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Merrell Lbr. & Hdw. Co., Brigham City, U. 
J. M. Peterson Lbr. Co., Fairview, Utah 
Schonian Furn. Co., Duchesne, Utah 
Grass Valley Merc. Co., Koosharem, Utah 
Thatcher Music Co., Logan, Utah 
Mountain States Imp. Co., Ogden, Utah 
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The $ mp rov emervt 

Vol. 34-42 No. 12 


n HE third number of the series 
"Greatness in Men" by Bry- 
ant S. Hinckley w*i*l deal with the 
life of a man greatly beloved by 
all Latter-day Saints and, indeed, 
by all who know him — President 
Anthony W. Ivins. President 
Ivins' almost forescore years have 
been packed full of stirring events 
and this article will be interesting 
to young and old. 


BRILLIANT writer, Dr. F. 
F. Sedgwick Martyn, new to 
Era readers, will have a place in the 
November issue. His article, "Cit- 
izenship and the Law," is not only 
entertaining but will awaken an in- 
creased love of our country and its 

/""\NE of the most colorful char- 
acters in the world today is 
Adolph Hitler, would-be dictator 
of Germany. A "Mormon" mis- 
sionary met this man recently and 
gives an excellent close-up descrip- 
tion of him for the Era. 


of the B. Y. U. at Provo, un- 
der the title "A Habit Worth 
Acquiring," gives suggestions 
which, if followed, will prolong 
life and add materially to the joy 
of living. 


RE you sure of yourself in com- 
pany? The new series by Mrs. 
Adah R. Naylor, "The right thing 
at all times," will set you right if 
you are not familiar with the rules 
of etiquette and will refresh the 
memory of those who are reason- 
ably well posted. 

HPHE ladies particularly, but 
many men as well, will be de- 
lighted with the articles on "Beau- 
ty in the Home," by Mrs. Lutie 
Fryer, professor of home economics 
at the U. of U. 


OCTOBER, 1931 

Melvin J. Ballard 
Business Manager 

Clarissa A. Beesley 
Associate Business Manager 

O. B. Peterson, Ass't. Business Manager 

George Q. Morris 
Rachel Grant Taylor 
Chairmen Era and Publicity 

Organ of the Priesthood Quorums, the Mutual Improvement 
Associations and the Department of Education 

Copyright, 1930, by the Young Men's Mutual Improvement Association 
Corporation of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 


Editorials — 

The Parable of the Owl Express Dr. James E. Talmage 699 

A Day of Commotion and Fear Hugh J . Cannon 700 

Grow or Die Hugh J. Cannon 700 

Greatness in Men — President Heber J. Grant +.-Bryant S. Hinckley 701 

The Perfect Marriage Covenant Joseph Fielding Smith 704 

It Pays to Live Rights G. Off Romney 707 

Man or Machine Made Paid J. Weaver 709 

The New Education in Austria Bertha S. Stevenson 712 

Facing Life— IX Dr. Adam S. Bennion 714 

Grasshoppers for Thanksgiving Wesfon N. Nordgren 716 

Troubles (First-Prize, Story) Mrs. Olive M. Nicholes 718 

A Daughter of Martha (A Serial Story) Chapter Three 

Ivy Williams Stone 720 

The Unfinished Song (A Story) Ruth M. Marshall 723 

Glancing Through Elsie T. Brandley 727 

Beauty in the Home — Good Taste Lutie H. Fryer 729 

The Right Thing at All Times Adah R. Naylor 732 

Poetry 735 

To A Son Gfynt Redfocd 

Boyhood Memories Maurice Cole 

Hallowe-en Leone E. McCune 

I Wonder Elsie C. Carroll 

Fidelity Florence D. Cummings 

October Leaves - Beatrice Ekman 

Summer Heart Blanche K. McKey 

Priesthood Quorums 735 

Mutual Messages 73 7 

Executive Department 737 

Adult Department 73 8 

Era and Publicity Department 73 9 

Entered at the Post Office, Salt Lake City, Utah, as second-class matter. 
Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in section 1103, 
Act of October, 19 17 , authorized July Z, 1918. 

Manuscripts submitted without the statement, "At usual rates," are con- 
sidered free contributions. Photographs, unless their return is especially 
requested, will be destroyed. 

Published monthly at Salt Lake City by the M. I. A. General Boards; 
$2 per annum. Address: Room 406 Church Office Building. 

Message from 
President Heber J. Grant 

The Editor-in-Chief of The Improvement Era 

{From an address given in the 
Executives' Session of June Con- 
ference, 1931.) 

I WISH all the delegates had 
heard what Brother Ballard 
has said this morning. I en- 
dorse his words with all my heart. 
To me it is a reproach, a real 
genuine reproach on every Latter- 
day Saint home that does not have 
the Era. I do not hesitate to say 
that. The Latter-day Saints in 
one particular fulfill their obliga- 
tions to the Lord almost beyond 
what we could expect. I am sure 
that two thousand missionaries re- 
quire between forty and fifty dol- 
lars each month to support them in 
the mission field. That means a 
little rising of a million dollars a 
year that we are expending for mis- 
sionary work. Now I do not think 
that I am exaggerating the least 
particle when I say that the very 
finest missionary we have in the 
Church today is the Improvement 
Era, and I am sorry to say that in 
many homes men are called upon 
missions where the father and the 
mother make wonderful sacrifices 
but have never seen fit to have this 
magazine in their home. They will 
spend between forty and fifty dol- 
lars a month for two years or two 
and a half to support a young man 
in the mission field, and yet they 
have not stopped to reflect that 
with two dollars they might have 
been educating that boy for the 
labor he is to perform. It is hold- 
ing up not nickels but pennies in 
front of our eyes, figuratively 
speaking, not to take the Era in 
our homes in order to save two 
dollars. I cannot comprehend it. 
I never have been able to under- 
stand the utter lack of appreciation 
of what the Young Woman's 
Journal and the Era used to be be- 
fore they were put together, and 
what the magazine is today. I be- 
lieve that every bishop in the 
Church and every president of a 
stake and every high councilor is 
under obligation as a missionary to 

see that this missionary, the Im- 
provement Era, gets into his home. 

^TALKING ab,out interest in the 
Gospel and love of the Gospel 
and a desire to spread the Gospel at 
home and abroad and then failing 
to spend a couple of dollars to 
bring into our homes this wonder- 
ful missionary is something I can- 
not comprehend. I say it, and I 
do not say it just offhand, but I 
mean it, that I have never yet had 
one single solitary co^" of the Im- 
provement Era from the day that 
it was originally established, that 
I would sell the benefit that came 
to me for two dollars, or ten times 
two dollars, and there has been 
more than one year that I have 

NOW there will be many who feel 
they cannot afford the Era in 
this time of depression. Naturally 
there must be some economy prac- 
ticed, but surely we should not begin 
practicing economy on the necessities; 
let us practice economy on the luxur- 
ies. The Era is not a luxury; it is a 
necessity. The most valuable asset 
the Church has is its boys and girls. 
Since four times as many children 
were born to Latter-day Saint parents 
last year as our baptisms in the world, 
it is clear that our growth will depend 
upon holding those boys and girls. 
We cannot economize on their faith, 
on their integrity, on their virtue, 
on their standards. If people are to 
economize, and they should, they can 
just save a picture show once for the 
family, and they raise the price of 
the Era. It is easy to save the price 
of the Era through economizing on 
some of the luxuries. So I plead 
with you, my brethren and sisters, 
to give us that fine missionary spirit, 
that this voice for truth and for right- 
eousness may be heard in every Lat- 
ter-day Saint home, bringing the glad 
messages that shall inspire young men 
and young women, receiving directly 
from the head of the Church such 
counsel and advice as he sees fit to 
give, receiving for the benefit of the 
Priesthood quorums, other interests, 
Church schools, and music, that coun- 
sel and direction which is most help- 
ful. — Elder Melvin J. Ballard, at June 

made the remark that I would not 
exchange the information that I 
had gained in the single number, 
not volume, for one hundred dol- 
lars, and I have meant just what I 
said. Men spend years of their 
time studying, and they give us the 
benefit of what they have studied. 
Take two articles by the young 
Professor Ball, with regard to the 
evidences of the Book of Mormon, 
in the last two numbers of the 
Era. Why, to a Latter-day Saint 
who has an absolute, abiding testi- 
mony in his heart of the divine 
record of the Book of Mormon, 
they would not take anything for 
articles of that kind, which are 
written by men who have spent 
vears of study and research, and we 
get it simply by reading. 

T WANT to say just this much 
in conclusion, that I have never 
yet during the fifty years from the 
time that I was made the president 
of the Tooele stake preached any- 
thing to the Latter-day Saints in 
the Tooele stake, or to the public 
since I became one of the general 
authorities, that I would not do 
myself. I was the manager of the 
Improvement Era for years and 
years and never got a dollar, and 
I gave them over a hundred dollars 
a year for the first few years of its 
organization in order to send a 
magazine free to the missionaries, 
and one single year I signed over 
eight thousand letters — kept tab 
on it — trying to increase the sub- 
scriptions, and I have been abso- 
lutely disgusted with men who 
say, "Oh, I cannot afford two dol- 
lars." The same man would per- 
haps spend ten times two dollars 
for tea, coffee, tobacco, or liquor. 
May the Lord bless each and all of 
your efforts, and you have my love 
and blessing for your loyalty in 
what you are doing, and that you 
may be blessed abundantly of our 
heavenly Father is my humble 
prayer, and I ask it in the name of 
Jesus. Amen. 


Hugh J. Cannon 
Managing Editor 

Heber J. Grant, Editor 


Elsie Talmage Brandley 
Associate Editor 

The Parable of the Owl Express 

A Recollection of Student Days 

CryjRING my college days, 
■Mr* now nearing half a century 
ago, I was one of a class of stu- 
dents appointed to field-work as 
a part of our prescribed courses in 
geology — the science that deals 
with the earth in all of its varied 
aspects and phases, but more par- 
ticularly with [its component 
rocks, the structural features they 



of the Council of the Twelve 

Editor's Note: Reproduced in slightly 
revised form from the Era of July, 1914. 

stop, while his assistant was at- 
tending to the water replenish- 
ment, bustled about the engine, 
oiling some parts, adjusting oth- 
ers, and generally overhauling the 
panting locomotive. I ventured 
to speak to him, busy though he 
was. I asked how he felt on such 
a night — wild, weird, and furi- 
ous, when the powers of destruc- 

,, , 11 ' , • wu;> ' wueii me powers or aestruc- 

present, _ the changes they have undergone and are tion seemed to be let loose, abroad and uncontrolled 

undergoing— the science of worlds. when the storm was howling and when danger threat- 

A certain assignment had kept us in the field many ened from every side. I thought of the possibility 

days. We had traversed, examined, and charted miles the probability even— of snow-drifts or slides on the 

of lowlands and uplands, valleys and hills, moun- track; of bridges and high trestles which may have 

tain heights and canyon defiles. As the time allotted 
to the work drew near its close, we were overtaken 
by a violent wind-storm followed by a heavy snow — 
unseasonable and unexpected, but which, nevertheless, 
increased in intensity so that we were in danger of 
being snow-bound in the hills. The storm reached 

been loosened by the storm; of rock-masses dislodged 
from the mountain-side — of these and other possible 
obstacles. I realized that in the event of accident 
through obstruction on or disruption of the track 
the engineer and the fireman would be the ones most 
exposed to danger; a violent collision would most 

v 1, • u* u-i j j- 1 j — r*?^* lu / ail 6 u ' d viuienj collision would most 

its height while we were descending a long and steep likely cost them their lives. All of these thoughts and 

mountain-side, several miles from the little railway others I expressed in hasty questioning of the bustlins 

station at which we had hoped to take train that night impatient, engineer. 

for home. With great effort we reached the station 
late at night while the storm was yet raging. We 
were suffering from the intense cold incident to biting 
wind and driving snow; and to add to our discom- 
fiture we learned that the expected train had been 
stopped by snow-drifts a few miles from the little 
station at which we waited. 

The station was but an isolated telegraph office; 
the house comprised but one small room, a mile away 
from the nearest village. The reason for the main- 
tenance of a telegraph office at this point was found 
in the dangerous nature of the road in the vicinity 

His answer was a lesson not yet forgotten. In effect 
he said, though in jerky and disjointed sentences- 
Look at the engine headlight. Doesn't that light 
up the track for a hundred yards or more? Well, ah 
I try to do is to cover that hundred yards of lighted 
track. That I can see, and for that distance I know 
the road-bed is open and safe. And," he added 
with what, through the swirl and the dim lamp- 
lighted darkness of the roaring night, I saw was a 
humorous smile on his lips and a merry twinkle of his 
eye, "believe me, I have never been able to drive this 
old engine of jnine — God bless her — fast enough to 

nnfstrin that Vi-tvnA-nA , T ~~J„ _r i* i ^ i * & ^-^. 

, , ~ .. , — ' ------ -, ~-~ w 1&iiit wi ^iiiic — uuu Diess ner — last enc 

and the convenient establishment of a water- tank to outstrip that hundred yards of lighted track 

supply the engines. The train for which we so ex- light of the engine is always ahead of me'" 
pectantly and hopefully waited was the Owl Express As he climbed to his place in the cab I hastened to 

—a fast night train running between large cities. Its board the first passenger coach; and, as I sank into the 

time schedule permitted stops at but few and these cushioned seat, in blissful enjoyment of the warmth 

the most important stations; but, as we knew, it had and general comfort, offering strong contrast to the 

to stop at this out-of-the-way post to replenish the wildness of the night without, I thought deeolv of h 

water supply of the locomotive. words of the grimy, oil-smirched engineer Thev 

Long after midnight the tram arrived, in a terrific were full of faith— the faith that accomplishes great 

whirl of wind and snow. I lingered behind my com- things, the faith that gives courage and determination 

pamons, as they hurriedly clambered aboard, for I the faith that leads to works. What if the engineer 

was attracted by the engineer, who, during the brief had failed, had yielded to fright and fear had refused 


The Improvement Era for October, 1931 

to go on because of the threatening dangers? Who 
knows what work might have been hindered, what 
great plans might have been nullified, what high com- 
missions of mercy and relief might have been thwart- 
ed, had the engineer weakened and quailed? 

For a little distance the storm-swept track was 
lighted up; for that short space the engineer drove on! 

We may not know what lies ahead of us in the 
years nor even in the days or hours immediately be- 
yond. But for a few yards, or possibly only a few 
feet, the track is clear, our duty is plain, our course is 
illumined. For that short distance, for the next step, 
lighted by the inspiration of heaven, go on! 

A Day of Com- 
motion and Fear 

/J PROMINENT business man, member of the 
-*3 Church and one time bishop of a thriving ward, 
was discussing recently with a friend, likewise a 
Latter-day Saint, the existing chaotic business con- 
ditions. He asked this pertinent question, "Do you 
really think we are approaching the end?" Then he 
hastened to reassure himself: "Of course we have 
had conditions similar to these many times in the past, 
and I suppose this unusual situation has no special 
significance. Doubtless it will pass by as all the others 
have done." 

His friend replied: "Perhaps so, but I am im- 
pressed with the literal fulfilment of one part of the 
graphic prediction found in section 88 of the Doctrine 
and Covenants, concerning the coming of Christ and 
the end of the present order of things. We are told 
that 'all things shall be in commotion; and surely 
men's hearts shall fail them; for fear shall come upon 
all people.' 

None will deny the existence of commotion and 
fear at the present time. Indeed that is the main cause 
of trouble. But certainly the profound agitation 
which is spreading over the earth and disturbing the 
serenity of nations, with the number of unemployed 
running into appalling figures, with the spectre of 
starvation standing in the shadow of bursting grana- 
ries, with unrest and threatened revolution on every 
hand, is a fulfilment of prophecy. 

This same revelation, given nearly a century ago, 
continues: "And angels shall fly through the midst 
of heaven, crying with a loud voice, sounding the 
trump of God, saying: Prepare ye, prepare ye, O in- 
habitants of the earth; for the judgment of our God 
is come. Behold, and lo, the Bridegroom cometh; 
go ye out to meet him." . 

Verse 81 of this section reads: 

a j) "Behold I send you out to testify 

„ * and warn the people, and it be- 

ot t cometh every man who hath been 

Warning warned to warn his neighbor." 

Ancient and modern prophets al- 
most without number have referred to the "great and 
dreadful" day of the Lord. That occasion, however, 
will be "dreadful" only to the unrighteous. The 
prophecies impart confidence and hope to those who 
earnestly strive to heed the warning: 

"He that seeketh me early shall find me, and shall 
not be forsaken. * * * 

"Abide ye in the liberty wherewith ye are made 
free: entangle not yourselves in sin, but let your hands 
be clean, until the Lord comes." D. & C. 88:86. 

Grow or Die 

JT 1 COMPARATIVELY few men are born great. 
^ That perhaps is a blessing, for it encourages in- 
dividual effort. The number of those who achieve 
greatness is not overwhelmingly large. That per- 
haps is a tragedy. It is invariably so where men 
having within them the potentialities of greatness re- 
main mediocre. To be satisfied with doing things 
passably well instead of putting out an outstand- 
ingly good job seems to be the habit of the average of 

Someone has suggested that a part of the torment 
of the future life will consist in our seeing the glorified 
person we might have become through constant up- 
ward striving, by the side of the person we really 
are. Such a picture would burn like vitriol into the 
consciousness of one who through indolence saw him- 
self a pigmy, dwarfed in intellect and body, when he 
had within him, even in embryo, the physical and 
mental elements of a giant. 

When growth ceases dissolution automatically be- 

One of the men receiving frequent headline notice 
in the newspapers today is Walter S. Gifford, selected 
by President Hoover as national director of relief. Mr. 
Gifford, still a comparatively young man, is president 
of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company 
and is the head of one of the largest industrial armies 
in the world — running into the hundreds of thou- 
sands. He worked himself up from the ranks. The 
secret of his success, as he analyzes his own situation, 
lies in the fact that he never thought of a higher po- 
sition, but confined his untiring efforts to the job in 
hand, determined to do it better than any man had 
ever done it before. So excellent was his work as a 
bookkeeper that he was made auditor. As auditor 
he became so familiar with every detail of the work 
and was able to present such illuminating statistics 
that an executive position was offered him. Thus step 
by step he climbed to the top, and at the age of forty- 
six he is looked upon as one of the ablest executives 
in the nation. His meteoric rise has not been unlike 
that of our chief executive, Herbert Hoover. Both 
were spurred on by an inward urge to make the most 
of their lives. 

A prayer which might with profit be repeated each 
day is, "Lord, deliver me from the curse of mediocrity. 
Keep me growing." 

Of course a large number of people are just nat- 
urally mediocre — many even below that standard. 
That may not be a fault; rather it is a misfortune. 
Occasionally fond parents try vainly to give a thou- 
sand-dollar education to a fifty-dollar mind. But it 
is real tragedy when any person, either of high or low 
degree, is satisfied with anything less than his very 
best.— H. J. C. 

Greatness in 



"Real glory springs from the 
silent conquest of ourselves." 

— Thompson. 

GRANT meets the human 
standards of leadership, and 
measures up to the divine office 
which he holds and honors. Sev- 
enty-five years ago this November 
he was born in a comfortable home 
on Main Street, when Salt Lake 
City was in its infancy, and for 
sixty years he has been a distin- 
guished figure in this community. 
Had he been born in any other 
free land he would have risen to 
eminence because he has the in- 
herent qualities that win confidence 
and secure recognition. His achieve- 
ments are not accidental; they are 
not due to anything magical. No 
fortunate combination of circum- 
stances have made Heber J. Grant; 
he has paid in honest coin the price 
of his success. His career is built 
upon a sound foundation. He de- 
serves all that he_has. 

On the occasion of his seventieth 
anniversary his immediate col- 
leagues each wrote a sentiment de- 
scriptive of the President, and this 
is a composite of that collection: 

"A man full of faith in God, full of 
love for his fellow men, sympathetic, 
generous and charitable, direct, frank and 
truthful, courageous, sagacious, and perse- 
vering, punctual, practical and energetic, 
a splendid organizer, and above all, a real 

'"PHIS is a tribute from men who 
know him best, who have 
lived and labored with him long- 
est. A fair analysis of his char- 
acter would confirm what is said 




President of Liberty Stake 


The Red Stocking Baseball Team 

•Sforre Champions wore than half a century ago. 
Alexander Watson, Richard P. Morris, David C. Dunbar, Gronway Parry, 
Heber J. Grant, Oliver Bess, Joseph Barlow, Allie Barker, Wm. George. 

born in Salt Lake City. Nov. 22, 

On June 10, 1875, when the first 
Y. M. M. I. A. was organized he was 
selected as one of the counselors. 

He became president of the Tooele 
stake in October, 1880. 

Was ordained an Apostle, October 
16, 1882. 

He led the first company of mis- 
sionaries of this Church into Japan, 
leaving Salt Lake July 24, 1901. 

From January, 1904 to December, 
1906, he presided over the European 
mission, and in the discharge of his 
duties traveled extensively in the Brit- 
ish Isles and also in most of the con- 
tinental countries. 

President Joseph F. Smith died on 
November 19, 1918, and on Novem- 
ber 23rd, Heber J. Grant was chosen 
by the Council of the Twelve to be- 
come president of the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-day Saints. 

here, accent some of the qualities 
mentioned, and add others. Such 
virtues as loyalty, industry, and 
friendship could well be added and 
the words, generous, charitable, di- 
rect, frank, truthful, persevering, 
practical, and energetic should be 
heavily underscored. All of these 
qualities are embedded in a deep 
spirituality which has given direc- 
tion and effectiveness to the dy- 
namic energy which is so charac- 
teristic of the man. 

Denied many of the advantages 
of schooling himself, he has all 
his life been a most generous pa- 
tron of education. His soul re- 
sponds to the beautiful, he loves 
music, fosters art, gives of his 
bounty to the needy, is charitable 


The Improvement Era for October, 1931 

to the poor, generous to his friends, 
loving and affectionate to his fam- 

I-JIS father, Jedediah M. Grant, 
first mayor of Salt Lake City, 
and counselor 
in the First 
Presidency of 
the Church, 
himself an im- 

Heber J. Grant 

Augusta Winters 
at the age of 1 6 . 

preacher of righteous- 
ness, died when the 
President was nine 
days old. His mother, 
Rachel Ivins Grant, 
left without visible 
means of support, met 
this hard situation 
with a resignation and 
courage which bespeaks 
a great soul. She was 
a woman of initiative 
and independence of 
character, possessing at 
the same time a poise, 
dignity, and sweetness 
of the rarest kind. 
Without complaint, 
she took up her bur- 
den, made an independ- 
ent living for herself 
and her boy by such 
humble tasks as sewing 
and keeping boarders. Their sur- 
roundings were hard but whole- 
some. These hard surroundings 
seemed to give luster to the shin- 
ing qualities of this boy's charac- 
ter. These were really great days 
for him. He had all that S. S. 
McClure said he hoped to be- 
queath to his children; 'The ad- 
vantages of poverty." He learned 
very early in life that if anything 
came to him it would be the result 
of his own effort. In that humble 
home his soul was touched with 
the expanding power of a radiant 
and conquering faith. 

HPHERE filtered into his boyish 

heart the assurance that great 

things can be accomplished in the 

world if one only believes and 
goes steadfastly forward. That is 
the foundation on which great 
men operate. 

Some philosopher said: "The 
young man who receives a wind- 
fall spends the remainder of his 
days watching the wind." Watch- 
ing the wind was not his occupa- 
tion. At an early age he was 
"dreaming dreams and seeing vi- 
sions" of what he would do in 
the future, of how he would com- 
pensate his mother for her sacri- 
ficial devotion to him, how he 
would restore the fortunes of his 
father's house. What infinite re- 
sponsibilities were in those dim 

Before he had reached his teens 
his ambition was stirred, his spirit 
set on fire with a resolute deter- 
mination to, not only provide 

Birthplace of Heber Jeddy Grant. 

amply for his mother, but to do 
things for himself which would 
make her proud. This conviction 
fixed in his youthful mind, forced 
him, while yet a boy, to seek a 
place in the affairs of men. Con- 
sequently, at an age when most 
boys are living in sheltered ease, 
this boy was doing a man's work, 
carrying a man's responsibilities, 
and thinking in terms of men. His 
rise in the world of affairs was 
swift and dramatic, but merited. 
His brilliant mind, the sterling 
qualities of his character, his great 
industry, his matchless continuity 
of effort soon impressed those who 
employed him, and the boy who, 
but yesterday blacked the boots of 
his mother's boarders, today stood 

on the threshold of a financial 
career that promised to eclipse any 
of his associates old or young. 
That which the world holds as 
its greatest prize seemed within 
his easy grasp. There was a dash 
and confidence and brilliancy about 
his adventures that challenged the 
admiration of men of great finan- 
cial power in the world. It is 
only fair to assume that if he had 
continued to devote his time and 
great talents to the accumulation 
of wealth, he would not only have 
amassed a fortune, but would have 
found a place among the financial 
magnates of the world. Greater 
things were in store for him. 

At the age of twenty-four he 
was called to be the president of the 
Tooele stake of Zion, the youngest 
man to be called to a position of 
this kind. This was a new field 
for him. He was with- 
out experience in pub- 
lic speaking and un- 
trained in the adminis- 
trative duties of this 
responsible office. 
However, he brought 
to this calling his char- 
acteristic zeal and en- 
ergy. Two years later 
he was called to the 

VTiS, he had worldly 
ambitions, he had 
dreams unfulfilled, as- 
pirations unrealized. 
He laid down his 
worldly ambitions, ac- 
cepted the service of 
his Church, and gave 
to it his whole- 
hearted devo- 
tion, a devotion 

3nd today he is 
a distinguished 

Heber and 
aged 20. 

member of that small but noble 
company of men whom the peo- 
ple of this Church honor as proph- 
ets and leaders. That decision was 
vital. Great causes make great men. 

The Improvement Era for October, 1931 


No man ever gave his sincere, 
wholehearted allegiance to "Mor- 
monism" who did not grow as a 
result of it. President Grant's life 
is a confirmation of this. 

Notwithstanding the exalted of- 
fice which he holds, his native sim- 
plicity makes him easily approach- 
able and delightfully companion- 
able. At the same time he has 
an unstudied dignity that would 
attract attention in any society. 
All this is enhanced by a keen 
sense of humor — enjoying a good 
story and always able to tell one. 

If you were to interrogate his 
most intimate friends as to his 
outstanding characteristic, they 
would reply without hesitation, 
"His generosity and kindness." If 
asked for specific cases, they would 
as quickly reply, "too numerous to 
mention." If opportunity to testify 
were given to all who have been 
the recipients of his generosity, 
what a company of people from 
all walks of life would rise to bless 
his name! 

1LJE is indeed a "cheerful giver." 
His generosity is princely. 
Where most 

selfishness. There is always some- 
thing beautiful about a pure desire 
to give. The Apostle Paul says, 
"For God loveth a cheerful giver." 

J.JEBER J. GRANT must stand 
high in the affections of his 
Maker. Notwithstanding his many 
and munificent gifts, the most 
serviceable gift he has given to his 
family, his friends, his people, is 
his self-governed, self-disciplined 
will, his inwardly triumphant and 

men f 

a 1 1 







cares less for 



any man 

that is 





i t 


w e 



Augusta Winters Grant 

about the time of her 


of his inti- 
mate and 
life long 
friends, has 
this to say: 
"His name was never lacking in 
any good cause, whether it was 
saving a financial institution to 
preserve the good name of his 
friends, starting a Liberty Loan 
drive, or keeping a poor widow's 
roof over her head. (A chapter 
could be written on this subject) . 
The signature of Heber J. Grant, 
like the name of Abou Ben Adam, 
'led all the rest'." 

There is no discoverable motive 
in all his giving; he gives because 
he loves to, — it seems to be just 
the impulse of a great and generous 
heart. He is supreme in his gen- 
erosity, a shining example of un- 

Heber Jeddy Grant as a baby. 

victorious personality. In the final 
analysis, that is the most service- 
able gift that any man can give 
to the world. "Real glory springs 
from the silent conquest of our- 

Mild and gentle at home, he is 
fearless in his fight for the right. 
He never surrenders; no matter 
how deeply engulfed, he never re- 
mains submerged, he does not give 
up. Failure in any moral issue 
only whets his determination. 
When his financial moorings were 
swept from under him, when his. 
health was shattered, when failure 
and disaster faced him on all sides. 
he did not capitulate; his indomit- 
able spirit bid defiance to all these 
foes and with colossal courage he 
vanquished them. He preserved 
his honor, restored his standing, 
and at seventy-five is a better phys- 
ical risk than at thirty-five. Today 
he carries confidently, gracefully 
and reverently the greatest respon- 
sibility he has ever borne. 

You cannot keep a good man 
down when he has the valor and 
fighting spirit of the President. 
Buried beneath difficulties from 
which most men could never rise, 

he comes forth to new conquests, 
to new victories. 

All glory to his grit! He never 
quits, never furls his battle flag. 

T_IIS life is an inspiration to every 
boy. He dreamed dreams and 
translated them into glorious real- 
ities. Most of us dream but we 
lack that intangible, indefinable, 
dynamic something to make our 
deeds larger and brighter than our 

The story of some of his 
achievements as a boy can never 
die, they will endure forever as 
noble traditions among this peo- 
ple. They deserve a place in the 
school books of the land where 
boys may forever learn by example 
the vital lessons of patience and 
persistence, without which nothing 
worthwhile can be accomplished 
in this world. Where is there a 
better example of these virtues? 
Whether it was playing marbles, 
playing ball, writing copies, build- 
ing sugar factories, no matter what 
or how difficult, he achieved his end. 
He necessarily does much public 

speak ing. 
No one ever 
sleeps while 
h e speaks. 
His clear, 
voice carries 
to the re- 
motest cor- 
ners of the 
great taber- 
nacle. He 
has a direct, 
vigor ous, 
and interest - 

Heber J. Grant as he in 2. S J" ? 1 e 
was in middle age. With a 

wealth o f 
apt illustrations. There is nothing 
laborious or ponderous about It. 
Fearless and unsparing in his de- 
nunciation of evil and evil doers, 
he is quick to heal any wounds 
that may have been unjustly in- 
flicted. This passage which he 
often quotes is descriptive of the 
President: "Reproving betimes 
with sharpness, when moved up- 
on by the Holy Ghost; and then 
showing forth afterwards an in- 
crease of love toward him whom 
thou hast reproved, lest he esteem 
thee to be his enemy." 

Valiant in his testimony, no 
one who listens to him ever 
[Continued on page 733] 


rerfect JV1 

MARRIAGE is considered by 
a great many people as 
merely a civil contract or 
agreement between a man and a 
woman that they will live together 
in the marriage relation. It is, in 
fact, an eternal principle upon 
which the very existence of man- 
kind depends. The Lord gave this 
law to man in the very beginning 
of the world as a part of the Gos- 
pel law, and the first marriage was 
to endure forever. According to 
the law of the Lord every marriage 
should endure forever. If all man- 
kind would live in strict obedience 
to the Gospel and in that love 
which is begotten by the Spirit of 
the Lord, all marriages would be 
eternal; divorce would be un- 
known. Divorce is not part of the 
Gospel plan and has been intro- 
duced because of the hardness of 
heart and unbelief of the people. 
When the Pharisees tempted Christ 
saying: "Is it lawful for a man to 
put away his wife for every cause?" 
He answered them: "Have ye not 
read, that he which made them at 
the beginning made them male and 
female, and said, For this cause 
shall a man leave father and moth- 
er, and shall cleave to his wife: 
and they twain shall be one flesh? 
Wherefore they are no more twain, 
but one flesh. What therefore God 
hath joined together, let not man 
put asunder." Then when they 
asked why Moses permitted di- 
vorce, the answer of the Lord was: 



Joseph Fielding Smith 

Of the Council of 
the Twelve 

And the Lord God said, It is not good 
that the man should be alone; I will make 
him an help meet for him. — Gen. 2:18. 

"Moses because of the hardness of 
your hearts suffered you to put 
away your wives: but from the 
beginning it was not so." More- 
over, what God joins together is 
eternal. Unfortunately most of 
the marriages performed are not by 
the will of God, but by the will 
of man. Marriages among Latter- 
day Saints are eternal marriages if 
they are properly performed be- 
cause the Eternal Father gave the 
covenant of marriage which is re- 
ceived by couples who go to the 
Temple to receive this blessing 

TT is necessary that marriages be 
regulated by' civil law. Under 
the present world conditions the 
state must have power to form the 
laws governing marriages because 
of their close connection with the 
social structure of the state. Never- 
theless it is a religious principle and 
the power should never be taken 
from ministers of religion, even in 
the apostate condition of the 


world, to perform the marriage 
rite. When the kingdom of God 
is set up on the earth in all its ful- 
ness, and Christ comes to reign, 
marriage, like all other ordinances, 
will be controlled by the law of 
God. When that day comes mar- 
riages will not then be performed 
only until death shall separate the 
husband and the wife, for marriage 
shall be eternal. Under present 
conditions when "the powers that 
be" have jurisdiction in the earth, 
all men, no matter what their re- 
ligious beliefs or lack of them may 
be, must be subject to the govern- 
ments which exist. When Christ 
comes he will bring the "perfect 
law of liberty" and in it all the 
faithful will be made free and 

The Lord has given to the 
Church definite instructions in re- 
lation to this sacred principle which 
is so essential to the happiness of 
man. It is the duty of all mem- 
bers of the Church to accept the 
regulations of the Church. There 
is in the Church a ceremony which 
gives to the covenanting parties 
blessings which do not end with 
death. Marriage as understood by 
Latter-day Saints is a covenant or- 
dained to be everlasting. It is the 
foundation for eternal exaltation, 
for without it there could be no 
progress in the kingdom of God. 

HPHE idea which is almost uni- 
versal that marriage is a con- 
tract which must end at death, did 

The Improvement Era for October, 1931 


not originate with our Eternal 
Father. It was introduced by the 
enemy of truth who has sworn to 
overthrow the kingdom of right- 
eousness if he can. The first mar- 
riage ever performed on this earth 
was performed before there was 
any death, and the thought of 
death and a separation did not en- 
ter into it. Members of the Church 
have been constantly taught the 
sacredness of the marriage cove- 
nant, but it appears that there are 
some among our young people who 
are growing up in ignorance of this 
fact. I shall therefore quote from 
some authorities who have em- 
phatically and officially spoken. 

Paul declared that "Neither is 
the man without the woman, 
neither the woman without the 
man, in the Lord." And the Lord 
said he would give the man a com- 
panion who would be a help meet 
for him. That is a help who 
would answer all the requirements, 
not only of companionship, but 
through whom the fulness of the 
purposes of the Lord could be ac- 
complishd regarding the mission of 
man through mortal life and into 
eternity. "Neither the man or the 
woman were capable of filling the 
measure of their creation alone. 
The union of the two was re- 
quired to complete man in the im- 
age of God." (Compendium, p. 
118.) The Lord said, "Let us 
make man in our image, after our 
likeness * * *. So God created man 
in his own image, in the image of 
God created he him; male and fe- 
male created he them." (Gen. 1: 

A/TOREOVER when the woman 
was presented to the man, 
Adam said: "This (woman) is 
now bone of my bones, and flesh 
of my flesh." From this we un- 
derstand that his union with Eve 
was to be everlasting. The Savior 
confirmed this doctrine when he 
said to the Jews: "For this cause 
shall a man leave father and moth- 
er, and shall cleave to his wife; 
and they twain shall be one flesh. 
Wherefore they are no more twain, 
but one flesh." (Matt. 19:5-6.) 
Then how can husband and wife 
be separated as we find them so fre- 
quently among the people today 
and be justified in the sight of God? 
When a man and his wife separate 
the law of God has been broken. 

HPHE Prophet Joseph taught that 
"marriage was an institution 

of heaven, instituted in the garden 
of Eden; that it is necessary it 
should be solemnized by the 
authority of the everlasting Priest- 
hood." History of the Church 
2:320. He also taught: 

"Except a man and his wife enter into 
an everlasting covenant and be married for 
eternity, while in this probation, by the 
power and authority of the Holy Priest- 
hood, they will cease to increase when they 
die; that is, they will not have any chil- 
dren after the resurrection. But those who 
are married by the power and authority of 
the priesthood in this life, and continue 
without committing the sin against the 
Hoi y Ghost, will continue to increase and 
have children in the celestial glory." — His- 
tory of the Church 5:391. 

President Joseph F. Smith has 

"Many people imagine that there is 
something sinful in marriage; there is an 
apostate tradition to that effect. This is 
a false and very harmful idea. On the con- 
trary, God not only commends but com- 
mands marriage. While man was yet im- 
mortal, before sin had entered the world, 
our heavenly Father himself performed the 
first marriage. He united our first parents 
in the bonds of holy matrimony, and 
commanded them to be fruitful and mul- 
tiply and replenish the earth. This com- 
mand he has never challenged, abrogated or 
annulled; but it has continued in force 
throughout all the generations of mankind. 

"Without marriage the purposes of God 
would be frustrated so far as this world 
is concerned, for there would be none to 
obey his other commands. 

"There appears to be a something be- 
yond and above the reasons apparent to 
the human mind why chastity brings 
strength and power to the peoples of the 
earth, but it is so. 

"Today a flood of iniquity is over- 
whelming the civilized world. One great 
reason for it is the neglect of marriage; it 
has lost its sanctity in the eyes of the great 
majority. It is at best a civil contract, 
but more often an accident or a whim, or 
a means of gratifying the passions. And 
when the sacredness of the covenant is 
ignored or lost sight of, then a disregard 
of the marriage vows, under the present 
moral training of the masses, is a mere 
triviality, a trifling indiscretion. 

"The neglect of marriage, this tendency 
to postpone its responsibilities until mid- 
dle life, that so perniciously effects Chris- 
tendom, is being felt in the midst of the 
Saints." — Gospel Doctrine, p. 344. 

"I want the young men of Zion to real- 
ize that this institution of marriage is not 
a man-made institution. It is of God. 
It is honorable, and no man who is of 
marriageable age is living his religion who 
remains single. It is not simply devised 
for the convenience alone of man, to suit 
his own notions, and his own ideas; to 
marry and then divorce, to adopt and 
then discard, just as he pleases. There 
are great consequences connected with it, 
consequences which reach beyond this 
present time into all eternity, for thereby 
souls are begotten into the world, and 
men and women obtain their being in the 
world. Marriage is the preserver of the 
human race. Without it, the purposes 
of God would be frustrated; virtue would 
be destroyed to give place to vice and cor- 
ruption, and the earth would be void and 
empty." — Gospel Doctrine, pp. 241-2. 

T HAVE heard President Smith 
say on several occasions that he 
would rather take his children one 
by one to the grave in their inno- 
cence and purity, knowing that 
they would come forth to inherit 
the fulness of celestial glory, than 
to have them marry outside of the 
Church, or even outside the Tem- 
ple of the Lord. Why should he 
have been so emphatic? Because he 
had perfect knowledge of what 
marriage, according to the law of 
the Lord, means, and because he 
knew the consequences attending 
the rejection of this covenant in 
the House of the Lord. For those 
who refuse to receive this ordinance 
as the Lord ordained, cannot en- 
ter into the fulness of celestial 
glory. This is what the Lord has 
spoken : 

"All covenants, contracts, bonds, obli- 
gations, oaths, vows, performances, con- 
nections, associations, or expectations, that 
SPIRIT OF PROMISE, of him who is 
anointed both as well for time and for 
all eternity, and that too most holy, by 
revelation and commandment through the 
medium of mine anointed, whom I have 
appointed on the earth to hold this power 
DEAD; for all contracts that are made 
unto this end have an end when men are 
dead" — Doc. and Cov. 132:7. 

T^HEN the Lord adds that his 
house is a house of order and 
not a house of confusion and he 
will accept only that which he has 
appointed and that "No man shall 
come unto the Father but by me 
or by my word, which is my law, 
saith the Lord." Everything that 
is in the world that is ordained by 
men and which is not by the 
word of the Lord, must be thrown 
down, and "shall not remain after 


The Improvement Era for October, 1931 

men are dead, neither in or after 
the resurrection, saith the Lord 
your God." When a man mar- 
ries a wife by his word and they 
are sealed by his authority, "they 
t shall pass by the angels, and the 
gods, which are set there, to their 
exaltation and glory in all things, 
"as hath been sealed upon their 
heads, which glory shall be a ful- 
ness and a continuation of the seeds 
forever and ever." 

"Then shall they be gods, because they 
have no end; therefore shall they be from 
everlasting to everlasting, because they con- 
tinue; then shall they be above all, be- 
cause all things are subject unto them. 
Then shall they be gods, because they have 
power, and the angels are subject unto 
them." — Doc. and Cov. 132:20. 

TN order to obtain these blessings 
obedience must be given to the 
marriage covenant ordained by 
the Lord. "For strait is the gate, 
and narrow the way that leadeih 
unto the exaltation and continua- 
tion of the lives, and few there be 
that find it, because ye receive me 
not in the world neither do ye 
know me. But if ye receive me in 
the world then shall ye know me, 
and shall receive your exaltation; 
that where I am ye shall be also." 
(Doc. and Cov. 132:22-23.) 

The Lord has explained also the 
significant meaning of Eternal lives 
in this instruction: 

"This is eternal lives — to know the only 
wise and true God, and Jesus Christ, 
whom he hath sent. I am he. Receive 
ye. therefore, my law.". — Doc. and Cov. 

nPHE gift promised to those who 
receive this covenant of mar- 
riage and remain faithful to the 
end, that they shall "have no end," 
means that they shall have the 
power of eternal increase. Only 
those who have this power will 
truly "know the only wise and 
true God, and Jesus Christ, whom 
he hath sent. Others may see the 
Lord and may be instructed by 
him, but they will not truly know 
him or his Father unless they be- 
come like them. 

Who desires to enter the eternal 
world and be a servant when the 
promise is held out that we may be 
sons and daughters of God? Yet 
there will be the vast majority who 
will enter into the eternal world as 
servants, and not as sons, and this 
simply because they think more of 
the world and its covenants, than 
they do of God and his covenants, 

simply because in their blindness 
of heart, they refuse to keep these 
sacred and holy commandments. 
Oh what bitterness there will be in 
the day of judgment when every 
man receives his reward according 
to his works! 

HPHE following excerpts are from 
a discourse by Elder Orson 

"The Lord ordained marriage between 
male and female as a law through which 
spirits should come here and take tab- 
ernacles, and enter into the second state 
of existence. The Lord Himself solem- 
nized the first marriage pertaining to this 
globe, and pertaining to flesh and bones 
here upon this earth. I do not say per- 
taining to mortality ; for when the first 
marriage was celebrated, no mortality was 
here. The first marriage that we have 
any account of, was between two im- 
mortal beings * * * they were immor- 
tal beings; death had no dominion, no 
power over them. * * * 

"What would you consider, my hearers, 
if a marriage was to be celebrated between 
two beings not subject to death? Would 
you consider them joined together for a 
certain number of years, and that then 
all their covenants were to cease forever, 
and the marriage contract be dissolved? 
Would it look reasonable and consistent? 
No. Every heart would say that the work 
of God is perfect in and of itself, and in- 
asmuch as sin had not brought imperfec- 
tion upon the globe, what God joined 
together could not be dissolved, and de- 
stroyed, and torn asunder by any power 
beneath the Celestial world, consequently 
it was eternal; the ordinance of union was 
eternal; the sealing of the great Jehovah 
upon Adam and Eve was eternal in its 
nature, and was never instituted for the 
purpose of being overthrown and brought 
to an end. 

"It is known that the 'Mormons' are 
a peculiar people about marriage; we be- 
lieve in marrying, not only for time, but 
for all eternity. This is a curious idea, 
says one, to be married for all eternity. 
It is not curious at all; for when we 
come to examine the scriptures, we find 
that the first example set for the whole 
human family, as a pattern instituted for 
us to follow, was not instituted until 
death, for death had no dominion at that 
time; but it was an eternal blessing pro- 
nounced upon our first parents."— -From 
a discourse, August 29, 1852. 

The following instruction comes 
from President Brigham Young: 

"When a man and a woman have re- 
ceived their endowments and sealings, and 

then have children born to them after- 
wards, those children are legal heirs to the 
kingdom and to all its blessings and prom- 
ises, and they are the only ones that arc 
on this earth. There is not a young man 
in our community who would not be 
willing to travel from here to England to 
be married right, if he understood things 
as they are; there is not a young woman 
in our community, who loves the Gospel 
and wishes its blessings that would be 
married in any other way; they would live 
unmarried until they could be married 
as they should be if they lived until 
they were as old as Sarah before she 
had Isaac born to her. Many of our 
brethren have married off their children 
without taking this into consideration, 
and thinking it a matter of little im- 
portance. I wish we all understood 
this in the light that heaven understands 

"How is it with you sisters? Can you 
distinguish between a man of God and a 
man of the world? It is one of the 
strangest things that happen in life, to 
think that any man or woman can love 
a being that will not receive the truth of 
heaven. The love this Gospel produces is 
far above the love of women; it is the 
love of God — the love of eternity — of 
eternal lives." — Discourses, pp. 302-4. 

"Be careful, O ye mothers in Israel, 
and do not teach your daughters in fu- 
ture, as many of them have been taught, 
to marry out of Israel. Woe to you who 
do it; you will lose your crowns as sure 
as God lives." — Discourses, p. 304. 

"He that overcometh shall inherit all 
things; and I will be his God. and he 
shall be my son." — Rev, 21:7. 

CUCH timely instruction and in- 
formation could be multiplied 
into many pages, but we will let 
this suffice. May all Latter-day 
Saint fathers and mothers see to it 
that they teach their children the 
sacredness of the marriage cove- 
nant. Let them impress upon their 
children that in no other way than 
by honoring the covenants of God, 
among which the covenant of eter- 
nal marriage is one of the greatest 
and most mandatory, can they ob- 
tain the blessings of eternal lives. If 
they refuse to receive this ordinance 
and other blessings of the House of 
God, then shall they be cut off 
from these higher blessings. They 
shall wear no crown; they shall 
have no rule and sway no scepter; 
they shall be denied the fulness of 
knowledge and power, and like the 
prodigal son, they may return 
again to their Father's house, but 
it will be as servants, not to inherit 
as sons. If they will be true to 
these commandments their glory 
and exaltation shall have no 
bounds — "all things are theirs, * * 
and they are Christ's and Christ is 
God's. And they shall overcome 
all things." (Doc. and Cov. 76: 

y z, 

Captain Russell 

at the end of the 

THIS dual-purpose recital of 
facts intends to answer 

boldly and emphatically 
two questions. 

To the query: Does extended 
participation in strenuous inter- 
scholastic and intercollegiate ath- 
letics have a deleterious effect on 
the well being of young men? It 
answers, not necessarily; generally 
no; and often, decidedly opposite. 

To the inquiry: Does the clean 
life pay? it shouts out, certainly, 

Perhaps the two questions are 
better answered in complement 


to Live Right 

Fifty-one Intercollegiate 
Contests in Five Months 
and All is JVell 

By Coach 

G. Ott Romney 

to each other. The athlete who 
observes the rules of physical health 
and strength and who lives the 
clean life will, granted that he is 
equipped with sound physical ma- 
chinery in the beginning, thrive 
on a strenuous and extended pro- 
gram of high-pressure athletics. 

ABSTINENCE from the use of 
tobacco and alcoholic and other 
stimulants, intelligent eating at 
regular hours sufficient sleep at 
regular hours, and smart care of 
the body as to cleanliness will in- 
sure to the young man a physical 
condition and stamina 
which will enable a capable 
mentor to put him through 
a carefully conceived pro- 
gram of exercise and rigor- 
ous playing schedules in 
sport after sport through his 
successive school years with 
no ill physical effects and a 
wealth of dividends in so- 
cial training and character 
building. And a rather 
broad experience with 
young men in athletics has 

B. Y. U. 

convinced me that bodily cleanli- 
ness, observance of the inexorable 
laws of physical training, assures 
a foundation for and inspiration 
to self-respect, clean, vigorous 
thinking, a morale-building atti- 
tude and a fund of moral courage. 
But I am calling in four splen- 

"BRINLEY," forward 


The Improvement Era for October, 1931 

did student athletes to preach this 1 
sermon for me. I am asking their 
records to make the case. And 
while I realize that one swallow 
does not make a summer nor a 
single down payment purchase the 
radio set, nevertheless I feel that the 
evidence submitted by these four 
exponents of the clean and strenu- 
ous life is beyond refutation, and 
I know that their cases are typical 
of hundreds and thousands which 
abound in athletics everywhere and 
particularly in these parts where 
so many young men accept literally 
as fundamental in their lives the 
standards of clean ______ 


^ LEY, Russell 
Magleby, George 
Cooper and Mark 
Bailiff are four 
versatile athletes 
of enviable repu- 
tation who have 
this spring com- 
pleted four years 
o f continuous 
and vigorous ath- 
letic participation 
on B r i g h a m 
Young University teams. They 
had all enjoyed activity on high 
school teams before entering col- 
lege. They have all been, success- 
ful students as their perennial eli- 
gibility attests; their average grade 
is considerable above the general 
student mean; and one or two of 
them have outstandingly strong 
records in scholarships. 

The real reason for selecting 
these four men from among 
scores of exemplary Cougars for 
critical physical examination was 
that tt$y had just passed through 
as strenuous a schedule of football 
and basketball with practically no 
interim for rest, as has ever come 
to my attention. As a climax to 
organized athletic participation ex- 
tending through from eight to ten 
years this quartet played an eleven 
game football schedule which ne- 
cessitated sixty-five hundred miles 
of travel and then drove through 
a forty game basketball schedule 




The Game is on. 

keen; digestion, O. K..; sense of 
humor, intact; no abnormal en- 
largement of the heart nor the 
head. No item was discovered 
which might be charged against 

Perhaps this is why. Not one 
of these boys is or at any time 
has been a user of tobacco in any 
form, in season or out of season; 
nor a user of alcoholic or other 
stimulants, nor an intemperate 
liver in any sense. Every one of 
these athletes is a perfect trainer 
by habit and through experience. 
And you might be interested to 
know that — 

Tf. LEY was 
awarded the effi- 
ciency student 
medal, which 
means that he is 
the member of 
t h e graduating 
class who best 
exemplifies all 
around student 
efficiency. H i s 
scholarship rec- 
ord shows a near 
A average for 
four years. He is an accomplished 
musician, playing both strings and 
brass. On hundreds of occasions 
has he pulled the bow across the 
strings of his bass viol as a mem- 
ber of the B. Y. U. orchestra and 
symphony orchestra. A brilliant 
basketball forward and a steady 
tennis player, he grinned at his 
lack of football experience in high 
school and became an outstanding- 
ly strong tackle on three successive 
college elevens. And a tackle is 
a man who takes it and gives it 
at a post where the battle is the 
thickest and the shock the greatest. 


AT the conclusion of this cam- 
paign during which these 

r^EORGE COOPER came to B, 
Y. U. from the saddle of a Pan- 
guitch cow-pony. He had earned 
more than a sectional reputation as 
a high school basketball player, 
having been selected among the 

which called for even greater Pull- 
man mileage. In both sports the more f t jj e medical staff of Brig 

young men carried successfully the notables at Mr. Stagg's National 

standard program of courses in a Interscholastic Tournament. But 

highly accredited university, they he had confined his participation 

submitted to a thorough physical to one sport and had been warned 

examination by Dr. Lloyd Culli- against too much participation be- 

competition was high-grade. The 
opposition included some of the 
outstanding teams among the na- 
tion's college aggregations. 

ham Young University. The ver- 
dict was unanimous. It read; Or- 
gans, perfect; nervous system, 
strong; weight, normal; appetites, 

cause of a tendency toward pleuri- 
sy. Cooper not only proved one 
of the greatest basketball guards 
ever to appear in the Rocky Moun- 
ts Continued on page 744] 


an or 




THIS subject is a query, not a 
prophecy. Man or Ma- 
chine? — "To be or not to 
be?" — that is the question every 
musician is asking himself nowa- 
days. Others have asked me and 
I a thousand others in all walks of 
life, but no satisfactory answer has 
been given. No psychologist, no 
educationist, no manufacturer or 
dealer, no professional person or 
layman seems to know the answer. 
Since there is no ready-made an- 
swer, we can only search for facts, 
note the changes in our industrial, 
professional, artistic and social life, 
compare periods of human history, 
attempt a diagnosis and suggest a 
remedy for the present complex 
conditions which have raised the 

In every conceivable industry, 
the machine is replacing the man. 
In agriculture, in mining and 
manufacture, mass production is 
the rule. In , transportation, in 
communication, i n utilization, 
mass consumption has become the 
habit. Speed is the watchword, 
the push-button is the symbol of 
the age. 

The machine has forced the 
common laborer from one field to 
another. Automatic processes re- 
place the skilled mechanic. Dupli- 
cating methods substitute for the 
craft of the artisan. Mechanical 
calculation obviates mental mathe- 
matics. Movie and radio multiply 
audiences by millions. The utiliza- 
tion of art is universal. The ma- 
chine displaces brawn and brain! 

CYNTHETIC chemistry creates 
new elements. Artificial sub- 
stitutes follow natural products in 
bewildering variety and rapidity. 
All matter, all energy is reduced to 
electronic vibration. Nothing is 
real and nothing matters. 

We all recognize the symptoms 
of a profound economic disturb- 
ance in the field of music. Four out 
of five professional musicians out 
of work — many studios half-filled 
— concert bureaus, lyceums and 
chautauquas diminishing — legiti- 


Paul J. Weaver 

Editors' Note: 

Used by special permission of Paul J- 
Weaver. Editor Journal of Proceedings 
of the Music Supervisors National Con- 

mate theaters and vaudeville houses 
closing — only artists of national or 
international reputation sure of an 
audience — the sale of pianos and 
of musical instruments declining 
precipitously — decline of congre- 
gational singing and home-made 

These are hard facts, beyond 
dispute or argument. Whether 
they indicate a transition period to 
be followed by a renaissance or a 
complete change in the production 
and consumption of music is a 
matter of conjecture. It is just pos- 
sible that the answer to this ques- 
tion may be determined largely by 
the teachers in this very audience 
and by the public schools that are 
now training the youth and shap- 
ing the destinies of the next gen- 
eration. '■] 

T^OR convenience I shall divide 
this discussion into three sec- 
tions, like a sonata of three move- 
ments, an Allegro, Tumultuoso; a 
Scherzando, Siesta; and a Con 
Moto, Maestoso. First, the Age 
of Machinery — of Science and In- 
vention, of Mass Production, of 
Speed and Precision; second, the 
Age of Mass Distribution, of Mass 
Communication, of Mass Utiliza- 
tion, of Mass Entertainment: 
third, the New Era of Leisure — its 
Dangers, its Opportunities, the Re- 
sponsibility upon Schools and 
Teachers, the Challenge of the Fu- 

We are living in the Golden Age 
of Miracles. This is the Age of 
Invisible Forces, physical and 
chemical, invisible media, electric- 
; ty and ether, atom" and electrons 
long waves, short waves. This is 

the Industrial Revolution, the Ma- 
chine Millennium, the Automatic 
Age. We push buttons that auto- 
matically satisfy hungers, provide 
comforts, and gratify tastes un- 
dreamed of a generation ago. 

It is but a short step from the 
savage game hunter to the com- 
mon field laborer, the wielder of 
pick and shovel, the village scribe, 
the operator of the automatic ma- 

Food and drink, shelter and 
clothing, rapid transportation and 
communication, the universal util- 
ization of art, have all been made 
possible by the modern automatic 
machine. _ ■ 

Artificial substitutes are the 
vogue in silks and satins, in jewel- 
ry, in dyes and perfumes, in fur- 
niture, in recreation and in enter- 
tainment. The movie and the ra- 
dio make literature, drama and art 
available to everyone whether he 
live in a castle or a cabin. 

T ET us see what the machine, 
invented by engineer, physicist 
and chemist, has done in other 
fields to change methods of pro- 
duction and consumption, thus af- 
fecting the laws of demand, and 
supply, as well as the lives of the 
individuals engaged in them. ( 

"Self-preservation is the. jfirst 
law of life" runs the proverb. Food 
and drink, therefore, are vital ne- 
cessities. How has the machine af- 
fected the production, distribution 
and consumption of food? Meat 
and natural fruits were man's first 
diet. Our own grandparents hunt- 
ed native game for meat, later 
raised their own beef, pork and 
mutton, slaughtered and preserved 
it at home. This was home-made 

Today, a few big packers supply 
the bulk of all meat consumed in 
this country; it is our second larg- 
est industry. My grandfather per- 
formed all the operations of meat 
producing from feeding calves, 
shoats and lambs, to chops, roasts 
and sausages. At Swifts' each man 
uses one tool, performs one opera- 
tion — a raised hammer and a fall- 


The. Improvement Era for October, 1931 

ing blow, a poised knife and a 
single cut, and the carcass passes 
on! This is machine made meat. 
The local butcher and amateur 
meat cutter pass out of the eco- 
nomic picture. 

W 1 

HAT of bread, "the staff of 
life?" My grandfather used 
to cut from a half to an acre of 
wheat a day with hand sickle or 
scythe. Then came the harvesting 
machine. The flail and foot tread- 
er succumbed to the threshing ma- 
chine. Today, two men with a 
combination cutter-thresher and 
bagger, with one man on motor 
driven truck, can deliver forty acres 
of grain a day to the elevator or 
freight car. The common field- 
laborer and the draft horse fade 
out of the picture! 

The bowl and mortar yield to 
the modern milling machine in 
Minneapolis; the small flour mill 
disappears from the landscape. 
Mother's bake-oven and the little 
German bakery give way to mod- 
ern bakeries with automatic mix- 
ing, kneading, moulding, baking 
and slicing machines, and your 
bread comes to your table by motor 
delivery truck. You still have to 
butter and bite! 

The same inevitable cycle applies 
to vegetables, fruits and drinks. 
Formerly we grew, canned, dried 
and preserved most of these. They 
come to my table ready-made, ma- 
chine packed in tins and cartons, 
branded, advertised and delivered 
by machine. As a lad I milked 
cows, carried bowls of milk to the 
natural spring, separated the cream 
and churned the butter by hand. 
Dairy farms today use ready - 
mixed feeds, milking and bottling 
machines, cream separators, ma- 
chine churns, molders, wrappers. 
Barns are electric lighted for "con- 
tented cows" — even hen-houses are 
flooded with ultra-violet rays to 
make the "happy hens" lay more 
eggs! And then, the incubator and 
brooder deprive them of their 
motherhood ! 

UOW about the next vital neces- 
sity, shelter? It is only a few 
generations from caves, tents, mud 
and log huts to the modern furn- 
ished, serviced apartment hotel. My 
father was born in an Indiana log- 
cabin and I just barely missed that 
distinction. My grandmother's 
light was the fat lamp and home- 
made tallow candle. My mother's 
lamp burned kerosene. Then came 

gas and electricity, with automatic 
light from a dynamo machine, re- 
leased by pushing a button. 

Fire has evolved from hand rub- 
bed sticks, or flint and steel, to 
safety match, pilot light and elec- 
tric spark. As a boy I had to saw 
and split, by hand, all the fuel we 
consumed both for cooking and 
heating. Your home today is auto- 
matically heated by a machine 
burning oil, 'with even temper- 
ature controlled continuously and 
automatically by thermostat and 
electric spark. 

The "old oaken bucket" today 
is but a myth; it is replaced by 
modern plumbing— water is stored 
and pumped into every room by a 
vast system of reservoirs and ma- 
chine pumps. Natural ice, once 
cut by hand from rivers and lakes, 
has yielded in turn to artificial ice 
plants and the modern home elec- 
tric or gas refrigerator. 

A/fY grandfather founded a 
woolen mill in 1867. I 
worked in it as a boy during school 
vacations from 1890 to 1900. As 
late, then, as thirty years ago, 
farmers' wives brought bags of 
wool to the mill which I ran 
through the picking and carding 
machines. Formerly they did this 
by hand, but my machine did it 
faster and better. They took these 
rolls of wool back home and spun 
them by hand into yarn which 
they knitted by hand or wove by 
hand into cloth which they cut and 
sewed by hand into garments. 
Need I remind you that all this has 
passed in modern civilization? 
Today, modern automatic spin- 
ning, knitting, weaving, cutting, 
sewing and pressing machinery 
supplies "Your hose and your 
clothes— from head to toes." 

The old fashioned tub and 
wash board, home-made soap and 
hand iron are superseded by the 
machine operated home and public 
laundry with electric washer, 
wringer and mangle, with "Lux" 
and "Thor" your slaves. 

Time does not permit more than 
a casual mention of mass produc- 
tion machines that work up the 
natural materials of sand, clay, 
coal, wood, leather and metals and 
their artificial substitutes created 
by synthetic chemistry. Have you 
ever seen an automatic press punch 
stamping out an auto body or fen- 
der with one gigantic crunch ap- 
plied to a sheet of cold steel? Or 
an automatic die-machine, turning 
out daily thousands of complex 
shapes formerly made laboriously 
by hand? Some of the parts in 
your piano-actions involve as 
many as twelve single operations 
now performed automatically by 
one machine. An operator simply 
feeds long maple sticks into one 
end and the finished part comes out 
the other! 

LJAVE you ever visited Henry 
Ford's plant and seen the 
mile-long machine, part human 
flesh and blood, part iron and steel, 
moving relentlessly, incessantly, 
with incipient Fords starting at the 
one end and finished, animated 
mechanisms coming out the other? 

Mechanical ditch diggers, exca- 
vators, conveyors and escalators 
supply the power once furnished 
by dozens of individual common 
laborers. They dig our coal, ore 
and dirt — load them on trucks, 
trains and ships. They lay our 
gas and water mains, pave our 
streets and highways; dig our base- 
ments, mix sand and gravel, hoist 
beams weighing tons to the tops 
of our sixty-story skyscrapers. 
The pick and the axe, the shovel 
and the hoe are going to the mu- 
seums, alongside bows and arrows. 
Time forbids even the mention of 
machinery and chemistry in mod- 
ern warfare, that put the arrow, 
the spear and the sword in the 

These machines do everything 
but think, and some even appear to 
do that. Have you ever seen two 
men attending a cigarette machine? 
One man feeds this machine raw 
tobacco, rolls of paper and sheets of 
cardboard; the other takes off the 
conveyor complete cartons filled 
with automatically stuffed, rolled, 
counted and packaged cigarettes 
produced daily by millions! 

The Improvement Era for October, 1931 


What shall we say of adding 
machines, comptometors and cal- 
culators that multiply and divide 
fractions and decimals? What of 
the duplicating electric typewriter? 
And the multigraph? 

A few years ago, news writers 
on daily papers sat with ear phones 
and typed by hand the news 
phoned over the Associated Press 
wires. Today, one sender types 
the news in a central office, and 
electric receiving machines in a hun- 
dred smaller cities type these mes- 
sages automatically. One operator 
now does the work of a hundred! 

DICTURE the solitary monk in 
his cell laboriously copying the 
manuscript by hand; contrast him 
with the linotype operator and the 
pressman at the Chicago Tribune 
plant with its hundred page edi- 
tions each multiplied a million five 
hundred thousand times? Can we 
doubt that the Machine displaces 
the Monk? The Robot displaces 
brawn and brain! 

Please bear with me — the end is 
not yet! We are asking ourselves 
the question "Man or Machine?" 
We can only judge the future by 
the past. What of the social in- 
tercourse of humanity — the trans- 
portation of our bodies; the dis- 
tribution of wares and products, 
the communication of ideas and 
services, the mass utilization of rec- 
reation and entertainment? 

I need not remind you of the 
days of individual transportation 
and the evolutionary sequence of 
ox, horse and camel; the jin-rick- 
shaw, bicycle, auto and plane; of 
the sky-scraper elevator; nor of 
the evolution of travel by public 
stage coach, steam road, electric 
roa d — street level, elevated and 
subway — to modern air-transport ; 
nor of slaves on galley ships row- 
ing by hand, to sailing ships, 
steamships, and the oil-burning 
Diesel-engined floating palaces of 

Need we mention the changes 
in distribution, from itinerant ped- 
dler to public markets and fairs, to 
cross-roads and general stores? 
Where are they now? They have 
fallen before the march of civiliza- 
tion — the modern distributing ma- 
chinery of department store, mail 
order house and chain store, sum- 
med up in the term "Mass distri- 
bution." I am told that in In- 
dianapolis scarcely a single indi- 
vidually operated grocery remains. 

The individual inevitably yields to 
the Machine! 


OW have these mass methods 
affected the communications 
of ideas? A simple review of his- 
toric facts will suffice. Individual 
messenger — runner or rider — pony 
express, postal service, telegraph, 
telephone, wireless telegraphy, ra- 
dio broadcast, international tele- 
phone service. All of which means 
that I can talk to a man in Vienna 
from Chicago or hear the London, 
Paris and Berlin Symphonic Or- 
chestra or Grand Opera in my home 
studio by the push of a button and 
the turn of a dial! This is mass 
communication of ideas because a 
billion listeners can share this pleas- 
ure with me, if their tastes permit. 
A few hundred artists can produce 
this music, multiplied a billion 
times by mass distributing ma- 
chinery, and re-produced in every 
civilized human habitation! 

"But stop!" you cry — "this is 
artificial art, artificial music! We 
want the genuine, personal, indi- 
vidual article!" The American 
Federation of Musicians, through 
the expenditure of vast sums 
($500,000) in newspaper and 
magazine advertisements, implores 
us to protest against this artificial 
music, the Robot Artist in the 
"little brown box" — to demand 
the return of the exiled, personal 

pUBLIC demand is always the 
deciding factor— it is the great- 
er factor in the economic equation, 
for supply must meet demand. 
Does the public really desire the 
return of the one-time mediocre 
theater orchestra and the destruc- 
tion of the Machine? Has there 

ever been a reversal, a return, to 
hand-made methods of home-made 
products in the long panorama of 
human achievements? 

Moreover, what is artificial? 
The humble silk worm eats the 
leaves that absorb their texture 
from sun and soil and through its 
metabolism converts leaf into liq- 
uid from which it spins its dia- 
phanous threads. The Rayon ma- 
chine duplicates these processes — 
eats cornstalks or what-nots, con- 
verts them into a gelatinous mass 
and spins this out into tenuous 
threads. Where is the difference? 
It is not a far cry, after all, from 
the leafy garb of Mother Eve to 
the rayon-clad flapper of yester- 
year! Of course, the poor worm 
will have to starve! The machine 
will get the leaves! 

And lo! the simple oyster! Here 
for millions of years he has been 
making pearls in "tears" and in 
pain (I was about to say "by 
hand") when along comes the 
chemist and produces synthetic 
pearls which only an expert can 
distinguish from the natural. And 
why shouldn't a trained chemist 
beat an uneducated oyster at his 
own game? 

pLOWERS and plants have 
furnished our perfumes and 
dyes for ages, but again the chemist 
produces myriads of new synthetic 
colors and scents as a by-product 
of coal tar! The tints and scents, 
embalmed in coal for a million 
years, are simply released by mod- 
ern science! Burbank has given 
us dozens of new, luscious fruits 
with the aid of horticultural sci- 

For ages, carpenters and cabinet 
makers have labored in natural 
wood — cutting, trimming, plan- 
ing, chiselling, mortising, carv- 
ing, varnishing, and polishing by 
hand — from raw lumber to fin- 
ished furniture. Today, a new 
product, Bakelite, a plastic made of 
casein or resins, can be molded and 
pressed by machined dies at once 
into the complete article. For all 
I know, you are now sitting on 
chairs made of super-heated cheese! 

We are even adopting artificial 
exercises and recreation. We build 
a 100,000 capacity stadium for 
spectators of athletic games, and 
take our sport vicariously, by 
proxy, as it were. Instead of a 
walk in the natural sunshine we 
push the button and expose our- 
[ Confirmed on page 746] 


New Education 

"' 'iKwEKHfr^S'-- •jfy$M'"- 1 ^j ■ \mB&&* 

: * •- 

/>/ Austria 



-^m»3l . WiffT vft-J 

IT is my pleasure and privilege 
to tell you something of a 
new educational system which 
has recently been developed in the 
city of Vienna as a result of four 
years of experimental work car- 
ried on by Dr. Paul L. Dengler 
in one of the high schools of that 

It was done in connection with 
the general change in the schools 
of Austria after the world war. 

The new education in Austria 
was a daring change from old 
methods and curriculi, but was 
based on sound principles of psy- 
chology and a national need for 
greater love and tolerance. 

Before the war each country un- 
der Austrian rule wanted different 
connections. Each people hated 
the other. There was constant in- 
trigue and- jealousy. These racial 
prejudices exist strongly today but 
the war did not cause them, it only 

In the present internal situation 
in Europe each hates the other. 
Many things which would help 
all cannot be done. 

Traditions are strong in Europe. 
They want to remain what they 
are. Children's minds are poison- 
ed by hate and jealousy. 

Quoting Dr. Dengler on his 

purpose in beginning his new sys- 
tem or method he said: 

"We must raise a new generation, our 
hope is in educating our children in greater 
love ' and tolerance, not only for each 
other, but for other peoples. We must 
teach our children that we are bringing 
each other something and we must do it 
through our schools." 

B 1 

EFORE the war the aim of 
education had been to make 
loyal subjects for the dynasty. 
There had been a constant suppres- 
sion of individual thoughts and 
feelings, and this through the se- 
verest discipline. 

Only 7% went to higher 
schools leading to the university. 

After the war each nation want- 
ed to be independent. One by one 
the nations withdrew to set up new 
governments and all that was left 
of the once great Austria-Hungar- 
ian Empire was a small area from 
which to form the New Republic 
of Austria. 

What had been the mingling 
nlace of the races and the mecca 
for the great intellectuals of the 
world was now a small poverty- 
ridden nation. 

They had never been educated 
to be a unit but there was one great 
advantage, they now had only one 
language and they were free to 

University of Vienna 

build up an education which they 
wanted. The old scheme of edu- 
cation in which the child was 
molded for the government has 
been replaced in Vienna by one in 
which there is activity and coop- 
eration and through which the 
child is led to do his own thinking. 

Let me pause a moment before 
reviewing the experiment of Dr. 
Dengler, to tell you something of 
the man himself. 

He was born in Salsburg, Aus- 
tria, of Austrian parentage, and is 
now 43 years of age. He was 
graduated from the University of 
Vienna in 1904, his major being 
psychology. He has attracted the 
attention of educators the world 
over with his methods and has 
traveled and lectured extensively in 
the United States and Europe. 

T TTAH was honored by a visit 
from this great doctor about 
two years ago. 

During the past summer he told 
of his experiments before educa- 
tional conventions in Denmark 
and England and created quite a 
good deal of interest at the Inter- 
national Educational Convention, 
held at Geneva, Switzerland, in 
August, 1929. 

The Improvement Era for October, 1931 


Through his method he aims to 
teach for life and to live and for 
this reason it is his theory to in- 
clude the family in his system. He 

"Our greatest hope and work is 
with the masses." 

His experiments which he calls 
community education were carried 
on in the high school or "Mittel 
Schule" which compares with our 
junior high school and up to about 
18 years of age. The pupils he 
worked with directly were about 
15 and 16 years of age. 

He told us, however, that the 
children of Austria were about 2 
years behind those of America due 
to privation and illness during and 
after the war. 

He organizes the children into 
a class community with three 
groups : 

1. The Teach- 
ers' group or Com- 

2. The Parents' 

3. The Chil- 
dren's Commu- - :; ; 
nity, joining all 
three to form the 
School Com- 

The Teachers' 

The Teacher's 
Community has 
been the hardest 
group to work 
with. Teachers 
have had to be trained for the work 
and institutes are held where 
courses are given. 

PHE teachers go once a week to 
a museum, a factory or a bak- 
ery (for example) and all the week 
work on this idea, (which is called 
concentrated education) . 

They study how certain things 
came, where they came from and 
study the countries, the geography, 
climate, natural resources, etc. 

Each teacher carries the idea in- 
to her class work and takes it up 
as art, geography, language, nature 
study and so on. 

One day in the week the teach- 
ers come together on the next com- 
munity project. They must come 
together or one will overlap an- 
other. \ 

Another function of the Teach- 
ers' Community is to make observa- 
tions about the children, these to be 
discussed in their community group. 

Dr. Dengler, Center 

The Children's Community 

This is a community of self- 
government. Their slogan is: 
"No Hatred, Preach Love." Here 
they get a real training in person- 
ality, individuality and leadership. 

A T first Dr. Dengler tried with 
40 children and found it was 
too many. In the beginning only 
the boys were organized, but the 
boys asked to have the girls, and 
now they are in the groups. 

This is the way he began to use 
his plan. He said: 

"I went into the room and looked into 
the eyes of the children and chose five to 
be leaders. 

"They formed the leaders' group. 
"The function of this group is: to 
legislate, hold meetings and form the ad- 
ministrative community. 

"After the first time, the leaders were 
elected every two 
months. This lead- 
ers' group elects a ! chief 
leader. The leaders' 
names are written on 
the blackboard, and 
the children write their 
names under the lead- 
er they wish to join." 

D ] 

Children's Clinic 
The Parents' Community 

This is not especially for parent 
education but for parent coopera- 
tion. In the beginning they must 
get acquainted, they must know 
each other. Perhaps the teacher 
will have to start things by intro- 
ducing them. 

At the first meeting they have 
an election of executive officers. 
Then they form a constitution. 
After that they have general meet- 
ings, with the teacher in the back- 
ground, and problems are discuss- 
ed. They study, read books, 
write papers, make visits to the 
school and take some courses with 
the children. The papers written 
by the parents have been very valu- 
able in the hands of the teachers in 
interpreting the children's behav- 

stated the lists 
were surprisingly 
uniform and sur- 
prisingly fair, nev- 
er has a leader been 
left without a 
group. Neither 
were the leaders al- 
ways the superior 
children. Probably 
three above aver- 
age to two below 
in a group of five. 

It is good for the superior child 
because it gives him extra work to 
do outside of the school routine. 
All work is based on just the av- 

The class is divided into four 
or five groups because it gives 
greater opportunity for leadership, 
for helping the backward child or 
others who need help. It makes 
for mutual responsibility and gives 
opportunity for discussion between 
groups. There is no competition 
between groups. 

Once a week the leaders have a 
meeting where no teacher is pres- 
ent. Matters, are discussed, deci- 
sions made and problems duly 
taken to the teacher, or to the par- 
ent appointed or elected to work 
with the children. . 

[Continued on page 742] 



Dr. Adam S. Bennion 

IX. What Fields Are Open? 

THIS business of choosing a 
business has sure got me 
worried. My father once 
had a paying blacksmith job but 
his business has gone right out 
from under him. How can I be 
sure that the thing I learn how to 
do will be good ten or fifteen years 
from now." 

"In the days of the pioneers a 
man could go out into a new coun- 
try and make a start. Even if he 
didn't have much money he could 
homestead and in a few years build 
up something of his own. But you 
can't do that any more. It just 
seems as if you have to work for 
somebody else." 

"Mining and smelting are 
changing so that a fellow can't de- 
pend on keeping a job in one of 
those lines even if he can do a good 
job now. Or take a job like paint- 
ing, how can a man compete 
against a machine that sprays 

CUCH letters reflect a vocational 
uncertainty that haunts many 
men. Social progress has an ele- 
ment of cruelty in it. Changes in- 
evitably cut some chasms through 
the social structure and men of a 
former generation are sometimes 
left on the "other" side of the 
chasm. No one has as yet found 
a way in which to prevent such a 

But the younger generation can 
make the adjustment. The young 
blacksmith became an auto me- 
chanic ; the progressive livery stable 
became a garage. Root beer and 
hot dog stands and night clubs are 
struggling under a feebly enforced 
Volstead Act to substitute for the 
saloon with its wobbly Adeliners. 

Some occupations go out with 

their age. No one can hold them 
in. And nothing can be gained by 
attempting to argue to retain them. 
Surely lamenting their passing can 
never help a man make a liveli- 
hood. Isn't it your experience that, 
except in crises of unemployment 
like the one through which we are 
now passing, capable, well prepared 
men are practically always able to 
secure employment. Normally the 
business of keeping a civilization 
going calls for active participation 
of most of the people who enjoy 
that civilization. 

T ET'S get at the matter rather 
definitely. How many of you 
who read this article have actually 
projected yourself out into the 
world of jobs far enough to dis- 
cover just what you might secure 
as an occupation? The more I dis- 
cuss this problem with young peo- 
ple, the more I become convinced 

that most of them wait until cir- 
cumstance throws a job at them — 
or throws them at a job. Of course 
many young men go from job to 
job but that is not so much the 
result of an intelligent research to 
discover a suitable calling as it is 
the result of a vague uncertainty of 
desire or lack of interest or of an 
invitation to move on. 

As I write this article I can look 
out on one of the busiest blocks 
on Main Street in Salt Lake City. 
As I look down the street I am 
struck not by the few jobs_ avail- 
able in a city but by their rich 
variety. Next time you are in such 
a city try counting through fifteen 
minutes the jobs which come be- 
fore your observation. Or go into 
a typically busy office building and 
note the range of employment 

HPHE difficulty may lie not so 
much perhaps in the scarcity 
of jobs but rather in our inability 
creatively to look for them. Some- 
one has said that a man sees with 
"what's behind the eye" and it 
may be that we have done but lit- 
tle by way of putting something 
behind the vocational eye of youth. 
How often a boy does or does not 
want to do what his father does. 
All too frequently that is about 
the only job of which some boys 
have any particular knowledge. 

Let's suppose you were given 
$100.00 and told that you might 
take the best trip which $100 
would finance for you. What 
would you do before you actually 
started out on some particular 
jaunt? If you were even normally 
intelligent you would gather data 
on all the possible trips within the 
range of the allowance. Of course, 
you might have been longing to 

The Improvement Era for October, 1931 


take a certain trip these many years 
in which case you could jump to 
your conclusion in a hurry. That's 
only because you have already been 
working to a conclusion. 

r> UT in this trip of Life you have 
not $100 — you have a human 
destiny — your destiny — all that 
you have and are will be bound 
up in your decision. These articles 
have repeatedly hinted the sub- 
stance of the whole matter: search 
out a worthy choice into which 
you can put your whole heart and 
then prepare for that choice so that 
you will be outstandingly fitted to 
pursue it. Even if circumstances 
vary the job, if you have trained 
yourself adequately and funda- 
mentally, your training will be 
your best guarantee of an ability 
to make a transfer. 

This summer has been altogether 
unusual because of the great num- 
ber of applicants seeking employ- 
ment. One of the most outstand- 
ing features of the whole situa- 
tion is the overwhelming unfitness 
of very many applicants for any 
specific job. So many boys pre- 
sent themselves with their parents. 
The latter seem really to be the 
seekers after the jobs. It is they 
who have been doing much of the 
thinking and worrying. Scores of 
boys just want jobs — anything. 
Their stories no doubt are essen- 
tially the same at every place of 
business at which they apply. If 
this depression has done nothing 
else it should have driven home to 
boys for all time the thought that 
when they apply for a job they 
should ask for work to which they 
can bring a pre-disposed self — they 
should work to reach a point when 
they have in themselves a real sell- 
ing point for a specific kind of 
work. Thoughtless drifting leaves 
too many boys without a premium 
on the greatest thing they will ever 
have to offer — themselves. 

pO the boy who is really in 
earnest — the boy who is eager 
to find his own best niche — to such 
a boy fortunately there is avail- 
able a world of help and direction. 
He can find out about all kinds of 
jobs long before he spends two or 
three years to discover that he 
doesn't like them or that he isn't 
fitted for them. 

The genius of getting on lies in 
finding a worthy pursuit and go- 
ing to the top in it. Aptitude plus 
enthusiasm plus vigorous, contin- 

ued, sustained effort just have to 
get results. Suppose you develop 
an interest in bees. Certainly there 
is nothing to prevent your becom- 
ing an outstanding Bee-Keeper. 
Problems such as Habits of Bee 
Life — Food — Quality of Honey — 
Attractive Containers — Available 
Markets — all of these and a score 
of others can make of Bee-Keeping 
.a fascinating pursuit. 

THOUSANDS of jobs are 
awaiting you if you can fit 
yourself for them. A number of 
years ago the Military Training 
Commission of New York had 
conducted a study of vocations un- 
der the title "Our Boys." The 
appendix to that study lists the 
following seventeen groups of 
trades and occupations: 

Group 1 

Group 1 — Professional. 

Group 2 — Clerical Workers 

Group 3 — Business. 

Group 4 — Executive Positions. 

Group 5 — Government Service. 

Group 6— -Building Trades. 

Group 7 — Metal Trades. 

Group 8- — Woodworking. 

Group 9 — Clothing. 

Group 10 — Clay, Glass, Stone, and Min- 

Group 1 1 — Printing, 

Group 12 — Transportation. 

Group 13 — Food Production and Prepa- 

Group 14 — Textiles. 

Group 15 — Shoes and Leather Industries. 

Group 1 6 — Miscellaneous Manufactures. 

Group 1 7 — Labor. 

TF you would appreciate the range 
of possibilities in such a study 
turn through two of the groups to 
see what openings there are: 





rrt w 

Aeronautical engineer. 


Architectural engineer. 



Athlete (all kinds). 

Attorney, lawyer. 

Author (not journalist) . 

Automotive engineer. 

Bacteriologist, general. 



Chemical engineer. 



Civil engineer. 

Clergyman. j 

Commercial engineer. 

Dental mechanic. , 


Designer, artistic. 



Electrical engineer. 


Engineer, statistical, technical. 



Extension teacher, lecturer, etc. 

Heating or ventilating engineer 

Highway engineer. 

Hydraulic engineer. j 

Hydrotherapeutist. j > 







Manual instructor, psychiatric. 

Map maker. 

Masseur. : 

Mathematician. j 

Mechanical engineer. 


Meteorologist (weather expert) . 


Mining engineer, general. 

Motion picture laboratory expert. 

Motion picture photographer. 



Nurse, trained and not trained. 

Operation and time study engineer 



Painter — artist, landscape or muraL 



Physical Instructor. 


Physiological lab. assistant. 

Plant operating engineer. 


Professor, college. 

Psychiatrist assistant. 

Psychologist assistant or expert 

Radio — electrical expert. 

Sanitary engineer. 

Scientific observer. 

Sculptor and clay modeler. 


Sign painter. 



Structural engineer. 





Telegraph engineer. \ 

Telephone engineer. 



Welfare worker, administrative. 

X-Ray operator. 

[Continued on page 740] 

~iWv - _4dlfiBt ' 

Tvjo tons and fourteen hundred pounds of Grasshoppers piled up ready to be burned. 



AS one of the curious results 
of the 1931 drought in the 
Western and Mid-Western 
states, probably more persons will 
eat grasshoppers for Thanksgiving 
this year than ever before. Even 
the plains Indians of ancient times, 
with their grasshopper pancakes, 
their grasshopper soup and crisp 
dried grasshoppers, probably could 
not surpass in volume the hopper 
consumption of Americans today. 
Among other items included in 
the festivities on the bill of fare 
will be such things as wagon 
tongues, fence posts, clothing and 
other forms of vegetable fiber con- 
sumed previously by the grasshop- 
pers. The hoppers, in turn, will 
be served on the Thanksgiving ta- 
ble, not without joy and rejoicing, 
in the form of the domestic Amer- 
ican turkey. 

for Thanksgiving 


Weston N. Nordgren 

(GRASSHOPPERS this year, as 
the result of several dry sea- 
sons culminated in 1930 and 
1931 by severe drought in the 
United States, have spread over 
a large area of Western America, 
reaching from the Middle Western 
states to Utah and the Oregon 
coast. Farmers in their attempt 
to stave off complete destruction, 
have waged relentless war against 
the pests' pitiless invasion. Various 
methods for the extermination of 
the plague have been tried, as poi- 
son bran, spraying the insects with 
poison, burning them, catching 
them in balloon canvas scoops, and 
fattening turkeys on them. 

Wherever turkeys are, their 
owners are turning their loss of 
grain and hay through the hop- 
pers to good account by fattening 
the .birds on the insects. These 

birds, primed and juicy, will then 
go on the Thanksgiving and 
Christmas markets, probably com- 
manding the highest price as holi- 
day delicacies, because of their 

HpHE turkey has proved success- 
ful in the war on the grass- 
hopper scourge, since, unlike the 
sea gull which devoured the crickets 
of early days, the turkeys will enter 
a field of growing alfalfa or grain, 
and almost hidden by the growth 
will catch and eat the hoppers by 
the hundreds, continuing as long 
as daylight lasts, or as long as there 
is room for more in the turkey's 
crop. These birds do not disgorge 
the insects, but retain them as food, 
fattening on them as the season 
advances, and hunting them dili- 
gently from one field to another. 

The Improvement Era for October, 1931 


Burning the Grasshoppers. 

Sometimes the birds range for 
miles, cleaning up the hoppers as 
they go; and lucky is the farmer 
who has enough turkeys to keep 
his fields free of the plague. 

Recently, one man at Grants- 
ville, Utah, was called upon to 
aid in curbing the grasshopper evil 
in Tooele county. He took his 
1500 birds, and driving them like 
sheep, and accompanying them as 
a herder with his sheep wagon, he 
went from field to field, clearing 
the acres of hoppers and at the 
same time feeding his flock, at no 
expense to anyone. He has had 
great ^success with his charges, and 
is more and more in demand as 
farmers discover the effectiveness of 
the turkey as a weapon against the 
hopping pests. 

Not content with grain, pota- 
toes, corn, isquash, melons, fruit 
and shade trees, and alfalfa, some- 
times the hoppers eat strange 
things. Many unusual stories are 
told of the hoppers eating wagon 
tongues, fence posts and clothing. 
"Around Buffalo, Neb., the farm- 
ers made a feeble attempt to recoup 
some of their losses by scooping 
up the dead hoppers, packing them 
and selling them to fishermen for 
bait at 20 cents a pound." 

p)ISPATCHES from the Middle 
West state that science is pit- 
ting all its strength against the 
hordes of hoppers that have swept 
the states of Nebraska, Iowa, South 
Dakota and Minnesota, leaving 
barren the producing agricultural 
districts. On the plains the farm- 
ers fight hand-to-hand with the 
pests; airplanes drone overhead 
dropping poison spray on the de- 
vouring insects; farm machinery of 
all types is being converted into 
vehicles of destruction to catch the 
hoppers. Poison bran vies with 

fire, oil and^other weapons as a 
means of exterminating the foe. 
Bonfires dot the devastated areas, 
as the dead insects are cremated. 
Appeals from town, county and 
state organizations have reached 
the Capitol, as political leaders ex- 
ert their influence to appropriate 
money to fight the scourge. 

The Secretary of Agriculture, 
scheduled recently to speak at the 
Uintah Basin Industrial Conven- 
tion, at Ft. Duchesne, Utah, de- 
clared he would be unable to at- 
tend the fete, due to the fact that 
his presence was necessary in the 
Northwest, where the farmers were 
being swamped by a new grass- 
hopper invasion. "In order to 
combat the drought and grasshop- 
per scourge in the Minneapolis, St. 
Paul, Omaha and other mill cen- 
ters, permission was granted to the 
Chicago & Northwestern railroad 
to make emergency rates (deduc- 
tion) effective in intrastate traffic," 
beginning July 31, according to re- 
ports from Chicago under that 

The losses in the Plain States 
already have mounted to millions 
of dollars, much of which could 
have been avoided, according to 

expert agriculturists, had the grass- 
hoppers' eggs been destroyed before 
they had opportunity to hatch. 
The old Rocky Mountain grass- 
hoppers, so much sought by moun- 
tain fishers as trout bait, with 
their gray bodies and red legs, stay 
in one location most of their lives. 
It is with the migratory or war- 
rior type, which begins traveling 
a few hours after the eggs hatch, 
and never stops until death over- 
takes it, that the farmers have tc 

Dry, hot weather contributes to 
the hatching of the eggs, and 
drought causes the hoppers to con- 
gregate and live on whatever green 
or vegetable material they can se- 
cure, leaving desolation in their 
wake. It is so this year; and para- 
sites have not developed, nor has 
man been able to prepare remedies, 
fast enough to remove the scourge 
before great damage has been done. 


ORE than 1,200 persons of 
Union county, South Dakota, 
where the crops are virtually de- 
stroyed, met in a non-sectarian 
meeting at Elk Point, and sought 
Divine help for deliverance from 
grasshopper hordes, July 26, at 
precisely the same spot their fore- 
fathers had gathered 60 years ago 
for the same reason. At about 
the same date several stakes in 
Utah called a special fast and 
prayer meeting for relief from the 
drought. In the latter case, within 
a week rains cooled the atmosphere 
and brought moisture for thirsting 
farms and joy and hope to the 
struggling farmers. The results of 
the former petition have not yet 
been made known. It is said that 
the hoppers are so thick on the 
highways through Iowa, that 
motorists must keep their radiators 
[Continued on page 748] 


Canvas Balloon used to catch Grasshoppers. 


Illustrated by 

Mrs. Olive M. Nicholes 

#»^i^>$^ ,: 'J 

[Editor's note: "Troubles" was 
awarded the prize in our short, 
short story contest. Eight other 
stories met with favor and the 
judges have decided to offer special 
prizes to their authors. The prize 
winner in the contest open to au- 
thors whose stories have never ap- 
peared in print cannot be an- 
nounced in this issue, owing to the 
unusually large number submitted.] 


HE spring had 
been an early one, coaxing out the 
blossoms in the orchards until 
the hills, for miles, seemed girdled 
by the delicate, warm bloom. Too 
soon the petals fell; too soon the 
small, green spheres grew larger 
and firmer and — there came the 
frost. From La Verkin to Los 
Vegas the swift, white flame swept 

like a phantom in the night. Yes- 
terday the branches had held up 
their rich promises; today they 
hung black and shrivelled in the 
March sunshine. It was only 
where some venturesome soul had 
risked his all in the smudge-pots 
that a few trees still held their early 

A neighbor of mine on the 
"Bench," came over to my little 
cabin and found me, chin in hands, 
looking gloomily across at my 
ruined orchards, — discouraged and 

"Cheer up, kid," he grumbled, 
"Frost never comes like this two 
years runnin'. The trees'll be all 
the better fer a year's rest." 

"But this was the second bear- 
ing, — my banner year. I've already 
written to Alice and the boy to 
come on in the fall," I argued. 

The thought of waiting for an- 

Rabbit brush and mesqtxite bushes hem- 
med the narrow road. Gray -green lizards 
darted through the salt grass with incredi- 
ble swiftness. 

other year fogged my vision and 
turned my heart to lead. 

"Well," he offered, laying a cal- 
loused hand on my bowed head, 
"There's at least one man in the 
country ain't shakin' his fist at 
high heaven and cursin' his luck, — 
and that's Gran'pa Free. Better 
borry my nag and ride over to see 
him, Benton." 


LOOMILY enough 
I went. The "Bench" lay several 
miles above the river that swept 
its treacherous way through the red 
sands. Beyond the bridge lay 
"Hidden Springs Ranch." The 
road wound through the fields like 
a crimson ribbon, — every footfall 
of the mare's ponderous hoofs 

The Improvement Era for October, 1931 


sinking into the sand to the fet- 
locks. The wayside vegetation had 
not changed since that memorable 
day when Erastus Snow's indomit- 
able caravan had halted on the 
crest of Lava Ridge and taken their 
wagons apart to let them down, 
piece by piece, over the ledges that 
had dared to thwart his way. 

Rabbit brush and mesquite 
bushes hemmed the narrow road. 
Gray-green lizards darted through 
the salt grass with incredible swift- 
ness. The cerise blossoms of the 
cactus flaunted their silken sails 
in the vagrant breeze. Tulles 
crowded the sluggish streams to the 
brim, where hundreds of redwing- 
ed blackbirds dipped and soared. 

I found the old gentleman on 
the front veranda, reading his 
morning paper as though nothing 
had happened. Already a dozen 
boys were raking up the rubbish in 
the orchards or sowing sorghum 
cane seed in the freshly turned soil. 
The trees must be watered anyway 
and a thousand gallons of molasses 
sold in northern markets would 
bring no mean compensation. 

liE rose to meet me, 
although I was a stranger. His 
beard, rippling to his waist, was 
as white as the blossoms of the 
yucca that rings its waxen bells in 
the gardens of the wastelands. His 
eyes alert and kind were as blue as 
the southern skies. Although well 
beyond his allotted three score 
years and ten he stood unbowed 
by time. He was of that rare 
old type that retains its freshness 
and geniality in spite of age. He 
reminded one of a solitary flower 
in a frosted garden; all 
around him his youthful 
companions tottered with 
the childishness of with- 
ering manhood, while he 
remained clear of eye and 

"Quite a frost," he 
said, taking my hand. 

"The worst trouble a 
man can have," I return- 
ed. "So much depends on 
making a living." 

He laid a gentle hand 
on my shoulder. "Don't 
say that, my boy; you 
don't know what trouble 

"No; that is true. You 
who have had so much, 
— since you have lived 
longer than I, — can be 
the better judge." 

Gran'pa Free 

"I have had but one," he replied 
quietly, shading his eyes with a 
hand that trembled a little. 

I knew he meant to tell me of 
that trouble, so I waited, drowsily 
watching the boys at work in the 

"When I was young like you, I 
left home to get rich, — so I said. 
From Vermont I went to Kansas, 
taking my wife, — the sweetest 
woman in all the world — with 
me. For two years I worked, and 
worked hard. At last things 
seemed going fine. The farm 
promised abundant crops for that 

"Cheer up, kid," he 
grumbled. "Frost never 
comes like this two years 
runnin'. The trees'll be all 
the better for a year's rest." 

year. I worked early and late. 
The grain grew tall and green, then 
the drouth came. I prayed, then 
I cursed and shook my fist at the 
brazen skies. The grain turned 
brown and withered up, my horses 
died, and I had to give it up and 
move away. I thought that was 
trouble; but it wasn't, it wasn't. 

"The next year, we joined the 
Church. People there were dread- 
ful set against us, so we decided to 
come out here where the others 
had come. We were too anxious 
to get away, over-zealous I guess, 
and started late. You know about 
the handcarts?" 

He stopped for a minute, and 
folded his paper. 

"It was a tragedy, my boy. God 
bless those brave women that kept 
us poor fellows up. Well, — win- 
ter came. Many froze to death. 
Every night I looked at my wife, 
and babies, and prayed a selfish 
prayer, — that if every family lost, 
I could save mine. One morning, 
I uncovered my wife, — she was 
frozen stiff. I guess I must have 
gone mad." 

Again he looked off 

down the road, as though waiting 
for someone to come up. 

"They buried her, my Bess, out 
there on the prairies," chokingly, 
"and I left her, and came on with 
the babies. 

"Oh, my boy, I thought that 
was trouble; — the greatest that 
could come to a human being; but 
it wasn't, no; comparatively it 
wasn't trouble at all. 

Then I settled on this farm. 

It was miles from folks; but I 

didn't care. With my two boys, 

— Alex was twelve and Roy ten, — 

I tried to make something out of 

it. Sometimes the crop 

went ; sometimes the river 

took out our dams; but I 

didn't w o r r y, — t h a t 

wasn't trouble. 

"One day we left our 
b a b y-g i r 1, — she was 
eight. We used to take 
her with us, most of the 
time; but that day I 
thought it was too hot, 
and sent her back. She 
begged to come, but 1 1 
wouldn't let her. She 
went back all right, and 
we went about a mile up 
the road. I could see her 
in the yard playing; but 
pretty soon I forgot her. 
[Continued on page 741] 



0/ Martha 


Ivy Williams Stone 

Illustrations by Paul S. Clowes 


T was almost a year 
after Gloria's marriage before her 
father acknowledged the news. 
Even then his message was brief: 

"Tell my little girl I am sending hei 
a strange wedding gift. She is to keep 
them always. The dirt diggings for 
diamonds get larger and larger. Regular 
mines. I hope to get rich quickly now." 

This letter, like all his previous 
ones, had been opened. The Kirk- 
man family now knew it was use- 
less to hope for the safe passage 
of money. Considering the vari- 
ous means of travel, it was strange 
that the letters ever got through 
at all. 

When the gift arrived, it proved 
to be a half-open crate that need 
not be opened for inspection. It 
was legibly marked that it con- 
tained twelve ornamental gourds 
— value nothing. They had been 
picked from the luxuriant vines 
that Margaret Kirkman remem- 
bered having grown about their 
old home. The natural smooth 
surface had been carved with native 
scenes. The handles of some were 
queerly twisted, some were straight, 
some made a complete circle. But 

every gourd was decorated with 
finely sketched scenes. There were 
trek wagons, drawn by many ox- 
en. There was a fording scene, 
with a wagon half tipped. There 
were native women washing at the 
river; kafirs in full war array, 
with shields and spears. One 
showed a monkey, caught, because 
he could not pull his sugar-filled 
paw from the tiny hole in a squash. 
Gloria laughed at the grimace the 
artist had made on the wizened 
face. When you tipped the gourds 
from end to end, the seeds rattled, 
producing a queer, hollow sound. 

GLORIA felt an un~ 

explainable thrill as she unpacked 
this gift. A symbol of her child- 
hood, it must contain some hidden 
meaning, for it was evident that 
great care had been used upon the 
engravings. And how the seeds 

"Let's cut one of 'em open and 
see what it's like inside," Rodney 
Whitman was always inquisitive 
and he reached for his knife as 
he spoke, but Gloria drew her 
gourds quickly away. 

"Oh, no," she cried, "I don't 
want them cut. I shall keep them 
always. Just as they are. The 
seeds would not grow, anyway. 
It is too cold here." Thus from 
the time she was twenty she guard- 
ed the gift from the father. The 
gourds were placed on the what- 
not in the marvelous parlor. They 
were examined by native and vis- 
itor alike, and became a symbol 
of the father who never came with 
the fortune in diamonds which he 
had predicted. 


HE gourds and the 
what-not stood between the glass- 
domed wax flowers and the Frank- 
lin stove. The big square piano 
filled a generous space. A store 
carpet covered the entire floor, the 
straw under it creaking as you 
stepped carefully over the red roses. 



As a wedding gift, Jonas had given 
her a marvelous new luxury, a 
hanging lamp, with lilacs painted 
on the shade. You pulled it down 
to trim the wick and replenish the 
oil, and pushed it up after light- 
ing. Its soft rays reached all cor- 
ners of the room. A white bear 
skin rug lay before the Franklin 
stove, and a musical album that 
played "Coming Through the 
Rye" decorated a marble-topped 
table. Everlasting daisies in carved 
wooden vases filled each corner. It 
was a room of wonders, but they 
were inherited. Only the gourds 
really exclusively belonged to 

She soon learned that the vi- 
sionary, dreamy expression of 
Jonas' eyes was indicative of his 
disposition and temperament. He 
planned for tomorrow; built for 
future generations. The petty, 

trivial incidents of every day life 
worried him. He lived in an ex- 
alted atmosphere, incapable of 
stooping to small bickerings. In 
all his leisure moments he either 
studied law or wrote poetry. He 
did not care to know when his 
two children quarreled. He was 
impatient with little Anna, whose 
malady baffled him. She defied 
discipline, played perilously on the 
banks of creeks, or between the 
feet of horses. She did not know 
or understand fear, and rushed 
blindly to the aid of her pets or 
any afflicted animal. Jonas ex- 
pected meals to be cooked whether 
the wood box was full or empty. 
From his visionary dreams he was 
incapable of reaching down to the 
daily routine and everyday tasks 
which had to be performed in the 
home. He issued orders to bis 
son and his employees, then he 

Lott Gascom's shifting eyes drew to- 
gether in a heavy scowl when Jonas 
Whitman called upon him the next morn- 
ing, and ordered him to move his cows. 

trusted implicitly to their honor 
to carry them out. He was often 
sadly disappoined, but more often, 
never learned of the results. He 
was frequently away from home, 
making long trips to his saw mill, 
another to his store in the town, 
forty miles away. When the saw- 
mill broke down, the men lounged 
around on full pay. While at the 
sawmill, his store was robbed. 
While away from the farm, the 
water was run too long on one 
piece of grain, while another field 


rLORIA saw that his 
clothes never lacked buttons; that 


The Improvement Era for October, 1931 

his linen was never scorched in the 
ironing; that his socks which were 
now store made, never had a hole. 
Jonas accepted her ministrations 
gratefully. It was wonderful to 
transfer the burden of home-mak- 
ing to willing shoulders. How she 
obtained the water which washed 
his linens was not his worry. 
There was a good well and a good 
boy. How she procured the wood 
which heated the irons which she 
used on his linens was not his 
problem. There was wood in the 
nearby hills, horses and wagons, 
idle men and axes. 

Rodney Whitman regarded his 
new mother with small concern. 
His own mother having been too 
ill to trace his movements, he had 
lived much upon his own resources 
and supplied his own pastimes. If 
he did the tasks which his father 
allotted, there was no comment. 
If he ignored the orders, there was 
no punishment. He did not like 
to cut wood, much preferring to 
read the numerous books which 
he found in the library. Rodney 
disliked the farm, longed to live 
in town and run the store, hated 
the isolation of the saw mill. Re- 
sults always seemed to require too 
much effort. Withal he was 
bright, inoffensive and tolerant. 
His secret hopes were to possess a 
store of his own. 

Jbi E had early learned 
to conceal all unpleasant truths 
from his father. Before Gloria came, 
the dishes could remain unwashed, 
and there had been no one to make 
him carry water. The bread could 
go unbaked, and there had been no 
one able to make him cut wood. 
The family could subsist without 
butter, if he had to pasture the 
cows. He had learned to ingra- 
tiate himself into his father's good 

The library contained many 
marvelous books, which made 
Gloria begrudge the hours neces- 
sary for household tasks. There 
were histories, poetry and the bet- 
ter novels of the period. Roe's 
stirring romances of country life 
in America; Ouida's novels of 
French and English wartime; 
Shakespeare's complete works. 
Mark Twain's tales were coming 
in, too, and Rodney owned a 
leather bound copy of "The Prince 
and the Pauper." 

Water had to be drawn from 

the well and carried to the reser- 
voir on the rear of the stove. Wood 
had to be cut; cows had to be 
milked. The milk was kept in an 
outdoor cellar, so the cream could 
rise for the semi- weekly churning. 
There were always hired men, nev- 
er late for meals. Mixing bread 
was a daily ritual. In spite of 
the fact that it was painted, the 
kitchen floor contained many 
grease spots. 

lHE moss roses had 
suffered from neglect. Some of the 
glass was broken in the conserva- 
tory. The lily pond in the center 
of the lawn was overgrown with 
weeds. Little Anna would wan- 
der off into the nearby hills, stay- 
ing for hours, ignoring Gloria's 
frantic calls. The fluting irons 
required a skill exceeding that of 
knitting. Washing on a board 
consumed many hours. Pigs were 
forever breaking into the fields. 
During the years of his widower- 
hood, Jonas' home had been waste- 
fully managed. Gloria found half 
sacks of flour, abandoned and dis- 
carded. A barrel of dried fruit 
had gone wormy. Sacks of rice 
and sego had become the home of 
mice. Anna had carried fruit and 
sugar to her play house at the 
creek's edge. The uneaten portion 
of every meal had been thrown to 
the dogs, who were over surfeited 
and lazy. Gloria thought of the 
years of poverty which she and 
her family had endured. She looked 
at the ruined flour and remembered 
the time she had given her mother 
the last slice of bread. She tried 
to tell the story to the children, 
but Rodney began to read and lit- 
tle Anna looked vacant and un- 

Gloria rose at five and labored 
until ten. She rejoiced that she 
had strength to serve Jonas, to 
make little comforts possible, to 
act as his bulwark against the con- 
tinuous press of petty annoyances. 
She felt that the children would 
eventually come to appreciate the 
comforts which she added to the 
home. She felt that Rodney would 
become ashamed when she cut 
wood rather than ask him. She 
felt that before long he would 
appreciate the necessity of carrying 
the heavy buckets of water for her. 


.HAT spring little Pe- 
ter was born. His coming brought 
new duties to Gloria, but his dim- 
ples and smiles were a compensa- 
tion. Anna considered him a new 
pet, and her affections became a 
menace. And Gloria, looking at 
this marvelous creation, her first 
child, saw in him the power of 
vision, like his father; the lank, 
sinewy body of her brothers, and 
the curl of her own hair in a dark 
brown shade. Every night she 
knelt and prayed: 

"God give my child his father's 
brains and my energy." 

On Saturday night, Jonas look- 
ed more than usually preoccupied. 

"If you will all attend," he an- 
nounced as the family assembled 
for supper. Instantly they were 
all attention. '"My half slister, 
Catherine Peesley and daughter are 
coming here from England. She 
is a widow. They have had a 
bare existence since the Civil War 
closed so many cotton mills. They 
will make their home with us." 

"Two more women!" moaned 

The announcement of Cather- 
ine's coming was soon followed 
by her arrival. ! She was plump, 
short and placid. Her head was 
crowned by an immense twist of 
brown hair, her fat, dimpled hands 
were so white and smooth that 
Gloria knew they had not done 
much work in a cotton mill. She 
immediately assumed the role of 
"star guest," and it was evident 
that her daughter Victoria waited 
upon her mother's slightest whim. 

Victoria, beautiful 

in her well molded features, lovable 

in her quiet disposition, pulsing 

with youth, had no chance for self 

[Continued on page 750] 

. ■■ ■ ■. :.. ..:■■■ ,. .... ■ .-.- ■■ ■■ .. .■■■ ■■ . ■ ■■■■■;■ . -.:.■ ■ ::.■:■■■ ..■■■■ :. ■ ■ . ■ : : . 

■■■■■■:.:■' ■s:^::^:: 

■ ■ . ■ ■ :■■...■:■■ 

: :;;:--: : ::.:;^:-. : : : :^,:.' 

f 4 ' 
■m- " ' * * 


The farm work was doubled with the 
plowing and then trebled as Carl worked 
to get his crops in. 

LJ nfinished 



Illustrated by 



HE small village was typically pioneer. It was 
built mostly of reddish gray field-rock or hand-hewn logs and 
though the days of the pioneers were long past, the buildings still 
possessed a strength of purpose, a simplicity and an immeasurable 
courage known only to pioneers who pit their strength against 
new country. 

The one main street of the village was lined with symmetrical 
rows of boxelder, ash and lombardy poplars, while over their 


The Improvement Era for October, 1931 

roots ran streams of cold mountain 
water. From the houses the fields, 
undulant with new grain, ran to 
the closely circling hills. 

It was a restful place. The 
houses had grown old harboring 
sturdy, God-serving, home-loving 
people, whose personalities seemed 
reflected in every stick and stone. 
The yards were well-tended 
tangles of lawn, honeysuckle, moss 
roses and hollyhocks, while later 
in the summer marigolds and 
zinnias would add brilliant color 
to the gardens. 

As is usual in small villages the 
church was the real heart of the 
place. To it people went with 
their sorrows, and there the small 
celebrations were held. 

iHIS particular village 
church seemed to have a benign and 
patriarchal attitude. It was a 
small, box-like building of the 
usual reddish-gray stone, but its 
raw color had faded to a restful 
gray. The windows, which filled 
both sides, were high, deep-set and 
small-paned. But the front door 
of the church was what caught the 
eyes of the passerby. The builder 
had understood the beauty of 
sheer simplicity. The door itself, 
the frame with its spreading fan- 
light above, might have come from 
some dignified New England 
church. The wood had been rub- 
bed until it had a soft satiny finish, 
and it was surprisingly beautiful 
in its setting of rough stone. 

As the sun reached the tops of 
the dark pine trees, the bell in its 
steeple commenced to ring with a 
deep, musical note that reverber- 
ated throughout the valley. Soon 
the villagers were entering the wide 
door. Small cars were being 
parked outside the low stone fence 
and even a horse and buggy was 
seen approaching. 

As the last stragglers entered the 
building an expensive looking car 
drew up before the church and two 
men climbed from it. They were 
both past middle-age, and al- 
though one was roughly dressed, 
both showed signs of a greater 
sophistication than was usual in 
that particular community. 

eastern home for a more restful one 
in this peaceful valley. His friend, 
Stephen Howard, was a famous 
doctor who was paying a long 
promised visit. 

John moved lazily to the low 
stone wall surrounding the church. 
He looked back laughingly at his 

"I should like to know just 
why I am dragged away from a 
pleasant Sunday morning post- 
breakfast nap to sit on an uncom- 
fortable stone wall." 

It was Doctor Howard who 



"O, don't be in such a hurry, 
Steve," replied his friend. "One 
learns to take things leisurely 

'Yes, I suppose so. I begin to 
see why this place holds you, 
John, No wonder the things you 
are writing now are the best you 
have ever done. This place is 
nearer the real meaning of life than 
anything I've ever seen." 

"Good morning, Mr. Gray." 

A young couple had turned in 
at the gate and were waiting to be 
recognized by John. 

He sprang to his feet and shook 
hands, first with the girl and then 
with the man. 

I HE girl was a little 
above average height with beauti- 
fully shaped shoulders and a full 
deep chest. Her skin was burned a 
creamy brown by the spring wind 
and sun, and above the tint of her 
neck and face her hair was oddly 
golden. Except for her eyes, 
which were as blue as a delphi- 
nium, fier features were not beau- 

tiful, but they were regular and 
showed depth of character. The 
man was several inches taller than 
the girl. His features were strong 
and rather rugged, and he moved 
with the ease of one whose mus- 
cles were well-trained by outdoor 

"Mrs. Polster, may I present a 
very dear friend of mine from New 
York, Dr. Howard." 

The girl shook hands with a 
shy smile. 

"And Dr. H o w a r d — Carl 
Polster. These young people are 
the best friends I have out here, 
Steve. They frequently save my 
life with gifts of fried chicken and 
fresh strawberries." 

Just then the quiet notes of an 
organ came from the church and 
with a few more words the young 
couple hurried into the building. 

Dr. HOWARD turned 
to the car again, but he was 
stopped by the hand of his friend. 

"Wait a few minutes. I prom- 
ise that it will be worth your 

So they sat on the stone wall 


Suddenly t h e inexperienced 
country organist played the open- 
ing bars of Handel's mighty 

Dr. Howard looked inquiringly 

at his friend. 

Then a woman's voice took up 
the beautiful melody. 

"Lord in Heav'n above, who 
ruleth us, 
Giver of all blessings — " 


HE roughly dressed man 
was John Gray, a well-known 
writer. Two years before, feeling 
the need of solitude, he had left his 


The Author and 
the Doctor 

HE voice was like a 
mountain stream. At times it was 
crystal clear — vital and powerful 
— leaping over all obstacles. Then 
it would soften to the sound of a 
quiet brook rippling over smooth 
stones where children loved to 

Dr. Howard sat with tense mus- 

"Asking Thy mercy 
In loving faith, O God, 
In loving faith." 
There was no sound as the last 
tender note, almost a whisper, 
died away. The whole world 
seemed hushed after that perfect 


The Improvement Era for October, 1931 


"Paula Polster, the girl you just 

"But that voice — " 

"Comes to her from deep- 
chested, full-throated ancestors 
whose race has always worshipped 

"But, John, she shouldn't be 
here. Why haven't you sent her 
east where her voice will be heard 
and appreciated?" 

"Do you think it isn't appre- 
ciated here? She sings every Sun- 
day morning and I don't believe 
you will find a more appreciative 
audience anywhere in the world. 
Maybe they don't understand the 
music she sings, but that is all the 
more reason why they are com- 
pletely carried away by the beauty 
of it and of her voice." 

"But at most only two or three 
hundred people can hear her, while 
in New York or Chicago thou- 
sands could be thrilled with her 

"But, you're forgetting in your 
zeal that — " 

"Oh, no, I'm not. Every 
woman craves the things which 
that girl's voice would bring her?" 

"I'm not so sure of that, in this 
case, Steve. Carl and Paula have 
been married only a year, and you 
could see the happiness they have 
found in each other." 

But it was settled, finally, that 
John and his friend should make 
a tripjDut to the Polster farm that 



farm-house stood on a small hill 
from which his well-tended acres 
rolled smoothly in all directions. 
One part of the house was of stone, 
but recently two more rooms had 
been added. The mixture of the 
old and the new made a delightful 
homey combination. 

As Dr. Howard saw the farm 
for the first time, he wondered, 
for just a second if it were right 
to separate these two young people. 
Because, after all, that is what it 
would mean. 

The visitors received no answer 
after knocking at the front door, 
so they took the neatly gravelled 
path to the back of the house. 
Paula was coming toward them 
with a pan of eggs she had just 
gathered. Seeing the men she hur- 
ried forward. 

The last rays of the sun struck 
her head and shoulders and out- 
lined them with gold against the 
dark trees which stood behind her. 

Dr. HOWARD thought 
of her as she would look in a year 
or two if she accepted his plan. 
She would walk on the stage with 
that same ease and grace and thrill 
others with her glorious voice as 
she had thrilled him. 

But John Gray thought, with 
sadness, of the breaking up of this 
perfect partnership of Carl and 
Paula. Yet this chance had been 
bound to come to her sometime, 
and it was as well now as later. 

"It's nice of you to visit us so 
soon." Paula offered her hand to 
each of the men. "Carl will be 
here in a moment. He is shutting 
up the chickens." 

^ HE led the way into the 
house through the cheerful kitchen. 
The living room was in the old 
part of the house. The ceiling was 
pleasantly low, and the deep win- 
dows testified to the thickness of 
the stone walls. Across one end 
of the simply furnished room was 
a large fireplace, which was banked 
now with sprays of white lilac. 
Here and there a bright pillow 
or a bowl gave a touch of color 
and cheerfulness. 

But Dr. Howard's eyes went at 
once to the old square piano which 
filled one corner of the room. He 
walked over to it and touched the 
yzllow keys gently. The notes 
they gave back to him were mel- 
low and rich with age. 

"Where did this come from, 
Mrs. Polster? It's a beautiful 

Dr. Howard laid his hand on 
the dark, polished top as he spoke. 

"From my grandfather. He 
brought it with him from his old 
home. When I was little I loved 
to hear him tell of the hard time 
he had bringing it clear out here. 
But he said he couldn't bear to 
leave it behind. It would have 
been like deserting one of his fam- 

"Did your grandfather play?" 
"Oh, yes. That is another 
memory of my childhood. I even 
liked to hear him practice. His 
fingers ran up and down so 
smoothly. But when he really 
played I used to crawl under the 
piano and sit in the corner just 
loving the music." 

"Did he teach you to sing?" 
"Yes. He had been a teacher 
in the days before he came to this 
country. He had a little book 
with all the names and pictures 
of the famous people he had 
known and taught. He used to 
hold it sometimes and his eyes 
would look far away. Then he 
would play, but the music would 
always be soft and sad." 
"Is he dead?" , 

"He died five years ago, when 
I was nineteen." 

She stopped abruptly and turned 
to the door as her husband came 


OHN GRAY, looking 
at them, thought as he had often 
thought before, what a perfect 
couple they were — true descend- 
ants of a great race. 

Carl stood with his hand on 
his wife's shoulder as he greeted 
the men. 

Dr. Howard turned to him. 
"I was about to ask your wife 
if she would sing for me. I heard 
her in church this morning." 

So Paula sat down at the old 
piano and, without music, played 
and sang until his eyes, too, looked 
far away and he forgot everything 
but the divine beauty of her voice. 
She sang the songs of Schubert, 
that most beautiful of song- 
makers, and finished by singing 
a plaintive little melody that was 
a folk-song from her grandfather's 

As she turned from the piano 
Dr. Howard said, 

"Mrs. Polster, have you ever- 
thought of going east to sing?" 

John noticed the quick fear that 
leapt into Carl's eyes. 


The Improvement Era for October, 1931 

But Paula only laughed a little 
and said, 

"But I don't sing that well." 

"Yes you do. I had John bring 
me out here for the sole purpose 
of convincing you that I know 
you do, and to see if I couldn't 
offer my services in helping you 
start your career. It would be an 

"But I'm so happy here in my 
home with Carl, and it would cost 
so much money to go away. And 
how can I be sure that people will 
like to hear me. I love to sing 
for my friends because they enjoy 
it, but I couldn't sing for every- 

"But I feel this way, Mrs. Pol- 
ster. You aren't fair to the people 
in the world who love music, un- 
less you give them the opportunity 
of listening to you. Your voice 
is almost perfectly trained now 
and il know the !man who can 
finish the work your grandfather 
started. You know this is what 
he would have wished for you." 

PAULA looked at Carl, 
but the very strength of his wish 
to keep her with him kept him 
from speaking. 

She turned helplessly to John. 

"What shall I do?" 

"I can't help you, Paula. It's 
your own problem. But I blame 
myself that I haven't warned you. 
Carl and I have both seen this 

When the two city men left late 
that night nothing had been de- 
cided, but Paula had promised at 
least to consider Dr. Howard's sug- 

The night was a long one to 
John Gray. He felt the burden 
of decision which had been placed 
upon Paula and suffered silently 
with Carl. He knew that if things 
went wrong for his two friends 
he would always blame himself. 

With morning came a message 
from Paula that she had decided 
to do as Dr. Howard wished. 

1HE weeks following 
Paula's departure were full of self- 
blame to John as he watched Carl 
go about his work half-heartedly. 
Paula wrote to him every week, 
and these letters he took to Carl 
to read. But Carl didn't offer 
his letters to the older man. 

Loving her home with all her 
intense nature, Paula was desper- 
ately homesick at first, but grad- 
ually her letters became full of her 
work. She was studying with the 
greatest teacher in the country, and 
he had praised the foundation that 
her grandfather had laid. He 
thought that in a year she would 
be ready. In the meantime, she 
was practising, exercising and tak- 
ing lessons in dramatic art. 

Dr. Howard wrote that Carrel, 
the teacher, was unusually enthu- 
siastic and was certain of her suc- 
cess. Carl was not to worry about 
the money. Paula could pay that 
back her first season. 


passed and Christmas drew near. 
The village was as busy as an ant- 
hill. Groups of young people were 
decorating the church with ever- 
greens and candles. Huge Christ- 
mas trees were dragged down from 
the mountains. The children could 
hardly contain their glee. And 
over it all hung the delicious fra- 
grance of slowly-baking fruit 
cakes, pop-corn and roasting tur- 

Just a week before Christmas 
John visited the Polster farm to 
find Carl packing a box for Paula. 
He had made the small box him- 
self and had carved the top and 

sides beautifully. It was an art 
with which his ancestors had been 
familiar and Carl had skillfully 
reproduced a mountain scene which 
they had loved. He was filling 
it with nut-meats from nuts he 
had gathered and delicious squares 
of crumbly maple sugar. In the 
very center he placed a tiny wrist 
watch which he had ordered from 
the city. 

JLj-IS eyes moistened as 
he spoke to John. 

"I tried to think of something 
that would remind her of home 
and this is the best I could do." 

"But won't it make her home- 
sick, Carl? She had so much fun 
last year helping with the nuts and 
making the candy." 

"I don't think so. From her 
letter today she is far from home- 
sick. But, John, you know how 
I feel. I want her home, but not 
at the price she would have to 
pay for coming. She is over her 
homesickness now and is thrilled 
with the progress she is making. 
She is already talking of her first 
grand appearance next fall and try- 
ing to make me promise that I 
will be there — as if anything could 
keep me away." 

"How would it be if we went 
together, Carl. I wouldn't miss 
it either?" 

And Carl, who had been rather 
dreading his first visit east, was 
glad to accept John's thoughtful 


HE two men had 
planned to spend Christmas to- 
gether, so early on that glittering 
morning John drove out to the 
Polster farm. Carl had decorated 
the house as though Paula were 
coming to enjoy it. He had placed 
a Christmas tree by the fireplace 
in the living room and standing 
under the tree was a small, deli- 
cately carved table which he had 
made for John. His eyes sparkled 
with pleasure as he saw the real 
appreciation with which his friend 
viewed the gift, John had brought 
him copies of two of Henry C. 
Williamson's books. 

Paula had sent a box which con- 
tained a set of strong, delicate 
knives for carving for Carl, a pen 
and pencil set for John, and she 
had filled the corners with little 
[Continued on page 758] 

Glancing Through 

Brief Summary of Magazine Articles* 

Jones— His Mother, and 
His Wife 

{Atlantic Monthly for August, 1931) 

TO glimpse a little of what the 
machine age has done in the 
way of crushing America's 
finer feelings, we cannot do 
better than turn to the telegraph com- 
panies and consider the large stock of 
form messages which they have on 
hand, by means of which people can 
send messages without the slightest 
degree of mental exertion. 

If Jones, for example, thinks of 
the approach of Mother's Day (which 
he needn't do, of himself, for the 
telegraph companies, greeting card 
people, florists and others have been 
reminding him of it in flaunting ads) 
he phones the company to wire form 
18 — the pulsating message that of all 
his blessings, his mother is the great- 
est. Simultaneously Jones' daughter, 
away at school, is wiring home form 
19, in which she salutes the most 
precious of people — her mother. 

For every occasion requiring expres- 
sions of affection, love, regret, con- 
dolence, gaiety, gravity or sentimen- 
tality, the telegraph company is spar- 
ing the American citizen the painful 
necessity of (arranging ten to fifty 

It is a pitiful fact, boding ill for 
the spiritual and intellectual integrity 
of a nation, this canning of heart 
throbs. It is like the professional 
letter writers of the Orient and . the 
far east, who sit in the market place 
and for a price guess what inarticulate 
mothers want to say to their sons, and 
wives to their husbands, and say it 
for them; and at that they are not as 
far away from the original source as 
are the composers of Western Postal's 
form 55, expressing love to someone 
they have never seen from someone 
else whom they have never seen. The 
one great difference is that the patrons 
of the public scribe cannot read nor 
write, while the patrons of form 55 
can do both, being educated and en- 
tirely capable. 


*Used by permission of publishers. 

Writing may be a task to these 
patrons, for the gift of free, easy ex- 
pression is not given to everyone. 
Emotional reticence is almost univer- 
sal, a fact upon which the Western 
Postal idea of standardized messages 
is based, and to their credit it must 
be said that parents and children re- 
ceive declarations of love and devo- 
tion, via the formula, which would 
go unexpressed otherwise. People 
won't always write, but that they 
can write is proven by the missives 
which appear in court from time to 
time, in which lovesick persons have, 
to their sorrow, set down incredibly 
banal sentimentalities. And fifty years 
before Americans were standardized 
into telegraphic form messages, people 
did write letters to one another. 

Another phase of standardization 
in America, one which has challenged 
the wonder and analysis of visitors 
to our country, is the "mother-cult," 
the widespread consideration for the 
women of the country. It is an 
American code that every prize-fighter 
goes into the ring for the wife and 
kiddies; that the same inspiration 
prompts the bacteriologist in his search 
for organisms, and the aviator in his 
attempt to break the altitude record. 
If these men are unmarried, then it is 
the old mother in the whitewashed 
cottage at home who has spurred them 

on. If a Nobel prize-winner forgets 
to mention his mother, the reception 
committee, the publicity agent, the 
newspaper reporter or someone else 
will remind him to speak of her. And 
it has even been hinted in American 
newspapers that Einstein discovered 
Relativity for the sake of his women- 

Given these amiable lunacies, it 
cannot be denied that the idea needs 
the touch of the lighter satirists which 
has been bestowed upon it; and who 
can object to the pleasant suggestion 
of the humorist to the effect that 
Mother's Day is connected with the 
Florists' Association and the candy 
companies, just as Father's Day is not 
frowned upon by the neck-tie manu- 
facturers^ the Old Home Week finds 
no enemies among the railroads and 
bus companies. But, joking aside, it 
is quite reasonable that thoughtful 
persons should wonder why Americans 
make more fuss of their mothers and 
wives than do other nations. The 
answer might be that 9 out of every 
10 women in America do their own 
housework, thus keeping their families 
closer to them than would otherwise 
be the case. In England 8 out of 
every 10 families with incomes of 
$2500 a year keep a servant to whom 
much of the care of the children is 
delegated, while in America the mother 
gives the children personal care — 
bathing them, reading to them and 
putting them to bed. The American 
child sees a great deal more of its 
mother than does the European child 
of the same class. And, in this coun- 
try, a child who leaves its mother 
for the schoolroom is likely to have 
a woman teacher, instead of a "mas- 

The national respect for women 
has a sound basis in sociology and 
economics, and besides, there are two 
million more males than females in 
the United States. When the country 
fills up and the male surplus is cut 
down; when America grows richer 
and nurses and governesses take over 
the training of children, there will 
'perhaps, come a change in the coun- 
try's attitude toward women. But 
so long as it is what it is, the Ameri- 
can man will delight in telling the 
American woman so — in his chosen 
way. He may say it with flowers, 


The Improvement Era for October, 1931 

telegram or candy; he may have been 
reminded by the ads and the Western 
Postal Telegraph Union, but the urge 
is his own. 

Just Back From "Paradise 

) 5 

(Forum for August, 1931) 

THERE'S something funny about 
the way I became a patriot, for it 
was under conditions which really 
might be expected to create the most 
howling sort of ex-patriot. I was 
living abroad, without the slightest 
idea of being a patriot. I was in 
London, not even trying to be a pa- 
triot — it required all my effort to 
try to keep warm — but suddenly one 
evening, in a flash, I knew I was a 

It happened at a meeting of the 
Fabian Society, where hundreds of 
us had assembled to become edified 
through listening to a woman deliver 
a lecture on a subject entirely foreign 
to the subject she was scheduled to 
discuss. She must have surprised even 
herself a little when she began to talk 
about the U. S. A. She had been 
to New York, you see, and so knew 
all about America. 

' First she began to talk about the 
mistakes made in and by the United 
States; about the criminal courts and 
how susceptible they were to the at- 
tractive murderesses out there, and 
how in one case in which the murder- 
ess was particularly fascinating, the 
jury foreman read the verdict "not 
guilty" and then asked for the pris- 
oner's telephone number. 

That case might have been true, 
but this audience seemed to take it 
so seriously, and to consider it so 
typical of all legal procedure in the 
States, that I found myself suddenly 
turning patriot. It's little things like 
that which makes patriots. I heard 
another woman say that an article in 
the London Times, pointing out the 
differences between the Al Smith and 
the Hoover families, did the same 
thing to her. Another American 

friend was made into a patriot, because 
at a big ball game at which the King 
was guest of honor, four-thirty p. m. 
arrived just at the beginning of the 
ninth inning, and the score was tied; 
and the King, with all dignity, arose 
and left the game to get his tea! 

It is very comfortable to be a patriot 
when you're abroad, and you get a 
great deal of satisfaction from it. But 
there is a disquieting thing about it 
afterward. When you come back to 
America, everyone seems to expect you 
to turn immediately into an ex-patriot. 
I know they do, for they have asked 
me, in bored voices, as soon as I have 
stepped off the boat, if I don't find 
it pretty bad to be back. And I 
don't. The customs man is awfully 
nice — he even helps shift baggage, a 

thing European customs men would 
never think of doing. And the taxi 
is warm! Isn't that lovely? Material, 
perhaps, but Paris and London are 
material too, and it is nice to be in 
a warm atmosphere of American ma- 
terialism. And then the drink ques- 
tion! Of course there isn't much to 
be said in favor of that in America, 
but neither is there anywhere else. 

The fact of the matter is that it 
has become a general practice among 
Americans to complain about every- 
thing American. One asked me if 
I didn't find Christmas at home 
dreadful, and then admitted that the 
only Christmas he had spent abroad 
was on top of an English bus, in the 

I like it here at home, but nobody 
believes me when I say so, and every- 
one is disappointed in me for saying 
so when I've had three good years 
abroad in which to become an ex- 
patriot. Can't I find fault with things 
here? What about racketeering? 
Well, of course, we didn't invent that. 
It's an old game. What about the 
crime question; and the depression? 
Well, of course, we might be able to 
solve our crime problem if we had 
the London police force, fbr you 
doubtless know that if everyone in 
London stayed indoors except the po- 
licemen, the streets wo.uld be thronged 
with a dense, navy-blue crowd. And 
as for depression, England has had 
nothing else since 1914. 

But I do like to be agreeable, so 
perhaps I'd better start harking back 
on the joys of Paradise, for people 
seem to expect it. 

Scents That Make Dollars 

(World's Work for August, 1931) 

AN advertising agency not long ago 
sent out a questionnaire in which 
they asked a great many people to list 
what to them were the world's most 
objectionable odors. Reversing the 
order of the classification, which gave 
the most unpleasant first, the follow- 
ing lists were made up: 

44 Odors in Order of their 

With Men 

With Women 



Rose and lily-of- 



Lilac and pine 











Cedai and 






and lily-of- 
the valley 







Apple and vanilla 



chocolate, and 



Orange and 






Clove and pepper- 





Lemon, maple 
and tobacco 



Lavender and 



and cinnamon 










Jasmine and 

and heliotrope 







Menthol and 



Witch-hazel and 











Smoked meat 
and jasmine 



Caraway and 







Smoked meats and 






Charred wood 



Gasoline and 








Charred wood 



Fish and 



Olive oil 

Olive oil 
















on page 731] 

Beauty in the Home 



Professor of Home Economics 
University of Utah 

\300d 1 


An example of an object well suited 
to its purpose. 

WOMAN'S innate love for 
the beautiful is finding 
new expression in the 
home. Never before in the history 
of the world has there been such 
keen interest shown in Interior Dec- 

The reception hall no longer is 
merely a place for wraps and um- 
brellas, but is fast taking its place 
as a fitting introduction to the 
home. The gloomy parlor, used 
only when company came, has be- 
come the living room which is really 
livable. Bedrooms are evolving in- 
to expressions of individuality. 
Color has invaded the kitchen and 
bathroom and is transforming them 
into places of beauty. 

There is no mystic secret in the 
producing of beautiful interiors. It 
is merely a problem of good taste. 
Unfortunately very few people are 
born with this rare gift but it is 
comforting and encouraging to 
know that it can be acquired through 
a little study. 

npASTE is molded largely by the 
things which surround one, and 
the family taste is trained bv the many 
objects in the home which have been 
purchased by the home-maker. While 
no scientific study has been made to 
determine the effect of the decoration 
of a room on tempers, moods, health, 
and general well-being yet the ef- 
fect of our surroundings is not to be 
underestimated, especially where chil- 
dren are concerned, for children are 
pliable and impressionable and are eas- 
ily affected. Adults m2y the better 
withstand environment but even they, 
to a certain extent, are influenced. It 
is, therefore, the religious obligation 

Editors' note: This is the first of a 
series of articles by Mrs. Fryer. 

Two cats somewhat conventionalized to be 
used as book ends. 

of every home to set high standards 
of beauty. This is becoming recog- 
nized and there is a growing demand 
for information that will help the 
home maker to become a more in- 
telligent buyer and to teach her how 
to use what she already has on hand 
to the best advantage. For the sake 
of economy as well as beauty, it is of 
the greatest importance that every 
home should express good taste. 

What Is Good Taste? 

/^OOD taste, in the field of art, is 
^-* the application of the principles 
of design to any problem where beauty 
and utility are considered. Good taste 
is based on reason, not on emotion and 

This is a mere statement of a cat to 
be used as a door stop. 

for that reason must not be con- 
fused with individual preference or 
fancy. All such problems as the 
selection of floor coverings, wall 
paper, draperies, furniture, pictures, 
and other objects used in the house 
can be solved by the application 
of the fundamental art principles to 
the structure of objects and their 

In these articles which are to 
compose a course in Interior Deco- 
ration, we shall analyse these funda- 
mental art principles which lie at 
the root of all the furnishing and 
beautifying of the home. This 
creating of a beautiful environment 
is called "Interior Decoration," or 
"Interior Design," and is by no 
„ means the result of guess work. It 
1 is secured by the application of five 
definite principles of design, which 
are proportion, balance, harmony, 
rhythm, and emphasis. 

Before we discuss the fundamental 
principles of design, it will be neces- 
sary for us to understand design. 

What Is Design? 

/"^OOD design, whether expressed in 
^~^ a building, a chair or a piece of 
pottery, has enduring qualities and 
will outlast the fashion or fad of the 
hour. By design is meant the orderly 
arrangement of the materials used, 
thus producing beauty in the finished 
product. There are two kind's of 
designs — structural and decorative. 
Structural design is the design made 
by the size and general shape of an ob- 


The Improvement Era for October, 1931 

ject while decorative design means the 
surface enrichment of the structural 
design through the addition of lines, 
color, or materials. 

Structural design is far more impor- 
tant than decorative design because it 
is essential to every object, while dec- 
orative design may be termed the "lux- 
ury" of design. 

Good Structural Design 

"^J"OW how can we recognize good 

structural design when we see 

it? It is well to ask oneself the fol- 

The decorative design on this cup and 

saucer has been conventionalized, and 

emphasizes structural design. 

lowing questions before passing judg- 
ment. Is the object suited to its pur- 
pose? For example, does your choco- 
late pot or pitcher have a good steady 
base, or does it look as though it were 
going to tip over easily and send the 
contents flooding across the table? 
Does it pour well or does it drip at 
the lip? Is the handle comfortable 
to take hold of? 

Is the chair that you are contemplat- 
ing buying comfortable to sit in, or 
does it have an ornament or a curve 
that sticks into your back at the wrong 
place? A lounging chair is perfectly 
comfortable when used as such, but the 
most luxurious easy chair in the world 
is unsuitable for a dining chair. The 

This figure of a cat is too naturalistic 

to serve as a chocolatte or tm pot for 

which it was designed. 

point to be considered is, for what use 
are you buying the chair? The func- 
tion of an object, then, must not be 
lost sight of in determining its merit. 

The decorative design on this plate is 

of more importance than structural 

design. It is also too realistic. 

The second quality to notice is its 
beauty of outline or contour. Is your 
chair, cup, or vase simple and graceful 
in outline, or is it fussy and disturb- 

The next point to look for in de- 
termining beauty of structure is pro- 
portion. This is a most important 
point and one which will take a whole 
lesson to discuss. Suffice it to say here 
that the chair which measures the same 
distance from the floor to the seat as 
from the seat to the top of the back 
is not as interesting as a chair with 
unequal proportions. Objects that 
appear to be divided into equal parts 
lack a certain interest. 

The fourth thing to look for is 
suitability of material. This means, 
is your object made of material which 
is rightly used for that purpose? Pil- 
lows which are to be used to rest the 
head on should not be made of ostrich 
plumes or beautiful velvets. Fly swat- 
ters should not be buttonholed around 
the edge or embroidered in yarns. 

A cream pitcher which is too ornate 

in structural design, and would be 

impossible to keep clean. 

Here, then, are four points to re- 
member which will help us to recog- 
nize good structural design: 

1. Each object must be suited to 
its purpose. 

2. It should be simple and graceful 
in contour. 

3. The proportions should be inter- 

4. It must be suited to the material 
from which it is made. 

Decorative Design 

XTOW we are ready to think of the 
other type of design — that is, 
beauty of ornament or decorative 
design. To translate this into simpler 
terms, we may say that decorative 
design means simply to make more 
beautiful this structure that we have 
been talking about. 

An inexpensive cup and saucer where- 
in decoration is less important than 

When we place a bouquet of flowers 
in the center of the dining table, we 
are using decorative design. When we 
put curtains at the window, we are 
using decorative design. Now, there 
are laws which govern the use of deco- 
rative design just the same as there 
are laws which help us to know good 
structural design. 

First of all, make sure that the ob- 
ject which is to be decorated is worthy 
of decoration. A tin plate or a rolling 
pin needs no decoration. 

The second point is that decoration 
should be used in moderation. It 
should be less important than struc- 

Another quality to remember is 
decoration should accent structure. 
Now, that seems a simple phase, but 
it is full of possibilities for mistakes. 
When we place a square doily cat-a- 
cornered on a square table, we have 
placed our decoration contrary to the 

A cream pitcher too realistic to be 
suited to its purpose. 

lines of structure. When we place a 
rug, a couch, or a large piece of furni- 
ture cat-a-cornered in a room, we have 
placed them contrary to the structural 
line's instead of emphasizing them. 

The Improvement Era for October, 1931 


Two Kinds of 
Decorative Design 

'T^HERE are two kinds of decorative 
design: one kind is based on geo- 
metric forms; the other, and much 
more common, is based on natural 
forms such as plants and flowers — for 
example, the lotus column of Egypt 
and the honeysuckle of Greece. In 
spite of the fact that nature is beau- 
tiful, these natural forms must be used 
in such a way that they will be related 
to the size and shape — that is, to 
the structure of the article on which 
they are to be used. This means re- 
arranging these various natural forms 
and applying them to the problem. 

After this rearrangement has taken 
place, we say that the design has been 
conventionalized. The less cultivated 
our taste is, the more naturalistic we 
like our decorative design; but through 
study we learn to , recognize more 
beauty in conventionalized designs. 

The purpose of ornament is to 
beautify useful forms. No matter what 
the problem may be, whether it is the 
decoration on a plate, a vase, or a 
room, the following requirements 
should be kept in mind; 

1. The object should be worthy of 

2. Decoration should be used in 

3. The decoration should -accent 
structural design. 

4. The decoration should be related 
in shape and size to the structural de- 
sign of the project. 


XJOW for the sake of clearness let 
*^ us summarize our first lesson. 
I. Every home should reflect good 
taste because of the effect on the 
general well being of those who 
live there. 
II. Good taste is based on reason and 
can be acquired. 

III. By good taste is meant the appli- 

cation of the five fundamental 
principles of design to any prob- 
lem of art. 

IV. There are two kinds of design: 

structural and decorative. 
V. Good structural design depends 
on fitness to purpose, beauty of 
shape and proportion, and the 
suitability of material. 

VI. The purpose of decorative design 

is to accent and beautify struc- 
tural design. 

VII. There are two kinds of decora- 
tive design: geometrical and na- 

There are several things in this les- 
son worthy of remembering. Go over 
it carefully, study the illustrations and 
their descriptions. This will enable 
each one to see wherein she has made 
mistakes in the selection of various 
objects. Everybody makes mistakes; 

but through the application of these 
principles and those set forth in the 
following lessons, we will be able to 
achieve new beauty as well as to find 
hidden beauty in many of the posses- 
sions we already have which will help 
to develop a greater appreciation for 
the beautiful. 

Objective Test 

This test is given in the form of 
true or false statements. If you think 
it is correct write "yes" at the end. If 
you think it is false, write "no" at the 
end. Do not write anything except 

a 1 1 a tt 

yes or no. 

1. Good taste can be cultivated. 

2. Structure is less important than 

3. An object must be suited to its 

4. Decoration should have no rela- 
tion to structure. 

5. Geometric designs are not good. 

6. Natural forms are better when 
somewhat conventionalized. 

7. All articles are improved bv dec- 

8. The more nearly like nature 
designs are the better they are. 

9. There should always be an im- 
pression of reserve in decoration. 

10. A square center piece should 
never be placed cat-a-cornered on a 
square table. 

1 1 . Couches and other large pieces 
of furniture should be placed against 
the wall and never cat-a-cornered in 
the room. 

1 2. Taste is molded, to a very large 
extent, by the things which surround 

13. Rugs should always be placed 
lengthwise or crosswise of a room, 
never cat-a-cornered. 

14. A bunch of flowers on one side 
of a plate or cup is good decorative 
design, because it suggests the structural 

15. The decoration of a round 
plate should suggest a circle. 

In the November number correct 
answers will be given to this test, so 
that the thoughtful reader may check 
her answers and see how nearly perfect 
her score is. 


^Glancing Through — 

The fact that rubber came among 
the most unpopular five odors, gave 
rubber manufacturers something of a 
shock. True, rubber has its own per- 
sonal odor, and it is undeniably some- 
thing of a strong one, but rubber 
men, and dealers in galoshes, raincoats 
and rubber tires will not admit that 
it is an unpleasant odor. They grow 
to like it, for it has been with Jaem 
through years of success and failure, 
prosperity and adversity, and they con- 
sider it a friend. Last December, 
when, at a dinner of rubber men they 
were given rubber bands, stands for 
water glasses, etc., and they discov- 
ered that instead of the old familiar 
odor, the^ fragrance of rose and lilac 
assailed their nostrils, great was their 
surprise. Science had succeeded in 
displacing the odor of rubber with 
something much more agreeable. 

The question of the sales-value of 
pleasant aromas is a pressing one to- 
day. There is no doubt that color has 
its effect — dertain shades sell much 
more rapidly than others. Form has 
its place too, as new modernistic fur- 
niture and architecture prove. And 
now, what about odors? It can't 
be said that smell is unimportant, as 
the skunk, in spite of his good looks 
and nice color proves. On the other 
hand consider the ocean, and the forest 
of pine. Would either be so attrac- 
tive without the particular smell of 
clean salt and spicy wood which are 
a part of them? If odor is so per- 
suasive a saleman in nature, why 
shouldn't it be in business? Perhaps 
it is, and always has been, but manu- 
facturers are just beginning to see it 
and they are doing one of two things 

Continued from 

page 728 

about it — trying to eliminate objec- 
tionable odors or cover them up. 

In the manufacture of paint, for 
example, it has been discovered that 
many of the most unpleasant odors 
can be left out by using other ma- 
terials in place of the ones which 
smell the worst. In the manufacture 
of paper the same thing is true: and 
in soap, when low-grade fats were 
used, but through the use of per- 
fectly fresh fats, the unpleasantly 
rancid smell in soap has disappeared. 

In cases where this simple remedial 
measure is not possible, the addition 
of a strongly pleasant odor will fre- 
quently neutralize necessarily objec- 
tionable ones. Dr. Eric Kunz, one of 
the officials in a well-known perfume 
house, says that chemistry has made 
it possible practically to control the 
scent of any product without material- 
ly increasing its cost. By discovering 
the scents which blend with the foun- 
dation odor, less need be used, and 
costs are thus kept down. 

In a New York theater, perfumes 
are blown through the ventilating sys- 
tem, making the air fragrant. And 
the odor is changed every week. 
Leather, glue, medicines, fabrics, lino- 
leum and many other things are com- 
ing in for a study of ways in which 
their odors might be made pleasant. 
And studies are also being made to 
find out how many people are odor- 
conscious. Out of every ten people, 
two or three are "odor-blind" a few 
are quite susceptible and two or three 
very sensitive. Does this prove it 
worth trying to increase sales-appeal 
through smell? 

ht 1 hing at 





ARE you among those who consider rules of 
etiquette "foolishness," and when confronted 
by social emergencies blunder your way 
through "the awkward moment?" 

Can you introduce a friend or an acquaintance to a 
group of people with grace and ease? 

Are you sure that your table manners are correct? 

Do you know, that to be able to do a thing cor- 
rectly, is quite as important as to be able to do it at 

Do you ever stop seriously to consider the individ- 
ual rights of your friends and the members of your 

Do vou know that a book on etiquette by a well 



Adah R. Naylor 

known social leader has been among the 

"best sellers" for the past six years? 

If you consult a dictionary for correct 

pronunciation and spelling of words, why 
not consult a book of etiquette for correct 
rules of deportment? 

If not guilty of the errors suggested in the 
above questions the chances are, that you do 
not need to "look to your manners." 

Good Manners 

jyjANY people feel that to "acquire manners" is 
to become artificial. Yet manners, good or bad, 
are notborn with us, but are among the many things 
we begin acquiring the moment we are born and con- 
tinue to acquire on through our childhood, our youth 
and even our old age. 

To be sure, the essential thing in life is to build 
a fine and honorable character and develop a right 
attitude of mind toward all mankind, but we should 
also learn that life is a game we all must play, and 
that certain standardized rules of conduct must be 
followed if we are to live with ease, and mingle 
pleasantly with our fellowmen. 

The complex life of today has brought about new 
standards of living, which in turn have brought about 
some modifications and additions to the old rules of 
behavior, but fundamentally they remain the same, 
since they are based on the cardinal virtue — consider- 
ation of others. 

Etiquette in America 

"JTIE American pioneer had a genuine dislike for 
_ the term etiquette and all that it was thought 
to imply. The difficult task of subduing a wilder- 
ness — building settlements, discovering and developing 
the natural resources of a great unexplored country 
left no time or need for the "niceties" of life. But 
as the various sections of the country were colonized 
there were gradually formed unwritten codes of be- 
havior, which were recognized and followed. Conduct 
toward neighbors, and deportment in the life and 
affairs of the community were the fundamental things 
which were regulated. In the North a terse brevity 
of speech and in the West an abrupt gruffness was 
thought to denote a certain integrity, and honesty of 
purpose, and the person who acquired a "fine pol- 
ished manner" was looked upon with suspicion, espe- 
cially if he hailed from "foreign parts." 

The Improvement Era for October, 1931 


The early American drama pic- 
tured the villain as a suave, kid- 
gloved gentleman, who worked out 
his wicked plans under a cloak of 
fine manners, and for the first two 
acts, at least, gave the awkward 
but honest village boy a bad time. 

TN the small community all lived 
on a neighborly footing and 
every life was an open book. There 
was no chance and little need of de- 
ception; social events were few and 
contacts with the outside world 
were seldom made. But small 
communities soon grew into towns 
— and the towns suddenly became 
cities — railroads extended them- 
selves from coast to coast, and then 
Henry Ford put America on 
wheels and everybody went visit- 

Following the invention of the 
gasoline engine, great industrial 
centers sprang into being. Wages 
were increased and working hours 
decreased. Money and leisure, 
hitherto unknown, became the pos- 
session of the great mass of the 
people. More and more women 
entered into the commercial 
world; factory-prepared foods and 
ready-made clothing, added to her 
leisure hours and standardized liv- 
ing. The length of the skirt, the 
tilt of the hat, and the brand of 
breakfast food are now the same 
East and West and in every hamlet 
and city in America, the Saturday 
Post is everywhere sold on Thurs- 
day. Much that was quaint and 
picturesque has been discarded and 
sectional lines are fast disappearing. 
The new mode of living found 
thousands of people bewildered 
and uncomfortable for train trav- 
el, hotel life, daily contact with 
strangers, — were all new experi- 
ences. Out of these experiences has 
come a desire, an eagerness for 
training in correct deportment in 
order that new living conditions 
may be met without embarrass- 
ment. Etiquette teachers are now 
the vogue and publishing houses, 
ever sensitive to the public need, 
are printing millions of books on 
"good manners" each year. The 
great demand for these books 
shows that America has suddenly 
awakened to find herself "etiquette- 

rivalry of cities. Strangers within 
our gates are no longer viewed 
with suspicion, but are greeted and 
made welcome. At the entrance of 
many cities huge signs are erected, 
inviting you to enter; committees 
are selected to point out the ad- 
vantages the city has to offer; 
friendly contacts are made and the 
business man finds graciousness, 
poise and tact an indispensable 
part of his equipment. 

The requirements of the worker, 
too, have changed. Business hous- 
es, hotels, gas stations and public 
utilities all school their employees 
in the line of Service. In sections 
of the country where the tourist 

trade is one of the main assets, the 
chief requirement of the oil station 
man or a "vender of goods" is a 
"nice manner." There must be 
a willingness to serve that goes be- 
yond the delivery of the goods 
bought and paid for. They must 
be able to suggest points of interest 
to be visited, and give road direc- 
tions; they must be friendly, not 
to a point of intrusion, but inter- 
ested enough to see that the trav- 
eler's needs are met. And for this 
courtesy extended, courtesy is re- 
turned — there is a new attitude on 
the part of those served toward 
those who serve. Morals and 
manners are closely allied. 

^President Heber J. Grant 


TN the commercial world a new 

meaning has been given to the 

word service. The new industrial 

era brought about intensive busi- 

! ness competition, and increased the 

I ] 

questions his sincerity — always ag- 
gressive for the truth, always mili- 
tant for righteousness. In his in- 
spired moods he has a thrilling, 
passionate earnestness about his 
preaching that springs from the 
deepest convictions. The Gospel 
of the Master has always been his 
inspiration and his guide. It is 
a practical reality with him, 
reaching into the details of his 
daily life. "Mormonism" as re- 
vealed in his life is not a doctrine 
in cold storage, it is not some, ab- 
stract thing, it means action, not 
diction, a way of life, not just a 
glorious theory. He never preaches 
any doctrine that he does not first 

The depth and tenderness of 
heart is best revealed in his atti- 
tude toward his mother and his 
family. His affection for his 
mother was beautiful. In this he 
has given an example of filial de- 
votion which will shine forever 
as a proof of his nobility. His 
mother was worthy of the love 
he so tenderly bestowed upon her. 
If a boy ever had reason to be 
proud of a widowed mother, he 
had, and he was. Nor is his de- 
votion to his family less beautiful. 

T-JIS present wife, Augusta Win- 
ters Grant, possesses much the 
same unruffled serenity as the Presi- 
dent's mother possessed. She won 
the enduring affection of his moth- 
erless children, to whom she has 
always given the same loving con- 
sideration that she has bestowed 
upon her own daughter. 

Her temperament and training 
have enabled her almost perfectly 
to complement his life. Without 
apparent effort she has in every 

Continued from 
page 703 

way sustained the dignity of his 
.great office as President of the 

He has no surviving sons, but 
nine brilliant and accomplished 
daughters, one deceased, who re- 
flect in their lives the ability and 
capacity of their father for doing 
major things. They are all mar- 
ried and their husbands are able 
and exemplary men. These wo- 
men understand the fine art of 
home-making, their homes are the 
centers of culture and refinement 
from which radiate those intan- 
gible influences which make the 
world secure and beautiful. 

A deep and flawless faith has 
not only inspired him to great 
endeavor but sustained him in ev- 
ery vicissitude of life. When his 
head was bowed with sorrow over 
the loss of his only boys, when 
his heart strings were wrung with 
anguish over the death of his be- 
loved companions, no murmur es- 
caped his lips- — -he is indeed a man 
of faith. 

HPHERE is an impregnable hon- 
esty, an intrinsic love of truth 
and justice about President Grant 
that makes sham and pretense im- 
possible. No spectrum analysis of 
his character could reveal a trace 
of deception. He is sound to the 
center. His life is an open book, 
a record of service to others. 

Noble in appearance, dignified 
in manner, clear in his thinking, 
courageous in his convictions, kind 
and sympathetic toward the un- 
fortunate, magnificent in his gen- 
erosity, supreme in his continuity, 
gentle towards all women and lit- 
tle children, he is indeed a real man. 

To A Son 

By Grant Red ford 

yf CHILD lies in its father's arms 
■" and sleeps and dreams. 
And from the even breathing deep and 

slow, secure, 
The father formulates his schemes — and 
reads the evening news. 

Unconscious, though it is, the plans are 

sung to him 
Who lies asleep, and dreams through 

years, of towers built 
Sky-high by dad — -so strong and trim 

they twinkle with the -stars! 

Those plans will consummate in sweat and 

blood spilled free, 
And calloused hands worn rough and 

brown. But every sod 
That's cut, and stone that's moved will 

be for him to have. 

For he, the builder, soon will die. 

And dying, live 
In steel and stone wrought strong in love, 

for him who sleeps 
And dreams; accomplishments to give his 

name a monument! 

Boyhood Memories 

By Maurice Cole 

OH, to be a boy again, roamin' down 
the lane, 
A-splashin' through the puddles 
Left there by the rain — 
Toes a-ticklin' in the sand, 'tis a. joyful 
pain — 
Wishin' I'm a boy again, roamin' down 
the lane. 

Oh, to be a boy again, in the wildwood 
Feet a-swishin' through the leaves, 
Lookin' at the sweep 
Of stately beech and elm limbs — loving it 
a heap — 
Oh, to be a boy again, in the wildwood 

Oh, to be a boy again, on a country road, 
Creek a-runnin' at the side — 
Fern and grass abode, 
Horses drinkin' at the ford, restin' from 
the load — 
Oh, to be a boy again on a country 

Oh, to be a boy again, pleasure that I'd 
In being just a youngster 
A-swimmin' in the lake — 
Water clear as clear c'n be, ripplin' in 
my wake — 
Oh, to be a boy again, a-swimmin' 
in the lake. 

I Wonder 

By Elsie C. Carroll 

/WONDER if you know 
How every day I wake 
To find an empty world 
Because you're gone? 

I wonder if you know 
How hard I try to make 
The emptiness seem less 
With smile and song? 

I wonder if you know 
That even as I sing 
And as I try to smile 
My heart breaks on? 

I wonder if you know 
That time can never fill 
The void within my soul 
Now you are gone? 


By Florence D. Cummings 

yON mountain is a woman tall, 
The sky her lover true; 
She lays her head upon his breast, 
Against his coat of blue. 

She often has a fleecy scarf 
Bound loosely 'round her hair; 
Perhaps she draws a floating veil 
Across her features fair. 

Her gown is gorgeous, many-hued, 

Whose vibrant colors glow; 

Her breasts are mounds of snow, pure 

That through her draperies show. 

She wears her lover's diamonds 
Twined in her hair at night; 
Anon a silver crescent crown 
Upon her brow shines bright. 

Though at her feet, a mirror vast 
Reflects her many charms, 
She never bends her head to look, 
Nor leaves her lover's arms. 

October Leaves 

By Beatrice Ekman 

TTrHEN down the mountain trails 
rr October's breeze 
Sweeps through the trees with chill upon 

her breath, 
The slender aspen and the maple leaves 
Change their green hue for a more radiant 

Their yesterdays of Summer time are done 
And nights of biting frost their verdure 

They drop into the ages leaf by leaf 
To rest in dust through the relentless. 

. . . May not the memory of the nesting 

That mated in their cool and sheltering 

And twittered at the dawn . . . content 

their rest? 
May not the memory of the harvest moon 
Sailing high through clouds . . . trailed 

by a star . . . 
Remain with leaves that gave their beau- 

tys' best 
When they quiescent lie ... in sombei 



By Leone E. McCune 

rHE night is black, 
The clouds hang low, 
The moon is hid, 
The wind doth blow. 

The shutters creak, 
The night birds cry, 
And ghostly forms, 
Stand hovering nigh. 

White faces leer, 
At window panes, 
And bats dart by, 
Thro' pouring rain. 

Then the moon comes out, 
And the shadows creep, 
From garden walls, 
And the wind doth sleep. 

Summer Heart 

By Blanche K. McKey 

ALAS, I have a summer heart, 
SI And snow is here. 
Harebells dancing in the sun, 
Gossamer blue, like a dream half spun; 
Foam-tossed, sun-mad, hoyden stream 
Prancing, two green hills between; 
Tender- fingered Junetide breeze comes 

smiling on — 
Alack. Can it be true that these are gone? 
Slippery pavements, slushy, sleek; 
Sleet that wets and chills and dulls; 
Red-eyed homes that blink into the storm. 
But I see the swallow skim the silent lake, 
And hear the mourning dove's sad call 
Soft that silence break — 
Bringing life to things long dead — 
Things that once were dear. 
Alas, I have a summer heart, 
And snow is here! 




Alt Melchizedek Priesthood material is prepared under the direction of the Council of the Twelve; 

and all Aaronic Priesthood material is prepared under the direction of the Presiding Bishopric, ^^-v 

The Lord Says — Tobacco is not good for man, but for bruises and sick cattle. 

Why Priesthood At All? 

CAN any one, without the Priest- 
hood, pray and have his prayers 
answered? Or receive the Holy Ghost, 
with its gifts and manifestations? 

The answer is Yes. Men, women 
and children who do not hold the 
Priesthood have had their prayers an- 
swered millions of times in the history 
of Christianity the world over and in 
the history of this dispensation. _ Men, 
women and children also receive the 
Holy Ghost after baptism through the 
laying on of hands. 

May one have revelations and vis- 
ions of heavenly beings, without the 

Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery 
did so. In May, 1829, John the Bap- 
tist appeared to them, and that was be- 
fore either of them had been ordained. 
It was John, in fact, who conferred 

the Priesthood upon them. This func- 
tion of having visions, of course, was 
exceptional in their case. 

If, then, one may pray, may have 
his prayers answered, may have the 
Holy Ghost bestowed upon him, and 
may exercise many of its gifts, with- 
out holding any Priesthood, what is 
the place of Priesthood on the earth? 

Chiefly Priesthood functions in con- 
nection with organization. That is, 
the greatest need of Priesthood is where 
there is a service to be performd to 
others besides ourselves. 

Whenever you do anything for, or 
in behalf of, someone else, you must 
have the right to do so. If you are to 
sell property belonging to another, 
you must have his permission. If you 
wish to admit an alien to citizenship 
in our government, you cannot act 

without having been commissioned to 
do so by the proper authority. 

Now, a religious organization, or 
the Church, is in the last analysis a 
matter of service. You baptize some- 
one, or you confirm him, or you ad- 
minister to him in case of sickness, or 
you give him the Sacrament or the 
Priesthood, or you preach the Gospel 
to him — what is this but performing 
a service? 

Now, when it comes to earthly 
power to perform a definite service, we 
call it the power of attorney in the 
case of acting legally for someone else, 
or the court and the judge where it is 
a question of acting for the govern- 

But in the Church of Christ this 
authority to act for others is known as 

THE Liberty Stake, which is in Salt 
Lake City, like some other stakes 
in the Church, has the idea that to do 
is better than to know what were good 
to be done, as Shakespere puts it. 

And so, in all the twelve wards of 
the stake, one of the priests makes a 
short talk on a religious topic at every 
Sacramental service. No matter what 
the program may be otherwise, some 
priest is almost sure to give an address 
of from ten to fifteen minutes. 

The speaker chooses his own sub- 
ject; he works it up himself usually, 
although sometimes he avails himself 
of the aid of someone whose expe- 
rience in public speaking might prove 

Since there are in all exactly six hun- 
dred and eight priests in the entire 
stake, this would make an average per 
ward of almost fifty-one. And since 
there are about forty Sundays in a year, 
when Sacramental services are held, 
each priest would have a turn at 
speaking almost once a year. 

Now, the priest's duty — or at least, 
one of his duties — is "to preach, teach, 
expound, exhort," as well as to baptize 
and administer the Sacrament. That 
is what the Doctrine and Covenants 
says. But preaching the Gospel is 
the duty of the elder and the seventy, 

Therefore, when the priest is given 

Looking Ahead 

an opportunity to preach in the ward 
to which he belongs, he is preparing 
himself for the ministry abroad and at 
home, when he shall have been made 
an elder in the Church. 

The boys who give these talks do 
their work well. So at least those who 
listen think. And they enjoy it also. 
At any rate, most of them do. 


Find the Answers to 
These Questions 

(1) Who is the president of your 
stake? Who are his counselors? 

(2) What relation is there between 
the bishopric of the ward and the pres- 
idency of the stake? 


The brook on the Joseph Smith farm, in Manchester, N. Y., where the 
first baptisms were performed. 


The Improvement Era for October, 1931 

A Prophet Can be a Hero 

|"T was in 1839. Joseph Smith was 
on his way to the national capital, 
to see what he could do to obtain 
redress for the wrongs his people had 
received at the hands of mobs in Mis- 
souri. The Saints were then living 
in Nauvoo, Illinois, on the banks of 
the Mississippi. 

The Prophet rode in a stage coach, 
drawn by four horses. This was the 
only way you could then go from Il- 
linois to Washington — unless you 
went horseback, or by foot, and you 
would hardly like to do that. 

In the stage were a number of other 
persons, also on their way to the cap- 

ital. Among the number was a mem- 
ber of Congress, who was returning to 
his work as one of the lawmakers. 

As the coach proceeded along near- 
ing the chief city, the driver, on a sud- 
den, felt as if he wanted a drink. So 
he stopped the vehicle and went into 
what was known as a "tavern," leav- 
ing the rest in the coach. 

Something frightened the animais. 
and they went dashing down the road 
at full gallop. 

The consternation of the passengers 
may easily be imagined. They were 
terror-stricken. The men shouted, 
the women screamed, and every one 

felt that his time had come, as we 

All but the "Mormon" prophet. He 
never lost his head, no matter what the 
cause, in a situation like this. 

He moved from where he sat to the 
door of the carriage, opened it ginger- 
ly, climbed round the side of the coach 
till he reached the driver's seat, took 
hold of the reins and stopped the horses 
before they had done any damage to 
property or life. 

Then he turned the coach round and 
drove back to the tavern, where the 
coachman was still at his beer. 

Field Notes 

JARONIC Priesthood Outing — St. 
•**■ George West Ward: We learn 
from Bishop W. C. Cox that a success- 
ful outing of the Aaronic Priesthood 
was held on July 1 7th at the Cascades 
where 25 members of the Aaronic 
Priesthood and the bishopric went for 
a swim. After the swim a wiener 
roast was enjoyed and the trip brought 
the bishopric and the boys in closer 
contact than they have ever been be- 

Cache Stake — Aaronic Priesthood 
Organization.- — Chairman Luther M. 
Winsor of the Stake Priesthood Com- 
mittee outlines the method being fol- 
lowed in an effort to stimulate greater 
interest in Aaronic Priesthood activi- 
ties among the boys of that stake, as 

"Our newly organized Stake Com- 
mittee recognizes the fact that Lesser 
Priesthood work must send out such 
an appeal or such a challenge that the 
boys will want to be affiliated with 
their respective quorums, because of 
what such association will mean to 
them as well as for the sake of duty. 
"As a means to this end we have 
outlined in detail the various activi- 
ties for members of each quorum and 
have given each activity a rating in 
points so that each boy may receive 
credit every month in proportion to his 
participation in quorum activities. 1 
This introduces an element of compe- 
tition and friendly rivalry to which 
boys in their teens respond very read- 
ily. We are endeavoring to impress 
the members with the fact that healthy 
and active response to the call of the 
Priesthood and participation in its ac- 
tivities bring their own reward. As 
a further stimulus, however, to greater 
response, we are offering special re- 
wards for accomplishment. The first 
prize offered is a trip to the new mi- 
gratory bird sanctuary now being 
completed at the mouth of Bear River, 
on the borders of Great Salt Lake, 25 

miles southwest of Brigham City. This 
project is being built by the National 
Government at an expense of $350,- 
000. Boys who make a rating of 
eighty out of a possible one hundred 
points for each of two months in suc- 
cession are eligible for this trip with- 
out expense to themselves. The trip 
over the project is to be made by auto 
and by motor boat. 

"On the return trip we plan to have 
a late afternoon supper followed by a 
Priesthood conference around a camp 
fire, at a suitable location in the hills. 

"This trip was planned for the 
month of June, but conditions on the 
refuge were not suitable at that time. 

"Following is a list of the thirteen 
activities for each quorum together 
with the rating which has been as- 
signed to each activity: 


Activity Points 

1. Attendance at quorum meet- 
ing 25 

2. Payment of tithing 25 

3. Observance of Word of Wis- 
dom 25 

4. Attendance at Sacrament meet- 
ing 4 

5. Speaker at Sacrament or other 
meeting 5 

Logan Ninth Ward Aaronic Priesthood 
at Bear Lake. 

6. Ward teaching 5 

7. Preparation and delivery of 
lesson assignment 5 

8. Attendance at stake Priest- 
hood meeting 1 

9. Offering prayer in public 1 

10. Assisting with Sacrament 1 

11. Assisting at baptisms 1 

12. Special assignment perform- 
ed 1 

13. Voluntary aid to sick or 
needy l 

Total 100 

Same as priests. 


Same as priests except for activity 
number 6. Deacons assist with fast 
offering instead of with ward teaching. 

It will be observed that attendance 
at quorum meetings, payment of tith- 
ing and observance of Word of Wis- 
dom are activities, which are being 
stressed during 1931. This is done 
for the purposes: First, the boy can- 
not function properly as a quorum 
member unless he attends his Priest- 
hood meetings; second, we believe 
that the habit of tithe-paying should 
be acquired while young; third, the 
boy who smokes or drinks soon drifts 
away from his quorum and finally 
away from active affiliation with the 

It will also be noted that a boy 
cannot fail in any of these three ac- 
tivities and make his required eighty- 
point average for the month. 

In order that we may keep an indi- 
vidual record of every boy in the stake, 
we have adopted the regular priests roll 
book for all quorums. The headings 
as printed are modified to accommo- 
date the outline of the thirteen activi- 
ties listed above. In keeping this roll 
[Continued on page 747] 


General Super intendency 
Y. M. M. I. A. 

George Albert Smith, 
Richard r. Lyman, 
Melvin J. Ballard, 

Executive Secretary: 
Oscar A. Kirkham 

Executive 'Department] 

General Offices Y. M. M. I. A. 

47 East South Temple Street 

General Offices Y. L. M. I. A. 

33 Bishop's Building 

General Presidency 
Y. L. M. I. A. 

Ruth May Fox, 
Lucy Grant Cannon, 
Clarissa A. Beesley, 

General Secretary: 

Elsie Hogan 

Sunday Evening Joint Program for November 

Theme: The Developing Power of 
the Doctrine of a Premortal Existence. 

1 . Opening exercises. 

2. Presentation of Slogan. 

3. Announcement of the theme for 
the evening. 

4. A fifteen minute sermon on Pre- 

Text: "Man was also in the be- 
ginning with God." (Doctrine and 
Covenants 93:29.) 

Jeremiah 1:5. 

Ecclesiastes 12:7. 

John 9:2; 17, 5. 

Nephi 1:12, 14. 

Doctrine and Covenants 93:23. 

Pearl of Great Price: Book of 
Abraham 3:22-26. 

5. A ten minute talk on Pre-Existence 
in which the following material 
may be used: 

"O my Father, Thou that dwellest 

In the high and glorious place! 
When shall I regain Thy presence, 

And again behold thy face? 
In thy holy habitation, 

Did my spirit once reside? 
In my first primeval childhood, 

Was I nurtured near Thy side? 

"For a wise and glorious purpose 

Thou hast placed me here on earth, 
And withheld the recollection 

Of my former friends and birth. 
Yet oft times a secret something 

Whispered, You're a stranger here; 
And I felt that I had wandered 

From a more exalted sphere." 

— Latter-day Saint Poet, 
Eliza R. Snow. 

"Our birth is but a sleep and a for- 

The soul that rises with us, our life's 

Hath had elsewhere its setting, 

And cometh from afar; 

Not in entire forgetfulness 

And not in utter nakedness, 

But trailing clouds of glory do we 

From God who is our home." 

— Wordsworth. 

"Moreover, something is or seems 
That touches me with mystic gleams, 
Like glimpses of forgotten dreams 
Of something felt like something 

Of something done, I know not 

Such as no language may declare." 

- — Tennyson. 

The poet, Robert Browning, ap- 
peals to his wife to help him in his 
work as she did before her death, and 
says that she came from a heavenly 
home to earth and that she has re- 
turned to that home from whence she 

Maurice Maeterlink's "Blue-Bird" 
presents a beautiful and interesting 
picture of persons preparing to serve 
this planet we call earth when they 
are finally born. One expects to be 
an inventor, another to improve vari- 
ous fruits. 

Summary: Through belief in the 
doctrine of Pre-Existence we are led to 
look upon the possession of a body 
as the result of achievement and faith- 
fulness. In the presence of its price will 
not the physical part of the soul receive 
greater care than it would without the 
knowledge of its cost to its possessor? 
The possibility of having a body was 
a gift from God but the realization of 
that possibility came through the keep- 
ing of our first estate. Getting a body 

Listen In 

Over KSL and KDYL, on alternate 
nights, from Oct. 8-17, inclusive, an- 
nouncements of interest to Era read- 
ers will be made. There will be short 
talks, dramatizations and music. A 
number of prominent writers have 
been engaged for the forthcoming 
volume and some of these will speak, 
giving forecasts of their articles. 

Announcements of the exact hour 
will be made later over these stations. 

was one of the great, if not the greatest 
objectives of a whole lifetime in the 
spirit world. It no doubt furnished 
texts for preachers and themes for or- 
ators. It was held up as a goal by 
teachers and as a Divine Promise by 
prophets. In the light of the revela- 
tions of God, the privilege of having 
a body cannot be thought of as any- 
thing less than one of our greatest 
achievements as well as one of God's 
greatest gifts. Out of a belief in these 
things comes an attitude toward the 
physical self that should guarantee a 
super care which always is attended 
by super development. 

There are three questions that have 
challenged the mind in all ages: 
Whence came I? Why here? And 
where go? The relation of the pre- 
mortal, the mortal, and the immortal 
life is still challenging the thoughts 
of man, and this doctrine of pre-mortal 
existence is doing full duty in the stim- 
ulation of mental activity. 

Belief in our success before we came 
to earth gives us courage. Courage is a 
major virtue. The belief that we 
knew each other there increases our 
appreciation of each other here. Ap- 
preciation makes gratitude possible and 
gratefulness has been rightly called a 
cardinal virtue. 

The' belief that we were with God 
in the beginning adds to our nearness 
to him now, increases our desire to be 
with him again and strengthens our de- 
termination to be loyal to his leader- 
ship direct or delegated. Loyalty to 
the Lord is the apex of spiritual de- 

And so we find in the Gospel doc- 
trine of pre-mortal existence a power 
that develops our entire being: the 
physical, the intellectual, and the spirit- 

6. A three minute testimony on the 
value of a Patriarchal Blessing. 

7. Singing: First two verses only, of 
the hymn, "O My Father:' 

8. Benediction, preferably a member 
of adult department, spokpn to 
in advance. 


The Improvement Era for October, 1931 


=== Committee - 

Dr. Arthur L. Beeley and Ann M. Cannon, Chairmen; Dr. Joseph F. Merrill, Dr. Franklin S. 

Harris, Lewis T. Cannon, Dr. Lyman L. Daines, Rose W. Bennett, 

Emily H. Hig-gs, Emily C. Adams, Charlotte Stewart 


1. Class-room discussion. 

2. Project work. 

3. Recreation and Social enjoy- 


It is hoped that in each ward the 
two manual discussion leaders and two 
activity leaders are chosen and ready 
for work. (See page 63 of M. I. A. 
Handbook 1931-2). If not please 
see that they are selected at once. Then 
let them read about the Adult work in 
the Handbook, and the recent issues of 
the Mutual Improvement Era. 

How to Live 

Is the subject for discussion this 
season. It may be purchased of the 
General Board offices for $1.75 includ- 
ing the Study Outline. Please get 
your copy now. 

The following extracts from an ad- 
dress by Dr. L. Weston Oaks deliv- 
ered at the June Conference are a con- 
tinuation of the subject discussed by 
Dr. L. L. Daines as printed in the 
August Eta. 

"Dr. Daines has very carefully and, 
I think, very thoroughly, covered this 
matter of adult class work; (see August 

Era) and there are one or two points 
that I should like to impress upon you 
from the standpoint of the preparation 
of carrying on this sort of program. 

"Someone has said that if one would 
have perfect health, one must begin by 
choosing one's grandparents, and I think 
we might go even farther and say one's 
great-great-grandparents, because it is now 
known very definitely that we are born 
with things which make us prone to the 
occurrence of disease. As an illustration 
of that, I should like to relate the fact 
that within the past few months certain 
American students of the question have 
shown that children born of mothers 
whose diet is deficient in certain vitamins 
are born with mucuous membranes in 
the nasal sinuses which are already swol- 
len and congested to a point where their 
resistance to infection is practically de- 
stroyed, and those children will have 
sinus infection even within the first week 
of life. You cannot attribute that sort 
of occurrence to anything extraneous, it 
comes from within, and we must treat 
those children for the condition before 
they are born by regulating the mother's 

"Another interesting fact, or truth and 
fact, is that hygienic living and the 
principles of hygiene come too late to 
us at our time of life to save us from 
reaping the penalties of disease. It can 
only furnish us guides, if you please, 
through which, if we follow them very 
carefully, we can avoid the acute trouble 
and be able to carry on from day to 
day, but cannot save us at our time of 



Each Member Of Your Association Who Reads Any Of 
[These Books Will Be Bigger For Having Read Them 


Life Story of Brigham Young (Susa Young: Gates and Leah D. Widtsoe) _..$2.50 

Medical Aspects of the Latter-day Saints Word of Wisdom (Dr. L. W. Oaks) 1.00 

People and Music (T. C. McGehee) - - 1-40 

With Malice Towards None (H. W. Morrow) - 75 

Singing- in the Rain (A. S. Monroe) — 2.00 

Larry — Thoughts of Youth (Foster) 1.25 

Modern Pioneers (Cohen and Scarlet) 80 

Full set of Seven Books, delivered anywhere if remittance in full accompanies 

order $9.00 

If sent C. O. D.-Parcel Post _ 9.50 

If charged to your Ward. (See Note below) 9.70 

These books cannot be sent to the organization and charged to individuals. Books 
may be charged to your Ward for not to exceed sixty days if the order ,is signed by 
the Bishop. 


44 East on South Temple P. O. Box 1793 Salt Lake City, Utah 

life from disease. That is an interesting 
thing and should stimulate us to more 
careful and more vigorous action and 
study in the direction of finding out 
these things about health and passing 
on to future generations the most effi- 
cient resistance against disease, that, after 
all, is a bigger objective, a greater ideal 
than anything we could apply to our own 
lives for our own selfish needs. I have 
recently been much interested in reading 
the Premier of new Russia on the stand- 
point of the five-year plan. It happened 
that when I finished it I was on a public 
conveyance, and forced to inhale con- 
siderable second-hand tobacco smoke and 
to see the effects of alcoholic libation on 
certain individuals who were also on that 
conveyance, and it struck me that the 
five-year plan, meaning that sentence or 
phrase, might have a definite significance 
for us. I should like to see a central 
committee, if you please, organized by 
the L. D. S. Church for the study and 
outlining of a five-year plan from the 
standpoint of health, and one of the 
major objectives in that plan should be 
the education of the adults to the scien- 
tific effects of these poisons upon our 
bodies, because through the use of these 
things we do pass on to unborn genera- 
tions physical disabilities, if you please, 
and it really restricts and will make them 
prone to the occurrence of certain dis- 
eases, which they in turn will pass on 
to those who follow after. I believe 
that thing is possible and I should like 
to see it considered and not stop when 
we finish this year of personal hygiene 
because I feel that health is too great to 
cover in five years. 

"This function should fall to the M. 
I. A. Organization because in their pro- 
gram and study the opportunity affords 
itself of hooking it up with L. D, S. 
beliefs, if you will permit me to discuss 
it. It isn't very hard, and isn't a very 
great step because the 'Mormon' people 
are unique from most religious organiza- 
tions in one respect; namely, that they 
believe that all truth applies to theii 
religious life as well as to their every-day 
life in other respects, and this certainly 
is true in the field of health, and I am 
sure that if you can do it in your class 
work this coming year and all the coming 
years, you will be more and more im- 
pressed with the fact that in order to be 
a good Latter-day Saint one must do 
everything in one's power to acquire good 
health and freedom from disease, for 
disease of mind and body certainly does 
delay our going ahead." 


Community Activity 

A PAGE in the Era is waiting each 
month for you to tell of the 
lovely things you are doing in the Ac- 
tivity Program. Others will be eager 
to read your message and you will be 
glad to read theirs. Make this page 
sparkle with friendly greetings and in- 
terchange of experiences. The Gen- 
eral Committee will add its bits of 
information and helpful suggestions as 
the months go merrily by. 

The Improvement Era for October, 1931 


Stake Directors Appointed 

4 I V HE New Improvement Era begins 
its third year with a more complete 
organization than it has ever had this 
early in the season. The campaign 
will be conducted October 11 to 18. 
Everything possible is being done this 
year to accomplish the work during the 
single week of the campaign. Follow- 
ing is a list of the Directors who have 
been appointed to conduct the work in 
the various stakes: 

Alberta Stake — -Heber J. Jensen, Irene 

Alpine Stake — J. Bartle Parker, May W. 


Bannock — Floyd Smart, Katherine War- 

Bear Lake — -Thomas Green, Ireta Passey. 

Bear River — P. W. Christensen, Clara 

Beaver — C. C. Miller, Emily Price. 

Benson — Floyd Tibbets, Lula Hauser. 

Big Horn — R. E. Despain, Helen P. Wil- 

Blackfoot — Var O. Buchanan, Anna D. 

Blaine — Clive Cooper, Mrs. R. E. Adam- 

Boise — O. Lorenzo Jensen, Elva Labrum. 

Box Elder — J. W. Owens, Esther Clough. 

Burley — Leo K. Homer, Evelyn Crane. 

Cache — S. N. Daniels, Virginia Daniels. 

Carbon — A. R. Stevens, Lillian Stookey. 

Cassia — Edward A. Warr, Vera Nelson. 

Cottonwood — Cloyd Brown, Rachel 

Curlew — James Palmer, Anna Eliason. 

Deseret — June Black, Ethel Allen. 

Duchesne — Howard C. Moffet, Mrs. Mari- 
on S. Shields. 

East Jordan — Arnold G. Adamson, 
Rachel Freeman. 

Emery — Jesse S. Tuttle, Mary C. Moffitt. 

Ensign — Serge B. Campbell, Merle H. Pet- 

Frankilin — E. S. Porter, Anna G. Palmer. 

Fremont — W. B. Mason, Jennie Waldram. 

Garfield — Reed Beebe, Rosie Roundy. 

Granite — Jos. S. Nelson, Minnie Knight. 

Grant — La Var Butterworth, Harriet Kal- 

Gunnison — Paul Parks, Amanda Fjelsted. 

Hollywood — H. M. Hales, Thelma Wray. 

Hyrum — Oscar J. Hendry, Thelma Lind- 

Idaho— Royal Wilson, Miss Leslie Stew- 

Idaho Falls — Milton H. Brinton, Mrs. 
Edna Brinton. 

Juab — C. L. Memmott, Mable Sperry. 

Juarez — Velan Call, Wilmuth Skousen. 

Kanab — O. C. Bowman, Harriet Cham- 

Kolob — G. A. Simkins, Fanny Rowland. 

Lehi — W. L. Worlton, Marv F. Smith. 

Lethbridge — J. Llewellyn, Mrs. Lorena H. 

Liberty — C. F. Soloman, Bernice Austin. 

Logan — Wallace Secrist, Ruth Simpson. 

Los Angeles — H. D. Nielson, Winnifred 
Garrett. • 

Lost River — V. D. Nelson, Vida Nelson. 

Lyman i — Lyman Fearn, Margaret J. 

Malad — N. Crowther, Hanna Deschamp. 

Maricopa — D. L. Stapley, Francelle John- 

Millard — Edgar Turner, Ruth Harmon. 

Minidoka — L. G. Poulsen, Myrtle Free- 
Moapa — Jesse Whipple, Nell Earl. 
Montpelier — Charles Lindsay, Blanch 

Morgan — Frank Toone, Ida Shaub. 
Moroni— R. A. Thacker, Filanda Allred. 
Mt. Ogden — I. J. McKell, Eula Waldrom. 
Nebo — Wells Cloward, Edna Q. Snow. 
Nevada — Wm. H. Garrett, Drusilla Soren- 

North Davis — L. E. Ellison, Bertha Wil- 
North Sanpete — Osmund Crowther, Mrs. 

Louie M. Seely. 
North Sevier — Karl Stott, Varna Johnson. 
North Weber — Samuel Hadley, Mabel G. 

Ogden — A. E. Berlin, Ollie Y. Mitchel. 
Oneida — M. W. Hendricks, Jennie T. 

Oquirrh — Fred W. Barker, May R. Wool- 

Palmyra — C. M. Jacobsen, Grace Gardner. 
Panguitch — C. I. Foy, Iletta D. Reid. 
Parowan — Glenwood Froyd, Mirla 

Pioneer — T. A. Schoenfeld, Thelma Carn. 
Pocatello — C. C. Christensen, Magdalen 

Portneuf — Heber Olsen, Vera Dewey. 
Raft River — S. H. Shaw, Helen Kelsey. 
Rigby — S. R. Wilkinson, Mrs. S. R. 

Roosevelt — Arthur Wiscombe, Effie Ja- 
St. George — J. H. Cottam, Aggie Brooks. 
St. Johns — Jay Rothlisberger, Louise 
^ Udall. 
St. Joseph — H. L. Taylor, Florence 

Salt Lake — Lester A. Seare, Arzella 

San Francisco — W. Glen Harmon, Miss 

Golda Lilya. 
San Juan — Guy R. Hurst, Elizabeth Halls. 
San Luis — Oscar Ray, Marcella Crowther. 
Sevier — H. D. Christensen, Rachel Young. 
Sharon — Harold Colvin, Anna Jensen. 
Shelley — Rudolph Ritting, Katherine 

Snowflake — William Tanner, Jennie M. 

So. Davis — David G. Winn, Mrs. Joel R. 

So. Sanpete — J. S. Christensen, Vilate 

So. Sevier — Armour Hill, Sylvia Collings. 
Star Valley — L. M. Barrus, Rachel 

Summit — Lyle P. Richins, Meda Toone. 
Taylor — Alvin Jones, Velma Meldrum. 
Teton — G. J. Jeppson, Alice Jensen. 
Timpanogos — A. P. Warnick, Estelle 

Tintic — N. E. Steck, Mrs. D. N. Larsen. 
Tooele — Lyman Fawson, Eva Arbon. 
Twin Falls — Leslie Hyde, Pearl Allread. 
Uintah — Leonard Perry, Jean Merkley. 
Union — Elmo Clegg, Julia Hiatt. 
Utah — Reese E. Bench, Fern Cluff. 

Wasatch — H. M. Rasband, Annie L. 

Wayne — Kenneth Coleman, Amy White. 
Weber — Carl E, Weaver, May Bramwell. 
West Jordan — Claud Abbott, Nona Jen- 
Woodruff — M. C. Peart, Grace Norris. 
Yellowstone — D. H. White, Eva Rice. 
Young — I. W. Braidy, Eva Burnham. 
Zion Park — Homer Englestead, Maude 



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The Improvement Era for October, 1931 


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Member Federal Reserve System 

235 South Main Street 

Salt Lake City, Utah 

Facing Life- 

Group 6 
Building Trades 

Bell rigger. 

Brick layer. 

Bolter up. 

Bridge carpenter. 

Carpenter, expert. 

Cement finisher. 

Concrete engineer. 

Constructive foreman or superintendent. 

Contractor and builder. 

Crane operator, steam. 

Ditcher operator. 

Dock builder. 

Dredge operator. 

Elevator constructor. 


Engineman, portable. 

Fireman, portable ( boiler) . 


Iron and steel erector. 

Marble setter. 

Mason, stone. 

Painter, iron and steel. 

Pile driver. 

Pipe coverer. 


Plumber, general. 

Rigger, bridge and structural. 


Shovel operator, steam. 

Shovel operator, gas engine. 


State carpenter. 

Stair builder. 

Steam fitter. 

Stone cutter. 

Structural steel worker. 

Tank operator. 

Tile layer. 

Water proofer. 

Or turn to the statistical abstract 
of the United States published by 
the Department of Commerce. 
This volume lists for 1920, 42,- 
289,969 persons in the United 
States 10 years of age and over as 
being gainfully occupied. They 
are grouped under nine major clas- 

1. Agriculture, forestry, and animal hus- 

2. Extraction of minerals. 

3. Manufacturing and mechanical indus- 

4. Transportation. 

5. Trade. 

6. Public service (not elsewhere classi- 

7. Professional service. 

8. Domestic 'and personal service. 

9. Clerical occupations. 

OEFORE you decide that there 
are few openings possible to 
you turn through the one classi- 
fication — Manufacturing and Me- 
chanical Industries: 

Apprentices to building and hand trades. 

Apprentices to dressmakers and milliners. 

Apprentices, other. 


Blacksmiths, forgemen, and hammermen. 

Boiler makers. 

Brick and stone masons. 

Builders and building contractors. 

Continued from 
page 7 1 5 


Compositors, linotypers, and type setters. 


Dressmakers and seamstresses (not in fac- 



Electrotypers, stereotypers, and lithograph- 

Engineers (stationary) , cranemen, hoist- 
men, etc. 


Filers, grinders, buffers, and polishers 
(metal) . 

Firemen (except locomotive and fire-de- 
partment) . 

Foremen and overseers (manufacturing) . 

Furnacemen, smeltermen, heaters, pourers, 

Glass blowers. , 

Jewelers, watchmakers, goldsmiths, and 


Building, general, and not specified la- 

Chemical and allied industries. 
Fertilizer factories. 
Paint and varnish factories. 
Powder, cartridge, dynamite, fuse, and 

fireworks factories. 
Soap factories. 
Other chemical factories. 

Clay, glass, and stone industries. 

Brick, tile, and terra-cotta factories 

Glass factories. 

Lime, cement, and artificial stone fac- 
Marble and stone yards. 

Clothing industries. 
Corset factories. 

Glove factories. 

Hat factories (felt) . 

Shirt, collar, and cuff factories. 

Suit, coat, cloak and overall factories. 

Other dothing factories. 

Food industries. 


Butter, cheese, and condensed milk fac- 

Candy factories. 

Fish curing and packing. 

Flour and grain mills. 
Fruit and vegetable canning, etc. 

Slaughter and packing houses. 

Sugar factories and refineries. 

Other food factories. 
Harness and saddle industries. 
Helpers in building and hand trades. 
Iron and steel industries. 

Agricultural implement factories. 

Automobile factories. 

Blast furnaces and steel rolling mills. 

Car and railroad shops. 

Ship and boat building. 

Wagon and carriage factories. 

Other iron and steel factories. 

Not specified metal industries. 
Other metal industries. 

Brass mills. 

Clock and watch factories. 

Copper factories. 

Gold, silver, and jewelry factories. 

Lead and zinc factories. 

Tinware, enamelware, etc., factories. 

Other metal factories. 
Lumber and furniture industries. 

Furniture factories. 

Piano and organ factories. 

Saw and planing mills. 

Other woodworking factories. 
Paper and pulp mills. 

The Improvement Era for October, 1931 


Printing and publishing. 
Shoe factories. 
Textile Industries. 

Carpet mills. 

Cotton mills. 

Knitting mills. 

Lace and embroidery mills. 

Silk mills. 

Textile dyeing, finishing, and printing 

Woolen and worsted mills. 

Other textile mills. 

Other industries. 

Broom and brush factories. 

Button factories. 

Electric light and power plants. 

Electrical supply factories. 

Gas works. 

Leather belt, leather case, etc., factories. 

Beverage industries. 

Paper-box factories. 

Petroleum refineries. 

Rubber factories. 

Straw factories. 

Other and not specified industries. 
Loom fixers. 

Machinists, millwrights, and toolmakers. 
Toolmakers and die setters and sinkers. 

Managers and superintendents (manu- 

Manufacturers and officials. 


Millers (grain, flour, feed, etc.) 

Milliners and millinery dealers. 

Molders, founders, and casters (metal). 

Oilers of Machinery. 

Painters, glaziers, and varnishers (build- 
ing) • 

Painters, glaziers, enamelers, etc. (fac- 

Paper hangers. 

Pattern and model makers. 
Plasterers and cement finishers. 
Plumbers and gas and steam fitters. 
Pressmen and plate printers (printing) . 
Rollers and roll hands (metal) . 
Roofers and slaters. 

Semi-skilled operatives. 
Shoemakers and cobblers (not in factory) . 
Skilled occupations. 

Annealers and temperers (metal) . 

Piano and organ tuners. 

Wood carvers. 

Other skilled occupations. 
Stone cutters. 

Structural Iron workers (building). 
Tailors and tailoresses. 
Tinsmiths and coppersmiths. 


<sl Troubles 

F you are interested in making a 
study of the situation in your 
own State write to the Department 
of Commerce and ask for a sum- 
mary of vocational data for your 
State. Or, if you prefer, write to 
the Supervisor of Vocational Edu- 
cation in your own State Depart- 
ment of Education. 

When you ask "What fields are 
open?" The answer flashes back: 
"Almost any field is open to you 
if you'll pay the price to get 
through the gate." Can you dedi- 
cate yourself to that task in the 
spirit of Lincoln: 

"I will study and prepare my- 
self so that if the opportunity ever 
comes I shall be ready for it." 

Continued from 
page 719 

Then I sent Alex to bring her. I 
watched him go in the house and 
then come running out, waving his 
arms. I ran," he choked again, 
"when I got there she was lying on 
the floor with my pistol by her, — 

"That night I dug a little grave, 
such a little grave for my baby. I 
couldn't help thinking of her 
mother, and how she would feel. 
I kind of felt like I'd killed her, — 
my little Lynn. I kept saying as 
how it was trouble, but it 

I looked across the gardens 
where a clump of rose trees were 
putting on their spring trimmings. 
Through the green I caught the 
glimmer of a little white head- 

r OR full five minutes 
neither spoke. Surely all this had 
been trouble. I thought of Alice 
and Roy and then looked across 
at the rose trees again. He watched 
me for awhile, and then, as though 

reading my thoughts, answered, 
"No, it wasn't trouble." 

'Then, — I began to work again. 
The boys grew up. One day Roy 

wanted to go away— freighting to 
the coast. I thought there wasn't 
any danger; I felt so sure of him. 
After awhile he stayed down there. 
He wrote at first and then I never 
heard anything for months and 
months. One night I woke with 
someone tapping on the window. 
I opened it. It was Roy." 

He dropped his old face into 
his trembling hands and shook 
with grief. 

"Oh, my boy, my boy! His 
eyes were bloodshot, his voice thick 
with drink. The odor of whiskey 
came to me through the open win- 
dow. I caught at the sill — I al- 
most fainted. Then he cursed me 
for being so slow, told me to hurry 
and open the door. 

"He came in dirty, and scratched 
and bleeding. Said he thought he 
had killed a man, while he was 
drunk- — my boy, his mother's boy, 



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perhaps a murderer. I begged him 
to stay to give himself up to be 
tried by the law. I begged him 
on my knees, — promised to help 

Again the old head dropped as it 
had dropped many times in the 

last few minutes. 

"Then I begged him for his 
mother's sake — and he cursed her, 
cursed his dead mother. Then I 
was glad my Bess was out there on 
the prairies, in peace. 

"I don't know what I said next, 
but he struck me — struck his fa- 
ther and ran away into the night. 
My boy — that was trouble." 

LIE sat for a long time 
with covered eyes. Then he rose 
and walked to the end of the ver- 
anda and back. 

"The man he thought he had 
killed died ten years later like an 
honest man, in his bed. I pub- 
lished the news near and far — from 
Cape Nome to the Horn. I didn't 
think he could have gone across 
the water but to be sure I sent 
word there to all the papers — Lon- 
don, Liverpool, Berlin and Paris, 

— as far south as Johannesburg, 
as far north as Bergen. 

"Alex went to the Tunnel in 
Zion, yesterday. Someone said 
they'd seen a man that looked like 
him, working on the road. We've 
followed hundreds of clues, and 
failed, but I know that he'll come 
home some night and I'll open the 
door and let him in." 

1 LEFT him musing 
and rode home in the twilight. At 
the east the towers of little Zion 
glowed in the light of the setting 
sun, — crimson, vermillion, ma- 
genta, purple, mauve and lilac — 
a gorgeous pageantry of color. The 
sun set as we shambled through 
the cooling sands. The moon rose 
above Shin-ob-ki's fluted crimson 
core — silhouetted against a saffron 

Far away amongst the green 
fields of Massachusetts I saw the 
white glimmer of the old home and 
a faithful blue-eyed woman with 
a baby's clustered curls against her 

I lifted my tear-wet face to the 
darkening skies — I had no trou- 

4iThe New Education in Austria 

Continued from 



This leaders' group may take up 
a case of "Bad Comradeship" and 
dispose of it. Something consid- 
ered not "Good Comradeship" is 
the worst thing a child can do. 

/ ~pHE leaders decide what shall be 
his punishment. They may de- 
cide to let it pass, or they may try 
to change his point of view. The 
severest punishment is that the 
others do not speak with him for 
a certain period of time. 

The community group or class 
is seated in a circle with the teach- 
er in the center, or in a semi-circle 
with the teacher in the back- 
ground. This arrangement is so 
that each child* can see the faces of 
all the others. Each has a nice 
little desk. The room is made 
cozy and attractive with rugs, cur- 
tains, pictures and articles dear to 
the hearts of children. 

The children, when first organ- 
ized, worked out a constitution 
and by-laws and the constitution 
has come to mean everything. 

Each child has one vote in mat- 
ters, the teacher has one vote also, 
and the teacher has the power of 
veto. Dr. Dengler has used the 
power of veto only three times. He 
said he felt that when the chil- 
dren had made a decision it was 
all right. 

The leader and his group give 
help to one who is doing poor 
work. They have a meeting with 
and encourage the lazy child. They 
help the slow child. They inquire 
concerning the missing child. 

The leader may either perform 
these duties himself or appoint 
some one to do them. If the child 
appointed refuses, it is a case for 
the leaders' community. 

A SSOCIATED with every chil- 
dren's community is a group 
of eight parents. At first the chil- 
dren did not like this, but were 
given the privilege of electing three 
themselves. It has developed that 
the children count these three as 
friends and would , rather go to 

The Improvement Era for October, 1931 


them than to the teacher, in many 

The children receive their marks 
in an envelope. The envelopes are 
opened in the group, and the marks 
discussed. The children are free 
to say why such and such a child 
should receive a lower or a higher 
mark than the one given, and they 
can correct the teachers' marks. 
There is a mutual criticism and a 
mutual feeling of justice. 

There is no punishment except 
that for bad comradeship, and that 
not by the teacher, but by the com- 

Many cases for the clinics have 
been received and helped but the 
community has not created a single 

TV/TANY worth-while special 
things are done in the group, 
whereby a child may get his name 
in "The Book." This is a diary, 
and it is a great honor to get one's 
name in "The Book." If a child 
wishes to try for this honor he 
goes to the leader and states his 
wish, he may say: "I wish to give 
a talk," and names his subject. He 
then works on it and when ready 
the group and leader go early and 
hear his talk. The students pass 
judgment in his presence and with- 
out envy give their opinion. If it 
is voted good his name goes in the 

Sometimes it is decided in a 
group that they will make a book. 
One child says: "I will invent a 
story," another says, "I will illus- 
trate the story." Another expresses 
a wish to print the story and still 
another will wish to make the 
cover and bind the book. 

When completed they are about 
ten or twelve pages long. The 
books are beautifully printed by 
hand, illustrated in colors and the 
covers, inside and out, hand deco- 
rated. Dr. Dengler took some of 
these books to the Geneva confer- 
ence where they were received with 
a great deal of admiration. 

It is an accomplishment in com- 
munity work, a thing in which a 
number have taken part and gives 
opportunity in language, art and 

Dr. Dengler has his pupils do a 
great deal of writing as a means of 
expression. He goes before his 
class, looks at the pupils and says: 
"Write on a certain subject." The 
stories and essays have in many 
cases been the outpouring of starv- 
ed and hungry souls. 

r\R. DENGLER' S idea of an 
ideal school would be a com- 
munity school away from the city 
out near the fields and forests. A 
large plot of ground with trees and 
flowers, and each grade in a little 
bungalow. In every building 
would be a parent room, with 

On the campus he would have a 
science building, a gymnasium, and 
a community hall. The commu- 
nity hall to be used as a theater and 
each class community would invite 
others to see its plays and pro- 

Dr. Dengler is particularly well 
known for his work in teaching 
foreign languages, and here he 
uses the community idea as in the 
other classes. 

To summarize: 

Characteristic of his method are 
groups and leaders, correcting, mu- 
tual help, self-direction and con- 
versation and decisions by the chil- 
dren themselves. 

The blackboard is used by one 
child during the conversation of 
the others, and the community 
corrects the work written thereon. 

HPHE teacher is as much as pos- 
sible in the background, but 
ever ready to slip out of the back- 
ground when a point is missed, to 
question, or urge the thought in 
the children. 

There has been observed a grad- 
ual increase in altruism and love 
both in parents and children and a 
feeling of appreciation on the part 
of parents for the valuable help 
they are getting in the training of 
their children. 

With the right kind of teachers 
Dr. Dengler hopes to carry his 
work not only into all the schools 
of Vienna but also into all the 
schools of Austria in a very short 

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NDER this title the late George 
Reynolds many years ago 
published an illuminating though 
modest little book of 135 pages. 
It traces the history of the children 
of Israel and gives also an interest- 
ing account of the Book of Abra- 
ham. For some little time the 
book has been out of print, but 
the demand for it has been so 
urgent and continuous that a new 
edition has been issued and it can 
now be had at the Deseret Book 
Co., Salt Lake City. 

Elder George Reynolds, one of 
the First Council of Seventy at 
the time of his death, was a pro- 
found student of the scriptures and 
had a rare gift of correlating the 
prophecies made in ancient times 
with those of this dispensation. He 
was the author of the" "Story of 
the Book of Mormon, "Book of 
Mormon Concordance," etc. 

A Book of Mormon chart by 
Elder Reynolds has also been re- 
published. It is seven feet long 
and one and one-fourth feet wide, 
drawn to scale in colors. It shows 
Lehi's colony arriving in the Prom- 
ised Land, the separation of the 
Nephites and Lamanites, Mulek's 
colony, who left Jerusalem 589 
B. C„ the discovery of the people 
of Zarahemla and the Nephites 
uniting with them, the expedition 
of the people of Zeniff and their 
return to Zarahemla, the united 

people of the Lamanites and Ne- 
phites, the Church of Christ, the 
separation of the Nephites and the 
Lamanites, the Gadianton robbers, 
the final destruction of the people. 
Valuable historical data are given, 
also the contemporaneous events 
on the Eastern continent. The 
chart is sufficiently large so that it 
can be hung in a class room and 
seen to good advantage by the pu- 
pils. The Relief Society has adopt- 
ed this chart in their theology 

The price is $2.50 and it can 
be secured from Harold G. Rey- 
nolds, 47 East South Temple 
Street, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Attached is copy of letter from 
John Henry Evans to the publish- 
ers with regard to this chart. 

"I am glad to know that you are 
printing again the Chart on the Book of 
Mormon by your honored father. 

"George Reynolds was the most thor- 
ough-going student of the Nephite rec- 
ord we have had in a hundred years. And 
the Chart embodies, in a form that ap- 
peals to the eye, not only the chronologi- 
cal details of the Book of Mormon itself, 
but also such contemporary data as help 
one to understand the narrative. 

"I consider the Chart of the greatest 
value in the study of the Nephite record. 
There is nothing that compares with it 
in its grasp of events, in its accuracy, or 
in its illuminating details. It is to be 
hoped that it will have a very wide dis- 
tribution among those who care to master 
the Book of Mormon." 

— «K^aJjsVo»— 

^It Pays to Live Right 

tain section where basketball is 
played at its best but he played a 
great game of football for the 
Cougars at guard, end and tackle, 
being a formidable regular at the 
latter assignment; and he developed 
into a strong sprinter and a 51 
second quarter miler, earning his 
monogram in track in each of his 
last two years. George had only 
three personal fouls called on him 
in twelve fierce conference basket- 
ball games this year while he was 
earning fame as an all-divisional 
and second all-conference player 
by his skillful covering of the op- 
posing sharp shooters. Incident- 
ally, George has forgotten all about 

Continued from 
page 708 

that pleurisy and the doctor found 
nothing to remind him of it. 

student with an incisive mind 
and a virile student leader, is as 
smart an athlete and as skillful a 
ball-handler as I have contacted. 
"Cagey" is the best descriptive ad- 
jective I can conjure up to peg 
him accurately. As a football 
quarterback his feinting and his 
generalship left little to be desired. 
His tackling and blocking were su- 
perb. On the basketball floor he 
was at times truly a wizard— and 
always a great general and team- 

The Improvement Era for October, 1931 


]y[ARK BALIFF, another all- 
around man, a credit to his in- 
structors, an addition to any social 
function, something of a musician 
and a whole lot of an athlete, holds 
the unique distinction of being a re- 
markable substitute. Remarkable 
for his playing ability, and his 
versatility. But more remarkable 
for his undeviating loyalty, his un- 
selfish service, his patience, his keen 
humor and his generous contribu- 
tions to team morale, without 
which no team either succeeds or 
loves its activity. And it is re- 
markable, as a coach learns early 
in his experience, to have a great 
player who can keep his poise and 
team-spirit, forget himself and 
glorify the cause, while squirming 
his way through games on the 
splintery benches. Take my word 
for it — such is the real sportsman. 
And count Bailiff among them. 
He won national renown on the 
All-Tournament team at the Na- 
tional Interscholastic Basketball 
meet at Chicago in 1925. Then he 
understudied the brilliant Magleby 
throughout his college career, play- 
ing many games and a great total 
time. In football he was a regular 
fullback one year and then "pinch- 
hit" for Paul Thorn, one of the 
west's outstanding football pro- 
ducts, for two seasons. Mark was 
a twenty-one foot broad jumper 
to boot. 

gRIMLEY, Magleby and Cooper 
were in active combat almost 
continually through eleven foot- 
ball games and forty basketball 
games from September until 
March. Bailiff was under the same 
physical and nervous strain, com- 
pensating for a shortage of time 
in games by a particularly heavy 
role in scrimmage, because of his 
versatility and worth. 

Does a rigorous athletic partici- 
pation injure the athlete's physique 
and health? 

These boys feel that it has im- 
proved theirs. 

Does strenuous sport activity, 
over a period of years cut two or 
three years off a man's life, as we 
are urged to believe now and 

No — not off life; maybe from 
his breathing time. But it crowds 
many additional years of living 
into his life, even if its span is a 
trifle shorter. 

Does the clean life pay? 

It pays and pays and pays! 




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703 Flat Weave _ _| .90 

719 Ribbed Light Weight _ 1.20 

792 Fine Quality Cotton __ 1.35 

751 Fine Silk Lisle 1.85 

711 Silk Stripe Med. Wt 1.40 

7<tfl Vine Quality Cotton _ 1.20 

762 Non-Run Rayon _ 1.00 

717 Rayon Crepe De-Chine 1.95 

715 Super Quality Rayon 1.95 

720 Fine Quality Non-Run Rayon.... 1.75 



600 Fine Quality Silk Stripe J1.40 

610 Ribbed Light Wt _ 1.20 

6U2 Extra Fine Quality 1.35 

614 Med. Wt. Ex. Quality....... 1.50 

635 Men's Run Proof Rayon Mesh.... 1.95 

663 Med. Heavy Unbleached Cotton.. 1.75 

664 Med. Heavy Wt. Cotton. .._ 1.75 

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The Improvement Era for October, 1931 

L.D.S. Garments 

Direct From Factory 

You are guaranteed unusual wear and 
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are made from the best long wearing, 
two combed yarns. 

No. 68 Ribbed Lt. Wt. Cotton.. .... $ .75 

No. 74 Ribbed Lt. Wt. Cotton 1.00 

No. 84 Rib. Mercerized Lisle 1.29 

No. 76 Ribbed Lt. Wt. Lisle 1.19 

No. 63 Lt. Med. Unbleached Double 

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No. 64 Ribbed Lt. Med. Cotton 1.19 

No. 62 Ribbed Med, Hvy. bleached 1.65 

No. 61 Ribbed Med. Hvy, unbleached 

Double Back 1.65 

Non Run Rayon, Elbow and Knee 

Length 1-29 

Non Run Rayon, Long Legs or Old 

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No. 55 Ribbed Hvy. Cot., unbleached 

Double Back 1.98 

8 oz. Hvy. Duck White Temple Pants.. 1.95 

In ordering garments please state if for 
men or women and if old or new styles 
are wanted 

Also give bust, height and weight. 

Sizes above 48 — 20% extra. Marking 15c. 
Postage Prepaid. 

Special — When you order three pair of 
garments at one time we allow you a 15% 
discount on third pair only. 




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Made His Plans 


So Should You 

By Filling Your 
Bin With 


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Salt Lake City, Utah 

Order now from 

4JVLan or Machine Made?- 

selves to artificial ultra-violet ray. 
Instead of exercise out of doors, we 
attach ourselves to a mechanical vi- 
brator. Is it a wonder that shoe- 
makers complain? 

Even the doctors are worried! 
For now comes the Radio Scientist 
and tells us that his new short 
waves will induce bodily temper- 
atures or fevers up to 105 degrees. 
The fever, it seems was Mother 
Nature's way of destroying invad- 
ing bacteria. So now we are even 
going to take our medicine by ra- 

Some prophets go so far as to 
predict that, some day, we shall 
short circuit our animal and vege- 
table diet and absorb energy syn- 
thetically, direct from the solar 
system or its artificial substitutes; 
moreover, that the physical pleas- 
ure and exhilaration derived from 
this new method of charging "hu- 
man batteries" will exceed that ex- 
perienced by eating the choicest 

\X7TTH so much evidence of the 
all-pervading Machine, shall 
we wonder that the arts have not 
been immune? A great painter 
tells me that, at a short distance, 
only the art connoisseur can dis- 
tinguish the difference between the 
fine prints made in certain litho- 
graphic processes and the original 
paintings. Does not this mean 
that the humblest dwelling may 
now be beautified by the works of 
the masters? Does it also mean 
that we shall soon become dissatis- 
fied with cheap chromos, and poor 
examples of home-made arts? 

But let us withhold our decision 
until all the evidence is in. We 
do know that the art of true Italian 
Fresco has been lost to the craft 
of the interior decorator. This 
process was too slow, too labori- 
ous; it required consummate skill 
and speed; it succumbed to easier, 
faster, processes, not so rich in tint, 
maybe, but only the connoisseur 
knows the difference. 

The radio is bringing literature, 
drama and music into the homes of 
even the illiterate. Splendid, 
imaginative readers with dramatic 
voices read to us; groups of play- 
ers broadcast fine plays and dramas 
to distant hamlets and isolated 
farmhouses; music of all kinds, 
from jazz to symphony, from mu- 
sical comedy to grand opera, is "on 

Continued from 
page 7 1 1 


the air" almost constantly, 
new, invisible force — this ma- 
chine for the mass distribution of 
art is here. How can we best util- 
ize it? For surely no one lives 
who would destroy it! 

HPHE twin-sister of the radio, 
the "movie-talkie" is duplicat- 
ing this mission in the field of vis- 
ual-aural entertainment. Soon, 
radio-television will combine the 
two arts. This means that you 
will be able to see these artists as 
well as hear them in your own 
home, at the very time they are per- 
forming. This means, further, 
that a few hundred artists — super 
virtuosi — can produce all the mu- 
sic that the civilized world can con- 

"But," you argue, "this is sc 
impersonal, so unreal, so arti- 
ficial!" But is it, really? Mr. 
Stock and Mr. Stokowski both 
contend that music should be heard 
and not seen. You will remember 
that Wagner, fifty years ago, con- 
cealed his orchestra at Bayreuth. Is 
it, then, necessary, or even desir- 
able, that we should see the artist 
when he sings or plays? If it 
is proximity to the artist that 
you desire, then you actually 
hear each tone of Mr. Stock's or- 
chestra on Sunday afternoons a 
fraction of a second sooner in Tex- 
as, Wyoming, New York, or Flo- 
rida, than you do in the twenty- 
sixth row at Orchestra Hall, for 
the simple reason that sound travels 
through air at the rate of 1093 feet 
per second, but by radio-electric 
waves at 186,400 miles per second! 

Moreover, with a good receiving 
set, I can detect but little difference 
in the quality of sounds that reach 
my ears. Often, indeed, my radio 
gives me a finer quality than I hear 
in some concert halls, acoustically 
defective, or when I am disturbed 
by late-comers, whispers, cough- 
ers, sneezers, shufflers. No — I am 
afraid that all such arguments bear 
the marks of prejudiced interests 
and special pleadings. 

The public has already express- 
ed, by that magic word "demand," 
its preference and there is nothing 
that individuals or special self-in- 
terested groups can do about it. In 
five years the sale of new pianos 
has declined more than seven.ty-five 
per cent and over half the piano 
manufacturers have been forced to 

The Improvement Era for October, 1931 


merge, liquidate or go bankrupt. 
In the two years, 1925 to 1927, 
the sale of band and orchestra in- 
struments declined nearly twenty 
per cent. This was before the 
movie-talkie forced eighty per cent 
of theater musicians out of work, 
which has occurred since 1928. In 
the past five years the sale of radios 
has increased from four hundred 
million dollars in 1924 to eight 
hundred million in 1 929 — more 
than four times the value of all 
musical instruments sold in 1925. 
{Concluded in November) 


4iField Notes 

Continued from 

page 73 6 

the secretaries of each quorum work 
under the direction of the ward clerk. 

Response to the program as outlined 
has been gratifying. In some of the 
wards as many as ninety per cent of the 
active membership of Lesser Priesthood 
quorums qualified for the trip to 
Bear River Bay. This included 
many boys who had tampered at in- 
tervals with tobacco and strong drink. 
Last week five boys in one quorum 
openly confessed before the class that 
they had smoked, but that they did not 
have the habit and were now deter- 
mined to leave tobacco alone. 

"Visits to individual quorums are 
made at frequent intervals by members 
of the Stake Committee, and constant 
touch is kept with ward officers in 
order that interest may not be permit- 
ted to lag. 

"In the interval, pending the time 
when conditions were right for making 
the trip to the Bird Refuge, it was 
recommended that ward leaders take 
their entire membership enrolled in 
Lesser Priesthood on an outing of some 

"The first response to this sugges- 
tion came from Logan Ninth Ward. 
On Friday, July 10, forty boys 
headed by Bishop L. Tom Perry and 
his aids, made an all day's trip to Bear 
Lake where swimming, boat-riding, 
and picnicing were thoroughly en- 
joyed. The chairman of the Stake 
Committee went along and obtained 
a great deal of joy because of the suc- 
cess of this outing and by virtue of the 
wholesome association. The boys 
were photographed at the last gather- 
ing place in Logan Canyon just at 
twilight where they were enjoying 
a feast on watermelon after a short, 
but snappy game of ball. 

"It is our conclusion that our boys 
will respond to any method of ap- 
proach which has in it a semblance of 
appeal, and that inherently they want 
to do what is right. Leadership and 
persistent follow-up work will bring 
its reward. 




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Most school cafeterias in the West serve hot 
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The Improvement Era for October, 1931 

a free 


of information about 
farm construction in 
concrete is yours for 
the asking. Practical 
drawings . . pictures . . 
tables . . charts. Ask 
for copy of F-10, free! 


McCornick Bids'. 
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Mail Orders Given Prompt Attention 
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^[Grasshoppers for Thanksgiving 

Continued from 

page 717 

covered with burlap sacks or blank- mean about 300,000,000, or 

ets, to keep the insects from clog- about one-third of a billion." 
ging the radiators and stopping 

the machines. R^^ though the task of sub- 
As to the ravages of the scourge, duing such enormous hordes, 

dispatches from the plague centers of P e sts seems at once impossible. 

have this to say: 

it is being done. ,At Fountain 
Green, Utah, on July 5, Hyrum 
Jacobson, James Moore and Ar- 
thur Christensen decided to make 
a canvas balloon type catcher, such 

"Lincoln, Neb,, July 27 — Livestock is 
being robbed of food. * i* * Last week 
more than 3 000 head of cattle were 
shipped from South Dakota counties to 

northern Nebraska. In South Dakota as th ?Y had used 1/ years before 

a long drought had almost ruined the to catch grasshoppers. They rigged 

crops when the grasshoppers swarmed in up the catcher from sections of 
to complete the destruction. v • -, ^ ■, , 

"*»*£■ .v. 1 , t a ■, u u wagon covers, weighted on- the 

within the last few days it has be- i~TI vi i i 1 t j 

come a common sight in that state to bottom With a large pole to hold 

see whole families moving northward in the contrivance close to the ground, 

c^overed wagons, driving their half-starved To th gnds they f astcn ed ' ropes, 
herds before them. (UP Service.) i • i i 1111 r 

"Hastings, Neb., July 31-AP-An- which they held by means of wrap- 
other crime was charged up to the grass- pmg them around saddle horns, 
hoppers today. and thus, pulling the balloon like 

"Not content with their feasts of corn a huge SCOOp, they rode through 

and wheat they have taken to eating cloth- the fie | ds Sunday evening, and 

ing, L. R. Jacobson, a salesman, reported. 
He said that he left his coat in bis auto- 
mobile for a short time while he called 
on a client. When he returned a swarm 
of grasshoppers was munching on the 
coat and had devoured a considerable sec- 
tion of the back." 

-it ii ■■.it i ii m e 

-■I 'H — 

again Monday morning. Their 
catch in six hours amounted to 
1200 pounds of hoppers — and the 
county was paying one cent a 
pound bounty on all hoppers 
caught! besides getting rid of 
AT Bloomfield, Neb., the fa- practically 4,800,000 grasshop- 
mous "Bloomfield pay-as-you- P e rs, they had earned $12. 

go" plan which provided that ev- They kept at it, early in the 

ery citizen of the community, in- mornings and evenings, and other 

eluding the farmers, was to pay farmers joined in. Within ten. 

cash and receive no credit, has days time 17 tons had been caught 

practically broken down. The 

farmers have been deprived of their . r-~ 

incomes this year, and have not 

been able to secure the necessities 

of life without credit. 

In Sanpete county, Utah, Com- 
missioner of Agriculture Harden 
Bennion and Dr. F. E. Stephens 
of the national Department of 
Agriculture selected an area and 
decided to count the hoppers, to 
ascertain how great the plague was 
in this suffering section. "A ra- 
ther small swarm was carefully es- 
timated to number as follows: The 
central part of the thickest area 
was estimated at one hopper to a 
square inch for an ^rea of 320 
acres, or practically 2,000,000,000 
hoppers. Around this center there 
were 10 to 100 to a square foot 
on four square miles, or about one 
and one-third billions, Or a total 
for this swarm of three and one- 
third billions. Estimating 8,000,- 
000 adult hoppers to the ton, it 
will be seen that 40 tons would The California devastating Grasshopper, 

The Improvement Era for October, 1931 


around Fountain Green, and pho- 
tos were taken of the work for 
distribution to nearby towns. 
These places soon took up the 
drive, and up to July 25 in San- 
pete county alone, more than 34 
tons of grasshoppers had been 
caught. These were placed in 
sacks, piled up, covered with oil 
and burned. Trash and willows 
aided the pyre to burn. 

Other counties, thrilled by the 
accounts of Sanpete's success, be- 
gan the work of destruction. They 
learned that beside the 34 tons 
of hoppers caught in the nets, more 
than ten times that amount had 
been killed with poison bran. One 
mixture recommended by the sci- 
entists studying the situation, and 
which proved successful, is: 

Bran, 100 pounds; sodium ar- 
senate, 1 to 2 quarts; white ar- 
senic, 4 to 5 pounds; sugar beet 
molasses, 2 gallons; amyl acetate, 
3 ounces; salt, 5 pounds; and wa- 
ter, 9 to 1 1 gallons. 

This mixture is spread over the 
fields and as the hoppers come to 
feed in the late evening or early 
morning, they partake of the poi- 
soned bran and die within 24 
hours. Others feed on their dead 
comrades, and die more quickly. 

TN Utah, at least, the measures 
are taking effect, and the scourge, 
attacked by science, farmers and 
modern warfare, is fast dwindling. 
And along with the balloon scoop, 
the poison bran and fire, comes the 
immortal turkey, as a savior of the 
farm in the campaign against the 
destroying grasshopper. 

Fields that were barren, soon 
began showing signs of recovery. 
Green alfalfa lifted its head above 
the ground aided by the recent 
rains and the removal of the hop- 
pers has made something of a crop. 
The farmers, on whom the brunt 
of the battle has fallen, are rejoic- 
ing, and plan as a finishing touch, 
to celebrate Thanksgiving this year 
by partaking of the delectable 
grasshopper, in the form of turkey 
fattened on the insect. 

From several sources it has been 
reported that after foliage of fruit 
trees had been entirely eaten off, 
they not only produced new leaves 
but also brought forth an abundant 

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The Improvement Era for October, 1931 

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$lA Daughter of Martha 

expression or simple pleasures. 
Every night and every morning, 
she combed her mother's wealth of 
hair for an hour. Whenever a 
window was opened, Victoria 
hastily draped a shawl about Cath- 
erine's shoulders. She filled her 
mother's plate with the best foods, 
taking only a scanty portion for 
herself. She placed a footstool 
under her feet and removed her 
shoes at night. Eveiy morning 
Victoria carried a breakfast tray 
to the guest chamber. Catherine 
had such a desire for cream and 
butter and hot breads that Gloria 
found it necessary to increase her 
mixings. Jonas bought another 
milk cow, and Gloria now churned 
three times a week. Catherine sat 
in the parlor by the wax flowers 
and the gourds. She played lit- 
tle, tinkling melodies on the piano 
and read novels. 

"Ah, Gloria, my child," Cath- 
erine always spoke to her brother's 
wife as if she were an infant, 
"what a marvelous story this Un- 
der Two Flags is! The heroism 
of Cigaretta ! She died for the man 
she loved — her heart pierced by 
the bullet intended for him. They 
don't make such women any more, 
Gloria. I've read the book ten 
times, and it gets lovelier every 
time. And Dora Thornel" Aunt 
Catherine wiped real tears from 
her eyes, and glanced out of the 
window toward the neglected lawn 
and the dried-up lily pond. "I 
had only the dole! It isn't in real 
life like it is in the books!" She 
folded her hands, raised her feet, 
and the alert Victoria slipped the 
footstool under them. 

"Gloria," added Aunt Cather- 
ine, "I think I should like a dish 
of cream — clotted cream, with my 
biscuits at supper. Biscuits — but- 
ter and cream!" she smiled in hap- 
py anticipation. 

J\ FEW nights later 
Gloria fancied she heard stealthy 
steps on the stairs. She did not rouse, 
but the next morning she found 
the cellar door unlatched and the 
cream taken from the pans she had 
expected to skim. 

"Some animal has been getting 
into the milk cellar," she an- 
nounced at dinner. "I can't im- 

^ontmued from 
page 722 

agine what kind it was, for noth- 
ing was tipped over, but all the 
cream was skimmed from the pans. 
That is why you have no cream 
with your pudding." 

Victoria flushed vividly and 
nearly choked on a gulp of water. 
Aunt Catherine remained placid 
and unconcerned. "We all have 
to make sacrifices," she remarked. 
"I can get along with just butter." 

Rodney was all concern over 
Victoria, lest she choke, but he 
glanced first at his Aunt Catherine, 
suspicion in his eyes. He spent 
the afternoon in the tool shop, re- 
fusing to let Anna watch him. 
That night he was the last to retire. 
The next morning, the cellar door 
was again unlatched, and the clot- 
ted cream taken. Victoria did not 
come down as usual to take up 
Aunt Catherine's breakfast. But 
presently Aunt Catherine appeared, 
looking aggrieved and martyrlike. 

"Victoria has a sprained hand," 
she complained. "Some rogue put 
a trap on the door and the poor 

RODNEY was peni- 
tent! He had thought to in- 
criminate Aunt Catherine, but had 
had no intention of hurting Vic- 

"Who will comb my hair?" 
lamented Aunt Catherine, "her 
hand will be sore for a month." 

Gloria put sage tea packs on 
Victoria's hand. That night a 
little daughter was born. The little 
roundhead had a single, long gold- 
en hair, Gloria ran it through her 
fingers, and felt the crinkly texture. 
"Curly, but not red," she exulted. 
Aunt Catherine, pressed into ser- 
vice, was bemoaning her lack of 
sleep. Victoria, in spite of her 
own pain, hushed the wails of 
Anna and little Peter. Jonas ar- 
rived with the dawn, looking har- 
rassed and worried. He was irri- 
tated with the evident friction in 
his home, angry because he found 
the reservoir empty, and the wood 
box bare of fuel. 

Jonas Whitman had homestead- 
ed his farm. Later he had taken 
advantage of the additional home- 
stead act, and thus obtained an- 
other quarter section. A one time 
neighbor had become dissatisfied. 

The Improvement Era for October, 1931 


and Jonas had purchased his home- 
stead. The proud possessor of 
three adjoining quarter sections, 
he yearned to complete the square. 
The coveted remaining quarter, 
"The north easter quarter," to 
be exact, contained a spring which 
rose at the extreme edge of the 
claim, where Cripple Creek sup- 
plied the waters which irrigated the 
Whitman fields. Jonas had right 
to all the water of this creek. But 
this was not enough. He wanted 
more land; more water. He want- 
ed to be sole owner of a section of 
land. From generations of land- 
less fathers back in England, the 
yearning to hold lands had come 
as an insatiable inheritance. While 
he had looked dreamy, his brain 
had actually been planning and 
scheming how to obtain possession 
of that desirable quarter section. 

LrfOTT GASCOM, whose 
slanting, shifting eyes were fit com- 
panions for his shaggy, unkempt 
hair, lived in Cripple Creek can- 
yon and operated a cheese factory. 
His premises were uninviting and 
littered. A pack of ferocious 
hounds lay about, making travel 
hazardous for any strangers who 
passed. His daughter Lulu was his 
sole companion. She rode the 
range for the cows, and aided her 
father in the manufacture of cheese. 
Lott Gascom had little regard for 
law and order. He could not home- 
stead for there were secret details 
of his earlier life which naturaliza- 
tion would have revealed. But 
cheese making required cows and 
cows required pasture, so he had 
fenced in that particular quarter 
section which Jonas Whitman 
coveted. Whenever he felt that 
this particular pasture needed more 
water than the spring afforded, he 
tapped the Whitman carefully 
banked ditches. For several years 
Jonas Whitman made no comment. 
He did not even raise the question 
of ownership on the land. With 
a fine regard for the brains of a 
man who wrote poetry and read 
. law, other neighbors assumed that 
Lott had gained possession, and 
went about their own tasks. Lott 
Gascom smiled secretly. These 
westerners were easy. He was get- 
ting free pasture and free water, 
and a fine price for his cheese. Once, 
as a means of toying with trouble, 
he drove in a calf that belonged 

Consistently Low Prices and 
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That's the reason why Sears, Roebuck and 
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twelve million regular customers! The savings 
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the wiseness of patronizing the thrift store of 
the nation, keeping in their pockets the money 
saved for them by us. 

Sears-Roebuck & Company 

Broadway and Stare 

Salt Lake City, Utah 

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More Leisure Hours for 

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The Improvement Era for October, 1931 

The Art 

of all Arts 




Distinctively Done 








29 Richards St. 
Salt Lake City 



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to the Whitman ranch and brand- 
ed it for his own. Still there was 
no complaint. The Whitman 
boys came regularly for cheese, al- 
ways on horse back, always with 
a stout whip to quiet the dogs. 

But Jonas Whitman had been 
biding his time. He had made 
frequent trips to the land office, 
and knew what he was doing. 
Early one spring morning Gloria 
found him consulting the family 
Bible. "I wanted to know Rod- 
ney's exact age," he explained. 
"He will soon be twenty-one." 

Presently lumber 

arrived from the mill and window 
sash and door frames came by 
freight. Jonas soon followed, and 
all these supplies were hauled to 
the very edge of the land fenced 
in by Lott Gascom. Without 
having previously disclosed his 
plans, Jonas wakened Rodney be- 
fore dawn one morning and urged 
him to dress hurriedly. 

"You are twenty-one today, 
my son. I am taking you to file 
on land." 

"I don't care to own land," 
grumbled Rodney sleepily. 

"Don't worry about owning 
the land," laughed Jonas. "Some 
day you will thank me. Now, all 
you do is sign the papers. I do 
all the rest." 

"I hate cows and plows," con- 
tinued Rodney, unconscious of 
his rhyme. 

But his protests were unavail- 
ing. Hardly aware of what he 
was doing, Rodney was hurried to 
the land office. There, still some- 
what confused, he signed the ne- 
cessary papers that he was twenty- 
one years of age; that he desired 
to homestead land; that the desired 
piece he wanted was the northeast 
quarter of section — it was too con- 
fusing to remember. Jonas Whit- 
man did the talking, and paid the 
fees. Hurriedly the return trip was 
made. All other work was sus- 
pended. All hands were pressed 
into service. The fence which Lott 
Gascom had flaunted to the world 
was cut, and in a very short time 
a one room "residence" was built 
on the new claim. By night fur- 
niture, bedding and food supplies 
had been moved over. And Rod- 
ney Whitman, twenty-one, slept 
in his own bed, in his own house, 
on his own homestead. 

"I don't want to live here 

alone," he protested with more 

vehemence than he had ever shown. 

"I don't want this ground. I 

hate plowing." 

"I will attend to the cultiva- 
tion," answered his father. "I 
have borne all of Lott Gascom's 
thievery against this day. I want- 
ed him to hold the land until you 
were of age. Now, let him try 
to pasture his cows here. Let him 
try to grow grass with my water. 
Let him steal another calf." 

"I won't live here five years," 
asserted Rodney. 

"Did you not notice that I paid 
heavily for the land? $1.25 per 
acre, so that you need live here on- 
ly fourteen months. If I had not 
paid, you would have had to stick 
it out five years to gain title. A 
whole, unbroken section all my 
own!" he cried exultingly. "Six 
hundred and forty acres of land, 
with water! How many titled 
lords, back in England, would ex- 
change places with me!" 

Rodney was not thinking of 
lords, nor of free lands. He was 
thinking of the delicate curve of 
Victoria's neck, and felt a surge 
of anger at Aunt Catherine who 
kept her virtually a slave. 

Lott Gascom's shifting eyes 
drew together in a heavy scowl 
when Jonas Whitman called upon 
him the next morning, and or- 
dered him to move his cows. 

"Revenge I will have!" he shook 
his fist at the smiling Jonas, and 
his voice rose to a trembling cres- 
cendo. "I will have my fence 
back. My cows die — we make no 
cheese — we starve!" He waved 
his hand toward Lulu, who at 
sixteen had blossomed into full 
womanhood. Her black curls, her 
red cheeks, heightened with a gay 
ribbon, gave a transitory charm 
to her slattern beauty. "My dogs," 
Lott gave a loud call and the pack 
gathered around him eager for ac- 
tion— "my dogs they know how 
to kill." 


ONAS closed his saw 
mill. He had been losing money on 
it for years. He began to check over 
the grocery lists, omitting items 
which he considered luxuries. He 
ignored Aunt Catherine's request 
for a daily fire in the parlor. He 
ignored her complaint that the but- 

The Improvement Era for October, 1931 


ter was getting scarce, and that 
there was not even an occasional 
dish of cream. The price of a car 
of grain which he shipped east 
went to purchase a gravelly, point- 
ed hill near the railroad tracks. 
Its sage and oak brush growth was 
thin and scraggly. It did not even 
have a value as pasture. 

"You already have more land 
than you can cultivate," protested 
Gloria, thinking of the many 
things which the children needed. 

The visionary expression came 
again into his eyes. 

'The day will come when this 
railroad will double track and 
gravel will be needed. The man 
who owns that point at that time 
will have a small fortune." 

Perhaps it was ail 

true, but Gloria felt the pressing 
urge of immediate needs. Money for 
winter clothing was not forthcom- 
ing. She saw a picture in a farm 
magazine of a new kind of gar- 
ment which you made with knit- 
ting needles. It was called a 
sweater. The picture was certain- 
ly alluring. She could knit! In 
an abandoned closet there ;were 
skeins and skeins of yarn, pur- 
chased for some forgotten purpose, 
before her marriage. Little Peter 
and the infant Nancy, and the frail 
Anna could yet have warm cloth- 
ing. Hour after hour she worked, 
picking up the pattern, urging her 
fingers until they became nimble 
again. Aunt Catherine hinted for 
warm biscuits; still Gloria knitted. 
Rodney came for food supplies 
which Victoria, blushing prettily, 
got together for him. Gloria did 
not care whether the older people 
were fed or not. She carefully 
stored away enough milk to sup- 
ply the three little children for 
the entire day, and applied herself 
to her task. 

"There seems to be no milk." 
Aunt Catherine's monotone was 
gently complaining. "Not even 
milk, let alone cream." 

"Rodney or Victoria will have 
to do the milking," Gloria did 
not even look up. Click — click, 
flew the needles — she must finish 
her sock before dark. 

Aunt Catherine lost her placidi- 
ty. "Did I hear you aright?" She 
assumed a dignified, statuesque at- 
titude. "Do you infer that my 
Victoria shall milk a cow? Are 
we not guests in my brother's 

home? Do you know that my 
mother was fifth lady in waiting 
to Queen Victoria until she mar- 
ried my father? Do you know 
that the king once falconed on 
my grandfather's estate? Are 
guests expected to work? My child 
do menial work — never!" 

Click — click — click flew Gloria's 
needles. The dark would come 
all too soon. Suddenly she re- 
membered the day she had snatched 
the whip from the stage driver. 
Now she was snatching the whip 
of indolence from Aunt Catherine. 

"Those who do not work, do 

not eat." She was surprised at 
her own courage. 

Victoria sensed a 

quarrel and hoped to avert it. She 
was amiable and hated dissension. 
She snatched up a shawl and picked 
up a bucket. 

"I would rather milk than comb 
mother's hair!" she cried as she ran 
out of the house. She, too, was 
brave beyond her expectations. 
Aunt Catherine stood gaping at 
the door where Victoria had disap- 

How about 

in Business? 

Are there too many stenog- 
raphers ? 

"What are the chances for 
employment in offices? 

Does it pay to get business 
training now? 

Is idleness better than 

WHY train for business when 
many offices are not hiring 
new employees now?" This 
is a question which we are sometimes 

It is no secret that times are harder 
than usual this year. Men and women 
are out of work in every line. 

Probably no class of workers has 
been left less affected by the depression, 
however, than the trained office work- 
ers. Because of their specialized abil- 
ity, they cannot easily be replaced, and 
they are kept on the pay roll in spite 
of business conditions. 

Business activity does not completely 
cease when there is a business depres- 
sion. Stenographers and bookkeepers 
are being promoted to executive posi- 
tions every day. Young women in of- 
fices are being married and must be 
replaced. New businesses are being 
launched and new offices are being 
opened. The chances for securing em- 
ployment by the trained office worker 
are probably as great as in any voca- 

tion, even today. And when greater 
activity comes from returning prosper- 
ity, it is the trained young people who 
will prosper with the times. 

When vacancies do exist in offices, 
The L. D. S. Business College gets its 
full share of the calls. Through the 
past 40 years, business men have been 
depending upon us for trained office 
employees. They rely upon us today 
is in the past; and if business positions 
are available anywhere, they are likely 
to be available through our Place- 
ment Department. 

Those who prepare themselves will 
eventually be rewarded. Those who 
do nothing can expect nothing in re- 
turn. To their lot falls the hardest 
work and poorest pay in after years. 

If you have confidence in yourself, 
if you believe that you can make good 
if you are given a chance, then this is 
the time to get your training. We 
invite you to call at the school office 
for further discussion of your personal 
situation; or to mail the attached cou- 
oon for detailed information. 


80 North Main 

Gentlemen : 

Please send me further information regarding the opportunities in business and 
the training required to secure a good position in an office. 

This will not obligate me in any way. 



Occupation Age 



The Improvement Era for October, 1931 

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"That my daughter should 
work," she moaned. "To what 
depths have I fallen!" 

Rodney, on his daily visit, saw 
Victoria trudging toward the barn- 
yard and felt a respect for her 
pluck. "Hi, Vic," he called, *T11 
milk two to your one; is it a go?" 

As she knitted and purled, 
Gloria thought of the Prince and 
the Pauper, the book which had 
never been read. How she longed 
to go up there for seclusion — for 
peace, for a brief respite from the 
cares which seemed to crush in 
upon her. Fingers, hurry. Socks 
must be made for the three chil- 
dren. Six pairs, at least. And 
three sweaters. 

CjLORIA washed the 
dishes after the others slept. There 
were not so many, for Aunt Cather- 
ine had refused to set a table. There 
had been milk a plenty, for Rod- 
ney's contest with Victoria had 
resulted in brimming pails. There 
was milk for breakfast too. She 
sliced bacon and set the mush to 
soak, mixed the bread and washed 
the milk buckets. As she opened 
the door to throw out the last 
water, a slender dark form stepped 
into the shaft of light. 

"Lady," it was the voice of a 
boy and Gloria lost her sudden 
sense of fear, "lady, could you give 
me a job and a place to sleep, and 
a meal?" 

The Whitman door had never 
been closed against the wayfarer. 
That was an unwritten code. Al- 
though there were none too many 
provisions in the pantry, Gloria 
opened the door wider and mo- 
tioned for him to enter. A slender, 
refined, well-dressed boy stood be- 
fore her. He was evidently not 
of the common order of tramps. 
The valise which he carried was 
made of leather. His clothes were 
new. his shoes substantial and 

"My name is Francis Conrad. 
My folks came originally from 
Iowa. I am thirteen and I want 
work. I am strong. I can learn. 
I don't want wages. Only a place 
to stay." He twirled a new felt 
hat nervously as he made his plea. 
His eyes wandered longingly to the 
table, where stood a pan of milk. 

Gloria fed him and asked no 
embarrassing questions. When he 
had eaten she took him up to the 

store room, where there was still a 
vacant bed. 


.FTER all the tasks 
were finished she took up her lamp. 
There was still a half inch of oil. 
Perhaps she could look at the il- 
lustrations in that book. Perhaps 
she could read a little — -just a very 
little. Surely they would not flog 
a true Prince of England. She 
held her lamp in one hand and 
went into the library. 

When Jonas came home he 
promptly engaged this new boy to 
do all the chores. The task of 
enforcing employment upon Rod- 
ney was too much for his father, 
the boy contending that if he had 
to prove up on land, he should 
not be expected to do anything 
else. Jonas accepted the newcomer 
for what he said he was, and 
asked no questions. Through the 
vicissitudes of pioneering and rail- 
roading, he had come to respect the 
silences of men. But it was piti- 
fully evident that this boy was 
not accustomed to hard labor. His 
hands were soft and tender. One 
day of pitching hay to the cattle, 
and his hands were blistered. 
Gloria knitted him a pair of mit- 
tens. His feet became frost-bitten. 
and he suffered with chillblains. 
Still, he stuck pluckily to the work. 

One day in the early spring 
Jonas requested him to go to Lott 
Gascom's for cheese. 

Francis was eagerly willing to 
serve. He took the money for the 
cheese, and the burlap sack in 
which to carry it. Yes, he knew 
the way. He had seen the house 
when he rode for a lost calf. 

'That man keeps dogs. Sort 
of nasty ones, you know. Here. 
take my buckskin coat. Be care- 
ful." said Jonas. 

waited a long while, hoping Jonas 

The Improvement Era for October, 1931 


Whitman would send his son for 
cheese. He chafed under the sting 
of losing such valuable pasture. 
The knowledge that Jonas had let 
him play a bluff until Rodney was 
of proper age, was galling. There 
was no redress; no come back. 
It was all lawful. Besides, he was 
not a citizen of the United States. 
But some of his ancestors had 
known how to knife an adversary 
in the back, and the shifting eyes 
and the unkempt hair covered a 
brain that watched for revenge. 

Twilight came early in Cripple 
Creek Canyon. While the sun had 
not set when Francis rode away 
from the Whitman home, shadows 
were gathering as he approached 
the dilapidated premises of Lott 
Gascom. Lulu was in the house 
dividing her time between a lovely 
new book with a yellow cover and 
the scanty evening meal. Lott 
leaned against the wall in a broken 
chair. The sound of approaching 
hoofs reached his ear. Instantly 
he was alert. A customer was 
coming. The sale of another 
cheese would be acceptable. It 
meant more tobacco, more corn 
meal, another of those books for 
Lulu. Pleasure turned to exulta- 
tion when Lott recognized the 
buckskin coat of Jonas' Whitman. 
He let the horseman come fairly 
close, then whistled quickly, fierce- 
ly. The seven dogs rushed from 
under the house like an advancing 
horde; they threw themselves at the 
old plow horse which floundered 
helplessly under their attack. They 
leaped upward, joyously eager for 
the permission to give battle. 

"Nice doggies! Nice doggies!" 
called Francis. But his voice had 
no weight against their cries. He 
reached out his hand to pat the 
nearest head, thinking to be friend- 
ly, and his reward was a quick, 
sharp bite. He screamed in fright. 
The horse plunged wildly, the 
dogs leaped higher in the joy of 
conflict. The largest of the pack 
caught Francis' foot in a terrific 
grip, against which the boy had 
no chance. He lost his hold on 
the bridle, the old horse gave an- 
other plunge, and the boy fell to 
the ground. Lott Gascom at first 
felt that Rodney had become wo- 
manish. Where was his whip, 
which had heretofore put fear into 
the dogs? Where was his horse, 
so skilled in kicking? Well, the 

revenge was plenty. He called the 
dogs off, and sauntered up to the 
prostrate boy. 

"Guess your dad won't jump 
my land again," he began and 
stopped open mouthed. This boy 
was not Rodney Whitman. This 
boy was white-faced — his hand 
bore ugly teeth marks. Blood was 
oozing from his foot above his 
shoe. Francis had fainted. Lott 
Gascom was frightened into silence. 
But he did get out his old light 
wagon and took the suffering boy 
back to the ranch. Jonas Whitman 
did not need to ask questions. 

Francis was laid tenderly on the 
kitchen couch, and all flew to obey 
Gloria's orders. They put up a 
bed in the parlor, beside the wax 
flowers and the big piano. Aided 
with a lantern, Anna gathered 
sagebrush leaves for tea. These 
Gloria steeped and used rags dipped 
in the tea to bind the wounds. But 
a flush rose to Francis' face, and 
no fever reducing perspiration ap- 
peared. His whole body became 
hot and dry. In moments of 
spasmodic sleep he called wildly; 
"Nice doggie! Nice doggie!" 

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The Improvement Era for October, 1931 

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ONAS sent to the city 
for turpentine. He knew a doctor 
who had used it on a man who 
was hurt on the railroad. Still 
the fever did not subside. Aunt 
Catherine forgot to complain. 
Victoria milked the cows without 
comment. Rodney came and hoed 
feverishly in the garden, cutting 
off weeds and potatoes alike, or 
stood white faced at the parlor 

"Nice doggie!" called Francis. 
"I'll write to mother!" 

Gloria felt she could do no 
more. If there was a mother 
somewhere for this boy, she should 
know of his sickness. But the boy 
had been reticent and evasive about 
his family; he had written no let- 
ters and received no mail. So Gloria 
went up to the store room and 
found his valise. There were his 
regular clothes. Another suit; 
several shirts. Plenty of store 
made socks. Down at the bottom 
of the valise, in a neat leather 
folder, she found what she sought. 
A card said simply: 

"In case of accident, notify my father 
Judge Truman Conrad." 



austere judge who came regularly 
to their own county seat to mete 
out justice! What sort of justice 
had lie issued to his son, to send 
him away from home. Only 
forty miles away, they were won- 
dering where their son was. 

There was but one thing to do. 
Gloria went out to the milk cellar, 
and from the dirt floor she pulled 
up a small crock. In the bottom 
tinkled a few coins. Whether the 
children had shoes or not, this egg 
money was needed now. Without 
returning to the house for a wrap 
or to explain her absence, she 
turned into the road toward the 
station and the post office. It was 
three miles, but this was urgent. 
A message must go to Judge Tru- 
man Conrad, or else the boy 
would die. 

Click, click, the portentous 
words went over the wire: 

"Bring a d'octor and a carriage and dog 
bite medicine to the ranch of Jonas Whit- 
man to save your son Francis." 

IHE precious egg money 
was nearly all gone, but it made 
no difference. 

Dawn brought no improve- 
ment. Rodney looked sick, Jonas 
was deathly white. The boy on 
the bed moaned and tossed in his 
fever. "Nice doggie! Nice dog- 
gie!" he called. Gloria had done 
her best. She had spent her last 
dollar; she had prayed, while Jo- 
nas thought her sleeping. 

Then came a welcome sound on 
the small stones which formed the 
back dooryard. Victoria came 
rushing in with the news; a car- 
riage had arrived, a beautiful black 
carriage with two prancing horses. 
There were three men, one with a 

"Just like the king, coming to 
my grandfather's estate," Aunt 
Catherine was all importance. Yes, 
there was a sick boy here; yes, he 
had been bitten by dogs. Yes, she 
had helped care for him. What 
lovely horses! 

IT took only a few mo- 
ments for the doctor to give Francis 
a quieting medicine; to swab the 
ugly wounds with a dark brown 
liquid which he called iodine. 
They prepared a bed in the carri- 
age; the doctor asked short, terse 
questions which Gloria answered 
with clarity. 

"Your sage tea and turpentine 
were all that saved him," the doc- 
tor's verdict sounded like paeans of 
joy to Gloria. 

"I thought he had gone to Cali- 
fornia!" The frantic father was 
no longer the grave, austere judge. 
"I never dreamed he would hide 
out so near home. He wants to 
study bugs and beetles and bees! 
I want him to study law. And 
rather than study law, he ran 

When they were ready to leave, 
Francis was conscious enough to 
smile his gratitude to Gloria. 
Judge Conrad drew a card from 
his pocket, wrote on it quickly and 
handed it to Gloria. "If you ever 
need help," he said gravely, "send 
or bring this card to me." 

"Here, Mrs. Whitman," the doc- 
tor handed Gloria the partial bottle 
of iodine, "if you ever have an- 
other such case, this may help you 
more than sage tea." His glance 
swept the entire room, resting on 
the gourds on the what-not. 

"Those are certainly unique," 
he picked up one and examined it 
critically. "Don't suppose you 
would care to sell me one?" He 

The Improvement Era for October, 1931 


reached for the gourd with the cur- 
ved handle, where the trapped 
monkey squirmed vainly to escape 
with his sugar. "I'll give you 
twenty-five dollars for it!" he 

Gloria thought of 

the empty crock in the cellar floor; 
of the coming winter and its needs. 
But there was her father's admon- 
ition: "Keep them with you al- 

'They are not for sale." Her 
answer was almost a whisper. 
They were gone. The driver 
guiding his team carefully, to a- 
void all possible jars. Aunt Cath- 
erine craned her neck to catch the 
last fleeting glimpse of the shiny 
carriage. Gloria went back into 
the parlor, littered with the confu- 
sion of a sick room, still smelling 
of the turpentine and sage. One 
of the wax domes had been cracked, 
some of the everlasting daisies had 
been ground into the carpet. But 
the twelve gourds still remained 
intact on the what-not. 

O UT in the kitchen 
Rodney was groping in the empty 
wood box for whittling material. 

Victoria was combing Aunt Cath- 
erine's hair. The empty milk buck- 
ets stood upon the table. Peter 
had come downstairs. He was 
crouched up against the wall be- 
hind the . stove, whimpering for 

"All it needed to make it look 
exactly like a king's carriage, was 
a coat-of-arms," Aunt Catherine's 
voice was droningly even. "A 
coat-of-arms does add distinction 
to an estate. I should love one 
done in blue and gold. The Whit- 
man family are entitled to one, too. 
King George, when he falconed on 
my grandfather's estate, gave them 
one. I declare Gloria, I can't see 
why you refused to sell that gourd 
to the doctor. Twenty-five dol- 
lars would have been most wel- 
come. A new brush and comb 
would be most acceptable." 

Gloria made no answer. She 
merely took up the milk buckets 
and set out for the barn. As she 
passed the cellar, she put the crock 
back in its hiding place and drop- 
ped forty cents, the remains from 
the telegram, into it. It meant the 
price of one little shoe for one lit- 
tle foot. 

(To be continued) 

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The Improvement Era for October, 1931 

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^The Unfinished Song- 

foolish toys that walked stiffly on 
the floor or table. In the bottom 
of the box was a picture. of Paula, 
but Carl's eyes saddened as he 
looked at it for it was not the 
home-loving Paula who had gone 
away six months before. Her 
smooth, honey-colored hair had 
been artistically waved and her 
smile — well, it was not the spon- 
taneous smile which had been one 
of Paula's chief charms. 

1HE picture was care- 
fully placed against the sugar-bowl 
while the men were eating. They 
played she was really with them 
and were very careful to pass her 
the choicest bits of food. 

New Year's day passed and Val- 
entine brought Carl a big candy 
heart pierced by a golden arrow, 
but Paula's letter dwelt upon the 
plans for her coming appearance 
and not upon Carl or her home. 

The farm work was doubled 
with the plowing and then trebled 
as Carl worked to get his crops 
in. Almost before he knew it 
summer had come. 

He had wondered often which 
season he liked best. Spring was 
filled with the warm winds that 
carried hints of growing things. 
Summer was glowing with rich- 
ness, and autumn fulfilled spring's 
promises. Even winter was lovely 
because then the soil he loved rested 
after her travail, and he thought 
sadly of his hopes and Paula's of 
a fruitful married life. 

Continued from? 
page 726 

He couldn't live in the city. His. 
feet were too firmly planted in 
the soil which he and Paula too, 
at one time, had loved as they 
loved each other. The house was 
full of memories and these would 
have to satisfy him. 

LIE was busy packing 
his bag the day before they were 
to leave, when he stopped at the 
window to watch as the last rays 
of the sun touched the pine trees. 
He thought that the darkness so 
soon to follow could be no deeper 
than that of his life without his 

He idly watched a car traveling 
swiftly up the valley. As it drew 
nearer he recognized John's car, 
and ran rapidly downstairs for 
only something of importance 
could make John travel so swiftly. 
His friend jumped from the car 
and ran to the house waving a 
pale yellow sheet of paper. 

Carl's heart beat with quick, 
paralyzing thumps. At this time 
a wire could only mean bad news. 
He couldn't see the, words when 
the paper was thrust in his hand. 
He stared stupidly at it. 

"She is coming home, Carl." 
John said quietly. 

Then Carl found strength to 
read the words. 

"Paula leaving New York to- 
day. Airmail letter follows. Don't 

"Stephen Howard." 

1 AULA had begun 
sending clippings from eastern pa- 
pers. They were clever little items 
hinting at the surprise in store for 
music lovers. As the time drew 
nearer to Paula's debut they be- 
came more glowing, heralding, ac- 
cording to the writer, the coming 
of one of the greatest singers the 
country had produced. 

Paula's excited letters were full 
of gowns and costumes. 

Carl and John were to leave 
on the first of October and both 
looked forward eagerly to their 
trip. But in his heart Carl feared 
to go. He was afraid his visit 
would break the slender tie that 
now bound them together, their 
lives holding so little in common. 

WNLY John saw the 
agony of that wait to Carl. He 
cleaned the house thoroughly. He 
chopped wood until it filled the 
wood-shed to overflowing and still 
John saw, in his eyes, the ques- 
tions that were running through 
his mind. The older man stayed 
with him, calming him with his 
own quiet strength. 

At last the letter came, but it 
was to John. 

"Dear John, 

'You were right as you always 
are. I had no business interfering 
with the lives of two people. I 
hope the damage can be repaired, 
but I'm afraid. 

"Paula was singing Tuesday- — 
her first pretentious attempt with 

The Improvement Era for October, 1931 


a full orchestra, and it was mar- 
velous. I thought she was perfect 
when I first heard her, but you 
should have heard her after a year 
and a half with Carrel. She sang 
as I think no one has ever sung be- 
fore. Then suddenly, what started 
out to be a beautiful high note, 
changed to a harsh, cracked sob. 

"Carrel, of course, was frantic. 
I looked at her throat and then 
called Dr. Sargent, the specialist. 
You know him by reputation. He 
says her trouble is more nervous 
than anything else. But she can't 
sing a note. 

"Sargent says she may sing 
again, providing she has complete 
rest and quiet, in a month or a 
year. Or she may never sing again. 

"I am writing to you instead 
of Carl because you can tell him 
in a kinder way than I can. He 
isn't to worry about the money, 
it means nothing to me. 

"Paula says nothing but I am 
sure she is heartbroken and I blame 
myself severely. I promised her 
everything and fate refused to keep 
the promise. 

"Paula will arrive at Pineland 
Friday at 2:55 p. m. I'm glad 
that you will be with them. 

"Stephen Howard." 

John handed the letter to Carl. 
It seemed the best thing to do. 

r EW words were spoken 
between the two men the rest of 
that night. Carl's mind was a 
jumble of emotions. He was happy 
because he was to see Paula again 
in their own home. But Dr. 
Howard said that she was heart- 
broken, and his own heart ached 
for her. He doubted that she could 
ever be happy again in this quiet 
place, after the crowds and noise 
of a big city. And Paula had 
loved to sing. Could she be happy 
if her lovely voice had turned to 
dry, choking sobs? 

John called for Carl at noon 
the next day. They were to drive 
to Pineland together. Carl was 
silent and worried. 

"It can't be the same again, 

"No, it won't be the same, but 
maybe you can find happiness 
again, Carl." 

"I don't see how. Paula didn't 
want to go at first, but when she 
got over her homesickness she was 


What is the purpose of issuing the ERA? 

THE EDITOR says to place before the reader 
some of the ways to improve in moral consciousness. 

THE ADVERTIZER to acquaint you with results 
of what improved methods has done for you. 

THE ARTIST to improve your values of beauty. 

Ail these qualities are represented in no one 
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Our new catalog is one of the most complete, 
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We will gladly loan you a copy of any of our 
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JOHN HANSEN, Pres. and Mgr. 
Was. 999 33 W. Bdwy., Salt Lake City, Utah 



We Invite You To See Our 
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K.-D" Y- 

THE po pular STATION 


The Improvement Era for October, 1931 




for $25.00 

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purchase and 
give you the 

The house of virgin diamonds 




Index to Advertisers 

Company Page 

Baker Motor Company 759 

Beet Sugar , 749 

Beneficial Life Insurance Co.— -Back Cover 

Bennett Glass S Paint Co. 743 

Brainard's Dairy 1 747 

Broadway Felt Co. 748 

Bureau of Information 747 

Citizens Coal Company 739 

Clover Leaf -Harris Dairy 743 

Cutler's Clothes Co. 746 

Deseret Book Company 738 

Deseret Building Society 749 

Deseret News Press 752 

Eureka Vacuum Cleaner Co. 749 

Ghirardelli, D. Co. 747 

Granite Furniture Co. 740 

Grant, Heber J. Co. 751 

Husler Flour Mills, The 742 

Independent Coal 8 Coke Co 746 

ilntermountain Broadcasting Co. 

(K D Y L) 75 9 

Jensens Jewelers 760 

Kewanee Boiler Corp. 748 

Knight Fuel Company -, 756 

L. D. S. Business College 753 

McCune School of Music 8 Art 739 

Mountain States Implement Co. 

Inside Front Cover 

Murray Laundry 751 

Parry 8 Parry, Ltd. 747 

Pembroke & Company 742 

Portland Cement Ass'n 748 

Quish School of Beauty Culture 750 

Safety Brakes Co. . 757 

Salt Lake Cabinet S Fixture Co 745 

:Salt Lake Casket Co. 744 

Salt Lake Costume Co 75 9 

Salt Lake Hardware Co. — 745 

Salt Lake Knitting Co - ,____745 

Sears Roebuck 8 Co. 751 

Sego Milk Company 741 

Shapiro Trunk & Bag Co 745 

Stringham, Benjamin B. 741 

Taylor, Joseph Wm., Inc. . — 744 

Troy Laundry Company 75 

Utah Gas 8 Coke Co 758 

Utah High School of Beauty Culture„752 
Utah Oil Refining Co.__ Inside Back Cover 

Utah Power 8 Light Co. 754 

Utah Savings 8 Trust Co 740 

Woodruff, Owen W. 755 

Z. C. M. I. 757 

carried away by her happiness and 
her ambition." 

'Yes, I know, Carl, but don't 
worry. You can't settle anything 
until you've seen her." 

So they rode the rest of the way 
in silence. 

1 T was a tear-stained 
Paula who left the train a few 
minutes later. She seemed her old 
self as she ran to Carl', but an 
aloofness returned as she shook 
hands with John, and took her 
seat in the car. 

John would have left them at 
their door, but Paula insisted that 
he stay for dinner. She seemed 
afraid to let him go. 

She left the two men to stir 
up the fire while she went up- 
stairs to put on one of the house 
dresses left hanging in her closet. 
Carl had asked her not to put 
them away. He said she seemed 
nearer while they were hanging 

Dinner was prepared and eaten 
almost in silence. John longed 
to relieve the tension but could 
think of no way. If Carl had 
suffered before he was suffering 
more intensely now. Paula was 
nervous and it seemed hard for her 
to speak. 

Later they sat in the living room 
in darkness until Carl touched a 
match to the fire already laid in 
the fireplace. 

Paula stood looking slowly 
around the room. She saw the win- 
dows with their blooming plants, 
the big chair with the bright 
chintz cover where Carl liked to 
rest after a hard day in the fields. 
And then she let her eyes rest 
upon the piano. Both men saw 
them film with tears, and Carl's 
heart ached with her pain. Then 
she looked at the shelf above the 
fire-place where Carl had placed the 
picture she had sent at Christmas 

"Who put that there?" 


to be to please you. I know you 
are both disappointed in me be- 
cause I can't become famous. 
That's why I've hated coming 
home, but I don't care any more. 
I was afraid of the people and 
the noise and most of all of Carrel. 
I lied in my letters so you would 
think I liked being what you want- 
ed me to be. But I couldn't for- 
get my home — and you, Carl. I 
just couldn't." 

The hysterical note was rising 
higher and higher as she dropped 
on her knees at his feet. 

"I tell you I was glad when 
I couldn't sing anymore." 

John left the room and, sitting 
alone beside the warm kitchen 
stove, he thought that fate was a 
pretty good judge of promises after 

>|s j|c ^l ^c ■% 

OHORTLY after Paula's 
failure, John took a long contem- 
plated trip abroad which consumed 
a full year. Upon his return the 
haze of late autumn covered the 
fields, and the mountains were 
glorious in their brown and scarlet 
dress. He decided to walk to the 
Polster farm, more fully to enjoy 
the beauty he so much loved. 

At the gate he stopped in amaze- 
ment. Paula was singing happily 
— her voice more beautiful than 
it had ever been before — not one 
of Handel's or Wagner's master- 
pieces, but a motherly, crooning 



'OHN heard the harsh, 
cracked note as she spoke. 

She ran to the fireplace and tore 
the picture across. Then she faced 
the two surprised men. Her lips 
were stiff and her face was white 
and tense. 

"I hate that picture. I'm not 
like that. It's the way I've tried 

LOVE you for what you are, 
but I love you yet more for 
what you are going to be. 

I love you not so much for your 
realities as for your ideals. I pray 
for your desires that they may be 
great, rather than for your satis- 
factions, which may be so hazard- 
ously little. 

A satisfied flower is one whose 
petals are about to fall. The most 
beautiful rose is one hardly more 
than a bud wherein the pangs and 
ecstasies of desire are working for 
larger and finer growth. 

Not always shall you be what 
you are now, 

You are going forward toward 
something great. I am on the way 
with you and therefore I love you. 

— Charles Sandburg. 

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