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GORDON - CASTLE, or Castle - Gordon, the 
Scottish seat of the Duke of Richmond, formerly the 
residence of the Dukes of Gordon, in the parish of 
Bellie, Morayshire. It stands on the eastern verge 
of the county, between the old and the new course 
of the Spey, about a mile north of Fochabers. It is 
approached, on the high road between Fochabers 
and the Spey, by a gateway, consisting of a lofty 
arch, between two domes, and elegantly finished. 
The road thence winds about a mile "through a 
green parterre, skirted with flowering shrubbery, 
and groups of tall spreading trees, till it is lost in 
an oval in front of the castle. There is, besides 
this, another approach from the east, sweeping for 
several miles through the varied scenery of the park, 
and enlivened by different pleasant views of the 
country around, the river, and the ocean. The 
castle stands on a flat, at some distance from the 
Moray frith, from which the ground gradually as- 
cends ; hut it possesses a much finer view than 
might be supposed in such a situation, commanding 
as it does the whole plain, with all its wood, and a 
variety of reaches on the river, together with the 
town and shipping of Garmouth. The original of 
the castle was a gloomy tower, in the centre of a 
morass, called the Bog of Gight, and accessible 
only by a narrow causeway and bridge. See Bog 
op Gight. But the present pile is a grand pala- 
tial quadrangular mass of edifices, with a frontage 
of no less than 568 feet. Its breadth, however, 
is various, and its whole style a harmonized di- 
versity ; insomuch that the breaks arising from 
the different depths create a variety of light and 
shade which obviates the appearance of excess in 
uniformity throughout so great a frontage. The 
body of the pile is of four stories. In its southern 
front stands entire the tower of the original castle, 
harmonizing ingeniously with the modern palace, 
and rising many feet above it. The wings are mag- 
nificent pavilions of two lofty stories, connected by 
galleries of two lower stories ; and beyond the pavi- 
lions are extended to either hand buildings of one 
floor and an attic story. The whole edifice is exter- 
nally of white, hard, finely dressed Elgin freestone, 
and finished all around with a fine cornice and a 
handsome battlement. Its internal arrangements 
and decoration's, as also the embellishments of its 
park, are in good keeping with its imposing exterior. 
The dukedom of Gordon was created in 1684. The 
fifth and last Duke died in 1836. He was also Mar- 
quis of Huntly, Earl of Huntly, Viscount of Inver- 


ness, and Baron of Badenoch, Lochaber, Strath- 
aven, Balmore, Achindoun, Gartly, and Kincardine, 
in the peerage of Scotland ; and Earl of Norwich, 
and Baron Gordon of Huntly, in the peerage of 
Great Britain. At his death, his estates passed 
partly to the Earl of Aboyne and partly to the Duke 
of Richmond ; his titles of Marquis of Huntly and 
Baron of Badenoch passed to the Earl of Aboyne, 
and his other titles became extinct. 

GORDON-PORT. See Port-Gordon. 

GORDONSBURGH. See Maryburgh. 

GORDON'S MILLS, a small village, on the south 
shore of the Cromarty frith, at the mouth of the 
Resolis bum, in the parish of Resolis, Cromarty- 
shire. An establishment here was occupied for 
some time as a snuff-manufactory, and afterwards 
as a wool-carding-mill. 

GORDON'S MILLS, Aberdeenshire. See Aber- 

GORDONSTOWN, a village in the parish of 
Auchterless, Aberdeenshire. Population 98. See 

GORE (The), a rivulet of the south-east of Edin- 
burghshire. It is formed by the confluence of the 
north and south Middleton burns, at the centre of 
the parish of Borthwick; and it runs 3 J miles north- 
westward thence, to a junction with the South Esk, 
at the picturesque locality of Shank Point. 

GOREBRIDGE, a post-office village, in the de- 
tached district of the parish of Temple, Edinburgh- 
shire. It stands on Gore water, contiguous to the 
village of Stobbs, 10 miles south-east by south of 
Edinburgh. It has an United Presbyterian church, 
two schools, and a subscription library ; and is a 
station of the county police. There is a station for it 
on the Hawick branch of the North British railway ; 
but the distance of that from Edinburgh, by the 
railway route, is 12 miles. Population in 1861, 446. 
See Stobbs. 

GORGASK (The), a burn, occasionally swelled 
into an impetuous torrent, in the parish of Laggan, 

GORIESHILL. See Don (The). 

GORM (Loch), a small lake, excellent for ang- 
ling, in the parish of Kiltarlity, on the north border 
of Invemess-shire. 

GORM (Loch), a considerable lake, of picturesque 
character, in the parish of Assynt, Sutherlandshire. 

GORM (Loch), a lake of 600 acres in extent, and 
from 5 to 7 feet deep, in the parish of Kilchoman, 
island of Islay. It abounds in small trout. 



GOEMACK. See Caputh. 

GOETHY. See Fowlis Wester. 

GOBTLICK, or Gortleo, a post-office station, in 
the parish of Dores, Inverness-shire. See Doreb. 

GOSELAND, a hill, about 1,700 feet high, in the 
parish of Kilbucho, Peebles-shire. 

GOSFOED. See Aberladt. 

GOSSABUEGH, a post-office station, subordinate 
to Lerwick, in Shetland. 

GOULDIE, a village in the parish of Monikie, 

GOULE'S DEN. See Kilmaxjt. 

GOUEDIE. See Currie. 

GOURDON, a fishing-village in the parish of 
Bervie, 1J mile south of the town of Bervie, Kincar- 
dineshire. It has about 20 boats employed variously 
in fishing, and is also a shipping-place for grain, 
and a, place of import for coals, lime, and other 
common bulky articles. Its harbour was improved 
a few years ago, at a cost of about £2,000, and now 
serves as a place of commerce for a tract of sea- 
board intermediate between Stonehaven and Mon- 
trose. Vessels drawing 12 feet of water can enter 
it at ebb tide, and lie at anchor till the flood carry 
them to the point of the quay, where it rises 17 feet. 
Contiguous to the harbour are several large excel- 
lent granaries, with extensive sheds for lime, &c. 
Population, 497. 

GOUEDON HILL. See Bervie. 

GOUEOCK, a post-town, burgh of barony, small 
sea-port, and fashionable watering - place, in the 
parish of Innerkip, Renfrewshire. It commences 
at a spot about 2 J miles below Greenock, and wends 
about 1J mile along the shore. Its main part is 
Gourock proper, extending from the extreme east 
to Kempock Point, in a sweeping curve round 
Gourock bay, the eastern portion looking north- 
ward, direct across the frith to Eoseneath, and the 
western portion looking eastward, or east-north- 
eastward obliquely to Helensburgh. The part be- 
low Kempock Point is Ashton, extending in a slight 
curve along the shore towards the south-west, and 
looking north-wcgtward direct across the frith to 
Kilmun bill, and the Holy Loch, and Dunoon. See 
Ashton. A large proportion of the whole town 
lines the landward side of the Greenock and Inner- 
kip road, running nearly on a dead level close to 
the beach, only two or three feet above high-water 
mark ; and two-thirds of this in Gourock proper, as 
well as a small portion past Kempock Point, con- 
sists mainly of continuous lines or blocks of two 
or three story houses, the lower story much disposed 
in shops. But some of Gourock proper toward the 
east, and the greater part of all Ashton, are princi- 
pally chains of villas and cottages ornees. The 
central part of the town, also, onward to the vicinity 
of Kempock, rises backward in a gentle brae, par- 
tially occupied with short transverse streets, and 
here and there crowned either with the public build- 
ings, or with the most ambitious of the private resi- 
dences. The view seaward from the town is every- 
where charming, and comprises much diversity; 
the ground behind rises rapidly to steep faces of 
trappean hills, whose sides offer a tempting ramble 
to pedestrians, and lead up to exquisite Clyde-com- 
manding summits ; the gentlest part of the ascent, 
situated toward the east end of Gourock proper, and 
comprising some exquisite close scenery, is occupied 
by the park and mansion of Gourock house, the seat 
of D. Darroch, Esq. ; and the whole town, for its 
neat, cleanly, cheerful aspect, for its snug, spruce, 
comfortable abodes, for its well-built, convenient 
stone-pier and jetty, and for its ready command of 
good bathing-ground, and of the general conveni- 
ences and comforts of life, is well-worthy of the re- 

putation it has acquired as a first-class watering 
place. Were it situated much further than it is 
from Glasgow, it could not fail to obtain favour ; but 
happening to be the most accessible to the Glasgow 
citizens of all their many watering-places, it is 
always crowded in summer, and sometimes con- 
tains not a few sojourners even in winter. 

The bay of Gourock possesses great advantages 
for a sea-port, being well-sheltered, and unobstructed 
by bank or shoal, and having depth of water for 
vessels of any burden ; nevertheless, the shipping- 
trade has been attracted higher up the frith. So 
early as the year 1494, when Greenock was a mean 
fishing-village, and long before Port-Glasgow was 
known even by name, the eligibility of Gourock as 
a haven was appreciated. This appears from an 
indenture entered into at Edinburgh on the 27th of 
December, 1494, between that redoubted seaman, 
Sir Andrew Wood of Largs, and other two per- 
sons, on behalf of the King, on the one part, and 
" Nicholas of Bour, maister, under God, of the schip 
called the Verdour," on the other part, whereby it 
was stipulated that " the said Nicholas sail, God 
willing, bring the said Verdour, with mariners and 
stuff for them, as effeirs, to the Goraik, on the west 
bordour and sey [sea], aucht mylis fra Dunbertain, 
or tharby, be the first day of the moneth of May 
nixt to cum, and there the said Nicholas sail, 
with grace of God, ressave within the said schip 
thre hundreth men boden for wer [equipped for war], 
furnist with ther vitales [victuals], harnes, and ar- 
tilzery, effeirand to sa mony men, to pass with the 
kingis hienes, at his plessore, and his lieutennentes 
and deputis, for the space of twa monthis nixt, and 
immediat folowand the said first day of May, and 
put thaim on land, and ressave thaim again ;" 
for which there was to be given to the shipmaster 
£300 Scots money, being at the rate of £1 Scots for 
each man. From the terms of this agreement, and 
from the spot appointed for the rendezvous being on 
the west coast, it is evident that the vessel was fit- 
ted out for the use of the King himself, James IV., 
in one of the voyages which he undertook, about 
the time in question, to the Western isles, for the 
purpose of bringing their turbulent inbabitants 
into subjection ; and at Gourock, in all probabi- 
lity, he embarked. — The lands of Gourock formed 
the western part of the barony of Finnart, which 
belonged to the great family of Douglas. On the 
forfeiture of their estates in 1455, this portion 
was conferred by the Crown on the Stewarts of 
Castlemilk, from whom it was called Finnart-Stew- 
art. It continued in their possession till 1784, when 
it was sold to Duncan Darroch, Esq., to whose de- 
scendant it now belongs. About the year 1747, the 
old castle of Gourock was entirely removed, and the 
present mansion erected near its site. 

The town of Gourock has, we believe, been re- 
sorted to for sea-bathing longer than any other 
place on this coast. In 1694 it was created a burgh- 
of-barony, with the right of holding a weekly mar- 
ket on Tuesday, and two annual fairs. Power was 
also given to form a " harbour and port," in virtue 
of which there was probably constructed the old 
quay, which was supplanted about 15 years ago by 
the present substantial and convenient one. A 
great proportion of the permanent inhabitants are 
engaged in the herring and white fishery. This 
was the first place in Britain where red her- 
rings were prepared. The practice was introduced, 
towards the end of the 17th century, by Walter 
Gibson, an enterprising Glasgow merchant, who 
was provost of that city in 1688, and of whom our 
authority — Semple, in his History of Renfrewshire 
— says, he " may justly be styled the father of the 



trade of all the west coasts." The curing of red | 
herrings lias long since heen abandoned here ; as 
has also the preparation of salt in connection with 
it, for which pans were constructed. A considera- 
ble rope- work was carried on from 1777 to 1851 ; and 
whinstone for street-paving is quarried in the vici- 
nity. About 1780, an attempt was made for coal in 
the neighbourhood ; but meeting with copper ore, 
the undertakers were diverted from their first ob- 
ject. " This new discovery," says the Old Statis- 
tical reporter, " promised well both in richness and 
quantity ; but being wrought by a company who 
were chiefly engaged in England, it was so man- 
aged as to defeat the expectation." 

Kempock Point, which forms the western termi- 
nation of the bay, is crowned by a long upright 
fragment of rock, called " Kempock stane," which, 
it is said, indicates the spot where a saint of old 
dispensed favourable winds to the navigators of the 
adjacent waters. The stone is without any sculp- 
ture or inscription. Some superstitious belief ap- 
pears to have been connected with it in former 
times ; for at the trial of the Innerkip witches, in 
1662, one of them, Mary Lamont, an infatuated 
creature, aged only IS, confessed that she and some 
other women, who were in compact with the devil, 
held " a meeting at Kempock, where they intended 
to cast the long stone into the sea, thereby to de- 
stroy boats and ships." Kempock Point consists of 
a mass of light blue columnar porphyry, abutting 
from a hill of the same materials which has been 
quarried to a great extent. In our own time, this 
abrupt point of land has become memorable on ac- 
count of two melancholy accidents which took place 
on the frith close to it. The first occurred to a 
vessel called the Catherine of Iona, which was run 
down by a steam -boat during the night of the 1 0th 
of August, 1822, when 42 persons perished out of 46. 
The other catastrophe was that of the Comet steamer, 
which, when rounding the point, at about the same 
spot, was run on board, and instantly sunk, by an- 
other steam-vessel, about 60 human beings losing 
their lives. 

A chapel of ease, a very plain edifice, was built 
at the east end of Gourock about the year 1776 ; 
and a burying-ground which was attached to it is 
still in use. A new chapel of ease, a neat struc- 
ture, with a square battlemented tower, and con- 
taining 947 sittings, was built by subscription in 
1832, on the face of the brae, near the middle of 
Gourock proper; and though it cost only about 
£2,300, it has a pleasing, prominent, and almost or- 
namental effect. An attempt has recently been 
made to get this constituted a quoad sacra parish 
church. There are also a Free church congregation, 
who have now an elegant new church in the course 
of erection, and an United Presbyterian church 
built in 1845. The town has likewise a school in 
connexion with the Established church, a school 
in connexion with the Free church, a school of 
industry, Established church and Free church 
public libraries, a circulating library, a clothing so- 
ciety, a gas-light company, and a pier and harbour 
company ; and it enjoys such near and constant 
communication with Greenock as to share readily 
in the facilities of that town's banks, markets, and 
general institutions. Omnibuses run hourly in sum- 
mer, and frequently in winter, throughout every 
day to Greenock ; and steamers call almost, as ofteii 
at the quay, sometimes several within an hour, 
in transit between Glasgow and the watering places 
farther down the frith. Gourock is also a station 
of the coast guard, and has a ferry of its own to Kil- 
creggan. Population in 1841, 2,169; in 1861, 
2,076. But this population is perhaps trebled, or 

nearly so, during the greater part of the bathing 

GOUROCK BURN, a burn rising near the east- 
ern limits of the parish of West Kilbride, Ayrshire, 
and running westward through that parish to • the 
frith of Clyde. 

GOVAN, a parish, partly in Renfrewshire, but 
chiefly in Lanarkshire. It contains the post-town 
of Govan, the village of Strathbungo, and the greater 
part of the post-town of Partick. It is bounded by 
New Kilpatrick, Barony, Glasgow, Gorbals, Ruther- 
glen, Cathcart, Eastwood, Abbey - Paisley, and 
Renfrew. Its length north-westward is about 6 
miles; its greatest breadth is about 3 miles; and 
its area is about 10 square miles. Part of it quoad 
civilia comprises the larger portion of the great 
southern suburb of Glasgow ; but this was long 
ago annexed quoad sacra to the small parish of 
Gorbals, and is now commonly included, in the 
census returns and otherwise, in what is called the 
barony and parish of Gorbals. See Glasgow. The 
rest of the parish, though containing some of the 
outskirts of Glasgow, chiefly lines of villas, and 
notwithstanding its own towns of Govan and Par- 
tick, which are in a large degree straggling or out- 
spread, may be regarded as all landward. It ex- 
tends along the left bank of the Clyde from the 
boundary with Rutherglen to the foot of the town of 
Govan ; and thence it continues along the same 
bank to a point in the vicinity of the town of Ren- 
frew, and also comprises a tract on the right bank 
of nearly square outline, about 2 miles each way, 
bounded on the side next Glasgow by the river 
Kelvin. The tract on the left bank of the Clyde 
used to be called the township or territory of Go- 
van ; and the tract on the right bank, the township 
or territory of Partick. The portion in Renfrew- 
shire comprises the lands of Haggs, Titwood, and 
Shields, and contains the village of Strathbungo. 

The upper part of the parish is all a rich flat 
ground. The lower part also is a richly cultivated 
plain throughout the centre, skirted on both sides 
by ground slightly elevated, and of soft, undulat- 
ing ornate appearance. All the land is arable ; and 
most of it has excellent soil. Part was once a 
heathy waste, called Govan moor ; but even this is 
now all disposed in well-cultivated fields, producing 
as luxuriant crops as any in the kingdom. The com- 
mon enclosure throughout the parish is the quick- 
set hedge ; trees are sufficiently numerous to pro- 
duce here and there a feathery or tufted appear- 
ance; villas, with their attendant decorations, are 
profusely sprinkled in many parts, particularly in 
the upper district and around Partick ; and the very 
appliances of manufacture, mining, and commerce, 
which figure prominently on the Clyde, happen 
to produce picturesque effects; so that the aggre- 
gate aspect of the parish, especially to any eye 
which delights most in the English style of land- 
scape, is eminently pleasing. The principal land- 
owners are the patrons of Hutchison's Hospital 
in Glasgow, the city corporation of Glasgow, the 
incorporated trades of Glasgow, Sir John Max- 
well, Bart., Oswald of Scotstown, Smith of Jordan- 
hill, Speirs of Elderslie, Johnstone of Sbieldball, 
Rouan of Holmfauldhead, and Steven of Bella- 
houston. The valued rental is not quite £5,000 
Scots; yet the yearly value of real property as as- 
certained in 18'60 is £109,870 sterling, and the 
average yearly value of raw produce, as estimated 
in 1840, £90,045. On Whiteinch farm, a low-lying 
tract of 68 acres on the right bank of the Clyde, 
about a mile below Partick, there has been depo- 
sited, throughout a series of years, at vast expense 
to the Clyde trustees, an enormous amount of the 



mud which is lifted by the dredging machines from 
the bottom of the river, and brought hither from 
long distances in punts ; the proprietor of the farm 
simply having given his permission under fixed con- 
ditions of depth and extent, but deriving an ample 
compensation in the speedy enhancement of the area 
deposited upon to nearly double of its previous value. 

Within the last sixty years the salmon-fishings 
in the Clyde, belonging to the heritors of Govan, 
used to be valuable, and have been let for so much 
as £330 annually ; but the mass of pernicious mat- 
ter now held in solution by the river, the refuse 
of the manufactories along its banks, and the ever- 
lasting stirring and turmoil of its waters from the 
revolution of steam-boat paddles, have so deterior- 
ated these fisheries as to reduce the rental to £25 per 
annum ; and the wonder is that salmon can exist in 
it at all. The mineral wealth of the parish yields 
no less than about four-ninths of the entire yearly 
value of its raw produce, — coal, £30,000, and quarry- 
stones, ironstone, and brick-clay, £10,000. The 
coal has been worked from a very remote period, 
and forms part of the celebrated ' Glasgow field,' to 
which the city is so much indebted for its wealth 
and population. This coal is of the best quality ; 
and in some parts of the parish it is so abundant 
that, within 50 fathoms of the surface, no fewer 
than 16 separate beds have been found, the thick- 
ness of which varies from 4 inches to 2 feet. There 
likewise occur along with them, in some parts, va- 
luable seams of black-band ironstone and clay-band 
ironstone, the former varying from 10 to 15 inches 
in thickness, and the latter from 6 to 12 inches. 
Extensive iron-works are in operation at Govan- 
hill, in the south-east outskirts of Gorbals, com- 
prising hot -blast furnaces which produce about 
4,000 tons of pig-iron yearly, and puddling furnaces 
capable of producing 400 tons of bar-iron weekly. 
There are various manufactories at Partick, which 
will be noticed in our article on that place. A con- 
siderable aggregate of the manufacturing industry 
of Gorbals, together with some of the special seats 
or premises of it, might be identified with Govan 
parish ; but being worked by Glasgow capital, and 
intermixed with strictly Glasgow industry, may be 
allowed to stand properly to the account of Glas- 
gow. At the town of Govan is an extensive dye- 
work ; there also is a large, well-built, trimly-kept 
silk factoiy, which was the first of its kind in Scot- 
land, and erected in 1824; and both there and on 
the opposite bank of the Clyde, immediately below 
the influx of the Kelvin, are extensive ship-building 
yards, where of late years many noble vessels have 
been constructed, and where often the multitu- 
dinous clang of hammers in driving the rivets of 
iron hulls is almost deafening to persons on board 
the passing steamers on the river. In a yard at the 
right side of the mouth of the Kelvin, are two re- 
cently-constructed glazed sheds, of sufficient size to 
contain each a veiy large hull, and of such architec- 
tural design as to be fine ornaments to the locality. 

Govan parish, from its all lying in the vicinity of 
Glasgow, and being partly dovetailed into that city's 
outskirts, necessarily enjoys extraordinary facilities 
of communication. Four great roads traverse it. 
One of these leads from Glasgow to Paisley ; a se- 
cond from Glasgow to Kilmarnock and Ayr; a third, 
parallel with, and on the south bank of the Clyde, 
leads through Renfrew to Port-Glasgow ; and the 
fourth, also parallel with, but on the north bank of the 
river, forms the carriage road to Dumbarton and the 
West Highlands. The Glasgow, Paisley, and John- 
stone canal also passes through the southern division 
of the parish ; and the branch of the Forth and 
Clyde canal, which joins the Clyde at Bowling baj', 

skirts for a short distance its northern boundary 
The great joint trunk to Paisley of the Glasgow and 
Greenock, and the Glasgow, Paisley, Kilmarnock, 
and Ayr railways likewise passes through the parish 
for nearly 3 miles. A commodious ferry at the foot 
of the town of Govan, maintains constant communi- 
cation with the opposite bank of the Clyde, and is 
provided with a horse and carriage boat, and with 
good landing-places. Here also the river steamers 
land and receive passengers. The scenery of active 
life along the Clyde here is thrillingly animated and 
remarkably picturesque. Morning, noon, and night, 
the river is traversed by steam-vessels of every size, 
and by sailing vessels, bound to and from the most 
distant parts of the earth's confines. The river's 
banks also exhibit much variety of landscape — 
beautifully cultivated fields and thriving belts of 
plantation, sprinkled with the handsome villas of 
the Glasgow citizens — while the rural towns of 
Govan and Partick burst upon the gaze with a truly 
panoramic effect. Nowhere has the hand of improve- 
ment been more decidedly apparent than upon this 
portion of the Clyde. In some old legal instruments 
in the Glasgow chartulary, there are mentioned, 
" The islands between Govan and Partick ; " but 
these have long since ceased to be. Even so late 
as 1770, the depth of the river at the mouth of the 
Kelvin, as surveyed by the celebrated James Watt, 
was only 3 feet 8 inches at high-water, and 1 foot 
6 inches at low water ; and Patrick Bryce, tacks- 
man of the Gorbals ' coal-heugh,' complains, in 
1660, to the magistrates of Glasgow, that he could 
not get his coals loaded at the Broomielaw from a 
scarcity of water, and that he had been necessitated 
on this account to crave license to lead them through 
the lands of Sir George Maxwell of Nether Pollock, 
for the purpose of loading them " neare to Meikle 
Govane." Up till 1770, indeed, this portion of the 
Clyde could with difficulty be navigated by vessels 
of more than 30 tons burthen ; but now the depth 
of water is from 1 6 to 17 feet, and foreign merchant- 
men of 600 tons burthen sail along it from the sea 
to the harbour of the Broomielaw. See article 
Clyde (The). Population of the parish in 1831, 
5,677; in 1861,100,716. Houses, 5,683. Population 
of the Renfrewshire section in 1831, 710; in 1861, 
8,870. Houses, 375. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Glasgow, and 
synod of Glasgow and Ayr. Patron, the University 
of Glasgow. Stipend, £432 Is. 8d. ; glebe, £24; un- 
appropriated teinds, £672 Is. 5d. The parish church 
is situated within 100 yards of the Clyde, at the 
foot of the town of Govan, and was built in 1826, 
after a plan by Mr Smith of Jordanhill, and con- 
tains nearly 1,100 sittings. It is a simple Gothic 
structure, with battlements and lancet windows, and 
has a tower and spire, in imitation of those of the 
church of Stratford-upon-Avon. The churchyard 
has a romantic appearance, and is fringed with a 
double row of venerable elms. There is a chapel of 
ease at Partick, which was built in 1834, and con- 
tains 580 sittings, and is in the presentation of the 
subscribers and managers. There is also a chapel of 
ease at Strathbungo, which was built in 1841, and 
is in the presentation of the subscribers. There is 
a Free church at Govan, with an attendance of 370; 
and the sum raised in connexion with it in 1865 
was £352 lis. 10^d. There is also a Free church at 
Partick, with an attendance of 300 ; and the sum rais- 
ed in connexion with it in 1855 was £501 2s. OJd. 
There is an United Presbyterian church in Govan, 
which rose out of a preaching station maintained for 
many years in a schoolhouse. There are two United 
Presbyterian churches in P<->rti:k t':» East and the 
West, both built in 1824, the iytOhf. containing 600 



sittings, and the latter 840. There is also a Wes- 
leyan Methodist meeting in Partick. There are also 
three home missionaries in the parish, one of them 
for the Go van district, and the other two for the 
Partick district. The parochial school is situated in 
the town of Govan ; and the income of the master, he- 
sides fees, amounts to £50 of salary and about £46 
other emoluments, — for part of which gratuitous 
education is given to ten poor children. There are 
also in the town of Govan a Free church school, an 
United Presbyterian school, a subscription school, 
and a school of industry for females ; there are in 
Partick a west-end academy conducted by four 
masters, another academy conducted by one master, 
an old subscription school, a Free church public 
school, a Free church school of industry, a ladies' 
school, a general public school, a school of industry 
for females, Samuel Wilson's school, and a Roman 
Catholic school; and there are, at Strathbungo and 
Threemilehouse, other non-parochial schools. There 
are two public libraries, the one in the town of Govan, 
the other in Partick, — the former bequeathed by a 
former minister of the parish, and called Thorn's 
library, the latter connected with what is called 
Partick popular institution. 

Under grants by David I., confirmed by the 
bulls of several popes, the whole parish of Govan, 
including the part now annexed to Gorbals, belong- 
ed formerly, both in property and in superiority, to 
the Bishop of Glasgow, and was included in the 
royalty of Glasgow. The church of Govan — or 
Guvan, as it was formerly termed — with the tithes 
and lands pertaining to it, was constituted a prebend 
of the cathedral of Glasgow by John, Bishop of 
Glasgow, who died about 1147; and continued so 
till the Reformation. The prebendary drew the 
emoluments, and paid a curate for serving the cure. 
The patronage belonged to the see of Glasgow ; but 
at the Reformation was assumed by the Crown. In 
1577 the parsonage and vicarage of Govan, with all 
the lands and revenues, were granted by the King, 
in mortmain, to the college of Glasgow ; and by the 
new erection of the college, at that date, it was 
ruled that the principal of the university should 
officiate in the church of Govan every Sabbath. 
This practice continued from 1577 till 1621, when 
the principal was absolved from this duty, and a 
separate minister was appointed for the parish, to 
whom a stipend was assigned from the tithes. For 
more than a century previous to 1825, the university 
of Glasgow, by successive renewals from the Crown, 
enjoyed a beneficial lease of the feu-duties, rents, 
and revenues, which were paid by the heritors of 
Govan to the Crown, as coming in the place of the 
Archbishop ; but the lease was discontinued at the 
time stated. To make up for it so far, however, the 
Crown granted to the college, in 1826, an annuity 
of £800 for fourteen years. The first minister of 
Govan after the Reformation was Andrew Melville, 
who was at the same time principal of the univer- 
sity ; and it is related by his nephew, that the Re- 
gent Morton offered this "guid benefice, paying four- 
and-twentie chalder of victuall " to him, on condition 
that he would not urge upon the government or the 
church his peculiar views of ecclesiastical polity. 
For the pui-pose of winning Melville to his side, the 
Regent kept the living in the hands of the Crown 
for nearly two years ; and finally granted the tem- 
poralities to the college of Glasgow, imposing upon 
the principal the duty of serving the cure, Morton 
intending thereby, as Melville's nephew states, "to 
demearit Mr. Andro, and cause him relent from 
ilealling against bischopes; but God keepit his awin 
servant in uprightnes and treuthe in the middis of 
uianie hcavie flotations." 

The hospital of Polmadie was situated in this par- 
ish, near the place which still bears its name. It 
was a refuge for persons of both sexes, and was en- 
dowed with the church and temporalities of Strath- 
blane, along with part of the lands of Little Govan. 
No trace of the ruins of the hospital now remains. — 
St. Niman's hospital, for the reception of persons af- 
flicted with leprosy, was founded by Lady Lochore 
in the middle of the 14th century, and is understood 
to have been situated near the river, between the 
Main-street of Gorbals and Muirhead-street. A con- 
siderable extent of ground, including that upon 
which part of Hutchesontown is built, was called 
St. Ninian's croft. When the house of Elphinstone 
obtained the lands of Gorbals, the revenues of the 
hospital were misapplied, and the care of the ' lepers ' 
afterwards devolved upon the kirk-session of Glas- 
gow. — Hagg's castle, in this parish, is a very inter- 
esting and picturesque rain. It was built by an 
ancestor of the house of Maxwell of Pollock, and 
was, for a long time, the jointure-house of that 
family. It appears to have been a building of con- 
siderable strength. It is intimately and painfully 
associated with the transactions of those iron times 
when Scotland groaned under a ' broken covenant 
and a persecuted kirk.' In November 1667, the 
Episcopal authorities of Glasgow, having heard that 
a conventicle had been held in Hagg's castle, sum- 
moned the persons reported to have been present to 
appear before them on the 20th of the same month. 
Amongst others, John Logan was arraigned, and he 
boldly confessed " that he was present at ye said 
conventickle, and not onlie refused to give his oath 
to declare who preached, or wer then present, but 
furder declared he would not be a Judas, as otberis, 
to delate any that wer ther present." The names 
of Logan and of others in the same situation, were 
given in to the Archbishop ; but the punishment 
which was meted out has not been recorded. Wod- 
row, in his history, states that, in 1676, Mr. Alex- 
ander Jamieson, who had been thrust forth the par- 
ish of Govan on account of his refusal to conform to 
" black prelacy," "gave the sacrament in the house 
of the Haggs, within 2 miles of Glasgow, along with 
another clergyman. Mr. Jamieson did not again 
drink of the vine till he drank it new in the Father's 
kingdom." It is well known that the family of 
Pollock suffered severely for their resistance to Epis- 
copacy, and for succouring the Covenanters, and al- 
lowing them a place of meeting for their conven- 
ticles. Sir John Maxwell was fined by the privy - 
council in 1684, in the sum of £8,000 sterling; and 
when he refused to pay this tyrannical exaction he 
was imprisoned for 16 months. See Glasgow. 

The Town of Govan stands on the road from 
Glasgow to Renfrew. It consists principally of a 
single street, extending along that road, and about 
a mile in length. Its upper end is about a mile from 
Tradeston, the nearest part of the Glasgow suburbs; 
and its lower end is about 3 miles from the centre of 
Glasgow. The Clyde, opposite to it, makes a grand 
curve, with the convexity to the north ; so that the 
town and the river's curve are related to each other 
like the string and the bow, being in contact only 
at the ends, and most widely separated at the middle. 
A great part of the space between them, however, is 
ornate with grass and garden-ground ; the lower 
part is occupied by the ship-building yards and the 
dye-works ; and the whole is fringed, upon the 
river's bank, with an open walk. The town, as to 
its edifices, is far from town-like, consisting largely 
of straggling lines of one-story houses, numerously 
inhabited by weavers, and many of them old and 
dingy; but it has of late been assuming a sprucer 
character; it borrows much beauty from the neai 




vicinity of numerous villas, — some of which may be 
said to he in it ; and it has acquired of late years new 
lines of neat or elegant houses, and in 1862 a large 
and tasteful public hall. It is a place of compara- 
tively high antiquity, — situated far more advantage- 
ously for trade than the original Glasgow; and, 
having always maintained some local importance, 
insomuch as to be reckoned in the 16th century one 
of the largest villages in the kingdom, it might al- 
most have been expected, rather than the place 
of St. Mungo, to become the nucleus of the great 
modern commercial city, — the more so as that city, 
without having extended many hundred yards east- 
ward or northward from its original site, has come 
travelling down, in a broad mass, miles of distance, 
toward Govan, till it promises soon to reach and en- 
compass it. The chief things of interest in the 
town of Govan, have already been mentioned in our 
account of the parish ; and we have only farther to 
say that the town has a savings' bank, a ladies' 
clothing society, and a branch-office of the city of 
Glasgow bank, and that omnibuses run several times 
a-day from it to Glasgow and Renfrew. Population 
in 1841, 2,555 ; in 1861, 7,637. Houses, 324. 

GOWANSBANK, a village in the parish of St. 
Vigeans, Forfarshire. Population, 72. Houses, 22. 

GOWELL, an islet in the bay of Stornoway, 
island of Lewis, forming a breakwater and shelter 
to Stornoway harbour. 

GOWER (Pokt). See Port-Gower. 

GOWKHALL, a village in the parish of Carnock, 
Fifeshire. Population, 196. Houses, 34. 

GOWKSHILL, a village in the parish of Cock- 
pen, Edinburghshire. Population, 219. Houses, 41. 

GOWRIE, an ancient district of Perthshire, lying 
on the eastern side of the county, and extending 
from Stormont to the frith of Tay. See Blairgow- 
rie and Carse-of-Gowrie. 

GOYLE (Loch). See Goil (Loch). 

GRADEN, an extinct village in the parish of 
Coldstream, Berwickshire. 

GRADEN-BURN, a rivulet of 3 miles length of 
course, in the parish of Coldstream, north-eastward 
to the Tweed, at a point 2 miles above Ladykirk. 

GRADEN PLACE. See Linton, Roxburghshire. 

GRAEMSAY, one of the Orkney islands. It lies 
in Hoy sound, immediately south-east of Hoy mouth, 
A a mile south of the town of Stromness, and i a mile 
east of Bow kirk in Hoy island. It is about 1 J mile 
in length, and 1 in breadth. It was formerly a 
vicarage, united to the ancient rectory of Hoy, and 
was served by the minister of Hoy every third 
Sunday ; but it neither pays stipend, nor has any 
glebe. It is iu the presbytery of Cairston, and synod 
of Orkney. A great part of it is arable. The whole 
is level, and seems to be of an excellent soil. The 
interior parts, under a thin soil, contain a bed of 
schist or slate, through almost its whole extent. 
Two lighthouses, for guiding the navigation of Hoy 
sound, were erected in Graerasay in 1851. The 
high light stands in 58° 56' 9" north latitude, and 3° 
16' 33" west longtitude, is 115 feet above the sea, 
and can be seen at the distance of about 10 nautical 
miles ; the low light is elevated 55 feet above the 
sea, and can be seen at the distance of about 7 nau- 
tical miles ; and the two bear from each other south- 
east i east, and north-west J west. The high light 
is a lixed red light, and the low a fixed bright light. 
The red light illuminates an arc from SE by E to 
BE J S towards SE ; and the high tower containing 
it also shows toward Stromness a bright fixed light 
from SSI! J E to WSW, and towards Cara an arc 
from NNW } W to N i W southerly. The low 
light shows its bright fixed light from E J S to W 
4 N, facing northward. The island is now under the 

pastoral care of the minister of Stromness, and has 
a school belonging to the Society for propagating 
Christian knowledge. Population in 1831,225; in 
1861, 230. Houses, 40. 

GRAHAM'S DYKE. See Antoninus' Wall. 

GRAHAMSTOWN, a neat and important suburb 
of the town of Falkirk. It has a post office of its 
own, and a station on the junction railway from the 
Seottisli Central to the Edinburgh and Glasgow. See 

GRAHAMSTOWN, a village in the parish of 
Neilston, Renfrewshire. It stands upon the Levern, 
3 miles south-east of Paisley ; and is one of the chain 
of manufacturing villages which render the Barr- 
head and Neilston part of the valley of the Levern 
practically a large town. It was commenced about 
the year 1780. Population, 706. 

GRAITNEY. See Gretna. 

GRAMPIANS (The), that broad mountain 
fringe of elevations which runs along the eastern 
side of the Highlands of Scotland, overlooking the 
western portions of the Lowlands, and forming the 
natural barrier or boundary between the two great 
divisions of the kingdom. The name is so indefin- 
itely applied iu popular usage, and has been so ob- 
scured by injudicious and mistaken description, as 
to want the definiteness of meaning requisite to the 
purposes of distinct topographical writing. The 
Grampians are usually described as " a chain " of 
mountains stretching from Dumbarton, or from the 
hills behind Gareloch opposite Greenock, or from 
the district of Cowal in Argyleshire, to the sea at 
Stonehaven, or to the interior of Aberdeenshire, or 
to the eastern exterior of the shores of Elgin and 
Banff. No definition will include all the mountains 
which claim the name, and at the same time exclude 
others to which it is unknown, but one which re- 
gards them simply as the mountain-front, some files 
deep, which the Highlands, from their southern con- 
tinental extremity to the point where their flank is 
turned by a champaign country east of the Tay, pre- 
sent to the Lowlands of Scotland. But thus defined, 
or in fact defined in any fashion which shall not 
limit them to at most two counties, they are far from 
being, in the usual topographical sense of the word, 
" a chain." From Cowal north-eastward to the ex- 
tremity of Dumbartonshire, they rise up iu elevations 
so utterly independent of one another as to admit 
long separating bays between, and are of such vari- 
ous forms and heights and modes of continuation as 
to be at best a series of ridges and single elevations, 
some of the ridges contributing their length, and 
others contributing merely their breadth, to the con- 
tinuation. East and north of Loch-Lomond in Stir- 
lingshire, their features are so distinctive and pecu- 
liar, and their amassment or congeries so overlooked 
by the monarch-summit of Benlomoud, as to have 
become more extensively and more appropriately 
known as the Lomond hills, than as part of the 
Grampians. Along Breadalbano and the whole 
Highlands of Perthshire, they consist chiefly of la 
feral ridges running from west to east, or from north 
west to south-east, entirely separated by long tra- 
versing valleys, and occasionally standing far apart 
on opposite sides of long and not very narrow sheets 
of water; and they even — as in the instances of Schi- 
challion and Beniglo — include solitary but huge and 
conspicuous monarch-mountains, which, either by 
their isolatedness of position, or their remarkable 
peculiarity of exterior character, possess not one 
feature of alliance to any of the groups or ridges 
except their occupying the confines of the Highland 
territory. In the north-west and north of Forfar- 
shire and the adjacent parts of Perthshire and Aber- 
deenshire, they at last assume the character of a 



;hain, or broad mountain elongation, so uniform and 
d stinctive in character that we must strongly re- 
gret the non-restriction of the use of the word 
Grampian exclusively to this district. In Kincar- 
dineshire, they fork out into detached courses, and 
almost lose what is conventionally understood to 
be a Highland character; and at the part where 
they are popularly said to stretch to the coast and 
terminate at the sea, are of so comparatively soft 
an outline and of so inconsiderable an elevation, 
that a stranger who had heard of the mountain- 
grandeur of the Grampians, but did not know their 
locality, might here pass over them without once 
suspecting that he was within an hundred miles of 
their vicinity. Northward, or rather westward and 
north-westward, of the low Kincardineshire ranges 
which loose popular statement very frequently re- 
presents as the terminating part of "the chain," they 
consist partly of some anomalous eminences, but 
mainly of two ridges, one of which hems in the dis- 
trict of Mar on the south-west, and the other sepa- 
rates Aberdeenshire from Banffshire. 

A mountain-district so extensive and chequered, 
and so varied in feature, cannot be described, with 
even proximate accuracy, except in a detailed view 
of its parts. Yet, if merely the main part, or what 
oceupies the space from Loch-Lomond to the north 
of Forfarshire, be regarded, the following description 
will, as a general one, be found correct. " The front 
of the Grampians toward the Lowlands has, in many 
places, a gradual and pleasant slope into a champaign 
country, of great extent and fertility; and, notwith- 
standing the forbidding aspect, at first sight, of the 
mountains themselves, with their covering of heath 
and rugged rocks, they are intersected in a thousand 
directions by winding valleys, watered by rivers and 
brooks of the most limpid water, clad with the rich- 
est pastures, sheltered by thriving woods that fringe 
the lakes, and run on each side of the streams, and 
are accessible in most places by excellent roads. 
The valleys, which exhibit such a variety of natural 
beauty, also form a contrast with the ruggedness of 
the surrounding mountains, and present to the eye 
the most romantic scenery. The rivers in the deep 
defiles struggle to find a passage ; and often the 
opposite bills approach so near, that the waters 
rush with incredible force and deafening noise, in 
proportion to the height of the fall and the width of 
the opening. These are commonly called Passes, 
owing to the difficulty of their passage, before 
bridges were erected ; and we may mention as ex- 
amples, the Pass of Leney, of Aberfoil, of Kil- 
liecrankie and of the Spittal of Glenshee. Beyond 
these, plains of various extent appear, filled with 
villages and cultivated fields. In the interstices 
are numerous expanses of water, connected with 
rivulets stored with a variety of fish, and covered 
with wood down to the water-edge. The crag- 
gy tops are covered with flocks of sheep ; and 
numerous herds of black cattle are seen browsing on 
the pastures in the valleys. On the banks of the 
lakes or rivers is generally the seat of some noble- 
man or gentleman. The north side of the Grampians 
is more rugged in its appearance, and the huge masses 
are seen piled on one another in the most awful 
magnificence. The height of the Grampian moun- 
tains varies from 1,400 feet to 3,500 feet above the 
level of the sea ; and several of them are elevated 
still higher." 

The range whose highest summit-line forms the 
western and northern boundary of Forfarshire, while 
quite continuous and of uniform appearance, and 
specially entitled to be known by a distinctive and 
comprehensive name, is probably, in despite of its 
Vocal appellation of " the Binchinnin mountains," 

more frequently grouped, in popular speech, under 
the word Grampians than any other part of the bor- 
der Highland territory. None of the summits here 
are so abrupt and majestic as those of Perthshire and 
the Lomonds, nor are they covered with such herb- 
age as those which form the screens of Glenlyon, 
and some others of the more southerly Grampian 
valleys. The mountains are, in general, rounded 
and tame, and covered for the most part with 
moorish soil and stunted heath. On the south east 
side, they exhibit ridge behind ridge, rising like the 
benches of an amphitheatre slowly to the back- 
ground summit range, but laterally cloven down at 
intervals by glens and ravines emptying out rills or 
torrents toward the plain ; and on the north-west 
side, they descend with a considerably greater rapi- 
dity, and occupy a smaller area with their flanks. — 
The etymology of the word " Grampians " is so ob- 
scure, and — worthless though the topic be — has oc- 
casioned so many disputes and so much theorizing, 
that we may be excused for not rushing among the 
melee of antiquarians in a vain effort to ascertain it. 
Nor would it be much wiser to make any attempt at 
fixing the locality of " the battle of the Grampians," 
fought between Galgacus and Agricola. 

GBAMEY, a small island, north of Lismore, in 
Loch-Linnhe, Argyleshire. 

GRANDHOLM. See Abeedeen. 

GEANDTULLY, a compact district m the par- 
ishes of Dull and Little Dunkeld, Perthshire, mea- 
suring 6J miles in extreme length, 5 miles in extreme 
breadth, and 32£ miles in superficial area. Though 
not a parish, it was erected, in 1820, by the presby- 
tery of Dunkeld, into a mission, under the committee 
for managing the Royal bounty. The church is 
supposed to be several centuries old ; and was for- 
merly a chapel subordinate to the church of Dull. It 
contains about 450 sittings. The Grandtully estate 
belongs to Sir W. D. Stewart, Bart., of Murthly. 
Grandtully castle, the mansion on that estate, stands 
contiguous to the public road, 3 miles east-north-east 
of Aberfeldy. It is an old structure, kept in a habi- 
table condition, and rendered interesting for being 
the author of Waverley's type of Tullyveolan, the 
picturesque abode of the old Baron of Bradwardine. 
See Dur.L. 

GRANGE, any district or locality which, in the 
olden times, was extra-parochial, and in the posses- 
sion of monks. The name had special reference 
to a peculiar local arrangement under the Eomish 
ecclesiastical government ; but is still retained in 
many localities in Scotland, where all popular mem- 
ory of its original signification has long been lost. 
See, among other of our articles for it, Burntislakp, 


ston, East Geange, and the articles which imme- 
diately follow. 

GRANGE, a village in the parish of St. Andrews, 
Fifeshire. Population, 84. Houses, 20. 

GRANGE, a village in the parish of Errol, Perth- 
shire. Population, 68. Houses, 15. 

GRANGE, a parish in the Strathisla district of 
Banffshire. Its post-town is Keith, about 3 miles 
south-west of the parish church. It is bounded on 
the south by Aberdeenshire, and on other sides by 
the parishes of Keith, Deskford, Fordyce, Ordiquhill, 
Marnoch, and Rothiemay. Its length southward is 
6 miles ; and its greatest breadth is 5 miles. The 
river Isla runs across the southern district, and re- 
ceives the chief drainage of the parish through two 
indigenous burns, flowing southward to it from the 
northern border. The tract on the south side of the 
Isla is chiefly part of the Balloch ridge of hills. The 
district on the north of the Isla, after an interval 
of low ground, rises in three low, parallel, continue 



ous ridges, terminating in the heights of Knock-hill, 
Lurg-hill, and Altmore-hill. These heights are of 
considerable elevation, one of them rising to at least 
1,500 feet above sea-level. The low grounds and 
parts of the hills are finely cultivated and enclosed. 
On the banks of the Isla, the ground, having a fine 
southern exposure, is dry and early; but the north- 
ern district is naturally more cold, wet, and unpro- 
ductive, the soil being a -poor clay on a spongy, 
mossy bottom. The whole parish was formerly 
covered with wood. There are inexhaustible quar- 
ries of the best limestone, which is burnt with the 
peats dug from the mosses. The ruins of ' the 
Grange,' once the residence of the abbots of Kinloss, 
and a place of great splendour, whence the parish 
derived its name, were till lately to be seen on the 
small mount on which the parish church now stands. 
This castle was surrounded by a dry ditch, and over- 
looked extensive haughs then covered with wood, 
the small river Isla meandering through them for 
several miles of a district then celebrated for its 
beauty. Several trenches or encampments, upon 
the haughs of Isla, with the defensive side thrown 
up towards the coast, are supposed to have been made 
by the Scots. " Two of the fields of battle," says 
the writer of the Old Statistical Account of the par- 
ish, "are clearly to be seen, being covered with 
cairns of stones, under which they used to bury the 
slain. One of these fields is on the north side of the 
Gallow-hill, not far from the encampments above 
mentioned ; and the other is on the south side of 
Knock-hill, to which there leads a road, from the 
encampments, over the hill of Silliearn, called to this 
day, ' the Bowmen's road.' Auchinhove, which lies 
near the banks of Isla, was another field of battle ; 
and in a line with it, towards Cullen, upon the head 
of the burn of Altmore, some pieces of armour were 
said to have been dug up several years ago, but were 
not preserved ; and in the same line, towards the 
coast, upon the top of the hill of Altmore, there is a 
cairn, called the King's caim, where probably the 
Danish king or general was slain in the pursuit." 
The parish contains Edingight-house, the residence 
of Sir. J. M. Innes, Bart.; and is traversed by the 
roads from Keith to Banff and Turriff. Population 
in 1831, 1,492; in 1861, 1,909. Houses, 359. As- 
sessed property in 1843, £5,299 8s. 6d. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Strathbogie, 
and synod of Moray. Patron, the Earl of Fife. 
Stipend, £164 12s. 2d.; glebe, £7. Unappropriated 
teinds, £332 19s. 2d. Schoolmaster's salary is now 
£60 ; fees, £20, besides interest of a legacy of £100 
lis., and a share of the Dick bequest. The parish 
church was built in 1795, and contains 616 sittings. 
There is a Free church; and the sum raised in con- 
nexion with it in 1865 was £88 9s. lid. There isalso 
an United Presbyterian church, said to be the oldest 
in the north of Scotland. There are an Assembly's 
school and two other schools. Grange once formed 
part of the parish of Keith, and was made a separate 
parochial erection in 1618. 

GRANGE BEIL. See Beil Grange. 

GRANGE BURN— sometimes called West Quar- 
ter-burn — a rivulet in Stirlingshire. It rises in the 
parish of Falkirk near Barleyside, and having flowed 
a very brief distance eastward, pursues a course of 
3J miles north-eastward to Laurieston, and thence 
of 2J miles northward to the Carron at Grange- 
mouth, forming, over the whole distance, except 4 
or 5 furlongs above its embouchure, the boundary- 
line between Falkirk and Polmont. 

GRANGE-BURN, a brook, rising at the northern 
limit of the parish of Kirkcudbright, and traversing 
that parish southward so as to divide it into two 
not very unequal parts. It is first called Hart burn, 

next Buckland bum, and only in the lower part oi 
its course Grange-burn. It falls into the estuary oi 
the Dee below St. Mary's Isle. 

GRANGE-EAST. See East-Gkange. 

GRANGE-FELL, a hill of about 900 feet of alti- 
tude above sea-level, in the parish of Tundergarth, 

GRANGE-HALL. See Kinloss. 

GRANGEMOUTH, a post-town and sea-port in 
the parish of Falkirk, Stirlingshire. It takes its 
name from the mouth of the Grange bum, and 
stands at the confluence of that rivulet with the 
Carron, 1J mile above the influx of the united 
streams into the Forth, and 3 miles from the town 
of Falkirk. It surrounds the entrance of the Forth 
and Clyde canal, has a branch railway connecting 
with the Edinburgh and Glasgow line at Polmont, 
and enjoys great facility of road conveyance. 
Though a small place, it is built on a regular plan, 
and contains some neat good houses. In its vici- 
nity, a little to the south-west, stands Kerse-house, 
a seat of the Earl of Zetland. The Carron foundry 
attracted, after 1760, the maritime trade formerly 
enjoyed by Airth, long the chief sea-port of Stirling- 
shire; and the subsequent formation of the Forth 
and Clyde canal, occasioned, in 1777, the erection 
of Grangemouth by Sir Lawrence Dundas. The 
incipient port speedily rose into notice, and acquired 
an attractive influence; and, from nearly the date 
of its erection, it has been the emporium of the com- 
merce of Stirlingshire. It was early provided with 
a dry dock, commodious quays, and lofty extensive 
storehouses; and since 1841, its harbour accommo- 
dation has been greatly enlarged and improved. 
There is now a wet dock of 4 acres in area ; there 
are two basins for timber, 17 acres in area ; the en- 
trance to the dock is by a lock 250 feet long and 55 
feet wide, capable of admitting large steamers; the 
channel of the Carron, down to low-water mark on 
the Forth, is confined to a width of 120 yards by 
well-built embankments faced with stone; the depth 
of that channel is 21 feet at high water of spring 
tides, and 17 feet at high water of neap tides; and 
a lighthouse marks the eastern approach to the 
harbour. But the aggregate appearance of these 
works, together with the canal, and with the low 
flat character of the surrounding country, gives 
Grangemouth the aspect of a Dutch port. The 
Carron company have here a spacious wharf, and 
conduct a large trade. The Stirling merchants un- 
load their cargoes here, floating their timber from it 
up the Forth, and transporting their iron by land. 
All the great traffic along the canal from the Forth 
to Port-Dundas and the Clyde, makes lodgements on 
Grangemouth in passing, or adds, in various ways, 
to its interest. Timber, hemp, flax, tallow, deals, 
and iron from the Baltic, and grain from foreign 
countries, and from the east coast of Scotland and 
England, are landed on its quays. Previous to 
1810, Grangemouth was treated as only a creek 
of the port of Borrowstownness ; but since that 
time it has had a custom-house of its own. In 
1860 there belonged to it 39 sailing vessels, of 
aggregately 5,564 tons, and 10 steam-vessels, of ag- 
gregately 1,933 tons. During the year 1860, its 
coasting trade comprised a tonnage of 44,271 in- 
wards and 37,352 outwards; and its foreign and colo- 
nial trade comprised a tonnage of 24,681 inwards in 
British vessels, 54,232 inwards in foreign vessels, 
31,289 outwards in British vessels, and 55,493 out- 
wards in foreign vessels. In 1860, there were shipped 
coastwise 1,799 tons of coals, — exported abroad, 
62,409 tons. The amount of customs, in 1864, was 
£12,603. Grangemouth is one of the approved ports 
for the importation of wine. Eopemaking and ship- 



building employ a number of hands. The construct- 
ing of steam - vessels also is carried on. The 
maiden-effort of the place in this department was 
completed in the autumn of 1839 by the launch of 
the steam-ship Hecla, 80 feet long, 36 feet across 
the midships, designed for towing trading vessels 
over the Memel bar in Prussia. The town has an 
office of the Commercial bank, a library, and Estab- 
lished, Free, and United Presbyterian churches, — 
the second, a neat edifice in the Norman style, built 
in 1838. Population, 1,759. 

GRANGE-OF-LINDORES, a village in the east 
side of the parish of Abdie, Fifeshire. Population, 
166. Houses, 34. 

GEANGEPANS, a village on the coast of the 
parish of Camden, £ a mile east of Borrowstown- 
ness, Linlithgowshire. Here were formerly a che- 
mical work and extensive salt pans. Population 
in 1861, 747. 

GEANNOCH (Loch), a romantic sequestered 
lake, 3 miles long and J a mile broad, in the north- 
ern extremity of the parish of Girthon, Kirkcud- 
brightshire. On an island in its mouth, eagles, not 
many years ago, used to build their nests and rear 
their young. See Girthox. 

GEANT-CASTLE. See Cromdale and Gran- 

GEANTON, a post-town and sea-port, in the par- 
ish of Cramond, 2k miles north-west of Edinburgh- 
It was founded only in 1835, and is but a small seat 
of population; yet it possesses more stir and im- 
portance than the great majority of sea-ports ten or 
twenty times its size. It is the chief ferry from 
Edinburgh to Fife, lies on the line of the Edin- 
burgh, Perth, and Dundee railway, has the best 
harbour in the frith of Forth, and is the port of 
Edinburgh for the steamers to Stirling, Aberdeen, 
and London. It was founded by the Duke of Buc- 
cleuch, in his capacity of proprietor of the neigh- 
bouring estate of Caroline park. Its chief feature is 
a magnificent pier 1,700 feet in length, and from 80 
to 160 feet in breadth. This was commenced in 
1835, partially opened in 1838, and completed in 
1845, with some trivial exceptions, at the cost of 
£SO,000. Four pairs of jetties, each extending 90 
feet, occur at regular intervals ; two slips, each 325 
feet long, facilitate the shipping and landing of cat- 
tle and heavy goods at all states of the tide ; a 
strong high wall, cleft with brief thoroughfares, 
runs along the middle of the whole esplanade ; the 
railway advances upon the east side to about the 
middle, and is there provided with offices for its 
traffic, and with powerful fixed engines and hydrau- 
lic cranes for lifting down laden trucks to the deck 
of the steamer lying at the slip; a lighthouse sur- 
mounts the extreme point of the pier, exhibiting a 
brilliant distinctive light; and a grand breakwater 
commences at the shore about three-fourths of a 
mile west of the pier, and curves in a demisemi- 
circle to terminate on a line with the pier-head, thus 
converting all the intermediate space into a shel- 
tered basin. The depth of water at the pier-head, 
in spring tides, is nearly 30 feet ; and it shallows 
slowly enough along the sides to afford to large 
steamers a comparatively extensive accommodation. 

A spacious area landward from the foot of the 
pier is planned to be permanently open as a sort of 
Place. The east side of this is flanked by a neat 
commodious hotel, in a style of building and on a 
scale of grandeur which would be perfectly suitable 
for the heart of the metropolis ; and the west side 
is flanked by edifices of corresponding character, 
which are subdivided into private residences. The 
appearance of this Place and of the pier, with their 
elegant, massive, white-sandstone masonry, is in fine 

keeping with the joyousness of the natural scenery, 
and contrasts most advantageously to the dinginesa 
and dirt of most of the other Forth ports. A short 
line of good houses confronts the frith eastward from 
the hotel, and two small groups of poor cottages are 
situated westward of the Place ; but all other parts 
of the town, excepting yards and some appliances 
of the harbour, are yet to be. Comparatively good 
bathing ground lies between the pier and the break- 
water, and attracts some summer visitors. The 
village of War-die is sufficiently near on the east te 
be almost a part of Gran ton. Omnibuses ran be- 
tween the pier and Edinburgh in connexion with 
the steamers; and all the trains of the Edinburgh, 
Perth, and Dundee railways afford ready communi- 
cation. Granton is a station of the county police. 
The English, under the Earl of Hertford, landed on 
Granton shore in 1544. Population, 518. 

GEANTOWN, a post-town in the parish of Crom- 
dale, Inverness-shire. It stands in the valley of 
the Spey, at the intersection of the road from Focha- 
bers to Kingussie with the road from Fort-George 
to Braemar, 13J miles north-east of Aviemore, 22 
south of Forres, 30i south-east of Fort-George, and 
34 south-south-west of Elgin. Its site is about i a 
mile from the left side of the Spey, and, previous to 
1774, was part of a barren untenanted heath. The 
town was founded in 1776, by Sir James Grant of 
Grant, Bart., in connexion with extensive plans for 
improving all the surrounding tract of country. 
No place of its size in the north of Scotland can 
compare with it either in beauty of situation or in 
neatness of structure. Its alignment is regular, and 
comprises near the centre an oblong of 700 feet by 
180. Its houses, though small, are well suited to the 
circumstances of the inhabitants, and are all built 
of fine-grained whitish granite, and are of pretty 
uniform dimensions. On the south side of the ob- 
long stands the Speyside orphan hospital, a neat 
structure built in 1824, for 30 poor orphans, on the 
plan of the Edinburgh orphans' hospital. A re- 
markably neat commodious school-house was built, 
on the north side of the town, about 17 j'ears ago, 
by the Earl of Seafield. The parish church of 
Cromdale also stands in that vicinity ; and there are 
connected with the town a Royal bounty church, a 
Free church, and a Baptist meeting-house. The 
town has offices of the National Bank, the Cale- 
donian Bank, the Eoyal Bank, and seven insur- 
ance agencies. Sheriff's small debt courts are held 
on the first Monday of January, May, and Septem- 
ber, and on the first Wednesday after the second 
Monday of February, June, and October. Fairs are 
held on the Thursday before the third Wednesday 
of April, on the Monday after the third Wednesday 
of April, on the Monday after the second Wednes- 
day of May, on the Wednesday before the 25th of 
May, or 26th, if a Wednesday, on the Monday after 
the second Wednesday of June, on the Monday after 
the third Thursday of July, on the 1st day of Au- 
gust, on the Monday in August, in September, and 
in October after Beauly, on the Monday after the 
second Wednesday of November, and on the Wed- 
nesday before the 22d of November, or 23d if a 
Wednesday. Corn markets are held fortnightly 
during the season, beginning each year on the first 
Wednesday of November. Public conveyances run 
to Carr Bridge, Fochabers, and Elgin. About 1J 
mile to the east of the town, embosomed in broad 
forests, yet commanding a superb view, stands Cas- 
tle-Grant, the magnificent ancient residence of the 
chief of the clan Grant, now one of the seats of the 
Earl of Seafield. Population of the town, 1,334. 

GEANT'S HOUSE, a post-office station, also a 
station on the North British railway, on the north- 




ern border of the parish of Coldingham, 4f miles 
south-east of Cockburnspath,Benvickskire. 

GRAPEL. See Garpel. 

GRASHOLM, an islet in Orkney, lying conti- 
guous to the west side of Shapinshay. 

GRASSHOUSES, a village in the 'parish of Glam- 
mis, Forfarshire. Population, 74. Houses, 20. 

GRASSYWALLS, a Roman camp, in the par- 
ish of Scone, about 3 miles north of Perth. General 
Roy supposes it to have been of sufficient dimen- 
sions to contain the whole of Agricola's army, after 
passing the Tay ; and has given a plan of it. The 
farm of Grassywalls has taken its name from its 
situation within the earthen intrenchments. 

GRAY-HOUSE. See Liff and Benvie. 

more Nan-Albin, and Caledonian Canal. 

See North op Scotland Railway. 


GREENAN LOCH, a small lake in the parish of 
Rothesay, 1J mile west of Loch Fad, in the island 
of Bute. 

GREENBANK, a post-office station and a man- 
sion, in the parish of North Yell, Shetland. 

GREENBANK, Renfrewshire. See Eastwood. 

GREENBARN, a post-office station, subordinate 
to Whitburn, Linlithgowshire. 

GREENBARN, a locality in the parish of New- 
hills, Aberdeenshire, where fairs are held on the 
second Tuesday of May, old style, on the second 
Thursday of June, old style, on the day in June 
oefore St. Stairs, on the last Thursday of July, old 
style, on the last Wednesday of September, and on 
the third Tuesday of October, old style. 

GREENCEAIG, a hill in the parish of Creich, 
Fifeshire, commanding a superb view of the lower 
basin of the Tay, part of Strathearn, and a long 
stretch of the Sidlaws and the Grampians. On its 
summit are vestiges of an ancient fort. 

GREENEND, a village in the parish of Old Monk- 
land, Lanarkshire. Population, 502. Houses, 79. 

GREENFOOT, a locality with an inn, in the 
parish of Sorn, on the road from Galston to Auch- 
inleck, and about J of a mile from the village of 
Sorn, Ayrshire. 

GREENGAIRS, a thriving village in the parish 
of New Monkland, Lanarkshire. Population, 184. 

GREENHILL, one of the villages of the Four 
Towns in the parish of Lochmaben, Dumfries-shire. 
Population, 89. Houses, 22. See Fodb Towns (The). 

GREENHILL, the western junction of the Edin- 
burgh and Glasgow railway with the Scottish Cen- 
tral railway, in the vicinity of Castlecary, on the 
western verge of the parish of Falkirk, Stirling- 
shire. It is situated 15J miles north-west of Glas- 
gow. It is a place of stir in connexion with the 
junction trains, and has a station for the Scottish 
Central railway, but is not itself a seat of popula- 

GREENHILL, a mining locality in the parish of 
Old Monkland, Lanarkshire. 

GREENHILL, Roxburghshire. See Hounam. 

GREENHOLM, an island in Shetland, about 3 
miles in circumference, lying off the east coast of 
Tingwall, 5J miles north-north-east of Lerwick. 

GREENHOLM (Little and Muckle), two islets 
of the parish of Edav in Orkney. See Eday. 

GREEN-ISLAND. See Glass-Ellan. 

GREENKNOWE. See Gordon. 

GREENLAW, a parish, containing a post-town 
of its own name, in Berwickshire. It is of an ob- 
long form, extending from north-west to south-east; 
raid measures, in extreme length, 8 miles, — in ex- 
treme breadth, 4 miles, — and in superficial area, 25 

square miles. It is bounded by Longformacus, Pol- 
warth, Fogo, Eccles, Hume, Gordon, and Westru- 
ther. The southern division, comprising rather 
more than one-half of the whole area, is well en- 
closed and highly cultivated, and presents in general 
a level surface, variegated with several low detached 
rounded hillocky eminences, of the class called 
laws, — from one of which the parish derived its 
name. Throughout this division the soil is a deep 
strong clay, and produces excellent wheat, prime 
grain of other species, and fine pasture. The north- 
ern division is, for the most part, a moorland tract; 
some portions of which are dry and in good cultiva- 
tion, while others are wet and covered with short 
heath, and adapted only for sheep-walks and the 
raising of young cattle. Across the moor, over a 
distance of fully two miles, stretches an irregular 
gravelly ridge, about 50 feet broad at the base, and 
between 30 and 40 feet high, called the Kaimes. 
The ridge bends round in the form of a semicircle, 
presenting its face or hollow to the hills. On the 
south side of it is Dogden moss, 500 acres in ex- 
tent, and in some places 10 feet in depth, yielding 
peats which, when properly cut and dried, are a 
fuel little inferior to coals. Blackadder water comes 
down upon the parish from Westruther, runs along 
its western boundary for 2 miles ; and then, includ- 
ing a considerable bend in its course southwards, 
at the extremity of which lies the town of Green- 
law, it passes through to the eastern boundary 
over a distance of about 4 miles. In summer, and 
even in winter, it is, in general, but a tiny stream ; 
but, being fed by a number of rills and little moun- 
tain torrents, it sometimes swells suddenly to a 
great size, and overflows, to a considerable extent, 
the grounds adjacent to its banks. The stream is 
of much local value by giving water-power to a 
fulling-mill and two flour-mills. A rill of about 4 
miles in length of course comes in upon the parish 
from the north, and flows southward through it to the 
Blackadder. Another stream, of about 8 miles in 
length of course, comes down from the south-west 
upon its most southerly angle, forms its south-east 
boundary-line over a distance of 2J miles, and then 
passes onward through the conterminous parish of 
Eccles to fall into the Leet. The high and preci- 
pitous banks of the Blackadder, before the river 
reaches the town, afford abundant quarries of red 
sandstone, and, at the point of its leaving the par- 
ish, exhibit a coarse white sandstone, with a super- 
incumbence of dark claystone porphyry. At Green- 
law, which is well-sheltered by hills, the air is 
mild ; in the southern division of the parish it is 
more gentle and dry than in the northern division; 
and, in the entire district, it very rarely floats the 
miasmata of any epidemical disease, and is pecu- 
liarly healthy. Two miles north-west of the town, 
on the verge of the hold banks of the Blackadder, 
and its confluent stream from the north, are vesti- 
ges of an encampment; and leading off directly 
opposite to them, an intrenchment, whence numer- 
ous coins of the reign of Edward III. have been 
dug up, runs first along the banks of the river, 
and then goes due south in the direction of Hume 
castle. About a mile north from the town, an old 
wall or earthen mound, fortified on one side with a 
ditch, but of unknown original dimensions, formerly 
ran across the parish, and is traditionally reported 
to have extended from a place called the Boon — a 
word which in Celtic means boundary or termina- 
tion — in the parish of Legerwood, all the way to 
Berwick; but at what time, or by whom, or for 
what purpose, the wall was constructed, is a mat- 
ter not known. The principal mansion in the par- 
ish is Rochester ; the beautiful one of Marehmont. 




with its extensive and wooded pleasure-grounds be- 
longing to Sir H. H. Campbell, Bart., the proprietor 
of two-thirds of the soil, being within the limits of 
the conterminous parish of Polwarth. The parish 
is traversed by the road from Edinburgh to Cold- 
stream, and by a branch going off toward Dunse. 
The valued rental of the parish is £6,836 4s. Scots. 
The average yearly value of raw produce was esti- 
mated in 1834 at .£13,160. The value of real pro- 
perty, as assessed in 1843, was £7,410 4s. 5d. Po- 
pulation in 1831, 1,442 ; in 1861, 1,370. Houses, 238. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Dunse, and 
synod of Merse and Teviotdale. Patron, Sir H. H. 
Campbell, Bart. Stipend, £254 15s. 5d.; glebe, £25. 
Unappropriated teinds, £759 18s. 9d. Schoolmas- 
ter's salary, £34 4s. ihd., with £25 fees, and .£16 
other emoluments. The parish church is ancient, 
but was repaired about 22 years ago, and contains 
476 sittings. There is a Free church : attendance, 
360 ; sum raised in 1855, £150 18s. 9d. There is 
also an United Presbyterian church, with an attend- 
ance of 280. There is a non-parochial school. The 
interest of a legacy of 2,000 merks Scots, left in the 
year 1667 by Thomas Broomfield, and called the 
Broomfield mortification, is currently expended in 
alleviating the sufferings of the poor, and educating 
their children. The church at Greenlaw, and cha- 
pels respectively at Lambden, and on the old manor 
of Halyburton, belonged, till the Eeformation, to 
the monks of Kelso. The ruins of the two chapels 
have not long disappeared. During the 12th, 13th, 
and 14th centuries, the kirk-town of Greenlaw 
or Old Greenlaw, was the residence of the Earls of 
Dunbar, the ancestors of the family of Home. 

The Town of Greenlaw is a burgh of barony, 
and was for some time the capital of Berwickshire, 
but now shares that honour with Dunse. It stands 
7J miles south-south-west of Dunse, 10 north-west 
by west of Coldstream, 12 east by south of Lauder, 
20 west-south-west of Berwick, and 27 south-east 
of Edinburgh. The original town — still commem- 
orated b} r a farm-stead on its site called Old Green- 
law — stood on the top of a verdant eminence, or 
green law, about a mile south of the present town. 
At some distance to the east stood the ancient castle 
of Greenlaw, vestiges of which have long since dis- 
appeared. When the modern town rose from its 
foundations, its baronial superiors, the family of 
Marchmont, who had great political influence after 
the Revolution, speedily invested it with very con- 
siderable importance. In 1696 — in spite of the 
superior intrinsic greatness and the more advan- 
tageous relative position of Dunse, which, jointly 
with Lauder, wore at that time the county-honours 
— it was constituted by act of parliament the 
county-town of Berwickshire. Yet, apart from its 
public civil buildings — which belong rather to all 
Berwickshire than properly to itself — it is a mere 
village, inconsiderable in bulk, sequestered in po- 
sition, and innocent of the activities and the pro- 
ductiveness of trade or manufacture. It consists 
simply of one long street, with a square market- 
place opening from it on the north side. Over part 
of the recess or further side of the square, the 
parish-church on the one side and the old court- 
house on the other, send up between them an 
ancient and sepulchral-looking steeple, formerly 
occupied as the prison; and the entire group of 
building — its seat of justice and its place of worship 
jamming up the gloomy narrow jail between them, 
and all backed by the burying-ground of the town 
and parish — suggested to some wag the severe 
couplet: — 

" Here stand the gospel and the la^, 
Wi' hell's hole, atween the twa ! " 

But both the court-house and the prison have been 
superseded by new edifices which, in an architectural 
point of view, are highly ornamental to the town, 
and whose position is less liable to satirical remark. 
In the centre of the square formerly stood an ele- 
gant Corinthian pillar, surmounted in sculpture by 
the armorial bearings of the Earls of Marchmont, 
and serving as the market-cross. The site of this 
defunct antiquity and some circumjacent spaces are 
now occupied by the new county-hall. This is a 
chaste yet elegant Grecian edifice, built solely at 
the expense of Sir W. P. H. Campbell, Bart., the 
successor of the powerful family of Marchmont, and 
presented by him to the county. In front, it has a 
beautiful vestibule surmounted by a dome. In the 
interior is a hall, 60 feet long, 40 feet wide, and 28 
feet high, adorned at each end with two fluted 
pillars with Corinthian capitals. In the dome is a 
fire proof room for the conservation of documents. 
There are in the building, also, several other apart- 
ments for the accommodation of the sheriff and other 
county officials. The new jail, at a little distance, 
was built in 1824. It has 2 day-rooms for felons, 
1 day-room for debtors, 18 cells, and 3 courts for the 
use of prisoners; and is surrounded and rendered 
quite secure, by a high wall bristling up in a che- 
vaux-de-frieze. The town, besides 2 or 3 inferior 
inns or alehouses, has one large inn, a new, neat, 
and commodious edifice. It has also a branch of 
the City of Glasgow bank, a public subscription 
library, a friendly society, a branch Bible society, a 
regular hiring-market for servants, and two annual 
cattle fairs, one on the 22d day of May, and the 
other on the last Thursday of October. Greenlaw, 
as a burgh-of-barony, holds of the proprietor of 
Marchmont. Nearly the whole town is feued; and 
the feuars, about 80 in number, are a respectable 
class of persons. Population, in 1831, 895; in 
1861, 800. 

GREENLAW, a locality in the parish of Glen- 
cross, Edinburghshire, where there is an extensive 
range of barracks, 2 miles from Penicuick, on the 
road thence to Edinburgh. The old mansion of 
Greenlaw was converted into a prison for French 
soldiers in 1804, and was for a number of years the 
only French prison in Scotland. In 1813, a spaci- 
ous depot was founded, of capacity to lodge 7,000 
prisoners, with suitable barracks for the accommoda- 
tion of the guarding soldiery; but the prison never 
came to be used, in consequence of the war ending 
next year; and the barracks were afterwards set 
apart for the occasional use of reserve companies of 
the line stationed in Scotland. 

GREENLAW, Renfrewshire. See Glasgow, 
Paisley, and Gkeenock Railway. 

GREENLOANING, a village in the parish of 
Dunblane, Perthshire. It has a station on the 
Scottish Central railway, 4J miles north-east of the 
town of Dunblane. Here is an United Presby- 
terian church. Fairs are held on the first Tuesday 
of February, on the second Tuesday of April, on the 
last Tuesday of July, on the Tuesday in September 
before Perth, and on the first Tuesday of October. 
Population, 58. 

GREENMILL, a village in the parish of Caer- 
laverock, Dumfries-shire. It stands on Lochar 
Water, at the eastern verge of the parish, contigu- 
ous to the post-office village of Bankend, 2 miles 
east of Glencaple, and 5£ south-south-east of Dum- 
fries. Here is the parish church of Caerlaverock. 

GREENOCK, a parish, containing a large town 
of its own name, in the north-west of Renfrewshire. 
It is bounded on the north by the frith of Clyde, and 
on other sides by the parishes of Innerkip, Kilmal- 
colm, and Port-Glasgow. It stretches about 4^ 




miles along the shore, and extends considerably 
more up the country to the south. The land is 
hilly, with the exception of a stripe of level ground 
by the water-side, varying from less than half-a- 
mile to a mile in breadth. The soil of this level 
portion is light, mixed with sand and gravel; but 
has been rendered very fertile, owing to the great 
encouragement given to cultivation, from the con- 
stant demand for country produce by the numerous 
population. In the ascent the surface is diversified 
with patches of loam, clay, and till. Farther up, 
and towards the summits of the hills, the soil for 
the most part is thin, in some places mossy; the 
bare rocks here and there appearing. The land in 
this quarter is little adapted to any thing but pas- 
turage for black cattle and sheep. On the other 
side of the heights, except a few cultivated spots on 
the southern border of the parish, chiefly on the 
banks of the infant Gryfe, heath and coarse grass 
prevail. The greatest elevation attained by the 
Greenock hills is 800 feet. The views thence are 
varied, extensive, and grand, combining water, 
shipping, the scenery on either bank of the Clyde, 
and the lofty Highland mountains. The declivities 
of the hills overlooking the town and the river are 
adorned with villas, and diversified with thriving 
plantations ; so that they present a very pleasing 
appearance. The part of the hills directly behind 
the town, too, is cloven to a low level by a fine 
narrow vale, which takes through the road to In- 
nerkip; the contour of the declivities both toward 
that vale and toward the Clyde is rolling and 
diversified; and the. general summit-line, in conse- 
quence of being at such short distance from the 
shore, looks, from most points of view, to be much 
higher, perhaps twice higher, than it really is. 
Hence does the landscape of the parish, particularly 
around the town, appear to be decidedly pictur- 
esque. The rocks are chiefly the old red sandstone, 
with its conglomerate, near the shore, and various 
kinds of trap, principally basalt and greenstone, 
throughout the hills. Both the sandstone and the 
trap are quarried. The distribution of the parochial 
area was computed in 1618 to comprise 2,315 
Scotch acres of arable land, 930 of sound pasture, 
2,780 of moor, 40 of wood, and 300 in sites of houses 
and in roads; and that distribution has, since then, 
been altered chiefly by the reclaiming of a very 
small amount of the waste land, and by a consider- 
able extension of the aggregate for houses and for 

The Clyde opposite the parish of Greenock varies 
in width from 2 miles to 4 miles. " In the middle 
of the frith there is a sandbank which, commencing 
almost immediately above Dumbarton Castle, or 
about nine miles above Greenock, and running 
longitudinally, terminates at a point nearly opposite 
to the western extremity of the town, well known 
to merchants and others by the name of the ' tail of 
the bank.' During spring-tides, part of the bank 
opposite to the harbour is visible at low water ; and 
the depth of the channel on each side of this bank 
is such as to admit vessels of the largest class. Be- 
tween Port-Glasgow and Garvald-point, a remarkable 
promontory, about 1 J mile to the eastward of Green- 
ock, the high part of the bank is separated from the 
upper portion, (part of which opposite to Port-Glas- 
gow, is also dry at low water,) by a narrow channel 
significantly called the 'Through -let,' through 
which the tide passing from the lower part of the 
frith in a north-easterly direction, and obstructed in 
its progress by Ardmore, a promontory on the Dum- 
bartonshire side of the river, rushes with such im- 
petuosity as to produce high-water at Port-Glasgow 
a few minutes earlier than at Greenock. The sub- 

marine island which is thus formed, and which is 
commonly called the Greenock bank, to distinguish 
it from the high part of the bank opposite to Port- 
Glasgow, was granted by His Majesty's Government 
to the Corporation of the town of Greenock, during 
the magistracy of the late Mr. Quintin Leitch. 
The charter by the Barons of Exchequer is dated 30th 
September 1816, and contains the following words 
expressive of the object which the corporation had in 
view in applying for the grant ; — ' Pro proposito asdi- 
ficandi murum, vel acquirendi ad ripam antedictam 
ex Australi latere ejusdem quantum ad Septentrionem 
eadem possit acquiri.' The southern channel is the 
only one for vessels passing to and from the different 
ports on the river, the greatest depth of water in the 
' Through-let ' being quite insufficient in its present 
state to admit of vessels of any considerable burden 
passing that way. The width of the channel, op- 
posite to the harbour of Greenock, does not much 
exceed 300 yards. Ascending, it rapidly diminishes 
in width, — a circumstance which, but for the applica- 
tion of steam to the towing of ships, must have pre- 
sented for ever an insuperable obstacle to the pro- 
gress of the trade of Glasgow." 

The earliest person mentioned in record iu con- 
nexion with the district now forming the parish of 
Greenock is " Hugh de Grenok," who is recorded 
in Ragman Roll as one of the many Scottish barons 
who, in 1296, came under subjection to Edward I. 
of England. Crawford, the historian of Renfrew- 
shire, does not appear to have been aware of the 
existence of this person, and in his account of the 
barony of Greenock goes no farther back than the 
reign of Robert III., (1390-1406) during which he 
mentions it was divided between the two daughters 
and heiresses of Malcolm Galbraith, the proprietor, 
one of whom married Shaw of Sauchie, and the 
other married Crawford of Kilbirnie. The two 
divisions were from that time held as separate 
baronies — Wester Greenock by the Shaws, and 
Easter Greenock by the Crawfurds — till 1669, when 
John Shaw purchased the eastern portion, and thus 
became the proprietor of both. John Shaw Stewart 
— afterwards of Blackball, Baronet — succeeded to 
the conjoined baronies, on the death of his grand- 
uncle, Sir John Shaw, in 1752 ; and in this family 
the property has since continued. The castle of 
Easter Greenock, a square tower, stood at Bridge- 
end, about a mile east of the town of Greenock. It 
was ruinous when Crawford wrote (1710), and pro- 
bably was not inhabited after the sale to the Shaws 
in 1669. An engraving of the ruin, exhibiting only 
a portion of the north wall with spaces for two small 
windows, at different heights, was published in the 
Scots Magazine for October 1810. The castle of 
Wester Greenock occupied the site of an edifice 
which stands upon an eminence above the railway 
station. This edifice formed the residence of the 
Shaws, the feudal superiors of the district, and 
thence received the name of " the Mansion-house," 
— a name it still retains, although it has not been 
occupied by the proprietors since 1754, two years 
after the accession of Mr. Shaw Stewart to the estate. 
The older portion of this bouse appears to have 
been built in the 17th century. Over a back en- 
trance is the date 1674 ; a well close by bears the 
date 1629; and over one of the entrances to the 
garden is affixed the date 1635. The front and the 
greater part of the building is of more modern con- 
struction : it is still inhabited. Before the houses 
of the town encroached upon it, this mansion, with 
its terraces and pleasure-grounds overlooking the 
river, must have had a very striking aspect. It 
was thus noticed by Alexander Drummond, when 
speaking of Vabro in Italy, in the travels he Dfir 




Formed in 1744: — " Here the Count de Merci 
possesses a beautiful house, that stands upon the 
top of the hill, with fine terraced gardens sloping 
down to the river side, which yield a delicious pros- 
pect to the eye ; yet beautiful as this situation is, 
the house of Greeneck would have been infinitely 
more noble, had it been, according to the original 
plan, above the terrace with the street opening down 
to the harbour; indeed, in that case, it would have 
been the most lordly site in Europe." 

During the papacy, the baronies of Greenock were 
comnrehended in the parish of Innerkip. Being at 
a great distance from the parish-church, the inhabi- 
tants had the benefit of three chapels within their 
own hounds. One of them, and probably the prin- 
cipal, was dedicated to St. Laurence, from whom 
the adjacent expanse derived its name of the Bay of 
St. Laurence. It stood on the site of the house at 
the west corner of Virginia-street, belonging to the 
heirs of Mr. Roger Stewart. In digging the founda- 
tions of that house, a number of human bones were 
found, which proves that a burying-ground must 
have been attached to the chapel. The usually ac- 
curate Chalmers states that this place of worship 
"disappeared in the wreck of the Reformation ; " 
but, in point of fact, it remained in some preserva- 
tion so recently as the year 1760. On the lands 
still called Chapelton there stood another chapel, 
to which also there must have been a cemetery at- 
tached ; for when these grounds were formed into a 
kitchen-garden, many gravestones were found under 
the surface. A little below Kilblain, there was 
placed a third religious house, the stones of which 
the tenant of the ground was permitted to remove 
for the purpose of enclosing his garden. From the 
name it is apparent that this was a cell or chapel 
dedicated to St. Blane. After the Reformation, 
when the chapels were dissolved, the inhabitants of 
Greenock had to walk to the parish-church of Inner- 
kip, which was 6 miles distant, to join in the celebra- 
tion of public worship. To remedy this inconveni- 
ence, John Shaw obtained a grant from the King, 
in 15S9, authorizing him to build a church for the 
accommodation of the people on his lands of Green- 
ock, Finnart, and Spangock, who, it was represented, 
were " all fishers, and of a reasonable number." 
Power was also given to build a manse and form a 
churchyard. This grant was ratified by parliament 
in 1592. The arrangement resembled the erection 
of a chapel-of-ease in our own times. Shaw having, 
in 1591, built a church and a manse, and assigned a 
churchyard, an act of parliament was passed, m 
1594, whereby his lands above-mentioned, with 
their tithes and ecclesiastical duties, were disjoined 
from the parsonage and vicarage of Innerkip, and 
erected into a distinct parsonage and vicarage, which 
were assigned to the newly erected parish-church of 
Greenock ; and this was ordained to take effect for 
the year 1593, and in all time thereafter. The par- 
ish of Greenock continued, as thus established, till 
1636, when there was obtained from the lords com- 
missioners for the plantation of churches a decree, 
whereby the baronies of Easter and Wester Green- 
ock, and various other lands which had belonged to 
the parish of Innerkip, with a small portion of the 
parish of Houstoun, were erected into a parish to be 
called Greenock, and the church formerly erected 
at Greenock was ordained to be the parochial church , 
of which Shaw was the patron. The limits which 
were then assigned to the parish of Greenock have 
continued to the present time. 

This parish is the seat of a presbytery in the 
synod of Glasgow and Ayr. But though still treated 
as one parish for some civil and political purposes, 
it now constitutes, both ecclesiastically and quoad 

civilia, three separate parishes, the West, the Mid- 
dle, and the East. — The West parish, also called the 
Old, is the continuation of the original parish, and 
comprises the western part of the town, together 
with the western half of the landward district. 
Patron, Sir M. R. S. Stewart, Bart. Stipend, as re- 
ported by the Commissioners in 1838, £286 14s. lljd. 
from teinds, £25 from annuity -bond of the town of 
Greenock, and £406 12s. 4d. from feu-duties from 
glebe-land, — in all, £718 7s. 3Jd. The minister has 
also a manse and glebe. The original church, 
built in 1591, a low cruciform structure with a small 
belfry, in the middle of an extensive burying-ground 
close by the shore, continued to be used till 1837, 
when it was formally condemned by the presbytery ; 
and an elegant new church, containing 1,400 sit- 
tings, was afterwards erected on a fine open site in 
the upper outskirts of the west end of the town, but 
suffered serious obstruction to its completion, and 
did not receive its finishing decoration, in the form 
of a handsome spire, till so late as 1854.— The Mid- 
dle parish, called also the New parish, was disjoined 
from the Old in 1754. It is wholly a burghal parish, 
comprising only the middle part of the town. Patron, 
the town-council, the session, and feuars. Stipend. 
£275, with £20 for communion elements. The 
minister has a manse and garden, but no glebe. 
The church stands in Cathcart-square, in the very- 
centre of the town, confronting a street which leads 
down to the quays. It was built in 1757, at the 
cost of £2,389, and contains 1,497 sittings; and a 
steeple which adorns it, and is 146 feet high, was 
built at a separate cost, by subscription, in 1787. 
— The East parish was disjoined from the Old parish 
in 1809. It comprises the eastern part of the town 
and the eastern half of the landward district. Patron , 
the town council and a committee of proprietors. 
Stipend, £250, with £20 for sacramental expenses. 
The minister has a manse, but no glebe. The 
present church is a handsome structure, with 1,050 
sittings, built in 1853. — There were in G eenock, 
for a short period previous to the disruption, no 
fewer than five quoad sacra parishes, additional to 
the three quoad civilia parishes, and all of ecclesias- 
tical creation ; but there are now, in connexion with 
the Establishment, in addition to the three quoad 
civilia parish churches, only two places of worship, 
the Gaelic chapel, and the Cartsdyke missionary 
chapel; and the former of these was constituted by 
the Court of Teinds, in the summer of 1855, a quoad 
sacra parish church. The Census of 1851 returns 
for four of the five Establishment places of worship 
an aggregate of 5,000 sittings, and an attendance of 

The Free churches in Greenock, together with the 
total amount of money raised by each in 1864-5, are 
as follows:— the West, £1,709 9s. Id.; the Middle, 
£1,570 10s. 3d.; the Gaelic, £688 16s. 6d.; Well- 
park, £837 8s. 5d.; St. Andrew's, £905 8s. 10d.; 
and St. Thomas's, £787 6s. 8d. The Census of 1S51 
returns the number of Free churches as 7, and gives 
the aggregate sittings in 6 of them as 5,286, and the 
aggregate attendance at all the 7 as 4,749. All 
the Free church edifices are more or less creditable 
structures; and one of them, built in 1855, in the east- 
ern part of the town, is a handsome pile, surmounted 
by a Gothic spire which figrrres conspicuously in the 
burghal landscape, as seen from the Clyde. — The 
United Presbyterian churches in the town are four. 
— one in Nicholson-street, built in 1791, at the cost 
of £1,400, and containing 1,106 sittings; one in 
Union-street, built in 1834, at the cost of £2,400, and 
containing 950 sittings ; one in Nelson street, a 
neat structure, built in 1842, to afford increased ac- 
commodation to a congregation whose previous place 




of worship in Innerkip-street contained 730 sittings; 
and one in Sir Michael-street, a large, elegant, sym- 
metrical structure, built in 1854, on the site of a 
predecessor, which had heen erected in 1807, and 
contained 1,498 sittings. The Census of 1851 gives 
4 United Presbyterian churches, with aggregately 
4,555 sittings, and an attendance of 2,888. — The 
other places of worship in Greenock are a Reformed 
Presbyterian church, in West Stewart-street, built 
in 1833, with 550 sittings, and an attendance of 450; 
a Congregational chapel in George-square, a neat 
edifice with Gothic front, built in 1840, and contain- 
ing 850 sittings, with an attendance of 550; an 
Evangelical Union chapel, with 600 sittings, and an 
attendance of 450 ; three Baptist chapels, in West- 
burn-street, in Sir Michael-street, and in Hamilton- 
street, two of them returned in the Census as con- 
taining 520 sittings, with an attendance of 84; an 
Episcopalian chapel in Union-street, built in 1824, 
with 600 sittings and an attendance of 350; a Me- 
thodist chapel, built in 1814, containing 400 sittings, 
with an attendance of 115; a Roman Catholic chapel, 
built in 1815, at the cost of £3,000, containing 1,600 
sittings; another Roman Catholic chapel, built in 
1862, with nave and aisles 120 feet long; a Catholic 
apostolic church, in little use; a handsome Seamen's 
chapel, built in 1852 ; and a place of worship, con- 
fronting the west end of Hamilton-street, built in 
1823 as a chapel of ease, commonly known as the 
North church, containing 1,165 sittings, and notable 
for having long stood vacant and useless. The 
Census of 1851, also gives a Mormonite place of 
worship, with 120 sittings and an attendance of 70, 
and the place of worship of an isolated congregation, 
with 360 sittings, and an attendance of 384. 

The Greenock academy was established some time 
before the middle of last century. The present edi- 
fice is an elegant one, in the old monastic style, 
opened in September, 1855, with accommodation for 
a course of education in four departments, under a 
rector and several masters. The Highlanders' acade- 
my, a handsome building erected in 1836, in the 
south-west part of the town, has apartments and 
teachers for two schools, a juvenile and an infantile, 
together with a spacious play-ground and all suitable 
apparatus. There are also a ragged school, a sea- 
men's children's school, a charity school, and a school 
of industry. There are likewise schools in connexion 
with a number of the churches or congregations, 
Established, Free, United Presbyterian, Independent, 
and Roman Catholic. And the private schools, be- 
sides being numerous, have a wide range and present 
much variety. Yet the aggregate state of education 
in the town is understood to be comparatively low. 
The returns to the parliamentary commission in 
1 834 gave 36 schools, 52 teachers, and 2,937 scholars ; 
and the Rev. Dr. Macfarlane, six years later, gave 
the number of scholars as 2,450, or somewhat less 
than one in twelve of the whole population. 

GREENOCK, a burgh of barony, a parliamentary 
burgh, a seat of manufacture, an extensive sea-port, 
and the sixth town of Scotland in point of population, 
stands about the middle of the sea-board of the par- 
ish of Greenock, in 55° 57' 2" north latitude, 4° 45' 
30" west longitude, 3 miles west-north-west of Port- 
Glasgow, 7 by water east of Dunoon, 8 by water 
west of Dumbarton, 15| by railway west-north-west 
of Paisley, and 21 by water, but 22| by railway, west 
by north of Glasgow. According to the popular be- 
lief, Greenock received its name from a green oak, 
which, it is said, once stood upon the shore ; but 
this seems a mere play upon words, and there is no 
reason to suppose that any such oak ever existed. 
The name may be derived from the British Gruen-ag 
signifying a gravelly or sandy place; or from the 

Gaelic, Grian-aig, signifying a sunny bay. Both 
these terms are applicable to the site of Greenock, 
which has a sandy and gravelly soil and is finely ex- 
posed to the sun on the margin of a beautiful bay; 
and the latter term receives some countenance from 
the fact that the name of the place is still pronounced 
Grian-aighy the Highland portion of the population. 
The bay in front of the town is comparatively narrow 
seaward and comparatively long shorewise, leaving 
the view of the frith upward and downward, as well 
as in front, fully open to every part of the quays 
and the beach. The ground inward, for about a 
quarter of a mile, is low and flat, but slightly ele- 
vated above high-water level, and is occupied, to 
the extent of about two miles in length, by either 
the quays and docks, the most business streets of 
the town, or long stretches of straggling outskirts 
and suburban villas. The ground behind this low 
belt immediately begins to rise, in some parts slowly, 
in others somewhat steeply; and thence it continues 
to ascend, with a very pleasing diversity of terrace, 
undulation, and acclivity, till it becomes lost in the 
country and climbs aloft into the hills ; and all this 
variety of rising-ground, to the extent of about half- 
a-mile in breadth and nearly a mile in length, is oc- 
cupied, in a pleasingly chequered manner, with 
streets, edificed areas, villas, plots, places of manu- 
facture, garden-spaces, and rural openings. 

The view, from many parts of this upper ground, 
and even from the quays and the beach, is perhaps 
the finest commanded by any sea-port in the British 
dominions. See Clyde (The). Even the extent of 
the view is considerable, embracing a semi-panora- 
ma of 12 miles along the chord, all perfectly defined, 
with a clear middle ground of 5 or 6 miles in depth; 
but the variety and the romance of it are extraordi- 
nary, combining sea and mountain, woods and alps, 
civilization and savageness, in grand masses and 
with most picturesque magnificence. The relative 
situation of Greenock, too, is remarkable, — on one 
of the throngest thoroughfares of the Lowlands, and 
yet at the very vestibule of the Highlands. " But 
a few miles off, across the frith of Clyde," remark 
the Messrs. Chambers, " the untameable Highland 
territory stretches away into alpine solitudes of the 
wildest character; so that it is possible to sit in a 
Greenock drawing-room amidst a scene of refinement 
not surpassed, and of industry unexampled, in Scot- 
land, with the long cultivated Lowlands at your 
back, and let the imagination follow the eye into a 
blue distance where things still exhibit nearly the 
same moral aspect as they did a thousand years ago. 
It is said that, when Rob Roy haunted the opposite 
coasts of Dumbartonshire, he found it very con- 
venient to sail across and make a selection from the 
goods displayed in the Greenock fairs ; on which 
occasion the ellwands and staves of civilization would 
come into collision with the broad-swords and dirks 
of savage warfare, in such a style as might have 
served to show the extremely slight hold which 
the law had as yet taken of certain parts of our 
country. " Wordsworth, also, who approached 
Greenock from Inverary, by way of Hell's glen, was 
strongly struck with the contrast which here pre- 
sented itself to the wild alpine wastes around Loch- 
Long. Said he, 

" We have not passed into a doleful city, 
We who were led to-day down a grim dell, 
Ey some too boldly named ' the Jaws of Hell : ' 
Where be the wretched ones, the sights for pity ? 
These crowded streets resound no plaintive ditty: — 
As from the hive where bees in summer dwell, 
Sorrow seems here excluded, and that knell, 
It neither damps the gay, nor checks the witty. 
Alas! too busy rival of old Tyre, 
Whose merchants princes were, whose decks were thrones : 




Soon may the punctual sea in vain respire 
To serve thy need, ill union with that Clyde, 
Whose rustiinir current brawls o'er noisy stones. 
The poor, the lonely, herdsman's joy and pride 1 " 

In the beginning of the 17th century, Greenock 
was a mean fishing village, consisting of a single 
row of thatched cottages. In 1635, Charles L, as 
administrator-in-law of his son Charles, then a minor, 
Prince and Steward of Scotland, granted a charter in 
favour of John Shaw, proprietor of the barony of 
Greenock, holding of the Prince, erecting the village 
of Greenock into a free burgh-of-barony, with the 
privilege of holding a weekly market on Friday, and 
two fairs annually. This creation was confirmed 
and renewed by Charles II., as Prince and Steward, 
in 1670, and received the ratification of parliament 
in 1681. In the course of that century the town ac- 
quired some shipping, and engaged in coasting, and, 
to some extent, in foreign trade. The herring-fish- 
ery was the principal business prosecuted ; and in it 
no less than 900 boats, each having on board 4 men, 
and 24 nets were, during some seasons, employed. 
Besides the home consumption, immense quantities 
of herrings were exported to foreign markets; in 
particular, in the year 1674, 1,700 lasts, equal to 
20,000 barrels, were exported to Rochelle, besides 
what were sent to other ports of France, to Sweden, 
to Dantzic, and other places on the Baltic. This 
branch of industry is still prosecuted here. In 1684, 
a vessel sailed from Greenock with a number of the 
persecuted religionists of the West of Scotland, who 
were sentenced to transportation to the American 
colonies. Next year a party connected with the 
Earl of Argyle's invasion landed here ; the bay pro- 
bably affording some facility for such a purpose. In 
1699, as appears from Borland's History, and not in 
1697, as is usually represented, part of the Darien 
expedition was fitted out at Cartsdyke, which at 
that time was separate from Greenock, and had a 
quay, while Greenock had none. 

The baronial family of Shaw took a deep interest 
in the progress of the town, which indeed may be 
said to have been formed under their patronage. 
In 1696, and again in 1700, Sir John Shaw applied 
to the Scottish parliament for public aid to build a 
harbour at Greenock; but his applications were un- 
successful. The importance of the measure induced 
the inhabitants to make a contract with Sir John by 
which they agreed to an assessment of Is. 4d. sterling 
on every sack of malt brewed into ale within the 
limits of the town ; the money so levied to he ap- 
plied in defraying the expense of forming a pier and 
harbour. The work was begun in 1703, and not 
finished till 1734. Within two circular quays — a 
mid quay or tongue intervening, consisting of above 
2,000 feet of stone — were enclosed about 9 imperial 
acres. This formidable undertaking, the greatest of 
the kind at that time in Scotland, incurred an ex- 
pense of about £5,600, the magnitude of which 
alarmed the good people of Greenock so much, that 
on Sir John Shaw's agreeing to take the debt upon 
himself, they gladly resigned to him the harbour 
and the assessment. Such, however, was the effect 
of the harbour in increasing the trade and the pop- 
ulation of the town, that by the year 1740 the whole 
debt was extinguished, and there remained a surplus 
of £1,500, the foundation of the present town's funds. 
In our day it may seem strange that the above tax 
on malt should have produced so large a sum as 
£5,600 ; and Messrs. Chambers, in their Gazetteer, 
pleasantly remark that the speedy liquidation of 
the expense affords a proof, either of the great 
trade carried on, "or of the extreme thirstiness of 
the inhabitants," at the time in question ; but it is 
tn be recollected that at that time, and for a srood 

while after, ale, not ardent spirits, formed the com 
mon drink of the labouring people. 

Since 1773, several acts of parliament have been 
passed for regulating the affairs of the port, which 
are under the management of trustees or commis- 
sioners, consisting of the magistrates and town- 
council, and ten gentlemen annually elected by the 
shipowners of the place. Of the original harbour 
scarcely a vestige remains, successive repairs and 
new erections having nearly effaced it. Slore capa- 
cious harbours, with dry docks and other appropriate 
accommodations, have, from time to time, been 
formed at an immense expense. These works are 
as commodious and elegant as any in the kingdom. 
The Custom house quay measures '990 feet in extent; 
the Albert quay and slip, 906 feet in extent; the 
West harbour and quays, 3,940 feet girthed, — the 
entrance to the harbour, 130 feet wide; the East 
India harbour and quays, 3,200 feet girthed, — the 
entrance to the harbour, 170 feet wide; the Victoria 
harbour and quays, 2,200 feet girthed, — the entrance 
to the harbour, 150 feet wide. The quays run into 
deep water, and are approached by steamers at any 
state of the tide ; and a large extent of the outer ones 
has just been widened, so as to afford increase of 
accommodation, with decrease of bustle to the tran- 
sit steamers. Vessels of the largest class have suf- 
ficient depth of water and good anchorage in the 
roadstead outside, and can be admitted into the 
harbours. The Victoria harbour has a depth of 14 
feet at low water of spring tides ; and on its quay is 
a crane capable of lifting 75 tons weight. Within 
these few weeks ground has been purchased in the 
west, at the cost of upwards of £30,000, with the view 
of forming another harbour, and providing dry-dock 
accommodation for the largest sea-going steamers. 

The prosperity of Greenock began at the auspici- 
ous era of the Union with England in 1707, which 
opened new views to the traders of the Clyde, by 
giving them a free commerce to America and the 
West Indies, which they had not before enjoyed ; 
and they soon began to send out goods to the colonies, 
returning chiefly with tobacco. After the completion 
of the harbour, Greenock was established a custom- 
house port, and a branch of Port-Glasgow, by an 
exchequer commission, dated the 16th of September, 
1710. In 1719, the first vessel belonging to Green- 
ock crossed the Atlantic. The growing prosperity 
of the port excited the jealousy of the traders of 
London, Bristol, Liverpool, and Whitehaven, who 
accused those of Greenock and Port-Glasgow of 
defrauding the revenue; but the charge was tri- 
umphantly refuted. The commerce of Greenock 
continued to increase gradually till about 1760, when 
the increase became very rapid, and continued its 
course till it met with a check from the American 
war. After the peace in 1783, the increase became 
still more rapid; and during the 7 years from 1784 
to 1791, the shipping trade of the place was nearly 
tripled in amount. About the beginning of the 
present century it had increased to a much greater 
amount than that of any other port in Scotland. 
The principal intercourse is with North and South 
America, and the East and West Indies; and here 
it deserves to be remarked that it was in Greenock, 
in 1813, that the first movement was made for break- 
ing up the monopoly of the East India Company. 
The Greenland whale-fishery, commenced here in 
1752, was never of any importance, and is now dis- 
continued. The coasting trade at this port has de- 
clined since 1800. This, however, does not indicate 
a general failure of that trade on the Clyde, which 
upon the whole, has greatly increased, but merely 
an alteration of the mode of carrying it on. 

In 1728, the gross receipt of the customs at Green- 




ock was £15,231; in 1770, £57,336; in 1802, 
£211,081; in 1831, £592,008 ; in 1838, £417,673; 
in the average of the five years 1840-1844, £357,173 ; 
in the average of the five years 1845-1849, £365,422 ; 
and in the year 1864, £1,054,836. In 1784, the ship- 
ping trade of the port comprised a tonnage of 6,569 
inwards in British vessels, 580 inwards in foreign 
vessels, 7,297 outwards in British vessels, and 520 
outwards in foreign vessels; in 1814, it comprised a 
tonnage of 40,447 inwards in British vessels, 1,007 
inwards in foreign vessels, 43,685 outwards in Bri- 
tish vessels, and 986 outwards in foreign vessels ; 
in 1831, it comprised a tonnage of 49,887 inwards 
in British vessels, 4,100 inwards in foreign vessels, 
54,236 outwards in British vessels, and 3,405 out- 
wards in foreign vessels; and in 1838, it comprised 
59,014 inwards in British vessels, 8,267 inwards in 
foreign vessels, 58,714 outwards in British vessels, 
and 6,521 outwards in foreign vessels. In the aver- 
age of the five years 1840-1844, it comprised a ton- 
nage of 141,414 in the foreign and colonial trade in 
British vessels, 3,904 in the foreign and colonial trade 
in foreign vessels, and 158,456 in the coasting trade; 
and in the average of the five years 1845-1849, it 
comprised a tonnage of 173,256 in the foreign and 
colonial trade in British vessels, 3,492 in the foreign 
and colonial trade in foreign vessels, and 121,050 in 
the coasting trade. In 1852, it comprised a tonnage 
of 98,041 inwards in the foreign and colonial trade 
in British vessels, 2,133 inwards in the foreign and 
colonial trade in foreign vessels, 72,543 inwards in 
the coasting trade, 49,704 outwards in the foreign 
and colonial trade in British vessels, 2,666 outwards 
in the foreign and colonial trade in foreign vessels, 
and 23,674 outwards in the coasting trade ; and in 
1860, it comprised a tonnage of 108,059 inwards in 
the foreign and colonial trade in British vessels, 
20,513 inwards in the foreign and colonial trade in 
foreign vessels, 183,684 inwards in the coasting 
trade, 75,231 outwards in the foreign and colonial 
trade in British vessels, 10,124 outwards in the 
foreign and colonial trade in foreign vessels, and 
86,689 outwards in the coasting trade. In 1S25, the 
registered sailing vessels belonging to the port were 
241, of aggregately 29,054 tons; in 1837, they were 
386, of aggregately 47,421 tons; and in 1861, they 
were 359, of aggregately 77,550 tons. In 1861, the 
number of steam-vessels belonging to the port was 
28, of aggregately 2,342 tons; and in 1855, the 
number daily arriving and departing was 87. 

The exports of British manufactures from Green- 
ock, and the imports of foreign and colonial produce, 
have of late years been greatly affected by the arti- 
ficial deepening of the Clyde to Glasgow, much of 
the commerce of that city now being done directly 
from its own quays, which formerly was done in- 
directly through lighters at Greenock. The declared 
value of British and Irish goods exported from 
Greenock to foreign parts was, in 1831, £1,493,405- 
in 1834, £1,459,086; in 1838, £1,141,765; and in 
1851, £491,913. The items in the last of these 
years were as follow, — coals, £12,128 ; cotton by 
the yard, £249,315 ; cotton by value, £5,725 ; cotton 
yarn, £40,155; herrings and other fish, £178; hab- 
erdashery and millinery, £12,276; hardware and 
cutlery, £1,707; iron and steel, £36,377; linens by 
the yard, £12,096 ; linens by value, £959; machinery 
and mill-work, £7,618; silk manufactures, £248; 
woollens by the piece, £5,534; woollens by the 
yard, £7,643; woollens by value, £2,404; woollen 
yam, £192 ; all other articles, £97,358. Two prin- 
cipal articles of import are timber and sugar. The 
loads of timber in 1830 were 21,245; in 1840, 
47,048; in 1855, 44,619;— the hundreds of deals and 
battens in 1830 were 283; in 1840, 1,973; in 1855 

2,447;— the tons of sugar in 1830 were 15,300; in 
1840, 13,741 ; in 1855, 44,651; the tons of molasses 
in 1830 were 3,057; in 1840, 9,131; in 1855, 22,437.. 
Numerous ships annually clear out with emigrants 
for America and Australia. A vast amount of local 
trade is done also, through the Glasgow river 
steamers, in constant transit, sometimes as numer- 
ously as five or six in the hour, to all the watering 
places and provincial markets in the frith. 

The manufactures of Greenock are various and 
extensive. Ship - building was commenced soon 
after the close of the American war, and eventually 
rose to great prominence. During a number of 
years previous to 1840, from 6,000 to 7,000 tons of 
shipping were annually launched ; and in that year 
21 vessels, of the aggregate tonnage of 7,338, were 
built. All the building yards have great facility 
for launching ; and most have a rich provision of 
artificial appliances. Boat-building is carried on as 
a distinct business from ship-building ; and has for 
years in succession prepared from 700 to 800 tons 
yearly for the launch. Iron-working is carried on in 
six establishments for all sorts of cast-iron work and 
machinery, but particularly for the construction of 
steam-boilers, steam-engines, locomotives, and iron 
steam-vessels. The making of anchors and chain- 
cables is carried on in two separate establishments. 
Sugar-refining is prosecuted here to a greater extent 
than anywhere else in Scotland. The first house 
for this purpose was erected in 1765 ; and now there 
are eleven sugar-refineries, some of them on a large 
scale. There are also in the town or neighbourhood 
two sail-cloth factories, five roperies, five sail-mak- 
ing establishments, a large cotton mill, two woollen 
factories, a flax mill, a paper mill, three dyewood 
mills, four saw mills, six grain mills, five tanneries, 
a large cooper work, a distillery, three breweries, 
an extensive biscuit bakery, two soap and candle 
works, a pottery, a straw -hat manufactory, and 
chemical works for saltpetre, sulphate of zinc, sul- 
phate of copper, and phosphate of soda. All the 
ordinary kinds of handicraft, also, are prosecuted in 
a brisker manner and on a larger scale than in towns 
with a mere stagnant population. 

An extraordinary work connected with Greenock 
is that by which the town is plentifully supplied 
with water for domestic use, and machinery to a 
prodigious extent can be impelled. It was accom- 
plished in 1827 by an association called the Shaws 
Water company, constituted by act of parliament in 
1825. The work comprises an immense artificial 
lake or reservoir situated in the bosom of the hills, 
behind the town, formed by turning the course of 
some small streams, the principal called Shaws 
water, which formerly ran into the sea at Innerkip, 
and from which the company takes its name. From 
this reservoir an aqueduct passes along the hill- 
range, running for several miles at an elevation of 
500 feet above the level of the sea. The whole 
length of the aqueduct is 6J miles ; the reservoir 
covers 2965 imperial acres of land ; and there is a 
compensation -reservoir covering 40 acres, besides 
smaller basins. Self-acting sluices, most ingeni- 
ously constructed, prevent the danger of any over- 
flow, and completely preserve the water during the 
greatest floods. There are also two extensive 
filters. The whole of this magnificent work was 
planned and executed by Mr. Robert Thorn, at the 
expense of £90,000. In approaching the town, it 
pours down a current of water in successive falls, at 
the rate of 1,200 cubic feet per minute, impelling 
a series of mills and factories, with both a steadiness 
and a cheapness superior to steam. 

A remarkable one of the factories on the Shaws 
water is a cotton mill, which was founded with ma- 




sonic honours in June 183S. The mill is an ohlong 
building 300 feet in length, 65 in width, and four 
stories in height. The elevation is plain, hut chaste 
and elegant. The centre portion projects, with a 
pediment on the top, and finishes with an octagon 
belfry, surmounted by a vane. Each room in each 
flat is 215 feet long and Gl broad. The ceilings, 
which are lined with timber, are supported by two 
ranges of cast iron pillars, of which there are 40 in 
each room ; and over these pillars are transverse 
beams, each 9 feet apart. The apartments at the 
east end are used for cotton and for blowing rooms, 
and are fire-proof; they are separated from the 
work rooms by a stone gable ; their ceilings are of 
arched brick-work resting on cast-iron beams, and 
the floors are of Arbroath flags. Those at the west 
end are employed as a counting room, and for warp- 
ing and winding apartments. The wheel-house 
stands at a distance of 21 feet from the east end of 
the mill; and is a large building, of plain but neat 
design. Its length is 90 feet, and its breadth 33. 
The base is nearly 50 feet below, while the roof is 
about 35 feet above, the level of the road. From 
its bottom a tunnelled runs under the road 
in an oblique direction, for a distance exceeding 
100 yards. This tunnel, a considerable proportion 
of which is 50 feet beneath the surface, and the 
under part of the wheel-house, were cut through 
solid whinstone rock. The arch of the tunnel, and 
the arc on which rests the axle of the wheel, are 
constructed of dressed freestone, the joints of which 
are joggled and filled with cement. The stones 
forming the arc weigh from one to ten tons each, 
and the whole consists of 5,000 tons of dressed 
mason work, ten feet thick. The wheel itself is 
the largest and most magnificent structure of 
the kind in the world ; it measures 70 feet 2 
inches in diameter, or 220 feet 6 inches in circum- 
ference, and is capable of working up to 200 
horses' power with a full supply of water. It 
is constructed on what is called the tension or 
suspension principle; the shrouding or outer rings 
of the wheel being braced to the centre by 32 chain 
cable iron bars or arms 2J inches in diameter, and 
an equal number of diagonal braces of the same 
thickness. The axle of the wheel is of cast-iron, 
and weighs 11 tons. The bearings in which the 
wheel revolves, are 24 inches long and 18 inches 
in diameter, resting in cast-iron bushes. The cen- 
tres or naves, into which the arms and braces are 
fixed with gibs and cutters, are 10 feet in diameter, 
and weigh 8i tons each. They are of a ribbed 
form, with punched covings, and have prominent 
sockets, for receiving the ends of the arms. They 
have a rich and elegant appearance, and the arms 
radiating towards the periphery of the wheel, give 
an impression of lightness to the ponderous machine. 
The shrouding is of cast-iron, and is of 17 inches in 
depth. On the side which is not covered by the 
gearing, there are two sunk pannels with a neat 
"egg and dart" moulding all round the styles; and, 
in the body of each pannel, there is a very elegant 
branch of the water-lily in bas relief, which has a 
very handsome effect, by relieving this part of the 
wheel from that inexpressive plainness which is 
usual in such structures. The weight of the wheel 
is 117 tons. The shrouding is composed of 64, and 
the teethed segment of 32 pieces, containing in all 
704 teeth. The buckets are 160 in number, and 
each contains 100 gallons of water. The sole of the 
wheel is constructed of iron plates fastened with no 
fewer than 20,000 rivets. The wheel performs 
nearly one revolution in the minute. The spur wheel 
and segment pinion, which works in the teethed 
segment of the water-wheel, weighs with its shaft 

23 tons, and the pinion and main shaft into the 
mill weigh 13 tons. The spur wheel, the diameter 
of which is 18 feet 3 inches, revolves at the rate of 
600 feet per minute, and the whole act together so 
smoothly that not the slightest shaking or noise is 
perceptible. — The cistern conducting the water to 
the wheel is of iron rivetted together, and is sup- 
ported by two cast-iron beams the full width for the 
wheel-house. The water strikes the wheel six feet 
from the top of the diameter. The governor of the 
wheel, which is of beautiful workmanship, and the 
rack for the sluice, are placed on a level with the 
cistern. To the east of the wheel-house is a store for 
cotton wool, capable of containing 800 bales. The 
building is fire-proof, having an arched roof of brick- 
work and stone side-walls ; and matters are so ar- 
ranged that, in the event of fire, the whole could 
be covered with water in fifteen minutes. — Behind 
the wheel-house stands the gas-work for lighting 
the manufactory. Its roof is formed by the troughs 
for conveying the water from the ordinary channel 
to the wheel, as is also that of the boiler-house for 
heating the mill by steam-pipes. 

One of the reservoirs of the Shaws water-works, 
called the Whinhill dam, having been constructed 
before these works were projected, was purchased 
by the water-company as it stood, and proved to be 
unsound. On the night of Saturday the 21st of No- 
vember, 1835, this reservoir, in consequence of a 
pressure from heavy rains, suddenly burst its banks, 
and poured its contents, consisting of three mil- 
lions of cubic feet of water, upon the grounds be- 
low, overwhelming the eastern extremity of Green- 
ock, and part of the suburb of Cartsdyke. The 
lateness of the hour, and the darkness of the night, 
added to the appalling character of the scene. About 
40 persons lost their lives, and an immense amount of 
property was destroyed. So sweeping and so sudden 
was the torrent, that many of the victims were sur- 
prised in bed and drowned before they could leave 
their houses. Many persons made most remarka- 
ble escapes. In one instance, a man who volun- 
teered, when the flood was at its height, to rescue 
two children who had been left behind in a bouse, 
discovered the bed on which they had been laid 
floating on the water, and its occupants sound 
asleep, altogether unconscious of their danger. — 
In the summer of the same year (25th July, 1835), 
a dreadful accident occurred at the quay by the 
bursting of the boiler of the Earl Grey steamer, 
when 6 persons lost their lives, and a number were 
seriously injured. 

Greenock, as a town, consists of Greenock pro- 
per in the centre and the we-t, and Crawfordsdyke 
or Cartsdyke in the east ; and these, though now 
compactly united into one town, originally stood at 
some distance from each other. "Both," says Dr. 
Macfarlane, " may lay claim, as villages at least, to 
some antiquity. It is evident that they had their 
origin in their vicinity to the mansion-houses of 
(he respective proprietors of Greenock and Craw- 
fordsburn, and that at one time they were cherished 
by these proprietors, not without some degree of 
rivalship, from motives of patriotism, or as the 
means of increasing at once their wealth and their 
influence. At first they were probably nothing 
more than fishing-villages ; but, at an early period, 
each appears to have had its harbour - capable of re- 
ceiving and mooring vessels of considerable bur- 
den." The earliest description of Greenock which 
has come under our notice occurs in the work of a 
French writer who visited it about the year 1670, 
who calls the place " Krinock," and says, — "This 
town is the passage of the Scotch post and packet- 
boat to Ireland. Its port is good, sheltered by the 




mountains which surround it, and by a great mole, 
by the side of which are ranged the barks and other 
vessels for the conveniency of loading and unload- 
ing more easily." The " great mole," here men- 
tioned was merely a rude landing-place. Crawfurd, 
who wrote in 1710, at the time when the harbour 
was in progress, describes Greenock as "the chief 
town upon the coast, well built, consisting chiefly 
of one principal street, about a quarter of a mile in 
length." About this time the houses were covered 
with thatch; in 1716, there were only 6 slated 
houses in the place. In 1782, Semple, the conti- 
nuator of Crawfurd' s work, said : " About two years 
ago John Shaw Stewart of Greenock, Esq., caused 
survey and draw a plan of the town, and laid off a 
great part of the adjacent ground regularly for 
building upon, having feued off a number of stead- 
ings, where several good houses are built, part of 
which is to be called the New Town of Greenock. 
The town has greatly increased in building within 
these thirty years, being compact with elegant 
houses, a number of them slated. Good streets, and 
well-eauseyed, some of them very broad, particu- 
larly north of the New church." 

The town, in its present appearance, is very di- 
versified. The terraces facing the quays are partly 
spacious and pleasant, partly narrow and dirty, and 
aggregately irregular and crowded. The old por- 
tions of the town have generally bad alignments, 
contracted thoroughfares, and an ill-conditioned 
sewerage ; and they abound in narrow alleys, filthy 
closes, and dingy houses; so that even the very 
small part of them which has to be traversed from 
the railway terminus to the stenm-boat quay is far 
from agreeable to strangers. The central streets of 
the old town, particularly Cathcart-square, and the 
three streets leading from it to respectively the east, 
the north, and the west, are decidedly good, and 
make a grand display of shops. Most of the streets 
in the west, as also some of those on the face of the 
ascent in the centre, are regular, airy, and well-edi- 
ficed. The western outskirts extend far and plenti- 
fully, and are altogether clean and riant, abound- 
ing in villas, looking freely out to the frith or to the 
Highlands, and combining most beauteously a se- 
ries of fine foregrounds with a diversified range of 
rich perspective. 

The most conspicuous public building in Green- 
ock is the custom-house, an oblong Grecian edifice, 
with a splendid portico, situated upon the quay, 
where — not being encumbered with contiguous 
buildings — it is seen to much advantage. It was 
erected in 1818, at the expense of £30,000. The 
old town-hall and public offices were planned in 
1765 by James Watt, and finished the following 
year; and large additions were afterwards made to 
them. The new town-hall and public offices, an 
extensive and elegant pile of building, were erected 
in 1856. The tontine, an inn and hotel in Cathcart- 
Btreet, is a substantial and handsome structure erect- 
ed, in 1801, at the expense of £10,000. Nearly op- 
posite are the exchange buildings, finished in 1814, 
at a cost of ,£7,000, and containing two assembly- 
rooms and other accommodation. Behind these 
buildings is the theatre, which has recently been 
sold to be made into a provision warehouse. An 
hospital or infirmary was erected in 1809, and a jail 
or bridewell in 1810. A commodious news-room 
was opened in Cathcart-square in 1821. The gas- 
work was constructed in 1828, and cost £8,731. 
The mechanics' institution was built in 1840. The 
Greenock library, an Elizabethan structure in 
Union-street, was built in 1837, at the cost of 
about £3,000. which was defrayed by Mr. Watt of 
Soho, only surviving son of James Watt, a native 

of Greenock, the celebrated improver of the steam- 
engine. A fine marble statue of James Watt, by 
Cliantrey, the expense of which was raised by sub- 
scription, adorns the interior of the library. On the 
front of the pedestal of the statue is the following 
inscription from the elegant pen of Jeffrey: — "The 
inhabitants of Greenock have erected this statue 
of James Watt, not to extend a fame already identi- 
fied with the miracles of steam, but to testify the 
pride and reverence with which he is remembered 
in the place of his nativity, and their deep sense of 
the great benefits his genius has conferred on man- 
kind. Born 19th January, 1736. Died at Heath 
field in Staffordshire, August 25th, 1819." On the 
right of the pedestal is a shield, containing the arms 
of Greenock, and, on the left, emblems of strength 
and speed. On the back is an elephant, in obvious 
allusion to the beautiful parallel drawn by the 
writer of the inscription between the steam-engine 
and the trunk of that animal, which is equally quali- 
fied to lift a pin or to rend an oak. Wood's hospital 
or the mariners' asylum is a splendid palatial-look- 
ing edifice, in the Elizabethan style, on the High 
Gourock road, beyond the western outskirts of the 
town, built in 1851 at the cost of about £10,000, 
and liberally endowed for the maintenance of aged, 
infirm, and disabled seamen belonging to the 
counties bordering on the Clyde. This fine institu- 
tion arose out of a bequest of £80,000, by Sir 
Gabriel Wood, who died in London in 1845. The 
places of worship in Greenock, aggregately con- 
sidered, are creditable to the town; and the three 
of them with steeples are appropriate and con- 
spicuous. A beautiful new cemetery, already well 
decorated with tasteful monuments and other de- 
signs, was laid out a few years ago in the south- 
western outskirts of the town. The grounds ot 
Wellpark, comprising five acres, and situated not 
far from the centre of the town, were given by Sir 
M. E. S. Stewart in 1851 to be laid out in public 

For a long time the inhabitants of Greenock 
were almost exclusively devoted to commerce, and 
gave little countenance to literature or science. In 
1769, when John Wilson, a poet of considerable 
merit, the author of the well-known piece on " the 
Clyde," was admitted as master of the grammar 
school of Greenock, the magistrates and ministers 
made it a condition that he should abandon " the 
profane and unprofitable art of poem-making," — a 
stipulation which 30 years afterwards drew from the 
silenced bard the following acrimonious remarks in 
a letter addressed to his son George when a student 
at Glasgow college: — "I once thought to live by 
the breath of fame; but how miserably was I dis- 
appointed when, instead of having my performances 
applauded in crowded theatres, and being caressed 
by the great — for what will not a poetaster in his 
intoxicating delirium of possession dream ? — I was 
condemned to bawl myself to hoarseness to wayward 
brats, to cultivate sand and wash Ethiopians, for 
all the dreary days of an obscui'e life — the contempt 
of shopkeepers and brutish skippers." Since that 
time a better taste, and more liberality of sentiment, 
have prevailed, and some attention has been paid to 
the cultivation of science. In 1783, the Greenock 
library was instituted; and, in 1807, a collection of 
Foreign literature in connexion with it was com- 
menced. This library contains upwards of 12,000 
volumes, and is the one already mentioned as oc- 
cupying the building erected by Mr. Watt. An- 
other library, the mechanics', was formed in 1832; 
and the institution connected with it very soon had 
so many as 800 students. A book club was insti- 
tuted in 1849. There are also a Watt club, an Ard 




gowan club, a philharmonic society, a medical and 
chirurgical association, a horticultural society, an 
agricultural society, a society for promoting Chris- 
tian knowledge, and two correspondencies in con- 
nexion with the line arts. Letter-press printing was 
established here in 1765, by one MacAlpinc, who 
was also the first bookseller. It was confined to 
handbills, jobbing, &c, till 1810, when the first 
book was printed by William Scott. In 1821, Mr. 
John Mennons began the printing of books; and 
many accurate and elegant specimens of typo- 
graph}', original and selected, have issued from his 
press. With regard to newspapers, the Greenock 
Advertiser, published twice a-week, has existed 
since 1802; the Clyde Commercial List, published 
for some time thrice a-week, is defunct; the In- 
telligencer, begun in 1833, and the Observer, begun 
in 1S40, are also defunct; and the Greenock Herald, 
of later origin, is published twice a-week. 

There are in Greenock a Provident Bank, and 
branches of the City of Glasgow Bank, the Bank 
of Scotland, the Clydesdale Bank, the Royal Bank, 
the National Bank of Scotland, the British Linen 
Co 's Bank, and the Union Bank. The town has 
fifty-two insurance agencies, a trade protection 
society, a Lloyd's register, a Lloyd's agent, a local 
marine board, a chamber of commerce, a merchant 
seamen's fund, a fishery office, and full staffs of 
officials connected with "the harbour and the public 
revenue. A weekly market is held on Friday; and 
fairs are held on the first Thursday of July and the 
fourth Tuesday of November. Hotels, inns, and 
public houses are very numerous and of every class. 
Remarkably abundant facilities of communication 
are enjoyed with Gourock by omnibuses, with 
Paisley and Glasgow by railway, and with all 
places on the Clyde, as well as with the chief ports 
in the Western Highlands, in Ireland, in Galloway, 
and in the west of England, by steam-vessels. In 
the Greenock district of the herring fishery, there 
were cured, in the year 1853, 13,794J barrels of 
herrings, there were employed in the fishery 2,503 
persons, and the total value of boats, nets, and lines 
enpaged hi it was £18,649. 

Till 1741 the bnrghal affairs of Greenock were 
superintended by the superior, or by a baron-bailie 
appointed by him. By a charter dated in that 
year, and by another dated in 1751, Sir John Shaw, 
the superior, gave power to the feuars and sub- 
feuars to meet yearly for the purpose of choosing 9 
feuars residing in Greenock, to be managers of the 
burgh funds, of whom 2 to be bailies, 1 treasurer, and 
6 councillors. The charter of 1751 gave power to 
hold weekly courts, to imprison and punish delin- 
qn "Juts, to chose officers of court, to make laws for 
maintaining order, and to admit merchants and 
tradesmen as burgesses on payment of 30 merks 
Scots — £1 13s. 4d. sterling. It is believed there is 
no instance on record of any burgesses ever having 
been admitted. The qualification of councillor was 
being a feuar and resident within the town. The 
election was in the whole feuars, resident and non- 
resident. The mode of election of the magistrates 
and council was by signed lists, personally de- 
livered by the voter, stating the names of the 
councillors he wished to be removed, and the per- 
sons whom he wished substituted in their room. 
In 1825, 497 feuars voted. The commissioners on 
municipal corporations stated in their Report, in 
1833, that " this manner of electing is much 
approved of in the town." They also reported, that 
" the affairs of this flourishing town appear to have 
been managed with great care and ability. The 
expenditure is economical, the remuneration to 
officers moderate, and the accounts of the different 

trusts are clear and accurate." The municipal 
government and jurisdiction of the town continued 
to be administered under the charter of 1751, with- 
out any alteration or enlargement, until the burgh 
reform act of 1833 came into operation. Under that 
act, the town-council consists of a provost, 4 bailies, 
a treasurer, and 10 councillors, for the election of 
whom the town is divided into 5 wards, 4 of which 
return 3 councillors each, and one returns 4: the 
ward having 4 councillors has a preponderance of 
electors. The bailie-court of Greenock has now the 
same jurisdiction, both civil and criminal, compe- 
tent to a royal burgh. By an act of parliament 
passed in 1840, Cartsdyke forms part of the burgh 
of Greenock: In 1839-40. the corporation revenue 
was £22,564; and in 1865-66, it was £50,730. The 
magistrates and town-council, together with nine 
persons elected by the feuars, householders and 
ratepayers, are a board of trustees for paving, light- 
ing, cleansing, and watching the town, and for 
supplying it with water. Previous to the passing 
of the reform act in 1832, Greenock had no voice in 
the parliamentary representation ; but since then it 
sends one member to parliament. Its parliamen- 
tary boundaries are the same as the municipal. 
Constituency in 1866, 1,871. Till 1815, the sheriff- 
court for the whole of Renfrewshire was held at 
Paisley; but in that year an additional sheriff-sub- 
stitute, to be resident at Greenock, was appointed ; 
and by an act of court promulgated by the sheriff- 
depute, dated 3d May, it was declared' that the dis- 
trict or territory falling under the ordinary jurisdic- 
tion of the court at Greenock should be termed 
" the Lower Ward," and that it should in the mean- 
time consist of the towns and parishes of Greenock 
and Port-Glasgow, and the parish of Innerkip. To 
this ward the parish of Kilmalcolm has since been 
annexed. A sheriff-court is held every Friday; a 
sheriff small debt court, every Monday; and a 
justice of peace court, every Thursday. Population 
of the burgh in 1831, 27,571; in '1861, 42,098. 
Houses, 1,848. 

The noble family of Cathcart take from this town 
their second title in the peerage, Baron Greenock, 
conferred in 1807. They are descended from Sir 
John Shaw of Greenock, who died in 1752, through 
his only child Marion, and inherit feu-duties in the 
town to a considerable amount, being that part of 
the Shaw estate which was not entailed on the 
family of Shaw Stewart of Blackball, now also of 
Greenock. — Much the most famous names in the 
history of Greenock are those of the Shaw Stewarts, 
and of James Watt. Gait the novelist also passed 
part of his early days in Greenock; and, having re- 
turned to it toward the end of his life, died here in 
1839. Burns' " Highland Mary " likewise died here, 
and a monument in memory of her was raised in the 
old church-yard, with masonic honours, in 1842. 

GREENOCK RAILWAY. See Glasgow, Pais- 


GREENS. See Ttxe (The). 

GREENSIDE. See Edikbubgf 

GREENSTONE POINT, the headland on the 
north side of Loch Ewe, on the coast of the parish 
of Gairloch, Ross-shire. 

GREENYARD. See Geeikoed. 

GREETO BURN, a tributary of the Gogo 
rivulet, joining it about the middle of its course, in 
the parish of Largs, Ayrshire. 

GREINOED, a bay, a burn, and an island, on 
the west coast of Ross-shire. The name is also 
written Gruinard and Greenyard. Greinord bay, 
or Loch Greinord, lies between Little Lochbroom 
and Loch Ewe, nearer the former than the latter. 
It measures fully 6 miles across the entrance, pene 




trates the land 5 miles southward, and has in its 
upper part a somewhat semicircular outline. It 
abounds with haddock, cod, whiting, and shell-fish; 
and its shores, especially on the east side, are a 
series of rocky knolls and pleasant little inlets. 
Greinord burn descends northward, through a 
mountainous tract, to the head of the bay, tracing 
the boundary between the parishes of Loehbroom 
and Gairloch, and abounding in its lower part with 
salmon. Greinord isle lies nearly in the middle of 
the mouth of the bay, is about l| mile long and in- 
habited, and belongs to the parish of Loehbroom. 


GEENNAN, a small bay and a hill near the 
middle of the east side of the parish of Kirkmaiden, 

GEESS. See Stokxoway. 

GEESSALLACH (Loch), a bay on the east coast 
of Harris, south of East Loch-Tarbet. 

GEETNA, a parish, containing the post-office 
station of Gretna, the hamlets of Old Gretna, Eigg 
of Gretna, and Brewhouses, and the village of 
Gretnagreen or Springfield, on the south-east verge 
of Dumfries-shire. It is bounded on the north by 
Half- Morton ; on the east by the river Sark, which 
divides it from England ; on the south-east and 
south by the Solway frith ; on the west by Dornock ; 
and on the north-west by Kirkpatrick- Fleming. Its 
greatest length south-westward is 6J miles; its 
greatest breadth is 3£ miles ; and its superficial 
area is 18 square miles. The surface is, in general, 
level, and only slightly diversified with rising 
grounds or hillocks. The highest elevation is 
Gretna-hill, which rises about 250 feet above sea- 
level, and commands a delightful prospect of the 
coast of Cumberland, the Solway frith, the How of 
Annandale, and the mountain-ranges of upper 
Annandale, Eskdale, Liddesdale, and part of North- 
umberland. Near the extremity of the frith, which 
terminates at the influx of the Sark, a large tract of 
marsh land of a lively green colour has been formed, 
and is progressively enlarging, in consequence of a 
recession of the waters on the Dumfries side, and 
an encroachment of them on the side of Cumberland. 
Excepting some small patches of moss, the parish is 
everywhere enclosed, cultivated, and luxuriant. In 
several parts, particularly on a strip of land along 
the frith, the soil is a fine rich loam, and in other 
parts it is of a wet and clayey nature ; but, in gen- 
eral, it is dry, sandy, and mixed with stones, power- 
ful in its fertility, and abundant in its autumnal 
response to the call of cultivation. Perennial springs, 
welling up from the fissures of sandstone-rocks, or 
through beds of reddish coloured sand, are numer- 
ous, and afford a luxurious supply of excellent 
water. Some mineral springs also send up their 
treasures, but have been neglected owing chiefly to 
their being sometimes submerged by the tide. The 
Sark forms the boundary-line for 3J miles, and over 
all that distance intervenes between Gretna and 
Cumberland. The Kirtle comes in upon the parish 
from the north, intersects it over its greatest 
breadth, flowing along an almost horizontal sand- 
stone bed, and falls into the Solway 7 furlongs west 
of the mouth of the Sark, forming at its embouchure 
a very tiny bay. The Black Sark comes down 
upon the north-western angle of the parish, forms 
its boundary-line for a mile with Half-Morton, and 
then flows circuitously through it over a course of 
2J miles, and falls into the Sark at Newton. The 
line of sea-coast, somewhat sinuous, and about 4J 
miles in length, is low, and consists of mixed sand 
and clay. Eedkirk-point, 1 J mile, and TordofT-point, 
3| miles distant from Sarkfoot, alone break the uni- 
formity of the level ; and the latter is, on a small 

scale, a bold headland. There are several small 
ports or landing-places, particularly those of Sark 
and of Brewhouses; but they are of trivial import- 
ance, and facilitate chiefly the landing of coals from 
the ports of Cumberland. Vessels of 120 tons 
burden ma}' sail up to Sarkfoot ; vessels of 100 tons 
may put into the other landing-places; and all may, 
at any time, lie in safety on the flat sandy ground 
stretching out from the beach. The Solway, from 
Sarkfoot to Eedkirk point, opposite to which it 
receives the waters of the Eden, is only 1J mile 
broad; but, lower down, it expands to a breadth of 
2| miles. The tide of the Solway — here of a whitish 
colour, owing to its traversing and tearing up a vast 
expanse of sand — flows due east, or directly along 
the bed of the frith, with amazing impetuosity. 
Abundance of salmon, and occasionally supplies of 
cod, sturgeon, and herrings, are here obtained from 
its waters. The climate of the parish is remarkably 
salubrious. About 600 of the inhabitants, men, 
women, and children, are employed in cotton weav- 
ing, subordinately to manufacturers in Carlisle. 
The parish is traversed by the great roads from 
Western and Southern Scotland to Carlisle, and by 
the Caledonian railway, and the Glasgow and 
Southwestern railway; it contains the junction in 
which these two railways unite ; and it has a station 
on the Caledonian at the Gretna junction, and a 
station on the Glasgow and Southwestern at Gretna- 
green. Population in 1831, 1,909; in 1861, 1,620. 
Houses, 307. Assessed property in 1843, £6,068 
15s. Eeal rental upwards of £9,000. Estimated 
average yearly value of raw produce, in the years 
preceding 1834, £50,000. 

On the farm of Gretna-mains stood, 65 years ago, 
considerable remains of a Druidical temple, oval in 
form, enclosing about half an acre of ground, and 
formed of large rough whinstones, which must have 
been brought from a distance of at least 10 or 12 miles. 
One of the largest of the stones — the only one not re- 
moved in a process of agricultural improvement — 
measures 118 cubic feet, and is computed to weigh 
upwards of 20 tons. This temple is traditionally 
famous as the scene of the formation of ancient al- 
liances between Scotland and England. Traces 
exist, in various localities, of old square towers, very 
thick in their walls, which appear to have been 
strongholds of freebooters, or places of defence 
against marauders from the English Border.' — The 
hamlet of Old Gretna stands on the east bank of the 
Kirtle, in a hollow about half-a-mile from the Sol- 
way ; and is remarkable chiefly for giving name to 
the parish, — the words Gretan-hol, or Gretan-how in 
the Anglo-Saxon, signifying ' the great hollow,' and 
describing the topographical situation of the hamlet. 
— Eigg of Gretna stands on the west bank of the 
Kirtle, opposite the former hamlet, and 5 furlongs 
distant from it; and is noticeable solely for being 
the site of a United Presbyterian chapel. Brew- 
houses, situated on the bay or slight inland bend oi 
the frith between Eedkirk and Tordoff-points, is 
noticeable only as a tiny seaport. Gretnagreen, 
originally called Meg's hill, is in reality a hamlet 
in the vicinity of Springfield ; but in popular par- 
lance, is very generally identified with that village. 
It is composed of the parish church, a simple and 
unassuming little pile by the road-side, the manse, 
the parish '"school-house, the schoolmaster's dwell- 
ing, two farm-houses, and two or three cottages. 
Springfield will be described in its own alphabetical 
place. Gretnagreen has been famous for runaway 
marriages between parties from England, who take 
advantage of the facility with which the law of 
Scotland allows a valid marriage to be contracted. 
The celebration of these marriages here is carried 




>n as a trade which long brought the celebrators 
nbout £1,000 a-year; but it was ever disreputable 
and very scandalous, and has been now driven from 
its old prominence by the stern gaze of public scorn. 
— On the Cumberland side of the frith, opposite 
Gretnagreen, on a place called Burgh-marsh, stands 
a monument, marking the spot where death arrested 
the proud and impetuous career of the first Edward, 
as he was marching with giant-strides across the 
border to conquer Scotland. Nearly in the same 
direction, Skiddaw, Helvellyn, and Scawfell, with 
other mountains in the lake-district of Cumberland, 
rear their tall blue summits in the distance, and 
seem to plant an insuperable barrier against the 
progress of the Northman venturing south. The 
hills, extending all along the horizon, appear, when 
the sun is high in summer, to form one regular and 
unbroken chain from Penrith to Whitehaven. As 
soon, however, as the rays of the sinking sun begin 
to fall upon the earth with considerable obliquity, 
and to tinge with a golden hue the long steep flank 
of this sierra, it is cut and broken into a thousand 
individual masses ; and deep ravines, and winding 
valleys, and rugged slopes, present all the beautiful 
variety of their forms, which, though perfect in out- 
line, the distance sometimes renders indistinct in 

The parish of Gretna is in the presbytery of An- 
nan, and synod of Dumfries. Patron, the Earl of 
Mansfield. Stipend, £237 6s. lid.; glebe, £20. 
Unappropriated teinds, £365 19s. lOd. The parish 
church was built in 1790, and contains about 1,000 
sittings. The United Presbyterian church was 
built in 1832, at the cost of about £1,000, and con- 
tains 357 sittings. There are two parochial schools 
with equal salaries of £25 attached to them ; and 
there are three private schools and a mechanics' in- 
stitute. The present parish comprehends the old 
parishes of Gretan-How and Ren-Patrick, which 
were united in 1609. The churches of both parishes 
were, in the 12 th century, bestowed by Robert de 
Bruce, on the monks ofGisburn. In 1609, John 
Murray, the first Earl of Annandale, obtained the 
ehurch-lands of Ren-Patrick, and the tithes of both 
it and Gretan-How. The church of Ren- Patrick 
was dedicated to Saint Patrick by the predilections 
of the Scoto-Irish colonists, and, according to the 
meaning of its name in their language, was ' St. Pat- 
rick's portion ;' but owing to the colour of the stones 
of which it was constructed, it was popularly called 
the Red-kirk, and it gave that name to the headland 
or point on which it stood. Its ruins, as well as its 
cemetery, have now entirely disappeared, having 
been worn away by the powerful attrition of the 
tide on the headland, in careering round to the 
mouth of Kirtle water. The whole district of Gretna, 
in consequence of lying on the frontier of Scotland, 
eonterminously with the debatable lands between 
the Sark and the Esk, down to the period of the 
union of the Crowns, was the scene of almost inces- 
sant feuds and forays; and even after that date, 
down to half a century ago or even later, it was 
nearly as much demoralized, and as completely a 
stranger to the arts and comforts of civilized life, 
by being the retreat of numerous bands of desperate 
and incorrigible smugglers, as in formerly having 
been the scene of constant petty predatory warfare. 

GREYFRIARS. See Edinburgh, Glasgow, Ayr, 
Dumfries, Elgin, Stirling, Perth, and Andrews, 

GREY-HOPE, a small bay, north of the bay of 
N T igg, and close by the Girdleness lighthouse, near 
the north-eastern extremity of Kincardineshire. The 
Greenland ship, the Oscar, was lost here in 1813, 
when 55 persons on board of her perished. 

GREY MARE'S TAIL, a celebrated waterfall 
in the mountainous region of the northern verge 
of Dumfries-shire, f of a mile from the northern 
boundary of Moffat parish, and geographically 8J 
miles north-east of the town of Moffat. Loch-Skene 
collects among the mountains superfluent supplies 
of waters, at the height of about 1,000 feet above 
the level of the sea, and sends them off in a consid- 
erable stream south-eastward, to Moffat water. See 
Skene (Loch). The stream, about J of a mile after 
its efflux from the lake, is precipitated over a stu- 
pendous breast of rocks, 400 feet in height, marred 
in its sublime descent only by slightly projecting 
ledges ; and with a thundering noise, dashes down 
between two high, precipitous, and rocky hills, in 
a long stripe of foam, darkened, or made greyish 
in its whiteness, by the foil of black rock behind 
it, and bearing, on a magnificent scale, a resem- 
blance to the object whence — somewhat fantastically 
— it has derived its name. The cataract is seen to 
most advantage after a heavy rain ; for then, escap- 
ing or overleaping the ledges, it becomes almost 
strictly a cascade, and appears to be, from top to 
bottom, an unbroken sheet of water. A short dis- 
tance from the water-fall is a hollow space called 
the Giant's grave. The entire scenery of the ravine 
is savagely gloomy and dismally sublime. A foot- 
path along the face of one of the sides conducts a 
visitor to a vantage-ground, whence he looks down 
on great part of the water-fall ; and — to adopt the 
words of Sir Walter Scott, — 

"There deep deep down, and far within 
Toils with the rocks the roaring linn, 
Then, issuing forth one foaming wave, 
And wheeling round the Giant's frrave, 
White as the snowy charger's tail 
Drives down the pass of Moffat dale." 

GREY MARE'S TAIL, a waterfall in the parish 
of Closebum, Dumfries-shire. See Closebukn. 

GRIAN (Loch), a lake about 2 miles long, at the 
western extremity of the parish of Lairg, Suther- 
landshire. It approaches very near the west end 
of Loch Shin. 

GRIBTON. See Holywood. 

GRICENESS, a headland flanking the north side 
of Mill bay, on the east coast of the island of Stron- 
say, in Orkney. 

"GRIESHERINISH. See Duirinish. 

GRIMNESS, a headland on the east side of South 
Ronaldshay, 2 miles south of the nearest part of 
Burray, in Orknev. 

GPJMBISTER HOLM, a small island in the bay 
of Firth, or, the east side of the mainland of Orkney. 

GRIME'S DYKE. See Antoninus' Wall. 

GRIMSAY, an island belonging to the parish of 
North Uist in the Outer Hebrides. It is about 3 
miles long, and lies in the middle of the eastern part 
of the sound between the island of North Uist and 
the island of Benbecula. It was formerly considered 
barren and of trivial value, but has been turned to 
good habitable account. Population in 1841, 269 j 
in 1861, 305. Houses, 51. 

GRIMSHADER (Loch), a marine inlet in the 
parish of Lochs, east side of Lewis, in the Outer 
Hebrides. It enters at a point 4| miles south of 
Stornoway, and penetrates the land to the extent of 
3 miles. 

GRIMTSTA (The), a salmon frequented stream, 
flowing into Loch Roag, in the parish of Uig, island 
of Lewis, Outer Hebrides. 

GRITMOOR, a mountain, rising about 1,800 
feet above sea-level, on the mutual border of the 
parish of Teviothead and the parish of Castleton, 

GROAY, a small uninhabited island, lying 2 miles 




south-west of the southern extremity of Harris, in 
the Outer Hebrides. 

GRUCULA. See Shapixshay. 

GRUGAIG BURN, a rivulet running northward 
through the parish of Eddertoun, to the Dornoch 
frith, in Ross-shire. 

GRUINARD (Loch), a marine inlet on the north- 
west side of the island of Islay. It penetrates the 
land about 4 miles in a southerly direction, and ap- 
proaches within 3J miles the middle of the west 
side of Lochindaal. A great part of it is dry at low 
water, and the channel is intricate and has a bar; 
yet the loch is a place of safety for small vessels. 
In 1588, a strong party of the Macleans from Mull, 
headed by Sir Lauchlan Maclean, landed here to 
contest with the Macdonalds the proprietorship of 
the island, and were met by Sir James Macdonald 
at the head of a force much inferior to their own. 
Taking possession of a hill at the side of the loch, 
which the Macleans had ineffectually endeavoured 
to secure, Sir James attacked their advanced guard, 
which he forced to fall back upon their main body. 
A desperate struggle then took place, in which 
great valour was displayed on both sides. Sir 
Lauchlan was killed fighting at the head of his men, 
who were at length compelled to retreat to their 
boats and vessels. Besides their chief, the Macleans 
left 80 of their principal men, and 200 common 
soldiers, dead on the field of battle. Lauchlan Bar- 
roch-Maclean, son of Sir Lauchlan, was dangerously 
wounded, but escaped. Sir James Macdonald was 
also so severely wounded that he never fully recov- 
ered from his wounds. About 30 of the Clandonald 
were killed, and about 60 wounded. 

GRUINARD (Loch), Ross-shire. See Gkeinohd. 

GRUNA, a small uninhabited island, 1J mile 
north of Fetlar, in Shetland. 

GRUTNESS. See Duxrossxess. 

GRYFE (The), a river of Renfrewshire. It rises 
in the western part of the county, among the high- 
lands of the parish of Greenock, and runs eastward. 
At Walkinshaw it joins the Black Cart ; and after 
a short course, bending to the north, a junction is 
formed with the White Cart at Inchinnan bridge. 
Having flowed about half-a-mile farther, the united 
streams, which now bear the general name of Cart, 
fall into the Clyde at Blythswood house, 7 miles 
below Glasgow, and 3J miles north of Paisley. The 
whole run of Gryfe is about 17 miles. On its banks 
are some cotton-mills, and other works. Anciently, 
this stream gave the name of Stratbgryfe to the 
district it traverses, if not to the whole of what now 
forms the county of Renfrew. 

GUALLAN, a summit upon a base of moorland, 
and rising to an altitude of about 1,350 feet above 
sea-level, on the mutual border of the parishes of 
Buchanan and Drymen, Stirlingshire. 

GUARD-BRIDGE, a locality on the river Eden, 
at the northern verge of the parish of St. Andrews, 
Fifeshire. It occurs at the point where the roads 
from Cupar and Dundee to St. Andrews meet ; and 
takes its name from a bridge of six arches, con- 
structed upwards of four centuries ago by Bishop 
Wardlaw. It is the site of a post-office, and also 
has a station on the St. Andrews railway. 

GUELT WATER. See Gelt Water. 

GUIDIE (The). See Goodie (The). 

GUILDIE, a village in the parish of Monikie, 
Forfarshire. Population, 83. Houses. 18. 

GUILDIEMOOR, a village in the parish of Moni- 
kie, Forfarshire. Population, 75. Houses, 20. 

GUILDTOWN, a post-office village in the parish 
of St. Martin's, Perthshire. Population, 178. 
Houses, 44. 

GUIRM (Loch), a sheet of water, about 4 miles 

in circumference, in the island of Islay. There are 
remains of a fortalice of the Macdonalds upon a 
small island in it. 

GUIRSHADER. See Stoknoway. 

GUISACHAN (The). See Dee (The). 

GULANK, a post-office village in the parish oi 
Dirleton, Haddingtonshire. It is situated 3 fur- 
longs from the shore, half-way between the villages 
of Dirleton and Aberlady, on the road between Edin- 
burgh and North Berwick ; and, though irregularly 
built, possesses several good modern houses. Till 
the year 1612, when, by act of parliament, the ori- 
ginal parish-church was abandoned, and a new one 
erected at the village of Dirleton, Gulane gave name 
to the parish in which it stands. The name is the 
British Go-lyn, signifying ' a little lake ;' and seems 
to have been suggested by the vicinity to the village 
of a lochlet which is now drained. Gulane is the 
site of a school-house, of two establishments for the 
training of race-horses, and of the venerable ruins 
of the ancient parish church. The village is famed 
for its extensive sandy downs, thinly carpeted with 
herbage, which abound with gray rabbits, and are 
farmed at a high rent as a rabbit-warren, and, at 
the same time, form the finest coursing-ground in 
Scotland : See Dikletox. Gulane common com- 
prises nearly one-half of the links or downs of the 
parish. Grose, in his Antiquities, gives a view of 
the ruins of the old parish church, — which are still 
in good preservation ; and says — though without 
mentioning his authority — that the last vicar was 
expelled by James VI. for smoking tobacco. The 
church, which is very ancient, was dedicated to St. 
Andrew; and after having been, for some time, 
partially in the possession of the Cistertian nuns ot 
Berwick, was given, in the reign of William the 
Lion, to the monks of Dryburgh. Subordinate to 
it, and within the limits of the parish, there were 
anciently no fewer than three chapels ; one on the 
isle of Fiddrie ; another buj*, in the 12th century, 
by the laird of Congleton ; and another built, in the 
reign of Alexander III., by Alexander de Vallibus, 
at the village of Dirleton. Population of Gulane, 
273. Houses, 66. 

GULANE-NESS, a small promontory composed 
of greenstone rock, in the parish of Dirleton, Had- 
dingtonshire. It is 13 miles distant from the isle 
of May ; and is regarded by some as the point where 
the frith of Forth opens into the German ocean. 

GIILBERWICK, an ancient parish in the main- 
land of Shetland. It was annexed to Lerwick in 
1722, and was previously incorporated with Ting- 
wall. It lies to the south of Lerwick, and measures 
about 5 miles by 2. There are, or lately were, re- 
mains of several chapels in it. 

GULBIN (The), a streamlet, running northward 
to the Spean, at a point about J of a mile below the 
foot of Loch Laggan in Inverness-shire. 

GUMSCLEUGH, a mountain on the south-west 
border of the parish of Traquair, Peebles-shire, and 
the northern border of the parish of Yarrow, Sel- 
kirkshire, forming at its summit the water-line be- 
tween the two counties. It rises 2,485 feet above 
the level of the sea ; and is one of the stations of the 
trigonometrical survey of Britain. 

GUNNA, a small island of the Hebrides, lying in 
the sound betwixt the islands of Coll and Tiree. It 
is about a mile long, and half-a-mile broad. 

GUNNISTER, one of the smaller Shetland isles, 
in the parish of Northmaven, a mile north of the 

GUNSGREEN. See Eyemouth. 

GUTHRIE, a parish in the Sidlaw district of 
Forfarshire. Its post-town is Arbroath, 8 miles 
south-east of the parish church; but a nearer post- 




town is Forfar, 7 miles west by south. The parish 
is inconveniently divide* into two parts, one of 
which lies 6 miles south-west of the other. The 
northern part measures in extreme length, from 
east to west, 3 miles, and in extreme breadth 3 
miles ; and is bounded by Aberlemno, Farnell, Kirk- 
den, Kinnell, and Kescobie. Almost the whole of 
this division, from the hill of Guthrie on the west, 
rising at its highest point about 500 feet above the 
level of the sea, slopes gently to the south and east. 
About 370 acres of it on the north-east, are part of 
the moor of Montrithmont. All its southern boun- 
dary is traced by Lunan water. On the north-east 
is a loehlet, whence issues the main head-stream of 
Ton- water, a tributary of the South Esk. The 
southern division of the parish has the distinctive 
name of Kirkbuddo, and is in form a triangle, 
two of whose sides measure each 1 J mile, and the 
other 2J miles ; and it is bounded by Inverarity, 
Dunnichen, Carmylie, and Monikie. Though it has 
no hill, it all lies high ; the lowest ground in it 
being, not improbably, 700 feet above the level of 
the sea. But nearly all of it, as well as the greater 
portion of the northern division — though not rich in 
soil — is well cultivated, and agreeably sheltered 
with wood. On its south-western limit, but partly 
in the parish of Inverarity, are traces of a Roman 
camp, which covered at least 15 acres. The vallum 
and fosse are yet distinct, and of considerable height 
and depth. The landowners of the parish are 
Guthrie of Guthrie, Carnegy of Lower, and Ogilvy 
of Kirkbuddo. The northern division is Guthrie 
proper, and contains the castle, church, and kirk- 
town of Guthrie, and is adjacent to the Arbroath 
and Forfar turnpike, and to the Arbroath and For- 

far railway, and lias a station on the latter in its 
junction with the Aberdeen railway. The castle oi 
Guthrie, supposed to have been built by Sir Alex- 
ander Guthrie, who was slain at Flodden, is a mas- 
sive building, with walls about 60 feet high, and 10 
feet thick, and has just been repaired and enlarged, 
so as to make a grand appearance amid a mass of 
wood. The family who inhabit it is perhaps the 
most ancient in the county. The kirktown, situated 
about J of a mile from the castle, is a mere hamlet, 
with only about 50 inhabitants. Population of the 
parish in 1831, 528 ; in 1801, 476. Houses, 93 
Assessed property in 1866, £5,449 19s. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Arbroath, and 
synod of Angus and Mearns. Patron, Guthrie of 
Guthrie. Stipend, £158 7s. 6d.; glebe, £9, with 3 
acres of moor. Schoolmaster's salary, £40, with 
about £18 fees. The parish church was built in 
1826, and contains 306 sittings. There is a sub- 
scription school in Kirkbuddo. The ancient church 
of Guthrie belonged to the monks of Arbroath, and 
was purchased from them, and erected into a col- 
legiate church for a provost and three prebends, in 
the 15th century, by Sir David Guthrie ; and the 
church of Kirkbuddo, then a rectory, was attached 
to this collegiate church, so as to be served bv its 

GUVAN. See Govan. 

GUYUD. See Elliot (The). 

GYLEN CASTLE. See Kekrera. 

GYNAG (Loch), a small lake in the upper part 
of the north side of the parish of Kingussie, Inver- 
ness-shire. On an islet in it are vestiges of what 
is supposed to have been a castle. The Gynag riv- 
I ulet runs about six miles southward to the Spey 

HA' BURN, a small affluent of Deskford burn, 
in the parish of Deskford, Banffshire. It washes 
the base of a mound, called the Ha' hill, about 30 
feet long, 18 broad, and 20 high, which is supposed 
to have been used in the feudal times as a seat of 

HA' BURN, a small affluent of the Medwin, in 
the parish of Walston, Lanarkshire. 

HA' HILL, a mound several acres in area, and 
about 65 feet high, near Mauldslie castle, in the 
parish of Carluke, Lanarkshire. It is supposed to 
be, in a considerable degree, the accumulation of 
an ancient burial place ; and it now is all covered 
with large trees, except in a small level part on the 
top where the last two Earls of Hyndford were 

HA' HILL, Banffshire. See Ha' Burn. 

HAAFGRUNIE, a grazing island, about 3 miles 
in circumference, lying 1 mile south of the southern 
extremitv of Unst in Shetland. 

HABBIE'S HOW, the scene of Allan Ramsay's 
' Gentle Shepherd.' This has been contended by 
many persons to be a spot on Glencross burn, about 
7J miles south by west of Edinburgh. Towards 
the upper part of a glen, a small stream falls, from 
between two stunted birches, over a precipitous rock, 

20 feet in height, and inaccessible on each side of 
the linn ; and beneath, the water spreads into a small 
basin or pool. So far the scenery exactly corre- 
sponds with the description in the pastoral :— 

" Between twa birks, out o'er a little linn. 
The water fa's, and nuiks a singan din ; 
A pool breast-deep, beneath as clear as glass, 
Kisses, with easy whirls, the bord'ring grass " 

But, though there may be one or two other coincl 
dents sufficiently close to satisfy an easy critic, the 
Habbie's How of Glencross is far from being a olaee 
like the Habbie's How of the pastoral, — ■ 

" Where a' the sweets o' spring an' summer prow." 

The locality is bare, surrounded with marshes, and 
not in the vicinity of human abodes ; it has scarcely 
a birch or a shrub, except a solitary stunted thorn or 
rowan-tree, projecting from a fissure as if dropped by 
accident from a rock; it is adorned with not a flower 
or patch of lively verdure, but only, where the soil is 
dry, with a few tufts of whins; and it seems never 
to have claimed connexion with Ramsay, and pro- 
bably never met the gaze of his eye, or was men- 
tioned in his hearing. 

Tytler, the celebrated antiquary, the restorer of 




Ramsay's fame, and the proprietor of a mansion and 
an estate in the very parish of the Glencross Hab- 
bie's How, had no difficulty in identifying all the 
sceneiy of 'the Gentle Shepherd' with the exquisite 
landscape in and around the demesne of Newhall, 
lying near the head of the North Esk, partly within 
the parish of Penicuick in Mid-Lothian, and partly 
within that of Linton in Peebles-shire. " While I 
passed my infancy at Newhall," says he in his edi- 
tion of King James' Poems, " near Pentland-hills, 
where the scenes of this pastoral poem were laid, 
the seat of Mr. Forbes, and the resort of many of the 
literati at that time, I well remember to have heard 
Ramsay recite as his own production, different scenes 
of ' the Gentle Shepherd,' particularly the two first, 
before it was printed." Between the house and the 
little haugh, where the Esk and the rivulet from 
the Harbour-Craig meet, are some romantic grey 
crags at the side of the water, looking up a turn in 
the glen, and directly fronting the south. Their 
crevices are filled with birches, shrubs, and copse- 
wood ; the clear stream purls its way past, within a 
few yards, before it runs directly under them ; and 
projecting beyond their bases, they give complete 
bield to whatever is beneath, and form the most in- 
viting retreat imaginable : — 

"Beneath the south side of a craggy bield, 
Where crystal springs the halesome water yield." 

Farther up, the glen widens immediately behind the 
house, into a considerable green or holm, with the 
brawling burn, now more quiet, winding among 
pebbles, in short turns through it. At the head of 
this "howm," on the edge of the stream, with an 
aged thorn behind them, are the ruins of an old 
washing-house ; and the place was so well-calculated 
for the use it had formerly been applied to, that an- 
other more convenient one was built about 35 years 
ago, and is still to be seen : — 

" A flowery howm between tiv;i verdant braes, 
Where lasses nse to wash and spread their claes ; 
A trotting burnie wimpling through the ground; 
Its channel-pebbles shining smooth and round." 

Still farther up, the burn, agreeable to the descrip- 
tion in the dialogue of the second scene, the hollow 
beyond Mary's bower, where the Esk divides it in 
the middle, and forms a linn or leap, is named the 
How burn ; a small enclosure above is called the 
Braehead park ; and the hollow below the cascade, 
with its bathing-pool and little green, its birches, 
wild shrubs, and variety of natural flowers in sum- 
mer, its rocks and the whole of its romantic and 
rural scenery, coincides exactly with the description 
of Habbie's How. Farther up still, the grounds be- 
yond the How burn, to the westward, called Carlops 
— a contraction for Carline's Loup — were supposed 
once to have been the residence of a carline or witch, 
who lived in a dell, at the foot of the Carlops hill, 
near a pass between two conic rocks ; from the op- 
posite points of which she was often observed at 
nights, by the superstitious and ignorant, bounding 
and frisking on her broom, across the entrance. Not 
far from this, on a height to the east, stood a very 
ancient half-withered solitary ash-tree, near the old 
mansion-house of Carlops, overhanging a well, with 
not another of 30 years' standing in sight of it; and 
from the open grounds to the south, both it and the 
glen, with the village and some decayed cottages in 
it, and the Carline's loups at its mouth, are seen. 
Ramsay may not have observed or referred to this 
tree ; but it is a curious circumstance that it should 
be there, and so situated as to complete the resem- 
blance to the scene, which seems to have been taken 
from the place :— 

" The open field ;■— a cottage in a glen, 
An auld wife spinning at the sunny end; — 
At a small distance, by a blasted tree, 
With faulded arms, and halt-raised look ye see, 
Bauldy his lane." 

HACKWOOD BURN, a small tributary of the 
Clyde, in the parish of Lamington Lanarkshire. 

HADDENR1G. See Speoustox. 

HADDINGTON, a parish, containing a royal 
burgh of its own name, and the hamlets of Abbey 
and St. Laurence, in the centre of Haddingtonshire. 
It is bounded by Aberlady, Athelstaneford, Preston- 
kirk, Morham, Yester, Bolton, Salton, and Gladsmuir. 
It is of very irregular figure, having a main body of 
a coffin outline, and, at various points, no fewer than 
five projections, two of which run respectively north 
and south to a considerable distance. Exclusive of 
its projections, it is 6 miles long from east to west, 
and, on the average, 2 or 2 J miles broad ; but in- 
clusive of the projections, it is 8 miles long from 
north-north-west to south-south-east, and about 7 
miles broad. Its superficial area is about 22 J square 
miles. The parish, as a whole, presents a lovely 
and fascinating landscape. Along the north side of 
the main body are the soft summits and green 
declivities of the Garleton hills, frilled down their 
southern slopes by rows of plantation. Through the 
middle of the parish from west to east, flows, in 
beautiful sinuosities, between wooded and variegated 
banks, and under the shade, now of the town of 
Haddington, and now of smiling and superb man- 
sions, with a width generally of from 50 to 56 feet 
of waters, the river Tyne. All the rest of the dis- 
trict is a beautifully undulating surface, here almost 
subsiding into plain, there lifting its grassy eleva- 
tions up to nearly the height of hills, and every- 
where exhibiting either luxuriant fields, green mea- 
dows, thriving plantations, or elegant seats and 
ornamental lawns and policies. Agriculture is here 
in its glory, and exults in its highest achievements. 
Upwards of 9,000imperial acres are under cultivation ; 
nearly 1,300 are covered with wood; and only about 
250 have been untouched by the hand of culture. 
All the parish, in fact, is arable, except a few unim- 
portant patches on the summits of the Garleton-hills. 
On nearly 1 ,000 acres at the western extremity the soil 
is thin, though mostly covered with profitable plan- 
tation ; and, in nearly all other parts, it is rich and 
highly fertile. The climate is temperate, serene, 
and remarkably salubrious. Nine children of parents 
who were married in 1657, attained the aggregate 
age of 738 years, — making the average age of each 
member of the family no less than 82. Yet Had- 
dington was the first place in Scotland visited by 
malignant cholera. Thereare few ruins in the parish. 
Coal has been sought for, but not found. There is 
a mineral spring, a weak chalybeate, called Dobson's 
well, about £ a mile west of the burgh. The average 
yearly value of raw produce was estimated in 1835 
at £52,225. The assessed property in 1860 was 

A mile and a quarter south of the town stands the 
mansion of Lennoxlove, anciently called Lethington, 
the seat of Lord Blantyre. Part of it, consisting 
chiefly of a square tower, was built by the Giffords, 
and dates high in antiquity, and was a very strong 
high fortalice. Lethington was the birth-place and 
residence of John, Duke of Lauderdale, the home of 
Secretary Maitland and Sir Richard Maitland, and, 
for a long period, the chief seat of the Lauderdale 
family. The contemporary Duke of York having 
sarcastically said that, before his first visit to Scot- 
land, he understood the country to be unimbellished 
with a single park, John, Duke of Lauderdale, 
piqued by the sarcasm, built, it is said, the first 




park-wall of Lethington, enclosing an area of more 
than a square mile, in the space of six weeks, and 
raised it to tlie massive height of 12 feet. Three 
quarters of a mile south of Lethington or Lennox- 
love, is the mansion of Coalston, the seat of the 
family of Brown, the most ancient in the parish, and 
now the property of that family's representative, the 
Marquis of Dalhousie. Three quarters of a mile 
east of Lennoxlove is Monkrig, a beautiful modern 
mansion built by the Honourable Captain Keith, 
R.N. On the south bank of the Tyne, J of a mile 
east of the town of Haddington, is the mansion of 
Amisfield, the property of the Earl of Wemyss and 
March ; and a mile east of it, is Stevenson, the seat 
of Sir John Gordon Sinclair, Bart. On the north of 
the Tyne, and west of Haddington, are the mansions 
of Clerkington, Lethem, Alderston, and Huntington 
— the first on the banks of the river, and the rest at 
intervals northward. On Byres, or Byrie-hill, one 
of the summits of the Garletons, stands, prominent 
in its position, and distinctly visible from Edinburgh, 
a monument to the memory of the celebrated Earl 
of Hopetoun, one of the heroes of the Peninsular 
war. Haddington, in the suburb of Gifford-gate, 
contests the honour of having given birth to the 
Reformer Knox ; but is somewhat sternly resisted in 
this claim by the village of Gifford. The parish is 
traversed across one of its projections by the North 
British railway, and has a branch of that railway 
within itself to the burgh. It is also intersected 6 
miles from west to east by the great road between 
Edinburgh and the east of England ; and it sends 
off a road to North-Berwick, and is cut in all direc- 
tions by a profusion of subordinate roads. Popula- 
tion in"l831, 5,883; in 1861, 5,548. Houses, 948. 

Haddington is the seat of a presbytery in the synod 
of Lothian and Tweeddale. The charge is collegiate. 
Patron, the Earl of Hopetoun. Unappropriated 
.teinds, £775 lis. 7d. First minister's stipend, 
£343 2s. 2d. ; glebe, £24. Second minister's stipend, 
£333 6s. 9d.; glebe, £25. The parish church is 
supposed to have been built in the 12th or 13th cen- 
tury, and was last repaired in 1811, and contains 
1,260 sittings. There is also a church connected 
with the Establishment, called St. John's; but it is 
not at present used for public worship. There are 
two Free churches, — St. John's, with 862 sittings, 
and Knox's, with 385 sittings; and the sum raised 
in 1865 in connexion with the former was £349 lis. 
5d., — in connexion with the latter, £156 Is. Kid. 
There are two United Presbyterian churches, the 
East and the West, with respectively 549 and 450 
sittings. There are also an Independent chapel, 
with 240 sittings, an Episcopalian chapel, with 279 
sittings, and a Roman Catholic place of meeting; 
and there were formerly places for Methodists and 
for Baptists. There is a grammar or burgh school, 
with English, mathematical, and classical depart- 
ments, conducted and supported in the usual man- 
ner of burgh schools. There is also a parochial 
school, with an attached salary of £55, and about 
£125 fees; and there are a ladies' boarding and day 
school, a very efficient ragged school, the public 
subscriptions to which in 1855 amounted to £142 
16s. 5d.,_and several private schools. 

Haddington was ot old the seat of a deanery, and 
of the synodical meetings of the diocese. The par- 
ish seems, through the medium of its town, to have 
derived its name from a Saxon chief of the name of 
Haden, who sat down here on the banks of the 
Tyne, after the commencement of the Scoto-Saxon 
period; and its origin is so ancient as to be untrace- 
able amid the obscurities of that early epoch, and 
the ages which followed. At the accession of David 
1. to the throne, it stands clearly out to the view as 

a defined parish; and both then and afterwards, was 
of much larger extent than at present. Till the 
year 1674, it comprehended a considerable part of 
Athelstaneford; and till 1692, it comprised also a 
large portion of Gladsmuir. The ancient church 
was dedicated to the Virgin Mary, — the common 
patron of similar establishments in the circumjacent 
district. About the year 1134, David I. granted it 
— along with its chapels, lands, tithes, and every 
thing belonging to it in the parish — to the priory of 
St. Andrews. Soon after he gave to the priory, as 
a largess or endowment on this church, the lands of 
Clerkington on both sides of the Tyne, a toft in the 
town, and the tithes of the mills and of all produce 
within the parish. All these grants were confirmed 
by David's grandsons, Malcolm IV. and William, as 
well as by the successive bishops of St. Andrews ; 
and they occasioned the church of Haddington to be 
held by the St. Andrews priory, and served by a 
vicar, till the Reformation. — Connected with the 
church, and within the limits of the parish, were six 
chapels. At the hamlet to which it has bequeathed 
its name, was a chapel dedicated to St. Lawrence. 
In the town or its immediate vicinity were four 
chapels, — one dedicated to St. Martin, — one dedi- 
cated to St. Catherine, — one dedicated to St. Ken- 
tigern, — and one, probably the property of the 
Knights Templars, dedicated to St. John. And 
there was a chapel within the barony of Penston, 
which, previous to the erection of Gladsmuir parish, 
lay within the limits of Haddington. At the Re- 
formation, the property of all these chapels, with 
that of the church to which they were attached, be- 
longed, as part of the immense possessions of the 
priory of St. Andrews, to James Stewart, the noto- 
rious Earl of Moray, the bastard brother and the 
minister of Mary of Scotland. The possessions were 
soon after usurped by the Earl of Morton, during 
the period of his regency ; and when he was put to 
death for his participation in the murder of Darnley, 
they were forfeited to the Crown. Esme, Duke of 
Lennox, the cousin and favourite of James VI. now 
obtained the whole, as a temporal lordship, from the 
King. In 1615, Thomas, the first Earl of Hadding- 
ton, purchased the Haddington portion of the lord- 
ship — consisting of the patronage and property and 
emoluments of the church and its chapels — from 
Ludovic the son of Esme; and, in 1620, obtained 
from the King a confirmation of his purchase. In 
the 18th century, the patronage and property were 
transferred, by another purchase, to Charles, the first 
Earl of Hopetoun ; and they have since continued 
in the possession of his descendants. From the 
period of the utter curtailment of ecclesiastical rev- 
enue at the Reformation till the year 1602, the 
church of Haddington, the chapel of St. Martin, and 
the church of Athelstaneford, were all served by one 
minister. The chapel of St. Martin now received 
an incumbent of its own ; but, at the expiry of his 
period of service, it was abandoned; and, at the pre- 
sent day, it still exhibits, on the east side of the sub- 
urb of Nungate, in its external walls, a memorial of 
an age of superstitious substitution of supernumerary 
churches and tedious ceremonials, for the simple 
appliances and spiritual duties of true religion. In 
1633, the church of Haddington was appointed one 
of the 12 prebends of the chapter of Edinburgh; 
and, in 1635, the magistrates of the town concurred 
with the Bishop of Edinburgh in pronouncing the 
necessity of it having for itself not one minister only 
but two; and they assumed the responsibility of 
providing for a second minister. The magistrates, 
naturally enough, thought themselves entitled to 
the patronage of the additional ecclesiastical office; 
but — resisted in their claim by the patron of the 




parish as settled at the Reformation — they pushed 
their case first before the College of Justice, and 
next up to the House of Peers, and, suffering a de- 
feat in both appeals, raised a precedent which has 
been a famous one in Scottish law for the settlement 
of similar questions. 

Additional to the ecclesiastusil edifices which have 
been enumerated, Haddington had two monastic es- 
tablishments, — one in the burgh, and one in the vil- 
lage of Abbey. The former, a large and venerable 
structure, built apparently in the 12th or 13th cen- 
tury, and still in considerable preservation — was a 
monastery of Franciscan or Grey Friars. Lord Seaton 
appears to have been one of its principal benefactors, 
and, in 1441, was buried within its walls. The 
strictly monastic part of the edifice was defaced by 
Edward I. Even the choir and the transept of the 
church are now in a somewhat dilapidated state; but 
the square tower, 90 feet high, is still entire ; and 
the western part of the cross, fitted up in a superior 
style in 1811, is the present parish church. On ac- 
count of the beauty of its structure, and because 
the lights constantly exhibited at night from its 
lofty windows were seen at a great distance, this 
fine edifice was anciently called "Lucerna Lau- 
doniaV' the lamp of Lothian. The length of the 
fabric, from east to west, is 210 feet; the length of 
the transept or cross, from north to south, is 110 
feet ; and the breadth of the nave is 62 feet. — The 
convent at the village of Abbey, was an establish- 
ment of Cistertian nuns. Only a very small frag- 
ment of one of the walls now remains. The edifice 
was founded, in 1178, by Ada, Countess of North- 
umberland, and mother of Malcolm IV. and William 
the Lion ; and it was dedicated by her to the Virgin, 
and endowed with extensive and valuable posses- 
sions. The lands called the Nunlands, now Hunt- 
ington, and the churches of AthelstanefbYd and Crail, 
with their tithes, were also the property of this con- 
vent. In 1292, Alicia the prioress, did homage, with 
her nuns, to Edward I. In 1296, Eve, the successor 
of Alicia, submitted to the same overbearing prince, 
and, in return, had a restoration of her rights. In 
1358, the convent was strongly menaced, and well 
nigh swept away, by an inundation of the Tyne; 
and, according to the absurd legend of the times, it 
was preserved by the intervention, through means 
of the prioress, of a wooden image of the Virgin 
Mary. In 1359, it was more tangibly conserved 
and benefited by an inspeximus charter from the 
Bishop of St. Andrews, which, while speaking 
of the convent as near the hostile border and 
exposed to depredation, recognises its privileges, 
and confirms its rights. In 1471, the lairds of Yester 
and Makerston, provoked to cupidity by its wealth 
and its fine manors, unceremoniously and rapaciously 
seized their lands of Nunhopes. The prioress had 
no resource but to appeal to the civil power; and, 
failing to get from them a disgorgement of their prey 
by command of the privy-council, she eventually 
procured the interference of parliament to commit 
their persons and restore her property. But such 
was the anarchy of the age that, in order to protect 
their granges from the depredations of the aristo- 
cratic robbers in their vicinity, the nuns had to get 
them fortified, and, in particular, had a fortalice 
erected on their establishment at Nunraw. In 1548, 
the Estates held a parliament in the convent, and 
there adopted their resolution to send their infant 
Queen to France. In 1561, the prioress, Elizabeth 
Hepburn, in obedience to the new authorities estab- 
lished by the Reformation, gave a statement of her 
estate preliminary to the suppression of the convent; 
and she reported the number of nuns to be 18, and 
the revenues to be £308 17s. 6d., besides 7 chal 

ders, and 11 bolls of wheat. The property was con- 
ferred by the Queen on her secretary, William Mait- 
land of Lethington, the son of Sir Richard, and 
afterwards was converted into a temporal lordship 
in favour of the family of Lauderdale. 

HADDINGTON, a royal burgh, a town of great 
antiquity, and the metropolis of East Lothian, is plea- 
santly situated within a bend of the Tyne, and on 
the left bank of the river, surrounded on all sides by 
a landscape rich in the beauties of nature and of art, 
and overlooked at a little distance to the north by 
the soft sylvan declivity of the Garleton hills. It 
stands on the great road between the metropolitan 
cities of Scotland and England, 4J miles south-east 
of the Longniddry junction of the North British 
railway, 1 1 miles by road south-west of Dunbar, and 
17f by railway east of Edinburgh. Though com- 
paratively small in bulk, and though, for a long time, 
mean or indifferent in appearance, it is now one of 
the neatest, best-built, and most cheerful towns of 
Scotland, everywhere clean and tidy in its streets, 
generally tasteful and frequently elegant in its 
buildings, and all around gay and joyous in the 
character of its immediate environs. Approaching 
it eastward from Edinburgh, the traveller passes on 
both hands a considerable number of villas, enters 
a straggling outskirt of the town called the Gallow 
green, and at the termination of this, finds the road 
lie is pursuing joined on the north side by the road 
from Aberlady, and directly opposite on the south 
side by the road from Pencaitland. Here the town 
properly commences; and hence stretches the High- 
street — called in the early part of its progress the 
West port — due east over a distance of 600 yards, 
forming the most conspicuous part of the Burgh. 
About 270 yards from the commencement or western 
end of High-street, another important thoroughfare, 
bearing the mean of Back-street, goes off at a very 
sharp angle from its north side, and continues slowly 
to diverge from it till, at its termination 330 yards 
from its commencement, it and the High-street 
are about 80 yards asunder. The line or lines of 
building between them are, in three places during 
the progress of Back-street, cloven by connecting 
thoroughfares. Across the termination or east end 
of the two streets, and at right angles with them, 
runs a street called Hardgate, 700 yards in length, 
stretching northward and southward a considerable 
way beyond the slender latitude formed by the east- 
ward and westward streets. All the three streets 
we have described have the graceful property — so 
commonly awanting in the thoroughfares of old 
towns — of being straight. But from Hardgate, 
nearly opposite the end of High-street, a thorough- 
fare goes off eastward to the Tyne and to the suburb 
of Nungate ; and this, though only about 210 yards in 
length, makes two considerable divergencies before 
reaching the bridge. The town thus far has nearly 
the figure of a Latin cross, the transverse or inter- 
secting part running north and south ; and in point 
of fact it deviates from a close resemblance to this 
figure mainly by sending off northward from Back- 
street, and nearly parallel to Hardgate, a thorough- 
fare called, over most of its length of 370 yards, Newton 
port, but bearing, toward its extremity, the fantastic 
and unaccountable name of Whisky row. Connected 
with the town by a bridge of 4 arches, stands the 
suburb of Nungate. This, from a point opposite the 
parallel of back-street, stretches southward along the 
bank of the river over a distance of 340 yards ; and 
chiefly consists of two parallel streets lengthways 
— one of which, or that next the river, bears the 
name of Gifibrd gate — and three brief intersecting 

The entire arrangement of town and suburb, tin- 



usually good though it is in itself, receives from its 
relative position to the Tyne material aid in convey- 
ing an agreeable impression. The river, when ap- 
proaching, flows in a northerly direction on a line 
with Gallow green, or the western extremity of the 
town ; hut when at 560 yards distance, it debouches 
in a beautiful curve, and, with two slight bendings, 
Hows due east, till it passes the whole town, and is 
on a line with Nungate ; then making another 
graceful turn, it flows slightly to the west of north, 
washing both the town and the suburb, till it passes 
the northern extremity of both ; and immediately it 
once more goes suddenly and beautifully round one- 
fourth of the compass, and pursues its course to the 
east. — The High-street is a spacious and handsome 
thoroughfare, with excellent high houses, some ele- 
gant and even imposing edifices, and a good array 
of shops. Back-street, though not so spacious or 
extensive, presents no unpleasing picture to the eye, 
and was formerly the busy scene of the spirited 
weekly grain market. In Hardgate also, and its ex- 
tremities or continuations northward and southward, 
called respectively the North port and the South 
port, are numerous good houses, many of them al- 
together or comparatively new, and two or three in 
the style and with the accompaniments of villas. 
The various thoroughfares enjoy the luxury — so 
scantily found in provincial towns, and so indicative 
of tasteful and opulent imitation of metropolitan 
comforts — of side-pavements ; and they are like- 
wise lighted up at night with gas. 

At the west end of the town stand the County 
buildings, erected in 1833, from a design by Mr. 
Burn of Edinburgh, at a cost of £5,500. They are 
in the old English style of architecture, spacious 
and elegant; built chiefly of stone procured near 
the town, but, in the front, mainly with polished 
stone brought from Fife ; and they contain the sheriff 
and justice-of-peaee court-rooms, and offices and 
apartments for various functionaries connected with 
the county. In Court-street, immediately east of 
the County buildings, stands the Corn exchange, 
erected in 1854, at the cost of upwards of £2,400. 
It measures, within walls, 128 feet in length, and 
50 feet in breadth. Its front elevation, though 
somewhat plain, is massive and not inelegant ; its 
interior arrangement is commodiously adapted to 
the joint uses of seller and buyer; and its roof 
closely resembles that of a railway terminus, and 
has a light pleasant appearance. At the point 
where High-street and Back-street separate stand 
the Town's buildings; containing the council-room, 
the assembly-room, and the county and burgh jail ; 
erected at various dates and in successive parts, 
but producing an embellishing effect upon the 
burghal landscape, and now surmounted by a hand- 
some and highly ornamental spire, erected in 1831 
from a design by Mr. Gillespie Graham, and raising 
aloft its tapering summit to the height of 150 feet. 
Near the west end of the town are the gas works. 
On a line with Hardgate, or the South port, at a 
point in the eastward course of the Tyne south of 
the town, a bridge of one arch, called Waterloo 
bridge, spans the river, and opens the way to Sal- 
ton. St. John's church, erected in 1838, is a very 
pleasing Gothic edifice. But the principal structure, 
combining the attractions of antiquity, Gothic mag- 
nificence, and bulky grandeur, is the pile, already 
noticed in our view of the parish, as the church of 
the ancient monastery. This is finely situated on 
an open area south-east of the body of the town, 
skirted by the gently flowing Tyne. Around is 
the spacious cemetery of the parish, embosoming the 
remains of much departed worth ; and, in parti- 
cular, those of the devout and illustrious John 

Brown, whose excellencies long shed a lustre ovei 
the town, and whose pious and useful writings have 
embalmed him in the affections of the truly Chris- 
tian of every denomination. Within the edifice it- 
self are a vault containing the remains of John, 
Duke of Lauderdale, as well as those of various 
members of his family, and an imposing monument, 
24 feet long, 18 broad, and 18 high, consisting of two 
compartments supported by black marble pillars with 
white alabaster capitals of the Corinthian order, and 
containing, in the one, full length alabaster figures 
of Lord-chancellor Thirlestane and his lady in a 
recumbent posture, and, in the other, similar figures 
of John, Earl of Lauderdale, and his Countess. At 
the southern extremity of Gifford-gate is a field 
which those who claim the reformer Knox as a 
native of Haddington, point out as having been at- 
tached to the house in which he was born. At the 
north-east extremity of Nungate stand the ruins of 
St. Martin's chapel, surrounded by a cemetery. 

Haddington, particularly in its suburb of Nungate, 
was for some time the seat of a considerable manu- 
factory of coarse woollen fabrics. During the pe- 
riod of Cromwell's usurpation, an English company, 
in which the principal partner was a Colonel Stan- 
field, expended a very large sum of money in estab- 
lishing the manufactory; and, for this purpose, 
.purchased some lands which formerly belonged 
to the monastery, erected fulling mills, d3'eing 
houses, and other requisite premises, and imposed 
on the whole the name of Newmills. After the 
Restoration, the company, for their encourage- 
ment, were, by several Scottish acts of parliament, 
exempted from some taxes, and Colonel Stanfield 
was raised to the honour of knighthood. But after 
his death the affairs of the company going into dis- 
order, and throwing embarrassment upon the manu- 
facture, Colonel Charteris purchased their lands and 
houses, and, in honour of the very ancient family 
in Nithsdale from whom he was descended, changed 
the name from Newmills to Amisfield. In 1750, a 
company was established, and contributed a large 
sum, to revive the manufacture ; hut the trade 
proving unsuccessful, they dissolved. Soon after 
their failure, another company was formed, but 
proved equally unsuccessful in their efforts. Had- 
dington would hence seem destined — though from 
what actual cause is not very apparent — not to par- 
take tiie benefits, or become the scene, of any such 
stirring movements as, in peaceful times, have 
rapidly raised not a few hamlets and villages of 
Scotland to the condition of thriving and populous 
towns. At present it has only one small woollen 
manufactory; yet it conducts a considerable trade 
in wool, is the centre of mercantile supply to an ex- 
tensive and wealthy agricultural district, and has 
an iron-forge, a coach-work, 2 breweries, a distillery, 
and establishments for the tanning and currying 
of leather, and for preparing bone-dust and rape- 
cake for manure. But its chief trading importance 
consists in its being a leading market for the expo- 
sure and sale of agricultural produce. Its fairs 
have gone into desuetude ; but its weekly market, 
held on Friday, attracts, on the one hand, the large 
and very intelligent body of East Lothian farmers 
as sellers, and a vast number of corn-dealers and 
others from Edinburgh, Leith, and more distant 
places as purchasers, and is always — but especially 
at the most suitable seasons for agricultural traffick- 
ing — a very stilling and important scene. In the 
morning, butter, eggs, and poultry are discussed ; 
at noon and half-an-hour past it, oats and barley 
are exposed; and at one o'clock, wheat — East 
Lothian wheat, the primest produce of the kingdom 
— challenges attention. As a wheat market, it is 




probably the first in Scotland ; and, at all events, is, 
as a market for general agricultural produce, ri- 
valled in tbe south-east counties only by Edinburgh 
and Dalkeith. A large cattle-fair is held on a Fri- 
day in April, which is fixed by the East Lothian 
Agricultural society, at which some prime fat cattle 
are sold. A second cattle market is held on the 
Friday preceding the Edinburgh All-hallow fair. 

Haddington was at one time the seat of a circuit 
justiciary court, but now sends all its justiciary 
business to Edinburgh. It is the seat, every Mon- 
day and Thursday, during session, of the county- 
courts of the sheriff; eveiy Thursday, of a sheriff 
small debt court ; on the second Tuesday of every 
month, of a justice of peace court ; on the first 
Tuesday of May and the last Tuesday of October, 
of a meeting of justices for granting publicans' cer- 
tificates; and on the first Tuesday of March, May, 
and August, and the last Tuesday of October, of a 
general quarter sessions. Excellent facilities of com- 
munication are enjoyed by means of the North Bri- 
tish railway. The principal inns of the town are 
the George, the Star, the Black Bull, the Crown, the 
Britannia, and the Railway. The town has a 
savings' hank, a number of insurance agencies, 
and branch-offices of the Bank of Scotland, the 
British Linen Co.'s Bank, the Commercial Bank 
of Scotland, and the City of Glasgow Bank. It is 
also the seat of the United East Lothian Agricul- 
tural society, the new Agricultural club of East 
Lothian, the East Lothian horticultural society, and 
the ancient fraternity of gardeners of East Lothian. 
It has likewise a curling club, a mechanics' school 
of arts, a museum of scientific specimens, a public 
reading-room, a presbytery library, a parochial 
library, a subscription library, a town-library origi- 
nally founded in a bequest of books from trie Rev. 
John Gray of Aherlady, and also a town and country 
library. It is also the depot or head-quarters of 
the itinerating libraries, devised for the enlighten- 
ment and moral cultivation of the towns, villages, and 
parishes of East Lothian by the late philanthropic 
Samuel Brown, the worthy offshoot of the venerable 
John Brown. Of benevolent and religious institu- 
tions, there are a dispensary, — a society for females 
for the relief and instruction of the aged, poor, and 
sick, — the East Lothian society for propagating the 
knowledge of Christianity, — and the East Lothian 
Bible society, probably the earliest organized in 

Prior to the date of the burgh reform act, the 
Town-council of Haddington, according to an act of 
the convention of royal burghs passed in 1 665, con- 
sisted of 16 merchants' and 9 trades' councillors. 
The number of council remains, as formerly, 25 ; 
and they are elected according to the provisions of 
the burgh reform act. The magistrates are a pro- 
vost, 3 bailies, a treasurer, and adean-of-guild. The 
council nominate a baron-bailie of the suburb of 
Nungate, and another of a portion of the parish of 
Gladsmuir which holds feu of the burgh ; but neither 
of these functionaries holds baron-bailie courts. The 
magistrates have jurisdiction over the whole royalty, 
and hold a weekly court in which, assisted by the 
town-clerk, they try civil causes. They are in the 
practice also of trying criminal causes brought be- 
fore them by the procurator-fiscal of the burgh ; and 
they maintain order in the town, by imposing sum- 
marily fines not exceeding 5 shillings, for offences 
in matters of police. The sheriff of the county ex- 
ercises a cumulative authority with them within the 
royalty. The dean-of-guild and his council judge 
of all questions of boundaries and disputed marches, 
and must be consulted previous to the erection of 
any new building. The magistrates have the ap- 

pointment of the town-clerk, the fiscal, the gaoler 
and other burgh-officers, and of the burgh-school- 
masters. There is no guildry in Haddington ; but 
there are merchant-burgesses, who have a fund 
called the guildry fund, devoted to charitable pur- 
poses, from which they generally distribute about 
£25 a-year. The fees of entry are, — to a stranger 
£10, — to an apprentice £6 Is. 2d., — to children of 
burgesses £2 13s. 4d. There are nine incorporated 
trades, — hammermen, wrights, masons, weavers, 
fleshers, shoemakers, bakers, tailors, and skinners; 
all of them, except the weavers, enjoying the ex- 
clusive privilege of exercising their crafts within 
burgh. The property of the town consists of lands, 
mills, houses, feu-duties, customs and market-dues, 
and fees on the entry of burgesses. The debt at 
Michaelmas 1832, was £6,901 6s. 3d.; contracted 
chiefly in the erection of a new butcher market at 
the cost of upwards of £2,000, — in the expenditure 
of £1,500 upon the church and manse, and of £2,000 
upon the spire and renovation of the town-house, 
and of £1,500 in an unsuccessful search for coal on 
the lands of Gladsmuir. The income of the town in 
1831-2 was £1,422 16s. 3d.; in 1860-1, £1,173 odds 
Municipal constituency in 1862, 188. Haddington, 
inclusive of larger space than the municipal burgh, 
but all within the parish, unites with Dunbar, Jed- 
burgh, Lauder, and North Berwick, in sending a 
member to parliament. Parliamentary constituency 
in 1862, 208. Population of the municipal burgh 
in 1841, 2,786; in 1861, 3,013. Houses, 480. Popula- 
tion of the parliamentary burgh in 1861, 3,897 
Houses, 597. 

Haddington was, at a very early period, a royal 
burgh ; and in the charter of confirmation and de 
novo damus of James VI., dated 30th January, 1624, 
by which it now holds its privileges and property, 
record is made of its great antiquity, and of ancient 
charters of the town having been lost or destroyed 
during the international wars. The earliest recorded 
notice of it exhibits it to view in the 12th century 
as a demesne town of the Scottish king. David I. 
possessed it as his burgh, with a church, a mill, and 
other appurtenances of a manor; yet, so far as docu- 
mental evidence is concerned, he does not appear to 
have had a castle in its vicinity. Ada, the daughter 
of the Earl of Warren, received it, in 1139, as a 
regal dower, on her marriage with Earl Henry, the 
son of David, and the prince of Scotland ; and, till 
her decease in 1178, this mother of kings, in other 
matters than the founding of the Cistertian nunnery 
in its neighbourhood, seems to have been attentive 
to its interests. William the Lion now inherited it 
as a demesne of the crown ; and appears — though no 
royal castle is yet spoken of in the place — to have 
sometimes made it his residence. In 1180, William, 
supported by his brother, Earl David, and by many 
clergymen and a vast assemblage of laity, heard here 
and decided a tumultuous though unimportant civil 
controversy between the monks of Melrose and 
Richard Morville, the constable of Scotland. In 
1191, the same King affianced at Haddington his 
daughter lsobel to her second husband. In 1198, 
the town became the birth-place of Alexander II., 
the son of William. During the reigns of David I., 
Malcolm IV., and William the Lion, Haddington 
seems to have luxuriated in tbe comforts of peace 
and the smiles of royal favour. It was first involved 
in the miseries of war, after Alexander II. had taken 
part with the English barons against their unworthy 
sovereign ; and in 1216, it was burnt by King John 
of England during his incursion into the Lothians. 
In 1242, on occasion of a royal tournament held at 
the town, and in revenge of his having overthrown 
Walter, the chief of the family of Bisset, Patrick, 




Earl of Atliole, was assassinated within its walls. 
As the town, after being reduced to ashes by John, 
had been hastily rebuilt of wood, it was, a second 
time, in 1244, destroyed by the flames. But, at 
that period, all the towns and cities of Scotland 
were constructed chiefly or wholly of wood, and 
covered with thatch; and when we learn from For- 
dun that Stirling, Roxburgh, Lanark, Perth, Forfar, 
Montrose, and Aberdeen, were all burnt at the same 
time as Haddington, we can hardlybelieve — though 
several historians concur in telling us so — that Had- 
dington, on this occasion, owed its conflagration to 
accident. The town, though formally demanded, in 
1293, by Edward I., of John Baliol, does not seem 
to have suffered much from the wars of the succes- 
sion. In 1355-6, Edward III., in revenge of the 
seizure of Berwick by the Scottish troops during 
his absence in France, making a devastating incur- 
sion over the whole country south of Edinburgh, 
Haddington fell a prey to his fury, and was a third 
time reduced to ashes. This disaster happening 
about the beginning of February, it was many years 
afterwards remembered by the name of ' the burnt 

In April 1548, the year after the fatal battle of 
Pinkie, the English, under Lord Grey, took pos- 
session of Haddington, fortified it, and left in it a 
garrison of 2,000 foot and 500 horse, under Sir John 
Wilford. The Scots were, at the time, so much 
dispirited, that this garrison ravaged the country to 
the very gates of Edinburgh. But Andrew de Mont- 
alembert, Sieur D'Esse, the French general, having 
landed at Leith on the 16th of June, at the head of 
6,000 foreign troops, composed of French, Germans, 
and Italians, in concert with a force of 5,000 Scotch 
troops, under Arran, drove the English within the 
fortifications, and laid siege to the town. Wilford, 
the governor, made a gallant defence, and even so 
out-manceuvred the Frenchman's activity, as, in 
spite of him, to receive into the town from Berwick 
a reinforcement of men and a supply of provisions. 
While D'Esse maintained the siege, and environed 
the Cistertian nunnery at the village of Abbey with 
his camp, the meeting of the Estates of parliament 
in that edifice, which we noticed in our ecclesiastical 
sketch of the parish, took place on 17th July. As 
the siege of Haddington continued, and both attack 
and defence grew increasingly spirited, the vicinity 
became the principal theatre of war between the 
two nations. Sir Thomas Palmer, at the head of 
1,500 horse, made an attempt to throw supplies into 
the town; but was repulsed, with the loss of 400 
prisoners. Admiral Lord Clinton, brother of Somer- 
set the protector of England, was now directed to 
draw the attention of the Scots from the siege 
by menacing their coasts; while Talbot, Earl of 
Shrewsbuiy, was sent to reinforce and conquer at 
the head of 22,000 men. The admiral, though 
repulsed at different points where he attempted 
a landing, achieved his main object of distract- 
ing the attention of the besiegers of Haddington ; 
while the Earl of Shrewsbury raised the siege, sup- 
plied the garrison with every necessary and an addi- 
tional force of 400 horse, and then marched to Mus- 
selburgh to look into mtrenchments which D'Esse 
had suddenly thrown up for his army. But he in 
vain attempted to draw the wary Frenchman from 
his camp ; and becoming tired of his sentinelry, 
marched off with his troops, burned Dunbar and 
other places in his route, and departed into England. 
D'Esse now resolved to attempt Haddington by a 
coup de main. The enterprise was conducted with 
so much secrecy and adroitness, that the English 
advanced guards were slain, and the has court before 
the east gate was gained, before the garrison was 

alarmed. The assailants were employed in breaking 
open this gate, when a soldier — who a few days 
before had deserted from D'Esse's camp — fired upon 
them a piece of artillery which killed many of them 
and threw the rest into confusion ; while a party 
sallied out through a private postern, and made 
such a furious onset with spears and swords that 
few of the assailants who had entered the has court 
escaped slaughter. D'Esse, in June 1549, was 
succeeded in the command of the foreign auxiliaries, 
and in the prosecution of measures for the capture 
of Haddington, by the Chevalier De Thermes, who 
brought over with him from France a reinforcement 
of 1,000 foot, 100 cuirassiers, and 200 horse. His 
first act was to build a fort at the sea-port of Aber- 
lady, to straiten the garrison by cutting off from 
them all supplies by sea. Wilford, reduced to ex- 
tremity from want of provisions, and informed that 
a supply had arrived at Dunbar, marched out at the 
head of a strong detachment, in order, if possible, 
to cut his way to the supply and convey it to Had- 
dington ; but he was attacked by a large body of 
the French troops, overpowered by numbers, and, 
after an obstinate resistance, during which most of 
his detachment were hewn down, was taken prisoner. 
The English now found the tenure of Haddington 
impracticable, on account at once of the distant and 
inland situation of the town, of the determination of 
the French commander at all hazards and at any 
cost to take it, and of the appearance among the gar- 
rison of that fell, insidious, and inconquerable foe, 
the plague; and they resolved to contend no longer 
for its possession. The Earl of Rutland determined, 
however, that neither soldiers nor military stores 
should fall into the hands of the Scots or their auxi- 
liaries ; and, marching into Scotland at the head of 
6,000 men, he entered Haddington in the night, and, 
on the 1st of October, 1549, safely conducted all the 
soldiers and artillery to Berwick. Of the fortifica- 
tions of Haddington not a vestige now remains, ex- 
cept a few portions of the old town-wall. 

In 1598, Haddington was a fourth time consumed 
by fire. The calamity is said to have been occa 
sioned by the imprudence of a maid-servant, in plac- 
ing a screen covered with clothes too near the fire 
of a room during night. In commemoration of the 
event, and as a means of preventing its recurrence, 
the magistrates made a law, that a crier should go 
along the streets of the town every evening during 
the winter months, and, after tolling a bell, recite 
some admonitory rhymes. This unusual ceremony 
got the name of " Coal an' can'le," and still con- 
tinues to be observed during winter. The rhymes 
recited are sufficiently rude ; but, in connexion with 
the fact of Haddington having so often and severely 
suffered from fire, they are not without interest : 

" A' guid men's servants where'er ye be, 
Keep coal an' can'le for charitiel 
Eaith in your kitchen an' your ha', 
Keep weei your fires whate'er beta' I 
In bakehouse, brewhouse, barn, and byre, 
I wain ye a' keep weel your fire ! 
For often times a little spark 
Brings mony hands to mickle wark! 
Ye nourrices that hae bairns to keep, 
See that ye fa' nae o'er sound asleep, 
For losing o' your guid renoun, 
An' banishing o' this barrous toun I 
'Tis for your sakes that I do cry : 
Tak' warning by your neighbours bye ! " 

Haddington gives the title of Earl, in the peerage 
of Scotland, to the descendants of the Hamiltons of 
Innerwick, the remote kinsmen of the ducal family 
of Hamilton. In 1606, Sir John Ramsay, brother of 
George Lord Ramsay of Dalhousie, and the chief 
protector of James VI. from the conspiracy of the 
Earl of Gowrie, was created Viscount Haddington 




md Lord Ramsay of Bams; in 1615, he was raised 
to a place among the peers of England, by the titles 
of Earl of Holderness and Baron Kingston-upon- 
Thames; but dying, in 1625, without issue, he left 
all his honours to be disposed of at the royal will 
either as forgotten toys or as the award of future as- 
pirants. In 1627, Thomas Hamilton of Priestfield — 
who was eminent as a lawyer, and had become Lord- 
president of the Court of Session, and Secretary of 
State, and had been created Baron of Binning and 
Byres in 1613, and Earl of Melrose in 1619 — ob- 
tained the King's permission to change his last and 
chief title into that of Earl of Haddington. In 1827, 
Thomas, 9th Earl, while only heir-apparent, was 
created Baron Melrose of Tynningham, in the peerage 
of the United Kingdom; and this nobleman, during 
the brief administration of Sir Robert Peel in 1834-5, 
was Lord-lieutenant of Ireland. The family seats 
are Tynningham-house, 8 miles east of Haddington, 
and Lennel-house in Berwickshire. 

HADDINGTONSHIEE, or East Lothian,_ a 
beautiful county, maritime in position, but prin- 
cipally agricultural in character, in the south-east 
of Scotland. It is bounded on the north-west and 
north by the frith of Forth; on the north-east by 
the German ocean ; on the south-east and south by 
Berwickshire; and on the west by Mid-Lothian. 
With the exception of four very inconsiderable rills, 
which divide it respectively toward its north-west 
and south-west angles from Mid-Lothian, and 
toward its south-east and south-west angles from 
Berwickshire — the two rills at the south-west angle 
making a. confluence at the point of leaving it — and 
of the water-shedding summit-line of the Lammer- 
moor hills over about one-half of the march with 
Berwickshire, it has, along the south-eastern, the 
southern, and the western frontier, no natural or 
geographical features to mark its boundary. The 
county stretches between 55° 46' 10", and 56° 4' 
north latitude, and between 2° 8', and 2° 49' longi- 
tude west from Greenwich. Along the frith of 
Forth to North Berwick it extends, in a straight 
line, 15J miles; thence, along the ocean till it 
touches Berwickshire, it extends, also in a straight 
line, 16 J miles; in a chord from the eastern to the 
western" point of its contact with Berwickshire, it 
extends 25 miles; and in a chord from the southern 
to the northern points of its contact with Mid- 
Lothian, it extends 13 miles. But on the sides of 
the frith and of Berwickshire it- sends considerable 
projections beyond this line of measurement; on the 
Micl-Lothian side it makes a considerable recession 
from that line; and on the ocean side it both — 
though not to a great extent — recedes from that 
line and overleaps it. The extent of its superficial 
area, according to the Ordnance survey, is 280 square 
miles, or 179,142 statute acres, — of which 173,298 
are land, 149£ are links, 5,505 are foreshore, and 
189J are water. 

The county consists of highlands and lowlands, 
each broadly and distinctly marked in its features, 
and both stretching east and west with an exposure 
to the north. The highland or southern district is 
part of the very broad but comparatively low Lam- 
mermoor range, which, coming off at an acute 
divergency from the middle of the lofty chain which 
intersects the south-west of Scotland, runs eastward 
by Soutra to the sea. In their more upland regions, 
or in the degree of their lying near the southern 
boundary, the hills of this district are chiefly brown 
heaths, fit only to be used as a sheep-walk; but as 
they descend toward the plain they become capable 
of cultivation, and yield a fair though generally a 
late return to the labours of the husbandman. In 
general height and form and appearance — though | 

Spartleton-hill, one of their summits, rises 1,615 
feet above the level of the sea — they are rather a 
wide stretch of upland moor, than either a chain or 
a congeries of mountains, and, apart from their deep 
solitude and their pastoral character, possess none 
of the bold or wild features of the properly highland 
districts of Scotland. The lowlands of the county, 
with the Lammermoors for a back ground, and the 
burnished or surgy or bright blue waters of the frith 
and the ocean for a foil, exhibit, from the summit of 
any of the few elevations which command them, a 
finely diversified and very beautiful and brilliant 
landscape. The surface, while generally though 
very gently declining from the foot of the Lammer- 
moors to the frith of Forth, is sufficiently broken 
and swollen to be relieved from the tameuess of 
aspect distinctive of a plain, and has its elevations 
lifted up in such softness of form and picturesque- 
ness of variety as to let it retain, in the strictest 
sense, and with fascinating attractions, a lowland 
character. In the south-east division the ground 
stretches away from the hills for several miles like 
a bowling-green, and is surpassingly fertile in its 
soil and opulent in its vegetable dress. Along the 
centre and toward the western limit of the county 
the rich vale of the Tyne comes down with a gentle 
slope from the hills, and fonns a long, beautiful, 
thoroughly cultivated broad stripe, stretching east 
and west. On the north side of this vale, a low swell- 
ing hilly range comes down from Mid-Lothian, runs 
eastward to the parish of Haddington, and there, 
after having gradually sunk till it is almost lost in 
the plain, rises up again in the more marked but 
simply hilly and soft form of the Garleton range, 
and runs along several miles farther to the east. 
North of the Garleton hills is another stretch of 
plain, extending its length eastward and westward; 
and between this and the northern angle of the 
county, a very low or moundish ridge rising at 
Gulane, stretches eastward to the northern division 
of the parish of Whitekirk. Beyond this ridge 
North Berwick law lifts, singly from the plain, its 
beautifully conical form 800 feet above the level of 
the sea; and from the bosom of the sea itself rises 
the remarkable and commanding form of the Bass; 
and away in the plain which stretches from the foot 
of the Lammermoors, rises, 8 miles due south from 
North Berwick law, a rival to that beautiful hill as 
to both form and position, in the solitary cone 
called Traprain law. The whole lowlands of the 
county, though distinct and fascinating as beheld 
either from the Lammermoors or from other eleva- 
tions, are seen to best advantage and unfold their 
inequalities most distinctly to the eye from the 
Garleton hills in their centre. The ascent of the 
county from its northern shore to the foot of the 
Lammermoors, is there perceived to be accomplish- 
ed, not in an inclined plane, or in shelving espla- 
nades, or in ridges of uniform heights, but in alterna- 
tions of variegated plain and diversified hilly range 
extending invariably from east to west; and from 
the foot of the Lammermoors to the southern bound- 
ary it is seen to be achieved in easy swells and by 
gentle and very gradual progress. The central 
summits of the Garletons, some of the Lammermoor 
elevations, and especially North Berwick law and 
Traprain law, are exceptions to the generally soft 
and gentle graduation of the features of the district; 
but, while conspicuous objects in its topography, 
they add munificently to the brilliant attractions of 
its scenic beauty. 

Haddingtonshire, owing to its geographical po- 
sition and its limited extent, has few waters of any 
description, and none of considerable magnitude. 
The Tyne, entering it as a mere rill on the west 




and traversing the whole width of its lowlands to 
the sea at Tyningham, is the only stream which 
can, in any sense, churn the name of river. Several 
ourns or rivulets, from among the many which rise 
in the Lammermoors, either flow down upon the 
Tyne, or run through the whole lowlands in inde- 
pendent courses to the sea, and are of magnitude 
sufficient to claim separate notice in the details of 
topographical description. But a strange circum- 
stance connected with the Haddingtonshire streams 
— owing, probably, to their dearth and their beauty, 
and to the eagerness with which the)' are locally 
claimed — is that they very generally glide from 
place to place under such a confusion of names as 
almost defies the management of a topographist. 
The stream, for example, which joins the Tyne on 
the lands of Clerkington, hears, during its brief 
course from the head of Garvald parish, the names 
successively of the Hope, the Gilford, the Bolton, 
and the Coalston. The rivulet, too, which rises in 
the same parish as this, a little to the east, traverses 
the parishes of Garvald, Whittingham, Stenton, and 
Dunbar, and falls into the sea at West Belhaven, 
and which is next in length of course, if not in 
volume of water, to the Tyne, glides from the 
county under an appellation imposed on it within 2 or 
3 miles of its embouchure, and previously wears and 
casts aside and assumes names with such rapidity 
of succession that it is coolly allowed to figure an- 
onymously on the map. A ridiculously contrasted 
instance is, that two streams which rise respectively 
on the north-eastern and the south-western limit of 
the parish of Athelstaueford, and which flow re- 
spectively westward to the frith at Aberlady bay, 
and eastward to the ocean at Kavensheugh, are 
both called PefTer-burn. The only inland sheets of 
water of any extent are Presmennau and Danskine 
lochs, — the former of which is an artificial forma- 
tion. The county's poverty in waters, however, is, 
in a large degree, compensated both by the beauty 
and the alluvial deposits of such streams as it pos- 
sesses, and by the far-spreading brilliance and the 
abundant fishy productiveness of the frith and the 
ocean. — Kist-hill-well, in the parish of Spott, several 
mineral springs in the parish of Pencaitland, and an 
acidulous spring in the parish of Humbie, have, at 
various periods, been more or less in repute for their 
medicinal properties. A mineral spring near Salton 
house is said to be of the same nature, and to have 
the same virtues, as the Bristol waters. 

The county, in its upland or Lammermoor divi- 
sion, is geologically composed of the transition 
strata, — chiefly those of aquatic formation; and, in 
its lowlands, except in a few localities where trap- 
rock has been forced up to the surface through the 
entire intermediate strata, consists of the various 
alternating strata of the secondary formation. Old 
red sandstone, superincumbent on the transition 
strata, looks out at various places on the coast, 
flanks the Lammermoor hills over their whole 
/ange, and bears aloft limestone, coal, fire-clay, 
ironstone, shales, clay, and sandstone. Coal, in 
continuation of the Mid-Lothian coal-field, and co- 
extensive with the northern half of the western 
frontier, stretches eastward through the parishes of 
Prestonpans, Tranent, Ormiston, Pencaitland, and 
Gladsmuir. But toward the extremity of the last 
parish, and on its entering Haddington, it becomes 
so interrupted with dykes and so thin in the seam 
as not to repay the cost of mining. So early as the 
year 1200 coal was discovered and worked on their 
lands of Prestongvange by the monks of Newbattle. 
A charter, which must have been granted between 
1202 and 1218, and which confers on these monks 
••xclasive power to work coal on their lands of 

Preston, bounded by the rivulet Pinkie, is still in 
existence. Another charter also exists, granted by 
James, steward of Scotland, and dated 20th of 
January, 1284-5, which confers a grant of coal, and 
authority to work it, on his lands in Tranent. Yet 
many persons — very erroneously, as these docu 
ments show — have supposed that the earliest coal- 
mine in Scotland was opened at Dunfermline about 
the year 1291. Coal is either known or very proba- 
bly conjectured to stretch from the main coal field 
all its breadth north-eastward to the very extremity 
of Haddingtonshire, and it even, north of the village 
of Dirleton, crops out near the sea; but, in spite of 
numerous and expensive attempts, in various local- 
ities, to find it in sufficiently thick and available 
seams, it will never probably be found workable 
elsewhere than in the parishes west of Haddington. 
Limestone in great abundance and of prime quality 
is so generally met with as nowhere to be undis- 
eoverable within a longer interval than 5 or 6 miles; 
and it is in general from 12 to 14 feet in thickness, 
and so level and near the surface as to be procurable 
at a moderate cost. Shell-marl has been found at 
Salton and at Hermiston; but, owing to the plenty 
and the cheapness of lime, is no such treasure in 
East Lothian as it would be esteemed in less 
favoured districts. Clay ironstone suitable for 
smelting was, some time ago, worked at Gulane 
by the Carron company; but, though occurring 
there and in some other spots in considerable 
quantity, it ceased to attract notice, or to he treated 
as an article of value, till the quite recent establish- 
ment of extensive iron-works in the parish of 
Gladsmuir. Sandstone for building is plentiful and 
of easy access ; but, though durable, it is of a dark 
reddish colour so disagreeable to the eye as to give 
buildings or towns constructed with it, especially 
when compared in recollection with the buildings ol 
Edinburgh, a sombre and rueful aspect. Clay suit- 
able for the manufacture of brick and tiles, occurs, 
of various colours in the uplands, and of a blue col- 
our in the lowlands; and in the vale of the western 
PefTer-burn occurs in beds of from 10 to 25 feet 
deep, and stretches away into the sea beneath the 
wide flat sands of Aberlady. Dr. Buckland, in an 
essay read before the Geological society, states that 
a large portion of the low lands between Edinburgh 
and Haddington is composed of till, or the argil- 
laceous detritus of glaciers, interspersed with peb- 
bles. In the valley of the river Tyne, about one 
mile east of Haddington, he observed a district 
longitudinal moraine, midway between the liver and 
the high road, and ranging parallel to them; and he 
directs attention to the trap rocks which commence 
a little further eastward, and are intersected by the 
Tyne at various points for 4 or 5 miles above Lin- 
ton, as likely to afford scored and striated surfaces 
in the most contracted parts of the valley. About 
4 miles west of Dunbar, another long and loft)* ridge 
of gravel stretches along the valley, parallel to the 
right bank of the river; and for 3 miles south-east 
of Dunbar there occurs a series of lateral moraines, 
modified into terraces by the action of water. 

In early times the Lammermoor division seems to 
have been abundantly clothed with natural woods 
and shrubberies. This fact — even if documentary 
evidence were awanting — is very strongly attested 
by the frequent recurrence, in its topographical no- 
menclature, of the syllables, ' wood,' ' oak,' ' pres,' 
and ' shaw; ' the two last signifying, respectively in 
Celtic and in Saxon, a eopsewood. Thus we have 
Braidwood, Presmennanwood, Humbiewood, Wood- 
hall, Woodley, Woodcot, Cranshaw, Crackinshaw, 
Pyotshaw, and a host of others. But in the low- 
lands of the county woods do not seem anciently to 




have existed ; nor can they be traced in the names 
of its localities or in the statements or allusions of 
charters. The first park or pleasure- ground in the 
county was the Duke of Lauderdale's, 500 acres in 
extent, formed during the reign of Charles II., and 
already noticed in our account of the parish of Had- 
dington. In 1683, John Reid, the Quaker gardener, 
in his book entitled ' The Scots Gardener,' showed 
the whole population ofScotland"howto plant gar- 
dens, orchards, avenues, groves, and forests." But 
the inhabitants of the lowlands of East Lothian were 
somewhat incredulous as to the arboriferous capa- 
cities of their country. The first Marquis of Tweed- 
dale, who died in 1607, Lord Eankeilour, who died in 
1707, and their contemporary the fifth Earl of Had- 
dington, were, on a small scale, considerable planters, 
and sufficiently tested the powers of the soil to ex- 
cite a desire for the luxury of sylvan shade and 
shelter. The Earl of Mar trode close on their heels, 
introduced the system of planting in forests, and 
polished the taste and provoked the imitation of 
many of his aristocratic neighbours. The ninth 
Earl of Haddington, however — who figured soon 
after the Union as likewise an important improver of 
agriculture — was the first great planter. The trees 
he reared about the year 1730, on his estate of Tyn- 
ningham, were all of the hardwood kind, and with 
subsequent additions now form the most beautiful 
forest in the south of Scotland. Planting, ever 
since his time, has secured a fair amount of atten- 
tion, and — in some places, aggregated into groves 
and sylvan wildernesses — in many, or most, dis- 
posed in sheltering tufts and rows, — maintains 
dominion over between 6,000 and 7,000 acres. Hum- 
bie and Salton woods lying contiguously, and form- 
ing together a broad expanse of forest, sloping away 
down the Lammermoors to their base, present a 
beautiful feature, in the magnificent and vast land- 
scape which stretches out before a spectator on 
Soutra hill, and exquisitely chequers his path and 
variegates his prospect as he descends to the plain. 
Hence, says Scott, in his Marmion, — 

" The green-sward way was smooth and good, 
Through Htimbie's and through Salton's wood — 
A forest glade which varying still 
Here gave a view of dale and hill, 
There narrower closed, till over head 
A vaulted screen the branches made." 

iiome of the woods of Pencaitland are said to have 
suffered much from squirrels, which attack the young 
Scots firs, the larch, and the elm. A very frequent 
fence in the country is the luxurious hedge of white- 
thorn, mixed with sweet-briar, honeysuckle, and 
hedge-row trees. 

Till a comparatively recent date the mass of the 
population were in a state of villanage, astricted to 
the land on which they dwelt, and transferable only 
with its soil. The charters of David I., Malcolm 
IV., and William the Lion, exhibit the county as 
distributed in large districts among a few domineer- 
ing and enslaving barons. The kings, the nobles, 
and the ecclesiastics were then all agriculturists ; 
every manor had its place, its church, its mill, its 
kiln, and its brewhouse; and the villains or retain- 
ers were chained down around the baron on a house, 
a croft, some arable land, a meadow, and a right of 
commonage. The monks, in particular, were keen 
and skilful cultivators, and seem to have laid the 
foundation of the country's agricultural greatness. 
There were undoubtedly many lands cultivated 
under the baronial lords of manors, and under the 
monks of Newbattle and Kelso, and the nuns of 
Haddington, by tenants and subtenants for certain 
rents and services. A curious fact is that, along 
the conterminous line of the uplands and the low- 

lands, the parishes were anciently — as they are stilJ 
— so distributed that each, while stretching away 
into the fertile plain, had attached to it a section of 
the Lammermoor as a necessary adjunct to its agri- 
cultural practice of summer pasturage. Even the 
nomenclature shows that each parish had its pas- 
turage or ' shieling.' Thus, in Oldhamstocks are 
Luckyshiel and Powelshiel; in Innerwick, Auld- 
shiel; in Stenton, Gamelshiel and Aimleshiel ; and 
in Whittingham, Penshiel and Mayshiel. While 
mills were everywhere numerous, and in much re- 
quisition in the lowlands, and evinced, by the 
activity with which they were employed, how com- 
paratively vast a quantity of grain was raised, pas- 
turage was, at the same time, much followed, dur- 
ing summer, by all who had easy access to the 
Lammermoors. Hay also was raised in abundance, 
and, so early as the 13th century, was subjected to 
tithes. From the fact that the English soldiers sub- 
sisted, during the siege of Dirlton castle in 1298, 
on the pease which grew in the neighbouring fields, 
pulse likewise appears to have been early an object 
of attention. But, what is greatly more surprising, 
gardens and orchards, so early as during the 12th 
and the 13th centuries, were numerous and large. 
Agriculture and its sister-arts, however, received a 
fearful check, and even were compelled to recede, 
during the disastrous period of the wars of the suc- 
cession. Yet, in 1336, East Lothian, in its infantile 
movements, resembled so singularly the paramount 
greatness of its adult agricultural character of the 
present day, that the labour of no fewer than 100 
ploughs was suspended by the arousing effects upon 
the people of Allan of Wynton abducting one ot 
the daughters of Seton. Against the middle of the 
17th century improvements had so far advanced 
that the English soldiers who entered Scotland with 
Cromwell in 1 650, were astonished to find in East 
Lothian " the greatest plenty of com they ever saw, 
not one of the fields being fallow," and made no 
scruple to trample down the crops in their march, 
an'l feed their horses with the wheat. We may 
suppose, however, that Whitelocke, who makes this 
report, indulged somewhat in exaggeration ; and we 
must perceive, also, that implements of the rudest 
and most clumsy sort being still in use, the hus- 
bandry, notwithstanding its superiority at the period, 
was still, as compared with the state of things at 
present, in a sufficiently primitive and lumbering 

The era of georgic improvement in East Lothian, 
was about the period of the Union, in 1707. Lord 
Belhaven led the way, by tendering advice to the 
farmers, and endeavouring to inoculate them with 
new doctrines. Lord Haddington, and some of his 
tenantry, followed in a path less lofty and command- 
ing, but more alluring and successful, — the path of 
experiment and example. Through means of some 
English servants among his retainers, he introduced 
over his estate the practice — altogether novel in the 
country — of sowing grass-seeds. Fletcher of Salton, 
" after he saw his own political career at a close by 
the Unon," emulated Lord Haddington in a race 
along the new road to fame ; and in 1710, patronized 
a mill-wright of the name of Meikle, sent him to 
Holland to observe and invent improvements in 
machinery, and, by his means, introduced " the fan- 
ners," and set up a manufactory of them at Salton, 
and also constructed a mill for the manufacture of 
decorticated barley, thenceforth everywhere known 
as Salton barley. A ready market being offered for 
this species of corn, the erection of the mill, and of 
others elsewhere in imitation of it, occasioned a rapid 
improvement in agriculture. In 1723, a great so- 
ciety of improvers arose, and endeavoured to impart 




to the ploughmen its own energy. About 1736, the 
elder Wight introduced the horse-hoeing husbandly 
in all its vigour, raised excellent turnips and cab- 
bages, fed cattle and sheep to perfection, and at- 
tempted, though without adequate success, to extend 
the horse-hoeing husbandry to wheat, barley, and 
pease. Patrick, Lord Elibank, and Sir Hugh Dal- 
rymple, each claim the merit of having introduced 
the practice of hollow draining. Two farmers of the 
name of Cunningham were the first who levelled 
and straightened ridges. John, Marquis of Tweed- 
dale, and Sir George Suttie, w r ere the earliest and 
most successful practisers of the turnip- husbandry. 
In 1740, John Cockburn, younger, of Ormiston, re- 
tired from political business, and zealously endea- 
voured to introduce the agricultural practices of 
England. Before 1743, there was a farming society 
at Ormiston. In 1740, the potato was introduced ; 
and about 1754, was first raised in the fields, by a 
farmer of the name of Hay, in Aberlady. Very 
early in the century, another farmer, John Walker 
in Prestonkirk, prompted by the advice of some 
gentlemen from England, successfully tested the 
beneficial effects of fallowing, and, by his example, 
incited his neighbours to adopt the practice. In 
1776, when 40 years of progressive improvements 
had elapsed, every agricultural practice had been 
attempted in East Lothian which the most intelligent 
could think of as beneficial. All the youthful 
farmers had adopted the mode of intermixing broad- 
leafed plants with white com crops, and speedily, 
by their superior gains, provoked their seniors to 
follow their example. They still, however, worked 
their ploughs with four horses ; and in not a few 
particulars on which more modern advances in science 
were destined to throw light, were very materially 
inferior in their notions and professional practice, 
to their highly intelligent successors of the present 
day. Progressions have subsequently been made, 
and continue to move on, chiefly by so concentrating 
the skill and science and practical tact of the county, 
in societies, that the knowledge of all becomes the 
knowledge of each. In 1804, a farmers' society was 
organized by General Fletcher of Salton, and was 
supported by a large body of intelligent and respec- 
table agriculturists, andexertedapropellinginfluence 
on general improvement. In 1819-20, another so- 
ciety, on a more extensive scale, and combining 
nearly every available energy in the county, started 
into being, took the Salton society into its fellow- 
ship, and assumed the appropriate name of " The 
United East Lothian Agricultural society." This 
association, wielding all the power which the nobil- 
ity, wealth, intelligence, and tact of the county can 
produce, has hitherto worked with such effect as, 
jointly with the individual and detached labours of 
its members and followers on their respective pro- 
perties and farms, to have enabled East Lothian, 
amidst the general aspirations of many agricultural 
districts of Scotland after celebrity, to maintain that 
pre-eminence which it so early acquired, and which 
it has not once allowed to be "disputed. 

Great care has been used by the pastoral farmers 
of the Lammermoors to improve the breed of their 
stock as to both wool and carcass. The English 
large breed of white-faced sheep have been tried on 
these hills ; but they have climbed only the lower 
ascents, and even there have been found to grow lean 
and meagre. The active and restless black-faced 
breed seem more at home in the region, and are re- 
tained in considerable numbers on its pastures. But 
the Cheviot breed greatly predominates, being gene- 
rally preferred on account of the superior value of the 
wool. Smearing or salving is everywhere practised 
in the Lammermoor district. A composition, partly 

resinous and partly oleaginous, is spread over the 
whole body of the sheep, at the commencement of 
winter, or soon after the separation of the fleece, 
and is believed to protect the animal from vermin, to 
protect it against the acerbities of the climate, and 
even to improve and increase its wool. In the low- 
lands, the fattening of stock of all sorts for the sham- 
bles has long been an object of attention, and essen- 
cially figures in the economy of every regularly con- 
ducted farm. Yet not one variety has arisen in the 
district of any species of stock. Some of the cattle 
are of the short-horned breed ; but most are those 
brought from the Highlands, either directly or 
through the medium of the north-eastern counties. 
Black-faced Highland wedders were, at one time, 
very generally fed off on turnips, and annually sent 
away to the butcher ; but they have recently been, 
in a considerable degree, displaced by half-breed 
hogs, from Cheviot ewes by Leicester rams. Grass- 
fed sheep are, for the most part, ewes, bought in 
autumn with the view of their lambing in the spring, 
and then fattened with their lambs, and sold with 
them to the butcher. 

East Lothian owes its agricultural superiority, not 
wholly, nor even, perhaps, in a chief degree, to the 
advantageousness of its situation and its soil. Hav- 
ing throughout a northern exposure, it seems averted 
from the sun's rays, and exposed to the fierce and 
chilling blasts which proceed from the shores of the 
Baltic. The soil also — though upon the coast, and 
in a variety of localities, consisting of a light loam, 
or of a loamy admixture — is in general of that sort 
in which clay predominates. Yet, in point of cli- 
mate, the lowlands are highly favoured. In winter, 
snow, though brought down by winds in every point, 
from the west round by the north to the east, almost 
never lies many days. Spring is, in general, dry, 
with only occasional severe showers of hail or rain 
from the north-east. During the whole of May, 
the winds usually blow from some point to the 
north, with a bright sun, and a dry, keen, penetrat- 
ing air. During the summer and autumn, the only 
rainy points are from the south and the east. The 
district is all but totally unacquainted with those 
heavy falls of rain, brought from the Atlantic by 
westerly winds, which so frequently deluge the 
western parts of Scotland. The greater part of the 
clouds which come from the west are intercepted 
and broken by the mountain-range or high grounds 
which occupy the eastern limits of Lanarkshire j and 
the few which escape are, for the most part, broken 
and divided by the Pentland hills, part of them being 
sent off by way of Arthur's seat to the frith of Forth, 
and part sent away by the Moorfoot hills, and 
Soutra hill, along the summits of the Lammermoors. 
The district, therefore, — viewed in connexion with 
the aggregate character of its climate, and with the 
amount and the skill of georgic operation to which 
it has been subjected, — must be regarded as pecu- 
liarly favourable to the growth of corn. 

Wheat, accordingly, is the staple produce of Had- 
dingtonshire, and is cultivated chiefly in its white 
variety, but to a considerable extent, also, in its red. 
Hunter's sort has long been a favourite, and, after 
many trials of competition with other sorts, has 
been found, on the whole, the best adapted to the soil. 
The Taunton-dean, likewise, has come into consi- 
derable favour. In particular localities, though 
not for general diffusion, the woolly - eared and 
the blood-red are found to be well adapted, and 
very valuable. Of late oats, the grey Angus is 
everywhere the most suitable ; of early oats, the 
potato and the Hopeton compete for ascendency, 
according to the nature of the soil ; and of barley, 
the Chevalier has asserted undisputed superiority 




over all other varieties. In the most fertile district, 
comprising; the lowlands of Oldhamstocks, Inner- 
wick, Dunbar, Spott, Stenton, Whittingham, and Gar- 
vald, every acre annually teems with an exuberant 
produce either of the finest quality of grain, or of 
food for the fattening of stock ; and there the system 
of cropping begins with turnip, which is partly 
eaten on the ground, and partly carted to the yard, 
— it proceeds with wheat sown at any period after 
the ground is cleared, or with barley sown in the 
spring, — it next has clover or rye grass, either cut 
or pastured, — and it usually finishes in the fourth 
year by a crop of oats. In a district a degree less 
fertile thin the former, and larger in extent, com- 
prising the parish of Morham, the lowlands of Yes- 
ter, and all the western parishes of the county, the 
system of cropping is, in general, based on summer 
fallowing, and then proceeds first with wheat, next 
with cut or pastured grass, and now, in many in- 
stances, concludes with sown grass, but in others, 
goes on to a sixth year course, with grass, oats, a 
mixture of pease and beans, and finally wheat. In 
the northern district, considerably different in char- 
acter from the others, more retentive in its subsoil, 
often of a heavy loamy surface, and comprising the 
parishes of Whitekirk, North Berwick, Dirleton, 
Athelstaneford, Haddington, and Prestonkirk, the 
system of cropping commences, in some places, with 
summer fallowing, and in others with turnips, has 
wheat in the second year, grass pastured with sheep 
in the third, oats in the fourth, drilled beans in the 
fifth, and finishes, in the sixth year, with wheat. 

According to agricultural statistics of the county, 
for the year 1853, obtained under sanction of the 
Government, by the Highland and Agricultural So- 
ciety, Haddingtonshire then comprised 107,269| 
imperial acres of arable land, and a total area of 
149,1734 acres. There were under wheat 15,339f 
acres; under barley, 12,809§; under oats, 16,802; 
under rye, 46§ ; under beans and pease, 4,809 ; under 
vetches, 1,01 If ; under turnips, 16,260; uuder po- 
tatoes, 4,246f ; under mangel wurzel, 48J ; under 
carrots, 107; under cabbage, 15J ; under turnip- 
seed, 157|; under alternate grasses, 26,885; in im- 
proved permanent grass enclosures, 6,228J ; in irri- 
gated meadows, 87 ; in bare fallow, 2,127j ; in sheep 
walks, 28,630|-; in house steads, gardens, roads, 
fences, &c, 2,586 J ; in woods, 9,313f ; and in wastes, 
],660f. The number of horses was 4,450; of milk 
cows, 2,377 ; of other bovine cattle, 7,576 ; of ewes, 
36,979 ; of tups and wethers, 29,597 ; and of swine, 
5,580. The average produce of wheat was 50,341 
quarters, 5 bushels, 2 pecks ; of barley, 67,079 
quarters, 7 bushels, 2 pecks ; of oats, 94,823 quarters, 
2 bushels; of beans and pease, 16,734 quarters, 3 
bushels, 1 peck ; of turnip-seed, 206 quarters, 4 
bushels, 2 pecks; of turnips, 203,154 tons, 15 cwt.; 
of potatoes, 23,976 tons, 13 cwt. ; of mangel wurzel, 
619 tons, 10 cwt.; and of carrots, 1,378 tons. The 
machinery applied to agriculture, comprised 158 
steam-engines, giving the power of 1,053 horses ; 81 
water-wheels, giving the power of 436 horses ; 107 
horse-machines, of aggregately 499 horses' power ; 
— in all 373 engines and machines, of aggregately 
1,938 horses' power. 

Haddingtonshire appears to have so entirely ex- 
hausted its energies on agriculture as to have had 
no strength left for a successful attempt at manu- 
facture. In a few instances, it has threatened com- 
petition with the manufacturing districts of the 
kingdom, and endeavoured to reap fruit from its ad- 
vantageous position on the seaboard and on a coal- 
field ; but it has uniformly failed. Repeated and 
even prolonged efforts to naturalize awoollen manu- 
factory in the town of Haddington, have left no 

other memorial than the records of them in history. 
A variegated fabric of wool seemed for a time to 
have become a staple in Athelstaneford, and won for 
the dress which was fashioned out of it the distinctive 
epithet of the Gilmerton livery, but has ceased to be 
manufactured, and will soon be remembered only by 
the antiquary. In 1793, a flax-mill was erected at 
West Barns, and, in 1815, a cotton-factory estab- 
lished at Belhaven, both in the parish of Dunbar ; 
but they only entailed pecuniary losses on their pro- 
prietors, and let loose a swarm of paupers on the 
parish. Haddingtonshire, in fact, figures only as 
a blunderer and a bankrupt in almost every manu- 
facture which it has touched. In the parish of Sal- 
ton alone were the earliest manufactory in Britain 
for the weaving of Hollands, the first bleachfield 
belonging to the British Linen company, the earliest 
manufacture of docorticated or pot-barley, and also a 
paper-mill and a starch work ; but all failed, and 
have utterly disappeared, and — excepting the famous 
barley-work, now converted to other uses — have not 
even left a wall of their edifices to commemorate 
their existence. The only noticeable existing manu- 
factures in the county are the iron-works of the par- 
ish of Gladsmuir, a pottery in the parish of Preston- 
pans, a manufactory of agricultural implements in 
Tranent, two foundries in the parish of Dunbar, 
two or three extensive distilleries, several breweries, 
two or three tan-works, and one or two establish- 
ments for the preparing of bone-dust and rape-cake. 

So late as thirty years after the Union, Hadding- 
tonshire, in common with the contiguous part of 
Mid-Lothian, was so savagely deficient in facilities 
of communication, that it was the work of a winter's 
day to drive a coach with four horses from the town 
of Haddington to Edinburgh ; no small effort being 
requisite to reach Musselburgh for dinner, and to 
get to the end of the journey in the evening. The 
first really practicable road in the county was com- 
menced in 1750, from Eavenshaugh-bridge at the 
boundary with Edinburghshire, to Dunglass-bridge 
at the boundary with Berwickshire. Now, however, 
no district in Scotland is provided with roads more 
commodiously laid out, or maintained in a state of 
better repair. One good line of turnpike runs along 
the whole coast of the frith of Forth eastward to 
North-Berwick; another runs southward from Dirle- 
ton to Haddington ; another — the great quondam 
mail line between Edinburgh and London — runs 
along the whole breadth of the county eastward 
through Haddington to Dunbar, and then along the 
coast till it enters Berwickshire ; another leaves the 
former at Tranent, and passes through Salton and 
Gifford, and over the Lammermoor hills, to Dunse; 
and another, the post-road between Edinburgh and 
Lauder, intersects the south-west wing of the county 
at Soutra. The North British railway affords to the 
greater part of the lowlands of the county exceed- 
ingly valuable facilities of communication; entering 
from Edinburgh shire a little north of Fallside, pass- 
ing between Prestonpans and Tranent, proceeding 
north-eastward to Drem, sending off two branches 
respectively from Longniddry eastward to Hadding- 
ton, and from Drem northward to North Berwick, 
and curving from Drem through all the north-eastern 
districts, by way of East Fortune, Linton, Dunbar, 
and Innerwick, to Dunglass. The harbours of the 
county are all, in point of commerce, very incon- 
siderable, and even in point of commodiousness, are 
very inferior. Their extent, and other particulars, 
will he found noticed in the articles Prestonpans, 
Cockenzie, Berwick (North), and Dunbar. 

The royal burghs in Haddingtonshire are Had- 
dington, Dunbar, and North Berwick. The only 
other towns are Tranent and Prestonpans. The 




tillages and principal hamlets are Aberlady, Athel- 
staneford, Belhaveri. Bolton, Cockenzie, Dirleton, 
Drem, East Barns, West Barns, Garvald, Gifford, 
Gladsmuir, Gulane, Humbie, Innenvick, Kingston, 
East Linton, Oldhanistocks, Ormiston, Pencaitland, 
Periston, Port-Seaton, Prestonkirk, Salton, Samuel- 
ston, Spott, Stenton, Tynningham, and Whitekirk. 
The principal mansions are Broxmoutli-park, near 
Dunbar, the Duke of Roxburgh ; Yester-house, 
the Marquis of Tweeddale ; Coalstone-house, the 
Earl of Dalhousie ; Gosford-house and Amisfleld- 
bouse, the Earl of Wemyss; Tynningham-house, 
tlie Earl of Haddington ; Ormiston-hall, the Earl of 
Hopetoun ; Dunbar-house, changed into a barrack ; 
Herdmanston-house, Lord Sinclair; Humbie-house, 
Lord Polwarth ; Ballencrieff-house, Lord Elibank ; 
Lennoxlove-house, the Dowager Lady Blantyre ; 
Pencaitland-house and Winton-house, Lady Ruth- 
ven; Woodcot-house, LordWood; Seaton-house, Lord 
Neaves; Balgone-house and Prestongrange-house, 
Sir George Grant Suttie, Bart.; Dunglass-house, Sir 
James Hall, Bart. ; Fountainhall-house, Sir John 
Dick Lauder, Bart. ; Gilmerton-house, Sir David 
Kinloch, Bart.; Letham-house, Sir Thomas B. Hep- 
burn, Bart.; Lochend-house, Sir John Warrender, 
Bart. ; Newbyth-house, Sir David Baird, Bart. ; 
Stevenson-house, Sir John Gordon Sinclair, Bart.; 
Clerkington-house, Lieutenant-General Sir Robert 
Houston; Eaglescairnie-house, General Sir Patrick 
Stuart; Alderston-house, James Aitchison, Esq.; 
Arcberfield-house, Mrs. Hamilton N. Ferguson ; 
Bower-house, Lieutenant-General Carfrae ; Cocken- 
zie-house, Hew Francis Cadell, Esq. ; Drummore- 
house, William Aitchison, Esq.; Elvingstone-house, 
Robert Ainslie, Esq. ; Gifford-bank, Thomas G. 
Dixon, Esq.; Gulane-lodge, Robert Riddell, Esq.; 
Nolyn-bank, Henry M. Davidson, Esq.; Hopes- 
house, William Hay, Esq. ; Huntington-bouse, Mrs. 
Campbell; Leaston- house, William Park, Esq.; 
Luffness-house, G. W. Hope, Esq. ; Monkrig-house, 
Vim. Middlemass, Esq.; Morkarn-bank, Mrs. Martine; 
Newton-hall, W. W. H. Newton, Esq. ; Nunraw- 
house, Robert Hay, Esq.; Phantassie-house, T. M. 
Lines, Esq.; Pilniore, R. B. Baird, Esq.; Pogbie- 
house, Thomas Maitland, Esq.; Redcoll-house, A. 
J. Field, Esq., R. N. ; Rockville-house, J. S. Hay, 
Esq.; Ruchlaw-house, T. B. Sydserff, Esq.; Salton- 
hall, Andrew Fletcher, Esq.; Skedobush- house, 
George Park, Esq. ; Spott-house, James Sprott, Esq.; 
St. Germain's house, David Anderson, Esq.; Thurs- 
ton- house, J. W. Hunter, Esq.; Tynholm-house, 
Arthur Trevelyan, Esq.; and Whittingham-house, 
J. M. Balfour, Esq. 

The most remarkable feudal strongholds in Had- 
dingtonshire, either extinct, extant, or in ruins, are 
those of Dunglass, long the guard of the main pass 
from Berwickshire to the Lothians, — Innerwick, for 
ages the inheritance of the Stuarts, — Dunbar, the 
tumultuous seat of the redoubtable Earls of Dunbar 
and March, — Dirleton, demolished by Cromwell in 
1650, — and Tantallon, famous for its strength, on 
the coast, 2 miles east of North Berwick. Hadding- 
tonshire, in consequence of confronting the border- 
foe with the broad strong shield of the Lammermoor- 
hills, and of being somewhat removed from the posts 
of greatest danger, never could boast of the same 
number of towers and bastel-houses as the strictly 
border counties of Berwick and Roxburgh. In every 
point of view, the most instructive antiquities of 
Haddingtonshire are the radices and component 
parts of its topographical nomenclature, which il- 
lustrate obscurities in the history of its early coloni- 
zation, and indicate the presence and ascendency of 
successive classes of settlers. The Tyne, the Peffer, 
Aberlady, Treburn, Tranent, Traprain, Pencaitland, 

Yester, and many other Cambro-British names, attest 
the British origin of the Ottadini whom the Romans 
found in possession of the count} 7 . The preponder- 
ating prevalence, in the composition of names, of the 
Anglo-Saxon, shiel, lee, laic, dod, ham, ton, dean, rig, 
trick, by, clevgh, as well as some entire names, but 
especially the name Lammemioor, attest the event- 
ual predominance of the Saxon people, and the super- 
induction of their tongue upon the British. A more 
frequent recurrence of Gaelic names here than in 
Berwickshire — such as in the instances, Dunbar, 
Dunglass, Garvald, Kilspindie, Tantallon, and many 
others — evinces that the Scots, when they acquired 
power in the south-east of Scotland, settled more 
numerously on the northern than on the southern 
side of the Lammermoors. 

The original erection of East Lothian into a shire, 
or sheriffdom, is involved in great obscurity. In the 
charters of David I.. Malcolm IV., and William the 
Lion, " the shire of Haddington " is mentioned ; but 
it seems then to have been nearly or quite identified 
with the ancient parish of Haddington, and though 
placed under the control of a sheriff, does not appear 
to have been a constabulary. But in an ordinance 
of Edward I., in 1305, for settling the government 
of Scotland, the shire or sheriffdom of Edinburgh is 
distinctly recognised as extending, not only over 
Linlithgow on one side, but over Haddington on the 
other. A grant of Robert I. to Alexander de Seaton, 
expressly mentions for the first time the constabulary 
of Haddington. The office of sheriff of Edinburgh 
and constable of Haddington was held, under Robert 
III., by William Lindsay of Byres, and from 1490, 
till the forfeiture of the odious James, Earl of Both- 
well, in 1567, by Patrick Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell, 
and his lineal descendants ; and again it was held 
by the restored Francis, Earl of Bothwell, from 1584 
till that ingrate reaped, iu 1594, the forfeiture earned 
by a thousand treasons. The regimen of a sheriff- 
principal of Edinburgh, combining the office of sheriff 
of Edinburgh for the constabulary of Haddington, 
long continued. Though "the office of shcrefscip" 
was conferred by James VI. on the corporation oi 
Haddington within their limits, all the rest of 
the county continued to be a constabulary at the 
Restoration, and perhaps throughout the reign of 
Charles II. At the period of the revolution, how- 
ever, Haddingtonshire conies distinctly into view in 
the character and independence of its present form. 
For a considerable number of years previous to his 
death, in 1713, the sheriff was John, the second 
Marquis of Tweeddale; and from 1716 till his death 
in 1735 — though at first appointed only during the 
King's pleasure — the sheriff was Thomas, Earl of 
Haddington. At the epoch of the abolition of here- 
ditary jurisdictions in 1748, Haddingtonshire made 
but few and inconsiderable claims on public com- 

There are in Haddingtonshire 24 quoad civilia 
parishes, and 2 chapels of ease. Fifteen of the 
parishes constitute the presbytery of Haddington; 
two of these parishes contain the two chapels of 
ease ; eight of the parishes, together with one in 
Berwickshire, constitute the presbytery of Dunbar; 
one of the parishes is in the presbytery of Dalkeith ; 
and the whole are in the synod of Lothian and 
Tweeddale. In 1851, the number of places of wor- 
ship within the county was 49 ; of whicli 22 belonged 
to the Established church, 15 to the Free church, 
8 to the United Presbyterian church, 1 to the 
Episcopalians, 1 to the Independents, 1 to the 
Roman Catholics, and 1 to the Mornionites. The 
number of sittings in 15 of the Established places of 
worship was 7,718; in 14 of the Free church places 
of worship, 5,837 ; in 7 of the United Presbyterian 




meeting-houses, 3,205; in the Independent chapel, 
300; and in the Morrnonite chapel, 100. The maxi- 
mum attendance, on the Census Sahbath, at 15 of 
the Established places of worship was 4,305 ; at 14 
of the Free church places of worship, 3,570; at 7 of 
the United Presbyterian meeting-houses, 1,805; at 
the Episcopalian chapel, 120; at the Independent 
chapel, 100; and at the Morrnonite chapel, 44. 
There were in 1851, in Haddingtonshire, 52 public 
day schools, attended by 2,264 males and 1,745 
females, — 18 private day schools, attended by 439 
males and 398 females, — 5 evening schools for adults, 
attended by 75 males and 41 females, — and 50 Sab- 
bath schools, attended by 1,342 males and 1,422 

Haddingtonshire, as a county, sends one member 
to parliament. Constituency in 1861, 673. The 
three burghs of Haddington, Dunbar, and North 
Berwick have also a preponderance in a district of 
burghs, being joined only by Lauder and Jedburgh, 
in sending a member to parliament. The various 
county courts are held at Haddington at the times 
which we have noted in our article on the town of 
Haddington; and sheriff small debt courts are held, 
in addition, at North Berwick on the third Tuesday 
of January, on the second Tuesday of April, on the 
third Tuesday ofjuly, and on the second Tuesday 
of October, — at Tranent, on the fourth Tuesday of 
January, March, May, July, September, and No- 
vember, — and at Dunbar, on the third Tuesday of 
February, April, June, August, October, and 
December. The road trustees comprise four bodies 
for respectively the great post road, the north dis- 
trict, the Kilpallet and south districts, and the 
Ormiston district; and the first meet at Haddington 
in March, May, August, and October, — the second, 
at Prestonpans generally in August, — the third, at 
Gifibrd generally in July, — and the fourth, at Tra- 
nent generally in September. The county police 
force are distributed into eleven districts, with sta- 
tions at Haddington, Athelstaneford, North Ber- 
wick, Dirleton, Linton, Tynningham, Stenton, Dun- 
bar, Gifford, Garvald, East Salton, Pencaitland, 
Tranent, Ormiston, Gladsmuir, Prestonpans, Old- 
hamstocks, Aberlady, Gulane, and Humbie. The 
number of committals for crime in the year, within 
the county, was 32 in the average of 1836 — 1840, 
46 in the average of 1841 — 1845, 63 in the average 
of 1846—1850, and 52 and 49 in the averages of 
1851-55 and 1856-60. The number of persons 
confined in Haddington jail within the year end- 
ing 30th June, 1860, was 191; the average dura- 
tion of the confinement of each was 25 days ; and 
the net cost per head was £26 15s. 3d. Twenty-one 
of the parishes are assessed for the poor, and three 
unassessed. The number of registered poor in the 
year 1851-2 was 1,380; in the year 1860-1, 1,318. 
The number of casual poor in 1851-2 was 582 ; in 
1860-1, 418. The sum expended on the registered 
poor in 1851-2 was £7,600 ; in 1860-1, £9,596. The 
sum expended on the casual poor in 1851-2 was 
£319; in 1860-1, £261. The assessment in 1854, 
on a real rental of £185,325 16s. 4d. was £950 for 
police, £250 for rogue-money, and £298 15s. 7d. for 
prisons. The valued rental in 1674 was £168,873 
Scots; and the annual value of real property, in 
1861-2, minus railways, was £264,475. Population 
in 1801,29,986; in 1811, 31,050; in 1821,35,127; 
in 1831,36,145; in 1841, 35,886; in 1861, 37,634. 
Males in 1861, 17,854; females, 19,780. Inhabited 
houses in 1861, 6,802 ; uninhabited, 429 ; building, 46. 

When the Eomans, in the first century, invaded 
Scotland, the great tribe of the British Ottadini 
inhabited the whole lowlands of East-Lothian. 
The topographical nomenclature, the hill-forts, the 

caves, the weapons of war, the ornaments, the modes 
of sepulture, which have all been investigated, are 
evidence of the British descent of the original 
settlers, and of the genuine Celticism of their speech. 
The abdication of the Eoman government left them 
in the quiet possession of the country. Neither the 
congenerous Picts beyond the Forth, nor the Scots 
in Ireland, disturbed their repose. At the end of a 
century, however, they were taught their insecurity 
by the irruption of a Teutonic people, who came from 
the settlement of a kingdom on the south of the 
Tweed, to seek on the banks of the Tyne an en- 
largement of their territories. The Saxons, after 
having obtained the ascendency, were occasionally, 
after the battle of Drumnechton, annoyed by incur- 
sions of the Picts ; they were next, after the sup- 
pression of the Pictish dominion, overpowered by 
the Scots ; and eventually, in 1020, they and their 
territory were ceded by their Northumbrian superior 
to the Scottish king. During almost a century, the 
Scots had here, as elsewhere, undisturbed domination. 
In the reigns of David I., Malcolm IV., and William 
the Lion, the town of Haddington and its environs 
were special objects of royal attention and favour. 
Except during the devastating inroad of John of 
England in 1216, Haddingtonshire suffered little 
from foreign or domestic hostilities till the wars of 
the succession. In 1296, the heroic resistance of 
the castle of Dunbar, and the battle fought under its 
walls, if they did not protect Scotland from Edward 
I.'s usurping interference, showed him at least the 
bold bearing and the indomitable spirit of its people. 
In 1298, when the enterprises of the patriotic Wal- 
lace dared and taunted Edward again to subdue the 
kingdom, the vigorous resistance of the castle of 
Dirleton, combined with the subsequent dearly-won 
victoiy on the field of Falkirk, so shook the self-pos- 
session of the invader that he afterwards penetrated 
to the utmost verge of Moray before he could think 
himself secure as the self-constituted superior of 

From the date of the battle of Bannockbum, or 
the early part of the 14th century, till the year 1435, 
the history of Haddingtonshire — an almost continu- 
ous narrative of warlike enterprises and machina- 
tions and miseries — is nearly identical with that of 
the Earls of Dunbar, — a full outline of which is 
sketched in the article Dunbar; and even after 
1435, it presents but a gleaning of events additional 
to the bulky ones detailed in that article, and some 
of limited importance noticed in the article Had- 
dinotox. The forfeiture of the powerful family 
who had all but dragged the county at their heels, 
nearly " frightened it from its propriety." Several 
of its landholders, who formerly held under the su- 
periority of the Earls of Dunbar, now became tenants 
in chief of the King; and others placed themselves un- 
der the immediate protection, and swelled the retinue 
and the array, of the potent family of Douglas. In 
1446, some sensation was produced by the rebellious 
broils of the Hepburns and the Homes for the liti- 
gated spoils of the forfeited estates. The profligacy, 
the artifice, and the turbulence of the Duke of Al- 
bany, who obtained from his father James II. the 
earldom of Dunbar, with all its jurisdictions, de- 
stroyed the peace and imperilled the safety of the 
whole county. One of the first effects was the in- 
citement of hostilities with England. In 1482, an 
English army, which was introduced by his intrigues, 
encamped in the very heart of the county. During 
the long minority of James IV., Patrick, Lord Hailes, 
and Alexander Home ruled the district as the King's 
lieutenants, with more than royal power, and so op- 
pressed and over-reached the inhabitants as to make 
the welkin vocal with their groans. But after the 




majority of James IV., and during the reign of James 
V., the county, as to its domestic affairs, enjoyed 

In 1544, the English, on their return, under the 
Earl of Somerset, from the siege of Leith, burned 
and razed the castle of Seaton, and reduced to ashes 
the towns of Haddington and Dunbar. In 1547, the 
invading army of the protector Somerset, razed the 
castle of Dunglass, captured the castles of Thorn- 
ton and Innerwick, stained the soil in their progress 
with several skirmishes, and, prelusive to the vic- 
tory of Pinkie, defeated a party of the Scottish army 
at Fallside brae on the confines of Edinburghshire. 
In 154S, Lord Gray advanced from strong positions 
in which Somerset, the previous year, had left him 
on the border, and took the castle of Yester, forti- 
fied and garrisoned the town of Haddington, and 
wasted the county by every mode of inveterate 
hostility. Till March, 1549-50, when the ancient 
limits of the conterminous kingdoms were restored 
by a treaty of peace, Haddingtonshire passed under 
the power of the English, and became the prey of 
their German mercenaries. Except that Seaton and 
Dunbar castles afforded a retreat to Mary, the county 
was little affected by the turbulencies and distrac- 
tions of her reigu; and during the 30 years of civil 
broils which followed, it seems to have suffered 
more of mortification than of waste. It had its full 
share, however, in the devastation and murderous 
achievements of Cromwell's invasion in 1653; and 
in that year was the theatre of the great conflict by 
which he became temporary master of Scotland. 
See Dunbar., No further event of note occurs, ex- 
cept the battle of Preston, fought in 1745, between 
Prince Charles Edward and the royal troops. See 

HADDO. See Forgue. 

HADDO-HOUSE, the seat of the Earl of Aber- 
deen, in the parish of Methlick, 6J miles west- 
north-west of Ellon, Aberdeenshire. It is a splendid 
modern mansion, in the Palladian style, built after 
designs by Baxter of Edinburgh. The predecessor 
of it was built early in the 1 7th century, and stood 
a siege of three days in 1644 by the Covenanting 
army under the Marquis of Argyle. The policies 
are of great extent and much beauty ; and within 
them stands a granite obelisk, erected by the present 
Earl to the memory of his brother, Sir Alexander 
Gordon, who fell at Waterloo. 

IIAFTON. See Dunoon. 

HAGENHOPE BURN, a brook flowing south- 
westward on the boundary between the parishes of 
Newlands and Lyne, and falling into Lyne water, 
at a point about 2 miles above Lyne church, in 

HAGGS, a village in the south corner of the par- 
ish of Denny, 5 miles from Kilsyth, and 6| miles 
from Falkirk, Stirlingshire. It stands nearly half- 
a-mile north of the Forth and Clyde canal, on the 
road between Kilsyth and Falkirk, near the inter- 
section of that road by the turnpike between Glas- 
gow and Stirling. A kind of continuation of it ex- 
tends nearly a mile along the road to Broomage 
toll-bar. In 1836, a remarkably neat row of collier 
cottages was erected at Haggs, terminating at one 
end in a large building intended as a store ; and in 
1840, a handsome place of worship, in connexion 
with the Established church, and containing about 
700 sittings, was erected. This was for some time 
ecclesiastically a quoad sacra parish church, but is 
now a chapel of ease. In 1841 , the population of 
the temporary quoad sacra parish was 1,905 ; and 
in 1861, the population of the village of Haggs it- 
self was 302, exclusive of the adjoining hamlet of 

HAGGS, Renfrewshire. See Govan. 

HAILES, the estate of Sir Thomas G. Carmichael, 
Bart., in the parish of Colinton, 4 miles west of Ed- 
inburgh. The lands of Hailes anciently belonged 
in part to the monks of Dunfermline, and in part tc 
the canons of St. Anthony at Leith ; and they con- 
stituted parochially a vicarage which bore indiffer- 
ently the name of Hailes \nd the name of Colinton. 
Some persons say that the present mansion of Hailea 
stands on the site of the ancient parish church. 
There is on the estate a famous quarry of dark grey 
sandstone, of a slaty structure, easily divisible into 
flags for pavement and blocks for steps of stairs, 
while the smaller portions suit well for rubble work. 
During the year 1825, when the building mania was 
at its height in Edinburgh, 600 cart-loads of stones 
were sent daily thither from this quarry, yielding 
the landlord that year about £9,000 ; but after the 
mania subsided, the quantity sent daily fell so low 
as 60 or 70 cart-loads. Contiguous to the quarry 
is a village which takes from it the name of Hailes 
Quarry, and has a population of about 160. 

HAILES (New), a seat on the west side of the 
parish of Inveresk, about J a mile from the frith of 
Forth, in the north-east of Edinburghshire. It is 
famous for having been the residence of Sir David 
Dalrymple, Lord Hailes, one of the most distin- 
guished of Scottish historians and antiquaries. The 
grounds around it are well-wooded and beautifully 
disposed ; and in the vicinity of the mansion is a 
column, erected to the memory of the great Earl of 

HAILES-CASTLE, a fine old ruin, on a rock on 
the right bank of the Tyne, in the parish of Pres- 
tonkirk, Haddingtonshire. It is noted as having 
been anciently the property of the notorious Earl of 
Bothwell, the temporary residence of Queen Mary, 
and the place to which Bothwell conducted her, 
after seizing her near Linlithgow. 


HAILSTON- BURN, a brook in the parish of Kil- 
syth, Stirlingshire, noted for its containing blocks 
of jasper. 

HAIRLAW, a locality in the parish of Neilston, 
Renfrewshire, where a battle was fought between 
Malcolm III. of Scotland, and Donald, Lord of the 
Isles, in which the latter was beaten and routed. 
Here is now an artificial reservoir, 72 acres in ex- 
tent, and 16 feet deep, fed by a stream from Long- 

HALBEATH, a post-office village on the eastern 
border of the parish of Dunfermline, 2J miles east- 
north-east of the town of Dunfermline, Fifeshire. 
Around it are extensive coal-mines. The village 
has a station on the Dunfermline branch of the 
Edinburgh, Perth, and Dundee railway. Population, 
56S. See Dunfermline. 

HALBORN-HEAD. See Holburn-Head. 

HALEN, a quoad sacra parish, comprising the 
peninsula of Vaternish, within the quoad civilia 
parish of Diminish, in the island of Skye. It was 
constituted by the Court of Teinds in July, 1847. 
The church is a government one, under the patron- 
age of the Crown. Stipend, £120; glebe, £11. 
The post- town is Dunvegan. 


HALF-MORTON, a parish, politically on the 
south-east border of Annandale, but topographically 
ntermediate between Annandaleand Eskdale, Dum- 
fries-shire. Its post-town is Canonbie, 5 miles east- 
north-east of its church. It is bounded on the 
south-east by England, and on other sides by the 
parishes of Gretna, Kirkpatrick-Fleming, Middlebie, 
Langholm, and Canonbie. Its length south-south- 
eastward is about 5 miles ; and its greatest breadth 



is about 3 -J miles. Excepting the lowest spurs of 
the Eskdale hills on the north, and a small patch of 
bog on the south-west, the whole surface partakes 
the beauty and fertility of the terminating plain of 
Dumfries-shire. One of two principal head-waters 
of the Sark rises on the north-western limit, tra- 
verses the breadth of the parish to its eastern limit, 
and, being there joined by its sister head-water, 
traces the boundary of the parish southward over a 
distance of 4 miles. Another stream rises also on 
the north-west boundary, half-a-mile south of the 
former, and traverses the parish south-eastward or 
diagonally, over a distance of 4 miles, passing the 
parish church, and falling into the Sark. The 
Black Sark comes in from the west, — forms for 
half-a-mile the western boundary - line, — flows 
through the parish for 1J- mile, first eastward and 
next southward, and again, before leaving it, forms 
for 1 mile the western boundary-line. The banks 
of all the streams are tufted with wood, and fall 
gently back in carpetings of fine soil and luxuriant 
vegetation. The principal mansion is Solway bank 
on the north. The only antiquities are vestiges of 
three towers. About one-sixth of the population 
are aggregated into 4 or 5 small hamlets. The 
principal landowner is Sir John H. Maxwell, Bart. 
of Springkell. The valued rental is £972 sterling. 
Assessed property in 1860, £3,413. Population in 
1831, 646; in 1861, 713. Houses, 129. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Langholm, 
and synod of Dumfries. Patrons, the Crown and 
the Duke of Buccleuch. Stipend, £140, paid as a 
voluntary contribution by the Duke of Buccleuch 
and the heritors. The parish church was built in 
1744, and enlarged in 1833, and contains 212 sittings. 
There is a Free church in the parish, with a com- 
paratively large attendance ; and the sum raised in 
connexion with it in 1865 was £82 19s. 34d. There 
is an United Presbyterian church at Chapelknowe, § of 
a mile south of the parish church, built in 1822, and 
containing 244 sittings.— The district comprehend- 
ing the present parish of Half-Morton and about 
one-third of the present conterminous parish of 
Canonbie, formed the ancient parish of Morton. About 
the year 1 650, it was divided into two parts, and 
the eastern half annexed to Canonbie, and the western 
half to Wauchope; and Wauchope itself having 
subsequently suffered annexation to Langholm, 
Half-Morton followed its fortunes. When this an- 
nexation took place, the General Assembly ordained 
that the minister should hold botli benefices, on 
condition of his preaching at Half-Morton every 
fourth Sabbath. The condition came eventually to 
be forgotten ; and during 12 years previous to 1833, 
there was no public worship connected with the 
Establishment at Half-Morton. By a temporary 
arrangement, an assistant minister, whose time 
should be entirely devoted to the district, was in 
that year appointed ; and in 1836, the arrangement 
became permanent. 

HALF-WAY. See Irvine. 

HALGREEN. See Canonbie. 

HALHILL. See Glassford. 

HALHOUSE. See Canonbie. 

HALIDAY-HILL. See Ddnscoke. 

HALIDEAN. See Bowden. 

HALIVAILS. See Doirinish. 

HALKIRK, a parish, containing a post-office vil- 
lage of its own name, in Caithness-shire. It is 
bounded by Thurso, Bower, Watten, Latheron, 
Kildonan, and Reay. It extends north-north-east- 
ward from the boundary with Sutherlandshire to a 
point somewhat north of the centre of Caithness- 
shire, and measures 24 miles in length, and from 
B to 12 miles in breadth. The surface is prevail- 

ingly flat, yet comprises several hills which slope 
gently from their summit to the surrounding plains. 
On the boundary with Watten, also, about 3 miles 
south-east of the village of Halkirk, is a hill of con 
siderable elevation, called Spittal hill, which is green 
all over, and commands a magnificent map-like view 
of nearly the whole county, together with the Pent 
land frith and the Orkneys. About 6,000 acres are 
under the plough ; about as many more are in pas- 
ture or meadow; and about 61,000 are moor, moss, 
or water. The soil of the arable lands is partly clay 
or loam mixed with moss, and partly gravel' on a 
cold rocky bottom. Forse water drains part of the 
western border; and Thurso water rises on the 
south-western border, and rims north-eastward and 
northward through all the interior. There are up- 
wards of twenty lakes; one of them, the loch of 
Calder, about 3J miles long and 1 mile broad, — an- 
other, Lochmore, nearly as large, — and most of the 
rest comparatively small. " They all abound with 
excellent trout, and eel of different kinds and sizes. 
These fishes differ also in colour, according to the 
nature of the lake where they were spawned. In 
the lake of Calder, there are trouts which are found 
no where else in the country, of a reddish beautiful 
colour, a pretty shape, very fat, and most pleasant 
eating.'' Marl is found in the loch of Calder and in 
one of the other lakes. Limestone is quarried in 
several places. Flags for flooring and for paving are 
extensively raised, not only for home use, but for 
exportation. Ironstone and lead ore are found. 
The principal landowners are Sir George Sinclair, 
Bart., Sir P. M. Thriepland Bart., Sinclair of Forse, 
Guthrie of Scotscalder, Home of Langwell, and four 
others. The principal mansion is that of Sir George 
Sinclair, Bart. The value of real property, as as- 
sessed in 1860, was £9,622. Population in 1831, 
2,847 ; in 1861, 2,864. Houses, 574. 

An interesting antiquity is Dirlet- Castle: which 
see. Another antiquity is the castle of Brawell, sit- 
uated on an eminence, at a small distance from the 
river of Thurso. It is a square building of a large 
area, and wonderfully thick in the walls, which are 
partly built with clay, partly with clay and mortal- 
mixed, and in some parts with mortar altogether. 
The stairs and conveyances to the several stories 
are through the heart of the walls. These stories 
were all floored and vaulted with prodigiously largo 
stones. A deep, large, well- contrived ditch secures 
the castle on the north. It has the appearance of 
having been fortified also with other outworks, such 
as walls, moats, &c. It is not known by whom or 
when it was built, though tradition says that it was 
built and inhabited by the Harolds, who came from 
Denmark, but more immediately from Orkney, where 
they bore princely sway. A more modern building 
was begun, close to the river, by one of the Earls of 
Caithness. The design of this was magnificent, and 
worthy of its princely site; and had it been finished, 
it Tould, in all appearance, have been one of the 
most stately and commodious edifices in the North, 
according to the style of those times. But the 
work was carried only a few feet above the vaults. 
Though there were abundance of stones ready at 
hand, and well-calculaterl for building on any plan, 
yet, to suit the grandeur and elegance of the design, 
vast numbers of large freestone were brought from 
the shore, at the distance- of 8 miles. Over these 
foundations was erected rithin the last year, the 
new mansion of Sir George Sinclair, a handsome 
edifice in the old Scotch baronial style. Another 
antiquity is Lochmore castle, situated on the banks 
of Lochmore, over the efflux of the water of Thurso, 
and said to have been built by a famous sportsman; 
and still another is Achnavarn castle, a ruin of great 




strength, but of unrecorded origin, near the loch of 
Calder. There are also in the parish vestiges of two 
ancient chapels.— The village of Halkirk stands on 
the northern verge of the parish, on the right bank 
of Thurso water, 7 miles south by east of the town 
of Thurso. An annual fair is held here on the 
Tuesday before the 26th of December ; and another 
fair is held on Ruggy-hill, 2 miles distant, on the 
mutual boundary with Thurso parish and Bower. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Caithness, and 
synod of Sutherland and Caithness. Patron, Sir 
James Colquhoun, Bart. Stipend, £237 18s. 9d.; 
glebe, £8. Unappropriated teinds, £278 9s. 3d. 
Schoolmaster's salary, £57 10s., with about £15 
fees. The parish church was built in 1753, and en- 
larged in 1833, and contains 756 sittings. There was 
formerly a chapel of the Royal bounty at Acharainey, 
containing 403 sittings, but serving also for parts of 
the parishes of Watten and Eeay. There is a Free 
church of Halkirk, with an attendance of 680 ; and 
the sum raised in connexion with it in 1865 was £189 
0s. lOd. There is also a Free church charge of 
Westerdale, Acharainey, and Halsary,with an aggre- 
gate attendance of 860 ; and the sum raised in con- 
nexion with it in 1865 was £161 16s. 7d. There are 
twelve non-parochial schools, and two or three friendly 
societies ; and several of the schools are aided or sup- 
ported by public bodies. — The present parish of Hal- 
kirk comprehends the two ancient ecclesiastical dis- 
tricts of Halkirk and Skinret. The union of these 
took place some time after the Reformation. Circum- 
stances make it probable, that Halkirk was no parish 
at all before the Reformation; but that Skinnet was a 
stated parish of very early date. " Halkirk, by all 
I can learn or conjecture," says the writer of the 
old Statistical Account, "was originally no more 
than a chaplainry occupied by the Bishop's chaplain, 
who also served the great family that had one of its 
seats at Brawell, — a place very near the chapel. 
Here also the Bishop had one of his seats, within a 
few yards of the present manse. It was here — as I 
have it from report — that the Bishop was assassi- 
nated by a set of ruffians from Harpsdale, — a place 
belonging to the chaplainry. These savages were 
the sons of John of Harpsdale, whom the then Earl 
of Caithness suborned as instruments very fit for the 
execution of that horrid deed, in revenge of the 
Bishop having assessed his lands in the chaplainry 
with an addition to the chaplain's living. The spot 
where the chapel formerly stood, and where now 
the kirk of the two united parishes stands, is a small 
round hill, in the middle of a large extensive plain. 
From this spot, as the centre, there is a very gentle 
rise, almost in eveiy direction, to the surrounding 
hills. From this circumstance it is more than pro- 
bable the parish derives its name ; for the rising 
ground whereon the kirk stands is called Tore-Har- 
Iogan, and the kirk, Teaumpul-Harlogan ; and so 
they retain the original Irish names, though the 
parish is called by the name of Hacrigg, and more 
frequently of Halkirk, manifestly [?] a corruption of 
the original name, Tore-OUagan. Now, laggan, in 
Erse, signifies ' a low place,' — the lowest in the 
neighbourhood, — and tore, ' a mount,' or ' small hill.' 
As to the name of the other parish, it is sometimes 
pronounced Skinnet, sometimes Skinite, sometimes 
Skinilt, sometimes Skinnon, sometimes Skinine ; 
but I have reason to believe that the real name 
should be Shiea-Noylte, ' the Wing of the Burn.' " — 
An extensive poorhouse, intended to serve for a 
combination of parishes, is at present (September 
1 855) in course of erection, on the left bank of Thurso 
water, near the village of Halkirk. 

HALLADALE. a river and a strath, in the north- 
east of Sutherlandshire. The strath, together with 

its hill-screens, forms the Sutherland district of the 
parish of Reay. The river rises in several head 
streams, on the lofty uplands on the confines of Kil 
donan ; and, taking a northerly direction, after a 
course of 20 miles, falls into the Pentland frith at 
the Tor, or Bighouse-bay, 5 miles south-east of 
Strathy-head. It is a rapid stream, and receives 
many tributary rivulets from the neighbouring 
mountains to Golval, whence it flows through level 
ground to the sea. The tide flows about 2 miles up 
the river ; but it is only navigable by boats. Strath- 
halladale is under the ecclesiastical charge of 
the same missionary who officiates at Acharainey, 
mentioned in our article on Halkirk. Here also is 
a Free church, which forms a joint charge witli a 
church in Strathy; and the sum raised in connexion 
with which in 1865 was £158 12s. 

HALLBAR. See Carluke. 

HALLEATHS. See Dryfesdale and Lochm*- 


HALLERHIRST. See Stevexstox. 

HALLGREEN. See Bervie. 

HALLIBLADE. See Duxferulvxe. 

HALLIDAY HILL, a hill on the north-east bor- 
der of the parish of Dunscore, Dumfries-shire. 

HALLYAEDS, a quondam estate in the parish 
of West Calder, Edinburghshire. John Graham of 
Hallyards, who became a lord of session in the latter 
part of the 1 6th century, brought the Court of Session 
and the General Assembly into violent collision on 
a question arising out of a private affair of his own, 
and eventually embroiled himself with the Duke of 
Lennox, and was slain in a fracas on the public 
streets of Edinburgh. 

HALSARY, a locality in the south-west of the 
parish of Watten, Caithness-shire, where there is a 
mission-station of the Royal bounty, under the care 
of the same missionary who officiates at Acharainey 
in Halkirk, and at Halladale in Reay. 

HALTREES, a hamlet, and an ancient chapelry, 
on Gala water, 5A miles northwest of Stow, Edin- 

HALYBURTOX. See Geeexlaw. 

HALYHILL. See Forteviot. 

HAM-, an Anglo-Saxon prefix or suffix in topo- 
graphical names, signifying variously a home, a 
farm, a property, a habitation, a hamlet, and a 
small town. 

HAM, or Holm. See Donket. 

HAMER, an ancient parish comprehended in 
the modern parish of Whitekirk in Haddingtonshire. 
See Whitekirk. 

HAMILTON, a parish, containing the town of 
Hamilton and the village of Fernigair, in the mid- 
dle ward of Lanarkshire. It is bounded by Both- 
well, Dalziel, Cambusnethan, Dalserf, Stonehouse, 
Glassford, and Blantyre. It has nearly a square 
outline, extending 6 miles each way; and contains 
2225 square miles, or 14,240 imperial acres. Ori- 
ginally its name was Cadyhou, C'adyou, or Cadzow; 
and the latter designation is still retained by one oif 
its burns. The name was, however, changed from 
Cadzow to Hamilton in 1445, by virtue of a charter 
granted by James II. of Scotland to James, first 
Lord Hamilton. The parish was at that time erect- 
ed into a lordship. Hamilton of Wishaw says — 
" This lordship was anciently the propertie of the 
kings of Scotland, there being severall old charters 
be Alexander the Second and Alexander the Third, 
kings of Scotland, dated ' apud castrum nostrum de 
Cadichou,' call'd afterwards the castle of Hamilton. 
The precise tyme when this lordship was given to 
the Duke of Hamilton his predicessors is not clear; 
but there is ane charter extant, granted by King 
Robert Bruce in the 7 th year of his reigne, 1311, to 




Sir Walter the sone of Sir Gilbert de Hamilton, of 
this baronie and the tenendry of Adelwood, which 
formerly belonged to his father Sir Gilbert, and 
heth, without any interruption, continued in that 
familie since." 

The river Clyde flows about 5 miles in connexion 
with the parish; tracing over most of that distance 
the north-eastern boundary, but cutting off a small 
wing on the right; the river Avon flows 3 J miles 
across the south-eastern district, to a confluence 
with the Clyde about a mile from the town; and 
nine rivulets or burns water various parts of the 
interior, six of them falling into the Avon, and 
three into the Clyde. " All these bums have their 
origin in the high grounds in the west and south- 
west of the parish. By time and perseverance they 
have forced their way through great chasms in the 
sandstone rocks, forming magnificent heughs or 
ravines of great magnitude, infinitely varied, and 
richly wooded. These constitute part of ' the beau- 
ties of Scotland,' of which a stranger passing along 
the highway knows and sees but little." The 
scenes along the Clyde are still richer, and in an- 
other style, while those along the Avon are sur- 
passingly romantic; but they have already been 
sufficiently described in our articles Clyde and 
Avon. The surface of the parish inward from the 
streams, is considerably diversified, and aggregately 
pleasant. Along the Clyde lie extensive valley- 
grounds of a deep and fertile soil. Thence the land 
rises gradually to the south-west, to a considerable 
height: in the higher parts to more than 600 feet 
above the level of the sea. Still it is not a hilly 
district, these ascents being formed of an undulat- 
ing upward swell. The soil of the heights is mostly 
of a elayish nature. The lower parts of the ascent 
are tolerably fertile and well-cultivated ; but from 
the nature of the soil and bottoms, it is not an early 
district — the higher parts often producing scanty 
and late crops. There are a few swampy meadows 
in the upper parts; but with this exception, and 
that of the woods, it is almost entirely arable. 
After all, this parish is rather a beautiful than a 
fertile one, and according to the Old Statistical 
Account, " cultivation has been more successful in 
enriching the scenery than in multiplying the an- 
nual productions." The district is exceedingly 
well-fenced and wooded, and the crops raised com- 
prise every thing included in the usual agricultural 
catalogue. Orchard-produce is not cultivated here 
so extensively as in many parishes in Clydesdale; 
but there are nevertheless many large gardens, 
which are not only productive in themselves, but 
add vastly to the beauty of the landscape. There 
is some fine wood in the parish, particularly the 
"old oaks" behind Cadzow, which are scattered 
over a noble chase of 1,500 acres, and are supposed 
to have been planted by David, Earl of Hunting- 
don, afterwards King of Scotland, about the year 
1140. Many of these trees have attained a vast 
size, and there is one of them called ' the Boss tree,' 
near Wood-house, which is capable of accommodat- 
ing eight persons in its interior. In the glades of 
the Cadzow forest, a number of the ancient Cale- 
donian breed of cattle, noticed in our article on 
Cumbernauld, are kept browsing. Their bodies are 
purely white, with the exception of the ears, muz- 
zles, and hoofs, which are black; and they are 
perfectly safe and docile, excepting when they have 
young, to which they manifest a more than usual 
affection. A number of fallow deer are kept in a 
park on the opposite bank of the Avon. Coal, lime, 
and ironstone abound. The coal is most extensively 
worked at Quarter, about 3 miles from Hamilton. 
It is brought flora Quarter by a railway laid along 

the banks of the Avon; and is stored at Avonbridge 
within half-a-mile of the town. Coal is worked also 
at Plotcock and Langfaugh. Limestone of good 
quality, in beds respectively 4 feet and 6 feet thick, 
occur at Crookedstone and Boghead, in the south- 
west of the parish; and a seam of ironstone, about 
18 inches thick, lies there below the limestone. 
Sandstone is raised in 6 or 7 quarries. The 
yearly produce of the parish was estimated in 1835 
at £14,329 in grain, £7,336 in hay, potatoes fee, 
£6,000 in produce of pasture lands, £600 in produce 
of gardens and orchards, £3,000 in coals, metals, 
and stones, and £1,000 in miscellaneous produce, 
— in all, £32,265. The value of assessed property 
in 1860 was £36,243. The old valued rental is 
£9,377 Scots ; and the real rental in 1835 was £20, 176, 
—of which £8,638 was for the town. 

The parish contains ruins or vestiges of many 
old edifices, whose pristine glory has long since 
departed, among which may be named Silverton 
hill, Earnock, Ross, Motherwell, Nielsland, Barn- 
cluith, Allanshaw, Darngaber, Edlewood, Mirritoun, 
and Udstoun, which were formerly seats of different 
scions of the house of Hamilton. But much more 
interesting than any of these is Cadzow castle, 
situated on a precipitous rock by the side of the 
Avon. This castle is of very remote but unrecorded 
origin, and belonged to several of the Kings ot 
Scotland, down to Bobert Bruce, who granted it to 
the ancestor of the ducal family of Hamilton. It 
seems to have been repaired at different periods; 
but was dismantled amid the events of the civil 
wars, in the time of Queen Maiy. The keep, with 
the fosse around it, a narrow bridge over the fosse, 
and a well in the interior, are still in a fair state of 
preservation. They are constructed of a reddish 
polished stone. The walls of some attached build- 
ings, probably chapel and offices, also several 
vaults, are likewise still visible. Cadzow castle is 
the subject of a fine well-known ballad by Sir 
Walter Scott. On the opposite side of the Avon 
stands the modern chateau of Chatelherault, a 
sumptuous pile, built in 1732 in imitation of the 
citadel of Chatelherault in Poitou, and rivetting at- 
tention at once by its accompanying pleasure- 
grounds, by its romantic position in the Avon's 
ravine, and by its own red walls, square towers, 
and curious pinnacles. In the dell of the Avon also 
are situated the ancient terraced gardens of Barn- 
elm th, or Baron's Cleugh, the property of Lady 
Buthven. The house is situated on the top of a 
bold bank, with walks cut out of the rock, one 
under the other descending towards the river, sup- 
ported by high walls, and beautified by fruit-trees 
of various kinds, and commands an enchanting 
prospect of the wooded banks of the Avon, and the 
delightful amphitheatre around and beyond. Near 
Meikle- Earnock, about 2 miles from the town, 
occurs a Boman tumulus. It is 8 feet high, and 12 
feet in diameter. AVhen broken up many years ago, 
a number of urns were found containing the ashes 
of human bones, and amongst them the tooth of a 
horse. There was no inscription seen; but some ot 
the urns — which were all of baked earth — were 
plain, and others decorated with moulding, probably 
to mark the quality of the deceased. In the haugh, 
in the vicinity of the palace of Hamilton, an ancient 
moat-hill or seat of justice is pointed out. It is 
about 30 feet diameter at the base, and 15 feet high, 
and is evidently a construction of great antiquity. — 
The celebrated Dr. Cullen was a native of this par- 
ish, having been born in i' j»pril 15, 1710. He 
was a magistrate of Hamilton for a number of years. 
Lord Cochrane, now the Earl of Dundonald, spent 
many of his younger years in the parish. The 




father of the late Professor Millar of Glasgow was 
one of the parochial clergymen; as were also the 
father of the late Dr. Baillie of Loudon, and his 
celebrated sister Joanna. 

The town, woods, and ravines of Hamilton have, 
from early times, been the scene of important 
events. They were particularly so in the times of 
the persecution, in consequence of the majority of 
the parishioners heing devoted adherents to the 
cause of the Covenant. In the winter of 1650, 
Cromwell despatched General Lambert and Commis- 
sary-general Whalley to Hamilton, with five regi- 
ments of cavalry, for the purpose of keeping the 
Covenanters of the district in check, or of seducing 
them over to his own views. They were attacked 
by a party of 1,500 horsemen from Ayrshire, under 
Colonel Kerr, and a great number of horses fell into 
the hands of the Covenanters; but Lambert having 
rallied his forces, attacked the Covenanters in turn, 
at a spot 2 miles from Hamilton, killed Colonel 
Kerr, with about 100 of his men, and took a 
great number of prisoners. In June 1679 Graham 
of Claverhouse, when upon his way to the field of 
Druinclog, seized, near the town of Hamilton, John 
King, a field-preacher, and 17 other persons, whom 
he bound in pairs and drove before him in the 
direction of Loudon hill. After their success at 
Drumclog, the Covenanters marched to Hamilton, 
and resolved upon an attack on Glasgow; but, as is 
well-known, they were severely repulsed, after 
which they again retired to Hamilton, where the 
more moderate portion of the body drew up the 
document which afterwards obtained the name of 
'the Hamilton declaration,' the purport of which 
was to deny any intention of overturning the 
government, to forbear all disputes and recrimina- 
tions in the meantime, and to refer all matters to a 
free parliament and a general assembly lawfully 
chosen. This proposition was scouted by the 
violent party, and their guard heing attacked in the 
night-time, near Hamilton ford, one of their num- 
ber, named James Cleland, was killed. After the 
disastrous battle of Bothwell Brig, the fugitives fled 
in all directions through the parish, and Gordon of 
Earlston, who had reached the parish with a body 
of men under his command from Galloway, met his 
vanquished brethren near Quarter, at which place 
he was killed. About 1,200 men were taken 
prisoners in the parish by the King's troops; and 
many of the persecuted ' hill folk ' only escaped 
death by hiding in Hamilton woods. ' For this 
safety they were much indebted to the amiable and 
generous Anne, Duchess of Hamilton, who begged 
the Duke of Monmouth, the commander, that his 
soldiers might not be permitted to enter her planta- 
tions; and thus many lives were saved which, but 
for her interference, would have been sacrificed. 

Hamilton gives the title of Baron, Marquis, and 
Duke, in the peerage of Scotland, to the noble family 
of Hamilton-Doudas. This illustrious family is 
said to be descended from Sir William de Hamilton, 
one of the sons of William de Bellomont, third Earl 
of Leicester. Sir William's son, Sir Gilbert Hamil- 
ton, having spoken in admiration of Robert the 
Bruce, at the court of Edward II., received a blow 
from John de Spencer, who conceived the discourse 
was derogatory to his master. This led, on the 
following day, to an encounter in which Spencer 
fell, and Hamilton fled for safety to Scotland in 
1323. Having been closely pursued in his flight, 
Hamilton and his servant changed clothes with two 
woodcutters ; and, taking the saws of the workmen, 
they were in the act of cutting an oak-tree when his 
pursuers passed. Perceiving his servant to notice 
them, Sir Gilbert cried out to him ' Through ! ' 

which word, with the oak and saw through it, he 
took for his crest in remembrance and commemora- 
tion of his escape. He afterwards became a favourite 
with Robert Brace, and from an old manuscript it 
appears that he was one of seven knights who ' kept 
the king's person ' in the field of Bannockburn, and 
afterwards continued with him till his death, and 
attended his burial at Dunfermline. Sir Walter 
de Hamilton, the son of Sir Gilbert, acquired the 
lands of Cadzow, in the sheriffdom of Lanark, and 
others; and from .him was descended, in the fifth de 
gree, Sir James Hamilton of Cadzow, who was the 
first peer of the family. He was originally attached 
to the powerful family of Douglas, and was an im- 
portant adherent of the Earl of that name, when in 
1455 that nobleman took the field in open rebellion 
against his sovereign. Sir James, however, deserted 
from Douglas to the King, almost upon the eve of a 
battle, upon which the chances appeared as much in 
favour of the subject as the sovereign ; and his ex- 
ample being followed by others, the army of Douglas 
rapidly disappeared, and ruin came upon his once 
potent house. For this notable service Sir James 
was created a lord of parliament, and he also obtained 
a grant, dated 1st July, 1-155, of the office of sheriff 
of the county of Lanark, and subsequently grants of 
extensive territorial possessions. He married for his 
second wife, in 1474, Mary, eldest daughter of King 
James II., and widow of Thomas Boyd, Earl of 
Arran. Dying in 1479 he was succeeded by his only 
son, James, second Lord Hamilton, who obtained 
a charter of the lands and earldom of Arran in 1503. 
This nobleman was constituted lieutenant-general 
of the kingdom, warden of the marches, and one of 
the lords of the regency in 1517. He was succeeded 
by his son James, the second Earl, who had only, 
betwixt him and the throne, Mary daughter of James 
V., and afterwards Queen of Scots. In 1543 he was 
declared heir-presumptive to the Crown, and was ap- 
pointed guardian to Queen Mary, and governor of the 
kingdom during her minority. He was mainly in- 
strumental in bringing about the marriage of the 
youthful princess to the Dauphin, in opposition to 
the wishes of Henry VIII. of England; and in 
token of his approval of these services, the French 
king — Henry the Second — conferred upon him the 
title of Duke of Chatelherault, in addition to a pen- 
sion of 30,000 livres a-year. He continued to take 
an active part in public affairs till his death in 1575, 
when he was succeeded in the earldom of Arran by 
James his eldest son, the dukedom of Chatelherault 
having heen resumed by the French crown. This 
nobleman, upon the arrival of Queen Mary, in 1561, 
openly aspired to the honour of her hand ; but having 
opposed the enjoyment of the Queen's exercise of 
her religion, and having entered a protestation 
against it, he entirely lost her favour. His love, 
inflamed by disappointment, gradually undermined 
his reason, and at last he broke out into ungovern- 
able frenzy. He was in consequence declared by 
the cognition of inquest to be insane, and the estates 
of his father devolved upon his brother, Lord John 
Hamilton, commendator of Aherbrothock, who, in 
1567, was one of those who entered into an associa- 
tion to rescue Queen Mary from the castle of Loch- 
leven; and upon her escape she fled to his estate of 
Hamilton, and there held her court. From thence 
she proceeded to Langside where her forces were 
defeated by the Regent Murray. The castle of 
Hamilton was besieged and taken, and Lord John 
went into banishment. The fealty of this nobleman 
to his unhappy Queen never swerved for a moment ; 
and so well aware was she of his fidelity that one 
of her last acts was to transmit to him a ring, which 
is still preserved in the family. He was recalled by 




James VI., restored to the family-estates, and 
created, in 1599, Marquis of Hamilton. Dying, in 
1604, he "was succeeded by his only son, James, 
second Marquis, who obtained also an English peer- 
age by the titles of baron of Ennerdale in Cumberland, 
and Earl of Cambridge. He died in 1625, and was 
succeeded by his eldest son, James, third Marquis, 
who was created Marquis of Clydesdale, and in 1643 
Duke of Hamilton, and received a grant of the 
hereditary office of keeper of Holyrood palace. 

This nobleman, the first Duke of Hamilton, 
warmly espoused the cause of King Charles I., and 
promoted ' the engagement ' to raise troops for the 
service of his sovereign. As is well-known, he was 
defeated at the battle of Preston, where he was 
made prisoner; and being brought to trial by the 
same court by which the King had been condemned, 
he was found guilty of having levied war upon the 
people of England, and suffered decapitation in Old 
Palace-yard on 9th March, 1649. His Grace was 
succeeded by his brother, William, the fourth Mar- 
quis, and second Duke, who had previously been 
elevated to the peerage as Lord Macan shire and 
Polmont, and Earl of Lanark. The Duke was 
mortally wounded in the cause of Charles II. at the 
battle of Worcester ; and by Cromwell's act of grace, 
passed in 1654, he was excepted from all benefit 
thereof, and his estates forfeited, reserving only out 
of them £400 a-year for his Duchess for life, and 
£100 to each of his four daughters and their heirs. 
His Grace's own honours fell under the attainder, 
and his English dignities expired ; but the dukedom 
of Hamilton, in virtue of the patent, devolved upon 
his niece, the eldest daughter of James, the first 
Duke. Lady Anne Hamilton, Duchess of Hamilton, 
introduced the Douglas name into the family by 
marrying Lord William Douglas, eldest son of Wil- 
liam, first Marquis of Douglas ; and she obtained 
by petition for her husband, in 1 660, the title of Duke 
of Hamilton for life. His Grace had previously 
been elevated to the peerage as Earl of Selkirk. 
This peer sat as president of the convention parlia- 
ment, which settled the crown upon William and 
Mary. He died in 1694, and was succeeded by his 
eldest son, James, Earl of Arran, who, upon the 
Duchess, a few years afterwards, surrendering her 
honours, became then, by patent, Duke of Hamilton, 
with the precedency of the original creation of 1643, 
in the same manner as if he had originally inherited. 
He was created an English peer in 1711, as Baron 
of Dutton in the county of Chester, and Duke of 
Brandon in the county of Suffolk; but upon pro- 
ceeding to take his seat in the House of Lords, it 
was objected, that by the 23d article of the Union, 
"no puer of Scotland could, after the Union, be 
created a peer of England;" and the bouse came 
to this resolution after a protracted debate. The 
Duke having accepted a challenge from Charles, 
Lord Mohun, fought that nobleman in Hyde Park 
on 15th November, 1712, and having slain his op- 
ponent, fell himself, through the treachery, as was 
suspected, of General Macartney, Lord Mohun's 
second, for whose apprehension a reward of £500 
was subsequently offered. Macartney eventually 
surrendered, and was tried in the court of king's 
bench in June 1716, when he was acquitted of the 
murder, and found guilty of manslaughter. His 
Grace was succeeded by his son, James, fifth Duke 
of Hamilton and second Duke of Brandon, who died 
in 1742-3, and was succeeded by his eldest son, 
James, the sixth Duke, who died in 1758. He was 
succeeded by his son James George, the seventh 
Duke, who succeeded to the Marquisate of Douglas 
and Earldom of Angus, upon the demise, in 1761, 
.if Archibald, the last Duke of Douglas. The 

guardians of his Grace asserted his right and laid 
claim to the Douglas estates, upon the ground that 
Mr. Stewart, son and heir of Lady Jane Stewart, 
sister of the Duke of Douglas, was not her son ; and 
this led to a most unwonted legal contest, ending in 
the defeat of the Hamiltons, and known as the cele- 
brated Douglas cause. His Grace died unmarried 
in 1769, and the honours devolved upon his brother 
Douglas, the eighth Duke, who, in 1782, again 
brought up the point decided against his predecessor, 
the fourth Duke, relative to his right to a seat in the 
house of lords; and after the opinion of the judges 
had been taken, he obtained a resolution in his 
favour, and was consequently summoned to the 
house of lords as Duke of Brandon. He died in 
1799 without issue, and the title and estates reverted 
to his uncle, Archibald, the ninth Duke of Hamilton 
and sixth Duke of Brandon, eldest son, by his third 
wife, of James fifth Duke of Hamilton. Archibald 
died on 16th February, 1819, and was succeeded by 
Alexander Hamilton Douglas, the tenth Duke, who 
also died in 1852, and was succeeded by his son, 
Alexander, the present Duke. Many honourable 
families of the name of Hamilton have sprung from 
the junior branches of this noble house. It is the 
premier peerage of the kingdom, and its possessors 
have acted a conspicuous part in all the stirring 
incidents in Scottish history. Both from this cause 
and from the circumstance that, failing the Brans- 
wick line, it is the next Protestant branch of the 
royal family in succession to the Crown of Scotland, 
the title carries with it much of the respect and 
veneration of the country. The dukedom of Chatel- 
herault still finds a place in the roll of titles belong- 
ing to the family, on the ground that it was never 
formally abandoned by them; but it is now a mere 
courtesy title, unrecognised by law in either Great 
Britain or France. 

The ducal palace is the main object of attraction 
in the parish. It is situated in the immediate 
neighbourhood of the town, on the side next the 
Clyde, with enchanting grounds, laid out in lawn, 
woods, and gardens, stretching far away around and 
beyond it. The germ of this magnificent structure 
was originally a small square tower, and the olden 
part of the present house was erected about the year 
1591. The structure was almost entirely rebuilt or 
renewed more than a century afterwards. A grand 
modern addition was commenced in 1822, and carried 
on for nearly twenty years, which has entirely al- 
tered the character of the edifice, and made it one 
of the most magnificent piles in the kingdom, and 
not inferior to the abode of royalty itself. " The 
modern part comprises a new front, facing the north, 
264 feet 8 inches in length, and 3 stories high, with 
an additional wing to the west for servants' apart- 
ments, 100 feet in length. A new corridor is car- 
ried along the back of the old building, containing 
baths, &c. The front is adomed by a noble portico, 
consisting of a double row of Corinthian columns, 
each of one solid stone, surmounted by a lofty pedi- 
ment. The shaft of each column is upwards of 25 
feet in height, and about 3 feet 3 inches in diameter. 
These were each brought in the block, about 8 miles 
from a quarry in Dalserf, on an immense waggon 
constructed for the purpose, and drawn by 30 horses. 
The principal apartments, besides the entrance-hall, 
are, the tribune, a sort of saloon or hall, from which 
many of the principal rooms enter; a dining-room, 
71 feet by 30 ; a library and billiard-room ; state bed- 
rooms, and a variety of sleeping apartments; a 
kitchen, court, &c. The gallery, 120 feet by 20, 
and 20 feet high, has also been thoroughly repaired. 
This, like all the principal rooms, is gilded and or- 
namented with marble, scagliola, and stucco-work " 




The interior furnishings are, in all respects, well 
worthy of the imposing exterior; and the cabinets, 
the select articles of furniture, and the services of 
plate are exceedingly rich. But the grand attraction 
is the picture gallery, the most celebrated in Scot- 
land. The portraits of Charles I. in armour on a 
white horse, and the Earl of Denbigh in a shooting 
dress, standing by a tree, with a black boy on the 
opposite side pointing to the game, are master- 
pieces by Vandyke. An Ascension- piece, by Geor- 
gione, an entombment of Christ by Poussin, a dying 
Madonna by Corregio, a stag-hunt by Sneyder, a 
laughing-boy by Leonard de Vinci, and a faithful 
portrait of Napoleon by David, painted from the ori- 
ginal, are rare specimens of art and value. Upon the 
east staircase is a large altar-piece, by Girolamo dai 
Libri, from San Lionardo nel Monte, near A'erona; 
and, in the breakfast-room are a picture by Giacomo 
da Puntormo, of Joseph receiving his father and 
brethren in Egypt, and a portrait of Artonelli of 
Mycena, said to have been the first painter in oil, 
date 1474. The great gallery, the saloons, and the 
principal rooms, contain splendid paintings by many 
of the first masters, among whom may be named 
Vandyke, Kneller, Rubens, Corregio, Rembrandt, 
Guido, Titian, the Carracci, Salvator Rosa, Carlo 
Dolce, Poussin, Spagnoletti. But the most admired 
of all is Daniel in the Lions' Den by Rubens, — which 
exhibits the prophet standing naked, with his legs 
twisted, his arms uplifted, and his hands elapsed, 
while six lions and two lionesses yawn listlessly in 
the cave below, — and on which Wordsworth wrote 
the sonnet, — 

"Amid a fertile region, green with wood 
And fresh with rivers, well doth it become 
The Ducal owner, in his palace home 
To naturalize this tawny lion brood; 
Children of art, that claim strange brotherhood. 
Couched in their den, with those that roam at large 
Over the burning wilderness, and charge 
The wind witli terror while they roar for food. 
Satiate were these; and still — to eye and ear; 
Hence, while we gaze, a more enduring fear! 
Yet is the prophet calm, nor would the cave 
Daunt him— if his companions now bedrowscd, 
Outstretched and listless, were by hunger roused ; 
Man placed him here, and God, he knows, can save." 

There are within the parish of Hamilton 15 miles 
of turnpike road, and about 30 miles of parochial road. 
The great Glasgow and London road passes through 
the town ; and a great improvement was made upon 
it there, about 20 years ago, by cutting a new line 
for it, to the extent of upwards of 700 yards, in such 
a manner as to avoid a brae up one of the streets, 
and to cut off an awkward elbow at the cross. The 
old Edinburgh and Ayr road, made in 1755, the 
oldest turnpike except one in Scotland, also traverses 
the parish. On the Glasgow and London road, 
above Hamilton green, there is an imposing bridge 
over the Cadzow-burn, of three arches, of 60 feet 
span, and the parapet of which is 60 feet above the 
bed of the streamlet. There is also a new bridge 
over the Avon on the same line of road. Farther 
up the stream is an old bridge of 3 arches, said to 
have been built long since at the expense of the 
monks of the monastery of Lesmahago. Hamilton 
bridge, over the Clyde, upon the Edinburgh road, 
has 5 arches, and was built by authority of parlia- 
ment in 1780. Bothwell bridge, also over the Clyde, 
is the oldest bridge in Lanarkshire, and famous in 
history, but now greatly altered and modernized. 
About half-a-mile below it is a veiy handsome 
recently erected suspension bridge. The Hamilton 
branch of the Clydesdale Junction railway, belong- 
ing to the Caledonian railway system, and having 
a very conveniently situated terminus in the town, 
near "the county buildings, affords to all the lower 

parts of the parish, very rich facilities of communi- 
cation. The Motherwell branch of the same rail- 
way, connecting with the Caledonian main western 
fork, is also easily accessible, and indeed nearly im- 
pinges on the small wing of the parish on the right 
side of the Clyde. The Lesmahago railway also 
will benefit the south-eastern district of the parish. 
A small cavalry barrack is situated at Alrnada hill, 
on the Glasgow road, about a mile north-west of the 
town. The manufactures of the parish will be no- 
ticed in connexion with the town. Population of 
the parish in 1831, 9,513 ; in 1861, 14,047. Houses, 

This parish is the seat of a presbytery in the 
synod of Glasgow and Ayr. Patron, the Duke of 
Hamilton. The charge is collegiate. Each of the 
ministers has a stipend worth £3 13 13s. 10d.; and 
the first used to receive £107 10s. in lieu of manse 
and glebe, while the second has a manse but no 
glebe. The church stands on high ground, origi- 
nally out of the town on the south, but now em- 
braced by town extension ; and was erected in 1732, 
from designs by the elder Adam. It is an elegant 
structure, with a circular body, and four cross aisles, 
and contains about 800 sittings. There is a Free 
church, with 1,000 sittings, and an attendance of 780 ; 
and the sum raised in connexion with it in 1S65 was 
upwards of £1,132. There are four United Pres- 
byterian churches, — one of them in Muir-street with 
1,105 sittings, one in Brandon-street with 940 sit- 
tings, one in Chapel-street with 700 sittings, and 
one in Blackswell with 582 sittings ; and the aggre- 
gate attendance at the four on the Census Sabbath 
in 1851 was 1,211. There are also an Episcopalian 
chapel, with 214 sittings, and an attendance of 92 ; 
an Independent chapel, with 550 sittings, and an 
attendance of 400; a meeting-house of an isolated 
congregation, with 250 sittings, and an attendance 
of 100 ; and a Roman Catholic place of worship. — 
The schools of Hamilton are numerous and good, 
and have raised the place to a comparatively high 
rank in educational fame. The chief is the gram- 
mar school, of ancient date, combining also the par- 
ochial school, and conducted by a rector, an English 
master, and a commercial master. The rector 
has £70 of salary as parochial master, and re- 
ceives large fees and considerable additional emolu- 
ments. A rival establishment is St. John's semina- 
ries, conducted by a rector and an English master. 
There are several seminaries for young ladies, 
a private academy and boarding establishment, 
several well-conducted English and writing schools, 
several ordinary adventure schools, and schools 
of the Old orphan society and of the Orphan 
and charitable school association. There is also 
a mechanics' institution. In 1808, a public sub 
scription library was instituted in the town, 
principally through the exertions of the late Dr. 
John Hume, and attained considerable bulk, but is 
now extinct. The charitable institutions belong- 
ing to the town and parish are of a very respectable 
order. The Duke's hospital is an old building, with 
a belfry and bell, situated at the Cross, and erected 
in lieu of the former one, which stood in the Nether- 
ton. The pensioners do not now reside here ; but 
it contributes to the support of a dozen old men, at 
the rate of £8 18s. yearly, with a suit of clothes 
biennially. Aikman's hospital in Muir-street, was 
built and endowed in 1775, by Mr. Aikman, a pro- 
prietor in the parish, and formerly a merchant in 
Leghorn. Four old men are here lodged, have £4 
per annum, and a suit of clothes every two years. 
Rae's, Robertson's, and Lyon's, and Miss Christian 
Allan's mortification also produce considerable sums 
for the support of the poor, and some other funds 




have been placed at the disposal of the kirk-session 
for the mitigation of distress. 

The ancient parish of Cadzow comprehended the 
present parish of Hamilton, in addition to the eha- 
pelry of Machan, now the parish of Dalserf. David 
I., with consent of his son, Earl Henry, made a 
grant of the church of " Cadihou," with its perti- 
nents, to the Bishops of Glasgow, and the grant was 
confirmed by the bulls of several Popes. The 
church of Cadihou was afterwards constituted a pre- 
bend of the cathedral church of Glasgow, by John, 
the Bishop of that see ; and his successor, Herbert, 
granted to the dean and canons the lands of Bar- 
lanerk and Badlernock, in augmentation of the pre 
bend. Long before the Reformation, however, the 
ehapelry of Machan was erected into a separate 
parish by the name of Dalserf; but the rectory of 
the parish churches of Hamilton and of Dalserf 
continued to belong to the prebend of the dean of 
Glasgow down to the epoch of the Reformation. 
When the church was erected into a prebend, a vi- 
carage was instituted for serving the cure. In 1589, 
the King granted to James, Earl of Arran, and his 
heirs male, the right of patronage of the deanery of 
Glasgow with the parsonage of the churches of 
Hamilton and Dalserf; and this part was ratified 
to the Earl's nephew, James, Marquis of Hamilton, 
in 1621. The patronage of the collegiate church of 
Hamilton has ever since remained in the noble 
house of Hamilton. At the period of the charge 
being made collegiate in 1451, James, Lord Hamil- 
ton, built a fine Gothic church, with a choir, two 
cross aisles, and a steeple ; and this continued the 
parish church down till 1732, when the new church 
was built, and the old one removed with the excep- 
tion of the aisle, which bas been used as the bury- 
ing vault of the family of Hamilton. That too, 
however, has been superseded by the erection, a few 
years ago, of a very splendid and costly mausoleum 
within the grounds of the palace. 

HAMILTON, a market -town, a parliamentary 
burgh, the capital of the middle ward of Lanark- 
shire, stands on the Glasgow and Carlisle road, 
about a mile west of the conflux of the Avon witli 
the Clyde, 7 miles north of Strathaven, 8 south of 
Airdrie, 10| by road south-east of Glasgow, 15 
north-west of Lanark, and 36 by road west of Edin- 
burgh. The original town stood farther to the east, 
within the Duke's pleasure-grounds, and was called 
the Netberton. Even the present town comprises 
an ancient part and a modern part ; and has suffered 
the fate, so common to old towns in juxta-position 
with noble demesnes, of being curtailed in the old 
part and pushed away in the new, in order to give 
increased seclusion to the palace. " That part of it 
which stands near the flesh-market and the public 
green," says the Rev. W. Patrick, "appears to be the 
most ancient. The rocks behind the flesh-market 
are about 20 feet high, and were once occupied by a 
mansion called the Ha' or Hall ; and on the oppo- 
site side of the burn stood a mill called the Ha' mill, 
which has given the name of Shilling-hill to the 
street where it stood. When the tun, ton, or town 
collected round this place, it was called Ha-mill-ton. 
So says tradition ; but history, which is more to be 
depended on, gives a different and more satisfactory 
account. The date of the foundation of the lower 
town cannot now be ascertained — it has been long 
swept away ; but that the upper town is also of 
great antiquity appears from the fact, that it was 
considerable enough to be erected into a burgh-of- 
barony in the year 1456 by James II." The whole 
place, both the extinct and the extant, both the old 
and the new, evidently had both its rise and its 
name from the Hamilton family ; who, at all events, 

procured the very parish to take their name, and 
were also indisputably the founders of the burgh-of- 
barouy. Hamilton of Wishaw says — " In the tyme 
of King James the Second, James Lord Hamilton 
erected here ane burgh of baronie in the midst of 
ane large and pleasant valley, extending from the 
mouth of Aven to Bothwell bridge, near 2 myleg 
along the river, with a pleasant burn, called Hamil- 
ton burn, running through the town and gardens, 
now belonging to the Duke ; giving out severall 
lands to the inhabitants to be holden of the family, 
reserving to themselves the superioritie, jurisdiction, 
and nameing of the magistrates. This Lord Ham- 
ilton also founded here ane provostrie, consisting of 
ane provost and eight prebends, giving to each of 
them ane manse and yeard, and glebe in the Haugh 
of Hamilton ; and gave them the vicarage teinds of 
the parishes of Hamilton and Dalserfe, together with 
severall lands lying within those two parishes and 
the parish of Stonehouse. He also built new the 
parish kirk of Hamilton, the queere and two cross 
isles and steeple, all of polished stone." 

The site of the town may, in a general view, be 
called a rising-ground, sloping gently toward the 
east, and pleasantly overlooking the ducal palace 
and policies. But it really is a diversified piece of 
ground, with swells, terraces, and hollows, and is 
considerably bisected by the Cadzow burn. The 
country immediately around it is profusely ornate, 
and almost gorgeously rich. The outskirts of the 
town are extensive and scattered, and present many 
delightful specimens of villa architecture. The old 
parts of the town have undergone much modern 
improvement ; and the new parts comprise some 
admirably built streets and not a few fine residences. 
In 1831, a gas-work, on an elegant plan, was erected 
at the cost of £2,400. In 1853, an act of parliament 
was obtained for supplying the inhabitants with 
water by gravitation. In 181 6, a spacious trades'- 
hall was erected in Church-street. In June, 1834, 
the new prison and public offices were founded with 
masonic honours. These comprise apartments for 
the sheriff-clerk, town-clerk, a court-room, a hall 
for county-meetings, and the prison and governor's 
house. The prison contains 43 cells, and is sur- 
rounded by a high wall, enclosing also a large open 
court, or airing-yard, half an acre in extent. These 
buildings stand in the west end of the town near the 
cavalry barracks. The old prison was erected in 
the reign of Charles I., but has been dismantled, with 
the exception of the steeple and clock. It was sit- 
uated in the lower or olden portion of the town, 
immediately adjoining the park wall of Hamilton 

Hamilton has, in some degree, a kind of aristo- 
cratic character, yet is not a place without manu- 
factures. A manufacture of lace was early intro- 
duced by one of the Duchesses of Hamilton, after- 
wards Duchess of Argyle, who brought over a native 
of France to teach it ; and, as it was esteemed, in 
the circumstances, fully more a noble than a plebeian 
thing, many respectable females, who had no need 
of it as an avocation, became pupils and workers. 
The Hamilton lace was long in repute among the 
higher classes, but eventually went out of fashion. 
But about 20 years ago, when the manufacture of it 
was nearly extinct, the manufacture of a sort of 
tamboured bobinette was introduced as a substitute 
for it ; and this rose suddenly into such importance 
that, within eight years, upwards of 2,500 females 
in the town or neighbourhood were employed upon 
it. The making of check shirts for the colonial 
market, and the making of black silk veils of pecu- 
liar patterns, also rose rapidly into importance. The 
imitation of cambric weaving o f the finest kinds 




took its chief seat at Hamilton after the introduction 
of the cotton trade into Scotland ; and it prospered 
so much that whole streets of houses were huilt to 
accommodate the industrious weavers, no fewer than 
about 1,250 looms being in the town; but about 35 
or 40 years it began to decline, — and not many 
years afterwards it reached a point where it could 
yield a sustenance only a degree or two above star- 
vation. The manufacture of galas, stocking-mak- 
ing, shoe-making, tanning, brewing, and a fair pro- 
portion of the ordinary kinds of artificership are 
also carried on. 

Hamilton has a considerable local trade in the 
general supply of the surrounding country. A 
weekly market is beld on Friday. A cattle and 
hiring market is held on the third Friday of April 
and the third Friday of October. Five fairs in the 
year, of considerable importance, were formerly held 
for the sale of flax and wool, but they have become 
extinct. The town has offices of the British Linen 
Company's Bank, the Commercial Bank, the Royal 
Bank, the City of Glasgow Bank, and the Bank 
of Scotland. It has also a national security sav- 
ings' bank, and eleven insurance offices. The prin- 
cipal inns are the Commercial, the Bruce Arms, the 
Black Bull, and the lung's Arms. Railway trains 
run to Glasgow, omnibuses to Motherwell, and 
coaches to Larkhall, Stonehouse, and Strathaven. 

Hamilton is a burgh of regality governed by a 
provost, three bailies, and a town-council. The ter- 
ritory of the regality is very extensive, and the 
magistrates exercise the same jurisdiction, both in 
civil and criminal cases, as the magistrates of royal 
burghs. The sheriff-court for the middle ward of 
the county, and the quarter-sessions for the peace 
are held here. The greater part of the burgh-terri- 
tory is in possession of the Duke of Hamilton ; but 
the town still derives a considerable revenue from 
its feu-duties and other property. Its income, in 
1832, was £654; in 1840, £715 5s. 2Jd.; in 1865, 
about £1,257. Hamilton presents the anomaly of 
having been at one time a royal burgh, and of having 
afterwards denuded itself of its status and privileges. 
The earliest charter of the burgh in the possession 
of the town-council is dated 23d October, 1475, and 
was granted by James Lord Hamilton. It recog- 
nises the burgh as a then existing burgh-of-barony, 
and grants to the community and bailies certain 
lands, and the common moor, a considerable portion 
of which is still retained by the burgh. The next 
charter was granted by Queen Mary, on loth Janu- 
ary, 1548; and by it Hamilton was erected into a 
royal burgh with certain privileges ; but it would 
appear that two bailies, named James Hamilton and 
James Naismith, agreed to resign that privilege in 
1 670, by accepting of a charter from Anne, Duchess 
of Hamilton, by which she constituted the town the 
chief burgh of the regality and dukedom of Hamil- 
ton. Long subsequent to this, in 1726, the then 
magistrates and inhabitants made an effort to throw 
off the superiority of the Hamilton family, and re- 
sume their long disused rights as a royal burgh; but 
the charter of Duchess Anne was found to be the 
governing one, by the court of session, in an action 
of declarator of the privileges of Hamilton, as a royal 
burgh, to the free choice of its magistrates. The 
court sustained the defence of the Duke of Hamilton, 
that the privileges of the burgh had been lost by 
prescription. It was not, therefore, till the passing 
of the Reform bill, in 1832, that the inhabitants were 
invested with the privilege of sharing in the election 
of a member of parliament ; and the burgh was as- 
sociated for this purpose with Lanark, Falkirk, Lin- 
lithgow, and Airdrie. Constituency in 1866. 419. 
Pop. in 1841, 8,876; in 1861, 10.6S8. Houses, 1,121. 

HAMILTON -HILL. See Forth and Clyde 

HAMMER (The), a bold headland, about 200 feet 
high, in the midst of an equally bold high coast, in 
the south of the island of Bressay in Shetland. 

HAMMERSNESS, a headland in the north-west 
of the island of Fetlar in Shetland. 

HAMMERSVOE, a bay on the west side of the 
parish of Northmaven in Shetland. 

HAMNAVOE, a bay on the north side of the pal- 
ish of Northmaven in Shetland. It is an excellent 
place for vessels riding at anchor, but has a very 
small entrance. 

HAMNAVOE, a bay, forming a good natural har- 
bour, in the middle of the south end of the island of 
Yell in Shetland. 

HANDA, an island belonging to the parish of 
Edderachillis in Sutherlandshire. It lies within 
about a mile of the mainland, and has a somewhat 
circular outline, of about 1A mile in diameter. It 
formerly was inhabited, but has of late been unin- 
habited. Its name is derived either from the Celtic, 
Aonda, ' the Island of one colour,' or from Aon- Taohh, 
' the Island of one side ; ' in either of which senses 
the appellation is just and applicable. For viewing 
it from the sea upon the south it appears wholly 
dusky and green, and rises gradually by a gentle 
ascent toward the north so as to consist of one face 
or side, having upon the north a tremendous cliff of 
from 600 to 700 feet in height. " No tourist," say 
the Messrs. Anderson, " ought to omit a visit to 
Handa. The island is formed of red sandstone, on 
which a highly comminuted and beautifully grained 
conglomerate overlies. The strata dip on the land- 
ward side; and the seaward front is a range of pre- 
cipices perfectly perpendicular, and for the most as 
smooth and mural as the most perfect masonry, and 
washed by the ocean depths. They form a line of 
about two miles, ranging from perhaps 600 to fully 
700 feet. This is so stupendous as to be almost un 
equalled in the British islands. Happily for the 
view-hunter, they are admirably disposed for being 
seen to the best possible advantage from the sum- 
mit, though in fine weather, when they can be ap- 
proached by boat, new, and in some respects, most 
striking effects may be obtained from beneath. But 
they are widely indented, so that from opposing ends 
the eye commands the various sections, and as the 
ground slopes upwards to the very verge, the spec- 
tator can approach them without apprehension. In 
one of these indentations two detached columns rise, 
at the distance of a stone-throw, and near to each 
other— one about a fourth of the height, the other 
of the full height of the adjoining cliff. A fissure 
in the rock exhibits the sides of the larger one, 
which is perforated underneath — its upright lines 
seemingly at a few yards distance from the perfectly 
perpendicular parted lines of the contiguous cliff. 
At another, the highest spot of all, a mural face of 
prodigious length demands undivided admiration of 
its truly majestic dimensions. Again, an enormous 
perforation reaches down to the level of the ocean, 
which makes its flux and reflux by two natural 
arches on either side of a huge supporting block 
underneath the seaward wall of the perpendicular 
aperture." The island is remarkable also for har- 
bouring clouds of sea-fowl upon its cliffs, and for 
commanding a sublime view of the lofty seaboard of 
the mainland. Population, 7. House, 1. 

HANDERICK, a promontory at the' north side of 
the entrance of Little Lochbroom, in the parish of 
Lochbroom, on the west coast of Ross-shire. 


HANGINGSHAW, a village in the parish ol 
Cathcart, Renfrewshire. Population, 143. Houses. 7. 




H ANGINGSHAW-LAW, a mountain rising 1 ,930 
feet above the level of the sea, and situated on the 
boundary between the parishes of Traquair and Yar- 
row, in the counties of Peebles and Selkirk. — Hang- 
ingshaw-house, which was once an extensive edifice, 
is now an undefined ruin, having been devastated by 
fire, and never again rebuilt, although its situation 
is one of the most romantic in the beautiful vale of 

HANLEY. See Gogar. 

HAPLAND BURN, a brook in the parish of 
Durrisrieer, Dumfries-shire. 

HARBOUR-CRAIG. See Habbie's How. 

HARBURN, an estate in the south-east of the 
parish of West Calder, Edinburghshire ; and a station 
on the Edinburgh fork of the Caledonian railway, 
the station for the village of West Calder, 15 miles 
south-west of Edinburgh. 

HARDEN CASTLE, the ancient residence of the 
Scotts of Harden, and a fine specimen of a Border 
fortress, in the deep narrow vale of Borthwick water, 
2J miles above the point of that stream's junction 
with the Teviot, and 4 miles south-west of Hawick, 
Roxburghshire. The lobby is paved with marble ; 
the ceiling of the old hall is formed of curiously- 
carved stucco-work ; and the mantel-piece of one of 
the rooms commemorates the ancient noble title of 
the house of Harden, by bearing aloft an Earl's cor- 
onet, inscribed with the letters W. E. T., the initials 
of " Walter Earl of Tarras." The house is em- 
bosomed in wood, and was of old fortified at every 
point where an assailant might have approached ; 
and it overlooks, or overhangs, a deep precipitous 
glen, alike romantic for the mingled gloom and ver- 
dure of its thick sylvan dress, and darkly interesting 
as the receptacle of the droves of cattle which the 
well-known Border chieftain, Wat of Harden, swept 
before him in his nightly raids. The scenery and 
associations of the place are finely and succinctly 
described by Leyden : — 

;1 Where Bertha hoarse, that loads the meads with sand, 
Rolls her red tide to Teviot's western strand, 
Through slaty hills, whose sides are shagged with thorn, 
Where springs in scattered tufts the dark green corn, 
Towers wood-girt Harden, far ahove the vale, 
And clouds of ravens o'er the turrets sail. 
A hardy race who never shrunk from war, 
The Scott, to rival realms a mighty bar. 
Here fixed his mountain-home, — a wide domain, 
And rich the soil, had purple heath been grain ; 
But what the niggard ground of wealth denied. 
From fields more blessed his fearless arm supplied." 

Mary Scott, the Lady of Harden, and the descendant 
of her namesake, the Flower of Yarrow, fostered, it 
is said, an unknown child brought home by Wat of 
Harden, from one of his wild excursions, — a child 
so gifted that he is believed to have been the mo- 
dest anonymous author of not a few of the Border 

HARDGATE, a village, a seat of manufacture, 
with a cotton-mill and a dyework, within a mile of 
Duntocher, and associated in industry with that 
place, in, the parish of old Kilpatrick, Dumbarton- 
shire. Population, 467. See Duntocher. 

HARDGATE, a village in the parish of Urr, 
Kirkcudbrightshire. Population, 46. Houses, 11. 

HARDGATE OF CLATT, the modern village 
of Clatt, in the parish of Clatt, Aberdeenshire. It 
stands a little south of the old village, and may be 
regarded as a continuation of it; but the old village 
is nearly extinct. Population of Hard gate in 1854, 46. 

HARDIE'S HILL. See Earlston. 

HARDMOOR. See Dyke and Moy. 

HAREFAULDS. See Forfarshire. 

HARELAWHILL. See Canonbie. 

HARESTANES BURN, an affluent of the Tweed, 

in the lower part of the parish of Tweedsmuir, 
Peebles-shire. It rises on Cairn-law, near the 
boundary with Lyne, and runs north-westward to 
the Tweed in the vicinity of Crook-inn. 

HARKERS (The). See Eyemouth. 

HARLAW, a farm in the parish of Chapel-of- 
Garioch, Aberdeenshire, noted for a battle fought on 
it, on the 24th of July 141], between a rebel army 
under Donald, Lord of the Isles, and the royal forces 
under the Earl of Mar. Donald, in alliance with 
England, and at the head of 10,000 men, overran 
Ross-shire, marched through Inverness-shire and 
Moray, acquired accessions to his strength in those 
districts and in Banffshire, and resolved now to 
carry into execution a threat he bad often made, to 
burn the town of Aberdeen. He committed great 
excesses in Strathbogie and in the district of Garioch, 
which belonged to the Earl of Mar. The inhabitants 
of Aberdeen were in dreadful alarm at the near ap- 
proach of this marauder and his fierce hordes ; but 
their fears were allayed by the speedy appearance of 
a well-equipped army, commanded by the Earl of 
Mar, who bore a high military character, assisted by 
many brave knights and gentlemen in Angus and 
the Mearns. Advancing from Aberdeen, Mar 
marched by Inverury, and descried the Highlanders 
stationed at Harlaw, on the water of Ury near its 
junction with the Don. Mar soon saw that he had 
to contend with tremendous odds ; but although his 
forces were, it is said, as one to ten to those opposed 
to him, he resolved, from the confidence he had in 
his steel-clad knights, to risk a battle. Having 
placed a small hut select body of knights and men- 
at-arms in front, under the command of the consta- 
ble of Dundee and the sheriff of Angus, the Earl 
drew up the main strength of his army in the rear, 
including the Murrays, the Straitens, the Maules, 
the livings, the Lesleys, the Lovels, the Stirlings, 
headed by their respective chiefs. The Earl then 
placed himself at the head of this body. On the 
other side, under the Lord of the Isles, were Mack- 
intosh and Maclean and other highland chiefs, all 
bearing the most deadly hatred to their Saxon foes. 

On a signal being given, the Highlanders and 
Islesmen, setting up those terrific shouts and yells 
which they were accustomed to raise on entering 
into battle, rushed forward upon their opponents ; 
but they were received with great firmness and 
bravery by the knights, who, with their spears 
levelled, and battle-axes raised, cut down many of 
their impetuous but badly armed adversaries. After 
the Lowlanders had recovered themselves from the 
shock which the furious onset of the Highlanders 
had produced, Sir James Scrymgeour, at the head 
of the knights and bannerets who fought under him, 
cut his way through the thick columns of the Isles- 
men, carrying death every where around him ; but 
the slaughter of hundreds by this brave party did 
not intimidate the Highlanders, who kept pouring 
in by thousands to supply the place of those who 
had fallen. Surrounded on all sides, no alternative 
remained for Sir James and his valorous companions 
but victory or death, and the latter was their lot. 
The constable of Dundee was amongst the first who 
suffered, and his fall so encouraged the Highlanders, 
that seizing and stabbing the horses, they unhorsed 
the riders, whom they despatched with their daggers. 
In the meantime the Earl -of Mar, who had pene- 
trated with his main army into the very heart oi 
the enemy, kept up the unequal contest with great 
bravery, and, although he lost during the action 
almost the whole of his army, he continued the fatal 
straggle witli a handful of men till nightfall. 

The disastrous result of this battle was one of 
the greatest misfortunes which had ever happened 




to the numerous respectable families in Angus and 
the Mearns. Many of these families lost not only 
their head, but every male in the house. Lesley of 
Balquhain is said to have fallen with six of his sons. 
Besides Sir James Scrymgeour, Sir Alexander 
Ogilvy the sheriff of Angus, with his eldest son 
George Ogilvy, Sir Thomas Murray, Sir Robert 
Maule of Panmure, Sir Alexander Irving of Drum, 
Sir William Abernethy of Salton, Sir Alexander 
Straiton of Lauriston, James Lovel, and Alexander 
Stirling, and Sir Robert Davidson, provost of Aber- 
deen, with 500 men-at-arms including the principal 
gentry of Buchan, and the greater part of the bur- 
gesses of Aberdeen who followed their provost, were 
among the slain. The Highlanders left 900 men 
dead on the field of battle, including the chiefs, 
Maclean and Mackintosh. This memorable battle 
was fought on the eve of the feast of St. James the 
Apostle, the 24th day of July, in the year 1411 ; 
" and from the ferocity with which it was contested, 
and the dismal spectacle of civil war and bloodshed 
exhibited to the country, it appears to have made a 
deep impression on the national mind. It fixed it- 
self in the music and the poetry of Scotland; a 
march, called ' the Battle of "Harlaw," continued to 
be a popular air down to the time of Drummond of 
Hawthornden ; and a spirited ballad, on the same 
event, is still repeated in our age, describing the 
meeting of the armies, and the deaths of the 
chiefs, in no ignoble strain." Mar and the few 
brave companions in arms who survived the battle, 
were so exhausted with fatigue and the wounds 
they received, that they were obliged to pass the 
night on the field of battle, where they expected a 
rene >val of the attack next morning ; but when 
morning dawned, they found that the Lord of the 
Isles had retreated, during the night, by Inverury 
and the hill of Benochie. To pursue him was im- 
possible, and he was therefore allowed to retire, 
without molestation, and to recruit his exhausted 

HAROLD'S TOWER. See Thurso. 

HAROLDSWICK, a post-office station and a bay 
in the middle of the east side of the island of Unst 
in Shetland. 

HARPORT (Loch), a ramification of Loch 
Bracadale, on the south-west side of the island of 
Skye. It deflects to the south-east, extends in 
length about 6 miles, and separates the lower part 
of Minglnish from the rest of the island. It affords 
safe harbourage to vessels. 

HARPSDALE. See Hauurk. 

HARRAY. See Birsay. 

HARRIOTFIELD, a post-office station subor- 
dinate to Perth. 

HARRIS, a parish, containing a post-office station 
of its own name, in the Outer Hebrides of Inver- 
ness-shire. It comprehends the southern part of 
Lewis, and the small adjacent islands. It is 
bounded, on the north, by the parishes of Lochs and 
Uig in Lewis ; on the east, by the Mineh and the 
Little Minch; on the south, by the sound of Harris, 
which divides it from North Uist; and on the west, 
by the Atlantic ocean. Its length, from north to 
south, measured along the line of communication, is 
about 50 miles ; its breadth varies from 8 to 24 
miles; and its superficial extent is upwards of 146 
square miles. These measurements, however, are 
exclusive of the island of St. Kilda, which lies a 
very long distance to the west. See Kxlda (St.). 
The other isles and islets belonging to it are very 
numerous, and some of them very small ; but the 
inhabited ones are only eight, — Scalpay, Taransay, 
Scarp, Pabbay, Ensay, Killigray, Bernera, and 

The northern part of the mainland of Harris is 
separated from Lewis by an isthmus of about 9 miles 
across, formed by the approximation of the two har- 
bours of Loch-Resort on the west coast and Loch- 
Seaforth on the east. The whole length, from the 
isthmus to the southern end of Harris, where the 
Sound of Harris separates it from North Uist, may 
be estimated at 25 or 26 miles. Its breadth is ex- 
tremely various, in consequence of its being deeply 
intersected by several arms of the sea; but it gener- 
ally extends from 6 to 8 miles. Harris is again 
naturally divided into two districts by two arms of 
the sea, called East and West Loch-Tarbert, which 
approach so near each other as to leave an isthmus 
of not more than a quarter of a mile in breadth. 
The northern district, between Tarbert and Lewis, 
is termed the Forest, though without a tree or 
shrub. It is also sometimes called Na Beannibh, 
that is ' the Mountains.' Its surface is exceedingly 
mountainous, rising in Clisheih [which see] to 
nearly 3,000 feet above the sea. The mountains 
are in general bare and rocky ; but the valleys con- 
tain tolerable pasturage; and the interstices of the 
mountains contain some coarse grass. The largest 
stream empties itself into Loch- Resort. Along the 
eastern and western shores there are a number of 
creeks or inlets of the sea — most of them commodi- 
ous harbours — at each of which a colony of tenants 
contrive, by a wonderful exertion of industry, to 
raise crops from a soil of the most forbidding aspect; 
but in the whole of this tract there is not a piece of 
good arable land of the extent of 4 acres. There 
are several lakes in the valleys, at various altitudes, 
but none exceeding 2 miles in length. On the east 
coast is the low swampy island of Scalpay ; and on 
the west, the high and rocky island of Scarp. 

The surface of the ground south of Tarbert is 
much of the same appearance as the northern dis- 
trict; but the mountains are not so elevated. The 
highest are Ronaval, Bencapoal, and Benloskentir, 
which have an altitude of nearly 2,000 feet. " The 
aspect of this region, as seen from the Minch," 
says a writer in the Edinburgh New Philosophical 
Journal, " is singularly uninviting, almost the 
whole surface appearing to consist of bare white 
rock. Indeed, a more perfect picture of sterility 
can scarcely be imagined. Viewed from the west, 
however, this district has a very different appear- 
ance, — the shores being in general sandy, and the 
hills for the most part covered with a green vegeta- 
tion. Along the east coast — which is everywhere 
rocky and low — there are numerous inlets and 
creeks, here denominated bays, that word being 
supposed to correspond to the Gaelic baigh, which 
latter, however, appears to be nothing else than a 
corruption of the Danish voe. Man}' of these afford 
good harbours. Many small islands lie along this 
coast. The southern shore partakes in a great 
measure of the nature of the eastern, being rocky 
and low; but toward the west side it exhibits a few 
sandy beaches, and ends in a tremendous precipice, 
witli a high neck of land running out from it, in 
which there are two fine caves. On the west coast 
there are, besides several sandy beaches, two great 
sands — or fords, as they are here called — namely, 
the sand of Northtown and that of Loskentir. They 
consist of nearly level expanses, each extending up- 
wards of a mile from the sea. At their mouth 
there is a long bar formed by the surf and winds, 
broken only in one place, close to the adjacent rocky 
land, where a channel is formed which admits the 
waters of the sea at each tide. These, at spring- 
tides, cover the whole sands. The rest of the coast 
is rocky, but low, excepting toward Tarbert, where 
there, are tremendous cliffs This division is inter- 




sected by two great valleys, one passing from the 
sand of Loskentir to the east coast, the other from 
the farm of Borg. The bottom of a great portion of 
the latter is occupied by a lake about 3 miles long, 
the largest in the i district. There are thus formed 
three natural subdivisions ; that to the south of the 
lake mentioned consists of six mountains, including 
the peninsular one of Ben Capval, which are sepa- 
rated by broadish valleys. The vegetation here is 
tolerable, excepting on Eonaval, which is rocky 
and bare, and exhibits on its eastern side a fine ex- 
cavation, resembling the crater of a volcano. It is 
chiefly heathy, however, excepting along the west 
side, where the pasturage is rich and varied The 
middle division, from Loch-Langavat to the north- 
ern valley, is marked by a ridge of very rugged 
mountains, running in the general direction of the 
range, and situated nearer the western side. Along 
the west coast of this subdivision, there is some 
good pasture ; but on the eastern side, the only soil 
being peat, and even that existing only in patches 
among the rocks, the vegetation is extremely coarse 
and scanty. From one of the summits of the ridge 
mentioned, I have counted upwards of eighty small 
lakes on its eastern side. The northern subdivision 
consists of Benloskentir, which gradually lowers to 
the eastward. The lakes in the low grounds on its 
eastern part are also extremely numerous. The 
water of all these lakes is brown. There are no 
harbours on the west coast of this southern division 
of the mainland of Harris, and it is even very diffi- 
cult for boats to land on the beaches, owing to the 
high surf. It possesses no sylvan vegetation, ex- 
cepting a few bushes in ruts and on islets in the 
lakes. The principal island is Taransay, on the 
west coast, the greater part of which is rocky, al- 
though it contains good pasture. This division has 
no general name applied to it in the country ; but its 
western part is called the Machar, i. e. ' the Sandy 
district ; ' and its eastern, Na Baigh, ' the Bays,' or 
more correctly ' the Voes.' " 

Harris contains no minerals of great value, except 
some iron and copper ore. Granite and freestone 
abound in every part ; potstone, serpentine, and as- 
bestos occur here and there ; but the predominating 
rock is gneiss, which has undergone little decomposi- 
tion. The kelp manufactory was formerly of great ex- 
tent, rendering the rental of the parish about double 
of what it is at present. Various attempts were 
made by the former proprietor, Alexander Macleod, 
Esq., to establish fishing colonies; but they all 
proved unsuccessful. Some of the best farms have, 
in recent times, been converted into sheep-walks. 
The whole parish was purchased by Lord Dunmore, 
about 20 years ago, for £60,000. The yearly value 
of raw produce was estimated in 1841 at £11,900; 
and the yearly value of real property, as assessed 
in 1860, was £4,073. An annual cattle fair is 
held in July ; but the amount of traffic of every 
kind throughout the year is comparatively small. 
On the mainland are many monuments of Druidism, 
and several religious edifices erected about the time 
of the introduction of Christianity. The churches, 
together with the smaller chapels, all seem to have 
depended immediately on the monastery at Eodil or 
Eowadill, dedicated to St. Clement ; which, though 
its foundation be attributed to David I., is generally 
supposed to be of more ancient date. Population of 
the parish in 1831, 3,900; in 1861, 4,183. Houses, 

This parish is in the presbytery of Uist and 
svnod of Glenelg. Patron, the Earl of Dunmore. 
Stipend, £158 6s. 7d ; glebe, £12. The parish 
church was erected in 1840, and contains 400 sit- 
tings. The islands in the Sound of Harris have 

been constituted into the quoad sacra parish of 
Berxeea : which see. There is a mission station 
of the Royal bounty, with church and manse, at 
Tarbert. There is a Free church of Harris, with 
an attendance of about 900 ; and the sum raised in 
connexion with it in 1865 was £27 19s. There is 
also a Free church for Bernera and Trumisgarry. 
The salary of the parochial schoolmaster is only 
£35, with scarcely any fees. There are four other 
schools, — three of them supported by public bodies. 
" Till of late," says the Old Statistical Account, 
" this parish has been designed Kilbride, from one 
of the churches or cells in it so called. It is now 
denominated, in English, Harris, and, in the ver- 
nacular dialect, Na Heradh, that is, ' the Hemes,'— 
a name which seems to be Gaelic, though we can 
not pretend to trace its origin with precision. A 
fanciful etymologist might derive it from na har- 
dubli, signifying ' the Heights ; ' this parish being 
in reality the highest and most mountainous part of 
the Long-Island, in which it is situated ; and 
another circumstance, which seems to give coun- 
tenance to this derivation, is, that the highest part 
of the island of Bum, another of the Hebrides, is also 
called Na Heradh." 

HAERIS (Soukd of), a navigable channel be- 
tween the islands of Harris and North Uist; 9 miles 
in length, and from 8 to 12 in breadth. It is the 
only passage for vessels of burden passing from the 
east to the west side of that long cluster of islands 
called the Long Islaxd : which see. It is much 
incumbered with rocks, shoals, and islets ; but, with 
a skilful pilot, can be passed in safety. A few of 
them may measure a mile in length, and about half- 
a-mile in breadth. They are covered with heath 
and moss, and afford pretty good summer-pasturage. 
The people of the larger islands repair to them "with 
their families and cattle in summer ; and here they 
get peats for fuel, there being no moss in any of the 
inhabited islands of this district, excepting Calli- 
gray. The names of the largest isles are Hermi- 
tray, Hulmitray, Saartay, Votersay, Neartay, Op- 
say, Vaaksay, Haay, Suursay, Torogay, Scarvay, 
Lingay, Groay, Gilisay, Sagay, Stromay, Skeilay, 
and Copay. There are, besides these, a vast num- 
ber of islets, holms, and high rocks, for all of which 
the people have names. A remarkable variation of 
the current happens in this sound, from the autum- 
nal to the vernal equinox ; the current in neap-tides 
passes all day from east to west, and all night in a 
contrary direction. After the vernal equinox, it 
changes this course, going all day from west to east, 
and the contrary at night. At spring-tides the 
current corresponds nearly to the common course. 

HARROW (Loch), a small lake, abounding in 
trout, in the north of the parish of Kells, Kirkcud- 

HART BURN. See Ghange Bhkn, Kirkcud- 

HAETFELL, a mountain on the mutual border 
of the parish of Moffat in Dumfries-shire, and the 
parish of Tweedsmuir in Peebles-shire. It has an 
elevation of 2,635 feet above sea-level; but has 
been very generally assigned a much loftier eleva- 
tion, and erroneously regarded as the highest 
mountain in the south of Scotland. It is broad 
based and of gentle acclivity, insomuch that the 
greater part of it may be ascended on horseback ; 
and by a broad flat summit, carpeted with verdure, 
spread out like a field among the clouds, and com- 
manding a vast, a magnificent, and a varied land- 
scape, it invites the approach of the tourist to the 
survey of the far-spreading prospect which it com- 
mands. To the north, over a wide and billowy sea 
of mountains, the spectator sees, in certain states 




of the atmosphere, the snowy cap or cloud-wreathed 
brow of Benlomond ; to the east, he looks athwart 
the green hills of Tweeddale and the Forest, gene- 
rally shaded beneath a gorgeous aerial sea of clouds, 
till his eye rests on the far-away Cheviots ; to the 
west, he" looks along the rugged and wild scenery 
of the Lowthers, till'lie descries the towering sum- 
mit of Blacklarg; and to the south, he surveys the 
magnificent uplands of Dumfries-shire, and finds no 
limit to his view till it is pent up by the Cumber- 
land mountains, presided over by the lofty Skiddaw. 
But Hartfell, though strictly the single summit we 
have described, is often understood to mean the 
whole group of alpine elevations at the centre of the 
great mountain-range which runs from Northum- 
berland to Loch Ryan, — Whitecomb, Broadlaw, 
Ettriek-Pen, Queensberry, Saddleback, and Loch- 
raig, all worthy, in their grenadier proportions and 
picturesque di#ss, to be attendants on Hartfell, and 
forming, as a group, the points of radiation for most 
of the spurs or ranges of the southern Highlands. 

A spa, on the south side of Hartfell, and bearing 
its name, is scarcely less noted than the mountain 
itself. This is one of two chalybeate springs in the 
parish of Moffat, which more than any kindred 
fountains in Scotland possess, and hitherto have 
maintained, the character of presenting in their 
waters a slow but safe and certain remedy for 
diseases which a chalybeate has power to remove. 
The Hartfell spa issues from a rock of alum- slate 
in a tremendous ravine on the side of Hartfell- 
mountain, nearly 4 miles distant from the village 
of Moffat. Mr. Jamieson observed, in the ravine, 
frequent efflorescences of yellowish grey-coloured 
natural alum ; and Dr. Garnet found in it crystals 
of natural iron-vitriol. In the alum-slate, from 
among which the spa has its efflux, Mr. Jamieson 
observed also massive and disseminated iron-pyrites. 
A wine gallon of the water, as analyzed by Dr. 
Garnet, contains 84 grains of iron-vitriol, or sul- 
phate of iron, 12 grains of sulphate of alumina, 15 
grains of oxide of iron, and 5 cubic inches of azotic 
acid gas. The sulphuric acid maintained in com- 
bination, seems to be supersaturated with the oxide 
of iron, and deposits it either gradually by exposure 
to the air, or immediately by ebullition. Owing to 
the atmospheric water, during heavy rains, passing 
through channels in the alum-rock more richly im- 
pregnated with the minerals of the spring than 
those which it traverses during a long-continued 
drought, the water of the spa, after a copious and 
protracted fall of rain, is always increased in quali- 
ty and strength. The principal mineralizers being 
the sulphates of iron and alumina, the water, if well 
corked, will keep unimpaired for months, and per- 
haps for years, and does not need to be drunk by 
invalids in the wild scene of its origin, but may al- 
ways be procured in a fresh state in the village of 
Moffat. Dr. Johnston, speaking of its properties, 
apart from its acknowledged power as a tonic, and 
consequent usefulness in all cases of debility, says, 
" I have known many instances of its particular 
good effects in coughs proceeding from phlegm, 
spitting of blood, and sweatings ; in stomach com- 
plaints, attended with headaches, giddiness, heart- 
burn, vomiting, indigestion, flatulency, and habitu- 
al costiveness ; in gouty complaints affecting the 
stomach and bowels ; and in diseases peculiar to the 
fair sex. It has likewise been used with great ad- 
vantages in tetterous complaints, and old obstinate 
ulcers." The spa was discovered about a century 
ago, by John Williamson. In 1769, Sir George 
Maxwell erected over his grave, in the churchyard 
of Moffat, a monument to transmit to future times 
his name, and the date of his discovery. 


HARTHILL, a village in the parish of Shotts, 
Lanarkshire. Population, 176. Houses, 40. 

HAKT1E CORRIE, a wild pass through the 
Cuchullin hills in Skye. 


HARVIESTON. See Tillicoultry. 

HASCUSSAY, an island about 2 miles in length, 
extending east and west in the middle of the sound 
between Yell and Fetlar in Shetland. Population 
in 1841, 42; in 1861, 13. Houses, 2. 

HASSENDEAN, or Hazeldean, a suppressed 
parish, containing a hamlet of its own name, on the 
left bank of the Teviot, opposite Cavers, Roxburgh- 
shire. The surface is so gently beautiful as to have 
made the bosoms of tuneful poets throb, and drawn 
from them some of their sweetest numbers. What 
par excellence constitutes Hassendean, and gave 
name to the ancient church and the whole parish, is 
a winding dell, not much different in its curvatures 
from the letter S, narrow and varied in its bottom, 
gurgling and mirthful in the streamlet which threads 
it, rapid and high in its sides which are alternately 
smooth, undulating, and broken, — richly and variedly 
sylvan in hollow, acclivity, and summit, — and coiled 
so snugly amid a little expanse of forest, overlooked 
by neighbouring picturesque heights, that a stranger 
stands upon its brow, and is transfixed with the 
sudden revelation of its beauties, before he has a 
suspicion of its existence. Near its mouth some neat 
cottages peep out from among its thick foliage, on 
the margin of its stream; on the summit of its right 
bank are the umbrageous grounds which were famed, 
for upwards of a century, as the nursery-gardens of 
Mr. Dickson, the parent-nurseries of those which 
beautify the vicinity of Hawick, Dumfries, Perth, 
and Edinburgh, and either directly or remotely the 
feeders of nearly one-half of the existing plantations 
of Scotland. The dell, at its mouth, comes exult- 
ingly out on one of the finest landscapes of the 
Teviot. The river, on receiving its rill, is just half- 
way on a semicircular sweep of about J of a mile in 
length ; on the side next the dell, it has a steep and 
wooded bank ; and on the side which the dell con- 
fronts, a richly luxuriant haugh occupies the fore- 
ground, the rolling and many-shaped rising grounds 
of Cavers, profusely adorned with trees, occupy the 
centre, and the naked frowning form of Rubberslaw 
cuts a rugged sky-line in the perspective. 

The monks of Melrose, to whom the ancient church 
belonged, formed a cell at Hassendean, which was 
to be a dependency on their monastery. From the 
.date of this establishment, the old tower of Hassen- 
dean was called the Monk's Tower; and a farm in 
the vicinity continues to be called Monk's Creft. 
After the Reformation, the church, with its perti- 
nents, was granted to Walter, Earl of Buecleuch. 
Various attempts to suppress the parish seem to have 
been rendered abortive by the resistance of the par- 
ishioners. But in 1690, amid scenes of violence which 
rarely attended acts of suppression, and which evinced 
surpassing indignation on the part of the people, the 
church was unroofed, and otherwise so dilapidated 
as to be rendered useless. The workman who first 
set foot on the ladder to commence the demolition, 
is said to have been struck and killed with a stone ; 
and so general and furious a turn-out was there of 
females to assist in the fray of resistance that an old 
song, still well-known in the district, says — 

" They are a' away to Hassendean burn, 
And left both wheel and cards," &a 

Whiie the parties who had pulled down the church 
were carrying off whatever parts of it might be ser- 
viceable at Roberton, the people of Hassendean pur- 
sued them, engaged them in a sharp conflict at 




Hornshole, halfway to Hawick, wrenched from them 
the church-bell and flung it into a very deep pool of 
the Teviot at the place, and gave them so rough a 
handling that the sheriff of the county, an ancestor 
of Douglas of Cavers, was obliged to interfere. An 
old woman, it is said, uttered in true weird-style, a 
denunciation upon Douglas for abetting the destruc- 
tion of the church, and foretold — what seems as 
little likely to happen in the line of his posterity 
as in that of any other great family — the extinction 
of his race by a failure of male heirs. The parish- 
ioners, though bereft of their church, continued to 
use the cemetery of their fathers, till some of it was 
swept away, and many of its remaining graves laid 
open, in 1796, by a flood of the Teviot. The site of 
the old church is supposed to be now identified with 
a sand-bank on the opposite side of the Teviot to 
that on which the edifice stood — the river having 
swept away the whole of a low projecting point of 
land which it and its cemetery occupied. The parish 
was distributed to Minto, Eoberton, and Wilton, — 
the major part of the territory being given to Minto, 
and all the vicarage or remaining teinds to Eober- 

Walter, the son of Alan, received the lands of 
Hassendean from David I. David Scott, who lived 
in the middle of the 15th century, and was the eldest 
son of Sir William Scott of Kirkurd who exchanged 
Murdiston for Branxholm, was the first of the Seotts 
of Hassendean. Satchell alludes to him in the 
lines, — 

" Hassendean came without a call. 
The ancientest house of them all." 

Sir Alexander Scott of Hassendean fell, in 1513, 
at the battle of Flodden. The lands of the original 
barony of Hassendean are now distributed into the 
estates of Hassendean-bank, Hassendean-burn, and 
Teviot-bank, and some lands belonging to the Duke 
of Buccleuch. The tract of Hassendean is now in- 
tersected by the Hawick branch of the North British 
railway, and has a station on it, \\ miles from 
Hawick, and 48 J from Edinburgh. The hamlet of 
Hassendean stands in the dell, about a mile from the 
Teviot. Population, 21. Houses, 4. 

HATHEESTAN-LAW, a mountain on the mu- 
tual border of the parishes of Lamington and Cul- 
ter, in Lanarkshire. 

HATTON. See Newtyle. 

HAUGH, a village in the parish of Mauchline, 
Ayrshire. Here is a woollen factory, which works 
chiefly in subordination to the carpet manufactory 
of Kilmarnock. Population, 79. 

HAUGH OF UEE, a post-office village in the 
parish of Urr, Kirkcudbrightshire. It is situated on 
the Water of Urr, and on the road from Kirkcud- 
bright to Dumfries, 4 miles north-east of Castle- 
douglas. Population, 240. Houses, 54. 

HAUGH-HEAD, a post-office village in the par- 
ish of Campsie, Stirlingshire. Population, 328. 
Houses, 65. 

HAUGHMILL, a village in the parish of Mark- 
inch, Fifeshire. A flax spinning-mill was erected 
here in 1794, and enlarged in 1835; and a bleach- 
field was added in 1836. Population, 170. 

H AUSTEE (Bubn of), a rivulet of Caithness- shire. 
It collects its headwaters on the mutual border of 
the parishes of Wick and Latheron, and runs about 
8 miles north-eastward to the Water of Wick, at a 
point H mile above the town of Wick. 

HAVEN (East and West). See East Haven 
and West Haven. 

HAVEEA. See IIevera. 

HAVEBSAY. See Buacadaee. 

HAWICK, a parish, containing a post-town of its 

own name, in the south-west of Eoxburghshire. It 
is bounded by Eoberton, Wilton, Cavers, Kirkton, 
and Teviothead. Its extreme length, north-east- 
ward, is nearly 6 miles; and its breadth is nearly 3 
miles at the head, but gradually diminishes to a 
mere acute angle at the foot. Prior to 1850, the 
superficial area was computed at about 24 square 
miles or 15,360 imperial acres ; but in that year 
there was annexed to the new parish of Teviothead 
more than two-thirds of that area. The "sweet 
and silver Teviot" runs along the entire length of 
the parish, receiving Borthwick water 2 miles above 
the town. The Slitrig comes in from the south, 
traces for \\ mile the boundary with Cavers, and 
then runs sinuously across the parish over a distance 
of \\ mile, and falls into the Teviot at the town. 
Down the whole length of the parish, along the 
course of the Teviot, bending sinuously with the 
stream, stretches a valley pressed throughout into 
narrow limits by overhanging heights, beautified in 
every part and greatly enriched as to both soil and 
vegetation by the sparkling progress of the river, 
and set in an upland frame-work remarkable for the 
graceful forms and the verdant clothing of its sum- 
mits. The bottom of the valley is throughout loamy 
and luxuriant, frilled or dotted with plantation, car- 
peted with waving crops of grain, or mirthful and 
picturesque with the rival enterprises of agriculture 
and manufacture; and at several stages of its long 
and narrow progress, it embosoms or spreads out to 
the view objects and scenes which have been cele- 
brated in story and awarded with the outpourings of 
song. Another vale — of brief length compared with 
the former — follows the course of the Slitrig, paving 
the bed of that stream with rough stones and de- 
clivitous shelves, pressing in upon it at times with 
high and almost perpendicular banks of bare rock, 
garlanded or capped with young wood, and present- 
ing altogether an aspect of mingled wildness, seclu- 
sion, beauty, and romance. While passing along the 
valleys southward or eastward, respectively toward 
Dumfries-shire or toward Liddesdale, a tourist, 
though never indulged with more than a limited 
view, is delighted and surprised at very brief inter- 
vals by the constantly changing beauties and vari- 
eties of the landscape, and all around is environed 
with chains and congeries of hills, delightfully vari- 
egated in form and dress, presenting an endless gra- 
dation of aspect. 

The soil, in the haughs, is a mixture of loam, 
gravel, and sand; on rising grounds, between the 
valleys and the hills, is loam with occasionally a 
mixture of gravel ; and on the hills is, in some places, 
light and dry, in some soft and spongy, and in others 
wet and stiff. All the high-lying wet lands have 
either been or are at present in the course of being 
thoroughly drained. Moss and heath occur only in 
small patches. The valleys and their adjacent ris- 
ing grounds, though not thickly carpeted with soil, 
are far from being unfertile; and the hills, where not 
cultivated to the summit, are everywhere an excel- 
lent sheep walk. Eather more than one fourth of 
the whole area of the parish is in tillage; about 
200 acres are under wood; and all the rest, with de- 
ductions for roads and the sites of the town and 
scattered buildings, is in pasture. The estimated 
average yearly value of raw produce in the years 
preceding 1839, which of course applied to the old 
uncurtailed parish, was £1 9,800. The yearly value 
of assessed real property in that parish in 1843 was 
£12.922; and in the new or curtailed parish in 1863, 
£29,346. The principal antiquities in the landward 
districts are the towers of Goldielands and Bbanx- 
holm, which we have already noticed in their own 
alphabetical place. The Edinburgh and Carlisle 




post-road enters the parish at the foot of the town ; 
it then runs 2 miles along the right bank of the 
Teviot, and crosses to the left; and it then runs 4 
miles along the left bank. The road into England 
through Liddesdale diverges from the former within 
the town ; and runs up the valley of the Slitrig, a third 
of the way on the right bank of the stream, and two 
thirds on the left till it leaves the parish. The 
post-road from Hawick to Kelso and Berwick fol- 
lows the course of the Teviot. In the lower part of 
the parish are two other roads, one leading due 
south, the other due east, and both diverging from 
the town. The Hawick branch of the North Brit- 
ish railway does not enter the parish, yet has its 
terminus adjacent to the town. A project was 
some time ago entertained of a railway from Edin- 
burgh to Hexham, crossing the Teviot about 4 miles 
to the east of Hawick ; but this project seems to 
have been abandoned. Population of the parish in 
1831, 4,970; in 1861, 8,726. Houses, 629. The 
increase of the population is attributable to the ex- 
tension of the woollen manufactures. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Jedburgh, and 
synod of Merse and Teviotdale. Patron, the Duke 
of Buccleuch. Stipend, about £300; glebe, £62. 
Unappropriated teinds, £636 16s. Id. The old parish 
church, now used as a chapel of ease, was built in 
1764, and contains 704 sittings. A new parish 
church was lately completed at the expense of the 
Duke of Buccleuch, and contains 1,500 sittings. 
The Free church was built soon after the disruption 
in 1843, and contains 1,000 sittings; and the sum 
raised in connexion with it in 1865 was £456 0s. 
9id. There are three United Presbyterian churches, 
— the West End church, built in 1823 and contain- 
ing 639 sittings; the East Bank church, built a 
year or two ago to supersede an old one, containing 
752 sittings; and Allars church, built in 1811, 
and containing 750 sittings. The other places of 
worship are an Independent chapel, built in 1836, 
and containing 300 sittings; a Baptist meeting- 
house; a Morrisonian chapel, recently erected; a 
Roman Catholic chapel, built in 1843; and a 
Quakers' meeting-house, built in 1822, but not now 
frequented. The parochial school is conducted by 
three male teachers ; and has attached to it a salary 
of £33, with school fees, and £19 other emoluments. 
There are 1 2 non-parochial schools conducted by 6 
male and 6 female teachers, and attended on the 
average by 1,400 scholars. — The parish is probably 
as ancient as the date of the Saxon settlement. 
The church was, in 1214, dedicated to St. Mary, 
and, previous to the Reformation, was a rectory. 
The edifice, long after the Scottish canons had pro- 
hibited such an abuse, was employed not only as a 
place of worship, but as a court house; and it was 
occupied for the discharge of county business by the 
sheriff, during the period of the English having 
possession of the castle and town of Roxburgh. In 
1342, while William Ranrsay, one of the most 
gallant men of the age, was here seated on the 
bench, he was seized by William Douglas, the 
knight of Liddesdale, carried off to Hermitage 
castle, and there starved to death in solitary con- 

HAWICK, a post-town, a burgh of regality, and 
an important seat of manufacture and of inland 
traffic, is situated at the confluence of the Teviot 
and the Slitrig, 10 miles south-west of Jedburgh, 
1 1 south-east by south of Selkirk, 20 north of New 
Castleton, 20 south-west of Kelso, 24 north-north- 
east of Langholm, 43 south-west of Berwick, and 
50 by road, but 53 by railway, south-east by south 
of Edinburgh. Till the opening of the North Brit- 
ish railway, it was one of the most landlocked 

towns in Scotland, being distant from the sea at its 
nearest point 43 miles. In 1850, when the railway 
to Berwick was completed, Hawick was for the first 
time placed on a level with the towns previously 
more favoured in point of intercommunication. 

The Teviot approaches the town in a north- 
easterly direction, makes a beautiful though small 
bend opposite the upper part ol it, and then resumes 
and pursues its north-easterly course. Just after it 
has completed the bend, the Slitrig comes down 
upon it from the south at an angle of about 50 
degrees; but, opposite the bend of the Teviot, is not 
far from being on a parallel line. Either the curv- 
ing reach of the Teviot, or the crook made by the 
confluence with it of the Slitrig, seems, in combina- 
tion with an adjacent house or hamlet, to have 
suggested the name Hawick, — ha or haw, a man- 
sion or village, and wic or wick, the bend of a 
stream or the crook or confluence of the rivers. 
The town adapts its topographical arrangement 
almost entirely, and even very closety, to the course 
of the streams, and to the angle of their confluence ; 
and maintains a delightfully picturesque seat upon 
both, amidst a somewhat limited but magnificent 
hill-locked landscape. The Slitrig approaches the 
Teviot with a narrow plain, immediately backed by 
hills on the further bank, and with an abrupt and 
considerable acclivity falling off in a fine slope on 
the hither bank ; and the Teviot, coming down in a 
narrow and sylvan vale, begins, when it touches the 
town, to fold out its banks into a limited haugh, 
framed on the exterior with sloping ascents, and 
somewhat acclivitous but beautifully rounded verd- 
ant hills. The town occupies all the narrow vale 
on the right bank of the Slitrig, and all the summit 
as well as the slope toward the Teviot of the high 
ground on its left bank; and, aided by its "common 
haugh," or public burgh ground, and" by its suburb 
of Wilton, it likewise stretches over all the little 
haugh of the Teviot, and mounts the softer rising 
eminences on the back ground. Both up and down 
the latter stream, also, it sends off environs of 
no ordinary attraction, — here extensive nursery 
grounds, there tufts of grove and lines of plantation 
casting their shade upon luxuriant fields, and 
yonder a factory busy in industrious pursuits, yet 
sequestered and tranquil in appearance, and com- 
bining — as the rural aspect and the pure air and 
the bright sky indicate the town itself to do — the 
athletic and productive toils of factorial industry, 
with the healthful habits and the peacefulness of 
almost a pastoral life. Seen from almost any point 
of view, but especially from the Edinburgh road, 
where it comes over the brow of the hill beyond the 
Teviot, Hawick and its environs spread out a pic- 
ture of loveliness to the eye which the mere imagin- 
ation would have in vain tried to associate with the 
seat of a great staple manufacture, or with any 
other town than one whose site had been selected 
by taste, and whose arrangements had been made 
with a view to poetical effect. 

Entering the town on the Kelso road from the 
north-east, a stranger finds himself in the principal 
street. A short way on, a new and neatly built 
though short street comes in at an acute angle on 
his right hand, bringing down the Edinburgh and 
Carlisle post-road. The main street now runs along 
parallel to the Teviot, with no other winging on 
that side than back-tenements and brief alleys, and 
sending off on the other side two streets, called 
Melgund Place and Wellgate, till it passes on the 
same side, first the town hall, and a little farther 
on, the Tower inn, and is terminated by two houses 
which disperse it into divergent thoroughfares. A 
street, at this point, breaks away on the east, up the 




right bank of the Slitrig, disclosing, in a snug and 
almost romantic position, a curved and beautifully 
edificed terrace called the Crescent. A bridge, 
carried off, at the commencement of this street, 
leads across the Slitrig, to an eminence surmounted 
by the old parish church. Another bridge, spacious 
and of modern structure, spans the Slitrig nearer the 
Teviot, and carries across the continuation of the 
Edinburgh and Carlisle post-road. From its farther 
end, Teviot Square runs westward to communicate 
by a bridge across the Teviot with the suburb 
of Wilton; another street, called the Howgate, 
diverges in the opposite direction, and after ascend- 
ing the rising ground, splits into three sections, 
called the Back, the Middle, and the Fore Row, 
which again unite and form what is called the 
Loan; and the main thoroughfare, containing the 
post-road, runs right forward, lined with new and 
elegant houses, and adorned at its extremity with 
the beautiful new parish church. 

The earliest notice of the place which has been 
discovered is contained in the chartulary of the mon- 
astery of Melrose, where the church of Hawick is 
stated to have been dedicated by the Bishop of Caith- 
ness in 1214, in honour of the Virgin Mary. The 
learned Chalmers, however, in his Caledonia, assigns 
it a much higher antiquity. In the earliest record 
extant, (the Scottish Bolls,) the barony of Hawick 
is stated to have been held by Richard Lovel Domi- 
nus de Hawic and his ancestors for time immemorial 
from the Crown. This was in 1347. Subsequently 
the barony appears, by a grant of King David II., 
to have been vested in Maurice de Moravia, Earl of 
Strathearn. In the reign of James I., as is proved 
by a charter of that monarch granted at Croydon, 
while a captive in England, written with his own 
hand, and now in possession of the Duke of Buc- 
cleuch, the barony was confirmed to Douglas of 
Drumlanrig, the ancestor of the Dukes of Queens- 
berry and Buccleuch. The original deed erecting 
the town into a burgh has not been discovered. In 
the oldest charter extant, granted by James Douglas 
of Drumlanrig in 1537, the ancient records are stated 
to have been destroyed by the hostile incursions of 
the English and thieves ; and to supply the defect 
thus occasioned he re-erects the town into a free 
burgh-of-barony, stipulating merely that a lamp of 
oil should be supported by the grantees in the church 
of Hawick in all time thereafter on holida3's, in 
honour of our Saviour and for the souls of the barons 
of Hawick. This charter was confirmed in veiy 
ample form by the guardians of Queen Mary in 
1545, wherein the important services rendered to the 
Crown by the inhabitants are acknowledged, — al- 
luding, it is supposed, particularly to the battle of 
Flodden, where the fighting men were nearly exter- 
minated. Under these charters, and a decree of the 
court of session in 1781, regulating the set of the 
burgh, the town exists altogether independent of the 
superior, the burgesses having right to choose their 
own magistrates and councillors. The corporation 
consists of 2 bailies chosen annually, 15 councillors 
chosen for life, and 14 other councillors termed 
quartermasters, chosen yearly by 7 trades, making 
in all 31 persons. 

From its frontier position Hawick was in early 
times exposed in a peculiar degree to the constant 
incursions of the English. Accordingly we find 
that it was burnt by Sir Robert Umfraville, vice- 
admiral of England, so early as 1418. Again in 
1544 and 1570, it suffered severely; and it is believed 
to have been burnt down on various other occasions. 
It has also suffered from inundations; one in August 
17C7 having carried off 15 dwelling-houses and a 
mill, and another in July, 1846, created much alarm, 

although less disastrous. The inhabitants had a 
high reputation for martial valour ; and the great 
loco-descriptive poet of Teviotdale, Leyden, is be- 
lieved to have done them no more than justice in 
these well-known verses : — 

'-Boast! Hawick, boast! thy structures rear'd in blood. 
Shall rise triumphant over flame and flood; 
Still doom'd to prosper, since on Flodden's field 
Thy sons a hardy band, unwont to yield, 
Fell with their martial King, and (glorious boast!) 
Gahrd proud renown where Scotia's fame was lost." 

The general appearance of the town has of late 
years been greatly improved. Besides the erection 
of entirely new streets, uniformly edificed, or pleas- 
ingly diversified, with a rivalry of taste in the struc- 
ture of the houses, many old tenements with their 
thatched roofs or thick walls, and clumsy donjon- 
looking exterior, have been substituted by airy and 
neat buildings, accordant in their aspect with modern 
taste. Villas also are springing up in the vicinity. 
In the unrenovated parts the town still presents a 
rough and clownish exterior; but as a whole, it can- 
not offend even a fastidious eye. All its edifices are 
constructed with a hard bluish-coloured stone, which 
does not admit of polish or minute adorning, yet 
pleases by its suggestions of chasteness and its indi- 
cations of durability and strength. But though light- 
ed up at night with gas, and always clean and airy, and 
in other respects tasteful, the town utterly disappoints 
a stranger by its poverty in suitable public buildings. 
Excepting the handsome bridge which carries the 
Edinburgh road across the Teviot, the elegant new 
parish church, the Catholic chapel, and the recently 
improved town-house, it contains not one public 
edifice on which the eye can rest with satisfaction. 
All the places of worship, too, with the exceptions 
already mentioned, are, in the aggregate, plainer 
than the average of any equal number in the seclu- 
ded villages or sequestered valleys of the country. 
The principal or Tower inn, however, strongly ar- 
rests attention, if not for architectural elegance, at 
least for its spaciousness, its imposing appearance, 
and especially its connexion with antiquity. Part 
of it was an ancient fortress of a superior order, sur- 
rounded with a deep moat drawn from the Slitrig, 
and originally the residence of the barons of Drum- 
lanrig, the superiors of the town. At a later period, 
it was the scene of the princely festivities of Anne, 
Duchess of Buccleuch and Monmouth. This build- 
ing connects modern and ancient Hawick, having 
been the only edifice which escaped the several fear- 
ful devastations to which the town was subjected. 

The winnowing-machine or cornfanner, according 
to the statement of the writer in the Old Statistical 
Account, first made its appearance in Hawick. 
" Andrew Roger," he says, V a farmer on the estate 
of Cavers, having a mechanical turn, retired from 
his farm and gave his genius its bent ; and probably 
from a description of a machine of that kind, used in 
Holland, in the year 1737, constructed the first ma- 
chine-fan employed in this kingdom." This in- 
genious person, it seems, pushed a considerable trade 
in the article of his manufacture, and bequeathed it 
to his descendants ; and when the reporter wrote, 
they made and disposed of about 60 in the year, and 
found a market for many of them in England. 

Until about a century ago, the town appears to 
have had little traffic of any importance. In 1752, 
however, the manufacture of carpets was com- 
menced, and from that time the town dates the com- 
mencement of its prosperity and extension. This 
was followed in 1771 by the introduction of the 
stocking manufacture, commenced by Bailie John 
Hardie, and afterwards more extensively carried on 
by Mr. John Mixon. The inkle manufacture was 




introduced in 1783; and the manufacture of cloth in 
1787. At first the woollen yarn used was spun by 
the hand ; but about 17S7 machinery was introduced, 
which has gone on gradually extending ever since ; 

and at the present time all the modern mechanical 
appliances are in operation. In a recent publication 
(1850) the following statistical table of the trade is 
given :— 




1. Carding mills, . . ■( 

2. Engines or scribbling machines, 

3. Spinning jennies, 

4. Annual consumption of wool, 

5. Quantity of yarn manufactured, 

6. Number of stocking frames, 

7. Number of stockings made, ■- 

S. Articles of under-clothing, 
9. Number of weaving looms, 

10. Number of operatives, 

11. Quantity of soap consumed, 

12. Annual amount of wages, 

13. Value of property employed in) 

manufactures, . . J 

14. Value of manufactures, ' . 

15. Quantity of coal consumed, 

16. Population, 

Since that time two additional mills have been 
erected, and the trade in general greatly increased, 
particularly in the article of tweeds, which are 
manufactured to a very great extent, one individual 
being the most extensive tweed merchant in Scot- 
land. Steam power has been largely taken advan- 
tage of of late years, water-power being no longer 
obtainable. But, excepting those trades common to 
all provincial towns, the woollen manufacture may 
be considered as engrossing the entire industry and 
capital of Hawick. There are indeed the tanning 
of leather, the dressing of sheep-skins, and the 
manufacture of leather thongs; but these are not 
carried on to any considerable extent. 

The old architecture of the town, remarkable 
chiefly for its houses vaulted below with stone 
stairs outside projecting into the streets, has now 
almost entirely disappeared; and much of the town 
is new and elegant, much is renovated and neat, and 
all, in a general view, is pleasing. The opening of 
the railway to Edinburgh, with branch communica- 
tion to Kelso and Berwick, and then the opening, 
continuously with this, of the railway to the south, 
with two forks going respectively to Carlisle and to 
Newcastle, have greatly accelerated a general im- 
provement which, even for some years before, had 
been marked and rapid. Hawick possesses few anti- 
quities ; but these have some interest. The Mote, 
primarily the place of sepulture probably of an arch- 
draid or chieftain long before the introduction of 
Christianity, and subsequently the forum where 
justice was dispensed, is situated at the end of the 
town, on a conspicuous spot of rising ground. It is 
in a conical form, 30 feet high, 117 feet in circum- 
ference at the top, and 312 at the base. It would 
appear to have been the place where all the religious 
ceremonies were performed, — the Beltane fires, 
among the rest, which occurred yearly in May ; and 
it would thus be a spot commanding the reverential 
regard of the natives. In the vicinity of the town 
also passes the Catrail: which see. The only 

* The statement in the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Article Scot- 
land, published in 1S41 or 1842, specifying 500,000 pairs as the 
annual production, is undoubtedly erroneous. 

t The wool consumed is now of much finer quality than in 


( U 

< (one of which part]} 

(. by steam.) 




(6 of which watet 


and steam.) 


f 106 engines, or 
( 53 sets. 

100 (hand) 

( 12.000 stones 

108,162 St. of 24 lbs 

2.016,000 lbs.t 

(_ of 24 lbs. 

value £65.000. 

value £142,100. 

290,000 lbs. 

S54.462 lbs. 

1,209.600 lbs. 


3.500 pairslambs 

I 328,000 



2,000 pairs. 

wool — 600 pain 

1,049,676 pairs.* 





f 268 power 

( and 

( 5 men 
\ 6 women. 

14 men 
51 women. 


f 1,788 

} (besides females.) 

102.S99 lbs. 




207.378 lbs. 


10,000 tons. 

P. 2,800 

T. 2,320 

T. 3.6S4 in 1821 

T. 5,306 

T. 8,800 in 1S±5. 

other ancient remain was the bridge having a ribbed 
arch crossing the Slitrig, supposed to have been co- 
eval with the church erected in 1214; but this was 
removed in 1851 to make way for a more commodious 

Hawick has the merit of instituting the first 
Farmers' club in Scotland. This was in 1770. The 
first Sabbatlt school in Scotland is also said to have 
been established here about 35 years ago. There is 
an excellent library, established in 1762, now con- 
taining 4,000 volumes ; and another supported by 
tradesmen, containing between 1,000 and 2,000 
volumes. The town has offices of the British Linen 
Company's Bank, the Commercial Bank, the Koyal 
Bank, and the National Bank, a number of insur- 
ance agencies, a mechanics' institute, a savings' 
bank, a clothing society, several benefit societies, 
and some other institutions. Gas light was intro- 
duced about 25 years ago. The general police act, 
3 & 4 William IV., cap. 46. was first adopted in 
1845, and is found, by enabling the commissioners 
to impose assessments, to be highly beneficial. In 
virtue of this statute, courts are held daily when re- 
quired for the trial of petty offences. The other 
ordinary criminal jurisdiction of the bailies, as well 
as their civil jurisdiction, is identical with that ex- 
ercised by the magistrates in royal burghs. The 
justices of peace, who exercise a cumulative juris- 
diction, also try petty offences ; and the sheriff sits 
once in two months for the summary despatch of 
causes not exceeding £12 in amount. 

Markets for cattle and for hiring servants are held 
on the 17th of May and on the 8th of November ; for 
sheep on the 20th and 21st of September; and for 
horses and cattle on the third Tuesday of October. 
A market for hiring hinds and herds is held gene- 
rally on the first, second, and third Thursdays of 
April ; a wool fair in July, on the first Thursday after 
St. Boswell's Fair ; and a sheep fair, at which from 
2,000 to 3,000 Cheviots are generally shown, on the 
20th and 21st of September, or the Tuesday after if 
the 20th falls on a Saturday. Hawick tryst is held 
on the third Tuesday of October, where some young 
horses, and a few Highland cattle from the Falkirk 
tryst, are shown. A winter cattle market is held 
on the 8th of November, or on Tuesday after, if the 




3th falls on a Saturday, Sunday, or Monday. Till 
1778 no regular corn market existed in the town ; 
but one was, in that year, established by the Farmers' 
club. Not only in this matter, but in others of a 
similar nature, and in most things bearing on agri- 
cultural improvement, the Farmers' club has been 
a vigilant, active, and highly useful association. 
The club holds its meetings on the first Thursday 
of every month. A kindred association of wider range 
and more powerful influence owes its paternity to 
the patriotic and enlightened James Douglas, Esq. of 
Cavers, and was formed in the town in 1835, under 
the patronage of the Duke of Buccleuch. This 
association — the Agricultural society for the west 
of Teviotdale — includes in its sphere of action 13 
parishes, and holds an annual general meeting in 
Hawick on the first Thursday of August. A school 
of Arts originating in the same judicious and bene- 
volent quarter as the Agricultural society, was es- 
tablished in 1824, and has procured the delivery of 
several courses of lectures. Two reading and news 
rooms, which enrich the town, are liberally con- 
ducted, and possess appliances equal to the best in 
almost any town in Scotland. 

A plentiful supply of water has, at different periods, 
been brought into the town, at the expense of the 
corporation, by whom also the wells are kept in 
good repair. The middle of the principal street, 
which has of late been macadamized, and forms a 
part of the turnpike road, is kept in repair at the 
expense of the road trustees. A sum is annually 
granted by the statute labour trustees, from the 
statute labour fund of the parish of Hawick, towards 
keeping the paved streets and bye-lanes in repair ; 
but owing to the circumstance of one of the magis 
trates only being, ex-officio, a trustee upon the public 
roads, the power of the magistrates, with relation 
to the repairs of the streets and lanes, is very lim- 
ited; and in consequence, these are not in good 
order. — The property of the burgh consists in the 
common moor and common haugh of Hawick, cer- 
tain superiorities, the town-house, an adjoining 
dwelling house, and the water works ; and in 1850 
it was valued as follows : — 

1. Land rents, £384 at 30 years purchase, . £11,520 

2. Feu duties, £G3 at 25 years purchase, . 1,575 
3 Small rents and cattle stent, £74 at 20 years 

purchase, ..... 1.480 

4. Water-dutr, £32, at 20 years purchase, . 640 


The debt amounted to £940, and is now £1,850. 
The revenue in 1853 was £725 ; and the expendi- 
ture, including the annual grant towards the police 
of the burgh of £150, was £677, thus exhibiting a 
surplus of £48. On the last Friday of May, old 
style, a procession, consisting of the magistrates 
on horseback, and a large multitude of the burgesses 
and inhabitants on foot, and graced with the banner 
of the town, the copy of an original which is tradi- 
tionally reported to have been taken from the Eng- 
lish soon after the battle of Flodden, moves along 
the boundaries of the royalty greeted by the hilari- 
ous demonstrations of youths and children, and 
ostensibly describing the limits of their property, 
and publicly asserting their legal rights ; thus very 
idly and childishly perpetuating the ancient and 
once necessary practice of " riding the marches." 

Several eminent men have adorned the town. 
Among these may be named Gawyn Douglas, rector 
Df the parish in 1496, and bishop of Dunkeld, the 
translator of Virgil's Encid, although doubts have 
lately been started as to the good Bishop's connec- 
tion with the place. William Fowler, who held the 
incumbency in the reign of James VI.. and was 

secretary to his Queen, was a scholar and poet of 
no mean reputation. General Elliot, created Lord 
Heathfield, the heroic defender of Gibraltar, Admiral 
John Elliot of Minto, the conqueror of Thurot, and 
Miss Jane Elliot, his sister, authoress of the Flowers 
of the Forest, Gilbert Elliot, first Earl of Minto, 
Governor-General of India, and William Elliot of 
Wells, M.P. for Peterborough, private secretary 
for Ireland, both eminent statesmen, and Dr. John 
Leyden, one of our best modern poets, were all born 
in the immediate neighbourhood, as was also Gen 
eral Simpson, the present commander of the British 
forces in the Crimea, who, with the Elliots just 
named, are all sprang from the House of Stobs. Dr. 
Thomas Somerville, author of the History of the 
reign of Queen Anne and other works, was a native 
of the place ; and Samuel Charters, author of admir- 
able sermons and other works, characterized by Dr. 
Chalmers as the most interesting Scottish clergyman 
of his time, was fifty-two years minister of Wilton, 
which includes a suburb of the town. 

In conclusion, it may be stated that Hawick is 
now a veiy thriving place, taking the lead in that 
cluster of towns on the Border, engaged in the 
woollen trade, comprising Jedburgh, Kelso, Earl- 
ston, Galashiels, Selkirk, Langholm, Innerleithen, 
and Dumfries ; and it is steadily increasing in trade 
and importance. Further information may be ob- 
tained from Annals of Hawick, by James Wilson, 
published in 1850, and Companion thereto published 
in 1854. Population of the town, exclusive of the 
Wilton suburb, in 1841, 5,718; in 1861, 8,138. 
Houses, 546. Population of the Wilton suburb in 
1841, 52 ; in 1861,53. Houses, 6. The population 
of the whole town at present (1861), is 1,891. 
Houses, 652. 

HAWICK, the most southerly of the four districts 
or political subdivisons of Roxburghshire. Its 
length southward is 27i miles ; and its greatest 
breadth is 20£ miles. It comprehends the Rox- 
burghshire parts of the parishes of Selkirk, Ash- 
kirk, and lioberton, and the whole of the parishes 
of Wilton, Hawick, Castleton, Cavers, Teviothead, 
Kirkton, and Minto. Population in 1831, 12,342 ; 
in 1851, 16,095. Houses, 1,822. 

HAWICK RAILWAY. See North British 

HAWKHALL. See Forgue. 

HAWKHEAD, an estate in the Abbey parish of 
Paisley, about 2 miles south-east of that town, on 
the left bank of the White Cart. It anciently be- 
longed to a family named Ross, who were raised to 
the peerage about the year 1503, under the title of 
Baron Ross of Hawkhead. The title became extinct 
on the death of William, 13th Lord Ross, in 1754; 
and the estate devolved, first, on his eldest sister, 
Mrs. Ross Mackye, and afterwards on another sister, 
Elizabeth, widow of John Boyle, 3d Earl of Glas- 
gow. On her ladyship's death, in 1791, the estate 
was inherited by her son, George, 4th Earl of Glas- 
gow ; and in 1815 the title of Baron Ross of Hawk- 
head, a peer of the United Kingdom, was revived in 
his favour. Hawkhead house is an irregular pile, of 
which Crawfurd says: " This fabric is built in the 
form of a court, and consists of a large old tower, 
to which there were lower buildings added in the 
reign of King Charles I., by James, Lord Ross, and 
Dame Margaret Scott, his lady, and adorned with 
large orchards, fine gardens, and pretty terraces, 
with regular and stately avenues fronting the said 
castle, and almost surrounded with woods and en- 
closures, which adds much to the pleasure of this 
seat." This was one of the earliest attempts made 
in Renfrewshire to introduce the Dutch style of 
gardening, and to construct low buildings approach- 



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ing to the modern fashion, in addition to the high 
castellated places of defence which anciently formed 
the habitations of the nobility and gently. Very 
little alteration was made upon the place from Craw- 
furd's time till 1782, when the Countess-dowager 
of Glasgow greatly repaired and improved the 
house, and formed a new garden, consisting of 
nearly 4 acres, a short distance to the south. The 
estate is still finely adorned with trees. — Law, 
in his ' Memorialls,' has recorded as one of the 
memorable events in his time, that in October, 
1681, when Scotland was under the administration 
of the Duke of York, afterwards King James II., 
his royal highness " dined at the Halcat with my 
Lord Ross." — For notice of minerals wrought in 
this quarter, see Hurlet. 

HAWKLEYMOOR, the upper part of Sinclair- 
town in the parish of Dysart, Fifeshire. Its popula- 
tion is about 500. See Sinclairtown. 

HAWKSTONE, a village in the parish of St. 
Madoes, Perthshire. Population, 51. Houses, 11. 
See Ldnoartt. 

HAWTHORNDEN, the seat of Sir James Walk- 
er Drummond, in the parish of Lasswade, Edin- 
burghshire. The house stands on the south hank 
of the North Esk, amidst exquisitely picturesque 
and romantic scenery, and contributes, in its own 
figure and in the fine grounds which surround it, 
interesting features to the warmly tinted landscape. 
Constructed with some reference to strength, it 
surmounts to the very edge a grey cliff which, at 
nnS sweep, rises perpendicularly up from the river. 

" The spot is wild, the brinks are steep, 

With eglantine and hawthorn blossom'd o'er, 
Lychnis, and daffodils, and hare-bells blue: 
From lofty granite crags precipitous, 
The oak, with scanty footing, topples o'er. 
Tossing his limbs to heaven; and, from the cleft, 
Fringing the dark-brown natural battlements, 
The hazel throws his silvery branches down : 
There, starting into view, a castled cliff, 
Whose roof is lichen'd o'er, purple and green. 
O'erhangs thy wandering stream, romantic Esk, 
And rears its head among the ancient trees." 

Beneath are several remarkable artificial caves, hol- 
lowed with prodigious labour out of the solid rock, 
communicating with one another by long passages, 
and possessing access to a well of vast depth bored 
from the court-yard of the mansion. The caves are 
reported by tradition, and believed by Dr. Stukeley, 
to have been a stronghold of the Pictish kings, and, 
in three instances, they bear the names respectively 
of the King's gallery, the King's bed-chamber, and 
the Guard-room; but they seem simply to have been 
hewn out, no person can tell by whom, as places of 
refuge during the destructive wars between the 
English and the Picts. or the English and the Scots; 
and during the reign of David II., when the English 
were in possession of Edinburgh, and strove to deal 
death to Scottish valour, they and the adjacent caves 
of Gorton gave shelter to the adventurous band 
of the heroic Sir Alexander Ramsay of Dalhousie. 
Hawthornden was the property and residence of the 
celebrated poet and historian, William Drummond, 
the friend of Shakspeare and Ben Johnson. A sort 
of seat cut in the face of the rock adjoining the 
house, and called Cypress grove, is pointed out by 
tradition as the place where he composed many of 
bis poems. Ben Johnson journeyed on foot from 
London to spend some weeks with him at Haw- 
thornden. Drummond was zealously attached to 
the cause of Charles I., and is said to have sunk in 
health, and been crushed to the grave, by the blow 
from the unhappy monarch's fate. A profusion of 
beautiful wood in the opulent landscape around the 

house, suggested to Peter Pindar the caustic remark 
respecting Dr. Samuel Johnson, that he 

" Went to Hawthornden's fair scene by night. 
Lest e'er a Scottish tree should wound bis sight." 

HAYLAND (Loch of), a lake, about 1J mile 
long, in the centre of the parish of Dunnet, Caith- 
ness-shire. It sends off its superfluent waters, by 
the Corsback bum, 4 miles northward to the Pent- 
land frith. 

HAYOCK. See Stevenston. 

HAYSTONE. See Glensax. 

HAZELBANK, a village in the parish of Lesma 
hago, Lanarkshire. Population, 311. 

HAZELHEAD. See Beith and Newhills. 

HEACAMHALL. See Uist (South). 

HEADS. See Glassfoed. 

HEADS OF AYR, two or three precipitous rocky 
projections, about 200 feet high, running out from 
Brown Carrick hill into the sea. in the north of the 
parish of Maybole, Ayrshire. They flank the south 
side of the bay of Ayr, or mouth of the basin of the 
Doon. They consist of a black, earthy, tufaceous 
trap, traversed at one part by a thick, hard, basaltic 

HEADSHAW LOCH, a small lake, containing 
excellent marl, in the parish of Ashkirk, about a 
mile north of the village of Ashkirk, Roxburghshire. 
It sends off its superfluence eastward to the Ale 

HEADSTONE. See Glenceoss. 



HEATHET. See Canonbie. 

HEATHFIELD. See Garnkirk. 

HEBRIDES (The) or AYestern Islands, a laige 
elongated group of islands, isles, and islets, flanking 
nearly the whole west coast of Scotland. They 
were called by the ancients Hebridse, Hehudes, 
^EbudEe, and JEmoAss. The ancient Hebrides, how- 
ever, comprehended also the islands and islets in 
the frith of Clyde, the peninsula of Kintyre or part 
of the mainland of Al'gyleshire south of the Lochs 
Tarbert, the isle of Rachlin off the north-east coast 
of Ireland, and even the island of Man and the islets 
contiguous to it, in the centre of the Irish sea; 
while the modern Hebrides comprehend only the 
islands, isles, and islets extending from 55° 35' to 
58° 37' north latitude, and lying westward of the 
peninsula of Kintyre on the south, and of the main 
land of Scotland in the middle and on the north. 

The Hebrides, thus defined, are, for the most part, 
disposed in groups, yet not, in every case, with 
distinctness of aggregation, or without leaving 
particular islets to stand in doubt as to the group to 
which they belong. On the south, opposite Kintyre 
and Knapdale, lies the Islay and Jura group. The 
most southerly individuals of it are Gigha and a 
trivial islet near its southernmost point ; both stretch- 
ing north and south near the coast of Kintyre, and 
screening the entrance to Loch Tarbert from a 
south-west wind. On a line with Gigha to the 
west, but three times farther from it than Gigha is 
from the peninsula, commences the large island of 
Islay; and though not elongated in its own form, it 
has resting on its north-east side, with the interven- 
tion of the narrow strait or sound bearing its own 
name, the base of the slenderly pyramidal figure of 
Jura, and is so continued by that island as to form 
with it a stretch of territory extending from the 
south-west to the north-east, and separated, in the 
Jura part of it, from the districts of Knapdale and 
Lorn, on the mainland, by the sound of Jura. West 
of Jura, north-west of the sound of Islay, and north 
of the island of Islay, lie the islets Oronsay and Co- 
lonsay. North of Jura, and pretty near the coast of 




Lorn, Scarba, Seal, Easdale, and various other islets, 
form a chain which belongs geographically, in its 
southern end, to the Islay and Jura group, and in its 
northern end to the. Mull group, but which strictly 
connects them, and might over its whole length be 
pronounced independent. West of the northern part 
of this chain, or opposite the districts of Lorn and 
Appin, and along the whole south-west coast of the 
district of Morvern, but separated from it by the 
narrow stripe of water called the Mull sound, lies 
the large island of Mull. On its east side, in the 
mouth of Loch-Linnhe, stretches Lismore; near its 
south-west limb, is Iona ; in a deep broad bay on 
its west side lie Ulva, Gometra, Staffa, and some 
other islets; due west, at a considerable distance, 
lies Tiree; and on the north-west, not so far from 
Mull, is Coll, — Tiree and Coll forming in their 
elongated shape and continuous position, a stretch 
of territory extending from the south-west to the 

Immediately north of Mull, the long promontory 
of Ardnamurchan runs out into the sea, and so far 
intervenes between the two Hebridean groups we 
have noticed, as, if not strictly to separate them 
from the groups on the north, at least to give fail- 
occasion for their being respectively designated the 
southern and the northern Hebrides. The Skye 
group lies in general very near the coast, and flanks 
the whole of the little continental districts of 
Moidart, Arisaig, Morar, Glenelg, Kintail, Lochalsh, 
Applecross, and Gairloeh. Commencing a little 
north of the point of Ardnamurchan, and at a greater 
distance west of the district of Moidart, Muck, Eig, 
Eum, Sandy, and Cann,a form, with the intervention 
of two considerable belts and two thin stripes of sea, 
a stretch of territory extending from the south-east 
to the north-west. Northward of it, and very 
slenderly detached by sea from the districts of 
Glenelg and Kintail, stretches north-westward the 
very large island of Skye, — the largest in the 
Hebrides except the compound or double-named one 
of Harris and Lewis. North of Skye, commencing 
very close on its shore, and running direct north- 
ward between its north-western horn and <he con- 
tinental district of Applecross, is a chain of islets, 
consisting of Scalpa, Easay, and Eona. From a 
point nearly due west of Ardnamurchan, but at a 
great distance, to a point considerably west of Loch 
Inchard in Sutherlandshire, and, in its central part, 
westward of the island of Skye, and separated from 
it by the Little Minch, extends curvingly from the 
south to the east of north, through an extent of 150 
miles, the largest and most compact of all the Hebri- 
dean groups, quite elongated and continuous in its 
form, and cut asunder from all other territory by a 
broad sea-belt, — that which is commonly designated 
the Long Island, is sometimes called the Western 
Hebrides, or the Outer Hebrides, and has, by some, 
been made to usurp the whole Hebridean name. 
At its southern point Bernera, Mingala, Eabba, 
Sandera, Muldonick, Vatersa, Barra, Fladda, Hellesa, 
Fudia, Linga, Eriska, and some other islets, are 
closely concatenated, and, as they have Barra for 
their mainland or monarch of the series, are usually 
called the Barra islands. Immediately on the north, 
with a profusion of islets in the sound which 
separates them, and a noticeable sprinkling of islets 
on their flanks, stretch continuously the islands of 
South Uist, Benbecula, and North Uist. In the 
sound of Harris, north of North Uist, the series is 
continued by Borera, Bernera, Killigra, Ensa, Pabba, 
and various other islets. From the north side of 
that sound, Harris and Lewis, the continuous part 
of one great island, the monarch one of the whole 
Hebrides, stretches away to the northern extremity 

of the group, flanked, in various parts of its progress, 
by Scalpa and numerous tiny islets on the east, and 
by Taransa, Scarpa, Berensa, and some smaller 
islets on the west. Far away to the west of the 
western extremity of Lewis, lies the desolate and 
pigmy group of St. Kilda, consisting of the islet St. 
Kilda itself, and its tiny attendants Levenish, Soa, 
and Borera. 

Classified geographically, the whole Hebrides 
thus consist of five groups; — three, or those of Islay, 
Mull, and Skye, of considerable and nearly equal 
bulk, close upon the coast, almost continuous and 
concatenated in their range, and flanking the con- 
tinent from the district of Kintyre to the district of 
Gairloeh, — one group, so large in its proportions, or 
in the aggregate extent and the number of its isles, 
and so distinctive in its position at a considerable 
distance from the coast and from the other groups, 
as to have occasionally won the plea of being ex- 
clusively Hebridean, — and another group so distant 
and solitary as to be visited at seasons or on occa- 
sions " few and far between," and so exceedingly 
inconsiderable as to attract notice solely on account 
of remarkable features in its natural history, and 
patriarchal peculiarities in the character of its in- 
habitants. They shelter the whole western coast 
of Scotland from the fury of the Atlantic ocean, and, 
in a certain and no mean degree, do it service as a 
sort of umbrella; and they seem, especially the three 
groups nearest it, to have once been a continuation 
of its shores, and to have become disconnected by 
the dissevering action of the elements. 

In their political classification, the islands belong 
to the shires of Argyle, Inverness, and Eoss, very 
nearly in the line of their coincidence with the coasts 
of the respective counties. Their entire number, 
including considerable rocks and utterly inconsider- 
able islets, has been usually stated in round numbers 
at 300 ; but understanding islands and islets to be 
objects which, on a large map, have a distinct figure, 
and characteristic outline, it amounts to only about 
160. Of this number 70 are inhabited throughout 
the year ; 8 are provided with houses, but abandoned 
by their inmates during winter ; and 40 are either 
transitorily inhabited or turned to some productive 
account during summer. In area, the Hebrides, 
measured on the plane, comprehend rather more than 
3,184 square miles, or 1,592,000 Scottish acres, or 
2,037,760 English statute acres, nearly one-twelfth 
of Scotland or one-thirtieth of Great Britain; and, 
in consequence of the general ruggedness and nioun- 
tainousness of their character, they might, if mea- 
sured over the undulations of their superficies, be 
found to comprehend between 3,600 and 3,700 square 
miles. These measurements, however — which are 
those of Mr. James Macdonald in his ' General View 
of the Agriculture of the Hebrides' — include the 
Clyde islands, and must suffer a subtraction equiva- 
lent in value to their area, — that of Arran alone 
being about 100,000 Scottish acres. — The islands 
are distributable, as to size, into four classes. The 
first class, consisting of the largest in dimensions, 
includes Islay, Jura, Mull, Skye, Lewis, Harris, and 
Uist, and comprehends 1,323,000 Scottish acres, or 
about eight-ninths of the whole Hebridean area. 
The second class includes Gigha, Colonsay, Tiree, 
Coll, Lismore, Ulva, Gometra, Bernera, Luing, Seil, 
Eig, Eum, Easay, Eona, and Barra. The third 
class includes Scarba, Lunga, Shuna, Eisdale, Inch- 
kenneth, Staffa, Muck, Canna, Ascrib, Fladda, and 
St. Kilda. The fourth class includes about 120 tiny 
islets, which are chiefly satellites of the others, and 
which have some productive value ; also an unas- 
certained number of rocks and dottings on the sea, 
which figure in the flaunting announcement of three 




Qundred Hebrides; both classes too unimportant 
and multitudinous to require the specification of 

Dr. M'Culloch classifies the Hebrides according to 
their geological character, under the heads schistose, 
trap, sandstone, and gneiss. The schistose islands 
are the Islay and Jura group, with all the islets, 
even including Lismore, which connect it with the 
group of Mull. Though not of schistose structure 
as to every rock which *hey contain, they consist 
chiefly of those primary stratified rocks — micaceous 
schist, quartz rock, argillaceous schist, chlorite 
schist, and other associated substances — which all, 
in a greater or less degree, present the schistose 
character. They are capable, however, of subdivi- 
sion into three portions, the islands in each of which 
have features of mutual resemblance peculiar to 
them from those of the other islands. Kerrera, 
Seil, Luing, and Torva, are characterized by the 
prevalence of clay slate, and may be called the slate 
islands. Islay, Jura, Scarba, Lunga, Orausay, Co- 
lonsay, and the Garveloch islands, are characterized, 
in the main body of the group, by the prevalence of 
quartz rock, and in the wings by community or alter- 
nation of the other leading strata of that rock, and 
may be designated the quartz islands. Gigha, 
Oarra, St. Cormac, Lismore, and Shuna, are distin- 
guished by a series of schistose rocks, in which 
chlorite schist predominates, and may be entitled 
the chlorite islands. — The trap islands, excepting 
Tiree, Coll, Iona, Eona, and some islets, are the 
Mull, the Skye, and the St. Kilda groups, with a 
cluster of very small islets called the Shiant isles, 
off the west coast of Lewis. Some individuals in 
the groups contain few masses or none of trap, yet 
they present conspicuous and interesting tracts 
both of the primary and of the secondary rocks, the 
illustration of which mainly depends on a joint 
view of the structure of all the neighbouring parts, 
and are included in the classification, less in metho- 
dical accuracy than for scientific convenience. The 
Mull and the Skye groups, while connected, yet dis- 
tinct in geographical position, are blended yet re- 
spectively peculiar also in their geological charac- 
ter. The trap which distinguishes them in common 
is distributed into fields corresponding to their 
groups, occurs in detached but connecting masses, 
either in the intermediate islands or on the main- 
land, and again looks up at the Shiant isles, and far 
to the west — but without any connecting links — in 
the little group of St. Kilda. The connections of 
the Skye subdivision with the continent are formed 
solely by the primary strata ; and those of the Mull 
subdivision are traced chiefly in the secondary 
strata, and in the superincumbent masses of trap. — 
The sandstone islands are, for the most part, a few 
inconsiderable islets close on the coast of the conti- 
nent, either of doubtful geographical aggregation 
with the Skye group, or far distant from it, and dis- 
sociated from all the Hebrides. They consist of 
Soa, in the Skye group, Lunga and the Croulin isles, 
at the mouth of Loch Krishorn, the Summer isles, 
off the entrance of Loch Broom, Handa, lying be- 
tween Scourie hay and Loch Laxford, and" two or 
three other islets ; and present similar features to 
those of the sandstone field of the continent. — The 
gneiss islands are Iona, Tiree, and Coll, belonging 
to the Mull group, Eona, belonging to the Skye 
group, and, with the very trivial exception of the 
Shiant isles, the whole of the largest of all the He- 
bridean groups — that of the Long Island. The gra- 
nitic subdivision of gneiss is that which prevails; 
and it is characterized, not only by a large granular 
and imperfectly foliated substance, but by frequent 
Dartial transitions into granite. Often — as in Tiree. 

Eenbecula, and other islands — it exhibits, for a con- 
siderable space, a dead level ; the naked rock being 
accessible only by some breach in the super-incum- 
bent surface, or by the imperforation of a pool ot 
lochlet ; occasionally — as in Lewis — it looks up 
through the soil in protuberant masses ; and, in 
some instances — as in Coll and Eona — it rises aloft 
in such rapid congeries of low hills, intersticed in 
the hollows with herbage and lochs, that, seen from 
a distance, or from low vantage-ground, only a sea 
of rock seems presented to the view. 

The Hebrides abound in the grand and the sub- 
lime, the picturesque and the wild, the desolate and 
the savage features of scenery. From the sound of 
Jura, the conical and far-seeing paps of that name 
close up the view immediately on the north, and 
tower up to the height of 2,240 feet ; the north- 
eastern point of Islay is screened by the dark and 
broken precipices of M'Karter's Head ; the eastern 
entrance of the sound seems dotted over with islets, 
or walled across with the spray of the vexed waters 
attempting to make an ingress ; Colonsay appears 
in perspective on the west ; and eastward, the rag- 
ged summits of Arran tower aloft in the distance 
over the intervening seas and the peninsula of Kin- 
tyre. From the castle of Dunolly, in the vicinity 
of Oban, the eye wanders over a wide expanse of 
Hebridean and mainland scenery, fully depicted in 
the tints of Highland panorama, and wanders south- 
ward through the picturesque group of the Mull 
islands, presided over or backed by Benmore, in 
Mull, rising aloft to the height of more than 3,000 
feet. " Leaving Tobermory," says Lord Teign- 
mouth, " we started early for Staffa and Iona. 
Partial gleams of sunshine illuminated the bold 
rugged headland of Ardnamurchan, and were reflect- 
ed dimly from the distant, lofty, and conical sum- 
mits of the isle of Eum. The point of Cailliach in 
Mull was sheathed in foam, by the waves of a wild 
sea mingling their hoarse uproar with the shrill 
cries of innumerable sea-fowl, hovering around its 
summit. The grouping of the numerous islands oft 
Mull is extremely picturesque; Stafta, amongst 
them, rearing its basaltic pillars, forming a long 
causeway, gradually terminating in a majestic colon- 
nade, crowmed by a green and overhanging brow." 
" The grandest scenery of Skye, and perhaps of Scot- 
land," says the same noble tourist, " occurs in the 
south-eastern division of the island. Crossing Loch 
Slapin, 1 proceeded along the ragged coast of Strath 
to its point called the Aird, a promontory which — 
penetrated by caverns, or severed into buttresses, 
in some places projecting far in tabulated ledges 
over the sea, tinted richly with yellow, green, and 
other colours, presents a strikingly beautiful and 
majestic front to the stormy ocean — to the ravages 
of which its shattered and perforated precipices bear 
ample testimony. Eeflecting the rays of an un- 
clouded sun, it offered a brilliant contrast to the 
dark forms of Eum, and the neighbouring islands 
which rose to the southward. We rowed slowly 
under the Aird, as every cove or buttress deserves 
attention, till the opposite headland beyond Loch Sea 
vig discovered itself ; and as we entered the bay, the 
precipitous and serrated ridges of the Coolin moun- 
tains towering [about 3,000 feet in height] in all 
their grandeur above the shores, terminating a per- 
spective formed by the steep side of the two promi- 
nent buttresses of the range, and enclosing the 
gloomy valley and deep dark waters of Loch Coruisk, 
from which the principal peaks rise abruptly." 

" Let any one who wishes to have some concep- 
tion of the sublime," says William Macgillivray, 
Esq., " station himself upon a headland of the west 
coast of Harris during the violence of a winter tern- 




pest, and he will obtain it. The blast howls among 
the grim and desolate rocks around him. Black 
clouds are seen advancing from the west in fearful, pouring forth torrents of rain arid hail. A 
sudden flash illuminates the gloom, and is followed 
by the deafening roar of the thunder, which gra- 
dually becomes fainter, until the roar of the waves 
upon the shore prevails over it. Meantime, far as 
the eye can reach, the ocean boils and heaves, pre- 
senting one wide-extended field of foam, the spray 
from the summits of the billows sweeping along its 
surface like drifted snow. No sign of life is to be 
seen, save when a gull, labouring hard to bear itself 
up against the blast, hovers overhead, or shoots 
athwart the gloom like a meteor. Long ranges of 
giant waves rush in succession towards the shores. 
The thunder of the shock echoes among the crevices 
and caves ; the spray mounts along the face of the 
cliffs to an astonishing height ; the rocks shake to 
their summit, and the baffled wave rolls back to 
meet its advancing successor." " Scenes of sur- 
passing beauty, however," remark the Messrs. An- 
derson, " present themselves among these islands. 
What can be more delightful than a midnight walk 
by moonlight along the lone sea-beach of some 
secluded isle, the glassy sea sending from its sur- 
face a long stream of dancing and dazzling light — 
no sound to be heard save the small ripple of the 
idle wavelet, or the scream of a sea-bird watching 
the fry that swarms along the shores ! In the short 
nights of summer, the melancholy song of the 
throstle has scarcely ceased on the hill-side, when 
the merry carol of the lark commences, and the 
plover and snipe sound their shrill pipe. Again, 
how glorious is the scene which presents itself from 
the summit of one of the loftier hills, when the great 
ocean is seen glowing with the last splendour of the 
setting sun, and the lofty isles of St. Kilda rear 
their giant heads amid the purple blaze on the ex- 
treme verge of the horizon." But pictures bright 
and interesting as these with their wild beauty, or 
bewildering and impressive with the grandeur of 
desolation, or mixedly playful and sublime in the 
twistings and aerial ascents of rock, or the melee and 
uproar of conflict among sea and wind and beetling 
cliffs, occur so often and so variously throughout 
the Hebrides, that no general description, and 
scarcely any limited selection of views, can convey 
an idea of their aggregate features. 

No part of the known world is more watered from 
above and from below than the Hebrides. Where 
the sea does not indent and almost bisect the islands 
in almost every conceivable direction, they abound 
in rivulets and fresh-water lakes. Upwards of 40 
streams carry salmon, and diffuse beauty and the ele- 
ments of opulence along their banks. SkyehasSnizort 
and Sligachan, the largest of the region, and 1 3 other 
streamlets. Islay has two streams of considerable 
size, fit for moving machinery and for other practical 
applications. Mull has about 10 rivulets, and the 
Long Island has 8. All these abound, not only in 
salmon, but in trouts and eels ; and many of them 
abound also in other species. Lakes and lochlets 
are so numerous in some of the islands that they 
perplex the view and defy enumeration. In North 
Uist, for example, the agricultural reporter on the 
Hebrides counted 170, and then despaired to ascer- 
tain how many small lochlets remained unreckoned. 
The Hebridean lakes may sstfely be computed at 
1,500 in number, covering an area of 50,000 acres ; 
those of Lewis and Uist alone being 25,000 acres in 
extent. But the lakes, while they frequently in- 
terrupt communication and occasion other incon- 
veniences, offer few compensating advantages ; and 
they have, in general, an inconsiderable depth, none 

of them approaching that of the continental lakes of 
Scotland, or indeed exceeding 3 or 4 fathoms water. 
But though the fresh-water lakes are chiefly of a 
character which the genius of improvement should 
seek to dislodge from their possession of the soil, the 
inlets and arms of the sea which multitudinouslyand 
in the most various directions indent the islands, and 
which mainly among the Hebiideans and the High- 
landers receive the name of lochs, possess, as to both 
scenery and utility, many features of engrossing in- 
terest. Traced along the line of their deep incisions 
and their sinuosities, they give the islands the enor- 
mous aggregate of 3,950 miles of coast ; and they 
offer a vast number of harbours, some of which are 
equal, in point of spaciousness and security, to any 
in the world. 

Westerly winds, which prevail on the average 
during 8 months in the year, bring deluges of rain 
from August till the beginning of March. But often 
in October and November, and, in general, early in 
March, a stubborn north-east or north-north-east 
wind prevails ; and, though the coldest that blows, 
is generally dry and pleasant. Due north and south 
winds are not very frequent, and are seldom of more 
than two or three days' continuance. The moun- 
tainous tracts of Jura, Mull, and Skye, sending up 
summits from 2,000 to upwards of 3,000 feet above 
the level of the sea, intercept the clouds from the 
Atlantic, and draw down on the lands in their 
vicinity a large aggregate of moisture ; but they, at 
the same time, modify the climate around them, and 
serve as a screen or gigantic bield from the stern 
onset of careering winds. The comparatively low 
islands, Coll, Tiree, North Uist, and Lewis, though 
sharing plenteously enough in moisture, are probably 
as dry as any district in the western section of the 
Scottish continent. Snow and frost are almost un- 
known in the smaller isles, and seldom considerably 
incommode those of larger extent. The medium 
temperature in spring is 44° ; and in winter is pro- 
bably never known, on the lower grounds or in the 
vicinity of a dwelling-house, to descend lower than 
5" below the freezing point. Owing to the com- 
parative warmth of the region, and to the lowness 
and the vicinity to the coast-line of the arable 
grounds, grasses and corn attain maturity at an earli- 
ness of period altogether incredible by one who, 
while he considers the high latitude, the saturating 
moisture, and the unsheltered position of the islands, 
does not duly estimate the mollifying effects of their 
own mountain-screens, and the powerful influences 
of their being so deeply and variously serrated by 
cuts of the sea. In the southern isles sown hay i3 
cut down in the latter end of June and till the 
middle of July, and in the northern isles, 10 or 14 
days later ; in all the isles barley is often reaped in 
August, and crops of all sorts secured in September; 
and in Uist, Lewis, and Tiree, bear or big has ri- 
pened or been cut down within ten weeks of the date 
of sowing. Nor is the climate less favourable to 
animal life than to vegetation. Longevity is of as 
frequent occurrence as among an equal amount of 
population in any part of Europe ; and diseases for 
merly deemed of peculiar prevalence are gradually 
losing their malignant and epidemical characteris- 
tics. So salubrious, in fact, are the Hebrides, that 
the natives, if the other natural advantages of the 
islands could be enjoyed in a degree proportionate 
to the pure and bracing air, might, in spite of their 
local seclusion, and the rough character of their 
Highland and insular home, be pronounced on a par, 
as to the physical appliances of real well-being, 
with the inhabitants of some of the finest countries 
of the world. 

The Hebridean minerals may, for popular pur- 




poses, and with reference to their practical value, 
be better viewed apart than if. they had been glanced 
at in connection with the geological distribution of 
the islands. Coal has been discovered in all the 
large islands except those of the Long Island group, 
but either in so small quantities or under such dis- 
advantageous circumstances, that attempts to work 
it either have not been made or have uniformly 
failed. That of Skye either occurs among stratified 
rocks, in thin seams of rarely a few inches, over- 
whelmed or cut off by trap, or it lies enclosed in 
trap, generally in irregular nests from one-fourth of 
an inch to a i'oot in thickness. The largest mass 
of it hitherto known lay in Portree harbour, and, 
after yielding 500 or 600 tons, was overwhelmed by 
the fall of superincumbent rocks of trap. The coal 
of Mull occurs, in one place, in a bed nearly 3 feet 
thick, but though subjected to repeated attempts at 
being worked, it has hitherto — probably from the 
interference of trap — offered stubborn resistance, 
and sent away the miners in discomfiture. Wher- 
ever else this valuable and much desiderated mineral 
occurs, it seems — as in Eig and in several parts of 
Skye — to lie embedded in sandstone, alternating 
with some of the calcareous strata, and to he so 
very thin and unpersistent in its lamina? as to offer 
no hope of repaying search and labour. Copper was 
probably discovered and wrought in ancient times 
by the Scandinavians in Islay ; but it now offers no 
appearances there which are tempting, and does not 
occur elsewhere in the Hebrides. Lead seems to 
exist in Coll, Tiree, and Skye, particularly in the 
district of Strath, but has been wrought in no island 
except Islay. No fewer than in five places in Islay 
was it mined from, as it would seem, distinct masses 
or independent veins ; and in all of them it has been 
abandoned. To the north-west of Port Askaig were 
mines which yielded, between 1761 and 1811, pro- 
duce to the value of £12,000, whose ore consisted of 
galena, intermixed with copper pyrites, and con- 
taining enough of silver to have bequeathed to the 
present proprietor of the island the rare boast of 
having a large part of his family-plate manufactured 
from material found on his own estate. Iron is met 
with in almost every one of the Hebrides ; and, in 
many of the islands, especially in Lewis, Skye, and 
Mull, the ore appears to be particularly rich. Some 
ore which occurs in Islay is occasionally magnetic, 
and is said to produce good iron, and has furnished 
supplies for exportation. The want of coal, how- 
ever, has hitherto prevented the Hehridean mines 
of intrinsic iron wealth from being practically more 
than nominal. The most remarkable of the He- 
bridean metals is quicksilver. In a peat-moss on 
the western face of the eastern ridge of Islay, two 
quarts were, about 80 years ago, collected. Reports 
exist also — though without such substantial evi- 
dence as might convince an incredulous or even 
perhaps a cautious inquirer — that manganese, cobalt, 
emery, and native sulphur, have all likewise been 
found in Islay. 

Fuller's earth is found in the district of Strath in 
Skye, and alum earth in the neighboui'hood of Meg- 
stadt in Trotternish. Limestone, the most useful 
mineral for the Hebrides, occurs in several of them 
in inexhaustible abundance. Regular lime-kilns 
are erected in many parts of Islay, in three places 
in Lismore, and in some localities in Skye, and pro- 
duce vast quantities of lime for exportation. Marl 
is found in most of the large islands, and has heen 
turned to great account in Islay, and some parts of 
Skye. Marble of tolerable quality has been quarried 
on the Duke of Argyle's property in Tiree, and on 
Lord Macdonald's estate of Strath in Skye ; and it 
occurs also of interesting character, though not well 

capable of adaptation to the arts, in Iona. The 
marble of Skye, where there are hills of the noble 
stone, and where chief though faltering attention 
lias been paid to its claims, exhibits several varieties. 
Though all white in its ground colour, and, in one 
variety, unmixed with any tint, it has one variety 
with a scarcely discernible shade of grey, — another, 
with variously disposed veins of grey and black, re- 
sembling the common veined marble used in archi- 
tectural ornaments, — another with narrower and 
well-defined veins often almost regularly reticulated, 
— another distinguished, independently of the veins, 
by a parallel and regular alternation of layers of pure 
white and greyish white, — and another variously 
mottled and veined with grey, yellow, purple, light 
green, dark green, and black. Of all the varieties 
the most valuable is the pure white, which appears 
the best adapted in its qualities to the uses of sta- 
tuary. Slates form one of the principal articles of 
Hebridean export. Easdale, and the adjacent is- 
lands, yielded for some period before 1811, upwards 
of 5,000,000 a-year, and employed nearly 200 work- 
men in preparing them for the market. As the 
slates sold at 30s. per 1,000, the annual value of the 
produce was £7,500, — a vast sum for ground which 
would not let for £20 in corn or grass. Luing and 
Seil and other islands now greatly attract the notice 
of tourists in the steamers from the Crinan canal 
northward, by their great diversity of forms, and by 
the lively scenes of their extensive slate-quarry 
ing establishments. 

So rife are the Hebridean shores in materials for 
the manufacture of kelp, and in the fish common to 
the west of Scotland, that their annual produce, for 
a long series of years, was computed to be four times 
greater in amount than that of the land. During 
the war the kelp-shores annually yielded from 5,000 
to 5,500 tons of kelp, at the average value of £16 
per ton ; and their 50,000 acres covered by sea at 
high-water were thus in nett annual value £80,000, 
— a sum exceeding five times the rent of the 30,00C 
acres of Hebridean arable land. This vast manu- 
facture of kelp, however, was carried on under a 
system of protective duties, which prevented a fair 
competition by barilla and other forms of alkali : 
and on that system becoming first modified and 
then overthrown, the manufacture received a series 
of severe shocks, fell suddenly in amount, straggled 
fitfully for a while to retain a tolerable existence, 
and now, for the last few years, has dwindled al- 
most to extinction. A very extensive quondam 
landowner in the Hebrides wrote in 1829 to Lord 
Glenelg, then Secretary of State, — " The production 
of and manufacture of kelp which has existed more 
than 200 years, had, for a veiy great length of time, 
received a vigilant and special protection against 
the articles of foreign or British growth or manu- 
facture which compete with it in the market, namely, 
barilla, pot and pearl ash, and black ash ; the last 
of which is formed by the decomposition of salt, 
effected chiefly by the use of foreign sulphur, which 
sulphurfprms three-fourths of the value of the manu- 
factured alkali. Up to the year 1822, considerable 
duties were leviable on all the commodities just en- 
umerated ; but in that year the duty on salt was 
lowered from 15s. to 2s. a bushel. Shortly after- 
wards the impost on barilla was considerably re- 
duced. This measure was quickly succeeded by a 
repeal of the remainder of the salt duties (duties 
which had lasted more than 130 years), and of the 
duty on alkali made from salt. Close upon this fol- 
lowed a considerable reduction in the duty on pot and 
pearl ash, and an entire removal of that on ashes from 
Canada ; and this last step was accompanied by a 
diminution in the duty on foreign sulphur from £1 5 




to 10s. a ton. Such is the succession of the mea- 
sures which now threaten the total extinction of 
the kelp manufacture, and with it the ruin of the 
landed proprietors in the Hebrides and on the west 
coast, the most serious injury to all descriptions of 
annuitants on kelp estates, and the destitution of a 
population of more than 50,000 souls " 

The fisheries, though not by any means so ex- 
tensive as the capacities of the region admit, and 
though long damaged by an injudiciously distributed 
parliamentary bounty, yield annually a considerable 
sum. The shores of the Hebrides and the western 
coast of the mainland seem, indeed, to present as 
richly furnished and as facile a fishing-ground as 
the fancy can well imagine. The herring-fishery, 
however, which is naturally the most important, has 
undergone fluctuations so great and sudden, from 
causes so utterly beyond the control or prevision of 
the fishermen, as to render it a very precarious 
source of dependence. During the ten or twelve 
years preceding 1840, in particular, it underwent a 
great decline. In the New Statistical Account it is 
stated that, "Barra has been in former times much 
frequented by great shoals of herrings, but its lochs 
are almost now entirely deserted by that useful fish." 
Of the parish of Portree, in the island of Skye, it is 
stated that, " It is a matter deeply to be regretted 
that the herring-fishery in this quarter lias been 
much on the decline for several years past; so much 
so, that failure in this branch of industry, together 
with other causes operating injuriously, has produced 
the ever-memorable destitution of the years 1836 and 
1837." In the account of Kilmuir, also in the island 
of Skye, we read : " At one period the herring ap- 
peared in prodigious shoals, not only around the 
coast of the parish, but in all the lochs, creeks, and 
bays of the island ; it then formed an extensive and 
lucrative source of traffic, and the benefits derived from 
it by the country in genei-al were very great. It 
was caught at comparatively little expense, as the 
natives could, for the most part, make their own nets 
and reach their own homes. In every creek and 
bay large fleets of schooners, brigs, sloops, wherries, 
and boats of all sizes and descriptions, were to> be 
seen eagerly engaged in the securing of stores for 
private families, and of cargoes for the southern mar- 
kets; now the irregular appearance of the migratory 
fish, together with the small quantities of it which 
frequent, at the present day, its wonted haunts, have 
deprived the natives of one of their most lucrative 
sources of support, and have been in no small de- 
gree the means of reducing the redundant population 
to poverty, and of unfitting them to meet such sea- 
sons of destitution as those of 1836 and 1837." The 
rebound from this depression was so great, the return 
of large shoals of herrings in 1840 so sudden, that 
the people were utterly unprepared for it, had not 
even salt to cure such herrings as they caught, and 
could, in most instances, realize little other advan- 
tage, for that year, than a temporary increase to 
their own immediate supplies of food. But in later 
years the fishery has been comparatively regular 
and good. Of the twenty-two fishery districts into 
which the coasts of Scotland are divided, those of 
Stornoway, Loch-Carron and Skye, Loch-Shieldag, 
Loch-Broom, and Inverary, comprehend the Hebrides 
and the western coast of the mainland; and the 
statistics of the herring-fishery in these, for the year 
1853, were as follows: — Total number of barrels of 
herrings cured, in the Stornoway district, 16,347; 
in the Loch-Carron and Skye district, 9,351 J; in the 
Loch-Shieldag district, 6,913£; in the Loch-Broom 
district, 4,797; and in the Inverary district, 23,739; 
— total number of persons employed in the fishery, 
in the Stornoway district, 3,198; in the Loch-Carron 

and Skye district, 5,829; in the Loch-Shieldag dis 
trict, 1,510; in the Loch-Broom district, 2,530; and 
in the Inverary district, 4,466; — total value of boats, 
nets, and lines employed in the fishery, in the Stor- 
noway district, £16,870; in the Loch-Carron and 
Skye district, £20,624; in the Loch-Shieldag district, 
±'5~922; in the Loch-Broom district, £23,289; and 
in the Inverary district, £37,156. 

As regards the other fisheries of the Hebrides, the 
following report of Mr. R. Graham, addressed to Mr. 
Fox Maule, in 1837, gives a better view than could 
be afforded by a vidimus of even more recent, because 
more uncertain, information : — " It is the opinion of 
some people, that the cod and ling and lobster fish- 
eries of the West Highlands and Islands, might be 
much improved by encouragement and assistance, 
and would be a source of benefit to the tenantry and 
the people. This is a subject which has attracted 
public attention from, the time of James V. down- 
wards; and everything which royal support, and the 
establishment of associations, corporations, and 
hoards could effect, has been done to promote the 
herring-fishery in particular. No branch of industry 
has repaid the encouragement so ill, from its preca- 
rious nature; and upon the whole it may be doubted, 
whether it can be considered as an increasing source 
of wealth in this country. Its failure, generally on 
the west coasts, for several years back has had a very 
serious effect upon the circumstances of the people • 
and the migrating character of the fish ought to de- 
ter the local fishermen from trusting entirely to that 
one branch of the art. Probably, however, in many 
situations the general white-fishery might be further 
improved by the countenance and support of Govern- 
ment singly, or by Government conjointly with the 
maritime and insular proprietors, though all parties 
should guard against flattering descriptions of the 
coasts, as if the seas were everywhere full of the 
finest fish, and as if the demand could be procured 
for any amount of supply. Many accounts rest on 
the idea that fish exist on all the coasts ; I have 
found this frequently contradicted; the greater part 
of the western coast of the Long-Island, from the 
nature of the shores and the violence of the sea, is 
almost precluded from the possibility of being fished. 
Some of what were formerly considered the best 
stations have greatly fallen off. Gairloch was once 
a famous station, but for the last eight years it has 
been unproductive. Loch-Broom never was much of 
a station, except for herrings, and there has not been 
a good fishery there since 1811. At Arisaig, Tober- 
mory, Ulva, and Iona, it was alleged that the people 
were inactive, and did not take the full advantage 
of their opportunities of fishing. The parishes of 
Knock and Lochs were the only portions of the 
Lewis which seemed to be considered as favourable 
stations; there is said to be none in Harris; and 
Boisdale and Barra were the only favourable points 
spoken to in the southern portionsof the Long-Island. 
There are none of these stations where the fisheries 
could be much advanced, but by assistance in pro- 
curing for the inhabitants boats and tackle, and per- 
haps the example of a few more practised fishermen 
than themselves ; but it might be an object of great 
importance to have the soundings more extensively 
ascertained, on the west coast of Scotland and north- 
west of Ireland, to show the fishing-banks. The 
piers and quays would be an improvement at many 
of the stations." 

The Hebrides may be said, with the exception of 
a little knitting, and now that the making of kelp 
has nearly ceased, to have almost no manufacture ; 
and, with the exception of bartering the produce of 
the sea, the mine, the natural aviary, and the limit- 
ed soil, for the wares of more favourably situated 




communities, to have no commerce. Projects for 
establishing regular manufactories at Tobermory 
were made dependent on the unplastic, intractable, 
and slow-moving inhabitants of Mull for the supply 
of workmen, and braved the competition not only of 
Glasgow, but of the favoured though clumsy native 
manufacturers; and they, in consequence, failed. 
An attempt of Mr. Campbell of Islay to introduce 
the weaving of book-muslin on his property, by im- 
porting some families from Glasgow, providing them 
with cottages, and placing around them, in a locality 
where provisions are cheap, the appliances of a man- 
ufacturing colony, was well made and duly prolonged, 
but did not succeed. The spinning of yarn, at one 
time, formed a staple in Islay, and continued to pros ■ 
per till superseded by the Glasgow manufactories. 
While it nourished it employed all the women on the 
island, and produced for exportation so much as 
£10,000 worth of yarn in a year. The distillation of 
whisky in its illicit form was, for a long time, so ex- 
tensive as to have all the business of a great manu- 
facture, with little else than the effect of a great 
power of demoralization, but happily has now for 
many years been nearly extinct, while the distilla- 
tion, in a legal form, in large distilleries, is carried 
on, at least in Islay, with the results of a productive 
manufacture, accompanied by no other effects than 
such as belong elsewhere to distillation in even the 
most favourable circumstances. 

All the other manufactures of the Hebrides — or 
what, in the absence of better, must be called such 
— are of remarkably patriarchal and simple character. 
Clusters of twenty or more farmers give employment 
to women and girls in carding and spinning wool, and 
to men, accommodated with looms in little work- 
shops or cottages, in weaving it into plaiding, blan- 
kets, and other coarse fabrics ; and they maintain, 
in the same way, Wrights, tailors, smiths, shoemakers, 
and other handicraftsmen, in their respective voca- 
tions. Each customer provides the material for the 
work to be done, and makes payment, either in 
money, or by conceding the temporary use of a por- 
tion of land ; and, in the article of cloth, he receives 
it as it comes from the loom, and acts the part of 
dyer for himself, very probably tincturing it with a 
hue destructive of its whiteness by a process very 
primitive, and not unlike what was practised a few 
years ago by the untamed natives of the gorgeous 
islands of the Pacific. " I was assured by an old 
man in Jura," says Lord Teignmouth, " that the 
coat which he wore cost but two shillings." Most 
persons who enjoy the luxury of stockings must pro- 
cure it either from their own knitting-wires or from 
those of some member of their family. The making 
of brogues, as a succedaneum for shoes, while very 
extensive, is a somewhat peculiar and strictly a home 
manufacture. The material, cow-leather, is stripped 
of its hair by prolonged immersion in lime-water, 
and then tanned by being steeped in water of oak-bark. 
The brogue is stretched with thongs of calf-leather, 
instead of the rosined thread of hemp employed on 
shoes, and freely admits water; but it is fortified at 
the toe with a double ply or a patch of leather to 
protect it from the effects of the edgy collision of the 
heath ; and, though only an eighth or a seventh less 
expensive than a shoe, it seems very extensively, 
even where the latter might be obtained, to occupy 
a favourable place on — in two senses of the word — 
the understandings of the natives. Except in the 
Outer Hebrides, however, the facilities of steam- 
navigation, and easy access to the grand emporium 
of Scottish manufactures on the Clyde, have already 
very much curtailed the range of the native manu- 
facture, and created a taste for the more refined 
fabrics imported into the islands. Had not the 

Hebrideans hitherto evinced indifference to acquire 
the arts with which free intercourse with the con- 
tinent of Scotland has of late years made them ac- 
quainted, and even shown an indisposition to learn 
lessons advantageously offered respecting them, they 
might already have been in a state of far advanced 
transition from their patriarchal usages to those of 
incipient competition with the neighbours who are 
invading their markets and revolutionizing their 
social tastes. But even the inhabitants of the South 
Sea islands, who 45 years ago were almost wholly 
in a degenerately savage condition, have, proportion 
ately to their previous attainments, prospered moie 
in the acquisition and the tact of manufacturing skill 
than Scotland's Western islanders. 

The Hebrides, though more populous and aggre- 
gately productive than the same extent of the con- 
tinental Highlands, or even of the mountainous part 
of Northumberland, Cumberland, and Westmore- 
land, and possessing, in comparison with all Scot- 
land, an amount of value nearly proportionate to 
their relative extent — are but a few degrees superi- 
or in the arts of agriculture to what they are in 
those of manufacture. Yet the islands are not, in 
the aggregate, naturally sterile. Though a stran- 
ger may nastily excite suspicion respecting them 
by talking — more with a view to poetic effect than 
from regard to ascertain and convey a correct esti- 
mate of their character — of Jura's ' mass of weather- 
beaten barrenness,' and of ' the obtruding sterility of 
the stormy, cloud-enveloped Rum,' — and though 
he may even be misled by the state of total neglect 
in which several isles have lain for ages, by the 
scarcity of timber, by the broken and desultory 
system of tillage extensively followed, and by the 
absence, to a great degree, of enclosures, and of the 
results of draining and improvement, to form con- 
scientiously an unfavourable opinion; yet, on a 
close inspection, he will find, in many parts, as 
fertile a soil, and, but for the want of a fair shelter- 
ing and adorning with trees, as varied and beauti- 
ful a surface, as in almost any portion of Great 
Britain, and he will distribute bis feelings into ad- 
miration of the bountifulness of the Creator, and 
poignant, condemnatory regret for the ingratitude 
and the sloth, or for the ignorance and the ill-direct- 
ed exertions of man. 

In a region so extensive, a great diversity of soils 
and of surfaces may be expected to exist — so great 
as, with difficulty, to be even remotely represented, 
in a rapid and general statement. Islay has 36 
square miles of a thin stratum of decomposed lime- 
stone, occasionally intermixed with clay and gravel, 
several miles of rich clay upon gravel, and some 
thousands of acres of fine old loam. Jura— despite 
the rashly rhetorical sarcasm of Pennant which we 
have quoted — contains some fertile patches of clay- 
ey gravel, and of loam mixed with caiUoux roules, 
and many hundred acres of improveable moss. 
Mull, while very various in soil, has generally, in 
the south and south-west, a thin but sharp and 
fruitful surface of decomposed granite and basalt, 
occasionally mixed with clay, upon gravel or rock; 
and, in the north and north-west, a thin soil of de- 
composed whinstone, carpeted with comparatively 
poor and scanty pasture. Skye has, excepting pure 
sand, all the diversities of soil in all their modifica- 
tions; in one parish it has 4,000 acres of as fine 
loam, and loam and clay, upon a gravelly bottom, 
as are to be found in Scotland ; and, in general, 
throughout its diversity of arable tracts, it has a 
surface rich in agricultural capacities and loveliness. 
The Long-Island group possesses extensively a soil 
of decomposed granite which, when mixed with 
clay, or with marine productions, or when assisted 




by the manures plentifully furnished on the spot, 
yields abundant crops of the common grains of the 
district. Lismore is all limestone ; and, where 
tolerably well-managed, exhibits great luxuriance 
of vegetation. Gigha, though surfaced with reddish 
clay and gravel, and an admixture of decomposed 
schist, granite, quartz, and sandstone, and inferior 
in natural capacities to other islands, is one wide 
field of intersected agricultural beauty, and an evi- 
dence to the world of what a large portion of the 
Hebrides might become under the operations of im- 
provement. Though, then, two-thirds of the whole 
Hebridean surface must be deducted for moss — a 
deduction from arable ground only, but a real and 
valuable addition to the wealth of the district in the 
supply of fuel, and, to a large extent, a territory 
offering scope for the play of georgical enterprise — 
and though a considerable fraction more must be 
deducted for saud ; yet, considering how highland 
is the character of the region, a large aggregate re- 
mains to be classified as productive, and even as 
highly fertile soil. Mr. James Macdonald, in 1821, 
estimated the whole Hebrides, including the Clyde 
islands, to contain 180,000 Scottish acres of arable 
and meadow land ; 20,000 occupied by villages, 
farm - houses, gardens, and gentlemen's parks ; 
10,000 occupied as glebes and churchyards, and by 
schoolmasters ; 5,000 under plantation and natural 
wood; 700,000 of hill - pasture, paying rent and 
partially enclosed; 30,000 of kelp-shores, dry only 
at low-water ; 22,000 dug for peat, or occupied by 
roads, ferry-houses, and boats; 25,000 of barren 
sands ; and 600,000 of mountain, morass, and un- 
d rained lake, yielding little rent; — in all 1,592,000 
Scottish acres. 

The Hebrides were, for sometime preceding 1811, 
distributed into 49 estates ; 10 of which yielded from 
£50 to £500 of yearly rental, 22 from £500 to 
£3,000, and 8 from £3,000 to £18,000 ; and 6 of the 
largest were in the possession of noblemen. But 
in Mull and Skye, and some of the smaller islands, 
the number of proprietors often fluctuates. A fifth 
part of the wholp region is under strict entail ; and 
three-fifths are the property of absentees. The 
great estates are managed by resident stewards or 
factors, who usually reside on them, and superin- 
tend the conduct of the tenants. The state of pro- 
perty is neither very favourable, nor the reverse, to 
agricultural improvement. Nor, amid the mixture 
of large and of small estates, is it easy to determine 
on which class, in general, the spirit of improve- 
ment has been most abroad. Four sets of men are 
in contact with the soil, and wield its productive 
destinies, — proprietors, who keep their lands under 
their own management, — tacksmen, who hold lands 
by lease of the proprietor, — tenants, who hold lands 
without lease and during the proprietor's pleasure, 
— and sub-tenants, who hold from year to year, 
either of the proprietor or of the tacksman. Some 
of the proprietors who work their own lands, have 
extensive estates, and are keen and successful agri- 
culturists ; and others are resident simply because 
their properties want capacity to support both their 
own families and those of tacksmen. The tacks- 
men — a totally different class of persons from the 
Lowland farmers, connected with the proprietors 
by clanmanship or consanguinity, possessing leases 
of from 9 to 99 or even a much larger number of 
years, valuating their grounds, not by the acre or 
by productiveness in corn, but solely by capacity 
of rearing and maintaining cattle, and making pre- 
tensions, in many instances just ones, to the status 
of gentlemen — are, from various causes, in posses- 
sion of the greater part of the Hebrides, and have, 
with some exceptions, seriously prevented the in- 

gress, or blocked up or impeded the march of agri- 
cultural improvement. But while some — such as 
those of Mr. Campbell of Islay— have, under the 
inspection of their landlord, moved in the very van 
of improvement, and been, in general, an honour to 
their order, all, as a class, act a useful and even 
necessary part in maintaining government and 
good order in the district. Tenants are becoming 
more numerous as the tacksmen die out, and pay 
from £5 to £20 of yearly rent; but, in consequence 
of the insecurity of their tenure, they seldom at- 
tempt improvements. The sub-tenants are a class 
similar to the cotters of the Lowlands, responsible 
for a rent rarely exceeding £3, which they usually 
pay in labour; and as they almost always support 
large families in a state bordering on complete idle- 
ness, they would fare much better, and prove more 
useful members of society, were they, in the strict 
sense of the word, day-labourers. They are op- 
pressed and -rendered actionless by a spirit of en- 
slavement ; they often prefer having their children 
about them in a state of abject misery to what they 
esteem the hardship of driving them into service ; 
and, destitute of any prospect of independence, and 
amounting in number to probably 40,000, they sit 
so heavily on the soil as very greatly to daunt ex- 
pectation of its being soon brought under those 
georgical influences which have so generally dif- 
fused beauty and exultancy over the face of the 
Lowlands of the continent. 

Until after the middle of the last century, the 
land appears to have been occupied exclusively by 
tacksmen, generally the kinsmen or dependents of 
the proprietor, with sub-tenants holding of the 
tacksmen, and joint-tenants holding farms in com- 
mon, each with a defined share. About that date, 
many of the farms held by tacksmen seem to have 
been taken directly from the proprietor by joint- 
tenants, who grazed their stock upon the pasture 
in common, and tilled the arable land in ' run-rig,' 
that is, in alternate ' rigs,' or ridges, distributed 
annually. Since the commencement of this cent- 
ury, the arable land has in most cases been divid- 
ed among the joint-tenants or crofters, in separate 
portions, the pasture remaining as formerly in com- 
mon. The first effect of this division into separate 
crofts, was a great increase of produce, so that dis- 
tricts which had formerly imported food, now be- 
came self-supporting. But evils followed which 
had not been foreseen. So long as the farms were 
held in joint-tenancy, there was a barrier to theii 
farther subdivision, which could rarely be overcome. 
But when each joint - tenant received his owr. 
separate croft, this restraint for the most part ceased. 
The crofters who had lived in hamlets or clusters 
of cottages, now generally established themselves 
separately on their crofts. " Their houses, erected 
by themselves," says Sir John M'Neill, " are of 
stone and earth or clay. The only materials they 
purchase are the doors, and, in most cases, the 
rafters of the roof, on which are laid thin turf, 
covered with thatch. The crofter's furniture con- 
sists of some rude bedsteads, a table, some stools, 
chests, and a few cooking utensils. At one end of 
the house, often entering by the same door, is the 
byre for his cattle ; at the other, the barn for his 
crop. His fuel is the peat he cuts in the neighbour- 
ing moss, of which an allotted portion is often 
attached to each croft. His capital consists of his 
cattle, his sheep, and perhaps one or more horses or 
ponies ; of his crop, that is to feed him till next 
harvest, provide seed and winter provender for his 
animals ; of his furniture, his implements, the 
rafters of his house, and generally a boat, or share 
of a boat, nets, or other fishing gear, with some 




barrels of salt herrings, or bundles of dried cod or 
ling for winter use." 

As originally portioned out, the crofts appear to 
have been quite sufficient to maintain the crofter's 
family, and yield the landlord his yearly rent. But 
when kelp was largely and profitably manufactured, 
when potatoes were extensively and successfully cul- 
tivated, when the fishings were good, and the price 
of cattle was high, the crofter found that his croft 
was more than sufficient for his wants ; and when 
a son or a daughter married, he divided it with the 
young couple, who built themselves another house 
upon the ground, sharing the produce and contribut- 
ing to the rent. Thus many crofts which are en- 
tered on the landlord's rent-roll as in the hands of 
one man, are in fact occupied by two, three, or even 
in some eases four families. On some estates efforts 
were made to prevent this subdivision, but without 
much success. If the erection of a second house on 
the croft were forbidden, the married son or daughter 
was taken into the existing house ; and though the 
land might not be formally divided, it was still re- 
quired to support one or more additional families. It 
appears that attempts were made in some cases to put 
an end to this practice ; but it was found to involve 
so much apparent cruelty and injustice, and it was 
so revolting to the feelings of all concerned, that 
children should be expelled from the houses of 
their parents, that the evil was submitted to, and 
still continues to exist. The population thus pro- 
gressively increasing, received a still farther sti- 
mulus from the kelp manufacture. This pursuit 
required the labour of a great number of people, for 
about six weeks or two months in each year ; and 
as it was necessary to provide them with the means 
of living during the whole year, small crofts were 
assigned to many persons in situations favourable 
for the manufacture, which, though not alone able 
to maintain a family, might, with the wages of the 
manufacture, suffice for that end. When a change 
in the fiscal regulations destroyed this manufacture, 
the people engaged in it were thrown out of employ- 
ment; and had they not been separated by habits 
and language from the majority of the population 
of the kingdom, they would no doubt have gradually 
dispersed and sought other occupations. But having 
little intercourse with other districts, which were to 
them a foreign country, they clung to their native 
soil after the manufacture in which they had been 
engaged was abandoned. Their crofts were then 
insufficient to afford them subsistence. Emigration 
somewhat retarded the increase of numbers ; but the 
emigrants were the more prosperous of the tenants 
and crofters, not the persons who had difficulty in 
supporting themselves at home. The proprietors — 
anxious to check the redundant population, and to 
increase their rents, so materially reduced by the 
decay of the kelp manufacture — let the lands vacated 
by the emigrants to tacksmen who were able, by 
their large capital, and the new system of sheep- 
farming, to pay higher rents than the crofters could 
offer. These increased rents were at the same time 
collected at less cost, with less trouble, and with more 
certainty. The proprietors were thus led to take 
every opportunity of converting lands held by 
crofters into large farms for tacksmen, planting the 
displaced crofters on fishing crofts, and crofts on 
waste land. The crofters who had thus supplanted 
the first race of tacksmen, were now in turn sup- 
planted by a second race. 

Three gentlemen of the name of Macneil, the 
proprietors respectively of Barra, Colonsay, and 
Gigha, all, about the beginning of the present cen- 
tui 'y\ greatly improved the cultivation of their 
estates, and the condition of their dependents. 

Barra afterwards passed into the hands of a new 
proprietor, but still continued to be the scene oi 
some highly ingenious and beneficial regulations ; 
Colonsay is famed for good farming, excellent cattle, 
and admirable economical management ; and Gigha 
is regularly portioned out in measured farms, and 
cultivated with great skill. Macleod of Easay, sc 
far back as 45 years ago, extensively enclosed and 
planted his estate, raised some of the best sown 
grasses and green crops in the Western isles, and 
was distinguished by his kindness to bis tenantry. 
Coll, Rum, and Staffa also partook, about the same 
period, of similar benefits from their proprietors. 
Even the Long-Island group, so much more back- 
ward than the easterly Hebrides, have had some 
spirited improvers. On Lord Macdonald's fine 
estates in Skye — though that large island is devoted 
chiefly to pasturage, and is far behind the southern 
isles in agriculture — several tacksmen have con- 
siderably improved the soil, while others are dis- 
tinguished by their skill as graziers. But the chief 
Hebridean improver, as to both extent and energy, 
was Mr. Campbell of Islay, who so revolutionized 
the agricultural character of the island of Islay 
during the 18 years preceding the year 1838 that, 
from a condition of being obliged to import grain 
to the value of £1,200 annually, it passed into 
a condition of being able to supply a sufficiency 
of corn for all the Hebrides and the Western 
Highlands. But some of the other Hebridean 
islands, in almost eveiything which belongs to 
their agriculture, still continue in a rude or semi- 
barbarous state; while even the best of them, 
in various important particulars, are only in a state 
of transition. The system of spade husbandry or 
petite culture, practised in Belgium and some other 
parts of Continental Europe, has been recommended 
as a means of enabling the whole population to 
maintain themselves and pay rents. But the croft- 
ing system, throughout all the period of its existence, 
has been precisely a system of petite culture, and 
has been carried on in most places by spade hus- 
bandry. The difference in the results arises from 
the difference of the climate and controlling circum- 
stances under which it is earned on, and from the 
different habits and character of the people who 
practise it. Mr. Clark of Ulva repaired to Belgium 
in 1846 on purpose to study the system of petite 
culture, in order that he might introduce it on his 
Hebridean estate ; and he says, " The result of my 
investigation was to convince me that the Belgian 
system was altogether unsuited for Ulva or any 
other part of the Hebrides, in consequence of the 
better soil and finer climate and the vicinity of 
markets, also the comparative smallness of public 

Oats of the white potato variety are grown in 
Islay both for home-consumption and for exporta- 
tion, and cultivated, to some extent, in most of the 
large islands. The common wild black oat is raised 
in Skye and the remoter Hebrides. Barley is pro- 
duced in Islay, Jura, Colonsay, and Gigha. Wheat, 
though experimented in Islay, does not promise to 
suit the Hebridean climate. Bigg, or the four-row 
grained barley, forms one-half- of the grain-crops of 
the whole region. Rye is raised in sandy districts. 
Turnips, so peculiarly adapted to the Hebrides, were 
introduced with such rapidity, that the little island 
of Gigha alone had more acres of them in 1808 than 
the entire region had in 1707. Pease and beans 
seem not adapted to the climate. Rape and cab- 
bages, though of easy adaptation, have been tried 
only in some garden-plots. Potatoes hold a similar 
place in the Hebrides to what they do in Ireland, and 
constitute four-fifths of the food of the inhabitants ; 




and the sorts most commonly cultivated are the 
Scottish, the round Spanish, the pink-eye, the long- 
kidney, and the Surinam or yam. Clover, both red 
and white, is indigenous all over the Hebrides, and 
grows spontaneously on sandy and mossy soils near 
the shore ; yet, through some unaccountable over- 
sight, it is very limitedly cultivated. 

The meadows and pastures of the Hebrides are to 
the full as important as the arable grounds. Mea- 
dows, in the strict sense of the word, lie near the 
shore, exposed either to the overflow of the sea in 
high spring- tides, or to the inundations of lakes or 
streams; and, though aggregately extending to 
about 25,000 acres, they receive no further aid from 
art than a very imperfect and partial draining in 
spring and summer, and produce about 1J ton of 
hay per Scottish acre. The pastures comprehend 
by much the larger portion of all the islands, and 
may be viewed in two great classes, the high and the 
low. The high pastures yield herbage all the year 
round, consisting of the hardier plants which de- 
light in pure keen air and a high exposure ; and the 
low pastures, though luxuriant and rich during 
summer and autumn, are totally useless in winter 
and spring. A vast extent of very rich pasture 
occurs in Skye, Islay, Lismore, Tiree, Uist, and 
Lewis; and were it properly managed, it might 
annually rear and maintain some thousand head of 
fat cattle for exportation. In 1811, the aggregate 
number of black cattle in the Hebrides was 110,000; 
one-fifth of which was annually exported to Britain, 
and brought, at a low average, £5 a-head. 

The breed of cattle was originally the same in all 
the islands; but it now varies so considerably that 
the parent-stock, or its unmixed offspring, cannot 
with certainty be anywhere found. Islay and 
Colonsay, though not possessing what can be called 
a peculiar breed, have, by judicious selections from 
the native Hebridean and the western Argyleshire 
breeds, and by skilful attention to their grazing, 
attained such superiority that, for whole droves, 
50 or even 100 per cent, more has been obtained 
than the average market value of cattle from the 
other islands. The size preferred by all skilful 
graziers, as best adapted to the Hebrides, is that 
which, when fattened at the age of 5, weighs, if a 
bullock or ox, from 30 to 36 stones avoirdupois, and, 
if a heifer, from 24 to 30 stones. Though breeding, 
and not fattening, is the principal object throughout 
the islands, yet the latter receives some attention. 
The acknowledged excellence of Hebridean cheese 
and butter, is the effect, not of skill or economy in 
dairying, but of the intrinsic goodness of the milk. 
One of the best and one of the worst milk cows 
yield together, during the summer-sear^n, about 44 
pounds of butter and 88 pounds of cheese. Though 
a very large portion of the Hebrides is adapted 
peculiarly or solely to sheep-pasturage, no proprietor 
or farmer, till a comparatively recent date, thought 
of rearing sheep with any other view than the sup- 
ply of his own family with mutton and wool. But 
now, and for a number of years past, three different 
breeds occur, in considerable numbers, on almost all 
the larger islands. The native, or more properly, 
the Norwegian breed — the smallest in Europe, thin 
and lank, with straight horns, white face and legs, 
a very short tail, and various colours of wool — was 
the only kind known in the region from the period 
of the Danish and Scandinavian invasions down to 
about 55 years ago, and so late as 1811 continued 
to be more numerous than all other sheep-stock on 
the islands. The Linton or Tweeddale or black- 
faced sheep, is here three times heavier and more 
valuable than the former, and, at the same time, is 
equally hardy. The Cheviot breed has been suc- 

cessfully introduced to Mull and Skye. The Hebri 
dean breed of horses is small, active, and remarkably 
durable and hardy, and resembles that found in 
almost all countries of similar climate and surface. 
The ass, notwithstanding its seeming adaptation to 
the region, is unknown in the Hebrides. Hogs, 
once an object of antipathy to the Hebrideans, are 
now reared in the Islay and the Mull groups, and 
scantily and carelessly attended to north of Ardna- 
murchan point. The whole of the Hebrides rear 
fewer poultry than the island of Bute does, and do 
not contain one rabbit-warren. 

Most of the larger islands of the three groups 
next the west coast of Scotland are as well-provided 
as most Highland districts with roads. In 1809 the 
whole of the very large Long-Island group had only 
two pieces of carriage-road, — one of 15 miles between 
Stornoway and Barvas in Lewis, and one of 7 or 8 
miles in North Uist, — both made at the expense of 
the proprietors. Many substantial and some ele- 
gant bridges, all built of stone and lime, carry the 
roads across interruptions. In numerous instances, 
however, bridges are desiderata in parts of road 
already made ; and, in some districts, roads them- 
selves are still a-wanting. Floodgate bridges occur 
in some localities— principally in places recovered 
from water, or occasionally exposed to the access of 
high spring-tides; and they are generally composed 
of earth and clay, faced with stone, of considerable 
breadth so as to be nearly impenetrable by water, 
and are all furnished with floodgates which open 
for the outgoing and shut against the incoming cur- 
rent. The Hebrides received a great accession to 
their facilities of communication with the lowlands 
of Scotland by the formation of the Crinak Cakal, 
[see that article.] and a still greater by the inven- 
tion and enterprise of steam-navigation. Fine 
steam-vessels, communicating by portage across 
the narrow intervening isthmus with regular steam- 
vessels from the Clyde at East Tarbert, ply from 
West Tarbert to Islay, and to some other islands. 
Other steamers, either independent of connexion, or 
communicating with the great line of steam-naviga- 
tion between the Clyde and the Caledonian canal, 
ply from Oban to Staffa and Iona, to Portree in 
Skye, and even to Stornoway in Lewis. Others re- 
gularly and directly ply from the Clyde to Tober- 
mory in Mull, either as their destination, or as a 
place of call and of stoppage on their way to Inver- 

The Hebrides have three towns or considerable 
villages, Tobermory in Mull, Stornoway in Lewis, 
and Bowmore in Islay, and have also some hamlets; 
but, notwithstanding these — which have rather been 
imposed on them by speculators from without, than 
reared up from their own resources — they are almost 
strictly, throughout their whole extent, a sequestered 
region of dissociated and, for the most part, secluded 
habitations. They have, accordingly, no regular 
fairs, and only such country-markets and such 
mercantile gatherings of graziers with their cattle 
as are secured by appointment of influential persons 
on the different isles, or by notification at the vari- 
ous parish-churches. — The whole of the islands are 
distributed quoad civilia into 26 parishes, — Braca- 
dale, Duirinish, Kilmuir, Portree, Sleat, Snizort, and 
Strath, in Skye, — Barvas, Lochs, Stornoway, and 
Uig, in Lewis, — Killarrow, Elchoman, and Kildal- 
ton, in Islay, — Kilninian, Kilfinichen, and Torosay, 
in Mull, — and Barra, Gigha and Carra, Harris, Jura, 
Lismore, Small Isles, Tiree and Coll, North Uist, 
and South Uist, in the smaller islands. Fourteen 
districts, however, have of late years been detached 
from them, and erected into quoad sacra parishes. 
These are Waternish and Stenscholl, in Skye,— 




Cross and Knock, in Lewis,— Kilmeny, Oa, and 
Portuahaven, in Islay, — Tobermory, Salen, and 
Kinlochspelvie, in Mull, — and Iona, Ulva, Bernera, 
and Trumisgarry, in the smaller islands. These 
forty parishes constitute the three presbyteries of 
Sky'e, Uist, and Lewis, in the synod of Glenelg, the 
presbytery of Islay and Jura, in the synod of Argyle, 
and the greater part of the presbytery of Mull, in 
the synod of Argyle. 

The social condition of the Hebrides, both in its 
moral and in its economical aspects, is closely sim- 
ilar to that of the Highlands, and has been controlled 
and modified by the same or similar causes; so that 
any account of it here would only he an anticipation 
of what we shall have to say in the article High- 
lands. A public report in 1850, carefully prepai'ed 
from very extensive data, says respecting it, with 
reference to emigration, — " It is evident that were 
the population reduced to the number that can live 
in tolerable comfort, that change alone would not 
secure the future prosperity and independence of 
those who remain. It maybe doubted whether any 
specific measures, calculated to have a material in- 
fluence on the result, could now be suggested that 
have not been repeatedly proposed. The operation 
of the poor law will contribute, with experience 
of the past, to prevent the occurrence of the evils 
from which all classes are now suffering. In- 
creased and improved means of education will 
tend to enlighten the people, and to fit them for 
seeking their livelihood in distant places, as well as 
tend to break the bonds that now confine them to 
their native localities. But to accomplish these 
objects, education must not be confined to reading, 
writing, and arithmetic. The object of all educa- 
tion is not less to excite the desire for knowledge, 
than to furnish the. means of acquiring it ; and in 
this respect, education in the Highlands is greatlv 
deficient. Instruction in agriculture and the man- 
agement of stock would facilitate the production of 
the means of subsistence. A more secure tenure of 
the lands they occupy would tend to make indus- 
trious and respectable crofters more diligent and 
successful cultivators. But the effects of all such 
measures depend on the spirit and manner in which 
they are carried out, as well as on the general man- 
agement with which they are connected through a 
series of years ; and it would be useless to dwell 
upon improvements which every one admits to be 
desirable, though few have succeeded in promoting 
them to any extent. It is curious and perhaps 
mortifying to observe how little the difirtcuce of 
management and the efforts of individuals appear 
to have influenced the progress of the population, 
and how uniformly that progress corresponds to the 
amount of intercourse with the more advanced parts 
of the country, and the length of time during which 
it has been established." 

The early history of the Hebrides — except in its 
ecclesiastical department, for which see the article 
Ioxa — is scanty, interrupted, and somewhat uncer- 
tain. The original inhabitants seem to have been 
Albanich, Caledonians, or Picts, displaced or over- 
run in the southern islands by Scots, and entirely 
modified in their character by settlements of Scan- 
dinavians. The pirates of Norway were acquainted 
with the Hebrides, and made occasional descents 
on tbem so early as the close of the 8th centuiy, 
and during the whole of the 9th. Some petty Nor- 
wegian kings, who resisted the celebrated Harald 
•Harfager's monopoly of kingcraft in their hyperbo- 
rean territories, made permanent settlements about 
the year 880 on several of the islands, and thence 
piratically infested the coasts of Norway. In 888, 
Harald retaliated on the pirates, and added the Isles 

to his kingdom. In 889, the petty kings or vikingr, 
shook off his authority, and bearded him anew in 
his Norwegian den; and next year they were again 
pent up in their insular fastnesses, and completely 
enthralled. But Ketil, their subjugator, and the 
emissary of Harald, worked himself into their fa- 
vour, renounced the allegiance of his master, pro- 
claimed himself King of the Isles, and established a 
dynasty who, though they maintained brief posses- 
sion, are the only figurants in the annals of about 
50 years. 

In 990, the Hebrides passed by conquest into the 
possession of Sigurd, Earl of Orkney, and under the 
government of a jarl or vice-king of his appoint- 
ment. They soon after were under the power of a 
king or usurper called Ragnal Macgophra. In 1004, 
they were again seized by Sigurd, and probably con- 
tinued under his sway till his death, 10 years later, 
at the famous battle of Clontarf in Ireland. In 
1034, they were, after some alienation, reconquered 
by Earl Thorfin, the son of Sigurd. From 1064 to 
1072, they were annexed to the Irish dominions of 
Diarmed Macmaelnambo ; and they next passed 
into the possession successively of Setric and his 
son Fingal. kings of the isle of Man. Godred Crovan, 
a Norwegian, having landed on the Isles as a fugitive 
in 1066, gradually drew around him influence and 
force, and, in 1077. after a desperate struggle, sub- 
dued and ejected Fingal ; and he afterwards extended 
his conquests to the Scandinavian vikingrship of 
Dublin, and a large part of Leinster, and stoutly 
tried the tug of war with Malcolm Caumore, King of 
Scotland. In 1093, Sigurd, the son of Magnus 
Barefoot, King of Norway, in revival of the Norwe- 
gian claims which had long lain in abeyance, was 
placed by a powerful and conquering force on the 
throne of the Isles ; and two years later Godred 
Crovan, the dethroned prince, died in retirement on 
the island of Islay. Sigurd being called away, on 
the death of his father, in 1 103, to inherit his native 
dominions, Lagonan, the eldest son of Godred Cro- 
van, was, seemingly with Sigurd's consent, elected 
King of the Isles ; and, after a reign of seven years, 
he abdicated in favour of his brother Olave, a minor, 
and went on a pilgrimage to Palestine. Donald 
Mactade, a nominee of Murchard O'Brian, King of 
Ireland, was sent at the request of the Hebridean 
nobles, to act as regent during Olave's minority • 
but he played so obnoxiously the part of a tyrant as 
to be indignantly turned adrift after a regency of 
two years. Olave assumed the sceptre in 1 1 ] 3, and 
swayed it peacefully and prosperously till 1154, 
when lie was murdered in the isle of Man, by his 
nephews, the sons of Harald. Godred the Black, 
Olave's son, succeeded him, and, early in his reign, 
conducted some successful wars in Ireland; but, 
puffed up with vanity, and disposed to domineer, he 
speedily alienated the affections and poisoned the 
allegiance of his subjects. 

Somerled, the powerful and ambitious lord of Ar- 
gyle, who had married Ragahildis, the daughter of 
Olave, who had some remote claims on the Hebri- 
dean throne by his own ancestors, and who became 
the founder of the great family of Macdonald, Lords 
of the Isles, now carried his son Dugall, the infant 
nephew of Godred, through all the islands except 
that of Man, which was the seat of the royal resi- 
dence, and compelled the principal inhabitants to 
give hostages on his behalf as their King. ' Godred, 
informed late of the rebellious proceedings, sailed 
away with a fleet of 80 galleys, and gave battle to 
the rebels; but was so gallantly resisted, and became 
so doubtful of success, that, by way of compromise, 
he ceded to the sons of Somerled the Scottish He- 
brides south of Ardnamurchan. The kingdom of 




the Isles was now, in 1156, divided into two domin- 
ions, and rapidly approached its ruin. In 1158, 
Somerled, acting nominally for his sons, invaded 
and devastated the isle of Man, drove Godredto seek 
a refuge in Norway, and apparently took possession 
of all the Isles ; and in 1164, becoming bold in the 
spirit of conquest, he menaced all Scotland, landed 
a powerful force on the Clyde near Renfrew, and 
there perished either in battle with Malcolm IV., 
or by assassination in his tent. The northern isles 
now returned with the isle of Man to Godred; Islay 
was allotted to Reginald, a son of Somerled ; and all 
the other isles were inherited by Dugall, in whose 
name they and the whole Hebrides had been seized 
by Somerled. All the princes, and afterwards three 
successors to their dominions, were contemporane- 
ously called Kings of the Isles, and appear to have 
held their possessions in subordination to the Kings 
of Norway. 

The Scots having long looked with a jealous and 
ambitious eye on the existence so near their shores, 
of a foreign domination, Alexander II. died on the 
coast of Argyleshire, at the head of an expedition 
intended to overrun the Isles. In 1255, Alexander 
III. ravaged the possessions of Angus Macclonald, 
Lord of Islay, and descendant of Reginald, in re- 
venge of his refusing to renounce fealty to the King 
of Norway, and give it to himself. In 1263, Haco 
of Norway poured down his northern hosts on the 
intrusive Scots, drove them from the Isles, chased 
them into Ayrshire, but, seeing his army shattered 
by adverse elements, and by a rencontre at Largs, 
retired to an early grave in Orkney. Alexander 111. 
now resumed his schemes with so great vigour, that 
in 1265, he obtained from the successor of Haco, a 
cession of all the Isles to Scotland. Islay, and the 
islands adjacent to it, continued in the possession of 
the descendants of Reginald ; some of the northern 
isles were held by the descendants of Ruari, both 
sons of Somerled ; and Skye and Lewis were con- 
ferred on the Earl of Ross, — all in vassalage to the 
Scottish monarch. In the wars of the succession, 
the houses of Islay and of the North Isles gave 
strenuous and hearty support to the doubtful fortunes 
of Robert Bruce. In 1325, Roderick Mao Alan of 
the North Isles, intrigued against Robert, and was 
stripped of his possessions ; and about the same date 
Angus Oig of Islay received accessions to his terri- 
tories, and became the most powerful vassal of the 
crown in the Hebrides. John, the successor of An- 
gus, adopted different politics from his father's, 
joined the standard of Edward Baliol, and, when 
that prince was in possession of the throne, received 
from him the islands of Skye and Lewis. David II., 
after the discomfiture of Baliol, allowed John to have 
possession of Islay, Gigha, Jura, Scarba, Colonsay, 
Mull, Coll, Tiree, and Lewis ; and granted to Re- 
ginald or Ranald, son of Roderick MacAlan, Uist, 
Barra, Eig, and Rum. Ranald dying, in 1346, with- 
out heirs, Amie, his sister, married to John, became 
his heir ; and John, consolidating her possessions 
with his own, assumed the title of Lord of the Isles. 

The wearer of the new-bom title and wielder of 
the power which it implied, resisting or revenging 
some fiscal arrangements of the Scottish govern- 
ment, broke loose into rebellion, and, after being 
with difficulty subdued, was, in 1369, reconciled 
with David II., a year before the King's death. 
Having previously divorced his first wife Amie, and 
married Lady Margaret, daughter of Robert, High 
'Steward of Scotland, he, in 1370, when Robert suc- 
ceeded to the throne, altered the destination of the 
Lordship of the Isles, so as to make it descend to 
his offspring by his fecond wife, the grandchildren 
of the King. Ranald, a younger son of the first, 

wife, and more accommodating and wily than Godfrey 
his eldest son, who claimed the whole possessions, 
expressed formal acquiescence in the alienating 
arrangement from the rightful line of descent, and 
was rewarded by a grant of the North isles, as well 
as lands on the continent, to be held of the Lords 
of the Isles. John died in 1380, after having propi- 
tiated monkish favour by liberal largesses to the 
church, and obtained from the cowled and insatiable 
beggars, who happened to monopolize all the pitiful 
stock of literature which existed at that period, the 
posthumous and flattering designation of "the good 
John of Islay." Donald, his eldest son by the second 
marriage, succeeded him as Lord of the Isles ; and 
marrying Mary Leslie, who aftei-wards became 
Countess of Ross, was precipitated, with all the 
clans and forces of the Hebrides at his heels, into 
the well-known contest with the Regent Albany 
respecting the earldom of Ross, and into its cele- 
brated upshot, the battle of Harlaw. Acknowledged 
by all the Hebrides, even by his half-brothers, as 
indisputably Lord of the Isles, admitted to have 
earned in liberality and prowess and lordly qualities 
what he wanted in strict justness of claim, and pos- 
sessing strictly the status of the first Earl of Ross 
of his family, he died, in 1420, in Islay, and, as his 
father had been before him, was pompously sepul- 
tured in Iona. 

Alexander, the third Lord of the Isles, was for- 
mally declared by James I. to be undoubted Earl of 
Ross, and, in 1425, was one of the jury who handed 
the Duke of Albany, and his sons, and the aged Earl 
of Lennox, over to the slaughter. Having become 
embroiled with his kinsmen, the descendants of the 
first Lord of the Isles by his first marriage, and 
having shared in conflicting agencies which had 
thrown the Hebrides into confusion, he was, in 1427 
summoned, along with many Hebridean and High- 
land chieftains, to appear before a parliament con- 
vened at Inverness. No sooner had he and his sub- 
ordinates arrived than, by a stratagem of the King, 
they were arrested, and conveyed to separate prisons. 
Though suffering himself no other inconvenience 
than temporary imprisonment, he was galled by the 
execution of not a few of his chieftains, and roused 
to revenge by the indignity practised on his own 
person; and, in 1429, he made a levy throughout 
both the Isles and his earldom of Ross, and at the 
head of 10,000 men, devastated the crown-lands iu 
the vicinity of Inverness, and burned the town itself 
to the ground. The King, informed of his proceed- 
ings, so promptly collected troops, and led them on 
by forced marches, that he confounded the Lord ot 
the Isles by suddenly overtaking him in Lochaber, 
won over, by the mere display of the royal banner, 
the Clan Chattan and the Clan Cameron, two of his 
most important tribes, and so hotly and relentlessly 
attacked and pursued him that he vainly sued for terms 
of accommodation. The Lord of the Isles, driven to a 
fugitive condition, and despairing to escape the pur- 
suers whom the King, abandoning personally the 
chase, had left to hunt along his track, resolved to 
cast himself on the royal mercy; and, on the eve of 
a solemn festival, clothed in the garb of pauperism 
and wretchedness, he rushed into the King's pre- 
sence, amidst his assembled court in Holyrood, and, 
surrendering his sword, abjectly sued for pardon. 
Though his life was spared, he was endungeoned for 
two years in the castle of Tantallon ; and he learned 
there such lessons of rebuke from his chastisement, 
that, when afterwards pardoned by parliament for all 
his crimes, he conducted himself peaceably, and even 
rose into favour. During the minority of James 11., 
he held the responsible and honourable office of Jus- 
ticiary of Scotland north of the Forth ; and, probably 




more as its occupant, than in the use of his power 
as Lord of the Isles, lie drove the chief of the Clan 
Cameron, who had deserted him in his conflict with 
the Crown, into banishment to Ireland, and virtual 
forfeiture of his lands. In 1445, however, he took 
part in a treasonable league with the Earls of Doug- 
las and Crawford against the infant-possessor of the 
royal throne, and probably contemplated nothing 
short of aiding an usurpation ; but, before his trea- 
sons had time to be sunned into maturity, he died, 
in 1449, at his castle of Dingwall. 

John, the 4th Lord of the Isles, and the 3d Earl 
of Eoss, having sold himself to the rebellious and 
mischief-making Earls of Douglas, who had severely 
reaped the fruits of the royal displeasure, despatched, 
in 1455, an expedition of 5,000 men to Ayrshire 
against James II., but gained little other advantage 
than the ravaging of Arran and the Cumbraes, the 
wringing of some exactions from the isle of Bute, 
and the driving into exile of the bishop of Argyle. 
Finding himself balked by his faithless allies, the 
Earls of Douglas, John, Lord of the Isles, made his 
submission to the King, and seems to have been fully 
received into royal favour. In 1457, he filled the 
very important and responsible office of one of the 
wardens of the marches; and, in 1460, previous to 
the siege of Roxburgh castle, he offered, at the head 
of 3,000 armed vassals, to march in the van of the 
royal army so as to sustain the first shock of conflict 
from expected invasion of the English, and was or- 
dered to remain, as a sort of body-guard, near the 
King's person. But on the accession of James III., 
he gave loose anew to his rebellious propensities, 
and, in 1461, sent deputies to the King of England 
who agreed to nothing less than the contemplated 
conquest of Scotland by the forces of the Lord of the 
Isles jointly with an English army. While his dep- 
uties were yet in negociation, he himself impatiently 
burst limits, poured an army upon the northern 
counties of Scotland, took possession of the castle of 
Inverness, and formally assumed a regal style of 
address and demeanour. In 1475 — though he had 
been previously forborne for 14 years, and allowed, 
by compromise or connivance to run unmolestedly 
a traitorous and usurping career — he was sternly 
denounced as a rebel, and summoned to appear be- 
fore a parliament in Edinburgh to answer for his 
crimes. Held back by a sense of guilt from con- 
fronting his accusers, or showing face to his judges, 
he incurred sentence of forfeiture ; and, menaced with 
a powerful armament to carry the sentence into 
execution, he gladly put on weeds of repentance, 
and, under the unexpected shelter of the Queen and 
of the Estates of parliament, appeared personally at 
Edinburgh, and humiliatingly delivered himself to 
the royal clemency. With great moderation on the 
part of the King, he was restored to his forfeited 
possessions ; and, making a voluntary surrender to 
the Crown of the earldom of Eoss, and some other 
continental possessions, he was created a baron and 
a peer of parliament by the title of Lord of the Isles. 
The succession, however, being restricted to his 
bastard sons, and they proving rebellious, John, 
either actually participating in their measures, or 
unable to exculpate himself from the show of evi- 
dence against him, was finally, in 1493, deprived of 
his title and estates. A few months after his for- 
feiture, making a virtue of necessity, he voluntarily 
surrendered his lordship ; and, after having become, 
for some time, a pensioner on the King's household, 
he sought a retreat in Paisley Abbey, which he and 
his ancestors had liberally endowed, and there sighed 
out the last breath of the renowned Lords of the 

James IV. seems now to have resolved on mea- 

sures for preventing the ascendency of any one 
family throughout the Isles ; and, proceeding warily 
and liberally to work, he went in person to the West 
Highlands to receive the submission of the vassals of 
the lordship. Alexander of Lochalsh, who was the 
presumptive heir before the last lord's forfeiture, 
John of Islay, who was the descendant of a side 
branch from the first lord, John Maclean of Loehbuy, 
and other chief vassals immediately waited on the 
King, and were favoured with an instatement by 
royal charter in their possessions ; and the first and 
the second received, at the same time, the honour of 
knighthood. But several other vassals of power and 
influence delaying to make their submission, the 
King made a second and a third visit to the western 
coast, repaired and garrisoned the castle of Tarbert, 
and seized, stored, and garrisoned the castle of Dun- 
averty in Kintyre. Sir John of Islay, deeply offended 
at the seizure of Kintyre, on which he made some 
claims, came down on the peninsula when the King, 
with a small rear-body of his followers, was about to 
sail, and stormed the castle of Dunaverty, and hanged 
the governor before the King's view. James IV., 
though unable at the moment to retaliate or punish, 
soon after had Sir John and four of his sons cap- 
tured, carried to Edinburgh, and convicted and exe- 
cuted as traitors. A year after, he made a fourth 
expedition westward, and received the submission of 
various powerful vassals of the defunct lordship, 
who hitherto had declined his authority. In 1496, 
an act was passed by the Lords of Council, making 
every chieftain in the Isles responsible for the due 
execution of legal writs upon any of his clan on pain 
of becoming personally subject to the penalty exi- 
gible from the offender. In 1497, Sir Alexander of 
Lochalsh first invaded Eoss, and was driven back by 
the Mackenzies and the Munroes, and next made an 
ineffectual attempt to rouse the Isles into rebellion 
round his standard, and drew upon himself, in the 
island of Oransay, a surprise and slaughter from 
Macian of Ardnamurchan, aided by Alexander, the 
eldest surviving son of Sir John of Islay. 

In 1499, the King suddenly changing his policy, 
revoked all the charters he had granted to the vassals 
in the Isles, and commissioned Archibald, Earl fo 
Argyle, and others, to let, in short leases, the lands 
of the lordship within all its limits as they stood at 
the date of forfeiture. The vassals, seeing prepara- 
tions afoot for their ejection, and having now amongst 
them Donald Dubh, whom they viewed as the right- 
ful lord, and who had just escaped from an incar- 
ceration, one main object of which was to prevent 
him from agitating his claims, formed a subtle, 
slowly-consolidated, and very dangerous confederacy. 
In 1503, Donald Dubh and his followers precipitated 
themselves on the mainland, devastated Badenoch, 
and wore so formidable an insurgent aspect as to rouse 
the attention of parliament, and agitate the whole 
kingdom. Though all the royal forces north of the 
Clyde and the Forth were brought into requisition, 
and castles in the west were fortified and garrisoned, 
and missives, both seductive and menacing, were 
thrown among the rebels, two years were required 
for the vindicating of the King's authority. In 1 504, 
the army acted in two divisions, — the northern, 
headed by the Earl of Huntly, and the southern, 
rendezvoused at Dumbarton, and led by the Earls of 
Arran and Argyle, Macian of Ardnamurchan, and 
Macleod of Dunvegan; but, except its besieging the 
strong fort of Carneburgh, on the west coast of Mull, 
and probably driving the islanders quite away from 
the continent, it did little execution. But next year, 
the King personally heading the invasion of the Isles 
on the south, while Huntly headed it on the north, 
such successes were achieved as completely broke 




up the insurgent confederacy. Torquil Macleod of 
Lewis and some other chiefs still holding out in de- 
spair, a third expedition was undertaken in 1506, 
and led to the capture of the castle of Stornoway, 
and the dispersion of the last fragmentary gatherings 
of rebellion. Donald Dubli, the last male in the 
direct line of the forfeited Lords of the Isles, was 
again made prisoner, and shut up in Edinburgh castle. 
Sheriffs or justiciaries were now appointed respect- 
ively to the North Isles and to the South Isles, the 
courts of the former to be held at Inverness or Ding- 
wall, and those of the latter at Tarbert or Loehkil- 
kerran; attempts were made to disseminate a know- 
ledge of the laws; and the royal authority became 
so established that the King, up to his death, in 1513, 
was popular throughout the islands. 

In November, 1513, amid the confusion which fol- 
lowed the battle of Flodden and the death of James 
IV., Sir Donald of Lochalsh seized the royal 
strengths in the islands, made a devastating irrup- 
tion upon Inverness-shire, and proclaimed himself 
Lord of the Isles. The Earl of Argyle, and various 
other chieftains in the western Islands, exhorted by 
an act or letters of the council, adopted measures 
against the islanders, but only checked and did not 
subdue their rebellion. Negotiation achieved what 
arms could not accomplish, and, in 1515, brought 
the rebels into subjection, and effected an apparently 
cordial reconciliation between Sir Donald of Loch- 
alsh and the R;gent Albany. In 1517, however, 
Sir Donald was again in rebellion; but he so dis- 
gusted his followers by deceptions which they 
found him to have used in summoning them to 
arms, that they indignantly turned upon him, and 
were prevented, only by his making an opportune 
flight, from delivering him up to the Regent. In 
1527, the tranquillity of the Isles was again men- 
aced by the inhuman conduct of Lauchlan Cattanach 
Maclean of Dowart to his wife, Lady Elizabeth, 
daughter of Archibald, second Earl of Argyle. On 
a rock, still called " the Lady's Rock," between 
Lismore and Mull, the lady was exposed at low 
water by this monster, with the intention of her 
being swept away by the tide; but, being accident- 
ally descried by a boat's crew, she was rescued and 
carried to her brother's castle. One of the Camp- 
bells unceremoniously taking revenge by assassi- 
nating the truculent chief, the Macleans and the 
Campbells both ran to arms for mutual onset, and 
were prevented from embroiling the Isles only by 
the special interference of Government. 

In 1528, all grants of the Crown lands in the 
Isles, made during the regency of the Earl of An- 
gus, and considerable in extent, having been with- 
drawn, the Clan Donald of Islay and the Macleans, 
who were interested parties, rose up in insurrection, 
and drew down a devastation upon large portions of 
Mull and Tiree, by the Campbells, in revenge of 
sanguinary descents upon Roseneatli and Craignish. 
In the same year, disastrous broils accrued in the 
North Isles from a feud between the Macdonalds 
and the Macleods of Harris. Nearly the whole He- 
brides being, in 1529, in a state of insubordination 
and tumult, James V. made vast military and naval 
^reparations for visiting them in person, and inflict- 
ing on them a royal castigation ; and he so overawed 
the Islesmen by the multitudinousness and the might 
of the hosts which he seemed about to precipitate 
on their territories, that many of their considerable 
chiefs hurriedly poured in letters and messages of 
submission. The King no longer esteeming his 
personal presence necessary, the Earls of Argyle 
and Moray, respectively, in the north and in the 
south, headed departments of the expedition, and, 
more by the mere display than by the application 

of the force which they commanded, reduced all the 
islands to obedience and order. Alexander of Islay, 
the most active mover in the insurrection, having 
in an abject manner placed himself wholly at the 
King's mercy at Stirling, was not only, on some 
easy conditions, freely pardoned, but even enriched 
with accessions to his estates; and in 1532, this 
pardoned insurgent was despatched at the head of 
7,000 or 8,000 men to Ireland, to make a diversion 
in favour of the Scots in their war with England. 
In 1539, Donald Gorme of Sleat, the next lineal 
male heir of the Lords of the Isles after Donald 
Dubh, who continued in imprisonment, became the 
centre of an extensively ramified conspiracy for re- 
edifying the lordship of the Isles and the "earldom 
of Ross on their ancient basis; and, strengthened by 
a numerous alliance, made a descent from Skye, 
upon Ross-shire, and wasted the district of Kin- 
lochen; but while attacking the castle of Elan- 
donan, he was mortally wounded by a poisoned 
arrow, and bequeathed to his followers only the dis- 
asters of a hurried retreat, and the responsibility of 
a fruitless insurgent expedition. Though the insur- 
rection was now at an end, the King, strongly re- 
senting the object of it, sailed, in 1540, with a 
powerful armament, from the Forth, round the north 
of Scotland, to the Isles, and landed successively on 
Lewis, Skye, Mull, and Islay, took on board his ships 
all the principal chiefs, disembarked at Dumbarton, 
and thence sent the chiefs captive to Edinburgh. 
Some stringent regulations seem now to have been 
made, though they have not come down to posterity, 
respecting the future preservation of Hebridean 
order and subordination ; and several of the more 
intractable and dangerous chiefs were denied their 
personal freedom ; others who were liberated, were 
obliged to give hostages for their good conduct; and 
all the islanders were overawed by the garrisoning 
with royal troops of some of the strengths of their 
territory. The early death of the King, however, 
in 1542, prevented his vigorous measures — the only 
ones of competent energy which had ever been hi- 
therto adopted toward the turbulent Hebrideans — 
from bringing their fruit to maturity. 

Donald Dubh, the immediate heir of the lordship 
of the Isles, after having been forty years a prisoner 
from the period of his attempt to seize his inheri- 
tance, again broke from his jailers in 1543, and was 
received with enthusiasm by the people of the Isles. 
The Regent Arran in miserable policy exulted in his 
escape, as in the prospect it afforded of carving out 
embarrassing work for the Earls of Argyle and 
Huntly, who had large possessions within the terri- 
tories of the forfeited lordship; and, in order to give 
indirect but most efficient aid, shortsightedly liber- 
ated the chiefs and hostages whom the late King 
had placed in custody for the conservation of the 
Hebridean peace. Donald Dubh, supported by all 
the chiefs of the Isles except James Macdonald of 
Islay, made a descent on the Earl of Argyle's terri- 
tories, and performed such feats of plunder and 
slaughter as detained the Earl from prosecuting 
some intrigues of state. The Regent Arran sud- 
denly changing his views on the leading political 
question of the day — support or resistance of the 
views of the King of England — made munificent 
offers to Donald Dubh and the liberated chiefs to 
induce their detachment from the English party, 
but was mortified with total failure, and doubly 
mortified to reflect, that, by connivance at Donald, 
and the liberation of the chiefs and hostages, be had 
himself originated the evil which he now vainly 
negotiated to avert. In 1544, during the expedition 
of the Earl of Lennox to the Clyde, the islanders 
readily responded to a call by that commander and 




the English King, perpetrated hostile excesses ill all 
accessible quarters where support was given to the 
Earls of Argyle and Huntly, and, in some instances, 
gave bonds of future service to England. Among 
the English in their defeat, in 1545, at Ancrum, 
was Neill Macneill of Gigha, one of the Hebridean 
chiefs, — present, possibly, as an ambassador from 
Donald Dubh. 

In June, 1545, the Regent Arran and his privy 
council, learning that the islanders were in course 
of formally transferring their allegiance from Scot- 
land to England, issued against them a smart pro- 
clamation, and, afterwards, seeing this to be regard- 
ed as a mere "brutum fulmen," commenced prose- 
cutions for treason against the principal leaders. 
On the 5th of August, however, Donald Dubh and 
his chiefs, in capacity of Lord and Barons of the 
Isles, appeared, with 4,0U0 men and 180 galleys, at 
Knockfergus in Ireland, and there, in the presence 
of commissioners sent to treat with them, formally 
swore allegiance to England; yet, acting under the 
advice of the Earl of Lennox, and regarding him as 
the real regent of Scotland, they did not consider 
themselves as revolting from the Scottish monarch. 
Four thousand armed men were, at the same time, 
left behind them under leaders in the Isles, to watch 
and check the movements of the Earls of Argyle 
and Huntly; and these, in common with the 4,000 
in attendance on Donald, were kept in pay by the 
English King to take part in a contemplated but 
abortive expedition against Scotland, and, imme- 
diately after Donald's return, quarrelled among 
themselves respecting the distribution of the English 
gold. Donald dying toward the close of the year, 
at Drogheda in Ireland, seemingly while in the 
train of the baffled and retreating Earl of Lennox, 
the islanders elected James Macdonald to succeed 
him in his titular lordship of the isles. Yet the 
Macleods, both of Lewis and of Harris, the Mac- 
neills of Barra, the Mackinnons and the Mac- 
quarries, who had supported Donald, stood aloof 
from James Macdonald, and asked and obtained a 
reconciliation with the Regent; and, in the following 
year, the Island-chiefs, in general, were exonerated 
from the prosecutions for treason which had been 
commenced against them, and sat down in restored 
good understanding with the Scottish government. 
James Macdonald now dropped the assumed title of 
Lord of the Isles, and seems to have been the last 
person who even usurpingly wore it, or on whose 
behalf a revival of it was attempted. 

At this date of the utter extinction of the cele- 
brated title of the Lord of the Isles, we properly 
close our historical account of the collective and 
distinctive Hebrides. Almost all the events which 
followed were either strictly common to the Islands 
and the Highlands, and fall to be exhibited in our 
article on the Highlands, or clannish feuds, or other 
occurrences transacted in limited localities, and oc- 
cur to be noticed, so far as the} 7 are worthy of men- 
tion, in our articles on particular islands or parti- 
cular Hebridean objects. 

HECK, a village in the parish of Lochmaben, 
Dumfries-shire. It is one of the Fouk Towns; 
which see. Population, 57. Houses, 15. 

HECLA. See Uist (South). 

HECKSPETH. See Eden (The). 

HEISKER, an island of the Inverness-shire He- 
brides. It lies 7i miles west of the middle of the 
west coast of North Uist. It extends south-east- 
ward, with a length of about two miles, and a com- 
paratively narrow breadth. It has a sandy soil, 
yields very little grass, and formerly was of value 
onlv for its kelp shores. Population in 1841,39; 
in 1861, 127. Houses, 13. 

HEITON, or Hichtown, a .post-office village in 
the parish of Roxburgh. It stands on the road 
from Berwick to Hawick, 2J miles south by west 
of Kelso. It has a dingy appearance, sadly out of 
keeping with the joyous scenery around it. Here 
is a parochial school. Population, 214. Houses, 53. 

HELDAZAY, an island, of a somewhat circular 
outline, about a mile in diameter, lying 3£ miles 
west of the Tingwall part of the mainland of Shet- 

HELENSBURGH, a post-town and burgh of 
barony, partly in the parish of Cardross, but chiefly 
in the parish of Row, Dumbartonshire. It stands 
on the shore of the frith of Clyde, and on the road 
from Dumbarton to Inverary, contiguous to the 
entrance of the Gairloch and directly opposite 
Greenock, 2 miles south-east of the village of Row, 
4 by water north of Greenock, 8 west -north-west of 
Dumbarton, 9 south by west of Luss, 17 south by 
east of Arrochar, and 23 west-north-west of Glas- 
gow. Its site is partly an alluvial flat, immediately 
flanking a fine sea-beach, and partly the skirt of a 
long, broad, gentle hill, rising slowly from the flat, 
and ascending easily to the country. The town 
comprises a terrace toward the beach, and parallel 
streets or lines of houses behind, with short inter- 
secting streets which cut the main thoroughfares at 
right angles, and is thus a slender parallelogram ; 
but, at both ends, it straggles pleasantly along the 
shore, and melts gently away into rural scenery, 
through the medium of successive villas. As seen 
from the opposite shore, it is a town dressed in 
white, and seems to be keeping perpetual holiday ; 
and, in certain and not infrequent combinations of 
shade and sunshine, it appears to be a miniature Ve- 
nice, a city of the sea, resting its edifices, with their 
clearly-defined outlines, on the bosom of the bur- 
nished or silvery waters. Though its streets are 
not compact, and are altogether destitute of the 
finer adornings of architecture, they present — even 
where the buildings are capriciously asunder — an 
agreeable appearance to the eye. Most of the 
houses have been built solely or chiefly as sea-bath- 
ing quarters ; many are ornate cottages, surrounded 
by beautiful bits of lawn, garden, or shrubbery ; 
and a large proportion are not unworthy of their 
pretensions to be residences of respectable retired 
annuitants, or summer-retreats of the families of 
wealthy Glasgow merchants. 

The town, with the exception of a little weaving, 
has no manufacture, nor any suitable employment 
for its inhabitants, but depends for subsistence al- 
most wholly on its capacities as a watering-place. 
It is joyous, bustling, and full of life during the 
bathing-season, but fades away and languishes to- 
ward the approach of winter, and, like the vegetable 
creation and the hybernating dormant animals, 
waits in inaction the return of the spring for the 
revival of its energies. It long had a hinderance to 
its prosperity in the incommodiousness of its old 
quay, which was such as often to render landing 
from steamers not a little unpleasant; but, besides 
overcoming that hinderance by the erection of a new 
quay, and continuing to have communication with 
Greenock and Glasgow by steamers, it got, in 1858, 
the important advantage of railway communication 
to Glasgow, by a line going into junction with the 
Vale of Leven railway at Dumbarton ; and, since that 
time, it has undergone much extension. At the west 
end of it is the mansion of Ardincaple, surrounded 
with pleasure-grounds which charm the eye with 
their beauty. Directly opposite, on the Roseneath 
side of Gairloch, rise the stately towers of Rose- 
neath castle from amidst a sea of forest. A mile 
and a quarter beyond Ardincaple are a snug spot 




around Row church, and a projecting point into 
Gairloch, from both of which splendid views are 
obtained east, south, and west. All along the bo- 
som of the loch, and into several of its little bays 
and landing-places, upward to its head, the steamers 
steer their way, introducing tourists and pleasure- 
parties both to fairy-nooks for feasting on beauteous 
close scenery, and to vantage-grounds for survey- 
ing extensive, brilliant, and romantic combinations 
of the picturesque. But, even apart from its en- 
virons, Helensburgh, within its own limits of obser- 
vation, is curtained round by quite enough of beau- 
teous landscape to shut out the tormentors from 
every sort of ennuyee except the cynic. In front 
of it, but some points to the west, rise the gentle 
swells of Roseneath, rolled into variety of surface, 
belted in some place9, and clothed in others with 
wood, and foiled by the deep brown or the snowy 
white summits of the Argyleshire mountains cut- 
ting the sky-line with their rugged edges in the 
distance ; south-eastward, the broad low peninsula 
of Ardmore brings an invasion of forest on the frith 
of Clyde on the foreground, and the Renfrewshire 
hills slowly recede up a frilled and chequered gentle 
ascent of verdure, till their summits undulate on the 
horizon in the back-ground ; and right in front 
Port-Glasgow, just visible past the point of Ard- 
more, Greenock, with its grove of masts in the 
front, and i^s terraces or straggling buildings climb- 
ing the acclivity in the rear, and Gourock, beauti- 
fully foiled by the intervening and thoroughly 
wooded Castle-point of Roseneath, stretch out be- 
fore the eye at such intervals of distance as finely 
combine town and country landscape, and repose 
against such an immediate background of miniature 
highland hills, and behind so beautiful an expanse 
of land-locked water, with its stir of ship and 
steam-boat and wherry, as, if they do not astonish 
and thrill, impart the more prolonged enjoyment of 
calm delight. 

The beach in front of the town is dressed off in 
artificial neatness. A grassy public promenade in- 
tervenes between the beach and the western half 
of the town. A large chapel of ease, built in 1847, 
stands contiguous to the beach at the east end of 
the promenade, displaying one of the flanks of an 
oblong outline to the water, and adorned in front, 
or rather made half-ridiculous, with a square tower 
which rises gauntly up without feature or gradua- 
tion, and is closed over by a roof. A Free church, 
built in 1852, stands in a small square not far from 
the middle of the town, and sends prominently aloft, 
as a marked feature in eveiy view of the place from 
the frith and from the country, a finely tapering 
Gothic spire, of good proportions, resembling, 
though somewhat roughly, the exquisite spire of 
the Assembly hall in Edinburgh. An United 
Presbyterian church, built in 1845, stands a little 
east of the Free church, and has a neat Gothic 
front. There are also in the town an Independent 
chapel and an Episcopalian chapel, both of them 
good modern buildings. There are likewise a good 
school of the Establishment, a good Free church 
school, and two excellent boarding schools, respec- 
tively for boys and for girls. There is at the east 
end of the town a commodious edifice, which was 
built long ago as a hotel, and took the name of the 
Baths from its containing every appliance for all 
sorts of sanitary and luxurious immersions. The 
town has a gas-work, two reading-rooms, an 
athenaeum, branch offices of the Clydesdale and 
Union banks, and fire insurance agencies. 

Helensburgh was erected into a burgh of barony 
in 1802. It holds of Sir James Colquhoun, Bart., 
of Luss; and is governed by a provost, 2 bailies, 8 

councillors, a treasurer, and a superintendent of 
works. The electors of the municipal authorities 
were originally the feuars of house and garden 
plots, but are now the tenants, owners, or life- 
renters of heritable subjects of the yearly rent or 
value of £10 or upwards. The constituency in 
1854 was 241. In terms of its charter, the town is 
authorized to have a weekly market on Thursdays, 
and 4 annual fairs. The town was founded in 1777 
by its superior, Sir James Colquhoun, Bart., and 
named after his wife Helen, the daughter of Wil- 
liam, Lord Strathnaver, son and heir apparent of 
John, 19th Earl of Sutherland. After the com- 
mencement of the present century, it was the scene 
of the successful efforts of the ingenious Henry 
Bell to propel vessels by steam. After all the origi- 
nal steam-projectors had ceased to make experi- 
ments, Mr. Bell, having employed Messrs. John 
"Wood and Co., of Port-Glasgow, to build a steam 
vessel of 30 tons burden, personally constructed an 
engine for it of 3 horses' power, applied the paddles, 
imposed on it the name of the Comet, and, aftei 
several experiments, dismissed it, in January 1812, 
on a course of regular navigation between Glasgow 
and Greenock. Though confronted with piratical 
claims, and obliged to combat powerful influence 
exerted on their behalf, he wrung from the jury of 
the civilized world an acknowledgment of his hav 
ing been the first person in Europe who success 
fully propelled a vessel by steam on a navigable 
river; and, so far as scene of residence makes 
genius the common property of a limited com- 
munity, he wreathed the garland of his fame round 
the brow of the smiling little town of Helensburgh. 
He died at the Baths of the town in March 1830, 
aged 63, and was interred in Row burying-ground. 
The project for connecting Helensburgh by railway 
with Glasgow was long in agitation before being 
carried out; and it has been followed by the run- 
ning of omnibuses to Row and Gairloch-head in con- 
nection with the trains. Population in 1835, about 
1,400; in 1861, 4,613. Houses, 686. But this 
population is more than doubled during the sea- 
bathing season. 

HELLISAY, an inhabited island, about a mile 
long, belonging to the parish of Barra, and lying 2J 
miles north-east of the island of Barra, in the Outer 
Hebrides. Population in 1841, 108; in 1861, 20. 
House, 4. 

HELLMOOR LOCH, a lake, about J of a mile 
long, on the mutual boundary of the parishes of 
Yarrow and Roberton, in Selkirkshire. It sends off 
its superfluence southward to Ale water. 

HELL'S CLEUGH, or Pyked Stake, a moun- 
tain in Peebles-shire, comprising the point m 
which the three parishes of Kirkurd, Broughton, 
and Stobo meet, and possessing an altitude, accord- 
ing to Armstrong, of 2,100 feet above sea-level. 
The name Pyked-Stane belongs strictly to the sum- 
mit, and is derived from a small cairn with which 
it is crowned; while the name Hell's Cleugh seems 
to belong to the northern or Kirkurd declivity, 
which is furrowed by a torrent, tributary to the 
Forth. The summit of the mountain commands 
one of the most extensive views in Scotland, though 
one which is marred and broken by a surgy sea ot 
heights which compose the foreground ; and it lifts 
the eye in one direction, to the hills around Loch- 
Lomond, — in another, <o the Eildon Hills, behind 
Melrose, — and in a third, to the blue, dome-like 
summits of the Cheviots, in Northumberland. 

HELL'S HOLE. See Forkes. 

HELL'S LUM. See Gamrie. 

HELL'S SKERRIES, a cluster of islets, about 10 
miles west of Rum, in the Hebrides. They derive 




their name from the violence and perilousness of 
the tidal current which runs through them. 

HELMSDALE, a post-office village and small 
sea-port, in the parish of Kildonan, Sutherlandshire. 
It stands at the mouth of the Helmsdale river, and 
on the road from Inverness to Wick, 2 miles north- 
east of Portgower, 16} north-east of Golspie, and 
4l£ south-west of Wick. It stands on the property 
of the Duke of Sutherland, and was huilt for the 
accommodation of cottagers who were driven from 
the inland districts of the county by the introduction 
of the large-farm sheep husbandry. It dates from 
the same period as Portgower and Golspie, and has 
all along had similar sources of sustenance to theirs ; 
but, in addition, it possesses, in the small bay or 
estuary of its river, a better natural harbour for the 
herring fishery than any other within a long range 
of adjacent coast, and has in consequence been 
made the head-quarters of a district of that fishery. 
Its harbour has been improved, and is the regular 
rendezvous of great numbers of herring busses. 
During the year 1853, the number of barrels of her- 
rings cured here was 37,263, the number of persons 
employed in its herring fishery was 1,428, and the 
total value of boats, nets, and lines used by these 
persons was £7,866. The village has a fishery 
office, a branch of the City of Glasgow Bank, a 
Free church, an Assembly's school, a subscription 
school, and a female industrial school. Popula- 
tion, 762. 

Helmsdale-castle, a plain-looking ruin, on a rising 
ground overlooking the river, was a hunting seat of 
the Sutherland family ; and is noted as the scene, 
in 1567, of the murder by poison of the eleventh 
Earl of Sutherland and his Countess. The assassin, 
Isabella Sinclair, had for her object the succession 
of her own son to the earldom, and suffered the 
startling retribution of seeing him drink, to his 
immediate destruction, a poisoned cup which she 
had prepared for the only son of Lord Sutherland ; 
and when she was condemned for her crimes to die 
ignominiously in Edinburgh, she committed suicide 
on the day appointed for her execution, and attempt- 
ed to fasten the odium of her wickedness upon her 
cousin, George, Earl of Caithness, whom she assert- 
ed to have been her instigator. 

HELMSDALE, or Ilie (The), a river of Suther- 
landshire. It gathers its head-waters from Loch 
Fisach, Loch Coyn, and several other lakes, in the 
upper parts of the parishes of Farr and Kildonan ; 
it is augmented by numerous torrents and upland 
brooks, comingdown to it from among the mountains 
and hills on its flanks ; it runs generally along a 
fine strath or hill-flanked valley, of from J A mile to 
3 miles in width across the low ground ; and it rolls 
down, with many graceful curves in its course, 
amidst holms and haughs of the brightest verdure, 
and occasionally through birch-covered plots that 
partiallyconcealsome of its bends and reaches, until it 
enters the ocean at the village of Helmsdale. Its 
total length of course is about 26 miles; and its 
general direction is toward the south-east. The 
greater part of its run is through the centre, from 
end to end, of the parish of Kildonan ; but the con- 
cluding part is across the district recently belonging 
to the parish of Loth. It abounds with salmon. 


HELVELS, or Haxivails, two mountains in the 
western peninsula of the parish of Duirinish, in the 
island of Skye. Both have an altitude of about 
1 .700 feet, and are remarkable for at once the ver- 
dure of their surface, the regularity of their slope, 
and the tabular or perfectly level form of their sum- 
mit,- — which last feature has procured for them 
among mariners the name of Macleod's tables ; but 

they are popularly distinguished from each other as 
the Greater and the Lesser. A range goes off from 
the Greater to terminate in the vast precipice oi 
Dunvegan-head ; and a similar range goes off from 
the Lesser, to terminate forkedly in the sublime 
cliff-points of Idrigil and Waterstone. 

HENDERLAND. See Blacichouse and Lyne. 


HENLAWSHIEL. See Kikkton. 

HENRIETTATOWN, a section of the village oi 
Avoeh in Ross-shire. 

HEOGALAND, a pastoral islet adjacent to Unst 
in Shetland. 


HERDMANSTON. See Hermiston. 

HERIOT (The), a stream of the Moorfoot district 
of Edinburghshire. It rises in three head-waters, 
at the south-western extremity of the parish' of 
Heriot. The two of longest course, called respec 
tively Blakeup water and Hope burn, rise within a 
mile of each other, and make a confluence at Garval, 
after having flowed north-eastward about 4 miles ; 
and the third, bearing from its source the name of 
the Heriot, rises farther to the east, and after a 
northerly course of 3 miles, unites with the other 
streams half-a-mile below their point of confluence. 
The Heriot now pursues a course generally to the 
north of east, over a distance of 3} miles, swelled in 
its progress by Row burn from the south, and Heckle 
burn from the north. It then bends south-eastward, 
receives the waters of Dead burn from the west, 
traces for 5 furlongs the boundary between the 
parishes of Heriot and Stow, and, at Haltree, pours 
its accumulations into the Gala. The Heriot is, in 
strict propriety, the parent stream, and the Gala the 
tributary ; the former having, at the point of con- 
fluence, flowed 8 miles, while the latter has flowed 
only 4i. Both streams, before uniting, afford ex- 
cellent trouting. The Heriot drains a large pro- 
portion of the Moorfoot hills, and frequently brings 
upon the low grounds impetuous freshets. 

HERIOT, a parish, containing a post-office sta- 
tion of its own name, in the south-east of Edinburgh- 
shire. It is bounded by Peebles-shire, and by the 
parishes of Temple, Borthwick, Fala, and Stow. Its 
length, north-eastward, is 7J miles ; and its greatest 
breadth is 44; miles. It consists of the basin of 
Heriot water, and a small portion of the uppermost 
part of the basin of the Gala. Except on the banks 
of the streams in the north-east, where there are 
some flat low lands, the entire parish is a congeries 
of mountainous hills ; and, viewed as a whole, it is 
a strictly pastoral district. Though the grounds on 
the lower part of Heriot water are fertile, and when 
duly cultivated yieldan abundant produce, only about 
one-tenthofiheentireareaofthe parish is arable. The 
hills are, for the most part, covered with heath and 
of bleak aspect ; though, in some instances, their 
sides are ploughed up into fields, and being cropped 
for a few years, and sown out, afford a rich pasture 
for sheep. The hills along the sides and centre are 
the two ranges of the Moorfoots, with their spurs, 
running along from Peebles-shire, to join the main 
body of the Lammermoors at Soutra hill, in the par- 
ish of Soutra. The highest is Blakeup Scars, and 
the next in height is Dewar hill ; which rise re- 
spectively 2,193 and 1,654 feet above the level of 
the sea. The climate, though cold, is remarkably 
healthy. There are seven landowners. The aver- 
age yearly value of raw produce was estimated in 
1839 at £5,644 ; and the yearly value of real pro- 
perty, as assessed in 1860, was £4,315. The 
parish is traversed across the middle by the road 
from Edinburgh to Innerleithen, and across the 
lower end by the road from Edinburgh to Galashiels, 



And by the Hawick branch of the North British 
railway; and it has a station on the railway, 19 J 
miles from Edinburgh. On the summits of some 
of the hills are traces of ancient camps, consisting 
of three or more concentric circles, with spaces for 
gateways. On the farm of Dewar, on the boundary 
with Peebles-shire, are the head and footstones of what 
is called " the Pipers grave." See Dewar. Not far 
from Heriot house is a stone, on which an unfortunate 
woman was burnt for the imputed crime of witch- 
craft, and which is called from her Mary Gibbs. On 
Heriot-town-hill-headand Borth wick-hall-hill-head, 
respectively, are a circle of tall stones70 or 80 feet in 
diameter, and three concentric rings or ditches about 
50 paces in diameter, which Chalmers says are the 
only Druidical remains in Scotland, except those in 
the parish of Kirknewton. Population in 1831, 327; 
in re61, 407. Houses, 70. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Dalkeith, and 
synod of Lothian and Tweeddale. Patron, the Earl 
of Stair. Stipend, £158 6s. 7d. ; glebe, £30. School- 
master's salary is now £60, with £25 fees, and £4 
15s. other emoluments. The parish church was 
built in 1804, and contains about 2U0 sittings. There 
is a Free church for Stow and Heriot. The ancient 
church of Heriot was of considerable value, having 
been rated in the Taxatio at 30 marks. The manor 
of Heriot belonged to the Morvilles, and next to the 
Lords of Galloway, and certainly was possessed by 
Roger de Quincey, the constable of Scotland. In 
the division of De Quincey's great estates, Elena, the 
youngest daughter, who married Allan la Zouche, 
an English Baron, inherited Heriot; and she 
granted the church, with its tithes and other rights, 
to the monks of Newbattle. In 1309, William Blair, 
the vicar of " Heryeth," having resigned his vicar- 
age to Lamberton, bishop of St. Andrews, the monks 
of Newbattle obtained a grant from the bishop of all 
the vicarage dues. The monks obtained also — ■ 
though from whom, or at what date, does not ap- 
pear — the lands of Heriot ; and they were propri- 
etors of the whole parish at the epoch of the Re- 
formation. A fair is held at Heriot-house on the 
Friday after the 26th of May. 

HERMAND. See Gilder (West). 

HERMATRA, a small inhabited island, in the 
Sound of Harris, If mile north-east of the nearest 
part of North Uist, in the Outer Hebrides. A fish- 
ing station was established on it by Charles I. 
Population, 8. House, 1. 

HERMISTON, a village in the parish of Currie, 
Edinburghshire. It stands on the road from Edin- 
burgh to Mid Calder, adjacent to the north bank of 
the Union Canal, If mile north of the village of 
Currie. Population, 164. Houses, 36. 

HERMISTON, or Herdmanston, an estate in 
the parish of Salton, Haddingtonshire. Here are 
some remains of an ancient castle or fortalice of the 
Sinclairs, of which the following tradition is related: 
— In the year 1470, Marion and Margaret Sinclair, 
co-heiresses of Polwarth, being in the full posses- 
sion of their estates of Polwarth and Kimergham, 
were decoyed by their uncle Sinclair to his castle of 
Herdmanston, in East Lothian ; and there they 
were cruelly detained prisoners. The feudal system 
then reigned in all its horrors ; and every baron had 
the powerof life and death within his territory. The 
two young heiresses were in great perplexity and 
terror. Marion, the eldest, conveyed a letter by the 
hands of Johnny Faa, captain of a gang of gipsies, 
to George Home, the young Baron of Wedderburn, 
her lover, acquainting him of her own and her sister's 
perilous situation ; upon the receipt of which, the 
Baron and his brother Patrick set out with a hun- 
dred chosen men to relieve the two fair captives ; 

which they achieved not without the loss of lives on 
both sides, as Sinclair made a stout resistance with 
all the force he could collect. The fair captives 
were brought off in triumph ; and after travelling 
all night on horseback across the Lammermoors, 
arrived next morning at Polwarth, guarded by their 
two young champions, whom they soon after mar- 
ried, which gave rise to the old song of ' Polwarth 
on the Green ;' and from them descended the suc- 
ceeding Barons of Wedderburn and the Earls of 


HERMITAGE WATER, a rivulet of Castleton 
or Liddesdale, in Roxburghshire. It is formed at 
a point about 3i miles from the watershed with the 
head of Teviotdale by the confluence of Tvvislehope 
burn and Billhope burn. It then flows 1J mile 
eastward, and 2f southward of east, receiving, in its 
progress, several inconsiderable mountain rills, 
sweeping past the dark tower of Hermitage castle, 
and fringed in the lower part of the course with 
natural wood and plantation, but generally over- 
looked by wild mountain-scenery. It now receives 
from the north the waters of Whithope burn, a 
tributary of 4 miles course, and, half-a-mile down, 
those of Boughley burn, which rises only half-a- 
mile from the source of the former stream, and flows 
parallel to it over its whole course ; and the Hermi- 
tage, swollen by its feeders, and driven aside by 
their collision, makes an abrupt turn, runs in a di- 
rection nearly due south, over a distance of 3f miles 
along a vale of much rural beauty, and 1^ mile 
above the village of New-Castleton, falls into the 
river Liddel. Its entire length of course, measuring 
from the head of Twislehope bum, is between 11 
and 12 miles. 

HERMITRAY. See Hermatra. 

HERRIOTFIELD, a village in the parish of 
Monzie. Perthshire. Population, 106. Houses, 32. 

HESTON, an islet belonging to the parish of 
Rerrick in Kirkcudbrightshire. It is of an oval 
outline, about If mile in circumference ; and lies 
across the mouth of Auchencairn bay, with a smooth, 
green, and comparatively high surface, giving to the 
bay a lake-like or landlocked appearance. 

HEUGH-HEAD, a hamlet in the parish of Strath- 
don, Aberdeenshire. Population, about 50. 

HEUGHMILL LOCH, a lake of about 20 acres, 
driving a corn-mill, in the parish of Craigie, Ayr- 

HEVERA, an island, about a mile in diameter, 
belonging to the parish of Bressay in Shetland. It 
lies in the bay of Scalloway, 2 miles south of Burra. 
It has the appearance of a high rock, and is acces- 
sible only by one wild creek, overhung by cliffs. 
Five families formerly inhabited it, in houses fright- 
fully situated on the brink of a precipice. An islet, 
called Little Hevera, adjoins its south side. 

HIER-CAIRNS. See Monikie. 

HIETON. See Heiton. 


HIGH-CHANGE-HILL. See Cumnock (New). 

HIGH-HOLM. See Dunfermline. 

HIGHLANDS (The), a thinly inhabited division 
of Scotland, comprehending somewhat more than 
one-half of its surface, and remarkable for the pecu- 
liar character of its ancient inhabitants and history, 
and for a pervading mixture of wildness, beauty, 
and sublimity in its scenery. To define the limits 
of the Highlands, or rather to trace the boundary- 
line with the Lowlands, requires a previous fixation 
of the characteristic features of the region. If by 
the Highlands be meant the territory commensurate 
with the use of the Gaelic language, and with marked 
vestiges of ancient Celtic manners, the limits must 



exclude considerable districts in the present day, 
such as the island of Bute, and large tracts in the 
shires of Dumbarton. Perth, Forfar, and Aberdeen, 
which were undoubtedly included at comparatively 
a very modern date. If hii/h lands, in the literal 
signification of the words, be understood, the broad 
mountain-belts south of the Forth, and south and 
east of the Clyde, though sometimes popularly called 
the Southern Highlands, were never included by 
community of peculiar name or history or manners 
in the Highlands properly so designated, and stand 
far apart from them in geographical position ; while, 
on the other hand, the stretches of low country which 
intervene amongst the Highland mountains, and, in 
some instances — as in Dumbartonshire and Caith- 
ness — come down from these mountains in gentle 
slopes to points where they are terminated by a great 
natural barrier, never were included in the Lowlands. 
Though, with these exceptions, mountainousness of 
surface, and the perpetuation to the present day of 
the Celtic language and some Celtic usages distinc- 
tively characterize the whole Highlands, yet the 
definition of the territory which best suits the pur- 
poses of history, and, in all respects, most nearly 
accords with those of political and moral geography, 
is one which makes it commensurate with the coun- 
try or locations of the ancient Highland clans. 

This definition assigns to the Highlands all the 
continental territory north of the Moray frith, and 
all the territory, both insular and continental, west- 
ward of an easily traceable line from that frith to 
the frith of Clyde. The line commences at the mouth 
of the river Nairn ; it thence, with the exception of 
a slight north-eastward or outward curve, the cen- 
tral point of which is on the river Spey, runs due 
south-east till it strikes the river Dee at Tullach, 
nearly on the third degree of longitude west of 
Greenwich ; it then runs generally south till it falls 
upon West-water, or the southern large head-water 
of the North-Esk ; it thence, over a long stretch, 
runs almost due south-west, and with scarcely a de- 
viation, till it falls upon the Clyde at Ardmore in 
the parish of Cardross ; and now onward to the At- 
lantic ocean, it moves along the frith of Clyde, keep- 
ing near to the continent, and excluding none of the 
Clyde islands except the comparatively unimportant 
Cumbraes. All the Scottish territory west and north- 
west of this line is properly the Highlands. Yet 
both for the convenience of topographical description, 
and because, altogether down to the middle of the 
13th century, and partially down to the middle of 
the 16th, the Highlands and the Western Islands 
were politically and historically distinct regions, the 
latter are usually viewed apart under the name of the 
Hebrides, and in that light are treated in our work. 
See article Hebrides. The mainland Highlands, 
or the Highlands after the Hebrides are deducted, 
extend in extreme length, from Duncansby Head, or 
John o' Groats on the north, to the Mull of Kintyre 
on the south, about 250 miles ; but over a distance 
of 90 miles at the northern end, they have an aver- 
age breadth of only about 45 miles, — over a distance 
of 50 or 55 miles at the southern end, they consist 
mainly of the Clyde islands, and the very narrow 
peninsula of Kintyre, — and even, at their broadest 
part, from the eastern base of the Grampians on the 
east to Ardnamurchan Point on the west, they 
scarcely if at all extend to more than 120 miles. 
The district comprehends the whole of the counties 
of Caithness, Sutherland, Ross, Cromarty, Inverness, 
and Argyle, large parts of Nairn, Perth, Dumbarton, 
and Bute, and considerable portions of Elgin, Banff, 
Aberdeen, Forfar, and Stirling. Considerable parts 
of this district, however, such as all Caithness-shire, 
all the island of Bute, and some large tracts of moor 

or valley or flanking plain, do not exhibit the physi- 
cal features which are strictly Highland. 

A district so extensive can be but faintly pictured 
in a general and rapid description. Mountains, 
chiefly covered with heath or ling, but occasionally, 
on the one hand, displaying sides and summits of 
naked rock, and, on the other, exhibiting a dress of 
verdure, everywhere rise, at short intervals, in 
chains, ridges, groups, and even solitary heights. 
Their forms are of every variety, from the precipi- 
tous and pinnacled acclivity, to the. broad-based and 
round-backed ascent; but, in general, are sharp in 
outline, and wild or savagely grand in feature. 
Both great elongated ridges, and chains or series of 
short parallel ridges, have a prevailing direction 
from north-east to south-west, and send up summits 
from 1,000 to upwards of 4,000 feet above the level 
of the sea. Glens, valleys, and expanses of lowland 
stretch in all directions among the mountains, and 
abound in voluminous streams and large elongated 
lakes of picturesque appearance, — nearly all the in- 
land lakes extending in stripes either north-east- 
ward and south-westward, or eastward and west- 
ward. Along the whole west coast, at remarkably 
brief intervals, arms of the sea, long, narrow, and 
sometimes exceedingly rugged in outline, run north- 
eastward or south-eastward into the interior, and 
assist the inland fresh water lakes in cleaving it 
into sections. The rivers of the region are chiefly 
impetuous torrents, careering for a while along 
mountain-gorges, and afterwards either expanding 
themselves into beautiful lakes and flowing athwart 
delightful meadows, or ploughing long narrow val- 
leys, green and ornate with grasses, trefoils, daisies, 
ranunculi, and a profuse variety of other herbage 
and flowers. Native woods, principally of pine and 
birch, and occasionally clumps and expanses of 
plantation, climb the acclivities of the gentler 
heights, or crowd down upon the valleys, and em- 
bosom the inland lakes. On the eas* side, along 
the coast to the Moray frith, and toward the frontier 
in the counties of Nairn, Elgin, and Perth, gentle 
slopes and broad belts of lowland, fertile in soil and 
favourable in position, are carpeted with agricultural 
luxuriance, and thickly dotted with human dwell- 
ings, and successfully vie with the south of Scot- 
land in towns and population, and in the pursuit 
and display of wealth. But almost everywhere else, 
except in the fairyland of Loch-Fyne, and the 
southern shore of Loch-Etive, the Highlands are 
sequestered, — sinless of a town, — a semi- wilderness, 
where a square mile is a greatly more convenient 
unit of measurement than an acre. 

A district characterized by such features as we 
have named " necessarily exhibits, within very 
circumscribed limits, varieties of scenery of the 
most opposite descriptions; enabling the admirer of 
nature to pass abruptly from dwelling on the loveli- 
ness of an extensive marine or champaign landscape 
into the deep solitude of an ancient forest, or the 
dark craggy fastnesses of an alpine ravine ; or from 
lingering amid the quiet grassy meadows of a 
pastoral strath or valley, watered by its softly-flow- 
ing stream, to the open heathy mountain-side, 
whence ' alps o'er alps arise,' whose summits are 
often shrouded with mists and almost perennial 
snows, and their overhanging precipices furrowed 
by foaming cataracts. Lakes and long arms of the 
sea, either fringed with woods or surrounded with 
rocky barren shores, now studded with islands, and 
anon extending their silvery arms into distant re- 
ceding mountains, are met in every district ; while 
the extreme steepness, ruggedness, and sterility of 
many of the mountain-chains impart to them as im- 
posing and magnificent characters as are to be seen 




in the much higher and more inaccessible elevations 
of Switzerland. No wonder, then, that this ' land 
of mountain and of flood ' should have given birth 
to the song of the bard, and afforded material for 
the theme of the sage, in all ages; and that its in- 
habitants should be tinctured with deep romantic 
feelings, at once tender, melancholy, and wild ; and 
that the recollection of their own picturesque native 
dwellings should haunt them to their latest hours, 
wherever they go. Neither, amid such profusion 
and diversity of all that is beautiful and sublime in 
nature, can the unqualified admiration of strangers, 
from every part of Europe, of the scenery of the 
Highlands fail of being easily accounted for; nor 
can any hesitate in recommending them to visit the 
more remote or unknown solitudes." Nor do only 
the natives of the Highlands, who have lived among 
the mountains, but also the natives of the Lowlands, 
as far away at least as to be familiar with some 
peaks of the Grampians figuring dimly on the 
horizon, ever retain such an enthusiastic attach- 
ment to their country as neither distance of place 
nor length of time can efface. Not a man of them 
all, who possesses any heart or fancy, but "will 
encore to the echo the words of the poet Nicoll, — 

"There are rich garden lands wi' their skies ever fair; 
But their riches or beauty we mak na our care. 
Wherever we wander, ae vision aye fills 
Our hearts to the burstin' — our aiu Hieland hills. 

0! the bonnie Hieland hills 

O! the bonnie Hieland hills 

The bonnie hills o' Scotland 

The bonnie Hieland hills." 

The Highlands, till about a century ago, were 
exclusively occupied by a people whose manners, 
language, and framework of society were strikingly 
peculiar, and quite as different from those of the in- 
habitants of the south of Scotland, as if the two 
races had been separate nations, mutually removed 
by the intervention of an ocean. At the time when 
the Komans invaded North Britain, the whole po- 
pulation of both ends of the island consisted of a 
Celtic race, the descendants of its original inhabi- 
tants. Shortly after the Roman abdication of 
North Britain, the Saxons, a people of Gothic 
origin, established themselves upon the Tweed, and 
afterwards extended their settlements to the frith 
of Forth and to the banks of the Solway and the 
Clyde. About the beginning of the 6th century, 
the Dalriads landed in Kintyre and Lorn from the op- 
posite coast of Ireland, and colonized these districts; 
whence, in the course of little more than two cen- 
turies, they overspread the Highlands and Western 
islands, which their descendants have, ever since, 
continued to possess. Towards the end of the 8th 
century, a fresh colony of Scots from Ireland settled 
in Galloway among the Britons and Saxons, and 
having overspread the whole of that country, were 
afterwards joined by detachments of the Scots of 
Kintyre and Lorn, in connexion with whom they 
peopled that peninsula. But notwithstanding these 
early settlements of the Gothic race, the era of the 
Saxon colonization of the Lowlands of Scotland is, 
with more propriety, placed in the reign of Malcolm 
Canmore, who, by his marriage with a Saxon 
princess, and the protection he gave to the Anglo- 
Saxon fugitives who sought for an asylum in his 
dominions from the persecutions of William the 
Conqueror and his Normans, laid the foundations of 
those great changes which took place in the reigns 
of his successors. Malcolm Canmore had, before 
his accession to the throne, resided for some time 
in England as a fugitive, under the protection of 
Edward the Confessor, where he acquired a know- 
ledge of the Saxon language, which language, after 

his marriage with the princess Margaret, became 
that of the Scottish court. This circumstance made 
that language fashionable among the Scottish no- 
bility, in consequence of which and of the Anglo- 
Saxon colonization under David L, the Gaelic 
language was altogether superseded in the Low- 
lauds of Scotland in little more than two centuries 
after the death of Malcolm. A topographical line 
of demarcation was then fixed as the boundary be- 
tween the two languages, which has ever since been 
kept up, and presents one of the most singular 
phenomena ever observed in the history of philo 

The change of the seat of government by Ken 
neth on ascending the Pictish throne, from Inver 
lochay, the capital of the Scots, to Abemethy, also 
followed by the removal of the marble chair, the 
emblem of sovereignty, from Dunstaflhage to Scone, 
appears to have occasioned no detriment to the 
Gaelic population of the Highlands; but when Mal- 
colm Canmore transferred his court, about the year 
1066, to Dunfermline, which also became, in place 
of Iona, the sepulture of the Scottish kings, the rays 
of royal bounty, which had hitherto diffused its pro- 
tecting and benign influence over the inhabitants of 
the Highlands, were withdrawn, and left them a 
prey to anarchy and poverty. " The people," says 
General David Stewart, " now beyond the reach of 
the laws, became turbulent and fierce, revenging in 
person those wrongs for which the administratoia 
of the laws were too distant and too feeble to afford 
redress. Thence arose the institution of chiefs, 
who naturally became the judges and arbiters in 
the quarrels of their clansmen and followers, and 
who were surrounded by men devoted to the defence 
of their rights, their property, and their power; and 
accordingly the chiets established within their own 
territories a jurisdiction almost wholly independent 
of their liege lord." The connexion which Malcolm 
and his successors maintained with England, es- 
tranged still farther the Highlanders from the 
dominion of the sovereign and the laws; and their 
history, after the Gaelic population of the Lowlands 
had merged into the Anglo-Saxons and adopted their 
language, presents, with the exception of the wars 
between rival clans, nothing remarkable till their 
first appearance on the military theatre of our na- 
tional history in the civil wars in the time of the 

The earliest recorded history of the Highlanders 
presents us with a bold and hardy race of men, filled 
with a romantic attaclimenttotheirnative mountains 
and glens, cherishing an exalted spirit of indepen- 
dence, and firmly bound together in septs or clans 
by the ties of kindred. Having little intercourse 
with the rest of the world, and pent up for many 
centuries within the Grampian range, the High- 
landers acquired a peculiar character, and retained 
or adopted habits and manners differing widely from 
those of their lowland neighbours. " The ideas and 
employments, which their seclusion from the world 
rendered habitual, — the familiar contemplation of 
the most sublime objects of nature, — the habit of 
concentrating their affections within the narrow 
precincts of their own glens, or the limited circle of 
their own kinsmen, — and the necessity of union and 
self-dependence in all difficulties and dangers, com 
bined to form a peculiar and original character. A 
certain romantic sentiment, the offspring of deep 
and cherished feeling, strong attachment to their 
country and kindred, and a consequent disdain of 
submission to strangers, formed the character of 
independence; while an habitual contempt of danger 
was nourished by their solitary musings, of which 
the honour of their clan, and a long descent from 




brave and warlike ancestors, formed the frequent 
theme. Thus, their exercises, their amusements, 
their modes of subsistence, their motives of action, 
their prejudices and their superstitions, became char- 
acteristic, permanent, and peculiar. Firmness and 
decision, fertility in resources, ardour in friendship, 
and a generous enthusiasm, were the result of such 
a situation, such modes of life, and such habits of 
thought. Feeling themselves separated by Nature 
from the rest of mankind, and distinguished by their 
language, their habits,- their manners, and their 
dress, they considered themselves the original pos- 
sessors of the country, and regarded the Saxons of 
the Lowlands as strangers and intruders." 

The ancient Highlanders were tall, robust, well- 
formed, and had remarkably hardy habits. In par- 
ticular, they felt great indifference to cold, and 
thought nothing of sleeping in the open air during 
the severity of winter. Birt, who resided among 
them and wrote in the year 1725, relates that he 
has seen the places which they occupied, and which 
were known by being free from the snow that 
deeply covered the ground, except where the heat 
of their bodies had melted it. The same writer re- 
presents a chief as giving offence to his clan by his 
degeneracy in forming the snow into a pillow be- 
fore he lay down! "The Highlanders were so 
accustomed to sleep in the open air, that the want 
of shelter was of little consequence to them. It was 
usual before they lay down, to dip their plaids in 
water, by which the cloth was less pervious to the 
wind, and the heat of their bodies produced a 
warmth, which the woollen, if dry, could not afford." 
This hardiness became allied to the peculiar costume 
of the plaid and the philabeg; and the two are noticed 
conjointly in old historical accounts of their ap- 
pearance. Beague, a Frenchman, who wrote a 
history of the campaigns in Scotland in 1546, printed 
in Paris in 1556, states that, at the siege of Had- 
dington, in 1594. " they (the Scottish army) were 
followed by the Highlanders, and these last go al- 
most naked ; they have painted waistcoats, and a 
sort of woollen covering, variously covered." Lind- 
say of Pitscottie says, — " The other pairt northerne 
ar full of mountaines, and very md and homelie 
kynd of people doeth iuhabite, which is called the 
Reid Schankes, or wyld Scottis. They be cloathed 
with ane mantle, with ane schirt, fachioned after 
the Irish manner, going hair legged to the knie." 
Another who wrote before the year 1597, observes 
that, in his time, "they" — the Highlanders — "de- 
light much in marbled cloths, especially that have 
long stripes of sundry colours; they love chiefly 
purple and blue ; their predecessors used short 
mantles, or plaids of divers colours, sundrie ways 
divided, and among some the same custom is ob- 
served to this day ; but, for the most part now, they 
are brown, most near to the colour of the hadder, to 
the effect when they lye among the hadders, the 
bright colour of their plaids shall not bewray them, 
with the which, rather coloured than clad, they 
suffer the most cruel tempests that blow in the open 
fields, in such sort, that in a night of snow they 
sleep sound." 

The Highlanders, in a higher degree than some 
other contemporary nations, have been addicted to 
superstition. The peculiar aspect of their country, 
in winch nature appears in its wildest and most ro- 
mantic features, exhibiting at a glance sharp and 
rugged mountains, with dreary wastes, wide- 
stretched lakes, and rapid torrents, over which the 
thunders and lightnings, the tempests and rains of 
heaven exhaust their terrific rage, wrought upon 
the creative powers of the imagination ; and from 
these appearances, the Highlanders "were naturally 

led to ascribe every disaster to the influence of su- 
perior powers, in whose character the predominating 
feature necessarily was malignity towards the human 
race." The most, dangerous and most malignant 
creature was the kelpie or water-horse, which was 
supposed to allure women and children to his suba- 
queous haunts, and there devour them. Sometimes 
lie would swell the lake or torrent beyond its usual 
limits, and overwhelm the unguarded traveller in 
the flood. The shepherd, as he sat upon the brow 
of a rock in a summer's evening, often fancied he 
saw this animal dashing along the surface of the 
lake, or browsing on the pasture ground upon its 
verge. The urisks, who were supposed to be of a 
condition somewhat intermediate between that of 
mortal men and spirits, "were a sort of lubberly 
supematurals, who, like the brownies of England, 
could be gained over by kind attentions to perform 
the drudgery of the farm ; and it was believed that 
many families in the Highlands had one of the 
order attached to it." The daoine shi' or men of 
peace, who are the fairies of the Highlanders, 
" though not absolutely malevolent, are believed to 
be a peevish repining race of beings, who, possessing 
themselves but a scanty portion of happiness, are 
supposed to envy mankind their more complete and 
substantial enjoyments. They are supposed to en- 
joy, in their subterraneous recesses, a sort of shadowy 
happiness, a tinsel grandeur, which, however, they 
would willingly exchange for the more solid joys of 
mortals." Nor was belief in these imaginary beings 
more general or fervid than other forms of supersti- 
tion, particularly witchcraft, charms, and the second 
sight, — the last of which is alluded to as folkws by 
Collins: — 

" How they -whose sight such dreary dreams engro' s, 
"With their own vision oft nstonish'd droop. 

When, o'er the wat'ry stratli or quaggy moss, 
They see the gliding ghosts unbodied troop. 

Or, if in sports, or on the festive green, 
Their destined glance some fated youth descry, 

Who now, perhaps, in lusty vigour seen, 
Anil rosy health, shall soon lamented die. 

For them the viewless forms of air obey, 
Their bidding heed, and at their beck repair. 

They know what spirit brews the stormful day, 
And heartless, oft like moody madness, stare 
To see the phantom train their secret work prepare." 

The transition of the Highlanders from their an- 
cient condition to a state of enlightenment and of 
begun community of character and interests with 
the inhabitants of the Lowlands, did not commence 
till the 18th century. None of the many attempts 
which successive kings and governments had made 
to break down their peculiar framework, or divest 
them of the wild power which they riotously sported 
within the mountain-walls of their fortress-like 
country, or tame them into the spirit and observances 
of a people living as one family and acknowledging 
the sway of one ruling power had, up to the year 
1715, been, even in a slight degree, permanently 
successful. Even the disarming act which followed 
the rebellion of that year, had little other effect than 
to strip the few elans who were favourable to gov- 
ernment of their means of rendering it service, and 
place them bleedingly at the mercy of the exulting 
majority who brandished defiance at the magnilo- 
quent but pithless attempt to seize their claymores 
and their dirks. Cromwell, indeed, tamed, for a time, 
their martial ferocity, and taught them to feel the 
presence of a master, by the severe rigour of his 
martial proceedings, and even threw a ray of en- 
lightenment over their minds, and conferred lasting 
benefits on the town of Inverness, by promulging a 
knowledge of those arts which deeply affect for 
good a people's social well-being. A revival of his 




policy, too, in the constructing of forts at intervals 
ever the country, and in the posting within them of 
strong garrisons to overawe the clans, achieved, in 
a small degree, during the first half of the 18th cen- 
tury, that silent though sullen respect for the power 
of government which the results of the disarming 
act were fitted only to turn into derision. Still, till 
influences of a moral kind, or higher influences than 
appeals to their fears and attempted abridgments of 
their physical power, could be made to bear upon 
them, the Highlanders remained among their moun- 
tain-fastnesses very nearly the same in character as 
their ancestors had been for ages. The breaking 
up of the patriarchal or clan-system by vigorous 
acts of the legislative and the executive. — the open- 
ing up of the country by facilities of communication, 
— -the formation of societies, and the conducting of 
enterprises, to engage it in productive industry, — 
and the invigoration and extension of its scanty ap- 
pliances of education and religious instruction, — are 
the grand means which have effected a change, both 
on the social system of the people and on their in- 
dustrial pursuits ; and they shall now be rapidly 
detailed, not jointly, nor in the order of the dates of 
their origin, but separately, and in such order as 
seems to give most promise of clearness of illustra- 

Two years after the quelling of the last rebellion, 
or in 1748, two acts were passed, and an old one re- 
vived, with a view of entirely destroying the clan- 
system of the Highlanders. One of the new acts 
abolished hereditary jurisdictions, and was designed 
to cut asunder the bands of power on the one side, 
and of feudal servitude on the other, which united 
the chieftain and his followers; and the other pro- 
scribed the use of the Highland dress, and was in- 
tended to desecrate those ancient recollections, and 
fling into oblivion those cherished feelings of clans 
manship and predatory mountaineer habits, with 
which the very sight of the kilt and the philabeg 
were associated. The revived act was that which 
hitherto had been so feebly, or rather mischievously 
exhibited, in terrorem, for disarming the High- 
landers; and it was now backed with precaution, 
and carried into execution with a vigour which 
promised speedily to sweep the mountains of then- 
tools of defiance and rebellion. So energetically did 
the acts overrun the Highlands, that the system 
with which they made war took instantly and 
precipitantly to flight, making not a stand and 
attempting not a rally for existence. The Highland 
peasantry were now made masters of their own 
actions, but, at the same time, were suddenly driven 
away from all the modes of life in which they had 
been used to employ their energies. They were 
freed, not only from the domination, but also from 
the guidance, of superiors to whom they had been 
habituated to look for both the regulation of their 
conduct, and the supply of their physical wants. 
They were disencumbered of at once the tools and 
the plunder of petty war, — the servitudes and 
the rewards of watching the will, and following the 
motions, of their chieftains. They acquired the 
liberty of roaming the world, or, in any form, at- 
tempting honourable adventure, but lost the security 
of a home and of employment suited to their pre- 
dilections by attachment to specific localities of 
soil. And — altogether at the mercy of whatever 
new character their quondam chieftains might as- 
sume, if they remained on their native grounds, or 
unpiloted by knowledge of the world, and unaided 
by habits of civilized industry if they moved abroad 
— they went off, in their new career, like grey- 
hounds in the slip, uncertain whither the chase 
might lead, and ignorant whether they might pant 

in disappointment, or give voice in the exultancy ol 
success at its close. 

In numerous instances the chieftains — now con- 
verted into plain landed proprietors — came down, 
with true dignity of character, from their barbarous 
grandeur amid the heath of the mountains, to the 
morally great position of cultivators of the soil and 
encouragers of an industrious tenantry in the val- 
ley; and, combining enlightened regard for their 
own respectability and income, with patriotic con- 
cern for the welfare of their quondam clansmen, so 
apportioned their estates into farms, and constructed 
a machinery for giving general employment in the 
cultivation of the soil or the rearing of stock, as 
speedily to weave between themselves and their 
people a bond of connexion quite akin to that 
which unites encouraging landlord and industrious 
farmer in the Lowlands, and unspeakably more 
conducive to the happiness of both, while a thousand 
times worthier of admiration, than the bond <if feu- 
dalism which had just been burst. In all such in- 
stances, the transition, aided by the appliances 
which we have yet to explain, was rapid on the 
part of both proprietor and tenant, from the charac- 
ter of useless or mischievous romance which had 
formerly distinguished them, to the quiet and com- 
mon-place but comfortable and praiseworthy char- 
acter of peaceful patrons and labourers of agricul- 
tural and pastoral life. While the landholder? 
became honourably richer than before, and moved 
in contact with the amenities of polished society, 
and imbibed a taste for the refinements of art and 
of mental cultivation, the tenants speedily acquired 
both taste for humble luxuries, and a power to pro- 
cure the means of its gratification, and, before the 
lapse of many years, exchanged the swinish hovel 
for the snug cottage, an adherence to uniformity of 
dress for a fondness to import recent fashions, and 
a recklessness and ignorance of the methods of 
cookery for a considerable appreciation of the J 
delicacies of food. Estates which were laid out at 
the disruption of the feudal system for the joint 
welfare of proprietor and inhabitants, in fact exhibit 
at the present day such close resemblance to the 
majority of estates in the Lowlands, that, but for 
their mountain-aspect, the prevalence of the Gaelic 
language, and the remains of a strong dash of 
ancient superstitions, they might be pronounced to 
have not a physical or a moral feature of difference. 
Additional to the lairds and the farmers, young 
gentlemen of family displayed the phases of a ben- 
eficial change. Deprived of the wild turbulent 
resources in which they might once have hoped to 
revel among the mountains, and invited away to 
the trial of new modes of life abroad, they entered 
and soon loved liberal professions, or became ser- 
vants of their country in her army or navy, and 
speedily acquired a greatly more relished enjoyment 
in systematically expending their energies as aspir- 
ing members of one great commonwealth, than they 
could have done in lavishing them upon the limited 
and doubtful interests of a Highland clan. 

But while the estates to which we have been re- 
ferring careered onward to prosperity, a very large 
portion of the Highland territory became the scene 
of accumulated disasters upon the people, and, in the 
first instance, was reclaimed from the evils of feu- 
dalism only to originate miseries and occasion de- 
pravation of morals, different in kind from those of 
the middle ages, but scarcely inferior in degree. 
Many landlords — perhaps very considerably the 
majority — seemed so to recoil from the fall of their 
feudal grandeur as to earth themselves in the deep- 
est sordidness of spirit, or to seek an amends for 
the power of despotism which they had lost, in the 



rigorous and inglorious domineerings of a liard 
taskmaster. Dissevered from tlieir people as to 
bonds which enslaved their wills and dictated tlieir 
services, and disdaining to seek enrichment from 
their estates by the slow, systematic, humble means 
of a minutely apportioned farming and pastoral 
tenantry, they spent not a thought on the destinies 
of their quondam clansmen, or unceremoniously 
consigned them to adventure in the countries be- 
yond the mountains, and rented out to one grasping 
and monopolizing tacksman — who was high-sound- 
ing in pretensions, and who promised to make 
golden returns to his landlord without taxing his 
nobility with vulgar cares — a wide expanse of ter- 
ritory which ought to have been distributed among 
large numbers or even several scores of farmers. 
Many valleys which formerly teemed with popula- 
tion, and glens once vocal with the wiid notes of 
the pibroch, were, in consequence, abandoned to 
the solitary and silent wanderings of vast flocks of 
black cattle and sheep. 

Enormous numbers of the Highland peasantry 
now exchanged their once deep devotion to the 
protecting chieftain for towering scorn and hatred 
of the unbenignant and selfish landlord ; and, 
spurning the country which they had fondly loved, 
but which seemed, in biting ingratitude, to fling 
them from its embrace, sought, on the far-away 
shores of a foreign land, a retreat where they might 
nurse tlieir rage and toil for subsistence. Thousands 
after thousands crowded along in small bands to 
the sea-ports of Scotland, and thence sailed away to 
America; and, sending back accounts of the Cana- 
dian wilds which seemed fascinating to an outcast 
and half-beggared Highlander, induced thousands 
upon thousands more of their countrymen to follow. 
Nor was the work of deportation limited to a few 
years immediately succeeding the imposition upon 
the Highlands of a strictly pastoral and agricultural 
character. Landlords who, at first, were measured 
| and relenting in the expatriation of their people, 
j and even some probably who, for a time, regarded 
the quondam clans as all entitled in justice to re- 
main on the lands to which they had been feudally 
■ attached, gradually found profit or convenience in 
making large allotments of territory to tacksmen, 
and caused the great scene of depopulation at the 
commencement to be continually repeated with the 
efflux of years. So late as during the year 1835, 
no fewer than 3,522 Highlanders, parting with the 
whole of their little possessions in order to obtain 
sufficient passage-money, found their way from the 
ports of Campbelton, Oban, and Tobermory alone, 
to the United States and the British colonies, be- 
sides great numbers — the quota probably from much 
the larger portion of the Highlands — who embarked 
at Greenock and Port-Glasgow. Other Highland- 
ers, not few in number, were driven into demoraliza- 
tion of feeling of a kind quite unredeemed by any 
of the occasional dashes of nobleness which occa- 
sionally flitted across the vices of the clansmen. 
Some, cooped up within spheres of action too 
limited to admit their earning a full sustenance, 
fell in debt to their superiors, or became partial 
paupers on their bounty, or contrived mean strata- 
gems of petty-chicanery, and were speedily meshed 
in wretched habits of- low cunning and duplicity; 
while others plunged into the excitement of illicit 
distillation, and indolently stretching themselves at 
one time on the heath or in the cave to watch the 
progress of their occupation, or boldly executing, at 
another, daring or mendacious schemes to outwit 
the exciseman, became habituated to fraud and per- 

In later years, however, in consequence of the 

reduction of the duties on spirits, and the numerous 
establishment of large legal distilleries, the practice 
of illicit distillation disappeared entirely from some 
districts and was suppressed substantially in all. 
Emigration, also, except from some pieces ot the 
seaboard and from the Western islands, came wholly 
to a stand. And with the suppression of illicit distil- 
lation, the prevalence of fearfully intemperate habits 
to which it seems to have given birth, or with which 
it was intimately associated, has been pent up within 
limits, and ceases to offer chase to the pursuing 
moralist over a measureless waste of mountain and 
flood. The miseries which threatened nearly to 
overwhelm large portions of the Highlands, there- 
fore, may be regarded as now in a fair course of 
amelioration. Nor ought we much to regret in the 
long-run, that the sweep of improving influences 
comes over a scantier population than they must 
have encountered, had not emigration drained oif 
currents of the people to foreign shores. The 
Highlands, on principles of quiet industry and 
modern refinement — unless, by some magic, manu- 
factures could be introduced to their recesses — are 
utterly incompetent to maintain the same number 
of human beings as on the happily exploded princi- 
ples of contentment with a dog's food and a pig's 
lodging, and of predatory incursions into the neigh- 
bouring Lowlands. A distribution of the territory 
of estates which, on frequent and skilful experiment, 
is found to be most exuberant in produce, and is, 
consequently, best, not only for the landlord, but 
for the aggregate interests of the national com- 
munity, comports ill with such over-minute allot- 
ments as would make farmers of all the successors 
of the clansmen *who followed the chieftain to 
the foray. The breaking up of the feudal system, 
then, may have been none the less propitious in 
its eventual and abiding results for its having, 
in the first instance, given birth to extensive dis- 

But the beneficial effects of obliging the Highland 
population to employ themselves chiefly as husband- 
men and graziers could never, to any considerable 
degree, have been realized, had not the country been 
laid open by facilities of communication. The 
Highlands, in their original state, were almost ut- 
terly inaccessible from without, and were traversable, 
within their own limits, only by the lightfooted pe- 
destrian, bearing no heavier a load than the accoutre- 
ments of war. During the rebellion of 1715, when 
the royal troops made a vain attempt to penetrate 
farther than Blair-Athole, Government began to see 
the necessity of cutting paths through the mountain 
fastnesses, even as a measure of national police. In 
1730, several great lines of road were commenced, 
— one from Luss, both by the head of Lochlomond 
and by Inveraiy, to Tyndrum, — another from Cal- 
lendar near Stirling, to the same point, — another, 
in continuation of these, from Tyndrum, through 
Glencoe, to Fort William, and thence along the 
Great glen to Fort-George, — another from Cupar- 
Angus by Braemar to Fort-George, — and another 
from Crieff and from Dunkeld, by Dalnacardoch and 
Dalwliinnie, to Fort-Augustus and Inverness. These 
principal roads, and various connecting ones, even- 
tually extended in aggregate length to about 800 
miles, and were provided with upwards of 1,000 
bridges. The}' were constructed with various ex- 
peditiousness, the most important lines being com- 
pleted within 6 or 8 years after the date of com 
mencement, and those of secondary importance con- 
tinuing to be in progress tiU near the close of the 
century. The workers employed on them were 
parties of soldiers, rewarded by additions to tlieii 
military pay, directed by master-masons and over- 




Beers, and superintended by a functionary called 
the baggage-master and inspector-oi'-roads in North- 
Britain, who was responsible to the commander-in- 
chief of the forces in Scotland. The roads were 
formed and kept in repair by annual parliamentary 
grants of from £4,000 to £7,000, and, in some in- 
stances, were carried forward or ramified at the ex- 
pense of proprietors through whose estates they 
passed. They were very far, however, from being 
a competent provision for the vast and impracticable 
region which they professed to have laid open. 
•Soon ceasing to be required for military purposes, 
or for those of pouring in forces to overawe the 
disrupted clans, they offered, for the purposes of 
traffic, comparatively limited and imperfect facilities. 
They passed through the wildest and most moun- 
tainous districts ; they drained the produce chiefly 
of territories so poor and so thinly inhabited as to 
be totally unable to bear the costs of keeping them 
in repair; and, while leaving many interior and 
richer districts not far from the Lowlands un tra- 
versed and quite untouched, they went no farther 
northward than the great Caledonian glen, and 
made no provision whatever for the counties of 
Caithness, Sutherland, Cromarty, and Eoss, the 
greater part of Inverness-shire, and the vast region 
of the Western isles. Yet, just at the moment when 
they required to be vigorously extended, they lay 
in some risk of being utterly abandoned. 

Government, wearied with the annual drain of 
these roads on the public treasury, and doubtful of 
their practical utility, requested a statement of rea- 
sons from Sir Kalpk Abercromby, the commander- 
in-chief, and Colonel Anstruther, the general in- 
spector, why they should be continued. But both 
of these officers, as well as the Highland society, 
while admitting that the roads were, for the present, 
no longer requisite for their original objects, so con- 
vincingly showed the maintenance and the exten- 
sion of them to be indispensable to the prevention 
of a revolt into barbarity and feudalism, or to the 
progression of the begun work of civilization and 
social improvement, that parliament, in 1802-3, 
passed an act for maintaining, at the public cost, 
the roads which had been made, for contributing 
one half of the estimated expense of whatever addi- 
tional roads and bridges might be desiderated, the 
other half to be paid by proprietors or counties, and 
for empowering commissioners to insure the effi- 
cient and economical performance of the works. The 
military roads now continued, for a time, to be kept 
in repair at the cost of from £4,000 to £7,000 a-year; 
but, the allowance for them from 1814 to 1819 be- 
coming limited to £2,500 a-year, they fell, except on 
the two most important lines, into comparative ne- 
glect. Nor, in the new state of things, was their 
decline to be much regretted. Constructed on the 
old and very absurd principle of moving, as nearly 
as possible, in a straight line, they were carried 
rapidly down into hollows, and driven stiffly up the 
face of acclivities, as if to exclude from the regions 
to which they led the way the luxury of a wheeled 
vehicle ; and were, in all respects, much inferior to the 
roads which might have been expected, and which 
have actually been constructed under the new act. 
The Highland counties, particularly those which 
continued still to be closed up, made prompt claims 
upon the offered contributions of parliament, by pay- 
ing down their own moiety for lines of desiderated 
road. So rapidly were new roads formed — all on 
principles of expert engineering — that against the 
year 1820, they extended, in the aggregate, to 875 
miles provided with 1,117 bridges, and had occa- 
sioned a cost to parliament of £267,000, to the 
counties £214,000, and to individual proprietors of 

estates £60,000,— in all £541,000. Since 1820, the 
military and the parliamentary roads have been 
strictly under one management, and are maintained 
in repair at the average cost of £10,000 a-year, 
£5,000 of which is contributed by parliament. 

So great a social and moral revolution as the for- 
mation of the Highland roads has accomplished, 
cannot easily be conceived. During a considerable 
period after the military roads were completed, the 
region continued in nearly its original state of wild- 
ness and anarchy. Attempts to traverse the new 
tracks were made for many years, either simply on 
foot, or at best on garrons or little highland ponies ; 
they were, at first, totally, and, after a period, slowly 
and' hesitatingly aided by the erection of inns ; and, 
for some years succeeding the suppression of the 
last rebellion, they were rendered perilous by the 
truculency and ruffianism of gangs of the broken clans 
or dispersed rebels, who haunted the mountain-passes 
for prey. In 1760, a post-chaise was seen for the 
first time in Inverness, and, for several years, con- 
tinued to be the only four-wheeled carriage in the 
region. But even when vehicles of its class became 
somewhat known, they were hired with cautious 
timidity, and packed to suffocation by parties of tra- 
vellers confederated to bear the heavy costs of hire ; 
and, with not a few risks and adventures in the ac- 
cidents of springs and harness, they lumbered heav- 
ily along with their load, occupying eight days in 
moving from Inverness to Edinburgh. The mails to 
Inverness also — which were not established till after 
the Union, and which, for fifty years, were carried 
only once a- week and by foot-runners — continued, to 
the end of the century, to have no more dignified a 
conveyance than either saddle-bags or single-seated 
cars. When the new road act came into practice, 
however, the change which had so slowly advanced 
made rapid and large bounds in the onward move- 
ment. In 1806, the Caledonian coach began to run 
between Perth and Inverness, a distance of 115 
miles ; and performed the journey in two days; and, 
at the sole risk of one individual, maintained its pre- 
carious ground till, after a lapse of years, it provoked 
rivalry or imitation. In 181 1, a coach, carrying the^ 
mail, was started between Inverness and Aberdeen. 
As the various parliamentary roads were opened, or 
the old military ones improved, coaching on other 
lines was commenced. In 1819, a mail-coach, aided, 
in the first instance,'by the counties and by large 
allowances for the mail, penetrated to the extreme 
north, connecting all the southern towns of the king- 
dom, with Tain, Wick, and Thurso. In 1827, the 
number of public coaches converging to Inverness 
had multiplied to 7, — making 44 arrivals and the 
same number of departures weekly; 3 of the coaches 
running up from Aberdeen, 1 running'up from Perth, 
2 coming in from Tain, Cromarty, Invergordon, and 
Dingwall, and 1 coming in from Thurso and Wick. 
Nor have comparatively sequestered and very thinly 
peopled districts been eventually without the luxury 
either of public coaching or of interpenetration by 
some small comfortable kind of public vehicle ; till 
now almost every village of any note, and every 
point of commanding interest to tourists, no matter 
how secluded, can be reached by regular swift public 

Inns — those momentous accommodations to tra- 
vellers, and unerring indices to the true state of traffic 
in a country — began, soon after the commencement 
of the present century, to spring up in vast numbers, 
and generally of a quality to indicate a prodigious 
transition in the social circumstances of the region. 
In the south Highlands, in the Great glen, on the 
roads between Fort-William and Stirling and be- 
tween Dingwall and Portree, and along the grand 




road from Perth to Th nrso, they arc, for the most part, 
commodious and comfortable, sometimes wearing a 
dash of low country pretension or even metropolitan 
elegance, and rarely justifying any of the ideas of 
discomfort with which many frothy talkers still 
rashly associate the Highlands. Even on the least 
frequented roads, except in the north and west of 
Sutherlandshire, and some less considerable districts, 
accommodations occur at intervals of from 10 to 15 
miles, which, merely claiming to be public-houses, 
present two-storied and slated exteriors, and floored 
and apartmented interiors, and display an array of 
comforts five centuries in advance of the best winch 
Bailie Nicol Jarvie, or any living original whom he 
represented, could find on the very frontiers and 
garden-ground of the Highlands. — Post-ehaises and 
other travelling vehicles for hire, though not pro- 
portionate to the public coaches and the inns, exist 
in sufficient number to unite with them in the indi- 
ention of social improvement. On the great road be- 
tween Perth and Inverness, in many parts of the 
southern Highlands, at Inverary on the west, and 
at Tain, Dingwall, and other "towns on the east, 
post-chaises, gigs, post-horses, and riding-horses 
are maintained at the inns. In the soutb, the east, 
and the north, one-horse cars, or one-horse four- 
wheeled vehicles have been very generally intro- 
duced ; and at Fort- William, Ballaehulish, Oban, 
and other places in the west, carts with a swing- 
seat across the centre are let as a succedaneuin for 


Private carriages, from being altogether unknown 
previous to the road-making period, and exceedingly 
fare several years after the commencement of the 
present century, have become comparatively nu- 
merous. Even 28 years ago, 1 60 coaches and gigs 
might be seen in attendance on the Inverness yearly 
races ; and then also, new ones were so numerously 
ordered, as to keep four coach-manufactories in In- 
verness in employment. — Regular carriers have, 
for a considerable period, been established on all the 
principal roads, carrying goods, at all seasons of the 
year, to the towns and to entirely landward districts, 
and contributing mightily to the demonstration of a 
vast and beneficial change in the frame-work of so- 
ciety. — Communication of intelligence by letters and 
newspapers, or the working of the post-office system, 
is the same on all the great lines of road as in the 
Lowlands, and penetrates the recesses of the country 
and the remote positions of the islands with a mi- 
nuteness of ramification and a frequency and regu- 
larity of despatch which seem, at first glance, utterly 
unattainable among the physical resistances of the 
region. Nor has even the railway animus found 
difficulty to look keenly and calculatingly into the 
very heart of the Highlands ; for, to say nothing of 
the Great North of Scotland scheme for connecting 
Inverness with Aberdeen, together with subordinate 
schemes obviously enough suited to the compara- 
tively thick population of the eastern sea-board, 
projects were warmly entertained some years ago, 
though eventually abandoned, to construct one rail- 
way from the head of Loch Lomond by way of Tyn- 
drum to Oban, and another northward from that line 
to Loch Leven, and thence to Fort William and 
along the Great glen. — Altogether, the state of 
things which everywhere meets the eye along the 
public roads in the Highlands — especially when 
viewed in connection with the aspect of husbandry, 
and the facilities for conveying produce and working 
the ground, which present themselves on the private 
side-roads — affords abundant demonstration that 
benign results have been very extensively and rapid- 
ly achieved by unlocking the mountain-gates of 
tiie Highlanders, and paving pathways for them of 

trafficking intercommunication with their neigh- 

But a prodigious addition to what the roads have 
effected, is found in the results of cutting the Ciu- 
nan Canal, and of constructing the magnificent 
work called the Caledonian Canal. [See these 
articles.] As regards also the whole coast-line of 
the continental Highlands, the whole length of the 
Great glen, and the entire extent of the Western 
islands, improvement has been achieved probably 
much more by the constructing and amending of 
harbours, and by the introduction and exploits of 
steam-navigation, than in other districts by all sorts 
of wheeled conveyances along the roads. Parts ad- 
jacent to the Clyde, and to the principal ramifica- 
tions of its estuary, and portions of the western coast 
and of the islands, have, with the simple appliance 
of steam-navigation, suddenly passed from a state of 
wildness and desolation to the possession of almost 
a suburban character. Large villages or consider- 
able towns — as in the instances of Helensburgh, 
Dunoon, Campbelton, Bowmore, and Oban — have 
either sprung up from the unoccupied soil, or arisen 
out of poor and inconsiderable hamlets ; and traffic 
to an extent which, on a highway, would employ a 
regiment of cartel's, now flourishes and goes regu- 
larly forward in quarters where, in the early part of 
the present century, scarcely any interchange of com- 
modity existed superior to the rude trivial barter 
known to uncivilized tribes. Nor are the changes much 
or any less marked ir. the Caledonian glen, and espe- 
cially on the east coast from the point whence the 
Highland frontier diverges into the interior to the 
Pentland frith. From tiie private resources of en- 
terprising individuals and companies, and nearly to 
the same amount from the proceeds of estates for- 
feited at last rebellion, a sum total of £110,000 has 
been expended on harbours and piers. The conse- 
quent increase of traffic, not only by the new method 
of steam-navigation, but by the old one of sailing- 
vessels, has been proportionate to the gigantic move- 
ments of everything connected with Highland ame- 

Certain patriotic institutions, also, have operated 
powerfully to rouse the mind of the Highlander from 
its dormancy, and incite and direct him to avail him- 
self of the advantages which were accumulating 
round his position. The Highland London society, 
established in 1778 by General Fraser of Lovat and 
other native Highlanders, the Highland Club of 
Scotland, the Celtic society, and the St. Fillan's 
Highland society, have probably worked with less 
beneficial results, by indulging a spirit of antiquari- 
anism, and attempting to perpetuate attachment to 
Highland peculiarities, than if they had launched 
their whole influence to freight the population on- 
ward in strictly practical and modern improvement; 
yet they have laboured so to polish taste, to diffuse 
refinement, to obliterate the offensive features of the 
ancient character, and fix attention on those which 
fully comport with civilization, that they may be 
regarded as having, to some extent, assailed the 
foibles of the Highlanders through the very avenue 
of their prejudices. The Highland and Agricultural 
Society of Scotland, on the other hand, has steadily 
directed its powerful energies to the promotion of 
the immediate and most tangible interests of the 
Highlands, arid to the introduction, extension, and 
adaptation of whatever promises most efficiently to 
work out their temporal prosperity. This noble in- 
stitution embodies the patronage and the skill of 
most of the nobility, landed-gentry, and gentlemen- 
farmers, throughout the country, and of not a few 
distinguished men of science and of the learned pro- 
fessions. Surveying a width of range and a multi- 




plicity of objects somewhat worthy of its wealth of 
intellect and its opulence of resources, it promotes 
the erection of towns and villages, the formation of 
roads and bridges, the experiments and enterprises 
jf agriculture, the improving of farm-stock, the 
sheltering processes of planting, the extension of 
fisheries, the introduction of manufactures, the ad- 
aptation of machinery to the useful arts, the co- 
operation of local influence with public or legislative 
measures, the diffusion of practical knowledge, the 
progress of general industry, and the consolidating 
of the population of the Highlands and the Lowlands 
into one great fraternal community. The society 
awards large and numerous premiums to stimulate 
desiderated enterprises ; and in 1828, it began the 
publication of the Quarterly Journal.of Agriculture, 
for prize essays, and the dissemination of the newest 
practical information. It also patronizes great annual 
cattle-shows successively in different towns, and by 
means of them, excites and directs a stirring and pro- 
fitable spirit of emulation among graziers ; and. in 
general, it keeps in play upon the community a variety 
of influences which, as far as regards mere earthly 
well-being, have singularly transformed and beauti- 
fied itscharacter. — The British Fishery society, estab- 
lished in 1780, though far from having accomplished 
what seemed easily within its reach, and feeble or 
at least unsuccessful in movement upon the water 
compared with the Highland Society of Scotland 
upon the land, yet seems ordinary in importance 
only when the vastness of its scene of action is take:, 
into view, and has worked out very considerable ad- 
vantages to the population of the coasts and the 
islands. Several towns and fishing-villages, such 
as Tobermory, Ullapool, and Pulteney-town, near 
Wick, are indebted to it both for their origin, and 
for much of the prosperity which they, and the dis- 
tricts around them, enjoy. 

The appearances of beneficial change, or rather of 
total revolution, everywhere meet the eye in the 
walks of agriculture. Previous to the era of im- 
provement, the cultivation and management of the 
soil were little better than savage. Crops were 
raised either with or without manure, just as the 
commodity happened spontaneously to offer itself, 
or to lie at a slightly inconvenient distance; they 
were confined to detached and trivial patches of 
ground naturally fertile; they were wrung year after 
year, in increasingly scanty pittances, from its exsic- 
cated and disheartened bosom, till they could no 
longer compensate the cost of the effort, and were 
then forgotten during a period of the land's exhausted 
rest, and of slowly acquiring "heart" from the 
growth and decay upon it of spontaneous weeds and 
grasses ; and, either when they succeeded or when 
they failed, they merely whetted the appetite or 
mocked the cravings of misery, — the people, in the 
one case, acquiring no higher an indulgence than 
coarse oaten cakes and whisky, and, in the other, 
subsisting themselves on broth of nettles, or the 
blond of living animals mixed with oatmeal, or what- 
ever was digestible in the spontaneous produce of 
the mountains. Cattle — the chief article of wealth, 
the main resource for subsistence, and the object of 
frequent forays and cause of continual intestine com- 
motion — were so overstocked upon the natural pas- 
tures common to a tribe or clan, that they were an- 
nually starved in large numbers to death; and in 
every position, they were jostled out of their rights 
by absurdly large establishments of horses, maintained 
nominally for the purposes of tillage and of carrying 
peats, but really, in a chief degree, for the pampering 
of laziness or the demonstrations of beggarly conse- 
quence. Farms were let on the monstrous principle 
of vunrig to a whole community or township; they 

passed, in their various subdivisions, suecessivolv 
from hand to hand of the co-occupants ; they were 
the temporary grounds, distinctively of no one, but 
diffusively of all ; they sucked down the labours o( 
the industrious and the skilful to compensate their 
master for the idleness of the besotted and the blun- 
dering ; and — as if to amass every conceivable ele- 
ment of absurd i ty — they were held, with all th eir mon- 
strous conditions, not of the proprietor, to whom the 
tenants owed prime service, but of a principal middle- 
man to whose underling authority they became 
doubly enslaved. 

The introduction of the potato, from the eager- 
ness with which the exotic was adopted and the 
delight with which its easiness of cultivation was 
observed, might, in other circumstances, have 
worked a favourable change; but, for a considerable 
period, it only facilitated early marriages, occasioned 
an increase of population, and, in years when the 
crop failed, made a distressing addition to the former 
aggregate amount of misery. Improvement on a 
great scale, or to an extent which marked either an 
era or a state of rapid progression, did not actually 
commence in the Highlands, till the formation of 
the parliamentary roads, or some years after the 
beginning of the present century. The substitution 
of carts for ponies, by the saving it caused of time 
and expense and labour, and the facility it afforded 
for carrying manure from a distance, gave a power- 
ful impulse to sluggishness of movement. No sooner 
were the parliamentary roads opened than the peo- 
ple constructed small side-roads in every direction ; 
and, finding how easily they could now bring fuel 
from their mosses, or sea-weed from the shore, or 
loads of manurial substances from the storehouses 
of the mountains, felt joyously aroused from their 
slothful indolence to a state of industrious energy 
— vying with one another in the substitution of the 
neat gardened cottage for the lumpish squalid hovel, 
and in the adoption of new and stirring doctrines 
which they found promulged around them respect- 
ing the reclaiming of land and the improving of 
stock. The introduction of carts was so sudden, so 
general, and so wondrously inspiriting as itself to 
have formed an era; and it immediately led to the 
introduction, or at least to the multiplication from a 
few units to hundreds and thousands, of ploughs, 
iron-teethed harrows, and other implements of hus- 
bandry, which indicated both acquaintance with the 
best methods of working the soil, and determination 
to ply them. At the commencement of the century, 
stripes of land along the coast or on the frontier 
were almost the only scenes of cultivation; and 
even these continued to a great degree loaded with 
the absurdities of the ancient system, till the inva- 
sion of carts and ploughs effected a revolution. 

In Ross-shire, where a barley-mill was unknown 
till 1813, where the arable grounds were formerly 
detached patches, irregularly worked, and free from 
the arrangement of either field or ridge, many a 
single farm came, in the course of about twenty 
years, to produce as much as had formerly been ex- 
tracted from the area of the whole county. Wheat 
alone came to be produced to the amount of 20,000 
quarters a-year, and grain came to be raised, not only 
for local consumption, and for Inverness, Dingwall, 
Tain, and other Highland localities, but for expor- 
tation, to the amount of 10.000 quarters a-year, to 
Leith and the great po'"^ f England. Invemess- 
shire, though possessing a more limited field for 
agricultural operations than Koss-shire, was equal 
to it in the energy of improvements, and scarcely 
inferior to it in their extent. In Sutherlandshire, 
where so late as 1806 or 1807, the inhabitants re- 
tained nearly all their ancient uncultivated habits, 




living in the most miserable lmts, and strangers to 
every species of comfort and industry, and where 
the lower grounds were almost wholly neglected 
and uninhabited, the liberal exertions of the Mar- 
quis of Stafford and other proprietors effected a re- 
volution as complete as it was sudden. The popu- 
lation were drawn down from their wretched and 
useless position in the upper parts of the county, to 
crofts or small portions of ground marked out for 
them near the coast, and incited, by the erection for 
their use of comfortable cottages, by the location of 
their lands in the neighbourhood most prolific of 
advantage, and by every encouragement of advice 
and motive, to ply the arts of husbandry produc- 
tively for themselves and their country. The higher 
grounds, which they vacated, and which are as well 
adapted for pasturage as they were ill-suited to be 
the sites of man's residence, were converted into 
extensive sheep and cattle farms; and, in less than 
twenty years from the first act of innovation, the 
whole county, as to its modes of tillage, the appear- 
ance of its farm-buildings, and all its agricultural 
properties and appliances, was in a condition to bear 
comparison with not a few districts of the long- 
favoured and happily-situated Lowlands. In Caith- 
ness, in spite of many of the lands being harassingly 
fettered by entails, and in spite of the stimulating 
advantage of roads having been of later attainment 
than in other districts, improvement displayed her 
trophies as exultingly as elsewhere, and was not a 
little aided in obtaining them by the ludicrous 
blunder, so characteristic of a besottedly ignorant 
people, of the inhabitants who occupied the sea- 
board and naturally arable district, having driven 
the first and grand line of parliamentary road as far 
as possible from their dwellings, and procured it to 
be carried inland along the base of the mountains. 
The blunder — which, of course, was discovered im- 
mediately after the road was completed — led to the 
careful cultivation, both of every practicable corner 
of land below the road-line, and of every patch 
above it, on the face or among the interstices of the 
hills where the plough could gain admission; and 
it occasioned or aided the building of a village at 
Bonar bridge, the planting of a great tract of coun- 
try by Messrs. Houston of Creich and Dempster of 
Skibo, the invasion of the mountain's side at Skibo 
to the amount of a whole farm, and the trenching of 
most of the arable part of the Creich estate, and the 
sheltering of all of it with the best enclosures. Nor 
have the southern Highlands been behind the 
northern in the race of improvement, or unmindful 
of their greater advantageousness of position; and, 
but for the tedium of prolonging instances, they 
might be exhibited, county after count} - , in aspects 
of renovation which excite pleasure and almost pro- 
voke astonishment. 

" In my various journeys to the different parts of 
the country," says the superintendent of the parlia- 
mentary roads in 1826, respecting the Highlands in 
general, " I notice improvements extending in every 
direction; and during my short recollection, a con- 
siderable extent of moorland, in various places, lias 
been enclosed and converted into cultivated fields. 
It may also serve to show how systematic farming 
has become, that societies for the promotion of 
agriculture and the rearing of stock have been esta- 
blished in all the northern counties. Nor have 
plantations been behind in this general state of im- 
provement. Many thousands of acres have, within 
the last 25 years, been planted. Upon the Dun- 
robin estate alone, there have been planted, within 
the last 25 years, above 9,000,000 of trees ; and 
although the climate is somewhat unfavourable 
for the growth of large trees, yet the attempts made 

promise to be attended with profit and advantage 
in many situations incapable of any other species of 
culture. The rapid improvements in agriculture 
have been accompanied with a corresponding change 
in the habitations of all ranks in the Highlands. 
Proprietors have expended large sums in the erec- 
tion and ornamenting of suitable mansion-houses; 
and, in the houses of gcntlemen-tacksmen, every 
species of comfort and convenience is to be found ; 
while the cottars are gradually exchanging their 
huts of mud or turf for neat and substantial cot- 
tages." No surer criterion of the vast amount of 
agricultural improvement which took place within 
a period of from 25 to 40 years can he found — even 
abating for the advantageous influence of the war- 
period upon landed property — than in the fact that 
the value of Highland estates underwent in that 
period a fourfold, a sixfold, and, in some instances, 
nearly a tenfold increase. The lands of Merkinch, 
in the vicinity of Inverness, rose in 25 years from a 
rental of between £70 and £80 to a rental of £600. 
The estate of Castlehill, belonging to the ancient fa- 
mily of the Cuthberts, was sold in 1779 for £8,000, 
and" resold in lots in 1804 for between £60,000 and 
£70,000. The barony of Lentron was bought in 
1787 for £2,500, and sold 25 years afterwards for 
£20,000. The property of Eedcastle, in Koss, was 
sold, in 1 790, after a short competition, for £25,000, 
and resold, in 1S24, to Sir William Fetter, Bart., 
for £135,000. In Lord Eeay's country, in Suther- 
land, property which formerly yielded a rental of 
£2,000 rose, in the course of a few years, to a 
rental of £15.000. The estates of Chisholm, in the 
romantic district of Strathglass, from being, in 1783, 
worth only £700 a-year, became, in 1826, worth 
upwards of £5,000. The lands of Glengarry at the 
death of their proprietor, Duncan Macdonald, in 
1788, yielded him not more than £800; and, in 
1826, they yielded between £6,000 and £7,000. 

Owing to the very great extent of surface which 
is available only as grazing-ground and sheep-walk, 
much of the attention which was anciently paid in 
an engrossing way to stock, required to be per- 
petuated and enlightened. Great effort and skill 
have been employed in improving the black cattle, 
by diffusing over the region the best breeds of its 
choicest districts, and by importing cows from Ayr- 
shire. The Highland cattle are small; but they 
furnish the shambles with beef of a peculiarly deli- 
cate quality; and are driven southward for sale to 
the number annually of about 20,000 from Inver- 
ness-shire, about the same number from the other 
northern counties, and a still larger number from 
the southern Highlands. — Besides due care being- 
used, on account of the very fine flavour of its mut- 
ton, for the black-faced sheep which the commence- 
ment of the improving era found in possession of the 
sheep-walks, attention is universally given, on ac- 
count of the fineness of their wool and the largeness 
of their size, to imported cross-breeds, and especially 
to the Cheviots. Caithness, in the face of agricul- 
tural distresses which were just beginning when the 
incitement of the parliament roads entered its limits, 
exported annually, for some years preceding 1826, 
80,000 fleeces of" wool and 20,000 Cheviot sheep. 
Sutherlandshire, for some time preceding 1834, fur- 
nished yearly about 180,000 fleeces, and 40,000 
sheep. A report by a committee appointed, in 1832, 
to inquire into the state of traffic in sheep at Inver- 
ness, estimated the annual exportation of sheep from 
Inverness-shire to be 100,000, and that from all the 
other northern counties to be about the same num- 
ber. — Considerable attention has been paid to the 
breed of horses, for the purposes both of tillage and 
of draught, and has even, in some instances, been 




successfully directed to the rearing of horses of the 
finest description. Highland ponies are small, but 
strong, hardy, and capable of enduring great fatigue ; 
and are annually driven southward in large numbers 
for the uses of the Newcastle coal-mines, and for 
general disposal in the lowland and the English 
markets. The larger breed of horses, when properly 
cared for, are stout, hardy, and serviceable beasts of 
draught, and, for the purposes of the saddle, as well 
as of the cart and the plough, are now very generally 
the offshot of crossings with south-country horses. 
— Several valuable species of pigs, both pure and 
crosses, were introduced at an early period of the 
career of improvement; and though not a prime or 
a prominent object, have drawn considerable atten- 
tion. — For the disposal of the stock of the High- 
lands, various trysts or markets are held in the in- 
terior, and along the southern borders of the region. 
To supersede the inconveniences of a scattered mar- 
ket, and of purchasers having sometimes to seek 
out their commodity at the homes and fanks of the 
farmers, a great annual sheep and wool market was 
established, in 1817, at Inverness; and here all the 
disposable fleeces and sheep in the north of Scotland, 
are usually sold or contracted for in the way of con- 

The manufactures of the Highlands, except in the 
article of whisky, are so trivial as to be seen or esti- 
mated only by a minute statist. In commerce, how- 
ever, or in the exportation of the produce of the soil 
and of the seas, and in the importation of the con- 
veniences and the luxuries of life, the region exhibits 
an increase of importance quite sufficient to demon- 
strate that a process of enrichment, or at least of 
growing prosperity, is going on throughout its terri- 
tory. The state of traffic by navigation will be seen 
by reference to our articles Caledonian Canal, Chi- 
nan Canal, and those on the various ports; and that 
of the fisheries, by reference to the articles, Wick, 
Lybster, Helmsdale, Cromarty, Findhorn, In- 
verary, lochcarron, looh suieldag, hebrides, 
Ullapool, Tobermory-, and Stornoway. The an- 
nual exportations from the whole of the Highlands 
and Western Islands, are estimated by the Messrs. 
Anderson, in their ' Guide to the Highlands,' at 
£1,100,000,— consisting of sheep and wool £250,000; 
black cattle £250,000; herrings £200,000; grain 
£100,000; whisky £200,000; salmon, kelp, wood, pork, 
&c. £100,000. Two remunerating productions of a 
kind not very likely to be generally adverted to. may 
be particularly specified, — timber and game. High- 
land timber consists principally of pine and birch. 
The former, when raised from planting, is disposed 
of chiefly in the form of props for coal-mines ; and 
the latter is sold as material for herring-barrels. Be- 
tween 200 and 300 cargoes of props, logs, and deals, 
are annually shipped from the Moray frith. Game, 
though not strictly an article of exportation, draws 
profits to the country as directly as if it were. 
Highland proprietors now so very generally let the 
right of sporting on their lands that moors, varying 
in their accommodations and resources to suit the 
different classes of bidders in the market, may be 
rented at all prices from £50 to £500. Partridges 
and hares in the low grounds, the ptarmigan and the 
mountain hare in the lofty uplands, the stately red- 
deer in the sequestered wilds, the roe in the lower 
coverts, the heath-fowl as a substitute for the phea- 
sant, — these, and grouse, woodcocks, snipes, wild- 
ducks, and other game, are what attract the sports- 
man, and bring rental to the proprietor. The wild 
eagle, which still occasionally gyrates round the bleak 
summits of the pinnacled mountains, and builds its 
eyry in cliffs which claim communion with the clouds, 
is too sublime an object to be thought of by those 

whose eyes are earthward even when they tread the 
outworks of nature, and may be profitably con- 
templated only or chiefly by those who desire to 
"mount up on wings as eagles" into an atmosphere 
purer and loftier than belongs to the every-day walks 
of life. 

"We have chosen, for the sake of continuity of 
topic, to trace Highland improvement in temporal 
matters to its limits, without adverting to the reli 
gions and the educational influences which were at 
work to stimulate and direct ameliorating changes; 
but we should utterly fail to give a correct view of 
the region, and of the means of its amelioration, 
were we not to show in detail how powerfully and 
steadily these influences have been bearing upon its 
welfare. Had constructors of roads and harbours, 
members of civil government and secular societies, 
exerted a tenfold greater force than they have ac- 
tually done upon the Highlands, they would pro- 
bably have recoiled in astonishment from the futility 
of their efforts, had not the Bible, the Christian 
minister, and the schoolmaster been abroad to mould 
the minds of the population into a coincidence with 
the object of their labours. 

The Highlands and Western Islands, after the ex- 
tinction of Culdeeism and the full establishment of 
Popery, were distributed into the six dioceses of 
Dunkeld. Argyle, Moray, Boss, Caithness, and the 
Isles. The number of secular clergy who officiated 
as parish-priests and as chaplains, though it cannot 
now be ascertained, seems to have corresponded, so 
far as the resources of the region would permit, with 
the snmptuousness and the earthly pomp of the Ro- 
mish ritual. The monastic orders of all classes ap- 
pear to have had only 18 establishments, 6 of which 
were in the Western Islands. There seem to have 
been only 2 collegiate churches for regular canons, 
at Kilmun in Argyleshire and at Tain in Boss-shire, 
besides the cathedrals or diocesan churches of Dun- 
keld, Fortrose, Elgin, Dornoch, and Lismore. On 
the abolition of Popery in 1560. the first draft of the 
constitution of the Reformed church, portioned the 
Highlands and Islands, including the Orkneys, into 
the three districts of Argyle, Boss, and Orkney, and 
assigned to them 3 of the 10 superintendents which 
it provided for the kingdom. But there followed 
struggles between Presbyterianism and Episcopacy, 
alternate ascendencies of the two systems, and shirt- 
ings of scene in the persons and character and creed 
of the officiating ministers, which operated with a 
most malign influence, and occasioned almost the 
whole region to send up rank and fetid crops of 
poisonous herbage from the manurings of Popery left 
upon its soil. In the earlier years succeeding the 
Reformation, the paucity of preachers which could 
be found for the whole kingdom, the obstacle of the 
Gaelic language, and the poverty, thinness of popu- 
lation, and physical obstructions of the Highlands, 
prevented many parts of the region from becoming 
the scene of any pastoral ministrations, or even oc- 
casional religious services. So late as 1650, Loeha- 
ber, and some other equally important districts, re- 
mained untrodden by any Protestant pnstor. Even 
localities which were earlier and somewhat regularly 
supplied, received, in many instances, no advantage 
in consequence of the ministers' ignorance of the 
vernacular language. The people were profoundly 
ignorant of the art of reading; and, even though the 
schoolmaster bad gone amongst them, they possessed 
not a single copy of the scriptures by appeal to which 
they could have reaped benefit from his labours. 

Throughout the 17th century, Popery was allowed 
to riot nearly at will in the Western Highlands, and 
in those of the Hebridean islands which belong to 
the counties of Ross and Inverness ; and Episcopa 




lianism, in the feeble and worthless form, or with 
the uninfluential and unenlightening appliances 
which characterized it in Scotland, maintained full 
possession of the south-east of Ross-shire, the shores 
of Loch-Linnhe, the districts of Strath n aim and 
Strathdearn, the vicinities of Inverness, Dunkeld, 
and Blair, and also exerted considerable dominion in 
Strathspey, Badenoch, and Morayshire. Presbyte- 
rianism, or the working department of the reformed 
community, even when in the ascendant, was met, 
therefore, with moral obstacles in the way of at- 
tempting to plant a regular ministry, quite as em- 
barrassing as the physical resistance of mountain- 
barriers and intersecting arms of the sea. Yet, a 
century, all but 14 years, elapsed after the legal es- 
tablishment of the Reformation, before the General 
Assembly seems to have made any very formal at- 
tempt either to exercise regular pastoral care over 
the Highlands, or to demonstrate a consciousness 
that the region was in existence. In 1646 — redden- 
ing apparently with a sense of shame for former 
neglect, or with harassing apprehension as to the 
fate of the Reformation beyond the mountains — the 
Assembly at length resolved that a ministry be 
planted among the Highlands, — that ministers and 
exhorters who understood the Gaelic language, be 
sent to them, — that kirks be provided in them, as in 
the Lowlands, — and that, agreeably to act of parlia- 
ment, schools be erected in all their parishes. But 
these resolutions were more easily made than at- 
tempted to be carried into execution. Back to the 
very year of their being adopted, indeed, the town 
records of Inverness bear evidence of salaries having 
been paid to schoolmasters of the burgh, and respec- 
tively, in 1662 and 1667, they prohibit all persons 
except the town-teachers from giving lessons in 
reading or writing within the royalty, and enacted 
that " Mary Cowie shall not teach reading beyond the 
Proverbs ; " and, in these particulars, they may pos- 
sibly bear out an inference that, in a rudimental and 
crude form, the educational part of the Assembly's 
purpose was immediately executed in a few of the 
more populous localities. As to the strictly eccle- 
siastical part of it, however, few ministers could be 
found who understood Gaelic, and the few who did 
declined to accept, amongst a barbarous people, situ- 
ations " so poor as not to afford bread." 

After the Revolution, in 16S8, and the immediate- 
ly subsequent settlement of the Established church 
upon its present basis, considerable solicitude was 
evinced to make more extensive religious and edu- 
cational provision for the Highlands. Bodies of 
ministers and probationers were sent, in terms of 
successive acts of the General Assembly, to itinerate 
in the unprovided districts, and were supported, 
while on their missionary tours, by grants from the 
vacant stipends. All licentiates who undersood the 
Gaelic language, if on the list of probationers, were 
prohibited from accepting settlements in the Low- 
lands ; and, if already in possession of an incum- 
bency, were obliged, in the event of receiving calls 
from Highland parishes, to accept them. Commis- 
sions having, in 1617, and at subsequent dates, been 
appointed by parliament to plant kirks, modify sti- 
pends, and remodel parishes, and all their powers 
becoming, in 1707, vested in the court of session, 
committees were now nominated to visit parishes 
which had been civilly settled, with a view to the 
erection of churches and schools. In 1701, an asso- 
ciation was formed called " The Society in Scot- 
land for propagating Christian Knowledge " for " the 
increase of piety &nd virtue within Scotland, espe- 
cially in the Highlands, Islands, and remote coiners 
thereof;" and, after acquiring pecuniary strength, 
royal patronage, and a charter of incorporation, 

commenced, in 1712, a series of enterprises, which 
gradually increased in extent, and afforded no mean 
aid in the departments at once of the missionary, 
the schoolmaster, and the religious publisher. In 
1705, a grant was made by Queen Anne, from pro- 
ceeds of the quondam bishopric of Argyle, of sums, 
whose annual interest, in 1838, amounted to £142 
15s. 7d., to be expended by the synod of Argyle in 
supporting preachers, catechists, and schoolmasters. 
In 1725 — in response to an application exhibiting the 
moral destitution of a people separated into thin and 
detached clusters by arms of the sea, impetuous tor- 
rents, lofty mountains, and extensive moors— £1 ,000 
of annual royal bounty, increased at a later period 
to £2,000, was placed at the disposal of the Gen- 
eral Assembly, and w r as immediately devoted to the 
support of 20 preachers and 20 catechists appointed 
to the most destitute districts. About this period, 
the Established church — somewhat aided probably, 
though in an incidental way, by the routings of 
Popish priests, and of Jacobitical Episcopalian 
ministers, which followed the rebellion of 1715 — 
had considerably struck its roots into the thin soil 
of the Highlands, and begun to spread over them 
a numerous though stunted ramification of presby- 
teries and kirk-sessions. In 1724, the presbyteries 
of Lochcarron, Abertarff, and Skye were erected, 
and, along with the previously formed presbytery 
of the Long Island, constituted into the synod of 
Glenelg. In 1726, the presbytery of Tongue was 
established; in 1729, those of Mull and of Lorn 
were formed; and in 1742, that of the Long Island 
was divided into the two presbyteries of Lewis 
and Uist. 

While the Highlands were thus becoming better 
provided with pastoral superintendence, they ex- 
perienced the influence upon them of the school- 
master and the press. In 1616, an act of the privy 
council, which had for its avowed object the promo- 
tion of "civilitie, godliness, knowledge, and learn- 
ing," originated the system of parochial education ; 
and, in 1633, the act was incorporated with the 
laws of the country. In 1646, the General As- 
sembly — in the same act by which they ordered the 
supply of destitute districts with ministers — made 
an effort to enforce attention to the formation of 
parish-schools ; and, two years later, they appointed 
every congregation to contribute an annual collec- 
tion for aiding the attendance of Highland boys at 
school. In 1690 — the Highlanders then receiving, 
for the first time, a book in their native tongue — 
a Gaelic version of the Psalms, and a translation 
of the Shorter Catechism, were published by the 
synod of Argyle. In the same year, the General 
Assembly published, for distribution in the High- 
lands, 3,000 copies of Bishop Bedell's Irish Bible, 
and 1,000 copies of an Irish version of the New 
Testament. In 1696, new and comparatively 
stringent laws were made, appointing a school to be 
set up in eveiy parish in Scotland, and securing to 
every parochial schoolmaster a house and garden, 
and a salary of from 100 to 200 merks Scots. In 
1699, a Gaelic version of the Confession of Faith 
was published by the synod of Argyle. In 1705 
and 1706, 19presbyterial and 58 local libraries were 
erected in various districts. In 1712, the Society 
for propagating Christian Knowledge commenced its 
operations by the erection of five schools; and, from 
that time, it has been in constant movement and 
increasing activity, extending its sphere of useful- 
ness, both in adding to the number of its schools, 
and in strengthening its corps of catechists and mis- 
sionaries. So rapidly did this society increase the 
momentum of its influence that, instead of only the 
5 schools with which it commenced, it had, 7 years 




afterwards, 48, — 13 years later, 109, — and at the be- 
ginning of tlie present century, 200. In 1738, the 
society, in extension of its plans, instituted schools 
of industry for instructing females in spinning, sew- 
ing, and knitting; and it afterwards gradually aug- 
mented their number till, 30 years ago, they amounted 
to 89. In 1709, the first edition of the Gaelic New 
Testament, consisting of 10,000 copies, was pub- 
lished by the same society; and, in 1797, it was 
followed by an edition of 21,500 copies. Still, in 
spite of all the efforts of teaching and publishing 
which we have named, the 18th century closed with- 
out any considerable enlightenment of the High- 
land population having been effected. The mon- 
strous mistake was acted on, all the way along, of 
attempting to educate the young through the me- 
dium, not of their vernacular tongue, but of the 
English language. Children were taught, not to 
read or to comprehend a book, or the words of 
which it was composed, but to imitate sounds and 
repeat the deciphering of signs belonging to a 
language of which they knew nothing; and when 
they left school, they found themselves possessed 
of acquirements which were utterly incapable of 
being turned to practical account. But even had 
the schools been framed and conducted on the most 
judicious principles, they were unspeakably too few 
in number to make a general impression on the po- 
pulation, and left many a large district — extensive 
patches and far-away nooks of the enormous parishes 
of the Highlands — practically as unprovided for as if 
there had not been a school in the land. 

Since the commencement of the 18th century, 
however, the ecclesiastical, educational, and liter- 
ary history of the Highlands partakes largely of the 
bright tints of improvement which depict the history 
of their agriculture and their political condition. In 
1802, 5,000 copies of the Gaelic Bible— the first edi- 
tion of the complete Gaelic scriptures — were pub- 
lished by the Society for Propagating Christian Know- 
ledge ; in 1807, 20,000 copies were published of a 
careful translation, prepared under the direction of 
Dr. John Stewart of Luss, Dr. Alexander Stewart 
of Dingwall, afterwards of Canongate, Edinburgh, 
and the Rev. James Stewart of Killin. In 1811 a 
Gaelic school society was formed at Edinburgh, for 
the purpose of promoting education exclusively in 
the Gaelic language; and in the course of 16 years 
it raised the number of its schools to 77, attended by 
4,300 scholars. In 1812 a similar society was formed 
in Glasgow, but with the object of promoting edu- 
cation both in Gaelic and in English; and, in 1818, 
another was formed in Inverness, of seemingly an 
energetic character; and this, jointly with the Glas- 
gow society, had, in 1827, 125 schools, supposed to 
be attended by at least 5,000 scholars. In 1823 
the sum of £50,000 was granted by Government fer- 
tile purposes of church-extension in the Highlands 
and Islands. With this money were erected, under 
the superintendence of the inspector of Highland 
roads and bridges, 33 places of worship, esich at a 
cost of £720, and with from 300 to 500 sittings, and 
42 manses, each at a cost of £750, with the ap- 
pendages of a garden and a small glebe, — the surplus 
number of manses being apportioned to churches 
previously in existence, but without resident minis- 
ters. Connected with these erections 42 additional 
ministers were provided for the Highlands, at 
an annual expense to the country of £120 each, or 
£5,040 in the aggregate. In 1825 a committee of 
their own number was appointed by the General 
Assembly to increase the means of education and 
religious instruction in the Highlands and Islands; 
and they went to work with such judgment and 
energy as very soon to set up numerous and effi- 

ciently conducted schools, — giving to each school 
the valuable appendage of a library. In the same 
year — 1825 — was established at Inverness the 
Northern Institution, for the promotion of science 
and literature in general, and more particularly with 
the view of investigating the antiquities and the 
civil and natural history of the Highlands and 
Islands. In 1831 a Gaelic Episcopal society was 
formed for aiding the education of students for the 
ministry, publishing prayer-books and other pro- 
ductions in the Gaelic language, and providing 
catechists and schools for the poor of the Episco- 
palian communion throughout the Highlands. In 
1836, and following years, the commissioners of 
religious instruction, appointed by parliament, 
in response to loud demands on the part of the 
General Assembly for church-extension, expended 
much time and laborious investigation in minute 
inquiry into the condition of the Highland and the 
Hebridean parishes; and, in consequence of their 
report, the parliament of 1838 enacted that if the 
heritors of any parish divided quoad sacra provide 
schools, they may be endowed. Under this act [1° 
and 2° Victoria, c. 87] the lords of the treasury as- 
sumed, as a fit endowment for the schools erected in 
41 Highland parishes or districts which have been 
divided quoad sacra under the act 5° Geo. IV. c. 
90, the interest of a sum equal in amount to double 
the estimated value or cost of the school, school- 
master's house and garden, so provided in each dis- 
trict. At various dates, from near the commence- 
ment of the century, the United Associate Synod, 
the Congregational Union of Scotland, and the 
Baptist Society, adopted measures for contributing 
influence and labour to the religious amelioration of 
the Highlands; but, except in instances which are 
too few in number or too inconsiderable in result, 
to loom out in a general statistical sketch, they 
have hitherto been hindered in their efforts by the 
great obstacle which so long obstructed the mea- 
sures of the Established church after the Reforma- 
tion, — the want of suitable men who are acquainted 
with the Gaelic language. In recent years, how- 
ever, the movements of the Free church, together 
with some changes in the system of the public 
schools, have given a great momentum to moral 
improvement in almost every district of the High- 

Up to the year 1826, 35,000 copies of the Bible and 
48,700 copies of the New Testament, in the Gaelic 
language, were issued by the British and Foreign 
Bible society, making, along with the issues of the 
Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge, a total 
of 60,000 copies of the Bible and 80,000 copies of 
the New Testament ; and since that period several 
large editions have been issued, particularly by the 
Edinburgh Bible society. In 1828 a large Gaelic 
dictionary, in two thick quarto volumes, and com- 
piled by Mr. Maclachlan of Aberdeen and Dr. Mac 
kay of Dunoon, to supersede two inconsiderable vo- 
cabularies which alone previously existed to direct 
the scholar, was published by the Highland Society 
of Scotland; and, about the same period, another 
Gaelic Dictionary, completed in one large octavo 
volume, and compiled by Dr. Dewar now of Aber- 
deen, and Dr. Macleod now of Glasgow, was issued 
in numbers. Other dictionaries also — a 4to one 
edited by Mr. Armstrong of London, and a pocket 
edition by Mr. Macalpine of Islay — have been pub- 
lished. In 1829 a monthly sixpenny miscellany, 
called ' The Gaelic Messenger,' and filled entirely 
with Gaelic composition, was commenced under the 
editorship of Dr. Macleod; but though it had, at 
the first, a considerable circulation, it rapidly declin- 
ed, and, after about three years, became extinct; but 




in 1835, it was revived under the title of ' The New 
Gaelic Messenger.' Other accessions to Gaelic liter- 
ature, issued previous to 1836, and almost wholly 
since the commencement of tlie present century, are 
11 original prose works, principally sermons, — 10 
separate collections of hymns on sacred subjects, that 
of Dr. Buchanan's hymns in 11 different editions, — 
5 editions of Alleine's Alarm to Sinners, — 3 of Bax- 
ter's Call to the Unconverted, — 2 of Boston's Four- 
fold State, — 2 of Doddridge's Rise and Progress, — 2 
of Guthrie's Great Interest. — 2 of Willison on the 
Shorter Catechism, — 5 of Willison's Mother's Cate- 
chism, — 2 of Willison's Communicant's Catechism, — 
2 of Thomson's Catechism. — single editions of about 
10 religious treatises long known in the dress of the 
English language, and, for the most part, of highly 
approved character, — 9 or 10 school books, — and 
about 50 secular works, almost all single editions, 
and chiefly in the department of Gaelic songs and 
poetry. According to the report of the General 
Assembly's Committee, in 1833, the Highlands and 
Islands, including the Orkneys and the Slietlands — 
or the synod of Argyle, the presbyteries of Alford 
and Kincardine O'Neil in the synod of Aberdeen, 
and the synods of Moray, Ross, Sutherland and 
Caithness, Glenelg, Orkney and Zetland, compre- 
hending 220 parishes, and a population, in 1831, of 
504,955 — contained 273 parochial schools, attended 
by 14,202 scholars, — 315 societies' schools, attended 
by 18,085 scholars, — 137 privately endowed schools, 
attended by 6,314 scholars, — 372 unendowed or 
voluntary schools, attended by 13,728 scholars, — 
418 Sabbath schools, — 20 week-day evening schools, 
— and about 80 schools of industry supported by the 
Society for propagating Christian Knowledge; and 
according to the Report of the Commissioners of 
Religious Instruction, there were, in 1838, in the 
Highlands and Islands, 35 missionaries and 8 cate- 
chists supported by the annual royal grant to the 
General Assembly, — 10 missionaries and 33 cate- 
chists supported by the Society for propagating 
Christian Knowledge, — and 3 preachers and 7 cate- 
chists assisted or maintained from the fund admin- 
istered by the synod of Argyle. More recent sta- 
tistics do not differ materially from these, except 
by the addition of the machinery of the Free church; 
and summaries of them, as ascertained in the Census 
of 1851, will be found in our articles on the several 
Highland counties. 

Notwithstanding the multiplicity and power of 
the means of moral improvement with which the 
Highlands have been plied — notwithstanding a per- 
fect amplitude or almost an excess of these means, 
in some districts, since the Free church went so 
warmly into competition with the Establishment — 
there still is, in many large tracts, particularly the 
less populous ones, a very serious deficiency. While 
the Highlands, too, have been emancipated to a de- 
lightful extent from the superstitious, immoral ob- 
servances, and vicious customs which not long ago 
enthralled them, and while they seem to be, in a 
general way, rapidly progressing in a career of 
temperance and of proper behaviour at funerals, so 
contrasted to the character which they formerly 
bore, they still, in the more sequestered districts, 
are the scenes of folly, superstitious absurdities, and 
discreditable moral feeling which would be far more 
in keeping, in the present day, with the moral 
scenery of Spain or Brazil than with that of Scot- 
land. Ample scope and verge enough exists in the 
Highlands for the enterprise of enlightened bene- 
volence; and claims loud and urgent are made by 
them on the attention of both the patriot and the 

HIGHTAE. a post-office village in the parish of 

Lochmaben, Dumfries-shire. It is the largest of the 
Fouhtowns: which see. It stands 2J miles south- 
south-east of the burgh of Lochmaben, on the road 
thence to Annan. Here is a Reformed Presby- 
terian meeting-house. Hightae loch is a lake mid- 
way between the village and the burgh, covering a 
surface of 52 acres, and contributing its quota to the 
rich displays of water scenery, and the variety and 
abundance of fishy produce, for which the parish of 
Lochmaben is remarkable. Population of the vil- 
lage, 414. 


HIGHTOWN. See Hbitos. 

HILLBANK. See Dundee. 

HILLEND, a post-oltice village, partly in the 
parish of Dalgety, and partly in that of Inverkeith- 
ing, Fifeshire. Here is a parochial school belong- 
ing to Dalgety. Population, 308. 

HILLHEAD, a village in the parish of Cockpen 
Edinburghshire. Population, 76. Houses, 18. 

HILLHEAD. Perthshire. See Dunkeld. 

HILLHOUSE. See Duxdonald. 

HILL OF MEN1E, a post-office station subordi- 
nate to Aberdeen. 

HILLS (Castle of). See Lochkuttox. 

HILLSIDE, a straggling village with a post- 
office, in the parish of Montrose, 2 miles north- 
north-west of the burgh of Montrose, Forfarshire. 

HILLSIDE, a post-office station subordinate tc 

HILLSWICK, a post-office village and small sea- 
port, in the parish of Nortbinaven, in Shetland. It 
stands on a -creek or voe of St. Magnus bay, 12 
miles south by west of the northern extremity of 
the mainland. The voe penetrates the land 3 miles 
north-north-eastward, is flanked on the west side 
by a narrow peninsula, terminating in a point called 
Hillswickness, and is considered a very safe har- 
bour, and is comparatively much frequented by 
vessels. Population of the village, 211. Houses, 34. 

HILLTOWN. See Dundee and Hilton. 

HILLYLAND, a village in the parish of Tibber- 
more, Perthshire. Population, 202. Houses, 43. 

HILTON, an ancient parish in Berwickshire, 
united, in 1735, to that of Whitsome, which see. 
The old church stood on a small hill, and hence 
drew the name Hilton, or Hilltown, upon the ham- 
let in its vicinity. The church was 8-iciently a 
rectory, rated in the Taxatio at 18 marks. In 1464, 
there appears to have been a litigation at the Papal 
court respecting this church. In 1362, David II. 
granted to William de Wardlaw some lands in the 
manor of Hilton; the manor having been forfeited 
to the Crown bj' Adam de Hilton's adherence to the 
English king. 

HILTON, a fishing village in the parish of 
Fearn, on the east coast of Ross-shire. It is situated 
on the Moray frith, 6J miles east-south-east of 
Tain. Population, 385. 

HILTON, a village in the parish of Inverness. 
Population, 64. Houses, 10. 

HINDIGARTH (Head of), a headland, flanking 
the north side of the entrance of Mid-Yell voe, 
near the middle of the west coast of the island of 
Yell, in Shetland. 

HIRSEL. See Coldstreasi. 

HIRST HILL, a bill in the parish of Shotts, 
Lanarkshire. Its 6ummit is on the watershed be- 
tween the Clyde and the Forth, and commands a 
very extensive and beautiful prospect. The head- 
stream of Almond water rises on the east sido o( 
the hill. 

HIRTA. See Kilda (St.j. 

HOAN. See Durness. 

HOKDWEEL. See Buxkle. 




HOBKIRK — anciently and properly HorEKiiiK — 
a parish in the district of Teviotdale, Roxburgh- 
shire. It extends in a stripe north-north-eastward, 
from the watershed with Liddesdale to the centre of 
the county. It contains the post-office station of 
Bonchester-Bridge, 7 miles east-south-east of Ha- 
wick. It is bounded by Cavers, Bedrule, South- 
dean, Castleton, Teviothead, and Kirkton. Its 
length is nearly 11 miles; and its breadth varies 
from less than 3 miles to about li. Rule water 
is formed by several head-streams in the southern 
part of the parish, and runs thence first some dis- 
tance through the interior, and then along the 
boundary with Bedrule. It is strictly a mountain- 
stream, has a considerable declivity of channel, and, 
in consequence, is impetuous and subject- to ex- 
tremely sudden floods and ebbs in the volume of its 
waters. All the parish — except the south-west 
corner, which is watered by one of the head-streams 
of the Slitrig, and has a north-westerly exposure — 
consists of the vale of the Rule, scarcely on the 
average J of a mile broad, and backgrounds of 
mountainous hills. Slightly more than one-fifth of 
the whole area is in tillage or parks; about 1,000 
acres are under plantation; and all the remainder is 
waste or pastoral. The soil, all along the vale of 
the Rule, is a very fertile, deep, strong clay, some 
parts of it mixed with small channel, and other 
parts with sand; and, at a distance from the stream, 
it is light and sandy, lying upon a subsoil of cold 
till, and, in general, very barren. The most re- 
markable mountains are Winbrougb, Fanna, Eub- 
berslaw, and Bonchester. The first and second, 
situated in the southern extremity of the parish, 
rise to about 1,600 feet above the level of the sea. 
and have such breadth of base as to be each 1J 
mile in ascent to the summit. Winbrough com- 
mands vistas among circumjacent mountains, and 
looks out over the great intervening distance, in 
each case of about 40 miles, upon the marine waters 
which gird both the western and the eastern coasts 
of Scotland. Rubberslaw, situated near the north- 
ern extremity, on the boundary with Kirkton and 
Cavers, and belonging partly to these parishes, lifts 
its dark, rugged, heath-clad form 1,420 feet above 
the level of the sea. Bonchester, on the east side 
of the parish, a little north of its middle, rises to the 
height of about 1,260 feet, and presents to the eye 
a round-shouldered and grass}' mountain-form of 
beauty. The parish abounds with freestone, — in 
the upper district of a whitish colour, and in the 
lower of a reddish, — both suitable material for 
building. Extensive masses of limestone also occur 
in the south, and in several places have long been 
quarried and burnt. At Robert's Linn, near Lime- 
kiln-edge, is a stratum of agate or coarse jasper, out 
ol which many seals and other trinkets have been 
cut. Parts of it are beautifully clouded and streaked, 
upon a reddish ground, with blue, crimson, and 
yellow. On Bonchester- hill, on Rubberslaw, at 
Wauohope, and in other places, are vestiges of en- 
campments or fortifications. Those on Bonchester 
indicate a fortalice, round and square encampments, 
and, in some places, circumvallations of a more 
modern date intersecting others more ancient. The 
situation being naturally one of united strength and 
convenience, the Romans appear to have called it 
" the good camp," Bona Castra, — a name easily 
convertible by usage into Bonchester. The cele- 
brated Elliott, Lord Heathfiold, governor of Gibral- 
tar, who defended that place with great heroism and 
military skill against the united naval and mili- 
tary forces of the house of Bourbon, was a native of 
Ilobkirk. The Rev. Robert Riccalton, the author 
nf two well-known volumes of Sermons, was min- 

ister of the parish from 1725 to 1769. Thomson, 
the poet, spent some years with Mr. Riccalton, and 
is reported to have planned his "Seasons" in the 
parish, and borrowed from it and adjacent districts 
much of the scenery in his descriptions. One road 
runs up the vale of Eule water for about 7 miles, 
when it diverges into Southdean; another runs 
across the parish nearly at its centre; another in- 
tersects its south-west corner; and two branch ones 
run brief distances in its interior. The lands of the 
parish are distributed among nine heritors. The 
real rental in 1821 was £7,095. The estimated 
yearly value of raw produce in 1836 was £12,800. 
Assessed property in 1864, £9,008 14s. 9d. Popula- 
tion in 1831, 676 ; in 1861, 771. Houses, 133. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Jedburgh, and 
synod of Merse and Teviotdale. Patron, the Crown. 
Stipend, £240 17s. 8d. ; glebe, £40. Unappropriated 
teinds, £420 13s. lid. Schoolmaster's salary, £47 
with £22 fees, and £4 13s. 4d. other emoluments. 
There are two non-parochial schools. The church was 
built soon after the beginning of last oentury, and 
contains 412 sittings. The ancient church — ori- 
ginally called Hopekirk, from its standing in one 
of those small vales to which the name Hope is 
generally applied in the south of Scotland — belonged, 
from an early date till the Reformation, to the canons 
of Jedburgh. United to Hobkirk is one-half of the 
ancient small parish of Abbotsrule on the east bank 
of Rule water; the other half being annexed to 
Southdean. See Abbotsrule. There is a Free 
church at Wolrlee, with an attendance of 180 ; and 
the sum raised in connexion with it in 1865, was 
£142 15s. Id. 

HODDAM, a parish, containing the post-town of 
Ecelefecban, in Annandale, Dumfries-shire. It is 
bounded by Tundergarth, Middlebie, Annan, Cum- 
mertrees, and St. Mungo. Its length southward is 
5J miles ; and its greatest breadth is 3| miles. It 
sends aloft, at its northern extremity, the beautiful 
and far-seeing hill of Brunswark, [which see ;] it 
thence subsides by a gentle slope into a fine central 
plain, about 2 miles square ; from this, it glides off, 
on the east and south and south-west, into luxuriant 
haughs ; and it is, on all sides, surrounded by gently 
swelling hills which, like a frame-work, enclose it, 
with its thriving hedges, its rows and clumps of 
flourishing wood, and its. fascinating expanse of 
vegetation, as a picture of no common beauty. The 
river Annan, over a distance of nearly 4 miles, traces 
the south-western and southern boundary, rolling 
along a body of waters about 100 feet broad, flanked 
everywhere with wood-tufted banks, and tempting 
the fish-catcher by its stores of salmon, herling, and 
trout. The water of Milk comes down from the 
north, and after tracing the western boundary for | 
of a mile, falls into the Annan. A rill rises a brief 
way within the limits of Tundergarth, and coming 
in upon Hoddam, traces its eastern boundary over a 
distance of 3 miles. Mein water, coming down at 
this point from the east, drinks up the rill, traces 
the boundary for nearly a mile, and then runs across 
the parish — here only a mile broad — and then, nearly 
at right angles, falls into the Annan. Though "a 
mere rivulet, and of short course, the Mein frequently 
overflows its banks, sometimes changes its channel, 
and, owing to the gravelly material of the embank- 
ments raised to confine it within limits, constantly, 
in rainy weather, menaces the fields in its vicinity 
with damage or desolation. The soil, in the haugh 
lands, is a rich alluvial loam, deep, and exceedingly 
fertile ; in the central plain, it is light and gravelly, 
but comparatively free from stones, and, with proper 
culture and a fair proportion of moisture, produces 
rich crops both of grass and of corn; in the rising- 




grounds and ascent toward Brunswark hill on the 
north, it inclines to clay, has in many places a sub- 
soil of cold till, and in a tew places lies upon rock, 
yet, when properly cultivated, is nearly as produc- 
tive as the soil of the low grounds. Excepting 
Brunswark, and one or two small patches of surface, 
all profitably used as sheep-pasturage, the entire 
area of the parish is arable, well enclosed, and in a 
state of high cultivation. Sandstone, limestone, 
slate-clay, and clay-ironstone are abundant. Coal 
is found in thin seams, and has induced the expen- 
diture of a considerable sum in exploratory borings. 
Close on the Annan, about a mile below the point 
where the river first touches the parish, is Hall- 
guards, the site of the ancient castle of Hoddam. 
This stronghold is reported to have been the seat 
of one of the families of the Unices ; and was de- 
molished several centuries ago, in terms of the Border 
treaty. In the 15th century, it was rebuilt, or 
rather a new and now venerable structure bearing 
its name was erected by Lord Herries, but not on the 
same bank of the river, and, in consequence, beyond 
the limits of the parish: see Cummeuthees. The 
chief modern mansion is Knockhill, about i a mile 
from the Annan. There are four landowners. The 
real rental, twenty vears ago, was about £7,000. 
A-sessed property in 1860, £7,538. The turn- 
pike from Glasgow to Carlisle, and the main trunk 
of the Caledonian railway, pass through the parish ; 
and the latter has a station at Ecclefechan. Popu- 
lation in 1S31, 1,58'2; in 1861, 1,653. Houses. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Annan, and 
synod of Dumfries. Patrons, the Duke of Buc- 
cleuch and Sharps of Hoddam. Stipend, £259 8s.; 
glebe, £43 10s. Schoolmaster's salary is now £70, 
with £10 fees. The parish church was built in 
1817, is situated upwards of a mile from Ecclefechan, 
and contains about 500 sittings. There is a Free 
church at Ecclefechan ; and the sum raised in con- 
nexion with it in 1865 was £112 2s. 5d. There is 
also an United Presbyterian church at Ecclefechan, 
with nearly 600 sittings. There are three private 
schools. — The present parish of Hoddam compre- 
hends the three ancient parishes of Hoddam, Luce, 
and Ecclefechan, which were united in 1609. 
In the charters of the 12th century, Hoddam is spelt 
Hod-holm and Hod-olm, and is composed of two 
Anglo-Saxon words signifying ' the Head of the 
Holm.' The ancient church stood on the haugh or 
holm on the east bank of the Annan, at some dis- 
tance below the old castle; and near itwasahamlet 
called Hoddamtown. The lands and church be- 
longed anciently to the bishop of Glasgow. Luce 
consisted of the portion of the united parish which 
lies south of Mein water. The church stood on the 
Annan below the influx of the Mein, at a place 
dotted with two or three houses, which still bears 
the name of Luce, and where anciently there was a 
hamlet; but, like the old church of Hoddam, it has 
been utterly demolished. The lands of Luce and 
the patronage of the church belonged, before the 
Reformation, to the noble family of Carlisle; and, 
in the 17th century, they passed to the Duke of 
Queensberry. Ecclefechan, or Eglisfechan, ' the 
church of Fechan ' — an Irish abbot of the 7th cen- 
tury — consisted of the eastern part of the modern 
parish. The ancient church stood on the south side 
of the village, but has quite disappeared. Ceme- 
teries around the site of it, and of the other two de- 
molished churches, and glebes in three distinct ter- 
ritories belonging to the minister, continue to be 
memorials of the threefold parochial division of the 
modern parish. 

HODDAM CASTLE. See Cummektrees. 

IIOGGANFIELD LOCH, a small lake in the 
barony parish of Glasgow, discharging itself through 
the Molendinar burn, and supplying water-power 
to the city mills. 

HOLBUEN. See Aberdeen. 

HOLBUEN-HEAD, a magnificent headland, 2 
miles north by west of the town of Thurso, and 7 si 
miles south-west of Dunnet-head. on the north coast 
of Caithness-shire. It flanks the west side of the 
entrance of Thurso bay. The rocks contiguous to 
it exhibit astonishing scenes of natural grandeur ; 
and one, called the Clett, situated about 240 feet 
from its own extremity, rises to the height of 400 
feet, is covered in summer by vast flocks of sea-fowl, 
and often sports sublimely with the wild seas which 
rush against it with tempestuous power. 

HOLEHOUSE. See Gienockje. 

HOLEHOUSE-HILL. See Glenkiln. 

HOLEKETTLE BRIDGE, a village in the par- 
ish of Kettle, Fifeshire. Population, 280. Houses, 

HOLEMILL-LOCH, a small lake in the parish 
of Craig, Forfarshire. 


HOLLAND-BUSH. See Teoqueek. 

HOLLAND'S BAY, a bay on the south side nf 
the island of Stronsay in Orkney. 

HOLLEE and FAIRYHALL, two .imall con- 
tiguous villages, in the parish of Kirkpatrick-Flem- 
ing, Dumfries-shire. Population, 114. 

H OLLOCH BURN, a brook of the parish of Muir- 
avonside, Stirlingshire. 

HOLLOW-WOOD, or How-wood, a village in 
the parish of Lochwinnoch, Renfrewshire. It stands ■ 
3 J miles east-north-east of the town of Lochwinnoch, 
on the road thence to Paisley. Population, in 
1861, 337. 

HOLLOWS. See Gilnockie and Canonbie. 

HOLM, the name of many an estate or farm or 
other locality, comprising meadow-land or haugh, 
in the southern counties of Scotland; also the name 
of many a small low green island in the Orkneys. 

HOLM, a parish containing the village of St. 
Mary, in Orkney. Its post-town is Kirkwall, 2J 
miles north-west of the nearest part of the boundary, 
and 7 north-west of the parish church. The parish 
comprises a tract in the south-east of Pomona, and 
the island of Lambholm. The tract in Pomona is 
bounded on the east, the south, and the south-west 
by the sea, and on other sides by the parishes of 
Kirkwall and St. Andrews ; it measures about 6 
miles in length south-eastward, and about 3 miles 
in extreme breadth ; and it sends out two promon- 
tories, — that of Rosencss south-eastward in the ex- 
treme south-east, and that of Howquoy southward 
4 miles west of Roseness. This tract is separated 
from the island of Btirray on the south by Holm 
sound, in the middle of which lies the island of 
Lambholm. See Holm Sound. The shores of the 
parish, for the most part, are rocky; and the soil 
is a good thin loam, tolerably fertile, producing 
more oats and barley than are sufficient for the con- 
sumpt of the inhabitants. The principal land- 
owner is Gramme of Grpemehill. Attention is given 
to the herring and cod fisheries. Population in 1831, 
747; in 1861, 834. Houses, 183. Assessed property 
in I860, £1,195. 

This paiish is in the presbytery of Kirkwall, and 
svnod of Orkney. Patron, the Earl of Zetland. 
Stipend, £157 Is. 6d.; glebe, £4. Schoolmaster's sal- 
ary. £35 10s. The parish church stands on the south 
shore, If mile from Roseness, and was built in 1818. 
There is an United Presbyterian church in the 
north-east corner of the parish, contiguous to St. 
Andrews. The present paiish comprehends the an 




cient districts of Holm and Paplay, the former on 
the west, the latter on the east, Paplay is a name 
which occurs also in some other of the Orkney par- 
ishes. It is always a comparatively fertile tract, 
and is supposed to have been the , glebe land of the 
papa or priest in the times of Popery. 

HOLM, a suburb of the north side of Stomoway 
in Lewis ; also a small island at the mouth of Stor- 
noway harbour. 

HOLM, a small harbour in the parish of Dunnet, 
on the north coast of Caithness- shire. See Donnet. 

HOLM, a small island, contiguous to the middle 
of the east side of the island of Papa-Westray, in 

HOLM OF AUSKERRY. See Auskerky. 

HOLM OF BALFRON. See Balfrox. 

HOLM OF FARA, a small island contiguous to 
the south-eastern end of the island of Westray, in 

HOLM OF GRIMBISTER, a small uninhabited 
island belonging to the parish of Firth in Orkney. 

HOLM 0"F HOUTON, a small island contiguous 
to the southern extremity of the parish of Orphir in 
Orkney. See Houtox. 

HOLM OF MIDGARTH, a small island, inhabit- 
ed by a single family, contiguous to the north end 
of the island of Stronsay, in Orkney. 

HOLM-BURN, a brook with small beautiful wa- 
terfalls, and pleasant woodland scenery, in the par- 
ish of Inverness. 



HOLM-POINT, a small headland in the parish of 
Stomoway, in Lewis. 

HOLM-SOUND, the belt of water between the 
Holm district of Pomona and the island of Burray, 
in Orkney. It varies in breadth from l£ to 2£ 
miles. It affords secure anchorage, and has on the 
north-west coast a pier where vessels of 50 tons may 
unload. The small circular island of Lambholm, 
about 3 miles in circumference, lies nearly in the 
middle of it, and affords much shelter. Another 
island of similar size, called Glim's holm, lies south- 
west of Lambholm, and contiguous to Burray. 

HOLMS (The), three small islands, near the 
north-west coast of Unst, in Shetland. 

HOLMS OF HUIP, two small islands, contigu- 
ous to the north end of Stronsay, in Orkney. 

HOLMS OF IYE, two small islands contiguous 
to the shore of the Durness district of the island of 
Sanday, in Orkney. 

HOLMS OF SPURNESS, two small islands, 
nearly in the middle of the strait between the island 
of Stronsay and the island of Sanday, in Orkney. 

HOLMS WATER, a rivulet of Peebles-shire, 
giving name to the ancient parish of Glenholm, and 
traversing its whole length. The stream rises at 
Holm-Nick mountain, on the boundary with Lan- 
arkshire, pursues a direction to the east of north, 
over a distance of 6J miles, and then falls into Big- 
gar water § of a mile above the confluence of that 
stream with the Tweed. In the commencing part 
of its course it is pent up by the mountains within 
a gorge ; but, as it proceeds, it has a gradually wi- 
dening basin till it commands a strath of a mile in 
width, overlooked on both sides by gently ascend- 
ing grass-clad hills; and it flows softly and sinu- 
ously along with such easy motion as is just suffi- 
cient to exempt it from the tameness of a sluggard 
stream. Over most of its course the rivulet and its 
basin, with their soft mountain frame-work, form 
one of the loveliest of those landscapes for which 
Tweeddale is celebrated. See Glenholm. 

HOLTON-SQUARE, a collier village in the par- 

ish of Alloa, Clackmannanshire. Population in 
1861, 377. 

HOLY BUSH. See Dalrymfle. 

HOLYDEAN. See Bowdex. 

HOLY LOCH, an elongated bay, about 2 miles 
in length, and 1 in extreme breadth, penetrating 
the land west-north-westward, between the par- 
ishes of Kilmun and Dunoon, in Cowal, Argyll- 
shire. Its north side is steeply flanked by the high 
heathy hill of Kilmun, yet has the villages of Strone 
and Kilmun on its shore ; its south side has somt 
little breadth of land before rising into mountain, 
and is adorned there with the village of Sandbed. 
the beautiful policies of Hafton house, and the villas 
contiguous to Hunter's quay ; its head receives 
Eachaig water, and blends softly into the fine glen 
leading up to Loch Eck ; its centre looks right 
across to Ashton, and the adjacent pleasant shores 
of Renfrewshire ; its mouth folds round, on the one 
hand, direct into Loch Long, and on the other to 
the Kirn portion of the town of Dunoon ; and its entire 
periphery is picturesque and joyous, gay with hand- 
some dwellings, screened round with Highland 
scenery, and a favourite sea-bathing retreat of the 
citizens of Glasgow. It is traditionally said to have 
received its name from the stranding within it of a 
vessel freighted with earth from the Holy Land, 
for laying beneath the foundations of Glasgow ca- 

HOLY ISLE, an island about 2J miles long and 
1 mile broad, of an irregularly conical figure, and 
nearly 1,000 feet high, extending across the mouth 
of Lamlash bay, on the east side of Arran. Its sur- 
face is picturesquely variegated with heath-clad ac- 
clivities, grassy ridges, and columnar masses, — the 
last consisting of clinkstone on bases of sandstone, 
and rising tier above tier to the summit. Its height 
as seen from the water, immediately adjacent, looks 
almost grander than that of Goat-fell; and its sum- 
mit is more difficult to be reached, and commands 
nearly as brilliant a view. It is said to have got its 
name from being the retreat of a Culdee anchorite, 
called Saint Maol Jos, whose hermitage, in the form 
of a natural cave, is still shown on its western side; 
and near this is a spring, " a holy well," which had 
a surpassing reputation among the superstitious 
during centuries, for curing all sorts of diseases. 

" HOLY' ISLES. See Garvelloch Isles. 

HOLYROOD. See Edinburgh. 

HOLYTOWN, a post-office village in the centre 
of the eastern division of the parish of Bothwell, 
middle ward of Lanarkshire. It stands on the road 
from Glasgow to Edinburgh by way of Whitburn, 
and about a mile east of the transit of the Glasgow 
fork of the Caledonian railway, but has a station on 
the latter 2f miles north of the Motherwell junction, 
and 13J east-south-east of Glasgow. It is surrounded 
by a well-worked part of the Lanarkshire mineral 
field, and it partakes largely in the consequent in- 
dustry. Here are a chapel of ease and a Free church. 
Population, 1,135. 


HOLYWOOD, a parish on the western border of 
Dumfries-shire. It contains the post-office village 
of Holywood; also the small village of Cluden. 
It is bounded by Kirkcudbrightshire, and by the 
parishes of Dunscore, Kirkmahoe, and Dumfries. 
Its length eastward is 9J miles; and its greatest 
breadth is 2^ miles. All the surface, except some 
soft-featured and inconsiderable hills on the west, 
is level, and forms part of the beautifully dressed 
and richly encinctured vale of lower Nithsdale. 
About 300 acres of moorland, and 350 of moss, em- 
brown the gentle and limited uplands ; about 1 20 of 




meadow, and 550 of wood, variegate and beautify 
the fine stretch of lowlands ; and all the rest of the 
area, amounting to upwards of 7,500 imperial acres, 
is arable. The river Nith, in stretches and folds of 
charming beauty, traces, for about 5J miles, the 
eastern and southern boundary. Though fordable 
at three different places, and tranquil in its current 
during summer, it sometimes comes down in winter 
with such speed and bulk as nearly defy the oppo- 
sition of embankments in the more exposed grounds. 
The Cairn — or, as it is here usually called, the Clu- 
den — approaches, in a considerable body of "waters, 
from the north, and has connexion with nearly the 
whole length of the parish, but chiefly along its 
western and southern boundary, generally in fine 
bends and with pleasing appearance, to a confluence 
with the Nith at the point where the latter takes 
leave of the parish. Glengabber burn and five other 
rills, which are noticeable only in the aggregate, 
water the parish, and lose themselves in the Cluden. 
Both the Nith and the Cluden are excellent trouting- 
streams, and produce salmon, herlings, sea-trout, 
and a few pike. Near the centre of the parish are 
limestone, and a hard red freestone; but they are 
not worked. On the lands which cover them con- 
siderable little blocks of lead ore have been turned 
up by the plough. The modern mansions are New- 
tonairds and Gribton-house on the Cluden, and 
Broomrig-house, Cowhill-house, and Portract-house, 
on the Nith. There are seven principal landowners. 
The real rental in 1837 was £7,436. The yearly 
value of real property, as assessed in 1860, was 
£8,662 0s. Od. The parish is traversed by the turn- 
pike from Ayr to Dumfries, by the turnpike from 
Glasgow to Dumfries, and by the Glasgow and 
South-western railway ; and it has a station on the 
latter, 3J miles from Dumfries. The village of 
Holywood stands on the Glasgow and Dumfries 
road, in the vicinity of the railway station ; and is 
an agreeable modern place, with about 180 inhabi- 
tants. Population of the parish in 1831, 1,066; in 
1861, 1,115. Houses, 206. 

Holywood was anciently celebrated for its abbey. 
Though no traces of that pile are now visible, me- 
morials of it exist in two excellently-toned bells, 
which continue to do duty in the belfry of the parish 
church. The abbey stood within the area of the 
present burying-ground, and was built in the cruci- 
form style. A handsome semicircular arch spanned 
the entrance ; and a fine Gothic arch strode across 
the body of the edifice, supporting the oaken roof. 
The upper part of the cross was used as the parochial 
place of worship so late as 1779 ; but it was then — 
with a taste and a parsimony worthy only of a miser 
— taken down to furnish materials for the present 
parish church. Before the abbey was built, and 
back to a very early age, there was on its site a cell 
occupied by a hermit. An Irish recluse of the name 
of Congal seems to have been the founder; and he 
bequeathed both to the cell and to the abbey the 
name of Dercongal, signifying ' the Oakwood of 
Congal.' — the name by which even the parish itself 
is usually designated in the charters and bulls of the 
13th century. The date of the founding of the ab- 
bey, though unascertained and disputed, must have 
been between 1121 and 1154. The founder is said 
to have been John, Lord of Kirkconnel, who was of 
the family of Maxwell. In 1257, the monks had a 
litigation with their rivals of Melrose, respecting the 
tithes of Dunseore. In 1290, the abbot sat in the 
great assembly of the Estates atBrigham. In 1296, 
Dungal, the abbot, with his monks swore fealty to 
Edward I. at Berwick. In 1365, the abbot and 
convent received from David II. a protection, and 
certain privileges "de sacra nemore." Thomas 

Campbell, the last abbot, was prosecuted by the 
Regent Moray for assisting Queen Mary, after hei 
escape from Lochleven ; and he incurred forfeiture, 
in August 1568. The monks exercised complete 
jurisdiction over many lands in Nithsdale and East 
Galloway. In 1544, the rental of the monastery 
amounted to £700 Scots, 19 chalders 14 bolls of meal, 
9 bolls of bear, and 1 chalder of malt; but, at the 
Reformation, it was reduced by plunder to £395 18s. 
8d. In 1587, what remained of the property, con- 
sisting of the churches and ecclesiastical property 
of Holywood, Dunseore, Penpont, Tynron, and 
Kirkconnel, was vested in the Crown ; and in 1618, 
it was erected into a temporal barony, in favour of 
John Murray of Lochmaben, and his heirs. At the 
abbey of Holywood, in the reign of Robert 1., Ed- 
ward Bruce, the King's brother, and lord of Gallo- 
way, founded an hospital and a chapel, and endowed 
them with some lands in Galloway. The establish- 
ment was ruined during the wars of the succession; 
but in 1372, it was re-edified by Archibald Douglas, 
lord of Galloway, and endowed with the Gallowegian 
lands of Crossmichael and Troqueer. — Opposite the 
bend of the Nith, at the eastern extremity of the 
parish, but on the west side of the confluent waters 
of the Cluden, and hence strictly within Kirkcud- 
brightshire, though sending their shade, and throw- 
ing their attractions upon Holywood, stand the 
ruins of the ancient college, or provostry. of Lix- 
ci.uden : which see. — Within J a mile of the parish 
church, are a number of large stones arranged in the 
form of a Druidical temple, enclosing a space of about 
80 yards in diameter. A grove of oak trees, with 
which this temple had intimate connexion, seems an- 
ciently to have stretched away from the spot 6 or 
8 miles north-westward, into the parish of Glencairn ; 
and this sacred grove, this "holy wood," appears to 
have given name to the parish. 

This parish is in the presbytery and synod of 
Dumfries. Patron, Otto of Skeoch. Stipend, £234 
14s. 4d. ; glebe, £10 10s. There are three parochial 
schools, with attached salaries of respectively £32- 
6s. 8d., £21, and £16 6s. 8d. There has for 56 
years been a subscription library. The parish church 
was built in 1779, has a plain square tower, and 
contains 530 sittings. Previous to the Reformation, 
the church belonged to the abbey of Holywood, and 
was served by a vicar. Dr. Bryce Johnston, the 
author of a work on the Apocalypse, was long min- 
ister of Holywood, and furnished the article on the 
parish in the Old Statistical Account. The only 
other noticeable name is that of a native, Charles 
Irvine, surgeon, who received from government a 
grant of £5,000 for the discovery of the method of 
rendering salt-water fresh. 

HOME. See Hume. 

HOOD'S HILL. See Tarboltox. 

HOPE, a name in Scottish topography, designat- 
ing a small narrow vale, whose bill-screens approach 
each other so closely at the bottom as to leave 
scarcely any level ground. 

HOPE. See Gakvai.d. 

HOPE (Bex). See Bex-Hope. 

HOPE BURN. See Giffokd Burn. 

HOPE-HOUSE. See Selkirk. 

HOPEKIRK. See Hobkirk. 

HOPE (Loch), a sheet of water in the parish of 
Durness in Sutherlandshire, about 6 miles in length 
by half-a-mile in breadth. Its mean depth does not 
exceed 6 fathoms, and it is gradually filling up by 
deposits from the water of Strathmore which flows 
into its head. It has no claims to picturesque beaut}'. 

HOPE (The), a river in the parish of Durness, 
Sutherlandshire. It may be regarded as a continua- 
tion of Strathmore water, which rises in Glengollie 




It runs a course of about 11 miles due north, when 
it enters Loch Hope; whence, after a course of about 
a mile, it falls into the sea 3 miles east of Loch Eri- 
bole. There is good salmon-fishing here. 

HOPEMAN, a post-office village and small sea- 
port, in the parish of Duffus, Morayshire. It is sit- 
uated in an open part of the coast, 2§- miles east by 
north of Burghhead, 6 west of Lossiemouth, and 6i 
north-west of Elgin. It is quite a modern place, and 
has risen very steadily under the management of 
the proprietor, Admiral Duff. A Free church was 
recently built here, entirely at the expense of the 
inhabitants. There are 17A feet water up to good 
berths in the harbour, touching the pier at spring- 
tides ; and the harbour is completely sheltered, hav- 
ing an entrance of only 36 feet, at right angles to 
the coast, leading from the outer to the inner har- 
bour. There are 5 feet at low water spring-tides at 
the end of the pier, thus affording communication 
with steamers at all times of tide. At the top of the 
outer harbour is a sandy beach, where vessels may 
lie in a northerly gale, if unable to clear the land, 
with little or no risk to either vessel or cargo. Fish- 
ing-boats are on the fishing-ground when a mile 
outside the harbour or less ; and all kinds of fish 
caught on the coast are found close to the entrance 
of the port. Some curious caves have recently been 
discovered here. Population, 1,070. 

HOPETOUN HOUSE, the princely seat of the 
Earl of Hopetoun, in the parish of Abercorn, Lin- 
lithgowshire. It stands on a beautiful terrace, over- 
looking the frith of Forth, 3 miles from South 
Queensferry, and 12 from Edinburgh. This magni- 
ficent pile,' commenced by the famous architect Sir 
William Bruce, and finished by Mr. Adam, may 
compare, in the graces of its architecture, with most 
palaces in Great Britain; and, in the scenic opulence 
of its demesne, and the gorgeous landscape of wood 
and vale, of burnished sea and emerald upland which 
it surveys, it has scarcely a superior and but few 
rivals. In August 1822, Hopetoun-house was the 
last festal-hall of royalty in Scotland ; George IV. 
having been entertained there previous to his em- 
barkation at Port-Edgar, in the vicinity, for Eng- 

The Earls of Hopetoun are a junior branch of the 
family of Hope of Craighall and Pinkie. Sir Thomas 
Hope, their ancestor, who himself held the office of 
Lord Advocate, gave no fewer than three sons as 
senators to the college of justice, — Sir James Hope, 
his eldest son, who was appointed a senator by the 
title of Craighall in 1632 and 1641,— Sir Thomas 
Hope, his second son, who was appointed in 1641, 
by the title of Lord Kerse — and Sir John Hope, who 
was appointed in 1649, by the designation of Lord 
Hopetoun. In 1678, the last of these, Sir John, pur- 
chased from Sir William Seton the barony of Aber- 
corn ; and about the same time or earlier, he was 
appointed hereditary sheriff of Linlithgowshire. 
Having perished in 1682, in the same shipwreck 
which nearly proved fatal to the Duke of York, his 
sheriffalty lay in abeyance for his son, Charles, 
who was'born only in the preceding year. In 1702, 
Charles became sheriff in his own right ; and, in 
1703, was created Earl of Hopetoun, Viscount 
Airthrie, and Lord Hope. In 1742, he was suc- 
ceeded in his office and titles by his son John. In 
1809, James, the third Earl, was raised to the peer- 
age of Great Britain by the title of Barou Hope- 
toun ; and he was succeeded by his half-brother, 
the renowned General Sir John Hope, created, 
in 1814, Baron Niddry of Niddry castle, in Linlith- 
gowshire. This distinguished nobleman, and hero 
in many battles — whose exploits figure largely in 
history, and are commemorated by monuments in 

Edinburgh, in West Lothian, in East Lothian, and 
in Fifeshire — died in 1823, and was succeeded by 
his son John, the fifth Earl, — who died in 1843, and 
was succeeded by John Alexander, the present Earl. 

HOEDA, a small island of the Orkneys, lying in 
the Pentland frith, between Swina and S :uth Ron- 

HORISDALE, a small inhabited island, belong- 
ing to the parish of Gairloch in Ross-shire. Popu- 
lation in 1841, 27; in 1851, 24. Houses. 5. 

HORNDEAN, a post-office village in the parish 
of Ladykirk, Berwickshire. It is an ancient place, 
and stands in the northern corner of the parish, 7 
miles north-east of Coldstream. Here is an United 
Presbyterian church. Population, 124. Houses, 39. 

HORNSHOLE. See Hassendean. 

HORSE-ISLAND, an islet of about 12 acres, with 
low surface and good pasture, about a mile north-west 
of the town of Ardrossan, in Ayrshire. It affords 
some shelter to the harbour, and is the site of a bea- 

HORSE-ISLAND, a Hebridean islet, contiguous 
to Muck, in the parish of Small Isles, Argyleshire. 

HORSE-ISLAND, an islet, a little north of Copin- 
shay, and 3 miles east of Deerness, in Orkney. 

HORSE-SHOE, a safe and commodious harbour 
in the island of Kerrera, near Oban, Argyleshire. 

HOSELAW. See Linton, Roxburghshire. 

HOSPITAL FIELDS. See Vigeans (St.). 

HOSPITAL MILL, a village in the parish of 
Cults, Fifeshire. Here is a mill for spinning tow, 
which was transmuted out of a previous corn and flax 
mill, at the cost of about £4,000. 

HOUGWHARY, a small bay and a headland, at 
the south-western extremity of North Uist, in the 
Outer Hebrides. The bay is capable of being formed, 
at small cost, into a good local harbour. 

HOUNA, or Huna, a small headland, post-office 
station, and ferry-station, on the south side of the 
Pentland frith, 2J miles west of Duncansby-head, 
parish of Canisbay, Caithness-shire. See Canisbay. 

HOUNAM, a parish, containing a post-office vil- 
lage of its own name, on the eastern border of Rox- 
burghshire. It is bounded by England, and by the 
parishes of Oxnam, Jedburgh, Eckford, and More- 
battle. Its length, northward, is 7 miles ; and its 
greatest breadth is 4f miles. A broad range of the 
Cheviot hills runs along the south, and sends off- 
shoots so far inland as to make the whole parish 
hilly and pastoral. Where the hills are boldest, the 
surface is a mountainous undulation, beautifully 
rounded and verdured in its elevations, wearing oc- 
casionally a russet dress of heathy and moorland soil, 
and sinuously cleft into deep narrow dells, or ro- 
mantic stripes of valley, watered by sparkling brooks. 
In the entire parish only about 900 acres are arable. 
At the north-eastern extremity, on the boundary 
with Morebattle, rises Hounam-Law, the loftiest ele- 
vation of all the Cheviots except that from which 
the ranges take their name, conical in form, 9 miles 
in circumference at its base, 1,730 acres in its super- 
ficies, 1,464 feet in height, accessible up its gently 
rising sides on horseback, and commanding, from it's 
flat grass-clad summit, a brilliant view of Teviot- 
dale and the Merse, till the far-spreading landscape 
sinks into the German sea. From this mountain, 
and the summits which concatenate with it along 
the east and south, the district declines in elevation 
toward the west and north-west, till, at these ex- 
tremities, it becomes little more than a rolling plain. 
Kale water comes down upon the parish from the 
south, and traverses it over a distance of 6£ miles, 
nearly on the line of its greatest length. Capehopo 
burn rises in three head-waters on the southern 
boundary, and runs 4 miles northward to the Kale, 




Both streams have alternately a gravelly and a rough 
rocky channel, and tumble along with a strength 
and velocity befitting their mountain nurture; and 
a short way above their confluence, the Kale bounds 
over a precipice, and forms a little cascade called 
" the salmon leap." Ill the rocks of the parish, which 
are chiefly porphyri tic, are found beautiful jaspers and 
abates, and veins of grey amethyst and rock crystal. 
Whoever combines the tastes of a mineralogist and 
an angler will find Hounani a delightful retreat. 
Hut the district is mainly remarkable for its pastur- 
ing and breeding of sheep. About 13,000 of the best 
variety of the far-famed Cheviot sheep usually oc- 
cupy its pastures. Seventy years ago, they were 
known and celebrated as a distinct variety under 
the name of the Kale-water breed ; and latterly they 
have been improved by crossing a portion of the 
ewes with Leicester rams. The parish produces 
annually ahout 39,000 pounds of wool. A Roman 
causeway, or " street," as it is here usually called, 
forms for 6 miles the western boundary-line. "On 
the hills in its vicinity are traces of encampments 
and semicircular intrenchments. But the largest 
and most remarkable camp is on the summit of 
Hounam-Law. Little more than half-a-century ago, 
a large iron gate, taken down from the camp, was 
to be seen at Cessford castle, belonging to the Duke 
of Roxburgh. Greenhill-house, delightfully situated 
among the hills toward the south, and surrounded 
by a tastefully arranged and decorated demesne, is 
a seat of the Duke of Roxburgh. Most of the 
farm-houses are commodious and substantial. The 
yearly value of raw produce was estimated in 1836 
at £9,335. The value of real property, as assessed 
in 1860 was £6.907 12s. 9d. The village of Hou- 
nani, though of some antiquity, is small, having 
only about 50 inhabitants; but it has recently re- 
ceived some architectural additions, and may not 
improbably become a place of some rural impor- 
tance. A little terrace of houses, in the immediate 
vicinity of the village, though not reckoned to be- 
long to it, is whimsically called Thimble- Row, in 
allusion to the original proprietor having been a 
knight of the needle. The village is pleasantly 
situated on the east bank of the Kale, at the base of 
gently ascending rising grounds, which lead off to a 
hilly and almost mountainous hack-ground; and it 
maintains regular communication by carriers with 
Kelso. Up the vale of the Kale, an excellent road 
traverses the parish lengthways; and both it and 
some subordinate roads are provided with good 
bridges. Population in 1831, 260; in 1861,289. 
Houses, 49. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Jedburgh, 
and synod of Merse and Teviotdale. Patron, Sir 
John Warrender, Bart. Stipend, £239 17s. 5d. ; 
glebe, £11. Unappropriated teinds, £789 13s. 4d. 
Schoolmaster's salary is now £35, with £15 fees, 
and £9 other emoluments. The church was built 
in 1844, and contains 180 sittings. The former 
church was a very old building, originally cruci- 
form, but latterly much altered. From the 12 th 
century till the Reformation, the church belonged to 
the monks of Jedburgh, and was served by a vicar. 

HOUNDWOOD, a quoad sacra parish," compris- 
ing the western part of the quoad civilia parish of 
Coldingham, and traversed by Eye water, by the 
North British railway, and by the" road from Edin- 
burgh to Berwick, in Berwickshire. It was 
originally constituted by the ecclesiastical authori- 
ties in 1836, and reconstituted by the Court of 
Teinds in July 1851. Its church was built in 1836, 
at the cost of £800, and contains 500 sittings. The 
Patron is Home of Paxton. Here also is a Free 
church, with an attendance of about 325; and the 

sum raised in connexion with it in 1865, was £189 
2s. Population in 1841, 1,334. Houses. 282. 

HOUNSLOYV, a village in the parish ofWest- 
ruther, Berwickshire. It stands 6£ miles east oi 
Lauder, on the road thence to Greenlaw. It was 
erected within these seventy years. Population, 
about 100. 

HOURN (Loch), an arm of the sea, dividing the 
district of Glcnelg proper from the district of Knoy- 
dart, ill the parish of Glenelg, on the west coast of 
Inverness-shire. It enters from the Sound of Sleat, 
with a width of about 3 miles, and penetrates the 
land south-eastward and eastward to the extent of 
about 13 miles. Macculloch says that this inlet of 
the sea forms three distinct turns, nearly at right 
angles to each other. The characters of these three 
parts are different ; and it is the innermost which 
contains the peculiar scenery that renders Loch- 
Hourn so remarkable. About the middle it appears 
to ramify into two branches; but one of these soon 
terminates in a deep and spacious bay, surrounded 
by magnificent but wild mountains. The other 
branch is continued for some miles, and from one 
end to the other displays a rapid succession of 
scenes no less grand than picturesque, and not often 
equalled in Scotland, but of a character so peculiar 
that it would be difficult to find a place to which 
they can be compared. The land, on both sides is 
not only very lofty, but very rapid in the acclivities; 
while, from the narrowness of the water, compared 
to the altitude of the boundaries, there is a sobriety 
in some places and a gloom in others thrown over 
the scenery, which constitutes a peculiar and strik- 
ing feature. Where this arm of the loch terminates, 
a wild and deep glen conveys the road towards 
Glengarry. Pennant says, " The scenery that sur- 
rounds the whole of this lake has an alpine wild- 
ness and magnificence ; the hills of an enormous 
height, and for the most part clothed with exten- 
sive forests of oak and birch, often to the very sum- 
mits. In many places are extensive tracts of open 
space, verdant, and only varied with a few trees 
scattered over them. Amidst the thickest woods 
aspire vast grey rocks, a noble contrast ! Nor are 
the lofty headlands a less embellishment; for 
through the trees that wave on their summit, is an 
awful sight of sky, and spiring summits of vast 
mountains. It is not wonderful, that the imagina- 
tion, amidst these darksome and horrible scenes, 
should figure to itself ideal beings, once the tenor 
of the superstitious inhabitants. In less enlight- 
ened times a dreadful spectre haunted these hills, 
sometimes in form of a great dog, a man, or a thin 
gigantic hag called Glas-lich. The exorcist was 
called in to drive it awaj'. He formed circle within 
circle, used a multitude of charms, forced the de- 
mon from ring to ring, till he got it into the last 
entrenchment, when, if it proved very obstinate, by 
adding new spells, he never failed of conquering 
the evil spirit, who, like that which haunted the 
daughter of Raguel, was 

' With a vensreanc* 1 sent 
From Media post 10 Egypt, there last bound.' " 

HOUSE, an island, ahout 5 miles long, and from 
J a mile to a mile in breadth, in the parish of Bres- 
say, in Shetland. It extends north-east and south- 
west between Burnt and the Mainland ; and is so 
near the former in one place as to be connected 
with it by a bridge. Its coast is rocky; and the 
greater part of its surface is a hilly ridge. Popula- 
tion, about 145. 

HOUSEHILL, an estate in the east of the Ab- 
bey parish of Paisley, Renfrewshire. Here are at 
iron-work, a brick-work, coal-mining, and an ex 




tensive sandstone quarry. The mansion-house of 
Househill, a modern building, stands between the 
rivulets Levern and Brock, a little above their con- 
fluence. This estate, which for a long time be- 
longed to a family named Dunlop, "was purchased a 
few vears ago b}' William Galloway, Esq. of Paisley. 

HOUSE OF MUIE. See Gle'xcross. 

HOUSTON, a parish near the centre of Renfrew- 
shire. It comprises the two ancient parishes of 
Houston and Killallan, whicli inconveniently inter- 
sected each other, and were united in 1760. It 
contains the post-office villages of Houston and 
Bridge of Weir, and the village of Crosslee. It is 
bounded on the south by the river Gryfe, which 
separates it from Kilbarchan ; on the west by Kil- 
malcolm ; and on the north and east by Erskine. 
It is about 6 miles in length and 3 in breadth, and 
contains 7,500 acres. In the upper or western dis- 
trict the soil is thin and dry, and the surface is un- 
even, mixed with rocks and heath, but affording in 
the intervals good pasturage. About the old church 
of Killallan there is a finely sheltered tract of fertile 
ground. The lower district is among the flattest 
and most fertile land in the county, the soil being 
partly clay and partly loam. Here there is a moss 
of about 300 acres, which, however, is every year 
becoming less, from cultivation, — the land thus re- 
chimed producing good crops. The minerals are, 
limestone, whinstone, coal, and sandstone. Two 
brooks, called Houston burn and Barochan burn, 
drain most of the interior south eastward to the 
Gryfe. There are nine or ten principal landowners; 
but the only resident one is Freeland of Gryfe-castle. 
The real rental, twenty years ago, was about£9,000; 
and the assessed value of real property in 1860 
was £12,330. The spinning of cotton, which 
was begun in 1792, is carried on at 4 mills, 3 of 
which are on the Gryfe, and 1 on Houston burn. 
On the latter stream also a small thread bleachfield 
has existed for more than half-a-century. In con- 
sequence of these works, an increased population, 
collected from all quarters, has gradually been 
formed. The parish lies adjacent to the Glasgow 
and Greenock railway, and has a station on it 3 
miles from Paisley. Population in 1831, 2,745; in 
1861, 2,490. Houses, 250. 

Houston was anciently called Kilpeter, that is, 
' the Cell of Peter,' the tutelary saint ; whose name 
is preserved in a well to the north-west of the 
church, in a burn passing hard by, and in a fair, 
called St. Peter's day, which w r as annually held in 
the village in the month of July. In the reign of 
Malcolm IV. Hugh of Padvinan obtained a grant of 
the barony of Kilpeter from Baldwin of Biggar, 
sheriff of Lanark. The barony was now called, 
from its proprietor, Hugh's-town, corrupted into 
Houston ; which, in process of time, when surnames 
came into use, was assumed as the surname of his 
rlescendants. These Houstons were the chiefs of 
that name, and were for centuries of great consider- 
ation in Renfrewshire. They repeatedly received 
the honour of knighthood ; and, in 1668, a baronetcy 
was conferred upon them. About the year 1740, 
after the family had held the estate for nearly six 
centuries, it was sold by Sir John Houston to his 
relation, Sir John Shaw of Greenock, and by him, 
soon after, to Sir James Campbell. From Sir 
.James's heirs it was purchased by James Macrae, 
ex-governor of Madras, who left it to James 
M'Guire, eldest son of Hugh M'Guire of Drumdou, 
in Ayrshire, on condition that he should bear his 
name and arms. This James M'Guire, or Macrae, 
was succeeded by his son James, who, in 1782, sold 
the estate to Alexander Speirs of Elderslie. The 
frequent transmissions thus made in the course of 

40 years contrast strikingly with the long tenure on 
the part of the Houstons. The castle of Houston 
was a large and ancient structure, surrounded with 
woods and gardens, and stood upon an eminence 
overlooking the extensive plain to the eastward. 
It formed a complete square, with a large area in 
the inside. There was a high tower on the north- 
west corner, which was the oldest part of the build- 
ing, with a lower house joined to the east end of the 
tower, having vaults below, and a long and wide 
paved hall above, with antique windows in the 
front, and without plaster on the roof. The timbers 
of the roof were arched, and made of massy oak. 
The other parts of the building appeared to be ad- 
ditions made as they became necessary. On the 
front to the south were two turrets, between which 
was the main entry into the area, arched above and 
secured by a portcullis. This edifice — which was 
so interesting as an old baronial residence, and 
which was so much calculated to dignify the sur- 
rounding scenery — remained entire till the year 
1780, when the whole, except the east side, was de- 
molished by Mr. Macrae, who, in the true spirit of 
utilitarianism, caused the stones to be employed in 
building the new village of Houston. — In the 
north-east of the parish is the estate of Barochan, 
with an old mansion-house, pleasantly situated on 
a hill, and well-sheltered with wood. This estate 
belongs to the very ancient family of Fleming, who 
occur so far back as the reign of Alexander III., 
when William Fleming of Barochan appears as a 
witness to a charter granted by the Earl of Lennox. 
One of his successors, William Fleming of Barochan, 
was killed at Flodden, and it is said that six of his 
sons fell with him, a 7th son succeeding to the 
estate. On the left bank of the Gryfe, atthe east- 
ern angle of the parish, is the estate of Fulwood, 
which contains land of remarkable fertility. It was 
acquired by Mr. Speirs of Elderslie, about the year 
1777, soon after which the mansion-house, a large' 
modern building, was demolished. Blackburn, in 
this neighbourhood, was acquired by Mr. Speirs at 
the same time. North-west of Fulwood is Boghall, 
now belonging to Mr. Alexander of Southbar. 

With regard to antiquities we have several to 
notice. On the estate of Barochan there stands a 
monument, called Barochan cross, which is evi- 
dentl} 7 referrible to a remote period. It consists of 
a stone cross, which has been neatly hewn, set in a 
pedestal of undressed stone: the height, pedestal 
included, being about 11 feet. No letters appear, 
but there is much wreathed work all round, and two 
compartments on the east side, and two on the west, 
containing various figures. In the upper compart- 
ment of the east side four persons are represented, 
clad in garments reaching to the ground; and in 
the lower one other four appear, bearing spears, or 
other weapons, in their right hands. In the upper 
compartment of the west side a combat betwixt a 
knight on horseback and a person on foot is dis- 
tinctly traced. The knight is in the act of couching 
his lance, and the footman is prepared to meet the 
attaint on his shield. In the under compartment 
there are three figures, the centre one being less in 
stature than the other two, between whom he ap- 
pears to be the subject of dispute, the figure on the 
right evidently interposing a shield over the head 
of the little fellow to save him from the uplifted 
weapon of the one on the left. The sculpture is 
much defaced by the weather, which probably led 
to the vague and erroneous statement of Semple, 
that the objects represented are " such as lions and 
other wild beasts." When, by whom, or on what 
occasion this monument was erected, there is no 
record. The warlike appearance of the figures for- 




bids the supposition, entertained by some, that it 
was a devotional cross for travellers. An engraving 
of it forms the frontispiece of Hamilton of Wishaw's 
Description of the shires of Lanark and Renfrew, 
printed by the Maitland club, in 1831. Appended 
to that work there is an article, written by Mother- 
well, in which it is ingeniously conjectured that this 
was the place where Somerled, Lord of the Isles, 
wis defeated and slain iri 1 164, and that the monu- 
ment is commemorative of that event; but as the 
chronicles of Man and of Melrose distinctly state, 
that Somerled landed at Renfrew, and that his defeat 
and death occurred at that place, — " ibidem," and 
as Barochan is 7 miles distant thence inland, the 
conjecture, seems groundless. There is a local tra- 
dition which ascribes the erection of this memorial 
to a defeat sustained here by the Danes. Whatever 
may have been the occasion, the sculptures evidently 
relate to some warlike achievement; and that a 
battle did occur here is rendered more probable by 
the fact, that there have, from time to time, been 
disinterred, in this neighbourhood, many stone- 
cnttins, containing quantities of human bones, the re- 
mains, it may be supposed, of those who fell in the 
conflict. — In an aisle adjoining the east end of Hous- 
ton church, there are several sepulchral monuments, 
respecting one of which the following curious infor- 
mation is given in the Old Statistical Account: 
" Upon the south wall of the aisle, there is a large 
frame of timber, on which [are] two pictures, seem- 
ingly done with oil colours, but much worn out. 
On the right side a man in complete armour, re- 
sembling that of a knight templar, with an inscrip- 
tion in Saxon characters over his head, some words 
of which are effaced, — ' Hie Jaeet Dominvs Joannes 
Houstoun de eodem, miles, qui obiit anno Dom. 
m".cccc".' On the left hand a picture of his lady, 
also much effaced, and over her head the following 
inscription: ' Hie jacet Domina Maria Colquhovn, 
spouso quondam dieti Joannis, quae obiit septimo die 
mensis Oetobris, an. Dom. m°.cccc°. guinto.' This 
passage having attracted the attention of Pinkerton, 
he copied it in his Scottish Gallery, published in 
1 799, accompanied by the following remarks : ' Thus 
it appears that in the commencement of the 15th 
century, a.d. 1400, 1405, painting was so prevalent 
in Scotland as to be employed in funeral monuments, 
not only of great peers, but even of knights of no 
great eminence nor fame.' " In the aisle, above 
mentioned, there is a tomb of neat workmanship, in 
freestone, containing two statues, the size of the 
life, reclining under a canopy. The one is an effigy 
of Sir Patrick Houston, who died in 1450, and the 
other of his lady, Agnes Campbell, who died in 
145G. The knight is dressed in a coat of mail, his 
head lying on a pillow, and his feet on a lion, which 
holds a lamb in its paws. The lady is dressed as 
in grave-clothes. The hands of both are elevated, 
as in a supplicating posture. Round the verge of 
the tomb there is an inscription, in Saxon letters, 
now much effaced. — The cross of Houston is an 
octagonal pillar, 9 feet long, having a dial fixed on 
the top, crowned with a globe; the pedestal forming 
a kind of platform, with two steps all round. This 
cross is supposed to have been set up by the knights 
of Houston. The ruin of the church of Killallan is 
still standing. The font stone for holding the holy 
water long stood without the choir door, after the 
Reformation; but it is now built into the church- 
yard wall. Killallan seems to be a modification of 
Kilflllan, ' the Cell of Fillan,' the tutelary saint. 
This belief is supported by an inscription on the 
church bell, and by some names still preserved. 
Thus, in the vicinity of the church, there is a large 
stone, with a hollow in the middle, called Fillan's 

scat ; and near that there is a spring of water, called 
Fillan's well, issuing from under a rock shaded willi 
bushes, in which the country women used to bathe 
their weak and ricketty children, leaving on the 
bushes pieces of cloth as offerings to the saint. 
Such was the force of ancient prejudice, that this 
superstitious practice was persevered in till the end 
of the 17th century, when the minister put a stop to 
it by filling up the well with stones. A fair held 
annually in January is called Fillan's day. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Paisley, and 
synod of Glasgow and Ayr." Patrons, Speirs of 
Elderslie and Fleming of Barochan. Stipend, £300 
2s. ; glebe, £15. Unappropriated teinds, £630 9s. 
4d. Schoolmaster's salary is now £60, with £24 
fees, and £9 other emoluments. The parish church 
was built in 1775, and contains 800 sittings. There 
is a Free church at Houston, with an attendance of 
410; and the sum raised in connexion with it in 
1865 was £270 lis. Id. There is also a Free church 
at Bridge-ol'-VVeir; whose receipts in 1865 amounted 
to £170 2s. 1 Id, There is a Roman Catholic chapel 
in the parish, built in 1841, and containing about 
400 sittings. There are four private schools. 

The Village op Houstox stands in the south- 
eastern part of the parish, on Houston burn, and on 
the road from Paisley to Greenock, about 5 miles 
west-north-west of Paisley. It has arisen since 
1781, when it was planned, and began to be feued 
out in steadings for building upon by Mr. Macrae, 
then proprietor of the barony. It chiefly consists 
of two streets, one on each side of Houston burn, 
and has a neat appearance, the houses being of good 
mason work, and generally two stories in height 
and slated. The old village of Houston, a little 
farther down the rivulet, was mostly demolished by 
Ml". Macrae when the new one was commenced. — 
There is a library in the village. Fairs are held 
yearly in May for milch cows, young cattle, and 
Highland cattle. Population, 858. 

HOUSTON, Linlithgowshire. See Ufhall. 

HOUTON, a headland, a bay, and a small island, 
at the southern extremity of the parish of Orphir, 5 
miles south-east of Stromness, mainland of Orkney. 
The headland rises about 300 feet above the level o( 
the sea, and is pierced, at the height of 90 feet, by 
•a cave to the depth of 14 feet. The bay is conti- 
guous to the headland, forms a good natural bar 
bour, and can be entered by ships at low water. 
The island shelters the bay, but is not quite a quar- 
ter of a mile long, and is entirely pastoral. 

HOVA-HEAD, the south headland of Noss in 
Shetland. It is about 200 feet high. 

HOW OF ANGUS. See Anous. 

HOW OF ANNANDALE. See Annandale. 

HOW OF FIFE. See Fifeshike. 

HOW OF MEARNS. See Mearks. 

HOWA SOUND, the belt of water, about 1 mile 
broad and 5 miles long, between the islands of Rou- 
sav and Eglishay, in Orkney. 

HOWBURN. See Haiuue's How. 

HOWGATE, a village in the parish of Penicuick, 
Edinburghshire. It stands on the road from Edin- 
burgh to Dumfries, If mile south-east of Penicuick, 
and 11 miles south of Edinburgh. Here is an 
United Presbyterian church, built about the year 
1750, and at present in the course of being rebuilt 
Population, 81. Houses, 22. 

HOWIESHILL, a small village district of Cam- 
buslang, in Lanarkshire, containing 10 houses, and 
about 62 inhabitants. 

HOWMIEE. See Pinkie. 

HOWMORE, a post-office station, subordinate to 
Lnchmaddy, in North Uist, in the Outer Hebrides. 

HOWQUOY. See Holm. 

HOW- WOOD. See Hollow-wood. 

HOI, the largest of the Orkney islands, except 
Pomona. It lies at the south-west of the Orkney 
group, and extends from north-north-west to south- 
south-east. It is separated from the Stromness dis- 
trict of Pomona by Hoy Sound, which has a mini- 
mum breadth of about 1J mile; from the islands of 
Burray and South Ronaldshay, by Scapa Flow, 
which has a breadth of from 5} to 11 miles; and 
from Caithness-shire, by the western part of the 
Pentland frith, which has a minimum breadth of 
6J miles. The island measures about 13:} miles 
long, and generally from 3J to 4J miles broad; but 
is very nearly dissevered, near its south end, by an 
arm of the sea, called the Long Hope, penetrating 
it from the east-north-east, and forming one of the 
most magnificent natural harbours in the world. 
During the last Avar it was no uncommon thing for 
a fleet of upwards of a hundred large vessels to set 
sail together from this harbour; and a fine sight it 
was to behold so many ships spreading their canvass 
to the breeze, and moving majestically along the 
shores of the island. The part of the island round 
the Long Hope is principally a fine plain, in a state 
of good cultivation; but the parts to the north, 
constituting the great body of the island, are al- 
most wholly occupied by three large hills, ranged 
in the form of a triangle, of which that to the 
north-east, called Wardhill, is the largest, rising 
from a plain, with a broad base, to the height of 
1,600 feet above the level of the sea. Except 
along the north shores — which are bordered with 
a loamy soil and a rich verdure — the soil is com- 
posed of peat and clay; the former of which 
commonly predominates. The ground destined for 
the production of grain, and that appropriated for 
feeding cattle, bear but a very small proportion to 
what is covered with heath and allotted for sheep- 
pasture. The township of Rackwick, 3J miles from 
the north end of the island, is beautifully situated in 
the extremity of a valley to which it gives name, 
being closed in on two sides by very lofty preci- 
pices of sandstone, but opening with a fine bay to- 
wards the western entrance of the Pentland frith, so 
that every vessel which passes the frith must ne- 
cessarily come into view here. All the extent of 
coast whicli faces the Atlantic, from the south-west- 
ern extremity of the island, but especially from Mel- 
setter in the vicinity of the head of the Long Hope, 
all the way north, past Rackwick, on to the very en- 
trance of Hoy Sound, is a series of stupendous rock- 
scenery, occasionally exceeding 900 feet in height, 
— sometimes perpendicular and smooth, — in other 
places rent, shivered, and broken down in huge 
fragments. — occasionally overhanging the deep, 
and frowning on the stormy surges of the Atlantic. 
And. at one place, a vast insulated rock, called the 
Old Man of Hoy, and shaped like an immense pillar, 
with arches beneath, stands so well apart from the 
adjacent cliffs as to be a conspicuous object even 
from points of view in Caithness, and has obtained 
its name from being fancied to present a rough out- 
line of similitude to the human form. 

" See Hoy's old Man ; whose summit bare 
Pierces the dark blue fields of ail'! 
Based in the sea, ] its fearful form 
Glooms like the spirit of the storm ; 
An ocean Babel, rent and worn 
By time and tide -all wild and lorn, 
A giant that hath warred with heaven. 
Whose ruined scalp seems thunder-riven, — 
Whose form the misty spray doth shroud. 
Whose head the dark and hovering cloud; 
Around his dread and louring mass, 
In sailing swarms the sea-fowl pass; 
But when the night-cloud o'er the sea 
Hangs like a sable canopy, 

And when the flying storm doth scourge 
Around his base the rushing surge, 
Swift to his airy clefts they soar, 
And sleep amid the tempest's roar. 
Or with its howling round bis peak 
Mingle their drear and dreamy shriek!" 

Hoy is the most interesting district of Orkney to 
either the geologist, the botanist, or the ornitholo- 
gist; and well deserves the attention of any na- 
turalist who may have an opportunity of leisurely 
examining it at different seasons of the year. It is 
the Highlands of Orkney, scarcely second to many 
parts of the Continental Highlands in various kind's 
of attractions, and opulently combining these with 
interesting features of vale and sea-beach. Some of 
its cliffs are of sandstone, intersected by amygdaloid 
and by other kinds of trap; while the parts inland 
consist variously of sandstone, clay slate, and cal- 
careous strata. Grouse are abundant; hawks com- 
mon ; a beautiful, bold, fierce, large kind of falcon to 
be seen ; and several kinds of eagles on the cliffs. 
The island is politically divided between the parish 
of Hoy and Graemsay on the north, and that of 
Walls and Flotta on the south. 

HOY AND GRAEMSAY, an united parish in 
the south-west of Orkney. Its post-town is Strom- 
ness, within from J of a mile to 1J mile of its north- 
ern extremity. it comprehends the island of 
Graemsay and the northern part, to the extent of 
about 4J miles each way, of the island of Hoy See 
Graemsay and Hoy. There are four landowners ; 
but the real rental is only about £300. Population 
in 1831,546; in 1861, 556. Houses, 108.— This 
parish is in the presbytery of Cairston, and synod 
of Orkney. Patron, the Earl of Zetland. Stipend, 
£158 6s. 8d.; glebe, £8. Schoolmaster's salary, 
£35, with about £5 fees. The parish church was 
built about the year 1780, and contains 182 sittings. 
There are two non-parochial schools. Hoy was 
anciently a. rectory, and Graemsay a vicarage. 

HOY" SOUND. See Hoy and Graemsay. 

HUMBIE. a parish in the south-western extre- 
mity of Haddingtonshire, consisting of a main body, 
and a small detached section. The main body is 
nearly a parallelogram, stretching north-west and 
south-west, measuring 5 miles in length, and nearly 
3 in average breadth ; and is bounded by Ormiston, 
Salton, Bolton, Yester, Berwickshire, Soutra, and 
Edinburghshire. The detached part is wholly em- 
bosomed in Edinburghshire, measures 1J mile by f , 
and lies about a mile south-west of the nearest part 
of the main body. The main body contains the vil- 
lage of Upper Keith, and approaches within 2 miles 
of the post-towns of Salton and Pencaitland, and 
the detached section contains the post-office hamlet 
of Blackshiels. The surface of the parish, at the 
south-eastern and south-western extremities, climbs 
up to the summits of the highest range of the 
Lammermoor hills, and, for some distance inward, 
descends in a somewhat rapid declivity ; and then 
it stretches away in a gently inclined plain to the 
northern boundaries. In the immediate vicinity of 
its south-eastern angle rises Lammerlaw, the emi- 
nence which gives name to all the Lammermoors, 
and towers aloft as the king-mountain of the whole 
range. On the highest grounds, and for some way 
down the declivity, the parish is strictly pastoral. 
But in its lower grounds it partakes, in a degree, of 
the luxuriant and highly-cultivated character for 
which Haddingtonshire is distinguished as a county ; 
and, as the result of recent and very vigorous agii 
cultural improvements, sends the plough and its 
attendant implements of culture, a considerable way 
up the acclivity of the Lammermoor district. Shel- 
tering plantations run athwart nearly two-thirds of 




the area; and, near the north-east angle, a planta- 
tion of oak, birch, and other trees, covering several 
hundreds of acres, presses on the boundary with 
Salton, and forms, with a large contiguous plantation 
in that parish, a compact and extensive forest. This 
wood constitutes a beautiful feature on the fore- 
ground of the far-stretching landscape of the Lo- 
tliians, to a tourist approaching the district over the 
Lammermoor hills. Keith water, or the longest 
head-stream of the Tyne, comes new-horn from its 
source upon the detached portion of the parish, flows 
along its northern boundary, and through the inter- 
secting part of Edinburghshire to the east, traces for 
half-a-mile the boundary of the main-body, and then 
traverses the parish If mile north-eastward, and 
1J mile northward, and leaves it at its north-east 
angle. Humbie burn rises near the south-eastern 
boundary among the highest of the uplands, and in- 
tersects the parish 3f miles nearly through its middle, 
flowing past the parish-church, and making a con- 
tinence with Keith water a little above Keith mill. 
Hirns burn rises 5 furlongs east of the source of 
the former stream, and, after a course of half-a-mile, 
forms the north-eastern boundary -line along the 
whole side of the parallelogram, and then, at the 
point of leaving the parish, unites with Keith 
water to form the Tyne. All the streams afford 
excellent trouting, and have a sufficient quantity 
of water to drive machinery. Iron-ore abounds 
in many places; and there are appearances of coal. 
The principal landowners are the Earl of Hope- 
toun, Lord Polwarth, Lady Buchan, the Christian 
Knowledge Society, and Anderson of Whiteburgh. 
The yearly value of raw produce was estimated in 
1833 at £20,257; and the value of real property as- 
sessed in 1860 was £9,247. Keith-house, one 
of the seats of the Earl Marshal, though of no 
higher antiquity than 1590, and entirely dilapidated 
by subsequent proprietors, deserves special notice, 
liuilt in the form of a hollow square, one entire side 
of it, 110 feet in length, and 3 stories in height, was 
fitted up and used as a hall ; and the edifice was, in 
other respects, suited to the splendour of a family 
who, at the period of its erection, were the most 
powerful and opulent in the kingdom. The timber 
employed in constructing it, was a present from the 
King of Denmark, as an expression of the high 
opinion he conceived of the Earl, when ncgociating 
the marriage of the Princess Anne of Denmark 
with James VI. Whiteburgh-house, built about 
50 years ago, is a fine mansion. On the estate of 
Whiteburgh are faint vestiges of a Roman castellum 
stativum, which consisted of 3 concentric circular 
walls 15 feet distant from each other, each 16 feet 
thick, and the exterior one enclosing an area of more 
than an acre. Population in 1831,875; in 1861, 
997. Houses, 189. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Haddington, 
and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale. Patrons, the 
Crown and the Earl of Hopetoun. Stipend, £287 
16s.; glebe, £10. Unappropriated teinds, £849 4s. 
6d. There is a parochial school with a salary 
of £60, and about £14 fees. There is likewise an 
endowed female school. The parish church was 
built in 1800, and contains about 400 sittings. There 
is a Free church with an attendance of 130; and 
the sum raised in connexion with it in 1S65 was £62 
6s. 4£d. _ There are ruins of an ancient chapel. 
The parish comprehends the ancient districts of 
Keith-IIundeby and Keith-Marshall. The adjunct 
llundeby was the name of a hamlet near the church 
of the former district, and has been vulgarized into 
Humbie. The name Keith seems to be the British 
Garth, ' confined or narrow,' and may have alluded 
to the strait channel hemmed in by the steep banks 

of Keith water. David I. gave the district of 
Keith-Marshall, or the north-west half of the pre- 
sent parish, to Hervey, the sou of Warin, and 
Keith-Mundeby, or the south-east half, to Symon 
Eraser. As the church stood within the latter dis- 
trict, Hervey erected a chapel in his own territory 
for the accommodation of his tenants, and, ac- 
cording to established custom, settled an yearly 
tribute to the mother or parish church. Keith-Hun- 
deby being afterwards given to the monks of Kelso, 
a dispute so keen arose between them and the pro 
prietor of Keith-Marshall respecting the amount of 
the tribute, that it could be decided only by a spe- 
cial adjudication on the part of Joceline, bishop of 
Glasgow, and Osbert, abbot of Paisley. By inter- 
marriages, the manors of the two districts came, in 
the 13th century, to be united in one family. During 
the reign of Alexander II., Keith-Marshall was 
made a distinct parish with its chapel for a separate 
and independent church. In the reign of Charles i., 
William, Earl Marshall, who lineally held the pa- 
tronage of this church by grant of Robert Bruce to 
his ancestors, and, at the same time, inherited the 
manors of both districts, sold the whole property in 
consequence of the inextricable difficulties in which 
he had become involved by his politics. 

HUMBLE-BUMBLE (The). Sec Comrie and 
May (The). 

HUME, or Home, an ancient parish at the south- 
ern verge of Berwickshire, now annexed to Stitchel 
in Roxburghshire. See Stitchel. This parish was 
anciently four times its present extent, and, in the 
12th century, comprehended a considerable part of 
Gordon and Westruther. The Earls of Dunbar, 
who were of old the lords of the manor, originally 
held the patronage of the church. But, in the 
12th century, the monks of Kelso obtained possession, 
not only of the church, but of the whole parish ; and 
they obtained the territory of Gordon and a large 
part of Westruther, to be erected into parochial in 
dependence. The old parish of Hume was, in con- 
sequence, reduced to nearly its present limits. 

HUME, or Home, a small village and an ancient 
castle near the centre of the abrogated parish of the 
same name, 3 miles south of Greenlaw, and 5 north- 
north-west of Kelso. They stand on the summit ot 
a conspicuous hill, which rises 898 feet above the 
level of the sea. The village is in a decayed and 
decaying condition; but anciently it spread out to 
a considerable extent, and teemed with the retinue 
and the dependents of one of the most powerful 
baronial families of a former age. The castle, once 
the seat of the potent Earls of Hume, and one of the 
chief objects of antiquarian interest in Berwickshire, 
was about 70 years ago in so prostrate a condition 
as to exist only in vestiges nearly level with the 
ground. But it was, in a rude sense, restored from 
its own materials by the last Earl of Marchmont, 
or at least some walls of it were re-edified and bat- 
tlemented; and seen from some distance, it now 
appears, on its far-seeing elevation, to frown in 
power and dignity over the whole district of the 
Merse, and a considerable part of Roxburghshire, 
and constitutes a very picturesque feature in the 
centre of the wide-stretching landscape. In its 
original form, it was a lofty and imposing structure; 
and from the end of the 13th century, when it be- 
came the seat of its proud barons, increased in 
strength with the gradual augmentation of" their 
wealth. But as it could not resist the play of artil- 
lery, it was carelessly allowed, after the invention 
of gunpowder, to go to ruin. A drawing of it may 
be seen in Grose's antiquities. 

The castle figured largely in the history of the 
times preceding the Restoration, and conies pro- 




minently, or at least distinctly, into notice toward 
the close of the 1 3tU century. The family of Hume 
or Home sprang, by lateral branches, from the 
powerful and noted Earls of Dunbar. Ada, the 
daughter of Patrick, the sixth of these Earls, ob- 
tained from her father in the early part of the 13th 
century, the lands of Home, and married her own 
cousin, William, the son of Patrick of Greenlaw, 
who was the second son of the 4th Earl of Dunbar, 
Gospatrick. William assumed the name of Home 
from the lands brought to him by Ada, and trans- 
ferred it to his posterity. During the reign of Robert 

III. Thomas Home acquired by marriage the lord- 
ship of Dunglass. The family held Home, Greenlaw, 
Whiteside, and other lands in Berwickshire, under 
the Earls of March; and, after January 1435, when 
these Earls incurred forfeiture, they acquired inde- 
pendence, and became tenants of the Crown. As 
they had risen on the fall of their chiefs, and now 
followed the fortune of the Dunglasses, they were 
often appointed conservators of the peace with 
England. Sir Alexander Home, who succeeded to 
the property in 1456, was appointed, by the prior of 
Coldingham, bailie of the several lands belonging to 
the convent, — an office on which he and his succes- 
sors placed a high estimate, which they found, by 
means of an alchemy of their own, to be not a little 
lucrative, and for the retention of which in their 
possession they strenuously and perseveringly con- 
tended. In 1465, Sir Alexander sat in the estates 
among the barons; and, in 1473, he was created a 
lord of parliament. Using with stringent vigour 
his power as bailie of Coldingham to seize the pro- 
perty of the convent, and make it his own, he was 
enraged by James III.'s annexation of the priory and 
its pertinents, in 1484, to the chapel-royal of Stir- 
ling, and now attached himself and all his strength 
to the party of traitorous nobles who plotted the 
King's death. In 1488, immediately after the un- 
happy monarch fell a victim to their machinations, 
Alexander Home, the heir of the first Lord Home, 
obtained a joint share of the administration of the 
Lothians and Berwickshire during the nonage of 
James IV., and was constituted great chamberlain 
for life; and, in 1490-1, he was appointed by parlia- 
ment to collect the King's rents and dues within 
the earldom of March, the lordships of Dunbar and 
Cockburnspath, Stirlingshire, and Ettrick Forest; 
and he was thus made dictator of Berwickshire and 
a ruler of the land. In 1492, he — or a son of his 
of the same name, for there is inextricable confusion 
in the historical authorities — succeeded to the lord- 
ship of Home, on the death of the first Lord; and 
he soon after obtained from the infancy of James 

IV. various lands in the constabulary of Had- 

In 1506, Alexander, the third Lord Home, suc- 
ceeded to his father's office of great chamberlain, to 
his estates, and to his political power; in 1513, he 
engaged, as warden of the eastern marches, in a 
sharp skirmish at Millfield on the Tweed, and, 
leaving his banner in the field and his brother in 
captivity with the enemy, sought safety in flight; 
later in the same year, he led, jointly with Huntly, 
the left wing of the Scottish army at the battle of 
Flodden, and left many of his kinsmen and clans- 
men dead on the field, who fell in a strenuous de- 
fence of their valorous and unfortunate King; and 
immediately afterwards, he was declared one of the 
standing councillors of the Queen-regent, and ap- 
pointed the chief justice of all the territories lying 
south of the Forth. After the expulsion of Mar- 
garet from the regency, and the accession to it of 
the Duke of Albany, Lord Home — who had been 
vcnially using his great power and influence for the 

amassment of wealth and the promotion of miserly 
intrigues — plotted with the dowager queen and her 
husband Angus to seize the person of the infant 
King, and drawing upon himself the scourge of 
civil war, saw his fortlet of Fast castle razed, his 
seat of Home castle captured, and his estates over- 
run and ravaged, and was obliged to cross the 
border, and cry for help to the English. He after- 
wards made predatory incursions into Scotland, was 
ensnared by Albany and made prisoner, effected 
his escape from Edinburgh castle, became restored 
to the Regent's favour and to his own possessions, 
anew embroiled himself with Albainy, and, being 
inveigled to Edinburgh, was convicted in par- 
liament of many crimes, and, in October 1516, 
publicly and ignominiously put to death. His 
many offices of great importance were bestowed 
upon aspirants who had no connexion with his 
family; and his titles and large estates were for- 
feited, and, till 1522, remained vested in the Crown. 
His kinsman, however, took fearful revenge. Home 
of Wedderbum beset Anthony de la Bastie, who 
had obtained the office of warden of the marches, 
and put him to death at Langton in the Merse with 
circumstances of savage ferocity; and, heading a 
strong party of his border marauders, he seized the 
castles of Home and Wedderburn, and maintained 
possession of them in defiance of the government. 

Though formally accused before parliament of 
treason, the Homes, partly by compromise, and 
partly by intrigue, were not only saved from con- 
viction, but reinstated in political favour. In 1522, 
George Home, the brother of the attainted lord, 
was restored to the title and the lands of the family; 
and, though he repeatedly embroiled himself, and 
was twice castigated and imprisoned, by indulging 
the turbulent spirit which had ruined his prede- 
cessor, he did good service in 1542, first by repuls- 
ing, jointly with the Earl of Huntly, an incursion 
by Sir Robert Bowes and the Earl of Angus, and 
next by opposing and harassing the army led into 
Scotland by Norfolk. In 1547, in a skirmish which 
preceded the battle of Pinkie, he received a wound 
of which he died; and his son and heir being at the 
same time taken prisoner, Home castle, after a 
stout res'stance by Lady Home, fell into the hands 
of the Protector Somerset, and was garrisoned by 
a detachment of his troops. In ] 548-9, Alexander, 
the fifth Loi'd Home, distinguished himself in the 
campaigns against the English, and, retaking his 
family castle by stratagem, put the garrison to the 
sword. In 1560, he sat in the Reformation parlia- 
ment; in June 1567, he signed the order for im- 
prisoning Mary in Lochleven castle; and after the 
Queen's escape, he led 600 followers to the battle of 
Langside, and, though he received several wounds, 
is said to have there turned the fortune of the field. 
In 1569 he veered about, and joined the Queen's 
friends; in 1571, he was taken prisoner in a fac- 
tional or party skirmish with Morton, in the sub- 
urbs of Edinburgh ; in 1573, he was convicted in 
parliament of treason; and 1575, he died in a state 
of attainder. Alexander, his son, was put by parlia- 
ment, in 1578, into possession of his title and 
estates; in 1589, when James VI. sailed to Den- 
mark to marry the Princess Anne, he was named 
among those nobles to whom the conservation ot 
the public peace could be confided; in subsequent 
years he struggled to defeat the seditious purposes 
of the turbulent Earl of Bothwell, and was rewarded 
with the grant of the dissolved priory of Colding- 
ham; in 1599, being a Roman Catholic, he was sent 
by the King on a suspicious embassy to the Papal 
court; in 1603, he accompanied James VI. to Eng- 
land; and in 1605, he was created Earl of Home. 




Jmties Home, his son, succeeded him in his titles 
and estates in 1619; and he was, in his turn, suc- 
ceeded, in 1634, by Sir James Home of Cowden- 
knows. During the civil wars which succeeded, 
he is said to have been distinguished for his loyalty ; 
and he seems certainly to have been not a little ob- 
noxious to Cromwell. 

In 1650, immediately after the capture of Edin- 
burgh castle, Cromwell despatched Colonel Fenwick 
at the head of two regiments to seize the Earl's 
castle of Hume. In answer to a peremptory sum- 
mons to surrender, sent him by the Colonel at the 
head of his troops, Cockburn, the governor of the 
castle, returned two missives, which have been pre- 
served as specimens of the frolicking humour 
which occasionally bubbles up in the tragedy of 
war. The first was: "Eight Honourable, I have 
received a trumpeter of yours, as he tells me, with- 
out a pass, to surrender Hume castle to the Lord 
General Cromwell. Please you, I never saw your 
general. As for Home castle, it stands upon a 
rock. Given at Home castle, this day, before 7 
o'clock. So resteth, without prejudice to my native 
country, your most humble servant, T. Cockbukn." 
The second was expressed in doggerel lines, which 
continue to be remembered and quoted by the peas- 
antry, often in profound ignorance of the occasion 
when they were composed : — 

•■ I, Willie Wastle, 
Stand linn in my castle; 
Ami a' the dojrs o' your town 
Will no pull Willie' Wastle down." 

Home castle, however, when it felt the pressure of 
Colonel Fenwick's cannon, and saw his men about 
to rush to the escapade, very readily surrendered to 
his power, disgorged its own garrison, and received 
within its walls the soldiery of Cromwell. James, 
who was Earl when the civil wars began, survived 
all their perils, and, in 1661. was reinstated in his 
possessions. Dying in 1666, he was successively 
followed in his earldom by three sons, — Alexander, 
— James, who died in 1688, — and Charles, who did 
not concur in the Revolution, and opposed the 
Union. Hume castle and the domains around it 
passed afterwards into the possession of the Earls 
of Marchmont; a branch of the Hume family, who, 
for a considerable period, were wealthier and more 
influential than the main stock, but who failed to- 
ward the close of the last century to have male 
heirs, and, in consequence, ceased to perpetuate 
their titles. The earldom of Home still survives in 
the descendants of the ancient family, who now have 
their seat at Hirsel. 

HUNA. See Houna. 

HUNDA, an island, about 1J mile long and J of 
a mile broad, lying contiguous to the west end of 
Burray, and belonging to the parish of South Ron- 
aldshay, in Orkney. Population in 1841, 6: in 
1861, 9. House, 1. 

HUNIE, an islet, abounding with rabbits, near the 
south-west shore of Unst in Shetland. 

HUNISH-POINT, or Rhu-Hunish, the north- 
western extremity of Trotternish, 3 miles west of 
Aird-point, in Skye. 

HUNTERFIELD, a village in the parish of 
Cockpen, Edinburghshire. Population, 90. Houses, 

HUNTER'S BAY. See Rigs Bay. 

HUNTER'S BOG. See Salisbury Crags. 

HUNTER'S QUAY. See Dunoon. 

HUNTERSTON. See Kilbride (West). 

HUNTHILL, a village in the parish of Blantyre, 
Lanarkshire. Population, 60. Houses, 16. 

HUNTHILL, an upland tract at the northern 

extremity of the parish of Knockando, in Moray 

HUNTINGTON. See Haddington. 

HUNT1NGTOWER, an estate in the parish of 
Tibbermore, Perthshire. Here, 2£ miles west of 
Perth, on a charming site amid wooded grounds, 
stands Huntingtower-castle, formerly called Ruth- 
ven-castle, the ancient seat of the Gowrie family, a 
very old building, but never apparently a place of 
great strength. This castle was the scene of the 
enterprise well known in Scottish history as the 
Raid of Ruthven, — the enticement of James VI. 
hither, and the detention of him here, by the Earl 
of Gowrie and others, with the view of detaching 
him from the influence of his two early favourites, 
the Duke of Lennox and the Earl of Arran. An 
extraordinary exploit of a fair lady has likewise 
added to the notoriety of the castle, and has given 
the name of the Maiden's Leap to the space between 
its two towers, which, though long ago united by 
late buildings, were originally separate. The lady 
was a daughter of the first Earl of Gowrie; and her 
exploit consisted in leaping, in a fit of terror, from 
the leads of the one tower to the battlements of the 
other, — said to be a space of 9 feet 4 inches over a 
chasm of 60 feet. After the forfeiture of the last 
Earl of Gowrie, the castle and the circumjacent 
estate were bestowed by James VI. on the family 
of Tullibardine ; and they afterwards passed by mar- 
riage to the ducal family of Athole. But they are 
now famous, and have long been so, for something 
remarkably contrasted to the olden tricks of state- 
craft and warfare, — nothing less than the printing 
and bleaching of calico. The works are extensive; 
and they present the curiosity of being supplied 
with water through an artificial canal, nearly 18 
feet broad and 3 feet deep, which debouches from 
the Almond, intersects the extensive meadow of 
Huntingtower-haugh, has altogether a length of 
about 4} miles, and was formed so very long ago as 
to rank among the most ancient extant works of 
utility in the kingdom, — Alexander II. having men- 
tioned it in his charters as his mill-lead; and hav- 
ing, in 1244, granted a pipe from it to the monastery 
of Black friars of Perth. 

HUNTLAW. See Gala (The). 

HUNTLY, a parish, containing a post town ot 
its own name, in the Strathbogie district of Aber- 
deenshire. It is bounded by the parishes of Eothie- 
may, Forgue, Drumblade, Gartly, Glass, and Cairnie. 
Its length, north-eastward, is about 10 miles; and 
its breadth is about 4 miles. It comprehends the 
ancient parishes of Dumbennan and Kiuore, which 
were united in 1727 ; and it took the name of Huntly 
in compliment to the Duke of Gordon's eldest son. 
Dumbennan is surrounded by hills, and is said to 
have thence got its name, which signifies " the foot 
of the hill." It is situated at the termination of the 
straths of the Bogie and the Deveron, and comprises 
the peninsular hill of Clashmach, of considerable 
height, above the confluence of these streams. 
Kinore extends about 5 miles along the right side 
of the Deveron, below the influx of the Bogie, but 
is separated from Dumbennan, for more than a 
quarter of a mile, from the confluence of the rivers 
upwards, by an intersection of Drurnblade. The 
Bogie divides the united parish, for about 2 or 3 
miles, from Dmmblade; and the Deveron, from 
portions of Glass, Cairnie, and Rothiemay. The 
whole district is hilly, and was formerly bleak; but 
great improvements have been effected, and there 
are many acres, especially on the banks of the 
rivers, which are naturally fertile, and form fine 
arable land. The hills and eminences afford good 
pasturage; and many of them are adorned with 




thriving plantations of oak, fir, elm, birch, and 
other trees. In particular, the whole of St. Mango's 
hill, in the Kinore or eastern district, is enclosed 
and planted. On the west side of this hill is St. 
Mungo's well ; and on the summit is a small lake, 
the bed of which resembles a crater; and abundance 
of hard porous matter, like lava, or the scorias of a 
forge, with a light spongy stone like pumice-stone, 
has been found around it. The arable soil of Dum- 
bennan is generally a good deep loam ; while that 
of Kinore is of a cold clayey character. Granite is 
the prevailing rock. Limestone occurs in small 
quantity; some of it susceptible of a high polish, 
and not much inferior to marble. Plumbago, of 
very fine quality, but in such minute quantity as 
not to be worth working, has been found near the 
confluence of the rivers. Excepting a small portion 
of the lower part of Kinore, which belongs to Mr. 
Gordon of Avochy, the whole of the united parish 
is the property of the Duke of Richmond. The real 
rental is about £5,056. On the Avochy estate are 
a plain mansion and the rains of an old castle. 
Near the bridge of Deveron and the town of Huntly 
stand the ruins of Huntly castle, the ancient resi- 
dence of the Gordon family, which was destroyed 
after the battle of Glenlivet, in 1594; and in the 
same vicinity, on the opposite side of the Deveron, 
is their elegant modern mansion, Huntly lodge, 
surrounded by plantations and pleasure-grounds. 
The castle was built so late as 1602, but comprises 
some vestiges of the ancient castle of Strathbogie, 
which originally belonged to the powerful family of 
the Coinyns, and was conferred on the Gordons, 
along with the surrounding estate, in guerdon of 
their services to Bruce in the wars of the succession. 
The lodge was at first but a shooting-box, but was 
enlarged, about the year 1832, into the present 
handsome and commodious edifice; and after the 
death of the last Duke of Gordon, it became the re- 
sidence of the Dowager-duchess. See the articles 
Gordon and Gordon-Castle. The parish is tra- 
versed by the great road from Aberdeen to Inver- 
ness, adjoins the present northern terminus of the 
Great North of Scotland railway, and is a focus of 
communication for most of the main seats of popu- 
lation between the Moray frith and the Dee. Popu- 
lation in 1831, 3,545; in*1861, 4,329. Houses, 795. 
Assessed property in 1860, £8,061. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Strathbogie, 
and synod of Moray. Patron, the Duke of Rich- 
mond. Stipend, £185 13s. 9d.; glebe, £25. School- 
master's salary now is £50, with about £60 fees, 
a share in the Dick bequest, and £8 other emolu- 
ments. The parish church is a plain structure, 
built in 1805, and containing 1,800 sittings. The 
Free church is a neat building, founded in 1840, in 
consequence of the celebrated Strathbogie proceed- 
ings. It contains 900 sittings; and its receipts in 
1865 were £610 15s. Id. The United Presbyterian 
church was built in 1809, and contains 340 sittings. 
The Independent chapel is a Gothic structure, with 
480 sittings, built in 1851. The Scotch Episcopal 
chapel is a small elegant Gothic pile, with a spire, 
and was erected in 1850. The English Episcopal 
chapel was built in 1843. The Roman Catholic 
chapel was built in 1834, and has a curious tower, 
with a top in the form of a crown, and con- 
tains 350 sittings. A large and very handsome 
building was erected, about 16 years ago, on a situ- 
ation looking down the principal street of the town, 
by the Duchess-dowager of Gordon, to serve the 
double purpose of being a monument in memory of 
her husband, and a place of accommodation for 
schools. The parochial school and the Free church 
school are held in it: so also are an infant school and 

a girls' industrial school. There is likewise in the 
town a ladies' boarding and day school; and there 
are in the parish seven or eight adventure schools. 
Scott's hospital, on the south-east side of the town, 
is a fine building erected in 1854, by bequest of the 
late Dr. Scott, for behoof of aged men and women. 

HUNTLY, a burgh-of-barony, and a neat modem 
town, in the above parish, occupies a dry, salubri- 
ous, and beautiful situation, in the centre of a fertile 
district, on the peninsula formed by the confluence 
of the Deveron and the Bogie, 18 miles south-east 
of Fochabers, 21 south-south-west of Banff, and 39 
north-west of Aberdeen. It owes much, as a seat of 
trade and population, to the vicinity of Huntly lodge ; 
much, to facility of intercourse with neighbouring 
villages and towns; much, to the transit through it 
of the great road from Aberdeen to Inverness; and 
still more, of late, to the construction past it of 
the Great North of Scotland system of railway. 
The circumjacent country, before the rise of the 
town, consisted of little else than barren heath and 
marshy swamps; but it is now in a state of high 
cultivation, adorned with artificial features of 
scenery. Even the hills in the less immediate vicinity 
are in general covered with thriving plantations. 
Having arisen since the beginning of last century, 
Huntly has been laid out on a neat and regular plan. 
The place has altogether an air, not only of comfort, 
bu even of elegance. The town comprises a series 
of well-built streets; the two principal crossing each 
other at right angles, and forming a spacious mar- 
ket-place or square. The various places of worship, 
the public schools, a large edifice in the square con- 
taining one of the banking-offices, together with a 
number of very superior private buildings, give the 
town architecturally a pleasing appearance. The 
chief objects in the environs also blend with it into 
some fine scenes. The view from the south is 
especially beautiful, where, in addition to the general 
features of the town, the eye takes in the castle and 
the lodge with their embosoming plantations, and 
rests on the brilliant back-ground of Brimhill, whose 
surface of 2,500 acres, partly within the parish of 
Huntly, and partly within that of Cairney, is all one 
mass of forest. The streets of the town are lighted 
with gas. A considerable number of families of 
independent means reside in the town. At one 
time the chief manufactures were those of linen 
thread and linen cloth ; and several bleachfields of 
great repute were long in operation on the Bogie. 
But all these have ceased. A tan work, an exten- 
sive distillery, and a brick and tile work, now give 
employment to a considerable number of people. A 
great amount of miscellaneous trade is done with 
the surrounding country, in supplying all sorts of 
goods by retail; and in receiving agricultural pro- 
duce, particularly pork, eggs, and the produce of the 
dairy, for exportation to England. Of late also there 
has sprung up a large trade in grain; which has re- 
ceived a great stimulus by the opening of the railway. 
A weekly market is held on Thursday; and fairs are 
held once a fortnight during the first half of the year, 
and once a month during the second half. The town 
has offices of the Union bank, the North of Scotland 
bank, and the Aberdeen town and county bank. 
Public communication is maintained by railway 
in three directions, toward respectively Aberdeen. 
Inverness, and Banff. There are in the town a 
reading-room, an agricultural library, an evangelical 
subscription library, a circulating library, a literary 
society, a farmers' club, a dispensary, a savings' 
bank, a total abstinence society, and several religious 
and benevolent societies. The town is a burgh of 
barony under the Duke of Richmond. The title of 
Earl of Huntly belonged to the noble family of 




Gordon previous to their elevation to the dukedom, 
and was then raised into a marquisate; and the 
title of Marquis of Huntly was inherited, at the 
death of the last Duke of Gordon, by the Earl of 
Ahoyne. During the great floods in August 1829, 
the town of Huntly was almost surrounded with 
water; but fortunately no lives were lost, and little 
damage was otherwise sustained. The ancient one- 
arched bridge across the Deveron in this vicinity, 
from the middle of which the views are very fine, 
withstood the pressure of the current, and still 
exists. Across the Bogie, and leading from the 
south-east side of the town, is another good bridge 
of 3 arches. Population of the town in 1831, 2,585; 
in 1861, 3,44S. Houses, 634. 
HUNTLY, Berwickshire. See Gonnox. 
HUNTLY COT-HILLS, a part of the Moorfoot 
range of mountain, on the southern border of the 
parish of Temple, Edinburghshire. It has an alti- 
tude of 1,606 feet above sea-level. 

HURKLEDALE. See Cummeeteees. 
HUELET, a post-office village on the south-east 
border of the Abbey parish of Paisley, Renfrewshire. 
It stands 3 miles south-east of Paisley, and 6 south- 
west of Glasgow. It is inhabited principally by 
colliers and other miners, employed in extensive 
works in its vicinity. Here coal has been wrought 
for upwards of 300 years. The seam is 5 feet 3 
inches thick, declining eastward with a dip, which 
is variable, but may, on an average, be accounted 1 
in 7. The coal at this place is nearly exhausted ; 
but it still abounds on some neighbouring lands. 
The manufacture of sulphate of iron or copperas, 
was introduced into Scotland by Messrs. Nicolson 
and Lightbody of Liverpool, who established their 
works at Hurlet in 1753, having previously secured 
by contract a supply of the pyrites, and other ma- 
terial fit for their processes, found in working the 
coal, at 2Jd. per hutch of 200 weight. Till 1807 
when a similar manufacture was begun on the ad- 
joining lands of Nitshill, this was the only copperas 
work in Scotland. In 1820, the Hurlet copperas 
woi-ks were purchased by Messrs. John Wilson and 
Sons, and converted into an extensive manufactory 
of alum. The alum manufacture was also first in- 
troduced into Scotland by Messrs. Nicolson and 
Lightbody, who prepared considerable quantities at 
Hurlet in 1766 and 1767; but their process being 
defective, it was abandoned in the course of two 
years; and it was not till 1797, when works were 
erected here by Mr. Mackintosh of Crossbasket, and 
Mr. Wilson of Thornly, and their partners, that the 
making of that article was successfully established. 
Since that period, the works now mentioned, as 
well as that established in 1820, have been produc- 
ing a large and steady supply of alum, manufactured 
on correct chemical principles. Large quantities of 
muriate of potash and sulphate of ammonia, are also 
made in connexion with this alum process. Iron- 
stone abounds at Hurlet; and the workingof it was 
some years ago actively commenced by Messrs. 
Wilson. Population of the village, 323. 

HURLFOED, a post-office village in the parish 
of Riccarton, Ayrshire. It has a station on the 
Glasgow and South-western railway, 2 miles south- 
east of Kilmarnock. It is inhabited principally by 
colliers. Population, 1,978. 

HURLY-COVE. See Penicuick. 

HURLY-HAAKY. See Stirling. 

HUSABOST, an isolated district of the parish of 
Duirinish, in Skye. 

HUSKER. See Hejsker. 


HTJTT. See Eckfoed. 

HUTTON, a parish, containing the post-office vil- 

lages of Htitton and Paxton, on the south-east 
border of Berwickshire. It is bounded by tlio 
liberties of Berwick, by England, and by the 
parishes of Ladykirk, Whitsome, Edrom, Cbirnside, 
Foulden, and Mordington. It has an irregularly 
triangular outline, and measures 4 ; }, 4J, and 3£ 
miles along its sides. The Whitadder is its 
boundary-line over the whole of the north, and 1A 
mile of the east, and runs there partly between 
rooky banks of considerable height. The Tweed 
rolls its majestic volume of waters, in a beautifully 
curved line, 3J or 3J miles along the south-eastern 
boundary, overlooked by gentle undulations of the 
surface along its banks, and brings up the tide with 
a sufficient depth of waters for wherry navigation. 
The inequalities of the surface along its banks, and 
similar inequalities along those of the Whitadder, 
possess capabilities, with the aid of more plantation 
than they now have, of producing a picturesque effect ; 
and though rising, in the average, to only about 150 
feet above sea-level, they beautifully diversify the 
luscious yet tame plain in the midst of which they 
rise, and relieve its luxuriant but flat expanse from 
an aspect of monotony. All the surface of the par- 
ish, inland from the rivers, is, with some scarcely 
noticeable exceptions, nearly a dead level ; but 
everywhere it is thoroughly cultivated, and spreads 
out before the eye of an agriculturist the most 
pleasing of all features of scenery. The soil on the 
banks of the streams is a deep, rich loam, remarkably 
fertile, and well-adapted to wheat; but, over a 
breadth of about a mile in the interior, it is thin, 
and rests on a strong clay, and, though not infertile, 
demands the expenditure upon it of skill and labour. 
Sandstone, though at a considerable depth beneath 
the surface, everywhere abounds; and on the banks 
of the Whitadder, is a small stratum of prime 
gypsum. Paxton house and Tweed-hill, both 
situated on the Tweed, at a short distance from each 
other — the latter a neat mansion, and the former a 
massive pile constructed from a design by the fa- 
mous Adams — send down their wooded demesnes to 
the margin of the river, and reciprocate with it 
enhancements of beauty. Spittal house, near the 
centre of the parish, is a neat new mansion; and 
Broadmeadows house, situated on the Whitadder, 
lifts up a Grecian front of fine white-coloured sand- 
stone. Hutton hall, standing on the Whitadder, in 
the north-west corner of the parish, and now unin- 
habited, consists of a square tower of remote but 
unascertained antiquity, and an attached long man- 
sion of patch-work structure and various dates. In 
its most ancient part it is a remarkable specimen of 
an old Border strength. There are seven princi- 
pal landowners. The yearly value of raw produce, 
inclusive of £1.000 for fisheries in the Tweed, was 
estimated in 1834 at £19,657. Assessed property 
in 1865, £10,626 19s. 6d. On the estate of Paxton i's 
a manufactory of bricks, house-tiles, and tiles for 
drains. In various localities are 3 corn-mills, 
whence flour and decorticated barley are sent, in 
considerable quantities, to Berwick, for exportation. 
Near Tweed-hill house a suspension bridge, 360 
feet in length, extremely light and elegant, and 
constructed, in 1820, at an expense of upwards of 
£7,000, conducts a carriage-way across the Tweed. 
The parish is intersected by the turnpikes between 
Berwick and Dunse, and between Berwick and 
Kelso, by way of Swinton; and has near access 
both to the North British railway and to the English 
North-eastern railway. The village of Hutton stands 
about the middle of the northern border of the par 
ish, J a mile south of the Whitadder, 3 east-south- 
east of Cbirnside, and 5£ west of Berwick. It con- 
tains about 260 inhabitants. Population of the 




parish in 1831, 1,099; in 1861, 1,067. Houses, 

This parish is in the presbytery of Chirnside, and 
synod of Merse and Teviotdale. Patron, the Crown. 
Stipend, £245 5s. 5d.; glebe, £28. Unappropriated 
teinds, £74 13s. 4d. Schoolmaster's salary is now 
£50. There are three non-parochial schools, and 
two small public libraries. The present parish 
comprehends the ancient parish of Hutton and Fish- 
wick. Hutton, signifying 'wood-town' — was the 
northern district; and Fishwick — or 'the fishing 
hamlet ' — was the district on the south and along 
the Tweed. The monks of Coldingham obtained 
Fishwick from the Scottish Edgar, and held it till 
the Reformation. The ruins of its church and 
cemetery still exist. The Rev. Philip Redpath, the 
editor of the Border History, and the translator of 
Boethius' Consolations of Philosophy, was minister 
of Hutton. 

HUTTON and CORRIE, an united parish in 
Annandale, Dumfries-shire. Its post-town is Lock- 
erby, 7 miles south-south-west of the parish church. 
It is bounded by Moffat, Eskdalemuir, Westerkirk, 
Tundergarth, Dryfesdale, Applegarth, and Wara- 
phray. Its length southward is 13f miles, and its 
average breadth is somewhat less than 3 miles. 
The mountain water-shed between Annandale and 
Eskdale, and that between the basins of the Dryfe and 
the Wamphray, form about one- half of the boundary- 
lines. Dryfe water rises nearly at the northern point 
of the parish, intersects all the northern division 
nearly along its middle, and, bending to the south- 
west, passes away into Applegarth, a mile below Hut- 
ton church. Milk water comes in from the north-east 
about 1J mile below its source, and, over a distance 
of 6 miles, traces the south-eastern and the southern 
boundary. Corrie water rises in a lochlet of its own 
name on the eastern boundary, flows south-westward 
4A miles through the parish, and then, tracing the 
western boundary over a distance of 2J miles, falls 
into the Milk. Of 23,000 imperial acres, which the 
whole area is computed to comprehend, about 3,000 
are arable, about 4,500 are employed for the rearing 
and grazing of black cattle, and about 15,000 are 
occupied as sheep pasture. The black cattle are 
Galloways ; and the sheep, with some trivial excep- 
tions, are all of the Cheviot breed. There are in 
the parish 3 inconsiderable hamlets. In various 
localities are remains of ancient fortifications, two 
of which only are noticeable. In an angle formed 
by the Dryfe, 6 miles from its source, Carthur hill, 
rising almost perpendicularly to the height of 400 or 
500 feet, bears aloft on its pinnacled summit the 
vestiges of what seems to have been a strong fort. 

On one side of the vestiges there is a well, which 
was evidently bored by artificial means in the rock, 
and which still holds water. A hill opposite to Car- 
thur, immediately on the other side of the Dryfe, 
has similar vestiges, though no well ; and between 
the two hills, on the banks of the stream, there ap- 
pear to have been two strong square enclosures, 
which may have served as a connecting link between 
the elevated fortifications. The parish, though hilly 
and sequestered, and long treated as if hut the out- 
skirt of a wilderness, is now intersected by two im- 
portant lines of road, and traversed by several sub- 
ordinate roads. There are ten principal landowners, 
and four of them are resident. The yearly value 
of raw produce was estimated in 1836 at £11,929 
10s. Assessed property in 1860, £7,766. Popula- 
tion in 1831, 860; in 1861, 876. Houses, 153. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Lochmaben, 
and synod of Dumfries. Patron, Johnstone of An- 
nandale. Stipend, £260 7s. lid.; glebe, £20 
Schoolmaster's salary, £47, with £20 fees, and £2 
10s. other emoluments. A schoolmaster for the 
southern division of the parish receives a small sal- 
ary from the heritors, and has altogether an income 
of about £55. The parish church was built about the 
year 1710, and enlarged in 1764, and contains 312 
sittings. Hutton consists of the northern division 
of the present parish, or the part of it which is wat- 
ered by the Dryfe. It was originally a chapelry 
dependent on the church of the old parish of Sibbald- 
bye, now annexed to Applegarth ; and after various 
disputes and settlements, was erected into a separate 
parish previous to the 13th century. In 1220 it was 
converted into a prebend of the chapter of Glasgow. 
Corrie, or the southern division of the united parish, 
was, as to its lands and ecclesiastical patronage, held 
in the 12th century by a vassal family of Robert de 
Bruce; and it continued in their possession, and 
gave them its name till the reign of James V. ; and 
it passed then by marriage into the possession of the 
Johnstones, and was sold in 1853 to Jardine of 
Lawrick. Hutton and Corrie were consolidated 
into one parish in ] 609. 

HUTTON (Little). See Dritesdale. 

HYND CASTLE. See Monikie. 

HYNDFORD, a barony near the centre of the 
upper ward of Lanarkshire. It gave the title of 
Earl to the noble family of the Carmichaels of Hynd- 
ford. Sir James Carmichael of Hyndford was ele- 
vated to the peerage by the title of Lord Carmichael, 
in 1647, and his grandson was created Earl of Hynd- 
ford in 1701. The peerage became dormant at the 
demise of the 6th Earl, in 1817. See Bridgend, 

1. See Iona. 

1ASGAIR, or Yesker, a smiill island belonging 
to the parish of Kilmuir, in the extreme north of 

IBRIS. See Eyebrochy. 

IBROT. See Glasgow, Paisley, and Greenock 


IDOCH (Water of). See Dara (The). 

IDRIGIL POINT. See Duirinish. 

IDVIE. See Kirkden. 

TLAN, a prefix signifying " island." See Ei.lan 

ILAY. See Islay. 

IL1E (The). See Helmsdale (The). 




ILLERAY, one of the Hebrides, about 4 miles 
long, ami 1J broad, lying to the westward of North 
Uist, and insulated only at high-water. The soil is 
partly sandy and partly black loam, yielding toler- 
able crops of barley, and pasture for cattle. 

IMACHAR. See Kilmorie. 

IMERSAY, an islet belonging to the parish of 
Kildalton, in the south-east of the island of Islay. 

INAILITE, a suburb of the north side of the town 
of Stornoway in Lewis. i 

INALTERIE. See Deskford. 

INCH, a word signifying an island, derived either 
from the British Ynt/s, or the Gaelic Inis. It is used 
in Scottish topography sometimes alone, and very 
frequently as a prefix; and when used in the latter 
way, it is sometimes written Inish or Innis. The 
word is said to occur with the same signification, in 
some of the aboriginal languages of North America. 
In Scotland, but more frequently in Ireland, the 
word is also used to denote level ground near a river. 

INCH, a parish in Inverness-shire, united to that 
of Kingussie ; which see. 

INCH, a parish, containing the post-office villages 
of Cairnryan and Lochans, and the hamlet of Aird, 
in the ">orth-west of Wigtonshire. It is bounded, on 
most of the west, by Loch Ryan, — on the north, by 
Ayrshire, — and on other sides, by the parishes of 
New Luce, Old Luce, Stonykirk, Portpatrick, Les- 
walt, and Stranraer. It measures 10J miles in length 
southward, 7J in extreme breadth, and about 4J or 
4A in mean breadth. The southern division — com- 
prising more than one-third of the whole area— has 
a surface so gently undulating, that when viewe:l 
from the neighbouring hills, it appears to be entirely 
level. All of it forms part — and that the larger one 
— of an isthmus between Loch Ryan and Luce bay, 
and is believed to have been anciently covered by 
the sea ; and it is bored at intervals into curious 
hollows, called by the peasantry "pots," which vary 
in measurement from 1,000 feet in circumference and 
100 feet in depth, to comparatively small dimensions, 
and are supposed to have been scooped out by an 
eddying motion of the retiring billows. North-east- 
ward and northward of the plain, the parish rises 
into ranges of beautiful hills. The southern face of 
these is partly arable land and partly green pasture; 
their tops, and interior sides inland and toward the 
north, are rugged, heathy, and incapable of culture; 
and a declivity, which they make toward the whole 
of the eastern boundary, again becomes partly ver- 
dant and partly subject to the plough. The soil, on 
the west side of the plain, is a good loam ; in the 
rest of the plain, and other arable parts, is light and 
sandy ; and, on the hills, is to a great extent mossy. 
The cultivated acres of the parish as compared with 
the uncultivated, are nearly in the proportion of two 
to three. About 700 acres are under wood. Toward 
the end of the last century the face of the country 
underwent an entire renovating change, under the 
skilful agricultural improvements and incentives of 
the Earl of Stair. Main water, a rapid stream, on 
n rocky bed, comes down from Carriek on the north, 
traces the eastern boundary for 5 miles, is joined by 
Luce water from the east at Waterfoot, or opposite 
New Luce, and thence deputes to the new stream, 
with the aid of its own tribute, to trace the eastern 
boundary-line, over a farther distance of 1J mile. 
The Piltanton comes down from the north-west, 
within the Rinns of Galloway, and, in a placid, and 
even sluggish course — during part of which it 
abounds in tiny sinuosities — traces the south-west- 
ern and southern boundary, over a distance of 7 
miles. No fewer than 12 lakes spread out their 
little expanses of water in the parish, — most of them 
in its level or southern division. They abound in 

pike, perch, carp, tench, roach, anil white and red 
trout; are frequented by wild ducks, teals, widgeons, 
coots, and cormorants; and during the winter-months, 
especially if the temperature be below the average, 
become the resort of immigrant swans from Ireland. 
Those of Saulseat and Castle- Kennedy are beautiful 
sheets of water, and possess, in a marked degree, 
the gentler features of fine lake scenery. The loch 
of Saulseat, J of a mile long, and J of a mile broad, 
formerly called the Green loch, during part of 
the year, is sheeted over with a substance which 
gives an appearance of watery verdure. It is of 
the form of the arc of a circle, has its concavity or 
peninsula covered with wood, and appears to have 
anciently had a deep fosse or trench stretching like 
a chord between its projecting points. In its vicin- 
ity stood an ancient abbey. See Saulseat. Castle- 
Kennedy loch is cut so very deeply by injecting 
peninsula?, as sometimes to be reckoned rather two 
lakes than one. The parts run parallel to each 
other, the one a mile, and the other 1 J mile in length, 
from north-west to south-east, and are each about J 
a mile in breadth. In each section is an islet; and 
on the western peninsula are the romantic edifice 
and demense of Castle-Kennedy, the property of the 
Earl of Stair. Castle-Kennedy, in its original form, 
was a spacious, stately, square edifice, built pro- 
bably in the reign of James VI. It belonged at first 
to the Earls of Cassilis, who had extensive posses- 
sions in Wigtonshire ; but, in the reign of Charles 
II., it passed, with its adjacent property, into the 
hands of Sir John Dalrymple, younger of Stair The 
castle was burnt by accident in 1715, and has never 
since been habitable. The grounds and plantations 
around it were planned by Marsha] Stair; and, if 
destitute of the graces which adorn more modish 
demesnes, possess attractions nearly peculiar to 
themselves. Along Loch Ryan, the parish has a 
coast-line of about 8 miles. This includes most of 
the southern part or head of the loch, and the whole 
of its west side, till within i!j- miles of its opening 
into the sea. In the northern part, the shore is bold 
and rocky, and is perforated with several caves, which 
run 80 or 100 yards under ground ; but elsewhere 
it is flat, and covered with sand or gravel. The loch 
has an extensive fishery of salmon, haddock, whit- 
ing, cod, flounders, herring and excellent oysters. 
A slate quarry is wrought on the estate of Loch 
Ryan. Repeated but vain attempts have been made 
to find coal. Granite occurs in detached blocks. 
There are eight principal landowners, but the only 
ones resident are Lord Dalrymple and General Sir 
J. Wallace. The average rent of arable land is 
about £1 per acre. The yearly value of raw produce 
was estimated in 1839 at £30,240. Assessed pro 
perty in 1860, £14,503. 

Sepulchral cairns are very numerous in the uplands 
of the parish ; on the average, about 60 feet in dia- 
meter, and 7 feet in height ; consisting of stones 
which, in the case of many, must have been fetched 
from a distance of several miles ; and generally 
found, on examination, to have a large interior 
cavity containing incinerated human remains, in 
some" instances loose, in others in an urn. On the 
moorland farm of Cairnarran are nine of these cairns 
within the range of a Scottish mile. Burrows or 
tumuli occur in the lowlands, of exactly similar 
character to the cairns, except that they are formed 
of earth instead of stones ; and they have the same 
interior cavity and sepulchral contents, and are sup- 
posed, in common with the caims, to be monuments 
of the British tribes who inhabited Galloway during 
the earlv centuries of the Christian era. On the 
farm of Innermessan, on Loch Ryan, '2i miles north- 
west of Stranraer, stood the ancient Kerigonium, » 

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town of the Novantes, and in more modern times, the 
tnvm and castle of Innermessan. Symson, in his 
' Description of Galloway,' says " Innermessan was 
the greatest town thereabouts till Stranraer was 
built." Only faint vestiges of it, however, now re- 
main, — such as cannot be detected except with the 
aid of a cicerone. Tn its vicinity rises a beautiful 
moat, 336 feet in circumference at the base, 60 feet 
in perpendicular elevation, 78 feet in sloping ascent, 
with a fosse encincturing its base, and an esplanade 
shaving off its summit, and commanding a fine view 
of the expanse and shores of Loch Ryan. " On the 
24th November, 1834," says the Rev. James Fergus- 
son, the minister of the parish, in his report in the 
New Statistical Account, " I caused a hole 3 feet 
deep to be dug in the centre of the plain on the top. 
After passing through a fine rich mould, we came to 
a stratum consisting of ashes, charred wood, and 
fragments of bone. In the days of the ancient No- 
vantes, this was probably the public cemetery of 
the adjacent town, Rerigonium." On the farm of 
Larg, near Main water, are remains of an old castle, 
once the property and seat of the Lyns of Larg. 
The Castle of Craigcaffie, formerly the seat of the 
extinct family of the Nelsons of Craigcaffie, is still 
entire, and has been transmuted into a farm-house. 
The monthly Stranraer cattle-market, held from 
April to October, has for its arena a spot within the 
western limits of Inch. The parish is traversed along 
the whole of its western border by the turnpike be- 
tween Glasgow and Portpatrick, and across its south- 
ern division by the turnpike between Dumfries and 
Stranraer. Sir John Ross, the celebrated arctic na- 
vigator, is a native of the parish, and adopts it, at 
his residence of North-west-castle, as the home of 
his advanced vears. Population in 1831, 2,521 ; in 
1861,3,469. Houses, 578. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Stranraer, and 
synod of Galloway. Patron, the Crown. Stipend, 
£258 12s. 3d. ; glebe, £15 15s. Schoolmaster's salary, 
£35, witli about £20 fees and £6 other emoluments. 
The parish church was built in 1 770, stands on the 
south-west side of Castle-Kennedy loch, 3 miles 
east of Stranraer, and contains 400 sittings. There 
is a chapel of ease at Cairnryan, with an attendance 
of 75. There is a Free church at Inch, with an at- 
tendance of 300 ; and the sum raised in connexion 
with it in 1865 was £179 2s. lOd. There is a Free 
church also at Cairnryan ; and the sum raised in 
connexion with it in 1865 was £56 4s. 2d. There 
are five private schools. The present parish com- 
prehends most of the ancient parish of Inch, and 
nil the ancient parish of Saulseat. On the island or 
"inch" in Castle- Kennedy loch, opposite the present 
parish-church, is sapposed to have stood the earliest 
place of worship in the district; and from this cir- 
cumstance the parish seems to have derived its 
name. Before the Reformation, the church of Inch 
belonged to the bishops of Galloway, and was served 
by a curate; by the annexation act of 1587, it was 
vested in the King; in 1588, it was granted for life 
to Mr. William Melville, the commendator of 
Tongueland; in 1613, it was returned to the bishop 
of Galloway ; in 1641, it was transferred to the Uni- 
versity of Glasgow; in 1661, it was again restored 
to the bishop of Galloway; and in 1689, it finally 
reverted to the Crown. In the old parish of Inch 
there were two chapels. St. John's chapel stood at 
the head of Loch Ryan and the east end of Stran- 
raer; and, though in ruins in 1684, when Symson 
wrote his ' Large Description of Galloway,' it was 
commemorated in the names of various objects in 
its vicinity. A modern castle, or large building 
near its site, was called "the castle of the chapel;" 
a piece of land which had belonged to the chapel, 

was called St. John's croft; the part of Stranraer 
lying east of the rivulet which intersects the town, 
was popularly called the Chapel; and a copious 
spring of water, which rises within flood-mark, is 
still called St. John's well. All these objects were 
detached from Inch, and included in the modern 
parish and burgh of Stranraer. A second chapel, 
dedicated to St. Patrick, and giving name to the 
modern town of Portpatrick, stood on the west coast 
on the site of that town , and served the south-west 
division of the old parish, which was popularly 
called the Black quarter of Inch. This district was 
detached in 1628, and erected into the separate par- 
ish of Portpatrick. What the old parish lost by this 
disseverment was afterwards compensated by the 
anuexation to it of the parish of Saulseat. The 
church of Saulseat belonged, before the Reformation, 
to the monks of its abbey. When vested, by the act 
of annexation, in the Crown, a portion of the 
revenues was settled as a stipend on its minister; 
and in 1631, the remainder was granted by Charles 
I. to the minister of Portpatrick. 

INCH, Aberdeenshire. See Iksch. 

INCH (Loch), an expansion of the river Spey, 
about 2 miles long and upwards of a mile broad. 4 
miles south of Alvie church, in Badenoch, Inver- 

INCH-ABER, a small island in the south-east 
corner of Loch-Lomond, f of a mile south-west 
of the mouth of the river Endrick. It belongs to 
the parish of Kihnaronock in Dumbartonshire. 

INCHAFFREY, an ancient abbey on the banks 
of Pow or Powaffray water, in the parish of Mad- 
derty, Perthshire. The name is said to mean ' the 
Island of masses' — the island where masses were 
said; and certainly is written in Latin, Insula mis- 
sarum. Its site is a small rising ground, which 
seems to have been insulated by the Pow. The 
abbey was founded in 1200, by Gilbert, Earl of 
Strathearn, and his Countess Matilda, and dedicated 
to God, the Virgin Mary, and John the Apostle; 
and it was endowed with many privileges and im- 
munities by David and Alexander, Kings of Scot- 
land. The ruins have been nearly all carried away, 
as materials for modern houses and roads in the 
vicinity. A small adjacent territory, formerly at- 
tached to the abbey, belongs to the Earl of Kinnoul, 
and constitutes him patron of about 12 parishes, 
over which the abbots anciently had right. Mau- 
ritius, one of the abbots, attended Robert Bruce at 
the battle of Bannockburn, and carried with him, 
in the superstitious spirit of the times, an arm of 
St. Fillan. The abbey furnished the first of two 
titles of nobility, which were conferred on its com- 
mendator. James Drummond, a younger son of 
David, Lord Drummond, was first styled Lord 
InchafTrey, and afterwards, in 1607, was created 
Lord Madderty. He married Jean, daughter of Sir 
James Chisholme of Cromlicks, and with her got 
the lands of Innerpeffray, she being heiress, 
through her mother, of Sir John Drummond, the 
owner of that property. From the first Lady Mad- 
derty sprang two sons, John, Lord Madderty, and 
Sir James, the first Laird of Machony. 

INCHARD (Loch), an arm of the sea, projecting 
from the Minch east-south-eastward into the north- 
ern part of the parish of Edderachillis, in Suther- 
landshire. It is about 2 miles wide at the entrance, 
and has there several islands, hut contracts much 
in the interior, and has altogether a length of about 
5 miles. It forms a fine natural harbour, is pretty 
well inhabited round the shores, and can boast some 
fine features of the picturesque; yet, on the whole, 
is rather bleak and desolate. 

INCHARD (The), a stream of about 5 miles in 




length of course, expanding into two lakes, and 
terminating at the head of Loch Inchard, in the 

Sarish of Edderachillis, in Sntherlandshire. Its 
irection is north-westerly. It affords good salmon 
fishing, and is bestridden above its mouth by a 
large bridge, conveying over it the great west coast 

INCHBARE, a small scattered village, with 
about a dozen bouses, in the parish of Strickathrow, 

INCHBELLY, a locality on the nothern border 
of the parish of Kirkintilloch, 1J mile east-north- 
east of the town of Kirkintilloch, in the detached 
district of Dumbartonshire. Here is a bridge over 
the Kelvin, on the road from Glasgow to Falkirk. 
This locality, together with Inchbreck in the same 
parish, and Incbterf, Inchwood, and Netherinch in 
the parishes of Campsie and Kilsyth, owes the prefix 
part of its name to its having been originally an 
island in the expanse of water which formerly oc- 
cupied the great transverse valley, that now tra- 
versed by the ship-canal, between the Forth and 
the Clyde. 

INCH-BRAYOCK, or Eossie Island, a low flat 
islet of about 34 acres superficial area, in the chan- 
nel of the Forfarshire South Esk, between Montrose 
basin and the German ocean. It belongs to the 
parish of Craig, but was included by the boundary- 
bill within the burgh of Montrose, and is becoming 
the site of a suburban appendage to that town. At 
its east end is a dry-dock. The currents which 
pass along its sides, owing to the narrowness of 
their channels compared with the expanse of Mon- 
trose basin, which is filled and emptied at every 
tide, are very rapid. Till the latter part of the last 
century, the great north road along the east coast 
of Scotland was continued across the South Esk only 
by the incommodious expedient of a ferry below 
Inch-brayock, at Ferryden; but now, by means of 
connecting bridges, it is carried across the island, 
and cuts it into two nearly equal parts. The bridge 
on the south side — where the channel has greatly 
less breadth than that on the north side — is a 
work of solid and massive stone masonry. The 
original bridge on the north side was one of timber, 
• — a great work of its kind, but constantly needing 
repair, and too fragile to resist fully the careering 
tide; and about 26 years ago, it was substituted by 
a suspension-bridge, which, if it want the intrinsic 
magnificence and the circumjacent splendour of 
scenery which distinguish the famous Welsh bridges 
across the Mcnai, is at least one of the most in- 
teresting public works in the lowlands of Britain. 
See Montuose. — Inch-brayock, together with some 
adjacent territory, was anciently a separate parish, 
but in the year 1618 was united with that of St. 
Skeoch or Dunninald to form the parish of Craig. 
The ancient church and cemetery were on the 
island ; and the latter continues to be in use for the 
united parish. Inch-brayock, or Tnis-Breic, means 
'the Church or chapel island.' Population, 212. 
Houses, 35. 


INCH-CAILLIACH, an islet in Loch-Lomond, 7 
furlongs in length and nearly 3A furlongs in 
breadth, f of a mile north-west of the mouth of the 
river Endrick, in tile parish of Buchanan, Stirling- 
shire. Its name signifies 'the island of old 
women.' Amidst the green and the golden islands 
of a landscape unsurpassed in its beauties by the 
most fairy districts of Scotland, Inch-Cailliach is one 
of the most beautiful. It is the property of the 
Duke of Montrose, exquisitely wooded, and turned 
to some account in husbandry. In ancient times it 
was the site of a nunnery, whose inmates are 

alluded to in its name; and down to a more modern 
period, it gave name to the parish which now wears 
the usurped title of Buchanan, and was the site of 
the parish-church and cemetery. 

INCH-CLAIR, or Claih-Ikch, an islet in Loch- 
Lomond, J a mile from the eastern bank, in the 
parish of Buchanan, Stirlingshire. It is J of a mile 
long from north-east to south-west, and runs par- 
allel with Inch-Cailliach, about J of a mile distant 
from it on its south-east side. The islet is finely 
wooded, and resembles in general appearance the 
larger and very beautiful islet in its vicinity. 

INCHCOLM, an island belonging to the parish of 
Aberdour in Fifeshire. It lies in the frith of Forth, 
5 furlongs south of the nearest part of the mainland, 
2 miles south south-west of the village of Aberdour, 
and 3J miles east-north-east of North Queensfeiry. 
It is scarcely a mile in length, and is of a bleak ap- 
pearance, though partly arable. " A considerable 
portion of it is composed of greenstone, exhibiting 
cither the earthy, syenitic, or common appearance, 
and which, by the felspar being replaced by steatite, 
frequently passes into an imperfect serpentine. On 
the south side of the island, a variety of greenstone 
occurs containing numerous scales of pinchbeck- 
brown mica ; it is traversed by a number of con 
temporaneous veins of greenstone, which frequently 
passes into steatite. This mineral occurs also in 
minute strings without exhibiting any such transi- 
tion, and in them sometimes there may be observed 
threads of amianthus. On the south of the island, 
where a junction of the trap and the sandstone is 
exposed, the latter dips to the north at 52°; while the 
greenstone, as it approaches the sandstone, passes 
into a compact yellowish-white claystone, a vein of 
which occurs running parallel with the strata. With 
the exception of a body of sandstone, which is envel- 
oped in the greenstone, the western half of the island 
is entirely composed of trap, having in some places 
a slightly columnar disposition." The island is in- 
habited by only one family. 

Inchcolm, though destitute of scenic beauty, is 
rich in historical associations, and contains the ruins 
of an extensive monastic establishment. The an- 
cient name of the island was iEmona, which in 
Celtic means ' the Island of Druids ;' so that it 
would appear that before the introduction of Chris- 
tianity the Druids had a place of worship here. 
After Christianity had been introduced, the island 
seems to have been taken possession of by some of 
the followers of St. Columba, who here erected a 
small chapel dedicated to that saint; and from that 
circumstance the present name of the island is de- 
rived. About the year 1123 Alexander I., in con- 
sequence of having found refuge here from a terrible 
tempest while lie was crossing the frith, and in ful- 
filment of a vow made by him at the crisis of his 
peril, founded on the island, and richly endowed, a 
monastery for Augustinian canons-regular, dedi- 
cating it to St. Columba. Allan de Mortimer, Lord 
of Aberdour, gave to the monks the moiety of the 
lands of his town of Aberdour for a burying-place to 
himself and his posterity in their church. Walter 
Bowmaker, abbot of Inchcolm, was one of the con- 
tinuators of John Fordun's Scoti-Chronicon. He 
died in the year 1449. James Stewart of Beith, a 
cadet of Lord Ochiltree, was made commendator of 
Inchcolm, on the surrender of Henry, the abbot, in 
1543; and his second son, Henry Stewart, was, by the 
special favour of King James II., created a peer, by 
the title of Lord St. Colm, in the year 1611. The 
ruins of the monastery were described as follows in 
1789 by Grose, and are now little different from 
what they were then: — " Great part of the monas- 
tery is still remaining. The cloisters, with rooms 





Dver them, enclosing a square area, are quite entire. 
The pit of the prison is a most dismal hole, though 
lighted by a small window. The refectory is 
up one pair of stairs ; in it, near the window, is a 
kind of separate closet, up a few steps, commanding 
a view of the monks when at table; this is supposed 
to have been the abbot's seat. Adjoining to the re- 
fectory is a room, from the size of its chimney, pro- 
bably the kitchen. The octagonal chapter-house, 
with its stone roof, is also standing ; over it is a 
room of the same shape, in all likelihood the place 
where the charters were kept. Here are the re- 
mains of an inscription, in the black-letter, which 
began with stultus. The inside of the whole build- 
ing seems to have been plastered. Near the water 
there is a range of offices. Near the chapter-house 
are the remains of a very large semicircular arch." 

INCH-CONACHAN, or Colquhoun's Island, 
an islet in Loch-Lomond, a mile south-east of the 
village of Luss, one of a cluster of 3 islets of nearly 
equal size, in the parish of Luss, Dumbartonshire. 
It has Inch-Tavanach immediately on the south- 
west, Inch-Moree immediately on the south, and 
Inch-Cruin, in Stirlingshire, not far distant on the 
east. The islet is nearly 6 furlongs long, and 3 fur- 
longs broad, and comprehends 94 Scottish acres 
under natural oakwood and some fir, but is unin- 

INCH-COEMAC, an islet in the mouth of Loch 
Swin, on the west coast of North Knapdale, Argyle- 
shire. Here are remains of an ancient chapel, with 
an interesting sculptured sarcophagus. 

INCH-CEOIN, an islet in Loch-Lomond, J a mile 
north-east of Inch-Murrin, 3 furlongs south-west of 
Torrinch, and lj mile from the bank of the south 
end of the lake, in the parish of Kilmaronock, Dum- 
bartonshire. It is nearly a square, with the angles 
rounded off, measures about 3 furlongs on each side, 
and is finely wooded. 

INCH-CBUIN, an islet in Loch-Lomond, J of a 
mile north-east of Inch-Moan, J of a mile north- 
west of Inch-Fad, and about mid-distance between 
the western and the eastern banks of tiie lake, in the 
parish of Buchanan, Stirlingshire. It is more than 
J a mile long, and 3 furlongs broad, has little wood, 
and was formerly the site of an establishment for 
the insane. Its name signifies the ' round island.' 

INCH-DEYNICH. See Glenorchy. 

INCHEFFEAY. See Inchaffeay. 

INCHES, an estate and a burn, in the parish of 
Inverness. The burn has some beautiful small 

INCH-FAD, ' the long island,' an islet in Loch- 
Lomond, J of a mile from the eastern bank of the 
lake, and J a mile north-west of Inch-Cailliach, in 
the parish of Buchanan, Stirlingshire. It is 7 fur- 
longs in length, and nearly 3 in breadth, and stretches 
from north-east to south-west. The islet is but 
partially wooded, but has a very fertile soil, and is 

INCH-FEIECHLAN, the ' shaggy island,' a rock 
in Loch-Lomond opposite the village of Luss, in 
Luss parish, Dumbartonshire. The name alludes 
to the fern by which the appearance of the little 
islet is characterized. 

INCH-GALBEAITH, an islet of only a few 
acres of area, in Loch-Lomond, 3 furlongs from the 
western bank of the lake, and the same distance 
south of Inch-Tavanach. in the parish of Luss, Dum- 
bartonshire. It is chiefly noticeable as having been 
the site of an ancient castle, once the residence of 
the family from which the islet derives its name. 
The ruins of the castle still exist amidst a few 
overshadowing trees, and are now the habitation of 
the os prey. 

INCH-GAEVIE, a rocky islet in the frith of 
Forth, about 5 furlongs in circumference, lying 1J 
mile from the southern shore of the frith, and 1 mile 
from the northern shore, immediately south of the 
passage at Queensferry. In the reign of James IV. 
a fort was erected upon it by Dundas of Dundas, 
which in later times was used as a state prison. 
Buins either of the original fort, or of a castle after- 
wards built on its site, still grace the summit of the 
islet. In 1779, after the alarm occasioned by the 
appearance of Paul Jones and his squadron in the 
frith, the fortifications were repaired and provided 
with four iron 24 pounders, but they have since 
been dismantled. 

INCHINNAN, a parish on the north border of 
Eenfrewshire. Its post-town is Eenfrew, 1J mile 
east of its parish church. It is bounded, on the 
north, by the Clyde, which divides it from Dum- 
bartonshire; on the east and the south, by the Cart 
and the Gryfe, which divide it from Eenfrew and 
Kilbarchan; and on the west, by Houston and 
Erskine. Its length westward is 3£ miles; and its 
greatest breadth is nearly 3 miles. It takes the 
name of Inch from being peninsulated by the rivers, 
and the name of Innan from its old patron saint, St. 
Inan. Its area comprises about 3,060 acres, which 
may be classified thus: — arable in cultivation, 
2,600; woodlands, 300; natural pasture, 100; sites 
of houses, roads, and waters, 60. The yearly pro- 
duce is estimated at £14,000. The soil is excellent, 
consisting chiefly of strong productive clay; while 
on the banks of the rivers it is of a rich loamy 
quality. The land is in a high state of cultivation. 
The surface is diversified by rising grounds, some 
of them arable to the summit, others beautifully 
wooded, and all commanding extensive views of the 
surrounding country. Few parishes afford so many 
delightful situations for small country-seats. In 
the Clyde, adjacent to the farm of Gamaland, is an 
island, containing about 50 acres, called Newshot 
— corruptly Ushet — Isle. In the Cart, before its 
confluence with the Clyde, is a much smaller one, 
called Colin's Isle, which, according to tradition, 
originated in the stranding of a vessel. Limestone 
and coal abound. Freestone of superior quality is 
wrought at Park and Eashielee ; and at the latter 
place large quantities of whinstone have, since 1760, 
been procured, forming excellent materials for the 
construction of jetties and other improvements on 
the Clyde. The population is chiefly agricultural. 
Towards the end of the 18th century, there was a 
distillery at Portnaul. 

The lands of Inchinnan were granted by King 
Malcolm IV. to Walter the high steward, in 1158; 
and a portion of them remained in the possession of 
a branch of the Stewart family till the beginning of 
the 18th century, when it was sold by the Duke of 
Lennox to the Duke of Montrose. It now belongs 
to Mr. Campbell of Blythswood, whose ancestor 
purchased it from the Duke of Montrose in 1737. 
Mr. Campbell is the principal landowner in the 
parish. The mansion of Inchinnan — called a palace 
— was built by Matthew, Earl of Lennox, in 1506. 
It stood near the site of the farm-stead of Garna- 
land, looking towards the Clyde. Crawford men- 
tions that there were " some considerable re- 
mains" of it in 1710; but before the end of the 
century it had altogether disappeared, and the veiy 
foundations had become arable land. The greater 
part of the estate of Northbar was acquired in 1741 
by Lord Sempill, who built a house upon it on the 
bank of the Clyde. In 1798 it wag sold to Mr 
James Buchanan, from whom it was acquired by 
Lord Blantyre, about 14 years afterwards. South- 
bar, the property of Boyd Alexander, Esq., was 




Required by his family in 1785. A splendid mansion 
now stands on the site of the old house, which was 
mostly destroyed by fire in 1826. The estate of Park 
was purchased in 1839 by John Henderson, Esq. 
At the church of Inehinnan the Gryfe and the 
White Cart unite. Here there was formerly a pub- 
lic ferry, which gave name to a property, still called 
Ferrycraft. In 1759 a bridge was built, a few yards 
below the point where the rivers join. It consisted 
of 9 large arches, with a communication from the 
middle of the bridge by an arch connecting it with 
the point of land between the rivers. It cost only 
£1,450. The foundations of this structure were so 
insecure, and the work so imperfect, that it gave 
way at a flood, in the spring of 1809. A new bridge 
on a different site was completed in 1812, at an ex- 
pense of £17,000. It is composed of two divisions, 
which cross the streams 30 or 40 yards above their 
junction; an end of each division resting on the in- 
termediate peninsula. They do not run in a straight 
line into each other; but the road takes a bend in 
the middle, where they join, and forms nearly a 
right angle, each of them crossing its own water at 
a right angle also. This structure is both substan- 
tial and elegant, and has a fine effect amidst the 
surrounding scenery, which is deservedly admired 
for its amenity and tranquil beauty. The old high- 
road from Glasgow to Greenock, by Renfrew, inter- 
sects the length of the parish ; and two good roads 
communicate with Paisley. Population in 1831, 
642; in 1861, 619. Houses, 80. Assessed pro- 
perty in 1860, £5,501. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Paisley, and 
synod of Glasgow and Ayr. Patron, Campbell of 
lilythswood. Stipend, £254 4s. 2d.; glebe, £15. 
Unappropriated teinds, £57 16s. 7d. Schoolmaster's 
salary is now £55, with about £22 fees, and £5 
other emoluments. There are a school of industry 
and a parochial library. According to ancient his- 
torians, St. Conval, or Connal, taught Christianity 
at Inehinnan, where he died in 612. David I. gave 
the church of Inehinnan, with all its pertinents, to 
the Knights Templars, to whom it continued to be- 
long till their suppression in 1312, when all their 
property in Scotland was transferred to the Knights 
of St. John, who enjoyed the rectorial tithes and 
revenues, and had the cure served by a vicar of 
their own appointment, till the Reformation. The 
former church of Inehinnan — which was pulled 
down in 1828 — was a very ancient fabric, 50 feet in 
length, by only 18 in breadth, with an antique 
searcement to throw off the rain from the foundation. 
The walls were of great thickness. " In the church- 
yard all the old tomb-stones, of which many remain, 
have crosses of different forms sculptured upon them. 
The parishioners point out what tradition has taught 
them to call the Templars' graves. The stones 
covering them, now reduced to 4 in number, are 
not flat, but ridged; and upon their sloping sides, 
figures of swords may be distinctly traced. If ever 
there were stone coffins under them, it is long since 
they have disappeared, and the graves themselves 
have been appropriated, from time immemorial, to 
the use of the parishioners." The present church 
is Gothic, with a massive square tower, and is much 
admired. It occupies the situation of the former 
one,_ upon the Gryfe, near its junction with the 
White Cart. There is a neat place of worship in 
the parish, erected by Mr. Henderson of Park, and 
hitherto supplied by preachers of the Free church. 

INCH-KEITH, an island belonging to the parish 
of Kinghorn in Fifeshire. It lies in the frith of 
Forth, 2£ miles south-south-east of Pettycur, and 17 
west-south-west of the Bass. It is rather more than 
nalf-a-mile in length, and about an eighth of a mile in 

breadth. Its surface is very irregular and rocky, yet 
is in many places productive of rich herbage. Near 
the middle, but rather towards the north end, it rises 
gradually to a height of 180 feet above the level of 
the sea; and here stands a lighthouse. There are 
abundant springs of the most excellent water, which 
is collected into a cistern, from which the shipping 
in Leith roads are supplied. Inch-Keith is supposed 
to be the Caer Guidi of Bede, and must have been 
fortified previous to his time. In Maitland's ' His- 
tory of Edinburgh ' there is an order from the 
Privy council to the magistrates of Edinburgh, 
dated September 1497, directing " that all manner 
of persons within the freedom of this burgh, who 
are infected of the contagious plague called the 
grangore, devoid, rid, and pass furth of this town, 
and compeer on the sands of Leith at ten hours be- 
fore noon ; and there shall have and find boats 
ready in the harbour, ordered them by the officers 
of this burgh, ready furnished with victuals, to have 
them to the Inch (Inch-Keith'), and there to remain 
till God provide for their health." It early belonged 
to the family of Keith, afterwards Earls Marischal, 
and from them received the name it now bears. 
How long it continued in possession of this family 
does not appear, as it afterwards belonged to the 
Crown, and was included in the grant of Kinghorn 
to Lord Glammis. With this family it remained 
till 1649, when, according to Lamont, it was bought, 
along with the mill of Kinghorn and some acres ot 
land, by the well-known Scot of Scotstarvet, for 
20,000 merks. It afterwards became the property 
of the family of Buccleugh, and formed part of their 
barony of Royston, in the parish of Cramond, in 
Mid-Lothian. In 1549, Inchkeith was fortified by 
the English, then in Scotland, under the Duke of 
Somerset. But the French, then in possession of 
Leith, dislodged them, threw down their works, 
and erected a better fort. In 1567, by command of 
the Scottish parliament, this fort was demolished, to 
prevent its being seized and turned to account by 
the English. The island is manifestly a strong 
point in the frith, for giving cover to the shipping 
of Leith and to everything westward up to Stirling; 
and since the commencement of the present war 
with Russia, it has, in that view, drawn attention 
from the authorities, both local and governmental. 
The lighthouse on it was erected in 1803. The 
light at first was a stationary one; but in 1815, it 
was changed to a revolving light, to distinguish it 
from the fixed light on the Isle of May. It is ele- 
vated 235 feet above the medium level of the sea, 
and can be seen at the distance of 18 nautical miles. 
In 1835, it was changed from a reflecting character 
to a dioptric one; and now it consists of seven an- 
nular lenses, which circulate round a lamp of three 
concentric wicks, and produce bright flashes once 
in every minute, and of five rows of curved mirrors, 
which being fixed, serve to prolong the duration 
of the flashes from the lenses. In clear weather, 
the light is not totally eclipsed between the flashes, 
at a distance of 4 or 5 miles. Population, 9. 

INCH-KENNETH, a very fertile little Hebridean 
island, belonging to the parish of Kilfinichen in 
Argyleshire. It lies in the mouth of Loch-na-Keal, 
adjacent to the west coast of Mull, 12 miles west- 
south-west of Aros, and 13 north-east of Iona. 
" This island," says the New Statistical Account, 
" is about a mile long, and less than half a mile 
broad, and supposed to take its name from Kenneth, 
a friend of St. Columba, whom he is said to have 
rescued by prayer from drowning during a storm 
' in undosis Charybdis Brecaui.' This Kenneth is 
supposed to have died abbot of Achabo, in Ireland, 
in 600. According to Douald Monro, Dean of the 




Isles, who 'visited this amongst other islands in 
1549, Inch-Kenneth at that time belonged to the 
prioress of Iona; and he says, " It is a fair ile, fertile 
and fruitful, inhabit and manurit, full of cunnings 
about the shores of it, with a paroch kirk, the 
maist parochin being upon the main shoar of Mull, 
being onlie an half myle distant from the said ile, and 
the haill parochin of it pertains to the prioress of 
Colmkill." The rains of the parish church, or it 
may be chapel, are still very entire; they stand 
about 60 feet in length by 30 in breadth. Near to 
the ruins are the remains of a cross. The cemetery 
around the chapel is covered with tombstones of 
chieftains and other personages, and still continues 
to be used as a place of sepulture. The remains of 
Sir Allan Maclean's cottage, where, with his two 
daughters, he so hospitably entertained Dr. Johnson 
and his friends, are yet to be seen. The description 
which their learned guest has given of his visit is 
one of the most interesting and pleasing passages 
in his narrative. The ashes of Sir Allan rest near 
the spot where he related to the Doctor his American 
campaign ; but the estate has long since gone from 
the family. It is now the property of Colonel Robert 
Macdonald, who has built a mansion-house on the 
island; and like Sir Allan, resides there in agreeable 
retirement, after having fought and bled in the 
cause of his country." Population, 7. 

INCHLAW-HILL, a hill about 600 feet high, in 
the east end of the parish of Logie, about 5 miles 
from the shore of the German ocean, in Fifeshire. 

INCH-LONAIG, an islet in Loch-Lomond, f of a 
mile from the village of Luss, and 5 furlongs from 
the eastern bank of the lake, in the parish of Luss, 
Dumbartonshire. It is about a mile long, stretch- 
ing from north-east to south-west, and nearly £ a 
mile broad; and contains an area of 145 Scottish 
acres. About one-half of its surface is covered with 
a natural forest of very old yew-trees. This islet 
has long been used as a deer-park by the Colquhouns 
of Luss, and has about 150 deer. Its only human 
inhabitants are the inmates and keepers of a board- 
ing-establishment, or place of restraint and cure, for 
persons who have been addicted to drinking. 

INCHMAHOME, the larger of two islets in 
Monteith-loch, parish of Port-of-Monteith, on the 
southern verge of Perthshire. This islet possesses 
such historical and antiquarian interest as to have 
been the subject of a quarto volume, by the Rev. 
Mr. Macgregor of Stirling. In itself it has an area 
of only about 5 acres, and is an object of simple 
beauty, — an emerald gem on the bosom of the smil- 
ing lake. But it was the site of an extensive and 
noted priory, the ruins of which still sufficiently in- 
dicate its ancient grandeur. One arch of very ele- 
gant Gothic architecture, a considerable extent of 
wall, and the dormitory and vaults, are embosomed 
in a grove of large and somewhat aged trees. The 
vaults have long been used as sepulchres by several 
ancient families; and in the choir of the church are 
sculptured figures of the last Earl and Countess 
who bore the dormant title of Monteith. Imme- 
diately to the south-west lies the smaller islet of 
Tulla, the site of a ruined castle, anciently the prin- 
cipal residence of the Monteith family. Inehma- 
home united with Tulla to form the castle's insulated 
demesne; and it still bears memorials, in an inter- 
mixture of aged fruit-trees with its little forest, of 
having been laid out in garden and orchard. Several 
of its forest-trees are chestnuts, planted before the 
Reformation, one of them having a girth near the 
ground of 18 feet. The priory belonged to the 
canons regular of the Augustinian order, and was 
founded by Edgar, king of Scotland. It had four 
dependent chapels, and was represented in 156'2 to 

Government as having property of the annual value 
of £234, besides tithings in grain. Originally it was 
connected with the abbey of Cambus- Kenneth; af- 
terwards it was attached by James IV. to the royal 
chapel of Stirling ; and eventually it was bestowed 
by James V. upon John, Lord Erskine, as commenda- 
tory abbot. In 1310 it was visited by King Robert 
Bruce, and was the scene of his exercising some 
royal prerogatives. In 1547, when the English in- 
vaded Scotland with the view of forcing a mar- 
riage-contract between Edward VI. and Mary, the 
infant Queen, then 5 years of age, she was carried 
to the priory, and remained there, protected by 
her attendants, till she was sent off to France. The 
priory was visited likewise by James VI., and was 
occasionally honoured with the presence of many 
distinguished subjects. 

INCH-MARNOCH, an isle in the frith of Clyde, 
on the south-west of the isle of Bute, to which it 
is politically annexed. It is about a mile long; and 
lies 2 miles west of St. Ninian's point. On the west 
side are vast strata of coral and shells. The ruins 
of a chapel dedicated to St. Marnoch are still to be 
seen upon it. This island belonged, in former times, 
to the monastery of Sadell in Kintyre; it is now in 
the parish of Rothesay. 

INCH-MARRIN. See Inch-Murr^. 


INCH-MICKERY, a rocky islet in the frith of 
Forth, 2 miles and a furlong from the southern 
shore, and 3J miles from the northern shore, lying 
a little south of Cramond island and Inchcolm, and 
at about mid-distance between them. It is only 
about 3 or 4 furlongs in circumference, and is chiefly 
remarkable for an extensive oyster-bed on its shore, 
and for the profusion of sea weeds, lichens, and mosses 
on its beach and surface. 

INCHMILL. See Vigean's (St.). 

INCH-MOAN, or Moss- Island, a low, flat, boggy 
islet in Loch-Lomond, § of a mile from the western 
bank of the lake, and immediately south of Inch- 
Tavanach and Inch-Conachan, in the parish of Luss, 
Dumbartonshire. It stretches from east to west ; 
is 6J furlongs in length, and 3 furlongs in breadth ; 
contains 99 Scottish acres, chiefly moss ; and sup- 
plies the villagers of Luss with turf-fuel. 

1NCH-MURRIN, or Inch-Maerin, an islet in 
Loch-Lomond, the largest, and, with one exception, 
the most southerly of the beautiful earth-gems which 
are sprinkled on the bosom of that brilliant and joy- 
ous sheet of water ; lying § of a mile from the west- 
ern bank, the same distance from the southern bank, 
and upwards of 2J miles from the efflux of the river 
Leven. It forms, with Inch-Croin, Torrinch, and 
Inch-Cailliach, a belt of islets from south-west to 
north-east, on a straight line across the broadest par; 
of the lake; and lying direct in front of the naviga- 
tion from Balloch, is the first object on which the 
eye of a nautical tourist rests when commencing a 
trip upon the lake from the south. The islet is up- 
wards of 1A mile in length, and nearly J a mile in 
breadth. It is beautifully wooded, is used as a deer 
park, and has a hunting seat and offices on it belong- 
ing to the Duke of Montrose. At its south-west 
end, in a grove of venerable oaks, are the ruins of 
an ancient castle, once the residence of the Earls, 
and afterwards of the Dukes of Lennox. The islet, 
as regards position, adjoins decidedly to Dumbarton- 
shire, and might be competed for with nearly equal 
claims by the parishes of Luss, Bonhill, and Kil 
maronock ; but it belongs politically to the parish 
of Buchanan, in Stirlingshire. 

INCH-NA-DAMPH, a hamlet on the shore of 
Loch Assynt, in the parish of Assynt, Sutherland- 
shire. Fairs are held here on the first Thursday of 




January, on the Friday in August before Kyle of 
Sutherland, and on the Monday of September before 
Beauty. See Assynt. 

INCHRORY. See Aven (The), Banffshire. 

INCH-TAVANACH, or Monk's Island, an islet, 
in Loch-Lomond, stretching north and south at about 
4 of a mile's distance from the western bank of the 
lake, and J of a mile south-east of the village of 
Luss, in Luss parish, Dumbartonshire. It measures 
nearly a mile in length, 3 furlongs in breadth, and 
135 Scottish acres of superficial area. Its sides are 
steep ; its surface is higher than that of any other 
islet in the lake; and 127 of its acres are covered 
with natural oakwood. One family resides on it. 

INCHTERF. See Ixchbellt. 

INCH-TORR. or Torr-Inch, an islet, A a mile 
long, and beautifully covered with oaks and lofty 
beech-trees, in Loch-Lomond; lying between Inch- 
Cailliach and Inch-Croin, and forming with these 
islets and Inch-Murrin, a belt across the broadest 
part of the lake. It is situated upwards of a mile 
respectively from the southern and from the eastern 
bank, and within the parish of Buchanan, Stirling- 

INCHTURE, a parish in the carse of Gowrie. 
Perthshire. It contains the post-office village of 
Inchture, and the villages of Ballendean and Balled- 
garno. It is bounded by the frith of Tay, and by 
the parishes of Errol, Kinnaird, Abernyte, and 
Longforgan. Its length, southward, is about 4 miles; 
its greatest breadth is about 3 miles ; and its coast- 
line, or line of beach upon the Tay, is only about 1 
mile. A rill rises in the interior, runs 1J mile down 
to the western limit, traces for If mile the boundary 
with Enrol, and, aided almost at its mouth by a brook 
of more than twice its own length of course coming 
in from Errol, forms at Powgavie, a small but not 
unimportant harbour. Another brook, coming down 
from the north-west, forms for 3J miles the north- 
eastern and eastern boundary-line, and diverges 
into Longforgan. The parish, with very trivial ex- 
ceptions, is a dead level, but commands a delightful 
view of water and hill scenery; and is one of the 
most fertile and beautiful in the exulting district in 
which it lies. The soil is opulent carse-land, well- 
improved by lime and other appliances suited to clay ; 
and, in general, produces heavy crops of prime grain. 
The area is embellished with fine enclosures, shelter- 
ing plantations, and gentlemen's seats. Rossie pri- 
ory, a superb monastic-looking pile, spacious and 
elegant within, imposing in aspect without, and sur- 
rounded by extensive pleasure grounds, lifts up its 
fine form near the northern extremity of the parish. 
This mansion belongs to the noble family of Kinnaird, 
whose ancestor, Sir George Kinnaird of Inchture, 
was raised to the peerage in 1682 by the title of 
Baron Kinnaird of Inchture ; and was built by 
Charles, 8th Lord Kinnaird, in 1817. Drimmie 
house, the predecessor of the priory, stood within the 
limits of Longforgan, but spread out most of its at- 
tendant pleasure-grounds in Inchture. Near the 
south-eastern extremity of the demesne, and close 
on the eastern boundary of the parish, stand the 
ruins of the ancient castle of Moncur, embosomed in 
shrubbery and plantation. Ballendean house is de- 
lightfully situated, near the northern boundary, at 
the foot of the rising ground which bounds the Carse 
of Gowrie on the north. It was built chiefly by 
the late Mr. Trotter, and is characterised by fine 
taste. The parish has several quarries of whinstone 
and of good freestone, and a complement of mills 
and thrashing-machines. A good many of the in- 
habitants are employed in linen-weaving. The 
Perth and Dundee railway traverses the parish, and 
has a station in it. The road from Perth to Dundee 

also traverses it. The village of Inchture stands 
on this road, 13 miles from Perth and 9 from Dun- 
dee. It is a cheerful place on the summit of a rising 
ground, in the centre of a luxuriant expanse of the 
carse-lands. Its name was originally Inchtower; 
and its site was probably an island, bearing aloft a 
tower, on the bosom of the sheet of sea-water by 
which the carse of Gowrie is believed to have been 
covered. There is in the village an extensive brew- 
ery. Population of the village, 243. Houses, 67. 
Population of the parish in 1831, 878; in 1861, 659. 
Houses, 160. Assessed property in 1866, £7,569. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Dundee, and 
synod of Angus and Mearns. Patron, the Crown. 
Stipend, £224 10s. 7d.; glebe, £30. Schoolmaster's 
salary is £62 10s., with about £27 fees, and £8 
other emoluments. The parish church, a neat Go- 
thic edifice, was built in 1834, and is situated at the 
village of Inchture. The present parish compre- 
hends the ancient parishes of Inchture and Rossie, 
which were united in 1670. The church of Rossie, 
upwards of sixty years ago. was a ruin. 

INCHWOOD. See Inchbelia-. 

INCHYRA, a small district and a village on the 
north bank of the river Tay, between the parishes 
of Kinfauns and St. Madoes, Perthshire. The dis- 
trict measures lj mile along the course of the river, 
but only 1 mile direct east and west, and § of a mile 
north and south, and is a detached part of the parish 
of Kinnoul. The village is a port, 8 miles distant 
from Perth, and a little south of the road between 
that town and Dundee. It has a good harbour, 
which admits vessels of considerable burden, and a 
ferry which communicates with Fingask in the par- 
ish of Rbynd. 

INELLAN, a post-office village in the parish of 
Dunoon, Argyleshire. It stands on the coast, 3 
miles south of the town of Dunoon. It was founded 
only a few years ago, and is already a fashionable 
watering-place; and, being on the route of the Glas- 
gow and Rothesay steamers, has very abundant fa- 
cilities of communication. Here are a chapel of ease 
and a Free church preaching station. 

INGANESS BAY, a bay, about 4 miles long and 
1J mile broad, penetrating the mainland of Orkney 
south-westward, between the parish of Kirkwall and 
the parish of St. Andrews. It is entered 3 miles to 
the east of the entrance of Kirkwall bay, and forms 
a fine natural harbour for vessels of an}' size. The 
headland on the west side of it is called Inganess 

INGANS (The). See Cleish. 

INHALLOW. See Enhali.ow. 

INISH. See Inch. 

INISHATL. See Glenorcht. 

INISH-FRAOCH. See Awe (Loch). 

INISH-KENNETH. See Inch-Kekneth. 

INKER, or Inver, a Celtic topographical name, 
signifying a tract of ground contiguous to the mouth 
of a river. It is used, in a few instances, by itself, 
and very extensively as a prefix. It is compounded 
of two words, which jointly mean ' what is worthy 
of being tilled;' and indicates that, in the opinion 
of the pristine agriculturists, the tracts of land round 
the mouths of rivers were the most suitable for cul- 

INNERCHADDEN. See Fortingal. 

INNERDALE. See Endbick (The). 

INNERGELLY. See Kilrennt. 

INNERKIP, a parish, containing the post-towns 
of Innerkip and Gourock, at the western extremity 
of Renfrewshire. It is bounded by Ayrshire, the 
frith of Clyde, and the parishes of Greenock and 
Kilmalcolm. Its length westward is 64, miles; and 
its greatest breadth is 5J miles. The coast is in- 




dented, but not deeply, by the bays of Gourock, 
Lunderstone, Innerkip, and Wemyss. There are 
several rivulets, the principal of which are Shaw's 
burn, the water of which is turned from its proper 
course towards the sea for the supply of the works 
at Greenock; Kelly burn, which forms the boundary 
on the side of Ayrshire ; and the Kip and the Daft', 
which unite at the village of Innerkip, and then 
fall into the sea. From the shore to the south-east 
is a gradual ascent, beautifully varied with plains, 
gentle declivities, winding streamlets, and heath- 
covered hills. There are fine fertile tracts, embel- 
lished with plantations, around the bays of Innerkip 
and Gourock. The other arable lands are nearly 
limited to narrow stripes along the shore, or by 
the sides of the rivulets. The greater part of the 
parish consists of bleak moors and pasture ground. 
It contains 12,540 English acres, which may be 
thus arranged : moss or moors, 5,860 ; arable, 
4,500 ; sound pasture, 1,500; woodlands, natural or 
planted, 540; sites of houses, roads, and rivulets, 
140. The principal landowners are Sir M. R. S. 
Stewart, Bart., J. Saott of Kelly, Macfie of Lang- 
house, and Darroch of Gourock. Ardgowan-house, 
the seat of Sir M. K. S. Stewart, on the coast im- 
mediately north of the Kip, surrounded by beautiful 
plantations, is a stately structure, built about the 
beginning of the present century. Elevated on a 
terrace overhanging the frith, it commands an exten- 
sive prospect of the shipping, and the surrounding 
scenery. Near the house is an ancient square tower, 
probably a portion of the castle of Innerkip, which 
was held by the English in the time of Robert Bruce, 
and to which Sir Philip de Mowbray escaped, after 
being discomfited by Sir James Douglas. Barbour 
in his poem distinctly indicates the course of the 
flying knight as having been by Kilmarnock and 
Kilwinning, to Ardrossan : 

" Syne throw the Largis, him allane, 
Till Ennerkyp," 

which (says Barbour) was "stuffyt all with Ingless- 
men," who received him ' in daynte.' Kelly house, 
the seat of James Scott, Esq., is another beautiful 
mansion upon the Clyde, erected in 1793. The 
Wallaces, for 60 years till lately, were proprietors 
of Kelly, and have for many ages been connected 
with Renfrewshire. In this neighbourhood is the 
range of braes mentioned in a fantastic old song, 
altered by Burns : 

'■ There lived a carle on Kelly-bum-braes, 

(Hey and the rue prows bounie wi* thyme!) 
And be had a wile was the plague o' his days, 
(And the thyme it is withered and rue is in prime ! ") 

On an eminence, overlooking the coast, stand the 
ruins of a large square tower, called Laven castle. 
The lands of Laven, of old, belonged to a family 
named Morton, from whom they passed, in 1547, to 
the noble house of Sempill. They are now the pro- 
perty of the Shaw Stewarts, to whom also belong the 
lands of Dunrod, an ancient possession of the branch 
of the Lindsays, who, from the time of Robert Bruce, 
made a considerable figure, but came to an end, in 
1619, in the person of Alexander Lindsay, who ali- 
enated the estate to Sir A. Stewart. SeeDuNEOD. On 
the brow of the rock, at Cloch-point, stands a light- 
house, consisting of a circular tower, 80 feet high, 
with a stationary light of a star-like appearance. 
It bears north-east 4 miles from the Point of Wemyss, 
and 6 miles north-east by east from Toward-point. 
The jurisdiction of the river-bailie of Glasgow ter- 
minates at this point. In the immediate neighbour- 
hood is a ferry across the frith, which is here much 
narrowed, to the opposite shore at Dunoon. Before 
the introduction of steam-boats this was the princi- 

pal means of communication with the West High- 
lands. One road, coming up from Largs, wends 
along all the coast ; and another deflects from this 
near the village of Innerkip, and goes transversely 
through the parish, up the course of the Kip, direct 
toward Greenock. The village of Innerkip stands 
in a beautiful ravine, at the mouth of the Kip, 3 J 
miles by water south-east of Dunoon, and 6 south- 
west of Greenock. It was made a burgh of barony 
before the Union, and has the privilege of holding 
three annual fairs. It is so pleasant a place that it 
might have been expected to take high rank as a 
sea-bathing retreat; and always since the com- 
mencement of steam na vigation, it has been a regular 
place of call for the Largs steamers ; but, through 
some popular caprice, it has failed to come into fa- 
vour. Population of the village, in 1861, 449. 
Population of the parish in 1831, 2.088; in 1861. 
3,495. Houses, 417. Assessed property in I860, 

This parish is in the presbytery of Greenock, and 
synod of Glasgow and Ayr. Patron, Sir M. R. S. 
Stewart, Bart. Stipend, £284 7s. 10d.; glebe, £12. 
Unappropriated teinds, £536 4s. 4d. Schoolmaster's 
salary is £50, with ahout £26 fees. In the 12th 
century the church of Innerkip, with all the land 
between the rivulets where it stood, was granted to 
the monastery of Paisley by Baldwin of Biggar, who 
appears to have held these lands under \\ alter, the 
first Steward; and to the monastery the church con- 
tinued to belong till the Reformation. At Christ- 
well there stood a chapel, which was founded in the 
reign of Robert III., and was endowed with lands in 
this parish. In 1594 Innerkip was deprived of part 
of its territory by the formation of the parish of 
Greenock, which had previously been comprehended 
in it. A new church having been built at Greenock 
at that time, the old place of worship at Innerkip 
was termed ' the aula kirk,' which, by a natural 
figure of speech, is now the name popularly applied 
to the village of Innerkip itself. There is a chapel 
of ease at Gourock. There are two Free churches, 
respectively at Innerkip and at Gourock ; attend- 
ance at the former, 150, — at the latter, 650; receipts 
of the former in 1865, £186 9s. 5d., — of the latter, 
£500 7s. 8Jd. There is an United Presbyterian 
church at Gourock, with an attendance of 600. 
There is an Independent chapel at Innerkip. There 
are an endowed school and two public libraries at 
Gourock, and a public library at Innerkip. 

INNERLEITHEN, a parish partly m Selkirk- 
shire, but chiefly in Peebles-shire ; and containing, 
in the latter section, a post-office village of its own 
name. It is bounded, on the north-east, by Edin- 
burghshire and the Selkirkshire part of Stow ; on 
the south, by the Tweed, which divides it from 
Yarrow parish in Selkirkshire and Traquair parish 
in Peebles-shire ; and on the west, by the parishes 
of Peebles and Eddlestone. It has a somewhat tri- 
angular outline; and measures, along the north- 
east side, 11J miles, — along the south side, 7J miles, 
— and, along the west side, 6 miles. The Selkirk- 
shire section is a stripe on the south-east side, as- 
cending b\ miles from the Tweed, with a breadth 
of from 7 furlongs to 2J miles. The surface of the 
entire parish gradually rises from the Tweed -to the 
northern extremity, and has, in general, a broken, 
rugged, and precipitous appearance. Hills, form- 
ing part of the broad range which diverges at an 
acute angle from the central chain of the southern 
Highlands at the Hartfell group, and runs north- 
eastward to St. Abb's head, and attaining here, in 
many of their summits, the elevation of about 1,000 
feet above sea-level, crowd nearly the whole area, 
and, in some places, leave, in their interstices, scarce- 




ly sufficient space for the breadth of a road. The 
highest ground is Windlestrae-law, If mile from 
the boundary with Edinburghshire, and J from the 
nearest point of the north-east boundary of the par- 
ish, yet standing on the boundary-line between 
Peebles-shire and Selkirkshire. The hills are cloven 
asunder from north to south by several deep glens, 
each bringing down the tribute of a crystal stream 
to the Tweed. The largest of the rivulets is the 
Leithen, which, rising within f of a mile of the 
north-west angle, and running 5$ miles south-east- 
ward, and 3| miles southward, cuts the parish into 
two not very unequal parts, and contributes the 
main quota of its name. Craighope-hurn, 1J mile 
in length of course, Woolandslee-burn, 2J miles in 
length, and Blakehopebyre-bum, also 2§ miles in 
length, all rising close on the north-eastern bound- 
ary, come down in a south-westerly direction upon 
the Leithen in the upper or south-easterly part of 
its course, and, in common with their mimic tribu- 
taries, find their way along cleughs or glens. Spit- 
tlehope-burn rises on the side of Carcsman hill, and 
after a course of J of a mile in the parish, forms, for 
1 j mile, the boundary with Peebles, and then falls 
into the Tweed. Another streamlet, parallel to this, 
1J mile eastward of it, and 2§ miles in length of 
course; Walker's burn, 1J mile eastward of the 
Leithen, and 3 miles in length ; and Gatehope-burn, 
lj mile farther to the east, and 3f miles in length, 
— all pursue a southerly course to the Tweed, and, 
along with Leithen water and Spittlehope-burn, 
cleave the lower part of the parish into nearly regu- 
lar sections, divided from one another by parallel 
glens. The course of the Tweed, in majestic sweeps 
along the southern boundary, especially for 3£ miles 
above the influx of the Leithen, and over some dis- 
tance below it, is exquisitely beautiful. Along its 
hanks, and also along those of the Leithen for 3 or 
4 miles above the confluence of the rivers, are level 
stripes of very rich haugh ; behind these are narrow 
borders of gravelly loam, skirting the foot of the 
hills ; and farther back, gentle ascents, waving with 
com or covered with plantation, lead the eye gra- 
dually upward to an array of rocky or heath-clad 
summits, chequered and patched on their sides with 
verdure. Though, in passing along the Tweed from 
Kelso to Peebles, a stranger might suppose the in- 
terior to be a hilly wilderness of rocks and desola- 
tion, yet the southern exposure of the general sur- 
face occasions the growth of much succulent herb- 
age, and the carpeting of much excellent sheep- 
pasturage. Estimating the whole area at somewhat 
more than 30,000 acres, nearly 26,000 are enclosed 
and constant sheepwalk, about 2,500 have been oc- 
casionally in tillage, nearly 550 are under wood, 
chiefly plantations of oak, larch, and elm, and about 
1 ,500 are in a waste condition, or carelessly open 
for sheep. 

All the farms of the parish, with two exceptions, 
are pastoral, having either limited scope or none for 
the use of the plough; and, for the most part, are 
of large extent. About 16,000 black- faced and 
Cheviot sheep, much improved in the breed, and 
nearly 400 black cattle, feed upon the pastures. The 
sheep-walks, though elevated, are much valued by 
the farmer as sure spring-ground, and produce a 
vegetation which, both for its earlinessand its succu- 
lency, gives sustenance to the sheep just at the time 
when they most need to be rallied from the wasting 
effects of the winter, and when the dam needs 
nourishment for her tender brood. In the arable 
parts of the parish the most fertile soil is that part 
of the haughs formed by the subsidence of the Tweed 
and the Leithen ; and, in consequence of this being 
occasionally flooded by the rivers, the most man- 

ageable is the gravelly loam on the hanging plains 
behind, formed, in the course of ages, by the de- 
composing action of the atmosphere on the rocks 
and the decay of vegetable substances, but obstructed 
at intervals by blocks of stone, and curiously tra- 
versed by what are called ' blind springs' bursting 
from fissures in the subjacent rocks. A quarry of 
pavement slate, which finely combines with the 
Arbroath stone to form a tesselated stone floor, was 
wrought for some time at Holylee ; and a quarry of 
clay-slate for roofing was wrought at the eastern 
angular extremity below New Thornylee. Peat is 
abundant at the north-west angle, and occurs in 
smaller patches on Windlestrae-law ; but is so dif 
ficult of access as not to prevent a demand on tho 
Lothian coal-mines for fuel. At the mouth of al- 
most every defile tower-houses are met with in a 
ruinous condition; and if similar scenes of iniquity 
were practised in all of them to some which the 
archives of the presbytery of Peebles ascribe to one 
of their number, they have deservedly become the 
habitation of owls. On a rising ground in the im- 
mediate vicinity of the village, are vestiges of the 
fossum and the circumvallating lines of a strong 
fortification. The lines appear to have been formed 
without cement by a compact masonry of a vast 
mass of stones, fetched from a distance ; and the 
third of them encloses a space of rather more than 
an English acre. Horsburgh castle, the property 
of the Horsburgh family, about the origin of whose 
possessions in the parish a gossiping tradition 
points to a romantic hawking expedition of a king 
of Scotland, is an ancient edifice on the Tweed, near 
the mouth of Spittlehope-burn. The most noticeable 
modern mansions are Glen-Ormiston and Holylee, 
both on the Tweed, the former near the village. 
The principal landowners are Chambers of Glen-Ur- 
miston, Ballantyne of Holylee, Horsburgh of Hors- 
burgh, and the Earl of Traquair. The valued rental 
is £7,298. The yearly value of raw produce was es- 
timated in 1834 at £14,653. Assessed property in 
1860, £9,616. Population in 1831, 810; in 1861, 
1,823. Houses, 232. Population of the Selkirkshire 
section in 1831, 64: in 1861, 73. Houses, 9. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Peebles, and 
synod of Lothian and Tweedale. Patron, Patrick 
Booth. Stipend, £289 lis. 9d.; glebe, £20. Un- 
appropriated tenuis, -£113 12s. 7d. Schoolmaster's 
salary is now £70, with about £40 fees. The par- 
ish church was built in 1786, and contains 350 sit- 
tings. There is a Free church, with an attendance 
of 130; and the sum raised in connexion with it in 
1865 was £46 17s. 4d. There is an United Presby- 
terian church, with an attendance of 140. There 
is also an Independent chapel. In 1674, the parish 
of Innerleithen was enlarged by the annexation to 
it of about one-third of the old parish of Kailzie. 
See Kailzie. The church of Innerleithen was given 
by Malcolm IV. to the monks of Kelso, and endowed 
with a power of giving refuge to persons fleeing 
from justice ; but, as the village and the circumja- 
cent district continued to be a part of the royal de- 
mesne during the reign of Alexander II., it must 
have been given to them without its appurtenances. 
A natural son of Malcolm IV. was drowned in a 
pool near the mouth of the Leithen ; and his body, 
during the first night after his decease, was depo- 
sited in the church. William, an ancient parson of 
the parish, was one of the witnesses to a charter of 
William Morville, who was constable of Scotland 
from 1189 to 1190. 

The Village of Innerleithen stands on the 
road from Kelso to Glasgow, on the haugh-ground 
of Leithen water, about £ a mile above the influx ol 
that stream to the Tweed, 6 miles east-south- 




east of Peebles, and 28 south- south-east of Edin- 
burgh. Till toward the close of last century, it 
was a tiny sequestered harnlet, comprising only a 
few thatched houses, a mill, and a church; hut it 
acquired importance, first, by the erection in it of a 
large woollen factory, and next by the attraction of 
visitors from a distance to drink the waters of a spa 
in its vicinity. Three other factories have been 
erected in the vicinity within the last 9 years, and 
another 2 miles to the east; so that the place is 
now a well-famed seat of the same kinds of manu- 
factures which have in recent years brought such 
large well-being to Hawick and Galashiels. The 
spa does not appear to have been remarked for its 
medicinal properties till about the commencement 
of the present century. Till then it was noted 
chiefly or altogether as the resort of pigeons from 
the circumjacent country, and bore the name of the 
Doo-well. Had any saint in the Romish calendar 
been acquainted with it, the priests of the age pre- 
ceding the Reformation would have pictured him to 
their gullible flocks as performing a far different 
exploit in connexion with its waters, than that 
which Meg Dods ascribes to the patron saint of 
' the Aulton' in reference to St. Ronan's Well, and 
would hardly have failed to send down to posterity 
the fame of miracles achieved by the naturally 
salutiferous properties of its waters. Even after it 
came into late notice, the well was a trivial, repul- 
sive-looking fountain, bubbling up amidst a little 
marsh; and had no better appliance than a rude 
bench placed at its side for the accommodation of 
the infirm invalids who crept or were carried to it 
in quest of health. A simple pump afterwards 
rose gauntly from its mouth, amidst the wet miry 
puddle around it. But about 35 years ago, or not 
much earlier, the spa, with remarkable suddenness, 
and in a way nearly unaccountable, became celebri- 
ous among valetudinarians of all classes in Edin- 
burgh and throughout the south of Scotland. The 
well, in the decorations built over and around it, in 
the character assigned it by popular opinion, and 
in the influence it exerted on the village in its 
vicinity, now rose, as if by magic, from the status 
of a watery hole in a quagmire, to that of an infant 
competitor with the proud spas of England. In 
1824, the publication of Sir Walter Scott's tale of 
St. Ronan's Well, greatly enhanced its celebrity, 
and poured down upon it some rays of that lustre 
which popular opinion then assigned to 'the Great 
Unknown; ' for nearly all the readers of light liter- 
ature, in spite of the utter difficulty which a topo- 
gr.iphist would have felt to discover resemblances, 
unhesitatingly identified the Marchthom and the St. 
Ronan's of the tale with Peebles and Innerleithen. 
The well springs up at the base of the Lee-pen, 
about 200 feet above the village. In its original 
state, it issued in small quantities, and at only one 
spring; but, when the ground was dug to its source, 
in order to clear away admixtures near the surface, 
it became emitted in two streams of different 
strength. On analysis, a quart of the less impreg- 
nated stream was found to contain 5'3 grains of 
carbonate of magnesia, 9'5 grains of muriate of lime, 
21-2 grains of muriate of soda, — in all, 36 grains; 
and a quart of the other stream, 10'2 grains of car- 
bonate of magnesia, 19.4 of muriate of lime, and 31 
of muriate of soda, — in all, 60'6 grains. The waters, 
jointly with the salubrious influence of the fine 
climate, are efficacious chiefly in cases of ophthal- 
mic complaints, old wounds, and dyspeptic and 
bilious disorders. 

The village is overlooked on the east and the 
west by high and partially wooded hills, and com- 
iiauds especially toward the south, a limited but 

delightful prospect. It stands partly on the estate 
of Pirn, on the east side of the Leithen, but chiefly 
on the estate of the Earl of Traquair, on the west 
side of the stream. It consists principally of one 
neatly edificed street along the public road, winged 
with detached buildings, and little clusters of 
houses. Most of the structures have been erected 
as accommodation for summer-rusticators and in- 
valid visitors to the spa, and are not unworthy to 
receive as inmates the persons to whom mainly the 
village looks for support, — those accustomed to the 
delightful city-homes of the metropolis of Scotland. 
In the village are some good shops, — two large and 
commodious inns, — one inn of secondary spacious- 
ness, — a circulating library, with an attached read- 
ing-room, — and appliances for concerts, balls, public 
recitations, and occasional histrionic exhibitions. 
Over the medicinal well is an elegant structure 
erected by the late Earl of Traquair; and the 
pump-room combines with its proper character that 
of a public news-room. Across the Leithen is a 
stone-bridge, connecting the two parts of the vil- 
lage, and carrying over the Glasgow and Kelso 
turnpike. Over the Tweed, in the immediate 
vicinity, is a beautiful wooden bridge, affording a 
ready communication with the grounds of Traquair, 
and with the northern section of Ettrick Forest. 
A club, formed in 1827 by upwards of forty noble- 
men and landed proprietors, managed under the 
auspices of the most distinguished individuals 
connected with T w eeddale, Selkirkshire, and the 
Border districts, and bearing the name of the St. 
Ronan's club, patronized for some time at Inner- 
leithen a great annual celebration of athletic sports, 
called "the Border games;" and though the club 
no longer exists, and the interest which it ex- 
cited has in a very great degree subsided, yet the 
games on a diminished scale are still held. The vil- 
lage altogether, when viewed in connexion with its 
environs, is well worthy of all the fame it has ac • 
quired as a retreat for fashionable rusticators and 
for invalids. To persons who are fond of angling 
it offers the teeming waters of the Leithen and the 
Tweed, and is within an easy distance of the Quair, 
St. Mary's loch, and various other trouting waters. 
To lovers of ease and quiet, who, while they enjoy 
the luxuries of rustication, deprecate the toils of 
travelling, and the dulness of far removal from the 
busy scenes of life, it presents, at the distance of a 
comfortable ride from Edinburgh, a retirement 
almost Arcadian, stilly and delightful in pastoral 
repose, where walks at will and solitary rambles 
are liable to hardly an intrusion. To persons who 
luxuriate in drives or pedestrian incursions among 
the beauties of landscape, it offers in profusion the 
romantic dells and softly highland expanses of 
green Tweeddale, — a gorgeous stretch westward to 
Peebles, and eastward to Abbotsford and Melrose, 
of the magnificent Tweed, — the retreats of Elibank 
and Horsburgh wood, — the classic scenes of 'the 
bush aboon Traquair,' — and, above all, at no great 
distance, those thrilling charms of the braes and 
waters and 'dowy dells' of Yarrow, which have 
drawn melodious numbers from so many of Britain's 
poets. To invalids it presents a dry and healthy 
climate, — the medicinal properties of its well, in 
various appliances expressly framed to bear salutifer- 
ously upon visitors, — and, what persons who are 
really or judiciously in quest of health will highly 
prize, comparative freedom from the fashionable 
dissipation which absurdity has contrived to make 
ascendant in some watering-places of Britain. 
Even to men of intellectual pursuits or of a literary 
taste, it possesses a sufficient character for attract- 
ing persons of their class, to afford a hope that they 




will not want suitable society; and it offers, on the 
spot, enough of books and periodical literature to 
prevent habits from becoming rusted; and every- 
where in its vicinity, it holds out objects of anti- 
quarian and scientific research. Population in 
1861, 1,130. 

1NNERMESSAN. See Inch, Wigtonshire. 

INNERPEFFRAY, a small district on the left 
bank of the Earn, 3 miles south-east of Crieff, be- 
longing politically to the parish of Trinity-Gask, 
but ecclesiastically to that of Muthill, Perthshire. 
Here are a public library, founded by Lord Madderty, 
a school, an old church, now used as the burying- 
place of the Perth and Strathallan families, and the 
old castle of Lord Madderty. See Inchaffret. 

INNERTIEL. See Fifesiiire. 

INNERT1G, a locality at the mouth of the rivulet 
Pig, in the parish of Ballantrae, Ayrshire. The 
ancient name of that parish was Kirkcudbright-In- 
nertig ; and the ruins of the former parish church 
are still standing at Innertig. 

INNERWELL, a small headland and a small 
bay, the former called Innenvell-point and the latter 
hmerwell-port, in the parish of Sorbie, 2 miles 
north-north-west of Eagerness, Wigtonshire. There 
is a fishery at the bay for salmon, herrings, mack- 
erel, and cod. 

INNERWICK, a parish, containing a post-office 
village of its own name, and the village of Thornton- 
loch, in the east of Haddingtonshire. It is bounded, 
on the north-east, by the German ocean; on the 
east, by Oldhamstocks; on the south, by Berwick- 
shire; and on the other sides by Spott and Dunbar. 
It is of somewhat a horse-shoe form, with the con- 
vex side facing the west, and measures about 9A 
miles in length by about 2£ in average breadth. 
Two-thirds of the surface stretch across the Lam- 
mermoor hills. The highest ground is about mid- 
distance between the sea and the southern boundary. 
Upward by a slow ascent, from the south to this 
point, and downward by a considerable descent from 
it, till within 3 nnles of the sea, the surface is in 
general heathy and wildly pastoral, yet contains 
some patches of arable soil, and is occasionally re- 
lieved by verdure on the hills, by the cheerful 
aspect of the cottage and the farm-stead, and by the 
lively movements and green banks of its pastoral 
streamlets. Along the northern side of the Larumer- 
moors, in a belt which connects them with the plain, 
are ravines which break precipitously down in 
dresses of wiklness and of hanging woods, to brooks 
which trot noisily along their stony bottoms, and 
dells clothed in verdure and various herbage, and 
disclosing here and there a pleasing prospect over a 
richly cultivated valley to the sea. Intervening 
between this chequered belt and the sea is a luxu- 
riant and very fertile plain, — rich in all the features 
of scenery which kindle the enthusiasm of a keen 
farmer, variegated in three instances with planta- 
tion, but, in general, not sufficiently tufted with 
wood to awaken a sensation of unqualified pleasure 
in a person of taste. The coast — which, followed 
along its indentations, is about 2£ or 2i miles in 
extent — partakes, in a general way, but tamely, of 
tiie rocky boldness with which the ocean is con- 
fronted from Dunbar to St. Abb's Head. About 
five-ninths of the area of the parish are in natural 
pasture; nearly four-ninths are in tillage; and about 
350 acres are under plantation. There are seven 
principal landowners. The real rental toward the 
close of last century was about £4,000; it after- 
wards rose to about £15,000; and before 1836 it fell 
to about £9,500. The yearly value of raw produce 
was estimated in 1836 at £30,558. Assessed pro- 
perty in 1860, £19,S61. 

Monynut water rises in a peat-moss in Innerwick 
common, near the centre of the highest ground of 
the parish, flows southward alongside of the hilly 
ridge called Monynut edge, and, assuming now a 
south-easterly direction, traces for 2J miles the 
eastern boundary, — performing from its source to 
the south-eastern extremity of the parish, a course 
of 4+ miles. Philip-burn rises on Peat-law, and, 
not far from its origin, begins to trace for two miles 
the southern boundary, when it falls into the Mony- 
nut. Craig-burn rises at the central heights of the 
parish, and forms, from its origin to its junction 
with the Whitadder at St. Agnes, over a distance of 
4i miles, the western boundary-line; and, in its 
progress it is joined generally at right angles, by a 
surprising number of brief rills, whose cleugh-beds 
or glens form, with its valley, a sort of rib-work of 
vales. Back-burn rises within 3 furlongs of the 
former, has about the same length of course, and, 
like it, forms all the way the western boundary- 
line; but flows in an opposite direction, and cheerily 
moves along the plain to the sea. Thornton water 
rises within J of a mile of the source of Monynut 
water, flows 2 miles eastward, 1J northward, and 
3 north-eastward, — receiving several indigenous 
little tributaries among the hills, turning a grinding 
mill about the middle of its course, and curving 
round the village of Innerwick at a brief distance on 
the plain, — and falls into the sea at the village of 
Thorntonloch. Numerous springs, welling up in a 
plenteousness quite in keeping with the profusion 
of streams, supply the inhabitants with abundance 
of excellent water. Limestone abounds on the 
lands of Skateraw, and is there burned in such 
quantities as supply a large part of the circumjacent 
agricultural district. Coal seems to have been 
anciently worked, but has ceased to draw attention. 
Sandstone is abundant, but is quarried only for 
local use. 

On a steep eminence overhanging a rooky glen, 
near the village of Innerwick, stand the venerable 
ruins of Innerwick castle, an ancient strength of 
considerable importance. Grose gives a drawing of 
it in his Antiquities. Originally, it was the pro- 
perty of the Stewarts; but afterwards it passed into 
the possession of the Hamiltons of Innerwick. On 
an eminence opposite to it, on the other side of the 
glen, anciently stood Thornton castle, a stronghold 
of Lord Home. Both of the fortresses were attacked 
and beaten into ruins by Protector Somerset, during 
his invasion of Scotland. A short way south of 
their site are slender remains of a bridge variously 
called Edirkens, Edinkens, Edincain, and King Ed- 
ward's — a name which has been connected by anti- 
quarian criticism sometimes with Edward of Eng- 
land, and more frequently with Edwin of Northum- 
bria, to whom the metropolis of Scotland is supposed 
to owe her designation. Near the bridge stood, till 
a modern date, four grey stones, which were con- 
jectured to indicate the sepulchre of some ancient 
person of great note. In a field near Drybum 
bridge, two stone coffins, containing a dagger and a 
ring, were not long ago discovered. The parish is 
intersected along the coast by the road from Edin- 
burgh to Berwick, and by the North British railway; 
and it has a station on the latter, 4f miles south- 
east of Dunbar. A small harbour ou the Skateraw 
property serves for some small purposes of export 
and import. The village of Innerwick stands at 
the base of a steep but cultivated hill, about a mile 
west of the Edinburgh and Berwick road; and, 
though clean, and not unpleasing in appearance, is 
planless and straggling. Population of the parish 
in 1831, 987; in 1861, 937. Houses, 190. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Dunbar, and 




synod of Lothian and Tweeddale. Patron, Lady Mary 
N. Hamilton. Stipend, £277 18s. 4d.; glebe, £15. 
Unappropriated teinds, £480 6s. 7d. Schoolmaster's 
salary, £35, with £40 fees, and other emoluments. 
The parish church is a plain structure, built in 1784, 
and situated on an elevation in the village of Inner- 
wick. There is also a Free church ; and the sum 
raised in connexion with it in 1865, was £70 4s. 
4d. There are a private school for girls, and a 
parochial library. Walter, son of Alan, the first 
Stewart, received a grant of the extensive manor of 
1 nnerwick from David I. ; and he gave to the monks 
of Paisley, at the epoch of their establishment, the 
church of Innerwick, with its pertinents, a mill, and 
a carrucate of land. Various English vassals settled 
within the manor. The second Walter, the Stewart, 
gave to the monks of Kelso some land, and pastures 
within the manor, and liberty to erect a mill. In 
1404 the barony, jointly with all the possessions of 
the Stewarts, was erected into a free regality as a 
principality for the eldest sons of the Scottish kings. 
As part of that regality, it was annexed to Renfrew- 
shire at the erection of that district into a county. 
In 1670, and 1671, Sir Peter Wedderbum of Gos- 
ford obtained grants of the rectory, vicarage, and 
tithes of Innerwick, and the baronies of Innerwick 
and Thornton. Anciently, there was within the 
parish a chapel dedicated to St. Dennis. The ruins 
of the building existed till a recent date on a small 
promontory on the Skateraw coast, but they have 
now entirely disappeared. 

INNERWICK, Perthshire. See Glenlyon. 

1NNES. See Urquhart. 

INN IS. See Incf. 

INNISHAIL. See Glenorchv. 

INNTSKENNETH. See Inchkenneth. 

INNOVAL, a headland on the west coast of the 
island of Westray in Orkney. 

INOED (Loch), a sea-loch, nearly 3 miles long, 
at the south end of the district of Trotternish, in 
the island of Skye. It enters opposite Scalpa, and 
penetrates the land in a south-westward direction. 

INSCH, a parish, containing a post-office village 
of its own name, in the Garioch district of Aberdeen- 
shire. It is bounded by Drumblade, Forgue, Cul- 
salmond, Oyne, Premnay, Leslie, Kennethmont, 
and Gartly. Its length south-eastward is 5 miles ; 
and its breadth is 3 miles. Shevock water runs on 
the western and southern boundary, taking leave 
about a mile above its confluence with the Vry. 
Several rills, of sufficient power to drive thrashing- 
machines, water the interior. The parochial area 
is a diversity of hill and dale, classified, according 
to the New Statistical Account, into 5,312 imperial 
acres of cultivated land, 2,196 of uncultivated land, 
about 200 capable and worthy of cultivation, 5 of 
undivided common, and about 47 under wood. Part 
of the Foudland hills is within the northern district, 
rising 1,100 feet above the level of the sea, com- 
manding a fine prospect of the valley of Garioch, 
and containing valuable slate quarries. See Foud- 
i.and Hills. Dunnideer hill, in the southern dis- 
trict, is a conical eminence about 3,000 yards in 
circumference at the base, and rising, insulated from 
the level plain of the Garioch, to the height of 600 
feet. According to that veracious historian, Hector 
Boethius, the pasturage of this hill was wont to 
turn the teeth of sheep, in cropping it, to the sem- 
blance of gold. We need scarcely say that though 
the sheep themselves are turned into gold, the pas- 
turage has now no such effect on the teeth in par- 
ticular. On the summit of this hill are the vitrified 
rains of a castle said to have been erected by King 
Gregory. The other hills of the parish, though rising 
abruptly from the low grounds, are comparatively 

I so small as, when seen from the summit of Foud- 
land, to look like mere hillocks or knolls. The soil 
I of the arable lands is chiefly loamy. The principal 
rocks are gneiss and granite. A' good many Dru- 
ldical remains, and several old standing stones 
I occur on the hills. There are six principal land- 
owners. The average rent of the arable land is not 
I more than 18s. or 20s. The yearly value of raw 
produce, inclusive of £1,000 for slates, was estimated 
| m 1842 at £18,050. Assessed property in 1860 
| £6-542. The parish is traversed by the road from 
Aberdeen to Huntly, and by the Great North of 
[ Scotland railway ; and it has stations on the latter 
at Insch and Wardhonse, respectively 26 and ^9J 
miles north-west of Aberdeen. The village of 
Insch stands at the southern extremity of the parish 
about a mile east of the base of Dunnideer. It is a 
burgh of barony, and had formerly a weekly market 
—it has now only a monthly market, and that only 
in the months of winter and spring; and fairs are 
held at it on the Friday before the 18th of May, and 
on the third Tuesday of October, old stvle. Popu- 
lation of the village, in 1861, 411. Population of the 
parish in 1831, 1,338; in 1861, 1,565. Houses, 306. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Garioch, and 
synod of Aberdeen. Patron, Sir William Forbes, 
Bart. Stipend, £204 7s. 9d.; glebe, £15. Unappro- 
priated teinds, £47 0s. 9d. Schoolmaster's salary, 
£50, with about £16 fees, and a share in the Dick 
bequest. The parish church was built in 1613, and 
repaired in 1793, and contains 413 sittings. There 
is a Free church, with an attendance of 300 ; and 
the sum raised in connexion with it in 1865 was 
£180 10s. Od. There is also a Baptist place of meet- 
ing. There are an Assembly's school, two other 
schools, a savings' bank, and a total abstinence 
society. The name of the parish is supposed to 
have arisen from the insulation of the site of the 
village by water; though the evidence of such in- 
sulation is in part conjectural, and in part suggested 
by the appearance of the ground. 

INSCH, a district, with a government church, in 
Badenoch, Inverness-shire. It politically belongs 
in part to the parish of Kingussie, and in part to 
the parish of Alvie; and is ecclesiastically within 
the presbytery of Abernethy and synod of Moray. 
It was constituted a quoad sacra parish, under the 
act 5° Geo. IV. c. 90, in 1828. Its church is an old 
building, situated on the Spey, at the foot of Loch 
Inch, 8 miles north-east of Kingussie, and contains 
300 sittings. Stipend, £120, paid by Government, 
with a manse and glebe. The post-town is Kin- 
gussie. Population in 1841, 613. Houses, 141. 

INVER. See Inner. 

INVER, a village in the parish of Little Dunkeld, 
Perthshire. It stands on the river Braan, immedi- 
ately above its confluence with the Tay, on the 
great road from Perth to Inverness, opposite the 
town of Dunkeld; and, previous to the erection of 
Dunkeld hridge, it was the ferry station to that 
town. Inver was the birth-place of Niel Gow. 
Population, 106. Houses, 28. 

INVER, a fishing village in the parish of Tain, 
south side of the Dornoch frith, Ross-shire. Cholera 
in 1832 made extraordinary ravages here. Popula- 
tion, 337. 

INVER, or Lochinver, a post-office village in 
the parish of Assynt, Sutherlandshire. It stands at 
the head of Loch Inver, at the foot of a zone of 
craggy hills, on the west coast of Scotland, nearlv 
due west of Golspie on the east coast, through 
which it holds its postal communication. 245 miles 
north-north-west of Edinburgh. It consists of only 
a few scattered houses and cottages, yet has a cood 
inn and a considerable pier, conducts a good salmon 




fishery, and is the resort of <a great number of her- 
ring busses during the fishing season. A large 
block of buildings was erected here, sufficient to ac- 
commodate the curing of 800 barrels of herrings at 
a time ; but it has been converted into a temporary 
residence for the Duke of Sutherland when visiting 
the circumjacent parts of his estates. 

INVER (Loch), a small arm of the sea, penetrat- 
ing the land eastward, in the parish of Assynt, near 
the south-west extremity of Sutherlandshire. It is 
about 1J mile wide, and about 3 miles long, affords 
good natural harbourage, has the village of Inver 
at its head, at.d is surrounded by grandly pictur- 
esque scenery. A stream, called the Inver, enters it 
at the village of Inver, bringing down west-south- 
westward the superfluence of the beautiful Loci) 
Assynt. See Assynt. 

INVER (The). See Inver (Loch). 

INVER ALL AN. See Ceomuale. 

INVEEALLOCHY, an estate in the parish of 
Rathen, on the north-east coast ot Aberdeenshire. 
Here is an old castle which belonged to the Cumincs, 
and which formerly bore an inscription recording 
that it and the estate around it were obtained for 
building the abbey of Deer. There was recently 
erected on the estate a chapel of ease. 

INVEEAN, a post-office station in the parish of 
Criech, 4J miles north-west of Bonar-Bridge, on the 
road thence to Scourie, in Sutherlandshire. 

1NVERARITY, a parish, containing the post- 
office stations of Fotheringham and Kincaldrum, in 
the Sidlaw district of Forfarshire. It is bounded by 
Kinncttles, Forfar, Dunnichen, Guthrie, Monikie, 
Murroes, Tealing, and Glammis. It has a some- 
what circular outline, of about 4J or 4J miles in 
diameter. Arity water, a large tributary of Dean 
water — so large, and so greatly longer in course 
than that sluggish drain of Loch-Forfar, as to be 
really the parent stream — comes in upon the parish 
from the east, and intersects it right through the 
middle; and about halfway across it is joined on its 
left bank by Corbie burn, which rises in several 
head-waters at and beyond the south-western 
boundary, and comes bendingly round, first east- 
ward, and next northward, to the point of conflu- 
ence. Where the streams unite, or a little east- 
ward, a little strath commences, and stretching 
thence to the western boundary, forms a sequestered 
level, overlooked and encinctured by an amphi- 
theatre of hills. Ascending gently on almost all 
sides from this valley, the surface rolls upward to the 
boundaries in soft hills, variegated, and, in some 
instances, covered with plantation. But though 
the parish seems not naturally favourable to the 
plough, two-thirds of it are cultivated, and one- 
sixth under plantation, only another sixth being left 
in a waste or uncultivated condition. The soil, in 
the valley, is chiefly alluvial; on the high grounds, 
is extensively a hard loam; but, in numerous dis- 
tricts, is clayey or various. Sandstone and grey 
slate abound, and are plentifully worked. There 
are three principal landowners. The mansions are 
Fotheringham and Kincaldrum, both in the central 
valley. The average rent of the arable land is 
nbout£l per acre. The yearly value of raw pro- 
duce was estimated in 1835 at £17,341. Assessed 
propery in 1866, £9,726. On the eastern boundary, 
and partly in the parish of Guthrie, are traces of 
the outer ditch and rampart of a Roman camp, 
called ' Haer Faads.' The parish is traversed 
northward by the great western road between Dun- 
dee and Aberdeen, and is otherwise well provided 
with roads. It also has easy access to the railways 
at Forfar. Population in 1831, 904; in 1861, 961. 
Houses, 192. 


This parish is in the presbytery of Forfar, and 
synod of Angus and Mearns. Patron, Fothering- 
ham of Powrie. Stipend, £245 7s. 10d.; glebe, £18, 
Unappropriated teinds, £65 13s. Schoolmaster's 
salary is now £50, with about £25 fees, and about 
£7 other emoluments. The parish church was 
built in 1754, and repaired in 1854, and contains 
600 sittings. The present parish comprehends the 
ancient parishes of Inverarity and Meathie. The 
old church of Inverarity stood on Arity water im- 
mediately above its confluence with Corbie burn; 
and hence the name Inverarity. There is an indus- 
trial school. 

1NVERARNAN, an inn in Glenfalloch, a short 
distance above the head of Loch-Lomond, on the 
road thence to Killin. 

INVERARY, a parish, containing a royal burgh 
of its own name, in the Argyle-proper district of 
Argyleshire. It is bounded, on the north and north- 
east, by the parish of Innishail; on the east, by 
Dumbartonshire and Loch Fyne; on the south, by 
Loch Fyne; on the south-west, by Kilmichael- 
Glassary; and on the west and north-west, by 
Dalavich and Kilehrenan. Its length, southward, 
is about 15 miles; and its breadth is from 3 to 6 
miles. Its extent of coast, along Loch Fyne, is 
about 10 miles, and presents a series of projecting 
points and retiring bays. The coast, for the most 
part, is flat and sandy, but, in the south, is high and 
rocky. There are two headlands, Kenmore and 
Stronshira, which command remarkably fine views. 
The interior of the parish commences, on the north 
and north-east, in the crests of a lofty water-shed, 
and extends southward to Loch Fyne mainly in the 
two glens of the Ary and the Shira. 'which converge 
at the burgh, but has a creseental outline, and a 
diversity of feature. " Its general appearance is 
mountainous, presenting that diversity of form 
which is always the result of the meeting and ming- 
ling together of two different mountain rocks. Here 
a mountain of micaceous schist may be seen rising 
upward to the height of between 2,000 and 3;000 
feet, a huge and isolated mass, or stretching along 
in uniform height and unbroken surface, with its 
sloping sides clothed with heath and verdure; and 
there, collected around the base of their prouder 
and older brethren, ridges of porphyiy are grouped, 
sometimes in masses of naked rock 700 or 800 feet 
high, and sometimes in low and gentle hillocks, 
mantled with trees or covered with soft succulent 
herbage. The result of the whole is an outline so 
diversified, so waving, and so beautiful as is suffi- 
cient to delight the eye, and to give noble and char- 
acteristic features to the scenery. Benbui is the 
most lofty of the mountains, being about 2,800 feet 
high; and Duniquoich and Duntorvil, which rise 
perpendicularly in front of the Duke of Argyle's 
castle to the height of 700 and 800 feet, are the 
most remarkable of the porphyritic elevations." 

Both the Ary and the Shira are picturesque 
streams, with rich diversity of character, commenc- 
ing in the wildly highland, with abundant cascades, 
and subsiding into the gently lowland, with rich 
amenities. In the lower part of the Shira is the curi- 
ous lacustrine expansion of the Douloch ; which see. 
Springs are exceedingly numerous; and some of 
them are slightly chalybeate. The rocks, in addi- 
tion to the prevailing mica slate and porphyry, com- 
prise roofing slate, limestone, chlorite rock, and 
greenstone. The soil of the arable lands adjacent 
to Loch-Fyne is, for the most part, a thin light 
loam on a gravelly bottom; and that in the best 
part of the valleys, particularly Glenshira, is a deep 
dark loam on either a sandy or a clayey bottom; 
but much of that elsewhere is moss, mingled with 




a small proportion of detritus front the hills. The 
land continued till the middle of last century in 
nearly its pristine state; insomuch that tenants were 
then difficult to be found who had sufficient capital 
and enterprise to attempt to cultivate. Extensive 
improvements were commenced at that time by the 
then Duke of Argyle, and others have since been 
carried on ; yet, up to the present time, cultivation 
has neither been extended over so large a surface, 
nor been ripened into such good agricultural prac- 
tices, as might have been expected. Plantations, 
at various times since 1746, and even at an earlier 
date, but especially since 1831, have been formed to 
so great an extent that they now occupy about 
12,000 acres; and the timber of them, as cut down 
and sold, is of great value. Cattle-rearing and the 
sheep husbandry engage large attention. The 
local fisheries also are of great importance. One of 
the old military roads, to the extent of 10 miles, tra- 
verses the parish; a county road to the extent of 
8 miles, also traverses it; and about 36 miles of 
road within the parish, exclusive of walks and paths, 
are maintained by the Duke of Argyle. Population 
in 1831, 2,133; in 1861, 2,095. Houses, 331. As- 
sessed property in 1860, £7,973. 

A short distance above the burgh, on a level space 
on the south bank of the Ary, slightly elevated 
above the sea, stands Inverary castle, the principal 
seat of the Duke of Argyle. Very noble avenues 
lead up to it from the burgh; and the lawns, woods, 
drives, and decorations of the surrounding grounds 
have a character and an extent, harmonizing well 
with the magnificence of the natural scenery, and 
quite worthy of the greatest palatial residence in 
the west of Scotland. The castle is a large quad- 
rangular building, with a round tower at each cor- 
ner, and a high glazed pavilion, by which the stair- 
case and saloon are lighted, shooting up above the 
towers in the centre. It was founded in 1745, and 
is built of a talcose chlorite slate, brought from the 
other side of the lake, which is extremely soft, but 
will, in all probability, long stand the effects of the 
weather. This stone is of a blue grey colour; a 
single shower of rain turns it almost black, but a 
gleam of the sun restores its original colour. The 
hall is hung round with arms very neatty arranged, 
and other ornaments suited to the grandeur of a 
Highland castle; but the rest of the house is fitted 
up in a modern style, and some of the rooms are 
hung with fine tapestry. Both the castle itself, the 
park, and the burgh displayed high splendour on 
occasion of a brief visit of the royal family in Au- 
gust, 1847, when on their way to Ardverikie. The 
scenery in view from the lawn is very fine. The 
Ary, with its beautiful cascades, — the expanded 
bay of Loch-Fyne, which here forms an irregular 
circle of about 12 or 14 miles in circumference, — 
the bill of Duniquoich, rising in the form of a pyra- 
mid to the height of 700 feet, clothed to near its 
summit with a thick wood of trees, and surmounted 
with a rude watch-tower, — the richly wooded banks 
towards Essaehossan, and the distant screen of 
mountains, — form a noble assemblage of grand and 
beautiful objects. A winding walk leads to the 
summit of Duniquoich, whence are seen, in gor- 
geous picturesqueness, all this landscape, all the 
ornamented dueal grounds, nearly 30 miles in cir- 
cumference, and a rich encincturement of glen and 
mountain. The former castle was a very large 
strong edifice, in the vicinity of the site of the pre- 
sent one, nearer the river, and was taken down 
within these forty years. The Argyle family did not 
settle in the parish till the 14th century; and, when 
they worked their way into it, they found it distri- 
buted in possession among no fewer than eight septs 

or families, some of whom have not now a descend- 
ant in it. " By what right, whether of purchase or 
the sword, or by grant from the sovereign, they first 
obtained their possession here, is uncertain; but it 
was not till a recent date that the whole parish be- 
came their property, by that gradual and natural 
process by which talent, intelligence, and power 
extend their influence." 

This parish is the seat of a presbytery in the sy- 
nod of Argyle. It was originally under the charge 
of one minister; but by the commission of parlia- 
ment in 1650-1, it was placed under two, with se- 
parate kirk-sessions, and presiding respectively over 
what are called the Highland and the Lowland con- 
gregations, or the English and the Gaelic churches. 
Both churches were built under one roof, in 1794, 
at the expense of the Duke of Argyle, the patron 
and only heritor. Stipend of the English minister, 
£168 15s. 8d.; glebe, £45: of the Gaelic minister' 
£157 15s. 7d.; glebe, £30. The churches were 
much injured by lightning in 1837, but repaired at 
great expense in 1838 ; they form a long inelegant 
structure, with a spire rising from the centre of the 
roof, but look well at a distance, and make a hand- 
some termination to the street, as seen from the ap- 
proach to the town ; and the English one contains 
450 sittings,— the Gaelic one, 470. There is a Free 
church, which was built in 1844, and contains 
480 sittings; and its receipts in 1865 were £158 6s. 
4d. There is an United Presbyterian church, 
which was built in 1836, and contains 205 sit- 
tings. There are a town parochial school, with a 
salary of £40, a country parochial school, 31 
miles west of the burgh, with a salary of £27 ; a 
Free church school; two town female schools, sal- 
aried by the Argyle family ; and four country schools, 
all of them aided by the Argyle family, and two 
salaried also by the Society for propagating Chris- 
tian knowledge. The present parish comprehends 
the ancient districts of Kilmilieu and Glenary; 
and it anciently had churches at Kilmilieu, Glenary, 
Auchantobbart, Kilbride, Kilblane, and Kiltnun, and 
burial-grounds at most of these places, and also at 
Glenshira and Kilian. At Auchantobbart were not 
long ago several stonecrosses of considerable size and 
in good preservation. On the Duke of Argyle's lawn, 
close to the castle, is a large stone resembling the 
relics of Druidical times. On the farm of Benbui, 
at the inner extremity of the parish, stands the 
house in which Rob Roy M'Gregor received wood 
and water from the Duke of Argyle while he lived 
at the expense of the Duke of Montrose. Among 
eminent natives of the parish, or persons connected 
with it, are the Rev. George Campbell, Professor of 
Divinity in Edinburgh, the Rev. Claudius Buchanan, 
of East Indian celebrity, Generals Charles Turner, 
Dugald Campbell, and Duncan Campbell, and above 
all the Earls, Marquis, and Dukes of Argyle, whose 
deeds and greatness belong to the national annals. 

INVERARY, a royal burgh, a post town and 
sea-port, the county-town of Argyleshire, and one of 
the assize-towns of Scotland, stands on a small 
bay, at the mouth of the Ary, 7 miles south-west of 
the head of Loch-Fyne, 22J north-north-east of 
Lochgilphead, 39 south-east of Oban, 39 north by 
west of Rothesay, 71J north by east of Campbelton, 
and 60 north-west by west of Glasgow, by way of 
Arrochar and Dumbarton, but a less distance either 
by way of Hell's glen and Loch Goil, or by way of 
Loch Eck and Kilmun. It consists principally of a 
row of houses fronting the bay, and a street diverg- 
ing from this at right angles, and terminating at 
the parish church. The houses are well-built and 
covered with slate. The county court-house is a 
neat edifice, constructed of the common porphyry of 




the district. The jail was recently improved and 
enlarged; and the number of prisoners confined in 
it in the year 1853, was 118, at the average net cost 
per head of £15 8s. lOd. There are two very good 
inns. In a garden beside the parish church stands 
a small obelisk, erected to the memory of several 
gentlemen of the name of Campbell, who were put 
to death, for their opposition to Popery, during 
Montrose's inroad to Argyle. In the principal 
street, near the quay, stands a beautiful stone cross 
which is believed to have been brought from Iona, 
and which served for many years as the town cross 
of the old town of Inverary, and, after being long 
thrown aside and neglected, was drawn again into 
notice and placed in its present position. The old 
town stood on the lawn immediately before the old 
castle, and never acquired a higher character than 
that of a dirty ill-built village; and, about the year 
1742, at the time of the commencement of the im- 
provements on the ducal estate, it was entirely re- 
moved, and the greater part of the present town 
built as a substitute. 

The trade of Inverary, either as a place of inland 
traffic or as a seaport, is not great. The tract of 
country for which it serves as a depot is not popu- 
lous; and the trade through it is little more than 
the exchange of Highland produce for general 
merchandise. Its main support is derived from 
its fisheries, from its steam-boat communication 
with Glasgow, from the transaction of the county 
law business, and from the residence of the 
Argyle family. A wool market is held on the 
third Thursday of July, and a cattle market on 
the last Friday of May, and on the last Thurs- 
day of October. A herring fishery appears to 
have subsisted here from time immemorial. The 
bay, which served as a natural harbour, was an- 
ciently called Sloclik Ichopper, ' the gullet where 
vessels barter fish;' and the arms of the town re- 
present a net with a herring, with the motto, ' Sem- 
per tibi pendeat halec' It appears also, that the 
merchants of France were in use to come here and 
barter their wines for herrings; and a point of land, 
called the Frenchman's point, is stated by tradition 
to have been the place where the merchants trans- 
acted their affairs. The harbour is not suited for 
ships of heavy burden. Only a very rude pier ex- 
isted prior to 1809; but it was then improved and 
enlarged; and in 1836, it was further improved by 
the addition of a slip to suit every state of tide, at 
an expense of £1,200, paid jointly by the Fishery 
board, the Duke of Argyle, and the burgh. In the 
year 1853, the number of barrels of herrings cured 
in the fishing district of Inverary was 23,739, the 
number of persons employed in the fishery was 
4,466, and the total value of boats, nets, and lines 
employed was £37,156. The town has branch 
offices of the National bank and the Union bank. 
It has also a public library, a circulating library, a 
gas company, and a corps of archers. Communica- 
tion is maintained daily with Glasgow, both by 
steamer by way of the Kyles of Bute, and by ferry- 
steamer and coach by way of Hell's glen and Loch 
Goil; and daily during summer, by coach, with 
Obarf, Tarbet, and Loch-Lomond. 

Prior to the 14th century, Inverary probably 
was never more, or little more, than a fisher- 
men's hamlet. But when the Argyle family came to 
reside at it, as the hereditary jurisdictions of sheriff 
and justiciary were vested in them, it became the 
seat of the courts and the county town. In 1472, it 
was erected into a burgh of barony; and in 1648, 
into a royal burgh. The territory belonging to it 
for municipal purposes is more extensive than that 
belonging to it for the parliamentary franchise. By 

the charter, the council comprised a. provost, 4 bailies, 
a dean of guild, a treasurer, and 12 councillors; but 
under the reform bill, it comprises a provost, 2 bailies, 
and 16 councillors. The magistrates possess both 
civil and criminal jurisdiction ; and the council con- 
trols all matters of police. Great improvements 
have in recent times been made in drainage, in the 
supply of water, and in other matters. The only 
corporate revenue arises from the right of ferrying 
passengers and cattle to the opposite side of the loch, 
certain petty customs, and the rent of a common, 
called the moor of Auchenbreck. But in 1750 Duke 
Archibald, seeing how inadequate this revenue was 
for the occasions of the burgh, added to it a perpet- 
ual annuity of £20. secured on his estate of Stron- 
shira. The total revenue in 1839-40 was .£157 ; in 
1857-8, £199. Inverary unites with Oban, Camp- 
belton, Irvine, and Ayr, in returning a member to 
parliament. The constituency in 1862, both muni- 
cipal and parliamentary, was 46 Population of the 
municipal burgh in 1841, 1,233; in 1861, 1,075. 
Houses. 130. Population of the parliamentary 
burgh in 1861. 972. Houses, 104. 

INVERAVEN, a parish partly in Morayshire, 
but chiefly in Banffshire. The lower part of it con- 
tains the post-office station of Ballindalloch ; and the 
upper part, the post-office station of Glenlivet. The 
parish extends north-westward from the Grampian 
watershed with Aberdeenshire, quite across Banff- 
shire, to the Spey, and approaches within 3 miles of 
the market villages of Tomantoul on the south-west, 
and Charleston of Aberlour on the north-east. It 
is bounded by Knockando, Aberlour, Mortlach, Ca- 
brach, Glenbucket, Tarland, Strathdon, Kirkmichael, 
and Cromdale. Its length is about 20 miles ; and 
its breadth varies from 3J to 9. The river Livet 
intersects the upper part of it, rising from numerous 
sources within its limits, and flowing north-west- 
wardly through the celebrated Glenlivet — which 
occupies a considerable portion of this parish — to 
the Aven, whence the name Inveraven is derived. 
The Aven, however, only skirts the parish on the 
west, in its course to the Spey, which runs across 
the north-western boundary. See articles Aven and 
Glexlivet. Most part of this parish consists of 
moor and mountain, giving the district a bleak as- 
pect, except along the banks of the rivers, where the 
land is arable, and occasionally adorned with attrac- 
tive and picturesque scenery. Much waste land, 
however, has been redeemed ; particularly in Glen- 
livet. There is a considerable extent of oak wood 
on the banks of the Spey ; and copses of birch and 
alder abound on the banks of the other streams. 
Inveraven-Proper is studded with plantations. The 
woods of Ballindalloch are extensive, and contain 
some noble trees, particularly two silver firs near 
the mansion-house, and a number of splendid trees 
adorning the lawn. Roe deer are numerous on this 
estate, and game is abundant throughout the parish. 
Benrinnes, noticed in the article Aberlour, is partly 
in this parish. On its top is a small basin usually 
tilled with water, and a cave in which Grant of Car- 
rion — ' James of the Hill ' — is said to have made his 
hiding-place. The chief mineral production of this 
parish is the peculiar limestone of Glenlivet, imbed- 
ded in gneiss. It is extensively burnt with peat by 
the farmers. Many of the houses here — two storied 
and slated — are of a highly respectable order. The 
house of Ballindalloch was formerly a fine specimen 
of the old Scottish stronghold. It comprised a 
square building flanked by three circular towers, 
the central and largest of which, containing the gate- 
way, was surmounted by a square watch-tower, called 
the cape house, built in 1602. But the edifice was, 
a few years ago, much enlarged in the castellated 




style, and is now a very splendid mansion. At 
Kilmaichlie there are some ancient firs, the trunk of 
one of which measures no less than 11 feet in circum- 
ference at the base. At Blairfindy are the ruins of 
a hunting-seat of the Earls of Huntly; and at the 
confluence of the Livet with the Aven are the ruins 
of the ancient castle of Drumin. There are traces 
of three Druidical temples. The old bridge over the 
Livet at Upper Downan was destroyed by the great 
floods of 1829; but in 1835 an elegant one was built 
a little further down the river. Three miles higher 
up is Tomnavoulen bridge. Over the Aven at Crag- 
Achrochan, and over the rapid burn of Tommore 
there are also bridges. Roads go down the streams 
and across Glenlivet; but excepting in the vicinity 
of Ballindalloch and the church, they are all bad. 
The principal landowners are the Duke of Richmond 
and Grant of Ballindalloch. The real rental is about 
£6,500. Assessed property in I860, £8,539. Pop- 
ulation in 1831, 2,648 ; in 1861, 2,639. Houses, 515. 
Population of the Banffshire section in 1831, 2,484; 
in 1861, 2,487. Houses, 488. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Aberlour, and 
svnod of Moray. Patron, the Earl of Seafield. 
[Stipend, £251 6s. lid.; glebe, £7. Unappropriated 
teinds, £126 13s. 4d. The parish church stands on 
the Spey, about a mile below the influx of the Aven; 
and it was built in 1806, and contains about 550 sit- 
tings. There is a chapel in Glenlivet, 8 miles dis- 
tant from the parish church, served by a missionary 
of the Royal bounty, built in 1825, and containing 
300 sittings. There is a Free church of Iuveraven; 
whose receipts in 1865 amounted to £81 19s. There 
are two Roman Catholic chapels in Glenlivet; and one 
at Tombia, pretty far up the Glen, containing about 
900 sittings, — the other at Chapelton, in the Braes 
of Glenlivet, containing about 300 sittings. The 
parochial schoolmaster's salary is now £35, with 
about £18 fees, and a share in the Dick bequest. 
There is a Society's female school in the lower end 
of the parish; and there are three Protestant schools 
and two Roman Catholic ones in Glenlivet, most 
of them either supported by public bodies, or ai. led 
by private beneficence. Previous to the Reforma- 
tion, Iuveraven was a parsonage held by the chan- 
cellor of the diocese of Moray, and having the vicar- 
ages of Knockando and the Inverness- shire Urquhart 
dependent on it. Four cattle and feeing fairs are 
held yearly a little to the east of the parish church. 

INVERAWE. See Glexorchy. 


INVERBROTHOCK, a quoad sacra parish on the 
sea-board of Forfarshire. It comprises the greater 
part of the suburbs of Arbroath, or northern division 
of the parliamentary burgh of Arbroath ; and belongs 
politically to the parish of St. Vigean's. It was con- 
stituted by the ecclesiastical authorities in 1834, and 
reconstituted by the Court of Teinds in 1854. It is 
in the presbytery of Arbroath, and synod of Angus 
and Mearns. The parish church was built in 1828, 
at the cost of about £2,200, and contains 1,224 sit- 
tings. There are two Free churches, called the In- 
verbrothock and the Maule-street churches ; and the 
receipts of the former in 1865, amounted to £500 13s. 
10d..— of the, latter, to £102 16s. There is also a 
Wesleyan Methodist chapel, which was built in 
1772, and contains 405 sittings. 

INVERCANNICH, a post-office station— also two 
hamlets, called Easter Invercannich and Wester In- 
vercannicb — at the convergence of Glencannicb 
with Strathglass, 14 miles south west of Beauly, In- 

IXVEUCA RRON, a part of the territory of Stone- 
haven, round the mouth of the Carron, on the sea- 
board of Kincardineshire. 

INVEECAULD. See Bkaemak. 
INVERCHAOLAIN, a parish in Cowal, Argyle- 
shire. It is bounded, on the north-west, by Kil- 
modan ; on the north-east, by Kilmun ; on the 
south-east, by Dunoon ; on the south-west, by the 
East Kyle of Bute ; and on the west, by Loch Rid- 
dan. Its length southward is about 15 miles ; and 
its greatest breadth is 8 miles. Its post-town is 
Greenock. It is intersected for 8 miles by Loch 
Striven, an arm of the sea, and watered by a small 
rivulet which flows into the head of that loch. The 
surface is for the most part rugged. A ridge of 
mountains rises with a steep ascent all along the 
coast. In some places there are small flat fields 
nigh the shore ; but, for the most part, the ascent 
from the sea is immediate. About half a mile in- 
land, the soil is thin and sandy, only adapted for 
pasturage. All the mountains formerly were cov- 
ered with heath, but many of them are now clothed 
with a rich sward of grass. There is a considerable 
extent of natural wood, which forms an article of 
importance to the proprietors. The only plantations 
are around the seats of South-hall and Knockdow. 
The total extent of arable land is about 1,300 acres. 
The scenery from South-hall to the head of Loch 
Riddan is brilliantly picturesque, in the same style 
as the entrance to the Trosachs, and regarded by 
some persons as finer; and South-hall itself, situated 
near the eastern extremity of the Kylcs, both lux- 
uriates in beauty, and commands an excellent pros- 
pect. There are seven landowners. The real rental 
is about £3,400. Assessed property in i860, £4,081. 
A road goes from South-hall to Kilmodan, and is 
kept in the best order. An annual fair is held in 
the parish. Sepulchral tumuli occur in various 
places. Dheikrig [which see] belongs 1o 
Inverchaolain. Population in 1831,596; in 1861, 
424. Houses. 73. 

This parish, formerly a vicarage, is in the presby- 
tery of Dunoon, and synod of Argyle. Patron, the 
Marquis of Bute. Stipend, £169 19s. 5d.; glebe, 
£13 10s. The parish church was built in 1812, and 
contains 250 sittings. The ancient church stood on 
the side of a hill, about 200 yards above the present 
one. There is a Free church for South-ball and 
Kilmodan: attendance, 100; sum raised in 1865, 
£73 14s. 9d. There are two parochial schools, 
with salary of respectively £35 and £40, and about 
£10 fees. 

1NVEREBRIE. See Ebrie (The). 
INVERERNAN. See Erxan (The). 
INVEEERNE. See Findhoen and Forres. 
INVERESK, a parish in the extreme north-east 
of Edinburghshire. It contains the post-town of 
Musselburgh, the town of Fisherrow, the villages 
of Inveresk, Cowpits, Craighall, Monktonhall, and 
Stonyhall, and part of the village of New Craighall. 
It is bounded, on the north, by the frith of Forth ; 
on the east, by Haddingtonshire ; and on other sides, 
by the parishes of Cranston, Dalkeith, Newton, Lib- 
erton, and Duddingstone. Its length, westward, is 
3£ miles; and its greatest breadth is 3£ miles. 
Along the shore stretches a broad belt cf pleasant 
downs, formed by the subsidence of the sea, and only 
a few feet above the level of highwater, furnishing 
a charming field for the exercises of golf and walk- 
ing. Behind this plain — which is about half a mile 
in breadth — the surface rises in a very slow ascent 
of verdant fields, variegated with soft and irregular 
undulations, and sending up across the south-west- 
em extremity the hills of Fallside and Carberry, 54( 
feet above sea-level. Beginning at the eastern ex- 
tremity, the ascent immediately behind the plain, 
extends westward in a swelling curve to the beau- 
tiful rising ground, called the Hill of Inveresk. on 




which has stood, from time immemorial, the parish- 
church, commanding a most brilliant prospect, and 
forming itself, in its present form, with its tall spire, 
an attractive object from many points of view, in a 
limited but opulent part of the landscape of the 
Lothians. This rising ground — which is about J 
of a mile from the sea, and a little westward of mid- 
distance between the eastern and the western bound- 
aries — has the form of a crescent, with the concave 
side toward the south, and the rich vale of the river 
Esk ploughed curvingly round its southern and 
western base; and, though of very inconsiderable 
elevation above the level of the sea, it has so free an 
exposure on all sides, except the east, as both to 
seem conspicuous from a little distance, and to com- 
mand, for the town which hangs on its sides, de- 
lightful prospects and healthful ventilation. On 
the concave side, in particular, the clustering town, 
with its adjacent ornamental woods, sloping gardens, 
and elegant villas, gives to the view from its south 
side one of the finest village landscapes in Britain; 
and, in its turn, commands such a prospect of the 
luxuriant haugh and beautiful water-course of the 
Esk, the splendid park of Dalkeith-house, and an 
expanse of richly clothed country stretching away 
to the Moorfoot hills, as affords an almost perennial 
feast to the taste. The situation of the village, and 
of places adjacent, is as healthy as it is agreeable, and 
long ago obtained for the locality the name of the 
Montpelier of Scotland. 

The river Esk, combining just at the point of en- 
tering the parish the waters of the North Esk and 
the South Esk, comes in on the park of Dalkeith- 
house from the south, and bisects the parish into 
considerably unequal parts, in a beautifully winding 
course northward to the sea between Musselburgh 
and Fisherrow. An unimportant rill begins to touch 
the parish a few yards from its source in Hadding- 
tonshire, and forms the eastern boundary over a dis- 
tance of 2f miles to the sea. The celebrated Pinkie 
burn rises a little south-east of Inveresk hill, and 
flows first northward and then north-westward to 
the Esk, between Musselburgh and the sea ; but 
being little more than a mile in length of course, it 
derives all its interest from historical association 
with the disastrous battle to which it gave name. 
Finkerton burn comes in upon the palish from the 
south-west, and flows 1 J mile north-eastward to the 
Esk near Monktonhall. Springs, though none of a 
medicinal kind, are abundant, and supply the parish 
with excellent water. The soil, on the flat grounds 
round Musselburgh and Fisherrow, is sandy, but 
having been for ages in a high state of cultivation 
for gardens and small fields, is abundantly fertile ; 
on the fields above Inveresk, on both sides of the 
river, it is of a better quality ; and toward the 
highest ground on the south-eastern district, it is 
clayey, and, when properly managed, carries heavy 
crops of grain, especially of wheat. Almost the 
whole surface of the parish exhibits a highly culti- 
vated appearance, and is well enclosed with stone 
fences or thriving hedges; and, though probably 
less planted than comports with fulness of beauty 
and shelter, it is adorned on the south-west by the 
extensive w-oods of Dalkeith park, and on other sides 
by the fine plantations of New Hailes, and the rising 
woods of Drummore. Freestone abounds, and is 
■worked in several quarries. Limestone also abounds, 
but is not much worked. Coal, of remarkable ag- 
gregate thickness of seam, of comparatively easy ac- 
cess, and of good quality, stretches beneath the whole 
parish. It is, at present, mined chiefly at Monkton- 
hall, New Craighall, and Edmonstone, and produces, 
with the labour of upwards of 550 persons, nearly 
55,000 tons a-year. Under Eskgrove-house, and 

terminating in the circumjacent plantation, is a sul* 
terranean aqueduct or tunnel, which was cut with 
enormous labour a little before the middle of last 
century, as a channel for a stream drawn from 
the Esk to drive a wheel for draining the coal mines 
at Pinkie. The manufactures, fisheries, garden- 
produce, and commerce of the parish, are of consi- 
derable importance, and will be seen by reference to 
the articles on its towns and villages. The principal 
landowners are the Duke of Buccleuch, the Earl of 
Wemyss, Sir Archibald Hope, Bart., Elphinstone of 
Carberry, Aitcbison of Walliford, and three others. 
The real rental is about £17,000. The yearly value 
of raw agricultural produce is about £37,000. As- 
sessed property in 1860, £33,901. 

Carberry-hill, Pinkie, and Pinkie-house are ob- 
jects of deep historical interest. See articles Car- 
berry-Hill and Pinkie; See also Hailes (New). 
Carberry-house, on the northern slope of Carberiy 
hill, in the south-eastern part of the parish, is a 
modernized mansion of unknown antiquity, and 
curiously combines, both in its exterior and in its 
interior, the massive and gloomy character of a 
baronial strength, with the sprightliness and com- 
fort of a modern gentleman's seat. Monkton-house, 
situated at the south-western verge of the parish, a 
mile west of the river Esk, is a modern mansion, 
the seat of Sir Archibald Hope, but it has attached 
to it as farm-offices an ancient structure, reported 
to have been the erection and the favourite resi- 
dence of the celebrated General Monk. Stonyhill- 
house, the property of the Earl of Wemyss, situated 
half-a-mile south-west of Fisherrow, seems, in its 
present form, to be the offices of an ancient man- 
sion, which, in former times, was the property and 
the residence successively of Sir William Sharpe, 
the son of Archbishop Sharpe, and of the inglorious 
Colonel Charteris; and it has remnants in its vicin- 
ity, especially a huge buttressed garden-wall, the fit 
accompaniments of a very ancient mansion. An- 
tiquities of an interesting kind occur; but they 
chiefly fall to be noticed in the article Musselburgh. 
The beautiful hill of Inveresk, so exquisitely ad- 
apted to their object, did not escape the notice of 
the Romans as a fit place for fortifying their hold of 
the circumjacent part of their province of Valentin. 
Repeated exposure of ruins, the finding of coins, and 
some hints in history, indicate their having covered 
the whole northern face of the rising ground with 
fortifications. Even the site of the pretorium has 
been conclusively traced to the summit or apex of 
the hill now occupied by the parish-church. The 
village of Inveresk consists chiefly of cottages- 
ornees, villas, and neat houses, all of modern struc- 
ture, concatenated on both sides of a round along 
Inveresk hill, commencing with the parish-church 
and Inveresk-house, at the west end, sweeping 
gracefully round the concavity of the rising ground 
— a curve corresponding to a beautiful bend in the 
Esk — and extending altogether to a length of about 
half-a-mile. The tout-ensemble, however, presents 
the aspect rather of a pleasing and rapidly occurring 
series of rural and gardened dwellings, than of com- 
pact or continuous ranges of buildings. The parish 
church is a lumpish edifice, built about the begin- 
ning of the present century, and originally looking 
more like a huge barn than an ecclesiastical struc- 
ture. To relieve the ungainliness of its appear- 
ance, a spire was afterwards added, so beautiful as 
to have been proposed — though not eventually fol- 
lowed — as a model in the erection of the exquisitely 
fine spire of St. Andrew's church in Edinburgh. 
What the present church of Inveresk — for it is not 
a little spacious — has gained in the important pro- 
perty of accommodation, it has lost in the properties 




which most interest the antiquarian. Its prede- 
cessor was an edifice of which its last and enlight- 
ened incumbent, the Eev. Dr. Carlyle, speaks with 
enthusiasm. The church was dedicated to St. 
Michael, and was built, as Dr. Carlyle supposes, 
soon after the introduction of Christianity, out of 
the ruins of the Roman fort, the site of whose pre- 
torium it usurped. In its main part, it was 102 feet 
long, and only 23 feet wide within the walls; but it 
had four aisles, two on each side, built at different 
periods; and, in its ends, it had double rows of 
galleries. So antique a structure, though il! suited 
to the legitimate objects of a modern place of wor- 
ship, would now be a feast to the eye which loves 
to look upon the venerable monuments of a far- 
away age. In minds of the most hallowed cast, too, 
it would excite a thrill of emotion, from the associ- 
ated idea of its having been ministered in by the 
reformer Wishart on the eve of his martyrdom. In 
1745, the army of the Chevalier erected a battery in 
the churchyard, but abandoned it on their com- 
mencing their march toward England. The parish 
is cut from west to east near the shore, through 
Fisherrow and Musselburgh, by the great road 
from Edinburgh to London. It is traversed also by 
the North British railway, and has a station on it 
for Inveresk, and a branch diverging to Mussel- 
burgh. Fopulation in 1831, 8,961 ; in 1861, 9,525. 
Houses, 1,438. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Dalkeith, and 
synod of Lothian and Tweeddale. Patron, the Duke 
of Buccleuch. Stipend, £352 lis. 5d.; glebe, £20. 
Unappropriated teinds, £2,374 17s. 6d. The parish 
church contains 2,400 sittings. There is a chapel 
of ease in Fisherrow, called North Esk church, built 
in 1838, containing 1,000 sittings, and under the 
patronage of trustees. There is a Free church, con- 
taining 1,000 sittings; and the sum raised in con- 
nexion with it in 1865 was £570 2s. l£d. There 
are two United Presbyterian churches, — the one 
called the Mill-hill church, with 800 sittings, — the 
other called Union church, built in 1820, with 600 
sittings. There are also an Episcopalian chapel, 
built about 55 years ago, with 200 sittings; an In- 
dependent chapel, built in 1800, with 320 sittings; 
a Wesleyan Methodist chapel, built about the year 
1833 t with 250 sittings; and a small Evangelical 
Union chapel, built in 1845. There is no parochial 
school; but the rector of a grammar-school, and the 
teachers of two English schools, receive from the 
town-council of Musselburgh salaries respectively 
of £27 5s. 4d., £20, and £10. At the grammar- 
school, two boarding-schools, and an academy, all 
the branches of a classical and commercial educa- 
tion are taught. There is likewise a comparatively 
large number and diversity of other schools; and 
altogether the parish, or at least Musselburgh, is 
famous, and deservedly so, for its educational estab- 
lishments. There is likewise a fair amount of 
other institutions; which, however, will better fall 
to be noticed in the article Musselburgh. 

At the epoch to which record goes back, there 
were two manors of Inveresk, — Great Inveresk 
and Little Inveresk. Malcolm Canmore and his 
queen Margaret granted Little Inveresk to the 
monks of Dunfermline. David I. gave to the same 
monks Great Inveresk, which included the burgh 
and port of Musselburgh; he gave them also the 
church of Inveresk, with its tithes and other per- 
tinents. The monks got "a free warren" estab- 
lished within the manors by Alexander II. ; and 
they had, in virtue of David L's grants, a baronial 
jurisdiction over them, which they afterwards got 
enlarged into a regality. The church was in early 
times of great value; and even the vicars who 

served it, while the monks enjoyed the revenues ol 
the parsonage, appear, among men of consequence, 
as witnesses to many charters. In the church were 
several endowed altars, with their respective chap- 
lains. In Musselburgh were anciently three 
chapels, one of them of great note for the pilgri- 
mages made to it, and its historical associations, 
and dedicated to " Our Lady of Loretto." See 
Musselburgh. Within the grounds of New Hailes 
was another chapel, dedicated to Mary Magdalene. 
From this chapel, Magdalene-bridge, and the ham- 
let of Magdalene-Pans, corruptly called Maitland- 
bridge and Maitland-Pans, at the north-western 
angle of the parish, have their name. The patron- 
age of the church and of its various subordinate 
chaplainries, and the lordship and regality of Mus- 
selburgh, or of the whole of the ancient Great In- 
veresk and Little Inveresk, were granted by James 
VI. to his chancellor, Lord Thirlestane, the pro- 
genitor of the Earls of Lauderdale. Much of this 
vast estate, notwithstanding the profusion of the 
noted Duke of Lauderdale and the dangers oi 
forfeiture, came down to Earl John, who died in 
1710. From him Anne, Duchess of Buccleuch 
and Monmouth, purchased, in 1709, the whole pro- 
perty, with some inconsiderable exceptions. — In- 
veresk parish claims, among its eminent men, 
either as natives or as residents, Lord Hailes the 
historian, Logan the poet, Professor Stuart and his 
son Gilbert, and David Macbeth Moir, the "Delta" 
of Blackwood's Magazine, in the walks of literature; 
Walker, Burnet, and the Ritchies, in the fine arts; 
and Sir Ralph Abercromby, Lord Clive, Major- 
General Stirling, and Admiral Sir David Milne, in 
the walks of warlike enterprise. 


INVEREY (The), an affluent of the Aber- 
deenshire Dee, descending from the mountains on 
the southern skirts of Braemar, and flowing north- 
eastward to the Dee a little above Mar bridge. The 
ruins of Inverey castle are still visible, a little to 
the right of the mouth of the stream. 

INVERFARIGAG (Pass op), a beautiful defile, 
leading up toward the head of Strathnairn from the 
middle of the south side of Loch Ness in Inverness- 


INVERGARRY, a post-office station on the left 
side of Loch Oich, near the mouth of the Garry, 7J 
miles south-west of Fort Augustus, on the road 
thence to Glenelg, in Inverness-shire. In the 
vicinity stands Invergarry- castle, the ancient 
stronghold of the Macdonalds of Glengarry. It 
consists of an oblong square of five stories, of which 
the walls only are now standing, the whole hav- 
ing been sacked and burnt after the rebellion in 
1745. Near it is the modern mansion-house of 
Glengarry, a plain, narrow, high-roofed building. 
See Garry (The), and Glengarry. 

INVERGORDON, a small post-town and sea- 
port in the parish of Rosskeen, Ross-shire. It 
stands on the west side of the Cromarty frith, on 
the road from Inverness to Thurso, 6 miles west of 
Cromarty by water, 1 If south by west of Tain, and 
13 north-east by north of Dingwall. It is a place 
of considerable mark, substantially built, well situ- 
ated for traffic, and of growing importance for the 
shipment of the farm produce of the surrounding 
country. It has an excellent inn, a fine pier, a 
harbour with 16 feet water at spring tides and 13 at 
neap, and a ferry across the frith, connecting the 
post-road from Inverness to Thurso with that 
through the Black Isle. Regular communication is 
maintained, by both smacks and steamers, with 
Aberdeen, Lcith, and London. A market is held 




on the first Thursday of every month, under the 
auspices of the Easter and Wester Ross Farmer 
societies, for the disposal of corn, cattle, sheep, pigs, 
and all sorts of produce, to suit the sailing of the Lon- 
don and Leith steamers. Fairs also are held on the 
third Tuesday of February, on the second Tuesday 
of April, old style, on the first Tuesday of August, 
on the second Tuesday of October, and on the 
second Tuesday of December, old style. The town 
has branch-offices of the Commercial bank and the 
North of Scotland bank, three insurance agencies, a 
subscription library, and a connexion with the Art 
union of Scotland. In the town or its neighbour- 
hood are the Rosskeen parish church, a Free church, 
a parochial school, a Free church school, and a 
ladies' boarding and day school. Sheriff circuit 
small debt courts are held quarterly; and justice 
of peace small debt courts, on the first Wednes- 
day of every month. In the vicinity is Invergor- 
don-castle, the seat of Macleod of Cadboll, in the 
midst of very beautiful and extensive pleasure- 
grounds. Population of the town, in 185], 998; in 
1861, 1,122. 

INVERGOWRIE, an ancient parish, a bay, a 
bam, and a village, at the south-western extremity 
of Forfarshire. The parish was of small extent, 
and is now incorporated with Liff and Benvie. The 
hay is a small indentation into the Carse of Gowrie, 
on the boundary between Forfarshire and Perthshire, 
affording facilities for the landing of lime and coals 
from the opposite coast of Fife. The burn is formed 
within less than a mile of the frith, by the confluence 
of two streamlets from respectively Fowlis Easter in 
Perthshire and the north side of Dundee-law; it runs 
southward, within Forfarshire, to the head of the 
bay, but is often, by popular mistake, regarded as 
running on the county boundary; and it waters the 
hleachfield of Bullion, and drives the flour-mills 
of Invergowrie. The village stands at the mouth 
of the bum, and head of the bay, 3 miles west of 
Dundee; and it has a station on the Dundee and 
Perth railway. It is a small place, but ancient, and 
figures in history as a place of royal embarkation. 
Alexander I., having had a donation made to him 
at his baptism of the adjacent lands of Invergowrie 
and Liff, by his godfather, the Earl of Gowrie, began, 
as soon as he succeeded to the throne, to build a pa- 
lace in the vicinity; but some of his people from 
Mearns and Morayshire having formed a conspiracy, 
and attacked him in his newly-finished residence, 
he took shipping at the village, and sailed away 
to the southern parts of his kingdom to gather 
forces for quieting and punishing the north. In ex- 
pression of his gratitude for having escaped the con- 
spirators, he made over to the monks of Scoon the 
lands of Invergowrie and Liff. These lands, in the 
usual style of ancient manors, had their respective 
churches. The church of Invergowrie is remarkable 
for being traditionally reported to have been tiie 
earliest Christian structure north of the Tay. The 
original edifice is said to have heen built at the vil- 
lage in the 7th century, by Boniface, a legate or mis- 
sionary, who landed there with some attendants 
from Rome, and who afterwards penetrated the in- 
terior of Forfarshire, and founded various other 
churches. Apparently a much later erection than 
the original one survives in the form of a common- 
place mouldering ruin, half-covered with ivy, near 
the brink of the water. The churchyard is on an 
eminence, a mound of singular shape, washed on 
one side by the Tay. From the variety of mould 
which is turned up in digging, all or great part of 
the mound is supposed to be forced earth. Popula- 
tion of the village, 108. Houses, 22 
INVERIE. See Gi.exei.g. 

INVERINATE BAY, a small bay in the pariah 
of Kintail, south-west of Ross-shire. 

INVERKEILOR, a parish near the middle of tbe 
east coast of Forfarshire. It contains the post-office 
station of Chance-Inn, and the villages or hamlets 
of Inverkeilor, Chapelton of Boysack, March of 
Lunanbank, Millfield, Leysmill, and Ethiehaven. 
It is bounded by the German ocean, and by the par- 
ishes of St. Vigeans, Carmylie, Kirkden, Kinnell, 
and Lunan. Its length eastward is 7 J miles ; and 
its greatest breadth is 4J miles. Keilor burn, from 
which the parish has its name, rises on the southern 
boundary, and for 1 J mile flows along it eastward ; 
and then runs If mile farther, still eastward, through 
the expanded coast-district of the parish, to Lunan 
bay. Lunan water comes in from the west, after tra- 
versing the south-west part of Kinnell; flows 3 miles 
across the expanded northern wing of the parish ; 
traces for 2 miles the boundary with Lunan ; and 
falls into the sea at Redcastle. In its progress it 
turns the wheels of numerous mills ; it flows with a 
clear current, and as it approaches the sea, frolics in 
many beautiful sinuosities. Gighty burn comes 
down from the north-east, forms for 2£ miles the 
boundary-line with Kinnell, and falls into the Lu- 
nan. The coast, including curves, is between 5 and 
6 miles in extent, and makes a considerable recession, 
over a distance of 1\ miles from the northern limit, 
to admit the waters of Lunan bay. Along this bay 
— which, except in easterly winds, affords a safe an- 
chorage for ships — the coast is flat, sandy, and over- 
grown with bent; but thence, southward, it is higli 
and rocky, and, in its progress, sends out the re- 
markable headland, called Redhead. Northward of 
Lunan water, the surface of the parish rises in a 
beautiful gently ascending bank of good arable land ; 
between the Lunan and tbe Keilor, it recedes from 
the coast away westward, in a level expanse of fer- 
tile ground; and south of the Keilor, it gradually 
rises into heights which slightly partake the char- 
acter of the southern part of the coast. The soil 
varies, but is, in general, dry and fertile. About 
250 imperial acres are under plantation; about 12 6 
are scarcely, if at all, fit for cultivation ; and all the 
rest of the surface is arable ground. At Leysmill, 
in the extreme west, is a quarry for what are called 
Arhroath-stones, which are here dressed by machinery 
propelled by steam. At Redhead is an inexhaustible 
quarry of fine freestone; and below the rocks, Scotch 
pebbles, some possessing the colour and density of 
amethyst, have been numerously gathered. On the 
sands of Lunan bay, and on the estate of Ethie to 
the south, are considerable salmon fisheries. The 
landowners are the Earl of Northesk, Lord Panmure, 
and Messrs. Carnegie, Rait, Finlayson, and Skair. 
The mansions are Anniston, Kinblythmont, Lawton, 
and Ethie-house, — the last the seat of the Earl of 
Northesk, situated on the coast, and built and in- 
habited by Cardinal Beaton. 

On an eminence, at the mouth of Lunan water, 
stands a venerable ruin, called Redcastle. Chalmers, 
in his Caledonia, ascribes the erection of it to Walter 
de Berkeley, called the Lord of Redcastle, in the reign 
of William" the Lion. But tradition asserts it to have 
been built by lung William himself, and to have 
been used as a royal hunting-seat ; and it seems to 
be aided in its verdict by tbe names of some localities 
in the neighbourhood, — Kinblythmont, being a con- 
traction of Kings-blyth-mount, and Court-hill and 
Hawk-hill being names still in use. About a mile 
north-east of Ethie-house on the coast, are tbe ruins 
of a religious house called St. Murdoch's chapel, in 
which the monks of Arbroath officiated. At Cha- 
pelton, nearly 3 miles west of the village of Inver- 
keilor. are remains of the chapclry of Quytefield, 




now the burying-place of the family of Boy sack. 
On the lands of the Earl of Northesk, and on those 
of Mr. Carnegie, are vestiges of Danish camps ; and 
those of the latter lands are near a farm-house which 
seems to have borrowed from them its remarkable 
name of Denmark. The parish is traversed by the 
road from Arbroath to Montrose, by that from Ar- 
broath to Brechin, and, across its west end, by the 
Arbroath and Forfar railway. The village of In- 
verkeilor stands on the Arbroath and Montrose road, 
and on the right bank of Lunan water, 6 miles north 
by east of Arbroath ; and it contains 26 houses, and 
141 inhabitants. There are in the parish three flax- 
spinning-mills. Population in 1831, 1,655; in 1861, 
1.792. Houses, 360. Assessed property in 1866, 
£17,074 4s. 8cl. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Arbroath, and 
synod of Angus and Mearns. Patron, the Crown. 
Stipend, £246 14s. 5d.; glebe, £8 15s. Unappropri- 
ated teinds, £182 2s. 5d. Schoolmaster's salary, 
£50, with about £23 fees. There is a school at the 
west end of the parish with a small endowment. 
The parish church was built in 1735, and enlarged 
about 1830, and contains 703 sittings. There is a 
Free church : attendance, 280 ; sum raised in 1865, 
£182 3s. 1d. There are a public library and a 
savings' bank. The ancient name of the parish was 

INVERKEITHING, a parish on the south coast 
of the western part of Fifeshire. It contains the 
royal burgh of Inverkeithing, and the post-office vil- 
lage of Hillend. It comprehends the ancient par- 
ishes of Inverkeithing and Rosyth, which were con- 
joined in 1636. The united parish is bounded by 
the frith of Forth, and by the parishes of Dunferm- 
line and Dalgetty. The island of Inchgarvie and 
the rock of Bimar belong to it. A peninsula called 
the Ferry hills, projects southward into the Forth 
from the eastern part of the mainland of the parish, 
containing at its extremity the village of North 
Queensferry, and formerly belonging to Inverkeith- 
ing, but now annexed to Dunfermline. The main- 
land territory forms two belts, — the one extending 
east and west along the shore, except where inter- 
cepted by the Ferry hills peninsula, and measuring 
about 3J miles in length, by from J of a mile to 1J 
in breadth, — the other going northward at right 
angles from the eastern part of this, to the vicinity 
of Crossgates, and measuring, from the shore, nearly 
4 miles in length by generally about 1 mile in 
breadth. The surface of the Ferry hills peninsula 
is chiefly a range of greenstone hill, not exceeding 
300 feet of altitude above sea-level ; the surface in 
the north is partly rising ground, with southerly 
exposure; and the rest of the surface is principally 
low or undulating. A small portion of the land is 
under wood ; a small portion also is in pasture ; and 
all the rest is in a state of high cultivation. There 
are seven principal landowners, and a number of 
smaller ones. The valued rental is £6,866 Scotch. 
Assessed property in 1866, £8,270 9s. 5d. Green- 
stone, sandstone, and limestone are quarried. About 
a mile west of the burgh are the castle and lands of 
Rosyth, the property of the Earl of Hopetoun. 
Rosyth anciently belonged to a branch of the great 
family of Stuart, descended from James Stuart of 
Durrisdeer, brother-german to Walter the great 
steward of Scotland, father to Robert II., the first 
of the family who ascended the Scottish throne. The 
family of Stuart of Rosyth continued to flourish till 
about the beginning of last century, when, according 
to Sibbald, the last laird dying without issue and un- 
married, disponed the estate to a stranger, by whom 
it was sold to the Earl of Roseberry. The old cas- 
tle is situated on a rock on the shore, connected with 

the mainland by a causeway. All that now remains 
is a rained square tower, which formed the north- 
eastern angle of what must have been a pretty large 
square building. This ancient castle is alluded to 
by Sir Walter Scott in his novel of the Abbot ; and 
the tradition is — though we know not on what au- 
thority — that the wife of Oliver Cromwell was born 
here. Population of the parish in 1831, 3,189; in 
1861, 3,124. Houses, 486. The decrease in the 
population is partly accounted for by the transfer of 
North Queensferry to Dunfermline. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Dunfermline, 
and synod of Fife. Patron, Miss Preston of Valley- 
field. Stipend, £276 7s. 4d.; glebe, £40. Unappro- 
priated teinds, £29 13s. 1 Id. Schoolmaster's salary, 
£50, with about £70 fees. The parish church is 
a handsome structure, in the Gothic style, built in 
1826, and containing 1,000 sittings. There is an 
United Presbyterian church, with an attendance 
of 700. There are a large school connected with 
the U. P. church, and three private schools. 

The Town of Inverkeithing, a royal burgh and a 
seaport, stands on the coast, in the south-east of the 
parish, 2 miles north of North Queensferry, 4 south- 
east of Dunfermline, and 6J west-south-west of 
Burntisland. Its site is a pleasant rising-ground, 
with southern exposure, at the head of a small bay 
of its own name, which projects in a north-westerly 
direction from the frith, behind the Ferry hills pen- 
insula. Two little headlands protrude into the bay, 
separating the outward part of it from a sheltered 
inward part, and called respectively the East Ness 
and th? West Ness. The town consists of a main 
street of considerable length, running north-east and 
south-west, and several lanes diverging from it, with 
a number of houses fronting the harbour, and a row 
called Preston-crescent, running between the East 
Ness and the harbour. Many houses have been 
built or rebuilt within the last forty years ; so that 
the place has an improved appearance. The parish 
church, the parish schoolhouse, and the grain stock 
market are fine structures ; a rather lofty stone pil- 
lar at the cross is curious ; and the town-house and 
the United Presbyterian church draw attention. A 
lazaretto on the West Ness long gave the place a 
quarantine notoriety; but was sold by Government 
in 1835 for a trifling sum. 

The harbour is pretty good, though it might be 
deepened and greatly improved. Vessels of 200 tons 
burden can load and sail from it at spring-tides ; but 
it is usually frequented by smaller vessels. There 
are at present 25 vessels belonging to it, varying in 
burden from 20 to 100 tons, which are chiefly em- 
ployed in the coasting trade. A considerable number 
of foreign and English vessels load coal here, which 
is brought from the coal-works of Halbeath, Cuttle- 
hill, Townhill, Whitfield, and Fod. There are in 
the town, or connected with it, a patent slip, a ship- 
building yard, a foundry and iron ship-building es- 
tablishment, a distillery, tan-works, rope-works, and 
fire-brick and retort-works. A weekly grain market 
is held on Monday, and is well attended. Five an- 
nual fairs also are appointed to be held ; but they 
have long been merely nominal. The town has 
branch offices of the Eastern bank and the National 
bank, eight insurance agencies, a gas company, a 
public library, a masonic lodge, and a curling- club. 

Inverkeithing as a royal burgh is of great an- 
tiquity; the oldest existing charter having been 
granted by William the Lion, confirming one of a 
previous date. This charter was confirmed by 
James VI. in 1598. The burgh is governed by a 
provost, 2 bailies, a dean-of-guild, a treasurer, 9 
other councillors, and a town-clerk. The charter of 
James VI. contains a giant of customs from the 





great stone near Milnathort on the north, to the 
middle of the Forth on the south, and from the 
Water of Devon on the west, to the Water of 
Lcven on the east; and under this grant the town 
was in the habit of levying custom within the in- 
eluded territory. About 85 years ago it sold the 
right of levying custom at Dysart to the town of 
Dysart; but it still levies customs at Kinross and 
North-Queensferry. The charters contain very con- 
siderable grants of land ; and the town property at 
one time extended to near Crossgates. The town 
had also property at Ferryhill. These properties 
may now be worth from £500 to £1 ,000 a-year; but 
they were feued for very small feu-duties, when in 
a state of nature, about or previous to the beginning 
of the last century. Besides the right of customs, 
the present property consists of the East and West 
loans and Bois acre, the Town-lane, one third of the 
school and school-house, the stock-market, one- 
third of the parish-church, the town's mill and kiln, 
the inner and outer harbours, and certain debts due 
to the burgh. The revenue arising from these 
different sources, in the year 1832, was £564 17s. 
oja.j in 1840, £500 8s. 8d.; in 1865, about £645. 
luverkeithing unites with Dunfermline, Stirling, 
Culross, and South-Queensferry in sending a mem- 
ber to parliament. Municipal constituency in 
1862,53; parliamentary constituency, 60. Popula- 
tion of the municipal burgh in 1841, 1,G74; in 1861, 
1,512. Houses, 230. Population of the parlia- 
mentary burgh in 1861, 1,817. Houses 281. The 
widowed Queen of Robert III., the beautiful Ara- 
bella Drummond, resided for some time in Inver- 
keithing. She is said to have wished for a dwell- 
ing, from which she could behold the castle of 
Edinburgh, and made choice of a spot called Eott- 
mell's Inns; but how long she resided there, there 
is neither record nor tradition to tell. There is a 
tradition, however, that the Queen had a private 
chapel in the Inns, for herself and her domestics. 

INVERKEITHNIE, a parish, containing a post- 
office station of its own name, on the north-east 
border of Banffshire. It is bounded by Aberdeen- 
shire, and by the parishes of Rothiemay and Mar- 
noch. Its length eastward is 6 miles; and its 
greatest breadth is 5 miles. It forms a projection 
from the main body of Banffshire, being surrounded 
on all sides except the north by Aberdeenshire, and 
separated over even greater part of the north, or for 
a distance of 3A miles, by the river Deveron. That 
river is crossed at Boat-of-Inverkeithnie by a bridge ; 
and its banks, all along the parish, are beautifully 
ornate. The rivulet Keithnie traverses the interior 
of the parish northward to the Deveron, near the 
parish church ; and hence the name Inverkeithnie. 
The surface of the parish is variegated with hill and 
dale. About 4,000 acres of its entire area are either 
regularly or occasionally in tillage; about 800 have 
never been cultivated, and are either waste or pas- 
ture ; nearly 10 are in a state of undivided common ; 
and about 800 are under wood. There are ten land- 
owners. The real rental is about £3,000. Assessed 
property in 1860. £4,678. Population in 1831. 589; 
in 1861, 880. Houses, 158. — This parish is in the 
presbytery of Turriff, and synod of Aberdeen. 
Patron. T. G. Bremner, Esq. " Stipend, £214 18s. 
3d.; glebe, £10. Schoolmaster's salary is now 
£55, with £30 fees, a share in the Dick bequest, 
and £5 other emoluments. There is a Free church 
preaching station ; and the sum raised in connexion 
with it in 1855, was £27 Is. 6d. 

INVERKINDY, a post-office station in the val- 
ley of the Don, contiguous to the mouth of Kindv 
burn, on the mutual confines of the parishes of 
Strathdon and Towie, Aberdeenshire. 

IN'VERKINLASS. See Glenkinlass. 


INVERLEITH. See Edinburgh. 

INVERLEITHEN. See Innerleithen. 

INVERLEVEN. See Dudbiesjde. 

INVERLOCHY, an estate in the parish of Kil- 
monivaig, on the left side of the influx of the Loehv 
to Loch Eil, 2 miles north-east of Fort William, In- 
verness-shire. Here, according to a fabulous tra- 
dition, stood an ancient city where the Pictish 
kings occasionally resided, where King Achaius, in 
790, signed a treaty with Charlemagne, where vast 
numbers of Frenchmen and Spaniards resorted, and 
which was eventually destroyed by the Danes, and 
never afterwards rebuilt. Here, however, is the 
castle of Invcrlochy, a pile of undoubted antiquity, 
and of much military interest. This castle stands 
alone, in solitary magnificence, after having seen 
the river Lochy, that formerly filled its ditches, 
run in another course, and after having outlived all 
record of its own builder and age. It is a quad- 
rangular edifice, with round towers of three stories 
each at the angles, measuring 30 yards every way 
within the walls. The towers and ramparts are 
solidly built of stone and lime, 9 feet thick at the 
bottom, and 8 above. The towers are not entire, 
nor are they all equally high; the western is the 
highest and' largest, and" does not seem to have been 
less than 50 feet when entire; the rampart or screen 
between them is from 25 to 30 feet in height. About 
12 yards from the exterior walls are the traces of a 
ditch, which has been from 30 to 40 feet broad. The 
whole building covers about 1 ,600 yards; and within 
the ditch there are 7.000 yards, or nearly an English 
acre and a half. From the name of the western 
tower, and other circumstances, it is probable this 
castle was occupied, in the time of Edward I. of 
England, by the Comyns, who were then at the 
zenith of their power, and, it may, previous to that 
period, though not with equal probability, have 
been occupied by the thanes of Lochaber, par- 
ticularly by Banquo, the predecessor of the royal 
family of Stuart. 

Near this place, on the 2d of February, 1645, a 
battle was fought between a Jacobite army under 
the celebrated Marquis of Montrose, and an army, 
partly Highland and partly Lowland, under the 
Marquis of Argyle. Montrose had come up from 
devastating Argyleshire to attempt the seizure of 
Inverness, and was marching thither through the 
eastern part of the Great glen, when he suddenly 
learned that Argyle, with a force nearly double 
his own, w r as following him. He turned instant!}' 
about, made a forced march circuitously and secretly 
to the foot of Glennevis, and found himself there in 
the vicinity of Argyle's army, encamped at Inver- 
lochy. He arrived in the evening of the 1st, and 
lay under arms all night. Argyle, seeing battle to 
be at hand, and excusing himself on account of some 
recent contusions he had received, committed his 
army to the charge of bis cousin Campbell of Auch- 
inbreck, and went on board a boat in the loch. At 
the dawn of the 2d, both armies made preparation 
for battle. Montrose drew out his army in an ex- 
tended line. The right wing consisted of a regi- 
ment of Irish, under the command of Macdonald, 
his major-general; the centre was composed of the 
Athole-men, the Stuarts of Appin, and the Mac- 
donalds of Glencoe, and other Highlanders, severally 
under the command of Clanranald, M'Lean, and 
Glengarry; and the left wing consisted of some 
Irish, at the head of whom was the brave Colonel 
O'Kean. A body of Irish was placed behind the 
main body as a reserve, under the command of 
Colonel James M'Donald, alias O'Neill. The gen- 




ei'al of Argyle's army formed it in a similar man- 
ner. The Lowland forces were equally divided, 
and formed the wings, between which the High- 
landers were placed. Upon a rising ground, behind 
this line, General Campbell drew up a reserve of 
Highlanders, and placed a field-piece. Within the 
house of Inverlochy — which was only about a 
pistol-shot from the place where the army was 
formed — he planted a body of forty or fifty men to 
protect the place, and to annoy Montrose's men 
with discharges of musquetry. 

At sunrise, Montrose gave orders to his men to 
advance. The attack was commenced by his left 
wing under O'Kean charging the right wing of 
Argyle's army. This was immediately followed by 
a furious assault upon the centre and left wing of 
Argyle's army, by Montrose's right wing and 
centre. Argyle's right wing not being able to re- 
sist the attack of Montrose's left, turned about and 
tied, which circumstance had such a discouraging 
effect on the remainder of Argyle's troops, that after 
discharging their muskets, the whole of them, in- 
cluding the reserve, took to their heels. The rout 
now became general. An attempt was made by a 
body of about 200 of the dismayed fugitives, to 
throw themselves into the castle of Inverlochy; but 
a party of Montrose's horse prevented them. Others 
of the fugitives directed their course along the side 
of Loch Eil; but all these were either killed or 
drowned in the pursuit. The greater part, however, 
lied towards the hills in the direction of Argyleshire, 
and were pursued by Montrose's men, to the dis- 
tance of about 8 miles. As little resistance was 
made by the defeated party in their flight, the car- 
nage was very great, being reckoned at nearly 1,500 
men, or about the half of Argyle's army; and many 
more would have been cut off had it not been for 
the humanity of Montrose, who did every thing in 
his power to save the unresisting fugitives from the 
fury of his men, who were not disposed to give 
quarter to the unfortunte Campbells. Having taken 
the castle, Montrose not only treated the officers, 
who were from the Lowlands, with kindness, but 
gave them their liberty on parole. The loss on the 
side of Montrose was extremely trifling. The num- 
ber of wounded is indeed not stated, but he had only 
three privates killed. Immediately after the battle 
he sent a messenger to the King with a letter, giv- 
ing an account of it, at the conclusion of which he 
rxultingly said to Charles, " Give me leave, after I 
have reduced this country, and conquered from Dan 
to Beersheba, to say to your Majesty, as David's 
general to his master, Come thou thyself, lest this 
country be called by my name." When the King 
received this letter, the royal and parliamentary 
commissioners were sitting atUxbridge negotiating 
the terms of a peace; but Charles was induced by 
it to break off the negoeiation, — a circumstance 
which led to his ruin. 

INVERMAKK-CASTLE. See Esk (The North), 

INVERMAY. See Fohteviot and May (The). 

INVERMORISTON, a post-office station, at the 
mouth of Glenmoriston, on the left side of Loch 
Ness, 7 miles north-east of Fort-Augustus, Inver- 
ness-shire. Here also are an inn, and the mansion 
of Invermoriston. 

INVERNESS, a parish on the north-east border 
of Inverness-shire. It contains the town of Inver- 
ness, and the villages of Balloch, Clachnaharry, 
Culcabock, Hilton, Resaudrie, and Smithtown of 
Culloden. It is bounded on the north-east by the 
Beauly and the Moray friths; on the east by Petty; 
on the south-east and south by Croy and Daviot; 
on the south-west by Loch-Ness and the parish of 

Dores; and on the west by Urquhart, Kiltarlity, 
and Kirkhill. Its length from south-west to north- 
east is 14 miles; and its average breadth is about 2 J 
miles. It consists principally of the north-eastern- 
most portion of the Great glen of Scotland, extend- 
ing from the lower part of Loch Ness to the friths; 
but is also flanked on both sides by the terminating 
hill-screens of the glen, which constitute its only 
upland or rocky grounds. The surface of the valley 
has some pleasant diversification of hillock and 
terrace, but is otherwise smooth and but little ele- 
vated above the level of the sea. The most remark- 
able diversification is the hill of Tomnahurich, on 
the left side of the Ness, near the town. It is a 
beautiful isolated mount, nearly resembling a ship 
with her keel uppermost. It stands on a base, 
whose length is 1,984 feet, and breadth 176; its ele- 
vation, from the channel of the river, is 250 feet. 
A little to the west of this is another gravel mount 
called Tor-a'-Bhean, which rises to the height of 
about 300 feet. The appearance of the flanking 
heights, together with that of the intervening 
valley and the contiguous marine waters, will be 
described in our account of the environs of the town. 
Loch Ness, which projects into the south-west end 
of the parish, and the river Ness, which traverses 
it 8 miles north-eastward to the Beauly frith, will 
be separately described. See Ness (Loch), Doch- 
four (Loch), and Ness (The). The affluent streams 
are all inconsiderable; yet some of them, as the 
burns of Aberiachan, Dochfour, Holm, and Inches, 
have beautiful cascades and fine woodland scenery. 
The coast-line is fiat, and has a well-cultivated sea- 
hoard. The soil of the arable lands in the upper 
part of the parish is light and sandy, with a subsoil 
of hard gravel ; but that in the vicinity of the town 
is a fine clayey loam, originally formed by deposit 
from the river and the friths. When the Old Statis- 
tical Account was written, the number of arable 
acres was supposed to be about 5,000; in the New 
Statistical Account they are calculated at from 
8,000 to 9,000, with about 1,000 irnproveable. The 
land-rent of the whole parish was, in the year 1754, 
3,268 bolls and 3 firlots victual, and £575 7s. lljd. 
sterling. The boll at that period was valued to the 
tenant at 9 merks Scots, or 10s. sterling, with cus- 
toms and services, which were of little value to the 
proprietor, but often of distressing consequences to 
the tenant. The present rental is about £20,000. 
The principal proprietors have mansions on their 
estates; the largest and most elegant of which are 
Culloden-house, Darochville, Muirtown-house, Raig- 
more-house, and Dochfour-house. There were sev- 
eral years ago, near the town, and due east from it, 
on the upper plain of the parish, several Draidical 
temples. Some of these still remain, but others 
have been destroyed by the tenantry. At some dis- 
tance from the mouth of the river Ness, a consider- 
able way within flood-mark, there is a large cairn 
of stones, the origin of which is of very remote an- 
tiquity. It is called Cairn Aire, that is, ' the Cairn 
of the sea.' There is a beacon erected on Cairn aire, 
to apprize vessels coming into the river of danger 
from it. In the Beauly frith, due west from this 
cairn, there are three cairns at considerable dis- 
tances, one from the other. The largest is in the 
middle of the frith, and accessible at low water. It 
appears to have been a burying-place, by the urns 
which were discovered in it. Oliver Cromwell's 
fort, and other ancient buildings, will be noticed in 
our description of the town. The vitrified fort, on 
the summit of Craig-Phadric, is a very remarkable 
structure. See Craig-Phadric. The town and all 
its neighbourhood were frequently disturbed, in the 
olden times, by bloody clan conflicts; and on the 




north-eastern border, in 1746, was fought the me- 
morable battle of Cullodcn. See Culloden. The 
roads and other communications of the palish, both 
in number and in quality, are worthy at once of its 
country parts as a rich rural district, and of its town 
as the beautiful, enterprizing, much frequented 
capital of the Highlands. Population in 1831, 
14,324; in 1S(31, 16,162. Houses, 2,460. Assessed 
property in 1860, exclusive of the burgh, was 

This parish is the seat of a presbytery in the 
synod of Moray. There are three parochial charges, 
and three parochial churches, the High, the Gaelic, 
and the West. The patronage of the first and the 
second is held by the Crown and Professor IT. Scott; 
and that of the third, by the Crown. The stipend 
of each of two of the ministers is £276 10s. 2d., with 
a glebe worth about £80; and that of the third is 
£200, with a glebe worth £25; but none of them 
has a manse. The value of the unappropriated 
teinds is £1,073 lis. 6d. There are three Free 
churches, the High, the East, and the North ; two 
United Presbyterian churches, the English and the 
Gaelic; an Independent chapel, an Episcopalian 
chapel, a Wesleyan Methodist chapel, and a Roman 
Catholic chapel. The number of sittings in the three 
parish churches is 4,670; in the three Free churches, 
3,170; in the two United Presbyterian churches, 
1,016; in the Independent chapel, 530; in the Epis- 
copalian chapel, 600; in the Wesleyan Methodist 
chapel, 320; and in the Roman Catholic chapel. 400. 
The maximum attendance, on the Census Sabbath 
in 1851, at the three parish churches was 1,750; at 
the three Free churches, 2,747; at the two United 
Presbyterian churches, 794; at the Independent 
chapel, 281; at the Episcopalian chapel, 300; at the 
Wesleyan Methodist chapel, 92; and at the Koman 
Catholic chapel, 201. The receipts of the High 
Free church in 1865 were £1,771 3s. 8d.; of the 
East Free church, £432 2s. lid.; of the North Free 
church, £536 2s. 2d. The educational establishments 
of the parish comprise the royal academy. Bell's insti- 
tution or Farraline - park school, Bell's central 
school, Bell's Markinch school, the Raining school, 
the Free church institution, the Roman Catholic 
school, several boarding establishments, and a 
number of miscellaneous and private schools. The 
chief of these establishments, together with other 
institutions, will be noticed in our account of the 
town. The present parish of Inverness compre- 
hends the ancient parishes of Inverness and Bona. 
See Boxa. 

INVERNESS, a market town, a sea-port, a royal 
burgh, the capital of Inverness-shire, and the sup- 
posed original metropolis of Pictavia, stands 19A 
miles south-south, west of Cromarty, 38 j west-south- 
west of Elgin, 61 J north-east of Fort-William, 118J 
west-north-west of Aberdeen, and 156J north-north- 
west of Edinburgh. Its site is on both banks — chief!}' 
the right one — of the river Ness, from 4 a mile to It 
mile above its entrance into that long and beautiful 
demi-serni-eircular sweep of marine waters which, 
inward from this point, is called the Beauly frith or 
loch, and outward, is assigned a community of name 
with the great gulf of the Moray frith. Three large 
openings, — the basin of the Beauly frith from the 
west, — that of the Moray frith from the north-east, 
and the divergent termination of the Glenmore- 
nan-Albin from the south, — meet at the town, and 
pour around it a rich confluence of the beauties of 
landscape and the advantages of communication. 
A plain, marked with few inequalities, lying at but 
a slight elevation above sea-level, traversed by the 
river Ness, from south-west to north-east, and luxu- 
rious in its soil and its embellishments, stretches in- 

ward from the friths, and hears on its bosom the 
whole of the town except the southern outskirts. A 
bank from 80 to 90 feet high, part of a great terrace 
which sweeps along from the vicinity of Loch-Ness 
to the river Spey, rises behind the town, and gives 
a charming site to a sprinkling of villas and the 
newest suburban erections. Stretching into the 
interior from this bank, and forming a table-land 
equal to it in elevation, lies a plain from one to three 
miles broad, worked into high cultivation, feathered 
at intervals with trees, and numerously gemmed 
with country-seats. The mountain-ridges which 
screen the Glenmore-nan-Albin, seem to do homage 
to this plain; they subside from their sternness into 
picturesque bill-beauty; they lose, as they approach 
it, both their loftiness and their asperity; and they 
file off, on the east side, into a smooth and gently- 
declining ridge about 400 feet high, and, on the 
west side, into a gorgeous range of many-shaped 
and many-tinted hills, rocky, scaured. or wooded on 
their sides, tabular or rounded in their summits, 
and terminating about two miles west of the town 
in the magnificent Craig-Phadric, which lifts a 
mimic forest into mid-air, and is " distinguished by 
its beautiful tabular summit, and a succession of 
bold rocky escarpments along its acclivities." 

The environs of the town, comprising these vari- 
ous features, are very beautiful; and yet they do 
not please either eye or imagination more than the 
expanses of scenery immediately beyond. The 
mountain-barriers which rise up on the compara- 
tively near horizon, and form along their summits, 
a bold well-defined sky-line, exquisitely contrast as 
a back-ground with the amenities of the vales and 
the waters which they enclose. A serrated range on 
the south-west and south lifts up at its termination 
in the far distance the fine cupola of Mealfour- 
vounie, well-known to the navigators of the friths 
as a land-mark, and to the natives as a barometer. 
Peaks, which in mid - summer are capped with 
clouds, and over a large part of the year are snow- 
clad, tower aloft in clusters toward the west, round 
the head of Loch-Beauly. A hill}' range, very pic- 
turesque in its features, flanks the opposite shore of 
the friths, and runs off toward Fortrose to terminate 
in the rugged heights called the Sutois of Cromarty; 
but, beyond this, though at no great distance, rises 
the huge form of Benwyvis, upwards of 3,500 feet 
in height, seldom snowless even in summer, and 
sending off extensive ramifications, in long round- 
backed outline, overtopping some nearer eminences. 

The Moray frith, or that part of it which is here 
made to monopolize its name, carries the eye north- 
eastward, between shores which, while they rival 
each other in attraction, jointly rival any others in 
Scotland, to the dim distant mountain -ranges of 
Elgin, Banff, Sutherland, and Caithness. While 
we smile, then, at the enthusiasm of the not very 
enthusiastic Dr. M'Culloch, we can hardly refrain 
from sympathizing with it when, comparing Inver- 
ness with the superb metropolis of Scotland, he 
says: " When I have stood in Queen-street of Edin- 
burgh, and looked towards Fife, I have sometimes 
wondered whether Scotland contained a finer view 
of its class. But I have forgotten this on my arri- 
val at Inverness. Surely if a comparison is to be 
made with Edinburgh, always excepting its own 
romantic disposition, the frith of Forth must yield 
the palm to the Moray frith, the surrounding coun- 
try must yield altogether, and Inverness must take 
the highest rank. Everything is done, too, for In- 
verness that can be effected by wood and cultivation ; 
the characters of which, here, have altogether a 
richness, a variety, and a freedom which we miss 
round Edinburgh. The mountain-screens are finer 




more various, and more near. Each outlet is dif- 
ferent from the others, and each is heautiful ; whether 
we proceed towards Fort-George, or towards Moy, 
or enter the valley of the Ness, or skirt the shores 
of the Beauly frith, while a short and commodious 
ferry wafts as to the lovely country opposite, rich 
with wood, and country-seats, and cultivation. It 
is the boast, also, of Inverness to unite two opposite 
qualities, and each in the greatest perfection, — the 
characters of a rich open lowland country with those 
of the wildest alpine sceneiy, hoth also heing close 
at hand, and in many places intermixed; while to 
all this is added a series of maritime landscape not 
often equalled." Many persons, indeed, estimate 
the scenery around Inverness at a much lower value; 
yet someof even these follow Dr. M'Culloch in saying 
that it comprises " rich open lowlands and the wild- 
est mountain-scenery, often intermixed, and a series 
of maritime landscapes, each different and all beau- 
tiful." The very name of the Ness, which gives 
name to Inverness, is associated with notions of 
most magnificent sceneiy; for that name, in this 
case, is generally understood by competent judges, 
to be, not ness " a promontory," but ess " a water- 
fall," and to refer to the superb cataracts and cas- 
cades, by which the waters of the Ness are fed. 

Approaching the town by the old military road 
from Fort-Augustus along the right bank of the 
Ness, we pass the parliamentary boundary at Ault- 
naskiach burn, and travel 5 furlongs due north, with 
1he river immediately on our left, and a rich stud- 
ding of mansions and villas on our right. At the 
end of 3i furlongs we pass the Haugh, with Ness 
Bank close to the river; and immediately beyond it, 
at a point whence the and the old Edin- 
burgh roads sharply diverge, we enter the main body 
of the burgh. A few yards before us, close on the 
margin of the river, is the Castle-hill, a mere projec- 
tion of the bank or terrace which flanks the lower 
plain of the Ness. A cluster of streets and alleys 
near the Castle, on the side towards High-street, are 
the oldest existing parts of Inverness; occupying 
the site of its humble tenements when a mere vil- 
lage, and exhibiting not a few antiquarian remnants 
of its condition during the later ages of feudalism. 
Eighty or a hundred yards below the Castle-hill, 
the river is spanned by a fine bridge; and thence, 
or rather from the Castle-hill, it runs for half-a- 
mile north-north-westward, and over that distance, 
carries down in the same direction, and on its right 
bank, the chief district of the town. The High- 
street, at first narrow, and bearing the name of 
Bridge-street, but afterwards spacious and airy, ex- 
tends 320 yards north-eastward, on a line with the 
bridge, cutting nearly at right angles the thorough- 
fares which run parallel with the river. Petty-street 
continues the High-street for about 100 yards, and 
leads to the great road along the Moray frith to 
Aberdeen, and also to the great Highland road 
through Badenoch and Athole to Perth. A rising- 
ground, called the Crown, situated a little east of 
Petty-street, was anciently surmounted by the ori- 
ginal castle of Inverness, and overlooked the earliest 
houses of the town, and the site of the ancient 
cross. Church-street, at about 130 yards' distance 
from the river, extends 500 yards north-north-west- 
ward, and is continued about 1 70 yards by Chapel- 
street. From the upper end of Chapel-street, and 
going off from it at a very acute angle, Academy- 
street extends 450 yards south-eastward and 
north-westward. All the space lying between it: 
and High-street, is a dense phalanx of alleys, brief 
streets and interior courts, — the most crowded 
district in the burgh. Six or seven streets, 
wholly or partially cdificed, ran down from Church- 

street and the end of Chapel-street to the river; ami 
on the last of these touching it, it makes a rapid 
bend from the north-north-west to the north-north- 
east, so as to be spanned 360 yards lower down by the 
lower bridge, carrying across a thoroughfare which 
approaches nearly on a straight line from Chapel- 
street. A few yards below this bridge is the old 
pier, and 300 yards farther down is the new harbour, 
both flanked by Shore-street, extending due north. 
now on the margin of the river, and now at a con- 
siderable distance. 

The part of the town which lies on the left bank 
of the Ness, though all modern, and gracefully laid 
out, is not strictly continuous or compact, and pre- 
sents such diversity of street arrangement as cannot 
in sufficiently few words be properly described. Its 
streets, proportionately to its aggregate bulk, are 
surprisingly numerous, and agreeably interlaced. 
In a general view, it is a belt of edifices between S 
and 6 furlongs in length, and from 100 to 420 yards 
wide, folded along the margin, and following the 
curvature of the river, from the upper bridge to a point 
opposite the new harbour. Toumahurich-street, 
running upwards of 400 yards off nearly on a line 
with the upper bridge, leads out to the road along the 
north side of Loch Kess by Urquhart to Glenmoris- 
ton, Glenshiel, and Skye. King-street, running 
parallel with the river, and Telford-Street, continuing 
King-street, but curving away to the east-north- 
east, point the way across the commencement of the 
Caledonian canal, and past the canal basin at little 
more than J of a mile's distance to the great north 
road by Beauly to Dingwall and Tain. On this 
road, immediately above the sea-lock of the canal, 
and just within the parliamentary boundary of the 
burgh, lies the fishing-village of Clachnaharry. In 
the extreme north, and in the vicinity of the lower 
bridge, the western division of the town, after hav- 
ing become narrowed, opens in a half fan-like form 
into Grant, North King, Nelson, Brown, and other 
streets, and sends off a brief road to Kessock ferry, 
which, from a pier at the mouth of the Ness, main- 
tains easy and frequent communication with the 
beautiful coast along the Eoss-shire side of the 

All the western town, and nearly all the outskirts, 
as well as some of the interior of the eastern town, 
may at present compare, in general neatness and 
taste of masonry, and in the aggregate properties 
which produce a pleasing impression, with any 
modern town of its size in the United Kingdom. 
Even the older streets compensate for their want 
of regularity and beauty, by interesting remains 
of a picturesqueness which, at a very recent date, 
arrayed them in gable-end constructions, arched 
gateways, hanging balconies, projecting towers, and 
round turnpike stairs. Though a crowded winter- 
seat of aristocracy, and packed with mansions in the 
Flemish style, belonging to the landed proprietors of 
an extensive circumjacent country, the town — even 
so late as the middle of last century — had few houses 
which were not thatched with heath or straw, or 
which contained ceiled or plastered rooms; while, at 
a still later date, it knew nothing of the luxuries 
of municipal police. About 75 or 85 years ago, 
the magistrates, in order to induce parties to edifice 
the airy and modern thoroughfares, granted per- 
petual feu-rights for very trifling sums, and urged 
forward the erections by the most condescending 
encouragements. As the last century closed, Provost 
William Inglis, a patriotic and energetic citizen, who 
died in 1801, achieved great improvements in mo- 
dernizing and polishing the burgh, and strongly im- 
pelled it toward its present position. In 1831, a pro- 
cess was commenced, and soon afterwards was coin- 




ploted, of causewaying the camage-waj'S with 
granite, laying the side paths with Caithness- flag, 
and ramifying the town with common sewers. The 
cost of tins great and beautifying improvement ex- 
ceeded £6,000, and was defrayed by an assessment 
of 2£ per cent, on house rents. A suit of gas-works, 
erected at the expense of £8,757, lights the town 
with gas, — said to be the best in the kingdom ; and 
water-works, which, along with the conveying pipes, 
cost about £7,000, afford an ample supply of water. 

The public buildings of Inverness, though possess- 
ing no remarkable features of elegance or beauty, 
are both creditable and interesting. The castle, or 
suit of county rooms, was built on the Castle-hill, in 
1835, at a cost of about £7,500, and after a design 
by Mr. Burn of Edinburgh ; and the new jail was 
built alongside of this, and in unison with it, eight 
years later. The commanding site of these edifices, 
the neatness of their architecture, their resemblance 
to a spacious English castle, and their interior com- 
modiousness, unite to render them superior to most 
Scottish buildings of their class. At the corner of 
Church-street and High-street stood the old jail, 
connected with a remarkably handsome spire 130 
feet high. It was built in 1791, at the cost of about 
£3,400, only £1,800 of which was expended on the 
jail itself. The spire resembles that of St. Andrew's 
church in Edinburgh, and was built by the same 
architect, but excels it in symmetry, and is remark- 
ably handsome. Its top was severely twisted by 
the earthquake of 1816, so as to become ragged and 
ruinous; but, instead of being left in that state as a 
curious monument of the event, was, some time after, 
repaired. The jail was taken down in 1854. In 
High- street, nearly opposite the head of Church- 
street, stand the Town-hall and Exchange, an unor- 
namented building, erected in 1708. In front of this 
is the ancient cross of the town ; and at the base of the 
cross a curious, blue, lozenge-shaped stone, reckoned 
the palladium of the burgh, and called C'lach-na-cud- 
den, 'the Stone of the tubs,' from its having been a 
noted resting-place for the water-pitchers or deep 
tubs of bygone generations of women when passing 
from the river. In the front wall of the Exchange and 
Town-house, the armorial bearings of the town — a 
shield representing the Crucifixion, and supported by 
an elephant and a camel, with the motto ' Concordia 
et Fidelitas' — together with the royal arms, are beau- 
tifully carved. In the town-hall are good portraits of 
Sir John Barnard and Sir Hector Munro. benefac- 
tors to the town, the former painted by Ramsay; a 
full-length portrait, by Syme of Edinburgh, of Pro- 
vost Robertson of Aultnaskiach, hung up as a testi- 
monial of respect by his fellow-citizens; and a copy 
of the original portrait, by Ramsay, of the celebrated 
Flora Macdonald, presented by Mr. Eraser of Madras, 
a native of the town. Near the head of Church- 
street stands a high and spacious but clumsy and 
heavy edifice, called the Northern Meeting-rooms, 
built by subscription, and elegantly fitted up into a 
ball-room and a dining-room, each 60 feet long and 
30 wide, and respectively 20 and 18 feet high. 

On the north-east side of Academy-street stands 
the Inverness Academy, an extensive erection, hand- 
some but not showy, opened, in 1792, for the educa- 
tion, on a liberal scale, of the families of the upper 
classes throughout the Northern Highlands. It has 
a large pleasure-ground behind for the recreation of 
the scholars; and is distributed in the interior into 
class-rooms for five masters, and a public ball em- 
bellished with a bust, by Westmacott, of Hector 
Eraser, an eminent teacher of Inverness, and with a 
masterly painting of the Holy Family variously as- 
cribed to Sasso Ferrato and to Perino de Vaga. The 
Academy was erected by numerous and munificent 

subscriptions, is upheld by a fund of upwards o( 
£4,000, besides an annual grant of £81 from the 
town; has a body of directors who are incorporated 
by royal charter; and affords liberal training in all 
departments of a commercial and a classical educa- 
tion, with the elements of mathematics and philoso- 
phy. Attached to it is a small museum, collected 
by the Northern institution for the promotion of 
science and literature, which was established in 1825. 
With the Academy is connected a bequest, left in 
1803, by Captain William Mackintosh, of the Hin- 
dostan East Indiaman, for the education of boys of 
certain branches of the Clan Mackintosh, the present 
value of which is estimated at £25,000. A proposal 
was made a few years ago for amalgamating the 
Academy and the Mackintosh funds, with the view 
of so raising the institution, and eventually obtain- 
ing for it such government support, as should render 
it equal in character to some of the Scotch colleges, 
and a general school of resort for the North High- 
lands. Close to the Academy grounds is the terminus 
of the Inverness and Nairn railway, opened in No- 
vember, 1855. Off Academy-street by Margaret- 
street, with spacious ground in front, stands the 
Farraline-park school, a handsome and conspicuous 
institution recently erected by the magistrates and 
council as Dr. Bell's trustees, and affording instruc- 
tion to a large attendance of children on the Madras 
or monitorial system. The old academy, situated 
near the lower end of Church-street, was bequeathed 
in 1668 to the community by Provost Alexander 
Dunbar; and, after the transference of its funds to 
the new academy, it was fitted up for a public library 
and some similar uses, and is now the poor-house. 
In 1747, Mr. John Raining of Norwich bequeathed 
£1,000 for building and endowing a school in any 
part of the Highlands the General Assembly should 
appoint. The school was founded at Inverness, un- 
der the management of the Society for propagating 
Christian Knowledge, and placed under the conduct 
of two teachers; and it continues still to be in a 
flourishing condition. The Free church model in- 
stitution is a very effective school, with a department 
for Latin, Greek, and geometry, a commercial depart- 
ment, an English department, and a female indus- 
trial department. Inverness on the whole — as may 
be inferred from these statements, and from "what 
we said in our account of the parish — is peculiarly 
well-supplied with the means of instruction, both in 
public schools and in private ones, for all ranks of 
society, and in all departments of education. 

On the left bank of the Ness, 3 furlongs above the 
upper bridge, stands the Infirmary of the northern 
counties, built in 1S04, and supported chiefly by 
voluntary contributions. It consists of a large cen- 
tral front and two wings, and is surrounded at some 
distance with iron palisades, enclosing a spacious 
area. It is commodiously and salubriously fitted up 
in the interior, has a suit of hot and cold baths, and 
is provided with regular medical attendance and 
every other requisite. The new Caledonian bank, 
in High-street, opposite the Exchange, and looking 
up Castle -street, is a remarkably fine edifice, 
erected recently, after a design by Mr. Mackenzie 
of Elgin, and somewhat resembles, on a small 
scale, the superb Commercial bank in Edinburgh. 
" Above the basement, which contains two finely 
carved archways, is a large portico with four 
fluted columns, having beautifully carved Corin- 
thian capitals, which support a massive pediment, 
within which are arranged a group of allegorical 
figures, from the classic chisel of Mr. H. Ritchie 
of Edinburgh. The centre figure is Caledonia, 
holding in her hand the Roman fasces, emhle 
matical of unity. On the right is a figure repre- 





Renting the Ness, from whose side rises another 
female form symbolic of a tributary stream. On 
the extreme right are two small figures rowing a 
bark, representing Commerce. On the left is Plenty 
pouring out the contents of her cornucopia ; a reaper 
with an armful of cut corn, a shepherd and sheep, 
emblematical of the rural interests of the country." 
The post-office and the Union hotel are also hand- 
some new buildings ; and not a few private edifices 
in the town, so beautiful as to be public ornaments, 
as well as beautiful villas in the suburbs and the 
environs, have of late years been erected. 

The Established High church, situated near the 
foot of Church-street, and devoted to English preach- 
ing, is a large plain edifice, standing compactly with 
an old square tower, which is said to have been built 
by Oliver Cromwell, and whose soft clear-toned bell 
is believed to have been brought by him from the 
ancient cathedral of Fortrose. The Established 
Gaelic church, situated beside the High church, and 
appropriated exclusively to Gaelic, has no exterior 
attraction, but possesses within an old and elegantly 
carved oaken pulpit. The Established West church 
and the Free High church are handsome new edi- 
fices. The North Free church, situated in Chapel- 
street, is a large good building. The Episcopalian 
chapel, in Church-street, is a very handsome struc- 
ture, though still wanting a tower to render it com- 
plete. The Roman Catholic chapel also is finely 
ornamental ; and the other places of worship are 
pleasant and creditable ecclesiastical edifices. 

A wooden bridge, which existed in the time of 
Cromwell, and is characterized by one of his officers 
as ' the weakest, in his opinion, that ever straddled 
over so strong a stream,' stood near the site of the 
present upper bridge, and communicated with the 
town on the right bank of the river by an arched 
way which was surmounted by a house. In Sep- 
tember 1664, upwards of 100 persons formed acrowd 
upon this frail structure, and caused its fall, yet all 
escaped destruction. In 1685, a handsome stone 
bridge of seven ribbed arches was built instead of 
it, at a cost of £1,300, defrayed by voluntary con- 
tribution throughout the kingdom. Between the 
second and third arches, was a dismal vault, used 
first as a jail, and afterwards as a madhouse. This 
appalling place of durance, whose inmate was 
perched between the constant hoarse sound of the 
stream beneath, and the occasional trampling of feet 
and rattle of wheels overhead, was in use so late as 
45 years ago, and is said not to have been abandoned 
till its last miserable inmate, a maniac, had been 
devoured by rats. The bridge was overthrown by 
a great flood in January 1849 ; and an iron suspen- 
sion bridge in lieu of it, a large imposing structure, 
was raised in 1855, at the cost of above £26,000. 
The lower bridge, nearly on a line with Chapel-street, 
is a wooden erection built in 1808 by subscription, 
and is now fast going to decay. At two beautiful 
islets in the Ness, very nearly united, measuring 
respectively 1J and 1J furlong in length, and lying 
about a mile above the town, two handsome sus- 
pension bridges have been flung across to connect 
them, the one with the right bank and the other 
with the left. These islands — once noted as the 
scene of rural feasts and semi-bacchanalian orgies 
given by the magistrates to the judges at the assize 
courts — have been tastefully cut into pleasure- 
walks, profusely planted and variously beautified 
as public promenades ; and, easily approached by 
the ornamental bridges, and lying in the bosom of 
an almost luscious landscape, they rank among the 
most pleasant public grounds in Scotland. 

The extinct and ancient public structures of the 
town present various associations of stirring interest. 

The oldest or original castle of Inverness, thai 
which stood on ' the Crown,' has for centuries been 
untraceable, except by traditional identification of 
its site. This edifice was very probably, as Shak- 
speare assumes, the property of Macbeth, who, being 
by birth the maormor or ' great man of Ross,' and 
becoming by marriage that also of Moray, could 
hardly fail to have the mastery of a stronghold at 
the mouth of the Ness ; and, true to the description 
of the prince of dramatic poets, ' this castle had a 
pleasant seat,' the air around which 

" Nimbly and sweetly recommends itself 
Unto our gentle senses." 

But, according to the concurrent opinion of modern 
antiquaries, it was not, as Shakspeare represents, 
and as Boethius and Buchanan relate, the scene of 
King Duncan's murder by Macbeth, — that deed hav- 
ing been perpetrated at a spot called, in the Chro- 
niconElegaicum, Bothgofuane, 'a smithy,' and placed 
by some near Inverness, but by most near Elgin. 
When Malcolm Canmore vanquished his father's 
murderer, he naturally seized his strongholds, and 
dealt with them at will ; and he then razed his castle 
of Inverness, and built instead of it, and as a royal 
residence, a fortress on the summit of the Castle-hill, 
the site of the present county buildings. This new 
Cfistle figured for several centuries as unitedly a seat 
of royalty and a place of military strength ; receiving 
at intervals within its precincts the persons of the 
kings and princes of Scotland, and regularly serving 
as a vantage-ground, whence they or their servants 
overawed the insubordinate and turbulent north. 
Shaw Macduff, son of the sixth Earl of Fife, the 
assumer of the name of Mackintosh, the assistant 
of Malcolm in crushing an insurrection in Moray, and 
the acquirer of great property in the north, was made 
hereditary governor of the castle. In 1245, it be- 
came the prison of Sir John Bisset of Lovat, for the 
imputed crimes of connection with the murder of the 
Earl of Athole, and of fealtyship to the Lord of the 
Isles. Soon afterwards it was captured, during the 
minority of one of its hereditary keepers, by the 
Comyns of Badenoch; and thence till the begin- 
ning of next century, it remained in their possession. 
In 1303, it was seized by the partisans of Edward I. 
of England ; and, in turn, it was captured by the 
friends of Robert Bruce. The patriot founder of a 
new dynasty of Scottish kings was a wanderer in the 
Western islands when this key fortress of the North 
became his ; and he is said to have been inspirited 
by the news of the acquisition, to that course of dar- 
ing enterprise which conducted him to triumph and 
the throne. 

From Bruce's time till that of James I., the castle 
was retained in the immediate power of the Crown ; 
and at the accession of the latter monarch, it was 
repaired and refortified, and again put into the he- 
reditary keeping of the captain of the clan Chattan, 
the chief of the Mackintoshes. In 1427, James I., 
when in a progress through the north, to castigate 
some turbulent chiefs, held a parliament in the cas- 
tle, summoning to it all his northern barons. Alex 
ander, Lord of the Isles, was, on this occasion, made 
prisoner for a year; and, when freed from durance, 
lie returned with an army at. his heels to wreak ven- 
geance on his prison ; and, imposing on the autho- 
rities by pretence of friendship, and consigning the 
town to burning and pillage, he made a bold attempt 
to seize the castle, but was repelled by its governor. 
In 1455, John, his successor, quite as turbulent as 
he, or more probably Donald Balloch of Isla, acting 
as John's lieutenant, rushed down upon the town, 
and, while abandoning it like Alexander to the flamci 
and plunder, made a more successful effort against 




the castle, and took it by surprise. In 14(3-!, the 
castle was visited and temporarily occupied bv James 
III. ; and in 1499, by James IV. In 1508, the 
keepership of the castle was conferred hereditarily 
on the Earl of Huntly ; and though eventually be- 
coming the most merely ideal of offices, it went regu- 
larly down to his descendants, but was given to the 
county by the late Duke of Gordon. In 1555, the 
castle received the Queen-regent, Mary of Guise, and 
was the scene of a convention of estates and extraor- 
dinary courts summoned by her to quiet the High- 
lands, and punish caterans and political offenders ; 
and, at the same time, it endungeoned the Earl of 
Caithness, for breach of her laws and defiance of her 
authority, in affording his protection to freebooters. 
In 1562, Queen Mary, having entered the town at- 
tended by the Earl of Moray, was repelled from the 
castle-gates by the governor of the fortress, a crea- 
ture of the Earl of Huntly, and was obliged to take 
up her residence and to hold her court in a private 
house; but strengthened by the accession to her 
troops of the Mackintoshes, the Frasers, and the 
Munroes, she reduced the castle, and put the gover- 
nor to death. In 1644, on intelligence of the de- 
scent of a party of Irish on the west coast to join 
the Marquis of Montrose, the castle was put into 
full trim, and fully garrisoned ; and next year, it 
successfully held out. under Urry, the parliamentary 
general, aided by all the parliamentarians of the 
town, against a regular siege by Montrose's troops. 
In 1649, Mackenzie of Pluscardine, Sir Thomas Ur- 
quhart of Cromarty, and other royalists, took the 
castle, nearly demolished its fortifications, and de- 
voted its tapestries and decorated chambers to de- 
cay and desolation. Soonafterthe Revolution thedila- 
pidated pile — now scarce half a fortress — was patched 
up into a stronghold of the Jacobites, by the magis- 
trates, who were warmly attached to the cause of the 
dethroned dynasty; bntitwassoonwrestedfrom their 
possession, and converted into a means of keeping 
them in check. In 1718, the reigning authorities 
repaired it, converted the ancient part into barracks 
for Hanoverian troops, added a new part to serve 
as a governor's house, and gave the whole structure 
the name of Fort-George. In 1745, it was occupied 
successively by Sir Johu Cope and the Earl of Lou- 
doun, on behalf of the Government; and next year 
it was taken by Prince Charles Edward, and by his 
command was destroyed by explosion. The French 
olricer of engineers who lighted the train which was 
to explode it, is reported to have been blown into 
the air and killed. Though the castle was now ren- 
dered uninhabitable and useless, a large part of its 
walls, till a veiy recent period, remained entire. 

A vast fort — one of four which he constructed for 
checking and overawing Scotland — was built by 
Oliver Cromwell, in 1652-7, on the north side of the 
town, near the mouth of the Ness, and is now popu- 
larly called the Citadel. It cost £80,000 sterling, 
occupied nearly five years in building, and was con- 
structed with fir from Strathglass, oak-planks and 
beams from England, and stones from the religious 
houses of Inverness, the priory of Beauly, the abbey 
of Kinloss, and the cathedral and bishop's castle of 
Fortrose. It was a regular pentagon, surrounded 
with ramparts, having the Ness on one side, and a 
fosse on all the others so deep and broad as at full 
tide to float a small bark This great ditch still 
exists, retains its capacities, and is widened on the 
south side into a regular harbour The breastwork 
of the fort was three stories high, constructed of 
hewn stone, and lined on the inside with brick. The 
principal gateway looked to the north ; and was ap- 
proached, first through a vaulted passage 70 feet 
long, and seated on each side, — and next over a 

strong oaken drawbridge, overhung by a stately 
structure, inscribed with the motto, "Togam tuentur 
anna." The sally-port looked toward the town. 
At opposite sides of the area within the ramparts 
stood two long buildings, each four stories high, — 
the one called the English building, because built 
by Englishmen, and the other called the Scottish 
building, because built by Scotchmen. In the centre 
of the area stood a large square edifice, three stories 
high, the lower part occupied as a magazine and pro- 
vision-store, and the highest part fitted up as a 
church, covered over with a pavilion-roof, and sur- 
mounted by a tower with a clock and four bells. 
The fort had accommodations for 1,000 men ; but it 
so annoyed and chafed the Highland chiefs under 
the keen administration of Cromwell, that, at their 
request, and in acknowledgment of their loyalty to 
the Stuarts, it was destroyed immediately after the 
Restoration. Its ramparts and houses — though a 
considerable part of the former still remains — became 
a quarry to the burghers ; and were freely earned 
off for the construction, as is believed, of many of 
the existing houses of the town. 

The street called Castle-street, leading from the 
east end of the Exchange and Town-house to the 
Terrace along the southern outskirts of the town, 
takes its name from the old castle on the Castle-hill,' 
part of whose wall was on the street's west side! 
This street — which is narrow and ill-drained, a relic 
of bygone times — has some very old houses, and 
was anciently called Doomesdale-street, on account 
of its conducting to the Gallows-moor. The houses 
of Petty-street, in the vicinity of the site of Mac- 
beth's castle on " the Crown," were till qiute re- 
cently low slateless tenements, remains of the period 
of meanness and thatch. A house in Church-street, 
the third below the Caledonian hotel, was the domi- 
cile occupied successively by Prince Charles Edward 
and the Duke of Cumberland, amid the closing 
scenes of the civil war of 1745-6. It is said to have 
been the only house then in the town which had a 
parlour or sitting-room without a bed; and it be- 
longed to Catherine Duff, Lady Drammuir, and 
went down to her descendant, the proprietor of the 
suburban mansion of Muirtown. But this royal re- 
sidence, with others adjoining it, has been removed 
to make way for a range of fine houses and shops. 
At least two suites of ecclesiastical buildings, which 
anciently belonged to Inverness, were swept away 
as building materials for Cromwell's fort. One was 
a chapel, dedicated to the Virgin Mary. Another, 
the probable one, was a con vent and church of Francis 
cans or Grey friars. The third was the monastery 
and church of a community of Dominicans or Black 
friars, who were established in the town during the 
reign of Alexander II. The cemetery of the Domi- 
nicans survives, and is the large burying-ground 
still in use, called the Chapel-yard, and situated in 
Chapel-street; and, before the present entrance to it 
was formed, it had a neat and richly-sculptured 
gateway, inscribed with the words, " Concordia 
parva? res crescunt." 

Inverness, though possessing many advantages 
for productive industry, has but inconsiderable manu- 
factures. A white and coloured linen thread manu- 
facture, which, at the end of last century, had its 
seat in the burgh, and was ramified over the northern 
counties, and employed about 10,000 persons, has 
almost wholly disappeared before the energetic com- 
petition of the towns of Forfarshire. A bleachfield 
on the Ness also proved a failure. A large hemp 
factory was built, in 1765, within the area of Crom- 
well's fort, principally for the making of coal and 
cotton bagging, and was for some time so prosperous 
as to employ abox\t 1,000 persons, but came down 




long ago to employ not more than 300. Another 
hemp factory was established at the time of the pre- 
ceding one's prosperity, but was eventually discon- 
tinued. A woollen factory on the Ness, about two 
miles up the river at Holm, produces tweeds, tartan, 
plaids for the Highland market, &c, and is a flourish- 
ing though limited establishment. There are two 
tanneries, a sail-cloth manufactory, two rope-works, 
two iron foundries, and a brass foundry. Ship-build- 
ing was, a number of years ago, commenced in an en- 
terprising maimer; and is now carried on in two build- 
ing-yards. Malting was for generations a chief em- 
ployment in the town, and enriched the members of 
by far the largest ancient corporation in the burgh. 
Dissipation was unhappily very general throughout 
the Highlands; and, having as yet neither yielded 
to the seduction of ardent spirits, nor become ac- 
quainted with the weaning influence of tea, it expa- 
tiated in its orgies upon the produce of the brewery. 
Inverness enjoyed almost a monopoly in the art and 
practice of malting, and supplied all the Northern 
counties, the Hebrides, and the Orkneys with malt. 
One-half of the aggregate architecture of the town 
was a huge and unsightly agglomeration of malting- 
houses, kilns, and granaries. But from the date of 
the Revolution onward, this trade has suffered a 
gradual decline ; and, at one time, it threatened to 
involve the whole interests of the community in its 
fall. So low had the town sunk even at the date of 
the civil war of 1745-6, that it looked almost like a 
field of rains ; the very centre of it containing many 
forsaken and dilapidated houses, and all the other 
parts of it exhibiting in every alternate space, and 
that the larger one, the ruin of a kiln, a granary, or 
some homogeneous building. Had not succedanea 
for the nearly defunct and once general occupation 
opportunely sprung up to revive the town, and to 
occasion the ruined parts of it, some years before the 
close of the century, to be almost wholly new built, 
it might already have been on the brink of extinc- 
tion. A few of the old large malt-kilns and gra- 
naries are still in existence; and there are two 

Inverness had anciently a large share in the limited 
commerce of Scotland. During several centuries 
previous to the Union, it was the adopted home of 
foreign traders, or was annually visited by German 
merchants; and it conducted, with the ports of Hol- 
land and other parts of northern continental Europe, 
an extensive trade in skins and other Highland pro- 
duce, in exchange for foreign manufactures. The 
Northern counties, and even the Highlands generally, 
as well as the Western and the Northern Islands, 
looked to it as the only mart for their commodities, 
and the only depot whence they could obtain the 
produce of other lands. But during the effluxion of 
the former half of last century, the Highlanders of 
the western and southern districts found their way 
by agents to Glasgow, and, adopting it as a superior 
market, abandoned Inverness to the incompetent 
support of the infertile north. Trade, which syn- 
chronized in its decline with the falling away of the 
malt-manufacture, began to revive with the era of 
renovation which succeeded 1746. The money cir- 
culation by the Hanoverian army after the supres- 
sion of the Rebellion, the great influx of money from 
the East and the West Indies, the opening up of 
the vast circumjacent country by easily traversable 
roads, the establishment of manufactures, the im- 
proving of agriculture, the rise in the value of lands, 
and the causes as well as the immediate results of 
the great social and meliorative revolution which 
took place in the Highlands, all conspired to educe 
before the close of the century, a considerable, a 
various, and a not insecure trade. About the year 

1803, its merchants had their attention turned, bv 
convenience, and a view of the cheapness of British 
manufactures, to London in preference to foreign 
ports; and they commenced with it, as their great 
mart of commerce, an intercourse which has been 
generally prosperous, and has steadily increased. 

So late as 35 years asro, the town annually im- 
ported about 8,000 to 10,000 bolls of oatmeal ; but 
since then it has gradually reversed the process, and 
for a good many years past it has annually exported 
from 4,000 to 5,000 bolls of oats. In its custom- 
house district, which extends on the east coast from 
the mouth of the Spey to Bonar- Bridge, and on the 
west coast from Fort- William to Rhu-Stoer, includ- 
ing Skye, Rasay, Canna, and some other islands, 
there were, in 1831, 142 sailing vessels of aggregate- 
ly 7,104 tons, and in 1861 , 241 sailing vessels of aggre- 
gately 11,301 tons. About one-third of the vessels 
and about one-half of the tonnage belonged to the 
town itself in 1831; and a considerably larger pro- 
portion in 1860. The trade of the port, in the year 
I860, comprised, in the coasting trade, 178.781 tons 
inwards, and 167.824 tons outwards, — and in the 
foreign and colonial trade, 3,597 tons inwards in 
British vessels, 4, 91 2 in wards in foreign vessels, 3,274 
outwards in British vessels, and 3,424 outwards in 
foreign vessels. The principal imports are coals, 
pig-iron, hemp, wines, bacon, fish, boots, shoes, linen, 
woollen drapery, hardware, china, glass, and general 
merchandise ; and the principal exports are grain, 
potatoes, wool, woollen cloth, sail-cloth, ropes, cast- 
iron, dairy produce, leather, oak-bark, whisky, and 
malt liquors. Excellent steamers ply regularly, at 
intervals of only a few days, with goods and passen- 
gers, to Aberdeen, Leith, Glasgow, and intermedi- 
ate places ; and regular sailing traders ply to Leith 
and to London. A great transit trade also, with 
large local beneficial effects to Inverness, is con- 
ducted along the Caledonian canal, and has been 
much increased since the recent improvements on 
that public work. See Caledonian Canal. 

Three harbours, all small, but good and easily ac- 
cessible, were at different periods constructed in the 
Ness ; the lowest admitting vessels of 250 tons bur- 
den, and the others vessels of 200 tons. At the 
Caledonian canal wharfs, within a mile of the town, 
large ships may receive and deliver cargoes, and 
in Kessock roads they have safe and excellent an- 
chorage. The piers, inn, and offices at Kessock 
ferry station, midway between the mouth of the Ness 
and the sea-lock of the Caledonian canal, were erected 
by Sir William Fettes, the proprietor, at an expense 
of about £10,000. The accumulation of commerce 
round the peninsula enclosed by the Ness and the 
canal, terminating in Kessock-point, and bearing 
the name of Merkinch, raised the rental value, within 
the 35 years preceding 1840, from between £70 and 
£80 to upwards of £600. An act was obtained in 
1847 for making improvements on the harbour, — 
deepening the channel of the river, forming a wet 
dock and quays and breastworks adjacent to the 
timber bridge, and between it and the citadel quay, 
so as to bring the trade close to the town, and to 
the east side of the river, contiguous to the spot 
which was then fixed upon for the terminus of the 
Great North of Scotland railway, — also enlarging the 
Thornbush pier, near the mouth of the river, on 
the west side, for the reception of the largest-sized 
steamers ; and these improvements combine with 
the accommodations at the entrance of the Caledo- 
nian canal, to give Inverness a very ample harbour, 
and to render it. in connexion with the cheapness 
of labour and of timber, a peculiarly suitable place 
for the building and repairing of vessels. 

Inverness is well provided with the appliances ol 




trade, of landward communication, and of social 
comfort. Its inns have long been noted for their 
good properties ; and the chief of them, the Caledo- 
nian and the Union hotels, are equal to almost, 
any in Scotland. Its banking offices are branches 
of the Bank of Scotland, the British Linen company's 
bank, the Commercial bank of Scotland, the Na- 
tional bank of Scotland, and the head-office of the 
Caledonian banking company. There are in the 
town a national security savings' bank, a sea insur- 
ance club, a life assurance society, and twenty- 
eight insurance agencies. The Great North of 
Scotland railway was projected to connect In- 
verness with Aberdeen; and after being constructed 
for a time only from Iiuntly to Aberdeen, was even- 
tually carried out to its whole extent. A line was 
subsequently formed northward to Dingwall; and a 
great line to Perth diverging from the North of Scot- 
land line near Forres, and going by way of Kingus- 
sie and Blair- Athole, was opened in 1S63. These rail- 
ways, together with the steamers, and with the con- 
necting lines of coast and of railway, afford a very 
large amount of communication. Some curious 
facts respecting the lateness of the introduction of 
wheeled-carriages to Inverness, the very modern 
acquaintance of the town witli public vehicles, and 
the slow and progressive accession of the luxuries 
of a mail, are stated in our article on the Highlands: 
which see. Weekly markets for ponltry-yard, farm, 
and garden produce, are held every Tuesday and 
Friday. Hiring-fairs for farm-servants are held on 
the last Friday of April and of October. Annual 
fairs for cattle, for general produce, and for coarse 
household stuffs manufactured by the Highland 
■women, are held on the first Wednesday after the 
11th day of February, old style, or on Wednesday 
of the 11th; for sheep and wool on the second Thurs- 
day of July, and for general produce on the first 
Wednesday after the IStli of the same month; for 
dairy produce, on the first Wednesday after the 15th 
of August, old style, or, if that date be a Wednes- 
day, on the 26th, new style; and for general pro- 
duce, on the first Wednesday after the 11th of No- 
vember, old style. These fairs, excepting that of 
July, are only vestiges of the great commercial 
gatherings, the vast provincial trysts, for the ex- 
change of all sorts of commodities with the produce 
of the whole North Highlands, which often drew 
together a prodigious and most motley population, 
and were sometimes continued during successive 
weeks. The establishment of shops throughout the 
interior of the country, and of cattle trysts in various 
competing localities, have reduced the fairs to the 
mere skeleton of their former bulk; and they be- 
came restricted, as to time of continuance, between 
tire forenoon of Wednesday and the afternoon of the 
following Friday, or between the forenoon of Thurs- 
day and the afternoon of the following Saturday. 
But at the July wool and sheep fair the principal 
sheep-farmers throughout the north of Scotland are 
met by the sheep dealers of southern counties, and 
by wool-staplers and agents from England, and sell 
to them annually sheep and wool to the value of be- 
tween £150,000 and £200,000. 

Inverness is the place of meeting of the Inver- 
ness-shire farming society, and the Association of 
the Northern counties. The latter of these is a body 
of noblemen and gentlemen, to whom belongs the 
building which we noticed for the Northern meet- 
ings, and who are associated to patronize Highland 
games and fashionable amusements, and to fling, by 
means of these, what they conceive to be attributes 
of refinement over the northern capital. The insti- 
tutions of the town, literary, social, benevolent, and 
religious, additional to the goodly number we have 

already had occasion to notice are a mechanics' insti- 
tution, established in 1831, with an excellent library, 
the Exchange reading rooms, circulating libraries, 
a parochial library, a Free church congregational 
library, a dispensary and vaccine institution, three 
mason lodges, two building societies, a total absti- 
nence society, a temperance society, nine sick and 
burial yearly societies, a gardeners' society, and some 
religious associations. There are likewise thirteen 
charitable bequests vested in the hands of the magis- 
trates and town-council, to the aggregate value of 
£36,765 15s.; but nine of these vary in value from 
only £222 to less than £7. The six incorporated 
trades and the guildry incorporation also have now 
the character practically of mere benefit societies. 
Three newspapers are published in Inverness, — the 
Inverness Advertiser on Tuesday and Friday, the 
Inverness Courier on Thursday, and the Saturday 
Advertiser on Saturday. 

Inverness, such as we have described it, exhibits, 
in almost every feature, marks of recent and entirely 
renovating transition. Only about 55 years have 
elapsed since its streets were a continuous nuisance, 
altogether unwitting of a single appliance or process 
of cleanliness. In September 1709, the town-clerk 
"paid an officer 4s. 6d. Scots, to buy a cart of peats 
to be burnt in the tolbooth to remove the bad scent ;" 
and, in December, 1737, the magistrates ordered the 
town-clerk to purchase "an iron spade, to be given 
to the hangman for cleaning the tolbooth." In the 
year 1740, harness and saddlery of all sorts continued 
to be so little in requisition, but were beginning to 
be just so much appreciated, that the magistrates 
advertised for a saddler to settle in the town. Prior 
to about the year 1775, when the first bookseller's 
shop was opened in the burgh, the few persons in 
the town, and throughout the great extent of country, 
dependent on its market, who were able and had oc 
casion to make use of writing materials, were sup 
plied with stationery by the post-master. About the 
middle of last centmy, a hat had not graced any 
head in the north except that of a landed proprietor 
or a minister ; and when it was first assumed by a 
burgher, in the person of the deacon of the weavers, 
it excited the highest ridicule of the blue-bonneted 
multitude, and drew from them such constant twit- 
ting and raillery as only the stoutest pertinacity and 
the sturdiest independence could have enabled the 
worthy deacon to resist. At a comparatively late 
date, intemperate drinking is understood to have 
been practised, even among the most polished class- 
es, with such horrific defiance of all moral obliga- 
tion and all social decency, that a guest would be 
thought discourteous or perhaps insulting to his 
entertainer, who did not drink till he became insen- 
sible, and had to be carried away like a mass of car- 
rion from the presence of the living. About ninety 
years ago, a leg of mutton, a neck of veal, and a 
gallon of ale, are said, by tradition, to have been 
purchasable for a shilling; and even till recently, 
meat, poultry, fish, and ale, sold at lower prices than 
in the southern towns. At the middle of last cen- 
tury, the universal costume was Celtic and primitive ; 
so late as 75 years ago, only three ladies with straw 
bonnets were to be seen in the High church; and 
down to quite a recent day, the great bulk of the 
population dressed and behaved in daily life with 
many remnants of the olden time. 

But now both town and people display all the 
points of modern improvement. Old customs, 
usages, and costume, have almost entirely disap- 
peared. Renovation and refinement have gone on 
more rapidly here than almost any where else in Scot- 
land. Games of foot-ball, shintie, bowls, and throw- 
ing the stone and hammer, which formerly were 




common among adults of the lower orders, are now 
practised only by school-boys and apprentices on 
gala days. Appliances of fashionable folly, the 
theatre, the ball-room, the turf, and kindred means 
of killing the time and squandering the moral ener- 
gies of the upper classes, have not half the promi- 
nence in Inverness as in several Scottish towns which 
are very far behind it in the resources of wealth and 
aristocracy. Knowledge and general intellectual 
attainment distinguish the higher orders, and are 
swelling upward with steady tidal flow in every re- 
cess and crevice of society. Gaelic, though not long 
ago the prevailing language, is nearly unknown to 
many of the rising generation, even among the poorer 
classes, '.and though still spoken by some, and un- 
derstood by most, is rapidly becoming extinct. The 
Inverness pronunciation of English has long been, 
and is still, justly noted for its intrinsic purity, 
and for its being but little, if at all, affected by such 
broad Doric provincialisms as are everywhere im- 
pressed on the varieties of the Lowland dialect. 
This comparatively correct and elegant English — 
purer by far than that of most parts of England itself 
—is generally ascribed to the modelling influence of 
the soldiers of the Commonwealth during the years 
of their occupying Cromwell's fort; but it seems 
rather to have arisen, and to be even yet occasionally 
arising, from the circumstance of English being ac- 
quired, not by the lessons of imitation, but by the 
process of translating from the Erse, — acircumstance 
which conducts, not to a corrupted spoken language, 
but directly to the pure English of literature. Ire- 
land exhibits along the debateable ground in the far 
west, between the strictly aboriginal or Erse district 
and the Anglo-Irish territories, just such a pheno- 
menon as Scotland has in Inverness, and there pours 
forth, from the lips of her peasantry, an English so 
untainted by brogue and provincialism as would de- 
light the ears of a master of orthoepy. 

Inverness, viewed in connexion with its environs, 
is perhaps the most delightful town-retreat in Scot- 
land; and were it situated farther to the south, or 
not so remote of access, would speedily become the 
adopted home of numerous classes of annuitants. 
Its gorgeous encircling natural panorama, — its pure 
and salubrious air, — its rich resources of school and 
market,— its charming promenade of the Ness is- 
lands, — and its vicinity to a profusion of objects 
which demolish ennui and delight the taste, — ren- 
der it almost the paragon of provincial towns. The 
grounds of Muirtown, embosoming in wood f of a 
mile north-west of the town a handsome and taste- 
ful mansion, and stretching away in the embellish- 
ments of lawn and glade and forest to the base of 
the romantic Craig-Phadric, form a constant haven, 
a nook of repose to the eye, after its bold and far- 
away rovings athwart the general landscape. Other 
mansions and their grounds, particularly the houses of 
Culloden, Raigmore, Darrochville, Leys-castle. Ness- 
castle, Culduthel, and Dochfour, adorn the neighbour- 
hood. Associations connected with the curious little 
hill of Tomnahurich, feathered all over with trees, 
peopled by the dreams of ancient superstition with 
colonies of fairies, regarded by many as the sepul- 
chral mound, the stupendous grave, of Thomas the 
Rhymer, and used in the olden time as a ward hill 
for'noting the approach of unfriendly clans,— asso- 
ciations connected with this picturesque object may 
allure a saunterer into many a pleasing reverie; 
and walks all around its base, and along the banks 
of the tree-fringed Ness — that river which is alike 
" noble, broad, clear, and strong,"— may both min- 
ister to health, and daily draw a well-toned mind 
into holy meditation. Other objects and places, 
which interest the feelings, and are accessible by 

short walks or easy drives, are the rocky eminences 
and the columnar monument above Clachnahariy, 
the high gravelly ridge of Tor-a'-Bhean, partly en- 
circled with ditches and ramparts, the Ord Hill of 
Kessock, the site of a vitrified fort, the Druidical 
temple of Leys, the famous battle-field of Culloden 
moor, the stone monuments at Clava, Castle Dalcross, 
Fort-George, the Roman station at Bona, the vale of 
the Beauly, the falls of Kilmorack, and the multi- 
tudinous glories oi the north-eastern half of the 
Great glen, with its lateral attractions of Glenur- 
quhart and the falls of Foyers. 

Inverness was erected into a royal burgh by 
David I. Four charters were given to it also by 
William the Lion; a number of other charters were 
given by subsequent monarchs; a special charter, 
embodying eight previous ones, was given by James 
III.; and a great or governing charter was given 
by James VI., and ratified by the estates of parlia- 
ment in the time of Charles II. The corporation 
still possess three of William's charters, and several 
others of the oldest; and can boast an ampler series 
of ancient municipal records than can be found in 
the possession of almost any other burgh in the 
kingdom. The old royalty excluded many impor- 
tant parts of the modern town; but a new muni- 
cipal royalty, established by the burgh act of 1847, 
extends the boundaries to the parliamentary royalty 
as fixed by the reform bill of 1832 ; and this com- 
prehends all the town and the principal suburbs. 
The town-council comprises a provost, four bailies, 
a dean of guild, a treasurer, and fourteen councillors. 
There is nothing peculiar in the jurisdiction of the 
magistrates. The powers of police within the burgh 
are founded on the act of 1847. The magistrates 
and town-councillors are the commissioners; and 
the sheriff of the county or his substitutes, the 
bailies, and the dean of guild are the judges in the 
police court. The court of assize for the Northern 
counties, the sheriff's court for Inverness-shire, the 
commissary court, the court of quarter sessions, and 
justice of peace small debt courts, are held at Inver- 
ness. The value of the available property belong- 
ing to the burgh corporation in 1855 was estimated 
at £27,616 10s. 5d.; and the amount of debt due at 
Michaelmas 1855 was £15,210 6s. 9d. The corpora- 
tion revenue is derived from a variety of sources; 
and amounted in 1831-2, to £1,838 12s. 6d.,— in 
183S-9, to £1,985 13s.ljd.,— andin,1860-61 to £2,607 
odds. Inverness unites with Forres, Fortrose, 
and Nairn, in sending a member to parliament. 
Constituency in 1862, both municipal and parlia- 
mentary, 527. Population of the old municipal 
burgh in 1841, 9,100; in 1861, 9,393. Houses, 
1,289. Population of the parliamentary burgh in 
1861, 12,509. Houses, 1,747. . . 

The history of Inverness has so freely mixed with 
various sections of our description, that but little of 
it remains to be told. The town is invested with 
a fictitious interest, and assigned an origin at least 
60 years before the Christian era, by Boethius and 
Buchanan connecting it with one of their apocry- 
phal kings. Yet it probably was a seat of popu- 
lation, and certainly occupies a site, in the centre 
of what was a closely peopled district in the remote 
age of British hill-strengths and vitrified forts. 
Scottish antiquaries, however, have raised so many 
and such conflicting speculations respecting it, while 
they have no documents and but few monuments to 
guide them, that they may be allowed a monopoly 
of dealing out a history of it in ages for which no 
history exists. Columba, the apostle of Scotland, 
as stated by his biographer and successor Adamnan, 
went, " ad ostiam NessiaV' to the residence at that 
locality of Bridei or Brudeus, king of the Picts; 




and remained there sufficiently long to be the instru- 
ment of converting tlie monarch, and to hold several 
conferences, and make some missionary arrange- 
ments with the Scandinavian chief of the Orkney 
Islands. " Oetia Nessias " means very nearly in 
Latin what " Inverness " does in Gaelic; or, under- 
stood even rigidly, it designates the mouth of the 
river on which the town stands, and points either to 
the town's precise site, or to some spot in its imme- 
diate vicinity. Inverness is hence believed to have 
been the original seat of the Pictish monarchs; and 
is supposed, even after Abernethy and Forteviot be- 
came a sort of Pictish capitals, to have retained its 
pre-eminence, and not altogether lost it till the 
union of the Scottish and the Pictish crowns. Mal- 
colm Canmore, in the face of the fact that royal 
burghs did not exist till several ages later, is fabled 
to have granted it its first charter, erecting it into 
a royal burgh. In the reign of David I., it figures 
as a king's burgh, was made the seat of a sheriff 
whose authority extended over all the north of 
Scotland, and is designated in a legislative enact- 
ment, one of the chief places of the whole kingdom, 
— '• Loca capitalia per totum regnura." It was thus 
one of the earliest free towns of the kingdom, and 
inferior to none in the dignity with which it greets 
the view at the epoch of record. 

William the Lion — as we have seen — granted it 
four charters, appointing it a regular magistracy, 
exempting it from many burdens, and conferring 
upon it various privileges as to manufactures. 
During the whole period on which history throws 
light previous to the invasion of Scotland by Ed- 
ward I., the Scottish kings occasionally visited it 
or resided in it, and were at rapid intervals required 
to repel from it the incursions of the Danes and 
the northern Vikingr, or to quell the insurrections 
of the reckless inhabitants and the turbulent chiefs 
of the adjacent country. In 1229, a powerful 
Highland savage, named Gillespick M'Scourlane, 
attempted an usurpation, levied a war of rebellion, 
burnt the town, spoiled the adjacent Crown lands, 
and put to the sword all persons who would not 
acknowledge him as their sovereign; but he was 
defeated, captured, and ignominiously beheaded. 
After the accession of Bruce, and during the suc- 
cessive reigns of the Stuarts till near the Union, 
Inverness was frequently oppressed by the consta- 
bles of its own castle, and constantly exposed to the 
predatory visits of the Islesmen and the Highland 
clans; so that its annals abound with accounts of 
burnings, pillagings, ransackings, skirmishes be- 
tween assailants and its inhabitants, stratagems of 
skill and prowess against foes, and pecuniary levies 
and other expedients for purchasing the forbearance 
or averting the menaces of truculent and rapacious 
neighbours. An incident which occurred in 1400 
will exemplify the prominent events and illustrate 
the social condition of the period: Donald, Lord of 
the Isles, having approached at the head of a small 
army to the north side of Kessock-ferry, and sent a 
message menacing the town with destruction if a 
large ransom were not paid for its safety, the pro- 
vost affected to agree to the terms dictated, and sent 
a large quantity of spirits as a present to the chief 
and hie followers; and, when the Islesmen, delighted 
with their fiery beverage, and emulating one another 
in dissipation, were generally actionless with intoxi- 
cation, the provost, followed and zealously aided by 
his burgesses, pounced upon them like the eagle on 
his quarry, and devoted them, with the exception of 
one man, to indiscriminate destruction. 

Attacks upon the town were the more frequent and 
unrelenting, that few of the wealthy burgesses were 
Highlandmen, and most were a community of foreign 

merchants, or merchants of foreign extraction, con- 
nected with Holland, and with the continental sea- 
board northward thence to the Baltic. In 1280, the 
town was visited by a French Count as a suitable 
place for building a ship to replace one which he 
had lost in the Orkneys; and from that time — as is 
indicated by the Flemish and Saxon names of its 
ancient inhabitants — it became increasingly the 
resort and the adopted home of the children of com- 
merce, — persons differing more in habits than even 
in extraction from the wild native septs who rest- 
lessly scoured the heathy recesses of the north. The 
nurturing of such a commercial community was 
happily regarded by the Scottish kings as a wise 
policy for at once promoting the general interests of 
the country, rearing a class of peaceful and loyal 
subjects, checking the exorbitant power of the barons, 
and exhibiting an example of the prosperous tenden- 
cies of arts which were despised or held in small 
esteem by the clans; but by provoking the envy 
and tempting the cupidity of the marauding chiefs 
and their followers, and occasionally giving body to* 
the filmy pretexts which were urged for the rancor- 
ous quarrels almost constantly existing among the 
clans, it obliged the sovereigns to be often on the 
spot, discharging the offices of chief magistrates of 
justiciary and police. To tell of the extraordinary as 
well as ordinary interferences of the Crown to punish 
sedition and pillage, of citation to chieftain-culprits 
by the King's summons to attend at the market-cross 
of the burgh, and of executions of the convicted on the 
Gallow's-hill, as well as of military executions in the 
melee of mimic civil war, would only be a disgusting 
repetition of the most revolting and least instructive 
elements of history. One of the last royal visits to 
the town was that — already glanced at in our notice 
of the castle — of Queen Mary to quell an insurrec- 
tion of the Earl of Huntly. Mary is said to have 
formed during her visit a strong attachment to In- 
verness; she kept, while there, a small squadron in 
the harbour to insure her safety ; she was sedulously 
attended by the greater part of the Highland chiefs ; 
and she had soon the satisfaction — or the appropriate 
feeling, he it what it might, which 6uch an event 
could impart — of hunting down the Earl of Huntly, 
and putting him to death in a fair field fight. James 
VI., who laboured much to quiet the turbulence of 
the northern Highlands, was particularly friendly 
to the burgh. 

The Invernessians distinguished themselves after 
the Revolution by enthusiastic and bold attachment 
to both Prelacy and Jacobitism. In 1691, when a 
presbyterian minister was for the first time after 
the abolition of Episcopacy appointed to the vacant 
parish -church, armed men were, by the magistrates, 
stationed at the doors to prevent his admission ; 
they repulsed Duncan Forbes of Culloden, father of 
the famous Lord-President Forbes, iu an attempt to 
force him into the interior ; and they did not 
eventually give way till a regiment marched up by 
order of Government, and lifted the presentee into 
the pulpit on a couch of bayonets. At the same 
period, and for years afterwards, the magistrates 
used every means to support or forward the Jacob- 
itical cause ; and, at the accession of George I. to 
the throne, they openly opposed and endeavoured 
to prevent his proclamation, and roused the populace 
to a riot. During the rebellion of 1745-6, ana 
especially amid the stir which preceded and followed 
its closing-scene in the neighbouring field of Cul 
loden, the town had the harassing distinction, and 
reaped the bitter awards, of being the virtual capital 
of the losing party in that trial of the dreadful game 
of war; and among other characters of lugubrious- 
ness and horror which it was obliged to wear, it was 




the scene of the public execution of 36 of Prince 
Charles Edward's men. Up to the period of the 
disarming act, its inhabitants stood constantly ac- 
coutred, or at least prepared for war; but, since 
1746, they have witnessed an uninterrupted peace, 
and have learned to regard the stirring and san- 
guinary history of their town as belonging to a state 
of things which has entirely and for ever passed 
away, and have moved silently and fleetly along 
the delightful path of social amelioration and intel- 
lectual and moral improvement. No modem event 
of note has occurred except the earthquake on the 
night of the 16th of August, 1816, when the ground 
was sensibly and alarmingly tremulous, the chim- 
ney-tops of many houses were projected into the 
streets, the bells were set-a-ringing, and many 
animals were strongly affected with terror. 

INVERNESS-SHIRE, one of the most extensive 
counties, and by far the most mountainous, in Scot- 
land. It is bounded on the north by Ross-shire and 
part of the Moray frith ; on the east by the shires of 
Elgin, Moray, and Aberdeen ; on the south by those 
of Perth and Argyle ; and on the west by the 
Atlantic ocean. It comprises a part of the main- 
land, extending from the head of the Moray frith to 
the Deucaledonian sea, and a part of the Hebrides, 
lying opposite the mainland part, and extending 
away thence to St. Kilda. The outline of the 
mainland part is exceedingly irregular. A narrow 
tract in the middle of the north-east runs out from 
Inverness away between the Moray frith and Nairn- 
shire; a district in the extreme south-east, contain- 
ing Cromdale and Inverallen, lies isolated between 
Morayshire and Banffshire; the south-western side 
is indented up the middle, about 25 miles, up to 
near the foot of Loch Lochy, by a part of Argyleshire : 
and the north-western side is indented, about 16 
miles, up toward the head of Glenmoriston, by the 
Glenshiel district of Ross-shire. The Hebridean 
part of the county also is somewhat capriciously 
outlined ; for, though containing the main body of 
the Skye group, it excludes Muck, Rum, andCanna; 
and though containing all the south and centre of 
the Long Island group, it is bounded on the north 
by the artificial line between Harris and Lewis. 
Playfair estimates the superficies of the mainland 
part of the county at 2,904 square miles, or 1,858,560 
acres; while Robertson estimates the superficies of 
this part at 7,200 square miles, or 4,60S,000 acres, 
and that of the islands at one-half more. The 
former admeasurement — though an approximation 
only — is doubtless nearest the truth ; but to it must 
be added 132 square miles, or 84,480 acres, for the 
lakes. The surface of the Hebridean part is equal 
to 1,150 square miles, to which we may add 59 
square miles of lakes, — making in all 1,209 square 
miles, or 773,760 acres. The length and the breadth 
of the mainland part, according to the directions in 
which the measurements are made, are variously 
92 miles and 79 miles, 85 miles and 55 miles. 

The divisions of the mainland part are chiefly 
determined by natural boundaries. Moydart, Ara- 
saig, Morar, Knoydart, and Glenelg are divisions of 
the western seaboard, separated from one another 
Dy sea-lochs, and all separated from the interior by 
a water-shed line of mountain. Lochaber is the 
basin of the Spean, together with the wild mountain 
tract south-westward thence to Loch Leven and the 
head of Loch-Linnhe. The Great glen, or Glenmore- 
nan-Albin, though not itself a territorial division, 
is a grand dividing line, right across the centre of 
the mainland of the county from south-west to north- 
east, separating the whole into two nearly equal 
parts. Glengarry, Glenmoriston, Glenurquhart, 
and Strathglass are river-basins descending parallel 

to one another, the three first to the north-west side 
of the Great glen, and the last to the head of Loch 
Beauly. The Aird, the parish of Inverness, the 
lordship of Pettj', and the parish of Ardersier, are 
small districts aggregately constituting what may 
be called the lowlands of the county, and comprising 
the sea-board of Loeh-Beauly and the upper Moray 
frith. Stratherrick is a wild tract parallel with the 
middle of the south-east side of the Great glen. 
And Strathnairn, Strathdearn, and Badenoch are the 
basins of the upper parts of respectively the Nairn, 
the Findhorn, and the Spey. The divisions of 
Skye will be noticed in our article on that island ; 
and the other divisions of the Hebridean part of the 
county are little other than insular and, 
comprising the seven parishes of Skye, the parishes 
of Harris, North Uist, South Uist, and Barra, and 
the island of Eig in the parish of Small Isles. 

The aspect of Inverness-shire, as entered any- 
where except by the coast of the Moray frith, is 
rudely grand and forbidding. The dark blue moun- 
tains piled upon one another, and stretching away 
in immense chains, with hardly a pass or an opening 
to afford access, form a barrier which requires a 
certain degree of fortitude to attempt. The frequent 
sight of poles set up by the side of the public roaa 
in the defiles, as beacons to guide the weary travel- 
ler in exploring his way, when the fog is so thick 
that he cannot see, or the snow so deep that the 
proper path is concealed from view, is a proof of the 
danger which is sometimes to be encountered. The 
mountains stretch across the island, and lie parallel 
to every valley, — rising like immense walls on 
both its sides ; while the inhabited country sinks 
deep between them, with a lake or rapid river flow 
iug in the centre. The grand south-western entrance 
to the county comes in from the foot of Glencoe 
across Loch-Leven, and, in its course through the 
foot of Lochaber to the Great glen at Fort-William, 
is overhung by lofty mountains, whose base in 
several places hardly affords room for the public 
road. To catch the leading features of the county 
thence north-eastward, one must suppose a deep 
valley beginning at Fort-William, and stretching 
across the whole county, nearly through the middle, 
from south-west to north-east. This valley [see 
articles Caledonian Canal and Glenmoee-nan- 
Alein] has a range of lofty mountains on both sides, 
which, at the north-east extremity, sink down into 
the sandstone strata of Nairnshire. The rivers, 
flowing between the openings of these parallel 
mountains, meet one another, and discharge their 
streams into the bottom of the valley as a common 
reservoir, and feed Loch-Lochy, which falls west- 
ward, and Loch-Oich and Loch-Ness, which fall 
north-east. But after we penetrate back through 
these parallel ranges of mountains for several miles, 
either to the right or to the left hand, we arrive at 
lofty alpine watersheds, whence other streams flow 
in directions opposite to the former, and take their 
course, through independent basins of their own, 
toward either the western or the eastern sea. 

The range of watershed between the Great glen 
and the Atlantic is the highest and wildest through- 
out all the forbidding surface of the county, and has 
got the name of ' the rough bounds.' It extends from 
the head of Moydart, which joins the county of 
Argyle, to the head of Glensheil in Ross-shire, — a 
distance of 70 miles or more. There descend from 
this general range of elevated land five or six lines 
of lower but very rugged ground, which penetrate 
into the Atlantic, and form so many bold promon- 
tories. Loch-Sheil, however, which is 12 miles 
long, divides the south end of the seaboard, or the 
district of Moydart, from Argyleshire. Into the 




couth of Moydart runs an arm of the sea called 
Loch-Moydart. On the north of Moydart a narrow 
lake of fresh water stretches 6 miles along the 
public road, which is called Loch-Ailt; and the 
river flowing from it, after a course of 6 miles, is 
lost in Loch-Aylort, an arm of the sea. Then suc- 
ceeds Loeh-Nanuagh, a beautiful bay; and turning 
northward to the ferry of Arasaig on the sea-coast, 
is a branch of salt water called Loch-na-gaul. 
Nearly till the interior of both Moydart and Arasaig, 
except on the margin of the waters, is either gloomy, 
barren, heathy upland, with comparatively little 
bare rock, or congeries of pastoral hills generally 
green on their north sides, but studded with rock in 
such constant succession, from the bottom of the 
valley to their summit, that their aspect puts one in 
mind of the fine freckled sky which generally covers 
the aerial vault of heaven, in the evening of a serene 

The tract of land intermediate between Moydart 
and Arasaig on the one hand and the south-west 
end of the Great glen on the other, belongs to 
Ai'gyleshire. The tract immediately north-west of 
this, comprising the first Inverness-shire basin be- 
tween the Great glen and the western watershed, 
is that which cradles the splendidly picturesque 
Loch-Archaig. Between the mouth of this lake 
and Loch-Lochy, into which its contents are dis- 
charged, the distance is hardly 2 miles. From the 
head of Loch-Archaig there is a glen of 6 miles 
more, stretching forward to the watershed, and 
called Glenpean, — a beautiful green grazing. It is 
a singular feature in the complexion of this country, 
that the lower grounds are in many places covered 
with barren heath growing on a poor soil; while 
the high parts of the mountains, to their summit, 
are clad with a rich carpet of green grass, springing 
from a fertile mellow earth. From the head of 
Glenpean, a noble landscape is presented to view. 
In front at some distance, is a wide expanse of sea 
sprinkled with islands, at different distances and of 
different magnitude. Skye, the chief of these, ap- 
pears on the right, with Rum, Eig, and Canna; and 
in the distant horizon the long train of the Outer 
Hebrides appears like a dark cloud resting on the 
bosom of the ocean. More at hand, and on the sea- 
board, Loch-Morar, a fresh-water lake, whose 
length is 10J miles, is beheld at the spectator's 
feet; while on the north, Glendessary stretches 
away in a dii'ect line 4 miles. At the head of this 
glen is the pass named Maam-Chlach-Ard, which 
leads down to Loch-Nevis, an ami of the sea 12 
miles in length, having North-Morar on the left 
and Knoydart on the right. Both sides of Loch- 
Nevis are very rocky; but the side next Knoydart 
has more green ground than the other. 

The second Inverness-shire basin on the north- 
west flank of the Great glen is Glengarry. Four 
miles up this lies Loch-Garry, which is 4 miles long, 
closely wooded with natural firs on the south side, 
and birch and alder on the north. The river flow- 
ing into the head of Loch-Garry, comes from the 
south end of Glenqueicb, which stretches north- 
ward, and from Glenkingle, which ascends south- 
ward. In the former is a fresh-water lake 7 miles 
long. The ground from the head of these glens 
makes a rapid descent of about 3 miles to the head 
of Loch-Hourn, — a long, deep, gloomy branch of the 
sea, with high rocky banks, dividing Knoydart fiom 
Glenelg. In all this stretch, from the foot of Glen- 
garry to Loch-Hourn, the lower ground is gener