precipitous, green- 
stone hill, in the neighbourhood of Cambuskenneth 
abbey, in the parish of Logie. It rises about 500 
feet above the level of the surrounding plain, and is 
precisely similar in form and texture to the rocks 
of Craigforth and Stirling Castle in its near vicinity. 
A monument to Wallace was recently begun upon 
it, at great cost, but stood incomplete in 1865. The 
hill is a picturesque feature in a most magnificent 
landscape, and commands a gorgeous prospect of 
the carses and windings of the Forth. The Scot- 
tish army under Wallace was posted on it on the 

night before the battle of Stirling. Excellent mill- 
stones are manufactured out of its rock. 

ABBEY-GEEEN, a village in the parish of Les- 
mahago, Lanarkshire. It occupies a beautiful 
position on the banks of the Nethan, about 6 miles 
from Lanark and 22 from Glasgow. A monastery 
was founded here in 1140 by David I., and was 
subordinate to the abbey of Kelso. The village has 
a post-office, and is otherwise the centre of influ- 
ence to a considerable tract of country ; but, in these 
respects, is usually designated by the name of the 
parish. See Lesmahago. Population of the village 
in 1861, 494. 

mermoor district of Berwickshire. It is bounded by 
Haddingtonshire, and by the parishes of Cockburns- 
path, Coldingham, Buncle, Longformacus, Dunse, 
and Oldhamstocks. Its post-town is Dunse. It 
has a very irregular outline, and measures nearly 6 
miles in extreme length, and 4 miles in extreme 
breadth. It is drained along the eastern boundary 
by the Eye, and through the interior by the head- 
stream and some feeders of the Whiteadder. It 
contains nearly 2,000 acres of arable land, and up- 
wards of 3,000 acres of coarse pasture and barren 
heaths. The hills consist of greywaeke, and rise 
300 or 400 feet above the level of the vales. A 
mine of copper was commenced in 1828, on the 
estate of St. Bathan's, but proved uncompensating. 
The yearlv value of raw produce was estimated in 
1834 at £2,555. The rental in 1864 was about 
£1,800. The Kirktown stands on the Whiteadder, 
about 7 miles north by west of Dunse. Population 
of the parish in 1831, 122; inl861,179. Houses,27. 

Tliis parish is in the presbytery of Dunse, and 
synod of Merse and Teviotdale. Patron, the Crown. 
Stipend, £155 9s. 3d.; glebe, £13. Schoolmaster's 
salary, £50, with fees £12. The church is a very 
ancient structure, with about 140 sittings. A Cister- 
tian nunnery, with the title of a priory, was founded 
here, toward the close of the 12th century, by Ada, 
daughter of King William the Lion, and dedicated 
to St. Bathan, Bythen, or Bethan, who is supposed 
to have been a cousin of Columba and his successor 
at Iona; and the priory acquired large revenues, 
and gave name to the parish; but not a vestige of 
it now exists. About three furlongs east of the 
church, in a field which still bears the name of 
Chapelfield, were to be seen, a number of years ago. 
the foundations of an ancient chapel; and about a 
mile to the west there existed not long since some 



remains of the parish church of Strafontain — proba- 
bly a corruption of Trois Fontaines — united at the 
Reformation to St. Bathan's, and originally an hospi- 
tal founded by David I. A little to the north-west 
of Strafontain, near the banks of the Monynut, a 
tributary of the Whiteadder, is Godscroft, once the 
demesne of David Hume, a distinguished writer of 
the 17th century, and an intimate friend of the 
celebrated Andrew Melville. There is a parochial 
li brary. 

ABBEY- WELL. See Urquhakt. 

ABBOTRULE. See A3botsrule. 

ABBOTSFORD, the country mansion erected, 
and long occupied, by our great national novelist, 
Sir Walter Scott. It stands on the right bank of 
the Tweed, a little above the influx of Gala Water, 
about 2 miles south-east of Galashiels, and imme- 
diately adjacent to the road between Melrose and 
Selkirk. It looks across a beautiful sweep of the 
Tweed, away to the green hills of Ettrick Forest ; 
but, excepting this pleasant prospect, it owes all its 
attractions, and also its name, to " Scotland's mighty 
minstrel." He bought the site when it was occu- 
pied by a mean farm-stead called Cartley Hole; he 
added to it various small adjacent properties from 
time to time as his means increased; and he slowly 
and ingeniously raised the mansion and elaborated 
the grounds, till the former became " a romance in 
stone and lime," and the latter a bewilderment of 
beauty, where 

"Well mifrlit we deem tliat wizard wand 
Had set us down in fairy land." 

The edifice defies all the rules of architecture, and has 
singular features and extraordinary proportions, yet 
looks both beautiful and picturesque. It got many 
of its decorative details from some of the most 
famous old piles in Scotland, — for example, a gate- 
way from Linlithgow and a roof from Roslin Castle; 
and it contains a multitude of curiosities connected 
with its illustrious founder, with literature, with the 
fine arts, and with Scottish antiquities. The melan- 
choly interest of it, so profound at the death of Sir 
Walter, was greatly deepened by the extinction of 
his hereditary name at the death of his son. 

ABBOTSFORD FERRY, a station on the Sel- 
kirk railway, opposite Abbotsford. 

ABBOTSHALL, a parish, containing a suburb of 
the post-town of Kirkcaldy, on the southern border 
of Fifeslrire. It is bounded by the frith of Forth, 
and by the parishes of Kinghorn, Auchtertool, 
Auchterderran, Dysart, and Kirkcaldy. Its great- 
est length is nearly 4 miles; and its greatest breadth 
is about 2 miles. The surface is low and flat for 
more than half a mile from the frith, then rises in 
fine slow swells, with beautiful diversities, for up- 
wards of two miles, and then descends to the north- 
ern boundary. The soil is various, but on the whole 
excellent. The small streams Tiel and Camilla, 
and a tributary of the Oar, form the chief drainage, 
but have little feature. Raith loch, situated in the 
Raith pleasure-grounds, is an artificial and highly 
picturesque sheet of water, about a mile long, and 
ra some parts nearly a quarter of a mile broad. 
Raith-House is a good old mansion, with two wings, 
and a fine Ionic portico. A square tower on the 
summit of the bill on which that mansion stands, 
and at an elevation of about 400 feet above the level 
of the sea, commands one of the richest and most 
extensive panoramic views in Scotland. The 
residences of several proprietors are of a handsome 
description. The chief antiquity is a piece of the 
strong square tower of Balwearie, the residence of 
the famous wizard, Sir Michael Scott. See Bal- 
wcarii:. The parish is traversed by the Edin- 

burgh, Perth, and Dundee railway. The real ren- 
tal of the parish in 1836 was £7,500. Assessed pro- 
perty in 1864. £14.733. The great majority of the in- 
habitants live in Linktown. This consists of an old 
street, about three quarters of a mile long, extend- 
ing on a line with the principal street of Kirkcaldy, 
and of a newer street, or New Town, going off at 
right angles from the end of the former toward the 
parish church. Linktown is a burgh of regality, 
under Ferguson of Raith. It shares fully in the 
trade and public communications of Kirkcaldy, and 
has a gas-work, a pottery, a brick and tile work, 
a sail-canvas manufactory, a linen bleacbfield, large 
spinning-mills, several power-loom factories, and a 
flour-mill. Annual fairs are held on the 3d Friday 
of April and the 3d Friday of October; but they 
possess little consequence. See Kirkcaldt. Pop- 
ulation of Linktown in 1841, 4,100; in 1861, 4,385. 
Houses, 354. The parish also contains the village 
of Chapel. Population of the parish in 1831, 4,206; 
in 1861, 5,193. Houses, 512. 

This parish is in tbe presbytery of Kirkcaldy and 
synod of Fife. Patron, Ferguson of Raith. Stipend, 
£199 lis. lid.; glebe, £36. Schoolmaster's salary 
now is £60, with house and garden, about £35 of 
fees, and £25 from other sources. The parish 
church was built in 1788, and has 825 sittings. 
There is a Free church; and the yearly sum raised 
by its congregation in 1865 was £361 9s. The 
United Presbyterian Church at Bethelfield was built 
in 1836, and has 1,096 sittings. There are four non- 
parochial schools. Abbotshall parish was erected in 
1650, by disjunction from Kirkcaldy; and it took its 
name from the circumstance of an abbot of Dun- 
fermline having built a house near the site of the 

ABBOT'S ISLE, a small green island, in the bay 
of Stonefield, south side of Loch Etive. Argyleshire. 

ABBOTSRULE, formerly a parish in Roxburgh- 
shire, now divided between Southdean and Hobkirk. 
It extended about 3 miles along the east side of the 
upper part of the Rule, from Blackcleuch Mouth 
to Fultonhaugh. The barony of Abbotsrule con- 
tains 2,343 English acres, and was exposed to sale 
in 1818 at the upset price of £35,000. See South- 

ABB'S HEAD (St.), a hold promontory, in the 
parish of Coldingham, 2 miles north-north-east of the 
town of Coldingham, and 4 miles north-west of the 
port of Eyemouth, Berwickshire. It consists of a 
huge isolated mass of trap rock, opposing a perpen- 
dicular front of nearly 300 feet in height to the bil- 
lows of the German ocean. On two other sides the 
point of the headland is nearly equally precipitous; 
and on the fourth it is divided from the mainland by 
a deep fosse. The stratified rocks adjacent to it 
display astonishing contortions, and are pierced 
with numerous large caverns. Tradition relates 
that, early in the 9th century, Ebba daughter of 
Ethelfred, king of Northumberland, fleeing from the 
amorous suit of Penda, the Pagan king of Mercia, 
was shipwrecked on this coast, and built a nunnery 
on this headland in token of gratitude for her pre- 
servation. Of this building no remains are now 
discernible; but within the memory of man, there 
were some relics of the chapel and cemetery, at- 
tached to it on an eminence about a mile to the east. 

ABDIE, a parish, containing a suburb of the 
post-town of Newburgh, in the north-west corner oi 
Fifeshire. It is bounded by Perthshire, by the 
frith of Tay, and by the parishes of Newburgh, 
Flisk, Dunbog, Monimail, Collessie, and Auchter- 
muchty. Two portions of it are separated from the 
main body by the intervention of the parishes of 
Newburgh and Dunbog. The whole, if compact, 



might form an area of about 6 miles by 4. The 
surface is a varied succession of hill and dale. 
About 6,000 imperial acres are under cultivation; 
about 300 aro under vt-ood; and about 1,670 are 
either wasto land or coarse pasture, extensively 
covered with heath and furze. The finest land 
is rich alluvium along the Tay. The highest ground 
is Norman's Law, " the hill of the northern man," 
situated in the eastern isolated portion, rising to 
the height of 850 feet above the level of the sea, 
with a bold precipitous front, and commanding a 
splendid view of the Yale of Eden, the frith of Tay, 
and the carse of Gowrie. Clatehard Crag is also a 
remarkable basaltic, eminence, situated a little south- 
east of Newburgh, and presenting a precipitous 
front of about '250 feet, along whose face passes the 
railway. The locli of Lindores, near the centre of 
the parish, is a beautiful sheet of water, nearly a 
mile in length, covering about 70 acres, fed by a 
small stream called Priest's Bum, which never 
freezes and never dries up, and discharges its waters 
by a rivulet of about 2 miles in length into the Tay at 
Lindores, a short way below Newburgh. The lake 
abounds in perch, pike, eels, and aquatic fowl ; and 
the stream which flows from it drives five or s'x 
very valuable mills, — saw-mill, bone-mill, and corn- 
mills. There are ten land-owners; and of these the 
Earl of Zetland draws the largest rental. Macgill 
of Rankeilour once had much land here, but now has 
none. The most remarkable mansion is Inehrye 
House, a Gothic structure with turrets and battle- 
ments, situated a little east of the loch of Lindores, 
and figuring conspicuously in some of the finest 
views of the parish. The House of Lindores is also 
a picturesque object. The village of Lindores, near 
the foot of the loch, is a place of great antiquity; 
and it contains some vestiges of a castle which is 
said to have belonged to Duncan Macduff, first 
Thane of Fife. Balfour relates that, in the vicinity 
of this castle, in June 1300, a battle was fought be- 
tween the Scots under Wallace and the English, and 
cost the latter a loss of 3,000 killed and 500 taken 
prisoners; and Blind Harry states that after the 
battle, Wallace and his companions retired to the 
castle. Lindores gave the title of Baron to the an- 
cient family of Leslie, whose peerage became dor- 
mant in 1775, at the death of Francis, the seventh 
lord. Population of the village of Lindores in 1841, 
95. There is also a village called Grange of Lin- 
dores. Population in 1841, 166 Mount Pleasant, 
the suburb of Newburgh, has been almost wholly 
built since 1831. Population in 1861, 452. The 
parish is traversed for a short distance by the Perth 
branch of the North British railway, and enjoys 
ready access to communication by that railway, and 
by the Tay steam-boats. Population in 1831, 870; 
in 1861, 1,381. Houses, 248. Assessed property 
in 1S65, £9,558 13s. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Cupar, and 
synod of Fife. Patron, the Earl of Mansfield. Sti- 
pend, £233 9s.; glebe, £23. Schoolmaster's salary 
now is £60, with about £17 fees. The parish 
church is a plain building with a pillared belfry, 
overlooking the loch of Lindores. It was built in 
1827, and has between 500 and 600 sittings. There 
is a Free church for Abdie and Newburgh ; attend- 
ance, about 220; yearly sum raised in 1865, £186 
17s. There is one private school. The family of 
Balfour of Denmill, now represented by Lord Bel- 
haven, were long proprietors of a large part of Ab- 
die; and their funeral monuments are still to be 
seen in the aisle of the old church. One of the 
most famous of them was Sir James Balfour, a dis- 
tinguished writer on antiquities and heraldry, and 
Ly on-kin g-at-arms to Charles I. and -Charles II. The 

parish anciently bore the name of Lindores; and 
when or why it took the name of Abdie is not 

ABER, any locality of a marked character, either 
knolly or marshy, near the mouth of a stream, 
whether the stream falls into lake or sea, or runs 
into confluence with another stream. The name 
occurs seldom by itself, and does not in that form 
designate any considerable seat of population. But 
it occurs often and prominently as a prefix, — com- 
monly in combination with the ancient name, which 
also is often the modem one, of the stream on which 
the locality lies. And in the case of a parish, that 
locality may be sought at the site of the original 
parish church. 

ABEEARDER. See Nairn (The). 

ABERARGIE. See Aberdargie. 


ABERCAIRNEY. See Fowlis Wester. 

ABERCHALDER. See Oich (The), and Cale- 
donian Canal. 

ABERCHIRDER, a village in the parish of Mar- 
noch, Banffshire. It stands on the road from Tur- 
riff to Portsoy, and on that from Huntly to Banff, 
about 7 miles west of Turriff, and about 9 south by 
west of Banff. It contains a post-office, a stamp- 
office, a branch-office of the North of Scotland Bank, 
an United Presbyterian church, an Episcopalian 
church, a Roman Catholic chapel, and a Baptist 
meeting-house ; and near it is a large handsome new 
church, which was erected on occasion of the fa- 
mous Free Church contest. See Marnoch. Hiring 
markets for servants are held at Whitsunday and 
Martinmas; an annual market, for horses and cattle, 
called Marnoch fair, is held on the second Tuesday 
of March; and a weekly market for grain is held, 
during the winter, on Monday. Aberchirder was 
the original name of Marnoch parish; and is said to 
allude to the mouth of a moss or moss-burn, Popu 
lation in 1841, 819; in 1861, 1,273. 

ABERCORN, a parish on the north of Linlith- 
gowshire. It is bounded by the frith of Forth, and 
by the parishes of Dalmeny, Kirkliston, Ecclesma- 
chau, Linlithgow, and Carriden. Its post-town is 
Winchburgh. Its greatest length, east and west, 
is about 4^ miles; and its greatest breadth is about 
2A miles. The surface is exceedingly diversified 
and eminently picturesque, yet nowhere attains an 
elevation of more than 350 feet. Only two points 
are called hills, — Binns hill in the west, and Priest- 
inch in the south-east ; and the former is cultivated 
to the summit, and commands a gorgeous, ex- 
tensive, panoramic view. All the seaboard is 
rich with wood, and surpassingly beautiful Hope- 
toun House on the coast, the seat of the Earl 
of Hopetoun, and the last place visited by George 
IV. in Scotland, is a truly princely mansion, amid 
superb pleasure-grounds. Binns House, the seat 
of Sir R. Dalyell, Bart., is also a fine mansion. All 
the streams of the parish are very small ; but they 
drive some useful rural mills. There are several 
quarries of excellent sandstone, and a quarry of 
good whins tone; and there was, till lately, a small 
coal-mine. The yearly value of raw produce was 
estimated in 1843 at £22,700. The assessed pro- 
perty in 1860 was £8,528. The villages are New- 
ton, Philipston, and Society, but are all small. The 
parish is traversed by the Union canal and by the 
Edinburgh and Glasgow railway. Population in 
1831, 1,013; in 1861, 965. Houses, 188. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Linlithgow 
and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale. Patron, the 
Earl of Hopetoun. Stipend, £188 15s. 2d.; glebe, 
£16. Schoolmaster's salary, £50, with £30 fees. 
The parish church is an old pile, thoroughly re- 



paired in 1838. There is a Free church; yearly 
sum raised in 1853, £54 3s. 5Jd., — in 1865, £35 14s. 
There is a school for girls, which was instituted by 
Lady Hopetoun, and is well attended. The monas- 
tery of Abercorn, anciently written Aebercurnig, is 
mentioned more than once by Bede, and may be re- 
garded as an early Culdee establishment; and it is 
said to have been the residence of a bishop in the 
7th century, at a time when the only other place of 
similar character in Scotland was Whithorn in Gal- 
loway. But not a vestige of it now exists. Nor is 
there a vestige of Abercorn castle, which was a feu- 
dal fortalice of great strength, and was dismantled 
in 1455, during the rebellion of one of the Black 
Douglases. The estate of Abercorn belonged, in the 
13th century, to Sir John Graham, the friend of 
Wallace ; it afterwards passed to the Douglases ; it 
next went to the Hamiltons, and gave them a noble 
title, which continues to be enjoyed by their de- 
scendant, the Marquis of Abereorn; and it subse- 
quently passed to the Mures, the Lindsays, the Se- 
tons, and last of all the Hopes, Earls of Hopetoun. 
Binns was the family seat of " the bloody Dalzell," 
and is still in the possession of his descendants. 

ABERCROMBIE, or St. Monance, a small parish, 
containing the post-office village of St. Monance, on 
the southern border of Fifeshire. It is bounded by 
the frith of Forth, and by the parishes of Pitten- 
weem, Cambee, Kilconquhar, and Elie. It mea- 
sures about li mile from north to south, and about 
a mile along the coast. Its surface makes a very 
abrupt ascent from the low and rocky beach, and 
then has some diversities, but on the whole is flat. 
The soil is chiefly a friable fertile loam ; and nearly 
all the land is arable and cultivated. Coal mines 
were worked, but are exhausted. The small stream 
Inweary flows on the western boundary to the sea; 
and the Dreel burn runs eastward on the boundary 
with Cambee. There are two landowners of £100 
Scots valued rent. Assessed property in 1865, £4,350 
17s. 3d. The village of St. Monance stands on the 
coast, about 1J mile west of Pittenweem. It is a 
burgh of barony, under the laird of Newark; and 
has 3 bailies, a treasurer, and 15 councillors. A good 
harbour is here, partly natural and partly formed 
by a strong pier, builtin 1865; and it accommodates 
3 or 4 trading vessels, and about 100 large fishing- 
boats belonging to the port, but is seldom frequented 
by strangers. A principal employment of the vil- 
lagers is the herring fishery, all now in the neigh- 
bouring waters, but formerly carried on chiefly off 
the coast of Caithness. There are several friendly 
societies. The village of Abercrombie is small and 
rural. Population of the parish in 1831, 1,110; in 
1861, 1,498. Houses, 192. 

This parish is in the presbytery of St. Andrews, 
and svnod of Fife. Patron, the Crown. Stipend, 
£162 0s. lid., of which £32 19s. 4d. is received 
from the Exchequer. Glebe, 12 acres. School- 
master's salary, £35; fees, £60. There was for- 
merly a private school. The old kirk of Aber- 
crombie is in ruins, and has not been used as a 
place of worship for upwards of two centuries. 
It is the burying- place of the Balcaskie family. 
The church now in use is situated at the west end 
of the village of St. Monance, close upon the beach. 
It is a Gothic edifice, originally founded in the 14th 
century, and, till recently renovated, presenting a 
singularly antique appearance in its interior fur- 
nishings as well as externally. It is now a very 
handsome place of worship, seated for 528, and pre- 
serving as much of its ancient outline as was found 
consistent with modem ideas of comfort. It is re- 
lated that David II., having been grievously wounded 
by a barbed arrow, and miraculously cured at the 

tomb of St. Monance, dedicated this chapel to him, 
and granted thereto the lands of Easter Birnie. Keith 
says: "This chapel, which was a large and stately 
building of hewn stone, in form of a cross, with a 
steeple in the centre, was given to the Black friars, 
by James III., in 1460-80. The wall of the south 
and north branches of this monastery," he adds, 
" are still standing, but want the roof; and the east 
end and steeple serve for a church to the parish- 
ioners." This parish was known by the name of 
Abercrombie so far back as 1174. In 1646 the lands 
of Newark, constituting the barony of St. Monance, 
were disjoined from Kilconqunar, and annexed quoad 
sacra to Abercrombie. The parish thus enlarged 
received the designation of Abercrombie with St. 
Monance. In the course of years, and with the de- 
cline of the village of Abercrombie and rise of that 
of Monance, the old title disappeared altogether, 
and the parish came to be known as that of St. Mo- 
nance, and is still sometimes so designated; but 
early in the present century, the old title of Aber- 
crombie was formally revived at the instance of the 
principal proprietor, Abercrombie Anstruther of Bal- 
caskie. A peerage of Abercrombie existed in the 
17th century, in the family of Sandilands, proprie- 
tors of the lands of Newark, but became extinct at 
the death of the second lord. 

ABERDALGIE, a parish in the Strathearn dis- 
trict of Perthshire. It is bounded by the parishes 
of Tippermuir, Perth, Forteviot, and Forgandenny. 
Its post-town is Perth. It has a compact outline, 
and measures about 3 miles from east to west, and 
about 2J from north to south. It is washed along 
the south by the beauteous winding Earn, and 
ascends the hills toward the watershed with the 
Almond and the Tay; and it partakes fully in all 
the boasted beauty of Lower Strathearn, both as to 
the richness of its own scenery and the magnificence 
of its distant views. Duplin Castle, the seat of the 
Earl of Kinnoul, is a superb feature. The former 
castle was accidentally burnt to the ground in 1827 ; 
and the present one, in the Elizabethan style oi 
architecture, was built at a cost of upwards of 
£30,000. The whole parish is the property of the 
Earl of Kinnoul, whose ancestors acquired it in 
1625 from the Earl of Morton. The soil in general 
is fertile, but in some places thin. There are seve- 
ral sandstone quarries. The assessed property of 
the parish in 1843 was £3,870 17s., and in 1865 was 
£3,724 14s. 7d. Population in 1831, 434; in 1861, 
295. Houses, 62. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Perth, and 
synod of Perth and Stirling. Stipend, £157 19s. 4d.; 
glebe, £24. Patron, the Crown and the Earl of 
Kinnoul. Schoolmaster's salary now is £40, with 
about £14 fees. The parish of Duplin was united 
to this parish in 1618. The present church was 
built in 1773. A vault at the east end is the bury 
ing place of the Kinnoul family. The battle of 
Duplin was fought in this parish, August 12th, 
1332. See Duplin. 

ABERDARGIE, a village in the palish of Aber- 
nethy, Perthshire. It is situated in the mouth of 
Glenfarg, near the mill of Farg, and has a humble 

ABERDEEN, the capital of the north of Scotland. 
It stands on the east coast, between the rivers Dee 
and Don, in 57° 8' 20" north latitude and 2° 2' 48" west 
longitude, 45 miles south-south-east of Banff, 107 
east-south-east of Inverness, 90 by railway north- 
east by north of Perth, and respectively 108, 112 J, 
and 135 north-north-east of Edinburgh, the first of 
these three distances being tyy road, the second by 
railway through Broughty-Ferry, and the third by 
railway through Perth. It comprises two towns 



Old Aberdeen and New Aberdeen, situated about a 
mile from each other, of different aspects, and with 
distinct charters and privileges; so that, though 
possessing one set of interests, and included within 
the limits of one parliamentary burgh, it requires 
to be discribedastwo places, each with its own paro- 
chial connexions, and as a separate town. 

The parish in which Old Abekdken stands is 
called the parish of Old Machar. It is bounded on 
the north by the parishes of New Machar and Bel- 
helvie; on the east by the sea; on the south by the 
parish of St. Nicholas and by Kincardineshire; and 
on the west by the parishes of Banchory-Devenick, 
Newhills.and Dyce. Its greatest length, from north 
to south, is about 7 J miles; and its greatest breadth 
is about 4 miles. The river Dee divides it from 
Kincardineshire; and the river Don goes windingly 
across its centre. Its surface rises slowly from the 
beach, and is beautifully diversified by heights and 
hollows and by the fruits of art. The general land- 
scape is pleasant, and comprises some fine close 
scenes and a good far-away view. Its chief features 
are the beach and sea, the course of the river, some 
woods on the Don, clumps of trees on the rising 
grounds, country mansions, villas, manufactories, 
villages, the town of Old Aberdeen, and the out- 
skirts of New Aberdeen. The steep and rugged 
banks of the Don, from the house of Seaton to below 
the old bridge, are truly romantic. Many curious 
little sand-hills occur near Ferryhills, moulded into 
various forms, and disposed in all directions, seem- 
ingly by the retiring of some immense quantity of 
water. The soil of some parts of the parish is natu- 
rally fertile; but that of other parts either lies bar- 
ren or has been forced into productiveness by labour 
and expense. The principal mansions are Grand- 
holm, Scotstown, Denmore, Balgovvnie, Hilton, 
Powis, Cornhill, Seaton, and Woodside. 

The part of the parish north of the Don is called 
the landward part, yet nearly one half of its popu- 
lation is in villages. The part south of the Don 
is all included in the parliamentary boundary of the 
burgh; and contains the manufacturing contiguous 
villages of Woodside, Tanfield, and Cotton, about 
2 miles north-west of New Aberdeen, — the village 
of Ruthrieston, about 2 miles south-west, — the 
suburbs of Broadford, on the north side, — Gilcom- 
ston, along the north end of the west side, — the 
Windmill Brae and College Street near the south 
end of the same side, — Holborn, about half-a-mile 
to the south-west, — Dee village, on the bank of the 
river Dee, — and the new streets situated between 
Gilcomston and the Dee, extending nearly three- 
quarters of a mile westward, and containing many 
of the best houses of New Aberdeen. The agricul- 
ture of Old Machar has, in recent times, received 
large accessions both by the reclamation of waste 
lands and in the form of general improvement; and 
the manufactures, in addition to those in the town, 
comprise extensive woollen-cloth-making, thread- 
spinning, weaving, bleaching, and flax-spinning, 
at Grandholm-Haugh, Gordon's Mills, Printfield, 
Broadford, and Rubislaw. Assessed property in 

1860, £112,172; of which £319 were in quarries, 
and £1,844 in fisheries. Population in 1831, 25,107; 
in 1861, 33,236. Houses, 3,431. Population, in 

1861, of the landward part, 1,298. Houses, 226. 
This parish is in the presbytery and synod of 

Aberdeen. The charge is collegiate. Patron of 
both charges, the Earl of Fife. Stipend of the first 
minister, £273 Is. 3d., without a manse or glebe; of 
the second minister, £282 19s. 9d., with a manse 
and glebe of the yearly value of £31 10s. School- 
master's salary, £60. The parish church formed 
part of the cathedral of St. Machar, in the city of 

Old Aberdeen, and will be described in our account 
of the town. Sittings, 1,594. The chapel in King's 
College is open during the session for the accom- 
modation of the professors and students. The pa- 
rish in ancient times comprehended, not only all its 
present territory, but also the districts of New Ma- 
char and Newbills; and it ranked as a deanery, or 
was held by the dean of the cathedral, while these 
districts were served as chapelries. But about the, 
time of the Reformation, New Machar was erected 
into a separate parish; and about the year 163.3, 
Newhills also was made a separate parish. And in 
modern times, three chapels were built respectively 
in Gilcomston, in Woodside, and at Holborn, and 
during a few years previous to the Disruption, had 
the character of quoad sacra parish churches, each 
with a definite parochial territory. Gilcomston 
chapel was erected by subscription in 1769-71, en- 
larged in 1796, and has 1,522 sittings; and in 
September, 1852, it was constituted by the Court 
of Teinds a quoad sacra parish church. Woodside 
chapel is a commodious structure, erected in 1846 ; 
was constituted a quoad sacra parish church, by the 
Court of Session, in December, 1862; and had 
1,140 persons on its communion roll in 1865. Hol- 
burn chapel was erected by subscription in 1836, at 
the cost of £1,858, and has 1,332 sittings. The 
minister of Gilcomston chapel is elected by trustees; 
and the minister of each of the other two chapels 
by the congregation. There are five Free churches, 
— Old Machar, Gilcomston, Woodside, Holborn, 
and Bon-Accord ; and they had communicants in 
1864, and raised contributions in 1865, as follow: — 
Old Machar, communicants, 246, — contributions, 
£612 4s. 10Jd.; Gilcomston, communicants. 1,169, 
— contributions, £695 5s. 7d.; Woodside, communi- 
cants, 606, — contributions, £598 13s. l£d.; Holborn, 
communicants, 846, — contributions, £558 19s. 8Jd.; 
Bon -Accord, communicants, 496, — contributions, 
£397 4s. 6d. The other places of worship are an 
Original Seceder church, with 500 sittings; St. 
John's Episcopal church, with 386 sittings; a Con- 
gregational chapel at Cotton, with 480 sittings; 
and a Baptist meeting-house, with about 50 at- 
tendants. There are two private schools in the dis- 
trict north of the Don, and perhaps so many as 
seventy in the district south of it, — the total num- 
ber in 1833 having been sixty-two, with an attend- 
ance of 2,160. 

The Town of Old Aberdeen stands about a mile 
north of New Aberdeen, and adjacent to the right 
bank of the Don, on the road to Peterhead and Fra- 
serburgh. It is a burgh of barony, the seat of an 
university, and formerly the seat of a bishopric. It 
has a countrified, classic, and antique appearance, 
and presents a striking contrast, in both its quiet- 
ness and its quaintness, to the bustle and pretension 
of New Aberdeen. Its environs abound in gardens 
and fruiteries, and look as if disdaining all acquaint- 
ance with manufacture and commerce. The ap- 
proach to it from the north over the Don is emi- 
nently interesting. The river there flows in a deep 
narrow bed, between beetling crags and among 
embowering wood; and it is spanned, at the dis- 
tance of 1,200 yards from the sea, by the famous 
' Brig o' Balgownie,' a lofty, narrow, gaunt Gothic 
arch of 72 feet in width, — and, 450 yards lower down, 
by the new bridge of Don, a structure of 5 arches, 
and 500 feet in length. In 1281, Henry Cheyne, 
the nephew of the Red Comyn, who opposed the 
claims of Robert Bruce to the crown of Scotland, 
became bishop of Aberdeen; and, after Comyn was 
slain at Dumfries in 1305, the bishop was obliged 
to flee to England, and to let his episcopal revenues 
I lie unapplied. But he eventually got reconciled U> 




King Robert, and was allowed to return and to take 
repossession of his see; and then, with the concur- 
rence or more probably by the command of the 
king, he devoted the accumulated episcopal reve- 
nues to the building of a bridge over the Don, in 
the vicinity of the cathedral. This was erected 
probably about the year 1320, and is the present 
' Brig o' Balgownie.' An annual sum of £2 5s. 8d. 
was bequeathed by Sir Alexander Hay toward the 
supporting of it; and this bequest, which, as the 
quaint inscription on the lobby wall of Aberdeen 
town-house says, consisted of " certain few ferms 
and an-rents," went on accumulating by increase 
of the value of the property. In 1825, the fund 
amounted to £20,000, and was applied to the build- 
ing of the new bridge ; and since then, though no 
expense has been spared in keeping the old bridge 
and road- way in excellent repair, the fund has 
again accumulated, insomuch that, in 1865, it 
amounted to £14,000. Lord Byron commemorates 
this locality in a stanza of Don Juan, where he 
speaks of " the Dee, the Don, Balgownie's Brig's 
black wall ;" and he adds in a note, " The Brig of 
Don, near the Auld Town of Aberdeen, with its one 
arch, and its black deep salmon stream below, is in 
my memory as yesterday. I still remember, though 
perhaps I may misquote, the awful proverb which 
made me pause to cross it, and yet lean over it with 
a childish delight, being an only son, at least by 
the mother's side. The saying as recollected by me, 
was this, but I have never heard nor seen it since 
I was nine years of age: — 

' Brig of Balgownie, black's your wa', 
Wi' a wife's ae son, and a mare's ae foal, 
Doon ye shall fa' ! ' " 

Several streets, courts, and closes of Old Aber- 
deen challenge attention by their singular or an- 
cient features. Mar's Castle is a curious object. 
The town-house is a neat building, erected towards 
the close of last century. The trades' hospital, 
built on the site of the Mathurine convent, was 
founded in 1533 by Bishop Dunbar. There are no 
remains of the bishop's palace. The cathedral was 
originally founded in 1154; but having become 
ruinous, it was demolished, and a splendid new one 
founded by Bishop Kinnimonth in 1357. This is 
said to have been seventy years in progress; but it 
does not appear to have ever been completed. All 
parts of it except the nave were either destroyed by 
the fury of mobs at the Reformation, or pulled down 
by the soldiers of Cromwell as building material for 
a garrison. The nave is now the parish church, 
and is kept in high preservation, and underwent 
repairs in 1832. It is 135 feet long and 65 feet 
broad; and, though not an elegant structure, is 
massive and noble, and possesses some interesting 
features. The windows and pillars are in the severe 
early English style, and for the most part plain ; 
but the western window is a very fine large one, 
with seven high lancet lights, and the capitals of 
the pillars of the transept are beautifully carved 
with oak and vine leaves. The ceiling, too, is of 
oak, finely carved, and painted with armorial 

The buildings of King's college, however, are 
the chief ornament of Old Aberdeen. It appears 
that there existed, so long ago as the reign of Mal- 
colm IV., a " Studium getierale in collegio canoni- 
corum Aberdoniensium," which subsisted till the 
foundation of this college by Bishop Elphinstone. 
In 1494, Pope Alexander VI., by a bull dated Feb- 
ruary 10th, instituted in the city of Old Aberdon, 
or Aberdeen, an university, or " Studium generale et 
Universitas itudii generalis," for theology, canon and 

civil law, medicine, the liberal arts, and every law- 
ful faculty ; and privileged to grant degrees. James 
IV. applied for this bull on the supplication of 
Bishop Elphinstone, who is considered as the 
founder. But though the bull was granted in 
1494, the college was not founded till the year 1505. 
It was dedicated to St. Mary; but, being taken un- 
der the immediate protection of the king, it was 
denominated King's college. James IV. and Bishop 
Elphinstone endowed it with large revenues; and 
Charles I. gave it additional possessions. It had, 
in 1836, an income of £2,363 from endowments and 
Crown grants; and it received, in 1840, a bequest 
of £11,000 from Dr. Simpson of Worcester. Its 
bursaries were 128, aggregately yielding £1,643 a- 
year. Its first principal was Hector Boethius. 

A recommendation was made in the report of the 
University commissioners of 1838, that King's col- 
lege and Marischal college should be united into 
one university, to be called the university of Aber- 
deen, with its seat at Old Aberdeen ; and this re- 
commendation has been carried out under the act 
1858. The university possesses the funds which 
belonged to both colleges, and ranks from the year 
1494, the date of King's college. The session, in 
arts, commences on the last Monday of October, and 
closes on the first Friday of April; in divinity, 
commences on the second Monday of December, 
and closes on the last Friday of March; in law, 
commences on the first Monday of November, and 
extends to the end of March ; in medicine, for win- 
ter, commences on the first Monday of November, 
and extends over six months, and for summer, com- 
mences on the first Monday of May, and extends 
over three months. The general council meets 
twice a-year — on the Wednesday after the second 
Tuesday of April, and on the AVednesday after the 
second Tuesday of October. The chief officers are 
a chancellor, elected by the general council, a 
rector, elected by the matriculated students, a prin- 
cipal, appointed by the Crown, and four assessors, 
chosen by respectively the chancellor, the rector, 
the general council, and the senatus academieus. 
The university court consists of the rector, the prin- 
cipal, and the four assessors. The senatus academ- 
ieus consists of the principal and the professors. 
The chairs are Greek, humanity, logic, mathematics, 
natural philosophy, moral philosophy, natural his- 
tory, systematic theology, divinity and church his- 
tory, divinity and biblical criticism, oriental lan- 
guages, law, institutes of medicine, practice of 
medicine, chemistry, anatomy, surgery, materia 
medica, midwifery, medical logic and jurisprudence, 
and botany. The Crown appoints to fifteen of the 
chairs, and the university court to five. There are 
also three lectureships and eight assistantships. 
Under the act of 1858, the professorships of Greek, 
humanity, mathematics, moral philosophy, natural 
philosophy, church history, oriental languages, and 
chemistry, as also the principalship, were united 
with those of King's college; new professorships 
of logic, divinity and biblical criticism, institutes 
of medicine, materia medica, midwifery, and bo- 
tany were instituted for the united colleges; com- 
pensation, to the aggregate amount of £3,500 a- 
year, was made to such professors and other officials 
as were necessarily displaced; anew scale of emolu- 
ments, including estimated amounts from fees, was 
fixed, — allotting to the principal £599 a-year, to the 
Greek professor £607, humanity £578, logic £492, 
mathematics £530, moral philosophy £492, natural 
philosophy £524, natural history £468, systematic 
theology £566, church history £486, biblical criti- 
cism £130, oriental languages £439, law £303, in- 
stitutes of medicine £272, practice of medicine £254, 



chemistry £531, anatomy, £600, surgery £266, ma- 
teria medica £242, midwifery £223, medical juris- 
prudence £222, botany £377 ; and authority was 
given for repairs and alterations in Marischal col- 
lege, and for the erection of new buildings at King's 
college, at an estimated cost of respectively £800 
and £17,936. The number of members of the 
general council, in 18G5, was 502. The number of 
matriculated students, in the winter session of 
1863-4, was 560; in the summer session of 1S64. 
109. The number who graduated in 1864 was 43 
in arts, 52 in medicine, and 4 in divinity. 

The buildings of King's college stand on the east 
side of the town ; and are rendered conspicuous at 
a distance by a fine square tower, fashioned at the 
top into a beautiful imperial crown, surmounted by 
a cross. The crown is said to have been built about 
1530, by Bishop Dunbar, to replace an original 
spire or lantheni, which had been damaged or over- 
thrown by a storm. The buildings occupy the sides 
of a large quadrangle, underwent extensive addi- 
tions and repairs shortly before the union of the 
colleges, and presented then remarkable mixtures 
of botli style and material ; and the west side, com- 
posed of class-rooms, has since then been rebuilt. 
All the old parts are of granite, with either round- 
headed arches, or severe sharp early English ones ; 
and the restored portions of these have fronts of 
polished sandstone, and florid perpendicular win- 
dows. The buildings, as a whole, comprise a 
chapel, a library, a museum, a common hall, a suite 
of class-rooms, and a range of modern houses un- 
attached, for the accommodation of the professors. 
The chapel is the choir of the old College church, 
and a very handsome building, and has stalls of 
beautifully carved black oak, surrounded by a screen 
of the same material, in a style of artistic finish far 
superior to everything else of the kind in Scotland; 
but the ancient elegant decorations both of this 
building and of the common hall have been sadly 
spoiled by modernized seats, pulpits, and stucco- 
work. The tomb of Bishop Elphinstone is in the 
middle of the chapel, and was once highly orna- 
mented, but is now covered with a slab of black 
marble without inscription. The library is the 
nave of the old College church, and is much too 
small to afford proper lodgment to the immense and 
most valuable collection. 

When King's college existed as a separate insti- 
tution, it was the great resort of students from the 
surrounding rural districts and from all parts of the 
North Highlands; and its numerous small bur- 
saries, together with very moderate class fees, and 
efficient professional teaching, enabled large num- 
bers of young men from the humbler ranks of life 
to obtain an excellent classical education, and so 
push their way to positions of influence and dis- 
tinction. Since the union of the colleges, the cur- 
riculum of study has been somewhat extended, the 
system of bursaries partly modified, several of these 
formed into scholarships, and the class-fees con- 
siderably increased. 

Old Aberdeen is a place of great antiquity, and 
was of considerable importance towards the end 
of the 9th century. David I., in 1154, translated 
the episcopal see from Mortlach to this place, and 
granted "to God and the blessed Mary, St. Machar, 
and Nectarius, bishop of Aberdeen, the haill village 
of Old Aberdon." Malcolm IV.. William the Lion, 
and James IV., successively confirmed and enlarged 
the original charter, and conferred extensive grants 
of lands and teinds on the bishop of Aberdeen. On 
the abolition of Episcopacy, the right of appointing 
magistrates fell to the Crown; and, in 1723. a war- 
rant of the Privy-council authorized the magistrates 

to elect their successors in office in future. Previous 
to the municipal act, the council, including the pro- 
vost, four bailies, and a treasurer, consisted of 19 
members. The limits of the burgh are ill-defined. 
The revenue of the burgh in 1832, was £43 5s.; the 
expenditure £14 16s. 6d. The burgh has no debts, 
and little property; the latter consisting only of a 
right of commonty in a moss, and a freedom-hill 
lying north of the Don, the town-house, feu-duties, 
customs, and a sum of £310. The magistrates are 
trustees of £2,791 13s. 4d., three per cent, consols, 
being a proportion of a bequest left by Dr. Bell to 
found a school upon the Madras plan ; and also of 
Mitchell's hospital, endowed in 1801, for maintain- 
ing five widows and five unmarried daughters of 
burgesses. There are seven incorporated crafts, but 
no guildry. Old Aberdeen is a place of little trade; 
but a fair for cattle and horses is held at it on the 
Wednesday after the third Tuesday of October, 
old style. The population of the town and its en- 
virons in 1851 — or the population of Old Machar, 
after deducting the districts of Bon-Accord, Gilcom- 
ston, Holburn, and Woodside, and all the district 
north of the Don — was 8,772. But the population 
of the town itself was only 1,490. 

The parish in which most of New Aberdeen 
stands is called St. Nicholas. It was divided in 1828 
into six parishes; but it is still conveniently recog- 
nised as one parish in topographical description and 
in statistics. It has an irregularly quadrangular 
outline, and comprises an area of about 1,100 im- 
perial acres. It is bounded on the south by the river 
Dee; on the east by the sea; and on the other 
sides by Old Machar. The boundary on the Dee 
runs about 1A mile nearly eastward to the river's 
mouth; that on the sea-shore runs nearly lj mile 
almost due north, to a point opposite the little em- 
inence of Broad Hill, nearly midway between the 
Dee and the Don; and that with Old Machar runs 
nearly westward about a mile, and then irregularly 
south-westward for about another mile to the Den- 
burn, between Broadford and Gilcomston, and 
thence southward, along the Denburn, almost three 
quarters of a mile, to the Dee. Somewhat more 
than one half of all the area, comprising most of 
the south side, all the west side, and nearly one 
half of the north side, is occupied by the city of 
Aberdeen and by the suburb of Footdee or Puttie, 
which lies along the lower reach of the river; and 
the rest of the north side is chiefly disposed in mar- 
ket gardens, nurseries, and bleach-greens; while 
nearly all the east side consists of a range of low 
sand hills and an expanse of links or open downs. 
The surface of the south and west sides is roughly 
tumulated, and comprises Heading Hill on the 
eastern outskirts of the citv. and the Castle Hill, 
the Port Hill, the School Hill, and St. Catherine's 
Hill, (the last now levelled,) within the city and oc- 
cupied by its streets; and the surface of the north 
side and of the links is nearly flat, and but very 
slightly elevated above the level of the sea. The 
annual value of property in the parish assessed to 
income tax in 1860, exclusive of railways, was 
£143,137; of which £2.016 were in fisheries, and 
£5.610 in gas-works. Population of the parish in 
1831, 32.912; in 1841, 36,734 ; in 1861, 41,962. 
Houses, 2,711. 

The parish of St- Nicholas, in remote Roman 
Catholic times, contained a parish church, a Domin- 
ican friary, a Franciscan friaiy, a Carmelite friary, 
and a monastery dedicated to the Holy Trinity. The 
parish church was probably the oldest of these 
structures, and certainly seems to have been by far 
the most magnificent; and it was dedicated to St. 
Nicholas, who had been bishop of Myria in Lycia r 




and who, according to a prevalent custom of the 
times, was chosen patron saint of the city. That 
church, in a superb cathedral-like form in which it 
stood for ages, was probably built in the 12th cen- 
tury, and at all events is known to have existed in 
the 13th; and it afterwards was fitted up and long 
used as two churches, — the nave or west end of it 
under the name of the West church, and the choir 
or east end of it under the name of the East church. 
The church of the Franciscan friary also came early 
to be used in the capacity of what is now termed a 
chapel of ease, or rather took rank as a co-ordinate 
parochial place of worship under the name of Grey- 
friars church. A chapel was founded at Footdee, 
in 1498, by the town-council, for the benefit of the 
fishing population, and dedicated to St. Clement; 
and after the Reformation, it was neglected and 
went into decay; but in 1631, it was repaired and 
put into use as a church in connection with the Pro- 
testant establishment. The ministers of all the 
four places acted conjointly, or had a cumulative 
care of the parish, yet each exercised a special su- 
pervision within a district of his own ; and during 
at least 150 years, the charges of the West church 
and the East church were collegiate. In modern 
times, several other places of worship were erected, 
either originally in connection with the Establish- 
ment, or in circumstances which afterwards brought 
them into connection with it; and in 1828, by a 
decree of the Court of Teinds, the four old churches 
and two of these modern erections, called the South 
church and the North church, were constituted se- 
parate and distinct parish churches, and had dis- 
tributed among them all the territory of the old pa- 
rish in six new parishes. Four other places of 
worship which existed prior to 1828, and one which 
was built in 1833, held the rank of quoad sacra pa- 
rish churches at and before the Disruption in 1843; 
but three of them then adhered to the Free church, 
and the other two are now the only chapels of ease 
in St. Nicholas. 

All the parishes of New Aberdeen are in the pres- 
bytery and synod of Aberdeen. The town council 
are the patrons of the six parish churches; and the 
congregations elect to the two chapels of ease. 
The stipends of the ministers of the West, the East, 
the South, and the North parishes, are £300 each, 
paid by the city corporation ; that of the minister 
of Greyfriars parish is £250, paid by the city corpo- 
ration ; and that of the minister of St. Clement's 
parish is £279 lis. 10|d., derived from the half- 
barony of Torrie, the glebe of Footdee, and seat- 
rents. — The present West church stands on the site 
of the nave of the old church of St. Nicholas, and 
was built in 1755 and enlarged in 1836, and con- 
tains 1,454 sittings. Population of the West pa- 
rish in 1831, 8,930; in 1861, 11,450. The present 
East church stands on the site of the choir of the 
old church of St. Nicholas, and was built in 1837, 
and contains 1,705 sittings. Population of the East 
parish in 1831, 3,846; in 1861, 5,182. The Grey- 
friars church is a very ancient building, the only 
ancient church now in New Aberdeen, and is often 
called the College church. Sittings, 1,042. Popu- 
lation of Greyfriars parish in 1831, 4,706; in 1861, 
7,143. The present St. Clement's church stands on 
the site of the old Footdee church, and was built in 
1828, and contains 800 sittings. Population of St. 
Clement's parish in 1831, 6,501; in 1861, 7,623. 
The original South church was built in 1779, and 
was first a meeting-house in connexion witli the 
Relief body, and afterwards a chapel of ease in con- 
nexion with the Establishment; and in 1830-1 
that structure was taken down and the present 
church erected on its site. Sittings, 1,562. Popu- 

lation of the South parish in 1831, 4,313; in 1861, 
4,291. The North church was built in 1826, and 
contains 1,486 sittings. Population of the North 
parish in 1831, 4,616; in 1861, 6,273. The two 
chapels of ease are called Trinity church and John 
Knox's church. Trinity church was built in 1794, 
and contains 1,247 sittings, but is now shut up; 
and John Knox's church was built in 1835, and 
contains 1,054 sittings. 

The Free churches in St. Nicholas parish are the 
West, the East, Greyfriars, St. Clement's, South, 
North, Trinity, John Knox, Union, Melville, Mari- 
ners', and the Gaelic. The communicants in the 
West, in 1864, were 1.070, — the yearly contribu- 
tions, in 1865, £1,772 "7s. 4^d.; in the East, com- 
municants, 890, — contributions, £1,461 7s. 7d.; in 
Greyfriars, communicants, 160, — contributions, 
£170 16s. lOJd.; in St. Clement's, communicants, 
940, — contributions, £559 2s. 3Jd. ; in South, com- 
municants, 1,100, — contributions, £1,528 15s. 7Ad.; 
in North, communicants, 487, — contributions, £498 
17s 3d.; in Trinity, communicants, 784, — contri- 
butions, £1,588 19s. 7d.; in John Knox, communi- 
cants, 914, — contributions, £568 15s. 3d.; in Union, 
communicants, 712, — contributions, £400 14s. lid.; 
in Melville, communicants, 102, — contributions, 
£110 7s. 9Jd.; in Mariners', communicants, 250, — 
contributions, £141 8s. 4id.; in the Gaelic, com- 
municants, 209, — contributions, £161 10s. 5d. There 
were, in 1865, six United Presbyterian churches, — 
respectively in St. Nicholas-lane, in George-street, in 
Belmont-street, in Charlotte-street, in St. Paul-street, 
and in Gallowgate ; and the last had but recently 
become connected with the U. P. body. The other 
places of worship, in 1865, inclusive of some within 
Old Machar, were an Original Seceder church, in 
Skene-street; four Independent chapels, in con- 
nexion with the Congregational Union of Scotland, 
in Belmont-street, Dee-street, Blackfriars-street, 
and Albion-street; two Independent chapels, in 
connexion with the Evangelical Union, in St. Paul- 
street and Johns-street; St. Andrew's Scotch 
Episcopal church, served by the Bishop of Aber- 
deen and an assistant, in King-street, with 1,100 
sittings ; St. John's Scotch Episcopal church, in 
Crown-terrace ; St. Mary's Scotch Episcopal church, 
in Carden-place; St. Paul's English Episcopal 
church, in Gallowgate, with 900 sittings; St. James' 
English Episcopal church, in Crown-street; aWes- 
leyan Methodist chapel, in Long Acre, with 900 
sittings ; three Baptist chapels, in George-street, 
John-street, and South Silver-street ; a Glassite 
chapel, in St. Andrew's-street ; a Quakers' meeting- 
house, in Gallowgate ; a Unitarian chapel, in 
George-street; and a Roman Catholic church, 
served by the bishop of the northern district of 
Scotland, and two assistants, in Huntly-street. 

In the times before the Reformation, there was a 
St. Mary's chapel, under the East church ; there was 
a St. Catherine's chapel founded in 1242, and situ- 
ated on St. Catherine's-hill ; and there was a St. 
Ninian's chapel situated on the Castle-hill. The 
Black friars had their establishment on the School- 
hill, where Gordon's hospital and the Grammar- 
school now stand ; the Carmelite, or White friars' 
monastery, was on the south side of the Green, 
near Carmelite-street; and the Greyfriars in Broad- 
street, where the Marischal college and Greyfriars 
church are now situated. 

The City op New Aberdeen is a place of great 
spirit, bustle, and magnificence, every way worthy 
of its high honours as the seat of an university, the 
seat of much manufacture and commerce, and the 
fourth greatest town in all Scotland, and by far the 
first in the north. It fascinates all strangers, and 




does so chiefly by its own power, or through the 
effects of the industry and the arts of its citizens; 
for it possesses none of the thrilling brilliance or 
grand pieturesqueness of site and surrounding 
scenery which distinguishes Inverness, Perth, Stir- 
ling, Edinburgh, and so many other famous Scottish 
towns. The approach to it by sea lies along a bleak 
sandy coast, with low rocks and long reefs on the 
foreground, and a tame unfeatured surface on the 
background, and becomes interesting only at the 
point of sudden ingress among the crowded ship- 
ping of the harbour. The land approach from the 
south, too, traverses a broad, low, moorish outskirt 
of the Grampians, and is all utterly dismal till it 
bursts at once on a near view of the Dee and the 
citv. But the contrast there is most striking; and 
an impression is instantly produced on an intelli- 
gent stranger, which subsequent acquaintance with 
the place thoroughly confirms, that wonders have 
been worked by art both within the city and on the 
surrounding soil. Three interesting walks, of four 
or five miles each, may be had among the environs. 
The first goes to Old Aberdeen, and up the Don, 
past Grandholm and through Woodside, and returns 
to the city by the Inverness road; the second goes 
bv the Lunatic Asylum, on the north-west side of 
the city, to the Stocket-hill, where the best view of 
the city and the surrounding country is obtained, 
and proceeds thence to the great granite quarries of 
Rubislaw, and returns by the Skene turnpike road ; 
and the third goes south-westward to the Old 
Bridge of Dee, and passes down the right bank of 
the Dee to G-irdleness lighthouse, and crosses by 
the ferry to Footdee. 

The first dwelling-houses of Aberdeen were pro- 
bably a few rude huts near the spot where Trinity 
church now stands. The ground next occupied 
was probably in the neighbourhood of the castle 
and the green ; and the town gradually extended in 
the direction of the Ship-row, the Exchequer-row, 
and the south side of Castlegate. But in the 14th 
century the town was almost totally destroyed by 
an English army under Edward III.; and a grand 
extension of it then took place over the eminences of 
Castle-hill, Port-hill, St. Catherine's-hill, and Wool- 
man-hill; and this took the name of New Aberdeen, 
not in contradistinction to the kirktown of Old 
Machar, which now bears the name of Old Aber- 
deen, but in contradistinction to the old town on the 
Dee which the English had destroyed. Even the 
new town, however, with the exception of its public 
structures, was rude and insubstantial ; and not till 
ages after did it acquire any regularity of alignment 
or urbanity of appearance. In 1545 a stone edifice 
was considered a mark of great opulence ; and so 
late as 1741 the houses on the west side of the 
Broadgate were constructed of wood. Westwards 
of the Gallowgate, there was, till the latter part of 
last century, a large fenny marsh, called the Loch, 
which must have occupied a large portion of the 
north-west quarter of the present city. The very 
best streets, too, till then and afterwards, were nar- 
row and unlevel, and had no better pavement than 
a causeway of round stones; and the parts of the 
town most favourable to drainage and ventilation 
on the Den-burn and toward the south-west, were 
huddlements of houses so chokingly close to one 
another, and so abominably filthy, as to render it 
difficult to conceive how they could be ever free 
from pestilence; and the only egresses to the Dee 
and to the north were by steep, rough, suffocating 
thoroughfares, which persons accustomed to the 
modern conveniences of the city would think it a 
dire penance to go through. And even to the pre- 
sent hour, indeed, there are remains of this state of 

things within the city, in no fewer than about 60 
narrow lanes, and no fewer than about 168 courts 
or closes, of an average breadth of not more than 
7 feet.; 

But about the end of last century a great change 
began; and it rapidly gave the city grand new fea- 
tures, and at the same time set its finest old ones in 
advantageous lights. First, a street was opened 
from Broad-street to North-street, so as to form an 
improved outlet to the north. Next, Marischal- 
street was opened from Castle-street to the quay ; 
and, though rather inconveniently steep, it is inter- 
esting both for being still a great thoroughfare 
from the centre of the city to the harbour, and for 
being the first street in Aberdeen which was paved 
with dressed stones. Next, a new and important 
exit to the north-west was obtained by opening 
George-street through the middle of the loch, to 
communicate with a new turnpike road to Inverury. 
Next, two grand new exits were made, from the 
middle of the town at Castle-street, by respectively 
Union-street to the south-west, and King-street to 
the north, — two projects which were estimated by 
the engineer to cost the town council about £42,000, 
but which soon actually cost them £171,280, and 
then involved them in bankruptcy. And contem- 
poraneously with these, and also subsequently, 
there were other great improvements which we 
shall have occasion to glance at when noticing the 
public buildings and the harbour. 

The edifices of Aberdeen, both public and private, 
are for the most part constructed of a wavy fine 
granite from the neighbouring quarries; and those 
of the modern and principal streets are so clean, so 
massive, so uniformly surfaced, and reflect the light 
so clearly from the glittering mica of the granite as 
to look, on a sunny day, as if they had just been 
hewn and polished from the rocks on which they 
stand. Union-street is about a mile long, spacious, 
straight, elegantly edificed, well-gemmed with pub- 
lic buildings, and altogether one of the finest streets 
of the empire; and at the same time runs on a 
higher level than the portions of the town on its 
southern flank, and looks over the tops of their 
houses to a pleasant prospect of the south side of the 
Dee. It is carried over two of the old streets of the 
town, and over the ravine of the Den-burn, which 
formerly caused vast inconvenience to the thorough- 
fare; and there it is sustained by a magnificent bridge 
of three arches, — two of them covered and concealed 
and of 50 feet each in span, and the other open, 132 
feet in span, and surmounted with cornice, parapet, 
and balustrades. This bridge cost £13,342. St. 
Nicholas-street leads airily from Union-street to 
George-street on the north-west. Market-street is 
wide, short, and moderately steep; leads direct 
from Union-street to the harbour ; and, in 1865, 
was in process of being built with houses of a 
superior character. Castle-street is a large oblong 
square, the Place of the City, rich in public orna- 
mental structures, and taking its name from an 
ancient fortress which stood on a rising ground on 
its eastern side. King-street is little inferior in 
splendour to Union-street, and has also several 
handsome public buildings. Broad-street is the 
site of Marischal college ; and the house in it, No. 
64, was the residence of Lord Byron, while under 
his mother's care. The other streets do not chal- 
lenge particular notice, but may be described in 
the aggregate as at least equal to the second and 
the third class streets of most stone-built towns in 

The West and East churches stand on the north 
side of Union-street, amid a cemetery of nearly two 
acres in area, which is separated from the street by 




a very beautiful Ionic facade. The West church is 
a plain structure, in the Italian style, and contains 
a stone effigy of Sir Robert Davidson, provost of 
Aberdeen, who fell at Harlaw in 1411, — a curious 
brass plate, in memory of Dr. Duncan Liddell, 
founder of the mathematics chair in Marischal col- 
lege, — and a fine white marble monument, executed 
by Bacon, at the cost of £1,200, in memory of a 
ladv. The East church is a masterly and much- 
admired Gothic structure, nearly after the model of 
the fine old relic of mediaeval architecture which it 
replaced. The two churches are separated from 
each other by the original transept of the old church 
of St. Nicholas, now called Drum's Aisle, in conse- 
quence of being the burial-place of the ancient fa- 
mily of that name; and this is surmounted by a 
square tower and spire, 140 feet high, containing a 
set of very finely toned bells. In the cemetery lie 
the mortal remains of the poet of ' the Minstrel,' of 
Principal Campbell, of the learned Blackwell, and 
of Dr. Hamilton, the author of a work on the Na- 
tional Debt. — Greyfriars church stands in a court 
adjacent to Marischal college, behind some lofty 
houses which separate it from Broad-street; and is a 
plain ancient Gothic hall, with a modern aisle on its 
east side. The General Assembly of 1640 was held 
here; and the town-council, on that occasion, made 
lavish outlay on the church and otherwise in order 
to do the assembly honour. — St. Clement's church, 
at Footdee, is a neat Gothic building of 1828, sur- 
rounded by a cemetery. The South church, in Bel- 
mont-street, is a Gothic structure of 1831, with 
massive gables and tower. The North church, in 
King-street, was built in 1826, at a cost of £10,500, 
and is an oblong edifice in the Ionic style, with a 
circular tower 150 feet high. The Free East, West, 
and South churches, in Belrnout-street, form an im- 
posing cruciform pile, with a graceful brick spire. 
St. Andrew's Episcopal church, in King-street, was 
built in 1817, at a cost of £8,000, is a handsome 
sandstone Gothic structure, and contains a statue 
of Bishop John Skinner by Flaxman. St. Mary's 
Episcopal church, in Garden-place, was built shortly 
before 1865, is in the early pointed style, and has a 
very rich interior. The Independent chapel, in 
Belmont-street, was built in 1865, at a cost of 
£3,200, and is in the Romanesque style. The Ro- 
man Catholic church, in Huntly-street, is a recent 
edifice in the early English pointed style, and is ex- 
tensive and imposing. 

The Town-house stands on the north side of 
Castle-street, and was erected in 1730. It is a 
plain edifice, containing town-hall, council cham- 
ber, and other apartments ; and on its east end is 
an old square tower, now faced up in a very taste- 
ful manner with dressed granite, and isisurmounted 
by an elegant spire of 120 feet in height. The 
Court-house adjoins the town-hall, and was erected 
in 1818. A new suite of Municipal and County 
buildings was projected near the end of 1865 ; to 
occupy the site of the Town-house and Court-house, 
but to retain the tower; to present a frontage of 200 
feet to Union-street, and one of 115 feet to Broad- 
street; and to have, at its southwest angle, a tower 
28 feet square, surmounted by turrets and a lofty 
lantern gablet. The style is French Gothic, inter- 
mingled with Scottish baronial ; and the estimated 
cost was £60,000. — The Music-hall buildings are 
westward of the bridge in Union-street ; include 
the quondam county buildings, erected in 1820 at 
a cost of £11,500; and have a new splendid hall, 
added at a cost of £5,000, opened by the late Prince 
Consort, capable of accommodating nearly 3,000 
persons, and containing a very fine organ. — The 
cross, one of the most beautiful structures of its 

kind, stands in the middle of the upper end of Cas- 
tle-street. It is an hexagonal building, richly orna- 
mented with large medallions of the kings of Scot- 
land from James I. to James VII. ; and from the 
centre springs a splendid column of the composite 
order, and surmounted by an unicorn bearing on 
its breast a scutcheon charged with the Scottish 
lion. It was the work of John Montgomery, a 
country mason from the village of Old Rayne, 
and was originally erected in 1686, on the site 
of a more ancient cross, at the top of a smooth 
pavement, opposite the entrance of the Court-house, 
but, in 1842, for the sake of better effect, it was re- 
built where it now stands, with great improvements 
in style, and on a basement of several feet in height 
above the level of the street, and surrounded by 
an iron railing. — A colossal statue of the late Duke 
of Gordon, formed after a model by Campbell of 
London, stands about 30 feet in front of the cross, 
and nearly in the centre of Castle-street. The 
figure, hewn from a single block of granite,, mea- 
sures, including the plinth, 11 feet 3 inches; and 
the pedestal, a block of red granite, is 10 feet 3 
inches in height. — A bronze statue of the late 
Prince Consort, by Baron Marochitti, stands in a 
circular recess at the south end of Union terrace, 
on the west side of Union bridge. It represents 
the Prince seated, wearing various orders, with a 
scroll in one hand, and his field-marshal's hat in 
the other. The statue itself measures 6A feet in 
height, and is placed on a pedestal of polished 
Peterhead granite 8 feet high. The likeness is not 
considered good. The statue is a memorial one by 
the town and county of Aberdeen, and was publicly 
inaugurated on 13 October, 1863, in presence of the 

The Jail is situated immediately behind the 
Court-house, and was built in 1831. It is 129 feet 
in length, and 98 in breadth, and contains 69 cells 
and 6 day-rooms ; and within its precincts is a 
court divided into six compartments, with the turn- 
key's lodge in the centre. — The West prison stands 
near the west end of Union-street, and was erected 
in 1809, at the expense of nearly £12,000. It is a 
large castellated building, within a square area of 
nearly two Scotch acres, surrounded by a high en- 
closing wall, and containing 112 cells, besides two 
sick-rooms, and 8 small adjoining dormitories, and 
having attached to it a house occupied by the 
chaplain, and other accommodations. It has not 
been used as a prison since 1863, the other jail af- 
fording accommodation for all the criminals under 
confinement. — The Barrack stands on the crest of 
the Castle-hill, above the Waterloo quay, and was 
built in 1796. It has an appropriate and command- 
ing appearance, and contains quarters for about 
600 men. 

The Old Bridge of Dee, though situated about a 
mile south-west of the landward extremity of Union- 
street, belongs really to the city, both because it is 
under the sole management of the town council, and 
because it is connected with the city by a chain of 
interesting suburbs; and till quite recently, it was 
also the line of the only great thoroughfare to the 
south of Scotland. Bishop Elphinstone left a con- 
siderable legacy to build a bridge over the river 
Dee, near Aberdeen, but died in 1514, before any- 
thing was done towards it. Gavin Dunbar, son of 
Sir James Dunbar of Cumnock, by Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of the Earl of Sutherland, having succeeded to 
the bishopric of Aberdeen in 1518, fulfilled his pre- 
decessor's intentions, and erected the greater part of 
the bridge where it now stands, about the year 1 530. 
This bridge having gone into decay, was restored 
out of the funds belonging to itself, between the 




years 1720 and 1724; ami again it was widened 
from 15 to 26 feet, at an expense of £7,250, in 1842; 
and on the latter occasion, the facing of the en- 
larged side was carefully taken down and replaced 
so as to maintain unimpaired the old character of 
the masonry. The bridge is a fine structure of 
seven arches; and in the times of the ecclesiastical 
civil wars, it was the scene of more than one tough 
contest between the Covenanters and their oppres- 
sors. — A suspension bridge, called the Wellington 
bridge, was, in 1829, erected over the Dee at Craig- 
lug, 2,600 yards below the old bridge; and is a very 
splendid structure of 140 feet in span. — The viaduct 
of the Aberdeen railway across the Dee is one of 
the most magnificent things of its kind in Scotland, 
and a fine addition to the many striking architec- 
tural features of Aberdeen, but unhappily is so near 
the Wellington bridge as to make its relative posi- 
tion awkward, and to produce a confusing effect on 
the spectator. It was erected after a design by 
Messrs. Locke and Errington, and, from the pecu- 
liar difficulties attending its construction over a vo- 
luminous, rapid, and shifting river, causing more 
than one alteration in its foundations, is not the 
least creditable among the substantial and elegant 
achievements of modem engineering. — An excellent 
drawbridge goes across the harbour, opposite the 
foot of Marischal-street, to a group of small islands 
now united and called the Inches. 

The entrance of Market-street into Union-street 
is adorned with piazzas. The Market-house stands 
on the west side of Market-street, and is unequalled, 
for extent, design, and finish, by any structure of 
its class in Scotland. It was projected by a joint- 
stock company, and opened in April 1842. It mea- 
sures 315 feet in length, 106 feet in breadth, and 45 
feet in height; and is divided into a basement floor, 
a main floor, and galleries, with a wide and deep 
flight of steps leading down to the first; and is also 
divided into three alleys by two ranges of massive 
pillars; and has in its centre a large fountain of 
finely polished granite. — The Post-office stands on 
the east side of Market-street, and is a building of 
1841, erected with the aid of £2,000 from govern- 
ment. — The Corn-exehange is in Hadden-street, 
south of Market-street, and consists of a large hall 
with committee-room ; and, except during market- 
hours on Fridays, the hall is occupied as a public 
news-room. — The office of the North of Scotland 
Banking Company stands in Castle-street, adjacent 
to the east side of the town-house tower, and is an 
elegant structure of dressed granite, built in 1839 
at a cost of £14,000, with a Corinthian portico, in 
a minuteness and delicacy of execution which no 
previous granite building ever displayed. — The 
office of the Union Banking Company stands in 
the same street, on the opposite side, and is a chaste 
handsome building. — The Athenseum or Public 
Newsroom, stands at the west end of Castle-street, 
and is an elegant structure, erected in 1822. It is 
liberally supplied with newspapers and periodicals. 
— A handsome club-house, on the same principle as 
the London clubs, is in Market-street. — The Aber- 
deen Town and Count}'- Bank stands at the junction 
of St. Nicholas-street with Union-street; was erect- 
ed in 1863, at a cost of £14,000; is a splendid edi- 
fice, in the Roman classic style; and has a telling- 
room, surmounted by a fine dome, beautifully 
lighted, and altogether one of the finest rooms of 
its kind in Scotland. — The Advocates' hall is in 
Union-street, west of the churchyard. — The Com- 
mercial Bank and the County Record office are in 
King-street. — The theatre is in Marischal-street. — 
The chief hotels of the city are the Royal, Douglas's, 
St. Nicholas, the Lemon-Tree, Forsyth's Temper- 

ance, the Queen's, the Adelphi, and the City; and, 
in a general view, they are situated pretty near the 
centre of the town. 

The Infirmary is a large, modern, splendid Gre- 
cian building, erected at different dates, and at a 
great expense. It consists of a centre and two 
wings, and contains accommodation for 2 1 patients. 
It has twenty large, lofty, well-aired wards, and 
eleven smaller apartments for cases requiring separ- 
ate treatment ; and contains every kind of con- 
venience which can be found in the most approved 
hospitals in the empire. Behind the main hospital, 
and within the grounds, are a convalescent hospital, 
and accommodation for fever patients; also a pa- 
thological museum, under the superintendence of a 
well-qualified curator. The students of the Aber- 
deen medical school, who have in late years taken 
a very high rank in competitions for army medical 
appointments, walk the hospital ; and several of 
the professors are Infirmary physicians and sur- 
geons. — The Lunatic Asylum stands about half-a- 
mile north-west of the city ; has grounds extending 
to about 45 acres, tastefully laid out and richly 
wooded ; and has been constituted a district asylum 
for the county of Aberdeen. The main building 
was erected in 1819, at a cost of £13,135 ; of which 
£10,000 was a bequest by John Forbes of Newe; 
but, with the exception of that bequest, it was 
built, and has been maintained, by public contri- 
butions A new building, called Elmhill House, for 
private patients, was erected in 1862, at a cost of 
£20,000 ; and is a handsome edifice in the Italian 
villa style, with its rooms comfortably and even ele- 
gantly fitted up in the manner of a private man- 
sion. The pleasantly retired situation of the build- 
ings, and the high professional character of the 
resident medical superintendent, Dr. Jamieson, have 
secured for the asylum a large measure of public 
favour and support. The average number of pa- 
tients during the year 1864-5 was 360. The Hall 
of the Medical Society stands in King-street. It 
was built in 1820, and contains a large library and 
a museum. 

The Grammar School has long held a high place 
among the institutions of Aberdeen, both for its 
antiquity and for the character of the education 
given within its walls. It can be traced back as 
far as 1418 ; and, under its modern rectors, particu- 
larly the late Dr. Melvin, one of the first Latinists 
of his day, it has enjoyed a high reputation as a 
classical school. Till 1863, its buildings, which 
were of a very unpretentious character, stood in 
School Hill; but in that year, under the auspices of 
Sir Alexander Anderson, Lord Provost, to whom the 
city owes many of its improvements, a new edifice 
was built in Skene-street-west, at a cost of £15,000; 
and this is a very handsome structure, in the old 
Scotch baronial style, with fine public school and 
superior class-rooms. The course of instruction 
also has been expanded. While formerly there 
were only a rector and three classical masters, there 
are now likewise teachers of mathematics, of Eng- 
lish, and of modern languages ; and the curriculum 
extends over five or alternately six years. — Gordon's 
Hospital confronts the School Hill. This is an in- 
stitution of similar origin and character to Heriot's 
Hospital in Edinburgh. It comprises a handsome 
central building, erected in 1739 at the expense of 
£3,300, and two wings, with neat connecting colon- 
nade, erected in 1834, at the expense of about 
£14,000, and has a lawn in front. Robert Gordon, 
merchant in Aberdeen, by deed of mortification, of 
date 13th December, 1729, and 19th September, 
1730, founded this hospital for the maintenance 
and education of indigent boys, being the sons and 




grandsons of burgesses of guild of Aberdeen, or 
the sons and grandsons of tradesmen of the burgh, 
being freemen or burgesses thereof; and for the 
purposes of it he assigned his whole estate, per- 
sonal and real, to the magistrates and the four min- 
isters of Aberdeen, whom he appointed perpetual 
patrons and governors of the hospital. There are 
at present 150 boys maintained and educated in this 
institution. Boys must not be under 9 years of age 
when admitted; and must leave at 16, when they 
are put to proper trades, under the direction of the 
governors. The funds were enlarged by a great 
bequest in 1816 from Alexander Simpson, Esq. of 
Colliehill ; and they now amount to about £60,000. 
— The Female Orphan Asylum or Orphan Girls' 
Hospital stands on the west side of the city. It is 
an institution for girls similar to what Gordon's is 
for boys; and owes its origin and maintenance to a 
gift of £26,000, in 1836, by Mrs. Elmslie, then a 
widow lady residing in London, but a native of 
Aberdeen- The Free Church college, in Alford- 
place, near the Orphan asylum, was built in 1850, 
at a cost of £2,000, and is an edifice in the Tudor 
style, with a square tower and an octagonal turret. 

The other institutions of Aberdeen, educational, 
benevolent, religious, literary, and miscellaneous, 
are very many and various, and do great honour to 
the city. The chief are the mechanics' institution, 
in Market-street, with excellent library, several 
free schools, several largely endowed schools, 
several partially endowed schools, a boys' hospital, 
a girls' hospital, Carnegie's female orphan hospital, 
male and female industrial schools, a house of 
refuge, a mechanics' institution, a trades' hospital, 
a deaf and dumb institution, an asylum for the 
blind, a magdalene asylum, a number of mortifica- 
tions and funds for behoof of the poor and the sick 
and the aged, a ladies' working society, a clothing 
society, a sick man's friend society, an aged and 
indigent females' society, a general dispensary, a 
savings' bank, a seamen's friend society, many 
missionary, tract, and Sabbath-school societies, five 
pub ic libraries, several subscription libraries, a 
medical society, an advocates' society, a shipmas- 
ters' society, and the Royal Northern agricultural 

But immensely the grandest institution, while it 
existed as a separate institution, was Marischal 
college. This was founded by George Keith, fifth 
Earl-Mai'ischal, in April 1593. According to the 
deed of foundation, it was to consist of a principal, 
three teachers denominated regents, six alumni, 
and two inferior persons, viz., an economist and a 
cook. The principal was required to be well-in- 
structed in sacred literature, and to be skilled in 
Hebrew and Syriae ; he was also to be able to give 
anatomical and physiological prelections. The first 
regent was specially to teach ethics and mathe- 
matics ; the second, logic ; the third, Latin and 
Greek. The Earl reserved to himself and his heirs 
the nomination to professorships ; the examination 
and admission of the persons so named being vested 
in the chancellor, the rector, the dean of faculty, and 
the principal of King's college, the ministers of new 
Aberdeen, and the ministers of Deer and Fetteresso. 
The foundation was confirmed by the General As- 
sembly which met in the same month in which it 
was framed ; and a few months after a confirma- 
tion was given by parliament. A charter of con- 
firmation was granted by William, Earl-Marischal, 
in 1623 ; and a new confirmation by Charles II., in 
1661. In all these charters, however, it was spe- 
cially declared that the masters, members, students 
and bursars, of the said college, should be subject 
to the jurisdiction of the burgh-magistrates. An 

additional regent was appointed within a few years 
after the institution of the college ; a professorship 
of divinity was founded in 1616 ; and a mathemati- 
cal professorship three years before. In 1753, the 
Senatus academicus directed that the students after 
being instructed in classical learning, should be 
made acquainted with natural and civil history, 
geography, chronology, and the elements of mathe- 
matics ; that they should then proceed to natural 
philosophy, and terminate their curriculum by 
studying moral philosophy. This plan of study, 
with a few alterations, was afterwards continued ; 
and seven other professorships, at different periods 
subsequent to that of divinity, were added. 

Marischal college, as noted in our account of Old 
Aberdeen, has, under the University act of 1858, 
been united with King's college into one university, 
with a new constitution. The library, in 1827, con- 
tained 11,000 volumes; and the principal and pro- 
fessors had a right, under a decision of the Court 
of Session in 1738, to the use of the books transmit- 
ted from Stationers' hall to the library of King'3 
college. Since 1827, the Marischal college library 
has been considerably enriched, having received, 
among other gifts, the valuable classical collection 
of the late Dr. James Melvin. Among the most 
eminent alumni of Marischal college were Gilbert 
Burnett, afterwards bishop of Salisbury, who took 
his degree of M.A. here in 1657 ; James Gregory, 
the inventor of the reflecting telescope ; George 
Jamesone, the father of painting in Scotland, and 
who has been called the Scottish Vandyke; Dr. 
Arbuthnot, the friend of Pope; Colin Maclaurin, 
the mathematician; and Dr. Reid, the metaphysician. 

The original buildings of Marischal college were 
those of the Franciscan convent. A new edifice, 
retaining with it some of the old, was erected in the 
latter part of the 17th century; and an extension 
of it to supersede the retained parts of the old, was 
built in 1740-41. But the whole was insubstantial 
and in constant need of repair ; and it was replaced, 
on the same site, in 1837-41, by a very extensive 
and most imposing pile, erected partly by subscrip- 
tion but chiefly by grant from government, at an 
expense of £21,420. This new structure is built of 
the very hard and durable white granite quarried 
in the vicinity, and is in a simple and bold style of 
the collegiate Gothic architecture, to suit the capa- 
bilities of the material. It forms three sides of a 
quadrangle, rises to the height of two lofty stories, 
and presents uniform and striking ranges of mul- 
lioned windows. A square tower rises from the 
centre, and terminates in four ornamented turrets 
at the height of about 100 feet from the ground. 
Open arcades extend on both sides of the principal 
entrance, 48 feet long and 16 feet wide. The public 
school is on the ground floor, 74 feet long and 34 
feet wide; and a lofty staircase, with a ceiling of 
enriched groins and a massive stone balustrade, 
leads to the hall, 71 feet by 34, and to the library 
and the museum, each 75 feet by 34, and all 32 feet 
high, with ornamental ceilings painted in imitation 
of oak. There are also seventeen class-rooms and 
a number of other apartments. An obelisk stands 
in the area of the quadrangle, with base 16 feet 
square and 6 feet high, pedestal 9 feet square and 
11 feet high, plinth 7 feet square and 3 feet high, 
shaft from 5 to 3$ feet square and 52 feet high, all 
of polished Peterhead granite; erected in 1860 to 
the memory of Sir James M'Grigor, Bart., who was 
several times rector of the college, and 36 years 
director-general of the army medical department. 

The principal manufacture of Aberdeen, prior to 
the year 1745, was knitted stockings, which were 
mostly exported to Holland, and thence dispersed 




through Germany. The linen manufacture was 
subsequently introduced, and now employs between 
2,000 and 3,000 bauds. The articles chiefly manu- 
factured are thread, sailcloth, osnaburgs, brown lin- 
ens, and sacking. The manufacture of sailcloth only 
commenced in 1795. — In the beginning of last cen- 
tury, the woollen manufactures of Aberdeenshire 
were chiefly coarse slight cloths, called plaidcns 
and fingroms, which were sold from 5d. to 8d. per 
ell, and stockings from 8d. to 2s. 6d. per pair. 
These were manufactured by the farmers and cot- 
tagers from the wool of their own sheep, and by 
the citizens from wool brought to the market from 
the higher parts of the country. These goods were 
mostly exported to Hamburg. Blankets, serges, 
stockings, twisted yarns, and carpets, are now 
manufactured. There were, in 1838, 1,000 looms 
employed on linen, of which four-fifths were in 
factories, 130 on cotton, and 300 on woollen car- 
pets. The number of linen and cotton looms has 
since greatly diminished, and the woollen manu- 
facture has increased. The latter includes the 
manufacture of winceys, for which Aberdeen has, 
of late years, obtained a distinguished reputation. 
Banner mill, which employs about 650 hands, is 
now the only cotton mill. Wincey-weaving gives 
employment to several hundreds of persons. Messrs. 
Hadden and Sons employ about a thousand in 
woollen manufacture ; and Messrs. Crombie, at 
Grandholm mills, about seven hundred. There are 
several breweries; and porter and ales in consid- 
erable quantities are annually exported to America 
and the West Indies. There are also several dis- 
tilleries. There are likewise, at Ferryhill, Foot- 
dee, &c., extensive iron-works, at which steam- 
engines, anchors, chains, cables, and all kinds of 
machinery are manufactured. Ship-building has 
long been extensively and successfully carried on; 
and the invention of the famous "clipper bow" was 
the work of one of the local firms, the Messrs. 
Hall. Seven firms, including one newly com- 
menced in 1865, are engaged in iron ship-building; 
and, during the year ending in May, 1865, eleven 
vessels of aggregately 8,385 tons were launched, 
while thirteen others were in progress. The cattle 
and meat trade has become very extensive ; and 
the computed value of live stock and dead beef and 
mutton, forwarded to the southern markets, chiefly 
London, is about £1,000,000 a-year. Rope-mak- 
ing, paper-making, and the manufacturing of soap, 
combs, and leather are also carried on ; and there 
is a large and increasing trade in the exportation 
of corn, butter, and eggs to London. Salmon fish- 
ing is also carried on to a great extent, the fish 
being principally sent to London packed in ice. 
Aberdeen salmon appear to have been exported to 
England so early as 1281. Towards the end of 
the 17th century, Aberdeen annually exported 360 
barrels of 250 lbs. each to the continent. From 
1822 to 1828, inclusive, being a period of seven 
years, 42,654 boxes of salmon, chiefly the produce 
of the Dee and the Don rivers, but including some 
Spey salmon, were shipped at Aberdeen ; and from 
1829 to 1835, inclusive, 65,260 boxes. The salmon 
fishings, however, have somewhat declined. Whit- 
ings, or finnocks, and haddocks are also taken, and 
made an article of trade to the London market. See 
articles Dee and Don. In 1819 the feu-duties of 
the whole fishing amounted to £27 7s. sterling, and 
it was stated in the House of Commons committee 
thatthey were then worth £10,000 per annum. The 
granite quarries near Aberdeen, which have con- 
tributed so much to the decoration of the town, 
afford also a staple commodity for exportation. The 
freight to London is about 8s. per ton ; and the 

vessels in returning generally bring coals from 

The banks in Aberdeen are the head offices of the 
Aberdeen Town and County Bank, and the North 
of Scotland Banking Company, an office of the 
Union Bank, with which is now incorporated the 
old Aberdeen Bank, and branch offices of the Bank 
of Scotland, the British Linen Company, the Com- 
mercial Bank, the National Bank, the Koyal Bank, 
and the City of Glasgow Bank. Four newspapers 
are published in Aberdeen — the Aberdeen Journal 
every Wednesday, the Aberdeen Herald every 
Saturday, the Aberdeen Free Press every Tuesday 
and Friday, and the Northern Advertiser every 
Tuesday. The Aberdeen Journal is the oldest of 
these, and was established in 1746. Aberdeen 
almanacks have long been celebrated. It appears 
that these useful manuals were printed here so 
early as 1626 — and probably some years earlier— 
by Edward Raban, a printer originally from St. 
Andrews. A club, called the Spalding Club, and 
constituted similarly to the Bannatyne Club of 
Edinburgh, was formed a good many years ago in 
Aberdeen for printing select and curious historical 
and literary remains of the north-east of Scotland. 
Aberdeen contains the head offices of the Scottish 
Provincial Assurance Company, and the Northern 
Assurance Company, and agency offices of not fewer 
than about 40 other insurance companies. A weekly 
grain market is held on Friday. A linen market is 
held on the Green on the last Wednesday of April; 
a wool market is held in the same place on Thursday 
and Friday of the first week of June and of the first 
and second weeks of July ; a market for wooden 
utensils is held in Castle-street on the last Wednes- 
daj' of August; but none of the markets, except 
the weekly one, is now of importance. Hiring 
markets are held in Castle-street on several Fridays 
about the Whitsunday and Martinmas half-yearly 

The chief communications are by the North- 
eastern, the Deeside, the Great North of Scotland, 
the Aberdeen and Banff, and the Formartine and 
Buchan railways. A junction between the North- 
eastern and the Deeside is at Ferryhill; but ajunc- 
tion between these on the south and the others on 
the north seemed long to be unattainable, and was 
for a good many years a subject of discussion. The 
distance between the Northeastern's terminus at 
Guild-street, at the top of the harbour, and the 
Great North's terminus at Waterloo-quay — a dis- 
tance of one-eight of a mile, along crowded quays, 
'with no means of transit but by omnibus — was felt, 
especially by through travellers, to be very incon- 
venient. Numerous plans to effect a junction were 
tried and relinquished. But at length, in June, 
1865, under the powers of the Denburn Junction 
Railway act, a junction railway from the North- 
eastern above the terminus to the Great North's 
Kittybrewster station, was begun to be formed, and 
was to be completed in two years. This is a mile 
and three-quarters long ; it goes up the valley of 
the Denburn, under Union- bridge, and is taken by 
one tunnel under Woolmanhill, and by another 
under Maberley-street ; and, owing to the necessity 
of purchasing valuable property on its route, it was 
computed to cost probably not less than at the rate 
of £100,000 per mile. 

In 1656, when Tucker visited Scotland, there were 
9 vessels belonging to Aberdeen, of a total burden 
of 440 tons; in 1839, the vessels belonging to the 
port of Aberdeen, as distinct from those of Peter- 
head, Stonehaven, and Newburgh, amounted to 254, 
of 30,032 tons; and in 1864 there were 251 sailing 
vessels of aggregately 77,440 tons, and 16 steam 




vessels of aggregately 3,373 tons. In the year 
ending 30th September, 1852, 2,194 vessels entered 
the port, having an aggregate tonnage of 298,418; 
and in the year ending 30th September, 1864, 
2,380 vessels entered, having an aggregate tonnage 
of 372,230. The imports, in 1864, comprised 176,980 
tons of coal, 96,445 bolls of lime, 2,370 tons of flax 
and tow, 562 tons of hemp, 790 tons of wool, 26,487 
loads of wood, 2,265 qrs. of oats, 37,230 qrs. of 
wheat, 13,038 sacks of flour, 2.521 tons of salt, 
9,905 tons of iron, 10,863 tons of bones, and 6,046 
tons of guano, besides other goods ; and the ex- 
ports, in the same year, comprised 22,638 b. b. of 
flax-manufacture, 107 b. b. of cotton manufacture, 
6,184 b. b. of woollen-manufacture, 185,298 qrs. of 
oats, barley, and bear, 99,035 bolls of oatmeal, 
4,021 cattle, 153 horses, 7,913 sheep and lambs, 
2,745 pigs, 18,007 cwt.of pork, 38,781 tons of granite- 
stones, 20,826 Scotch pine timber, 1,059 cwt. of 
butter, 5,115 b. b. of eggs, and 807 b. b. of salmon. 
The amount of customs, in 1862, was £92,963 ; in 
1863, £82,838. All the coast trade northward to 
Thurso, Stornoway, and Lerwick, and southward to 
Granton, Newcastle, Hull, and London, is mightily 
facilitated by powerful steamers. 

The harbour of Aberdeen was originally nothing 
more than an expanse of water, communicating with 
the sea by a narrow and shallow mouth ; and the 
earliest artificial erection within the port was a bul- 
wark extending from the Ship-row southward. 
In 1607, the erection of a pier on the south side of 
the channel was begun; in 1623, the extension of the 
wharf to near the present canal was commenced; in 
1775, the new pier was begun; and from 1810 till 
about 1862,aseriesof vast improvements was effected 
at an aggregate cost of about £500,000, making the 
harbour of Aberdeen one of the most commodious in 
Scotland. The chief features have been an exten- 
sion of the pier to the length of 900 feet, the con- 
struction of a breakwater on the opposite side to the 
extent of 800 feet, the erection of wharfs on the 
south-west side of Footdee, the enlarging of the old 
pier opposite Torrie, the extension of the old quay 
westward, the embanking of the Inches and con- 
verting them into quays, the forming of the massive 
Waterloo quay where the large steamers are berthed, 
and the forming within a reach of the river a set of 
magnificent wet docks. In 1864 the shore dues 
amounted to £23,983 ; the total income of the har- 
bour to £30,723; and the total expenditure to £17, 593, 
leaving a clear surplus of £13,226. In 1852 the debt 
on the harbour-trust stood at £282,173 ; in 1864, by 
the application of surplus revenue to its liquidation, 
it had been reduced to £188,200. 

The town council of New Aberdeen consists of 19 
members, including a provost, four bailies, and a 
dean of guild. The corporation became bankrupt 
in 1817 ; and the average annual revenue for the 
five years preceding Michaelmas 1832 was £15,184, 
the total average annual expenditure £17,528. The 
town's affairs are now rapidly retrieving, under the 
management of a popularly elected magistracy. 
The real property of the city was valued in 1858 at 
£179,072; and the corporation revenue in 1863-4 
was about £11,376. The lighting and watching are 
under the charge of commissioners ; and the general 
police is regulated byan actpassedin 1862. The gas 
works are situated in the Footdee district. The 
supply of water, for a good many years, was obtained 
by pumping from the river at the Bridge of Dee. 
The continued growth of the city, however, made 
the supply altogether inadequate ; and, in 1862, the 
Commissioners of police obtained powers for carry- 
ing out a scheme to supply water by gravitation. 
Plans were prepared by James Simpson, C. E., 

London, to form an aqueduct 22 miles in length, 
with intake of water at Cairnton on the Dee, at an 
elevation of 210 feet above high water at Aberdeen 
docks. The aqueduct passes from the intake through 
a rocky tunnel half-a-mile in length, on to a reser- 
voir capable of containing 35,000,000 gallons at 
Invercanny a mile onward. There are also, at the 
lower end, near Aberdeen, a reservoir of the capa- 
city of 6,000,000 gallons, at an elevation of 161 
feet above sea-level at the docks, and one of less 
capacity on a higher level to supply the higher 
districts of the town. The construction of the 
works was undertaken by Mr. Easton Gibb for 
£103,999. They were begun in the spring of 1864, 
and were to be finished in two and a half years; 
and they will amply supply the city with water. 
The act for them also gives powers to carry out, for 
the city, an improved system of sewerage. Thecityis 
well situated for effectual drainage; but, except in a 
few of the principal streets, built within the present 
century, it has no large common sewers. The only 
cemeteries within the city are those of St. Nicholas 
and St. Clement; and these are being forsaken for 
cemeteries in the suburbs. Overcrowded dwelling 
apartments are not uncommon. The trades' corpora- 
tions in the city are the hammermen, the tailors, the 
bakers, the wrights, the cordwainers, the weavers, 
and the fleshers ; and they possess valuable funds, 
belonging partly to the general body, and partly to 
each corporation. The general funds include 
Trades Hospital, which, in 1864, yielded a revenue 
of £1,400, the proceeds being divisible among old 
men members of the craft, and the widows' fund, 
yielding a revenue of £900. The gross yearly 
revenue of the separate funds amounts to not less 
than £6,000 ; and there are also school and bursary 
funds. The sheriff court for the county is held iii 
the court-house in Aberdeen on Wednesdays and 
Fridays, the small debt court on Thursdays, and 
the Commissary court on Wednesdays, at 10 o'clock; 
and the general quarter sessions are held there on 
the first Tuesday of March, May, and August, and on 
the last Tuesday of October. The burgh of New 
Aberdeen formerly united with Montrose, Brechin, 
Arbroath, and Bernie to send a member to parlia- 
ment; but the present parliamentary burgh of 
Aberdeen, which includes all the parish of Old 
Machar south of the Don, and a very small part 
of the parish of Banchory - Devenick, sends a 
member for itself. The constituency of the 
royal burgh in 1861, was 2,701; in 1864, 2,825. 
The constituency of the parliamentary burgh in 
1861, was 3,586; in 1865, 4,008. The popu- 
lation, in 1861, of the entire royal burgh, was 
54,376 ; of the part of it within Old Machar, 
12,514; of barracks, prison, hospitals, and other 
institutions, 1,971. Houses of the whole, 3,869; 
of the Old Machar part, 1,158. The popula- 
tion of the parliamentary burgh, in 1831, was 
58,019 ; in 1841, 63,262 ; in 1861, 73,805. Houses, 
5,917; rooms with one or more windows, 48,073; 
separate families, 18,743. The population in 
1861, of Ferryhill, within the parliamentary burgh, 
was 947 ; of Woodside, 3,724 ; of hospitals and 
other institutions beyond the royal burgh, 688. The 
annual value of real property in the parliamentary 
burgh, in 1857-8, was £179,072; in 1864, £216,616 
1 Is. 9d. ; in 1865, when the harbour had for the first 
time been put upon the roll, about £226,616. 

The name Aberdeen is of disputed origin ; and, in 
former times, it was spelt variously Apardion, Aber- 
doen, Aberdeyn, Aberden, and Habyrdine. A char- 
ter by William the Lion is the town's oldest extant 
municipal document; and a second by the same 
monarch granted to the burgesses exemption from 


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/nils anil customs throughout the whole kingdom. 
Kin? William's successors frequently resiled here, 
and had a palace which stood upon the site of the 
present Trinity church and Trades hospital, in the 
Shiprow. On" the 14th of July, 1296, Edward I. of 
England entered Aberdeen, where he remained five 
days and received the homage of the bishop and 
dean, and of the burgesses and community. An 
English garrison thenceforth for twelve years held 
possession of the town ; but at length the citizens 
silently waxed hot in the cause of Brace, and rose 
suddenly at night in a well-planned insurrection, 
with the watch-word " Bon-Accord," and captured 
the castle and massacred the garrison. King Ro- 
bert Brace, in the 14th year of his reign, made a gift 
and conveyance to the community of Aberdeen of the 
royal forest of Stocket; and besides this, he granted 
various other privileges and immunities to the citi- 
zens and burgh of Aberdeen, and in particular the 
valuable fishings in the Dee and Don. In 1333, 
Edward III. of England having sent a fleet of ships 
to ravage the east coast of Scotland, a body of Eng- 
lish landed and attacked by night the town of Aber- 
deen, which they burnt and destroyed. In 1336, 
Edward having invaded Scotland, and led his army 
as far north as Inverness, the citizens of Aberdeen 
attacked a party of the English forces which had 
landed at Dunottar, and killed their general. In 
revenge, Edward, on his return from Inverness, at- 
tacked Aberdeen, put the greater part of the inhabi ■ 
tants to the sword, and again burnt and destroyed 
the town. Soon after this, as already related, the 
town was rebuilt, and considerably enlarged; and 
in the re-edification of it, the citizens were greatly 
assisted by King David Bruce, iu acknowledgment 
of their steady loyalty and attachment both to him- 
self and to his father. David II. resided for some 
time at Aberdeen, and erected a mint here, as ap- 
peal's from some coins still extant. In 1411, at the 
battle of Harlaw, the citizens of Aberdeen turned 
the fortunes of the day against Donald of the Isles ; 
and, in 1547, they fought with equal gallantry but 
less success at Pinkie. In the early part of the year 
1560, the Reformation obtained a permanent footing 
in Aberdeen. Adam Heriott was the " first minis- 
ter of the true word of God in Aberdene." He died 
in 1574. During the civil wars of the 17th century, 
Aberdeen suffered much between the two contend- 
ing parties ; for whichever of the two happened to 
be in possession of the town levied heavy subsidies 
from the citizens. In 'September 1644, the Marquis 
of Montrose, with an army of about 2,000 men, ap- 
proached Aberdeen, and summoned it to surrender; 
but the magistrates after advising with Loi-d Burley 
— who then commanded in the town a force nearly 
equal iu number to the assailants — refused to obey 
the summons ; upon which a battle ensued within 
half-a-mile of the town, at a place called the Crab- 
stone, near the Justice-mills, in which Montrose pre- 
vailed, and many of the principal inhabitants were 
killed. " There was little slaughter in the fight," 
says Spalding, " but horrible was the slaughter in 
the flight fleeing back to the town." " Here it is 
to be remarked," adds the worthy Commissary-clerk, 
" that the night before this field was foughten, our 
people saw the moon rise red as blood, two hours 
before her time ! " Charles II. landed at Speymouth, 
July 4, 1650, and visited Aberdeen a few days after. 
He revisited the city in February 1651, after the de- 
feat of his hopes at Worcester and Dunbar ; and in 
September 1651, General Monk's army took posses- 
sion of Aberdeen. On Sept. 20, 1715, the Chevalier 
was proclaimed at the cross of Aberdeen ; and three 
months afterwards, he passed through the town in 
person ; but he did not receive here any effectual sup- 

port. On Sept. 27, 1745, the Pretender was pro- 
claimed at Aberdeen by the chamberlain of the ducal 
family of Gordon, and a party of troops in his ser- 
vice held possess'on of the town from a few weeks 
after that event till the approach of the royal army 
under the Duke of Cumberland. 

The plague raged in Aberdeen in 1401, 1498, 
1506, 1514, 1530, 1538, 1546, 1549, 1608, and last in 
1647, when, out of a population of about 9,000, it 
carried off 1,760 persons. Cholera visited Aberdeen 
in August 1832 ; but the number of cases was only 
260, and the number of deaths 105, — and these 
chiefly in Footdee and the east end of the city. — 
From 1336, when the town was last burnt, to 
1398, it does not appear that any public records 
were regularly kept here ; but from the last-men- 
tioned period to the present day, (except for about 
twelve years in the beginning of the 15th century,) 
there is a regular and uninterrupted series of records 
in the town's chartulary. The county-records do 
not reach a more remote date than 1503. — Aberdeen 
gives the title of Earl to a branch of the ancient 
family of Gordon. Sir George Gordon of Haddo was 
executed, in 1644, at Edinburgh, for his adherence 
to the cause of Charles I. Sir John, bis eldest son. 
who was restored to the baronetage and estates 
after the Restoration, was succeeded by his brother 
George, who was created chancellor of Scotland, and 
earl of Aberdeen, in 1682. George, the fourth earl, 
succeeded in 1801 ; and was created Viscount Gordon 
of Aberdeen, peerage of the United Kingdom, in 1814. 
Georse, the sixth and present earl, succeeded in 1864. 

ABERDEEN. One of the eight districts of Aber- 
deenshire. It forms the lower part of the basins of 
the Dee and the Don, together with the seaboard 
northward to Foveran ; and it comprehends the par- 
ishes of Old Mnchar, St. Nicholas, Bellielvie, Dyce, 
Fintray, Kinnellar, New Machar, Newhills, Peter- 
culter, and Skene, and part of the parishes of Drum- 
oak and Banchory-Devenick. Population in 1831, 
69,778; in 1861, 88,265. Houses, 8,428. 

railway in Aberdeenshire, northward from a junc- 
tion with the Great North of Scotland at Inveram- 
say to Turiff. It was authorized on 15th June, 
1855, and opened on 5th September, 1857. It is 18 
miles long, and has stations at Wartle, Rothie, Fy- 
vie, and Auchterless. Its receipts till 31st August, 
1863, were £85,290 on shares, and £39,900 on loan; 
its expenditure, £148,447. It was incorporated ori- 
ginally as the Banff, Macduff, and Turriff Junction, 
with design of being prolonged northward to Banfi 
and Macduff; and it took its present name on 19th 
April, 1859. A prolongation of it to Banff and 
Macduff, under the name of the Banff, Macduff, and 
Turriff Extension, was authorized on 27th July, 
1857, and opened on 4th June, 1860 ; and this is 
11^ miles long, and has stations at Plaidy and King- 
Edward; and the receipts of it till 31st August, 
1861, were £49,872 on shares and £27,000 on loan, 
the expenditure, £81,724. The two railways are 
practically one, and are often called the Aberdeen, 
Turriff, and Banff railway. 

ABERDEEN CANAL. A quondam canal from 
the harbour of Aberdeen, up the valley of the Don, 
to Inverury. It was projected in 1793, but not opened 
till 1807. It cost £44,000 ; did not prove very com- 
pensating; and was sold to the Great North of Scot- 
land railway company for £39,272. and superseded. 

ABERDEEN RAILWAY. A railway autho- 
rized in 1845, and now forming the northern part of 
the Scottish North-eastern railway. It goes from 
the city of Aberdeen south-south-westward to the 
centre of Forfarshire. The formation of it encoun- 
tered great difficulties, suffered some tantalizing 




delay, and cost an amount of money far exceeding 
the original estimate. But the work was opened, 
over all its length and with favourable prospects, 
on the 30th of March 1850, and cost a good deal less 
per mile than either the Scottish Central, the Edin- 
burgh, Perth, and Dundee, the North British, or the 
Caledonian. It commences at Guild-street, adjacent 
to the upper dock and to the foot of Market-street, 
700 yards west of the terminus of the Great North 
of Scotland railway ; and lias connexion with that 
terminus, and with the intermediate wharves, hy 
rails along the quays, worked by horse-traction. It 
crosses the Dee at Polmuir by an elegant viaduct, 
noticed in our account of the city; and it proceeds 
by the stations of Cove, Portlethen, Newtonhill, and 
Muchalls, to Stonehaven ; and thence goes through 
the fertile district of the Mearns, by the stations of 
Drumlithie, Fordoun, Laurencekirk, Marykirk, and 
Craigo, to the north border of Forfarshire; and there, 
at Dubton and at Bridge of Dun, it sends off two 
branches, the one 3 miles and 160 yards eastward 
to Montrose, the other 3 miles and 862 yards west- 
ward to Brechin. It thence proceeds by tiie station 
of Farnell Road, sends off a branch of 1 mile and 
1,547 yards in length to Guthrie, and forms a junc- 
tion with the Arbroath and Forfar railway at Friock- 
heim. That railway, which had previously been 
formed, was leased to it in 1848, and became ulti- 
mately incorporated with it. The Aberdeen itself 
and the Scottish Midland Junction were amalga- 
mated with each other in 1856, under the name of 
the Scottish North-eastern. The length of the Aber- 
deen, from its northern terminus to Friockheim, ex- 
clusive of branches, is 49 miles; and the aggregate 
length of the Scottish North-eastern system'is 138 
miles. The total consolidated capital of the com- 
pany, at 31 July 1865, was £2.826.192. 

ABERDEENSHIRE, an extensive county on the 
north-east coast of Scotland ; hounded on the north 
and east by the German ocean; on the south by the 
counties of Kincardine, Forfar, and Perth; and on 
the west by Inverness-shire and Banffshire. Its 
outline is very irregular. It extends about 86 miles 
in length, from Cairneilar, or Scarscoch, the south 
west point of Braemar, where the counties of Inver- 
ness, Perth, and Aberdeen meet, to Cairnbulg, a 
promontory forming the eastern point of the bay of 
Fraserburgh on the north-east ; and about 47 miles 
in breadth, from the mouth of the Dee on the east, 
to the head-springs of the Don, on the skirts of 
Banffshire, on, the west. It is the fifth Scottish 
county in point of area, and the third as respects 
population. The extent of sea-coast is about 70 
miles. The circumference is about 280 miles. The 
area has been estimated at 1,970 square miles, or 
1,260,625 acres. The county comprehends the dis- 
tricts of Aberdeen, Afford, the greater part of Deer 
or Buchan, Ellon, Garioch, Kincardine O'Neil, 
Strathbogie, and Turriff. In ancient times its re- 
cognised divisions were Buchan on the north; Mar 
on the south-west; and Formartin, Garioch, and 
Strathbogie in the middle. The Farquharsons, For- 
tieses, and Gordons, are the principal septs of this 
district of country. The Taixai or Taezali were the 
possessors of the soil in Roman times. 

The south-western parts of this county are ex- 
tremely rugged and mountainous ; towards the east 
and north-east the country is mere level. About 
two-thirdB of the entire surface are covered with 
mountains, hills, moors, and mosses. The princi- 
pal mountains are Ben Macdhu, 4,390 feet; Cairn- 
toul, 4,245; Ben-Aven, 3,967; Loch-nagar, 3,777; 
Ben-Uarn, 3,589; and Scarscoch, 3,402. The gene- 
ral scenery of the county is cheerless and bleak; yet 
many picturesque groups of landscape, variously 

beautiful and romantic and grand, occur around 
some of the larger towns and along the courses of 
the large rivers. The shores are generally hold and 
ragged, occasionally rising into lofty precipices, and 
scooped out into extensive caverns. Immediately 
to the north of Aberdeen, however, there are exten- 
sive sand-flats. 

Large forests of natural wood occur in some of 
the interior districts, especially in Braemar, Glen- 
tanner, and Mortlach. In these regions " the 
mountains seem to be divided by a dark sea of firs, 
whose uniformity of hue and appearance affords in- 
expressible solemnity to the scene, and carries back 
the mind to those primeval ages when the axe had 
not yet invaded the boundless region of the forest." 
The Scotch fir is very generally distributed, and 
reaches an elevation in this county of 2,000 to 
2,300 feet. At Invercauld there is a tree of this 
species measuring 23 feet in girth at the soil; ano- 
ther in Mar forest measures 22 feet 4 inches : and 
other two in the same locality 19 feet. The best 
specimens in the eyes of a timber merchant occur 
at Aboyne. The larch is also a general tree in this 
county, rising from sea-level to 1,800 feet. 

The climate is on the whole mild, considering its 
northern situation; the winters are not so cold, noi 
the summers so warm or so long, as in the southern 
counties. The mean temperature at Aberdeen, 
from nineteen years' observation by the late Mr. 
Innes, is 47° 1 ; at Buchanness, from registers for 
1834-5-6, 47° 3'; at Afford, 26 miles inland, and 
420 feet above sea-level, 40°°03. Generally tho 
mean of the three summer months is about 10' 
higher than that of the whole year; and the mean 
of winter as much below. 

With regard to mineralogy, this county is not 
peculiarly rich. The granite quarries are its most 
valuable mineral treasures. The ordinary granite 
of Aberdeenshire is a small grained stone of the 
common ternary compound of quartz, felspar, and 
mica, Sometimes it passes into greenstone of the 
trap family, and sometimes into basalt. It forms 
the great mass of the Grampian chain. All the 
quarries around Aberdeen are of white granite with 
a bluish tint, The granite quarried near Peterhead 
is of a red colour, and of much larger grain than 
that of Aberdeen. There are several quarries in the 
parish of Aberdour which yield excellent millstones ; 
a quarry of blue slate is wrought in the parish of 
Culsalmond; and a vein of grey manganese exists 
in the neighbourhood of Old Aberdeen. In the 
parish of Huntly there are indications of metallic 
ores ; and plumbago, or black lead, has been disco- 
vered here. Aberdeenshire abounds with limestone; 
but, owing to the scarcity of coal, it cannot be 
wrought to much advantage, except near a seaport. 
Small pieces of amber have been found on the 
Buchan coast ; and Camden has an apociyphal story 
of a piece the size of a horse having been found on 
that coast! In the parish of Leslie, a beautiful 
green amianthus, with white and grey spots, is 
found in considerable quantities. It is easily 
wrought into snuff-boxes and other ornaments. 
Amethysts, beryls, emeralds, and other precious 
stones, particularly that species of rock-crystal 
called Cairngorm stone, are found in the Crathie 
mountains; and abates of a fine polish and beautiful 
variety, on the shore near Peterhead. From Ben- 
y-bourd, on the estate of Invercauld, large speci- 
mens of rock-crystals have been obtained; and one 
of these, in the possession of the proprietor of In- 
vercauld, is nearly two feet in length. Besides 
these, asbestos, talc, cyanite, and mica occur. 

The mineral waters of Peterhead in the north, 
and Pannanich in the south, are celebrated. About 




6.400 acres of the county are occupied with lakes. 
The principal rivers are the Dee, the Don, tin: 
Ythan, the Bogie, the Uric, the Ugie, and the Cru- 
den. The Deveron also rises in Aberdeenshire, — 
though it has its embouchure in the county of 
Banff. All these livers flow into the German 
ocean; and have long been celebrated — especially 
the first two — for the excellence of the salmon with 
which they abound. Besides the fishings in the 
rivers, the sea-coast of Aberdeenshire abounds with 
excellent fish, and a number of fishing vessels are 
fitted out from the seaports of this county, particu- 
larly from Peterhead and Fraserburgh. There is 
one canal, extending up the valley of the Don from 
Aberdeen harbour to Inverury. It has been de- 
scribed in a preceding article. 

The surface of the mountains and other uplands 
of this count}- is, for the most part, either bare rock 
or such thin poor soil as admits of Uttle profitable 
improvement or none, even for the purposes of hill 
pasture ; that of the moorlands and the mosses com- 
prises many tracts which might be thoroughly re- 
claimed, and not a few which have, in recent times, 
been very greatly improved ; and that of the low- 
land and arable districts has a very various soil, — 
most of it naturally poor or churlish, but a great 
deal now converted into fine fertile mould by judi- 
cious cultivation. Heaths and coarse stiff clays are 
common in the higher districts of the count}'; and 
light sands and finer clays prevail in the valleys 
and on the sea-board. By far the greater part of 
the united parishes of Braemar and Crathie, con- 
taining nearly 200,000 acres, is incapable of culti- 
vation. In the adjacent highland parish of Strath- 
don, containing 68,000 acres, the arable land does 
not exceed 5,000 acres. But in both these districts 
agriculture is making steady progress. Their prin- 
cipal crops are Angus oats and turnips. Of about 
40,000 acres between the Don and the Dee, and 
midway between the sources and mouths of these 
rivers, nearly 16,000 acres are under the plough and 
yield an average rent of 16s. per acre. The land 
here is cultivated on a rotation of seven years ; tur- 
nips are succeeded by bear or by oats with grass 
seeds ; then the land is laid down in grass for three 
years; and then two successive crops of oats are 
taken. The cattle are chiefly the long-horned black 
or brown Aberdeenshire breed. The principal ara- 
ble land of the county lies between the Don and the 
Ythan, in the districts of Formartin and Garioch, in 
Strathbogie, and between the Ugie and the sea on 
the north. About 200,000 acres of land throughout 
the county are annually under oats. The cultiva- 
tion of wheat is seldom attempted; and very little 
hay is made. Turnips are very extensively grown; 
and fat cattle ire exported in great numbers to the 
London market. Sheep-fnmiing is little followed. 
In 1811 the sheep-stock did not exceed 100,000 
head, and the number has not greatly increased 
since that period. Tenantry-at-will is now almost 
entirely unknown; and leases are usually from 19 
to 21 years. The tenant's choice in the manage- 
ment of his land was, until lately, restricted to the 
five and seven course rotations, which are still those 
most commonly practised; and he is usually allowed 
three years after entering on the farm to determine 
which course of cropping is likely to be the most 
eligible. The six-course shift has lately been in- 
troduced, and being regarded by all intelligent far- 
mers as the best adapted to the nature of the soil 
of which this county is chiefly composed, and most 
consonant with the principles of correct husbandry, 
bids fair to supersede the above-named rotations at 
no distant period. 

The recent improvements in agriculture have 

comprised, not only more economical methods of 
cropping, but also better tillage, better implements, 
better manuring, better farm-yairt management, 
better outhouse treatment of live stock, extensive 
subsoil draining, extensive reclamation of waste 
lands, and extensive enrichment of poor soils, and 
have resulted in such vast increase of produce from 
both arable lands and pastures as has changed the 
comity from being a constantly losing one in the 
balance of agricultural imports and exports, to be- 
ing a largely gaining one in that balance, by largo 
exportation of oats and cattle. A writer in an of- 
ficial survey of the Board of Agriculture printed in 
1794 for private circulation, says, " About the mid- 
dle of last century, the farms in Aberdeenshire were 
of much greater extent than they are at present; 
and from many incidental circumstances that occur- 
red to me during my residence in that county, it 
seems evident to me, that farmers were then in 
general a more wealthy and respectable body of men 
than they are at present ; and it is very obvious 
that many extensive tracts of land which were then 
under the plough, are now abandoned as waste, and 
covered with heath. Of so little value was land in 
this country at that period, that there are instances 
of considerable tracts of com lands being so totally 
abandoned as to be allowed to pass from one pro- 
prietor to another, merely by a prescriptive title of 
occupancy for upwards of forty years without a chal- 
lenge." How great is the contrast now ! The 
large farm system has been revived ; fa: ms have be- 
come scarce, and dear ; the scantiest season yields 
an abundant supply ; and in average years there is 
enough and to spare. For example, in 1847, the 
farmers of Aberdeenshire, aided perhaps by those 
of a small contiguous portion of Kincardineshire, ex- 
ported 43,750 quarters of oats, 52,150 bolls of meal, 
and 4,600 quarters of bear; and in the years 1828 — 
1849 they exported cattle as follows,— in 1828, 150; 
in 1829, 250; in 1830, 400; in 1831, 550; in 1832, 
800; in 1833, 1,250; in 1834, 3,125; in 1835, 4,528: 
in 1836, 5,505 ; in 1837, 5,850 ; in 1838, 6,150; in 
1839,6,250; in 1840, 6,422 ; in 1841, 6,450; in 1842, 
9,543; in 1843, 10,150; in 1844, 10.561 ; in 1845, 
11,928; in 1846, 12,300; in 1847, 13,783; in 1848, 
15,420 ; and in 1849, 18,300. The steadiness of this 
increase, taken along with the rapidity of it, in- 
dicates unmistakably the highly improving state of 
things ; and the aggregate value of the cattle ex- 
ported is also veiy striking; for supposing them to 
have brought £20 a-bead, the total receipts for them 
must have been about three millions of pounds. 
The export of sheep, pigs, dead meat, and eggs, has 
also been large. In 1827, the total value of all the 
disposable animal produce of the county was pro- 
bably not more than £10,000; and in 1849 that of 
black cattle alone was upwards of £360,000. Yet 
the main part of this wonderful increase is ascribable, 
not directly to agricultural improvement in the 
mere working of its own energies, but indirectly to 
the stimulus exerted upon it by the facilities of 
steam-navigation to Hull and London. 

Aberdeenshire has been long noted for its woollen 
manufactures, particularly the knitting of stockings 
and hose, in which numbers of the common people 
are constantly employed. The cotton, linen, and 
sail-cloth manufactures have been successfully in- 
troduced, particularly in Aberdeen, Peterhead, and 
Huntly'. In 1831, there were about 1,600 hands 
employed in the linen, woollen, and cloth manufac- 
tures, in Old and New Aberdeen, and about 700 in 
other districts of the county. In 1841 the carpet- 
manufactory within this county employed 186 per- 
sons; cotton manufactures, 1,448; flax and linen, 
3,489; lint, 233; rope, cord, and twine, 224; stock- 




ings, 1,330; woollen and worsted, 840; paper, 173; 
combs, 220. There were also 384 bakers, 1,289 
blacksmiths, 2.033 boot and shoe makers, 227 cabi- 
net-makers, 563 gardeners, 153 iron-founders, 1,299 
masons, 155 millwrights, 230 quarriers, 1,278 tailors, 
and 407 weavers. 

The royal burghs of Aberdeenshire are Aberdeen, 
Inverury, and Kintore ; and the towns and principal 
villages are Peterhead, (which is also a parliamen- 
tary burgh,) Huntly, Fraserburgh, Turriff, Old Mel- 
drum, Old Deer, Tarland, Stuartfield, St. Combs, 
Boddom, Rosehearty, Inveralloehy, Cairnbulg, El- 
lon, Newburgh, Collieston, New Pitsligo, Banchory, 
Charlestown of Aboyne, Ballater, Castletown of 
Braemar, Cuminestown, and Newbyth. The chief 
seats are Balmoral, the Queen ; Birkhall, the late 
Prince Albert; Abergeldie, the late Duchess of 
Kent; Aboyne Castle, the Marquis of Huntly; 
Slaines Castle, the Earl of Errol ; Keith Hall, the 
Earl of Kintore; Mar-Lodge, Skene-House, and 
Dalgety Castle, the Earl of Fife ; Philorth Castle 
and Memsey-House, Lord Saltoun; Castle-Eorbes, 
Lord Forbes ; Haddo-House, the Earl of Aberdeen ; 
Fyvie Castle, W. Gordon, Esq.; Dunecht-House, 
the Earl of Crawford ; Huntly Lodge, the Duke of 
Richmond; Stricheii House, G. Baird,Esq. ; Inver- 
cauld-House, J. Farquharson, Esq.; Pitfour, Admi- 
ral G. Ferguson; Cluny, John Gordon, Esq.; Free- 
field, Alexander Leith, Esq. ; Leith-Hall, Sir Andrew 
Leith Hay; Logie-Elphinstone and Westhall, Sir 
James D. H. Elphinstone, Bart.; Crimonmogate, 
Sir Alex. Bannerman, Bart.; Pitsligo-House, Sir 
John Stewart" Forbes, Bart.; Craigievar Castle and 
Fintray House, Sir William Forbes, Bart.; Mony- 
musk, Sir Isaac Grant, Bart.; Hilton, Sir W. B. 
Johnston, Bart.; Pitlurg, Sir W. C. Seton, Bart.; 
and Newe and Edinglassie, Sir Charles Forbes, Bart. 

The principal lines of road in Aberdeenshire are 
the line from Aberdeen west-south-westward, up the 
valley of the Dee to Castletown-Braemar, and thence 
southward to the Spittal of Glenshee; the line from 
Aberdeen west-north-westward, through Skene and 
Cluny and up the vale of Alford, and thence north- 
ward to Huntly and Keith ; the line from Aberdeen 
north-westward up the valley of the Don to Inver- 
ury, and thence in the same direction to Huntly; the 
line from Aberdeen north-north-westward, through 
Old Meldrum and Turriff, to Banff; the line from 
Aberdeen northward along the coast to Ellon, Peter- 
head, and Faserburgh ; and the line from Peterhead 
west-north-westward, by Newbyth, to Banff. The 
number of miles of turnpikes in 1858 was 448 ; the 
number of turnpike trusts, 33; the yearly revenue 
from tolls, £10,534. The railways are the Aberdeen 
or Scottish North-eastern, the Deeside, the Great 
North of Scotland, the Inverury and Old Meldrum, 
the Alford Valley, the Aberdeen and Turriff, and 
the Formartine and Buchan ; and the first, third, 
and sixth are noticed in their own alphabetical place. 
The Deeside deflects from the Scottish North-eastern 
at Ferryhill, near Aberdeen ; goes up the valley of 
the Dee to Aboyne; is 32 miles long; and has sta- 
tions at Ruthrieston, Cults, Murtle, Milltimber, Cul- 
ter, Drum, Park, Mills of Drum, Banchory, Glassel, 
Torphins, Lumphanan, and Dess. It was autho- 
rized in 1846 ; opened to Banchory in 1853, — to 
Aboyne in 1859; and its receipts, from shares and 
loans, till 31st December 1860. were £208,032. The 
Inverury and Old Meldrum deflects from the Great 
North of Scotland near Inverury ; is 4J miles long ; 
was opened in 1856; cost £2,509; and is leased in 
perpetuity to the Great North of Scotland. The 
Alford Valley deflects from the Great North of Scot- 
land at Kintore ; goes 16J miles westward to Alford ; 
has stations at ICemnay, Monymusk, Tillytowrie, 

and Whitehouse; and was authorized in 1856, and 
opened in 1859. Its receipts, from shares and loans, 
at 31st August 1861 were £31,821 short of the ex- 
penditure. The Formartine and Buchan deflects 
from the Great North of Scotland at Dyce; goes 40J 
miles northward to Fraserburgh ; sends off branches, 
2£ to 9| miles long, to Ellon and Peterhead; and 
has stations at Parkhill, New Machar, Udny, New 
burgh Road, Esslemont, Arnage, Auchnagatt, Bruck- 
lay, Old Deer or Mintlaw, Longside, New Seat, and 
Inverugie. It was authorized in 1858, and opened 
to Mintlaw in 1861. Its receipts, from shares and 
loans, till 31st August 1861, were £204,694. 

Aberdeenshire is divided into 90 parishes ; and in 
1865, in addition to the parish churches, it contained 

chapels of ease. The synod of Aberdeen compre- 
hends 87 of the parishes of Aberdeenshire, with all 
its chapels of ease, also 7 parishes of Kincardineshire 
and 12 parishes of Banffshire, with 5 chapels of ease, 
and is divided into the eight presbyteries of Garioch, 
Alford, Ellon, and Deer, which consist wholly of 
Aberdeenshire parishes, — Aberdeen and Kincardine 
O'Neil, which have a mixture of Kincardineshire 
parishes, — Turriff, which has a mixture of Banffshire 
parishes, — and Fordyce, which consists wholly of 
Banffshire parishes. The three Aberdeenshire par- 
ishes not comprehended in the synod of Aberdeen, 
are in the presbytery of Strathbogie and synod of 
Moray. The Free church synod of Aberdeen fol- 
lows the same arrangement as the Established synod 
of Aberdeen; and in 1865, it comprised 87 churches 
and 10 preaching stations ; and the yearly sum raised 
in connexion with the whole was £25,780 14s. lOd. 
The United Presbyterian synod has 23 churches in 
Aberdeenshire ; and places 13 of these in its presby- 
tery of Aberdeen, 8 in its presbytery of Buchan, and 
two in its presbytery of Banffshire. The synod of 
United Original Seeeders has only two churches in 
Aberdeenshire, at Aberdeen and Clola, but gives the 
name of Aberdeen and Perth to one of its presbyte- 
ries. There are in Aberdeenshire 14 Congregational 
churches connected with the Congregational Union 
of Scotland, and 3 not connected with it. The Scot- 
tish Episcopal church has a diocese of Aberdeen ; 
and this comprises 25 charges in Aberdeenshire, and 
5 in other counties. There are nine Roman Catholic 
chapels in Aberdeenshire; but the Roman Catholic 
college of Blairs, which is often associated in the 
public mind with this county, is in the Kincardine- 
shire parish of Maryculter 6 miles south-west of 
Aberdeen. — In 1837, there were in Aberdeenshire 
93 parish schools, attended by 6,103 scholars; 161 
private schools, attended by 6,765 scholars; and 39 
other private schools the attendance of which was 
not returned. 

Aberdeenshire is divided, for administration, into 
the two major districts of Aberdeen and Peterhead, 
with a sheriff-substitute for each, and into the ten 
minor districts of Braemar, Deeside, Aberdeen, Al- 
ford, Huntly, Turriff, Garioch, Ellon, Deer, and New 
Machar, with a set of deputy-lieutenants for each. 
Sheriff-courts are held weekly at both Aberdeen and 
Peterhead; the general quarter sessions are held at 
Aberdeen on the first Tuesday of March, May, and 
August, and on the last Tuesday of October; and 
small debt courts are held four times a-year at Tar- 
land, Inverury, Turriff, Old Deer, and Fraserburgh. 

Aberdeenshire sends one member to parliament. 
The number of electors in 1838 was 3,142; in 1863, 
4,210. The valued rent of the whole county in 
Scottish money is £241,931 8s. lid.; the annual 
value of the real property as assessed in 1860, 
£951,364 ; as assessed to property and income-tax 
in 1842-3, £605,802, whereof £423,388 was on lands, 
and £145,365 on houses. The assessment, in 186"), 




for rogue-money and for rural police was l T 7 rd., and 
for prisons -ft d. per pound. Previous to the act for 

the equalization of weights and measures, the Aber- 
deenshire boll was equal to 1.J boll of the Linlith- 
gow standard. The bull of barley, bere, or oats, 
was 4 Aberdeen firlots of 136 pints of 60J oz. each. 
The brass standard bushel of Queen Anne, 1707, used 
in Aberdeen, contained 13 cubic inches less than the 
Winchester standard ; and a bushel used in the 
county contained 40 cubic inches less. The peck 
of potatoes was 32 lbs. Dutch; the pound of butter 
or cheese, from 20 to 26 oz. Dutch ; of malt, meal, 
or corn, 24 oz. Dutch. — The population of Aber- 
deenshire in 1S01 was 121,065; in 1811,133,871; in 
1821, 155,049; in 1831, 177,657; in 1841, 192,387; 
in 1861, 223,344. Inhabited houses in 1861, 33,109; 
uninhabited, 763; building, 219. In 1841, 44,013 
of the population were under 20 years of age ; and 
166,352 were natives of the county, 21,998 were 
born in other parts of Scotland, 1,711 were natives 
of England, 1,037 were natives of Ireland, 22 were 
natives of the colonies, and 170 were foreigners, — 
leaving 1,097 whose places of birth had not been 
ascertained. The number of persons engaged in 
commerce, trade, and manufactures, in 1841, was 
27,937, or 15'5 per cent.; in agriculture, 25,224, or 
13*1 per cent. The number of female servants was 
13,377; of male servants, 1,334; of alms-people and 
pensioners, 1,947; of the medical profession, 341 ; 
of the clerical, 220; of the legal, 174; of indepen- 
dent means, 6,837. The yearly average number of 
crimes was 259 in 1836-40, 93 in 1841-45, 117 in 
1846-50, 104 in 1851-55, and 89'in 1856-60. The 
number of prisoners in Aberdeen jail during the year 
July 1862 — June 1863 was 1,208; and the average 
duration of their confinement was 16 days. In I860, 
thenumberon the poor roll was 7,100, — casual, 1,699; 
insane or fatuous, 270; orphans or deserted children, 
443; and the amount expended, in that year, for the 
poor on roll was £39,726, and for casual poor, £1,101. 

ABERDONA. See Clackmannan. 

ABERDOUR, a parish containing a post-office of 
its own name, and the villages of Easter Aberdour, 
Wester Aberdour, and Newtown of Aberdour, on 
the south coast of Fifeshire. It is bounded by the 
frith of Forth, and by the parishes of Dalgety, 
Auchtertool, Kinghorn, and Burntisland. It mea- 
sures about 4 miles in length, about 3 miles in 
breadth, and about 6,059 acres in area. But the is- 
land of Inchcolm, lying about 2 miles to the south, 
belongs to it; and a small detached district, called 
Kilrie-Yetts, lies about 4 or 5 miles to the east. A 
ridge of hills runs through the main body of the 
parish, in a direction nearly parallel to the coast. 
The tract to the north of this lies comparatively 
high, and has a cold sour soil, and is altogether 
bleak and churlish; but the tract to the south is ge- 
nial and generous, and exhibits a profusion of both 
natural and artificial beauty. The coast is upwards 
of 2 miles long, and probably comprises twice 
that extent of shore-line. The western part of it 
rises gently into the interior, and is feathered and 
flecked with wood; the centre is indented by the 
sandy, wood - girt, finely - sheltered bay of Aber- 
dour; and the eastern part is steep and rugged, and 
has shaggy sheets of wood down to the water's 
edge, and is traversed through its glades and across 
its brows by walks, which command most pic- 
turesque prospects of the frith and its southern sea- 
board, and of the hills of Edinburgh and the Pent- 
lands. A rivulet runs windingly from the northern 
border of the parish, through its centre, partly along 
a rich little vale, to the head of Aberdour bay; and 
the embouch of this is denoted in the name of the 
parish, which alludes to the adjacency of the village. 

Coal, lime, and sandstone abound and are worked. 
The average rent of arable land is about £2 per acre. 
The value of the assessed property in 1813 was 
£5,581 2s. 2d., and in 1865 was £10,200 9s. 8d. 
The principal landowners are the Earl of Morton 
and the Earl of Moray; but there are six others. 
The principal mansion is Aberdour House, the seat 
of the Earl of Morton, who is here called the gude- 
man of Aberdour;' and the other mansions are Hill- 
side House, Whitehill Cottage, Cattlehill House, 
and Templehall. The chief antiquities are the 
castle of Aberdour and a cairn or tumulus, — the lat- 
ter on a flat-topped hill. The three villages of 
Aberdour stand adjacent to one another, and are 
often described as one village, at the head of Aber- 
dour bay, 2J miles west-south-west of Burntisland, 
on the road thence to Inverkeithing. This place is a 
favourite bathing resort of the citizens of Edinburgh 
during summer; and it enjoys the advantage of a 
steam-boat communication of its own with Leitb. 
It also has a few small sailing vessels, and does 
something, though not much, in oyster-fishing. A 
few of the inhabitants formerly were employed in the 
weaving of ticking, and in the work of two saw- 
mills and of a small spade factoiy. An hospital exists 
here for four widows, founded by Anne, Countess of 
Moray. The Earl of Moray presents three of the 
inmates, and the writers to the signet the fourth. 
Population of Easter Aberdour in 1851, 307; of 
Wester Aberdour, 469; of Newtown of Aberdour, 
152. Population of the parish of Aberdour in 1831, 
1,751; in 1861, 1,874. Houses 333. 

This parish is in the presbytery oY Dunfermline 
and synod of Fife. Patron, the Earl of Morton. 
Stipend, £207 14s. 6d. ; glebe, £13. Schoolmaster's 
salary in 1865, £60, with upwards of £50 fees. The 
parish church was built in 1790, and repaired in 
1826, and has 579 sittings. There is a Free church: 
attendance, 450; yearly sum raised in 1865, £166 13s. 
lOd. There is also a Scottish Episcopalian place of 
worship. There is a colliery school. The lands of 
Aberdour anciently belonged to the monastery of 
Inchcolm; and the western portion of them is said 
to have been given to it by one of the Mortimers for 
the privilege of burying in its church ; and that por- 
tion, together with the lands of Beath, was acquired 
from an abbot of Inchcolm by James, afterwards Sir 
James Stuart. See Ischcolm. The parish of Aber- 
dour was farmed in 1640 by disjunction from the 
parishes of Beath and Dalgety. A nunnery of the 
sisterhood of the Poor Clares formerly existed here. 
Aberdour bav >vas a convenient landing-place for 
any party coming from the continent to the royal 
court at Dunfermline, and the supposed commission- 
ers sent to escort Queen Margaret of Norway resided 
its vicinity ; so that the popular reading of the old 
ballad of Sir Patrick Spens — though not the reading 
preferred by Sir Walter Scott — is probably correct, 
which places the catastrophe of the piece midway 
between Norway and this place, and says, 

" Half ower, half ower, to Aberdour, 

Tis fifty fathom deep, 
And there lies glide Sir Patrick Spens, 

Wi' the Scotch lords at his feet." 

ABERDOUR, a parish on the north coast of Aber- 
deenshire. It is bounded by the sea, and by the 
parishes of Pitsligo,Tyrie, New Deer, King-Edward, 
and Gamrie. Its post-town is Fraserburgh. Its 
extent along the coast is about 7 miles; but its 
greatest length is not less than 10 or 11 miles. A 
portion, comprising about 800 acres, is separated 
a mile or so from the main body, by the inter- 
vention of Tyrie. The eastern part of the parish, 
or estate of Aberdour, is somewhat low and flat, 
with little diversity of surface. But the western 




part, or estate of Auchmeddan, is elevated 200 or 
300 feet above the level of the sea, and has a rugged 
surface, and a large proportion of moor and bog. 
Several long romantic hollows or deep ravines cleave 
the high grounds upward from the beach; and 
each, as they advance, branches off on both sides 
into lesser ones, which lose themselves among moors 
and bogs at a distance of about 3 miles from the 
sea. Little wild tumbling streams descend the ra- 
vines to the sea; and the mouth of one of these, 
called the Dour, gives name to the parish. In the 
southern district is the ravine or den of Glasby, tra- 
versed by the northern head-stream of the river 
Ugie. The greater part of this side of the parish 
consists of moors and bogs, interspersed here and 
there with corn fields. The coast, especially to the 
west of the church, presents a rocky, precipitous, 
and lofty front to the sea, insomuch that, in its 
whole extent, are only three openings where boats 
can land, — one in the north-east corner, one imme- 
diately below the church, and the third at the mouth 
of the burns of Troup and Auchmeddan, where a 
small harbour once existed, but is now totally de- 
stroyed. Numerous romantic caves pierce the cliffs 
at and below the level of the sea ; and the most re- 
markable of these, called Cowshaven, served as a 
hiding - place to Lord Pitsligo after the battle of 
Culloden, and runs up into the country " nobody 
knows how far." The rooks of the parish are highly 
interesting to geologists ; and are quarried in sev- 
eral places for granite and sandstone, and in two 
places for mSlstones. The total yearly value of 
raw produce was estimated in 1840 at £13,382 10s. 
6d., exclusive of stones and fish, which were esti- 
mated at respectively £130 and £360. The value of 
assessed property in 1843 was £4,510. The chief 
antiquity is the remains of the castle of Dundargue, 
a place which made some figure in the civil wars of 
the 14th century, situated on a precipitous sand- 
stone rock of 64 feet in height, on the beach, and 
connected with the mainland only by a narrow neck 
of rock and earth. The village of New Aberdour 
was founded in the year 1798. Fairs are held at it 
on the Tuesday after the 11th of April, on the 26th 
of May, on the Tuesday after the 7th of August, and 
on the 22d of November ; but they are not well at- 
tended. Population of New Aberdour in 1861, 543. 
A small fishing village called Pennan stands on the 
Auchmeddan part of the coast, and has about half- 
a-dozen boats. Population of Pennan in 1851, 168. 
Population of the parish of Aberdour in 1831, 1,548; 
in 1861, 1,837. Houses, 324. 

This parish is in the presbyteiy of Deer and synod 
of Aberdeen. Patron, Fordyce of Brucklaw. Sti- 
pend, £204 7s. 10d.; glebe, £12. Schoolmaster's 
salary, £42 10s.; female teachers, £15. The parish 
church is at New Aberdour, and was built in 1818, 
and has 800 sittings. A station of the Free Church 
is also maintained there ; but the yearly sum raised 
in 1865 by the people connected witli it was only 
£1 1 10s. 7d. There is a parish school in Pennan. 
ABERELLIOT. See Akbirlot. 
ABERFELDY, a small post-town in the parishes 
of Dull and Logierait, Perthshire. It stands on the 
Moness burn, on the south side of the Tay, and on 
the great road down Strathtay, about 5 miles from 
Taymouth. It consists principally of one long 
street, a short one joining that about the centre, 
and a small square at their junction ; it has, of late, 
been much improved; and it is connected by rail- 
way with the Highland line. It contains a Free 
church with 800 sittings, an Independent chapel 
with 400 sittings, a Baptist chapel with 60 sittings, 
branch offices of the Central and the Union Banks, a 
savings bank, and a public library. Fairs are held on 

the first Thursday of January old style, on the 
Tuesday before Kenmore in March, on the last 
Thursday of April old style, on the Saturday before. 
Amulree in May, on the last Friday of July old 
style, and on the last Thursday of October old style. 
The scenery in the vicinity of the town, up the 
Moness burn, is among the most interesting in 
Scotland. See Moxess. To this the well-known 
lines of Bums refer, — 

" The braes ascend like lofty wa's, 
The foaming stream deep roaring fa's, 
O'erhung wi' fragrant spreading shaws, 
The Dirks of Aberfeldy. 

The hoary cliffs are crown'd wt' flowers, 
White o'er the linn the burnie pours, 
And, rising, weets wi' misty showers 
The birks of Aberfeldy." 

In a field adjacent to the town, the 42d Highlanders, 
so well known by the name of the Black Watch, 
and so famous for their bravery in battle, were first 
embodied into a regular regiment. Over the Tay, 
opposite the town, is an elegant bridge of five 
arches, erected in 1733 by General Wade The 
view from the centre of this bridge is magnifi- 
cent. On the north are the Weem Rock and the 
soaring Grampians ; on the east are the rich vale of 
Appin and the turrets and woods of Castle-Menzies ; 
and all round is a sublime amphitheatre, with a 
foreground of objects ever beautiful and often new, 
including rich verdant meadows, groves in green 
array, and the broad and limpid Tay rolling in its 
cradle of granite to 

" The white waves of the restless main." 

In 1861, the population of the Dull portion of Aber- 
feldie was 634; and of the Logierait portion, 511. 

ABERFOYLE, a parish, containing a small post- 
office village of its own name, in the south-west 
corner of Perthshire. It is bounded on the north by 
Loch Katrine and Loch Achray, which separate it 
from Callander parish ; on the east by the parish of 
Port-of-Menteith ; and on the south and west by 
Stirlingshire. Its greatest admeasurement is from 
the east end of Loch Arclet, on the north-west, to the 
bridge across the Forth, on the road from Gartmore, 
in the south-eastern extremity, a distance of about 
eleven miles ; its greatest breadth from north to 
south is towards the centre of the parish, and about 
6 miles. The general aspect of this district is ex- 
tremely picturesque. It is a narrow tract of coun- 
try, bounded on every side by lofty hills and moun- 
tains. The bottom of the valley is occupied by a 
series of beautiful lakes, skirted with woods of oak, 
ash, and birch; and their banks are occasionally 
diversified with scanty portions of cultivated ground, 
the soil of which has, in the course of ages, been 
washed down from the mountains and deposited by 
the streams. The mountains are in some instances 
clothed with oak-woods more than half-way up; 
the lower eminences are, for the most part, covered 
to their summits ; the higher regions are overgrown 
with heath, and sometimes present only the bare 
nigged rock. None of the mountains are of the 
first class in height. 'Huge Benvenue 1 and Ben- 
chochan, are far overtopped by Benlomond, in the 
parish of Buchanan, which, with its pyramidal mass, 
terminates the prospect to the west. The rocks are 
chiefly micaceous granite. There is a quarry oi 
excellent slates, of blue and green colour; and it 
employs from 20 to 30 workmen, and produces 
about 500,000 slates per annum. Many of the rarer 
Alpine plants are to be found upon the mountains. 
The black eagle builds in some of the more inac- 
cessible rocks ; but it is now very rare. The falcon 
is also found here. The most considerable lakes 




are Locu Katiune, Loch Aohray, Locn Chon, and 
Loon Ard: which see. One head branch of the 
river Forth has its rise in the western extremity of 
the parish, at the eastern foot of Ben- Awe. After 
flowing through Loch Chon, and the upper and 
lower Loch Ard, it bursts forth, at the eastern ex- 
tremity of the latter; and a few hundred yards to 
the east of it, flings itself over a rock nearly 30 feet 
high. After having formed a junction with the 
other head branch of the Forth, called the Duchray, 
coming from the south-west, the united stream 
receives the name of the Forth, and enters by a 
narrow opening — the famous pass of Aberfoyle — 
into Strathmore. In winter, the lakes are covered 
with waterfowl; among which swans, and some of 
the rarer species of divers, are occasionally met 
with. The soil is light. It is generally remarked, 
that the harvest is earlier in Aberfoyle than any 
where in the vicinity towards the south, where the 
flat country begins. The climate is healthy. — The 
property of this parish was anciently vested in the 
Grahams, Earls of Menteith ; but, on the failure of 
heirs-male of that family iu 1 694, their estate came 
to the family of Montrose; and the Duke of Mon- 
trose is now sole heritor in this parish, being at the 
same time patron, proprietor, and superior of the 
whole, excepting a single farm (Drumlane) which 
holds blench of the Duke of Argyle. Assessed pro- 
perty in 1865, £4,085. Population in 1831, 660 ; in 
1861, 565. Houses 116. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Dunblane, and 
synod of Perth and Stirling. Patron, the Duke of 
Montrose. Stipend, £158 6s. 8d., with a manse and 
glebe. Schoolmaster's salary, £50, with £5 or £6 fees. 
The parish church was built in 1 744, and thoroughly 
repaired in 1839, and has about250 sittings. A school- 
house also is used by the parish minister for public 
worship generally once in two months. — The village 
of Aberfoyle stands on the Forth, about 2 1 miles from 
Stirling and 22 from Dumbarton. It has a good 
inn; and fairs are held at it on the third Tuesday 
of April, on the Friday before the third Tuesday of 
August, and on the last Thursday of October. — The 
principal line of road through the parish follows 
the vale of the Forth, or of its fountain-lochs rather, 
and enters the parish of Buchanan, between Lochs 
Arclet and Katrine, from which point it passes 
through a wild moor to Inversnaid on the eastern 
side of Loch Lomond. This is a road of great 
beauty and variety of scenery. — On a rising ground 
in the neighbourhood of the manse, and facing the 
south, there is a circle of stones, which, there is 
room to believe, may be a relic of Druidism. It 
consists of ten large stones placed circularly, with a 
larger one in the middle. — The scenery of this par- 
ish has been immortalized by Sir Walter Scott in 
his poem of The Lady of the Lake, and his novel of 
Rob Koy. Perhaps it owes its chief power and 
beauty to the mighty minstrel's inspiration. Na- 
ture herself is indeed a poet here, — yet a " some- 
thing more exquisite still," — a nameless charm, 
flung around us by the hand of one whose genius 
glorifies everything it touches, is everywhere rest- 
ing on this elf and fairy realm. See articles Ach- 
ray (Loch), Bexvexue, and Forth. 

ABERGELDIE, an estate in the parishes of 
Graithie and Glengaim, on the left bank of the Dee, 
6 miles above Ballater, Aberdeenshire. The man- 
sion comprises an old turreted square tower and 
various modern additions, and is an imposing pile. 
The grounds are eminently picturesque, and har- 
monize well with the adjacent royal park of Bal- 
moral, and continue to wear the leafy honours of 
" the birks of Abergeldie," — though Bums capri- 
ciously transferred the fame of them to Aberfeldy. 

The limited fee of the estate was put tip to sale in 
1848, and became the property of the late Prince 
Consort. See Balmoral. A fair for sheep, cattle, 
and horses, is held at Abergeldie on the last Friday 
of February. 

ABEBIACHAN, a rivulet on tne confines of the 
parishes of Inverness and Urquhart, toward the 
lower part of Loch Ness, Inverness-shire. It runs 
among romantic scenery, and makes a succession 
of beautiful cataracts and perpendicular water-falls. 
A fine spar cave was recently discovered here, adja- 
cent to the road from Inverness to Fort- Augustus. 
It measures about 21 feet in length, from 6 to 12 in 
height, and from 3 to 6 in breadth, and has a rich 
and curious display of stalactites and stalagmites. 

ABEKLADY, a parish, containing a post-office 
village of its own name, on the north-west coast of 
the county of Haddington; bounded on the north 
by the frith of Forth, which here forms Aberlady 
bay, and by the parish of Dirleton ; on the east by 
Dirleton and Haddington parishes ; and on the 
south by Gladsmuir parish. Its greatest dimension 
is about 4 miles, in a line running north-east and 
south-west from the Pefferbum, near Saltcoats, to 
Coteburn in Gladsmuir; and its greatest extent from 
east to west is nearly the same. The Peft'erburn — 
supposed to have been once called the Leddie, whence 
the name of the parish — rises in the parish of Athel- 
staneford, and after a winding course of 7 miles, 
falls into Aberlady bay, at LufFness point. From 
this point the whole bay between the Aberlady and 
the Goolan or Dirleton shore is left dry at low wa- 
ter, so that it may be crossed by foot passengers at 
a point where the sands are above a mile in breadth. 
At spring-tides, vessels of 60 or 70 tons may come 
up the channel of the Pener to within a few hundred 
yards of the village of Aberlady. This anchorage- 
ground belonged formerly to the town of Hadding- 
ton as its port. The sands covered by the tide 
abound in cockles, and some other kinds of shell- 
fish. Along the shore, from near Gosford House to 
the eastern point of the parish, runs a tract of sandy 
links, of considerable breadth, abounding with rab- 
bits, and which is continued and spreads out into 
greater breadth along the Goolan shore. From this 
flat tract, the ground rises gradually as we proceed 
inland, but in no part attains any considerable ele- 
vation. The village of Gosford no longer exists; 
but the late Earl of Wemyss built a splendid man- 
sion here, close on the links, and commanding a 
fine view of the frith towards Edinburgh. The pre- 
sent Earl has here a splendid collection of paintings 
BallencriefT House, the seat of Lord Elibank, occu- 
pies a commanding situation; and LufFness, the seat 
cf H. W. Hope, Esq., is an interesting old mansion. 
The village of Aberlady, 5 miles north-west of 
Haddington, consists of one long street of a good 
appearance. It is occasionally resorted to by the 
inhabitants of Haddington as a bathing-place; hut 
the surrounding country presents little that is at- 
tractive to the stranger. Population of the village 
in 1861, 480. The North British railway traverses 
the parish, and has two stations in its immediate 
vicinity. Population of the parish in 1831, 973; 
in 1861, 1,019. Houses, 222. Assessed property 
in 1865, £9,823 9s. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Haddington, 
and synod of Lothian and Tweddale. Stipend, 
£280 lis. lid.; glebe, £27 10s. Patron, the Earl 
of Wemyss. Schoolmaster's salary, £55, with about 
£34 fees. The parish church was'built in 1773, and 
has 525 sittings. There is an United Presbyterian 
church, with an attendance of about loO. There is 
also a side school, with a large attendance. A little 
to the west of Luffhess House are the remains of a 




conventual building, once belonging to the Carme- 
lites. An hospital is said to have been founded at 
Ballencrieff in the 12th century. This parish for- 
merly belonged, in virtue of a grant from David I., 
to the bishop of Dunkeld, and was a vicarage in 
that diocese. It has been conjectured that the 
Culdees had a seat at or near Aberlady, called 

ABERLEMNO, a parish in the centre of Forfar- 
shire. It is bounded by the parishes of Tannadice, 
Caraldston, Brechin, Guthrie, Bescobie, and Oath- 
law. Its post-town is Forfar. Its greatest length, 
in the line of the road from Forfar to Brechin, is 6 J 
miles; its average breadth 3 J. The surface has a 
general declination towards the South Esk river, 
which runs along the northern boundary of the 
parish, and along the course of which the land is so 
level as to be occasionally extensively inundated by 
that river. The principal stream is the Lemno, 
which rises on the south-east side of the Finhaven 
ridge of hills in this parish ; passes the kirk-town ; 
sweeps in a circuitous direction around the base of 
the ridge; and, entering Oathlaw parish, turns 
north-eastwards, and flows into the Esk. in the lat- 
ter parish, at a point within one mile of its original 
source. The highest ground, Turin hill, has a 
height of about 600 feet above the level of the adja- 
cent waters. There are two curious stone pillars 
or obelisks in this parish, supposed to have been 
erected in commemoration of a victory obtained 
over the Danes. They are covered with unintelli- 
gible hieroglyphics. About a mile to the north- 
east of the kirk-town are the ruins of Melgund 
castle, which tradition alleges to have been built 
by Cardinal Beaton, and which gives the title of 
Viscount to the noble family of Minto. Auldbar 
Castle, Balgavies House, Carsegownie House, and 
Flemmington Castle, are also interesting old edi- 
fices; and all, except the last, are still inhabited. 
The Arbroath and Forfar railway traverses the 
parish, and has a station in it at Auldbar. Nearly 
one-half of the parish belongs to the Earl of Minto. 
The valued rental is £4,233 6s. 8d. Scots. Assessed 
property in 1865, £9,867 8s. lOd. Population in 
1831, 1,079; in 1861, 1,054. Houses, 223. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Forfar, and 
synod of Angus and Mearns. Patrons, the Crown, 
and Smyth of Methven. Stipend, £228 6s. 6d.; 
glebe, £15. Unappropriated teinds, £469 14s. lid. 
Schoolmaster's salary is now £45, with about £20 
fees and other emoluments. The parish church is 
an old structure with about 450 sittings. There is 
a Free church ; and the yearly amount raised in 
connexion with it in 1853, was £38 16s. 2jd., — in 
1865, £92 3s. There is a private school. The pre- 
sent parish of Aberlemno comprises the old parishes 
of Aberlemno and Auldbar ; but probably the for- 
mer originally extended farther to the north-east, 
so as to include the mouth of the Lemno, from 
which it seems to take its name. 

ABEBLOUR, a parish containing a post-office 
village of its own name, in the south-west of Banff- 
shire. It is bounded by Morayshire, and by the 
parishes of Boharm, Mortlach, and Inveraven. 
The Spey divides it from Morayshire; the Fiddich, 
from Boharm; and the Dullan-burn, from part of 
Mortlach. Its general outline is triangular; and 
its extent along the Spey, irrespective of the river's 
windings, is 5 miles; and its greatest length, from 
the head of the Dullan to the mouth of the Fiddich, 
is 9 miles. About two-thirds of the area are under 
cultivation; but nearly all is hilly; and the south- 
ern and eastern parts are completely wild and 
mountainous. The loftiest mountain is Benrinnes 
on the south-west, whose enormous base lies partly 

and chiefly in this parish, but extends also into 
Inveraven parish. It rises to the height of 2.765 
feet above the sea-level, and 1,876 feet above the 
adjoining country. From its summit, the moun- 
tains of Caithness on the north are visible in a clear 
day, and the Grampians in the opposite direction. 
The deep pass of Glackhamis separates this moun- 
tain, on the east, from the Convals, which are of 
much less elevation. Throe small streams inter- 
sect this parish in a north-west direction, and dis- 
charge themselves into the Spey ; and one of them, 
the bum of Aberlour, about a mile above its month, 
forms a beautiful cascade of 30 feet in leap, called 
the linn of Buthrie. The Spey along the boundary 
is deep and rapid, and, in the great floods of 1829, 
rose 19 feet six inches above its ordinary level. A 
little above the confluence of the Fiddich and the 
Spey, and 12 miles above Fochabers, are the pic- 
turesque rock and bridge of Craigellachie. See 
Ckaigellachie. The turnpike road to Fochabers 
and Elgin lies along this bridge; and adjaeent to 
it, on the south bank of the river, is Craigellachie 
Junction railway station, at the meeting-point of 
the Dufftown branch of the Great Northern, the 
Morayshire line, and the Strathspey line. The 
Morayshire goes hence, across the Spey, by a trellis 
girdered iron bridge of 200 feet in span ; while the 
Strathspey line goes up the south side of the river, 
past Aberlour village to Can-on, and crosses there 
on a magnificent iron bridge. Aberlour House, 
about a mile south of Craigellachie, is an elegant 
modern mansion, in the Grecian style; and has 
tastefully ornamented grounds, with very fine gar- 
den. A Doric column of Aberdeen granite, 84 feet 
high, surmounted by a large globe of polished 
granite, is on the front lawn. The village of Aber- 
lour, or Charleston of Aberlour, stands on a haugh, 
at the mouth of the burn of Aberlour, 24. miles 
south-west of Craigellachie Junction station, and 
17 by railway south-west of Keith. It was founded 
in 1812 by Grant of Wester Elcbies; and is a burgh 
of barony, by royal charter. It consists of one 
broad street, about i- a mile long, with a square to 
the west, and its houses are substantial and slated. 
It has a post-office under Craigellachie, a railway 
station, and an office of the Union Bank. Fairs are 
held at it on the first Thursday of April, on the 
Thursday before the 26th of May, on the third 
Thursdayof July, on the second Thursday of August, 
and on the second Thursday of November. Popu- 
lation of the village in 1861 , 510. Population of the 
parish in 1831, 1,276; in 1861, 1,665. Houses, 
296. Valued rental in 1864, £4,980. 

This palish is the seat of a presbytery in the synod 
of Moray. Stipend, £287 8s. 2d.; glebe, small but 
valuable. Patron, the Earl of Fife, who is also the 
principal landowner. Schoolmaster's salary, £50. 
The former church, built in 1812, was destroyed by 
fire in 1861 ; and the present church erected since 
1861, is one of the most elegant in the north of Scot- 
land, in the Norman style, with a square tower 65 
feet high, and containing about 800 sittings. A 
church is in Glenrinnes, constituted quoad sacra par- 
ochial in 1865. See Glenrinnes. A Free church 
is at Aberlour; and the yearly sum raised in con- 
nexion with it in 1865, was £90 7s. 3d. There are 
a side school in Edinville and a female school in 
Charleston. A house of the Knights Templars stood 
on Kinermony , an elevation to the west of the vil- 
lage, commanding a view of the valley of the Spey. 

ABERLUTHNET. See Maetkiek. 

ABEEMELE. See Mungo (St.) 

ABERNETHY, a parish chiefly in Perthshire, 
and partly in Fifeshire; bounded on the north by 
the Earn river, which separates it from the parishes 




of Dunbarnie and Eh ynd, and by the estuary of the 
Tay; on the cast and south by Fifeshire; and on 
the west by the parishes of Dron and Dunbarnie. 
This parish is of an irregular figure. It extends from 
east to west about 4 miles; and from north to south, 
in some places, nearly 5. The surface is uneven. 
A. considerable part is hilly, and belongs to the 
Ochills. The low ground betwixt the rivers Tay 
and Earn ou the north, and the hills on the south, 
forms nearly an oblong square of about 4 miles in 
length by 1J in breadth. About 25 feet below the 
surface of this flat, and 4 feet below the highest 
spring-tide mark in the Tay and Earn, there is uni- 
formly found a stratum of moss, from 1 to 3 feet 
thick, comprising remains of oak, alder, hazel, birch, 
&c. The soil above this bed is composed of strata 
of clay and sand. The Earn, by breaking down the 
opposing banks in its serpentine turning, has formed 
beautiful links or haughs on each side of its stream, 
which are secured from being overflowed, by em- 
bankments. The Tay, which washes the eastern 
part of the northern boundary, is here navigable, 
and affords salmon and sea-trout. The proprietor 
of Carpow has valuable fishings upon it. In the 
middle of this river, opposite to Mugdrum, in the 
parish of Newburgh, is an island called Mugdrum 
island, belonging to this parish. It is nearly 1 mile 
in length; its greatest breadth is 198 yards; area 
31 acres. The Earn, which hounds the northern 
part of the parish till it falls into the Tay, a little 
below the mansion-house of Carpow, is navigable 
for several miles. It also produces salmon and 
trout, which are chiefly sent to Perth, and thence to 
the English market. There are two passage-boats 
on the Earn, — one at Cary, which is seldom em- 
ployed, — another at Ferryfield, upon the estate of 
Carpow, near the junction of the Earn and the Tay ; 
and there are passage-boats also between the latter 
and the Carse of Cowrie. The Farg, a rivulet rising 
on the borders of Kinross-shire and flowing into the 
Earn about lj mile west from Abemethy, abounds 
with small trout. There is another small rivulet, 
the Ballo burn, anciently called the Trent, which 
flows through what is called the glen of Abemethy. 
The principal landowners are the Earl of Mansfield, 
the Earl of Wemyss, Sir Thomas Moncrieffe of 
Moncrieffe, Paterson of Carpow, Tod of Ayton, and 
several others. The valued rent is £8,884 15s. Id. 
Scots. Assessed property in 1865, £13,422 17s. 5d. 
Annual value of raw produce, as estimated in 1842, 
£26,274 10s. The branch of the North British rail- 
way toward Perth has a station on the north side of 
the town of Abemethy, 3 miles from Newburgh and 
7 A from Perth. Population of the entire parish, in 
1831, 1,776; in 1861, 1,960. Houses, 349. Popu- 
lation of the Fifeshire portion in 1831, 164; in 1861, 
147. Houses, 30. 

The town of Abernethv is nearly in the centre 
of the parish ; stands amidst numerous recent cot- 
tages, which are let to summer visitors; and con- 
sists of sheets without any plan and badly edificed. 
It is a burgh of barony under Lord Douglas, com- 
ing in place of the Earls of Angus. It has a 
charter from Archibald, Earl of Angus, Lord of 
Abemethy, dated August 23, 1476; which was 
confirmed by charter of William, Earl of Angus, 
dated November 29, 1628. There is a post office 
here ; and fairs are held on the 12th day of Febru- 
ary, on the fourth Wednesday of May, and on the 
second Thursday of November. Population in 1841, 
827 ; in 1861, 984. This place, though " now a 
mean village," says Dr. Jamieson, " once boasted 
high honours, and had very considerable extent. It 
would appear that it was a royal residence in the 
reign of one of the Pictish princes who bore the 

name of Nethan or Nectan. The Pictish chronicle 
has ascribed the foundation of Ahernethy to Nethan 
I., in the third year of his reign, corresponding with 
A. d. 458. The Register of St. Andrews, with greater 
probability, gives it to Nethan II., about the year 
600. Fordun and Wyntoun agree in assigning it 
to Garnat, or Garnard, the predecessor of the second 
Nethan. Abemethy had existed as a royal seat 
perhaps before the building of any conspicuous place 
of worship. For we leam, that the Nethan referred to 
' sacrificed to God and St. Bridget at Abumethige ; ' 
and that the same Nethan, ' king of all the provinces 
of the Picts, gave as an offering to St. Bridget, Apur- 
nethige, till the day of judgment.' Fordun expressly 
asserts, that, when this donation was made, Aher- 
nethy was ' the chief seat, both regal and pontifical, 
of the whole kingdom of the Picts.' He afterwards 
relates, that, in the year 1072, Malcolm Canmore 
did homage, in the place called Abemethy, to Wil- 
liam the Bastard, for the lands which he held in 
England. I have elsewhere thrown out a conjec- 
ture that this place may have been denominated 
from the name of Nethan the founder. It has been 
said, indeed, that ' the name which Highlanders give 
to Abemethy, is Obair or Abair Neachtain, that is, 
the work of Nechtan.' But it seems preferable to 
derive it from Nethy, the brook on which it stands." 
But no such brook is here. — There are two villages 
in the parish. — Aberdargie and Glenfoot. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Perth, and 
synod of Perth and Stirling. Stipend, £256 5s. 7d.; 
with a glebe of the value of £15, and a manse. Pa- 
tron, the Earl of Mansfield. There are about £270 
unappropriated teinds. The schoolmaster has the 
maximum salary, with the interest of a mortification 
of £190, and some other small fees. The parish 
church is a plain structure, built in 1802, and has 
about 600 sittings. Here are also a Free church and 
an United Presbyterian church. The sum raised by 
the F. church congregation in 1865 was £95 7s. 
6d. The attendance at the U. P. church is from 
350 to 400. There is one private school. Aher- 
nethy was in ancient times the seat of an episcopal 
see. When Kenneth III. had subdued the Picts, he 
translated the see to St. Andrews ; but long before 
this, Abemethy was known as a principal scat of 
the Culdees. While they held it, there was an uni- 
versity here for the education of youth, as appears 
from the Priory book of St. Andrews. In the year 
1273 — by which time the Culdees were much dis- 
couraged — it was turned into a priory of canons-re- 
gular of St. Augustine, who were brought, it is said, 
from the abbey of Inchaffray. The Eev. Alexander 
Moncrieff, one of the four founders of the Secession 
Church, was minister of Abemethy, and proprietor 
of Culfargie, a considerable estate in the parish. 
The Eev. John Brown of Haddington, so well known 
for his theological writings, was a native of this 

In the church-yard stands a tower of an extraor- 
dinary construction. South-west from the kirk- 
town there is a hill, called Castle-law. Dr. Jamie- 
son says : " Although the round tower of Abemethy 
has attracted the attention of many travellers and 
writers, and been the subject of various hypotheses, 
no one has ever thought of viewing it as connected 
with the royal residence; as it was undoubtedly 
used for some ecclesiastical purpose. That good- 
hunioured old writer, Adamson, assigns a singular 
reason for the erection of this building ; while he 
seems not to have known that there was another 
of the same description at Brechin, considerably 
higher than this. He pretends that this was built 
by the Picts to prevent the Scots from trampling on 
the body of their king after his death: — 




Passing the river Earne, on th' other side, — 
Thence to the Pights great Metropolitan, 
Where stands a steeple, the like in all Britaine 
Not to he found againe, a work of wonder, 
So tall and rouna in frame, a just cylinder, 
Built by the Pights in honour of their king, 
That of the Scots none should attempt such thing, 
As over his bellie big to walk or ride, 
But this strong hold should make him to abide. 

Muse's Threnodie, p. 172. 

The tower is hollow, and has a recent staircase. 
At the bottom are two rows of stones, projecting as 
a sort of pedestal. It is 75 feet in height, and con- 
sists of 64 regular courses of hewn stones. At the 
base it measures 48 feet in circumference, but di- 
minishes somewhat towards the top ; the thickness 
of the wall being Si feet at the bottom, and 3 at the 
top. It has only one door, facing the north ; 8 feet 
in height, 3 wide, and arched. Towards the top 
are four windows ; they are equidistant; 5 feet 9 
inches in height, and 2 feet 2 inches in breadth ; 
each being supported by two small pillars. Some 
intelligent visitors assert, that, whatever may have 
been the original design of this work, it has at one 
time been used as a cemetery. Where the earth has 
been dug up, to the depth of three feet, a number of 
human bones have been found in the exact position 
in which they must have been interred; which, it is 
urged, would not have been the case, had they been 
thrown in from the adjoining ground. It stands at 
the corner of the present churchyard. ' South-west 
from the town,' we are told in the ' Statistical Ac- 
count,' ' there is a hill, called Castle-law. Tradition 
says, that there was a fort upon the top of it.' 
' This,' it is subjoined, ' probably served for one of 
those watch-towers on which the Picts used to kin- 
dle fires, on sudden invasions, insurrections, or the 
approach of the enemy. But if any place bids fair 
to have been the site of a royal residence, this seems 
to have a principal claim.' It follows, however: 
• About a mile and a half east from Abernethy, a 
little below the mansion-house of Carpow, stood the 
ancient castle which belonged to the lords of Aber- 
nethy; part of its foundation may be still seen.' 
Now, it might be supposed that here, as in other in- 
stances, the person who obtained the grant of royal 
domains would prefer the occupation of the ancient 
residence to the erection of a new one. The dis- 
tance would be no objection. For I have else- 
where proved, from the most ancient authority, that, 
during the Pictish era, Abernethy was far more 
extensive than it now is ; as the king, in his dona- 
tion to St. Brigid, extends its limits to a stone near 
Carpow. I acknowledge, however, that the place 
called Castle-law seems to claim the preference. 
For, from the most minute inquiry, I learn that there 
is a tradition, perfectly familiar to every one in the 
vicinity, that this was the residence of the ancient 
Pictish kings. In confirmation of this article of 
traditionary belief, an appeal is made, not only to 
the vast quantity of stones still remaining on this 
hill, but to the description of those that have been 
carried off in successive ages. Unlike the materials 
of the cairns, which are so commonly met with in 
our country, these have, in a great measure, been 
hewn stones. A house in the neighbourhood has, 
of late, been entirely built of dressed stones carried 
off from the Law. There seems, therefore, to be no 
reason to doubt that this has been the site of veiy 
extensive and superb buildings. The remains of a 
surrounding moat are yet to be traced on the west 
side. At the bottom of this hill, an eminence is 
called the Quarrel-know, i. e. knoll, where, accord- 
ing to tradition, the Picts were wont to celebrate 
their military games. This may have been its ori- 
ginal appropriation, whence in later ages it might 

continue to be employed for similar purposes. But 
the name itself can hardly claim so early an origin; 
having most probably been given to it, in an age in 
which the use of the cross-bow was common, from 
the designation of the arrow shot from it, which was 
called a quarrel; unless the term should be traced 
to our old Scottish word quarrell, or querell, denoting 
a quarry. The view from this elevation has been 
deemed worthy of its ancient royal honours, as scarce- 
ly excelled by any in Scotland, — a country so rich 
in beautiful and picturesque prospects. While the 
classic Earn unites with the noble Tay at your feet, 
the eye is delighted with the richness of the carse 
of Gowrie ; and the prosperous town of Dundee is 
seen in the distance, with the numerous sails that 
enliven the expanding river in its course to what 
was anciently denominated the Scythic sea." — In 
the south-west corner of the parish, among the hills, 
stands Balvaird castle, which belonged to the Hur- 
rays of Balvaird, in the reign of Robert II. It is 
now the property of the Earl of Mansfield, the lineal 
descendant of that ancient b rase. 

ABERNETHY. A highland parish, partly in 
Morayshire and partly in Inverness-shire. It is 
bounded, on the north, by the parishes of Duthill 
and Inverallan; on the east, by Banffshire; on the 
south, by Braemar ; and on the west, by the river 
Spey. Its post-town is Grantown; but it has a 
sub-office of its own. It comprises the old parish of 
Abernethy and the parish of Kincardine or Kin- 
chardine — the latter united to it about the time of 
the Reformation, and lying wholly in Inverness- 
shire ; and it is sometimes known as the united par- 
ish of Abernethy and Kinchardine. The name is 
descriptive of the situation of the kirk-town with 
respect to the Nethy, being within a mile of the fall 
of that stream into the Spey. The meaning of the 
name Nethy, or Neich, is not known; that of Kin- 
chardine, or Kinie-chairdin, is ' the Clan of Friends.' 
The parish is 15 miles in length, measured from 
Cromdale on the north to Rothiemurchus on the 
south; and from 10 to 12 in breadth. The surface 
is highly diversified with haughs, woods, and moun- 
tains. A stretch of about 3 miles of low land and 
meadowy along the bank of the Spey, is often over- 
flowed by that river, which here runs smooth and 
slow. The arable ground bears but a small propor- 
tion to the uncultivated. A great proportion of the 
surface is covered with woods. On the Grant estate 
alone there are 7,000 acres of natural fir-wood. — The 
only river of any note, besides the Spey, is the 
Nethy, which, rising on the northern side of the hills 
to the east of Cairngorm, known as the Braes of 
Abernethy, flows in a north-west direction through 
the forests, and empties itself into the Spey, 4 
miles above Grantown. It is about 12 miles in 
length, and is a rapid running stream; after rains, 
or thaws, it swells so as to bring down the timber 
that has been cut in the forests of Grant to the Spey, 
whence it is sent in rafts to Garmouth. There is a 
bridge over the Nethy about a mile above its con- 
fluence with the Spey, having a water-way of 84 
feet. A little to the east of the Nethy is the burn 
of Cultmore. The Dualg burn flows into the Spey 
about 4 miles above the Nethy. There are several 
small lakes in Kincardine, the most considerable of 
which is Loch Morlach, in Glenmore. It is of an oval 
form, and nearly two miles in diameter. It is in the 
bottom of the glen, and surrounded with aged fir- 
woods, which rise gradually towards the mountains. 
It discharges itself into the Spey by the Morlach 
burn, which is about 4 miles in length. In Glenmore 
there is another small loch, in extent about one acre, 
which abounds with small fat green trout. At the 
foot of Cairngorm, about a mile frcm its base, if 




Loch Avon, whence the river of that name issues. 
At one end of this loch is a large natural cave, called 
Chlachdhian, or 'the Sheltering stone.' Of the 
mountains of this parish, Cairngorm, or, ' the Blue 
mountain,' is the most remarkable. It commands 
an extensive view. The shires of Koss, Sutherland, 
and Caithness, are seen from its summit. See 
C.uunoorm. A vast business in the cutting down 
of timber in the mountains, and floating it dowr^the 
Ncthy and the Spey, was commenced by the York 
Building Company about the year 1730, and resumed 
at a later period, and has conferred great benefits on 
the population. The practices of agriculture, iu the 
low tracts, have in recent times undergone wonder- 
ful improvement. The chief landowner is the Earl 
ofSeafield. Assessed property in I860, •£•1,764. The 
Strathspey railway terminates here. Population of 
the parish in 1831, 2,092 ; in 1861, 1,928. Houses, 
404. Population of the Morayshire portion in 1831, 
1,258; iu 1861, 1,141. Houses, 234._ 

This parish, formerly a vicarage, is in the presby- 
tery of Abernethy, and synod of Moray. Patron, 
the Earl of Seafield. Stipend, £234 2s. Id., with a 
glebe valued at £7, and a manse. Unappropriated 
teinds £98. Schoolmaster's salary in 1865, £45, 
with about £20 fees. The church of Kincardine is 
8 milesdistant from the kirktown of Abernethy. The 
parish-minister officiates two successive Sabbaths in 
Abernethy church, and every third Sabbath in that 
of Kincardine. The latter church has sittings for 
600; the former, for 1,000. Both are well-built. 
There is a Free church at Abernethy; and the 
yearly sum raised at it in 1853 was £76 lis. lid., — in 
1865, £105 8s. There is a Society's school at Kin- 
cardine. — There is a large oblong square building 
near the church, called Castle Roy, or the Bed cas- 
tle; one side measures 30, the other 20 yards; the 
height is about 10. It never was roofed, had no 
loop-holes, and only one entrance to the inside. 
Neither history nor tradition give any account of it. 
— The Hon. John Grant, Chief-justice of Jamaica, 
was a native of this parish ; and Francis Grant, 
Lord Cullen, and Patrick Grant, Lord Preston- 
grange, both eminent jurisconsults, and lords of ses- 
sion, were connected with this parish. At Knock 
of Kincardine was born, in 1700, John Stuart, com- 
monly called John Boy Stuart. He was a good 
Gaelic poet. 

ABERNYTE, a parish in the Sidlaw-hills district 
of Perthshire. It is bounded by the parishes of 
Cargill, Longforgan, Inchture, Kinnaird, and Collace. 
Its post-town is Inchture. Its length is nearly 3 
miles ; and its greatest breadth is about 2 miles. It 
has an area of about 2,600 acres, of which a little up- 
wards of 1,700 are under cultivation. The kirk-town, 
near thecentre of the parish, is situated 1 1 miles north- 
east of Perth, and stands in a fine valley intersected 
by a stream flowing south-east into the estuaiy of the 
Tay The highest point in the parish is the King's 
seal, on the northern extremity, which rises to the 
height of 1,155 feet, and commands a fine view 
southwards to the frith of Forth. The general de- 
clination of the country is towards the south-east. 
Upon the top of a hill caUed Glenny-law are two cairns, 
supposed to cover the remains of the slain in a feud 
between the Grays of Fowlis and the Boyds of Pit- 
kindie. Population in 1831, 254; in 1861, 310. 
Houses, 67. Assessed property in 1865, £2,937 
17s. 8d. 

This parish, formerly a vicarage, is in the pres- 
bytery of Dundee, and synod of Angus and Mearns. 
Patron, the Crown. Stipend, £159 lis. 3d.; glebe, 
£14. Schoolmaster's salary now is £50, with about 
£25 fees, and £4 10s. other emoluments. The parish 
church was built in 1736, and may accommodate 

the whole population. There is a Free church for 
Abernyte and Rait; and the yearly sum raised in 
connexion with it in 18G5 was £123 4s. 8d. 

ABER-RUTHVEN. See Auchterarder. 

ABERTARF. See Boleskixe. 

ABERUCHILL. See Comkee. 

AB1NGTON, a village, with a post-office, in the 
parish of Crawford-John, Lanarkshire. It stands 
near the confluence of Glengonnar Water with the 
Clyde, at the junction of the road down Glengonnar 
Water from Leadhills with the road from Dumfries 
by Elvanfoot to Glasgow, and near a station on the 
main trunk of the Caledonian railway, 5 miles from 
Lamington, and 48J from Edinburgh. It is a neat 
and picturesque place, and is the rendezvous for the 
coursing matches in which the best dogs of England 
and Ireland are pitted against those of the west of 
Scotland. .Gold is said to have been obtained from 
mines wrought in this neighbourhood in the reign of 
James VI. Population of the village, 135. 

ABOYNE, a parish in the Deeside district of 
Aberdeenshire. It is bounded, on the south, by 
Forfarshire, and on other sides by the parishes of 
Glenmuick, Coull, Lumphanan, and Birse. It con- 
tains the village and post-office of Charlestowx op 
Aboyxe: which see. Its greatest length is about 13 
miles; audits greatest breadth about 12 miles. A 
detached part, with a population of about 60, lies 
beyond Birse, on the left bank of the Feugh. The 
present parish comprises two old parishes, Aboyne 
and Glentanner, and is frequently designated the 
united parish of Aboyne and Glentanner. The en- 
tire area of the united parish is about 29,000 acres, 
of which nearly 3,000 acres are arable. By far the 
greater part of the rest is covered with heath. The 
extensive forest of Glentanner, composed of Scotch 
fir, once the finest in the county, is now all sold, 
and nearly all cut; and the splendid plantations oi 
the same wood about Aboyne castle are also nearly 
all exposed to the same fate. There is little if any 
hard wood in the parish, and none of great size. 
About five-sixths of the parish are held under en- 
tail. Four-fifths of it is the property of the Marquis 
of Huntly ; and the rest belongs principally to Mr. 
Farquharson of Finzean, Mr. Dyce Nicol of Ball- 
ogie, and the Earl of Aberdeen. Assessed property 
in 1864-5, £6,290, including £280 in the Deeside rail- 
way, which ha> a station here, and is to be extended 
to Bridge of Gairn. Farms are generally very small, 
the soil light and early, and chiefly adapted for tur- 
nip husbandry. The principal mansion is Aboyne 
castle, a large massive building which has been en- 
larged and improved by the Marquis of Huntly. 
The site is rather low, but is finely sheltered and 
surrounded by well-laid out and extensive enclo- 
sures. About a mile to the south the Dee is crossed 
by an elegant suspension - bridge. The turnpike 
from Aberdeen to Braemar runs through part of the 
parish ; and various lines of commutation road also 
pass through it. The Dee runs about 6 miles 
through and along the parish, and receives in its 
course a few tributary streams, the principal of 
which is the Tanner from the south. The parish is 
very hilly, particularly in Glentanner, where some 
of the hills attain a considerable altitude. Tumuli 
abound in various parts of the parish, but most in 
the north part. Some urns with calcined bones 
have been dug up in Glentanner, which indicate 
that the Romans had visited this part of Scotland at 
some time. There are three burying-grounds in the 
parish, one in Glentanner and two in Aboyne. 
Tradition has it that the pest or plague, had at one 
time raged with great violence here ; and that it was 
first observed to abate on the Mondays and Fridays, 
after which the people should have immediately ah- 




stained from breaking ground in the churchyard of I 
Glentanner on those days of the week, out of grati- 
tude for the appearance of deliverance from such an 
awful enemy to the human race. The observance, 
which is still most scrupulously adhered to, has 
more likely had its origin in the dark days of igno- 
rance and popish superstition. The title of Earl of 
Aboyne merged, in 1833, in that of Marquis of 
Huntly. It was created by James VI. in 1599. 
Population in 1831, 1,163; in 1861, 1,160. Houses, 

This parish is in the presbytery of Kincardine 
O'Neill, and synod of Aberdeen. Patron, the Mar- 
quis of Huntly. Stipend, £160 15s. Id., with manse 
and glebe. Schoolmaster's salary of Aboyne school, 
£35: of Glentanner school, £30. The parish church 
is a very handsome edifice, built in 1842, and has 
628 sittings. There is a Free church; attendance 
at it 150 ; sum raised in 1865, £44 1 1 s. 5-i-d. There 
is a female school supported bv Lady Huntly. 

ABRUTHVEN. See Auchterarder. 

ACH-, or Auch-, a prefix in many topographical 
names of Gaelic origin. It signifies simply 'a field,' 
in a loose or general sense of that word; so that very 
few of the names compounded with it have a gra- 
phic character, or even a very definite or well-ascer- 
tained reference. 

ACHAISTAL. See Latheron. 


ACHALICK, a bay on the east side of Loch 
Fyne, about 3 miles south of Kilfinan church, Ar- 

ACHALL, a lake in the parish of Lochbroom, 
Ross-shire. It is situated about 3 miles west of 
Ullapool, and is skirted by the road thence to Oikel- 
Bridge. It measures about 2J miles in length, and 
upwards of 1 mile in breadth : and is variously embo- 
somed in green hills, rugged heights, and wooded 
promontories ; and, under some aspects, is one of the 
prettiest pieces of water in the Highlands. 

ACHALLADER, Se.j Glenorchy. 

ACHALL Y. See Bexachally and Cluxie. 

ACHANDRAINE, a village in the parish of In- 
veraiy, Argyleshire. Population, about 80. 

ACHANDUIM. See Lismore. 

ACHANEILEIN, a quagmire, or quaking bog, of 
unknown depth, about three - quarters of a mile 
broad, and upwards of 5 miles long, in the parish of 
Ardnamurchan, Argyleshire. It lies along the south 
side of Lochshiel. 

ACHARACLE, or Aharcle, a government church 
district in the parish of Ardnamurchan, Argyleshire 
and Inverness-shire. It consists chiefly of the east- 
em portion of Ardnamurchan, but comprises also a 
part of Sunart and a part of Moidart. Its post-town 
is Strontian. The church and the manse are situ- 
ated at the west end of Lochshiel. The population, 
a number of years ago, amounted to 2,026, of whom 
1,200 were Roman Catholics. There was a Free 
church station for Acharacle and Moidart ; the yearly 
sum raised in connexion with which in 1853 was £5 
16s. Id. 

ACHARAINEY. See Halkirk. 

ACHARN, a village in the parish of Kenmore, 
Perthshire. It stands on the south shore of Loch 
Tay, 1| mile above the village of Kenmore. It is a 
neat, snug, little place, and is famous for a pic- 
turesque waterfall on a bum which rushes past it 
to the lake. "The bum, precipitating its waters 
over the side of a deep and wooded dell, first per- 
forms a perpendicular descent of fully 50 feet, sep- 
arating towards the bottom into two vertical streams, 
which are caught by a small basin; whence the wa- 
ter escapes by successive inclined leaps, the whole 
forming a cascade apparently about 80 or 90 feet 

high." [Anderson's Guide to the Highlands.! Po- 
pulation of the village, 42. 

ACHBRECK, a mission - station on the Royal 
Bounty, in Glenlivet, in the parish of Inveraven, 
Banffshire. See Glenlivet, Inveraven, and Banff- 
shire Railway. 

ACHENACRAIG. See Achnacratg. 

ACHERUACH. See Strathdon. 

ACHESON'S HAVEN, a small harbour near 
Prestonpans, in the county of East Lothian. It 
was constructed by the monks of Newbottle, on 
their grange of Preston. It is often named Mom- 
son's haven, from one of its later proprietors. 

ACHILTY (Loch). See Coxa-re. 

ACHINBLAE. See Adchinblae. 

ACHINCASS. See Kjrkpatrick-Juxta 

ACHINDAVY. See Auchendavy. 

ACHINDUIN. See Lismore. 

ACHLOUCHRIE. See Tannadice. 

ACHMITHY. See Auchmithy. 

ACHMORE. See Weem. 

ACHNACARY. See Archaig (Loch). 

ACHNACRAIG, or Achexacraig, a small har- 
bour, with a post-office, in the parish of Toresay, 
and on the east coast of the island of Mull, Argyle- 
shire. It is situated at the entrance of Loch Don, 
18 miles south-east of Aros, and 132 west by north 
of Edinburgh. It is the principal ferry of Mull, 
first to the opposite island of Kerrera, a distance of 
about 4J miles, and thence to the mainland near 
Oban, a distance of 4 miles. Great numbers of 
black cattle are conveyed from it for the lowland 
markets; and formerly those also from Coll and 
Tyree were landed on the farther side of Mull and 
reshipped here. 

ACHNAGOL, a village in the parish of Inverary, 
Argyleshire. Population, about 90. 

ACHNAVARN. See Halkirk. 

ACHRANNIE (Slugs of), two romantic cataracts 
on the river Isla, on the boundary between the par- 
ishes of Glenisla and Liutrathen, Forfarshire.' They 
occur about 2 miles below the Reeky linn. See 
Isla (The). " The upper one," says the new statist 
of Glenisla, " is the most deserving of notice. Here 
the river is suddenly contracted by stupendous cliffs 
into a space scarcely exceeding 3 yards in breadth. 
Through this frightful chasm the deep boiling flood 
forces itself with tremendous power, and in curling 
wreaths' of foam, thunders down a steep broken 
channel of considerable length, into a gloomy but 
spacious ravine, walled by rocks quite perpendicular 
and of great altitude. These are surmounted by a 
profusion of trees, exceedingly rich and varied in 
their foliage, which the hand of man never planted, 
and many of which he will never dare to approach." 

ACHRAY (Loch), a beautiful sheet of water in 
Perthshire, between Loch-Katrine and Loch-Ven- 
nachar, and at a nearly equal distance from both. 
With these lakes it is connected by two small 
streams, — one of which flows into its western ex- 
tremity from Loch-Katrine, while the other, issuing 
from its eastern end, carries its waters into Loch- 
Vennachar. The lake receives its name from the 
farm of Achray , situated on its south-western shore ; 
the term in Gaelic signifies ' the level field.' Loch- 
Achray, therefore, means ' the lake of the level 
field.' Compared with either of its sister-lochs, 
Loch- Achray is but of small dimensions ; its utmost 
length being about a mile, and its breadth scarcely 
half-a-mile ; but the epithet ' lovely ' has been, with 
peculiar propriety, applied to this lake by Sir Wal- 
ter Scott, as it is hardly possible to conceive any 
natural sceneiy more lovely than that presented by 
the shores of Loch-Achray. The northern shore is 
bold and rocky, but its harsher features are softened 


AJ-aHari : . . 




bv a rich covering of wood and ' bosky thickets' to 
the water's edge, — 

" the copscwood grey, 

That waves and weeps on Loch-Achray." 

On the south, the ground rises more gradually from 
the lake, hut it is mostly clad with heath. This 
soft and gentle character, however, can only he ap- 
plied to the lake, its hays and shores, and their im- 
mediate vicinity; for beyond this we have lofty 
mountains rearing their rugged and often cloud- 
capp'd heads in awful majesty, and deep and silent 
glens and ravines through which the upland streams 
seek their way to the lakes. On the shores of 
Loch-Aehray we are still within the power of the 
magician's spell ; and so thoroughly has he peopled 
the visions of our fancy with the creations of his 
own imagination that we look for the localities of 
his poem, as we did at Loch-Katrine, with as per- 
fect a faith, and gaze on them when found with as 
much devotion, as we should on the scenes of some 
of the most important transactions in our national 
annals. Along these shores the messenger of Rod- 
eric Dim carried the fiery cross, to alarm and call 
to the rendezvous the sons of Alpine ; and he who, 
giving himself up to the magic influence of the 
minstrel's strain, delights to blend together the real 
truth and the ideal in his conceptions, will re- 
member how 

" Fast as the fatal symbol flies, 
In arms the huts and hamlets rise; 
From winding glen, from upland brown, 
They pour'd each hardy tenant down." 

Wear the east end of Loeh-Achray, and before the 
traveller from Callander approaches it, he passes 
over ' the Brigg of Turk,' one of the localities of the 
poem. See Glexfixglass and Tkosachs. 


ACKERNESS. See Westray. 

ADAM. See Wiiitekirk. 

ADAM'S ROW, a village in the parish of New- 
town, Edinburghshire. Population, 249. 

ADD (The), a river of the west side of Argyle- 
shire. It rises in some marshes in the north-west 
extremity of the parish of Glassary; and in its 
winding course south-westward receives several trib- 
utaries, and acquires a considerable volume. It 
flows along the valley of Glassary, and through the 
moss of Crinan, and falls into the sea at Inner Loch 
Crinan. It occasionally, in heavy rains, overflows 
its banks, and does much injury to adjacent fields. 
It abounds with trout ; and there is a salmon fish- 
ery at its mouth. 

'ADIE HILL. See Ratiivex. 

ADVIE, an ancient vicarage and district, partly 
m Moray, partly in Inverness-shire, now compre- 
hended in the parish of Cromdale ; 8 miles north- 
east from Grantown. This district contains the 
barony of Advie on the eastern, and the barony of 
Tnlchen on the western side of the Spey. These 
baronies, anciently a part of the estate of the Earl 
of Fife, came to the family of Ballendalloeh in the 
15th century, with whom they continued, until sold 
to Brigadier Alexander Grant. 

AE (The), or Water of Ae, a river of Dumfries- 
shire. It rises at the southern foot of Queensberry- 
hill, runs south for some miles to Glencross in Kirk- 
mahoe, forming the boundary between Closebum 
and Kirkniichael parishes ; then bending its course 
south-eastward, forms a junction at Esby with the 
Kinnel, a branch of the Annan. Its tributaries are 
the Deer bum, the Branet burn, the Garrel, Capple 
water, and Glenkill burn. Its length of course, in- 
cluding windings, is about 16 miles. It is a rapid 
stream, and very subject to sudden and powerful 

floods ; and as it flows much on a broad gravelly bed, 
through a country but slightly above its own level, 
it often does considerable injury, and is constantly 
undermining its hanks and altering its course. 

.zEBUD/li and yE.MoD.ra. See Hebrides. 

AEN. See Aan. 

AFFLECK. See Auchinleck. 

AFFORSK, a picturesque ravine, in the parish of 
Gamrie, Banffshire. It is deep and winding, and 
has precipitous, diversified, and luxuriantly plant- 
clad sides, and passes down in a profusion of ro- 
mance from the interior of the parish, past the old 
church, to the sea. See Gamrie. 

AFFRICK (Loch), a lake on the mutual boun- 
dary of the parishes of Kilmorack and Kiltar- 
lity, in the north-western part of the mainland of 
Inverness-shire. It measures about 7 miles in 
length and about one mile in breadth, and extends 
in a north-easterly direction. It is very deep, and 
abounds in different lands of small fish. The river 
Glass flows out of it, and soon expands into two 
other lakes of respectively 3 miles and 4 miles in 
length, and sometimes bears here the name of the 
Aflrick. All the strath of the three lakes, and of 
the intervening runs of the river, is sublimely pic- 
turesque, and it possesses fine remains of the an 
cient Caledonian forest. 

AFTON, a rivnlet of Ayrshire. It rises among 
the uplands near the meeting-point of Ayrshire, 
Dumfries-shire, and Kircudbrightshire ; and flows 8 
miles northward to the Nith at the east side of the 
village of New Cumnock. Its current is rapid, and 
its course lies along a beautiful valley, to which it 
gives the name of Glenafton. It is noticed in one 
of the effusions of Bums. 

AFTON BRIDGEND, a village in the parish of 
New Cumnock, taking its name from its situation 
on the rivulet Afton, Ayrshire. Population in 1861. 

AHAECLE. See Acharacle. 

AIGAS, or Ellean-Aigas, a beautiful island, 5J 
miles south-west from Beauly, formed by the river 
Beauly, which here divides into two branches. It 
is of an oval figure, about 1J mile in circumference; 
and contains about 50 acres. It is principally com- 
posed of a mass of pudding-stone, rising in an abrupt 
manner about 100 feet above the level of the water, 
but communicating with the mainland by a bridge. 
It is covered with natural wood of birch and oak, 
and is much frequented by roes, and occasionally by 
red deer. To this island Simon, Lord Lovat, con- 
ducted the dowager Lady Lovat, when letters of fire 
and sword were issued against him in 1697 ; and 
here, in a crow-stepped building in the old Scottish 
style, erected by Lord Lovat, reside the only de- 
scendants of Prince Charles Edward Stuart. The 
wild turkey of America was introduced to the island 
in the summer of 1842. See Kilmorack. 

AIKENHAULD. See Oathxaw. 

AIKERNESS. See Pomona. 

AIKY. See Deer (New). 

AILSA CRAIG, a stupendous insulated rock, or 
rather mountain, in the mouth of the frith of Clyde, 
between the coasts of Ayrshire and Kintyre ; in N. 
lat. 55° 15' 13" ; W. long. 5° 7', according to Gal- 
braith, but according to Norie, in N. lat. 55° 17' 0"; 
W. long. 5° 8' 0". From the islet of Pladda it is 
distant 10' 20" direct south. It is a mass of co- 
lumnar syenetio trap, shooting up in a conical form, 
to an altitude of 1,100 feet according to Macculloch, 
from an elliptical base of 3,300 feet in the major 
axis, by 2,200 in the minor. Its formation is dis- 
tinctly columnar, especially on the western side, in 
which the rock rises quite perpendicularly from the 
sea. Dr. Macculloch says, that "if a single pillar 

be examined near at hand, it will be found far less 
decided in shape than those of Staffa or Skye, while 
the whole mass appears as if blended together, not as 
if each column could be separated; but, when 
viewed in the mass, the general effect of a columnar 
and regular structure is as perfect as on the north 
coast of Skye," while the diameter of the columns far 
exceeds those of Skye, ranging from 6 to 9 feet, and, 
in one place, attaining an unbroken altitude of near- 
ly 400 feet. The only landing-place is on the east 
side, where there is a small beach formed by fallen 
fragments of the rock. From this, an easy ascent 
of 200 feet conducts us to the ruins of a square 
building of which nothing is known, though Mac- 
culloch conjectures it may have been an eremitical 
establishment dependent on Lamlash in Arran. Be- 
yond this building the ascent is extremely laborious, 
the visitor having to force his way over fragments 
of rock, and through a forest of gigantic nettles. 
Not far from the summit are two copious springs ; 
the summit itself is covered with fine herbage, but 
affords only a scanty and somewhat perilous footing. 

The aspect of this vast and ' craggy ocean pyramid' 
" from any distance, and in every direction," says 
Macculloch, " is very grand, and conveys an idea of 
a mountain of far greater magnitude ; since, as its 
beautiful cone rises suddenly out of the sea, there is 
no object with which it can be compared. From its 
solitary and detached position also, it frequently ar- 
rests the flight of the clouds, hence deriving a misty 
■ hue which more than doubles its altitude to the im- 
agination ; while the cap of cloud which so often 
covers its summit, helps to produce, by concealing 
its height, the effect — invariable in such cases — of 
causing it to appear far higher than it really is ; 
adding that appearance of mystery to which moun- 
tains owe so much of their consequence. What 
Ailsa promises at a distance, it far more than per- 
forms on an intimate acquaintance. If it has not 
the regularity of Staffa, it exceeds that island as 
much in grandeur and variety as it does in absolute 
bulk. There is indeed nothing, even in the co- 
lumnar scenery of Skye or in the Shiant isles, su- 
perior as these are to Staffa, which exceeds, if it even 
equals, that of Ailsa. In point of colouring, these 
cliffs have an infinite advantage ; the sobriety of 
their pale grey stone, not only harmonizing with the 
subdued tints of green, and with the colours of the 
sea and the sky, but setting off to advantage all the 
intricacies of the columnar structure ; while, in all 
the Western islands where this kind of scenery oc- 
curs, the blackness of the rocks is not only often 
inharmonious and harsh, but a frequent source of 
obscurity and confusion." 

Ailsa Craig is occupied throughout the warm 
parts of the year by innumerable legions of sea- 
fowl; and a favourite feat, in pleasure excursions 
by steam- boat from Glasgow, is to sail near the stu- 
pendous cliffs, and to fire a swivel against them so 
as to give a sudden and universal alarm to the birds. 
The scene which follows is wondrously sublime, — 
seeming as if the mountain were resolving itself 
into great dense clouds of feathered creatures, with 
an accompaniment of cawing and screaming almost 
terrific; but, at the same time, it is so very singu- 
lar, so exceedingly unlike every other kind of sub- 
lime scene, that some attempts which spirited 
writers have made to describe it, though all true 
and graphic to persons who have witnessed it, 
appear bombastic and nonsensical to those who have 
not. An intelligent tacksman pays £34 a-year for 
the use of the rock; and, along with two or three 
assistants, spends the whole summer, from the 
month of May onward, in alternately fowling and 
fishing. The birds are of value chiefly for their 

feathers, for the stuffing of beds; and they are 
caught in two methods. X)ne of these is to spread 
a large net over any traversable part of the surface, 
and to leave it there for a sufficient time to allow 
them to settle down upon it ; and when it is visited, 
it generally has entangled as many as will fill a 
sack or two, and the fowler needs only to pick them 
out and despatch them. The other method is exactly 
similar to the perilous one practised at St. Kilda. 
Morning and evening, when the birds are quiescent, 
the tacksman or an assistant is let down from the 
summit against the face of the precipice, by means 
of a rope securely held by two persons above. The 
man, thus dangling between sky and sea, is armed 
with a long pole carrying a hair gin; and he slips 
the gin over the head of each slumbering fowl, 
draws tight the loop, and then flings down the car- 
case to the foot of the precipice to be picked up at 
leisure by a boat. Notwithstanding the immense 
numbers which are thus taken, the feathered colo- 
nies of the Craig never look as if they had sustained 
any diminution, but seem, amid all the trackings of 
desolation which pass over them, to be like the sea, 
which " takes no furrow from the keel." Toward 
the end of summer, the colonies have completed the 
purposes of their yearly sojourn, and begin to leave 
in detachments according to their kind; and early 
in autumn the myriads of solan geese, cormorants, 
puffins, links, and gulls, have entirely taken their 
departure for other regions. The rock, however, 
is even then not without inhabitants; for, in addi- 
tion to great numbers of rabbits, between forty and 
fifty goats work hard amongst the cliffs for a decent 
subsistence. The rabbits are thinned during the 
month of January, when, according to the season, 
from 50 to 100 dozens are taken off the rock; and 
as their quality is generally excellent, they are 
great favourites in the market. 

Ailsa Craig is situated about 15 miles west of the 
town of Girvan, and belongs proprietorially to the 
barony of Knoekgerran, in the parish of Dailly. A 
scheme was agitated, a number of years ago, to 
make it a fishing station for the supply of Glasgow 
and Liverpool, by means of the steam-boats which 
regularly pass it, and some buildings for the pur- 
pose were commenced, but the scheme was aban- 
doned. The noble family of Kennedy, Earls of Cas- 
silis in the peerage of Scotland, are proprietors of 
Ailsa Craig, and take from it their titles of Baron 
and Marquis in the peerage of the United Kingdom. 
Archibald, twelfth Earl of Cassilis, was created 
Marquis of Ailsa in 1831; and his grandson suc- 
ceeded to his titles in 1846. The family seats are 
Colzean Castle and Cassilis Castle, which see; 
and see also the article Maybole. 

AIRD, or Ann, any isolated height, of an abrupt 
or hummocky character, either on the coast or in 
the interior. The name by itself, chiefly in the 
form of Aird, occurs sometimes, yet not often, in 
Scottish topography ; but in combination, as a pre- 
fix, chiefly in the form of Ard, it is of veiy frequent 
occurrence. Some words compounded with it refer 
to legendary circumstances, as Airdrie, " the king's 
height;" others refer to events in authentic history, 
as Ardchattan, " the height of Catan," one of the 
companions of Columba; but the great majority are 
descriptive of the localities themselves, as to either 
character or relative situation, as Ardclach, " the 
stony height," Ardnamurchan, " the height of the 
narrow seas." 

AIRD, a hamlet in the parish of Inch, Wigton- 

AIRD (Castle of), an extensive ruin, supposed 
to be the remains of a Danish fortification, situated 
on a rocky promontory a little to the north of Cara- 




dell point, on the eastern side of Kintyre, opposite 
Machry bay in the island of Arran. 

AIKD (The), a fertile district of Inverness-shire, 
in the vale of the Bcauly, chiefly the property of 
different branches of the elan Fraser. 

AIRD (The), a peninsula on the east coast of the 
island of Lewis, with which it is connected by the 
isthmus of Stornoway. It measures 5 miles in ex- 
treme length from Tuimpan-head on the north-east, 
to Chicken-head on the south - west ; its average 
breadth is about 2 J miles. It is in the parish of 
Stornoway, to which in ancient times it formed a 
chapelry called Ui or Uy. The old chapel is in 
ruins, but the inhabitants attend a government cha- 
pel at Knock. See Lewis and Stornoway. 

AIRD LYNN. See Shinnel. 

AIRD OF APPIN. See Aieds. 

AIRD OF COIGACH. See Coigach. 

AIRD POINT, the north-eastern extremity of 
the island of Skye, nearly opposite the mouth of the 
Gairloch in Ross-shire. 

AIRDLAMONT. See Ardlajiont. 

AIRDLE, or Ardle (The), a small river of the 
north-eastern part of Perthshire. It is formed by 
the union of two streams, — one descending from the 
Grampians, in the east forest of Athole, through 
Glen Femal, — and the other flowing from the west 
through Glen Briaraehan. These streams unite at 
Tulloeh, and assume the name of the Airdle, which 
flows south-east through Strath- Airdle in the parish 
of Kirkmichael, and unites with the Shee a little 
below Nether Traquhair. The two united streams 
form the Ekicht : which see. The total course of 
the Airdle is about 13 miles. 

AIRDMEANACH. See Ardmeanach. 

AIRDNAMDRCHAN. See Akdnamurchan. 

AIRDRIE, a post and market town and parlia- 
mentary burgh, in the palish of New Monkland, 
Lanarkshire. It stands on the principal line of 
road between Glasgow and Edinburgh, 11 miles 
east by north of Glasgow, and 32 miles west by 
south of Edinburgh. Its site is a rising ground, 
between two rivulets, sloping gently to the west, 
but presenting no marked or interesting features. 
Chalmers thinks that this place is the Arderyth of 
the ancient Britons, where, in the year 577, Ryd- 
derech the Bountiful, king of Strathclyde, defeated 
Aidan the Perfidious, king of Kintyre, and slew 
Givenddolan the patron of Merlin, who was also 
engaged in the battle. But so recently as about 
130 years ago it continued in a strictly rural condi- 
tion, and was occupied only by a farm hamlet. The 
surrounding country is still bleak, but has assumed 
an appearance of high general interest from the stir 
and achievements of manifold industry. The town 
is well-built, and has an aspect of tidiness, good 
taste, and great prosperity. The principal street 
extends along the Glasgow and Edinburgh road, 
and is spacious and airy. The town as a whole is 
not compact, yet on the other hand is free from all 
disagreeable compression and unhealthy closeness. 
It owes its rise and progress to the working of the 
rich and extensive beds of ironstone and coal which 
surround it, — to facilities of communication by road 
and canal and railway with the great markets and 
outlets of the west, — and to a large share in the 
weaving orders of the manufacturers of Glasgow; 
and, both in the spiritedness of its population and 
m the neatness of its streets and buildings, it does 
ample credit to the circumstances of its position 
and its histoiy. 

The town-house, erected about 20 years ago, is a 
very neat structure, and contains a good town-hall, 
a prison, and a police-office. The principal school, 
f-alled the Academy, is a neat edifice, built by R. S. 

C. Alexander, Esq., oi'Airdrie House, conducted by 
a rector and his assistants, and containing a branch 
for girls. _ The chief public institutions, commer- 
cial, charitable, and miscellaneous, are offices of 
the Bank of Scotland, the National Bank of Soot- 
land, the Clydesdale Bank, the City of Glasgow 
Bank, a savings' bank, a Temperance savings' 
Bank, offices of ten insurance companies, a Gas 
Company, the Airdrie and Coatbridge Water Com- 
pany, the New Monkland Poor-House, the New 
Monkland Orphan Society, the Airdrie Charity- 
House, the Benevolent Society, the Mechanics' In- 
stitution, the Horticultural Society, the Gardeners' 
Societies, New Monkland Agricultural Society, the 
Phrenological and Literary Society, the Airdrie 
Weavers' Friendly Society, the Temperance Society, 
and the Airdrie Sabbath School Union. The chief 
means of communication with Glasgow are the 
Monkland Canal and the Monkland branch of the 
Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway; and with Edin- 
burgh is the direct Airdrie, Bathgate, and Edinburgh 
Railway. See the articles Monkland Canal, 
Monkland Railways, Slamannan Railway, and 
Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway; and see also 
Glasgow and Gaknkirk Railway. The number of 
passengers between Airdrie and Glasgow by the 
canal alone, previous to the great facility of railway 
transit, was upwards of 50,000 a-year. At present 
there are five railway trains daily from Airdrie to 
Glasgow, and three to Edinburgh. 

In 1821, Airdrie was erected into a free burgh of 
barony ; and by the Municipal Act it was put 
under the government of a provost, three bailies, a 
treasurer, and seven councillors ; by the Reform 
Act, it was constituted a parliamentary burgh, to 
unite with Lanark, Hamilton, Falkirk, and Lin- 
lithgow, in sending a member to parliament ; and 
by a special act passed in 1849, it acquired all re- 
quisite powers for its municipal government and for 
all matters of police. The corporation revenue in 
1863-4 was £2,700 ; and the municipal and parlia- 
mentary constituency was 389. A burgh court is 
held every Monday; a sheriffs court every Tuesday; 
and a Justice of Peace court, every Thursday. A 
market is held every Tuesday ; and fairs are held 
on the last Tuesday of May and the third Tuesday 
of November. Real property of the burgh in 
1861-2, £29,742. Population 'in 1831, 6,594 ; in 
1861, 12,922. Houses, 1,259. 

Airdrie has a chapel of ease, called the West 
church, and had formerly another called the East 
church; but the latter, which was built in 1797, 
has been taken down. The West church was 
opened in 1835, and cost £2,370, and has 1,200 sit- 
tings. There are three Free churches, denominated 
Broomknoll, the West, and the High ; and the yearly 
sum raised in 1865 in connexion with the first was 
£201 12s. 7d., with the second £259 0s. llfd.. with 
the third £259 6s. Od. There are two United 
Presbyterian churches, the one in Well Wynd and 
the other in South Bridge-street ; the former a neat 
modem structure; each attended by between 500 
and 600. There is a Reformed Presbyterian church, 
with an attendance of 350. The other places of 
worship are one Independent, one Baptist, two 
Methodist, and one Roman Catholic. See Monk- 
land (New), and Broomknoll. 

AIRDRIE, an estate in the parish of Crail, Fife- 
shire. It belonged in the reign of David II. to the 
family of Dundemore; in the loth century, to the 
Lumsdens; in the reign of James VI. to Sir John 
Preston, president of the court of session; after- 
wards to General Anstruther; and latterly, to 
Methven Erskine, Esq., who became Earl of Kellie, 
I and died here in 1830. The mansion is embosomed 




hi wood, and crowns a swelling ground at the dis- 
tance of 2i miles from the coast, and comprises an 
ancient tower from which a magnificent view is 
obtained of the expanse and shores of the frith of 
Forth from the ocean to Edinburgh, and of the east 
coast of Scotland from St. Abb's Head to the Bell- 
Rock Lighthouse. 

AIRDRIE-HILL, a property, rich in black-band 
ironstone, in the vicinity of the town of Airdrie, 
parish of New Monkland, Lanarkshire. 

AIRDS, a beautiful district of Appin, in Argyle- 
shire. It comprises the peninsula between Loch 
Limine on the west and north, and Loch Creran on 
the south and east. " I do not know a place," says 
Macculloch, " where all the elements — often incon- 
gruous ones — of mountains, lakes, wood, rocks, 
oastles, sea, shipping, and cultivation, are so 
strangely intermixed, — where they are so wildly 
picturesque, — and where they produce a greater 
variety of the most singular and unexpected scenes." 
The promontory of Ardmucknish, richly clothed 
with oak-coppice, is a remarkably fine object. The 
estate of Airds comprises about 3,881 imperial acres, 
of which 792 are arable and 1,171 are under wood. 
The mansion-house is within J of a mile of Port- 

AlRDS BAY, a bay on the south side of Loch 
Etive, within the district of Muckairn, Argyleshire. 

AIRDSMOSS, or Aiesmoss, a large tract of ele- 
vated moorland in the district of Kyle, Ayrshire, 
lying between the water of Ayr on the north, and 
Lugar water on the south. The road from Cum- 
nock to Muirkirk may be regarded as its extreme 
eastern boundary, and that from Cumnock to Catrine 
as its extreme western. It is chiefly in the parish 
of Auchinleck ; but the uncultivated tract of moss 
does not exceed 5 miles in length, by 2 in breadth. 
A severe skirmish took place here, on the 22d of 
July 1680, between sixty-three Covenanters and a 
party of dragoons ; and a monument popularly called 
Cameron's stone, about half a mile west of the road 
from Cumnock to Muirkirk, marks the spot where 
vke deadliest of the strife occurred. The present 
erection is neat and quite modern ; but the original 
monument was a large flat stone, laid down about 
fifty years after the event, and marked with the 
names of the Covenanters who fell in the skirmish, 
and with the figure of an open bible and the figure 
of a sword grasped by a hand. 

The sixty-three Covenanters were among the 
staunchest adherents of the famous Sanquhar decla- 
ration, which renounced allegiance to the King, and 
were headed by Richard Cameron, who was both 
their minister and their chief political leader, and 
by Hackston of Rathillet, who acted as their mili- 
tary commander. They had lain for some time en- 
sconced in the moor, aware of danger being near 
them; and, in the afternoon of the 22d of July, they 
espied a body of well-armed dragoons, about 112 in 
number, under the command of Bruce of Earlshall, 
coming rapidly on. They had no alternative but to 
smrender unconditionally or make a desperate fight 
for liberty and life; and they promptly made ready 
to offer a stern resistance. Cameron prayed thrice 
aloud, •' Lord, spare the green and take the ripe," 
and then made a brief encouraging address to his 
brethren. Hackston rode off to seek an advanta- 
geous position, but could not find any ; and returned 
to the margin of the morass, and there quickly ar- 
ranged his little company in the order of eight 
horsemen on the right, fifteen horsemen on the left, 
and forty foot, many of them badly armed, in the 
centre. A detachment of the foot were sent off to 
meet about twenty dismounted dragoons, who ad- 
vanced to turn the flank of the Covenanters; and 

the main body moved forward to confront the chief 
force of the enemy, who were coming on at a gal- 
lop. The Covenanters' horse rode right up to the 
very face of the dragoons, and were the first to fire, 
and broke in among their ranks with desperation 
and fury. Hackston himself was foremost, and 
rode riotously amongst them, and sustained assaults 
from several troopers at a time, and pushed forward 
and recoiled by turns, and laid about him for many 
minutes like an Achilles; and, his horse at last 
sinking in the bog, he sprang to his feet, and was 
instantly assailed by a heroic dismounted dragoon, 
an old acquaintance of his own, of the name of 
David Ramsay, and combated him long and fiercely 
with the small sword, without either gaming or 
yielding any considerable advantage, and was at 
length struck down by three mounted dragoons be- 
hind him, and then surrendered himself on quarter 
to Ramsay. The other horsemen of the Covenanters 
fought almost as desperately as their leader, and 
neither asked nor gave quarter; but were soon cut 
down or captured. The foot did not adequately 
support the horse, but delivered their fire at some 
distance; and when Hackston fell, most of them 
fled far into the wet and sinking parts of the bog, 
where the dragoons could not easily or at all follow 
them. No fewer than twenty-eight of Earlshall's 
dragoons were either killed or mortally wounded in 
this skirmish; and the survivors readily acknow- 
ledged the great bravery of their antagonists. Only 
nine of the Covenanters were slain. Richard 
Cameron himself was among the first who fell, and 
was shot dead upon the spot where he stood. A 
number of others were made prisoners, and taken to 
Edinburgh, and were afterwards either tortured, 
banished, or executed. The skirmish of Airdsmoss 
is the subject of the well-known beautiful effusion, 

" In a dream of the night I was wafted away, 
To ttie moorland of mist where the martyrs lay; 
Where Cameron's sword, and his bible are seen, 
Engraved on the stone where the heather grows green." 

AIRI-INNIS, a lake, about 2 miles long and \ a 
mile broad, in the parish of Morvem, Argyleshire. 

AIRLIE, a parish on the west border of Forfar- 
shire. It is bounded by Perthshire, and by the par- 
ishes of Lintrathen, Kingoldrum, Kirriemuir, Glam- 
mis, Eassie, and Ruthven. Its post-town is Kirrie- 
muir. Its greatest length, from east to west, is 6 
miles; and its breadth varies from \ a mile to 4 
miles. The Dean river, a sluggish stream flowing 
from the Loch of Forfar, forms the southern boun- 
dary ; and the romantic Isla, running in a deep rocky 
gorge, bounds part of the north and west. The sur- 
face of the southern district is part of the howe of 
Strathmore, — alluvial and fertile; and the surface of 
the other districts rises, in a series of undulating par- 
allel ridges, to an extreme height of about 350 feet 
above the level of the howe. The glen of the Isla, 
along the northern border, with rocky channel, lofty 
and precipitous braes, and a profusion of every kind 
of brushwood, is a striking series of close picturesque 
views. A bog of 128 acres in area, called Baikie 
Moss, once lay on the western border, but has all been 
brought under cultivation. There are eight land- 
owners of £100 Scots valued rent. Assessed pro- 
perty in 1865, £9,838 16s. 6d. Baikie castle, the pro- 
perty of the last Viscount Fenton, was once a no- 
table object; but not a vestige of it now exists. 
Airlie castle, the ancient seat of the Ogilvies, Earls 
of Airley, is ' the Bonnie House o' Airlie ' of Scot- 
tish song. It occupied a commanding site on the 
rocky promontory at the confluence of the Melgum 
and the Isla, about 5 miles north of Meigle in Strath- 




more; it possessed great strength of both position 
ami masonry, and ranked as one of the proudest and 
most massive fortresses in Central Scotland; and, 
previous to the introduction of artillery, it must 
have been almost if not entirely impregnable. It 
had the form of an oblong quadrangle; and occupied 
the whole summit of the promontory, with the ex- 
ception of a small space at the extremity, which is 
traditionally said to have been used for exercising 
the horses. The wall which protected it on the 
eastern and most accessible side — high and mas- 
sive, together with the portcullis entry — still re- 
mains in connexion with the modern mansion of 
Airlie : and the fosse also continues distinct, but has 
been partially filled up, in order to render the place 
accessible to carriages. In July 1640, the Earl of 
Argyle, acting secretly upon the personal resent- 
ment which he had all his life long entertained 
against the Ogilvies, but overtly upon an express 
commission given him for the public service by the 
Committee of Estates, raised a body of 5,000 men of 
his own clan, and led them across the Grampians 
and down Strathtay to devastate the territories of 
the Earl of Airlie. "He is said by an old tradition to 
have halted them for the night on the haughs at 
the village of Rattray; and, in accordance with this, 
though most diminishingly out of reckoning with 
regard to the numbers, the old ballad says, — 

"Argyle has raised a bunder men, 

A hunder men and mairly, 
And he's awa doun by tlie back o 1 Dunkeld, ' 

To plunder tbe bonnie house o' Airlie." 

The Earl of Airlie at the time was absent in Eng- 
land, whither he had gone as much to avoid the ne- 
cessity of subscribing the Covenant, as to render 
immediate service to the King's cause. Lord Ogil- 
vie, the Earl's eldest son, held the charge of Airlie 
castle, and had recently maintained it against the 
assault of a party under the Earl of Montrose; but, 
on the approach of Argyle's army, he regarded all 
idea of resisting them as hopeless, and hastily aban- 
doned the castle and fled. Argyle's men plundered 
the place of everything which they coveted and 
could carry away, and tben proceeded to damage 
the castle to the utmost of their power by dilapida- 
tion and fire ; and Argyle himself acted so earnest a 
pari; in the demolition, that, according to the report 
of the historian Gordon, " he was seen taking a 
hammer in his hand, and knocking down the hewed 
work of the doors and windows till he did sweat for 
heat at his work." The modem house of Airlie is 
a beautiful and commodious residence. The other 
mansions are Lindertes House and Baikie House, — 
the former a modern structure in the castellated 
style. The railway from Newtyle to Glammis runs 
along the southern confines of the parish. Popula- 
tion m 1831, 860; in 1861, 845. Houses, 171. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Meigle, and 
svnod of Angus and Mearns. Stipend, £219 Is. 5d.; 
glebe, £12. Patron, the Earl of Strathmore. School- 
master's salary now is £40, with £13 fees. The 
parish church was built in 1783, has 411 sittings, 
and is in good repair. There is a Free church; and 
the yearly sum raised in connexion with it in 1865, 
was £69 10s. 3d. There is a private school. 

AIRNTULLY. See Arxtclly. 

AIRSMOSS. See Athdsmoss. 

AIRTH, a parish, with a post-office village of its 
own name, in the carse district of Stirlingshire. It 
is bounded by the upper part of the frith of Forth, 
and by the parishes of St. Ninians, Larbert, and 
Bothkenner. It extends about 6J miles along the 
Forth, and is about 3J miles broad. Excepting two 
small hills, the whole surface is a plain. A small 
stream which rises near the centre of St Ninians 

parish, flows eastward with a meandering course 
through this parish, and discharges itself into the 
Forth at Higgin's Nook. Stream-tides flow above a 
mile up Tiiis rivulet, which is liable to sudden and 
extensive floods. On the western side of the parish 
were formerly two extensive mosses, — one of nearly 
500 acres, called the Moss of Dunmore; and the 
other, to the south of it, called the Moss of Letham. 
These — which might be remains of the great Cale 
donian forest — have almost disappeared before the 
progress of cultivation ; and on the side of the frith 
also a considerable quantity of rich land has been 
reclaimed from the sea. The hills of Dunmore and 
Airth are very beautiful wooded eminences, towards 
the centre of the parish, both commanding a fine 
view of the frith. Coal was once extensively 
wrought ; and sandstone is plentiful in the two 
hills. There are three small harbours on the coast, 
— Airth, Dunmore, and Newmiln; and two femes 
across the frith, — one at Kersie, where the frith is 
about half-a-mile in breadth, and the other at Hig- 
gin's Nook, where the breadth is nearly a mile. 
All the low grounds of the parish seem to have, at a 
comparatively recent period, lain below the frith; 
for they all contain strata of modem shells at no 
great depth; and at the forming of the present road 
from Airth to Stirling in 1817, the skeleton of a 
whale was found at a spot upwards of a quarter of 
a mile from the present beach. The mansions are 
Airth castle, Dunmore House, Higgin's Nook, and 
Powfoulis. Airth castle takes its name from an old 
tower adjacent to it which is said to have been the 
scene of an exploit of Sir William Wallace against 
the English. Dunmore House is an elegant, Gothic, 
castellated structure, the seat of the Earl of Dun- 
more, amid a beautifully wooded park. The village 
of Airth stands near the coast, about 5 miles north 
of Falkirk. It has a savings' bank, a circulating 
library, two friendly societies, and more than enough 
of alehouses; and an annual fair is held on the last 
Tuesday of July, chiefly for hiring shearers. Popu- 
lation of the village in 1851, 583. There is another 
village, — the village of Dunmore. Population of the 
parish in 1831, 1,825; in 1861, 1,194. Houses, 221. 
Assessed property in 1864, £10,367. 

This parish, formerly a vicarage, is in the presby- 
tery of Stirling, and synod of Perth and Stirling. 
Patron, Graham of Airth. Stipend, £281 12s.; 
glebe, £27. Unappropriated teinds, £1,489 3s. 2d. 
Schoolmaster's salary, £55, with £40 fees. The 
parish church is a handsome structure built in 1 820, 
and has 800 sittings. There is aFree church preach- 
ing station ; the sum raised at which in 1865 was 
£62 3s. lid. There is also an United Presbyterian 
chm'ch, with an attendance of from 130 to 140. 
There are two private schools. An earldom of Airth 
was grafted in 1683 on the earldom of Menteith, 
held by the noble family of Graham ; but it became 
dormant at the death of the second Earl in 1 694. 

AIRTHREY, an estate among the skirts of the 
Oehill hills, about 2 miles north of Stirling. It be- 
longs to Lord Abercromby, and is graced by his 
beautiful residence of Airthrie castle. It is remark- 
able for the picturesqueness of its scenery, for the 
richness and variety of its minerals and mines, and 
most of all in recent years for the celebrity of its 
mineral wells. These wells are four in number, but 
yield only two waters, called the weak water and 
the strong water, for the use of invalids. Accord- 
ing to the analyses of Dr. Thomson, one pint of the 
weak water contains 37-45 grains of common salt, 
34-32 of muriate of lime, and 1'19 of sulphate of 
lime; and one pint of the strong water contains 
47-354 grains of common salt, 38-461 of muriate of 
lime, 4-715 of sulphate of lime, and 0-45 of muriate 




of magnesia. The waters, as a saline aperient, far 
excel those of Dunblane and Pitcaithley; and for 
general medicinal effect against various chronic 
diseases, they have begun to compete in fame with 
those of the most celebrated spas in Britain. But, 
no doubt, much of the benefit ascribed to them is 
really derived from the salubriousness of the climate, 
and the influences of scenery, and the effects of re- 
pose and exercise. Visitors are accommodated with 
lodgings at the neighbouring village of the Bridge 
of Allan. See Allan (Bridge of). A very neat 
bath-house, in the cottage style, with hot, cold, and 
shower baths, was erected a few years ago by Lord 

AITHSTING. See Sandsting. 

AIT-SUIDHE-THU1N. See Portree. 

AITHSVOE. See Dunrossnbss. 

AKERMOOR. See Yarrow. 

ALATERVA. See Watling Street. 

ALBANY, Albion, or Albinn, the ancient Gaelic 
name of Scotland, and, until Caesar's time, the original 
appellation of the whole island. The Scottish Celts 
denominate themselves Gael Albinn or Albinnich, in 
distinction from those of Ireland, whom they call 
Gael Eirinnich; and the Irish themselves call the 
Scottish Gaels Albannaich; while their writers, so 
late as the 12th century, call the country of the 
Scottish Gael Alban. With respect to the etymo- 
logy of the name Albinn or Albion, it is to be ob- 
served, in the first place, that it is compounded of 
two syllables, the last of which, inn, signifies in 
Celtic a large island. Thus far the etymology is 
clear, but the meaning of the adjective part, alb, is 
not so apparent. Dr. John Macpherson thinks it 
folly to search for a Hebrew or Phoenician etymon 
of Albion, and he considers the prefix alb as denot- 
ing a high country, the word being, in his opinion, 
synonymous with the Celtic vocable alp or alba, 
which signifies high. " Of the Alpes Grajas, Alpes 
Paminse or Penninae, and the Alpes Bastarnieae, 
every man of letters has read. In the ancient lan- 
guage of Scotland, alp signifies invariably an emi- 
nence. The Albani, near the Caspian sea, the Al- 
bani of Macedon, the Albani of Italy, and the Al- 
banich of Britain, had all the same right to a name 
founded on the same characteristical reason, the 
height or roughness of their respective countries. 
The same thing may be said of the Gaulish Albici, 
near Massilia." Deriving alb from the Latin word 
albus, the appellation of Albion would denote an 
island distinguished by some peculiarity either in 
the whiteness of its appearance or in the produc- 
tions of its soil, and hence Pliny derives the etymon 
of Albion from its white rocks washed by the sea, 
or from the abundance of white roses which the 
island produced. His words are, " Albion, insula 
sic dicta ab albis rupibus, quas mare alluit, vel ob 
rosas albas quibufi abundat." But although the 
whitish appearance of the English cliffs, as seen 
from the channel and the opposite coast of Gaul, 
certainly appears to support the supposition of Pliny, 
yet it is evidently contrary to philological analogy 
to seek for the etymon of Albion in the Latin. 
Amongst the various opinions given on this subject 
that of Dr. Macpherson seems to be the most ra- 
tional. The term Albany or Alban became ulti- 
mately the peculiar appellation of an extensive 
Highland district, comprehending Breadalbane, 
Athole, part of Lochaber, Appin, and Glenorchy. 
The title Duke of Albany was first created for a 
younger son of Robert II. It became extinct in his 
son Murdoch, who was beheaded by James I. James 
II. renewed it for his second son Alexander ;_ in 
whose son it again became extinct. Since the Union 
it has always been borne by the King's second son. 

ALDAEDER. See Knockando. 

ALDCAMBUS. See Cockburnspath. 

ALDCATHIE. See Dalmeny. 

ALDCLUYD. See Dumbarton. 

ALDERNAN. See Dumbartonshire. 

ALDERNY. See Boharm. 

ALDGIRTH. See Auldgtrth. 

ALDHAM. See Whitekikk. 

ALDHOUSE, a small village, about the centre o( 
the parish of East Kilbride, Lanarkshire. 

ALDIE, an ancient barony in the parish of Fos- 
saway, Perthshire, originally belonging to the Earls 
of Tullibardine, but which came by marriage into 
the family of Mercer of Meiklour, and is now the 
property of Baroness Keith of Aldie. The hamlet 
of Aldie is about two miles south by east of the 
Crook of Devon. Aldie Castle, once the family- seat 
of the Mercers, is now in ruins. 

ALDIVALLOCH. See Mortlach. 

ALE (The), a small stream of Berwickshire. It 
rises in the north-east part of the parish of Colding 
ham, and flows about 8 miles south-eastward to a 
confluence with the Eye, at a point about 1J mile 
above Eyemouth. Some parts of its valley are deep 
and picturesque; and the terminating part is very 
romantic, and has a remarkable elevation called the 

ALE (The), a small river of Selkirkshire and 
Roxburghshire. It issues from several sources on 
the western heights of the parish of Roberton, flows 
eastward through that parish and through Alemoor 
loch, and runs first north-eastward and then eastward 
across the western district of Roxburghshire, drain- 
ing the parishes of Ashkirk and Lilliesleaf and part 
of the parishes of Bowden and Ancrum, and glides 
into the Teviot a short distance below the town of 
Ancrum. It has a run altogether of about 20 miles, 
exclusive of its smaller windings ; and it passes 
through much variety of scenery, from bleakly pas- 
toral to lusciously luxuriant, yet in most places is, 
in some style or other, pleasing or picturesque. Its 
waters are of a darkish colour, and abound in trout. 
It was anciently called the Aine and the Alna. 
See Ancrum. 

ALEMOOR LOCH, a lake in the part of the 
parish of Roberton which lies in Selkirkshire. It 
has a circular outline, measures about two miles 
in circumference, and is of considerable depth. The 
scenery around it is pleasant in summer, but rather 
tame. This lake, Leyden informs us, is regarded 
with superstitious horror by the common people, as 
being the residence of the water-cow, an imaginary 
amphibious monster. A tradition also prevails in 
the district that an infant was once seized, while 
disporting on the ' willowy shore ' of this loch, by 
an erne, a species of eagle, which, on being pursued, 
dropped its' hapless prey ' into the waters. Leyden 
has introduced this incident with thrilling effect in 
his ' Scenes of Infancy,' in the lines commencing 

" Sad is the wail that floats o'er Alemoor's lake, 
And nightly bids her gulfs unbottomed quake, 
While moonbeams, sailing: o'er the waters blue, 
Reveal the frequent tinge of blood-red hue." 

ALEXANDRIA, a post-town in the parish of 
Bonhill, Dumbartonshire. It stands on the right 
bank of the Leven, contiguous to the village of 
Bonhill, about 1| miles south of Balloch and 3J 
miles north of Dumbarton. It has a station on the 
Dumbartonshire railway, and is traversed by the 
main road of the vale of Leven. The scenery around 
it is exquisite; and the appearance of its own streets 
and buildings is modem and pleasing. It has 
printworks and bleaehfields which so long ago as in 
1840 employed 438 persons; and it shares largely 
in the general industry which, in recent times, has 




kept up so much stir and prosperity along all the 
once rural hanks of the Leven. It has a branch 
office of the Clydesdale Bank, a chapel of ease, a 
Free church, ail United Presbyterian church, and 
an Independent meeting-house. Population in 
1841, 3,039; in 1801, 4,2*2. Houses 339. See 

ALFOKD, a district in the south-west of Aber- 
deenshire, comprehending the parishes of Alford, 
Auchindoir, Clatt, Glenbueket, Keig, Kildrmnmy, 
Kinnethmont, Loehell-cushnie, Ehynie and Essie, 
Strathdon, Tullynessle with Forbes, Tough, Towic, 
and part of Cabrach, which is mostly in the shire of 
Banff. This district is nearly surrounded on every 
side by hills and mountains, and there is no entrance 
to the greater part of it but by ascending consider- 
able heights to gain the passes between them. The 
climate is good. Its distance from the ocean occa- 
sions more intense frosts and longer lying snows; 
hut, on the other hand, the surrounding mountains 
protect and cover the country from the north-east 
fogs and winds which are so unfavourable to vege- 
tation in less-sheltered situations and places upon 
the coast. Besides several inferior streams, Alford 
is watered by the Don, which, rushing through a 
narrow gullet amongst the mountains on the west, 
winds its course, in a direction from west to east, 
through the whole length of the district, and flows 
out through a narrow valley encompassed on the 
north by Bennochie, which here rises into high and 
magnificent alpine tops. See Bexxochie. A rail- 
way for this district, called the Alford Valley Rail- 
way, was opened in March 1859; deflects from the 
Great North of Scotland Railway at its station of 
Kintore; and proceeds about 16J miles, by Fetter- 
near, Kemnay, Mqnymusk, Paradise, Castle-Forbes, 
and Haughton, to the village of Alford. Popula- 
tion in 1831, 11,923; in 1861,13,241. Houses 2,470. 

ALFOED, a parish, containing a post-office vil- 
lage of its own name, in the south-west of the dis- 
trict of Alford, Aberdeenshire. It is bounded by- 
the parishes of Tullynessle, Keig, Tough, Cuslmie, 
and Auchindoir and Keara. Its greatest length, 
from east to west, is 7 miles; and its greatest 
breadth is 3 miles. Less than one-half of the sur- 
face is arable; and the rest is variously moss, moor- 
land, hill-pasture, and waste upland. The soil on 
the banks of the Don is generally a good light loam. 
In the eastern part of the palish, the soil is in some 
places a deep loam ; in others, a strong clay ; and 
sometimes a mixture of both. In this quarter, and 
the adjoining parish of Tough, there was formerly a 
large marsh, now called the Strath of Tough or Kin- 
craigie, which was partially drained in the end of 
the 17th century. Two roads cross each other in 
this parish, a little to the north-east of the kirk- 
town: viz., the great northern road, which leads 
from Fettercaim , over the cairn of Month, to Huntly ; 
and the road which goes from Aberdeen to Corgarff, 
a military station on the sources of Don. On the 
former of these lines is the bridue of Alford over the 
Don, a little below its junction with the Lochel, 
built in 1811. It is of 3 arches, having a water- 
way of 128 feet, and cost £2,000. It is 14 miles 
distant from the bridge of Potarch over the Dee, on 
the same line of road. There are two old fortalices 
in this parish; one of them, Astoune, seems to have 
been a place of some strength. The river Don here 
abounds with trout, and after high floods with sal- 
mon. Besides the Don, there are several inferior 
streams well stocked with trout; and upon one of 
them, the Loehel, a bridge was built by Mr. Melvine, 
then clergyman of the parish, in the end of the 17th 
century. The mansions are Haughton-House and 
Breda. There are three meal-mills. The village 

of Alford is very small and very scattered, ami iB 
distant 27 miles "from Aberdeen. It contains offices 
of four insurance companies, and an office ol the 
Aberdeen Town and County Bank. It also con- 
tains a savings' bank and a parochial library, and 
is the seat of the Vale of Alford agricultural asso- 
ciation. Fairs, chiefly for the sale of horses and 
cattle, are held on the first Monday of January, 
February, March, April, May, October, NovemBer, 
and December, on the Tuesday in June before Tri- 
nity Muir, and on the Friday after the second Thurs- 
day of September old style. Population of the par- 
ish in 1831, 894; in 1861, 1,264. Houses, 217. 
Assessed property in 1860, £5,752. 

This parish is the seat of a presbytery in. the 
synod of Aberdeen. Patron, the Crown. Stipend, 
£206 17s. 4d., with manse and glebe. Schoolmas- 
ter's salary now is £40, with about £10 fees. The. 
parish church was built in 1804, and enlarged in 
1826, and has 500 sittings. There is a female 
school. In this parish, the Marquis of Montrose, 
upon the 2d July 1645, signally defeated Baillie, 
one of the generals of the Covenant; but his cause 
sustained an irreparable loss in the death of Lord 
Gordon, eldest son of the Marquis of Huntly, who 
fell by a random shot, in the pursuit, near a large 
stone which is still pointed out by the country peo- 
ple. About 100 years ago some men, while casting 
peats, dug up the body of a man on horseback and 
in complete armour, "who had probably perished 
either in the pursuit or flight from this engagement. 
Upon the top of a hill in this parish there is an im- 
mense cairn. 120 yards in circumference, and of a 
proportionable height. Of this monument there is 
no veiy distinct tradition, though some legends re- 
present it as marking the burial-place of a brother 
of one of the kings of Scotland. Nor can any more 
certain account be given of a large cairn which 
stood at a place called Caimballoch. 

ALINE (Loch), a beautiful little arm of the sound 
of Mull, connected with the sound by a very nar- 
row channel, and penetrating about 2 miles into the 
most interesting district of Morven. The sides are 
steep and woody, and towards the head assume a 
nigged and picturesque appearance. Two streams 
flow into it at the head, at opposite angles ; the one 
descends from Loch-na-Cuim, through Loch Temate, 
and falls into the north-east corner of the loch; the 
other and larger stream, flows through Glen-Dow, 
skirting the western base of Ben-Mean, receives at 
Claggan a tributary from Glen-Gell, on the eastern 
side of Ben-Mean, and discharges itself into Loch 
Aline on the north-west point. Loch Arienas flows 
into the latter stream, by a small rivulet. At the 
head of Loch Aline is a fine old square fortalice, 
picturesquely situated on a bold rock overhanging 
the loch. 

ALLAN (The), a tributary of the Teviot, rising 
on the southern skirts of Cavers parish, and flowing 
in a north-east direction, through a lovely pastoral 
vale, till its junction with the Teviot at Allanmouth 
peel, a mile above Branxhohn. 

ALLAN (The), a river of Perthshire and Stirling- 
shire, famed for its picturesque scenery, and giving 
name to the fertile district of Strathallan. Its head- 
springs descend in a south-eastern direction from 
the Braes of Ogilvie. The united stream first runs 
west, and then turns south-west, and enters the 
parish of Dunblane. At Stockbridge it bends sud- 
denly towards the south-east, till it reaches Dun 
blane, whence it assumes a direction nearly south, 
till its junction with the Forth, about 2 miles above 
Stirling. Its entire course is about 18 miles. It is 
a fine trouting-stream, and is a familiar name to 
the lovers of Scottish song. It is the opinion of 





Chalmers, that the Alauna of Ptolemy, and of Rich- 
ard, was situated on the Allan, ahout a mile ahove 
its confluence with the Forth. See Steathallan. 

ALLAN BANK. See Edbon. 

ALLAN (Bkidge of), a heautiful small town and 
charming watering place, in the parishes of Logie and 
Lecropt, on the northern border of Stirlingshire. - It 
stands on the river Allan, on the road from Stirling 
to Crieff, and has a station on the Scottish Central 
Railway, 3 miles north of Stirling, and 2 miles south 
of Dunblane. It is a favourite summer retreat of 
invalids, both on account of the salubrity of its 
climate, the beauty of the country around it, and 
the near proximity of the mineral wells of Airthrey; 
and, for a number of years prior to 1866, it had an- 
nually about 40,000 visitors. It commences at 
Coneyhill villa, not far from Lord Abercromby's 
Lodge; descends westward, over a slope, to the 
quarter of Sunnylaw ; and consists partly of streets 
or rows of well-built bouses, with many handsome 
shops, but chiefly of neat or elegant separate villas. 
It has a head post-office, an office of the Union 
Bank, a public reading-room, a well-kept bowling- 
green, three large hotels, three smaller hotels, and 
four places of worship. Two of the hotels keep 
each a public library and a table d'hote ; and one 
of them has pleasure-grounds with jets d'eau. The 
Established church is a handsome Gothic edifice of 
1859, with 350 sittings. The Free church is an 
edifice of 1853, in the middle pointed style ; has a 
spire 108 feet high ; and contains 800 sittings. The 
United Presbyterian church is a neat structure of 
1846. with a public clock, and contains 400 sittings. 
The Episcopalian church was built in 1857 ; is in the 
early decorated style ; consists of nave and chan- 
cel, with a belfry; and contains 250 sittings. Om- 
nibuses run several times a-day, during summer, 
to Stirling. Airthrey Castle, Westerton House, 
Kippenross, and Keir, are in the vicinity ; and very 
numerous spots of antiquarian interest, and places 
of picturesque and romantic scenery, are within 
easy access. Pop. in 1861, 1,803. Houses, 686. 

ALLAN (Poet of), a landing-place in the parish 
of Sorbie, Wigtonshire. 

ALLANDER, a small river of Dumbartonshire 
and Stirlingshire. It rises among the Kilpatrick 
hills about 3 miles north of West Kilpatrick, and 
runs ahout 10 or 11 miles, partly eastward, but 
chiefly south-south-eastward, to the Kelvin, at a 
point about 2J miles above Garscube. It is fed in 
summer by a reservoir among the hills; and it 
brings down thence supplies of water in droughty 
weather for the mills on the Kelvin; and always 
drives extensive machinery at places on its own 
course within the parish of East Kilpatrick. 

ALLANTON, a village in the parish of Edrom, 
Berwickshire, situated at the point of confluence of 
the Blackadder and Whiteadder, on the road from 
Ladykirk to Chirnside, 1£ mile south of Chirnside. 
A"new bridge was erected a few years ago over the 
Whiteadder here, and has supplied an important 
want. There is a Free church in the village, whose 
yearly receipts in 1865 amounted to £241 Is. lid. 
There is a mineral well in the vicinity. Population 
of the village, 258. 

ALLANTON, an estate in the parish of Cambus- 
nethan, Lanarkshire. The lands of Allanton 
anciently belonged to the abbey of Arbroath, and 
have for centuries been in the possession of the 
Darnley Stewarts. The mansion is an elegant pile; 
and the estate is rich in useful ores. 


ALLARDYCE. See Arbuthbot. 

ALLEN (The), a small stream in Roxburghshire. 
It rises on the north-western boundary of the parish 

of Melrose, near Allenshaws: flows southward, 
skirting the western base of Colmslie hill, and pass- 
ing the ruins of Hillslap, Colmslie, and Langshaw ; 
and falls into the Tweed, about a quarter of a mile 
above the bridge near Lord Somerville's hunting- 
seat called the Pavilion, after traversing a romantic 
ravine called the Fairy dean, or the Nameless dean. 
The vale of the Allen is the prototype of the ima- 
ginary Glendearg in ' The Monastery ;' although, as 
Sir Walter himself informs us, the resemblance of 
the real and fanciful scene " is far from being mi- 
nute, nor did the author aim at identifying them." 

ALLERMUIR, one of the Pentland hills, in the 
parishes of Colinton and Lasswade, Edinburghshire. 
It is one of the most conspicuous summits of the 
range, and has an altitude of 1,625 feet above the 
level of the sea. 

ALLNESS. See Ainess. 

ALLOA, a parish, containing a town of the same 
name, also the villages of Cambus, Collyland, Tulli- 
body, and Holton Square, and comprising the two 
ancient parishes of Alloa and Tullibody, in Clack- 
mannanshire. It is bounded on the north and west 
by the river Devon; on the south by the river 
Forth ; and on the east by the parishes of Tilli- 
coultry and Clackmannan. Its average length from 
east to west is about 4 miles ; hut its extent of bank 
along the winding Forth, here slowly beginning to 
expand into frith, is about 5J miles ; and its breadth 
from north to south is about 2 miles. " The low 
grounds lying on the banks of the Forth," says the 
excellent description of the parish in the New Sta- 
tistical Account, " are of a fine fertile carse soil. 
The subsoil of part of it is a strong clay, fit for 
making bricks and tiles. The banks that arise 
from the carse, are mostly composed of gravel, with 
a fine loam near the surface. On the higher 
grounds, towards the north, the soil is thin, on a 
cold till bottom ; but by draining of late years, it 
has been greatly improved. This parish contains 
no mountains or high hills ; but its finely diversified 
surface, its little hills and fertile valleys, form a 
richly varied landscape. From any of the emi- 
nences near the town, sceneiy is presented to the 
eye, almost unrivalled for picturesque beauty, if not 
for magnificence. To the eastward, embosomed in 
trees, is seen the ancient Tower of Alloa, from the 
summit of which, although situated on flat ground, 
part of nine counties can be discerned. About a 
furlong north-east of the Tower, on a gentle ele- 
vation, is the new and elegant mansion of the Earl 
of Mar and Kellie. Beyond Alloa Wood, Clack- 
mannan Tower crowns the summit of the next ris- 
ing ground ; while on either side of the expanding 
firth, innumerable beauties arrest the attention in 
the rich vale below. On turning to the. north and 
west, a panorama of no ordinary splendour meets 
the eye, — on one side, the lofty Ochils, bounding 
the view, and covered with verdure to their sum- 
mits, — on the other, the numerous windings of the 
river, Stirling with its finely elevated castle, and 
beyond, in the blue distance, the gigantic Benledi 
and Benlomond, with others of our Scottish alps." 
The highest ground in the parish is Gartmom hill 
in the north-east, which has an altitude of 390 feet 
above the level of the Forth. Alloa Park mansion, 
the seat of the Earl of Mar and Kellie, is an elegant 
Grecian structure, surmounting a gentle eminence, 
and looking to the south, about a furlong east of the 
ancient town. The mansion of Tullibody, a seat of 
Lord Abercromby, is an old house near the Forth. 
In front of it are two pleasant low islands ; behind 
it, on the north, is a wooded bank ; and on either 
side, almost at equal distances from the house, are 
two prominences, jutting out into the carse, which 




protect and shelter the lower grounds. Within a 
mile to the west, the Devon discharges itself into 
the Forth ; and vessels of tolerable burden can load 
and unload at a pier built at the mouth of that 
river; while sloops and large boats loaded with 
grain come up near to the village of Cambus. In 
the north-east extremity of the parish is Shaw Park, 
formerly the seat of Lord Cathcart, now of Lord 
Mansfield. From the drawing-room windows, there 
is in view a tine reach of the river, with a mag- 
nificent far-away prospect, even to the hill of Tinto, 
in Clvdesdale. Upon the eastern extremity of the 
parish, there is a large artificial piece of water, 
made about the beginning of the 17th century for 
the use of the Alloa coal-works. It is called Gart- 
morn dam; and when full, it covers 160 English 
acres of ground. There are two collieries in the 
barony of Alloa: the oldest of them, called the Alloa 
pits, is about li mile distant from the shore; the 
other is the Coalyland, and is about double that dis- 
tance. There are various seams in each colliery ; 
some of 3, 4, 5, and 9 feet in thickness. The pits 
are free of all noxious damps, and have in general a 
good roof and pavement, although there is iron 
stone over some of the seams. In 1768, a waggon- 
way was made to the Alloa pits, which proved to 
be so great an advantage that it induced the pro- 
prietor to extend it to the Coalyland, in 1771 ; and 
this has been substituted, in the course of improve- 
ment, b}^ the best kind of cast-iron railway. The 
quantity of coal now annually raised in the parish 
is from "76,000 to 80,000 tons. 

The ancient families of Alloa and Tullibody have 
all disappeared ; and the oldest and mightiest of the 
present ones, though of ancient descent in connec- 
tion with other districts, are comparatively modem 
here. The branch of the Abercrombies which set- 
tled at Tullibody towards the end of the 16th 
century, were descended from the family of Birken- 
boig in Banffshire. The Cathcart family only made 
Shaw Park the seat of their residence, on parting 
with the estate of Auchincruive in Ayrshire, which 
they had possessed for ages. Their possessions in Al- 
loa, and the adjoining parishes, descended to the late 
Lord Cathcart from his grandmother Lady Shaw ; 
whose husband had purchased them, in the begin- 
ning of the 18th century, at a judicial sale, from the 
Braces of Clackmannan. Neither can even the 
Erskines be said to be originally of this parish, al- 
though they got the lands which they now possess 
here, in the reign of King Kobert Bruce. They 
were originally settled in Renfrewshire. They suc- 
ceeded by a female, in 1457, to the earldom of Mar; 
but it was not until the year 1561 that they got 
possession of it. It was at that time declared in 
parliament, that the earldom of Mar belonged to 
John, Lord Erskine, who, in the year 1571, was 
elected regent of Scotland, on the death of the Earl 
of Lennox. The title was forfeited by John, the 
11th earl, taking part in the rebellion of 1715; hut 
was restored in 1824, in the person of John Franois, 
Earl of Mar. — The old parish of Alloa was anciently 
a chapelry to the parish of Tullibody ; and the lat- 
ter was a vicarage of the abbey of Cambuskenneth. 
" There are the remains of an old church in Tulli- 
body," says the Old Statistical Account, " the lands 
of which, with the inches and fishings, are narrated 
in a charter by David I., who founded the abbey of 
Cambuskenneth, in the year 1147 ; and are made 
over to that abbacy, together with the church of 
Tullibody, and its chapel of Alloa. There are no 
records of the union of these two churches of Alloa 
and Tullibody. It seems probable, that it was 
about the beginning of the Reformation. It appears 
from John Knox, that, in the year 1559, when 

Monsieur d'OyJel commanded the French troops on 
the coast of Fife, they were alarmed with the ar- 
rival of the English fleet, and thought of nothing 
but a hasty retreat. It was in the month of Jan- 
uary, and at the breaking up of a great storm. 
William Kirkcaldy of Grange, attentive to the cir- 
cumstances in which the French were caught, took 
advantage of their situation, marched with great 
expedition towards Stirling, and cut the bridge of 
Tullibody, which is over the Devon, to prevent their 
retreat. The French, finding no other means of 
escape, took the roof off the church, and laid it along 
the bridge where it was cut, and got safe to Stirling. 
It is generally believed that this church remained 
in the same dismantled state till some years ago, 
that George Abercromby, Esq. of Tullibody, cover- 
ed it with a new roof, and erected within ft a tomb 
for his family. There is still a large burying. 
ground around this church ; and on the north side 
of it, where there had been formerly an entiy, there 
is a stone coffin, with a niohe for the head, and two 
for the arms, covered with a thick hollowed lid, like 
a tureen. The lid is a good deal broken; but a 
curious tradition is preserved of the coffin, viz. : 
that a certain young lady of the neighbourhood had 
declared her affection for the minister, who, either 
from his station, or want of inclination, made no re- 
turn ; that the lady sickened and died, but gave 
orders not to bury her in the ground, but to put her 
body in the stone coffin, and place it at the entry to 
the church. Thus was the poor vicar punished ; 
and the stone retains the name of the Maiden stone." 
Population of the modem parish of Alloa in 1831, 
6.377; in 1861,8,867. Houses, 1,110. Assessed 
property in 1860, £26,927. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Stirling, and 
synod of Perth and Stirling. Patron, the Crown. 
Stipend, £299 3s. 2d.; glebe, £63. Unappropriated 
teinds, £101 9s. 7d. Schoolmaster's salary now is 
£70, with £16 in lieu of a house and garden, £18 
10s. fees, and about £20 other emoluments. The 
parish church was built in 1819, at the cost of 
£8,000, and has 1,561 sittings. There are two Free 
churches in the town of Alloa, the East and the 
West, and another Free church at Tullibody. The 
yearly sum raised in 1865 in connexion with the 
East Free church was £236 9s. 3d.; in connexion 
witli the West Free church, £298 3s. 7id.; in con- 
nexion with the Tullibody Free church, £170 19s. 
9fd. There are two United Presbyterian churches; 
the one called the West U. P. church, an old plain 
building, with an attendance of from 300 to 600; 
and the other, called the First U. P. church, a new 
neat building, with an attendance of above 700. 
The other places of worship are an Independent 
chapel, built in 1839, an Episcopalian chapel built 
in 1840, a meeting-place of Baptists, and a meeting- 
place of Methodists. There are eight private 

ALLOA, a burgh of barony, and post, market, 
and sea-port town, in the parish of Alloa, Clack- 
mannanshire. It is distant 7 miles from Stirling, 7 
from Dollar, 20 from Kinross, and 37 from Perth, 
The name has been variously written. In the 
charter granted by King Robert in 1315, to Thomas 
de Erskyne, it is spelled Alway; and, in some sub- 
sequent ones, Aulway, Auleway, and Alloway, 
Camden, in his ' Britannia,' seems to think it the 
Alauna of the Romans. He says, " Ptolemy places 
Alauna somewhere about Stirling ; and it was either 
upon Alon [Allan] a little river, that runs here into 
the Forth, or at Alway, a seat of the Erskines." 
The windings of the Forth between Stirling and 
Alloa are very remarkable. The distance, from the 
quay of Alloa to the quay of Stirling, measured in 




the centre of the river, is 17 miles, and to the bridge 
of Stirling 19A miles; whereas the distance, by 
land, from Alloa to the bridge of Stirling, does not 
exceed 7 miles, though the turnings in the road are 

The situation of the town is pleasant. Some 
strata of rock run a considerable way between the 
carse and the high grounds, and break oft" about the 
ferry, a little above the harbour. On part of this 
rock is built the tower and the ancient part of the 
town. The tower marks the ancient residence of 
the family of Mar. It was built prior to the year 
1315; but the entire building, with the exception of 
the square tower still standing, was accidentally 
burnt to the ground in the year 1800. The highest 
turret is 89 feet; and the thickness of the walls is 
1 1 feet. The gardens were laid out by John, Earl of 
Mar, in 1706, in the old French taste of long ave- 
nues and dipt pledges, with statues and ornaments. 
The town formerly almost surrounded the tower; 
and in rude ages they afforded mutual benefits to 
each other. Most of the streets are narrow and 
irregular. There is one, however, on a regular plan, 
in a line parallel to the gardens of the tower, called 
John's-street, which is between 76 and 80 feet 
broad. A row of lime-trees, on each side, affords 
an agreeable shade in summer, and a comfortable 
shelter in winter. The town has of late years ex- 
tended rapidly to the west, and it is adorned in that 
quarter by some elegant villas. The buildings of 
the town, as a whole, have a pleasant appearance. 
The parish church isalike conspicuous and elegant, 
a structure in a pointed style, 124 feet by 78, with 
a tower and spire soaring to the height of 207 feet. 
The Episcopalian chapel is a neat Gothic edifice. 
The Academy is a small but handsome Grecian 
building. The chief inns are the Royal Oak Hotel, 
the Crown Inn, and the Ship Inn. 

Directly abreast of the town, and looking up to a 
pleasant view of it, is the harbour. The water here 
rises at neap tides from 14 to 16 feet, and at spring- 
tides from 22 to 24; yet it has been ascertained that 
the bottom of Alloa, harbour is nearly on a level 
with the top of the pier of Leith. There is a double 
tide at each flowing and ebbing. The quay is built 
of rough hewn stone, and forms a pow, or small 
creek, where the rivulet that runs through the 
north-east end of the town falls into the river. A 
little above the harbour there is a dry dock. Above 
the dry dock there is a ferry, sometimes called the 
Craigward, and sometimes the lung's ferry. The 
breadth of the river here, at high tide, is above half- 
a-mile; and there are good piers carried down to 
low- water mark on each side, and two large steamers 
are employed; but the rapidity of the tide some- 
times renders the passage tedious. The scheme of 
building a bridge across the Forth here has often 
been talked of, and has been ascertained to be quite 
practicable; and some little time ago, measures 
were taken to form a company, -with a capital of 
£100,000, to carry it into effect." The water here at 
ebb-tide is almost quite fresh, and at full-tide is 
nearly half fresh and half salt. The depth of the 
river for a considerable distance below the harbour 
has, in recent years, been injuriously lessened by 
the throwing of ballast out of vessels, by the floating 
of masses of matter from mosses, and by the lodg- 
ment which these substances give to the natural 
silt; insomuch that vessels formerly frequented 
Alloa of larger burden than any which can now fre- 
quent it. This port was for a long time an indepen- 
dent and head one, with admiralty jurisdiction on 
the north side of the Forth from Stirling-bridge to 
Petticur, and on the south side from Stirling-bridge 
to Iliggin's Nook ; and it lost this dignity, and was 

suffering inconvenience and loss for want of it, but 
has recently regained it. The port was long ago an 
important one, and at the end of last century had 
115 vessels of aggregately 7,241 tons; but though 
still ranking as the seventh in Scotland, it has not 
at all prospered either in the ratio of its own advan- 
tages or in the proportion of some other Scottish 
ports. The harbour, all things considered, is the 
best in the Forth above Granton; and it commands 
an immense sphere of trade, in the way of both ex- 
port and import. Yet the aggregate tonnage of its 
shipping, including sub-ports, at the end of 1860, 
was only 13,671 tons; and the dock and quay walls 
are not in good condition. The harbour revenue is 
derived from very light dues on goods and shipping ; 
and in ]846, it amounted to £725 at Alloa, and £50 
at Cambus; but is not levied at Clackmannan Pow, 
Kennetpans, and Fallin. The arrivals and depar- 
tures at Alloa, in 1846, amounted to 439, of aggre- 
gately 31,940 tons, and paying customs duty £1,859 ; 
and 78 of the whole were to or from the colonies, or 
foreign. The arrivals and departures, in the same 
year, at Clackmannan Pow, Cambus, Kennetpans, 
and Fallin, were respectively 235, 28, 18, and 7. 
The vessels belonging to theport in 1864 were 49, 
of 10,512 tons; the coasting trade of 1860 comprised 
a tonnage of 2,302 inward, and of 13,754 outward; 
and the entire trade of 1863 comprised a tonnage of 
11,385 inward in British vessels, 13,979 inward in 
foreign vessels, 16,546 outward in British vessels, 
and 25,225 outward in foreign vessels. The imports 
consist chiefly of corn, timber, wool, fuller's earth, 
and miscellaneous small goods; and the exports 
consist chiefly of coals, pig-iron, woollen-manufac- 
tures, glass, ale, whisky, leather, and bricks. The 
customs in 1S63 amounted to £6.997. 

The town and its environs contain many and 
various extensive manufactories. Camlet weaving 
was long a prominent department of industry, and 
employed about 100 looms, but became extinct. 
The manufacture of plaiding, tartans, shawls, blan- 
kets, druggets, and other similar fabrics, is of some- 
what recent origin, yet sprang up so vigorously _ as 
soon to give rise to six large factories. The making 
of glass is carried on, and long has been so, in works 
which occupy a space of about six imperial acres, 
westward of "the ferry, and fitted with a pier. Ale, 
of great celebrity, not only in Scotland but in dis- 
tant lands, is made, to the amount of about 80,000 
barrels a-year, in eight breweries. Whisky, in 
vast quantity, is produced at Carsebridge and Cam- 
bus. Tobacco and snuff were once very exten- 
sively manufactured; and are still a considerable 
object. The other chief articles of production or 
labour are leather, bricks, stoneware, machinery, 
and flour. Weekly markets are held on Wednes- 
day and Saturday; but only that on Saturday is 
well attended. Fairs are held on the second Wed- 
nesday of February, May, August, and November; 
but they are ill-attended and of very trifling conse- 
quence. The town has a stamp-office, an excise- 
office, a custom-house, offices of the Commercial 
Bank, the Union Bank, the National Bank, the 
Clydesdale Bank, and offices of ten insurance com- 
panies. Two newspapers are published in it, — 
the Alloa Advertiser and the Alloa Journal, both 
weekly on Saturday. Abundant communication is 
enjoyed up and down the Forth by the Stirling 
and Granton steamers, to Tillicoultry by branch 
railway, to Stirling, Dunfermline, and places be- 
yond, by the Stirling and Dunfermline railway, 
and to Edinburgh, Glasgow, and connected places, 
by the Alloa junction of the Scottish Central rail- 
way. A line of railway was once projected direct 
between Alloa and Glasgow, to proceed by way 




of Larbert and Denny, to join the Edinburgh and 
Glasgow railway in the vicinity of the Cioy sta- 
tion; but this gave place to the line which leaves 
the Forth opposite Alloa, and joins the .Scottish 
Central a short way north of the Larbert station. 
Alloa lias an agricultural society, a horticultural 
society, a mechanics' institution, a public library, a 
Shakspeare club, and several friendly, charitable, 
and religious societies. 

The town is governed by a baron bailie, appointed 
by the Earl of Mar and Kellie. He regulates the 
stents and cesses; he has also jurisdiction in debts 
not exceeding 40s., but few or no actions of debt 
are ever brought before him. The town obtained a 
police act in 1803, which was amended and enlarged 
in 1822. The town, as such, has no property or re- 
venue, and no debts; but it pays county-burdens 
and rates corresponding to a valuation of £601 Is. 
lOd. Scotch; and, for the privilege of participating 
with the royal burghs in foreign trade, £11 lis. ster- 
ling as its share of royal burgh cess. Until the 
passing of the police act of 1822, it was ill supplied 
with water; but this has since been brought from 
the river at a considerable expense, and is filtered 
through an artificial bed of sand. The streets are 
lighted with gas, well-paved, and regularly cleaned. 
The town is practically the political capital of Clack- 
mannanshire; and a new court-house and public 
offices, in the Flemish Gothic style, with a portico 
and a tower, at a cost of about £8,000, were com- 
pleted in December 1865. The sheriff court is held 
on every Wednesday and Friday during session ; and 
quarter sessions are held on the first Tuesday of 
March, May, and August, and on the last Tuesday 
of October. Population of the town of Alloa in 
1831.4,417; in 1861, 6,425. Houses, 643. 

ALLOWAY, an ancient parish in the district of 
Kyle, in Ayrshire. It was united, towards the end of 
the 17th century, with the parish of Ayr, from which 
it is divided by Glengaw burn. 'Alloway's auld 
haunted kirk,' — a little roofless ruin, — long known 
only as marking the obscure resting-place of the 
rustic dead, is now an object of veneration, and 
many an enthusiastic pilgrimage, on account of its 
having been, chosen by Burns as the scene of the 
grotesque demon revelry, at once ludicrous and hor- 
rible, described with such graphic and tremendous 
power in bis tale of Tam o ! Shanter; for it would 
seem that imagination is not restricted in her flight 
here by the actual and real. It is situated on the 
right bank of the. Doon, a little below the point 
where the road from Ayr to Maybole is carried 
across that river by the new bridge, and a quarter 
of a mile from the cottage on Doon side in which 
the peasant-bard was born on the 25th of January 
1759. The poet's father was interred here at his 
own request; and the bard himself expressed a wish 
to be laid in the same grave, which would have been 
complied with, had not the citizens of Dumfries 
claimed the honour of the guardianship of his ashes. 
Betwixt the kirk and the ' Auld brig o' Doon,' by 
which a road now disused is earned over ' Doon's 
classic stream,' about 100 yards south-east of the 
kirk, and on the summit of the right bank, which 
here rises boldly from the river, stands a splendid 
monument to the poet, designed by Hamilton of 
Edinburgh, and consisting of a triangular base, sup- 
porting nine Corinthian columns, which are sur- 
rounded by a cupola terminating in a gilt tripod. 
It is upwards of 60 feet in height, and cost above 
£2,000. The whole is enclosed, and ornamented 
with shrubbery; and the clever figures of Tam o' 
Shanter and Souter Johnny, executed by the inge- 
nious self-taught sculptor, Thorn, are placed in a 
small building within the enclosure. The moat of 

Alloway, situated near the avenue leading to tlio 
House of Doonholm, is an ancient artificially-formed 
mound, on whose summit the magistrates of Ayr, in 
the olden times, often held courts of justice. Mr. 
Cathcart of Blairston, one of the lords of session, on 
his promotion to the bench, took the title of Lord 
Alloway. He, died in 1829, and was interred within 
the rains of Alloway kirk. 

ALMAG1LL. See Dalton. 

ALMOND (The), a river of Lanarkshire, Linlith- 
gowshire, and Edinburghshire. It rises in the moor 
of Shotts, about a mile south - east of the kirk 
of Shotts, near the Cant hills; and for about 14 
miles flows eastward, in a line nearly parallel with 
the post-road from Glasgow to Edinburgh, by Whit- 
burn, which crosses it at Blackburn, and recrosses 
it again near to Mid-Calder. From a little beyond 
Mid-Calder, it flows in a north-easterly direction, 
and forms the boundary betwixt the shires of Lin- 
lithgow and Edinburgh, passing Ammondell, Blis- 
ton, Kirkliston, Carlourie, and Craigiehall, and fall- 
ing into the sea at Cramond, where it forms a small 
estuary navigable by boats for a few hundred yards. 
Its entire length of' course, irrespective of smaller 
winding's, is about 24 or 25 miles. Its bed, over a 
great part of its course, is broad and either gravelly 
or rocky; and after heavy rains, it often comes down 
in great freshets, and largely overflows its banks, 
and does muck injury to low fertile lands in its vici- 
nity. But, in recent times, it has been extensively 
restrained by very strong, high, and expensive em- 
bankments. The Union canal is carried across it 
near Clifton Hall by a noble aqueduct; and the 
Edinburgh and Glasgow railway is carried across it, 
lower down, near Kirkliston, by one of the most 
magnificent works on any line of railway, an im 
mense viaduct of 43 arches, of 50 feet span each, 
and varying in height from 60 to 85 feet. See Edin- 
burgh and Glasgow Kajlway. Its chief tributa- 
ries are Briech Water, on the right bank below 
Blackburn, the Broxburn on the left bank above 
Kirkliston, and Gogar burn on the right bank below 

ALMOND (Tue), a river of Perthshire. It rises 
in the south-east corner of Killin parish, on the 
north side of the range of hills at the head of Glen 
Lednock, and flows eastward to Newtown in the 
parish of Monzie, where it turns to the south-east, 
and skirts the road from Amulree to Buchandy. At 
Dallick it again turns eastward, and flows in that 
direction to Logie-Almond, beyond which it bends 
toward the south-east, and finally discharges itself 
into the Tay, about 2£ miles above the town of 
Perth, and nearly opposite to Scone. Its entire length 
of course, irrespective of smaller windings, is about 
20 miles. It is a stream of high and varied pic- 
turesqueness, and is overlooked by many scenes and 
objects of great interest. See the articles Monzie, 
Fowlis Wester, Logie - Almond, Methven, and 
Glenaj.mond. The valley for a long way is strictly 
a glen; and in that stretch, particularly in the neigh- 
bourhood of the bridge of Buchandy, about 10 miles 
from Perth, it contains numerous remains of Caledo- 
nian and Koman'antiquity. The glen itself is dreary, 
desolate, and wild. In one part of it, where lofty 
and impending cliff's on either hand make a solemn 
and perpetual gloom, in the line of the military road 
from Stirling to Inverness, is the Clach-na-Ossian, 
or Stone of Ossian, supposed to mark the burial- 
place of the gifted son of Fmgal. About 3 miles 
from this, in the Corriviarlich or Glen of Thieves, is 
a large cave, known by the name of Fian's or Fin- 
gal's cave. Selma in Morven, which is said to have 
been Fingal's chief residence, is about 60 miles 
distant from Glenahnond. Newte, who travelled 




through this district in 1791, says: "I have learned 
that when Ossian's stone was moved, and the coffin 
containing his supposed remains discovered, it was 
intended by the officer commanding the party of 
soldiers employed on the military road, to let the 
bones remain within the stone sepulchre, in the same 
position in which they were found, until General 
Wade should come and see them, or his mind be 
known on the subject. But the people of the country, 
for several miles around to the number of three or 
four score of men, venerating the memory of the 
bard, rose with one consent, and carried away the 
bones, with bagpipes playing and other funereal 
rites, and deposited them with much solemnity 
within a circle of large stones, on the lofty summit 
of a rock, sequestered, and of difficult access, where 
they might never more be disturbed by mortal feet 
or hands, in the wild recesses of the western Glen 
Almon. One Christie, who is considered as the ci- 
cerone and antiquarian of Glen Almon, and many 
other persons yet alive, attest the truth of this fact, 
and point out the second sepulchre of the son of 
Fingal." Macculloch, ever at war with ' old poetic 
feeling,' discredits the whole story of Ossian's sup- 
posed connexion with this place. With a better 
faith Wordsworth thus expressed himself on this 
dim tradition: 

" Does then the Bard sleep here indeed ? 
Or is it but a groundless creed? 
What matters it? — I blame them not 
Whose fancy in this lonely spot 
Was moved ; and in such way expressed 
Their notion of its perfect rest. 
A convent, even a hermit's cell. 
Would break the silence of this dell: 
It is not quiet, is not ease, — 
But something; deeper far than these: 
The separation that is here 
Is of the grave, — and of austere 
Yet happy feelings of the dead : 
And, therefore, was it rightly said 
That Ossian, last of all his race! 
Lies buried in this lonely place." 

A secluded spot called the Dronach-haugh, on the 
banks of this river, and about half-a-mile north-west 
of Lynedoch, is said to be the burying-place of Bessie 
Bell and Mary Gray, famed in pathetic ballad story. 
The road through Glenalmond communicates be- 
tween Stirling and Dalnacardoch, by Tay bridge, 
passing through Amulree. 

ALMONDBANK, a village, with a post-office, in 
the parish of Methven, Perthshire. It stands on 
the river Almond, 2i miles east of the village of 
Methven ; and has a station on the Methven rail- 
way. Its inhabitants are chiefly employed in 
various extensive factories in the vicinity, — the 
nearest of which is a power-loom weaving estab- 
lishment. Population of the village, 386. 

ALMOND CASTLE. See Muiravonside. 

ALNESS, a parish, containing part of the small 
post-town of Ainess-Bridge, in the east side of Ross- 
shire. It is bounded on the south-east by the Cro- 
marty frith, and on other sides by the parishes of 
Kiltearn, Kincardine, and Rosskeen. Its greatest 
length from north-west to south-east is about 20 
miles; and its average breadth is about 5 miles. 
The surface along the sea-board of the frith is flat 
and cultivated, and the landscape there is beautiful; 
but the country inland is mountainous and barren. 
The Aultgrande burn, a stream of great magnifi- 
cence, [see Aultgrande,] runs on the boundary 
with Kiltearn; and Alness Water, a stream of about 
14 miles in length of course, runs on the boundary 
with Eosakeen ; and both have a south-easterly di- 
rection, and empty themselves into the frith. In 
the higher part of the parish, surrounded by wild 
And uncultivated hills, are two fine fresh water 

lochs, Loch Moir and Loch Glass, both of which are 
fed by tributaries descending from Rama-Cruinach, 
and the former of which discharges itself by tho 
Water of Alness, and the other by the Aultgrande. 
Navar, the seat of Sir Hector Munro, is a fine build- 
ing, 2 miles south-west from the bridge of Alness. 
Iron and silver ores have been found in this parish. 
Miss Spence, while residing at the manse of Alness, 
in the month of July, thus describes the effect of 
twilight: " You can imagine nothing half so beau- 
tiful as the summer evenings in Scotland. The 
dark curtain of night is scarcely spread in this 
northern hemisphere, before 

—'Jocund day 

Stands tiptoe on the misty mountain's top.' 

The firmament retains a glow of light, often bril 
liantly heightened by the aurora borealis — here 
called the merry dancers — which has a grand effect; 
and, when the softer shades of evening prevail, and 
throw into partial gloom the sleeping landscape, it 
is even at midnight, during the months of May, 
June, and July, only like our evening twilight, 
when every object is indistinctly visible. The 
grandeur of the mountains, the pellucid tranquillity 
of the rivers, and the deep gloom of the dark fir 
woods, altogether form a scene no person who has 
not beheld it can picture." Population in 1831, 
1,437; in 1861, 1,178. Houses, 224. Assessed 
property in 1860, i.'4,756. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Dingwall and 
synod of Ross. Patron, the Marchioness of Stafford. 
Stipend, £230 19s. lid.; glebe, £10. Schoolmaster's 
salary, £50, with £20 fees, and some other small 
emoluments. The parish church was built in 1780, 
has been repeatedly repaired, and contains about 
800 sittings. There is a Free church ; attendance, 
from 500 to 700; yearly sum raised in 1865, £178 
3s. 9d. There are two Society's schools, an Assem- 
bly's school, and a private 3chool. 

ALNESS-BRIDGE, a village with a post-office 
in the parishes of Alness, and Rosskeen, Ross-shire. 
The part of it in the former parish is called simply 
Alness ; the part in the latter is called more strictly 
Alness-Bridge. The village stands on the Water 
of Alness, 10 miles north-north-east of Dingwall, 
and has a station, of the naine of Alness, on the 
Highland railway. Ten annual fairs are held at it; 
seven of these were formerly held at Nonikill ; and 
one in August is a great horse fair. Population of 
the Russkeen part in 1861, 756. 

ALSH (Loch.) See Lochalsh. 

ALTACHOGLACHAN. See Altconlachan. 


ALTAN-NAN-CEALGACH. a small stream on 
the western part of the boundary between Ross- 
shire and Sutherlandshire. It flows from a long 
lake, with low tame banks, called Loch Boarlan. 

ALTAVIG, or Altivajg, the southernmost of a 
group of flat islets — to which it usually gives name 
— on the north-east coast of Skye, between the 
point of Aird and Ru-na-Braddan. Martin says 
there is a little old chapel on it dedicated to St. 
Turos; and that herrings are sometimes so plentiful 
around a small rock at the north end of the isle, 
that " the fisher- boats are sometimes as it were en- 
tangled among the shoals of them ! " See Kilmuib 
and Staffin (Loch). 

ALTCONLACHAN, or Altachoglachan, a rivu- 
let in the parishes of Mortlach and Inveraven, 
Banffshire. It runs down a mountainous course to 
the Terry, the chief tributary of the Livet. A fa- 
mous battle was fought on it in 1594; though by a 
caprice of historians the action is more commonly 
named from Glenlivet. See the article Gi.enlivet. 




ALTDOWRAN, a romantic glen in the parish of 
Leswalt, Wiirtonshire. 

ALTGRAD. See Aultgrande. 

ALTIMARLACH, a burn in the parish of Wick, 
Caithness. It carries oft' the superfluence of two 
lakes in the north-west part of the parish, and falls 
into the water of Wick, about 3 miles west of the 
town. Its banks were the scene of a famous con- 
flict, on the 13th of July, 1680, between the Camp- 
bells and the Sinclairs. Campbell of Glenorchy, 
afterwards Earl of Breadalbane, claimed, in right of 
his wife and by royal patent, to be Earl of Caith- 
ness, but was "resisted in his claim by Sinclair of 
Keiss; and he suddenly marched into Caithness, at 
the head of about 700 Argyle Highlanders, to en- 
force it. The Sinclairs, to the number of about 400, 
mustered to do battle, but were so reckless as to let 
the Campbells come over the Ord, and take post on 
the Altimarlach, while they themselves sat up all 
night at Wick drinking and carousing ; and, in the 
morning, all wild with their revelry, they rushed 
out to conflict with the Campbells, and were 
promptly defeated, and compelled to run ; and, ac- 
cording to tradition, so many of them were slain in 
the flight that the victors passed the river dry-shod 
on their bodies. It was on occasion of this incur- 
sion of the Argyleshiremen that the names were 
given to the well-known airs, " The Campbells are 
coming," and "The Braes of Glenorchy." 

ALTIVAIG. See Altavig. 

ALTMORE (The), a small stream of Banffshire, 
rising betwixt the parishes of Ruthven and Desk- 
ford, receiving several small tributaries from Alt- 
more ridge in the former parish, flowing southwards 
betwixt the parishes of Keith and Grange, and 
falling into the Isla, about 1 J mile east of the town 
of Keith, after a rapid course of 6 miles. 

ALTNACH (The), a small highland stream of 
Inverness-shire and Banffshire. It rises on the 
north-east side of the Cairngorm mountains, a short 
way north of Loch Aven, and flows about 10 miles 
north-north-eastward, chiefly on the boundary be- 
tween Invemess-shire and Banffshire, but partly 
within the latter county, to a confluence with the 
river Aven near Tbmantoul. 

ALTNAHARROW, an inn in the parish of Farr, 
Sutherlandshire. It stands near the head of Loch 
Naver, on the road from Bonar-bridge to Tongue', 
'-'1 miles from Lairg and 18 from Tongue. Fairs 
ate held here on the 4th Wednesday of May and on 
the Friday in September before Bonar-bridge. 

ALTNARIE (The), a small tributary of the 
Fmdhorn, in the parish of Ardclach, Nairnshire. 
It is a mountain rivulet, with a southerly course, 
and it makes a profound and very romantic water- 
fall within a deep, wooded, and sequestered glen. 

ALTON, a village in the north-west of the parish 
of Loudoun, Ayrshire. The name is a contraction 
for Auld-town. Population about 120. 

ALTON'S HARBOUR. See Nxgg, Kincardine- 

ALTRIVE. See Yarrow. 

ALTYRE, a quondam parish, about 2 or 3 miles 
south of Forres, in Morayshire. It belonged to the 
parsonage of Dallas, but was annexed, by act of 
parliament, in 1661, to the parish of Rafford. The 
estate of Altyre, the property of Sir W. Cumming, 
Bart., the representative of the ancient Earls of 
Badenoch, is still the second in value in the united 
parish; and the mansion-house of Altyre, in the 
modem Italian style of architecture, is one of its 
chief ornaments. The burn of Altyre, one of the 
head-streams of the water of Forres, is an impetuous 
stream, and often comes down in inundating 
freshets. The soil, of the arable parts of the estate 

is generally thin, but sharp and productive ; and 
the extent of hill and pasturage is very great. The 
place where the capital sentences of the baron 
court of Altyre were executed in the olden time is 
still known by the name of the Gallow-Hill. See 

ALVA, — anciently Alvath, or Alveth, — a parish, 
containing a post-town of its own name, in Stirling- 
shire. It anciently belonged to Clackmannanshire, 
but was attached aboutthe beginning of the 17th cen- 
tury to Stirlingshire ; and it was restored to Clackman- 
nanshire by the Reform Act for political purposes, but 
still continues connected with Stirlingshire for judi- 
cial purposes. It lies about four miles north of the 
nearest parts of the main body of Stirlingshire ; and 
is bounded on the north by Perthshire, and on all 
other sides by Clackmannanshire. Its length, from 
north to south, is between 4 and o miles ; and its 
breadth is upwards of 2i miles. The river Devon, 
a stream surpassingly picturesque, drains all the in- 
terior, either directly or by its tributaries, and 
glides along the southern boundary. See Devon 
(The). This parish extends over a considerable 
portion of the Ochils ; and over part of the valley 
— here commonly called 'the hill-foot' — between 
these hills and the Devon. The mean breadth, 
from the banks of the river to the rise of the Ochils, 
is about two-thirds of a mile. That portion of the 
Ochils which belongs to this parish, when seen 
from the south, at the distance of a mile or two T 
appears to be one continued range, presenting little 
variation in height; but the range slopes towards 
the south, and is intersected by deep and narrow 
glens, through most of which flow streams which 
discharge themselves into the Devon, and by these 
the foreground of this part of the Ochils is divided 
into three separate hills, distinguished by the names 
of Wood-hill, Middle- hill, and West-hill of Alva. On 
the brow of this last hill is a very high perpendicu- 
lar rock, called Craig-Leith, long remarkable as the 
residence of that species of hawk which is used in 
hunting. The house of Alva stands on an emi- 
nence projecting from the base of Wood-hill, near 
the east end of the parish. The height of this part 
of the hill is about 220 feet above the Devon, which 
runs in the valley below; but immediately behind 
the house, the hilli'ises to the height of 1,400 feet, 
making the whole height 1,620 feet. The range 
continues to rise gradually for about 2 miles farther 
north, until it reaches, in Ben-Cloch, the highest 
point of the Alva range, and the summit of the 
Ochils; being, according to Mr. Udney, about 2,420 
feet above the level of the Devon. This mountain 
is remarkably easy of ascent; and the view from 
the top of it is of vast extent, and one of the most 
gorgeous in Scotland. In the upper part of Alva 
glen, vertical cliffs rise aloft on all sides but one, 
and there is a veiy fine cataract; and in other parts, 
in that neighbourhood, there were formerly several 
deep diggings for silver-ore, and there are still un- 
covered pits, 30 or 40 feet in depth, situated within 
dark caves, and very perilous to inquisitive un 
warned strangers. Cobalt ore and precious pebbles 
have also been largely found; and in " the hill-foot," 
coal-mines were worked, and there is now a coal- 
mine. The House of Alva is one of the most ex- 
quisi te residences in Britain ; and the grounds around 
it are so fairily feathered and tufted as to give all 
truth to the old rhyme, " Oh, Alva woods are 
bonnie ! " Population of the parish in 1831,. 1,300 ; 
in 1861, 3,283. Houses, 354. Assessed property 
in 1860, £6,862'. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Stirling, and 
synod of Perth and Stirling. Patron, Johnstone of 
Alva;, who also is the sole heritor. Stipend, £157 




5s. 9d.; glebe, £27. Schoolmaster's salary, £55, 
with £28 fees. There are three non -parochial 
schools. The parish church was rebuilt in 1815, 
and enlarged in 1854. There is a Free church; at- 
tendance 120 ; yearly sum raised in 1865, £142 14s. 
9d. There is also an United Presbyterian church, 
which was opened in 1843, and has an attendance 
of about 290. 

The Town of Alva stands near the base of the 
West-hill, about a mile west of the House of Alva; 
has a junction railway 3§ miles long, from Cambus, 
opened in 1863; and is washed along the east side by 
a small stream. It probably was a trivial hamlet 
about the beginning of the 18th century; and it 
contained 130 families in the year 1795, and con- 
tains now nearly five times that number. It has a 
branch office of the Union Bank of Scotland, and is 
partly the seat and partly the centre of an exten- 
sive and important woollen manufacture. This 
manufacture dates back to the origin of the village, 
but has varied in its fabrics. Serges were the chief 
productions till near the end of last century ; plaid- 
ings and blanketings then took their place; tartan 
shawls were introduced in 1826, and soon became the 
most general article ; and chequered cassimeres were 
introduced in 1832, and speedily became prominent. 
In 1798, the first woollen factory was built; and in 
1841 there were eight factories; and the number of 
looms in the factories is now much greater than the 
number in smaller buildings and in private houses. 
The chief market for the fabrics is Glasgow; and 
other markets are Stirling, Perth, and Edinburgh. 
Population of the town in 1841, 2,092; in 1861, 
3,147. Houses 330. 

ALVAH, a parish on the north-east border of 
Banffshire. Its post-town is Banff. It is bounded 
on the north-east and east by Aberdeenshire, and on 
the other sides by the parishes of Forglen, Mamock, 
and Banff. Its length is about 6 miles; and its 
breadth varies from 2 to 6 miles. The river Deve- 
ron enters the parish about a mile below Forglen 
house, which is on its northern bank, and, after 
winding through a fertile valley, leaves it at a point 
about 2 miles from the sea. It here abounds with 
salmon, trout, and eel; and is frequented by wild 
ducks, widgeons, teals, and herons. About half-a- 
mile below the church, the river is contracted by 
two steep and rugged precipices, commonly deno- 
minated the Craigs of Alvah, between which it is 
about 50 ft. in depth. The scenery, naturally bold 
aad picturesque, was greatly embellished here by 
its noble proprietor, the late Earl of Fife, who threw 
a magnificent arch over the river. The haughs 
along the banks of the river are subject to inunda- 
tions, especially in the neighbourhood of the Craigs 
of Alvah, which check the rapidity of the stream, 
and throw the water backward. As we recede from 
the Deveron towards the west, the country becomes 
more hilly and barren. One of the most conspicu- 
ous hills is the Hill of Alvah, which rises from the 
bed of the river to the height of 578 ft. above the 
level of the sea, and selves as a landmark to mari- 
ners on their approaching the coast. This is an 
isolated bill, and is situated on the northern border 
of the parish; and the hill of Maunderlea, 155 ft. 
higher, is situated nearly four miles to the south- 
west, and is connected with other heights, and com- 
mands a vast prospect of the district of Buehan, the 
valley of the Deveron, and the coast of the Moray 
frith. An ancient castle, said to have been built by 
an Earl of Buehan, stood in a swamp, now a fertile 
field, near Montblairy ; arid an ancient chapel stood 
on an adjoining eminence; but both have disap- 
peared. A noted fountain, called St. Colme's well, 
was recently converted into a source of constant and 

copious supply of pure water to the town of Banff. 
An extensive distillery was formerly on the Mont- 
blairy estate. Population in 1831, 1,278; in 1861, 
1,467. Houses, 245. Assessed property in 1843, 
£4,869 14s. 3d.; in 1864, £7,783 6s. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Turriff, and 
synod of Aberdeen. Patron, Sir G. S. Abercromby, 
Bart. Stipend, £178 15s. 5d. ; glebe, £25. Unap- 
propriated teinds, £221 16s. 6d. Schoolmaster's 
salary, £60, with about £20 fees. The church was 
built in 1792, and has 600 sittings. There are two 
private schools. 

ALVES, a parish, containing a small post-office 
village of its own name, on the sea-board of Mora\'- 
shire. It is bounded on the north by the Moray 
frith, along which it extends about one mile ; on the 
east by the parishes of Duffus and New Spynie; on 
the south by Elgin, from which it is separated by 
Pluscardine hill; and on the west by Kinloss and 
Eafibrd parishes. Its outline is veiy irregular; and 
its surface varied with hill and dale. The soil is in 
general a deep fat loam incumbent on clay. There 
are six landowners. The assessed property in 1843, 
was £5,707 18s. 9d.; and in 1860, it was £7,545. 
At the south-eastern extremity of the parish is a 
conical hill called the Knock of Alves, which yields 
a good freestone for building. The only relic of 
feudal times is the castle of Asleisk, on the Earl of 
Fife's property. There is no river, or even consi- 
derable stream, in this parish ; but the Aberdeen 
and Inverness railway passes through it, and has a 
station here, at the junction of the branch to Burg- 
head, 5J miles from Elgin and 7 from Forres. The 
village of Alves is a small straggling group of 
houses, on the highway between Elgin and Forres. 
Population of the parish in 1831, 945; in 1861, 
1 010. Houses, 199. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Elgin, and 
synod of Moray. Patron, the Earl of Moray. Sti- 
pend, £215 Is. 8d., with a glebe. Unappropriated 
teinds, £130 13s. Id. Schoolmaster's salary, £52 
10s., besides £25 fees. The parish church was 
built in 1769, and has 590 sittings. There is a Free 
church; attendance about 270; yearly sum raised 
in 1865, £124 15s. 6d. There are three private 
schools, and a small parochial library. 

ALVIE, a highland parish, containing the post 
office station of Lynwilg, in the district of Badenocb, 
Invemess-shire. Its form is very irregular. The 
principal inhabited division lies along the northern 
side of the river Spey, here running from south-west 
to north-east ; and is from north-east to south-west 
about 10 miles long, and from 1 to 2 broad. It is 
bounded by the parish of Kingussie on the south- 
west; Moy on the north-west; and Duthel on the 
north-east. On the southern side of the river, Alvie 
parish extends, along the course of the Feshie, 
about 10 miles by 3; and is bounded on the east by 
Eothiemurchus; on the south by Blair; and on the 
west by Kingussie. Its total extent from north to 
south is upwards of 20 miles ; and it has an area of 
about 90 square miles. The mountains are in gen- 
eral extremely barren, covered with heath, and fre- 
quently rocky. Those to the south of the Spey, 
belonging to the Grampian chain, are much higher 
than those to the north; some points here rising to 
4,500 ft. above the sea-level. The interjacent val- 
leys afford a plentiful aud rich pasture in summer, 
but are for the most part inaccessible in winter. 
The lower or arable part of the parish, intersected 
by the Spey for the space of two miles, consists of a 
light stony soil, lying on sandy gravel, and produc- 
ing heavy crops of corn in a wet season, but ex- 
ceedingly parched in dry weather. There are some 
extensive plantations of firs and larches: and natu 




ral coppices of birch, alder, and mountain-ash. The 
valued rent of the parish is .SI, 39-4 Scots; the real 
rent was long ago above £2,000 ster. Assessed pro- 
perty in 1860, £3,731. The river Spey here abounds 
with salmon, trout, aud pike. The Feshie affords 
trout and salmon. It rises on the northern side of 
the Grampian range, in the southern extremity of 
the parish; and Hows at first north-east, till it ap- 
proaches the road from Castleton of Braemar, where 
it bends north-west, and then north, pursuing the 
course of the narrow valley through which also the 
only road intersecting the parish is led, and falling 
into the Spey, a little above that enlargement of the 
river called Loch Insch, and near Invereshie. The 
only detached loch in the parish is that of Alvie. 
It is a beautiful sheet of water, about a mile long, 
and half-a-niile broad. It has a communication with 
the Spey, but it is not supposed that its trout visit 
the Spey ; pike are also found in it of from 1 lb. to 
7 lbs. weight. An elegant mansion was built here, 
named Belleville, by James Macpherson, Esq., 
translator of Ossiau's poems, who was a native of 
Badenoch, and died here on the 17th of February, 
1796, but was buried, at his own desire, in West- 
minster abbey; and Belleville afterwards became 
the residence of Sir David Brewster. At no great 
distance from Loch Alvie is the burial-place of the 
chief of the Macphersons. Another fine mansion in 
the parish is Kinrara house, long celebrated in fa- 
shionable and literary circles as the favourite seat 
of the accomplished Duchess of Gordon. The Spey, 
flowing under a long wall of mountain-crags and 
fir plantations, embraces in its sweep a verdant 
plain which is close shut in on the opposite side by 
the hill of Tor- Alvie ; in this spot, on a knoll com- 
manding the small plain, and itself sheltered by the 
loftier Tor, is the far-lamed cottage of the duchess. 
Dr. Macculloeh thus describes the scenery of Kin- 
rara: " A succession of continuous birch-forest, co- 
vering its rocky hill and its lower grounds, inter- 
mixed with open glades, irregular clumps, and scat- 
tered trees, produces a scene at once alpine and 
dressed, combining the discordant characters of wild 
mountain landscape aud of ornamental park-scenery. 
To this it adds an air of perpetual spring, and a 
feeling of comfort aud of seclusion which can no- 
where be seen in such perfection; while the range 
of scenery is at the same time such as is only found 
in the most extended domains. If the home-grounds 
are thus full of beauties, not less varied and beauti- 
ful is the prospect around: the Spey, here a quick 
and clear stream, being ornamented by trees in every 
possible combination, and the banks beyond, rising 
into irregular, rocky, and wooded hills, everywhere 
rich with an endless profusion of objects, and, as 
they gradually ascend, displaying the dark sweep- 
ing forests of fir that skirt the .bases of the farther 
mountains, which terminate the view by their bold 
outlines on the sky." The sw r an, a variety of fisb- 
ing-ducks or duckers, and the woodcock, live here 
in winter, but retire in summer. There is a small, 
recently - formed village, called Lynchat, on the 
Belleville property, near the south-west extremity 
of the parish. Population of that village in 1851, 
73. Population of the parish in 1831, 1,092; in 
1861, 833. Houses, 176. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Abernethy, 
and synod of Moray. Patron, the Duke of Rich- 
mond. Stipend, £158 4s. 6d., with manse and glebe. 
Schoolmaster's salary now is £40, with £18 school- 
fees, and £4 10s. emoluments. The parish church 
was built in 1798, and repaired in 1833, and has 500 
sittings. There is a government church at Insch, 
within 4 miles of the parish church. See Insch. 
There is a Free church, formerly a station, for Alvie 

and Kothiemurchus; and the yearly sum raised in 
connection with it in 1865 was £74 Is. 4d. There 
is also a Roman Catholic chapel, with an attendance 
of about 160. There are two private schools. 

ALYTH, a parish partly in Forfarshire, but chief- 
ly in Perthshire. It lies on the north side of Strath- 
more, and contains a post-town of its own name. 
It is bounded by the parishes of Glenisla, Airlie, 
Ruthven, Meigle, Bendochy, Blairgowrie, Rattray, 
and Kirkmickael. The river Isla separates it from 
Airlie and Meigle ; and the Ericht or Blackwater 
separates it from Bendochy and Kirkmiehael. Its 
length from north to south is about 15 miles; and 
its breadth varies from 1 mile to upwards of 6. It 
is divided into two districts of unequal extent and 
of widely different character by the hills of Alyth, 
Loyall and Barry. The southern district, which 
lies in the strath, is about 4 miles long, and 3 broad. 
The lower part along the Isla is extremely fertile, 
producing excellent crops of barley, oats, and wheat; 
but the frequent inundations of the Isla — which 
sometimes rises suddenly in harvest to a great 
height — are liable to occasion great disappoint- 
ment and loss to the husbandman. The hill of 
Barry is about a mile in circumference at the base, 
and has a height of 680 feet ; and the hills of Alyth 
and Loyall are somewhat higher. On the northern 
side of the hill of Alyth there is an open country of 
considerable extent, and capable of great improve- 
ment. Beyond the hill of Banff — which is 2 miles 
north-west of the town of Alyth — is the forest of 
Alyth, a large tract of heathy ground, of more than 
6,000 acres, which formerly belonged to four pro- 
prietors who possessed it in common, but is now 
divided among them. The forest, which is skirted 
on the west with arable ground, affords pasture for 
a considerable number of sheep and black cattle ; it 
abounds in game, especially moorfowl, and is much 
frequented in the shooting-season. At the north- 
western extremity of the parish there is a beautiful 
little district surrounded with hills, and intersected 
by the Ericht, which in summer has a delightful ap- 
pearance. Mount Blair, the most considerable hill 
in this parish, but belonging partly also to Glen- 
isla, is a very conspicuous piece of land. The 
base is not less than five miles in circumference ; 
and the summit has an altitude of about 2,260 feet 
above the level of the sea. This mountain affords 
good pasture for a great number of sheep, and 
abounds in limestone. About 3 miles south-west 
of Mount Blair, on the west side of the forest of 
Alyth, is the King's-seat, rising to the height of 
1,179 feet above the level of the sea. The situation 
is romantic ; the water of Ericht runs at its foot on 
the west, and the side of the hill for a considerable 
way up is covered with a beautiful natural wood. 
The largest interior stream of the parish is the burn 
of Alyth, which rises in the mosses of the forest, 
and runs to the Isla at Inverqueich. On the sum- 
mit of the hill of Barry there is an area about 60 
yards long and 24 broad, surrounded with a mound 
of earth, 7 feet high, and 10 broad at the top. On 
the west and north borders of this area are seen the 
marks of something like huts built of dry stones, 
which may have served to shelter the besieged from 
the weapons of the assailants, and the inclemency 
of the air. The northern and western sides of the 
hill are steep and almost inaccessible ; on the south 
and east, where the declivity is more gentle, there 
is a broad and deep fosse, over which, at the south- 
ern extremity, is a narrow bridge built of unpolished 
stones and vitrified. It evidently appears to have 
been designed for a temporary retreat in time of 
war, and is well-adapted for that purpose. The tra- 
ditional account is, that Barry bill was the place 




where Queen Guinevra, the wife of the British king, 
Arthur, who was taken prisoner in a battle between 
the forces of that monarch and those of the Scots 
and Picts, was confined by her captors. The man- 
sions in the parish are Banff-house, Balhary, Loyall, 
Balindoch, and Jordanston. The real rent by valu- 
ation in 1837, including the houses in the town, was 
little short of £12,000. Assessed property in 1865, 
£17,058 0s. 4d. Population in 1831, 2,888 ; in 1861, 
3,422. Houses, 608. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Meigle, and 
synod of Angus and Mearns. Patron, the Crown. 
Stipend, £229 19s. 6d.; glebe, £14. Unappropriated 
teinds, £134 Is. lid. Schoolmaster's salary, £52 
10s., with fees and other emoluments. The parish 
church is an elegant structure in the Norman style 
of architecture, built in 1839, and has 1,290 sittings. 
An Episcopalian congregation has existed here since 
the Revolution ; and they have a chapel, built in 
1857, and containing about 150 sittings. A Seces- 
sion congregation was organized in 1781 ; and their 
church, now United Presbyterian, has 270 sittings. 
A Free church was built immediately after the Dis- 
ruption, and contains between 700 and 800 sittings; 
yearly sum raised in 1865, £307 16s. 2d. There are 
an Industrial school, a Free church school, and 
an Episcopalian school. 

The Town op Alvih stands on the burn of Alyth, 
2 miles above its confluence with the Isla, 4 miles 
from Meigle, 5 miles from Blairgowrie, 12 from For- 
far, and 17 from Dundee; and it has a junction rail- 
way from the Scottish Northeastern at Meigle, opened 
in 1841. It is a burgh of barony, and lias been so 
since the reign of James III. The superiors of it 
are the family of Airlie, who have the title of Barons 
of Alyth. It was a market town in the reign of 
David Bruce ; and it continues to have a weekly 
market on Tuesday, though this is now little more 
than nominal. It stands in a healthy situatiou, and 
enjoys an ample supply of excellent water. A sys- 
tem of police is maintained within it ; and a baronial 
court is held ou the first Tuesday of every month. 
The chief employment is handloom weaving of 
coarse linen for the Dundee trade ;. but it yields 
such miserable remuneration that many persons en- 
gaged in it are glad to take part in the harvest work 
of the neighbouring farms. There are two power- 
loom factories ; the one with about 100 looms; the 
other founded about the end of 1865. The town 
contains the places of worship, and has an office of 
the Bank of Scotland, and two of the Royal Bank. 
Fairs are held on the third Tuesday of May, on the 
second Tuesday of June old style, on the first Tues- 
day of August, on the first Tuesday and Wednesday 
of November old style, and on the second Tuesday 
after the 11th of November old style, and monthly 
cattle markets are held during the winter months. 
Population in 1841, 1,846; in 1861, 2,106. 

AMISFIELD, a village, an estate, and the seat 
of a post-office, in the parish of Tinwald, Dumfries- 
shire. Here are traces of an ancient fort, which 
probably was a Roman station. Here too is an 
ancient baronial tower, one of the most curious and 
most perfect in the kingdom, a tall, square, stubborn- 
looking fortalice, 5 miles north-east of Dumfries, 
between the two head-streams of the Lochar. This 
was long the family seat of the Anglo-Norman fam- 
ily of Charteris, or Chartres, who migrated north- 
wards during the reign of David I., but seem to 
have first settled at Kinfauns in Perthshire. The 
apartments are placed one above another, and com- 
municate by a narrow stair.. There is a curiously 
carved door on one of them, of which Mr. Chambers 
has given an amusing account, and which door alone, 
he avers, " makes Amisfield castle worth going 

twenty miles to see." See Tinwald. Amisfield has 
a station on the Dumfries and Lockerby railway. 
Population of the village, 140. 

AMISFIELD, a seat of the Earl of Wemyss, in 
the parish and shire of Haddington, on the banks of 
the Tyne, about 1 mile east of Haddington. It is a 
handsome edifice of red-coloured sandstone, situated 
in the midst of an extensive park, and fronting to- 
wards the river and the great post-road from Dun- 
bar to Haddington. It contains some fine paintings. 
It was built by the famous Colonel Charteris, who 
named it from the ancient seat of his family in 
Nithsdale, the subject of the preceding article. His 
only daughter conveyed it by marriage to the noble 
family of Wemyss. 

AMPLE GLEN. See Balquhidder. 

AMULREE, a small village, with a post-office, 
in the parish of Dull, Perthshire. It stands on the 
river Braan, and on the road from Crieff to Aberfel- 
dy; 10 miles south-west of Dunkeld, 10J south of 
Aberfeldy, and 11 J north of Crieff. Its site is 
thought by Dr. Buckland to have been fashioned by 
a group of low moraines. It is encompassed with 
wild highland scenery, and has many attractions for 
sportsmen. It contains an inn, a government 
church, and a Free church. The minister of the 
government church has a stipend of £65, and a 
manse and garden and small glebe. The yearly 
sum raised in connexion with the Free church in 
1863 was £15 12s. 8id. Fairs are held on the first 
Wednesday of May and the day before, and on the 
Friday before the first Wednesday of November. 

ANABICH, an island in the Outer Hebrides, par- 
ish of Lewis, county of Inverness. Population in 
1841, 41; in 1861, 59; Houses 12. 

ANCRUM, a parish, containing a post-office 
village of its own name, nearly in the centre of 
Roxburghshire. It is bounded by the parishes of 
St. Bos well's, Maxton, Roxburgh, Crailing, Jed- 
burgh, Bedrule, Minto, Lilliesleaf, and Bowden. 
The Teviot, along which it stretches about 5 miles, 
divides it from Jedburgh and Bedrule. The greatest 
length of the parish is not less than 6 miles, and its 
breadth does not exceed 4. The old parish of Long- 
newtown forms the north and north-west parts of the 
present parish of Ancrum, and was annexed to it in 
1684. The Ale, after fetching 'many a loop and 
link ' on the borders of the present parish, flows 
through it to the village of Anerurn, where it fetches 
another circuit, and then falls into the Teviot, at the 
distance of half-a mile below the village, and a quar- 
ter of a mile above Anerurn bridge on the great road 
to Jedburgh. The soil, in the lower grounds of the 
parish, on Teviot side, is rich, consisting of a mix- 
ture of sand and clay, and, in some places, of a 
loam. On the higher ground, or ridge which per- 
vades the parish from east to west, and on the de- 
clivities exposed to the north, the surface is heath 
on a bottom of cold clay ; but the flat ground, on 
both the Ancrum and Longnewtown side of the Ale, 
is a naturally rich though stiff clay. In 1837, as 
stated by the New Statistical Account, 7,496 acres 
were under' cultivation, and above 800 in wood. There 
was formerly a greater extent of wood in this par- 
ish ; but none of long standing remains, except upon 
the banks of the Ale, near the village of Ancrum, 
and in the environs of Ancrum-house. The princi- 
pal landowners are Sir William Scott, Bart., of An- 
crum, Ogilvie of Cheaters, Richardson of Kirklands-, 
the Duke of Roxburgh, the Marquis of Lothian, the 
Earl of Minto, and six others. The assessed pro- 
perty in 1843 was £8,892 lis. 6d.; in 1863-4, £12,498 
17s. There are several freestone quarries. The 
stone is of two colours, red and white; and it is 
easily wrought and of a durable quality. The 




situation of Ancrum-house, where tho village of 
Over-Ancrutn formerly stood, is picturesque and at- 
tractive. Spots of verdant lawn, craggy knolls, 
scattered trees, and, on the verge of the river, steep 
banks, in some places naked and of broken surface, 
and in others clothed with wood, here exhibit a fine 
assemblage of romantic objects. The trees surround- 
ing Ancrum-house are the oldest and most beautiful 
in the district: they consist of oaks, beech, elms, 

S lanes, and limes. The prospect from the house 
own the vale of Teviot, of the junction of the Ale 
and Teviot, and towards the lofty mountains of 
Cheviot, is extensive and striking. Chesters-house 
is a fine building, picturesquely situated farther up 
the Teviot; and Kirklands, on the Ale, is deservedly 
admired for both its architecture and its situation. 

The Roman road from York to the frith of Forth, 
after passing through the north-east part of the 
parish of Jedburgh, cuts a small part of the north 
corner of Ancrum ; and upon the top and declivity 
of the hill to the eastward, on the border of Max- 
ton parish, vestiges of a Roman camp may still be 
traced. — There is a ridge in this parish, over which 
the road to Edinburgh passes, about a quarter or 
half-a-mile west of the line of the Roman road, on 
the border of Maxton parish, called Lylliard's, or 
Lilyard's edge, from a lady of that name, who, on 
an invasion of the English under Sir Ralph Evers, 
and Sir Bryan Latoun, in 1544, during the distracted 
regency of the Earl of Arran, fought with masculine 
bravery, and fell here under many wounds. The 
old people point out her monument, now broken and 
defaced. It is said to have borne an inscription — 
recast from the well-known lines on a Chevy-Chase 
hero — running thus: 

" Fair maiden Lylliard lies under this stane; 
Little was her stature, but great was her fame; 
Upon the English louns she laid mony thumps, 
And when her legs were cutted off, she fought upon her stumps." 

Sir Walter Scott, in a note on the ballad of ' The Eve 
of St. John,' gives the following account of the battle 
of Ancrum Moor. In 1545, [1544?] Lord Evers and 
Latoun again entered Scotland, with an army con- 
sisting of 3,000 mercenaries, 1,500 English borderers 
and 700 assured Scottish-men, chiefly Armstrongs, 
Tumbulls, and other broken clans. In this second 
incursion, the English generals even exceeded their 
former cruelty. Evers burned the tower of Broom- 
house, with its lady, (a noble and aged woman, says 
Lesley,) and her whole family. The English pene- 
trated as far as Melrose, which they had destroyed 
last year, and which they now again pillaged. As 
they returned towards Jedburgh, they were followed 
by Angus, at the head of 1,000 horse, who was 
shortly after joined by the famous Norman Lesley, 
with a body of Fife-men. The English, being pro- 
bably unwilling to cross the Teviot, while theScots 
hung upon their rear, halted upon Ancrum moor, 
above the village of that name; and the Scottish 
general was deliberating whether to advance or re- 
tire, when Sir "Walter Scott of Buccleuch came up 
at full speed, with a small but chosen body of his 
retainers, the rest of whom were near at hand. By 
the advice of this experienced warrior — to whose 
conduct Pitscottie and Buchanan ascribe the success 
of the engagement — Angus withdrewfrom the height 
which he occupied, and drew up his forces behind it, 
upon a piece of low flat ground, called Panier-heugh, 
or Paniel-heugh. The spare horses being sent to an 
eminence in their rear, appeared to the English to be 
the main body of the Scots, in the act of flight. 
Under this persuasion, Evers and Latoun hurried 
precipitately forward, and, having ascended the hill, 
which their foes had abandoned, were no less dis- 
mayed than astonished, to find the phalanx of Scot- 

tish spearmen drawn up, in firm array, upon the flat 
ground below. The Scots in their turn became the 
assailants. A heron, roused from the marshes by 
the tumult, soared away betwixt the encountering 
armies: ' O!' exclaimed' Angus, ' that I had here my 
white goss-hawk, that we might all yoke at once!' 
[Oodscroft.] — The English, breathless and fatigued, 
having the setting sun and wind full in their faces, 
were unable to withstand the resolute and desperate 
charge of the Scottish lances. No sooner had they 
begun to waver, than their own allies, the assured 
Borderers, who had been waiting the event, threw 
aside their red crosses, and, joining their country- 
men, made a most merciless slaughter among the 
English fugitives, the pursuers calling upon each 
other to ' remember Broomhouse !' — [Lesley, p. 478.1" 
The English had 800 men slain, and 1,000 made 
prisoners in this battle. Their leaders, Evers and 
Latoun, were also left on the field, 

"where Ancrum moor 
Ran red with English blood; 
Where the Douglas true, and the bold Buccleuch, 
'Gainst keen Lord Evers stood. 

The most venerable fragment of antiquity in the 
parish were the Maltan walls, which stood on a 
rising ground at the bottom of the village of Ancrum, 
close to the side of the Ale, where it turns its course 
towards the south-east, but whose last relics fell to 
the ground in the winter of 18S6-7. " These walls," 
says the Statistical reporter in 1796, " were strongly 
built of stone and lime, in the figure of a parallelo 
gram; and, ascending on one side from the plain 
adjacent to the river, were considerably higher than 
the summit of the hill which they enclose; but are 
now levelled with its surface, and small part of them 
remains. Vaults or subterraneous arches have 
been discovered in the neighbouring ground, and 
underneath the area enclosed by the building. 
Human bones are still found by persons ploughing 
or digging in the plain at the side of the river, 
which is an evidence of its having been formerly 
occupied as burying-ground. The name, which 
these walls still retain, gives the colour of authen- 
ticity to a tradition generally received in this part 
of the country, that the building and surrounding 
fields had been vested in the knights of Malta, or 
Knights Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem, 
who, upon account of their splendid achievements 
and meritorious services in the holy wars, acquired 
property even in the most remote kingdoms of 
Christendom. — On the banks of the Ale, below the 
house of Ancrum, there were several caves or re- 
cesses, and not less than fifteen may be still pointed 
out. In some, of them there are also vestiges of 
chimneys or fire-places, and holes for the passage of 
smoke from the back part of the cave to the outside 
of the bank. From these appearances, it is natural 
to conclude, that, though these caves — so frequently 
found on the banks of rivers in border-counties — were 
originally intended for places of concealment and 
shelter, yet, after the happy event which put an end 
to interior violence and depredation, they were pro- 
bably assumed by the poorer classes for places of 
habitation, and improved by such further accommo- 
dations as the rude or simple taste of the times re- 

The village of Ancrum stands on a rising ground, 
on the right bank of the Ale, a little west of the 
Jedburgh and Edinburgh road, and about 3J miles 
north-north-west of Jedburgh. Its original or 
uncontracted name was Alneerumb or Alncromb, and 
signifies the crook of the Alne, — the original name of 
the Ale; and is exactly descriptive of its situation 
on a hold sharp curve of the river. The scenery 
around it is softly yet richly picturesque. The pre- 




sent village, as regards its buildings, is nearly all 
modern ; but it dates from a considerable antiquity, 
and has in the centre of its green an ancient cross! 
It was long called Nether- Ancrum, to distinguish it 
from the now extinct village of Over- Ancrum ; and 
both of these villages were burned to the ground 
during the hostilities connected with the battle of 
Ancrum Moor. Population of the present village in 
1861, 538. The Edinburgh and Hawick railway 
traverses the north-west part of the parish, and has 
a station in it at Belses. Population' of the parish 
in 1831, 1,454; in 1861, 1,511. Houses, 274. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Jedburgh, and 
synod of Merse and Teviotdale. Patron, Sir Wil- 
liam Scott, Bart. Stipend, £223 16s. 6d.; glebe, 
£30. Schoolmaster's salary now is £50, with £29 
fees. The parish church was built in 1762, and re- 
paired in 1832, and has about 520 sittings. There 
is a Free church : attendance 200 ; yearly sum 
raised in 1853, £68 16s. 5H.,— in 1865, £111 4s. 
There are two private schools. 

ANDEESTON. See Glasgow. 

ANDREWS (St.), a parish, containing a city of 
the same name, on the east coast of Fifeshlre. It is 
bounded on the north by the Eden river and its 
estuary, which separate it from Leuchars parish; 
on the north-east by the German ocean; on the 
south-east by the Kenly burn, which separates it 
from Kingsbarns and Denino parishes; and on the 
south and west by the parishes of Denino, Cameron, 
Ceres, and Kemback. Its greatest length is about 
10 J miles from north-west to south-east; its average 
breadth does not exceed If mile; though in the 
north-western part it exceeds 4 miles, measuring 
from St. Andrews links to the western boundary of the 
parish at Chalderhills. Its area somewhat exceeds 
17 square miles, and may he stated at 11,000 acres. 
The ascent of the surface is from the north to the 
south and east. From the Eden to the city of St. 
Andrews, the coast presents a flat firm sandy 
beach, skirted by the finks so famous in the annals 
of golfing. From the city to the south-eastern ex- 
tremity of the parish, the shore outwards from high 
water-mark is lined with rough and ragged shelving 
rocks covered with sea-weed, while the coast in- 
wards is very rocky and hold, in some places pre- 
senting perpendicular rocks of the height of 30 or 40 
feet, yet the plough here comes to the very brink, 
having a sufficiency of soil. The boundaries of the 
parish to the south and west terminate in moors 
covered with short heath and furze. In common 
with all the eastern part of the island, this district is 
well-acquainted with the cold damp easterly winds, 
or haars of April and May. The south-west wind, 
however, is the prevailing wind. There are no con- 
siderable lakes or rivers within the parish. In the 
embouchure of the Eden — up which the tide flows 4 
miles — is a flat sandy bay abounding with large 
flounders, cockles, and mussels. In the course of 
the river, for about a mile from its mouth, salmon 
are caught, but in no great quantity. Towards the 
east end of the parish are some small creeks among 
the rocks, where fishing-boats and small vessels oc- 
casionally unload at low water. St. Andrews bay is 
proverbially dangerous to navigators. Vessels driven 
into it by an easterly wind, being unable to weather 
the opposite points of Fifeness and the Redhead, 
are compelled to run into the mouth of the Tay, 
which presents an intricate navigation amid its 
sand-banks. On the lands of Brownhills and Kin- 
kell— which form the first rising ground eastward 
from St Andrews harbour — there are a few insulated 
rocks, from 20 to 40 feet high, and of nearly equal 
breadth; one about half-a-mile from the harbour, is 
called the Maiden stone; and about half-a-mile far- 

ther is the Rock and Spindle. The chief land-marks 
m this parish are the steeples of St Andrews, and a 
small obelisk of stones, on the highest part of the 
farm of Balrymont, about two miles south-east of 
the town. The principal hills are the East and 
West Balrymonts, which rise to the altitude of about 
360 feet above sea-level; and the hill of Clatto 
winch has an elevation of 548 feet. On Strath- 
kinness moor, about 3 miles west from the town 
and on Nydie hill— which is a more elevated and 
westerly portion of the same moor— are quarries of 
excellent freestone, of which most of the houses in 
ftt. Andrews are built. In Denhead moor coal is now- 
being worked; and on the estate of Mount Mel- 
ville_ there is extensively wrought ironstone. About 
a mile east from the harbour, there is a natural 
cave, called Kinkell cave. The direction of it is 
southwards, and it penetrates about 80 feet - the 
shelving of the freestone roof presents a triangular 
cross section, and there is a continual dropping from 
the roof and sides which are covered with hanging 
plants. There are no very old or extensive planta- 
tions of wood in this parish. The number of acres 
under cultivation is about 10,000. The landowners 
are veiy numerous. The average rent of land is 
about 30s. per acre. The total yearly value of raw 
produce was estimatedin 1838 at £46,625. Assessed 
property in 1865, £22,193 18s. 5d. There are four 
villages, Strathkinness, Boarhills, Grange, andKin- 
caple. The highways are such only as diverge 
from St. Andrews as a centre, viz. to Crail south- 
east; south to Anstruther ; south-west to Ely; west 
to Cupar; and north-west to Dundee. A railway of 
44 miles, opened in 1852, goes from the city north- 
westward, by Pilmuir Links and Edenside, and joins 
the Dundee fork of the North British at Leuchars. 
On the road to Dundee, over the Eden, is a bridge 
of six arches, called the Gair or Guard -bridge, 
originally built at the expense of Bishop Wardlaw, 
who died in 1444, and who established a family of 
the name of Wan as hereditary keepers of this 
bridge, for which they have a perpetual fee of about 
10 acres of land adjoining to it. Population in 
1831, 5,621 ; in 1861, 7,092. Houses, 1,716. 

This parish is the seat of a presbytery in the 
synod of Fife. It is a collegiate charge ; the Crown 
appointing the first minister; and the town-council 
of St. Andrews the second. Stipend of the first 
minister £439 9s. 4d., with a glebe of the annual 
value of £23 ; of the second, £161 ISs. 2d., with a 
glebe of the value of £16 5s. 2d.; both ministers 
have an additional allowance for a manse. Unap- 
propriated teinds .£791 9s. lOd. The parish church, 
within the city of St. Andrews, was erected in the 
12th century, and thoroughly repaired in 1798. 
Sittings, 2,128. A new church, quoad sacra, is at 
Strathkinness : and a church was contemplated, in 
1865, at Boarhills. There are in the city a Free 
church, with handsome Gothic front, and 900 sit- 
tings, whose yearly income in 1865 was £715 0s. 9d ; 
a United Presbyterian church, built in 1865, with a 
fine spire, and 500 sittings ; an Episcopalian chapel, 
built in 1825, at a cost of 1,400, and enlarged in 
1853 ; an Independent chapel built in 1858, with 360 
sittings; and a Baptist chapel built within the last 
few years. There is also a Free church at Strathkin- 
ness, whose yearly income in 1865 was £125 9s. ljd. 
The places of education, in addition to the Univer- 
sity and the Madras College, comprise some board- 
ing schools, and a number of private schools. 

The small parish of St. Leonards lies partly em- 
bosomed in the parish of St. Andrews, and is identi- 
fied in most of its interests with that parish and with 
the city. It consists of several detached districts in 
and around the city, and of three farms about 4 miles 




ilistant, and surrounded by the parishes of St. An- 
drews, Kingsbarns, Crail, and Denino, — all origin- 
ally belonging to the priory, afterwards to the col- 
lege of St. Leonard, and now to the United college 
of St. Salvator and St. Leonard. Its total extent is 
820 acres. It is probable that the erection of the 
parish is of the same date with the foundation of 
the college whose name, it bears. Although the 
principal of St. Leonards did not always officiate as 
minister of the parish — and in the instance of Mr. 
George Buchanan, was not even a clergyman — it is 
certain that for some time before the Revolution, 
the two offices were held by the same person ; and 
from that period till 1836 the principal of the col- 
lege was a clergyman and the minister of this par- 
ish. Stipend, £152 Is. 9d.; glebe, £25. The chapel 
of St. Salvator's college is used as the parish- 
church ; the old parish-church having been long in 
rains; sittings, 312. Population in 1831, 482; in 
1861, 513. Houses, 98. Assessed property in 
1865, £1,189 7s. 7d. 

The City of St. Andrews stands on a rocky 
ridge, in the central part of the coast of the parish 
of St. Andrews, 10 miles east of Cupar- Fife, and 39 
north-north-east of Edinburgh. The ridge is about 
three-quarters of a mile long and half-a-mile broad, 
and is washed by the sea-waves on the east and 
north. It terminates on these sides in abrupt pre- 
cipices of 50 feet in depth; and it gives the city, to 
a traveller approaching from the west, an appear- 
ance of elevation and grandeur. Its surface looks 
to the eye to be flat, but really declines gently on 
all sides from a point near the centre of the city. 
The view of the place, with its environs and back- 
I grounds, from almost any part at the distance of 
some miles to the west and north-west, is magnifi- 
cent. On the left the eye ranges over the vast 
sweep of the bay of St. Andrews, and the coast of 
Angus as far as the Redhead; on the right rises 
the richly wooded hank of Strathtyrum ; while the 
venerably majestic towers and numerous spires of 
St. Andrews, shooting into the air, over the horizon 
line, directly in 'front, combine to form a finely 
varied and imposing scene, especially at that fair 

" When morning runs along the sea 
In a gold path." 

The city commands a fine and open prospect of the 
German ocean towards the north-east ; and the view 
on the opposite quarter is bounded by a curvilineal 
range of hills running from north to south-east, and 
cultivated to their summits. The road from Crail 
— or the coast-road, as it is called — conducts us to 
a view greatly admired by some, and indeed per- 
haps preferable to any other of St. Andrews ; for the 
scenery is here softened and improved by gardens 
and fruit-trees, amid which the houses lie half-con- 
cealed, seeming to retire as it were into the shade. 
We have, at the same time, a fine prospect of the 
harbour, and of the ruins of the monastery and the 
cathedral. Some, however, prefer the view of St. 
Andrews from the side of Mount-Melvil, or the 
south-west prospect of it, on the road from Anstru- 
ther, to either of the two we have just described. 
From this point the city appears still more closely 
embosomed in gardens and plantations, above which 
numerous spires and pinnacles shoot up, conferring 
on it " a kind of metropolitan look." The city is 
about two miles in circuit, and has three chief streets, 
—South-street, Market-street, and North-street, 
each averaging about 70 feet in breadth, and all 
intersected by smaller ones, well-built, well-paved, 
and lighted at night with gas. The whole ground 
plan is remarkably regular. Some of the largest 

and most prominent lines of building were origin- 
ally uniform; and a few parts are sprightly and 
ornate with elegant new houses. Yet tho three 
principal streets do not lie exactly parallel to one 
another, but diverge in a westerly direction from 
the cathedral, like spokes from the centre of a 
wheel. There was formerly another street, called 
Swallow-street, which lay farther to the north, now 
converted into a public walk, and known by the 
name of the Scores. The castle stood on the north 
of Swallow-street, 300 yards distant from the cathe- 
dral. St. Salvator's, called also the Old or the 
United college, is on the northern side of the town, 
between North-street and the Scores; St. Mary's, or 
the New college, directly opposite to it, on the 
south side of South-street. The buildings belong- 
ing formerly to the third college, or St. Leonards, 
are towards the east, off the east end of South-street. 
On the site of the Blackfriars monastery stands the 
splendid range of buildings belonging to the Madras 
college, to be afterwards noticed. At the west end 
of the Scores was built by subscription, in 1842, a 
handsome monumental obelisk, 45 feet high, on a 
massive base, in memory of the Protestant martyrs 
of St. Andrews, the circumstances of whose death 
will be afterwards mentioned. The total area of 
the city, including its gardens, is about 130 acres. 

St. Andrews has been described as a parodox of 
splendour and desolation. Spacious streets, ornate 
buildings, local sports, and intellectual amusements, 
— the Union Club house on the Links, with its golf, 
sea-bathing, and fine promenades, — good society, ed- 
ucation, libraries, antiquarian and historical associa- 
tions, give it a grand aggregate of attractive char- 
acter. Great improvements, both in renovating the 
old streets and in erecting new ones, have recently 
been made ; and already, on entering the town from 
the west, we see its elegance extending as if by an- 
ticipation of a brilliant future. Playfair and Gilles- 
pie terraces, the former on a line with North-street, 
the latter on a line with the Scores, present exqui- 
site cottage-rows in freestone; Gladstone-crescent, 
to the south of Playfair- terrace, presents magnificent 
piles of building ; and many other new streets and 
places, in the north-west and the west, appear in all 
the beauty of fine freestone and ornamental masonry. 
South-street, which, as to both position and im- 
portance, might be called the High-street, is not 
excelled in fine old magnificence by any thorough- 
fare in any city; and a new street, called South 
Bell-street, deflecting northward from its western 
part, is composed of neat private residences. And 
in looking round on the various public edifices, 
modern and ancient, it is difficult to decide whether 
most to admire the Collegiate church, the Madras 
college, the University library, the Infant school, 
the remains of the old church of St. Leonards, or the 
gorgeous and gigantic ruins of the cathedral and 
the castle. The most popular of all the modern at- 
tractions is the late Sir Hugh Lyon Playfair's gar- 
den, which presents a rich display of floral beauty, 
novel and unique machinery, humorously libelled 
automata, music ground by flowing streams, jets 
d'eau, rockeries, and other striking features. 

St. Andrews had once seven incorporated trades; 
and not the least of these was the weavers. Weav- 
ing was largely carried on, both throughout the 
city and in the suburbs; but, in 1865, only four 
members of the weavers' incorporation survived, not 
one of whom had worked a web for many a day, and 
only four old men still drove the shuttle. The mak- 
ing of golf balls, of sheep skin stuffed with feathers, 
was long a great branch of industry, and nearly the 
only one the city could boast of; but, in conse- 
quence of the introduction of gutta-percha in ball- 




making, this is now extinct. A spinning-mill was 
tried but did not succeed ; and the buildings of it 
were extended to form what is now known as 
Fleming-place. An extensive steam saw-mill, the 
property of Mr. Gibson Woodburn, is near the har- 
bour ; and the life-boat house is adjacent to it. A 
flour-mill of modern erection, a reconstruction of the 
old Abbey mill, was built by the incorporation of 
bakers, and is now worked by private enterprise ; and 
a mill for barley and oatmeal is at the harbour. There 
are offices of the Bank of Scotland, the Royal Bank of 
Scotland, the Eastern Bank of Scotland, the Clydes- 
dale Bank, and a branch of the National Security 
Savings' Bank. A market is held every Monday for 
grain, and every Wednesday and Saturday lor poul- 
try and dairy produce. Fairs are held on the second 
Monday of April, the second Tuesday of August, 
and the last Monday of November. Communication 
is maintained by railway, several times a-day, with 
Cupar, Dundee, and Perth, and through these with 
places beyond them. The principal inns are the 
Cross Keys Hotel, the Star Hotel, and the Royal 
Hotel. A new golf club-house was founded, with 
masonic honours, in July 1853. Had St. Andrews, 
with its antiquarian associations, been written into 
popular notice by Burns, Byron, or Scott, it would 
probably be drawing far more wealth from the visits 
of fashionable tourists than from all its few and 
feeble appliances of trade and manufacture. But 
by a strange popular caprice — aided perhaps by 
the one-eyedness of its position, away from the 
straight line of any great thoroughfare — it con- 
tinued till quite recently to be totally neglected, 
and was now and then heard of at a distance almost 
as much for its forlorn appearance as for its curious 
ruins. Since the opening of the railway, however, 
it has begun to be a little better appreciated ; and 
perhaps it may hope ere long to be visited by 
strangers in some due proportion to what Lord 
Teignmouth calls "its own picturesque situation, the 
extent, diversity and grandeur of the remains of its 
ancient secular and ecclesiastical establishments, the 
importance of the events which they attest, and the 
celebrity which it has derived from the records of his- 
torians and thedescriptions of topographical writers." 
St. Andrews long made a great figure as a sea- 
port and a seat of trade. It was in the meridian of 
its glory in the 15th and beginning of the 16th cen- 
turies. Merchant-vessels were then accustomed to 
resort to it, not only from the opposite ports of Hol- 
land, Flanders, and of Fiance, but from all the other 
trading kingdoms of Europe. At the great annual 
fair, called the Senzie market — which was held 
within the priory in the month of April — no fewer 
than from 200 to 300 vessels were generally in the 
port. In 1656, Tucker describes this town as " a 
pretty neat thing, which hath formerly been bigger, 
and, although sufficiently humbled in the time of 
the intestine troubles, continues still proud in the 
ruines of her former magnificence, and in being yett 
a seat for the muses." At that period only one ves- 
sel of 20 tons burden belonged to the port ; and up- 
wards of a century later there were only two small 
vessels. A revival afterwards occurred ; and in 
1838, there were 14 vessels, of aggregately 680 
tons. The port also was made a bonding port ; and 
it, for some time, yielded about £700 a-year of cus- 
toms. A great trade suddenly arose likewise in the 
export, to iron-works on the Tyne, of calcined iron- 
stone from newly discovered mines at Winthank, 
about 3 miles from the city ; but that trade did not 
last, and all other trade now is small. The chief is 
the import of coal coastwise, and of timber from 
Norway or the Baltic. A schooner, the property of 
local merchants, had a few years before 1865 to be 

given up ; and an attempt to run a steamer to An- 
struther and Leith in the summer of 1865 proved an 
expensive failure. The harbour, with the exception 
of a small stream flowing through it, is dry at low 
water ; it has so little depth across the mouth at 
any time, that any vessel of more than 100 tons 
burden is obliged to discharge part of her cargo be- 
fore she can attempt to enter it ; and though per- 
fectly safe and sufficiently commodious within, it 
often can be approached only with much peril, in 
consequence of the narrowness of its entrance, and 
of being exposed to a heavy rolling sea in easterly 
winds. Some improvements have been made on it; 
but far greater ones are needed. Yet the shore 
dues, which are available for them, and for upkeep 
and repairs, amounted in 1862 to only £190 16s., and 
are at the same time available for the general im- 
provement of the town. 

St. Andrews was created a royal burgh in 1140; 
and a city or archbishop's see in 1471. As a royal 
burgh, it is now classed with Cupar, Easter and 
Wester Anstruther, Crail, Kilrenny and Pitten- 
weem, in returning one member. The parliamen- 
tary constituency, in 1865, was 296; the municipal 
293. The first member elected under the Reform 
act, was Andrew Johnston, Esq. of Rennyhill, who 
continued to represent the burghs till 1837; and 
Edward Ellice, Esq., a well-known reformer, was 
returned by a majority of 29 votes in that } T ear, and 
again without opposition in 1865. The city is 
governed by a provost, dean of guild, four bailies, 
and 23 councillors. The debt of the burgh in 1832 
was £4,662 ; but nearly all this was paid off a few 
years ago by the sale of town's property. Cor- 
poration revenue in 1863-4, £927, besides £285 from 
Dr. Bell's bequest. Value of real property in 1864-5, 
£19,462. The magistrates and council have the 
patronage of the second charge in St. Andrews 
parish-church; they were also patrons of the town- 
schools, but have transferred this right to Bell's 
trustees. The burgh boundaries were extended in 
1860; and a thorough system of drainage was intro- 
duced in 1864—5. Population of the city in 1801, 
3,263 ; in 1831, 4,462. Pop. of the parliamentary 
burgh in 1861, 5,176. Houses, 794." Pop. of the 
municipal burgh in 1861, 5,141. Houses, 786. 

The original name of this city was Mucross, i. e. 
'the Promontory of boars ; ' from muc, a sow or boar, 
and ross, a point, promontory, or peninsula.* But 
St. Regulus, or St. Rule, a monk of Patras, a city in 
Achaia, where the bones of St. Andrew were kept, 
having been warned in a vision to take some of 
these precious relics, and carry them with him to a 
distant region in the west, obeyed the command, and 
about the year 365 landed in this neighbourhood, 
and having been successful in converting the Picts, 
Hengustus, or Hungus, the king of the country, 
changed the name of Mucross into that of Kilry- 
mont, i. e. Cella regis in monte, or ' the Chapel of 
the King on the Mount;' having given to Regulus 
and his companions a piece of ground adjoining the 
harbour, on which he also erected a chapel and 
tower in honour of the monk, and bearing his name. 
The exemplary virtues of Regulus and his compa- 
nions — legendary history goes on to say — drew a 
great resort of people to his chapel ; and the name 
of the city was soon changed from Kilrymont to 
Kilrule, ». e. ' the Cell or Church of Regulus,' which 
name is still retained in Gaelic. Dr. Jamieson 
thinks it highly probable that such a gift was made 

* The village of Boarhills, in what was originally called Ihe 
Boarchase, a tract of country stretching from Fifeness to the 
neighbourhood of St. Andrews, retains the original name of the 
district,as translated into the dialect of later inhabitants; and 
the arms of the city display a boar tied to a tree. 




by Hungus. " For," says? lie, " it appears indispu- 
table, that, about the year 825, he founded a church 
at Kilrymont; which henceforth received the name 
of the apostle to whom it was dedicated. Sibbald 
views this gift of the Pictish king as meant for the 
benefit of the Culdees. But we have more direct 
evidence. For, as Martino speaks of ' Baronia Cale- 
daiorum infra Cursum Apri,' or ' the Barony of the 
Culdees below the Boar's raik,' the extracts bear, 
that this was given by King Hungus to St. Rule. 
Yet we learn, from the same source of information, 
that this tract was afterwards taken from the Cul- 
dees, and given first to the bishop, and then to the 
prior and canons regular of St. Andrews; ' so that,' 
as Sir James Dalrvmple observes, ' this place ap- 
peareth to have been one of the ancient seats of the 
Culdees.' In the tenth century, such was their 
celebrity at St. Andrews, that King Constantino 
III. took up his residence among them, and A. 943, 
died a member of their society, or, as Wyntown 
says, abbot of their monastery: 

Nyne hundyr wyntyr and aucht yhcre, 

Quhen gayne all Donaldis dayis were, 

Heddis sowne cald Constantino 

Kyng wes thretty yhere: and syne 

Kyng he scssyd tor to be, 

And in Sanct Andrewys a Kylde. 

And there he lyvyd yheris tyve, 

And Abbot mad, endyed his lyre. — Cromtkrt, B. vi. c. x. 

It is also believed that an Irish king attached kiru- 
Belf to this religious body. For we learn from the 
Ulster Annals, that A. 1033, Hugh Mac Flavertai 
O'Neill, king of Ailech, and heir of Ireland, 'post 
penitentiam mort. in St. Andrewes eccl.' " | History 
of the Culdees, p. 148.1 The walls of St. Eule'"s 
chapel, and a tower still remain ; though these are 
not probably the relics of the original building. The 
tower is a square of 20 feet on the side, and about 
108 feet high, without any spire; the outside, from 
top to bottom, is of fine ashler work. The tower 
was covered with a flat roof and parapet, at the ex- 
pense of the Exchequer, towards the end of last cen- 
tury ; and a turnpike stair reared within leading to 
the top, from which there is a fine prospect. The 
name, Kilrule, continued in use till the 9th century, 
when the Picts were finally vanquished by the 
Scots, who changed the name to St. Andrews. 

The cathedral of St. Andrews is supposed to have 
been founded in the year 1159; but a period of 160 
years elapsed before its completion, in 1318. It was 
demolished in June, 1559, by a mob, inflamed by a 
sermon of John Knox's, wherein " he did intreet 
(treat of) the ejectioune of the buyers and the sellers 
furthe of the temple of Jerusalem, as it is written 
in the evangelists Matthew and John; and so ap- 
plied the corruptioune that was then to the corrup- 
tiouue in the papistrie ; and Christ's fact to the 
devote (duty) of thois to quhome G-od giveth the 
power and zeill thereto, that as weill the magis- 
trates, the proveist and baillies, as the commonalty, 
did agree to remove all monuments of idolatry: 
quhilk also they did with expeditiouue." Such in- 
deed was their expedition, that this noble edifice, the 
labour of ages, was demolished in a single day.* 

* Tennant, the author of 'Anster Fair,' in a clever though 
less pleasing and less successful poem, entitled l Papistry 
Storm'd,' [Edin. 1S27, 12mo.,] has sung in quaintest dialect, and 
with all the facetious strength, fluency, and vivacity, which he 
attributes to the vernacular idiom of Scotland- 
" The steir, strabush, and strife, 
Whan, bickerin 1 frae the towns o' Fife, 
Great bangs of bodies, thick and rife, 

Gaed to Sanct Audrois town, 
And, wi' John Calvin i' their heads, 
And hammers i' their hands and spades, 
. EnragM at idols, mass, and beads, 
Dang the Cathedral down." 

" While entire, the cathedral church," says Mr. 
Grierson, " had five pinnacles or towers, and a great 
steeple. Of the towers, two stood on the west gable, 
two on the east, and one on the south end of the 
transept or cross-church. Two of these towers, with 
the great steeple over the centre of the church, have 
long since disappeared. Three of the towers yet 
remain, the two on the east gable, which is still 
entire, and one of those on the west. The other, it 
is said, fell about two hundred years ago, immedi- 
ately after a crowd of people had passed from under 
it in returning from an interment. Large fragments 
of it still remain, which show the goodness of the 
cement with which the stones have been joined to- 
gether. The towers are each 100 feet high from 
the ground to the summit, and they rose consider- 
ably above the roof of the church. The two eastern 
ones are joined by an arch or pend, forming the great 
east light of the church, till they rise above the 
height of the roof; and it is evident that the western 
ones have been in the same state when entire. 
From each of these towers, to within the church, 
opened three several doors into so many galleries 
along the walls ; which galleries were supported by 
pillars, 16 in number on each side, and at the dis- 
tance of 16 feet from the wall. All that now re- 
mains of this once magnificent pile, is the eastern 
gable entire, as has been said, half of the western, 
the south side-wall from the western gable till it 
join the transept, a length of 200 feet, and the west 
wall of the transept itself on the south side of the 
church. The rest is entirely gone, ' eveiy man,' as 
Dr. Johnson expresses it, ' having earned away the 
stones who imagined he had need of them.' From 
the length of time which elapsed during its erection, 
and the varying tastes of the ages in which it was 
built, we might be led to conclude beforehand that 
there would be found in it different styles of archi- 
tecture, and the conjecture is confirmed by the ap- 
pearance of what remains. For on the east gable 
there is to be seen the Gothic mixed with the Saxon; 
and in the part of the south side-wall which still 
subsists, we have ten windows, six of which, name- 
ly, those toward the west, are Gothic, and the other 
four Saxon. The Barons of exchequer, in 1826, 
caused the interior of the cathedral to be cleared 
out, and various repairs to he executed with the 
view of preserving this venerable relic of long-past 
centuries, which 

1 But for that care, ere this had past away.' " 

The Crown lands are now the property of the uui ■ 
versity, having been very recently purchased by that 
body from the Crown for £2,600, with the view of 
forming a botanical garden and observatory, and 
preserving the venerable ruins from further dilapi- 
dation ; but they still lie in their old desolation. 

In the vicinity of the cathedral stood the priory, 
or Augustine monastery, founded by Bishop Kobert 
in 1144. John Hepburn, prior of St. Andrews, 
about the year 1516, surrounded the monastery on 
the north, east, and south sides with a magnificent 
wall, which is still pretty entire, and is nearly half- 
a-niile in extent. It is about 22 feet high, and 4 
feet thick; and encloses a space of about 18 acres. 
But of all the various buildings which once occupied 
this sacred enclosure, only a few vestiges now re- 
main. Near the west end of South-street stood a 
monastery, which Grose, in his Antiquities, assigns 
to the Dominicans; bur Keith informs us that it was 
a convent of Observantines. A Dominican convent, 
we know, was founded in St. Andrews by Bishop 
Wishart in 1274, and an Observantine establishment 
by Bishop Kennedy, 150 years later. " The only 




part which now remains of the buildings of the con- 
vent, beside the grammar-school," says Mr. Grier- 
son, writing in 1807, " is a fragment, with an arched 
roof in the Gothic style, extremely elegant in ap- 
pearance, and supposed to have been the chapel. It 
strikes one as decidedly the most beautiful specimen 
of Gothic architecture now to be seen at St. An- 
drews." This fragment is now enclosed within the 
grounds of Madras college, and its preservation will, 
we doubt not, be an object of solicitude to the trus- 
tees of that noble institution. Besides St. Eule's, 
and the cathedral, Martine, in his ' Reliquse Divi 
Andrea;,' written in 1685, mentions, as- having been 
in some sort discernible in his time, fourteen differ- 
ent buildings: among which were the prior's house, 
commonly called the Old inn, which stood to the 
south-east of the cathedral ; the cloisters, which lay 
west from the prior's house, separated from it only 
by the dormitory. In this quadrangle was held the 
great fair called the Senzie market, which began in 
the 2d week after Easter, and continued for 15 days. 
The refectory, or dining-room, was in length 108 
feet, and in breadth 28. It is now a garden; in 
Martine's time it was a bowling-green. Fordun re- 
lates, that Edward I., in 1304, stripped all the lead 
off this building to supply his battering-machines in 
a projected siege of Stirling. The New inn, the lat- 
est built of all the edifices in the monastery before 
the Reformation, is said to have been erected on the 
following occasion : — James V. having married the 
Princess Magdalene, the only and lovely daughter 
of Francis I. of France, in 1537, the young queen, 
being of a delicate constitution, was advised by her 
physicians to reside here for the benefit of her health. 
The New inn was, in consequence, built for the pur- 
pose of accommodating her majesty; and was erect- 
ed, we are told, with such rapidity, that it was 
begun and finished in a single mouth ! The queen, 
however, never enjoyed it, for she died at Holyrood- 
house, on the 7th of July, six weeks after her arrival 
in Scotland. The New inn was the residence of the 
archbishops after the annexation of the priory to the 
archbishopric in 1635. — The Kirkheugh, or St. 
Mary's church, no longer exists. Martine says, 
that in his time the manse of the provost of Kirk- 
heugh was still standing, " on a little height above 
the shore of St. Andrews, now in no good repair;" 
and that " a little north from it were, to be seen the 
ruins of old buildings, which were the chapel itself." 
A discovery of the substructions of the chapel was 
made in 1860, when it was found to have been 
ciuciform, and measuring, within the walls, 99 feet 
along the nave and choir, 20 feet across the nave, j 
and 84 feet along the transepts. 

The castle of St. Andrews was founded towards 
the conclusion of the 12th century, by Roger, bishop 
of the diocese, and son of Robert, third Earl of 
Leicester. It stood upon a point of land projecting 
towards the sea, on the north side of the town, about 
250 yards to the north-west of the cathedral. It 
was enlarged and repaired betwixt the years 1318 
and 1328. In 1336, Edward III. placed a garrison 
in it to command the town and neighbouring coun- 
try. On his return into England, however, a few 
months after, the regent, Sir Andrew Moray of 
Bothwell, in conjunction with the Earls of March 
and Fife, besieged this stronghold, reduced it in the 
space of three weeks, and entirely demolished it a 
short time after. Bishop Trail repaired the castle 
towards the end of the 14th century, and died in it 
in 1401. James III. was born in the castle, as ap- 
pears by the golden charter of the see granted to 
Bishop Kennedy ; and it continued to be the epis- 
copal palace till the murder of Beaton in 1545. 
Detached from the town, and bounded on two sides 

by the sea, the ruins of the castle now serve as a 
useful land-mark to mariners. The sea washes the 
rock on which it is built on the north and east sides, 
and has in some places undermined its walls, a con- 
siderable part of which fell in consequence of this in 
December 1801. Martine says, that in his time 
there were people living in St. Andrews who remem- 
bered to have seen bowls played on the flat ground 
to the east and north of the castle; the ocean, there- 
fore, must have made great encroachments on this 
part of the coast. It has recently swept away the 
curious cave known as Lady Buchan's cave, on the 
shore between the harbour and the castle. Every 
winter huge masses of the promontory are broken 
down and carried away by the tide. 

The University of St. Andrews is the oldest in 
Scotland, having been founded in 1411 by Henry 
Wardlaw, bishop of the diocese, who obtained the 
sanction of papal confirmation from Benedict XIII., 
in 1413. The success of the original institution led 
to the foundation of St. Salvator's college, about the 
year 1455, by James Kennedy, Bishop of St. An- 
drews ; St. Leonard's college, founded by Prior 
Hepburn, 1512 ; and St. Mary's, founded by Arch- 
bishop Beaton, in 1537. In each of these colleges 
were lecturers in theology, as well as in philosophy, 
languages, &c. In the reign of James VI. 1579, 
under the direction of Andrew Melville, these es- 
tablishments were new modelled, and St. Mary's 
college appropriated to the exclusive study of theo- 
logy; it is therefore distinguished by the name of 
the Divinity college, or the New college. In 1621, 
an act was passed re-establishing, in all their arti- 
cles, the first foundations of the colleges, but still 
assigning to St. Mary's the department of theology. 
In 1747, on a petition from the masters of St. Sal- 
vator's and St. Leonard's, these two colleges were 
united into one society, under the designation of 
the United college. " The statute ordained," says 
the Report of the Commissioners in 1832, " the 
United college shall consist of one principal, one 
professor of Greek ; three professors of philosophy ; 
whereof one is to be professor of logic, rhetoric, and 
metaphysics, another to be professor of ethics and 
pneumatics, and the third to be professor of natural 
and experimental philosophy; one professor of 
humanity; one professor of civil history, in place 
of the suppressed humanity professorship of St. 
Salvator's college; one professor of mathematics, 
and a professor of medicine; 16 bursars on the ori- 
ginal foundations; together with such as have been 
since or may hereafter be added, and the necessary 
servants: that the whole funds already or to be ap- 
propriated for the payment of the salaries of the 
principal and professors (all specially fixed by the 
act), shall be joined into one common stock, and be 
levied and received for their use, by such factor or 
steward as they shall from time to time appoint : 
that the patronage of the priucipalship and of the 
professorship of mathematics shall belong to the 
Crown ; of the professorship of civil history to the 
Earl of Cassillis ; of the professorship of humanity 
to Scott of Scotstarvet ; of the professorship oi 
medicine to the university, to be exercised as 
formerly ; of the remanent professorships to the 
principal and professors of the United college, to 
be determined by comparative trial, in such form 
and manner as was usually observed in former 
times; of the bursaries to thf same body, to be be- 
stowed as before the Union, the whole being a 
well-timed and judicious piece of legislation, which, 
by raising the condition of the collegiate body, 
secured to it in some degree superior qualifications, 
and which, though bestowing, after all, only a very 
moderate endowment on the chairs of the seminary 




ban in fact filled them, since the date of it, wi.h 
talents and attainments of the most respectable 
order, and the highest usefulness." The university 
commissioners, whose report we are now quoting, 
add: " It is pleasant to he enabled to state, that the 
members of the Senatus Academieus themselves 
have, on every occasion on which they could act 
with ell'ect, manifested the utmost zeal in the cause 
of literature and science, and for the efficiency and 
fame of their university. In 1811, their medical 
chair, which it would appear had never become 
effective, engaged their attention; and in conse- 
quence of authority vested in them by its munifi- 
cent founder, the Duke of Chandos, to form such 
regulations and statutes as might tend to the pro- 
motion of its object, they resolved that it should be 
a chair for instruction in the principles of medicine, 
anatomy, and chemistry, and that the holder of it 
should be an efficient professor, teaching two very 
important branches of medical science, chemistry 
and chemical pharmacy. They made at the same 
time certain arrangements for creating a fund, to 
meet the expense of a chemical apparatus and class 
experiments; and ever since that time, the pre- 
scribed branches have been taught eveiy session 
with great ability, and to a respectable class. 
About 1818-19, a class for political economy was 
opened by the professor of moral philosophy, and 
the lectures on the subject have been so attended of 
late, as to show that the science is growing at St. 
Andrews, as elsewhere, into estimation and request. 
In the session of 1825-6, the United college origin- 
ated a lectureship for natural history; and to pro- 
mote the permanency and success of the measure, 
they voted 25 guineas from their revenue, as an 
annual salary to the lecturer. Some bequests of 
specimens have given a beginning to a museum, 
and the subjects of the science have excited great 
interest among the students." Since the date of 
this Report, a regular chair of natural history has 
been established, the museum has been augmented 
into a very fine collection, and the two together 
have materially increased the reputation of the 
university. The revenue of the university, as dis- 
tinct from the two colleges, does not exceed £600, 
and is chiefly appropriated to the support of the 
university library. The income of the United col- 
lege, in 1774, was £1,727; in 1823, £3,020. The 
salary of the principal, in 1824, was £342 ; of each 
of the. four foundation-professors, £254; of each of 
the professors of humanity, civil histoiy, and medi- 
cine, £140 ; of mathematics, £245. The bursaries 
belonging to the United college are 63, besides 
prizes; and there are foundation scholarships, first 
competed for in Sept 1865. The annual amount 
of grants from the Crown is £297. The united col- 
lege holds the patronage of Denino, Kemback, Kil- 
meny, and Cults, and alternately with another 
patron, Forteviot. The buildings of St. Salvator's 
college have been re-erected by government grants, 
within the last 37 years ; and they form a magnifi- 
cent square, ornamented by a handsome spire 156 
feet high. Through a portal directly under this 
spire we enter a quadrangular court, 230 feet long, 
and 180 broad. The chapel stands on the right: is 
a handsome edifice, with Gothic front and turreted 
buttresses ; and has six beautiful memorial windows. 
In the chapel is an elegant tomb, erected by Bishop 
Kennedy, the founder, for himself. "It is a piece of 
exquisite Gothic workmanship; and though much 
injured by time and accidents, is still sufficiently 
entire to show the fine taste of the designer. It 
stands on the north side of the church, opposite to 
where the altar formerly stood, and where the pul- 
pit now stands. An epitaph is easily discernible 

upon it, consisting of two lines, but so much defaced 
as to be altogether illegible. The top was orna- 
mented by a representation of our Saviour, with 
angels around, and the instruments of the passion. 
The bishop died in 1466, and was embalmed with 
spices and buried in this tomb. Within it, and ac- 
cording to tradition, about the year 1683, were dis- 
covered six magnificent maces, which had been 
concealed there in troublesome times. Three of 
these maces are kept in St. Andrews, and Bhown as 
curiosities to strangers ; and one was presented to 
each of the other three Scottish universities, Aber- 
deen, Glasgow, and Edinburgh. One of the maces 
is very superior in elegance and value to the rest, 
and is the original, of which the others are only 
copies. It is of beautiful Gothic workmanship. 
The bishop seems to have copied it in the architec- 
ture of his tomb." The roof of the church, which 
was of beautiful Gothic architecture, having become 
apparently insufficient, it was judged necessary to 
pull it down, and to substitute another in its place. 
In doing this, the architect unfortunately suffered the 
tomb of Kennedy to be greatly injured. The average 
number of students at St. Salvator's is about 200. 

St. Leonard's college obtained its name from its 
vicinity to St. Leonard's church. " It appears," 
says a modern author, " from the foundation-char- 
ter, that there had been an hospital in the same 
place for the reception and entertainment of pil 
grims of different nations, who crowded to St. An 
drews to pay their devotions to the arm of St. 
Andrew which wrought a great many miracles 
At length, however, the saint's arm being tired 
with such laborious sort of work, or thinking he 
had done enough, the miracles and the conflux of 
pilgrims ceased, and the hospital was deserted. 
The prior and convent, who had been the founders 
and were the patrons of the hospital, then filled it 
with old women; but these old women produced 
little or no fruit of devotion, and were turned out. 
The prior and convent, having repaired the church 
and hospital of St. Leonard, next resolved to con- 
vert them into a college, to consist of a master or 
principal, four chaplains, two of whom were to be 
regents, and twenty scholars, who were first to be 
taught the languages and then the liberal arts and 
sciences. Six of them, who were thought most fit, 
were also to apply, with great ardour and vehement 
reading, — ' continuo studio et lectura, vehementi 
opera,' — to the study of theology under the princi- 
pal. Such of these scholars as were found fittest 
for it, were also to be taught music, both plain song 
and descant. The foundation-charter to this pur- 
pose, was executed by the archbishop, the prior, 
and chapter, at St. Andrews, August 20, 1512. By 
another charter, the prior and chapter endowed this 
college with all the houses, lands, and revenues 
which had belonged to St. Leonard's hospital." 
Both these charters received the royal confirmation 
in next year. On the union of this college with St. 
Salvator's, the buildings of it were sold and con- 
verted into dwelling-houses, to which purpose such 
of them as now remain are still applied. It stood 
on the south-east side of the town, adjoining to the 
monastery. The ruins of the church of St. Leonard 
are accounted a fine specimen of Gothic architec- 
ture. Into this church, it seems, Dr. Johnson 
could obtain no admission. He was always, be 
says, prevented by some civil excuse or other; and 
he loudly complains of its having been applied to 
the profane purpose of a green-house. It is now 
entirely unroofed. A little way to the east of it, 
and on the right, as we proceed from the principal 
gate of the abbey to the shore, stood an aged syca- 
more, which, the same traveller informs us, was' the 




only tree he had been able to discover in the county 
" older than himself." It was for a long time known 
by the name of Dr. Johnson's Tree. 

St. Mary's college was originally projected by 
Archbishop James Beaton, uncle and immediate 
predecessor to the famous cardinal of that name. 
We are informed, that in the year 1537, " he aug- 
mented the seminary called the Pedagogy, by a 
variety of endowments, and afterwards converted it 
into St. Mary's college: that he had determined to 
pull down the buildings of the above-mentioned 
seminary, which were become old and infirm, and 
inconvenient for the studies of the youth, and to 
erect from the foundation others in a more magnifi- 
cent style, but was prevented by death. He built, 
however," says our authority, " several parts, and 
completed some that had been begun by others. 
His successor and nephew, the cardinal, proposed 
to follow out his uncle's plans, and had made some 
progress in the undertaking when he was assassi- 
nated in the castle. Having demolished a set of 
old buildings, he laid the foundation of what was 
intended to be a handsome church, within the col- 
lege, but this was never finished." In 1553, Arch- 
bishop Hamilton gave a new establishment to this 
college, according to which it was to consist of 36 
persons: viz., a prefect, a licentiate, a bachelor, a 
canonist, 8 students of theology, 3 professors of 
philosophy, 2 of rhetoric and grammar, 16 philoso- 
phy students, a provisor, a janitor, and a cook. 
The income of this college on an average of 7 years 
preceding 1826, was £1,076. The principal has a 
salary of £238; the professor of divinity, of £231; 
the church-history professor, £286; and the Hebrew 
professor, £211. By the charters of foundation, the 
right of patronage of the parishes of Tynningham, 
Tannadice, Inchbroyack or Craig, Pert, and Lau- 
rencekirk, was vested in St. Mary's college. Pert 
is now united to Logie, and the crown and college 
present to that united parish alternately. The 
patronage of Tynningham was sold by the college 
to the Earl of Haddington, in the year 1760. But the 
college is still in possession of the other patronages. 
In the year 1803, the college obtained the right of 
patronage to the church of Tweedsmuir; and it 
would appear from the evidence that it was granted 
to the college by the late Mr. Scott of Dunninald. 
There are 20 bursaries, the total annual income of 
which averages £199. The average number of stu- 
dents is about 30. The buildings of this college 
stand on the south side of South-street, forming two 
sides of a quadrangle. On the west are the teach- 
ing and dining halls, both upon the first floor ; and 
immediately below is the prayer-hall, in which the 
students used to assemble twice eveiy day, viz., at 
nine in the morning, and at eight at night, for pub- 
lic prayers. The evening-service was abolished 
some years ago. The north side of the quadrangle 
is formed by the principal's residence and by an 
arched gateway ; and the south-west corner of the 
court is occupied by the house of the janitor. Con- 
tiguous, towards the east, is the University library, 
containing 60,000 volumes, and forming, in continu- 
ation with these buildings, part of the south side of 

The Madras college was founded by the Rev. Dr. 
Andrew Bell, one of the prebendaries of Westmin- 
ster, and the founder of the Madras system of tuition, 
who died at Cheltenham, in January, 1832. Dr. Bell 
was a native of St. Andrews, and, among other 
splendid bequests for the purposes of education in 
Scotland, left a sum of £50,000 in trust, for the pur- 
pose of founding a seminary within the city of St. 
Andrews, with which the English and grammar- 
schools are now incorporated. The buildings are in 

the Elizabethan style, and form a handsome quad- 
rangle, with a court within. The number of pupils 
attending the Madras college is upwards of 1,000. 
The branches taught are English, Greek, and La- 
tin, arithmetic, mathematics, geography, writing, 
drawing, French, German, and Italian, and church- 
music. The trustees are the provost of the city, 
the two parish -ministers, and the sheriff- depute of 
Fife. The lord-lieutenant of Fife, the lord-justice- 
clerk of Scotland, and the episcopal bishop of Edin- 
burgh, are patrons and visitors of the college. 

St. Andrews is a place of great antiquity, and has 
been the scene of some of the most memorable events 
recorded in Scottish history. We have already 
noticed several of the most memorable facts in its 
early annals ; and will now supply a few additional 
historical notices to complete our sketch of the civil 
and the ecclesiastical history of this city. In 1298, 
Edward I., after defeating Wallace at Falkirk, sent 
a division of his army across the Forth to punish the 
men of Fife for the aid they had given Wallace. 
They found St. Andrews deserted of its inhabitants 
and "wasted it full plaine." In March 1309, 
Robert Bruce convened his first parliament here, 
who recognised his title to the crown, by a solemn 
declaration. In the 15th and 16th centuries the 
sanguinary temper of its ecclesiastics was often 
fearfully displayed. In 1407, John Resby, an 
Englishman, was burnt alive in this " town of 
monks and bones," for disseminating the doctrines 
of Wickliffe; and about twenty-four years after- 
wards, Paul Craw, a Bohemian, suffered the same 
fate, for propagating the tenets of Jerome and Huss. 
On March 1st, 1527, Patrick Hamilton, abbot of 
Feme in Ross-shire, a young man of great accom- 
plishments, and related to some powerful families, 
being the son of Sir Patrick Hamilton of Kincavil, 
and Catharine daughter of the Duke of Albany, and 
a nephew of the Earl of Arran, was burnt before 
the gate of St. Salvator's college. Not many months 
after, a man of the name of Forest was led to the 
stake for asserting that Hamilton died a martyr. 
On the 28th of March, 1545, the sainted Wishart 
was burnt before the castle, then the archiepiscopal 
palace of the ferocious Cardinal Beaton, under cir- 
cumstances of peculiar barbarity. The front of the 
great tower was hung, as for a festival, with rich 
tapestry; and cushions of velvet were laid in the 
windows for the cardinal and prelates to repose 
on, while they feasted their eyes and glutted 
their fury with this most inhuman spectacle. The 
cardinal was so infuriated against the noble con- 
fessor that he forbade, by proclamation, the inhabi- 
tants of St. Andrews to pray for him, under pain 
of the severest ecclesiastical censures; and in his 
haste to get his victim put out of the way, the civil 
power was not consulted at the trial. But the 
avenger of blood was nigh at hand. By his un- 
bounded ambition, relentless cruelty, and insupport- 
able arrogance, Beaton had raised up against him- 
self a host of enemies, who had even before Wishart's 
arrest and execution determined on his destruction. 
A conspiracy was formed against his life, at the 
head of which were Norman Lesley, Master of Rothes, 
his uncle John Lesley, and Kirkaldy of Grange. 
With fourteen associates, they assembled in the 
church-yard, on Saturday the 29th of May 1545, at 
3 o'clock in the morning; and having gained ad- 
mittance into the castle — which was then repairing 
— by small parties at a time, they turned the ser- 
vants out, to the number of 150; and then proceed- 
ing to the cardinal's room, forced open the door, 
which their wretched victim had barricaded from 
the inside, and rushing upon him, stabbed him re- 
peatedly with their daggers. But Melville, a milder 




fanatic, who professed to murder, not. from pas-ion. 
but religious duty, reproved their violence. " This 
judgment of God," said he, " ought to be executed 
with gravity, although in secret;" and presenting 
the point of his sword to the bleeding prelate, he 
called on him to repent of his wicked courses, and 
especially of the death of the holy Wishart, to 
avenge whose innocent blood they were now sent 
by God. " Remember," said he, " that the mortal 
stroke I am now about to deal, is not the mercenary 
blow of a hired assassin, but the just vengeance 
which hath fallen on au obstinate and cruel enemy 
of Christ and the Holy Gospel." On his saying 
this, he repeatedly passed his sword through the body 
of his unresisting victim, who sank down from the 
chair to which he had retreated, and instantly ex- 
pired. The conspirators then brought the body to 
the very window in which Beaton had a little ago 
sat with so much unfeeling pride to witness the 
burning of Wishart, and exposed it to the view of 
the people with every mark of contempt and igno- 
miny. Balfour says, that the cardinal's corpse, 
" after he had lyne salted in the bottom of the sea- 
tower within the castell, was some 9 months there- 
after taken from thence, and obscurely interred in 
the convent of the Black friars of St. Andrews, in 
anno 1547." John Knox, after having, as he ex- 
presses himself, " written merrily " upon the sub- 
ject, informs us, that " as his funeral could not be 
suddenly prepared, it was thought best to keep him 
from spoiling, to give him great salt enough, a cope 
of lead, and a corner in the sea-tower, (a place where 
many of God's children had been imprisoned before) 
to wait what exequies his brethren the bishops 
would prepare for him." Language such as this 
can hardly fail to inspire disgust. But the following 
lines of Sir David Lindsay of the Mount, express, 
with tolerable accuracy, the sentiments with which 
the most judicious individuals amongst the reformers 
at that time regarded the cardinal's murder: — 

" As for the cardinal, I grant, 

He was the man we well might want; 

God will forgive it soon. 
But of a trnth, the sooth to say, 
Although the loan be well away, 

The deed was foully done." 

The conspirators were shortly after joined b} r 120 
of their friends, and held out the castle for more 
than a year; but at last capitulated to Leo Strozzi, 
prior of Capua, a knight of Rhodes, who entered the 
bay with a squadron of 16 galleons, and speedily 
effected a breach in the walls. In April, 1558, Wal- 
ter Mill, priest of Lunan, near Montrose, an infirm 
old man, above 80 years of age, was burnt at St. 
Andrews for the crime of heresy. So strongly was 
the resentment of the populace expressed on this 
occasion, that he was the last victim of popish 
cruelty in Scotland. "It was at St. Andrews, in June 
1583, that James VI. found means to make his 
escape from the state of captivity into which he had 
been brought at Ruthven, and detained for nearly a 
twelvemonth by the Earls of Mar, Gowrie, Glen- 
caim, and others. The king having got permission 
from these noblemen, who then attended him at 
Falkland, to pay a visit to his uncle the Earl of 
March, who resided in the monastery of St. An- 
drews, went to view the works of the. castle a short 
time after his arrival. He entered the fortress ac- 
companied by the governor to whom he had con- 
fided his intentions ; hut was no sooner in than he 
commanded the gates to be shut, and admission re- 
fused to the party who had attended him from Falk- 
land. Having thus recovered his liberty, he was 
soon joined by the well-affected part of his nobility ; 
and a proclamation was forthwith issued by him, 

"commanding all the lieges to remain quiet, and 
discharging any nobleman or gentleman from com- 
ing to court accompanied by more than the follow- 
ing number of attendants: viz. fifteen for an earl, 
fifteen for a bishop, ten for a lord, ten for an abbot 
or prior, and six for a baron, and these to como 
peaceably under the highest penalties." In 1609, 
St. Andrews was the scene of a state-trial: that of 
Lord Balmerinoch, secretary of state to James VI. 
His crime was the having surreptitiously procured 
the king's signature to a letter addressed to the 
pope ; and being found guilty by a jury of fifteen of 
his peers, he was sentenced to have his hands and 
feet cut off, and his lands and titles forfeited. The 
first part of the sentence was remitted by the inter- 
cession of the queen ; hut he died a short time after, 
in his own house, of a broken heart. In 1617, 
James VI. having, from what he himself calls " a 
salmon-like instinct to see the place of his breed- 
ing," paid a visit to Scotland, and convened an as- 
sembly of the clergy, both ministers and bishops, at 
St. Andrews. He addressed them in a speech of 
considerable length, in which he proposed the in- 
troduction of episcopacy, and upbraided them with 
what he called " having mutinously assembled 
themselves, and formed a protestation to cross his 
just desires." James was the last monarch who ever 
honoured St. Andrews with his presence. During 
the troublesome times which followed his death in 
1625, while his son and grandsons successively filled 
the throne, and endeavoured to follow out his plans 
in the establishment of the episcopal religion in 
Scotland, this city, as being the seat of the chief ec 
clesiastical power, was frequently involved in trou 
ble. The murder of Archbishop Sharp, in the 
neighbourhood of St. Andrews in 1679, will be found 
detailed in our article, Magus Mooe. The history 
of the city of St. Andrews since that period presents 
nothing sufficiently remarkable for notice in this 
brief chronicle. We shall now sketch the history 
of the see. 

Kenneth III. translated the metropolitan episcopal 
see of Scotland from Abernethy to St. Andrews. 
Malcolm III. styled the bishop of St. Andrews 
' Episcopus Maximus,' or Chief Bishop, and assigned 
to him the oversight of Fife, Lothian, Stirlingshire, 
the Merse, Angus, and the Mearns. He also con- 
ferred upon him the lordship of Monymusk. Alex- 
ander I. bestowed upon the see of St. Andrews the 
famous tract of land called the Cursus Apri, or 
Boar's chase, of which it is not now possible for us 
to assign the exact limits, but " so called," says 
Boece, " from a boar of uncommon size, which, after 
having made prodigious havoc of men and cattle, 
and having been frequently attacked by the hunts- 
men unsuccessfully, and to the imminent peril of 
their lives, was at last set upon by the whole coun- 
try up in arms against him, and killed while en- 
deavouring to make his escape across this tract of 
ground." The historian farther adds, that there 
were extant in his time manifest proofs of the ex- 
istence of this huge beast; its two tusks, each six- 
teen inches long and four thick, being fixed with 
iron chains to the great altar of St. Andrews. Ac- 
cording to the best authorities, there were thirty- 
three successive prelates in St. Andrews before the 
see was elevated to the dignity of an archbishopric, 
in 1471. Neville, archbishop of York, having re- 
vived a claim of superiority over the Scottish clergy, 
which had already been productive of much ill-will 
betwixt the two countries, the pope, to silence the 
pretensions of York for ever, granted a bull erecting 
the bishopric of St. Andrews into an archbishopric, 
and subjecting to it the other dioceses of the church 
of Scotland. The prelate, in whose favour thih bull 




was obtained, was Patrick Graham, formerly bishop 
of Brechin, and brother by the mother's side, to the 
celebrated James Kennedy, his immediate prede- 
cessor. Graham, along with the primacy, obtained 
the power of a legate from the pope, for the refor- 
mation of abuses, and correcting the vices of the 
clergy. But he does not appear to have been aware 
of the difficulties he had to encounter here ; for the 
clergy, with one consent, set themselves in oppo- 
sition to him, and had influence enough to destroy 
his credit even with the pope himself. They ac- 
cused him to his holiness of schism, and other enor- 
mous crimes, and prevailed so completely as to get 
him degraded from his office. " The nobility and 
courtiers also," says Spottiswood, " became his most 
violent opponents, insomuch that he was suspended 
by the king, excommunicated by the pope, expelled 
from his see, and, at the end of thirteen years from 
the date of his election, died in a state of imprison- 
ment in the castle of Lochleven." The dioceses sub- 
ject to the archbishop of St. Andrews, after the ad- 
vancement of the see of Glasgow to the same dig- 
nity, were the following nine: Dunkeld, Dunblane, 
Brechin, Aberdeen, Moray, Ross, Caithness, Orkney, 
and, after its erection in the reign of Charles I., 
Edinburgh. The province of the see of Glasgow 
included the three dioceses of Galloway, Argyle, 
and the Isles. The following is a list of the suc- 
cessive bishops and archbishops of St. Andrews : 

Fcrgustus 721 

Hadrianus, or Adrian, elected 
840, killed by the Danes 872. 

Kellach I. 

Malisius, or Malvesius I., died 
in 970. 

KeUach II. died 996. 


Malisius II. died 1031. 

Alwinus, from 1031—1034. 

Maldwin, 1034—1061. 

Tuthaldus, 1061—1065. 

Fothaldus, 1065—1077. 

Gregorius, bishop-elect. 




Tnrgot, died 1115. 

Eadmerus, elected in 1120. 

Robert, founder of the priory, 
elected in 1122, died in 1159. 

Arnold, founder of the Cathe- 
dral, died in 1162. 

Richard, chaplain to Malcolm 
IV., died in 1177. 

John and Hugh, a double elec- 

Roger, who built the castle, 
died in 1202. 

William Malvoisine, chancellor 
of the kingdom, died 1233. 

David Bernham. 


Gameline, chancellor. 

William Wishart, died 1279. 

William Fraser, chancellor. 

William Lamberton. died 1328. 

James Bene, died 1332. 

Vacancy of nine years. 

William Landal, died in 1385. 

Stephen de Pay. 

Walter Trail, repaired the 

castle, died 1401. 
Thomas Stewart. 
Henry Wardlaw, founder of 

the university, consecrated in 

1403, died 1440. 
James Kennedy, founder of 

St. Salvator's college, died 

Patrick Graham, the first arch- 
bishop, died 1478. 
William Schives, died 1409. 
James Stuart, chancellor, died 

in 1503. 
Alexander Stuart, chancellor, 

killed at Flodden 1513. 
Andrew Foreman, died 1522. 
James Beaton, chancellor, died 

in 1539. 
David Beaton, cardinal and 

chancellor, assassinated in 

John Hamilton, hanged at 

Stirling in 1570. 
John Douglas, the first Pro- 
testant bishop, consecrated in 

1571, died 1576. 
Patrick Adamson, died 1591. 
Vacancy of fifteen years. 
George Gladstanes, died 1615. 
John Spottiswood, chancellor, 

the historian, died 1639. 
James Sharp, assassinated in 

Magus-muir in 1679. 
Alexander Burnet, died in 

Arthur Ross, deprived of his 

office at the Revolution in 

1688, died in 1704. 

It appears that the bishops of St. Andrews had 
the power of coining money. But " the tradition 
goes," says Martine, "that they could not coin 
above a groat-piece; but this," continues he, " may 
be allowed to be a mere conjecture, for the German 
bishops, who coin, are not so restricted and limited. 
For proof that sometimes this privilege has been in 
use, I have seen copper coins bearing the same 
mond, chapleted about and adorned with a cross on 
the top, just in all things like the mond set by 
Bishop Kennedy in sundry places of St. Salvator's 
college, both in stone and timber, and the same way 
adorned, with a common St. George's cross on the 
reverse. The circumscriptions are not legible. 

And some think that the magistrates of St. An- 
drews, keeping in their charter-chest some of these 
pennies, have done it in honour of their Overlord, 
and for an instance and remembrance of his royal 
privilege, which no subject in Britain has beside." 
As the city of St. Andrews lay wholly within the 
archbishop's regality, he was superior of all its pro- 
perty in land. He was ' Conservator privilegioram 
Ecclesias Scoticanaj,' guardian of the privileges of 
the church of Scotland, and constant chancellor of 
the university ex officio; but he was in many cases 
also promoted to the dignity of lord-high-chancellor 
of Scotland; and it was his privilege, in general, to 
officiate at the coronation of the kings. Godricus, 
bishop of this place, crowned King Edgar, son of 
Malcolm Canmore; and Charles I. was crowned by 
Spottiswood in 1633. The archbishop was, by act 
of parliament, in the time of Charles II., constituted 
perpetual president of the general assembly of the 
church of Scotland; and he sat in parliament as a 
temporal lord in all the following capacities : "As 
Lord- Archbishop of St. Andrews; Primate of the 
Kingdom; first of both states, spiritual and tempo- 
ral; Lord of the Lordship and Priory of St. An- 
drews; Lord Keig and Monymusk; Lord Byrehills 
and Polduff; Lord Kirkliston, Lord Bishopshire, 
Lord Muckhartshire, Lord Scotscraig, Lord Stow, 
Lord Monymail, Lord Dairsie, Lord Angus, Lord 
Tyningham, and Lord Little Preston." He also 
took precedency of all noblemen whatever in the 
kingdom, and ranked next to the royal family, 
When the privy council, in 1561, passed the famous 
act enjoining all beneficed persons to give in an 
exact account of the rental of their benefices, 
Hamilton, archbishop of St. Andrews, gave in the 
following account of his: 

In money, 




Mr. Grievson estimates this revenue at £4,504 pre 
sent currency. " And if," he says, "we add to this 
sum the value of the priory, and other alienations 
which had before this time taken place, we shall be 
led to think that the income of the prelates of St. 
Andrews, when in their most flourishing condition, 
could not be much less in value than f 1 0,000, that 
is, than that sum would have been in /807. The 
first great alienation of the revenues of this see was 
the foundation of the priory in 1120; the second, 
the erection of the hospital of Lochleven, or Scot- 
land Well, in 1230; the third, the foundation and 
endowment of St. Salvator's college by Bishop Ken- 
nedy in 1455; the fourth, the disponing of Muckart- 
shire by Schives to the Earl of Argyle, to engage 
that earl to assist him in his dispute with the bishop 
of Glasgow; the fifth, the erection of St. Mary's 
college by the archbishops Stuart and the two Bea- 
tons; and the sixth, the act of annexation in 1587 
by which this see, with all the other church-bene- 
fices in the kingdom, was annexed to the Crown, 
and the rents and revenues of it disponed to the 
Duke of Lennox by James VI., excepting only a 
small pittance, reserved as barely sufficient for the 
subsistence of Archbishop Adamson. It is true, 
this act of annexation was repealed in 1606; but in 
the act repealing it, and restoring the revenues of 
the see, there were a number of important reserva- 
tions made which prevented it from attaining its 
former riches. The erection of the bishopric of 
Edinburgh, in 1633, was another great loss; for all 
the lands and churches, south of the Forth, belong- 
ing to the archbishopric, were now disunited from 
it, and conferred upon the new see. Yet the loss of 

£2,904 7s. 2d 











these was in some measure compensated by the 
bounty of Charles I., who having, two years after, 
purchased the priory from the Duke of Lennox, to 
whom it had been gifted by James VI., disponed 
this benefice to the archbishopric in lieu of the loss 
it had sustained. Such were the most important 
changes, losses, and revolutions, which this see, in 
the course of five centuries, from time to time 
underwent." The number of monks in the priory 
at the Reformation was, according to Martine, 
thirty-four, besides inferior servants; and of these 
thirty-four, " fourteen," says he, " turned preachers, 
at certain kirks of the priory, and some continued 
about the monastery till their death." The priories 
of May, Pittenweem, Locbleven, and Monyrnusk — 
of all which monasteries the monks were also 
Augustinians — were dependent on the priory of St. 
Andrews. The revenues of it in Martine' s time, 
consisted, he tells us, in " silver, feu-duties, rent- 
ailed teind-bolls, tack teiud-duties, capons, poultry, 
and small sums in the name of kain ; the houses 
and yards within the precincts of the monastery; 
the teinds of the 480 acres of land on the south side 
of the town, now called the Prior acres, formerly 
the convent's glebe; and the privilege of having 
the teiud sheaves led into the priory barn by the 
heritors and tenants themselves. The yearly rent," 
he continues, " of the priory is at present as good as 
that of the archbishopric, if not better; and within 
a few years, at the falling of some tacks, it will be 
much better." When the act of council, in 1561, 
passed for the assumption of the revenues of all the 
church-benefices, that a third part of their value 
might be applied to the maintenance of the minis- 
ters of religion, and the remaining two-thirds to 
defray the expenses of the king's household, the 
rental of the priory of St. Andrews was found to be 
as follows: 


£2,237 IS 















Beans and 

pease, . 



The following parish churches belonged to the 
priory and paid tithes to it: viz., the Trinity church 
of St. Andrews, now the towu-church, Leuehars, 
Forgan, Cupar, Dairsie, Lathrisk, Kilgour, Scoonie, 
Keunoway, Markinch, Ecclescraig, Fordrrn in the 
Meams, Bourthie, Nigvie and Tarlane, Dull in 
Athole, Longforgan, Rossie in Gowrie, Inchture, 
Fowlis, Portmoak, Abercrornbie, Linlithgow, Had- 
dington, Binning, and Preston. The vicarage was 
annexed to the archbishopric in 1 606 ; but was as- 
signed afterwards by the archbishop to the newly 
erected parish of Cameron, that parish having been 
detached from the too extensive parish of St. An- 
drews, and having no legal maintenance belonging 
to it. — The provostiy of Kirkheugh was a convent 
of seculars, governed by a prsefectus, or provost, 
and unquestionably the most ancient religious esta- 
blishment of any in this place. It is believed by 
some to have been founded by St. Eegulus himself, 
and to be the same with the institution which went 
by the name of ' Ecclesia Sanctai Maria? de rape,' 
or St. Mary's church on the rock, and of which the 
chapel stood on a rock now covered by the sea at 
high water, and which still goes by the name of the 
Lady-craig, situated near the extremity of the pre- 
sent pier. There was also a chapel, called ' Ecclesia 
Sanctse Marise,' on the hill above the harbour. — In 
June, 1841, her Majesty's Attorney-general, Sir 
John Campbell, Kilt., on succeeding Lord Plunkett 
as Lord-chancellor of Ireland, was elevated to the 

dignity of a Baron of the United Kingdom, by the 
title of Baron Campbell of St. Andrews. 

ST. ANDREWS. See Deerness, Dundee, Dun 
fekmline, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Greenock, Liian 

ANGELS' HILL, a hillock, crowned by a small 
circle of stones and a small cairn, in the island 
of Iona, Argyleshire. Pennant regards the relics 
on it as Druidical. But a superstitious tradition 
says that Columba, on arriving at Iona, had a con- 
ference on the hillock with angels. Plence its 
name, — in Gaelic Cnocnan-Aingeal. See Iona. 

ANGUS, the ancient name of Forfarshire: 
which see. At a very early period the name Angus 
was given to the district of country lying between 
the North Esk on the north, and the Tay and Isla 
on the south. It is thought by some antiquaries to 
have been so called from Angus, a brother of Ken- 
neth II., on whom this district was bestowed by 
Kenneth after his conquest of the Picts. Others 
think that the hill of Angus, a little to the eastward 
of Aberlemno church, was, in ancient times, a noted 
place of rendezvous on occasions of great public 
gatherings ; and that the name was ultimately ex- 
tended to the surrounding country. It seems more 
probable that the hill itself derived its name from 
the district. — The How or Hollow of Angus is a 
finely diversified valley in the northern part of For- 
farshire, extending above 30 miles in length, from 
the western boundary of the parish of Kettins to the 
mouth of the North Esk. Its breadth varies from 4 
to 6 miles. — The earldom of Angus now belongs in 
title to the Duke of Hamilton. It was in the line 
of Douglas previous to 1329; and it has been as- 
certained by Mr. Riddell that it again came into the 
old line of Douglas by a natural son of William, 
first Earl of Douglas. — The synod of Angus and 
Meams comprehends the presbyteries of Meigle, 
Forfar, Dundee, Brechin, Arbroath, and Fordoun. 

ANKERVILLE, a small village in the parish 
of Nigg, about 6 miles south-west of Tain, Ross- 
shire. A fair, called Hugh's fair, is held here on 
the third Tuesday of November. 

ANNAN, a parish, containing a burgh of the 
same name, in the Annandale district of Dumfries- 
shire. It is bounded, on the south, by the Solway 
frith, and on other sides by the parishes of Cum- 
mertrees, Hoddara, Middlebie, Kirkpatrick-Flern- 
ing, and Domoek. The Solway frith is in contact 
with it over a distance of upwards of three miles; 
the river Annan flows southward, along the west side 
of the* parish, to the frith ; and the river Kirtle runs 
on the boundary with Kirkpatriek-Fleming. The 
greatest length of the parish, from north to south, is 
8 miles ; the breadth varies from about 2 J to about 
4 miles; and the area is about 11,100 imperial 
acres. The general surface declines to the south, but 
is comparatively flat. Three low parallel ridges ex- 
tend southwestward; and between the western and 
the middle ones, amid softly featured and very beauti- 
ful scenery, runs the river Annan. Woodcockair, an 
obtuse conical hill, of about 320 feet of altitude above 
sea-level, is situated at the north end of the western 
ridge; and Annan hill and Bamkirk, with altitudes 
of respectively about 256 and 120 feet, are situated 
on the seaboard. The rising grounds and the banks 
of the Annan are decorated with wood. The 
shores of the frith are flat and sandy. The soil 
of most of the parish is very various; but the 
greater part is either a fertile loam or a rich clay. 
A tract of nearly 2,000 acres on the north-east of 
the burgh was formerly a bleak, moorish com- 
mon; but is now reclaimed, enclosed, and beau- 
tified. There are six principal landowners, — 
the most extensive of whom, M'Kenzie of Newbie, 




has a rental of £3,500. Assessed property in 1863, 
exclusive of the burgh, £12,352 17s. The chief 
mansions are Mount Annan, situated nearly two 
miles north of the burgh, and commanding a very 
extensive prospect; Warmanbie, about a quar- 
ter of a mile south of Mount Annan; Northfield, 
still farther south ; and some large handsome houses 
in and around the burgh. The high roads from 
Dumfries to Carlisle and from Annan to the north 
traverse the interior; the Dumfries and Carlisle 
railway goes across the south end past the burgh; 
and the Caledonian railway overlooks the north- 
east, along the opposite bank of the Kirtle. The 
village of Bridekirk stands in the north-west. 
Population of the parish in 1831, 5,033; in 1861, 
5,761. Houses, 1,085. 

This parish is the seat of a presbytery in the sy- 
nod of Dumfries. Patron, Johnstone of Aimandale. 
Stipend, £279 2s. 4d.; glebe £30. Unappropriated 
teinds £191 15s. Schoolmaster's salary, £60 to £70, 
with about £40 fees, and £12 other emoluments. 
The parish church was built in 1790, and has 1,190 
sittings. There is a chapel of Ease in the burgh, 
erected in 1842, and called Greenknowe church. 
There are a q. s. church at Bridekirk, and a chapel 
of Ease at Kirtle. There is a Free church in the 
burgh ; the yearly sum raised in connexion with 
which in 1865 was £230 13s. 9d. There are in the 
burgh also an United Presbyterian church, with an 
attendance of 300 ; an Independent chapel in con- 
nexion with the Congregational Union, with an at- 
tendance of 120; and an Episcopalian chapel in con- 
nexion with the Scottish Episcopal church, with an 
attendance of 56. The places of education comprise 
the parochial school, the academy, and an infant and 
industrial school in Annan, endowed schools at Bride- 
kirk and Breckenbiels, besides private schools. 

ANNAN, a post and market town, a royal 
burgh, and the capital of Aimandale, stands in the 
parish of Annan, on the left bank of the river Annan, 
on the high road from Dumfries to Carlisle, and on 
the Dumfries and Carlisle railway, 1J mile north of 
Annanfoot, 8f miles west by south of Gretna, 12 
south-south-east of Lockerby, 15J south-east by east 
of Dumfries, and 79 south by east of Edinburgh. 
Its streets are spacious, aiiy, and generally well 
paved; its houses are substantially built of good 
sandstone, and for the most part are neat and plea- 
sant; its environs are studded with many modem, 
beautiful dwellings and cottages omees; and its 
entire appearance is cleanly, cheerful, and prosper- 
ous. The parish church, at the east end of the 
town, is a handsome structure, surmounted by an 
elegant spire. The town-house, at the other end, 
once hacf a spire, but now wants it. The other 
places of worship, as well as the parish church, are 
in a general view very creditable to the burgh. The 
academy, erected in 1820, in Ednam street, is a 
large building under the conduct of two masters. 
The Dumfries and Carlisle railway crosses the river 
on a substantial stone viaduct, and afterwards, at 
some distance east of the burgh, traverses a deep cut- 
ting. A railway to Cumberland, by means of a 
viaduct about a mile long over the Solway, was being 
formed in 1865. The Dumfries and Carlisle high- 
way approaches the west end of High-street by a 
briilge of three large arche3, built in 1824, at the cost 
of about £8,000. 

A small cotton spinning-mill was established in 
1785, and employs about 130 hands. There is also 
a power-loom shed, with 112 looms. Hand-loom 
weaving, chiefly for Carlisle, is a considerable em- 
ploymen f , but a sadly poor one. The curing of 
bacon and hams is carried on for the markets of 
Liverpool and London. See Dumfries. The ex- 

porting of grain, wool, cattle, sheep, horses, and 
some miscellaneous goods to Liverpool is a large 
occupation; and, together with the market-business 
of transferring them from the producers to the ex- 
porters, forms a main feature of the industrious stir 
of the burgh. A weekly market is held on Thurs- 
day; and hiring fairs are held on the first Thursday 
of May and the third Thursday of October. The 
town has branch-offices of the British Linen Com- 
pany's Bank, the Commercial Bank of Scotland, and 
the Royal Bank of Scotland, and a fair variety of 
other business institutions. It has also a subscrip- 
tion library, a mechanic's institute, a savings' bank, 
a penny savings' bank, and several benevolent and 
religious societies. 

The port of Annan is situated at the efflux of the 
river, yet has entire identity of interest with the 
town, and requires to be noticed here as if it were 
strictly adjacent. It bears the name of Annan Water- 
foot, or often simply Waterfoot. It is naturally the 
mere mouth of the river, sheltered by Bamkirk hill; 
but it has been artificially improved by an em- 
bankment, which cost £3,000, and by two jetties, 
of 140 yards in length. A commodious inn stands 
near the jetties; and there are ample facilities of 
communication with the town. Two steamers, pre- 
vious to the opening of the railway, sailed twice a- 
week hence to Liverpool. The aggregate tonnage 
belonging to the port is about 6,000 tons ; but only 
two or three timber vessels from N. America and the 
Baltic, and several small coasting-vessels, trade 
regularly to the port. There is a ship-building 
yard. The imports from America and the Baltic 
consist of timber, deals, lathwood, and tar; and the 
imports coastwise consist chiefly of coals, slates, 
iron, herrings, salt, and miscellaneous goods. 

Annan is conjectured to have received its first 
charter from Robert Bruce; and it certainly was 
either recognised as a royal burgh, or erected into 
one in 1538, by James V. Its subsisting charter 
was granted in 1612 by James VI. It is governed 
by a provost, 3 bailies, a treasurer, a dean-of-guild, 
and 15 councillors. It possesses extensive burgh- 
roods and commonties, the latter of which have 
been divided, and are in a state of improvement. 
Its revenue, arising from rents, fisheries, tolls, and 
feu-duties, amounted, in 1833, to £670; its debts 
to £4,500; its expenditure in ordinary to £437. In 
1863-4, the corporation revenue was about £435. 
The real rent of the old royalty was, in 1833, about 
£11,861; and of that part of the burghal property 
within the parliamentary hounds £8,000. The an- 
cient royalty comprehends a district of above 5 
miles in length; the parliamentary line has greatly 
limited the burgh. The magistrates hold no patron- 
age ; and there is no guild or incorporation. Annan 
joins with Dumfries, Lochmaben, Sanquhar, and 
Kirkcudbright, in sending a member to parliament. 
The municipal and the parliamentary constituency 
in 1864, was 176. Population of the municipal 
burgh in 1841, 4,409; in 1861, 4,620. Houses, 871. 
Population of the parliamentary burgh in 1801, 
3,473. Houses, 633. 

Annan was probably a town before the time of 
Eobert Brace, but how long before cannot be con- 
jectured. It was frequently plundered and burned, 
and always more or less kept in turmoil, during the 
wars of the succession and the hottest periods of the 
Border forays. In 1298 it was burned by English 
invaders; and in 1300 Eobert Bruce either repaired 
or built a castle at it for its defence; and this he 
occasionally made his residence. In 1332, Edward 
Baliol, soon after being crowned at Scone, sum- 
moned the Scottish nobility to the castle of Annan 
to do him homage; and here Archibald Douglas, 




at the head of about 1,000 horsemen, came upon 
him by surprise at night, slew his guards aud many 
of his chief adherents, and frightened him, half- 
naked aud on a horse without saddle or bridle, to take 
flight for Carlisle. In 1547, during the protectorate 
of Somerset, an English army entered Dumfries- 
shire, and met a stubborn resistance from the inha- 
bitants of Annan, but eventually captured the 
town, and sacked and burned it. In 1548 and 
1549, Annan and its neighbourhood were so fear- 
fully harassed by incursions of the English that a 
sum of £4,000 was levied by government from the 
bishops and clergy for the purpose of repairing and 
strengthening its defences; and soon after, when 
6,000 French auxiliary troops arrived in the Clyde, 
the larger portion of them were sent hither to pro- 
tect the town and watch the invaders. The castle 
had been demolished, at previous English inroads, 
and was rebuilt at the time of repairing the de- 
fences; and in 1570, it was again demolished by an 
English amiy under the Earl of Sussex. But it 
was once more rebuilt, and maintained in strength; 
and, in 1609, in consequence of the disastrous and im- 
poverished circumstances of the townspeople, it was 
granted to them by the government to be used as a 
place of worship. During the civil wars of the 17th 
century, the town was reduced to misery; and soon 
after the Restoration, it obtained from parliament, 
as a means of improving its condition, the privilege 
of collecting customs. In the winter of 1745, the 
retreating army of the Pretender, after sustaining 
great loss in the waters of the Eden and the Esk, 
spent a night in camp at Annan. 

The castle stood on the east bank of the river and 
west side of the town, on the ground now occupied 
by the old churchyard ; but, excepting a small part 
of the wall built into the town-house, it was all 
obliterated about half a century ago. A deep fosse 
once extended, from an elevation about half-a-mile 
up the river, past the eastern skirt of the town, to 
Annan moss, and seems certainly to have been 
formed and maintained for the town's defence 
against the English; and some of it can still be 
easily traced. An artificial mound, called the moat, 
exists near the site of the castle, but separated from 
it by a hollow, and is supposed to have been used in 
the middle ages as the seat of courts of justice ; and 
the elevation at the upper end of the quondam fosse 
bears the name of Gallows-Bank, or corruptedly 
Gala-Bank, and is believed to have been the place 
where condemned persons were executed. — Among 
distinguished natives of Annan were Dr. Thomas 
Blacklock, the poet, and the Eev. Edward Irving of 
London; and among eminent persons connected 
with it were Hugh Clapperton, the African travel- 
ler, and Mrs. Graham, the wife of the poet of the 

ANNAN (The), a river of Dumfries-shire. It 
flows through all the central district of the county 
from north to south, and gives to that district the 
name of Annandale. It rises among the high 
mountains and fells in which the shires of Dumfries, 
Lanark, and Peebles, touch each other; but its 
chief feeders flow from the southern and western 
base of the mountain which gives name to the 
Hartfell group, which is in the parish of Moffat, on 
the borders of Peebles-shire, and has an elevation of 
2,635 feet. These feeders flow south-west, and 
successively discharge themselves into a stream 
holding a course nearly direct south from Core- 
head to Bridgend. At the latter place, the 
stream, now of considerable volume, inclines a 
little towards the east, and forming the boundary 
betwixt the parishes of Kirkpatrick-Juxta and 
Moffat, passes the village of Moffat, below which it 

receives in succession, a stream descending from 
Snawfell, and the Frenchland burn, both coming 
from the north-east ; and about 2 J miles below, ia 
joined by Moffat water coming from the north- 
eastern, and Evan water descending from the north- 
western, extremity of the parish. These two tribu- 
taries unite with the Annan on opposite sides, at 
one point, at an elevation of about 350 feet above 
sea-level. Its next important tributary is Warn- 
phray water, coming from the north-east, soon after 
receiving which its course becomes very meander- 
ing, though still bearing southwards. A little 
below Applegirth kirk it receives an important tri- 
butary from the north-west, in Kinnel water; and a 
little farther on, another important one from the 
north-east, in the Dryfe. At the southern extre- 
mity of Dryfesdale parish, of which it forms the 
western boundary, it bends eastward to St. Mungo 
kirk. At the south-eastern extremity of St. Mungo 
parish, it receives the Milk water, from its junction 
with which its course is south-east, to its junction 
with the Mein water, in the parish of Hoddam. 
From this latter point its course is nearly south to 
the town of Annan, whence its estuary sweeps in a 
south-west and then south-east direction into the 
upper part of the Solway frith. Its total length of 
course is about 30 miles. Its general character, in 
the lower part of its course, is that of a gently flow- 
ing pastoral stream, which is perhaps indicated in 
its name Amhann, in Gaelic, signifying the slow- 
running water. Allan Cunningham styles it ' the 
silver Annan.' In the ballad of ' Annan Water,' 
[Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border, vol. iii. p. 284, 
Cadell's edn.] it is styled ' a drumlie river;' but this 
was during a spate, the tragical consequences of 
which are commemorated in the ballad; and the 
editor informs us that when 

'Annan water's "wading deep,* 

that river and the frith into which it falls are the 
frequent scenes of tragical accidents. See Solway 
ANNAN WATEEFOOT. See Annan (Buegh of.) 
ANNANDALE, the valley of the river Annan. 
It is bounded on the north by Lanarkshire and 
Peebleshire ; on the east by Eskdale ; on the south 
by the Solway frith; and on the west by Niths- 
dale. The open, low, and expanded region of it, 
often called the How of Annandale, commences in 
the tremendous hollow of Erriekstane, above the 
village of Moffat, and has a length of about 25 
miles, and in some places a breadth of from 15 to 18 
miles. It is veiy extensively carpeted with a deep, 
rich, alluvial soil; and is supposed, by distinguished 
geologists, to have been long the bed of a great 
inland lake. In consequence of its vicinity to Eng- 
land, and of its exposure to continual predatory in- 
cursions, the greater part of it lay, during the feudal 
ages, in a state of commonage and waste; but since 
the beginning of last century it has worn a very 
different appearance, and it is now one of the most 
gardenesque districts in Scotland. It contains a 
number of lakes, particularly about Loehmaben; 
and it abounds in sandstone, and has a good share 
of limestone and some other useful minerals. Popu- 
lation in 1831, 33,654; in 1851, 35,141. Houses, 

Annandale was anciently a part of the Roman 
province of Valentia; and it afterwards, by a grant 
from David I., soon after his accession to the 
throne, in 1124, to Robert de Bras, son of one of 
William the Conqueror's Norman barons, with 
whom David had formed a friendship while at the 
court of Henry I. of England, became a lordship 
under the Braces, who took their title from it. 




Much confusion prevailed among our historical 
writers as to the genealogical relations of the 
family of Biuce, until Chalmers, in his ' Caledonia,' 
and Kerr, in his ' History of Scotland during the 
reign of Robert I.,' pointed out the existing discre- 
pancies, and traced the descent of this illustrious 
line. Robert de Brus entered England with Wil- 
liam, duke of Normandy, in 1066; his son, of the 
same name, who is frequently confounded with him, 
received a grant of the lordship of Annandale as 
above mentioned; but immediately before the battle 
of the Standard, in 1138, he renounced his allegi- 
ance to David I., on finding himself unable to per- 
suade the Scottish king to enter into terms of peace 
with England. He died on his paternal English 
estate of Gysbum in Yorkshire, in 1141, and was 
succeeded in his English estates by his elder son, 
the ancestor of the English Braces of Skelton. 
Robert Bras, his younger son, is said to have re- 
ceived the transfer of Annandale from his father 
immediately before the battle of the Standard, and 
to have home arms against the English in that en- 
gagement. This 3d Robert lived in the reigns of 
David I., Malcolm IV., and William the Lion. His 
son, the 4th Robert, married Isabel, a natural 
daughter of William the Lion. He died in 1191, 
and was succeeded in the lordship of Annandale by 
his son William, who died in 1215. Robert the 5th 
of the name, married Isabel, second daughter of 
David, Earl of Huntington, who was the younger 
brother of William the Lion, thus introducing the 
legitimate royal blood of Scotland into the family of 
Bruce. The fifth Robert Bruce died in 1245, and 
was succeeded by the 6th of the name, who married 
a daughter of Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester. 
He opposed the Cumyn influence in the affairs of 
Scotland; and at the age of 81 engaged in the com- 
petition for the Crown of Scotland; but ultimately 
resigned his rights in favour of his son Robert, Earl 
of Carrick. He died in 1295. His son accompa- 
nied Edward of England to Palestine in 1269, and 
soon after his return, married Margaret, Countess 
of Carrick, in her own right, by whom he had five 
sons and seven daughters. The eldest son of this 
marriage was The Bruce. 

About' the year 1371, upon the demise of David 
II., Annandale fell into the hands of Randolph, 
Earl of Moray, regent during the minority of 
David; and, with the hand of his sister Agnes, it 
went to the Dunbars, Earls of March. After their 
forfeiture, it fell to the Douglases, who lost it by 
the same fate. It now belongs chiefly to the Earl 
of Hopetoun. It formerly gave the title of Marquis 
to the gallant border-family of Johnstone. The 
lineal heirship of this title became extinct, on the 
death of George, 3d marquis, in 1792; and is 
claimed by Sir F. Johnstone of AVesterhall, Bart. 
The famous Ben Jonson was the descendant of an 
Annandale family, and was really not a Jonson, 
but a Johnstone. 

Lochmaben castle was the principal fort in An- 
nandale, and was deemed almost impregnable. 
From having been a Roman province, this district 
abounds with Roman stations and antiquities. 
Part of Severus's wall, the camps of Birrens and 
Branswark, and the remains of a great military 
road, are still visible in it. The ruins of the large 
quadrangular fortress of Auchincass, on Even water, 
once the seat of the regent, Randolph, cover an 
acre of ground, and still convey an idea of the 
strength and extent of the building. The castles of 
Hoddam and of Comlongan are also in tolerable 
pres'-rvation. See Dumfries-shire, and Lochmaben. 


ANNAT (The), a rivulet in the parish of Kil- 
madock, Perthshire. It rises in a hill in the north- 
west comer of the parish, and runs into the Teith 
about a mile above Doune. It is remarkable for 
numerous cascades. 

ANNISTON. See Inverkeilor. 

ANNOCK (The), a small river of Renfrewshire 
and Ayrshire. It issues from the White Loch in 
the parish of Mearns, and flows south-westward, 
past Stewarton, to a confluence with Irvine Water, 
a little above the town of Irvine. It receives the 
Swinsey, the Corsehill, and the East bums at the 
town of Stewarton, and receives the Glazart at 
Water-meetings, 4 miles farther on; and it has al- 
together a course of about 14 miles. 

ANN'S (St.) See Glasgow. 

ANSTRUTHER-EASTER, a parish, burgh, 
and post, market, and sea-port town on the south 
coast of Fifeshire. The parish is strictly co-exten- 
sive with the burgh, and has no landward district. 
It is bounded, on the south, by the frith of Forth; 
on the west by Anstruther- Wester from which it is 
separated by the Dreel bum ; on the north, by the 
landward part of the parish of Kilrenny ; and on the 
east, by the fishing-town of Cellardyke. The shore 
is nigged and rocky; and a small bay, with safe 
and commodious harbour, washes the town. Pre- 
vious to the year 1634, Anstruther -Easter was 
in the parish of Kilrenny, yet contained the resi- 
dence of the minister, who therefore was styled the 
minister of Anstrather-Easter; and in that year it 
was constituted a parish of itself, and got a church 
of its own. It is in the presbytery of St. Andrews, 
and synod of Fife. Patron, Baird of Elie. Stipend, 
£131 15s. from variously the Exchequer, and 
a grant of part of the bishop's rents, and some 
money mortified for that purpose ; glebe, £25. 
Schoolmaster's salary, £5 6s. 8d., with from £40 to 
£50 fees. The manse is a curious building, erected 
in 1590, by James Melville, nephew of the cele- 
brated Andrew Melville, and then the minister of 
Kilrenny. The parish church is the original one 
built in 1634. It has a spire, and was repaired in 
1834, and. contains 750 sittings. There is a Free 
church ; and the yearly sum raised in connexion 
with it in 1865 was £318 4s. ljd. There are also 
an United Presbyterian church, a Baptist chapel, 
an Independent chapel connected with the Congre- 
gational Union, and an Independent chapel not so 

The town of Anstrather-Easter stands closely 
adjacent to the towns of Anstruther- Wester, and 
Cellardyke; and the three look to be one narrow 
town, stretching along the shore.' It was erected 
into a royal burgh by James VI., in 1583; and 
once held' of the family of Anstruther. It is 
governed by a council of 9, including 3 bailies, and 
a treasurer. The revenue in 1833 was £78; ex- 
penditure, £93; debt, £485; and in 1851-2, the re- 
venue was £389 8s. 4d. The only taxes levied are 
the government cess, and the customs and shore- 
dues. The value of assessed property in 1865 was 
£3,880. A good harbour is here ; and a new and more 
commodious one was, with aid of a giant from the 
Exchequer, about to be formed in 1865. In 1710, 
Anstruther, which formerly was a creek of Kirk- 
caldy, was made a port, and a custom-house estab- 
lished here. In 1753, a new quay was built; and, 
to defray the expense, an act of parliament was 
procured laying a tax of two pennies Scots upon 
every pint of ale brewed or sold in the burgh. In 
1768, the tonnage belonging to Anstrather-Easter 
was 80 tons; in 1793, it was 1,400; and in 1850, 
it was 2,135 tons. There is some coasting-trade. 
The principal articles of export are grain and po- 




tatoes, and salted cod. A weekly corn-market is 
held on Friday; and fairs are held on the first Tues- 
day after the 11th of April, on the 5th day of July, 
and on the 12th day of November. The town has 
a meal-mill, a tan-work, a brewery, a rope and sail- 
work, a remarkable number and variety of shops, an 
office of the National Bank of Scotland, one of the 
Clydesdale Bank, and one of the Commercial Bank. 
Tlie Leven and East of Fife railway connects An- 
struther with the North British at Thornton. Pro- 
jects were concocted during the heat of the railway 
excitement, to form two lines of railway from An- 
strutber harbour, — the one by way of Cellardyke, 
Kilrenny, Crail, Kingsbarns, and Boarhill, to St. 
Andrews, — and the other by way of Pittenweem, 
St. Monance, Elie, Earlsferry, Kilconquhar, Colins- 
burgb, Newimn), Largo, Leven, Kennoway, and 
Cameron-Bridge, to a junction with the Edinburgh 
and Northern railway either near Thornton or at or 
near Markinch; and the latter project, after long 
delay, came to be virtually realized in the Leven 
and East of Fife scheme. Anstruther joins with 
Anstruther- Wester, Crail, Cupar, Kilrenny, Pitten- 
weem, and St. Andrews, in returning a member to 
parliament. The parliamentary and the muni, con- 
stituency in 1865, was S7 and 73. Anstruther-Easter 
is the birth-place of the Rev. Dr. Chalmers, and of 
Professor Tennant of St. Andrews, who has sung 
the humours of ' Anster Fair ' with excellent jocu- 
larity, and a genius worthy of a higher subject. It 
also claims for its own the famous Maggie Lawder 
of song. Population in 1831, 1,007 ; in 1861, 1,155. 
Houses, 195. 

ANSTRUTHER-WESTER, a small parish, con- 
taining a royal burgh of the same name, on the south 
coast of Fifeshire. It has a very irregular fonn. 
It contains about 600 acres of arable land, and about 
9 or 10 acres of common, on which the burgesses 
have the privileges of pasturage and of casting turf. 
It is bounded on the south by the frith of Forth, 
along which it extends for about half-a-mile; on 
the east by Anstruther-Easter ; on the north by 
Cambee and Kilrenny; and on the west by Pitten- 
weem. In the rivulet which divides the two An- 
struthers, it is said there was once a consider- 
able salmon-fishery, whence the amis of the town, 
bearing three salmon crossed, are supposed to be 
derived. Toward the end of last century, the aver- 
age rent of land in the parish was from 21s. to 30s. 
per acre; and in 183S it was £3 10s. At the west 
end of the town there is a large mound, called the 
Chesterhill, on which was formerly a fine spring. 
South-east of the town, and 6 miles distant from it, 
in the mouth of the frith of Forth, is the Isle of 
May; which, after the desolation of the abbey of 
Pittenweem, was generally supposed to belong to 
the parish of Anstruther-Wester, and in conse- 
quence was annually visited by the minister of An- 
struther-Wester, while it was inhabited by 14 or 
15 families. But it is also claimed as belonging to 
Crail parish. See Mat. Population of the parish 
of Anstruther-Wester in 1831, 430 ; in 1861, 438. 
Houses, 69. Assessed property in 1865, ±,'3,084 
Is. 6d. 

This parish is in the presbytery of St. Andrews, 
and synod of Fife. Patron, Sir W. C. Anstruther, 
Bart. Stipend, £142 5s. 6d. ; glebe, £22 10s. 
Schoolmaster's salary now is £45, with about £75 
fees. The parish church appears, from the remains 
of a large choir, and the Gothic structure of the 
steeple, to be a very ancient building; but it has 
often been repaired. This parish was anciently a 
vicarage belonging to the priory of Pittenweem. 

The town of Anstruther-Wester was created a 
royal burgh by Tames VI., in 1587. The affairs of 

the burgh were managed by a council of 15, includ- 
ing 3 bailies, and a treasurer; but, in consequence 
of an irregularity in the election of 1851, which was 
set aside by the Court of Session, it is now under 
three managers of their appointment. The burgh pro- 
perty consists of the town's common, customs, and 
shore-dues, teinds of the white-fish, and herrings 
brought into the harbour, and the iron-stone and 
sea-ware found on the shore. Revenue in 1832, £69; 
expenditure, £79. Revenue in 1864-5, about £140. 
The magistrates and minister have the presenta- 
tion of a bursar to the United college of St. An- 
drews. The parliamentary and municipal constitu- 
ency in 1864 was 25. "The town of Anstruther, 
and many others on this coast," says the Rev. James 
Forrester, in the first Statistical account of the parish, 
in 1793, " suffered much in the civil wars, in the 
reign of Charles I., both by sea and land. They 
were zealous covenanters, and there are few old in- 
habitants of the parish who do not talk of some re- 
lations that went to the battle of Kilsyth, in 1645, 
and were never afterwards heard of. Anstruther 
shared the fate of its neighbours, about the year 
1670, by an inundation of the sea, which destroyed 
or choked up the harbour, washed away the bul- 
warks, and rendered many of the houses unsafe to 
dwell in. An inundation of a similar kind happened 
about the end of last century, when about a third of 
the town seems to have been destroyed. A long 
street, called the Fore-street, was totally destroyed ; 
scarce a vestige of it now remains. The rock on 
which the town-house once stood, is covered by the 
sea every spring-tide, and every tide the sea washes 
the street, where the principal houses of the burgh 
were situated. The old people date the decay of 
the towns on this coast to the Union with England. 
It is evident that that event did undoubtedly give 
a great shock to the trade of these towns. Their 
staple commodities were malt, herrings, and cod. 
Before the Union, there were 24 ships belonging to 
Easter and Wester Anstruther, and 30 boats em- 
ployed in the the fishery; in 1764. there were only 
two ships, each 40 tons burden, and three fishing- 
boats belonging to Anstruther-Easter, and one of 
20 tons, and two fishing-boats to Anstruther- Wes- 
ter." Anstruther-Wester is united to Anstruther- 
Easter by a good bridge over the Dreel bum. Pop- 
ulation in 1841, 339; in 1861, 367. Houses, 56. 

ANTONINUS' WALL, an ancient Roman work 
extending from the Clyde to the Forth. In the 
year 78 of the Christian era, Agricola took the com- 
mand in Britain ; but he did not enter North Britain 
till the year 81. The years 79 and 80 were spent 
in subduing the tribes to the south of the Solway 
frith hitherto uneonquered ; and in the year 81 
Agricola entered on his fourth campaign by march- 
ing into North Britain along the shores of the Sol- 
way frith, and oveiTunning the mountainous region 
which extends from that estuary to the friths of 
Clyde and Forth, the Glotta and Bodotria of Tacitus. 
He finished this campaign by raising a line of forts 
on the narrow isthmus between these friths, so that, 
as Tacitus observes, " the enemies being removed 
as into another island," the country to the south 
might be regarded as a quiet province. See Intro- 
duction. Little is known of the history of North 
Britain from the time of Agricola's recall till the 
year 13S, when Antoninus Pius assumed the impe- 
rial purple. That good and sagacious emperor was 
distinguished by the care which he took in selecting 
the fittest officers for the government of the Roman 
provinces; and his choice, for that of Britain, fell 
on Lollius Urbieus, a man who united talents for 
peace with a genius in war. After putting down a 
revolt of the Brigantes in South Britain in the year 




139, this able general marched northward the fol- 
lowing year to the friths, between which he bnilt a 
wall of earth on the line of Agricola's forts. Capi- 
tulinus, who flourished during the third centmy, is 
the first writer who notices this wall, and states 
that it was built in the reign of Antoninus Pius, but 
he gives no exact description of it. The wall or 
rampart extended from Caeridden on the frith of 
Forth to Dunglass on the Clyde. Taking the 
length of this wall from Old-Kilpatrick, on the 
Clyde, to Caeridden on the Forth, its extent would 
be 39,726 Roman paces, which agree exactly with 
the modern measurement of 36 English miles, and 
620 yards. This rampart, which was of earth, and 
rested on a stone foundation, was upwards of 20 
feet high, and 24 feet thick. Along the whole ex- 
tent of the wall there was a vast ditch or prceten- 
tura on the outward or north side, which was gene- 
rally 20 feet deep, and 40 feet wide, and which, 
there is reason to believe, might be filled with water 
when occasion required. This ditch and rampart 
were strengthened at both ends, and throughout its 
whole extent, by one and twenty forts, three being 
at. each extremity, and the remainder placed be- 
tween, at the distance of 3,554J yards, or something 
more than 2 English miles from one another; and it 
has been clearly ascertained that these stations were 
designedly placed on the previous fortifications of 
Agricola. Its necessaiy appendage, a military road, 
ran behind the rampart from end to end, for the use 
of the troops, and for keeping up the usual communi- 
cation between the stations or forts. From inscrip- 
tions on some of the foundation-stones, which have 
been dug up, it appears that the second legion, with 
detachments from the sixth and the twentieth 
legions, and some auxiliaries, executed these vast 
military works, equally creditable to their skill and 
perseverance. Dunglass, near the western extre- 
mity, and Blackness near the eastern extremity of 
the rampart, afforded the Eomans commodious har- 
bours for their shipping, such as they enjoyed, 
while they remained in North Britain, at Cramond. 
This wall is called in the popular language of the 
country Grime's Dyke, the etymology of which has 
confounded antiquarians and puzzled philologists. 
In British speech and in the Welsh language of the 
present day the word grym signifies strength ; but 
whether the appellation which the wall now re- 
ceives is derived from such a root seems doubtful. 
Certain it is, that the absurd fiction of Fordun, 
Boyce, and Buchanan, who derive the name from a 
supposititious person of the name of Grime and his 
Scots having broke through this wall, has long been 
exploded, with many other fictions of the same 
authors. See Kirkintilloch and FjLlkirk. 

ANWOTH, a parish on the coast of Kirkcud- 
brightshire. It comprises the peninsula between 
Wigton bay and Fleet bay, and has its extreme 
length thence to the north. Its post-town is Gate- 
house. It is about 6J miles long, and 3J broad. It 
is bounded on the north and east by the parish of 
Girthon, from which it is divided by the river Fleet; 
and on the west by the parish of Kirkmabreclc. 
The sea-shore is generally flat and rocky, though 
in one place it is bold and elevated. Towards the 
northern part of the parish, the surface becomes 
broken and barren, rising into numerous hills of 
Binall elevation. Along the banks of the Fleet, and 
to some distance from it, there is a considerable 
quantity of natural and planted wood. The total 
area is about 9,000 acres, of which about one-third 
is arable. The Fleet is navigable for small vessels 
as far as Gatehouse : see article Fleet. The most 
remarkable hill is Caimharrah, which is situated 
partly in this parish, and partly in Kirkma- 

breck. It is elevated above the sea about 1,500 
feet ; and is the highest ground in this part of the 
country, Caimsmuir excepted. It commands an 
extensive view of the adjacent country, the shire 
of Wigton, the Isle of Man, a part of Cumber- 
land, and even of the high land on the coast of Ire- 
land. There is a lead mine on the estate of Eusco. 
The mansions are Eusoo, Ardwall, Eirkelauch, and 
Cardoness. The village of Anwoth stands on the 
Fleet, opposite Gatehouse, and is connected with 
that town by a bridge, and often considered as part 
of it under the name of Fleet-street. Population of 
the village in 1861, 377. The road from Gatehouse 
to Newtown-Stewart passes along the shore. There 
are two old buildings in the parish, the tower of 
Eusco, and the castle of Cardoness. Both these fort- 
alices stand on the banks of the Fleet; the former 
about 2-J miles above where the river ceases to be 
navigable, and the latter 1 mile below that point, 
on a tongue of land, looking towards the bay at the 
mouth of the river. The Eev. Samuel Eutherford, 
author of a valuable volume of Letters on Practical 
Eeligion, and various popular devotional pieces, was 
minister of this parish; and a monument, in the 
form of an Egyptian obelisk, 56 feet in height, and 
wholly composed of granite, was erected in 1842 to 
his memory by his admirers, on a hill a little to the 
north-east of the farm-house of Boreland. This 
monument was overwhelmed by a stroke of light- 
ning in 1847, and rebuilt in 1851 ; and it is con- 
spicuous to a great distance, and serves as a land- 
mark to navigators in the neighbouring seas. The 
parish churchyard contains a monument to the 
memory of John Bell of Whiteside, a Covenanter 
and native of the parish, who met a martyr's death 
at the hands of Grierson of Lag, in 1685, by being 
shot at Kirkconnell Moor in Tongueland. Anwoth 
and the Fleet have recently been sung in the admir- 
able production entitled " Lays of the Kirk and 
Covenant." Population in 1831, 830 ; in 1861, 899. 
Houses, 149. Assessed property in 1843, £3,717 ; 
in 1864, £5,223. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Kirkcudbright, 
and synod of Galloway. Patron, Sir William Max- 
well, Bart. Stipend, £247 10s. 7d.; glebe, £10. 
Unappropriated teinds, £41 18s. Id. There are two 
parochial schools; salaries, £45 and £25. The 
parish church is situated about a mile from Gate- 
house. It was built in 1826, and has 400 sittings. 
There is an United Presbyterian church in the vil- 
lage of Anwoth, but it takes its popular designation 
from Gatehouse. There is a Free church school. 

AONACHAN, a post-office station, subordinate 
to Fort Augustus, Inverness-shire. 

APP, a small stream of the parish of Ballantrae, 
Ayrshire. It flows about 6 miles south-westward, 
along Glenapp, into Loch Eyan. 

APPIN, an extensive district of Argyleshire, 
above 50 miles in length, and from 10 to 15 broad; 
comprehending the Airds, the strath of Appin, Glen 
Duror, Glen derail, Kingerloch, and Glencoe; ex- 
tending along the eastern side of Loch Linnhe, and 
belonging ecclesiastically to the parish of Lismore 
and Apnin. See Lismore. Appin is one of the 
most interesting districts in the Highlands; present- 
ing a deeply indented and finely diversified coast 
sprinkled with islands; while the interior is inter- 
sected with deep glens and rushing streams, and 
rich in the most magnificent varieties of mountain 
and lake scenery. Appin was the country of the 
Stuarts, " the unconquered foes of the Campbell," in 
feudal times, but whom "the greedy Campbells" 
ultimately overmastered. The Ettrick Shepherd, 
in a fine ballad entitled ' The Stuarts o' Appin,' thus 
alludes to its departed glories: 




* I sing of a land that was famous of yore, 

Tin- land uf Green Appin, tho ward of the flood; 
Where every grey cairn that broods over tho shore, 
Marks a grave of tho royal, the. valiant, or good; 
The land where tho strains of grey Ossian were lramed,— 

The land of fair Sehna and reipu of Fingnl, — 
And late of a race, that with tears mast bo named, 
The Noblo Clan Stuart, the bravest of all. 
Oh- lion, an Reil and the Stuarts of Appin! 
The gallant, devoted, old Stuarts of Appin! 
Their glory is o'er, 
For the clan is no more, 
And tho Sassenach sings on the hills of green Appin." 

Appin contains large quantities of both natural 
and planted woods. Lead ore occurs on the pro- 
perty of Minefield; and extensive quarries of beau- 
tiful roofing-slate are worked at the foot of Glencoe. 
The landowners of Appin are Campbell of Ardna- 
murchan, Cameron of Fassfern, Dowuie of Appin- 
House, M'Donald of Glencoe, Stuart of Ballachulish, 
Stewart of Ardshiel, Stewart of Fasnacloieh, Stew- 
art of Achnacone, Fleming of Kinlochlaich, M'Call 
of Minefield, and M'Donald of Dalness. The most 
remarkable antiquity is a square tower, situated on 
a rock in the sound between Appin and Lismore, 
and built bv Duncan Stewart of Appin as a kind of 
hunting-lodge for King James IV. Excellent faci- 
lities of communication and traffic are enjoyed by 
means of the Glasgow and Inverness steamers. 
There is a post-office for the district; and there are 
four villages, Port-Appin, Tayribbi, Portnacroish, 
and Laroch. The Appin parish church is situated 
in the Strath of Appin, and has 400 sittings. There 
is a government church at Duror, for the districts 
of Duror and Glencoe. There are two Episcopalian 
chapels, the one at Portnacroish, and the other near 
the slate quarries, but both served by one minister. 
There is also in Appin an Independent place of 
worship, connected with the Congregational Union; 
and there is a Free church for Appin and Lismore, 
whose annual money proceeds in 1853 amounted to 
£32 lis. 4id.,— in 1865, to £270 17s. 2d. See Aihds, 
Glexcoe, " Ballachulish, Linnhe, Creean, and 
Levex. ' 

APPIN, a beautiful vale, in the parish of Dull, 
Perthshire. See Abekfeldy and Dull. 

APPLEBY LOCH. See Glassekton. 

APPLECROSS, an extensive parish, on the west 
coast of Ross-shire. It comprises all the country 
between Lochearron and Loch Torriden; and its 
post town is Lochearron. It formed part of the 
' parish of Lochearron till 1726; and the name of 
Applecross -was then for the first time given to 
it; but its name among the natives is Comrich 
or Comaraich. It has an irregular outline and 
is intersected by arms of Lochearron and Loch 
Torriden, and by other sea-lochs and bays. The 
extent of sea-coast, in a direct line, is upwards of 
20 miles; but following the shore in all its curves 
and windings, it cannot be under 90 miles. Though 
the coast is in some places high and rocky, yet, in 
many parts, it is flat and sandy; and the general 
character of the whole — as of most districts of old 
red sandstone formation, which is the prevalent 
geological character of the parish — is monotonous 
and dreary. The course of the tides is all along 
from the north. The general appearance of the 
parish is rocky and mountainous ; yet amidst these 
hills, covered only with wild coarse grasses and 
heath, and indescribably dreary to the sight, occur 
valleys, both beautiful and fertile, but in many in- 
stances almost inaccessible. Towards the close of 
last century there was neither public road nor 
bridge from one extremity of it to the other, and the 
traveller was guided by the season of the year, in 
determining what course to take over the rugged 
bills, rapid waters, ind deep and marshy moors of 

this district; but this state of things is now greatly 
amended. A good and direct road runs between 
Applecross and Sbieldag on Loch Torriden, a dis- 
tance of 13 miles; and there are also good roads 
from the village of Lochearron, at the head of Loch- 
canon both to Applecross, a distance of 20 miles, 
and to Shicldag, a distance of 15. Grazing-farms 
are numerous but small. The number of acres 
under cultivation does not exceed 2,000, while 
nearly 300 square miles are unfit for cultivation. 
Black cattle is the great article from which the 
fanner principally derives his emolument and the 
landlord his rent. Herring shoals occasionally fre- 
quent the bays, creeks, and harbours, of this dis- 
trict. The rivers, though small, are very rapid, 
and abound with trout; the stream of Firdon, and 
the river of Applecross, contain salmon; there are 
salmon-fishings at Torriden and Balgie; and fishing 
is much pursued on the coasts of this parish. In 
the district of Kishom there is a copper-mine, which 
Williams, in his ' Mineral Kingdom,' considered as 
equally rich with any in Great Britain. On the 
south side of the hay of Applecross, close by the 
shore, there is a limestone quarry of an excellent 
quality. There are some natural woods of fir, 
birch, and hazel, in different parts of the parish. 
The ordinary fuel is peat. There are three proprie- 
tors: viz. Mackenzie of Applecross, the principal 
heritor, Mackenzie of Seaforth, and Sir F. Mac- 
kenzie of Gairloch, Bart. " Amidst the surround- 
ing bleakness and desolation of the sandstone moun- 
tains of this district," say the Messrs. Anderson, in 
their excellent Guide to the Highlands, " the bay 
and homesteads of Applecross have ever been as an 
oasis in the desert ; and hence they were early fixed 
upon by the monks of Iona as a proper site for a 
supplementary monastery, whence to assail the 
darkness of 'roving clans and savage barbarians' 
by the light of learning and religion. At its princi- 
pal natural haven, Camus-Fen-ah, or the Boat Cove, 
the land was claimed for the ' Prince of Peace,' 
by the erection of a large stone cross, still standing ; 
several other crosses lined the approach towards the 
sacred buildings, and one curiously carved, of a very 
antique pattern, occurs in the churchyard. . . . 
The house of Applecross is a fine old and high 
chateau ; and the plain about it not only bears good 
com crops, and some magnificent trees and young 
plantations, but in the garden the finest dahlias, 
fuschias, geraniums, and hydrangeas flower, and 
are left in the open ground all the year over; while, 
at the same time, in the higher grounds, the vege- 
tation is quite arctic, and the species few, and even 
the hardy juniper becomes a short prostrate plant, 
instead of an upright bush. In the low strath, the 
air feels always mild, though moist; the light, in 
some places, is so subdued that the bat flies about 
at noonday ; but nothing can surpass the beauty of 
the tints on the adjoining hill-slopes, or the gran- 
deur and variety of the sea-coast views, especially 
of the mountains in the Isle of Skye." Population 
in 1831, 2,892; in 1861, 2,544. Houses, 568. As- 
sessed property in 1860, £3,616. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Lochearron 
and S3Tiod of Glenelg. Patron, the Crown. Stipend, 
£158 6s. 5d; glebe £13. Schoolmaster's salary, £35, 
with £4 10s. fees. The parish church was built in 
1S17, and has 600 sittings. A government church 
was built in 1827 at Shieldag, 12 miles from the 
parish church ; and the minister there preaches also, 
once a month, at Kishom, 10 miles from Shieldag, in 
a place of worship built by the inhabitants. There 
is a Free church at Applecross; attendance, 300; 
3 T early sum raised in 1865, £142 15s. Id. There is 
also a Free church preaching station in the open 




air at Shieldag; attendance, from 600 to 1,200; 
yearly sum raised in 1853, £10. There are two 
Assembly's schools, and two other schools. 

APPLEGAETH, or Applesirth, a parish in the 
centre of Annandale, Dumfries -shire. Its post- 
town is Lockerby. It is hounded by the parishes 
of Wamphray, Hutton, Dryfesdale, Lochrnaben, and 
Johnstone. The river Annan runs along the west- 
ern boundary, and the Dryfe runs through the in- 
terior. The greatest length of the parish, from 
north to south, is about 6 miles ; and the greatest 
breadth is about 5. The southern district is low 
and level; about two-thirds of the entire surface is 
arable; and much of the rest is hill pasture. The 
soil on the low grounds is fertile. The highest 
ground between the Annan and the Dryfe is Din- 
woodie Hill, which has an elevation of 736 feet 
above the level of the sea; and the highest east 
of the Dryfe is Adderlaw, which has an elevation 
of 638 feet. There are seven heritors and three 
mansions, Jardine-Hall, Balgray, and Hook-House, 
— the first famous in connexion with the distin- 
guished naturalist Sir William Jardine, Bart. The 
Caledonian railway and the Edinburgh and Carlisle 
turnpike traverse the parish, and the former has two 
stations in it at Nethercleuch and Dinwoodie. Pop- 
ulation in 1831,999; in 1861, 935. Houses, 161. 
Assessed property in I860, £8,316. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Lochmaben 
and synod of Dumfries. Patrons, Johnstone of An- 
nandale and Sir W. Jardine, Bart. Stipend, £250 
5s.; glebe, £10 10s. Unappropriated teinds, £244. 
There are two parochial schools. Salaries of the 
schoolmasters are £40, with nearly £30 fees, and 
£30, with about £15 fees. There is also a ladies' 
school. The parish church was built in 1760, and 
repaired in 1822, and has 380 sittings. It is gener- 
ally supposed that there have been two old parishes 
successively annexed to Applegarth, viz. Sibbaldbie 
and Dinwoodie, or Dinwiddie. It is not certain, 
however, whether Dinwoodie was ever a distinct 
parish or not; it rather appears to have been a 
chapelry to Applegarth. Sibbaldbie was a distinct 
parish, and was annexed in 1 609. There are still 
some remains of its church. Chalmers, in his Cale- 
donia, informs us that on the 7th July, 1300, Ed- 
ward I., who was then at Applegarth, on his way 
to the siege of Caerlaverock, made an oblation at 
the altars of St. Nicholas and Thomas a Becket, in 
Applegarth church. There are no authentic traces 
of this church now visible. There is a noble ash- 
tree in the church-yard of Applegarth, upwards of 
14 feet in circumference near the root. 

APPLETEEE - HALL, a village in the parish 
of Wilton, Roxburghshire. Population in 1851, 75. 
See Wilton. 

AQUAHAPvNEY. See Crudes. 

AQUHORTIES. Sse Inverurt. 

ABASAIG, or Arisaig, a district, a promontory, 
and a village, in the parish of Ardnamurchan, In- 
verness-shire. The district is on the west coast of 
the mainland, between Loch Morar and Loch Aylort, 
and has a rugged, sterile, and mountainous charac- 
ter. The promontory lies opposite the isle of Eig, 
at the distance of 6J miles, between Lochnagaul on 
the north and Lochnanuagh on the south. The. vil- 
lage stands on the north shore of Lochnagaul, at a 
brief distance from the sea; and consists of only a 
few scattered houses, yet has a post office and a 
large inn, and is a place of importance to the dis- 
trict. Fairs are held on the Saturday in June before 
Fort- William, and on the third Tuesday of October. 
The Glasgow and Isle of Skye steamers call regu- 
larly in the vicinity. A regular ferry was formerly 
maintained to Skye; aud passenger boats can still 

be had. An excellent and beautiful road leads from 
the village to Fort- William. A neat Eoman Catho- 
lic chapel, and Arisaig Cottage, the residence of 
Lord Cranstoun, are in the vicinity. A schoolhouse, 
used as a place of worship in connexion with the 
Establishment, stands at Ardnafuaran. 

AEAY (The), or Art, in Gaelic Aoreidh, a 
small but beautiful stream flowing into Loch Fyne, 
between the town of Inverary and the neighbour- 
ing hill of Dunyqueaich, Argyleshire. It rises near 
Loch Awe and flows south. Its course is about 9 
miles in length, over a rocky bed, and frequently 
under rugged cliffs, or between banks finely wooded 
with oak and birch. The road from Inverary to 
Oban skirts its course throughoirt its whole length ; 
and the road around the head of Loch Fyne to Caim- 
dow is carried over the stream, at its confluence 
with the loch, by a bridge. The first striking scene 
upon this stream, tracing its course upwards, is the 
romantic fall of Carlonan linn, which occurs at a 
point where the river is shut in by thick woods and 
rocky banks. About 2J miles from Inverary is an- 
other considerable fall ; and half-a-mile farther is 
the finest cascade in the river, the fall of Lenach- 
Gluthin, where the stream rushes, " with many a 
shock," over a broken and precipitous rock. It is 
supposed that the Aray takes its name from these 
falls, Aoreidh, in Gaelic, signifying ' unsmooth.' 
Skrine calls it 'the furious Aray.' As we ascend 
the glen of the Aray, the stream " changes temper " 
and dwindles into a bum flowing between bare 
mountain-ridges. Gilpin, who passed through Glen 
Aray in 1776, was greatly delighted with the forest 
scenery here. 

AEBEADIE, or New Banchory, a village, with 
a post office, in the parish of Banchory-Ternan, 
Kincardineshire. The old village of Banchory, in 
the vicinity, has been displaced by a station, on the 
Deeside railway. The new village was founded 
between the years 1805 and 1810, and has had 
much prosperity. It is now pretty generally 
known, as a post-town and otherwise, by the simple 
name of Banchory. It stands on the river Dee, and 
on the road from Aberdeen to Braemar, 18 miles 
west-south-west of Aberdeen. It is a place of much 
neatness and beauty, and in spite of distance, is a 
favourite resort of the Aberdonians. It contains a 
Dissenting place of worship, two schools, three 
inns, and offices of the Union Bank of Scotland, and 
the North of Scotland Bank. Population of the vil- 
lage in 1861, 681. 

jVEBIGLAND. See Kjrkbean. 

AEBIELOT, in old writings Abereixiot, a parish 
on the coast of Forfarshire. Its post-town is Ar- 
broath. It is about 4 miles in length, and 3 in 
breadth ; and is bounded on the north by the parishes 
of St. Vigeans and Carmylie ; on the east by Ar- 
broath; on the south by the sea; and on the west 
by Panbride parish. The extent of sea-coast is about 
3 miles, for the most part flat and sandy. The 
greater part of this parish is gently undulated; yet 
the hills are neither veiy high nor rocky, but are in 
general green, aud capable of cultivation. The 
superficial area is about 500 acres, and about one- 
fifth of it is uncultivated. The average rent of the 
cultivated land is 18s. per acre. The principal crops 
raised are oats and barley; but a considerable quan- 
tity of wheat is also grown. In the year 1790, there 
were 97 acres sown with linseed, which in general 
succeeded well; but this branch of farming does not 
now attract much attention. The water of Elliot 
runs through this parish from north-west to south- 
east, but has its source in the parish of Carmylie, 
about 3 miles from the village of Arbirlot. It wa3 
once noted for trouts of a peculiar relish. See El- 




liot (The). Kelly castle, which is built upon a 
roek on the side of this stream, is seen to great ad- 
vantage on the road betwixt Arbroath and Arbirlot. 
This succeeded a very ancient mansion of the Mow- 
brays; was erected by one of the Ouchterlonys; 
passed in 1615 to the Irvines, — in 1679 to the Earl of 
Panmure; and was recently restored and adorned, at 
great cost, by the Earl of Dalhousie. The village of 
Arbirlot stands on Elliot Water, in the vicinity of 
the castle. A cattle fair is held here on the second 
Wednesday of November, but it is of small note. 
Population of the village in 1841, 77. There is an- 
other village, called Bonnington, about 2 miles to 
the west. There are three meal-mills and a (lax- 
mill on the Elliot, and there is a bleaching-work at 
Wormy-hills near its mouth. At Wormy-hills also 
is a mineral well of some repute. A road is said to 
have been made through part of this parish by the 
Scottish historian, Hector Boethius ; and it still 
bears his name in the corrupted form of Hecken- 
bois-path. The Arbroath and Dundee railway and 
the Arbroath and Dundee highway pass along the 
coast. The whole parish is the property of the Earl 
of Dalhousie. Population in 1831, 1,086; in 1861, 
960. Houses, 204. Assessed property in 1843, 
£6,395 ; in 1865, £9,661 6s. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Arbroath, and 
synod of Angus and Mearns. Patron, the Crown. 
Stipend, £184 4s. 5d.; glebe, 4 acres. Schoolmas- 
ter's salary is £50, with £14 fees. The parish 
church was built in 1832, and has 639 sittings. 
There is a Free church ; the yearly sum raised in 
connexion with which in 1865 was £174 3s. OJd. 
There are also a parochial library, a savings' bank, 
and two private schools. 

AEBORY HILL, a conical hill, of about 500 ft. 
in height above the level of the adjacent Clyde, in 
the parish of Lamington, Lanarkshire. Certain cu- 
rious old remains occur on the top of it, which some 
persons suppose to have been a fort of the ancient 
Britons, and others suppose to have been a Druidi- 
cal place of worship. See Lajitngton. 

ARBROATH, or Aberbrothwick, a parish, con- 
taining a royal burgh of the same name, on the coast 
of Forfarshire. It is bounded on the north by St. 
Vigeans parish ; on the east by the German ocean ; 
on the south and west by Arbirlot parish. The ex- 
tent of sea-coast is about li mile; the superficial 
area is 1,820 English acres. Average rent of land, 
55s. per acre. Around the town the soil is rich and 
fertile; but towards the north-west there is a con- 
siderable extent of what "was formerly moor-ground, 
the property of the community, and once covered 
with fir-plantations, but which having been feued 
out is now in a state of cultivation, and interspersed 
with villas. The Brothock, or Brothwick, a small 
stream rising in the parish of Kirkden, near the 
north-west boundary of St. Vigeans parish, flowing 
south-east through that parish, and the town of Ar- 
broath, and falling into the German ocean after a 
course of about 6 miles, gives name to the parish. 
The water-power furnished by this stream, and its 
application in creating steam-power, have led to the 
establishment of numerous manufactures for weav • 
ing, spinning, flax-dressing, and bleaching. About 
a mile westward of the town is a strong chalybeate 
spring. Population in 1831, 6,660; in 1861, 9,847. 
Houses, 1,087. Assessed property in 1843, £17,314. 

This parish is the seat of a presbytery in the synod 
of Angus and Mearns. Patron, the Crown. Stipend, 
£219 12s. 6d., with a manse. Unappropriated teinds, 
£125 12s. lid. There is a permanent assistant 
minister, appointed by the kirk session, with a sti- 
pend of about £100. The parish church was built 
in 1791, and has 1,690 sittings. There is a Chapel of 

Ease, called Abbey church, situated in the north- 
east corner of the abbey grounds, built in 1797, and 
containing 1,281 sittings. There is another Chape] 
of Ease, called Ladyloan church, built in 1838. 
There are two Free churches, — the East Arbroath 
and the High Street: attendance at the former, about 
680, — at the latter, 400 ; yearly sum raised in 1865 
in connexion with the former, £674 15s. 3d., — in 
connexion with the latter, £337 4s. 0^d. There are 
three United Presbyterian churches, — called the 
North Grimsby-street, the Park-street, and the 
Erskine churches,— the first with 572 sittings, the 
second with 700, and the third with 850. The other 
places of worship are an Independent chapel with 
400 sittings, a Baptist meeting-house, and a Glassite 
meeting-house. There are also in the town other 
two Free churches, called the Inverbrothock and 
the Ladyloan, an Original Secession church, an 
Episcopalian chapel, a Wesleyan chapel, and a Ro- 
man Catholic chapel; but all these stand within the 
palish of St. Vigeans. The number of private 
schools is about twenty. 

The Tows of Arbroath comprises the ancientroyal 
burgh of Arbroath, a town extension on the abbey 
lands, and a large suburb within St. A'igeans. It is 
a market-town, a sea-port, a seat of manufacture, 
and an important key-post of railway traffic. It is 
17 miles east by north of Dundee ; 12| west by south 
of Montrose; 15 south-east of Forfar; 13f south of 
Brechin ; and 56 north-north-east of Edinburgh. It 
stands along the shore at the mouth of the Broth- 
ock, in a small plain surrounded on the west, north, 
and east sides by eminences in the form of an am 
phitheatre, which command an extensive prospect 
of the friths of Tay and Foith, the Lothian hills, 
and the elevated parts of Fifeshire. It has greatly 
extended in recent times. Formerly it consisted of 
one street, nearly a mile in length, ranning north 
and south from the sea, and another on the west 
side of smaller extent ; both these being intersected 
by cross streets. To the eastward, and within the 
abbey lands, there are two handsome streets. On 
the west side of the Brothock, and within the parish 
of St. Vigeans, there are also several neat streets. 
Part of the High-street also has a good appearance ; 
and many elegant houses adorn other parts of the 
town and the suburbs and environs. The place, as 
a whole, however, does not look well. Most of the 
streets are narrow; many of the houses in the cross 
streets are only one story high ; and scarcely any- 
thing strikes or particularly pleases the generality 
of intelligent strangers, except the imposing ruins of 
the abbey. Yet the celebrated Dr. Johnson, who is 
nearly as well known to many Scotchmen for his 
scornful ride through their country as for all his 
good qualities, is pleased to say that he should 
scarcely have regretted his journey had it offered 
nothing more than the sight of Arbroath. 

The town-house, containing a large elegant hall, 
a town-clerk's office, a small-debt court room, and 
apartments for the meeting of the town council, is a 
handsome building, erected in 1806. The prison 
and police office, to the west of the town-house, is a 
neat structure, erected in 1842. The guild-hall is a 
plain building. The trades' hall is a costly struc- 
ture, built in 1814. The Arbroath academy is a 
chaste building, and has a fine play-ground in front, 
and was erected in 1821 at the cost of £1,600. The 
parish church itself is not a remarkable building; 
but its steeple, which was erected in 1831 at the 
cost of £1,300, and is 152 feet high and in the Gothic 
style, is singularly elegant. The Episcopalian cha- 
pel is a handsome new Gothic edifice, with an ele- 
gant spire. Erskine church is a much admired 
structure, built in 1851 at the cost of £1,600. The 




public hall, for meetings, concerts, &c, with the 
museum, was erected in 1865. A beautiful market- 
place was erected in 1856, at a cost of about £5,000. 

About the year 1736 a few gentlemen of property 
engaged at Arbroath in the manufacture of osna- 
burghs and brown linens ; and from that time till 
now the linen trade has been a chief department of 
the town's industiy. In the early years of the pre- 
sent century, the competency of machinery to spin 
linen yarn, first by water-power and next by steam- 
power, was slowly and carefully put to the test in a 
flour-mill in the parish of St. Vigeans ; and no sooner 
was it fully proved than a sudden and great change 
took place in the western environs of the town. 
A tract of land, comprising about 35 imperial acres, 
lying within St. Vigeans, closely adjacent to the 
burgh, and on both sides of the Brothock, " was at 
once given off by its proprietor in feus ; and, in an 
incredibly short space of time, immense factories 
with their towering stalks, and whole streets of 
dwelling-houses, were seen to rear their heads where, 
only a short time before, the waving corn and the 
smiling orchard attracted the eye." The grand rush 
of increased business occurred between the years 
1820 and 1826, but it was greatly impelled by over- 
speculation; and in the latter part of 1825 and the 
early part of 1826, it received a tremendous check 
in a severe, extensive, and crashing ' crisis.' The 
linen manufacture seemed for a moment to be at a 
stand; and it went on for a while with faltering pro- 
gress and remarkable caution ; yet it by and by got 
considerably beyond its former limits, and became 
strong and firm as well as great. The number of 
spinning-mills in 1833 was 16; and three more were 
built before 1842 ; and they altogether give direct 
employment to between 1,600 and 1,700 persons. 
The weaving of canvas and of brown and bleached 
linens has at times employed about 2,000 hand- 
looms. There are also bleaching-works, plash-mills, 
boating - mills, and callendering establishments. 
There are likewise ship-building yards, three found- 
eries, and several manufactories of leather, saddlery, 
machinery, bone-dust, and other articles. A weekly 
market is held on Saturday ; and hiring fairs are 
held on the last Saturday of January, on the first 
Saturday after Whitsunday, on the Saturday after 
the 18th of July, or the 18th itself when that day is 
a Saturday, and on the first Saturday after Martin- 
mas. The town has offices of the Bank of Scotland, 
the British Linen Company's Bank, the Commer- 
cial Bank, and the Royal Bank ; all accommodated 
in handsome buildings of very recent erection. 
The chief inns are the White Hart, the Albion, the 
Royal, and the George. Ample communications 
are enjoyed through all the Forfarshire railways, 
and thence to the north and west and south. Two 
weekly newspapers, the Arbroath Guide and the 
Saturday Evening Guide, are published on Saturday. 

The port of Arbroath is of great antiquity; but 
its situation was, in ancient times, more to the east- 
ward than at present. The site of the ancient har- 
bour is still named the Old Shore-head; and an 
agreement is extant between the abbot and burghers 
in 1394, concerning the making of the harbour. 
Both parties were bound to contribute their propor- 
tion; but the largest fell to the share of the abbot, 
for which he was to receive an annual tax payable 
out of the burgh-roods. A new harbour was built 
about the year 1725. It is small, but can be taken 
by vessels in a storm, when they ca.nnot enter any 
of the neighbouring ports. It is entirely artificial, 
but well sheltered from the sea by a long pier erected 
in 1788; the inner harbour is secured by wooden 
gates. It admits vessels of 200 tons at spring-tides, 
but at ordinary tides only vessels of 100 tons can 

enter. It was formerly defended by a battery 
erected in 1783 ; but this fell into neglect and dila- 
pidation, and was eventually removed. A new 
harbour and breakwater' under the authority of an 
act of parliament, 2° Victoria, cap. 16, was com- 
menced in 1841, on an estimated cost of £40,000; 
and this harbour admits ships of 400 tons burden at 
spring-tides. The administration of it is vested in 
commissioners, to whom the property of the old har- 
bour, and the shore-dues, have been transferred on 
payment to the community of £10,000 in name of 
compensation. In 1781, there belonged to the port 
18 vessels, of aggregately 900 tons; in 1791, 32 
vessels, of 1,704 "tons; in 1833, 77 vessels, of 6,700 
tons; and in 1860, 94 vessels, of 13,320 tons. The 
coasting trade of the port during the year 1860 com- 
prised a tonnage of 28,336 inward, and 12,291 out- 
ward ; and the foreign and colonial trade comprised 
a tonnage of 5,914 inward and 3,330 outward. The 
chief exports are the products of the manufactories 
of the town, and the products of Forfarshire mines 
and quarries ; and the chief imports are flax, hemp, 
codilla, bones, oak-bark, hides, battens, deals, oak- 
plank, fir-timber, and groceries. The custom-house 
revenue in 1860 was £13,041. 

Arbroath possesses a very creditable amount of 
educational, literary, benevolent, and miscellaneous 
institutions. Its chief schools are the Academy or 
High school, with 3 teachers; the Burgh school, 
with 1 teacher; and the Benevolent School Society's 
School, with 2 teachers; and a Charity School insti- 
tuted in 1845. A public subscription library was 
established in 1797, and now contains upwards of 
7,000 volumes. The Mechanics' institution has a 
library of 1,500 volumes, and a reading-room open 
on Wednesdays and Saturdays. There are two 
public subscription reading-rooms. The Natural 
History, Antiquarian, and Scientific Society has a 
museum which is open to the public every Saturday. 
The other chief institutions and associations are a 
Savings bank, an Infirmary, a Dispensary, two 
Destitute Sick societies, a Ladies' clothing society, 
a Bible society, a Reform society, a Horticultural 
society, a Cricket club, and a Total-abstinence so- 

Arbroath is a royalty of very ancient erection. 
It was probably erected into a royal burgh by Wil- 
liam the Lion, about the year 1186; but this cannot 
exactly be ascertained owing to the loss of the ori- 
ginal charter, which was taken by force out of the 
abbey — where it was lodged in the time of the civil 
wars during the minority of James VI. — by George, 
Bishop of Moray. The burgh was, however, con- 
firmed in its privileges by a charter of novodamus 
from James VI. in 1599. It was formerly governed 
by a provost, 2 bailies, a treasurer, and 15 council- 
lors, and has 7 incorporated trades. The magis- 
trates and council are now elected according to the 
provisions of 3° and 4° William IV. The council 
consists of 18 members. In 1834, about 6,650 ol 
the population were within the royalty, and 4,587 
persons inhabited houses in streets without the roy- 
alty. The property of the town, consisting of com- 
mon lands, houses, mills, harbour, feu-duties, en- 
tries, customs, and imposts, was recently valued at 
£35,874; but the parliamentary commissioners were 
of opinion that this was too high. The revenue, in 
1788 was £864; in 1832, £2,922 ; the average an- 
nual expenditure for 20 years preceding 1832 had 
been £2,940; and the debt was £17,967. The reve- 
nue in 1837-8 was £3,859; in 1841-2, £1,692; in 
1863-4, about .£1,560. There is a guildry incorpo- 
ration ; and there are seven incorporated trades. A 
Bailie Court is held every Friday; and a Police 
Court on the forenoon of every Monday. Arbroath 




unites with Forfar, Montrose, Brechin, and Bervie 

in sending a member to parliament. In 1837, the 
municipal constituency was 245, and the parlia- 
mentary constituency, 452 j and in 1864 the muni- 
cipal constituency was 602, and tlic parliamentary 
constituency was 008. Population of the parlia- 
mentary burgh in 1831,13,795; in 1841, 14,576; 
in 1S61, 17,593. Houses, 1,914. Estimated popu- 
lation of the parliamentary burgh in 1865, consider- 
ably above 20,000. Population of the municipal 
burgh in 1861, 7,984. Houses, 932. 

The glory of Arbroath in former times was its 
abbey, the venerable ruins of which are still much 
admired by travellers. It was founded about 11 7S 
by William I., and dedicated to the memory of Tbo- 
mas-a-Becket. Its founder was interred within it; 
but there are no authentic remains of his tomb. It 
probably, however, stood near the great altar, in a 
snot which afterwards became a private burial- 
place. The monastery of Arbroath was one of the 
richest in Scotland, and its abbots were frequently 
the first churchmen of the kingdom. Cardinal Bea- 
ton was the last abbot of this establishment, at the 
same time that he was archbishop of St. Andrews. 
The monks were of the Tyronensian order, and were 
first brought from Kelso. A charter is still extant 
from John of England, under the great seal of that 
kingdom, by which the monastery and citizens of 
Aberbrothock are exempted " a teloniis et consue- 
tudine," in every part of England except London 
and Oxford. This abbe)' was also of considerable 
note in Scottish history, particularly as the seat of 
that parliament which, during the reign of King 
Robert Bruce, addressed the celebrated manifesto to 
the Pope. After the death of Beaton, the abbey 
felt the destructive rage of the Reformers. The 
last commendatory abbot of Aberbrothock was John 
Hamilton, second son to the Duke of Chatelherault, 
who was afterwards created Marquis of Hamilton, 
The abbey was erected into a temporal lordship, in 
favour of James, Marquis of Hamilton, son to the 
former, upon the 5th May, 1608. It afterwards be- 
longed to the Earl of Dysart, from whom Patrick 
Maule of Panmure, gentleman of the bedchamber to 
James VI., purchased it, with the right of patronage 
of all the parishes thereto belonging, thirty-four in 
number. The abbots of this place had several spe- 
cial privileges. They were exempted from assisting 
at the yearly synods ; and Pope Bennet, by his bull 
dated at Avignon, granted to John, Abbot of Ar- 
broath, the privilege of wearing a mitre and other 
pontifical ornaments. 

The rains of the abbey are " most deliciously 
situated," and strikingly picturesque. The New 
Statistical Account of the parish, written in Decem- 
ber 1833, describes them as follows: — "The pre- 
cincts of the abbey were enclosed with a stone wall 
from 20 to 24 feet in height; and formed an area 
1,150 feet in length from north to south, and in 
breadth 706 feet at the north, and 484 at the south 
end. At the north-west corner there is a tower, 
still entire, 24 feet square, and 70 feet high, for- 
merly used as the Regality prison. The ground-flat 
is now converted into a butcher's shop. Another 
tower, somewhat smaller, stood at the south-west 
corner of the enclosure, which, with the addition of 
a slated spire, served for many years as a steeple to 
the present parish church. Having become ruinous 
it was taken down in 1830, and a remarkably hand- 
some spire, 152 feet in height, has been erected in 
its place. The main entiy to the area was by a 
stately porch on the north side. If it had not been 
that, a few years ago, the vaulting was taken down 
under an apprehension of insecurity, this would 
have been entire. For defence it appears to have 

been furnished with a portcullis, which now forms 
the armorial bearings of the town of Arbroath. 
There was another entry, but far inferior in archi- 
tectural display, at the south-cast comer, known by 
the name of the Darngate. A considerable portion 
of the north side of the enclosure was occupied by 
the Abbey church. The dimensions of this building 
were — length, 270 feet; length of transept, 132 
feet; of the nave, 148 feet; and of the choir, 7CJ 
feet; breadth of the transept, 45J feet; of the cen- 
tral aisle, 35 feet; and of each of the side aisles, 16J 
feet. From marks, visible on the walls, the height 
from the pavement to the roof appears to have been 
67 feet. The building' is now in a state of ruin. 
All that remains is the south wall, with part of the 
east and west ends. A portion of the two western 
towers still exists in a very mutilated condition. 
The great entrance at the west end of the church is 
entire, with indications of a circular window above. 
A similar window, on a smaller scale, is to be seen 
on the upper part of the wall of the south transept. 
The other windows which remain are in the early- 
pointed or lancet-shaped style. The pillars which 
supported the roof of the church are all demolished ; 
but their foundations may be traced without diffi- 
culty. Adjoining to the south transept, on the east, 
is a building said to have been the charter-house of 
the abbey. It consists of two vaulted apartments, 
the one above the other, in a state of good repair. 
Immediately in front of this, and of the south tran- 
sept, appear to have been the cloisters; and at a 
short distance from the south wall of the nave are 
the remains of the Abbot's house, which is still in- 
habited as a private mansion. On the whole, the 
buildings, although, when entire, they must have 
had an imposing aspect, were inferior, in point ol 
magnificence, to some others of which Scotland 
could boast." The rains too, are picturesque only 
in the large view, and have totally lost their beauty 
in detail and all their sculptural decoration ; but the 
Commissioners of Woods and Forests have appointed 
a keeper of them, and expend annually a sum in re- 
pairing the extant walls. 

Jurisdiction over the criminal affairs of the abbey 
and over its prison was resigned by the monks to a 
layman; and in the year 1445, the election to this 
office led to very disastrous consequences. The 
monks that year chose Alexander Lindsay, eldest 
son of the Earl of Crawford, and commonly known 
by the appellation of The Tiger, or Earl Beardy, to 
be the baillie or chief-justiciar of their regality; but 
he proved so expensive by his number of followers 
and high way of living, that they were obliged to 
remove him, and appoint in his place Alexander 
Ogilvie of Innerquharity, nephew to John Ogilvie 
of Airly, who had an hereditary claim to the place. 
This occasioned a cruel feud between the families; 
each assembled their vassals ; and "there can be 
little doubt," says Mr. Fraser Tytler, " that the Og- 
ilvies must have sunk under this threatened attack, 
but accident gave them a powerful ally in Sir Alex- 
ander Seton of Gordon, afterwards Earl of Huntly, 
who, as he returned from court, happened to lodge 
for the night at the castle of Ogilvie, at the veiy 
moment when this baron was mustering his forces 
against the meditated assault of Crawford. Seton, 
although in no way personally interested in the 
quarrel, found himself, it is said, compelled to assist 
the Ogilvies, by a rude but ancient custom, which 
bound the guest to take common part with his host 
in all dangers which might occur so long as the 
food eaten under his roof remained in his stomach. 
Wirh the small train of attendants and friends who 
accompained him, he instantly joined the forces ol 
Innerquharity, and proceeding to the town of Ar- 




broath, found the opposite party drawn up in great 
strength on the outside of the gates." As the two 
lines approached each other, and spears were placing 
in the rest, the Earl of Crawford, anxious to avert 
it, suddenly appeared on the field, and galloping up 
between the two armies, was accidentally slain by 
a soldier. The Crawfords, assisted by a large party 
of the vassals of Douglas, and infuriated at the loss 
of their chief, thereupon attacked the Ogilvies with 
a desperation which soon broke their ranks, and re- 
duced them to irreclaimable disorder. Such, how- 
ever, was the gallantry of their resistance, that they 
were almost entirely cut to . pieces. Nor was the 
loss which the Ogilvies sustained in the field their 
worst misfortune ; for Lindsay, with his character- 
istic ferocity, and protected by the authority of 
Douglas, let loose his army upon their estates, and 
the flames of their castles, the slaughter of their 
vassals, the plunder of their property, and the cap- 
tivity of their wives and children, instructed the re- 
motest adherents of the justiciar of Arbroath, how 
terrible was the vengeance which they had provoked. 
The revenues of this abbey at the Reformation 
we're as follow : money £2,553 14s. ; wheat 30 ch. 3 
bolls, 3 fir. 2 pecks ; bear 143 ch. 9 bolls, 2 pecks ; 
meal 196 ch. 9 bolls, 2 fir.; oats 27 ch. 11 bolls; 
salmon 37 bar. and 2 bar. grilses : omitted capons, 
poultry, grassums, dawikis, and all other services 
and duties : to this is also to be added the teinds of 
the kirks of Abemethy, Tannadice, and Monifieth. 
While some workmen were employed in 1835, in 
clearing out the rubbish from the ruins of the abbey, 
they came upon a stone coffin containing the skel- 
eton of a female which had been carefully enveloped 
in a covering of leather. This must have been 
some lady of rank in her day, and the good folks set 
it down as the remains of the Queen of William the 
Lion, who, as well as her husband, the founder of 
the abbey, was interred here. 

During the war, in 1781, this coast was annoyed 
by a French privateer, named the Fearnought of 
Dunkirk, commanded by one Fall. On the evening 
of the 23d of May, he came to anchor in the bay of 
Arbroath, and fired a few shot into the town ; after 
which he sent a flag of trace on shore, with the 
following letter : 

" At sea, May twenty-third. 

" Gentlemen, I send these two words to inform you, that I 
will have you to bring to the French colour, in less than a quarter 
of an hour, or I set the town on fire directly ; such is the order 
of my master the king of France I am sent by. Send directly 
the mair and chiefs of the town to make some agreement with 
me, or I'll make my duty. It is the will of yours. 

" To Monsieurs Mair of the town called} 
Arbrought, or in his absence, to the > 
chief man after him, in Scotland." ) 

The worthy magistrates, with a view to gain time 
to arm the inhabitants, and send expresses for mili- 
tary aid, in the true spirit of subtile, diplomacy, gave 
an evasive answer to Monsieur Fall's letter, remind- 
ing him that he had mentioned no terms of ransom, 
and begging he would do no injury to the town till 
he should hear from them again. Upon this Fall 
wrote a second letter to them in the following terms : 

" At sea, eight o'ctock in the afternoon. 

" Gentlemen, I received just now your answer, by which you 
say I ask no terms. I thought it was useless, since I asked you 
to come aboard for agreement. But here are my terms ; I will 
have £30,000 sterling at least, and 6 of the chiefs men of the 
town for otage. Be speedy, or I shoot your town away directly, 
and I set fire to it I am, gentlemen, your servant. I sent some 
of my crew to you ; but if some harm happens to them, you'll be 
sure will hang up the main-yard all the preseners we have aboard. 

" To Monsieurs the chiefs men of ^ 
Arbrought in Scotland." ) 

The magistrates having now got some of the in- 

habitants armed, and their courage further sup- 
ported by the arrival of some military from Mon- 
trose, set Fall at defiance, and " ordered him to do 
his worst, for they would not give him a farthing." 
Whereupon, says the worthy historian of this mem- 
orable transaction in the annals of Arbroath, ter- 
ribly enraged, and no doubt greatly disappointed, 
he began a heavy fire upon the town, and continued 
it for a long time ; but happily it did no harm, ex- 
cept knocking down some chimney -tops, and burn- 
ing the fingers of those who took up his balls, which 
were heated. 

Dundee and Aebkoath Railway. 

railway commences at the harbour of Arbroath, and 
passing through the valley of the Brothock, and the 
upper part of the valley of the Lunan, and skirting 
the lochs of Balgavies and Rescobie, terminates in 
the Playfield of Forfar. Its length is 15J, miles, 
with a rise of 220 feet. The act of parliament for 
it, 6° William IV., cap. 34, was obtained in May 
1836; and a supplementary act was obtained in 
April 1840, 3° Victoria, cap. 14. Under these acts 
the railway company had a fixed capital of £120,000, 
with power to borrow £40,000 in addition. The ex- 
pense of constructing it was £131,644. About 5 
miles of it were opened for traffic on 3d September, 
1838 ; and the whole line on the 2d of January, 1839. 
There are six intermediate stations between the ter- 
minal stations: viz., Colliston, Leysmill, Friock- 
heim, Guthrie, Auldbar road, and Clocksbriggs. 
The population of the eight parishes through which 
the railway passes, including the towns of Arbroath 
and Forfar, is about 35,000. The effects on the dis- 
trict of this cheap and speedy means of communi- 
cation were soon remarkable, and furnished a strik- 
ing example of the utility of railways, and the great 
comfort and accommodation they afford to the pub- 
lic. Previous to 1839 there was not a stage-coach 
or conveyance of any kind for passengers between 
Arbroath and Forfar. The first year the railway 
was opened, there were conveyed upon it 98,513 
passengers; and from the 2d of January, 1839, to 
the 5th of November, 1842, the number conveyed 
upon it amounted to 376,167. The goods conveyed 
during the same period amounted to 207,806 tons. 
During all this time too, and for several years after, 
the railway had only a single line of rails, and got 
little benefit from connection with other railways. 
But in the beginning of 1846, an agreement was 
made to incorporate it with the Aberdeen railway, 
to lay down upon it a second line of rails, to give 
its rails and carriages the same gauge as those of 
the Aberdeen railway, and to work it fully in con- 
nection with all the trains between Dundee and 
Aberdeen ; and when these arrangements came in- 
to operation, they necessarily gave it a vast increase 
of utility. See Aberdeen Railway. 

ARBUTHNOT, a parish in the south-east part of 
the county of Kincardine. Its post-town is Bervie. 
It is nearly of a triangular form, with the exception 
of a small district on the south-west side, which 
forms a projection southward of the water of Bervie, 
which, except at this point, divides it from the par 
ishes of Bervie and Garvock. Upon the west it is 
bounded by the parishes of Fordouu and Glenbervie, 
or the great hollow of the Mearns, the Bervie and 
the Forthy forming the dividing line on this side ; 
and on the north-east and east it is bounded by the 
parishes of Divnottar and Kinneff. The surface pre- 
sents two rising grounds or ridges, with hollows oi 
valleys betwixt them and the boundaries of the par- 
ish on each side, where the ground again rises tc 
still greater height, but in no quarter does the rise 




much exceed COO feet. The nnvrow valley in which 
the Bervie runs is highly picturesque and beautiful, 
containing the noble mansion of Arbuthnot and the 
ruined house of AUardyce, with the church situated 
between them. Within this parish there arc several 
freestone quarries of excellent quality. In one spot 
there is a trap-rock full of pebbles, with some green 
iasper of considerable beauty. On the south side 
)f the Bervie, nearly opposite the church, a vein 
of manganese occurs. No coal or limestone has 
been discovered ; but some chalybeate springs indi- 
cate the presence of iron. The proprietors are five 
in number ; but Lord Arbuthnot is the ouly one 
resident. By a map of the county, executed in 1774, 
it appears that there are in this parish 7,785 Scotch, 
or 9,893 English acres, of which about two-thirds 
are cultivated ; and about 300 acres are under wood. 
The Statistical reporter, in 1838, states that the 
average rent of the arable lands is only 18s. per 
acre; and that the real rental is about £6,200. 
The bouse of Kair, the property of the family of Kin- 
loch, is a pleasant modern mansion. Thefamily of Sib- 
balds of Kair, one of the most ancient in the county, 
possessed very extensive property in this parish. 
Among the last of this family was Dr. David Sib- 
bald, who having been preceptor to the Duke of 
Gloucester, son to Charles I., suffered much on ac- 
count of his loyalty in the civil wars, was impri- 
soned in London, and had his estate forfeited. He 
lived, however, to witness the restoration of Charles 
II., and died in his own house of Kair, in 1661. 
The celebrated Dr. Arbuthnot, physician to Queen 
Anne, had his birth and early education in this par- 
ish. He was son to Alexander Arbuthnot, minister 
here, who was deprived for nonconformity in the 
year 1689. Dr. Arbuthnot received the first part of 
his education at the parish school of Arbuthnot, 
whence he and his elder brother Bobert, afterwards a 
banker at Paris, removed to Marisehal college of 
Aberdeen, about the year 1680. This parish gives 
the title of Viscount to the ancient family of Arbuth- 
not, who also have the title of Baron Inverbervie, 
and whose only seat is Arbuthnot House, within the 
parish. The peerage was created in 1641. Popu- 
lation of this parish in 1831, 944; in 1861, 932. 
Houses, 176. Assessed property in 1865, £8,916 
7s. lOd. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Fordoun, and 
synod of Angus and Mearns. Patron, Viscount Ar- 
buthnot. Stipend, £225 0s. 9d.; glebe, £9. School- 
master's salary now is £45, with about £\Q fees. 
There are four private schools. The church is pro- 
bably 400 years old, but is in good repair, and has 
440 sittings. Adjoining it is an aisle of beautiful 
workmanship, which was built by Alexander Ar- 
buthnot, designed, in the appendix to Spottiswood's 
History, brother to the baron of Arbuthnot, and 
parson of Arbuthnot and Logie-Buchan. He was 
elected the first Protestant principal of King's 
college, Aberdeen, in 1569. The lower part of 
this aisle was intended and has been used as a 
burial-place for the family of Arbuthnot. In the 
upper part was a well-finished apartment filled with 
books chiefly in divinity, bequeathed by the Rev. 
John Sibbald, one of the ministers of Arbuthnot, for 
the use of his successors, but which have all disap- 

AKCHAIG, or Aekeg (Loch), a beautiful sheet of 
water in the parish of KHmallie, Inverness-shire, 
about 16 or 17 miles in length, and from 1 to 1J in 
breadth. It is only about 2 miles distant from the 
south-west extremity of Loch-Lochy, and about 10 
miles from the Neptune inn at the western end of 
the Caledonian canal. This loch presents one of 
those many spots of surpassing beauty which are so 


numerous in Scotland, and yet so little known. 
Hundreds of tourists pass within a very short dis- 
tance of this loch every season without one paying 
it a visit; and if the masters of the steam-boats 
which ply on the canal are aware of its existence at 
all, they are utterly ignorant of its picturesque and 
romantic beauty. Even Macculloch, indefatigable 
as he was in his researches, omitted visiting this 
enchanting spot. "It is said," he tells us, "that 
Loch-Arkeg is a picturesque lake, though unknown; 
which seems probable from the forms of the hills, 
and the nature of the country. But on this I must 
confess ignorance, and plead misfortune, not guilt; 
the flight of what never ceases anywhere to fly — 
time; and the fall of what seldom ceases here to fall 
— rain." The opening of the glen of Archaig is di- 
vided by a ridge of hills into two valleys of unequal 
breadth. This ridge commences near the farm of 
Chines, rising in little round knolls crowned with 
wood, which gradually increase in height as thev 
penetrate the glen, till they terminate abruptly in a 
lofty wooded precipice, the base of which is washed 
by the waters of the lake, in the southern — which 
is the broadest of these divisions — are situated the 
pleasure-grounds and house of Achnacary, the fa- 
mily-mansion of Cameron of Lochiel. Throngn the 
other, which is called Mil-dubh, or ' the dark mile,' 
there is a road to the shores of the lake. The lake 
may be approached by either of these openings, but 
the scenery of the latter is the most picturesque and 
romantic. Indeed, we know of hardly any place 
which can be put in competition with the Mil-dubh. 
It is a narrow, wooded pass, bounded on the one 
hand by the ridge alreadymentioned, which separates 
it from Achnacary; and on the other by a lofty bar- 
rier of almost perpendicular rocks. Great masses of 
these immense rocks have fallen down in various 
places, and now form small hills at the base of the 
precipices from which they have been detached. 
The whole pass is covered with trees — chiefly pine 
and birch — from its very bottom to the top of the 
mountains on both sides. Even the perpendicular 
barrier of rock on the north is covered with wood to 
the summit. Every interstice or opening in the 
rock seems to give root to a tree ; and so much is 
this the case, that in many places the rocks are 
completely hid by the leafy screen which covers and 
ornaments them ; yet a great deal of the wood which 
once occupied this pass has been cut down, and it 
has consequently lost something of the dark look 
which it formerly had, and which gave rise to its 
name. Indeed, it may be questioned whether the 
effect has not been increased by removing part of 
the wood. The numerous partial and varied lights 
which have thus been let in upon the scene, the ex- 
posure of the rocks which has been made in various 
places, and the shadowy gloom preserved on others, 
give a life and character to the pass of the Mil-dubh 
which is inexpressibly enchanting. The glen of 
Achnacary is also fine, though of a different style of 
beauty. The scenery is here of a more open char- 
acter, — but still beautifully wooded, and more culti- 
vated. The tourist will do well to visit both places, 
but he should most certainly approach Loeh-Archaig 
by the pass of the Mil-dubh. By this road the lake 
is entirely hid till the traveller is* close upon it. Af- 
ter penetrating through the pass, and just before 
entering on the lake, a small stream, falling over 
the rocks to the north, forms a pleasing cascade 
finely fringed with trees and underwood which over- 
hang and ahnost dip into its waters. Immediately 
afterwards the lake begins to appear, small appa- 
rently at first, but gradually enlarging as we ad- 
vance. Ascending a small hill a short way up its 
northern shore, its whole extent is opened up, stretch- 




ing far to the west, and surrounded with dark and 
lofty mountains, — its shores richly wooded, and in- 
dented by winding bays and jutting promontories. 
Two or three small islands speck its bosom, and im- 
mediately opposite, on the southern shore, a dark 
forest of natural pine trees of great size frowns over 
it. Looking to the east, across the lower portion of 
the lake, we have the opening of Achnacary, with 
its house and pleasure-grounds ; and in the distance, 
the waters of Loch-Lochy, with the mountain-barrier 
on its opposite shore. Altogether, Loch-Archaig 
affords scenery of the finest description, and it is 
questionable if it is excelled, or even equalled by any 
of our Scottish lakes. 

The shores of this romantic lake more than once 
gave shelter to Prince Charles after his discomfiture 
at Culloden. A few days after that fatal encounter, 
he lodged at the house of Donald Cameron of Glen- 
pean, on this lake. After his return from the is- 
lands, he and Donald Cameron slept for some hours 
on the top of a mountain called Mamnan-Callum, on 
the shores of this lake, within sight of the encamp- 
ment of his pursuers, which was not above a mile 
distant. Here they arrived in the morning, and re- 
mained till evening watching the motions of their 
enemies; at night-fall they betook themselves to 
Corrie-nan-gaul, in Knoidart, in which latter dis- 
trict he wandered for some time. Again, however, 
he was hunted by his ruthless pursuers towards 
Lochaher ; and again the shores of Loch-Archaig af- 
forded him shelter. Cameron of Chines, the ances- 
tor of the present possessor of that farm, being him- 
self in peril, had erected a hut on a hill called Tor- 
a-inuilt, or ' the Wedder's hill,' at the bottom of 
Loch-Archaig. To this place the Prince was taken 
by Climes, and here he lurked securely, though in 
the immediate neighbourhood of his foes, for several 
days. At this period Charles is described as wear- 
ing a shirt extremely soiled, an old tartan coat, a 
plaid, and a philabeg. He was bare-footed, and had 
a long beard. In his hand he usually carried a mus- 
ket, and he had a dirk and pistol by his side. A few 
years ago, an ancient claymore, much injured with 
rust, was found near the site of this hut, which, in 
all probability, had belonged to Charles or some 
of his friends. — It was on the shores of Loch-Archaig 
that Munro of Culcairn was shot by an exasperated 
Highlander, shortly after the suppression of the Re- 
bellion ; and it reflects infinite credit on this people, 
that notwithstanding all the calamities they suffered, 
this is the only instance of assassination which can 
be brought against them. Mr. Chambers [History 
of the Rebellion in 1745, vol. ii. p. 139] has erred in 
several particulars in his account of this affair. The 
perpetrator was not a servant of Glengarry, but one 
of the clan Cameron, who resided on Loch-Archaig; 
his name was Dugald Roy Cameron, or, as he is still 
styled in tradition, Du Rhu. It is well known that 
an order was issued to the Highlanders to deliver up 
their arms after the Rebellion. Dugald, willing to 
make his peace with the government, sent his son 
to Fort- William with his arms to be delivered up. 
The young man when coming down Loch-Archaig 
was met by an officer of the name of Grant, who 
was conducting a party of military into Knoidart. 
This monster immediately seized the young man, 
and notwithstanding his statement as to the object 
of his going to Fort- William, ordered him to be shot 
on the spot. His father, fired at this savage deed, 
swore to be revenged, and learning that the officer 
rode a white horse, watched his return behind a 
rock, on a height above Loch-Archaig. Major Munro 
had unfortunately borrowed the white horse on 
which Grant rode, and he met the fate which was 
intended for another. Dugald Roy escaped at the 

time, and afterwards became a soldier in the British 



ARCHIESTOWN, a village in the parish of 
Knockando, Morayshire. It stands on the moor of 
Baffin tomb; and the nearest post-office to it is that 
of Craigellachie. It was founded in 1760, and part- 
ly burned in 1783; and it now consists of a princi- 
pal street, a square, and several lanes. It contains 
an United Presbyterian church ; and is a centre of 
influence to a considerable surrounding district. 
There is a mineral well in its vicinity. Population 
in 1861, 174. See Kjsockando. 

ARCLET (Loch), a small gloomy-looking sheet 
of water in the north-west corner of the parish of 
Buchanan in Stirlingshire, and bordering on Aber- 
foyle pans!). A stream flows out of its western 
side into Loch Lomond at Inversnaid; while the 
sources of the Forth are within half-a-mile of it on 
the south; so that it appears to lie on the dividing 
ridge betwixt the waters of the two friths. The 
road from Inversnaid to Loch Katerine passes on 
the southern side of the loch, which is wholly desti- 
tute of picturesque features. 

ARD (Loch), a beautiful sheet of water in the 
parish of Aberfoyle, at the eastern base of Ben-Lo- 
mond. By a mountain-road, which is often tra- 
velled, it is about 7 miles distant from the Trosachs. 
The distance from Glasgow to Aberfoyle is about 30 
miles, and from the parish church to the entrance 
of the lake, a mile. There are in fact two lakes, 
which are separated from each other by a stream 
about 200 yards in length; but the lower lake is of 
small extent, its length being scarcely a mile, and 
its breadth about half-a-mile. The upper lake is 5 
miles in length, and 2 miles broad. The valley of 
Aberfoyle, with its varied rocks and precipices, and 
its river winding amid pleasant meadows and richly 
wooded hills, is very beautiful; but Loch-Ard, with 
its adjoining sceneiy, is the object of greatest inter- 
est in the district, and yields to none of the Scottish 
lakes in picturesque beauty and effect. The travel- 
ler, leaving Aberfoyle, after a walk of about a mile, 
arrives at the opening of the lower lake, the view 
of which is uncommonly grand. Far in the west, 
Ben-Lomond raises his huge and lofty form amid 
the clouds; while in nearer prospect are beheld 
gentle rising grounds covered to their summits with 
oak trees and waving birch. In front are the smooth 
waters of the lower lake; its right banks skirted 
with extensive woods which cover the adjoining 
mountains up to half their height. This, with the 
nearly inaccessible tract which lies to the westward, 
is what is called the Pass of Aberfoyle, and anciently 
formed one of the barriers between the Highlands 
and the Lowlands. This pass has been the scene 
of many fierce encounters in former times ; in par- 
ticular, one took place here between the Highlanders 
and the troops of Cromwell, in which the English 
soldiers were defeated. Advancing up the pass, the 
traveller arrives at the upper portion of the lake. 
A fine view of it is obtained from a rising ground 
near its lower end, where a footpath strikes off the 
road into the wood that overhangs the stream, con- 
necting the upper with the lower lake; or a still 
finer, perhaps, from a height about 2 miles up the 
eastern side of the lake, a little way below what is 
called the Priest's point or craig. Here the lake is 
seen almost in its whole expanse, — its shores beau- 
tifully skirted with woods, and its northern and 
western extremities finely diversified with meadows, 
corh-fields"and farm-houses. On the opposite shore 
Ben-Lomond towers aloft, in form like a cone, its 
sides presenting gentle slopes towards the north- 




west ami south-east. A cluster of rocky islets near 
the opposite shore, lend their aid in ornamenting 
the surface of the waters of the lake; and numerous 
rocky promontories and sheltered hays with their 
waving woods increase the effect of the scene. A 
small wooded island, seen near the opposite shore, 
on the right side, is Duke Murdoch's isle. On this 
islet Murdoch, Duke of Albany, Regent of Scotland 
during the captivity of James I. in England, erected 
a tower or castle, the ruins of which still remain ; 
and tradition reports that it was from hence he was 
taken previous to his execution at Stirling. On the 
shores of Loch-Ard, near a ledge, or rather wall of 
rock, about 30 feet in height, there is a singular 
echo which repeats a few words twice over. 

ARD, or Aihd. See Ajkd. 

ARDARGIE, an estate in the parish of Forgan- 
denny, Perthshire. Here is a remarkably perfect 
small Roman camp, situated on a high bank, which 
overlooks the river May, slopes to the west, and 
commands an extensive prospect among the Ochils, 
and along the course of the Roman road from Ar- 
doch to the Tay. The camp is an exact square, of 
about 270 feet on each side; and is defended by 
trenches of 30 feet in width and about 14 in depth. 
There was once a village of Ardargie, but it is now 

ARDAVASAR, or Akdvasab, a bay, a headland, 
and a hamlet on the Isle-of-Skye side of the Sound 
of Sleat, about 6 miles north-east of the Point of 
Sleat, and about li mile from Armadale Castle, In- 
verness-shire. The headland is the ordinary land- 
ing-place from Arasaig. 

ARDBLAIR, an old mansion in the parish of 
Blairgowrie, Perthshire. It is one of those ancient 
massive - looking structures which partake, in a 
nearly equal degree, of the gloomy, frowning, suspi- 
cious-looking style of the olden time, and the more 
open and commodious fashion of our own days. The 
castle is one of the family seats of Mr. Blair Oli- 

Ehant of Gask and Ardblair, but it is now occupied 
y the tenant of the adjoining farm. On the south 
side of the house lies the moss of Ardblair, a tract 
of some 20 or 30 acres, covered with reeds and pools. 
ARDCHATTAN, a large highland parish in the 
Lorn division of Argyleshire. Its post-office is 
Bunawe. It consists of the large district of Ard- 
chattan proper in the north, and of the smaller dis • 
trict of Muckairn in the south. The former was 
anciently called Balrnhaodan, and seems to have 
taken that designation from the same obscure an- 
cient anchorite who gave name to the parish of Kil- 
madan or Kilmodan in Cowal ; and the latter was 
anciently called Kilespikarrol, which signifies the 
cell or ecclesiastical retreat of Bishop Cerylus or 
Cerullus. The boundary between the two districts 
is Loch Etive. Ardchattan proper is bounded by 
Loch Creran, Loch Linnhe, Loch Etive, the river 
Awe, the northern part of Loch Awe, the parish of 
Glenorchy, and the district of Appin; and measures 
upwards of 40 miles in extreme length from north- 
east to south-west, and about 10 miles in mean 
breadth. Muckairn is bounded by Loch Etive, and 
by the parishes of Lismore, Innishail, and Kil- 
chrenan; and measures about 9 miles in extreme 
length from east to west, and from 5 to 6 miles in 
mean breadth. 

Ardchattan proper is as grandly and wildly 
mountainous a region as almost any in the High- 
lands; and, though picturesquely diversified with 
glens and woods and waters, contains a vast pro- 
portion of rugged alpine heigbts and of waste bleak 
mosses and moors. Its chief glens are Glensalloeb, 
a sort of pass among the mountains, 6 miles in 
length, between Loch Creran and Loch Etive; 

Glcndow, extending from east to west, and scarcely 
3 miles in length ; Glenure, extending about :; 
miles from a grandly mountain-girt head down to 
the river Creran; Glenetivc, 16 miles in length 
south-westward to the head of Loch Etive, and all 
lonely and sublime, and anciently a royal forest; 
Glenhetland, a branch of the preceding, about 3 
miles from the loch, and about 2 miles long ; Glen- 
kinglas, 9 miles long, upwards of a mile broad, and 
descending to the south side of the upper part of 
Loch Etive; andGlen-uve, parallel to the preceding, 
south of it, about 4 miles long, and about 1 mile 
broad, and beautifully verdant. A grand array of 
mountains occupies the northern side of the parish ; 
and of these Benvean, Benmolurgan, Benvreck, 
Benscoullard, and Benaulay, are the most conspi- 
cuous. The stupendous Benveedan occupies the 
frontier toward the Glencoe district of Appin. Two 
grandly romantic mountains, called Buachail Etive 
or ' the keepers of Etive,' overhang Glenetive and 
form a sublime background to vista-views from the 
upper parts of Loch Etive. Bentreelahan flanks 
the north side of that loch, over a distance of 5 
miles from near its head; and Benstarive, a vast 
broad-based mass, with an altitude of at least 2,500 
feet, flanks the other side right opposite. Benchav- 
racb, Benketlan, Ben-nan- aigheau, and Bencochail, 
are all grand mountains between Loch Etive and 
Locb Awe. But vastly the grandest in that quar- 
ter, and indeed one of the sublimest in Scotland, is 
Bencraachan. See the article Bexcruachah. 

This great district contains a few pine and fir 
plantations, and abounds in natural forest trees, and 
contains altogether about 3,000 acres of woods. 
Every cutting of the woods is supposed to yield the 
proprietors no less than £15,000 or £16,000 sterling. 
They consist of ash, birch, hazel, and alder, but 
chiefly oak. Roes and faUow-deer run wild in the 
woods; and foxes, hares, wild-cats, pole-cats, mar- 
tins, weasels, otters, badgers, black-cocks, moor- 
fowl, ptarmigans, partridges, plovers, eagles, and 
hawks are found here. The soil of the arable lands 
is generally light and dry, and when properly culti- 
vated, and allowed time to rest, produces excellent 
crops of oats, barley, and potatoes. The largest 
estate, that of Barcaldine, is about 12 miles north- 
east from Oban, 28 miles south-west from Fort- 
William, and the like distance north-west from In- 
verary. It is situated on Loch Creran, and compre- 
hends the whole of the southern banks of Loch 
Creran, a stretch of about 12 miles of coast, while 
at one point on the south it nearly reaches Loch 
Etive. This estate contains 10,741 acres Scots, or 
13,546 imperial; but a large addition may be made 
on account of the great inequality of surface through- 
out, particularly on the hills and woods, so that the 
true extent of surface- measure may fairly be taken 
at upwards of 15,000 imperial acres. The rental, 
including the value of the sheep -farms and the 
wood-cuttings, was estimated in 1835 at nearly 
£2,700. There are six heritors, all of the name of 
Campbell ; and the chief modem mansions are 
Lochnell House, Barcaldine House, Drimvnick 
House, and the House of Inverawe. The assessed 
property in 1843 was £10,708 ; in 1860, £12,471. A 
chief antiquity are the supposed vestiges of an an- 
cient Dalriadic city : see Bekegoxium. Another 
chief antiquity is Ardchattan priory, situated on the 
north side of Loch Etive, about 10 miles from Dun- 
staffnage. It belonged to the monks of Valliscau- 
lium, a branch of the Benedictines; and was 
founded about the year 1230 by Duncan M'Coull, 
ancestor of the Macdougalls of Lorn, and was 
burned by Colkitto during Montrose's wars. The 
dwelling-house of the proprietor of the surrounding 




lands was formerly a part of the monastery, and his 
offices occupy great part of the ground on which 
the rest of it stood. In the walls of what remains 
are two stone coffins in niches, one of which is or- 
namented with a font, and an inscription in the 
Bunic character. We are informed by some of our 
writers, that Eobert Bruce held a parliament here, 
when he retired into this district after his defeat in 
the battle of Methven. But, as Pennant has re- 
marked, it was " more probably a council," as " he 
remained long master of this country before he 
got entire possession of Scotland." The parts of 
Loch Etive adjacent and upward are replete with 
interest. See Etive (Loon), and Connal Ferky. 
The valley of Eta is famous as having been the re- 
sidence of Usnath, father of Nathos, Althos, and 
Ardan ; the first of whom earned off Darthula, wife 
of Conquhan, Eing of Ulster, which is the subject 
of a beautiful poem of Ossian. There is a small 
island, with some vestiges of a house upon it in Loch 
Etive, which goes by the name of Ekiin U/mich, or 
' the island of Usnath;' and on the farm of Dulness, 
in Glenetive, is a rock rising in the form of a cone, 
and commanding a romantic prospect, which to this 
day retains the name of Grianan Dearduil, ' the 
basking-place of Darthula.' 

Muckaim is much less loftily mountainous than 
Ardchattan proper, and possesses a larger proportion 
of low and arable lands. A range of heights called 
the Mallore extends across part of it from north- 
east to south-west, but has nowhere a greater ele- 
vation than about 1,100 feet. The coast is generally 
low ; and the shore line is diversified with creeks 
and headlands, and with the two fine bays of Aird 
and Stonefield. Since the year 1753, a great part of 
the district has been held in lease by an English 
Company, for the sake of converting its woods into 
charcoal, and of using this in the manufacture of 
pig-iron. The ore is imported from Lancashire; 
the smelting of it is carried on in extensive works, 
called the Lorn Furnace, in the vicinity of Bunawe ; 
and the iron produced has the reputation of being 
among the best in the kingdom. This business, in 
its several departments, in the woods and at the 
works, employs the greater part of the population, 
and is found to be not at all conducive to a good 
state of social morals. The population of the entire 
parish of Ardchattan in 1831 was 2,420; in 1861, 
2,110. Houses, 406. Population of Ardchattan 
properin 1831, 1,650; in 1861, 1,381. Houses, 255. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Lorn, and 
synod of Argyle. Patron, Campbell of LocbneU. 
By decreet of locality in 1817, the whole valued 
teinds of Ardchattan and Muckairn were granted to 
the minister of Ardchattan. Stipend, £283 3s. 2d.; 
glebe, £8. There are three places of worship, Ard- 
chattan, Muckaim, and Inverguesechan in Glenetive. 
Muckairn has a minister to itself, [See Muckairn ;] 
and at Inverguesechan there is a missionary, who 
preaches alternately with the missionary of Glencoe 
and Glencreran. A new and more centrically situ- 
ated church was opened in Ardchattan parish, in 
July 1836; sittings 450. Both the old and new 
churches are situated close upon the northern shore 
of Loch Etive, the former 10 miles, and the latter 8 
from the western boundary, and 30 and 32 miles 
respectively from the north-eastern boundary. There 
are two parochial schools, one in Ardchattan and 
the other in Muckaim. The salary of the school- 
master of Ardchattan is £45 ; of the one of Muck- 
airn, £50. There is one Free church in Ardchattan 
proper, and another in Muckairn : attendance at 
the former, 130, — at the latter 270; yearly sum 
raised in 1865 in connexion with the former, £69 4s. 
8£d., — in connexion with the latter, £76 0s. 6$d. 

There are two Assembly's schools, a Society's 
school, and three or four private schools. 
AEDCHULLEEIE. See Lubnaig (Loch.) 
AEDCLACH, a highland parish in Nairnshire. 
It is bounded by Auldearn, Nairn, Cawdor, Moy, 
Duthil, and Ediiikelly parishes ; and is about 1 or 
12 miles long, and between 7 and 8 broad. It has 
a post-office of its own name, — a branch from For- 
res. The Findhom river traverses the parish, and 
is here rapid, and frequently impassable, excepting 
at the bridges. In 1809 the parliamentary com- 
missioners authorized the execution of a road from 
Belugas, along the eastern side of the Findhorn, to 
join the old military road from Fort George to Ed- 
inburgh, through Strathspey and Braemar, near 
Dulsie bridge, and thus connect Forres with the 
Aviemore road and the south of Scotland. A branch- 
road falls into this at Tominarroch, half-way be- 
tween the bridge at Eelugas and Dulsie bridge, 
connecting it with Nairn. The distance of the 
kirk of Ardclach from Nairn by this branch-road is 
about 9 miles. The valley of the Findhom here 
presents veiy beautiful scenery. " The whole coun- 
try for several miles eastward," say the Messrs. 
Anderson, in their Guide to the Highlands, " is 
composed of a highly crystalline porphyritie 
granite, displaying, in some instances, faces of a 
hard columnar rock, which confine the waters of 
the Findhorn to a deep, narrow, and irregular chan- 
nel; and in other places giving rise — from a ten- 
dency in their masses to exfoliate and decompose — 
to open holms and smooth grassy banks. All the 
varieties of hardwood characteristic of the course 
of Scottish rivers are seen in rich profusion on both 
sides of the stream ; while the adjoining hills also 
exhibit a few scattered remnants of the ancient pine 
forests which fomierly covered the country. To- 
wards the east, the eye is attracted by the bright 
light green masses of the oak and birchen copses of 
Tamaway and Eelugas, which form the outer fringes 
of the more sombre pine woods. About a mile be- 
low Dulsie, a beautiful sequestered holm greets the 
traveller, encircled with terraced banks and birchen 
bowers; and in the centre of which rises a small 
cairn, with an ancient sculptured tablet, about eight 
feet high, and half as broad, standing at one end of 
it, and having a rude cross and many Eunic knots 
still discernible on its surface. Tradition calls it 
the stone of memorial of a Celtic princess, who 
perished in the adjoining river, while attempting to 
ford it on horseback with her lover, a Dane. En- 
mediately behind this spot, the high promontory of 
Famess rises nearly 200 feet above the river, the 
direct course of which it has shifted, and confined to 
a deep winding chasm of at least 3 miles' circuit." 
See Dulsie Bridge. Five considerable burns drain 
the flanks of the parish into the Findhom ; and one 
of these is eminently picturesque. See Altnarie 
(The). This parish is a mountainous district, cov- 
ered with heath, and furnishes little of any other 
kind of pasture. There is a considerable quantity 
of wood in it, chiefly consisting of firs, birch, alder, 
hazel, ash, and some oaks. The woods and hills 
abound with moor-fowl, woodcocks, partridges, 
hares, and foxes; some deer are found; and the 
otter and wild cat are sometimes seen. There are 
about 2,000 acres of arable land, and 4,000 acres of 
moss and moor, a very small part of which seems 
to be improvable for corn-lands. Very great im- 
provements have recently taken place in agricul- 
ture. There are six landowners; and the valued 
rent is £2,326. The only mansion is Conlmony 
House. Population in 1831, 1,270; in 1861, 1,330. 
Houses, 262. Assessed property in 1860, £4,389. 




This parish is in the presbytery of Nairn and 
synod of Moray. Patron, Brodie of Lethen. Sti- 
pend, £24S Is. Id. Schoolmaster's salary, £42 2s. 
;»d., with £4 10s. fees. The parish church was 
built in 1839, and has 686 sittings. There is a 
Free church; and the yearly sum raised in con- 
nexion with it in 1865, was £90 2s. 8d. There 
are at Fortnighty a Society's school and a female 


AEDEN, a village within the burgh boundaries 
of Airdrie, parish of New Monklaud, Lanarkshire. 

ARDENCf iXNEL. See Eow. 

ABDEOXAIG, or Locn Tayside, a mission under 
the Society for propagating Christian knowledge, 
which was divided as a separate charge from the 
parishes of Killin and Kenmore, in Perthshire, by 
authority of the presbytery of Dunkeld, about 1786, 
and consists of portions of these two parishes. Its 
greatest length is 7 miles; greatest breadth, 4. 
Population in 1831, 650. Church built by the 
Marquis of Breadalbane, in 1822 ; sittings 650. 
Minister's stipend £60, with a manse, and a glebe of 
the value of £12. 

ARDEKSIEK, or Ardrossee, a parish on the 
east coast and north-east corner of Inverness-shire. 
It contains a post-office of its own name, the fortifi- 
cations and lands of Fort George, and the larger 
part of the village of Campbellton. See George 
(Fort) asd Campbellton. The parish is bounded 
by the Moray filth, Nairnshire, and the parish of 
Petty. Its greatest length, from north-west to 
south-east, is about 4 miles ; and its breadth is up- 
wards of 2 miles. The shore is sandy and flat, 
which is the character of the whole of this side of 
the Moray frith from Inverness to Nairn. The 
rental of the parish, including the farm sold to gov- 
ernment when the garrison of Fort -George was 
built, was £365 in 1792; the rent of the garrison- 
farm was £50. At that period nearly the whole 
parish was in the possession of one farmer; but the 
greater part was subset by him in small farms of 
from 20 to 30 acres. There were scarcely any en- 
closing walls known except a few rudely constructed 
of feal or earth. But now the rental is believed to 
be about £1,000, agriculture is vastly improved, and 
the lauds are let in long-leased farms, and about 
1,500 acres are under cultivation and about 1,800 in 
pasture and heath. The roads are exceedingly 
good. Where this parish is divided from Nairn- 
shire, there is a stone about 6 feet high, and 3 
broad, called the Cabbac stone, which, tradition says, 
was erected over a chieftain who fell in an affray 
about a cheese, in the town of Inverness. The 
whole parish is the property of the Earl of Cawdor, 
and was a part of the lands of the Bishop of Ross, 
with some temple-lands formerly belonging to the 
knights of St. John of Jerusalem. The territory 
which constitutes the precinct of the Fort, was pur- 
chased by government about the year 1746. Near 
to Ardersier — -which is situate on the southern shore 
of the Varar — a very curious Eomau sword and the 
head of a spear-were discovered. Population in 
1831, 1,268; in 1861, 1,239. Houses, 199. Assessed 
property in 1860, £2,275. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Nairn and sy- 
nod of Moray. Patron, the Earl of Cawdor. Sti- 
pend, £158 6s. 7d. Schoolmaster's salary, £50, with 
£20 fees. The parish church was built in 1802, 
and has upwards of 500 sittings. There is a Free 
church, with an attendance of 480 ; and the yearly 
sum raised in connexion with it in 1865 was £221 
17s. 3d. There is in Campbellton an United Pres- 
byterian church, with an attendance of about 150. 
There are two private schools. 

ARDFERN, a post-office station subordinate to 
Lochgilphead, Argyleshire. 

ARDGAY, a village in the parish of Kincardine, 
and near Bonar-Bridge, on the north border of Ross- 
shire. It has a commodious inn, and communicates 
daily by public conveyance with Tain. A deed was 
granted in 1686 to erect it into a burgh of barony 
and a market town, with bailies, burgesses, tolbooth, 
market-cross, weekly market and two yearly fairs ; 
but the deed was never carried into effect. 

ARDGOUR, or Akdgower, a district in the ex- 
treme north of the mainland of Argyleshire. It is 
bounded on the north-west by Loch Shiel, and on 
the. north and east by Loch Eil. There is an ex- 
cellent road from Loch Moydart to the Corran of 
Ardgour; and from the latter place there is a ferry 
across Loch Eil to the military road from Fort-Wil- 
liam to the Low country. See articles Shiel (Loch), 
and Eil (Locn). In 1829 a church was erected here 
by the parliamentary commissioners. See article 

ARDGOWAN. See Ixxerktp. 


ARDINNING, a lake, of about 60 acres in area, 
in the parish of Strathblane, Stirlingshire. 

ARDINTENNY, a village, with a post office, in 
the parish of Kilmun, Argyleshire. It stands on 
the west side of Loch Long, 4 miles from Strone 
ferry at the mouth of that Loch, and 12 miles from 
Strachur on Loch Fyne. Its site is a spit of low 
ground, zoned with verdure, at the base of steep, 
lofty, and picturesquely wooded mountains. The 
village has of late been considerably enlarged for 
the accommodation of summer sea-bathers ; and it 
is a regular calling-place of the Glasgow steamers 
to Loch Goil and Arrochar. A regular ferry also 
plies between it and Colport, on the opposite shore 
of Loch Long; and a road leads from it, among 
the mountains, by way of Loch Eck to Strachur. 
The village has now a chapel of ease. Glenfinnart 
House, A.Douglas, Esq., is in the vicinity. "The lass 
o' Ardintenny " is a well-known song of Tannahill; 
but, as to both person and place, was probably a 
mere fancy-piece. 

ARDKI NGLASS. See Lochgoilhead. 

ARDLAMONT, a headland of Argyleshire, be- 
tween the kyles of Bute and the mouth of Loch 
Fyne. It is 6 miles north-east from Skipnish, the 
opposite point on the western side of the loch. 

ARDLE (The). See Airdle (The). 

ARDLER, a station on the Scottish Midland 
Junction Railway, 2 miles from Cupar-Angus, and 
5 miles from Newtyle, on the south-west border of 

ARDMADDY, in Nether Lom, at the southern 
entrance of the singularly intricate and narrow chan- 
nel, or kyle, between the island of Seil and the 
mainland of Argyleshire. There is a small bay 
here, the shores of which are bold, and finely wooded. 
Pennant was hospitably received at Ardmaddy 
house, and has thrown his reflections on the condi- 
tion of the Highland peasantry into the form of a 
vision with which he represents himself as having 
been favoured here. [See Second Tour, in Kerr's 
Collection of Voyages and Travels, vol. iii. pp. 357 
— 360.] A quarry of white marble veined with red 
exists here. 

ARDMEANACH, or The Black Isle, the large 
peninsula between the Moray frith and the Cromarty 
frith. It comprises 8 parishes, and is distributed 
among the counties of Cromarty, Eoss, and Nairn. 
It consists for the most part of a series of sandstone 
ridges, and has, from almost end to end, a broad- 
backed hilly summit. See Mullbuy. It lay, till 
somewhat recent times, in a dismally bleak and 




moorish condition ; but is now extensively cultivated 
and well-intersected by roads. 


ARDMINISH, a bay about the middle of the east 
side of the island of Gigka, Argyleshire. It has 
good anchorage, in depths of 6 or 7 fathoms, and is 
frequented by vessels bringing coals, lime, and other 
imports, and taking away the produce of the island. 
At the head of it stand the parish church and the 

AEDMOEE, a low, wooded, beautiful promon- 
tory, in the parish of Cardross, Dumbartonshire. Its 
head is a circular, soil-clad rock of about 40 feet in 
height, popularly called the Hill of Ardmore; and 
the rest of its surface is flat alluvium, lying very 
little above the level of high-water, and connected 
by a narrow isthmus with the mainland. The whole 
promontory is a conspicuous feature in the magnifi- 
cent, lagoon-like scenery of the upper frith of the 
Clyde. See Helensburgh. The mansion of Ard- 
more is a pleasant modern building. 

AEDMOEE, a headland, a bay, and some small 
islands, on the east side of the island of Islay, and 
in the parish of Kildalton, Argyleshire. 

AEDMOEE, a headland in the Vatemish district 
of the west side of the island of Skye, Invemess- 
shire. A hostile party of the Macdonalds of Uist 
once landed here while many of the Macleods of 
Skye were assembled in the adjacent church of 
Trumpan, and they suddenly surrounded the build- 
ing, set fire to it, and destroyed nearly all who were 
in it ; but before they got hack to their boats, aven- 
gers came pouring down at the call of " the fiery 
cross," and slew the greater number of them on the 

AEDMOEE, a harbour on the south side of the 
Dornoch frith, and within the parish of Eddertoun, 
Eoss-shire. It affords accommodation to vessels of 
150 tons burden; and is frequented in summer by 
smacks and schooners, chiefly with cargoes of coals 
and lime. 


AEDNACEOSS, an estate and a small bay, in the 
parish of Campbellton, and east side of Kintyre, 
Argyleshire. The bay is 6 miles north-east of the 
town of Campbellton, and affords anchorage to ves- 

AEDNAFUAEAN. See Arasaig. 

AEDNAMUECHAN, a bold and broad promon- 
tory, at the extreme north-west of the mainland of 
Argyleshire. It is the most westerly ground of the 
mainland of Scotland; and from the time of Somerled 
the Great till the reign of James VI., it constituted 
the political division between the Northern and the 
Southern Hebrides. Its name means the headland 
of the narrow seas, and is strikingly descriptive; for 
not a more conspicuous or terrible promontory exists 
among the many sounds and expanses which wash 
the coasts of Scotland. The shores around it are 
rugged, and have been the rain of multitudes of 
vessels ; and all the seaboard contiguous to it, for a 
long distance both coastwise and inland, is mountain- 
ous and bleak and wild. A lighthouse was built on 
the point of the promontory in 1849. " It is situated 
in north latitude 56° 43' 45", and west longitude 6° 
13' 30"; and it bears from Calliach Head north-east 
J east, distant 7 miles; from the Cairns of Coll, 
east-south-ea st, distant 8 miles ; from Eana Head, 
south j east, distant 30 miles ; from Scour of Eigg, 
south-west, by south f west, distant 11 miles; and 
from Bo-Askadil Bock, west-south-west, distant 7 
miles. The light is a fixed one, and of the natural 
appearance. It is visible in a north-westerly direc- 
tion from north-east by east | east round to south- 
west by south. The lantern is elevated 180 feet 

above the level of the sea; and the light is seen a( 
the distance of about six leagues, and at lesser dis- 
tances according to the state of the atmosphere." 

AEDNAMUECHAN, a large highland parish on 
the west side of the mainland of Argyleshire and 
Inverness-shire. It contains the promontory of 
Ardnamurchan, and takes name from it; and it 
contains also the three post-office stations of Kil- 
choan, Strontian, and Arasaig. So late as the year 
1630, the most westerly district, or that of the pen- 
insula which terminates in the promontory of Ard- 
namurchan, constituted a separate parish called 
Kilehoan, from a church of that name dedicated to 
St. Coan ; while the other districts formed a second 
parish, under the name of Eileinfinnan or Island 
Finan, from a beautiful little island in Loch Sheil, 
then the residence of the minister, and site of the 
principal church. In still more ancient times, the 
two most northern districts probably formed a third 
parish, named Kill-Maria, or Kilmarie, after a 
church — some vestiges of which still remain at 
Keppoch in Arasaig — dedicated to the Virgin Mary. 
The present parish comprehends five several dis- 
tricts, or countries, as they are here called, viz.: 
1st., Ardnamurchan Proper, or the old parish of 
Kilehoan, which is 16 miles in length, and 4^ miles 
in its mean breadth; — 2d, Sunart, which is 12 miles 
by 6; — 3d, Moydart, which is 18 miles by 7; — 4th, 
Arasaig; — and 5th, South Morar. The two first 
of these districts are in the shire of Argyle; and 
they join at Tarbert in an isthmus of about 2 miles 
in breadth, extending from Salen, a creek on the 
north side of Loch Sunart, to Kinira bay; and ex- 
tend in one range from east to west. The others 
are in the shire of Inverness, and lie parallel to 
each other and to Sunart, from which Moydart is 
separated by Loch Sheil; the river Sheil being the 
boundary between the north-east corner of Ardna- 
murchan Proper, and the south-west of Moydart, for 
about 3 miles, to its fall into the sea at Castle Tio- 
ram. The greatest length of the entire parish, cal- 
culating by the nearest road, is not less than 70 
miles; its greatest breadth, 40. It is computed to 
contain 273,280 acres of land and water; of which, 
it is believed, about 200,000 acres are land. It 
consists principally of moors and mountains and 
hills, in general more ragged and precipitous than 
of great elevation, the highest not exceeding 3,000 
feet. There is a considerable extent of oak-coppice 
on the shores of Loch Sunart. There are large 
tracts of moss, and vast tracts of moorland wastes ; 
yet the scenery, as a whole, — or at least the most 
accessible portions of it along the glens, — cannot 
be called bare; and the pasturage, as compared 
with that of Mull, is rich and thrifty. The fisheries 
are numerous and various, but have hitherto yielded 
vastly less produce than might be expected. Quar- 
ries and mines are worked at Laga and Strontian, — 
the former a hamlet overhung by lofty mountains 
on the shores of Loch Sunart, and the latter to be 
noticed in a separate article. The value of assessed 
property in 1843 was £6,894 6s. The most inter- 
esting antiquity is described in the article Mingarry 
Castle; and the several great districts and sheets 
of water in the articles Sunart, Moydart, Arasaig, 
Moear, Glenfinnan, Sunart (Loch), and Sheil 
(Loch). Castle Tioram was burned in 1715, since 
which time it has been in ruins. The houses of Kin- 
loch-Moidart (since rebuilt in an elegant stlye by 
Colonel Donald Macdonald), and Morar, together with 
every hut which they could discover, were burned by 
the king's troops in 1746, who also destroyed all the 
stock of cattle. One excellent road leads from Stron- 
tian to Corran Ferry, and another leads from Arasaig 
to Fort William ; but, in general, inland communica- 




tion is much impeded by bridgeless rivers, marshy 
grounds, and want of roads. Several good harbours 
exist both on the outer coasts and within the sca- 
lochs; but they are comparatively little used. The 
main marketing of the pariah is done either across 
the Sound of Mull with Tobermory, or by the Skye 
and Long Island steamers with Glasgow. Popula- 
tion of the entire parish in 1831, 5,669; in 1861, 
4,700. Houses, 801. Population of the Inverness- 
shire district in 1831, 2,358; in 1861, 1,917 
Houses, 326. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Mull and 
synod of Argyle. Patron, the Duke of Argyle. 
Stipend, £228 4s. 4d., with a manse and glebe. 
The parish church was built in 1830, and has 600 
sittings. An assistant minister has under bis 
charge the greater part of Moydart, and the whole 
of Arasaig and South Morar, and officiates in two 
places of worship, 46 and 56 miles distant from the 
parish church, the one a thatched house at Polnish, 
and the other a school-house at Ardnafuaran. 
Stipend, £88 lis. Id., with £5 for communion ele- 
ments. A missionary on the Eoyal Bounty, with a 
salary of £60, has charge of the district of Laga, 10 
or 12 miles in extent along Loch Sunart, and 
preaches in a thatched house midway between the 
parish church and the church of Aeharaele. Two 
ministers, each with a government church and a 
manse, have charge of the large districts of Ach- 
aracle and Stroxtiax: see these articles. There 
was a Free church preaching station in Ardnamur- 
clian Proper ; and the yearly sum raised in connex- 
ion with it in 1853 was £8 6s. 7d. There are two 
Free churches, — one for Aeharaele and Moydart, and 
the other for Strontian. The salary of the parochial 
schoolmaster of Arduamurchan was raised to £50. 
There are also a school at Strontian, two Assem- 
blv's schools, and three other schools. 

ARDNEIL. See Kilbride- West. 

ARDO. See Baxchory-Davextck. 

ARDOCH, a village in the parish of Muthill, 
Perthshire. It stands on the river Knaik and on 
the road from Stirling to Crieff, 4A miles south-west 
of the village of Muthill, and 12 miles north by east 
of Stirling. It is sometimes called Braco from the 
estate of which it is feued. A Chapel of Ease was 
built here in 17S0, and contains 600 sittings. Here 
also is a Free church ; and the yearly sum raised in 
connexion with this in 1865 was £177 Is. 7d. An 
United Presbyterian church stands about li mile to 
the south. The village contains a subscription 
library; and is a thriving place. Fairs are held on 
the first AVednesday of January, on the last Tues- 
day of April, on the first Tuesday of August, and 
on the last Tuesday of October. Population, in 
1861, 807. 

A large Roman camp at Ardoch has been an ob- 
ject of inteuse interest to all Scottish antiquaries, 
and the subject of high controversies among them ; 
and is both one of the largest and one of the best 
preserved antiquities of its class in Britain. It 
closely adjoins the village, and is intersected by the 
highway. " The situation of it," says the writer of 
the Old Statistical Account of Muthill, " gave it 
many advantages ; being on the north-west side of 
a deep moss that runs a long way eastward. On 
the west side, it is partly defended by the steep 
bank of the water of Knaik ; which bank rises per- 
pendicularly between forty and fifty feet. The 
north and east sides were most exposed ; and there 
we find very particular care was taken to secure 
them. The ground on the east is pretty regular, 
and descends by a gentle slope from the lines of for- 
tification, which, on that side, consist of five rows 
of ditches, perfectly entire, and running parallel to 

one another. These altogether arc about fifty-five 
yards in breadth. On the north side, there is an 
equal number of lines and ditches, but twenty yards 
broader than the former. On the west, besides the) 
steep precipices above mentioned, it was defended 
by at least two ditches. One is still visible ; the 
others have probably been filled up, in making the 
great military road from Stirling to the North. The 
side of the camp, lying to the southward, exhibits to 
the antiquary a less pleasing prospect. Here the 
peasant's nigged band has laid in ruins a great part 
of the lines ; so that it may be with propriety said, 
in the words of a Latin poet, ' Jam seges est, ubi 
Troja fait.' The area of the camp is an oblong of 
140 yards, by 125 within the lines. The general's 
quarter rises above the level of the camp, but is not 
in the centre. It is a regular square, each side 
being exactly twenty yards. At present it exhibits 
evident marks of having been enclosed with a stone 
wall, and contains the foundation of a bouse, ten 
yards by seven. That a place of worship has been 
erected here, is not improbable, as it has obtained 
the name of Chapel-hill from time immemorial." 
The reporter goes on to state that there are other 
two encampments adjoining, having a communi- 
cation with one another and containing above 130 
acres of ground These, he thinks, were probably 
intended for the cavalry and auxiliaries. 

ARDPATRICK, a headland at the north side of 
the entrance of West Loch Tarbert, and at the 
south-western extremity of Kiapdale, Argyleshire. 
Tradition asserts that St. Patrick landed here on his 
way from Ireland to Iona. 

ARDRISHAIGr, a small sea-port and post-town, 
in the parish of South Knapdale, Argyleshire. It 
stands at the east end of the Crinan canal, about 2 
miles from Lochgilphead. It has a handsome re- 
cently-built hotel, and two places of worship, Estab- 
lished and Episcopalian ; and it partakes in the in- 
stitutions and marketingsof Lochgilphead. Its inhab- 
itants are supported principally by the Loch-Fyne 
herring fishery, by the traffic through the canal, and 
by the resort of steamers from Glasgow. Upwards 
of 100 fishing boats sometimes frequent the har- 
bour during the fishing season ; and commonly three 
steamers daily during summer, and either one or 
two during winter, ply between this and Glasgow, 
irrespective of those which pass through the canal. 
The quantity of sheep and cattle shipped here is 
considerable. On Wednesday, August 18th, 1847, 
the Queen and Prince Albert landed here, in their 
voyage from Inverary to Invemess-shire, and were 
welcomed by an immense and enthusiastic con- 
course of people. From the quay the royal party 
proceeded by a road about 200 yards in length, 
specially constructed for the occasion, and leading 
between a double row of trees, to the canal bank, 
where the royal barge was in waiting to convey 
them to the Victoria and Albert yacht, which, hav- 
ing rounded the Mull of Kintyre, lay at anchor in 
Crinan bay. Population in 1861, 902. 

ARDROSS, a mountainous district, between Al- 
ness Water and Rorie Water, on the east side of 
Ross- shire. It was the early residence and fastness 
of the great clan Ross, and is now the property of 
Alexander Matbeson, Esq. 

ARDROSS, a barony in Fifeshire. See Ely. 

ARDROSSAN, a parish, containing the sea-port 
town of Ardrossan, and part of the sea-port town of 
Saltcoats, in the district of Cunningham, Ayrshire. 
It is bounded on the south-west by the frith of Clyde, 
and on the other sides by the parishes of West Kil- 
bride, Dairy, Kilwinning, and Stevenston. Its 
greatest length is 6 miles, and its greatest breadth 
3J. The extent of sea-coast is about 4 miles. The 




north-west quailer of the parish, between Ardrossan 
and Kilbride, is hilly; the highest hill in this quar- 
ter is Knockgeorgan, or Knockgargon, which rises 
700 feet above sea-level. A very extensive and 
magnificent prospect of the frith of Clyde and its 
sea-boards and the mountains of Arran is seen 
from most parts of the parish, and looks particularly 
brilliant from Knockgeorgan. The principal streams 
are the Munnock or Caddel-burn, which rises in Kil- 
bride, and flows eastward into the Gaaf ; and the 
Stanley and Monfode burns, which flow southwards 
into the sea near Ardrossan. The soil is in general 
light and fertile. Aiton estimates the area of the 
parish at 9,000 Scots acres, and the real rent, in 1809, 
at £6,098. The Statistical reporter, in 1S37, esti- 
mates the area at only 5,520 Scots acres ; and the 
real rent at £7,800, being an average of 30s. per 
acre. The parish is intersected by three main lines 
of road ; two of which run between Dairy and Ar- 
drossan, and Dairy and Saltcoats, while the third, or 
coast-line, connects Saltcoats and Ardrossan. A 
railway from Ardrossan to Kilwinning was opened 
in 1832. This railway was executed by the pro- 
jectors of the Glasgow and Ardrossan canal. As 
originally executed it was a single line worked by 
horses, extending 5£ miles, with branches of about 
6J miles. This line, improved and doubled, now 
forms a locomotive engine line ; and the railway 
distance from Glasgow to Ardrossan, is 31J miles. 
In 1846, an act was obtained, but lies in abeyance, 
for extending the Glasgow and Neilston railway 
to the town of Kilmarnock, and to Ardrossan har- 
bour. Limestone is extensively quarried in the up- 
per part of the parish ; coal is believed to be abun- 
dant, but is not worked ; and building stones, both 
good and beautiful, are very plenteous, and have 
both been quarried almost where tfiey were wanted, 
and brought by railway from Stevenston. A low 
island of about 12 acres, with good pasture, lies 
about a mile north-west of Ardrossan town, and af- 
fords some shelter to the harbour ; and a beacon- 
tower was erected on it, but has long been out of use. 
Upwards of two-thirds of the parish is the property 
of the Earl of Eglinton; and the rest lies distributed 
among nine proprietors. Population in 1831, 3,494; 
in 1861, 6,776. Houses, 682. Assessed property in 
1843, £11,774 13s. 10d.; in 1860, £23,077. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Irvine, and 
synod of Glasgow and Ayr. Patron, the Earl of 
Eglinton. Stipend, £261 Is. 3d., with a manse and 
glebe. Unappropriated teinds, £676 lis. lid. _ The 
original parish church stood on the Castle-hill of 
Ardrossan, and was overwhelmed by a storm in 
1691; its successor of the next half-century stood 
on a sheltered site about half a mile inland ; and the 
next was built in 1773 in the town of Saltcoats, and 
contains 840 sittings. But in 1844, there was built 
at Ardrossan, a handsome new church, with a fine 
spire, at a cost of upwards of £3,000 ; and in March 
1851, this was constituted by the Court of Teinds a 
separate parish church, under the name of New Ar- 
drossan. The right of presentation to it is vested in 
eight trustees. There is a Free church at Ardrossan; 
a Gothic edifice with a spire, built in 1859, at a cost 
of £2,000; and the yearly sum raised in connexion 
with it, in 1865, was £234 5s. 5Jd. There is also a 
Free church, a Gaelic one, at the west end of Salt- 
coats; it was originally connected with the Estab- 
lishment, and was built about 1838 ; it is a neat Gothic 
structure, with Saxon door-way and small belfry, 
and contains 720 sittings; and the yearly sum raised 
in connexion with it, in 1865, was £88 3s. 3£d. A 
United Presbyterian church is in Ardrossan, built in 
1857, at a cost of £1,300 ; and another United Pres- 
byterian church is in the Saltcoats part of Ardrossan 

parish, was built in 1865-6, is a very handsome 
edifice, and succeeded a previous church of 1790. An 
Independent chapel also is in Ardrossan, and was 
built in 1861, at a cost of £550. The parochial 
schoolmaster's salary is £60. 

The Town op Ahdeossan stands about 1 mile 
north-west of Saltcoats, 5J miles south-west of Kil- 
winning, and 31£ south-west of Glasgow. It an- 
ciently consisted of a baronial castle, a church, and 
a small fishing village, — all situated on a slightly 
elevated promontory, or small low projecting hill. 
How early it existed is not known ; but both castle 
and village were at least contemporaneous with Sir 
William Wallace, and were the scene of one of his 
exploits. The castle being in possession of the 
English, Wallace, with some of his men, came 
stealthily by night, and set fire to the village as a 
lure to draw the garrison out ; and while they ran 
to quench the fire, he and his men entered the castle, 
slew the English as they returned, and threw their 
corpses into the dungeon, which thence got the 
name of Wallace's Larder. The castle continued 
for ages after to be habitable, but was at length de- 
stroyed by Oliver Cromwell; and only slight ves- 
tiges of it now remain. An ancient proprietor of it, 
before it passed into the possession of Lord Eglin ton's 
ancestors, was popularly reputed to be a warlock, 
and figures in some wild old legends as the Deil o' 
Ardrossan. Within the area of the original parish 
church lies an ancient tombstone which popular be- 
lief associates with him. " On this is sculptured 
the figure of a man at full length, with two shields 
of arms laid over him. One appears to represent 
the royal arms of Scotland, being the lion rampant 
— the other is probably the escutcheon of the de- 
ceased. Before the building of the new town, this 
was an exceedingly secluded spot, and the supersti- 
tious dread which was entertained for the sanctuary 
of ' the Deil o' Ardrossan ' was very great. It was 
believed that were any portion of the ' moidd ' to 
be taken from under this stone, and cast into the 
sea, forthwith would ensue a dreadful tempest to 
devastate sea and land." 

The modem town originated in special exer- 
tions of the 12th Earl of Eglinton. His lordship's 
idea was to make it the port of Glasgow. Steam 
navigation and steam-tugging were then unknown ; 
the navigation of the parts of the frith of Clyde 
above the Cumbraes was often baffling and tedious ; 
the navigation of the river above Port-Glasgow was 
practicable only for small vessels and with great 
difficulty ; and it seemed to the Earl of Eglinton and 
to several rich gentlemen who co-operated with him, 
that if Ardrossan were connected with Glasgow by 
a canal, and were provided with a deep and capa- 
cious harbour, it could not fail to attract to itself the 
greater part of the sea-business which was then 
done at Greenock and Port-Glasgow, and perhaps 
give rise to a good deal more. The canal was to be 
cut from the suburb of Tradeston at Glasgow, by 
way of Paisley and Johnstone, a distance of nearly 
31 miles to Ardrossan, and was estimated to cost 
£125,900; but, though promptly commenced at the 
Tradeston end, it never was executed farther than 
to Johnstone. The harbour was projected on a 
most magnificent design, such as would have made 
it scarcely inferior to any in the kingdom, and was 
commenced with great ceremony on the 31st of July 
1806. But the estimated cost of it proved to be 
enormously under the mark; yet the Earl drove it 
forward with great energy of purpose and with vast 
personal sacrifice, till near the end of his life ; and 
in 1815, four years before he died, and after upwards 
of £100,000 had been expended on it, Messrs. Telford 
& Bennie reported that £300,000 more would be re- 




quisite to complete it. The works were for a long- 
time suspended; but after the thirteenth Karl came of 
age, they were resumed on a scale of less extent, 
but still of great value; and now they are complete. 
The harbour is at once capacious, commodious, and 
well-sheltered; and there is a lighthouse with a fixed 
light on the north-oast breakwater. A railway, as 
formerly stated, was projected to connect the har- 
bour of Ardrossan with the canal at Johnstone; but 
it could not be executed farther than Kilwinning, 
and served for some years chiefly for bringing coals 
to the harbour. But now, under the name of the 
Ardrossan railway, and in connexion with the Glas- 
gow and Ayr railway, it is one of the busiest lines 
In Scotland', and is serving largely and brilliantly, 
though in a very different way than was then 
dreamed of, some of the very purposes which were 
sought to be served by the original scheme of the 

The modern town itself was commenced about the 
same time as the harbour, and has been dependent 
on it for prosperity. It is built on a regular plan, 
with streets wide, straight, and crossing one another 
at right angles, and edificed chiefly with neat, well- 
finished, two-story houses. The plan comprises also 
a crescent, of splendid design, around the fine sweep- 
ing bay on the east side of the town toward Salt- 
coats. There are many handsome villas, varied in 
style, but all more or less tasteful; and there is an 
elegant occasional residence of Lord Eglinton, called 
the pavilion. There is also a large and good-looking 
edifice, built for baths on the tontine principle in 
1807, — allowed for a time to go to disuse and decay, 
but refitted in 1833. The chief inn is a very com- 
modious one called the Eglinton Arms. The several 
churches have a fine appearance ; and the whole 
place looks cleanly, cheerful, and prosperous. The 
town contains the sessional school, a private school, 
two ladies' schools, a school of industry, a post- 
office, a stamp-office, offices of the Bank of Scot- 
land, of the Eoyal Bank, and of the City of Glasgow 
Bank, a number of insurance offices, a gas company, 
a bowling club, a curling club, a farmers' society, an 
artillery volunteer corps, and a total abstinence so- 
ciety. Ardrossan possesses great attractions as a 
bathing-place, and is now one of the much frequented 
summer resorts on the frith of Clyde. Fairs are 
held on the Tuesday before Ayr July fair, and on 
the fourth Thursday of November ; and a projected 
annual tryst of two days in July, for sheep, wool, 
and cattle, was begun in 1846, but has ceased. The 
harbour, even while lying in the incomplete state in 
which the late Earl left it, was capable of accommo- 
dating a great number of vessels of almost any size, 
and was secure against almost every wind, and was 
often crowded in rough weather with vessels which 
ran to it for shelter. A considerable coasting-trade 
became steadily established at it, chiefly in the ex- 
port of coals and cost iron; and since the opening 
of the Glasgow and Ayr railway, steamers have 
regularly sailed from it to Arran and Belfast. 
Within the year 1864 no less than 237,527 tons of 
^.ast iron were shipped here. In 1849, when the 
route of the Scottish mails to Ireland by way of 
Portpatrick to Donaghadee was given up, and a 
route was adopted from the Clyde to Belfast, multi- 
tudes of persons, who had no particular interest in 
the matter, were astonished that Ardrossan was not 
made the packet-station; and, as to all the main cir- 
cumstances of directness, speed, and safety, it cer- 
tainly seems decidedly superior to Greenock. Popu- 
lation of the town in 1837, about 920; in 1861 3 192 
Mouses 249. 

AEDROSSAN (New). See Ardkossas. 

AKDEOSSER. See Ardersier. 

AKDSII1EL, the seat of a chief cadet of the 
Stewarts of Appin, on the southern shore of the 
Linuhc-loch, near Kentalen bay, and about 3 miles 
from Ballachulish ferry at the mouth of Loch Lcven. 
Stewart of Ardshiel was among the foremost who 
espoused the cause of Prince Charles in 1745; and, 
like many of his brother-outlaws, had to consult his 
safety by retiring to a remarkable cave in this neigh- 
bourhood. The mouth of the cavern is singularly 
protected by a waterfall which descends like a crys 
tal curtain in front of it, but through which no 
traces of such an excavation are perceptible. 

ABDSTINCHAB, an old castle, anciently the 
seat of a branch of the Bargany family, on the river 
Stinchar, a little above the village of Ballantrae, 
Ayrshire. From its situation in a narrow pass com- 
manding two entrances into Carrick, — that along 
the shore, and that which leads up the river and 
across the country to Girvan, — this fortalice must 
have been of considerable importance in remoter 
ages. Pitcairn, in his History of the House of Ken- 
nedy,' gives some curious information respecting it. 

AEDTOENISH. See Artornish. 

AEDUTHIE, an estate in the parish of Fettei 
esso, Kincardineshire. The new town of Stoneha- 
ven is built upon it, and was originally called Ar 
duthie, and is still sometimes called the Links of 
Arduthie. See Stoxehaven. 

AEDVASAR. See Aruavasar. 

quis of Abercorn, on the banks of Loch-Laggan in 
Inverness-shire, which has obtained great and un- 
expected notoriety from having been occupied by 
Her Majesty and suite for a few weeks in the months 
of August and September, 1847. It occupies a green 
flat at the head of a little bay formed by one of the 
wooded promontories which jut into the loch. It 
was erected by the Marquis about 1840 ; and is a 
plain unostentatious building, rather irregular in its 
con struction, — the windows, roof, and chimney-stalks 
a good deal in the cottage-style, and the whole suiting 
pretty closely one's idea of what quarters for the ac- 
commodation of a large shooting-party ought to be. 
The lodge is built close to the loch, the water flow- 
ing up almost to the walls on three sides of the 
building. For a shooting-box, as we have before 
remarked, the house is remarkably large and com- 
modious. It has the appearance of being built at 
different times, as convenience dictated, one addition 
succeeding another, until, in the course of time, as 
might be supposed, an originally small square cot- 
tage had swelled out and covered the whole promon- 
tory. Its narrow windows — one hundred in num- 
ber, and each of the front windows surmounted with 
a deer's head and antlers — add to the impression 
that the lodge is an antique structure, but in reality 
it is quite modem, and the masonry, though not the 
architecture, bears the stamp of yesterday. The 
gardens attached to the lodge are extensive and 
well managed, producing all the fruits and flowers 
of the country; and a fine lawn, with clumps of 
trees, gives a baronial aspect to the spot. A num- 
ber of marquees were placed on the green, at proper 
distances from the lodge, in order to accommodate 
the servants of the royal visitors.— The interior of 
the lodge corresponds pretty closely with its exter- 
nal appearance, — the rooms being more comfortable 
than spacious, and their chief decoration being the 
antlers of deer shot in the surrounding forest. On 
the bare walls of two of the principal apartments 
are roughly sketched, by the masterly hand of 
Landseer, several of his best known and finest pro- 
ductions, and among them 'The Challenge,' and 
' The Stag at Bay.' There is a splendid collection 
of stags' heads in the long corridor from which the 




rooms on the ground-floor are approached. Many 
of these have thirteen and fourteen points; the 
greater number are royal heads, and to none would 
the most experienced deer-stalker take exception. 
The ornaments of the corridor are also those of 
the bed- rooms above stairs, in each of which, 
placed directly above the chimney-piece, the highly 
polished osfronth of a deer, surmounted by a pair of 
branching antlers, invites the wearied sportsman to 
dream of the adventures which await him among 
the corries and passes of the forest next morning. — 
The surrounding scenery is quite in keeping with 
the style of the lodge and its internal arrangements. 
The loeh in front is a sheet of water about eight 
miles in length, with less than the usual comple- 
ment of islands on its surface, and possessing no- 
thing in its appearance which raises it above medio- 
crity among the list of Highland lakes. See Laggan 
(Loch). Yet, apart from scenic effect, it is not 
without claims to consideration; for it abounds 
with quantities of the finest black trout; and of the 
three little islands which stud its surface, the two 
nearest the lodge have traditional associations which 
invest them with no common interest. On one of 
these, called Eilan-an-Bigh — ' the King's Island' — 
are still visible from the windows of the lodge some 
remains of rude masonry which the country people 
say mark the residence of the ancient kings of Scot- 
land, when they came to hunt in the adjoining 
forests; and quite close to it is Eilan-an-Conn — 
' the Dogs' Island' — which, as the name implies, 
was used by these barbaric and sporting monarchs 
as a kennel. The Gaelic name of the spot on 
which the lodge stands connects these loose tradi- 
tions with a very ancient and obscure portion of 
Scottish history; for Ardverikie means, it is said, 
' the residence of Fergus.' There is, however, very 
fair ground for believing that the district of country 
now occupied by the Marquis of Abereorn as a deer 
forest, was in former times a favourite hunting- 
ground with the Scottish kings. A mound is 
pointed out in the garden round the lodge, covered 
with fox-gloves, dockens, waving goose-grass, this- 
tles, and a variety of other weeds, beneath which 
the dust of Fergus and four other monarchs is said 
to repose ; and really the place looks genuine 
enough. We prefer, however, relying upon the 
fact that the surrounding country has from time im- 
memorial contained the most favourite haunts of the 
red deer, and that in those wild times when the 
Majesty of Scotland harboured principally in Inver- 
ness-shire, their hunting propensities would natu- 
rally lead them to the banks of Loch Laggan. — The 
scenery about Ardverikie lodge is almost entirely 
destitute of those abrupt and massive features, and 
that bold outline, which give to the Lochaber hills 
so noble and prominent a character; nor has it the 
bleak, deserted, solitary appearance of the moors 
which occupy the east of Badenoch; but the land 
slopes gently up on each side of the loch, in gradu- 
ally ascending heights clothed a good way from the 
water's edge with birch, hazel, aspen, and mountain 
ash, — the natural growth of the country, — and 
opening as it ascends into spacious corries. Smooth 
summits of plain unpretending outline terminate the 
view, which has, infact, little except its natural and 
unadorned character to recommend it. Her Ma- 
jesty, however, could see from the windows of the 
lodge patches of snow still lingering on Corarder; 
and the unassuming grace of the woods, the bril- 
liant verdure in which the brackens clothe the whole 
scene, the unsophisticated air of everything around, 
might not prove unacceptable after the stately mag- 
nificence of Windsor-Park and the elaborate agri- 
culture of the Home-Farm With respect to the 

forest, it is as yet almost in its infancy; for though 
in former times the number of deer on it was very 
great, the introduction of sheep into this part of the 
country about sixty years ago drove them off to 
seek for cleaner pasture and more secure resting- 
places. The ground which the lodge occupies has 
been rented from Macpherson of Cluny , the proprie • 
tor, by the Marquis of Abercom, on a long lease. 
Its extent may be estimated from the fact that it 
has a circumference of forty miles, and embraces 
within its ample space, besides the large grazing- 
ferms of Galovy and Camdanoch, Benalder, with its 
numerous comes. The Marquis, upon obtaining 
his lease, threw the farms once more into forest, 
and introduced new herds of deer. It is said that 
not less than from 9,000 to 10,000 sheep could be 
kept on this extent of land, which is famous for the 
richness of its pasture — has now, after a very few 
years' preservation, a stock of more than 2,000 red 
deer — and which, surrounded as it is by the for- 
ests of Mar, Athol, Breadalbane, Gaick, the Mo- 
nadh-Liadh, and Invereshie, must rapidly increase 
its present numbers — Ardverikie is about 37 miles 
from Fort- William, 16 from Dulmhenny the nearest 
post, and 10 from the parish church of Laggan. 
The road from Fort William to Laggan crosses the 
mouth of Glennevis, and passes the old castle of 
Inverlochy, still pretty entire. Funning through 
Torlundy-moss, at the base of Ben-Nevis, it pro- 
ceeds through a countiy little cultivated, but appa- 
rently susceptible of much improvement. Only 
here and there occurs a rig of com or of potatoes, 
with a straggling cot-house nestled in a forest of 
peat-stalks. At Spean-bridge, 9 miles on the way, 
the road enters Glen-Spean. From Spean, as far as 
Tullish, the strath is well-cultivated. The Spean- 
water winds through a rocky channel, occasionally 
hidden by groves of birch and oak. Bounded on 
the north by the hills of Achnavitie and Eeinama- 
gach, and on the south by the high bills of Unachan, 
Lianaehan, and Ben-Chinaig, Strathspean presents 
a landscape not often .surpassed in beauty. From 
Tullish the road passes through a district exceed- 
ingly barren : grey rocks and patches of luxuriant 
heather, thrown about and intermingled as if from 
the hand of a sower, form the basework of the scen- 
ery. In a drive of 9 miles some three houses only 
are to be seen, and two of the three are shepherds' 
boothies. A mile or two from the west end of Loch 
Laggan^ the road enters Badenoch. The drive 
along the north shore is most delightful. The hills 
slope abruptly down to the lake, and for several 
hundred yards up, the hill-sides are covered with 
weeping birches, fantastically - shaped oaks, and 

AEDVOIELICH. See Eakx (Loch). 

AEDVEAICK. See Asstnt. 

ABDWALLUM, a post-office station, subordinate 
to Stranraer, Wigtonshire. 

ABDWELL, an estate in the parish of Stonykirk, 
Wigtonshire. It comprises a bay, a headland, and 
other places of its own name, and is a centre of in- 
fluence to a considerable surrounding district; and 
at Ardwell inn is a post-office. See article Stont- 

AEGYLE, a district of Argyleshire. It is sepa- 
rated from Lorn by Lochs Melfort, Avich, and Awe, 
— from Knapdale, by Loch Gilp and the Crinan 
Canal, — and from Cowal, by Loch Fyne. The name 
Argyle is said to be derived from Earra Gheidheal, 
'the countiy of the Western Gael;' and certainly 
this district is well entitled to the name, both from 
the eminent grandeur and romance of its highland 
scenery, and from the number and prominence of 
its old historical associations. See Ahay (The), 

. : ou&Eointmrgli. 




and Invehaiiy. Population of the district in 1831, 
17,658; in 1851, 17,219. Houses 2,8(12. 

ARGYLE'S BOWLING (.(KEEN, a group of 
precipitous, rugged, lofty mountains, occupying the 
peninsula between Loch Goil and Loch Long, on 
the east border of Argylesliire. The mountains 
have moro sternness, more savagencss, more true 
sublimity, than any other group in this part of Scot- 
land; and their shoulders and summits look in the 
distance as if carved and contoured like statuary, 
and they form a superb sky-line and a magnificent 
background to the westward view from all the bosom 
and most of the shores of the upper frith of Clyde. 
See Long (Locii), and Roseneath. 

ARGYLLSHIRE, an extensive county of the 
south-west of Scotland. It comprehends several 
large islands, as well as a considerable portion of 
the mainland. The latter part is of a very irregu- 
lar figure; and is bounded on the north by Inver- 
ness-shire; on the east by the counties of Perth 
and Dumbarton, and the frith of Clyde; on the 
south by the Irish sea; and on the west by the 
Atlantic ocean. According to Playfair, it lies be- 
tween 55° 15' and 56° 55' N latitude, and 4° 32' and 
6° 6' W longitude, and extends 90 miles from north 
to south, and, in some places, upwards of 40 miles 
from west to east. Its area, according to the same 
authority, is about 2,400 square miles, or 1,536,000 
English acres, exclusive of its islands. But this 
county is intersected by so many inlets of the sea, 
and has as yet been so imperfectly surveyed, that 
no correct estimate can be formed of its extent. Dr. 
Smith, in his ' Agricultural Survey of Argyleshire,' 
estimates its utmost length, viz. from Loch Eil to 
the midl of Kintyre, at 115 miles; and its breadth 
from Ardnamurchan to the source of the Urchay, 
or Orchy, at 138 miles. He also estimates the super- 
ficial area, exclusive of the islands, at 2,735 square 
miles ; while Sir John Sinclair has calculated it at 
only 2,260 square miles. The islands belonging to 
this shire bave a joint superficial area, according to 
Dr. Smith, of 1,063 square miles; and, according to 
Sir John Sinclair, of 929 square miles; making a 
total area, according to the former, of 3,798; and, 
according to the latter, of 3,189 square miles, or 
2,002,560 English acres, being one-tentb of the 
whole surface of Scotland. These admeasurements 
must be regarded of course as mere approximations 
to the actual area both of mainland and islands ; nor, 
until the Trigonometrical Survey of Scotland is pub- 
lished, is it worth while to attempt their rectification 
from existing materials. 

The northern division of the mainland of the 
county is cut off by Loch Linnhe, and contains the 
districts of Loeheil, Ardgour, Sunart, Ardnamurchan, 
and Morvern; and the rest of the mainland com- 
prises the five divisions of Lorn, between Loch 
Liuuhe and Loch Awe, — Argyle, between Loch 
Awe and Loch Fyne, — Cowal, between Locb Fyne 
and the Frith of Clyde, — Knapdale, between tbe 
Crinan Canal and the Lochs Tarbert, — and Kintyre, 
all south of the Lochs Tarbert. The islands, with 
the exception of a few small ones in the Clyde, lie 
in three divisions: — 1. Mull, together with Canna, 
Rum, Muiek, Coll, Tiree, Gometray, Ulva, Staffa, 
Iona, and a number of adjacent islets; 2. The islands 
of Lorn, the chief of which are Shuna and Lismore 
within Loch Linnhe, and Ken-era, Seil, Easdale, 
Living, Shuna, Lunga, and Scarba, very near the 
western coast; and, 3. Jura and Islay, together 
with Colonsay, Oronsay, Gigha, and some small ad- 
jacent islets. But the whole county is politically 
divided into six parts: — 1. Mull, comprehending the 
districts of mainland north of Loch Linnhe and the 
Mull group of islands; 2. Lorn, comprehending the 

mainland division of Lorn and the Lorn islands; 3. 
Argyle, or Inverary, identical with the mainland 
division of Argyle; 4. Cowal, identical with the 
mainland division of Cowal; 5. Kintyre, comprising 
the peninsula and islets of Kintyre, and part of Knap- 
dale ; and 6. Islay, comprehending the Jura and 
Islay group of islands, and part of Knapdale. 

The surface of a large portion of this great county 
is either grandly picturesque or brilliantly romantic; 
and very much of the mainland is an alternation of 
bleak barren moorlands, rugged chains of mountains, 
deep glens, winding inlets of the sea, and extensive 
sheets of inland water. The northern and eastern 
parts are peculiarly bleak, nigged, and mountain- 
ous, but interspersed with narrow and sheltered 
glens ; and the western section is very irregular in 
its outline, and deeply indented by large bays or 
lochs. The greater proportion of what may be called 
arable land is composed of the level tracts along the 
coasts. About one-eighth part of the surface is 
under cultivation. The soil, according to Playfair, 
consists of the following varieties : " 1. Gravel 
mixed with vegetable mould, occurring chiefly in 
the more lofty mountains, and along the banks of 
the rivers which have their sources in these moun- 
tains. 2. Peat-moss, occupying the extensive moors 
and low grounds, from which the water does not 
flow freely. 3. Decayed limestone. 4. Decayed 
slate mixed with coarse limestone. Of the two last, 
the former is a light soil, the latter more stiff; but 
both are fertile, and found in tracts not greatly ele- 
vated above the level of the sea. They form the 
great mass of the soil in the fertile districts of Mid- 
Lorn, Nether-Lom, Craignish, &c. 5. A barren 
sandy soil, originating from freestone, or micaceous 
schistus, prevalent in the westerly parts of the main- 
land, and in some of the islands. Besides these, 
other kinds of soil are found in this county; and 
sometimes several species graduate insensibly into 
one another. In general a light loam mixed with 
sand, on a bottom of clay or gravel, prevails. On 
the acclivities of tbe hills, the most common soil is 
a light gravel on till. In the lower grounds, there 
is sometimes a mixture of clay and moss, and some- 
times a coat of black mossy earth. The soil appro- 
priated to pasture is partly diy, and partly wet and 
spongy ; a considerable proportion of what is either 
flat or hilly is covered with heath. The summits ot 
the highest hills are generally bare and barren 

Some of the mountains are vast isolated masses ; 
but others form ranges and groups, many constitute 
the main surface of entire districts, and not a few 
present such competing appearances of height, mas- 
siveness, and striking feature as make it difficult for 
a topographer to select any one in preference to 
others for specimen description. Some of the lofti- 
est which have been measured are Ben-Craachan, 
between Loch Etive and Loch Awe, 3,669 feet; 
Benmore, in Mull, 3,168 feet; Cruach-Lussa, east- 
ward of Loch-Swin, 3,000 feet; Beden-na-Bean, north 
of the head of Loch Etive, 2,720 feet; the Paps of 
Jura, 2,580 feet; Buachaille-Etive, overhanging 
Glen-Etive, 2,537 feet; Ben-na-hua, on the north 
side of Loch Linnhe, 2,515 feet; Ben-Arthur, or the 
Cobbler, at the head of Loch Long, 2,389 feet; Ben- 
More in Rum, 2,310 feet; and Ben-Tam, south of 
Loeh Sunart, 2,306' feet. 

The principal streams are the Urchay or Orchy, 
and the Awe ; the former flowing into, the latter 
flowing from Loch Awe. There are a multitude of 
minor streams, more distinguished by the romantic 
beauty of their course, than the volume of their 
water or their length of course. Loch Awe is the 
principal inland lake. See articles Awe (Loch), 




and Oeciiy. The total area of the fresh water lakes 
is ahout 52,000 square acres. The extent of marshy 
and mossy ground must be very great. Natural 
woods and plantations cover ahout 50,000 acres. 

Limestone abounds in many parts of Argyleshire, 
and seems to form the whole body of the large rich 
island of Lismore, and there forms a durable cement 
under water. Roofing-slates of excellent quality 
form the body of the islands of Easdale, Luing, and 
Seil, and also form a great tract of rock at Balla- 
chulish in Appin, and are very extensively quarried 
at both localities. Marble exists in various quar- 
ters ; and granite is quarried near Inverary. Veins 
of lead are frequent in the limestone and other strata ; 
mines of this metal are wrought at Strontian, at 
Tyndrum, and in Islay ; and in the latter island a vein 
of copper is wrought, and the same mineral has been 
found at Kilmartin. There is abundance of plum- 
pudding stone at Oban, Dunstaffnage, and north- 
wards along the coast. The species of earth, called 
strontites, or strontian, was first discovered in the 
district of Ardnamurchan in 1791. Coal is wrought 
near Camphellton, and also occurs in the island of 
Mull. Granite forms the great mountain-masses in 
the north-east part of the county; but mica-slate 
predominates in the geological features both of the 
mainland and isles ; an extensive tract of porphyry 
occurs on the north side of Loch Fyne; and floetz- 
trap prevails in a few districts. 

The climate of Argyleshire on the whole is mild, 
but excessively humid. In the north-eastern quar- 
ter, where the general elevation is greatest, it is 
often very cold. The principal branch of rural in- 
dustry is that of rearing cattle and sheep. The 
quantity of grain produced, bears a small proportion 
to the area. Oats are the principal grain raised, 
but a large import of meal is required for the home- 
consumption. Potatoes are very extensively culti- 
vated, the poorest shieling having uniformly attached 
to it a small patch of potato-ground. The cattle 
reared here are of a small size, but highly esteemed 
in the markets of the South, to which they are ex- 
ported in immense numbers. The sheep are chiefly 
of the Linton or black-faced breed ; and have on the 
mainland displaced the homed cattle in most farms. 
Red deer are still found in some of the forests; and 
grouse and ptarmigans are plentiful. 

The manufactures of this county are not great. 
A large quantity of kelp used formerly to be an- 
nually made along the shores, but it has been driven 
out of the market by foreign barilla. The fisheries, 
however, on the coast, and particularly in the lochs, 
are productive and improving. The two principal 
fishing-stations are Inverary and Campbellton; and 
large quantities of herrings are caught and cured at 
various stations along the coasts, and on the shores 
of the different lochs. Some leather is manufac- 
tured; coarse woollen yams, stuff's, and stockings, 
are still made to a considerable extent ; and at Bun- 
awe and in Islay are valuable manufactures of iron. 
The general industry of the country, too, in getting 
up all possible produce for the provision markets of 
Greenock, Glasgow, and the places communicating 
with them, is very great, and has been amazingly 
stimulated by steam navigation. No similarly peo- 
pled region in any other part of Britain is so per- 
vadingly and ramifiedly plied with steam-vessels, 
and the effect of this so early as 1832, when the 
number of steam-vessels regularly plying in it was 
scarcely one half of the number at present, was so 
remarkable as to draw the following remarks from 
the Messrs. Chambers, — in their Gazetteer of Scot- 
land: — " It is evident, from the peculiar form of 
Argyleshire, that it will always owe as much of the 
benefit arising from a ready communication between 

its near and distant parts, to improvements in watel 
carriage, as to any extension of that by land. The 
difficulty, indeed, of forming roads in a district so 
serrated by the sea, and so blocked up by chains of 
hills, is almost insurmountable ; hitherto there have 
been only two or three roads in the county, skirting 
along the banks of the lochs. The very barrier, 
however, which mainly prevented communication in 
the days of our fathers, has turned out to be the 
highway in our own. By the never-to-he-sufficient- 
ly-admired spirit of the city of Glasgow, about 20 
steam-vessels are constantly employed in Conveying 
passengers and goods to and fro, throughout the 
country, and in transporting the country-produce to 
market at that city. The effect of this grand engine, 
even after so brief a period, is incalculable. It hap- 
pens that, notwithstanding the immense extent of 
the country, there is not a single dwelling-place 
more than ten miles from the sea, nor a gentleman's 
seat, (excepting those on the banks of Loch Awe,) 
more than ten minutes walk from it. Every farmer, 
therefore, eveiy gentleman, finds occasion to employ 
steam-navigation. When this mode of conveyance 
was in its infancy, it was generally supposed that 
the little wealth, bold shores, and scattered popula- 
tion of the county, kept it without the circle in which 
its adoption was to become beneficial. It came, 
however, to be attempted; and there is not now a 
loch, bay, or inlet, but holds a daily, or at least 
commands a weekly, communication with the low- 
lands and the several districts of the country. By 
this means, the fanners — even upon the smallest 
scale — are encouraged to fatten stock which they 
would never otherwise think of fattening; the fat- 
tening of stock, again, causes them to improve their 
arable land; the extra-profits enable them to buy 
luxuries which, in their turn, communicate senti- 
ments of taste, and open the mind to liberal ideas. 
The comparative frequency, moreover, of their visits 
to the lowlands causes the speedier introduction of 
modern and improved systems of agriculture. Steam- 
boats are, in short, at once the heralds and the causes 
of eveiy kind of improvement in Argyleshire ; it is 
no hyperbole to say, that they have in ten years 
raised the value of land within the county twenty 
per cent. Every thing connected with this inven- 
tion, so far as Argyleshire is concerned, bears a de- 
gree of romantic wonder strangely in contrast with 
its mechanical and common-place character. It ac- 
complishes, in this district, transitions and juxta- 
positions almost as astonishing as those of an Arabian 
tale. The Highlander, for instance, who spends his 
general life amidst the wilds of Cowal, or upon the 
hills of Appin, can descend in the morning from his 
lonely home, and setting his foot about breakfast- 
time on board a steam-boat at some neighbouring 
promontory, suddenly finds himself in company, it 
may be, with tourists from all parts of the earth ; he 
sits at dinner between a Russian and an American ; 
and, in the evening, he who slept last night amidst 
the blue mists of Lorn, is traversing the gas-lighted 
streets of Glasgow, or may, perhaps, have advanced 
to Edinburgh itself, the polished, the enlightened, 
the temple of modem intelligence. Reversing this 
wonder, he who has all his life trod the beaten ways 
of men, and never but in dreams seen that land of 
hill and cloud whence of yore the blue-bonneted 
Gael was wont to descend, to sweep folds or change 
dynasties, can stand in the light of dawn amidst the 
refined objects of a capital, and when the shades of 
night have descended, finds himself in the very coun- 
try of Ossiau, with the black lake lying in impertur- 
bable serenity at his feet, and over his head the grey 
hills that have never been touched by human foot. 
Steam-boats, it may be said, bring the most dissirm- 


ARGYLESHIRE. ideas into conjunction, — make the rude Gael 
shake hands with tlie most refined Lowlander, — and 
cause the nineteenth and the first centuries to meet 
together. No such lever was ever introduced to 
raise and revolutionize the manners of a people, or 
the resources of a country." 

Previous to the abolition of the feudal system, in 
1745, the obstacles to improvement either in agri- 
culture or manufactures were quite insuperable in 
this district of Scotland. The abolition of that sys- 
tem, — the conversion of corn rents, or rents in kind 
and services, into money rents, — the suppression of 
smuggling, — the execution of the Caledonian and 
Crinan canals, — -the formation of excellent lines of 
road throughout the county under the auspices of 
the parliamentary commissioners, — the more general 
diffusion of education, — and the introduction of a 
system of farming better adapted to the character 
and capabilities of the soil and country, — have all 
contributed to the improvement of this interesting- 
district. But the main impulse has undoubtedly 
been given to industry in this quarter of the coun- 
try by the introduction of steam-navigation, and the 
reciprocal intercourse which has consequently taken 
place between all parts of Argyleshire and the 
manufacturing districts of the west of Scotland. 

The principal roads in Argyleshire are, 1st, the 
road eastward across Lochiel, being part of the com- 
munication from Arasaig to Fort-William ; 2d, the 
road eastward from Arclnamurehan to Strontian and 
Coran Ferry, leading thence to Fort- William and 
the north sides of Loch Leven ; 3d, the road south- 
westward and southward from Ballaclndish, along 
the coast of Appin and Ardchattan, to Loch Etive ; 
4th, the road eastward and southward from Balla- 
chulish, through Glencoeand Glenorchy, to Tyndrum 
and Dalmally ; 5th, the road eastward from Oban, 
by Ben Cruachan and Dalmally, to Tyndrum, lead- 
ing thence to Stirling and Dumbarton; 6th, the 
road southward from the preceding at Taynuilt up 
both sides of the middle and upper parts of Loch 
Awe; 7th, the road southward from Dalmally to 
Inverary ; 8th, the road eastward from Craignish 
to Loch Fyne ; 9th, the road southward from Inver- 
ary to Lochgilphead; 10th, four roads eastward 
across Cowal, together with coast roads round much 
of that district ; 11th, the roads along the coasts of 
Knapdale and Kintyre, connecting Lochgilphead and 
Ardrishaig with Tarbert and Campbellton; and 12th, 
considerable lines of road in Mull, Jura, and Islay. 
During the heat of the railway excitement, projects 
were entertained for constructing a railway eastward 
from Oban to Tyndrum, and thence to the head of 
Lochlomond, and for constructing another north- 
ward from that line to Loch Leven, and thence to 
Fort- William, and along the great glen of Scotland; 
and very sanguine hopes were cherished respecting 
the success of the former, which it was computed 
woidd extend 46 miles, and cost, for a single line of 
rails, under £7,000 a-inile, or in total £322,000. The 
Caledonian canal belongs for a brief way to the 
north end of Argyleshire ; and the Crinan canal in- 
sulates Knapdale and Kintyre from Argyle proper 
and Lorn. 

Inverary is the capital of Argyleshire ; Campbell- 
ton and Oban are the other principal towns ; and 
these three places are burghs, and unite with Ayr 
and Irvine in Ayrshire, in sending a member to 
parliament. The other towns and principal villages 
are Tobermory in Mull, Lochgilphead at the bound • 
ary between Argyle and Knapdale, Ardrishaig, 2 
miles south of the former, Tarbert at the boundary 
between Knapdale and Kintyre, Bowmore in Islay, 
and Dunoon in Cowal. Some of the principal man- 
sions are Inverary Castle, the. Duke of Argyle; 

Kildalloig, Sir John Eytnn Campbell, Bart.; Stron- 
tian, Sir James Miles Riddell, Bart.; Fassfern, Sir 
Duncan Cameron, Bart.; Dunstatl'nage, Sir Angus 
Campbell, Bart.; Kilmory, Sir John Powlett Orde, 
Bart.; Sonthhall, John Campbell, Esq.; Kingerloch, 
Charles H. Forbes, Esq.; Craignish; Ardgarton; 
Dunderraw; Ardkinglass; Kilmartin; Strachur; 
Saddle; Kilfinnan; Sanda; Lazie; and Askinsh. 
The county sends a member to parliament; and its 
constituency in 1864 was 1,914. The valued rent in 
1751 was £12,466 5s. lOd. sterling. The annual value 
of real property, as assessed in 1815, was £227,493; 
and in 1843, £261,920. The total rental for 1847 
was £268,079. The valuation for 1864-5 was 
£345,179; and the assessment for that year, for police 
and other purposes, was 2|d. per £\, 

Previous to the equalization of weights and 
measures, the Inverary boll of grain contained 4 
firlots 7J per cent, above the standard, or 6 
bushels, 1 peck, 9 pints, 10 cubic inches English; 
and the boll of meal, at Inverary, 8 stone; at some 
other parts 9 stone; and at Campbellton 10 stone. 
The Campbellton potato peek weighed 56 lbs. avoird., 
and measured 9 English wine gallons; while the 
Inverary peck measured only 6J gallons. The 
customary pint contained 109*87 cubic inches; the 
pound at Campbellton 16 oz., and at Inverary, 24; 
the stone of butter, cheese, hay, lint, tallow, and 
wool, was 24 lbs. avoird.; and the barrel of herrings 
32 gallons English. 

The population of the county in 1801, was 81,277 ; 
in 1811, 86,541; in 1821, 97,316; in 1831, 100,973; 
in 1S41, 97,371; in 1861, 83,S59. Inhabited houses 
in 1861, 14,636; uninhabited, 639; building, 117. 
The slow increase of the population from 1801 till 
1831, and the subsequent fluctuation of it, may be 
attributed partly to the limited nature of its terri- 
torial resources; partly to the extensive emigration 
which has taken place from this county chiefly to 
Canada; and partly to the system so generally pur- 
sued by the large proprietors of throwing several 
small farms into the bands of one tenant, and dis- 
countenancing any attempt at minute subdivision of 
the soil. The number of crimes committed in Ar- 
gyleshire, in 1863, was 101 ; the number of persons 
confined in Inverary and Campbelton jails, 61 and 95 ; 
and the average duration of their confinement, 28 
and 31 days. The number of parishes assessed for 
the poor, in 1S63, was 30 : the number of registered 
poor, 3,856; the number of casual poor, 727; the 
sum expended on the registered poor, £23,019; the 
sum expended on the casual poor, £829. 

One of the synods of the Established church bears 
the name of Argyle, and comprises six presbyteries, 
and has jurisdiction over all the parishes of Argyle- 
shire, except one, and over five of the six parishes 
of Buteshire ; and in 1S65 there were within the 
bounds of its presbyteries 57 parochial charges, 
(inclusive of quoad sacra parishes,) and 14 chapels 
of ease. The Free church also has a synod 
of Argyle, comprising 4 presbyteries ; and in 1865 
there were within its bounds 40 churches and 14 
preaching stations, and the yearly sum raised in 
connexion with the whole was £10,633 8s. Oid. 
The Scottish Episcopal church has a diocese of 
Argyle and the Isles, comprising fourteen charges, 
eight of which, as also the residence of the bishop, 
are in Argyleshire. There are likewise in this 
county seven places of worship belonging to the 
United Presbyterian church, two belonging to the 
Reformed Presbyterian church, two in connexion 
with the Congregational Union of Scotland, and two 
belonging to the Roman Catholic community. In 
1837, there were 68 parochial schools, attended by 
3,774 scholars; 4 other parochial schools, the at- 




tendance at which was not reported; 130 private 
schools, attended by 6,7G5 scholars; and 20 other 
private schools, the attendance at which was not 

Argyleshire was the scene of some of the great 
early events which moulded both the political and the 
ecclesiastical destinies of Scotland. See the articles 
Dalriada and Iona, and the historical part of the 
Introduction. It was much infested, in ancient 
times, also, by the Norsemen and other predatory 
intruders, and was, in consequence, the scene of 
numerous battles and heroic achievements. The 
deeds of Fingal and his heroes, too, — if we may re- 
pose any confidence in the voice of tradition — were 
mostly performed in this district; and numerous 
monuments of the remotest antiquity still remain to 
demonstrate the warlike spirit of its former inhabi- 
tants. In the middle ages, the Macdougals of Lorn 
held sway over Argyle and Mull; while the Mac- 
donalds, Lords of the Isles, were supreme in Islay, 
Kintyre, and the southern islands. These two 
chiefs were almost independent thanes, until their 
power was broken by the proceedings of James III., 
by the transference of Lorn through means of mar- 
riage to the Stewart family, and by the erection of the 
earldom of Argyle, in 1457, in favour of Campbell 
of Lochawe. See the historical part of the article 
Hebrides. The Campbells, under the able leading 
of their line of distinguished chiefs, the " Maccal- 
lum-More," soon got high ascendency, throughout 
the county and beyond it, and thoroughly defeated 
an insurrection of the Macdonalds in 1614 against 
it, and have perfectly succeeded in maintaining it to 
the present day, — insomuch that an enormous pre- 
portion of the land is the property of Campbells, 
while their two chief men, the descendants of Camp- 
bell of Lochawe and Campbell of Glenorehy, the 
Duke of Argyle and the Marquis of Breadalbane, 
not only rule the county, but are among the most 
powerful of the nobility of Britain. The dukedom 
of Argyle was created in 1701 ; and the Duke of 
Argyle is also Marquis of Lorn and Kintyre, Earl 
of Campbell and Cowal, Viscount of Lochow and 
Glenisla, and Baron Inverary, Mull, Morvern, and 
Tiree, and also has two titles in the peerage of the 
United Kingdom. 

The antiquities of Argyleshire are many and 
various. The chief ecclesiastical ones are those of 
Iona, the priory of Oronsay, the priory of Ardchat- 
tan, and the church of Kilmun. Some of the most 
remarkable civil ones are Dunstaffnage castle, and 
Dunelly castle, in Loch Etive, Kilchum castle at 
the east end of Loch Awe, Artornish castle on the 
sound of Mull, Mingarry castle in Ardnamurchan, 
Dunoon castle on the east coast of Cowal, and 
Skipnish castle in Kintyre. Old " duns " or Dan- 
ish forts occur in different parts of the coast. Dru- 
idical circles, more or less complete, are traceable in 
some places. Among natural curiosities may be 
named some singular caves in the parishes of Stra- 
chur and Lochgoilhead, and the magnificent basaltic 
colonnades of Ulva and Staffa, 

ABIENAS (Loch), a small inland sheet of water 
in the district of Morvern, Argyleshire. See Aline 

ARINANGOUE, a village in the island of Coll, 
Argyleshire. It stands about the middle of the 
coast, and has a pretty safe harbour, with a pier. 
The entrance of the harbour, however, is obstructed 
with rocks. Population of the village, about 180. 

AEINISKLE-FANK. See Kinloch-Ailart. 

AKISAIG. See Arasaig. 

AEITY. See Inverarity. 

AEKEG. See Archaic. 

AEKLE, an isolated, tapering, and picturesque 

mountain, among the highlands of Edderachillis hi 

AEMADALE, a post-town in the parish of Bath- 
gate, Linlithgowshire, 2J miles west of Bathgate. 
It has a station on the Bathgate and Airdiie rail- 
way, an Established church, a Free church, an Epis- 
copalian church, and a Wesleyan chapel. Popula- 
tion in 1861, 2,504. Houses, 354. 

AEMADALE-CASTLE, the seat of Lord Mac- 
donald, about 1J mile from Ardarasan bay, in the 
parish of Sleat, and island of Skye, Inverness-shire. 
It is a modern Gothic oblong structure, with an oc- 
tagonal tower on each side of the doorway, but com- 
prises only a third of the original design of the 
building; and it stands on a gentle slope, amid 
wooded pleasure-grounds, and commands an exten- 
sive view of the sublime and beauteous seaboard of 
Glenelg, Knoydart, Morar, and Arasaig. 

AEMlDALE, a rivulet, a bay, a fishing-village, 
and a headland, on the coast of the parish of Farr, 
to the west of Strathy, Sutherlandshire. The rivu- 
let is only 4 or 5 miles long, but drains some of the 
best land in the parish ; and the bay is one of the 
safest landing-places on the north coast. 

AENATE. See Moulds. 

ARNCEOACH. See Carnbee. 

AENGASK, a parish in the counties of Perth, 
Kinross, and Fife. Its post-town is Kinross. It is 
bounded by the parishes of Strathmiglo, Abernethy 
Dron, Forgandenny, Forteviot, and Orwell. It has 
a somewhat circular form, and is about 4 miles in 
diameter. Its surface is wavingly and roundedly 
hilly, lying among the Ochils, with summits of 
from 600 to 800 feet above sea-level, varied and 
pleasing in appearance, and commanding exten- 
sive and beautiful prospects. The landowners who 
have more than £50 a-year of land-value amount to 
twenty-eight; and ten of them are resident. There 
are two small villages, Damhead and Duncrivie; 
and there are four corn-mills and a saw-mill. The 
little river Farg and the road from Edinburgh to 
Perth pass through the interior. See Glenfarg. 
Population in 1831, 712; in 1861, 705. Houses, 
161. Assessed property in 1865, £6,612 Is. 4d. 

This paiish was in the presbytery of Perth, but 
is now in that of Kinross, and in the synod of Fife. 
Patrons, Burt and Wardlaw. Stipend, £178 19s. 
lOd. with a manse and glebe. Schoolmaster's sal- 
ary, £50, with about i)20 fees. The parish church 
was built in 1806, and enlarged in 1821, and has 
380 sittings. There is a Free church ; and the 
yearly sum raised in connexion with it in 1865, was 
£80 lis. There are also an endowed school, and 
an adventure school. The original church of Arn- 
gask was a chapel built for the accommodation of 
the family of Balvaird and their dependants, and was 
granted in 1282 to the Abbe}' of Cambuskenneth by 
Gilbert de Frisley to whom the barony of Arngask 
or Forgie belonged. 

AENHALL. See Fettercairn. 

AENIFOUL, a village in the parish of Glammis, 
Forfarshire. Population, 73. 

AENISDALE, a village in the parish of Glenelg, 
Inverness-shire. It is situated on the side of Loch 
Hourn, amid sublime scenery, about 13 miles south 
of the village of Glenelg. A missionary of the 
Eoyal Bounty preaches here every third Sabbath. 
Population, about 600. 

AENISH-POINT. See Stornoway. 

AENISTON. See Temple and Borthwick. 

AENOLD'S SEAT. See Tannadice. 

AENOT. See Stow. 

AENPEIOR, a village in the part of the parish 
of Kippen which belongs to Perthshire. Population 




ARNTULLY, an estate and a village, in the par- 
ish el' Kinelaven, Perthshire. The estate has re- 
cently undergone great improvements. The village 
is situated 8 miles north of Perth, and inhabited by 
linen-weavers, and is in a very declining condition. 
Population, 1.7.1. 

AROS, a streamlet, a bay, a post-office station, 
and an old castle, on the east coast of the island of 
Mull, 9 miles south-south-east of Tobermory and 
18 north-north-west of Auclmacraig ferry. A road 
leads hence 4 miles to the head of Loeh-na-Keal on 
the west side of the island, iind thence 7 miles to 
Laggan-Alva, the most convenient point of embarka- 
tion for Iona and Staffa. The bay of Aros receives 
the rivulet, and is capacious and wildly picturesque. 
The old castle crowns a basaltic promontory on its 
north side, and was a residence of the Lords of the 
Isles. " Only two walls and part of a third are 
standing; but they present an interesting memento 
of the rude and gloomy grandeur of former days." 

ARRADOUL. See" Ratiiven. 

ARRAN, an island, in the frith of Clyde, forming 
part of the shire of Bute. It lies in the mouth of 
the frith, or in the centre of the large bay of the 
Northern channel formed by the peninsula of Kin- 
tyre on the west, and the Ayrshire coast on the east ; 
from the former it is distant about 6 miles, and is 
separated by the sound of Kilbrannan; from the lat- 
ter, the average distance is about 13 miles, and the 
channel betwixt them is distinguished from the 
sound on the west of the island as being the frith of 
Clyde. From the island of Bute on the north, the 
least distance is 5 miles. Its greatest length, from 
the Cock of Arran, on the north, to the Struey rocks 
on the south, is about 26 miles; and the greatest 
breadth, from Clachland's point on the east to Dri- 
modune point on the west, is 12 miles. * The gen- 
eral outline is that of an irregular ellipse, little 
indented by bays or inlets. The largest indentation 
if that of Lamlash hay betwixt Clachland's point 
and King's cross point, on the east coast. Loch 
Ranza, near the Cock, or northern extremity of the 
island, is a very small inlet. Brodick bay, a little 
to the north of Lamlash bay, between Corriegill 
point on the south, and Merkland point on the north, 
affords good anchorage in about 5 fathoms water, 
but little shelter to vessels, especially in a north- 
east gale. Including the islet of Pladda on the 
south, and Holy isle in the mouth of Lamlash bay, 
the area of Arran is about 100,000 Scots acres, of 
which 11,179 are arable, and 613 are under planta- 
tions. There is also a considerable extent of natural 
coppice-wood on the north-west and north-east 
coast. The south end of the island is remarkably 
destitute of any thing approaching to plantation, 
and even of copsewood. 

The island of Arran comprises only two parishes, 
—Kilbride on the east, and Kilmorie on the west ; 
but it is topographically divided into the five dis- 
tricts of Brodick, Lamlash, Southend, Shiskin, and 
Loch Ranza. 

The Brodick district is that portion of the island 

* Headrick estimates the length of this island, measuring 
Irom N. E. to S. W., at 34 or 35 miles ; and its breadth as vary- 
ing from 15 to 20 miles. Mr. Jardine states its length to be 
only 21 miles, and its breadth 9. Professor Jaraieson, in his 
1 Outline of the Mineralogy of Arran,' estimates its length at 32, 
and breadth at 12 miles. The writer of the article Arrau, in the 
' Penny Cyclopedia,' vaguely estimates its length from near Loch 
Ranza, in the N. N. vy„ to'Kildonan, in the S. S. E., at "some- 
what more than 20 miles; and its greatest breadth at 12." The 
Rev. Angus Macmillan, minister of Kilmorie, in his evidence be- 
fore the Commissioners of Religious Instruction, [Report VIII. p. 
470.] states the greatest length of his parish to be upwards of 30 
miles. The admeasurements in our text have been given after 
a careful examinatioi and comparison of the best maps and re- 
ports on the island. 

most frequently visited by tourists, and most gen 
orally resorted to for sea-bathing. It lies around 
the bay of the same name, and extends northwards 
to South Sannox. Its northern part is composed of 
the towering Goatfell, and its brother-mountains; 
and the beautiful glens or mountain-ravines called 
Glen Rosa or Rossie, Glen Sherrig, Glen Shant, and 
Glen Cloy, occur here. The base of the mountains 
here approaches close to the sea, so that the full 
effect of their altitude — which in Goatfell is 2,865 
feetf — imposes itself on the eye of the spectator 
from the sea or beach, while they are constantly 
varying their appearance, as seen from any quarter, 
under the accidents of weather, light, and shade. 
The lower part of Goatfell is composed of red sand- 
stone; then follows mica-slate, which is surmounted 
by a pyramidal mass of granite. The view from the 
summit embraces the coast of Ireland from Fairhead 
to Belfast loch; and the mountains of Isla, Jura, 
and Mull. The ascent may be accomplished, with 
the aid of a guide, in about two hours ; and is best 
achieved from the inn at Brodick. The natives call 
this mountain Gaodh JBhein, or Ben-Ghaoil, that is 
' the Mountain of Winds. 1 To the eye of a specta- 
tor on the summit of Goatfell — which is the loftiest 
peak in this granitic district — the neighbouring 
mountains present a wild assemblage of bare ridges, 
yawning chasms, abrupt precipices, and every fan- 
tastic form of outline, while the profound gulfs be- 
tween them are darkened by eternal shadow. The 
scenery here is nnrivalled in its kind, except per- 
haps among the Cuchullin Mountains in Skye. — On 
the north side of Brodick bay, adjoining the village, 
is the castle of Brodick, one of the seats of the Duke 
of Hamilton. It is an old irregular pile of building, 
of secluded aspect, but in good repair. The grounds 
around it are well- wooded; and the majestic heights 
of Goatfell, and Bennish [2,598 feet,] rise in the im- 
mediate background. This stronghold was surprised 
by James Lord Douglas, Sir Robert Boyd, and other 
partisans of Brace in 1306, demolished in 1456, re- 
built by James V., and garrisoned by Cromwell. 
Cromwell's garrison, to the number of 80 men, it is 
traditionally related, were surprised and cut off by 
the natives. — On the opposite side of the bay, and 
at about one mile's distance from the sea, in Glen 
Cloy, is Kilmichael, the seat of John Fullarton, Esq., 
whose immediate ancestors received this estate, and 
a farm on the west side of the island, from Robert 
Bruce, for services rendered to him while in con- 
cealment in this island. Martin says: "If tradition 
be true, this little family is said to be of seven hun 
dred years standing. The present possessor obliged 
me with the sight of his old and new charters, by 
which be is one of the king's coroners within this 
island, and as such, he hatb a halbert peculiar to his 
office; be has his right of late from the family of 
Hamilton, wherein his title and perquisites of coro- 
ner are confirmed to him and his heirs. He is 
obliged to have three men to attend him upon all 
public emergencies, and be is bound by his office to 
pursue all malefactors, and to deliver them to the 
steward, or in his absence to the next judge. And 
if any of the inhabitants refuse to pay their rents at 
the usual term, the coroner is bound to take him 
personally, or to seize his goods. And if it should 
happen that the coroner with his retinue of three 
men is not sufficient to put his office in execution, 
then he summons all the inhabitants to concur with 
him ; and immediately they rendezvous to the place, 
where he fixes his coroner's staff. The perquisites 
due to the coroner are a firlot or bushel of oats, and 

t This is Dr. Macculloch's admeasurement. Professor Play- 
fair estimates its height at 2,945; Mr. Galbraith at 2.S63 feet 




a lamb from every village in the isle ; both which 
are punctually paid Mm at the ordinary terms." 
[' Description of the Western Islands.'] Fergus 
Macloy or MacLouis, or Fullarton's, charter is dated 
Nov. 26, 1307. A number of cottages and villas are 
scattered along Brodick bay, which has become a 
favourite watering-place during the summer. Dr. 
Maccullocli speaks of it in terms of unwonted rap- 
ture. " Every variety of landscape," he says, " is 
united in this extraordinary spot. The rural charms 
of the ancient English village, unrestricted in space 
and profuse of unoccupied land, are joined to the 
richness of cultivation, and contrasted with the 
wildness of moorland and rocky pasture. On one 
hand is the wild mountain torrent, and on another, 
the tranquil river meanders through the rich plain. 
Here the sea curls on the smooth beach, and there it 
foams against a rocky shore, or washes the foot of 
the high and rugged cliffs, or the skirts of the 
wooded hill. The white sails of boats are seen pass- 
ing and repassing among trees, — the battlements of 
the castle, just visible, throw an air of ancient gran- 
deur over the woods, and, united to this variety, is 
all the sublimity and all the rudeness of the Alpine 
landscape which surrounds and involves the whole." 
["Highlands and Western Isles, 1 vol. ii. p. 29.] 
There is regular steam - communication between 
Brodick and the port of Ardrossan in Ayrshire, and 
also between Brodick and Glasgow, both by way of 
Eothesay and by way of Largs. The steamers, in 
the latter case, make the passage in about 5 hours, 
and after arriving at Brodick from Glasgow, and 
discharging their passengers there, they proceed 
round to Lamlash bay, where they lie during the 
night, returning to Brodick for passengers at an 
early hour next morning. 

Lamlash district, to the south of Brodick district, 
has but a small extent of plantation within it, and 
no hills exceeding 1,200 feet in altitude The vil- 
lage is in the form of a crescent facing the bay and 
the Holy isle, and backed by wooded heights, be- 
yond which the green and rounded summits of the 
hills in this district are seen. The church is at the 
southern extremity of the village, which is 4J miles 
distant from Brodick, and 4 miles north of Whiting 
bay. See article Kilbride. — "The bay of Lam- 
lash," says Headrick, " may be about 3 miles, in a 
right line, from its northern to its southern entrance; 
and at its centre it forms a sort of semicircle of 
nearly 2 miles across, having the Holy isle on one 
side, and the vale of Lamlash on the other. The 
northern wing projects nearly towards north-east, 
while the southern projects nearly towards south- 
east, giving to the whole a figure approaching to 
that of a horse-shoe, which prevents the waves of 
the ocean from getting into the interior bay. The 
two inlets may be about a quarter of a mile in 
breadth at their mouths, and widen gradually as 
they approach the central bay. The southern inlet 
is preferred by mariners, because here there is no 
danger but what is seen. The northern inlet is 
equally safe to those who know it : but the tails of 
rocks we have described as projected from Dun- 
Fioun, and the gradual decrease of altitude of the 
rocks on the opposite point of Holy isle, cause them 
to extend a considerable way below the sea, before 
they sink out of the reach of vessels drawing a great 
depth of water. But to those who know the chan- 
nel, there is sufficient depth, at both entrances, for 
the largest ships of the line. Within, there is good 
holding- ground, sufficient depth for the largest 
ships, and room enough for the greatest navy to 
ride at anchor. In fact, this is one of the best har- 
bours in the frith of Clyde, — if not in the world. In 
front of the village, Duchess Ann — who seems to 

have been a woman of superior capacity — caused a 
harbour to be built of large quadrangular blocks of 
sandstone. We may form some idea of the magni- 
tude and solidity of this work, when informed that 
it cost £2,913 10s. 5d. sterling, at a time when 
masons' wages are said to have been 8d., and la- 
bourers' wages 4d. per day. It is a great pity this 
building was allowed to be demolished ; because its 
ruins render the village of more difficult access from 
the sea, than if it had. never been constructed." 
[' View,' pp. 88 — 91.] This harbour has now nearly 
disappeared ; a great part of the stones have been 
carried off to build the new quay a few hundred 
yards to the north, and the sand has buried a part. 
The Holy isle is interesting as well for the beauty 
of its conical form, rising to 1,000* feet, as for the 
view from its summit, and the striking character of 
its columnar cliffs, which consist of clinkstone on a 
base of red sandstone, with a stratum of white sand- 
stone interposed. " The ascent," says Macculloch, 
" is rendered peculiarly laborious; no less from the 
steepness and irregularity of the ground, than from 
the tangled growth of the Arbutus uva ursi by which 
it is covered. The whole surface scarcely bears any 
other plant than this beautiful trailing shrub; pecu- 
liarly beautiful when its bright scarlet berries are 
present to contrast with the rich dark green of its 
elegant foliage. The columnar cliffs, which lie on 
the east side, though having no pretensions to the 
regularity of Staffa, are still picturesque, and are 
free from the stiffness too common in this class of 
rock; consisting of various irregular stages piled on 
each other, broken, and intermixed with ruder masses 
of irregular rocks, and with verdure and shrubs of 
humble growth. Beneath, a smooth and curved re- 
cess in a mass of sandstone, produces that species of 
echo which occurs in the whispering gallery of St. 
Paul's, and in other similar situations. There are 
no ruins now to be traced in Lamlash; but Dean 
Monro says that it had ' ane monastery of friars,' 
founded by John, Lord of the Isles, ' which is de- 
cayit.' That was in 1594; and what was then de- 
cayed, has now disappeared. He caDs the island 
Molass ; and it is pretended that there was a cave, f 
or hermitage, inhabited by a Saint Maol Jos, who is 
buried at Shiskin, on the south side of Arran.f It 
is further said that there was once a castle here, 
built by Somerled." — King's Cross, in this district, 
which forms the dividing headland between Lamlash 
bay and Whiting bay, is said by some to have been 
the point from whence Eobert Bruce watched for 
the fighting-up of the 'signal-flame' at Turnberry 
point, on the opposite coast of Ayrshire, which was 
to intimate to him that the way was clear for his 
making a descent on the Carrick coast. Other tra- 
ditions — which are followed by Sir Walter Scott in 
his ' Lord of the Isles.' [See Canto V. st. 7 and 17.] 
— represent Bruce as first hailing the supposed sig- 
nal, ' so flickering, fierce, and bright,' from the bat- 
tlements of Brodick castle. See Tdeneebkt. 

Southend district stretching from Largybeg point, 
the southern extremity of Whiting bay, to Kilpa- 
trick on Drimodune bay, is the most valuable district 
of the island in agricultural respects. There is here 
a belt of cultivated laud, in some places of consider- 
able breadth, between the shore and the secondary 
hills of the interior. The sceneiy is of a milder 
character than that of any other quarter of the 
island; but there is no accommodation for bathers 

* Mr. Burrel's barometrical admeasurement pave only 891 

t Headrick affirms the existence of and describes this cavo 
See ' View,' p. 80. 

% An Irish saint of the name of Molaisse flourished in the 6th 




In this direction, the only houses being a few farm- 
hamlets and scattered shielings, and the beach being 
rocky. This district is intersected by two main 
rivulets, viz. the Torlin or Torrylin, towards the 
east, and the water of Sliddery towards the west. 
These streams run nearly parallel to each other, 
from north-cast to south-west, and receive numer- 
ous tributary streams in their progress from the 
secondary mountains towards the sea. Most of the 
other burns which flow into the sea are merely 
mountain-torrents, the beds of which are nearly dry 
except when they are swelled by excessive rains. 
These burns have cut deep chasms or ravines in the 
strata; and the main streams have frequently formed 
delightful valleys, though sometimes of small ex- 
tent. Towards the head of Glen Scordel, from which 
the main branch of the water of Sliddery flows, and 
in several other places, there are vast veins of whin- 
stone, interspersed with innumerable particles of 
pyrites, which retain their full brilliancy, in spite of 
exposure to air and the astringent moss- water to the 
action of which they are subjected. " These," says 
Headrick, " the people are confident in the belief of 
being gold; and I confess I was a little staggered, 
until my ingenious friend, Dr. Thomson, by ana- 
lyzing a specimen, assured me that the gold was 
neither more nor less than pyrites of iron." — The 
islet of Pladda lies opposite Kildonan point in this 
division. See Pladda. The ruins of Kildonan 
castle, a small square fortalice, surmount the sea- 
bank here, but present no historical associations of 
interest. A large portion of the walls fell about 25 
years ago. — Auchinhew bum, in this quarter, pre- 
sents, according to Headrick, in the upper part of 
its wild ravine course, a fall or cascade, called Essie- 
more. — The Struey rocks, further to the west, or 
Bennan head, are precipitous cliffs of black basalt 
rising to an altitude of from 300 to 400 feet above a 
beach thickly strewn with their dissevered frag- 
ments. A little to the west of these rocks is a vast 
cave called the Black cave. — The kirk and manse of 
Kilmorie are situated in this district, on the Torry- 
lin, where its mouth forms a small harbour for boats. 
See Kilmokie. 

Shiskin district, so called from the little village or 
hamlet of Shiskin, or Sbedog, is chiefly remarkable 
for the extensive natural caves which occur here in 
the sandstone rocks close upon the beach. One of 
these, called the King's cove, is supposed to have 
given shelter to ' the royal Bruce.' It is situated 
opposite Portree in Higher Cardel of Kintyre. It is 
also universally reputed to have been the occasional 
residence of Fioun, * or Fingal, when he resorted to 
Arran for the purpose of hunting. " The old people 
here," says Headrick, " have many ridiculous sto- 
ries about Fioun and his heroes, which have been 
transmitted, from a remote period, by father to son, 
■ — in their progress becoming more and more extra- 
vagant. They believe Fioun and his heroes to have 
been giants of extraordinary size. They say that 
Fioun made a bridge from Kintyre to this place, 
over which he could pass, by a few steps, from the 
one land to the other. But, what is esteemed ocu- 
lar demonstration of the gigantic size of Fioun, and 
sufficient to overwhelm the most obstinate scepti- 
cism, the hero is said to have had a son born to him 
in the cave ; and a straight groove, cut on the side 
of the cave, is shown, which is firmly believed to 
have been the exact length of the child's foot the 
day after he was horn. The groove is more than 

* Fioun means fair-haired ; Gael "was added to denote his race 
or nation. Highlanders seldom apply the epithet Gael to Fioun, 
unless you express doubts concerning his extraction. But they 
often characterize him by the 6umame of MacCoul, the name of 
his father, — Headrick 


2 feet in length ; and, taking the human foot to be 
one sixth of a man's height, it follows, the child 
must have been more than 12 feet high the day after 
he was bom! The cave is scooped out of fine- 
grained white sandstone. A perpendicular vein of 
the same sandstone has stood in the centre, from 
which the strata dip rapidly on each side, forming 
the roof into a sort of Gothic arch, to which the vein 
above serves the purpose of a key-stone. At the 
back part of the cave, this vein comes down to the 
bottom, and forms a perpendicular column with a 
recess on each side. The northern recess is only a 
few feet. The southern is of uncertain extent, being 
gradually contracted in breadth, and nearly closed 
by rounded stones. The length of this recess is 
about 30 feet. From the pillar in the back-ground, 
to the mouth of the cave, exceeds 100 feet. The 
greatest breadth may be about 49 feet; and the 
greatest height the same. The mouth has been de- 
fended by a rampart of loose stones ; and stones are 
scattered through the cave which seem to have been 
used as seats. On the column there is a figure cut 
resembling a two-handed sword. Some think this 
was an exact representation of the sword of Fioun ; 
others of that of Robert Brace. To me it appears to 
be neither one nor other, but a representation of the 
cross. It stands upon a rude outline representing a 
mountain, probably Mount Calvary. On each side 
there is a figure kneeling and praying towards the 
cross. The sides of the cave exhibit innumerable 
small figures, equally rude, representing dogs chasing 
stags, and men shooting arrows at them. They also 
represent goats, sheep, cattle, and various other ani- 
mals, though the figures are so rude, that it is sel- 
dom possible to ascertain what they represent." 
Mr. Jamieson [p. 125] thinks these scratches were 
" made by idle fishermen, or smugglers." Maccul- 
loch calls them " casual scratches by idle boys." 
North of this cave are several smaller caves, which 
communicate with each other. One of these is called 
the King's kitchen, another his cellar, his larder, &o. 
On the south side there is a cave called the King's 
stable, presenting a larger area than the palace, as 
the cave of residence is called. The scene from the 
mouth of these caves, on a fine summer-day, is verv 
beautiful. And sweet it were to sit here — 

" When still and dim 
The beauty-breathing hues of eve expand ; 
When day's last roses fade on Ocean's brim, 
And Nature veils her brow, and chants her vesper-hymn." 

The Blackwater, a considerable stream, here falls 
into Drimodune bay. A small harbour has been 
constructed at its mouth, which is the ferrying-place 
to Campbellton, and from which there is a Toad 
across the island, by Shedog, the western side of 
Craigvore, Corbie's craig, Glen Ture, and Glen Sher- 
rig, to Brodick. — The Mauchry burn is another con- 
siderable stream descending from Glen Ture, and 
falling into Mauchry bay to the north of the King's 
cove. Pennant tells us that this river flows through 
a rocky channel, which in one part has worn through 
a rock, and left so contracted a gap at the top as to 
form a very easy step across. " Yet not long ago," 
he adds, " a poor woman in the attempt, after get- 
ting one foot over, was struck with such horror at 
the tremendous torrent beneath, that she remained 
for some hours in that attitude, not daring to bring 
her other foot over, till some kind passenger luckily 
came by and assisted her out of her distress ! " 

The remaining or northern portion of the island 
forms the Loch Eanza district, extending from Anch • 
nagallen, a little to the north of the Mauchry burn, 
round, by the Cock of Arran, to Come point on the 
east coast. This is a highly interesting district, in 




point of scenery. The road by the shore presents a 
succession of beautiful views; and the village or 
hamlet of Loch Eanza itself is one of the most 
picturesque spots any where to be found in the 
western islands. It has a safe harbour formed by a 
natural inlet of the sea in the mouth of the valley or 
glen. Pennant, who crossed over to this bay from 
the Argyle coast, says: " The approach was magni- 
ficent ; a fine bay in front, about a mile deep, hav- 
ing a ruined castle near the lower end, on a low far 
projecting neck of land, that forms another harbour, 
with a narrow passage ; but within has three fathom 
of water, even at the lowest ebb. Beyond is a little 
plain watered by a stream, and inhabited by the 
people of a small village. The whole is environed 
with a theatre of mountains ; and in the back-ground 
the serrated crags of G-rianan-Athol soar above." — 
[Tour to the Western Isles, pp. 191-2.] Lord Teign- 
mouth, who saw Loch Eanza under its winter-aspect, 
says: " In point of gloomy grandeur no British bay 
surpasses Loch Eanza. Dark ridges hem it in." 
We are quite sure that gloomy grandeur is not the 
common impression left by this scene on the eye 
and mind of the visitor. While residing here in 
summer we have often felt the beauty and truth of 
the sentiment conveyed in the bard's description of 
the approach of Britce's little armament to this 
point of ' Arran's isle:' — 

" The sun, ere yet he sunk behind 
Ben-Ghoil, 'the Mountain of the Wind/ 
Gave his grim peaks a greeting kind, 

And bade Loch Ranza smile. 
Thither their destined course they drew ; 
It seem'd the isle her monarch knew, 
So brilliant was the landward view, 

The ocean so serene; 
Each puny wave in diamonds roll'd 
O'er the calm deep, where hues of gold 

With azure strove and green. 
The hill, the vale, the tree, the tower, 
Glow'd with the tints of evening's hour ; 

Ttie beach was silver sheen ; 
The wind breathed soft as lover's sigh, 
And, oft renew'd, seem'd oft to die, 

With breathless pause between. 
O who, with speech of war and woes, 
Would wish to break the soft repose 

Of such enchanting scene! " 

Glensannox in this district has been compared to 
the celebrated Glencoe. " It is," says Macculloch, 
"the sublime of magnitude, and simplicity, and ob- 
scurity, and silence. Possessing no water, except 
the mountain torrents, it is far inferior to Coruisk 
in variety ; equally also falling short of it in gran- 
deur and diversity of outline. It is inferior too in 
dimensions, since that part of it which admits of a 
comparison, does not much exceed a mile in length. 
But, to the eye, that difference of dimension is 
scarcely sensible ; since here, as in that valley, there 
is no scale by which the magnitude can be deter- 
mined. The effect of vacancy united to vastness of 
dimension is the same in both: there is the same 
deception, at first, as to the space; which is only 
rendered sensible by the suddenness with which we 
lose sight of our companions, and by the sight of 
unheard torrents. Perpetual twilight appears to 
reign here, even at mid-day ; a gloomy and grey at- 
mosphere uniting, into one visible sort of obscurity, 
the only lights which the objects ever receive, re- 
flected from rock to rock, and from the clouds which 
so often involve the lofty boundaries of this valley." 
No one should visit Arran without attempting to 
make himself acquainted with the beauty of the 
coast-scenery from Brodick to Glensannox; and, 
if time permits, to travel from Sannox to Loch Ean- 
za, through Glen Halmidel, the excursion will not be 
regretted. — There is a small chapel at Loch Eanza, 
built about 60 years ago at the expense of the Duke 

of Hamilton, on the boundary between Kilmorie and 
Kilbride parishes, but within the former parish. It 
is distant, by the road, about 24 miles from Kilmorie 
church, and about 12 from the boundary of Shisken 
district. The salary of the minister is £41, secured 
by a deed of mortification executed by Ann, Duchess 
of Hamilton, bearing date, 1st April, 1710. 

The climate of Arran is moist, but is considered 
mild and healthy. . Sudden and heavy falls of rain 
in summer and autumn are its greatest disadvan- 
tages. The prevailing winds are from the south 
arid the west. Geraniums, myrtles, fuschias, and 
many other greenhouse-plants stand the winter in 
the open air at Brodick castle, and at different villas 
along the coast. — There are no foxes, badgers, or 
weasels, in Arran ; but the brown rat is very de- 
structive, and wild cats may occasionally be seen. 
Eed deer exist in the northern part of the island ; 
and American deer were introduced some years ago 
into Brodick park. Black and red grouse are abun- 
dant ; a few pheasants may sometimes be seen ; the 
capercailzie was reintroduced, with vast care, to a 
lofty and sheltered wood above Brodick castle ; the 
ptarmigan is occasionally seen on the higher moun- 
tains ; and the bittern occurs in the marshes. Trout 
are numerous; and fine sea-trout are sometimes 
taken in the Jorsa and Loch Jorsa. — The botany of 
Arran is considered rich; and the geology of it is 
more comprehensive and suggestive than that of al- 
most any other limited tract of land in Europe. 
Playfair, Jamieson, Neckar, Headrick, Macculloch, 
Sedgwick, Murchison, Nichol, and a host of other 
geological savans have made Arran the scene of 
their explorations. But any attempt on our part to 
describe its rocks and enumerate its fossils could not 
be done in sufficiently brief space, and would be un- 
interesting to general readers. But ample informa- 
tion may be had from Macculloch's " Geological 
Structure of the Western Islands of Scotland," Ja- 
mieson's " Outline of the Mineralogy of the Shet- 
land Islands and the Island of Arran," and Eam- 
say's " Geology of the Island of Arran;" and very 
pleasing and profitable information in other depart- 
ments also may be got from Landsborough's " Arran 
and its Natural History." 

The ecclesiastical statistics of Arran will be given 
in the articles Kilbride and Kilmorie; and some 
other matters will be stated in the articles Lamlash, 
Glensannox, Eanza (Loch), Pladda, Sannox, and 
a number of others. There are only four roads in 
Arran. One of them goes round the coast; another 
goes across its centre from Brodick to Blackwater 
foot; another goes across its southern part from 
Lamlash to Ben-na-Carrigan; and another connects 
two of the preceding between Glen Scoradail and 
Clachan Glen. The roads, particularly qn the 
coast, are in excellent condition; and the means 
of communication with all desirable parts of the 
mainland are very abundant. The proprietors of 
this island are the Duke of Hamilton, the Marquis 
of Bute, the Hon. Mrs. Westenra, and Fullarton 
of Kilmichael and Whitefarlane. The Duke is by 
far the greatest proprietor. His Grace's arable land, 
in 1813, was 10,228 Scots acres; and his present 
rental £10,000, arising from 458 farms or posses- 
sions. [See a valuable paper, by Mr. John Pater- 
son, in the Prize Essays of the Highland Society, 
vol. v. pp. 125—154.] Population in 1801, 5,179; 
in 1821, 6,541; in 1841, 6,241; in 1861, 5,592. 
Houses, 1,130. 

We have already, in the course of this article, 
had occasion to notice various traditions which exist 
in Arran respecting Fingal, and, though we are not 
prepared to assert with Dr. Macculloch that " Fingal 
was never heard of in Arran till lately," we mav 




vonhu'c to suggest thai some of these may owe their 
origin to the early presence of the Norwegians, 
called Fiongall, or ' white foreigners,' by the Irish 
annalists. Somerled, thane of Argyle in the 12th 
century — whose name has also occurred in this ar- 
ticle — appears to have been of Scoto-Irish descent. 
His father Gilliebrede had possessions on the main- 
land of Argyle, probably in the district of Morvem. 
When yet a youth, Somerled signally defeated a 
band of Norse pirates; and, having obtained high 
reputation for his prowess and skill in arms, was 
enabled ultimately to assume the title of Lord or 
Begulus of Argyle, and to compel Godred of Norway 
to cede to him what were then called the South 
isles, namely, Bute, Arran, Islay, Jura, Mull, and 
the peninsula of ICintvre. On the death of Somer- 
led, in 1164, Mr. Gregory conjectures that Arran 
was probably divided between his sons Eeginald 
and Angus, and may have been the cause of the 
deadly feud which existed between them. [' History 
of the Western Highlands and Isles,' Edin. 1836. 
8vo. p. 17.] Angus, with his sons, fell in an en- 
gagement with the men of Skye in 1210; where- 
upon Dugall, another son of Somerled, and the an- 
cestor of the house of Argyle and Lorn, patronv- 
mieally called Macdougal, succeeded to his pos- 
sessions. It appears, however, that the kings of 
Norway continued to be acknowledged as the 
sovereigns of the Isles, until their final cession to 
the Scottish crown by Magnus of Norway, in July, 
1266. Somerled's descendents now became vassals 
of the King of Scotlandfor all their possessions; but 
the islands of Man, Arran, and Bute were annexed 
to the Crown. See the article Hebrides. After the 
unfortunate battle of Methven, Eobert Brace lay for 
some time concealed, it is said, in Arran; and after- 
wards in the little island of Eathlin on the northern 
coast of Ireland, whence he again passed over to 
Arran with a fleet of 33 galleys, and 300 men, and 
joined Sir James Douglas, who, with a band of 
Brace's devoted adherents, had contrived to main- 
tain himself in Arran, and to seize the castle of 
Brodick, then held by Sir John Hastings, an Eng- 
lish knight; and here he projected his descent 
on the Carrick coast. Several memorials of Brace 
still exist in the names of different localities in Ar- 
ran. On the marriage of the Princess Mary, eldest 
sister of James III., to Sir Thomas Boyd, eldest son 
of Lord Boyd, in 1466, the island of Arran was 
erected into an earldom in favour of Boyd; but upon 
the forfeiture of that family, the house of Hamilton 
rose upou its ruins; and a divorce having been ob- 
tained, the Countess of Arran gave her hand to 
Lord Hamilton — to whom it had been promised in 
1454 — and conveved with it the earldom of Arran. 
[Tytler's History of Scotland, vol. iv. p. 227.] The 
title and estates of Arran then transferred have ever 
continued in the family of Hamilton to the present 
time, with the exception of a few years under the 
regency of Morton. 

AEEOCHAE, or Arroquhar, a parish, containing 
a village with a post-office of its own name, in the 
north-west comer of Dumbartonshire. It is bound- 
ed on the north by Strathfillan in Perthshire; on 
the east by Perthshire and Lochlomond to Nether 
Inveruglass; on the south by the parish of Luss, 
from which it is separated by the Douglass burn; 
and on the west by the upper part of Loch Long, 
and Argyleshire. Its extent is nearly 15 miles, 
exclusive of the farms of Ardleish and Doune, which 
lie on the east side of Lochlomond, at the northern 
end of it; and its mean breadth may be computed at 
3 miles. The area, according to the Ordnance survey, 
is 28,832 acres; but little more than one-fiftieth 
is arable. A large portion is covered with oak- 

coppice. This is a very picturesque region; it is 
mountainous throughout, and presents some fine 
lake-scenery. The principal mountain is Ben- 
Voirlich which, according to Bone, has an altitude 
of 3,300 feet; or, according to the writer of the ar- 
ticle Dumbartonshire, in the Penny Cyclopaedia, of 
3,330 feet, " that is," the writer adds, " above 100 
feet higher than the adjacent Ben-Lomond." But, 
according to the Ordnance survey, its altitude is 
only 3,180 feet; while that of Ben-Lomond is stated 
at 3,195 feet. It forms a noble object in the land- 
scape to the tourist ascending either Loch Lomond 
or Loch Long. Its position is about 6 miles to the 
north of the head of Loch Long, and 3 west of 
Ardvoirlich on Loch Lomond. The principal 
streams within the parish are the Falloch, descend- 
ing from Glen Falloch into the head of Loch Lo- 
mond; the Inveruglass from Loch-Sloy; and the 
Douglass, which falls into Loch Lomond opposite 
Eowardennan. The streams which fall into Loch 
Long have a comparatively short course. — The 
sceneiy of the upper part of Loch Lomond, in this 
parish, is neither so extensive nor so magnificent as 
towards the middle and lower end ; it is, however, 
of a wilder and more romantic character. The lake 
is here narrow and river-like, as most of the Scot- 
tish lakes are ; and the adjoining hills, broken and 
ragged in their outlines, rise up at once abruptly 
and precipitously from the water. Still, however, 
the scenery is such as must afford high gratification 
to every lover of the picturesque. The romantic 
and varied shores, — the bold projecting headlands 
and retiring bays, — the rugged and serrated hills, — 
and the numerous openings of the deep and lonely 
glens, — forming together a picture of peculiar and 
enchanting interest ; the effect of which is heightened 
in a surprising degree, when all the magic tints of 
its varied surface are awakened by the brightness 
of a summer's sun. Then, and then only, can it be 
seen in its full effect. — In ancient times, the land 
forming the western shore of Loch Lomond, from 
Tarbet upwards, and the greater part of this parish, 
was inhabited by 

' The wild Macfarlane's plaided clan.* 

The Macfarlanes — Parians or Pharlans — are proved, 
by a charter still extant, to have descended from 
Gilchrist, the brother of Maldowen or Maldwin, the 
third Earl of Lennox ; they held their lands in Ar- 
rochar, by a grant in that charter to Gilchrist by 
the Earl; and they retained these lands, as their 
principal inheritance, at all times, till the death of 
their last chief. They had, for their war-cry, "Loch 
Sloy ! Loch Sloy ! " and they took this from a small 
lake, Loch Sloy, properly Loch Sloighe, at the back 
of Ben Vorlich. Tradition says that they fought at 
that lake a battle against some Northlar.ders, forc- 
ing them into its dark and gloomy waters; and that 
they then gave it the name of Loehansloighe, which 
means "the small lake of the host or multitude." 
They appear to have, on all occasions, supported 
the Earls of Lennox, and to have followed their 
banner in the field. For several generations, in- 
deed, they make no figure in history, and seem to 
have merged into mere retainers of the earls. But 
in the 16th century, Duncan Macfarlane of Mac- 
farlane acted sternly in support of Matthew, Earl of 
Lennox ; marched at the bead of 300 men of his 
own name, in 1544, into junction with Lennox and 
Glencairn ; was present at the battle of Glasgow 
Muir; and shared then and afterwards the fate of 
the party he supported. Andrew, the son of Dun • 
can, engaged in the civil wars of the 'period ; took 
part with the Eegent, in opposition to almost all the 
Highland chiefs ; was present with a body of his 




followers, at the battle of Langside; and, falling 
fiercely on the flank of the Queen's army in the 
hottest of the fight, threw them into irretrievable 
disorder, and thus mainly contributed to decide the 
fortune of the day. Walter, the grandson of Dun- 
can, made a vigorous stand for the royal party ; 
was twice besieged in his own house in the time of 
Cromwell; and so provoked the English by his 
indomitable zeal that they afterwards burnt down 
his castle of Inveruglass. John Macfarlane, who 
was chief of the clan in 1697, built in that year the 
castle of Inverreoch, at the back of what is now 
called Arrochar House ; and over the front door of 
this mansion is a stone taken from the lintel of 
that castle, with a Scotch thistle and the date 1697. 
Walter Macfarlane of Macfarlane, the antiquary, 
shed a lustre on the name in another and far higher 
way than ever did any chief of the clan ; for he is 
much and justly celebrated as the indefatigable 
collector of the ancient records of Scotland. A val- 
uable portrait of him, presented by his friends, was 
hung up in the Glasgow cathedral, but carried off 
by some miscreant; and the late Principal Macfar- 
lane of Glasgow college, himself a great antiquary, 
made earnest but vain attempts to recover the por- 
trait. By far the largest proprietor of Arrochar 
parish now is Sir James Colquhoun of Luss, Bart. 
The conspicuous mountain, popularly called the 
Cobbler, situated on the north-west of the head of 
Loch Long, and very generally described as con- 
nected with Arrochar, is in the parish of Lochgoil- 
head and county of Argyle. The village of Arrochar 
stands near the bead of Loch Long, on the east side, 
2 miles from Tarbet, 17jfrom Helensburgh, 22 from 
Dumbarton by way of Luss, and 23f from Inverary, 
is a choice summer retreat and watering-place; con- 
tains an excellent hotel, and a number of pleasant 
villas ; and has daily communication with Glasgow, 
during summer, both by steamers direct on Loch 
Long, and by access to the Loch Lomond steamers 
at Tarbet. Pop. of the parish in 1861, 629. Houses, 
117. Assessed property in 1843, £3,096 3s. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Dumbarton, and 
synod of Glasgow and Ayr. Patron, Sir James 
Colquhoun, Bart. Stipend, including the glebe, £260. 
Schoolmaster's salary, £50. The parish church was 
built in 1 847. Thereis a Free church ; and the yearly 
sum raised by it in 1865 was £145 0s. 7d. The ter- 
ritory of Arrochar was originally part of the parish 
of Luss, and was made a separate parish in 1658. 

ARTHUR, a name of frequent occurrence in 
Scottish as well as Welsh and English topography, 
and generally traced by the voice of Tradition to the 
far-famed Arthur of romance. " It is amusing to re- 
mark," says Chalmers, in his elaborate ' Caledonia,' 
[vol. i. p. 244,] "how many notices the North- Bri- 
tish topography furnishes, with regard to Arthur, 
whose fame seems to brighten, as inquiry dispels the 
doubts of scepticism, and archaiology establishes the 
certainties of truth. — In Clydesdale, within the pa- 
rish of Crawford, there is Arthur's fountain: in 
1239, there was a grant of David de Lindsay to the 
monks of Newbotle, of the lands of Brotheralwyn, 
in that district, which were bounded, on the west 
part, ' a fonte Arthuri risque ad summitate montis.' 
Chart. Newbotle, N. 148. — The Welsh poets assign 
a palace to Arthur, among the Northern Britons, at 
Penryn-ryoneth. In Lhuyd's Cornish vocabulary, 
p. 238, Penryn rioneth is called, the seat of the 
Prince of Cumbria: and see also Eichard's Welsh 
Dictionary. The British Penryn supposes a pro- 
montory, -with some circumstance which redupli- 
cates its height ; and this intimation points to Al- 
cluyd, the well-known metropolis of the Romanized 
Britons, in Strathclyde. Now a parliamentary re- 

cord of the reign of David II., in 1367, giving a 
curious detail of the king's rents and profits in Dun- 
bartonshire, states the ' redditum assize Castri Ar- 
thuri.' MSS. Eeg. House; Paper-Office. The castle 
of Dunbarton, therefore, was the Castram Arthuri, 
long before the age of David II. See the site oi 
Dunbarton, in Ainslie's Map of Eenfrewshire. Tha 
Point of Cardross was the Ehyn-ryoneth ; the castle 
of Dunbarton was the Penrhyn-ryoneth. Accord- 
ing to the British Triads, Kentigem, the well-known 
founder of the church of Glasgow, had his episcopal 
seat at Penrhyn-ryoneth. — The romantic castle of 
Stirling was equally supposed, during the middle 
ages, to have been the festive scene of the round- 
table of Arthur. ' Bex Arthurus,' says William of 
Worcester, in his Itinerary, page 311, ' custodiebat 
le round-table in castro de Styrlyng, aliter, Snowdon- 
west-castell.' The name of Snowdon castle is no- 
thing more than the Snua-dvm of the Scoto-Irish 
people, signifying the fort, or fortified hill on the 
river, as we may Team from O'Brien, and Shaw; and 
the Sixua-dun has been converted to Snow-dun, by 
the Scoto-Saxon people, from a retrospection to tho 
Snow-dun of Wales, which is itself a mere transla 
tion from the Welsh. — In Neilston parish, in Een 
frewshire, there still remain Arthur-lee, Low Ar- 
thur-lee, and West Arthur-lee. — Arthur's-oven, on 
the Carron, was known by that name, as early, if 
not earlier, than the reign of Alexander III. In 
1293, William Gurlay granted to the monks of New- 
botle ' fimrationem unius stagni ad opus molendini 
sui del Stanhus quod juxts* fumum Arthuri infra 
baronium de Dunypas est.' Chart. Newbotle, No. 
239. — The name of Arthur's-Seat, at Edinburgh, is 
said, by a late inquirer, ' to be only a name of yes- 
terday.' Yet, that remarkable height had that dis- 
tinguished name before the publication of Camden's 
Britannia, in 1585, as we may see in p. 478; and 
before the publication of Major, in 1521, as appears 
in fo. 28; and even before the end of the 15th cen- 
tury, as Kennedy, in his flyting with Dunbar, men- 
tions ' Arthur Sate or ony hicher hill.' Bamsay's 
Evergreen, v. ii. p. 65. — This is not the only hill 
which bears the celebrated name of Arthur. Not 
far from, the top of Loch-Long, which separates 
Argyle and Dunbarton, there is a conical hill that is 
called Arthur's Seat. * Guide to Loch Lomond, pi. 
iii. — A rock, on the north side of the hill of Dun- 
barrow, in Dunnichen parish, Forfarshire, has long 
bore, in the tradition of the country, the distinguish- 
ed name of Arthur's Seat. Stat. Acco. v. i. p. 419. 
— In the parish of Cupar- Angus, in Perthshire, there 
is a standing stone, called the Stone of Arthur; 
near it is a gentleman's seat, called Arthur-stone ; 
and not far from it is a farm, named Arthur's fold.— 
But, it is at Meigle, in the same vicinity, that the 
celebrity of Arthur, and the evil fame of his queen 
Venora, are most distinctly remembered. Pennant's 
Tour, v. ii. pp. 177-8; and Stat. Acco. v. i. p. 506: 
and above all, see Bellenden's Boece, fo. lxviii, for 
the origin of the popular fictions at Meigle, about 
Arthur and Venora. — The Scottish chroniclers, Bar- 
bour and Wyntown, were perfectly acquainted with 
the Arthur of romance. We may easily infer, from 
the local facts, that his story must have been equally 
known to Thomas of Ercildun, a century sooner. 
In 1293, the monks of Newbotle knew bow to make 
a mill-dam with the materials which they found on 
the banks of the Carron. Sir Michael Bruce of 
Stanhus thought it necessary, in 1743, to pull down 
Arthur's Oon, one of the most curious remains of 
antiquity, for the stones which it furnished, for 
building a mill-dam. The enraged antiquaries con- 

* Ben-Arthur or the Cobbler is here meant 




signed Sir Michael to eternal ridicule. See the 
Antiquary Repertory, v. iii. pp. 74--5. Sir David 
Lindsay, in his ' Complayiit' Of the Papingo, makes 
her take leave of Stirling castle thus: 

*Adew fair Siiawdoun, with thy towris hio, 
Thy chnpell royall, park, and tabill round.' 

And, in his ' Dremo,' he mentions his having di- 
verted James V., when young, with ' antique storeis 
and deidis martiall, 

Of Hector, Arthur, and gentile Julius, 
Of Alexander, and worthy Pompeius.' 

This shows that the stories of Arthur were then 
ranked among those of the most celebrated heroes 
of Antiquity." See Arthur's Oven, Arthur's Seat, 
Arrochar, and Meigle. 

ARTHURLEE, several localities a little west of 
Barrhead, in the parish of Neilston, Renfrewshire. 
The lands of Arthurlee anciently belonged to a 
branch of the Damley family; but they are now 
divided among various proprietors, and are dotted 
with mansions, public works, and villages. One of 
the earliest bleachfields in Scotland was established 
at Cross-Arthurlee about the year 1773. A cotton 
mill was built at Arthurlee in 1790. A new and 
very extensive printfield, for all kinds of calicoes, 
was erected at South-Arthurlee in 1835. The whole 
tract shares largely in the manifold industry of the 
parish of Neilston, and enjoys abundant facility of 
communication in the Glasgow and Neilston Rail- 
way. The largest seats of population on it are the 
villages of Cross-Arthurlee and West- Arthurlee. 
Population in 1861 of Cross- Arthurlee, 663; of West- 
Arthurlee, 474. 

ARTHUR'S OVEN, or Arthur's Oon, a remark- 
able Roman antiquity, destroyed in 1743, but till 
then singularly well -preserved, iu the parish of Lar- 
bert, Stirlingshire. The place on which it stood is 
a piece of ground, about 50 feet square, now used as 
a washing-green, about 300 feet north of the north- 
west comer of the Carron Iron- Works. The build- 
ing was highly famous among antiquaries, and can 
still be well understood by means of accurate draw- 
ings of it, and perhaps may continue for many ages 
to come as interesting to the curious as any existing 
ancient monument. The following account of it is 
given in the Caledonia Romana: — "This building 
was of a circular form, its shape in some measure 
resembling that of a common bee-hive. It measured 
at the base from twenty-nine to thirty yards in cir- 
cumference, and continued of the same dimensions 
to the height of eight feet, from which point it con- 
verged gradually inwards in its ascent, till, at an 
elevation of twenty-two feet, the walls terminated 
in a circle, leaving in the top of the dome a round 
opening twelve feet in diameter. On its western 
side was an arched doorway nine feet in extreme 
height, and above it an aperture resembling a win- 
dow, of a slightly triangular form, three feet in 
height, and averaging nearly the same in width. 
The whole was formed of hewn freestone, laid in 
regular horizontal courses, the first of them resting 
upon a thick massive basement of the same mate- 
rial, which, to follow out the simile, represented 
with curious fidelity the common circular board on 
which the cottage hive is usually placed. The in- 
terior of the structure corresponded with its general 
appearance from without, the only difference being 
in the concavity of the shape, and in its having two 
projecting stone cornices round its interior surface, 
the one at a height of four and the other of six feet 
from the ground. The style of the workmanship 
was singularly perfect, and showed an intimate ac- 
quaintance with masonic art. No cement of any de- 

scription had been made uso of in its construction, 
yet the stones were so accurately joined together, 
that even the difficult process of forming so diminu- 
tive a cupola by the concentration of horizontal 
courses, was accomplished there in the most skilful 
and enduring manner." 

ARTHUR'S SEAT, a picturesque and conspicu- 
ous hill iu the immediate eastern environs of Edin- 
burgh. Its base is nearly a mile long; and its sum- 
mit has an altitude of 822 feet above the level of the 
6ea. See the article Edinburgh. It commands a 
beautiful prospect on all sides, and forms a principal 
and imposing object from every point of approach 
to the capital of Scotland. The ascent is usually 
made from the precincts of Holyrood, or, on the 
opposite side from Duddingstone village. Taking 
the former route, after crossing the lower park, we 
leave the ruins of St. Anthony's chapel a little to 
the left. " A better site for such a building," says 
Sir Walter Scott, " could hardly have been selected; 
for the chapel, situated among the rude and pathless 
cliffs, lies in a desert, even in the immediate vicinity 
of a rich, populous and tumultuous capital ; and the 
hum of the city might mingle with the orisons of the 
recluses, conveying as little of worldly interest as 
if it had been the roar of the distant ocean. Be- 
neath the steep ascent on which these ruins are still 
visible, was, and perhaps is, still pointed out, the 
place where the wretch Nicol Muschat had closed a 
long scene of cruelty towards his unfortunate wife, 
by murdering her with circumstances of uncommon 
barbarity. The execration in which the man's 
crime was held, extended itself to the place where 
it was perpetrated, which was marked by a small 
cairn or heap of stones, composed of those which 
each passenger had thrown there in, testimony of 
abhorrence, and on the principle, it would seem, of 
the ancient British malediction — ' May you have a 
cairn for your burial-place.' " [' Heart of Mid- 
Lothian.'] In Maitland's ' History of Edinburgh,' 
[1753,] these ruins are described as being 43J feet 
long, 18 broad, and as many high, with a tower of 
19 feet square. 

By striking off to the right, and pursuing an easy 
ascent over the green sward, we may gain the sum- 
mit of the fine bold basaltic range called Salisbury 
crags, of which, says our immortal novelist, " If I 
were to choose a spot from which the rising or set- 
ting sun could be seen to the greatest possible ad- 
vantage, it would be that wild path winding around 
the foot of the high belt of semicircular rocks, called 
Salisbury crags, and marking the verge of the steep 
descent which slopes down, into the glen on the 
south-eastern side of the city of Edinburgh. The 
prospect, in its general outline, commands a close- 
built, high-piled city, stretching itself out in a form 
which, to a romantic imagination, may be supposed 
to represent that of a dragon ; now a noble arm of 
the sea, with its rocks, isles, distant shores, and 
boundary of mountains ; and now a fair and fertile 
champaign country, varied with hill, dale, and rock, 
and skirted by the picturesque ridge of the Pentland 
mountains. But as the path gently circles around 
the base of the cliffs, the prospect, composed as it is 
of these enchanting and sublime objects, changes at 
every step, and presents them blended with, or di- 
vided from, each other in every possible variety 
which can gratify the eye and the imagination. 
When a piece of scenery so beautiful, yet so varied, 
— so exciting by its intricacy, and yet so sublime, 
is lighted up by the tints of morning or of evening, 
and displays all that variety of shadowy depth, 
exchanged with partial brilliancy, which gives 
character even to the tamest of landscapes, the 
effect approaches near to enchantment. This path 




used to be my favourite evening and morning resort, 
when engaged with a favourite author, or new sub- 
>eet of study." [' Heart of Mid-Lothian.'] 

The ascent of Arthur's Seat itself may be done 
either directly and steeply up the hill right south 
of St. Anthony's chapel, or circuitously and gently 
by way of Victoria Road to Dunsapie Loch, and 
thence westward; and in the former case is short — 
and in the latter very easy. To depict the scene 
from the summit, we must employ the same living 
pencil that has traced the landscape from the chapel 
and the crags. " A nobler contrast there can 
hardly exist than that of the huge city, dark with 
the smoke of ages, and groaning with the various 
sounds of active industry or idle revel, and the lofty 
and craggy hill, silent and solitary as the grave; 
one exhibiting the full tide of existence, pressing 
and precipitating itself forward with the force of an 
inundation; the other resembling some time-wom 
anchorite, whose life passes as silent and unobserved 
as the slender rill which escapes unheard, and 
scarce seen from the fountain of his patron-saint. 
The city resembles the busy temple, where the 
modern Comus and Mammon held their court, and 
thousands sacrifice ease, independence, and virtue 
itself, at their shrine; the misty and lonely moun- 
tain seems as a throne to the majestic but terrible 
genius of feudal times, where the same divinities 
dispensed coronets and domains to those who had 
heads to devise and arms to execute bold enter- 
prises." [' Introduction to the Chronicles of the 

The summit of Arthur's Seat is small, tabular, 
and rocky, and is so strongly magnetic that the 
needle, at some points of it, is completely reversed. 
The general mass of the hill comprises a diversity of 
n-uptive rocks, together with some interposed and 
uptilted sedimentary ones ; and it forms a rich study 
to geologists, and presents phenomena about which 
the ablest of them disagree or are in doubt. A fa- 
vourite theory supposes it to have been a submarine 

ARTORNISH. A castle, and anciently a chief 
stronghold and residence of the Lords of the Isles, 
on the west coast of Morven, Argyleshire. It stands 
between a chain of rocks and the entrance of Loch 
Aline, nearly opposite the bay of Aros in Mull. 
The ruins are now inconsiderable, but the situation 
is wild and romantic in the highest degree. From 
this castle, John de Yle, designing himself Earl of 
Ross, and Lord of the Isles, in 1461, granted, in the 
style of an independent sovereign, a commission to 
certain parties to enter into a treaty with Edward 
IV. Sir Walter Scott has given the articles of this 
treaty in his Appendix to ' The Lord of the Isles,' 
[Note A.] — the opening scene of which poem is laid 
in " Artornish hall," where 

" the noble and the bold 
of Island chivalry " 

were assembled to do honour to the nuptials of the 
hapless "Maid of Lorn;" and 

"met from mainland and from isle, 
Ross, Arran, Islay, and Argyle, 
Each Minstrel's tributary lay 
Paid homage to the festal day." 

ARY (The). See Aray (The). 

ASCOG, an estate, a bay, a lake, a considerable 
seat of population, and a post-office station, in the 
north-east of the parish of Kingarth, in the 
island of Bute. The estate belongs to the Thorn 
family, and has a mansion in the style of the 17th 
century. The bay is about 1 J mile south of Bogany 
Point, and about the same distance south-east of the 
'own of Rothesay. The lake lies along the mutual 

boundary of the parishes of Kingarth and Rothesay, 
and has an area of 75J acres. A new church, for 
the accommodation of the numerous and increasing 
inhabitants of the neighbourhood, was founded at 
Ascog Point on the 3d of October, 1842. 

ASCRIB ISLES. Se Snizort. 

ASHDALE, a rivulet and a glen in the southern 
extremity of the parish of Kilbride, in the island of 
Arran. The rivulet has a run of only about 4 miles, 
chiefly eastward, from a lofty mountain source, to 
Whiting bay; and in the course of its progress it 
makes two beautiful cascades, the one about fifty 
feet deep, and the other upwards of an hundred. 
The glen is grandly picturesque and wildly roman 
tic, and shows some interesting basaltic features. 

ASHDOW. See Killeark. 

ASHENYARD LOCH. See Kilwikktng. 

ASHIESTEEL, a residence on the right bank of 
the Tweed, and north border of the parish of Yar 
row, Selkirkshire. It is about 6 miles east by south 
of Innerleithen, and nearly the same distance west 
of Galashiels. Sir Walter Scott lived here during 
ten years, and here won his earliest laurels, and 
has celebrated it in his poetry. A bridge was re- 
cently built in its vicinity across the Tweed, of rub- 
ble whinstone, and comprising only one arch, and 
that of 136 feet span. 

ASHKIRK, a parish partly in Selkirkshire, but 
chiefly in Roxburghshire. It contains a small vil- 
lage of its own name, with a post-office. It is 
hounded on the north by Selkirk; on the east by 
Minto and Lilliesleaf; on the south by Roberton 
and Wilton; and on the west by Yarrow. It is 
about 7 miles long, and 3 broad. The surface is all 
hilly, but most of the hills are free from heath. 
The soil in general is light, and in several parts 
spongy. A good deal has been done of late years 
in draining and planting. The cultivated land 
amounts to about 2,800 acres. About 400 acres 
are under wood. The real rental in 1847 was 
£4,720. Assessed property in 1865, £5,976 4s. 3d. 
The only river in the parish is the Ale, which runs 
through it, in a narrow valley, from south-west to 
north-east. But there are several small lochs — ■ 
none of them exceeding a mile in circumference — 
which discharge their waters into the Ale, and con- 
tain trout, perch, and pike. There are eight land- 
owners : the chief of whom are Scott of Synton and 
the Earl of Minto. The parish was formerly a 
vicarage belonging to the chapter of Glasgow; and 
the greater number of the present proprietors still 
hold of the college of Glasgow. The bishop of Glas- 
gow had a palace here, of which the last relics have 
disappeared within the memory of man. The 
parish itself was in early times wholly divided 
amongst the family of Scott. The road from