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Full text of "Improved loading of baskets of peaches and fresh prunes in railroad cars : a study of damage and cost reduction"

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scientific knowledge, policies, or practices. 



wmwtiT OF 



OF 



Improved Loading of 
Baskets of Peaches 
and Fresh Prunes 
in Railroad Cars 

A Study of Damage and Cost Reduction 




ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

This study was made possible through the cooperation of many individuals 
and organizations. The following made important contributions: Don M. James, 
director of research, American Veneer Package Association; A. P. Kivlin, chief 
engineer, and K. E. Rion, J. E. Roumillat, and V. E. Boomer, regional repre- 
sentatives of the Freight Loss and Damage Prevention Section, Association of 
American Railroads; the Railroad Perishable Inspection Agency; E. J. Clark, 
Western Weighing and Inspection Bureau; and numerous personnel of the Fresh 
Products Standardization and Inspection Branch, Fruit and Vegetable Division, 
Agricultural Marketing Service. Valuable assistance was also received from 
the following personnel of the Marketing Research Division of the Agricultural 
Marketing Service: P. L. Breakiron and Kenneth Myers of the Transportation 
and Facilities Branch, and W. H. Redit of the Biological Sciences Branch. 
Many shippers and receivers of peaches and fresh prunes, and the officials of 
many individual railroads also cooperated in the study. 



CONTENTS 

^age 

Highlights ii 

Background of study 1 

Amount and type of transportation losses 2 

Test shipment procedure 10 

Types of test and check loads 11 

Volume of experimental shipments 23 

Methods of obtaining test data • 2$ 

Res ults 26 

Basket damage • •••••• 26 

Fruit bruising •• 39 

Time requirements by type of load. kk 

Comparative cooling rates of upright and alternately inverted 

loads 50 

Damage in relation to impact force. 50 

Potential savings in transportation costs •• • 57 

Conclusions • • • 60 

Appendix ••••• • 61 



Washington, D. C. September iyj?b 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office 
Washington 25, D. C. - Price 45 cents 



- 1 - 



HIGHLIGHTS 

For many years, there has been extensive damage in rail shipments of tub- 
type baskets of neaches, fresh prunes, and similar commodities. The damage is 
associated with use of the conventional loading methods, called the upright 
end-to-end of i set and crosswise offset methods. It is estimated that the total 
cost of this damage, including damage claims and the cost of repairing, or re- 
coopering, many thousands of baskets, exceeds $U00,000 annually. 

Research over a 3-year period has shown that basket damage in rail ship- 
ments can be reduced more than 50 percent and important economies achieved in 
transportation and refrigeration costs by using the alternately inverted cross- 
wise offset method of loading, instead of the conventional upright methods. 
The research involved nearly 500 test shipments of peaches from Georgia, South 
Carolina, and Colorado, and fresh prunes from Idaho. 

The shipping tests revealed that the alternately inverted crosswise off- 
set loads of l/2-bushel baskets of peaches averaged 26.3 fewer damaged baskets 
per car requiring recoopering (including "bad-order" baskets damaged beyond 
repair) and 10.3 fewer bad-order baskets. These were reductions of 71.1 per- 
cent in damaged baskets and 5$»5 percent in bad-order baskets. The reductions 
in damage for the alternately inverted crosswise offset loads of 3/l|-bushel 
baskets of peaches were 9»h baskets (or 26.3 percent) in the number of baskets 
per car requiring recoopering, including bad-order baskets, and 3,k baskets 
(or 20.1 percent) in the number of bad-order caskets per car. In the alter- 
nately inverted crosswise of i set loads of I-bushel baskets of peaches, there 
were average reductions of l|t>.2 baskets (or 71.5 percent) per car requiring 
recoopering, including bad-order baskets, and of 3h»9 bad-order baskets per 
car (or 72.lt percent ), For all sizes of baskets of peaches combined, the 
reductions in basket damage resulting from use of the alternately inverted 
crosswise offset loading method amounted to 2y baskets per car requiring re- 
coopering, including bad-order baskets, and 1^.6 bad-order baskets per car, 
or 6U.9 and 38»6 percent, respectively. Use of the alternately inverted 
crosswise ofi'set load for shipments of l/2-bushel baskets of fresh prunes 
reduced damage by an average of 2U»y baskets per car, or 62.1 percent, in the 
number of baskets requiring recoopering, including bad-order baskets; and by 
111. 8 baskets, or 38.3 percent, in the number of bad-order baskets per car. 

Federal inspection reports revealed little or no differences in fruit 
bruising between the upright and inverted caskets in the alternately inverted 
crosswise of i set loads, or between the baskets in the upright check loads and 
the alternately inverted crosswise ofi'set test loads. Because half of the 
baskets in an alternately inverted car are in the same upright position as 
are baskets in a conventional upright load, a direct comparison of bruising 
can be made between the upright and inverted baskets of fruit of comparable 
maturity in the same car, packed and loaded at the same packinghouse. This 
comparison was made on the basis of moderate and severe bruising, sufficient 
to afiect the grade, and slight bruising, not affecting the grade. Most of 
the serious bruising in both the upright and inverted baskets of the alter- 
nately inverted loads was in soft ripe fruit. Slight bruising in the inverted 

- ii - 



baskets of prunes in the alternately inverted loads was somewhat greater than 
in the upright baskets, most of it being on the faces of the packs of this 
fruit. 

Not all of the fruit bruising present at destination was attributable to 
transportation. In some instances, an important part of the bruising occurred 
before shipment, resulting from handling and packing of the fruit, from the 
pressure of hard peaches against ripe peaches when both were packed in the 
same container, and from unnecessary roughness in dropping or throwing baskets 
or forcing them into place during the loading of cars. 

Shipping tests with recording thermometers in upright end-to-end offset 
and alternately inverted crosswise offset loads in refrigerator cars with 
non-precooled peaches and fresh prunes under standard refrigeration indicated 
that the fruit cooling rates during transit were approximately the same for 
both types of loads. For the same refrigeration charge per car, therefore, 
the shipper can move more fruit in the alternately inverted load, which 
carries more baskets per car than the upright load. 

These savings in refrigeration costs are substantial. For example, on 
&n alternately inverted load of peaches in 3A~ Dus hel baskets from Gramling, 
S. C, to Chicago, 111., the savings averaged 2.15 cents per basket, or a 
total of (gliulUu Since the alternately inverted load requires fewer cars to 
move the same quantity of fruit than does the upright load, the railroads 
benefit from reduced empty car mileage and other economies, resulting in 
lower out-of-pocket transportation costs per net ton of fruit moved. 

Impact registers placed in test cars of peaches disclosed that, although 
the alternately inverted loads received more impacts of greater intensity 
per car than the comparable upright loaas, they averaged only about one-third 
as much basket damage in transit. Approximately 70 percent of all lengthwise 
impacts received by test shipments of ooth types of loads occurred in railroad 
yards and terminals. Because the alternately inverted loads are compact and 
resistant to lengthwise impacts, basket damage to these loads increased at a 
slower rate, in relation to load shifts of up to kb inches, than the rate of 
basket damage in the standard upright loads. 



- 111 - 



IMPROVED LOADING OF BASKETS OF PEACHES 
AND FRESH PRUNES IN RAILROAD CARS 
A Study of Damage and Cost Reduction 

By Ronald A. Shadburne 

Transportation and Facilities Branch 

Agricultural Marketing Service 

BACKGROUND OF STUDY 

This study of the alternately inverted loading of baskets in railway cars 
covers the results of 3 years of extensive shipping experiments with peaches 
and fresh prunes in tub- type veneer baskets. Its objective was the develop- 
ment and evaluation of a loading method that would substantially reduce the 
extensive shipping damage that has been associated for many years with the 
standard upright end-to-end offset and crosswise ofiset loading methods. The 
study is one phase of a national program of marketing research aimed at re- 
ducing costs and improving efficiency in the marketing of farm products. 

For many years, about 95 percent of all peaches shipped by rail from the 
Southeast in l/2-bushei and 1-bushel baskets have been loaded by the end-to- 
end ofrset or diagonal interlocking loading pattern. Container damage in this 
type of load has always been high. In the 195h season, for 'example, 852 cars 
of bushel baskets and 817 cars of l/2 -bushel baskets, loaded by the end-to- 
end ofiset pattern were inspected by the Railroad Perishable Inspection Agency, 
and 7«U percent of the bushel baskets and 3.1 percent of the l/2-busheis were 
found to be seriously damaged upon arrival at the markets. This involved 
ht>,10h damaged baskets of peaches, of which 25,962j. baskets were damaged 
seriously enough to require disposal at a substantial loss* 

These damage figures indicate that, of the total rail shipments of peaches 
in baskets originated in Georgia and South Carolina alone during the 195k 
season, more than 100,000 baskets were damaged upon arrival at terminal markets. 
The aggregate damage, including loss and damage claim payments and cost of 
repairing and repacking these thousands of baskets, approximated $300,000 for 
the season. Such a large loss of marketable fruit and of transportation and 
productive efi'ort is of significance to growers handlers, and consumers of 
peaches, as the cost of the damage is reflected, through freight charges of 
the railroads, in the price the grower receives Tor the fruiiyand in the 
price paid by the consumer. 

The increasing cost of this recurring damage led to the inauguration in 
195^ of research aimed at developing an improved method of loading the baskets 
in cars, to reduce the damage and to move peaches and fresh prunes to markets 
in better condition. Several exploratory shipments of bushel baskets of 
peaches loaded by the alternately inverted crosswise ofiset method were made 
from South Carolina to New York City during the 1953 season. Results of these 
first limited shipments were so promising that a cooperative program of shipping 
experiments with the alternately inverted load was set up for the 195k season 



- 2 - 

in Georgia and South Carolina. The study was follovxea through in these States 
and other producing areas in 1955 and 1956. The Association of American Rail- 
roads, the American Veneer Package Association, and the railroad inspection 
agencies actively cooperated with the U. S. Department of Agriculture in 
carrying out the program. 

AMOUNT AND TYPE OF TRANSPORTATION LOSSES 

Concern over the increasing cost of loss and damage of fruits and vegeta- 
bles shipped in 1/2- , 3/1*-, and 1-bushel baskets over several years was the 
primary i'actor which led to the experiments xvith the alternately inverted 
crosswise offset loading method. Because the baskets are flexible, the 
principal damage is basket breakage resulting from shifting of loads in tran- 
sit. Losses from bruising and decay are assumed by the grower, shipper, or 
carlot receiver who holds title to a shipment. But most of the visible 
physical damage at the time of unloading, such as breakage, is borne by the 
transportation agency through loss and damage claim payments to owners of 
shipments. 

Total and per-car claim payments made by the Class I railroaas for loss 
and damage to peaches from 191*6 to 1955, the latest year for which such data 
are available, are presented in table 1. The total payments shown here have 

Table l.~Loss and damage claim payments for peaches by all Class I railroads, 

19U6-1955 1/ 



Year 



Cars 
originated 



Total loss and 

damage claim 

payments 



Average loss and 

damage claim 
payments per car 



: Number Dollars 

1955 : 8, 06b 31*3,695 

1951; : 11,352 2*81,627 

1953 : 12,737 689,203 

1952 : 13,651* 636,731 

1951 : 15,756 2*70,1*32 

1950 : 8,752 302; ,128 

191*9 : 12,768 810,891 

192*8 : 16,711 1,067,611 

191*7 : 26,31*1* 983,533 

191*6 : 31,702 957,762 



Dollars 
1*2.60 
1*2.1*3 
5U.11 
1*6.63 
29.86 
31*. 75 
63.51 
63.89 
37.33 
30.21 



1/ Circulars No. FCD-1J00 (191*6), FCD-1^0 (192*7), FCD-1390 (191*8), FCD-Ji*31 
(191*9), FCD-1U68 Revised (1950), FCD-1503 (1951), FCD-1551* (1952), FCD-1589 
(1953), FCD-1620 (1951*), and FCD-1655 (1955) of Freight Claim Division, 
Association of American Railroads. The circulars do not segregate claim 
payments by cause of damage. 



- 3 - 

averaged $675,000 a year for the 10-year period. The average payments per car 
declined from 1946 to 1951 to a low of $29. 86, but they rose to 5P5U.11 in 195 3 
and were still at the levels of $42.43 and $42.60 in 195U and 1955, respectively. 
The last 2 figures were the third highest among the railroads' average per-car 
payments on all carloads of fresh fruits, melons, and vegetables in those 2 
years. The average per-car loss and damage claim payments of $42.60 for peaches 
in 1955 may be contrasted with the average per-car payment in the same year of 
$14.49 on all cars of fresh fruit, melons, and vegetables, $j}2. JO on tomatoes, 
#13.65 on oranges, $13.29 on grapes, and $12.35 on apples. 

The data of the Association of American Railroads on total and per-car 
loss and damage claim payments by all Class I railroads combine the figures 
for fresh prunes and plums. Although there is no separation for fresh prunes, 
reference to the combined figures, as shown in table 2 for the lo-year period 
1946-1955, will help to give some indication of the trend of loss and damage 
claim payments for that commodity. The claim payments for fresh prunes and 
plums during the 10-year period averaged $264,000 per year. The average claim 
payments per car on these 2 commodities, as shown in table 2, rose from a low 
of $22.60 in 1951 to $41.96 in 1952 and were $40.10. in 1954, dropping to 
$23.73 in 1955. The average per car of $23.73 in 1955 was still 59.24 in 
excess of the $14.49 average per car for all carloads of fresh fruits, melons, 
and vegetables. 

Table 2.— Loss and damage claim payments for fresh prunes and plums by all 

Class I railroads, 1946-1955 l/ 







: Total loss and 


: Average loss and 


Year i 


: Cars : 


: damage claim 


: damage claim 




: originated : 


payments 


: payments per car 




: Number 


Dollars 


Dollars 


1955 


! 6,997 


166,007 


23.73 


195U : 


: 4,715 


190,520 


40.41 


1953 i 


i 6,973 


23li,201 


33.59 


1952 : 


5,415 


227,203 


41.96 


1951 


i 6,938 


156,789 


22.60 


1950 


s 5,157 


189, 9k7 


36.83 


19h9 i 


i 6,874 


250,185 


36.40 


19U8 ! 


: 7 ,164 


388,368 


54. 21 


1947 J 


: 8,466 


381,364 


^5.05 


19U6. • : 


: 8,750 


455,510 


52.06 



1/ Circulars Nos. FCD-1300 (1946), FCD-1340 (1947), FCD-1390 (19U8), 
FCD-1431 (1949), FCD-1468 Revised (1950), FCD-1503 (1951), FCD-1554 (1952), 
FCD-1589 (1953), FCD-1620 (1954, and FCD-lo55 (1955) of Freight Claim 
Division, Association of American Railroads. The circulars do not segregate 
claim payments by cause of damage. 



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A tabulation of Class I railroads' reported claim payments for peaches 
by type or cause of damage from 19^8 to 1952 appears in table 3. No similar 
data have been published by the Association of American Railroads since 1952. 
This analysis shows that, during the period covered by the data, from 62 to 
77 percent of the total claim payments were for "unlocated loss and damage, " 
principally involving visible physical damage in the form of basket breakage, 
spillage, and the resultant bruising and cutting of the fruit. Claim pay- 
ments for in- transit delay absorbed from 13 to 30 percent of the total, while 
from 10 to 27 percent of the total was paid for all other causes, including 
fire, theft, temperature failures, defective equipment, improper handling, 
and train accidents. 

Loss and damage claim payments by Class I railroads for fresh prunes for 
the years ±9kti through 1952 by type or cause of damage are shown in table Ut 
which is based on data of the Association of American Railroads showing separ- 
ate figures for this commodity. No such data are available after 1952. During 
this period, the claim payments for unlocated loss and damage, which was mainly 
visible physical damage consisting of breakage, spillage, and the associated 
bruising and cutting of the fruit, absorbed from 58 to 81 percent of the total 
payments. The other proportions of the total payments ranged from 18 to 38 
percent for delay-in-transit claims and from less than 1 percent to k percent 
for all other causes. The latter category included fire, theft, train 
accidents, temperature failures, defective equipment, and improper handling. 

Seasonal studies by the Railroad Perishable Inspection Agency show that 
there were received at 38 markets in that Agency's territory, for the k seasons 
of 1951, 1953, 19Sh 9 and 1956 combined, U,2U6 cars of l/2-bushel baskets, 
1, 125 cars of 3A-bushel baskets, and 8,007 cars of 1-bushel baskets of peaches, 
which were loaded upright in standard end-to-end offset and standard crosswise 
offset loads. There was no Agency study of unloadings of peaches in baskets 
in 1952 and no comprehensive analysis for the 1955 season was undertaken be- 
cause of a serious crop failure of southeastern and eastern peaches, resulting 
from late spring freezes in that year. 

Figure 1, which is based on table 23 in the appendix, shows the average 
number of 1/2 -bushel, 3/li-bushel, and 1-bushel baskets of peaches damaged per 
car in the cars of upright loads referred to in the preceding paragraph. 

This figure presents graphically for each size of basket the average 
number of damaged baskets per car requiring recoopering (including those 
beyond repair) and the average number per car delivered "in bad order" 
(damaged beyond repair). Throughout this report, baskets described as re- 
quiring recoopering include those beyond repair, It will be noted that 
generally more than half of the baskets requiring recoopering were beyond 
repair (fig* 2)« 

A further examination of figure 1 reveals that the average number of 
1/2 -bush el and 3/U-bushel baskets per car requiring recoopering and the 
average number per car delivered in baa order during the 1956 season exceeded 
similar averages for the preceding seasons. The averages per car of 1-bushel 



- 6 - 



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- 8 - 




BN-6030 

Figure 2, --Cross section of a partly unloaded end-to-end offset load 
of l/2 -bushel baskets of peaches showing the squeezing and racking 
of the baskets that sometimes occurs in this type of load. 



baskets requiring recoopering and of those delivered in bad order in the 1956 
season were less than the corresponding averages per car for the 1951 and 1953 
seasons. However, they were 5.3 and U.5 baskets per car higher, respectively, 
than the averages of recoopering and bad-order delivery in the l9i?U season. 
For the U seasons combined, the average number of baskets per car requiring 
recoopering and the average delivered in bad order were respectively: 29.7 
and 15.8 for the l/2-bushels, 31.2 and 18 for the 3A-bushels, and 3>h.5 and 
21.7 for the 1-bushels. 



Basket damage to fresh prunes and plums in veneer baskets loaded upright 
in rail cars is shown in figure 3, developed from table 2k in the appendix - . 
This figure shows graphically the average number of baskets damaged per car in 
upright loads of both the standard end-to-end offset and standard crosswise 
offset loading patterns in cars of l/2-bushei baskets of fresh prunes and plums 
unloaded in 38 markets in Railroad Perishable Inspection Agency territory 
during the 1951, 1952, 1953, 1955, and 1956 seasons. 



- 9 - 



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- 10 - 



No analysis of unloads was made for the 195h season. The Agency's basic 
statistics do not show fresh prunes separately from plums, so the 2 commodities 
are referred to collectively in figure 3, and in table 2k in the appendix. 

Figure 3 indicates that the average number of baskets per car requiring 
recoopering fell from 5k»7 in 1951 to k0.5 in 1955 and rose to 60,8 in 1956, 
Turning to the baskets "requiring recoopering" which had to be delivered in 
bad order because of damage too serious for reconditioning, the average per 
car was 1|0.9 baskets in 1951* fell to J2.h in 1952, and then increased to 
36.8 in 1953, fell to 29.2 in 1955, and rose to kh.5 in 1956. For the i;,799 
cars of upright loads unloaded in the Railroad Perishable Inspection Agency 
territory during the 5 seasons, the averages per car were h7«8 baskets requir- 
ing recoopering and 35 • 3 baskets delivered in bad order, involving totals of 
229,330 and 169,209 baskets, respectively. Figure 3 also shows for each of 
the 5 seasons, and for the 5 seasons as a whole, that approximately three- 
fourths of the baskets requiring recoopering were delivered in bad order. 

TEST SHIPMENT PROCEDURE 

In the alternately inverted crosswise offset loading method, the alter- 
nate baskets of each layer and stack are loaded upside down and the alternate 
layers of each stack are offset crosswise of the car. The method proved to 
be an efiective way to reduce damage in rail shipments of peaches and fresh 
prunes that had been occurring in the usual upright end- to- end and crosswise 
offset loading patterns. The principle of alternate inversion without the 
offset layers has been used for some years for shipments of spinach, kale, 
green peas, and similar commodities, -and the container damage from load shift- 
ing during transit was considerably less than in the upright loads. The tests 
upon which this report is based were made to compare the alternately inverted 
crosswise offset method with the conventional upright loading methods and to 
determine if the inverted load would accomplish the same result for peaches 
and fresh prunes as it had for other commodities. Where reference is made 
hereafter to the alternately inverted load in the text, charts, and tables' it 
will be understood to mean the alternately inverted crosswise offset load. 

In testing and evaluating the alternately inverted crosswise offset load, 
the objectives were: (1) To determine the load's comparative ability to with- 
stand normal rail shipping hazards and prevent disarrangement due to com- 
pression of the flexible baskets j {2) to determine its comparative ability 
to reduce squeezing and racking of the baskets, loosening of covers, and 
disarrangement of the packs; (j) to determine if loading alternate baskets 
on their covers would cause more pressure bruising of the fruit on the faces 
of the packs than was normally found in the upright baskets; (Z;) to determine 
the comparative cooling rate and final temperature levels of the relatively 
tight, compact load produced by the alternately inverted method versus the 
standard upright load; and (.5) to determine if, after the loading crews had 
become proficient in the use of the new method, they might load about the 
same number of baskets per hour as they could when the standard end-to-end 
offset loading method was used. 



- 11 - 



Types of Test and Check Loads 

Three types of loading were considered in the shipping tests: The standard 
end-to-end offset method and the standard crosswise offset method, in both of 
which ihe baskets are loaded upright; and the alternately inverted method in 
which the alternate baskets are loaded upside down. All of the test and check 
loads were in railroad refrigerator cars. Brief descriptions of the 3 loading 
patterns are presented in the following paragraphs. (Detailed descriptions of 
the 3 loading methods for each size of basket are given in the appendix.) 

End-to-End Offset Load . — By this method, all baskets are loaded upright 
on bottoms in continuous rows lengthwise of the car, with the overhanging cover 
slats arranged diagonally to the side wall of the car to permit tight loading. 
Baskets in alternate layers in each row offset baskets in the layer below 
lengthwise of the car, and baskets in the rows after the first row, fit in 
spaces between baskets in the previous row (figures U and 5). The upright 
end-to-end offset check cars included only 1/2- and 1-bushel baskets. 

The end-to-end offset loading pattern can be illustrated by a check car- 
load of 1/2-bushel baskets of peaches i'or which the usual billed number of 
baskets is 800. ^uch a load consists of 8 parallel rows lengthwise of the 
car, each lengthwise row having k layers of 25 baskets each. 

Crosswise Ofiset Load .— By this method, the baskets are loaded in full 
stacks (the length of one basket) across the car upright on bottoms, alternate 
layers of each crosswise stack being offset from the side walls of the car, the 
other layers extending from one side wall of the car to the other. The cross- 
wise offset test cars consisted entirely of peaches in l/2-bushel and i/\\- 
bushel baskets. 

A typical check car of peaches in 3A-bushel baskets will serve as the 
medium for explaining the application of the crosswise offset loading method. 
The ordinary test load consisted of 59U 3A-bushel baskets in 27 stacks, each 
consisting of 22 baskets in U layers; that is, 2 alternate layers of 6 baskets 
each across the car from side wall to side wall and 2 alternate layers of 
5 baskets each across the car but away from each side wall by about half the 
top diameter of a basket. A more detailed description of the arrangement of 
baskets in the crosswise offset load will be found in the appendix. 

Alternately Inverted Load .— This method involves loading the baskets in 
stacks (the length of' one basket) across the car, the alternate baskets in each 
layer of the stacks being inverted or upside down (fig. 7)» Baskets in alter- 
nate layers in each stack offset baskets in the layers below crosswise of the 
car and the baskets in the stacks, after the first stack, fit in spaces between 
baskets in the previous stack. The alternately inverted test cars included 
peaches in 1/2-, 3/u-, and 1-bushel baskets and fresh prunes in l/2-bushel 
baskets. 



- 12 - 




BN-6052 



Figure 1;.— Doorway view of an upright end-to-end offset load of 
1-bushel baskets of peaches showing arrangement of baskets in 
load. Note that the points of contact between adjacent baskets 
in the same layer are confined largely to the top rim area of 
the baskets, the weakest point of the basket structure. 



~ 13 - 




BN-6053 

Figure 5«— Top view of a conventional upright end-to-end ofl'set 
load of 1-bushel baskets of peaches, showing arrangement of 
baskets in load. Note limited area of contact between 2 
baskets in foreground. 



As the test cars of l/2-bushel baskets of peaches were the most numerous 
of the alternately inverted loads, a representative test car of these baskets 
will be used to illustrate the alternately inverted loading pattern. The 
typical alternately inverted loads of peaches in l/2-bushel baskets usually 
contained 868 baskets loaded in 31 stacks crosswise of the car, each stack 
having k layers of 7 baskets each, the alternate baskets or each layer being 
loaded with the covers up and the remaining ones with the covers down, or 
inverted. 



The following photographs (figs. 6 through 20) show the step-by-step 
construction of the alternately inverted load lor all 3 sizes of baskets. 
Figures 6, 7j 8, and 9 show l/2 -bushel baskets. The steps in the construction 
of the alternately inverted load for the 3A-bushel baskets are pictured in 
figures 10, 11, 12, and 13. Construction of the load for 1-bushel baskets is 
shown in figures 31|, 15, and 16. The various steps in completing the loads 
in the doorway area of the cars for all sizes of baskets are shown in figures 
17, 18, 19, and 20. (Since completion of the field work for this report, a 



- JJU - 




BW-605U 

Figure 6. — Construction of alternately inverted load of 
1/2 -bushel baskets. Step 1: First stack built against 
end wall. 




BN-605 



Figure 7 •-—Construction of alternately inverted load of 
l/2-bushel baskets. Step 2: Three layers of second 
stack in place against first stack. 



- 15 - 




BN-6056 

Figure 8, — Construction of alternately inverted load of 
1/2 -bushel baskets. Step 3: Two layers of third 
stack in place against second stack. 




BN-6057 



Figure 9 .--Construction of alternately inverted load of 
l/2 -bushel baskets. Step U' One layer of fourth stack 
and one basket of fifth stack in place. Note stepdown 
method of placing baskets. 



- 16 - 




BN-6058 

Figure 10, --Construction of alternately inverted load 
of 3/U -bushel baskets. Step 1: First stack built 
against end wall* 




BN-6059 



Figure 11. — Construction of alternately inverted load 
of j/U -bushel baskets. Step 2: Three layers of 
second stack in place against first stack. 



- 17 - 




BN-6060 

Figure 12 — Construction of alternately inverted load 
of 3/U-bushel baskets. Step J: Two layers of third 
stack in place and additional baskets of the fourth 
and fifth stacks added to emphasize stepdown method 
of placing. 




BN-6061 



Figure 13* — Construction of alternately inverted load of 
3A - bushel baskets. Step U* Floor layer of the fourth 
stack in position. 



- 18 - 




BN-6062 



Figure liu — Construction of alternately inverted load 
of 1-bushel baskets. Step 1: First stack built 
against end trail. 




BN-6063 
Figure 15. — Construction of alternately inverted load 
of 1-bushel baskets. Step 2; Two layers of second 
stack in place against first stack. 



- 19 - 




BN-60&J 

Figure 16, — Construction of alternately inverted load 
of i-bushel baskets, step 3: One layer of third 
stack in place against second stack. Note stepdown 
method of placing baskets. 




Figure 17 •--Construction of alternately inverted load. 
Step 1: Arrangement of first row of baskets in the 
doorway area. Note doorway protection. 



- 20 - 




BN-6066 

Figure 18. — Construction of alternately inverted load. 
Step 2: Positioning of additional baskets in the 
doorway area as loading progresses. 




BN-6067 

Figure 19. — Construction of alternately inverted load. 
Step j,'. Continuation of loading in the doorway area. 



- 21 - 




BN-6068 

Figure 20, — Construction of alternately inverted load. 
Step k'- Completed load in the doorway area. 



new method of merging the two sections of the alternately inverted load in the 
doorway area of the car lias been developed by which the load is tightened up 
considerably more lengthwise of the car, thus increasing the number of baskets 
per car, A description of this method and provisions for its use are being 
considered for inclusion in the applicable loading rules tariffs of the rail- 
roads • ) 

Comparison of Test Car Loading Patter ns, --Table 5 presents a summary and 
comparative tabulation of the loading patterns of typical test and check cars 
of peaches and fresh prunes. That the alternately inverted load is a more 
compact load than either the upright end-to-end offset or the upright cross- 
wise offset loads is evident from the tabulation. For example, peaches in 
l/2-bushel baskets load to 800 baskets in the upright end-to-end ofiset ioaa, 
to 80o in the upright crosswise ofiset load, and to 86b baskets in the alter- 
nately inverted load. Thus, the alternately inverted loading pattern provides 
for 68 and 62 more 1/2 -bushel baskets per carload than the respective upright 
end-to-end offset and the upright crosswise offset loading patterns. The 
typical alternately inverted load of fresh prunes in i/2-bushei baskets had 
896 baskets, or J2 more than the 86!j baskets in the typical upright end-to-end 
offset car of the same size of basket. 



- 22 - 



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- 23 - 

The j/a-bushel baskets of peaches loaded by the upright crosswise offset 
pattern consisted of 591* baskets for the typical carload, compared with 672 
baskets in the alternately inverted load, or an increase of 78 baskets. The 
representative -upright end-to-end offset load and the representative alter- 
nately inverted load of peaches in bushel baskets contained 396 and U13 baskets, 
respectively, or an increase of 17 baskets for the alternately inverted load- 
ing pattern* 

Volume of Experimental Shipments 

All the experimental test and check shipments of peaches were made in 
railroad refrigerator cars in carload lots. The first test shipments were 
originated in the Georgia-South Carolina area in ly5^« There were no ship- 
ments from this area in 1955 because a late spring freeze destroyed the crop. 
The only peach test shipments originating in 1955 were from the Colorado-Idaho 
area. Shipments were made from both Georgia-South Carolina and the Colorado- 
Idaho areas in 1956, in which year the tests were completed. Table 6 summarizes 
the number of peach test shipments in cars originated in the Georgia-South 
Carolina and Colorado-Idaho areas during the 195k } 1955 } and iy56 seasons, and 
the number of such shipments from which test results were obtained. The latter 
were the shipments having sufficient data for analysis. 

The experimental test shipments of fresh prunes all were made from Idaho 
during the 1955 and 1956 seasons in carload lots of l/2-bushel baskets in 
railroad refrigerator cars. They involved 2 types of loads: Ena-to-end off- 
set check loads and alternately inverted test loads. The number of cars orgin- 
ated and tne number on which complete test results were developed are shown in 
table 7. 

The variance in basket damage was measured in more than 800 cars of 
peaches unloaded in 38 markets in Railroad Perishable Inspection Agency terri- 
tory in 195U« The variance showed that, in testing the alternately inverted 
load, a minimum of 100 test cars of any 1 type of load and basket would have 
to be run in order to produce statistically significant data from which valid 
conclusions could be drawn. 1/ That there was an adequate number of loads to 
test properly the alternately inverted loading method is demonstrated by the 
data in table 6. There were 177 alternately inverted test carloads of 1/2- 
bushel baskets of peaches and 1U5 alternately inverted test carloads of 1-bushel 
baskets of peaches from which complete test data were available. To the 
177 alternately inverted test carloads of 1/2 -bushel baskets of peaches were 
added the 65 usable alternately inverted test carloads of fresh prunes in 
1/2 -bushel baskets, making a total of 21*2 carloads producing test data for 
this type of basket of tiiis specific loading methodo 

As is shown in table 6, only 32 alternately inverted test cars of peaches 
in 3A-bushel baskets were originated from which test results could be obtained. 

l/ A' "5-percent sampling error was allowed in developing the experimental 
design for the study of this type of load. The probability that 100 test ship- 
ments would produce results not statistically significant is estimated to be 
1 in 20. 



- 2k - 



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- 25 - 

Table 7«--Number of test and check cars of fresh prunes originated in Idaho and 
inspected at terminal markets, by type of load, 1955-1956 



Seasons ,' 


Cars originated : 


Cars originated from -which 
: test results were obtained 


TSnd'-ib^end 
offset loads 


: A. I. 
: loads 1/ 


• * 

: Total: 


: tehd-to-end" 
: offset loads 


• A# J_ • • 

: loads : Total 


1955.. I 

1956..: 

Total. . : 


! Number 

i 1 
i 12 

: 19 


Number 

23 
101 
12U 


Number 

30 
113 
11*3 


Number 
7 
5 

12 


Number Number 
21 28 
hk k9 
65 77 



1/ Alternately inverted loads. 



Although this is substantially less than the required 100-car minimum test 
sample referred to in the preceding paragraph, the results obtained for these 
32 cars may be considered significant, since the 3/li-bushel baskets were of 
the same general shape and construction as the 1/2- and 1-bushel baskets. 



Methods of Obtaining Test Data 

The tests were conducted cooperatively by representatives of the Freight 
Loading and Container Bureau of the Association of American Railroads, the 
American Veneer Package Association, the Agricultural Marketing Service of the 
U. S, Department of Agriculture, the' Railroad Perishable Inspection Agency, 
and the Western Weighing and Inspection Bureau. The Agricultural Marketing 
Service provided standard forms for an Origin Loading Report and a Destination 
Inspection Report, so that the test data could be reported with such uniformity 
and completeness as to permit accurate comparisons of the performance of the 
upright and alternately inverted loads. The conditions under which the tests 
were conducted were kept as comparable as possible. 

The test cars were loaded or loading was supervised jointly by representa- 
tives of the Freight Loading and Container Bureau of the Association of American 
Railroads, the American Veneer Package Association, the Department of Agriculture, 
and the railroads. An Origin Loading Report was prepared for each test and check 
car as it was loaded. The report included information on origin, destination, 
consignor, consignee, and routing of the shipment; protective services; condi- 
tion and features of the baskets; variety; and other pertinent factors. Impact 
registers to measure the number and intensity of the lengthwise impacts trans- 
mitted to the loads were installed in, and records were obtained on, 6I4. peach 
test and check cars. 

At destination, all test cars, wherever possible, were inspected by em- 
ployees of the Railroad Perishable Inspection Agency or the Western Weighing 



- 26 - 

and Inspection Bureau for basket breakage, and by inspectors of the Fresh 
Products Standardization and Inspection Branch of the Agricultural Marketing 
Service for bruising and condition of the fruit. Cars destined to Canada were 
inspected by employees of the Canadian railroads for basket breakage. The 
results of these inspections were recorded for each test and check car on the 
Destination Inspection Report, which provided for information on the identifica- 
tion of the shipment; container type and size; temperatures; type, construction, 
and condition of the loadj and other pertinent data. 

RESULTS 

Basket Damage 

The results of the tests with respect to basket damage are shown in tables 
8, 9, 10, and 11, comparing the transit damage to baskets in rail shipments of 
peaches from "the Georgia-South Carolina and Colorado-Idaho areas for 195U* 1955 > 
and 1936. In table 12, a similar comparison is made for rail shipments of fresh 
prunes from Idaho for 1955 and 1956. 

Half -Bushel Baskets . — The total test and check cars of peaches in 1/2-bushel 
baskets ior the 195U and 1956 seasons combined consisted of U3 carloads loaded 
upright, including 26 by the end-to-end ofi'set method and 17 by the crosswise 
offset method, and 177 alternately inverted carloads, ail of which originated 
in the Georgia-South Carolina area. 

It will be observed from table 8 that the alternately inverted loading 
method effected reductions of 2b. 5 baskets, or 71.1 percent, in the number of 
baskets per car requiring recoopering, including baskets delivered in bad order, 
and 10..} baskets, or 58*5 percent, in the number of baskets per car delivered 
in bad order, which could not be recoopered. The types of basket damage in the 
l/2 -bushel shipments are reported in table 13. These data indicate that the 
alternately inverted loading produced significant reductions in the proportions 
of baskets with broken or loose cover loops or handles and baskets with broken 
or buckled covers. A comparison of the percentage ranges of basket damage for 
upright and alternately inverted carloads of peaches appears in table 25 in the 
appendix. 

The total test and check cars of fresh prunes in l/2-bushel baskets for 
the 1955 and 1956 seasons combined, all of which came from Idaho, consisted of 
77 cars, of which 12 were loaded by the upright end-to-end offset method and 
65 by the alternately inverted method. Table 12 shows that the alternately in- 
verted loading brought about reductions of 2U.9 baskets, or 62.1 percent, in the 
number of baskets per car requiring recoopering, including bad order baskets, 
and of H4..8 baskets, or 58.3 percent, in the number of baskets per car delivered 
in bad order. 

Three-Quarter Bushel Baskets . — The loads of 3/i+-bushel baskets of peaches, 
from which test data were derived, originated in the Georgia-South Carolina 
area in the 1956 season. They totalled 60 cars, of which 28 check cars had up- 
right crosswise offset loads and 32 test cars had alternately inverted loads. 



- 27 - 



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Table 9 shows that in the alternately inverted loads, compared with the 
upright loads, there were reductions of 9»U baskets, or 26.3 percent, in the 
number of baskets per car requiring recoopering, including bad-order baskets, 
and 3.1* baskets, or 20,1 percent, in the number of baskets per car delivered 
in bad order which could not be recoopered. A comparison of the percentage 
ranges of basket damage for upright and alternately inverted carloads of 
peaches in 3/i*-bushel baskets is made in table 25 in the appendix. 

The number of baskets having broken or buckled covers, racking, or loose 
or broken bottoms was smaller in the alternately inverted loads than in the 
upright loads, as shown in table 13, which enumerates the types of basket 
damage. While the alternately inverted loads appeared to have an excessive 
number of "squeezed" baskets (squeezed out of their round shape), this may 
have resulted from rough handling during loading at the origin point rather 
than from damage in transit. Nevertheless, the alternately inverted loads 
averaged 1*1.5 percent fewer baskets per car requiring recoopering than did 
the upright loads. 

One- Bushel Baskets . --Table 10 analyzes the test results on shipments of 
peaches in 1-bushel baskets. The data are based on 23 upright end-to-end 
offset check loads from the Georgia-South Carolina area in 1956, and 11*5 alter- 
nately inverted loads, of which 111* originated in the Georgia-South Carolina 
area in 1951; and 1956 and 31 originated in Colorado and Idaho in 1955 and 1956* 
Comparatively, the alternately inverted loads contained 1*6.2 fewer baskets per 
car requiring recoopering, including bad-order baskets, and 3U«9 fewer bad- 
order baskets per car, than the upright end-to-end offset loads. These were 
reductions of 71.5 and 72. 1* percent, respectively. Table 25, in the appendix, 
contains a comparison of the percentage ranges of basket damage for upright 
and alternately inverted carloads of peaches in 1-bushel baskets. 

Table 13 shows that the alternately inverted loads haa appreciably fewer 
baskets per car than the upright loads in the categories of squeezed baskets 
and unspecified types of damage, and a slight reduction in the number of 
baskets per car with broken or loose loops or handles. The results for the 
other 5 types of basket damage favored the upright loads. However, the up- 
right loads had an average of U5*U baskets per car requiring recoopering 
compared to only 28.5 baskets, or 37«2 percent less, for the alternately in- 
verted loads. 

All Sizes of Baskets .— Another measure of the effectiveness of the alter- 
nately inverted loading method in reducing basket damage is provided by com- 
paring the basket damage for all sizes of baskets of peaches loaded by the 
upright and alternately inverted methods. Table 11, a summary of tables 8, 9, 
and 10, makes such a comparison on 9k upright loads from the Georgia-South 
Carolina area in the I95U and 1956 seasons and J5k alternately inverted loads 
from the Georgia-South Carolina and Colorado-Idaho areas in the 1951*, 1955, 
and 1956 seasons. 

The alternately inverted loads, compared with the upright loads, had 29 
fewer baskets per car requiring recoopering, and 11*. 6 fewer baskets per car 



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delivered in bad order, which were reductions of 6*1.9 and 58.6 percent, re- 
spectively. The percentage ranges of basket damage between upright loads and 
alternately inverted loads of all sizes of baskets are shown in table 25 in 
the appendix. 

Overall Basket Damage Results . — Few alternately inverted loads of peaches 
were inspected by the Railroad Perishable Inspection Agency before the 1956 
season. The Agency's data for cars unloaded in 38 markets during the 1956 
season provided the best source Tor further comparisons of basket damage in 
upright loaas and in alternately inverted loads. The basket damage found by 
the Agency during the 1956 season is shown in tables 1U, 15 9 and 16. 

Table Ik compares the basket damage in l/2-bushel baskets on 677 upright 
and 188 alternately inverted loads. Damage in the latter was less by 20.8 
baskets, or 60.1 percent, in number of baskets per car requiring recoopering, 
and by 12 baskets, or 61.8 percent, in bad-order baskets per car. 

The basket damage for the 3/U -bushel baskets, as shown in table 15, covers 
366 upright loads and 36 alternately inverted loads. The alternately inverted 
loads had 10.2 fewer baskets per car requiring recoopering and 5«7 fewer in 
bad order, reductions of 29.6 and 29.5 percent, respectively. 

In the 795 upright loads and the 99 alternately inverted loads of 1-bushel 
baskets covered by table 16, the latter type of load had 11.8 baskets, or 
y~>.h percent, fewer baskets per car requiring recoopering, and 10.6 baskets, 
or 50.5 percent, fewer bad-order baskets per car. 

In 38 markets in the Railroad Perishable Inspection Territory during the 
1956 season, i|60 upright loads and 5>Jk alternately inverted loads of fresh 
prunes in 1/2-bushel baskets were unloaded and inspected. The basket damage 
on these shipments is shown in table 17 • In the alternately inverted loads, 
compared with upright loads, 18 fewer baskets per car required recoopering, 
a reduction of 29«6 percent, and 17 fewer baskets, or 38.2 percent fewer, were 
in bad order. 

The basket damage data of the Railroad Perishable Inspection Agency for 
upright and alternately inverted loads differ from the figures previously shown 
for the test and check loads of peaches and fresh prunes. This variation is 
due largely to difference in the numbers of cars in each comparison. However, 
both sets of data show substantial reductions in basket damage in alternately 
inverted loads. 

Reasons for Reduced Basket Damage in Alternately Inverted Loads .— The re- 
duction of basket breakage and damage in the inverted load resulted primarily 
from its greater solidity and its consequent resistance to lengthwise impacts 
that ordinarily cause basket breakage in the conventional upright load. Be- 
cause of the semiconical shape of the baskets, the side-to-side area of contact 
between the baskets in the conventional upright load is confined entirely to 
the top rims of the baskets, or the edges of the basket covers. The rim area 
is usually the most flexible part of the container. This weakness is even more 
pronounced when the covers of the baskets are not tightly fitted and properly 
secured. 



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- 39 - 

The inverted load takes advantage of the shape of the baskets in that 
they are litted together tightly to produce a solid, compact load. This load- 
ing pattern, in which the baskets in each stack are nested in the recesses 
formed between two baskets in the preceding stack, greatly increases the area 
of contact between the baskets; the lorce of the lengthwise thrusts received 
by the load is therefore dispersed over a greater area of basket surface© 
Consequently, there is ie?s racking, squeezing, and other damage to the baskets, 
because there is greater resistance of the load to the normal hazards of rail 
transportation. 

Fruit Bruising 

Proper evaluation of the alternately inverted loading method for shipments 
of peaches and fresh prunes in tub baskets also involves the efl'ect of that 
loading method on fruit bruising. When packed and shipped, peaches are usually 
at the hard ripe to firm ripe stage of maturity, and a few may have advanced to 
firm ripe. However, peaches are naturally tender and susceptible to bruising. 
Fresh prunes also are susceptible to bruising, although not to the same extent 
as peaches. Both types of fruit require much care through all stages of han- 
dling and transportation to protect them from abnormal mechanical damage. 

While some bruising occurs during transportation, there are other con- 
tributing factors. For example, bruising may also result from (a) handling 
of the fruit from the field into the packinghouse; (b) grading operations in 
the packinghouse; (c) the amount of pressure to which the fruit is subjected 
during packing, especially in applying and fastening the basket covers; (d) 
increased pressure on the fruit at the bulge in the face of the pack, caused 
by applying and forcing the cover down into place, when the bulge is somewhat 
higher than usual; (e) the degree of maturity, involving particularly the 
pressure of hard peaches against firm ripe or soft ripe peaches when both are 
packed in the same basket; (f) unnecessary roughness in dropping, throwing, or 
forcing baskets into place during the loading of cars. These conditions may 
vary greatly from one shipper or packer to another, or for a single shipper or 
packer during the same or different seasons, or at different times during the 
same season. 

Condition inspections for fruit bruising were made on as many test and 
check cars as possible by Department of Agriculture inspectors. Inspection 
reports of the Railroad Perishable Inspection Agency and the Western Weighing 
and Inspection Bureau provided supplementary information on bruising. The 
Georgia-South Carolina area in 19SU and 1956 and the Colorado-Idaho area in 
1955 and 1956 provided a total of 288 test and check shipments of peaches in 
refrigerator cars on which data on bruising were obtained. This group con- 
sisted of JIU cars of l/2-bushel baskets, of which 13 were upright end-to-end 
offset loads and 126 alternately inverted loads; 50 cars of 3/ii-bushel baskets, 
of which 28 were upright crosswise offset loads and 22 alternately inverted 
loads; and 91 cars of 1-bushel baskets, of which 12 were upright end-to-end 
offset loads and 85 alternately inverted loads. 



- w> - 

The test shipments of fresh prunes in refrigerator cars on which data on 
braising were obtained moved from Idaho during 1956 in l/2 -bushel baskets only. 
They comprised h upright end-to-end offset loaded cars and 16 alternately in- 
verted loaded cars. 

The comparison of fruit bruising in the upright versus the inverted bas- 
kets in the alternately inverted load is of special significance. As half 
of the baskets in each alternately inverted loads are in the same upright 
position as they are in the conventional upright loads, a direct comparison 
of bruising between upright and inverted baskets on the same fruit, with the 
same degree of maturity, in the same car, loaded by the same loading crews at 
the same packinghouse, was possible in each test load. 

The inspections for bruising in the comparisons which follow were made on 
fruit in undamaged baskets only. The purpose was to determine whether invert- 
ing the baskets would cause any appreciable increase in fruit bruising in other- 
wise undamaged baskets. 

It should be emphasized, however, that the bad-order baskets and those 
requiring recoopering before reuse contained considerable bruised fruit. When 
baskets were recoopered, all the bruised fruit was removed and replaced with 
sound fruit. This resulted in a number of empty and partly empty containers 
after recoopering, and these baskets are included in the total bad-order count. 
In addition, many of the bad-order baskets which remained after a considerable 
number of baskets had been recoopered and repacked, contained some discarded 
and bruised fruit. Data in the preceding section of this report showed that 
the alternately inverted loading method significantly reduced overall basket 
damage, which indicates that this loading method also can be instrumental in 
substantially reducing fruit bruising losses. 

Half -Bushel Baskets . —Bruising data on l/2-bushel baskets of peaches were 
analyzed for 15 upright end-to-end offset check loads in 1956 and 126 alter- 
nately inverted loads in ±95h and 1956 from the Georgia-South Carolina area. 
The slight difference in bruising rates for the 2 types of loads, as shown in 
table 26 in the appendix, is of no significance. The comparison of the up- 
right and inverted baskets in the alternately inverted loads in figure 21 also 
indicates that inverting the baskets caused no increase in fruit bruising. 
Percentage ranges in fruit bruising for the upright and alternately inverted 
1/2 -bushel loads appear in table 18. 

Test data for bruising in l/2-bush el -basket loads of fresh prunes were 
available on U upright end-to-end ofiset check loads and 16 alternately in- 
verted loads originating in Idaho in 1955* as shown in table 30 in the appen- 
dix. There was no substantial difference in the bruising rates for the 2 
types of loads. The comparison in figure 22 of bruising rates in the upright 
and the inverted baskets in the alternately inverted loads shows there was 
somewhat more slight bruising in the inverted baskets. However, this differ- 
ence is not of much importance, as minor bruising is not regarded as signifi- 
cant and does not affect the grade of the fruit. In the categories of "damage 
by bruising" and "serious bruising," there was little difference between the 
upright and inverted baskets. 



- 10. - 



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- 44 - 

Three-Quarter-Bushel Baskets , *-All of the 3A-bushel-basket shipments of 
peaches on which bruising data were available originated in the Georgia-South 
Carolina area in 1956, comprising 28 upright crosswise offset check loads and 
22 alternately inverted loads, as shown in table 27 in the appendix. A com- 
parison of bruising in the upright and the inverted baskets in the alternately 
inverted loads appears in figure 23* The bruising rates are about equal, in- 
dicating that inverted loading had no adverse effect on bruising. The percent- 
age ranges of fruit bruising for these same loads, in table 18, show no sub- 
stantial difference between the upright and alternately inverted loads, 

One-Bushel Baskets ,— The results of the examination of fruit bruising in 
1-bush el-basket loads of peaches appear in table 28 in the appendix. The data 
cover 12 upright end-to-end offset check loads from the Georgia -South Carolina 
area in 1956, and 85 alternately inverted loads from the Georgia-South Carolina 
and Colorado-Idaho areas in 195^4, 1955* and 1956, The bruising in the upright 
and inverted baskets of the alternately inverted loads is compared in figure 2l\.* 
It is apparent that there was no substantial difference in the bruising rates 
between the upright and the alternately inverted loads, and between the up- 
right and the inverted baskets of the alternately inverted loads, A similar 
conclusion may be drawn from the comparison in table 18 of the percentage' 
ranges of fruit bruising for upright and alternately inverted loads of peaches 
in 1-bushel baskets from the Georgia-South Carolina area in 1956, 

All Sizes of Baskets ,— To determine the overall performance of the alter- 
nately inverted loading method with respect to- bruising damage, all the test 
groups of l/2-, 3/U-, and 1-bushel loads of peaches in the upright loaded cars 
were combined and compared with a similar combination of peach loads in the 
alternately inverted loaded cars, as shown in table 29 in the appendix. This 
comparison covered 55 upright loads from the Georgia-South Carolina area during 
the 1956 season and 233 alternately inverted loads from the Georgia-South 
Carolina and Colorado- Idaho areas during the 195ii, 1955, and 1956 seasons. 

It is apparent that the differences in bruising rates between the up- 
right loads and the alternately inverted loads were so slight as to have no 
real significance. The same thing holds true in comparing the bruising rates 
of the upright and the inverted baskets in the alternately inverted loads as 
shown in figure 26 and in the tabulation of the percentage ranges of fruit 
bruising in table 18, (See also fig. 25.) 

Time Hequirements by Type of Load 

Time studies of loading operations involving loading crews proficient in 
the use of both the standard upright and the alternately inverted methods of 
loading peaches were made in Georgia and South Carolina during the 1956 season. 
The results of these studies are given in table 19. 

Most of the packing sheds observed had two 2-man teams loading the in- 
dividual refrigerator cars. Sometimes one 2-man team was used for loading 
cars with a size or grade of fruit in limited supply, and the flow of baskets 
to the car for loading was slow. In such instances, there was considerable 
waiting time on the part of the loading crew. 



-45- 



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BN-6069 

Figure 25 • — Faces of packs of peaches in 
upright and inverted bushel baskets from 
bottom layer of load at destination mar- 
ket, showing absence of any significant 
difference in fruit bruising between the 
two baskets on the car floor. The basket 
on the left was loaded upright while the 
one beside it on the right was inverted. 
The third open basket (above) also was 
inverted. 



The packing-shed operation is designed primarily for packing peaches. 
After filling and lidding, the baskets are moved to the loading platform by 
a chain conveyor. Different sizes and grades of peaches are packed out at 
the same time, and several cars are usually loaded simultaneously "to order" 
as to size and grade. Most of the cars contain only one size and grade of 
fruit for marketing purposes. The packing of different sizes and grades at 
the same time made it necessary to have loaders performing loading in each of 
the cars to which baskets were routed by conveyor. Interruption of movement 
developed on the packing line for several reasons such as changing lots, lack 
of fruit, machinery breakdown, stoppages, and more than normal culling of 
fruit. On the conveyor line carrying the baskets to the cars, more interrup- 
tions occurred as the sizes and grades were removed at assigned car locations, 
the remainder passing on down the chain conveyor to the other cars farther 
along the loading platform. This process was repeated with as many different 
sizes and grades as were being packed out at one time. All interruptions in 
the movement on the line resulted in considerable waiting time between basket 
arrivals at the car doors and placing them in the load. 



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Table 19 •—Comparative productive labor requirements for loading baskets of 
peaches, by size of container and type of load, Georgia and South Carolina, 
1956 season 



Size of basket and 
type of load 



Car loader operation — 
productive labor for placing baskets 1/ 



Man-minutes 
per container 2/ 



Man-hours 
per carload 2/ 



Half-bushel 
(Basis —bOO per car) 

Standard upright load. . . . • • 

Alternately inverted load.. 

Increase 



Man-minutes 



0.067 
0.070 
0.003 



Man-hours 



0.89 
0.93 
O.OU 



Three-quarter-bushel 
(Basis— 59k per car) 

Standard upright load. .... 
Alternately inverted load., 
Increase. 



0.079 
0.090 
0.011 



0.78 
0.89 
0.11 



One-bushel 
(Basis — 396 per car) 

Standard upright load. 

Alternately inverted load.. 
Increase. ..•••••••••••• 



0.111 
0.126 
0.015 



0.73 
0.83 
0.10 



1/ The operations of setting off baskets from the conveyor into the car and 
feeding them to the loaders were not timed, as the - methods lor the upright 
and inverted loads were identical. Productive labor does not include waiting 
time. 

2/ The values include allowances for personal time and fatigue. 



Table 19 shows that for the l/2-bushel baskets there was only O.Olj. man- 
hour of dill'erence in productive labor per carload in favor of the standard 
upright load compared to the alternately inverted load. This difference is 
considered negligible. The alternately inverted loading method for the 3/k- 
bushel-basket load required O.ll man-hour more productive labor per car, and 
for the 1-bushel-basket load, 0.10 man-hour more than the upright load. If 
the waiting time between the baskets could have been reduced, the actual time 
for loading a car of j/U-bushel or 1-bushei baskets with 2-man teams would 
have taken approximately 3 minutes longer for the inverted method as compared 



-50 - 

with the -upright method. In the upright loads studied, a minimum of 15 minutes 
per carload was spent in waiting for baskets, Jfost of the other test carloads, 
including the alternately inverted loads, had considerably more waiting time 
per car. Thus, in actual practice, there was no difi'erence in crew size or 
actual overall loading time between the two loading methods. The small in- 
crease in productive time required for the alternately inverted load was made up 
out of waiting time available, and the actual overall elapsed time, which in- 
cluded both productive time and waiting time, was almost the same for both 
types of loads. 

Comparative Cooling Rates of Upright and Alternately Inverted Loads 

Shipping tests with recording thermometers were conducted in 1955 by the 
U, S, Department of Agriculture on non-precooled Colorado peaches in bushel 
baskets. The tests covered 2 cars loaded by the upright end-to-end offset 
method and 10 cars loaded by the alternately inverted loading method. They 
were designed to ascertain the comparative rates of cooling for the 2 types 
of loads. Similar tests were made in the same season on 10 alternately in- 
verted loads of non-precooled Idaho fresh prunes in l/2 -bushel baskets. The 
peaches were shipped in pre-iced cars with standard refrigeration, 2 percent 
salt being added at the first re-icing. The prunes were loaded in pre-iced 
cars with standard refrigeration in transit. The results of these tests are 
shown in figure 27, which is based on an unpublished field report, 2/ 

The temperature data shown in figure 27 indicate that the alternately 
inverted loads of peaches cooled at about the same rate as the upright end-to- 
end offset loads. Prunes are more difficult to cool than peaches, because 
the smaller fruit packs more tightly and offers greater resistance to air 
movement through the containers; so the tests demonstrated that the cooling 
rate for the alternately inverted loads of prunes in l/2-bushel baskets would 
be satisfactory for peaches as well as prunes. The shipper or receiver there- 
fore receives, for the same cost, completely adequate refrigeration of sub- 
stantially more fruit through the use of the alternately inverted load instead 
of the standard upright load. As will be shown in a subsequent section of 
this report, this saving results from the shipment in the alternately inverted 
load of more baskets per car at a flat per-car charge for standard refrigera- 
tion, which reduces the refrigeration cost per basket of fruit. 

Damage in Relation to Impact Forc e 

Impact registers were placed in as many test cars of peaches as the supply 
permitted to ascertain: (1) The relationship between the degree of damage and 
frequency and severity of lengthwise impacts during transit; (2) the degree of 
damage occurring by type of load and size of basket in the upright loads and 

2/ Redit, W. H,, Report on Precooling and Shipping Tests of Colorado 
Peaches and Idaho Prunes, August, September 1955, U. S, Dept, Agr,, AM3, MRD, 
Biological Sciences Branch (Unpublished field report). 



-51 - 







- 52 - 

the alternately inverted loads; and (3) the locations where overspeed 3/ im- 
pacts occurred. Loss and damage prevention officials of the railroaus parti- 
cipating in the transportation of each upright and alternately inverted load 
containing an impact register were furnished a copy of the impact record for 
the particular car or cars involved. By checking the time when the impacts 
took place with the train record of each car, the carrier was provided with a 
record of impacts that occurred on its line. 

A comparison of the number and intensity of the lengthwise impacts of 5 
miles per hour and over, received by the test and check shipments in which im- 
pact registers were used, is presented in table 20. There were 12 upright 
loads from Georgia and South Carolina in 1956, I4O alternately inverted loads 
from Georgia and South Carolina in 1956, and 12 alternately inverted loads 
from Colorado in 1955 in which impact registers recorded impacts of 5 miles 
per hour and over. A more detailed analysis of the impacts by speeds for the 
same cars appears in table 31 in the appendix* 

Reference to table 20 indicates that the 12 upright loads hao an average 
impact force index kf of li?0. k t with averages of k»3 impacts per car of 5 
miles per hour and over and 53 • 8 baskets per car requiring recoopering. In 
contrast, the average impact force index was 211 for the 52 alternately in- 
verted loads, with averages of 6.6 impacts per car of 5 miles per hour and 
over, and only 16 baskets requiring recoopering. 

Although, on the average, the cars with alternately inverted loads were 
subjected to more severe handling, they had 37»8 fewer baskets per car damaged 
and requiring recoopering, a reduction of 70.2 percent compared with the up- 
right-loaded cars. This is a further indication of the effectiveness of the 
alternately inverted loading method in reducing transit damage and providing 
safer transportation for commodities in tub-type baskets. 

As is shown in table 31 in the appendix, 67. 3 percent of the impacts of 
5 miles per hour and over sustained by the 12 upright-loaded cars occurred in 
railroad yards or terminals. The same table shows that, for the U0 alter- 
nately inverted loads for which such data were available, 70.5 percent of the 
impacts of 5 miles per hour and over were attributable to yard and terminal 
handlings. These data suggest that there is need for more careful handling 
of cars, particularly in yards and terminals, so as to reduce effectively the 
amount of damage to containers and fruit in transit. 



3/ Coupling (impact) speeds exceeding U miles per hour are generally 
considered by the railroads as rough handling, since the destructive force 
transmitted to the car body, and hence to the load, is considerably greater 
from impacts at speeds above this rate than below. 

k/ Average Impact Force Index is the summation of the squares of the 
speeds of impact of 5" miles per hour or over. Findings of railroad research 
technicians indicate that the force of the ijtrpacts received by a load increases 
in approximately the same ratio as the squares of the striking speeds. 



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- 5U - 

Basket Damage in Relation to Load S hift 

A study of the test cars of peaches from the Georgia-South Carolina and 
Colorado-Idaho areas during the 1955 and 1956 seasons was made to learn whether 
basket damage could be related to shifting of loads resulting from lengthwise 
impacts received by these cars in transit. There were 50 upright check loads 
and 1U1 alternately inverted test loacts on which load-shift and basket-damage 
data were obtained. From the test records of these cars, it was possible to 
correlate the percentages of damaged baskets requiring recoopering with the 
extent of the load shifts. The results of this comparison are presented in 
figure 28. 

The curves plotted in figure 28 indicate the degree of relationship be- 
tween the percentages of baskets requiring recoopering and the maximum load 
shifts in inches, determined by a correlation analysis of the available basic 
data. 5/ These curves indicate that there were higher rates of basket re- 
coopering in the upright loads than in the alternately inverted loads for load 
shifts up to approximately k5 inches. Beyond this point, the curves represent- 
ing the percentages of baskets requiring recoopering tend to merge, indicating 
that for very heavy load shifts the amount of basket damage is approximately 
the same irrespective of the loading method. However, it is apparent that the 
alternately inverted loading method does contribute importantly toward the 
prevention of basket damage. 

Most of the load shifts in connection with the cars covered by figure 28 
were JO inches or less, 82 percent of the upright loads and 96.5 percent of 
the alternately inverted loads being in this range. In the previous section 
of this report, it was developed that the impact register tests showed that 
the alternately inverted loads as a group received more lengthwise impacts of 
a comparatively high intensity than the standard upright loads. The fact that, 
notwithstanding the more severe handling in transit, a greater percentage of ^ 
the alternately inverted loads fell in the lower range of load shift than of 
the standard upright loads indicates that the comparatively compact alternately 
inverted loads are somewhat more resistant to load shifting than the standard 
upright loads (fig. 29). 

In constructing the curves in figures 28, observations involving zero 
values were omitted. For example, there were a number of instances of cars 
with baskets requiring recoopering where no load shift was reported. Such 
damage might have resulted from handling, packing, and loading of the baskets 
at origin; or from instances where the load, during transit, had a shift from 



5/ 'Using the logarithmic equation Log y = a +(log b)x, curves were fitted 
to the data for the upright and alternately inverted loads. The antilogarithms 
of computed values were plotted for both curves. Upright loads : Equation of 
curve, Log Ye = .2166+ .02i;2(x) -corrected error of estimate = 9.U percent. 
Coefficient or index of correlation, P = .70^9 • Alternately inverted loads : 
Equation of curve, Log f Ye = -.2601 + .O338(x)-corrected standard error of 
estimate = 6.12 percent. Coefficient or index of correlation, P = .27* 



- $5 - 




00 
CVJ 



to 



- 56 - 




BN-6070 

Figure 29.— Top view of an end-to-end offset load of 
3/li-bnshel baskets of peaches at end of car, showing 
15- to 25-inch shift in load. This shift resulted 
from several heavy lengthwise impacts and the com- 
paratively great compressibility of the flexible 
baskets when loaded in the standard upright pattern. 



one bulkhead and a counter shift from the other, thus returning the load to 
its original position; or even from vertical bounce of the load. On the other 
hand, some cars had no basket damage when load shifts were known to have 
occurred. To some extent, this may have been because consignees were inclined 
to exercise a degree of tolerance and accept damaged baskets where the damage 
was of a minor nature not requiring outright rejection. 

As the curves in figure 28 were computed on positive values only and as 
the underlying data involve some variable causes for damage other than those 
directly attributable to transportation, these curves are useful only for 
comparative purposes and cannot be accepted as a basis for estimating the 
incidence of damage in relation to the extent of load shifting. 



-57 - 



Potential Savings in Transportation Costs 

The use of the alternately inverted loading method instead of the upright 
end-to-end offset and crosswise offset loading methods not only provides safer 
transportation for the commodities involved, but also affords shippers and 
receivers appreciable savings in per-package refrigeration costs, because more 
baskets can be loaded into each car. Costs shown in table 21, which are based 
on the more detailed data presented in table 32 in the appendix, show the 
potential savings on shipments of peaches and prunes from and to representa- 
tive origins and destinations of test shipments. The potential savings on 
shipments of prunes are shown in table 21 for 1/2 -bushel baskets, as this is 
the only size of basket used for that commodity. 

Table 21 shows, for example, that the standard refrigeration charge on a 
carload of peaches from Fort Valley, Ga. , to Providence, R. I., is $108. 7U> 
or 13.59 cents per basket on a car of 800 half-bushel baskets loaded by the 
end-to-end offset method, or 12.53 cents per basket on a car of 868 half- 
bushel baskets loaded by the alternately inverted method. This difference 
produces a saving of 1.06 cents per basket, or a total of $9.20 in favor of 
the 868-basket alternately inverted load. 

The railroads, too, benefit costwise from use of the alternately inverted 
loading method, through savings in direct transportation costs resulting from 
the heavier loading per car. This is demonstrated by the data in table 22, 
which is based on a study of rail transportation cost by territories as of 
January 1, 1956, made by the Bureau of Accounts, Cost Finding and Valuation, 
of the Interstate Commerce Commission. This table presents the potential 
savings that might have been realized by the railroads in out-of-pocket trans- 
portation costs if all the carload peach shipments from the Georgia-South 
Carolina area to Official Territory in 1956 loaded by the upright end-to-end 
offset and crosswise offset loading method had been transported in cars loaded 
by the alternately inverted loading method. 

Table 22 shows that the total upright loaded shipments of peaches from 
the Georgia-South Carolina area to Oiiicial Territory in 1956 amounted to 
1,862 cars and consisted of 658 cars of l/2-bushel baskets and 891 cars of 
1-bushel baskets loaded by the end-to-end ofi'set method, and 313 cars of 
3/li-bushel baskets loaded by the crosswise offset method. They could have 
been transported in 1,737 cars loaded by the alternately inverted method, with 
a reduction of 125 cars and a total saving of $32,336. In addition, the alter- 
nately inverted loading would have resulted in (a) more efficient use of 
refrigerator cars, which is an advantage to the railroads and shippers during 
seasons when such equipment is in short supply; and (b) reduced "return empty" 
car mileage in proportion to the tonnage transported, as fewer cars would have 
been required to move the equivalent volume. 



-58 - 



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- 60 - 

CONCLUSIONS 

Shipping tests by rail in 195U, 1955 , and 1956 demonstrated that the 
alternately inverted loading method for peaches and prunes in tub-type baskets 
in railroad refrigerator cars reduces materially the excessive basket damage 
encountered with the standard upright loading methods. For example, taking 
the 1/2-, 3 A- * and 1-bush el-basket loads combined, reductions in container 
damage resulting from the alternately inverted loading of test cars, compared 
with the upright loaded check cars, were 6U.9 percent, or 29 baskets per car, 
requiring recoopering, and 5^.6 percent, or 1U.6 baskets per car, in bad- 
order. These tests also established that bruising of the fruit and cooling 
rates for alternately inverted loads in transit are approximately the same as 
for cars loaded by the standard upright methods. 

The alternately inverted load, because of its greater compactness, ai'i'ords 
shippers and receivers some savings in the cost of railroad refrigeration as 
compared with the upright loading methods. An alternately inverted load of 
672 three-quarter-bushel baskets of peaches, shipped from Gramling, S. C, to 
Chicago, 111., for example, affords a saving in refrigeration costs of 2.15 
cents per basket, or $Uj.« kk» as compared with an equivalent upright crosswise 
offset load of 59U similar baskets. 

The heavier loading of refrigerator cars with the alternately inverted 
load also produces economies for the railroads. The 1,862 upright loads of 
peaches in all sizes of baskets shipped from Georgia and South Carolina to 
various markets in Ofricial Territory in 1956 could have been transported in 
1*737 cars loaded by the alternately inverted loading method, with a reduction 
of 125 cars, at savings in railroad out-of-pocket costs of $32,336* 



- 61 - 



APPENHEX 



Detailed Basket Arrangements by Type of Loading Method 

End-to-end Offse t Load, —In loading a typical car of 800 half -bushel bas- 
kets of peaches in 8' parallel rows lengthwise of the car, each row having U 
layers of 25 baskets, the first lengthwise row along the side wall of the car 
is started with the first basket of the first, or floor, layer being placed 
upright on the car floor in tight contact with one side wall and one bunker 
wall at the car end. Successive baskets of this first layer of this one side 
wall row of 25 are lined up tightly against each other and against the side 
wall. At the opposite end of the car there will be space remaining between 
the last basket of the first layer and the bunker wall, equal to about half 
of the top diameter of a basket. The second layer of 25 baskets is begun at 
this end of the car, the first basket of the layer being placed tightly against 
the bunker wall, with half the basket resting on the basket beneath and half 
overhanging the space below between the last basket in the first layer and the 
bunker bulkhead. The second layer is completed by loading successive baskets 
tightly against the car side x^all, resting equally on the 2 baskets underneath, 
but separated from the bunker wall at the car end from which the first layer 
was started by a distance equal to about half of the top diameter of a basket. 
The third and fourth layers are loaded exactly as the first and second layers, 
respectively. 

The second lengthwise row of U layers is commenced on the car floor at 
the same end of the car from which the first lengthwise row was started. The 
first basket of the first, or floor, layer of the second lengthwise row is 
set on the floor away from the bunker wall at the car end by a space equal to 
half of the top diameter of a basket. The top rim of the basket adjacent to 
the first row will then nest tightly into the recess between 2 adjacent bas- 
kets in that row. Successive baskets of the first layer of the second length- 
wise row are loaded tightly against each other, in tight contact with each 
pair of baskets in the adjoining first row floor layer, with the 2a st basket 
in tight contact with the bunker wall at the car end. The first basket of the 
second layer of the second lengthwise row rests equally on the last 2 baskets 
of tii e first layer, and it is separated from the bunker wall at the end of the 
car opposite that from which the row was started by about half of the top 
diameter of a basket. The remaining baskets of the second layer rest equally 
on the 2 baskets beneath, except that the last basket in the row is in tight 
contact with the bunker wall at the car end and rests partly on the first 
basket of the first layer and partly overhangs the space between that basket 
and the bunker wail. The third and fourth layers are loaded the same as the 
first and second layers, respectively. 

The first 2 lengthwise rows, previously described, set the patterns for 
the remaining 6 lengthwise rows. Thus the third, fifth, and seventh rows are 
loaded in the same manner as the first ; and the fourth, sixth, and eighth 
exactly the same as the second, except that the seventh and eighth rows are 



- 62 - 

loaded together, working from both ends of the car. The end-to-end offset 
pattern can be accomplished also by using the first lengthwise row as a guide 
row and loading the baskets diagonally across the car from the guide row to 
the opposite side wall. 

The typical check cars of fresh prunes in l/2-bushel baskets and peaches 
in 1-bushel baskets loaded by the enct-to-end offset method contained 86Z1 l/2- 
bushel baskets or 396 1-bushel baskets. The loading pattern for the 86I4. 1/2- 
bushei baskets was 8 parallel rows lengthwise of the car, each lengthwise row 
having k layers of 27 baskets each; that for the 396 1-bushel baskets contained 
6 parallel rows lengthwise of the car, each lengthwise row having 3 layers of 
22 baskets each. 

The reason for the differences between the number of baskets in the loads 
of peaches in l/2-bushel baskets in the Southeast and those used for fresh 
prunes in Idaho is the slight difference in size of the baskets used in the 
two areas. The l/2 -bushel baskets used in the Southeast have an average top 
diameter of lU-§ inches, while those generally used in areas west of the Missis- 
sippi River have a top diameter of lk inches. 

Crosswise Offset Load, — A crosswise offset load of 59U three-quarter- 
bushel baskets of peaches contains 27 stacks crosswise of the car, each stack 
having 22 baskets in k layers; that is, 2 alternate layers of 6 baskets each 
and 2 alternate layers of 5 baskets each. In loading such a car, the first 
crosswise stack in each end of the car is begun by placing a first layer of 
6 baskets across the car on the floor from 1 side wall to the other in tight 
contact with each other and with the bunker wall at the car end. The second 
layer of this stack consists of 5 baskets, centered on top of the baskets in 
the first layer, but in tight contact with the bunker wall at the car end. 
Each basket then rests equally on 2 baskets beneath, so that the 2 end baskets 
of the layer are separated from the side walls of the car by a space equal to 
about half of the top diameter of a basket. The third and fourth layers are 
built the same as the respective first and second layers, the third having 
6 baskets and the fourth, 5 baskets. 

The second crosswise stack of j/U-bushel baskets in each end of the car 
has a first layer of 5 baskets centered on the car floor, one basket placed 
between and in tight contact with each pair of baskets in the preceding cross- 
wise stacks, so that the 2 end baskets of the layer are separated from the 
side walls of the car by a space equal to about half of the top diameter of 
a basket. The second layer of the second crosswise stack consists of 6 baskets 
across the car from side wall to side wall in close contact with each other 
and with those in the first crosswise stack, each basket resting equally on 
2 baskets below, except that the 2 baskets on the ends of the layer are placed 
against the car side walls, with half of each basket overhanging the space 
beneath and the other half of each basket resting on the end baskets of the 
first layer. The third layer is constructed the same as the first, with 5 
baskets, and the fourth the same as the second, with 6 baskets. 



- 63 - 

The third, fifth, seventh, etc., crosswise stacks of the 3/U-bushel load 
are patterned identically after the first crosswise stack, and the fourth, 
sixth, eighth, etc, crosswise stacks are made the same as the second cross- 
wise stack. The baskets in the doorway area of the car are arranged so that 
no slack, or unoccupied space, will be left between the two ends of the load* 

The l/2-bushel crosswise offset test cars of peaches generally contained 
806 baskets. The crosswise offset loading pattern works out similarly to that 
used for the 3/ii-bushel baskets, except that there are 31 stacks in the car, 
each stack having 26 baskets in h layers; that is, 2 alternate layers with 7 
baskets each across the car from side wall to side wall and 2 alternate layers 
of 6 baskets each across the car, but separated from each side wall to a 
distance equal to about half of the top diameter of a basket. 

Alternately Inverted Load . — An alternately inverted load of 868 half- 
bushel baskets of peaches comprises 31 stacks crosswise of the car, each stack 
having U layers of 7 baskets each. The first crosswise stack of the 1/2- 
bushel baskets in each end of the car has a first, or floor, layer of 7 baskets 
in which the first basket is set upright in the corner of the car, fitting 
tightly against the side wall and against the bunker wall at the car end. 
Successive baskets of the layer are fitted tightly against the first and each 
other basket in the line and against the bunker wall. The third, fifth, and 
seventh baskets are loaded upright and the remaining 3 inverted. At the 
opposite side wall of the car, the seventh, or last, basket of the layer is 
separated from that wall by a space equal to about half of the top diameter 
of a basket. The second layer of 7 baskets is begun over the end of the first 
layer. The first basket of the second layer is inverted and placed tightly 
against the car side wall and the bunker wall, with half of it overhanging the 
space below and the remaining half resting on the last basket of the first 
layer beneath. The second layer is completed by additional baskets stowed 
tightly against the first basket and each other and against the bunker wall, 
and resting equally on the 2 baskets beneath. The third, fifth, and seventh 
baskets are inverted and the 3 remaining ones are upright. The seventh, or 
last basket of the layer is separated from the opposite side wall of the car 
by a distance equal to half the top diameter of a basket. The third and fourth 
layers of the first crosswise stack, each containing 7 baskets, are loaded in 
the same way as the first and second layers, respectively. 

The second crosswise stack of l/2-bushels in each end of the car is started 
with a first, or floor, layer from the side wall of the car opposite to the 
side wail from x^hich the first crosswise stack was begun. The first basket of 
this first, or floor, layer of 7 baskets is inverted and loaded tightly against 
the car side wall and against the last basket of the first layer of the first 
crosswise stack. Succeeding baskets of the first layer of the second cross- 
wise stack are loaded tightly against the first basket and each other and in 
tight contact with, and nesting tightly into, the recesses between each pair 
of baskets in the first crosswise stack. The third, fifth, and seventh baskets 
are inverted, and the remaining 3 upright. At the opposite side wall of the 
car, the seventh, or last basket, is separated from that side wall by a space 



- 61; - 

equal to about half the top diameter of a basket. The second layer of 7 bas- 
kets in the second crosswise stack is commenced over the end of the first 
layer. The first basket of this second layer is loaded upright tightly against 
the car side wall and against the basket in the first stack, with half of the 
basket resting on the last basket of the first layer beneath and partly over- 
hanging the space below. Additional baskets of the second layer are loaded 
tightly against the iirst basket and each other, and in tight contact with each 
pair of baskets in the adjoining crosswise stacks the third, fifth, and seventh 
baskets being upright and the remaining 3 inverted. The seventh, or last, 
basket is separated from the opposite side wail of the car by about half the 
top diameter of a basket. The third and fourth layers of 7 baskets each are 
constructed the same as the first and second layers, respectively. 

The third, fifth, and all odd-numbered stacks of the alternately inverted 
l/2-bushel load are patterned identically alter the iirst crosswise stack, and 
the fourth, sixth, and all even-numbered crosswise stacks follow the procedure 
used for the second crosswise stack. The two parts of the load begun in oppo- 
site ends of the car are brought together in the doorway area of the car in 
such a way that lit tie or no slack remains. In the completed load, all the 
baskets adjacent to one side wall of the car are upright and all those next to 
the other side wall are inverted. 

The typical alternately inverted test loads of 3/ll-bushel baskets of 
peaches and of the l/2-bushel baskets of fresh prunes, loaded by the same pro- 
cedure as is applicable to the l/2-bushels of peaches, consist of 672 3/k- 
bushel baskets of peaches and 596 half-bushel baskets of fresh prunes, respec- 
tively. The 672-batsket load is made up of 2b stacks crosswise of the car, 
each stack having h layers of 6 baskets each, while the 8°6-basket load consists 
of 32 crosswise stacks, with k layers of 7 baskets each. 

The loading of the alternately inverted test loads of peaches in 1-bushel 
baskets involves a somewhat different loading pattern than the alternately in- 
verted loading of the 1/2- and 3A~ Dus hei test loads previously described, 
although alternate baskets are inverted in each layer of each crosswise stack. 
A typical alternately inverted test load of peaches in 1-bushel baskets totals 
hl3 baskets, loaded in 25 stacks crosswise of the car with 3 layers per stack j 
that is, 13 crosswise stacks having 17 baskets each and 12 alternate crosswise 
stacks having 16 baskets each. Each of the 13 crosswise stacks includes a 
bottom and a top layer of 6 baskets per layer extending from one side wall of 
the car to the other, and a middle layer of 5 baskets. The 2 baskets at oppo- 
site ends of this latter layer are separated from the car side wall by a 
distance equal to about half of the top diameter of a basket. In each of the 
remaining 12 crosswise stacks, there are a bottom and a top layer with 5 baskets 
per layer, the 2 baskets at opposite ends of these layers being separated from 
the car side walls by about half of the top diameter of a basket, and a middle 
layer of 6 baskets extending from one side wail of the car to the other. In 
these alternately inverted loads of peaches in 1-bushel baskets, each basket 
of each layer above the first layer rests equally on each 2 baskets of the 
layer beneath, except that in the 6-wide layers extending from one side wall 
of the car to the other, the end baskets rest partly on the end baskets of the 
5-basket layer beneath and overhang the space between the latter 2 baskets and 
the car side walls 



- 65 - 













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