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Full text of "The Improvement Era"



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SEE PAGE 2 



JANUARY, 1939 

VOLUME 42 NUMBER 1 
RETURN POSTAGE GUARANTEED 
SA IT LAKE C tTY, UTAH 




WHttK m HUB (ftp 




.ATER 



MIND IF I STICK AROUND 
AND SEE WHAT KIND OF A JOB 
YOU SHELLUBRICATION 
FELLOWS DO? 




GLAD TO HAVE YOU, SIR 

I'LL GIVE YOU THE 

HIGH SPOTS AS WE 

GO ALONG 




£3 




BEFORE WE LIFT A FINGER 
TO SERVICE YOUR CAR, WE 
GET OUT THIS CHART OF 
YOUR MAKE AND MODEL. 
DEVISED JOINTLY BY SHELL 

ENGINEERS AND THE 
ENGINEERS WHO BUILT YOUR 
CAR, IT TELLS US EXACTLY 
HOW THE JOB SHOULD 
BE DONE 



^ 



....WE USE AS MANY AS ELEVEN 
KINDS OF LUBRICANTS FOR A 
SINGLE CAR. AND THIS VERY 
LATEST EQUIPMENT ENABLES 
US TO REACH ALL THE "HARD- 
TO- GET- AT "POINTS 




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Don't take chances with any kind of 
car greasing. Investigators recently 
discovered that only one out of every 
hundred greasing stations is equipped 
to service a car properly. 

Is it any wonder that faulty lubri- 
cation is estimated to cause over 50% 
of all repair bills today! 

Play safe ... go to your neighbor- 
hood Shell dealer for error- proof, 
thorough SHELLUBRICATION. 
Working with special equipment and a complete stock of Shell - 
engineered oils and greases, trained Shellubrication men see that 
every point on your car gets precisely the service it needs. 

Look for the Shellubrication sign in your own neighborhood. 
Drive in and ask about this modern car upkeep system. 



l^L^LiLtlJJ^L^l^LlI 
The Modern 
eep Service 

f 



ALL THESE EXTRAS WITHOUT EXTRA CHARGE! 

We rubber - dress tires and running boards . . . vacuum 
or brush out upholstery . . . polish windows and shine 
chromium . . . wipe off body . . . silence body squeaks . . . 
check lights . . .check battery — clean lenses . . . and give 
you many other extra services — all without extra charge 



THE IMPROVEMENT ERA, JANUARY, 1939 









3-Unrnatched ability for 
all row-crop work. 



Bnnas You All of These 

VALUABLE ■FEATURES 




• SCORES of valuable improvements 
have been made in Farmall tractors 
since the original FARMALL revolution- 
ized tractor design 16 years ago. The 
greatest all-purpose tractor value on 
the market is today's FARMALL. If you 
want power, insist on smooth, 4-cylin- 
der FARMALL power, with valve-in-head 
efficiency and economy. If you want 
beauty, insist on the useful beauty of 



FARMALL power and performance. If 
you want accessibility, insist on the con- 
venience of Farmall's simple, unclut- 
tered design. If you want to be sure, 
insist on the Red Tractor — the one 
and only genuine FARMALL. On display 
in McCormick-Deering dealer and 
Company -owned branch showrooms 
everywhere. Remember the farmer's 
proudest boast: "I Own a FARMALL !" 



International Harvester Company 

(IHCOHPOHATED) 

180 North Michigan Avenue Chicago, Illinois 



J>ft 



PRICES 



«% 



<?&** 't 3 * *» 



FARMALL 20 equipped 
with rubber tires. This 
rubber-tired tractor 
has been reduced $140. 




McCORMICK-DEERING FARMALL 



Hi • 



> - .■ .-,■-' 



/MmprooementEra 



'The Glory of God is Intelligence' 



JANUARY, 1939 



VOLUME 42 



NUMBER 1 



V THE VOICE OF THE CHURCH' 



OFFICIAL ORGAN OF THE PRIESTHOOD QUORUMS, 
MUTUAL IMPROVEMENT ASSOCIATIONS, DEPART- 
MENT OF EDUCATION, MUSIC COMMITTEE, WARD 
TEACHERS, AND OTHER AGENCIES OF THE CHURCH 
OF JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER-DAY SAINTS. 



Heber J. 


Grant, 




John A. 


Widtsoe, 

Editors 




Richard L. Evans, 






Managing 


Editor 


Marba C 


. Josephson, 






Associate Editor 


George Q. 


Morris, General Mgr. 




Lucy G. Cannon, Associate Mgr. 




I. K. Orton 


, Business Mgr, 





JjobJbL d$* CofdtsmiA. 



Anti-Liquor-Tobacco Campaign 



.Heber J, Grant 7 



Greetings of the First Presidency 5 

Evidences and Reconciliations John A» Widtsoe 6 

Tribute to a Leader Richard L» Evans 8 

There Stands a Man Richard L. Evans 9 

Portrait of a Young Man — Part 3 Rachel Grant Taylor 12 

The Story of Our Hymns George D, Pyper 22 

An Imperial Luau Emma K. Mossman 24 

Lehi's Route to America C. Douglas Barnes 26 

Song: Seek Not for Riches Music by George H* Durham 30 



Church Moves On 33 

Priesthood: Melchizedek 36 

Aaronic 39 

Ward Teaching 41 

Genealogical Society 42 

Mutual Messages: 

Executives' Greeting 43 

Executives 43 

Effective Librarianship, Au- 



relia Bennion 45 

Adults 45 

M Men 45 

Gleaners 47 

M Men-Gleaners 47 

Explorers 48 

Juniors 48 

Boy Scouts ..48 

Bee-Hive Girls 48 

Field Photos .....44, 46 



Sp&ooL JszobuMA. 



The Power to Achieve Earl J, Glade 10 

Utah's Pioneer Women Doctors — Part I — Romania B. Pratt 

Claire W* Noall 16 

The Protestors of Christendom — Part X James L, Barker 20 



Exploring the Universe, Frank- 
lin S. Harris, Jr 3 

On the Book Rack 31 

Homing: Spice of the Meal, 



Mathilda Buron 34 

Here's How 35 

Index to Advertisers 44 

Your Page and Ours 64 



"Of One Blood" John A, Widtsoe 32 

Young People Going to Large Cities Presiding Bishopric 32 

Jidwn, (posdfuy, tfAjoA&tvjcfuL (pu&lsL 

"O Frabjous Day" Estelle Webb Thomas 14 

The Native Blood— Chapter 3 Albert R, Lyman 18 

Confidence — A Short Short Story Lorin F. Butler 23 

Frontispiece: Pattern of Trees, Wallace 8 

Vesta P. Crawford 4 Poetry Page 29 

To Heber J. Grant, by John M. Scriptural Crossword Puzzle 62 

JhsL Qov&Jv 

This prize-winning photograph is by John Muller of New York City, by whose 
generous courtesy it is reproduced as our January cover. Its intense feeling is 
composed both of realism and symbolism, as it makes one aware of winter with its 
beauties and its ravages. 



(Dd y^UL JilWW- 

How one man stopped smoking? 
Page 1 

What relationship has been dis- 
covered between tobacco and can- 
cer of the lungs? Page 3 

What the First Presidency have to 

say in their annual greeting? 

Page 5 

Where the "lost tribes" are? Page 6 

What President Grant says concern- 
ing the Church-wide Anti-tobacco- 
liquor Campaign? Page 7 

What notables of Church, state, and 
business said about the President 
of the Church on the Twentieth 
Anniversary of his Presidency ?_„. 
Page 8 

How a young man can acquire the 
power to achieve? Page 10 

Who were the pioneer women doc- 
tors of the West and how they 

"broke" into the profession? 

Page 16 

What changed Luther from a de- 
vout priest to a Protestor?.._.Page 20 

What is an "Imperial Luau?"__Page 24 

What are some of the speculative 
views concerning Lehi's Route to 
America? Page 26 

What word has gone out to young 
people who are living away from 
home? Page 32 

What two spices come from the 
same tree? Page 34 

What is the cost of the new Mel- 
chizedek Priesthood Course of 
Study? Page 36 

What family is raising money to 

microfilm European records? 

Page 42 

How the stake missions are progress- 
ing? Page 38 



EXECUTIVE AND EDITORIAL 
OFFICES: 

50 North Main Street, Salt Lake City, Utah 

Copyright 1939, by the Young Men's Mutual 
Improvement Association Corporation of the 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 
All rights reserved. Subscription price, $2.00 
a year, in advance; 20c Single Copy. 

Entered at the Post Office, Salt Lake City, 
Utah, as second-class matter. Acceptance for 
mailing at special rate of postage provided 
for in section 1103, Act of October, 1917, 
authorized July 2, 1918. 

The Improvement Era is not responsible 
for unsolicited manuscripts, but welcomes con- 
tributions. All manuscripts must be accompanied 
by sufficient postage for delivery and return. 

NATIONAL ADVERTISING 
REPRESENTATIVES 

Francis M. Mayo, Salt Lake City 
Edward S. Townsend, San Francisco 
George T. Hopewell & Co., New York 
E. J. Powers & Co., Chicago 
Hil. F. Best, Detroit 

MEMBER OF THE AUDIT BUREAU OF 
CIRCULATIONS 



A MAGAZINE FOR EVERY 
MEMBER OF THE FAMILY 



£xphfdnq. ihiL lAnw&JtAJL 




Tt is estimated that from 60 to 70 per 
cent of all four-ply passenger car 
tire failures result from injuries to the 
tires made by jamming the tire against 
the curb in careless parking. 
4 

/"^ver 4,000 photographs of snowflakes 
^^ have been made by Wilson Bentley. 
Though all the snowflakes had the same 
symmetry, no two were alike. 

«♦ : 

Cmoking of tobacco is responsible for 
*^ the increased deaths due to cancer 
of the lung, according to Drs. Alton 
Ochsner and Michael De Bakey, in a 
report to a cancer symposium. Inhal- 
ing smoke, constantly repeated, over 
long periods, irritates the lining of the 
bronchial tubes. 



'T'he supposed love for music of snakes 
is a myth believed all over the 
world. Actually no snake is interested 
in music of any kind. The music played 
on flutes by charmers is bluff; the move- 
ment of the snake is fencing for an 
opening as the charmer moves from 
side to side with rhythmic motion. 
4 

*M[ansen and other Arctic explorers 
^ have studied the thickening of sea 
ice. They found that in the first win- 
ter's freezing the ice is from 7 to 9 feet 
thick; the second winter adds 1 to 3 
feet, and the third probably less than 
another foot. 



/California has its own Grand Can- 
^ yon, but it is under the sea, off the 
shore at Monterey. The course of the 
submarine canyon, which goes to 
depths of 6,000 feet, has been followed 
for over 30 miles, and its contours, 
similar to those of the Grand Canyon 
of the Colorado, have been studied. 
> 

HPhere is some evidence that fear may 
be a factor in behavior in higher 
animals. A dog was once frightened 
into a sort of fit by a bone drawn across 
the floor on an invisible thread. 



T_Tow cold is Iceland in the winter? 
A *• The average temperature of Reyk- 
javik, the capital, is about the same as 
in Philadelphia, or Milan, Italy, in Jan- 
uary. Also surprising is that tourist 
companies which promise to show their 



By FRANKLIN S. HARRIS, JR. 

passengers the ice-pack are sometimes 
forced to carry them 200 miles beyond 
Spitsbergen Islands, which are them- 
selves 360 miles north of Norway into 

the Arctic Ocean. 

4 

"VTS/hen blindfolded persons walk in 
*" what they intend to be a straight 
path they actually move in more or 
less of a regular clock-spring spiral. 
The same is true if a blindfolded man 
drives a car in a field or gives directions 
to the driver. The blindfolded swimmer 
does the same. Unexpectedly the same 



person may walk, swim, or drive in 
both right and left spiral turns in the 
same experiment. The direction does 
not seem to have anything to do with 

right-or left-handedness. 

4 — ; , 

■\\7hen a picture has been taken in a 
vv camera by exposing the film to 
light, the "image" in the film can be 
destroyed by exposure to infra red light, 
so that the film is as though no exposure 
had been made as shown on develop- 
ment. The "image" becomes more 
stable with time and is less easily de- 
stroyed. 




Ixperience 



says y 







STAt* 



o^ s 



tvtfc* 



VJHE* 1 



UT* H 






(ptdieAn, /$. Jag&a. 



E 



By VESTA P. CRAWFORD 



i THEREAL tapestry the winter weaves 
With broidered loops of ivory thread, 
And boughs forget their web of summer leaves 
To wear the winter gossamer instead, 
And branches bent from weight of stormy loom 
Now trace in frost their ancient filigree, 
A pearled and velvety pattern of bloom 
In splendor woven for the lovely tree. 



T 



HE boughs forget the scent of April night- 
No twig recalls the flame of autumn glow; 
But regal wears its raiment new and white 
Spun from the gauzy weft of gleaming snow. 
In gratitude for this, the jewelled tree, 
I shall forget the summer tapestry. 



Protograph by Walter P. Cottam. 



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Tribune Photograph. 
THE FIRST PRESIDENCY, LEFT TO RIGHT, PRESIDENT J. 
REUBEN CLARK, JR., PRESIDENT HEBER J. GRANT, PRESI- 
DENT DAVID 0. McKAY. 

7H T THIS Christmas Time we give 
f — I to the Saints and to the world a 
Christian greeting. 

We proclaim to the peoples of the 
earth that Jesus is the Christ, the Only 
Begotten of the Father, the Redeemer 
of the World, the First Fruits of the 
Resurrection. 

We testify to the truth of His own 
words when He said: 

I am the way, the truth, and the life: no man 
cometh unto the Father, but by me. (John 14:6) 

We deeply deplore the spirit of the 
anti-Christ that is abroad in the 
world, and with sorrowing hearts 
contemplate the brutality of war and 
other forms of cruelty and injustice 
that even in this professedly enlight- 
ened age are still manifest. 



dtwttnga 

OF THE FIRST 
PRESIDENCY 



We declare that the Lord expects 
men to forsake the ways He has for- 
bidden, and that He beckons them to 
come into the straight and narrow 
path which leads to peace and hap- 
piness. 

We admonish every man of high 
or low degree, and in whatever land, 
to act and live in accordance with the 
revealed will of the Lord, and we 
promise to every one of God's chil- 
dren who does so live, not only a joy 
in life and in living that nothing else 
can bring, but also salvation in the 
world to come, with an eternity of 
service, of unspeakable happiness, 
and a progression that shall never 
end. 

We thank God for His bounteous 
gifts to His children. We praise His 
name for His mighty works among 
men. We are ever grateful for His 
boundless mercy which we invoke 
upon both the righteous and the un- 
righteous. We pray that to darkened 
minds there shall come light, and that 
to the righteous there shall come a 
fulness of blessing under God's wis- 
dom. 




The First Presidency 



Evidences and 
reconciliations 



J/ribsiA. ogL Qam&L? 

Tn the field of historical speculation, few themes 

have been more assiduously theorized about than 
the location of the lost tribes of Israel. The vol- 
uminous literature concerning the subject, "proves" 
that the tribes may be in any land under the sun, 
according to the theory accepted. In our Church, 
several books on the subject, presenting differing 
views, have been written by thoughtful, honest men. 
Fortunately, so far as human happiness here or 
hereafter is concerned, it matters not a whit where 
they are located. Unfortunately, some brethren 
have entangled the subject with the theology of the 
Gospel to their own discomfiture. 

Throughout its long history as one nation, the 
Hebrews had been in almost continuous warfare 
with neighboring people; and indeed the people of 
the valley of the Euphrates on the east, and of 
Egypt on the south and west, mighty nations, had 
paid their warlike respects to the children of Abra- 
ham. Wars and warfare form a large part of the 
history of united Israel. Only under David and 
Solomon was the kingdom made into an empire 
strong enough to dictate terms to weaker neighbors 
and engender wholesome respect among larger 
powers. 

After the death of Solomon, the divided king- 
doms, divided also in strength, were subject to 
similar warfare. Invasion followed invasion; the 
larger powers to the East, viewing Palestine as a 
strategically important corridor to Egypt, de- 
scended, with powerful armies upon the now petty 
kingdoms. The southern kingdom of Judah and 
the northern kingdom of Israel became little more 
than vassals to Babylonian powers. 

Following the practice of the times, the victors 
carried large numbers of the vanquished people into 
captivity, to serve as slaves, craftsmen, builders, or 
even statesmen, according to their gifts and talents. 
There were many such captivities from among the 
people of Israel. 

The captivity connected with the lost tribes is 
mentioned in 2 Kings 17:6 — "In the ninth year of 
Hoshea the King of Assyria took Samaria, and 
carried Israel away into Assyria, and settled them 
in Khalah and on the Khabur, a river of Gozan, 
and in the cities of the Medes." A similar state- 
ment is made in 1 Chronicles 5:26. That is all we 
hear of them. From that time they are literally 
"lost" to history, except for a passage in the 
Apocrypha, II Esdras, 13:40-47: 

Those are the ten tribes, which were carried away pris- 
oners out of their own land, in the time of Osea the King, 



whom Salmanasar the King of Assyria led away captive, 
and he carried them over the waters, and so came they into 
another land. But they took this counsel among themselves, 
that they would leave the multitude of the heathen, and go 
forth into a further country, where never mankind dwelt, 
that they might there keep statutes, which they never kept 
in their own land. And they entered into Euphrates by the 
narrow passages of the river. For the Most High then 
showed signs for them, and held still the flood, till they were 
passed over. For through that country there was a great 
way to go, namely of a year and a half: and the same 
region is called Arsareth. Then they dwelt there until the 
latter time; and now when they shall begin to come, the 
Highest shall stay the springs of the stream again, that they 
may go through. 

Many fantastic theories have been set up con- 
cerning the location of the lost tribes. One declares,- 
for example, that in the northern countries are 
vast subterranean caverns in which the lost tribes 
live and prosper, awaiting the day of their return. 
Another, by diagram and argument suggests that 
a secondary small planet is attached at the north 
pole, to the earth by a narrow neck, and that the 
lost tribes live there. (See Dalton, The Key to 
This Earth. ) Others, even more unacceptable are 
in circulation. 

The view most commonly held by members of 
the Church is that a body of Israelites are actually 
living in some unknown place on earth, probably in 
the north. In support of this opinion are the com- 
mon knowledge that the earth is not yet fully ex- 
plored, and numerous scriptural references to a 
gathering of Israel from the north countries. Jere- 
miah speaks of the house of Israel coming "out of 
the north country." (Jeremiah 3: 18; 23:8; 31 : 8-1 1; 
Hosea 1:11.) In the Book of Mormon, also, there 
are references to Israel coming out of the north in 
the latter days. Ether prophesies of those "who 
were scattered and gathered in from the four 
quarters of the earth, and from the north countries." 
In modern revelation the north countries are men- 
tioned in connection with the restoration of the ten 
tribes. "They who> are in the north countries shall 
come in remembrance before the Lord, and their 
prophets shall hear His voice, and shall no longer 
stay themselves, and they shall smite the rocks, and 
the ice shall flow down at their presence." ( Doc. and 
Cov. 133:26-34. ) Moreover, in the Kirtland Tem- 
ple, Moses appeared to Joseph Smith and Oliver 
Cowdery and "committed unto us the keys of . . . 
the leading of the ten tribes from the land of the 
north." (Doc. and Cov. 110:11.) 

Another view held by many is that the lost tribes 
are in the northern part of the earth, thus fulfilling 
that scriptural requirement, but not necessarily in 
one body. In support are quoted the many refer- 
ences in scripture to the gathering of Israel from 
the four corners of the earth and the isles of the 
sea. Further than that, while north countries are 
mentioned, nowhere is it specifically stated that 
the lost tribes are in one body apart from other 



Uhs EDITOR'S P 




Under date of April 26, 1937, the First Presidency wrote to the Council of 
the Twelve in part as follows: 
"You may proceed to organize a campaign throughout the Church against 
the use of alcoholic beverages. We suggest, however, that you continue to lay 
special emphasis upon the evils that follow the use of the cigarette and other forms 
of tobacco. 

"We commend your plan to make this campaign a project for all the Priest- 
hood quorums, both Melchizedek and Aaronic, charging the quorums with the 
responsibility of (a) keeping their own members free from the vice of using 
alcohol and tobacco, and (b) assisting all others to do likewise. . . . 

"Auxiliary organizations should give to the Priesthood quorums such help 
in the campaign as may be consistently requested of them by Priesthood quo- 
rums." 

Since this letter was written, an educational campaign throughout all the 
stakes of the Church for the non-use of alcoholic beverages and tobacco has 
been inaugurated along the lines indicated in the letter of the First Presidency. 
I commend this movement to all stake, ward, Priesthood quorum, and auxiliary 
organization authorities, and urge them to cooperate through committees and 
special workers to make the campaign thorough and complete. 

The youth, as well as all adult members of the Church, should be reached by 
this movement to the end that they may become free from the use of these things 
that the Lord has said are not good for man. 





FS 



peoples. It is contended that the wandering tribes 
actually settled in northern Europe and Asia, and 
throughout the centuries mingled with the people 
there, until the blood of Israel runs strong among 
the northern peoples. Thus is explained the rela- 
tively ready acceptance of the Gospel by the British, 
Scandinavian, and German peoples. Those who 
hold this view feel that prophecy has been literally 
fulfilled by the gathering of Latter-day Saints from 
Northern Europe to the Church in Western Amer- 
ica. The notable British-Israel movement is built 
upon such a dispersion of the lost tribes. (See 
Stephen Malan, The Ten Tribes), 

A third view attempts to reconcile the two pre- 
ceding ones. We are reminded that historically 
and prophetically it is well known that Israel has 
been scattered among the nations. By removal from 
the Holy Land through successive captivities, and 
voluntary migrations, often due to persecution, 
and by intermarriage with other races, the blood of 
Israel is now found in almost every land and among 
every people. The ancient writers spoke of "the 
twelve tribes which are scattered abroad." It is 
suggested that on the northward march of the lost 
tribes, many fell from the company, remained at 
various points of the journey, there became mixed 
with the people living there, until today, along the 
line of the exodus, the blood of Israel may be 



found. It is further suggested that a part of the 
ten tribes may be somewhere in seclusion, but also 
that their blood may be among the nations through 
which they passed on their long migration, thou- 
sands of miles if they reached the arctic regions. 
( See George Reynolds, Are We of Israel? Also, 
Allen H. Godbey, The Lost Tribes, a Myth.) 

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 
believes in the restoration of the ten tribes; and that 
it is a part of the mission of the Church to gather 
scattered Israel into the fold of truth. It knows 
that throughout the ages, under the wise economy 
of the Lord, the blood of Israel, most susceptible 
to Gospel truth, has been mingled with all nations. 
The scattering of Israel is a frequent theme of 
writers of the Bible. So firm is this belief that the 
Latter-day Saints, for over a hundred years, at 
great sacrifices of money, energy, and life itself, 
have gone out over the earth to preach the restored 
Gospel, and bring all men into the House of Israel. 

The question concerning the location of the lost 
tribes, of itself unimportant, is interesting in show- 
ing how such matters are allowed to occupy men's 
time and tempers, in a day that calls for helpful 
action among those who are within our reach. 
Time will reveal the whereabouts of the lost tribes. 
It is our concern to help fulfil the plan of God, by 
eager daily service. — J. A. W, 




Tribune Photograph. 



THE GUESTS AT THE HEAD TABLE MARCH IN 



J/JJbjuJjL to cl 3bwudsuc 

Overriding all lines of race, religion, and material 
interests, the business contemporaries of President 
Grant called together more than five hundred leaders 
of the West and the Nation to do him honor, on the 
Twentieth Anniversary of his Presidency of the 
Church. 

By RICHARD L. EVANS 

Of the First Council 
of the Seventy 

eighty-second birthday anniversary 
(November 22, 1856), and marked 
the twentieth anniversary of his 
Presidency of the Church ( Novem- 
ber 23, 1918). 

(Continued on page 54) 




A GENERAL VIEW OF THE LAFAYETTE ROOM 
AND THE SEATED BANQUET GUESTS. 

Photograph by D. F. Davis. 



TO HEBER J. GRANT 

( Written by the Hon. John M. Wal- 
lace, Mai/or o[ Salt Lake City, as 
part of his tribute for the occasion of 
November 23, 1938.) 

I STOOD apart from the granite 
shaft 
That is the Great White Throne, 
That distance might in truth impart 
The vastness of the mighty dome. 

Great clefts that marked the vaulting 

thrust 
That raised a mountain crest so high 
Were moulded in the gathering dusk, 
Its crags were softened in a cloudless 

sky. 

I stood apart from a man of men 
And beyond, in timeless space. 
His labors had fashioned a monument 
Which weathering years will not ef- 
face. 

I stood apart from a servant of Him 
Who sits on the Great White Throne; 
His monument is a spire of grace 
Built from God's work alone. 



Tribune Photograph. 
PRESIDENT GRANT AND PRESIDENT McKAY 
ARE SEEN STANDING BY THE BIRTHDAY CAKE. 



There are times when the use of 
superlatives is justifiable, and 
such a time was the occasion 
of November 23, 1938, when, over- 
riding all lines of race, religion, poli- 
tics, or material interests, more than 
five hundred national and western 
leaders of business, industry, and 
the professions gathered at a ban- 
quet and program in the Lafayette 
Room of the Hotel Utah, Salt Lake 
City, to join in saying of the guest of 
honor, President Heber J. Grant: 
"There stands a man!" 

The affair was spontaneously con- 
ceived and executed by a group of 
Salt Lake City business men, widely 
diversified as to religious affiliations, 
political persuasions, and business 
interests. The occasion was one of 
unblemished good will, high honor, 
and affectionate regard for President 
Grant. The day followed his 
8 





RE STANDS A MAN 




''This brief characterization of the 
life of a man appeared originally 

UNDER THE TITLE "PORTRAIT OF A Man" 
AS PART OF THE HeBER J, GRANT SOUVE- 
NIR PROGRAM PREPARED FOR THE OCCA- 
SION REFERRED TO ON THE OPPOSITE PAGE. 



O 



|n A bleak day of winter, November 22, 
1856, an unheralded infant opened his 
eyes upon the snow-covered barrenness of a desert outpost 
whose political and economic future was insecure. The meagre 
help afforded by a frontier community attended the heroic 
pioneer mother at the birth of this, her first and only child; 
and the father, first Mayor of Salt Lake City, died of pneu- 
monia nine days later- — an able but overworked leader in the 
spiritual, economic, and political life of the struggling settle- 
ment. Thus it was that widowhood came to a noble woman, 
and a fatherless future to an unknown boy. 

The stubborn drive of necessity from without, and the 
ceaseless urge of persistence from within, carried the boy 
from delicate health to early achievement in sports, and from 
poverty to early success in business. With formal education 
limited, he nevertheless became proprietor of his own in- 
surance and investment business at nineteen; an officer 
of a banking institution at twenty; professor of penmanship 
and accounting in his early twenties; and before citizenship 
was conferred upon him at twenty-one he had built his 
mother a new home, and married and begun to establish his 
own family. Before the age of twenty-four he had been called 
away from Salt Lake City to fill a difficult and important 
Stake President's post in Tooele. Still under twenty-six, he 
set aside his own cherished ambitions of wealth and political 
honor (he could undoubtedly have been first Governor of 
the State of Utah) , to become "the servant of all," in response 
to a call to the Apostleship from the Church that brought his 
parents West and claimed his father's life. 

To look at this man now one might be led to suppose that 
the obstacles of his life had faded away before him. It would 
be possible to believe that the rough places had been easily 
traversed by his determined stride, that success had come 
with moderate effort, that Providence had spared him much of 
life's travail. The flawless performance of a master musi- 
cian looks easy, too, and, in our enjoyment of his art, we 
sometimes close our thoughts to the toil and heartbreak, the 
faith and vision, that mark the upward course. 

This man is great, not because he has been spared the 
hardships of life, but because he has overcome them. Provi- 
dence gave him strength, not ease; courage, not protection; 
faith, not a favored lot; integrity, not freedom from tempta- 
tion. He has buried the beloved companions of his youth, 
and has seen death take his only sons in childhood, while 
none are left to carry on his name, and yet there has been 
found no bitterness in his heart, but only faith in God and in 
His ability to bring ultimate good from all things. He has 
seen ambitions swept aside and business ventures crushed, 
but was never found without courage to carry on. He has 
seen personal wealth change to staggering debt overnight, 
but yet has refused the legal protection of bankruptcy, pre- 
ferring to work through years of deprivation, and his family 
with him, to pay off every dollar of obligation. 

Save only Brigham Young, perhaps no man has organized, 
fostered, or encouraged more industries and economic enter- 
prises in the inland West than Heber J. Grant. His name 
appears upon the officers' and directors' rosters of banks. 



railroads, insurance companies, implement houses, mercantile 
institutions, and manufacturing enterprises- — not only because 
he is the leader of a world-wide people — but because he has 
always stood with and for industry, economic integrity, and 
individual security. More than any other living man, he 
symbolizes growth in the West from the old to the new. 

It is well to remember as we look back through the life 
of Heber J. Grant that our perspective now presents a much 
different picture from the view he had when he was at the 
other end looking this way. We know now what he was 
destined to become, but he knew then only that life must 
be lived honorably and industriously, in order that a widowed 
mother might be cared for, that a family might be reared, 
and that the Lord, his Maker, might, at that day when all 
shall stand before Him, say "Well done." 

The life of the man we honor, he himself has builded 
upon the bedrock of correct principles — undeviating de- 
votion to his religious convictions; unfaltering faith in a 
Supreme Being who is the Father of mankind; generosity and 
brotherly kindness; industry, persistence, loyalty; financial, 
political, and moral integrity — and these he has pursued in 
times of convenience and in times of inconvenience. Con- 
cerning these foundation principles he has not asked what 
is expedient. He has asked only what is right, and, having 
determined it, straightway he has done it. 

And thus it is that as President Heber J. Grant begins the 
eighty- third year of his life, leaders of business, industry, and 
the professions, from throughout the inland West and the 
Nation, gather to say: "There stands a man!" 

— Richard L. Evans. 







aF*&* i: 




HE POWER 



TO ACHIEVE 



(fauL diow Qfoidk. 
May. CkqiwvL Qt 



The formula is simple! 
It is so simple, if we are to fol- 
low the biographies and careers 
of the world's greatest business and 
professional men, that we laymen 
are afraid it won't work. Too 
often we will have none of it, even 
when it is so easily ours for the do- 
ing! 

The way for us to secure a 
definite and continuing increase 
in our power or ability to 
achieve is simply to do the jobs 
immediately at hand, with all of 
the skill, excellence, and superb 
ority of which we are capable. 

There has long been a struggle be- 
tween ability and achievement. Ac- 
cording to scientific authorities, on 
the average, we do our work only 
about eleven-sixteenths as well as 
we might. In other words, we 
usually don't do it as well as we ac- 
tually know how. 

Question: 

How can we expect an increase 
in our power or ability to do when 
we have hardly begun to use the 
power we already have? 

If the counsel of wisdom, there- 
fore, is heeded, winning our spurs in 
the field of world achievement is not 
an insuperably difficult or involved 
thing, provided we realize that all 
10 



By EARL J. GLADE 



Of the General Board, Deseret Sun- 
day School Union, and General 
Manager of Radio Station KSL. 



work, no matter how menial, is im- 
portant, if it truly helps mankind and 
points toward world betterment. 

To Begin 

Tn the first instance, we may well 
discredit certain occult theories or 
systems of building will power. Al- 
though they sound impressive, at- 
tempts to coerce the brain almost 
never have the effect sought. When 
we set out to influence our own de- 
meanor, it should be kept in mind 
that we all behave in harmony with 
natural law. In building a program of 
achievement, therefore, we should 
proceed accordingly. 

A lot of so-called inspirational 
stuff has been written about building 
will power and stimulating self-con- 
fidence. Most of it is very frothy. 

The facts are that so-called 
will power is not worth a snap 
of one's finger in achieving ob- 
jectives, unless it is harnessed to 
a specific program of activity. 

About nineteen hundred and six 
years ago the Savior Himself laid 
down the facts underlying the law 
of achievement. He said, in sub- 



stance, "If ye would know, ye must 
do." 

It was He who graphically re- 
vealed the actual and potential 
power of doing. 

Merely chanting, "Every day, in 
every way, I am becoming better and 
better," for instance, won't help 
anyone very much unless it is fol- 
lowed up by definite activity pro- 
cedures. 

Today we know that learning to 
achieve comes only by doing. We 
learn by an intelligent "practicing" 
of that which we would learn. 

Paderewski once said: 

"If I miss my practice a single day, 
I certainly know it. If I miss it 
two days, the whole world knows it." 

How to Proceed 

At this moment, you are reading 
these words. Let us assume in- 
stead that you are reading The 
Mind in the Making by James 
Harvey Robinson. If you are read- 
ing casually, you will retain less 
than 10% of what your eyes glance 
over. 

It is pretty well agreed that we 
remember about as follows: 10% 



THE IMPROVEMENT ERA, JANUARY, 1939 



of what we read; 20% of what we 
hear; 30% of what we visualize; 
50% of what we see and hear at the 
same time; 70% of what we say with 
care and deliberation, and 90% of 
what we do. 

Obviously, if the subject matter is 
worthy, as it is in the instance refer- 
red to, we can only gain power in 
mastering it by reading with care 
and earnestly endeavoring to make 
it our own. Taking notes, under- 
scoring high points, writing stimu- 
lating marginalia that jot down our 
own reactions — that's about the only 
way we can really drive these good 
things home. It is well to remember 
that he who reads to retain and to use 
is already on the way to power. 

So then, no matter what we are 
doing at the moment, we can begin 
here and now to augment our power 
to achieve by doing it better than 
we have ever done it before, and, 
if utterly possible, better than it 
was ever done before by anyone! 
No man, regardless of his years, 
should ever forget the admonition 
to our youth: When you play, 
play hard; when you work, don't 
play at all! 

A Carpenter Points the Way 

A contracting carpenter recently 
called at our home as a ward 
teacher. He was humble in appear- 
ance and manner, but self-confident. 
Accepting Dr. Link's definition of 
personality, which is; "the extent 
to which the individual has develop- 
ed habits and skills which interest 
and serve other people," I could not 
help making inquiry about this man. 

As a youth, he worked his way 
through a carpenter apprenticeship. 
He later studied estimating, all the 
while increasing his manual skill. 
He gradually qualified as building 
contractor. 

It was apparent that his jobs were 
well in hand. He stressed his in- 
sistence on superior workmanship 
and looked upon every job as a true 
reflection of his personality and 
character. It was evident that he 
had a way of getting excellent work- 
manship out of his men by expecting 
it in no uncertain way, and nobody 
around any of his jobs was going to 
let him down. His bills were paid 
and he had a bank balance and 
credit. 

By word and bearing here truly 
is a man of power. He knows the 
strength of excellence and system 
and he puts the power they represent 
to work for himself. 




Another example of how be- 
ing inwardly aware of one's 
strength and modestly sure of 
oneself, adds to one's power. 

Power Through Saving Money 

T know of nothing in the field of 
business affairs that gives one a 
finer physical and mental tone and 
that makes one. more conscious of 
power than to have been able, in 
honor, to meet one's debts and still 
have a modest bank balance. 

The energizing effect on a young 
man, of $500 honorably earned, 
saved and placed securely away, is 
so stimulating that every reasonable 
effort should be forthcoming to 
achieve it. Being ahead financially 
just naturally steps up one's power. 

How to Save 

HThe formula for saving is so sim- 
pie that relatively few of us will 
have anything to do with it. We 
seem to want schemes that are 
grandiose and complex before we 
begin. 

The hardest part of saving is for 
us to convince ourselves that we can 
positively do without this particular 



half dollar and that it can be put 
safely away without causing much 
discomfort. Usually we want to 
wait until we have $500 before we 
really begin. The result: we never 
begin! 

Therefore, a desire and a will to 
save must first be cultivated. 

On being asked how he spent his 
income, a young man once said: 

"About 30 percent for shelter; 
30 percent for clothing, 40 percent 
for food and 20 percent for amuse- 
ment." 

"But," said his friend, "That adds 
up to 120 percent." 

"That's right," rejoined the young 
man. 

Without personal discipline in 
spending and thoughtful budgeting, 
saving is surely difficult. They 
come next. 

That Vital First Step 

Tt is the Chinese who say that a 

journey of a thousand miles be- 
gins with the first step. So with 
saving. 

Therefore, the best possible way 
to begin, as successful men like the 
late Andrew Carnegie, Carl R. Gray, 
and President Heber J. Grant have 
suggested again and again, is to take 
that first step with our smallest units 
of coinage — pennies, nickels, and 
dimes. If we are good personal dis- 
ciplinarians we shall gradually de- 
velop the urge to save, and shall es- 
tablish the desire as well as the 
power to have and to hold. 

We shall get away from that com- 
plex of so many young men who do 
not earn the funds they personally 
use, which is: Money is something 
to get rid of; and substitute there- 
for: No matter by whom it is earned, 
money is something to treasure and 
to save. A share of it may be prop- 
erly used but not a cent of it dissi- 
pated. 

By making saving a game and in- 
jecting somewhat the spirit of play, 
the small sacrifices necessary are 
soon forgotten. 

Therefore, the vital point is 
to begin to save now — first with 
the smallest units of coinage, 
and then, as rapidly as is con- 
sistent with one's affairs, the 
larger units. 

A Specific Saving Procedure 

"Rffective saving procedures usu- 
ally embrace three vital points: 
( 1 ) A specific amount of money as 
a saving objective; (2) over a defi- 
nite period of time; (3) to be ac- 
complished in a particular way. 

(Continued on page 60) 

11 



Portrait 




£L 




YOUNG MAN 

By RACHEL GRANT TAYLOR 



Part III 

Traveling in the eighties and 
traveling today present a 
marked contrast. Today visit- 
ing a stake some distance away 
as one of the General Authorities 
or as a member of an auxiliary 
board means a day or two on a 
Pullman with meals on the diner or 
a ride in a speedy auto with con- 
venient eating places along the 
road. In the eighties it meant carry- 
ing provisions and bedding and 
traveling slowly by team over rough 
roads, roads so dusty that the wagon 
tires dug deep into the loose soil, or 
so muddy that the horses did double 
duty — pulling the load and pulling 
the wheels free from the grasp of 
clinging clay. 

An account of Father's presidency 
of Tooele Stake would be incom- 
plete without going with him to the 
then far-off branches of the stake 
in the vicinity of Oakley, Idaho. 
From ten to fourteen days were 
spent when wagons were used. Now 
it takes five hours in an automobile. 

Most of the traveling in those 
days was done in white tops — four- 
spring wagons with white canvas 
coverings, the sides of which could 
be rolled up. They were large 
enough to carry provisions and to 
make a bed in the back. Besides 
food, a party would take baled hay 
and grain for their animals but de- 
pended on the Saints for most of 
their meals. 

During one of these trips Father 
had the misfortune to have a recur- 
rence of his poison ivy rash. To cure 
this the brethren dug a hole in the 
mud, so that as he sat in it only his 
head was above the surface of the 
ground. They then filled up the hole. 
As they were in the process of shov- 
eling in the mud, a young fellow on a 
horse appeared on the neighboring 
bluff. He appeared terrified as he 
saw a man being buried and drove 
off as quickly as possible. The 
party had a laugh at the stories 
which he would probably tell. The 
remedy may have appeared a severe 
one but it effected a cure. Their trip 
included a visit to the great Sho- 
12 



shone Falls. On the road leading to 
the Falls, they saw rabbits by the 
thousands which as they ran would 
stir the dust into great hovering 
clouds. Miles distant they could see 
the high-flung spray and hear the 
roar of the cataract. They camped 
at the Falls and all went fishing, but 
only a single white fish was lured 
from the stream. 

There is no record of Father's 
having kept a journal from July, 

1881, to September, 1882. 

His last visit to Oakley is de- 
scribed day by day in his journal of 

1882. Traveling day and night, 
camping out, sleeping in a loft or in a 
wagon box when the homes were 
crowded, entertained in a home 
where the mother was in bed with 
her seven-day old baby, were ex- 
periences which seem strange today; 



for Ogden on my way for Oakley, 
Cassia Co., Idaho, in company with 
Apostles F. M. Lyman and John 
Henry Smith, Bishop Edward 
Hunter (of Grantsville ) , and his 
daughter, Miss Etta Hunter. . . . 
Apostle Lorenzo Snow was on the 
train . , . also E. R. Young of 
Wanship, Summit Co. 

"I had a visit with Brother Young 
riding to Ogden. Among other 
things he told me that he had heard 
my name mentioned with others in 
connection with the next delegate to 
Congress. In and of myself I could 
not possibly fill the place as my edu- 
cation and daily life have not been 
of such a character as to qualify me 
for this position, but I have full con- 
fidence that I could fill the place with 
honor to myself and our people with 
the assistance of Our Heavenly 




but from the record we see how 
smoothly they fitted into the lives of 
the men and women of yesterday. 
The journal record reads: 

"Salt Lake City, Tuesday, Sept. 
19r7i/82: Spent the day at my of- 
fice. In the evening wife and I at- 
tended the Walker Opera House. 
The Union Square Company of 
New York played 'The Banker's 
Daughter.' The acting, (playing, 
should say), was splendid, as good 
as I have ever seen. Wednesday. 
Spent the day at the office. Apos- 
tle F. M. Lyman, John C. Sharp 
( Vernon, Tooele Co. ) wife and chil- 
dren took dinner with us. We Had 
a short but pleasant visit. Wife and 
I again went to see the Union Square 
Company play, 'The False Friend.' 
Thursday, Spent the day at the 
office and in getting ready to start 
for Idaho . . . Took the 3.40 train 



OLD TOOELE SOUTH WARD 
This pioneer stone structure was the scene of 
much of President Grant's public activity as Presi- 
dent of Tooele Stake. It was the principal meeting 
place of the region. This picture was taken at the 
funeral of Richard R. Lyman's mother and brother 
some time after President Grant was president there. 
Most of the General Authorities of the Church are 
in the picture, including Heber J. Grant, the young 
man. 

Father. If it is His will that I go 
there, there is nothing that I know 
of that would give me more pleas- 
ure. But I hope and pray that I will 
not be selected unless I have the 
assistance of our Heavenly Father, 
as I know that I would make a com- 
plete failure and in a great degree 
destroy what little reputation I now 
have. I am not big headed enough 
to think that the brethren will select 
a boy for delegate to congress." . . 
"Jas. Sharp of the Utah Central 
Railroad gave me a pass from Salt 
Lake to Ogden and return for 
Bishops Hunter and Burridge, Miss 



THE IMPROVEMENT ERA, JANUARY, 1939 



Hunter, and myself — Jas. Sharp has 
been kind to me in this way once or 
twice before and some day trust I 
shall have a chance to do him a 
favor. We reached Terrace shortly 
after 12 o'clock a. m." 

"Oakley, Cassia Co., Idaho, Fri., 
Sept. 22nd/S2: We were met at 
Terrace by Bishop Horton D. Haight 
of Oakley and Bishop Hunter's 
son, William. We left Terrace 
about 1 :30 a. m. Drove 15 miles to 
a stock ranch for breakfast. At 7 
a. m. continued our journey until 
between 11 and 12. Stopped for 
feed and lunch. Left our camp at 
12:45 and reached Oakley shortly 
after 6 p. m. I found my brother 
George and his mother well — I was 
pleased to find he had things in 
such good shape. 

"Saturday. Am feeling much bet- 
ter than last evening. Was some- 
what tired after yesterday's ride. 
The road was not very good and in 
my opinion it is fully 65 miles from 
here to Terrace. 

"At 1 1 o'clock attended meeting. 
Bishop Horton D. Haight expressed 
his pleasure at having Apostles Ly- 
man and Smith, also other brethren 
present with the Saints in Oakley. 
Apostle Lyman followed. He spoke 
50 minutes. Complimented the 
Saints on the many material im- 
provements that had been made since 
our visit of last year. His discourse 
was a most excellent one. Gave the 
people a great amount of good ad- 
vice, of such a character as the Saints 
needed for the government of their 
daily lives. He entreated the people 
to be kind, to be patient, to be up- 
right, honest, to live in harmony 
with each other. Advised the Saints 
to fence their farms as soon as pos- 
sible, as good fences were calculated 
to keep out bad feelings. . . . 

"Sunday. Meeting at 10 a. m. 
Bishop Hunter spoke 12 minutes. 
... I then spoke 27 minutes; felt 
good liberty in talking to the Saints. 
Apostle John Henry Smith followed; 
spoke 52 minutes. The people of 
the world had endeavored to break 
down the influence of our leaders by 
blackening their characters. Our 
Prophet Joseph had been tried on 
different charges 56 times, and al- 
ways cleared himself. When the 
Prophet Joseph was killed the world 
thought our Church would be sure to 
go to pieces. When President Young 
died they thought the same, and for 
a time left us alone. But finding that 
we are growing and increasing they 
are again wide-awake in trying to 
crush the unity of our people. There 
are none of the principles of our 




HEBER J. GRANT AS HE APPEARED AT ABOUT 
THE TIME HE BECAME AN APOSTLE. 



faith but what are calculated to make 
us better and to inspire a love of the 
good and pure." 

"Monday: Lyman, Smith, Haight, 
Whittle, Martindale and I drove 
down Goose Creek several miles. 
I was much pleased to notice the 
marked improvement on all sides. 
We called at Brother Hyrum Wells. 
He treated us to melons. Lyman, 
Smith and I took dinner with my 
brother George and his mother. 
About four o'clock we called on 
Bro.Worthington. His wife had as 
fine a flower garden as I have seen 
for many a day. Bro. Worthington 
had a large number of trees growing 
in nice shape; they were of many 
different kinds. Brother and Sister 
Worthington came to Oakley last 
December and I must say that they 
deserve much credit for the fine start 
made by them. The flower garden 
was very fine. About five o'clock 
our party left for the Little Basin. 
. . . Meeting at 7 p. m. Bishop 
Hunter spoke 15 minutes. . . . 
Bishop Haight spoke .... minutes. I 
spoke 18 minutes. I felt good free- 
dom in speaking, I don't know that 
I ever felt better. John Hy. Smith 
spoke 37 minutes, F. M. Lyman, 
39 minutes. I never heard them 
speak any better in my life. Their 
remarks were very refreshing and 
encouraging to me. I remember that 
our meeting held here in August /81 
was a most excellent one, just about 
such a one as we have had this 
evening." 

"Little Basin, Cassia Co., Idaho, 
Tuesday, September 26, 1 882 : Rain- 
ing this a. m. Our party . . . left 
for Albion. Reached Albion about 
12 m. Meeting at 3 p. m. I was 
thankful that our Heavenly Father 
.gave the brethren a goodly portion 
of His Spirit in the meeting today, 



more particularly on account of the 
audience being mostly non-Mor- 
mons. After meeting, our party 
drove to the residence of Brother 
Jas. S, Lewis. We expected to di- 
vide up but Sister Lewis insisted 
upon our all stopping. We had a 
very pleasant visit with Brother 
Lewis and family. Whittle, Dayley, 
Polton, and I slept in the wagons 
so as not to crowd the folks in the 
house. The liberal and hospitable 
manners of Brother Lewis and fam- 
ily were most pleasing and I felt to 
be thankful and to wish for their 
success and prosperity. It has 
rained off and on all day, mixed with 
a little hail. Snow on the moun- 
tains." 



• • • • 



Albion, Wednesday, September 
27/82: The storm has passed off. 
Our party left for Cassia Creek at 
8:45. We reached the residence of 
Brother Cole shortly before 12 m . 
His wife gave us a most excellent 
dinner. 

"Meeting at 2 p. m. The meeting- 
house was very good and a credit to 
the Saints in Cassia. , . . Our 
meeting was a good one and I have 
no doubt the people felt to rejoice 
and be thankful for the many good 
instructions given by Brothers Ly- 
man and Smith. The following 
children were blessed and named: 
Elijah Bion, Lyman, mouth; Julia 
Alberta Harris, Lyman, mouth; 
George Wells, Smith, mouth, 

"After meeting, our party drove 
to Almo Valley. Lyman, Smith, 
Whittle, and I stopped with Brother 
M. Durfee. We were kindly re- 
ceived by Brother Durfee. Found 
his wife in bed. Had a baby seven 
days old. Whittle and I slept in 
the loft of Brother Durfee's barn- 
slept fine." 

"Thursday, September 28th: Held 
meeting at eleven o'clock. .'". . The 
Saints voted to have a branch of 
Cassia Ward. ... There were 
about thirty people present at our 
meeting. A good spirit was with us 
and I was pleased that a branch 
organization was given the Saints 
at this place. At 2:30 our party left 
for Kelton, a distance of forty miles. 
Reached Kelton shortly after 10 
p. m. The last part of bur ride was 
not very pleasant, too much dust." 

"Kelton, Box Elder Co., Friday, 
September 29, 1882: Leaving Broth- 
ers Haight, Daley, and Whittle at 
Kelton, the balance of our party took 
the 5 a. m. train for Ogden. Found 
my wife, little ones, and also mother 
all well, for which I am thankful. 
{Continued on page 60) 

13 



\\ 



O FRABJOUS DAY" 



C 



'uthbert always 
thought it rank injustice when peo- 
ple said he and Tubby deliberately 
wrecked the Tenth Grade's Christ- 
mas play. Or, at least, as Mark 
Twain remarked when he read the 
report of his own death in a news- 
paper, it was grossly exaggerated. 
And the story that went around that 
he had insulted Mr. Beamish and 
that Tubby had pulled his nose — ■ 
and then, on top of all that, to be 
accused of Hallowe'en tricks on 
Christmas — well, it all goes to show 
how scandals get started. 

The trouble all began on the ill- 
omened day when Miss Norwood, 
the pretty new English teacher, de- 
cided that the Tenth Grade students 
of Pleasantville High should put on 
a Christmas play. Nothing that 
would interfere with the Senior's 
annual Christmas play, of course; 
just some little thing that would help 
them to express themselves and per- 
haps make a few pennies for the class 
coffers. 

Cuthbert, wrestling with mid-year 
exams, had never known until that 
evening how Tubby felt about Miss 
Norwood; though experience should 
have taught him that whenever a new 
and pretty face appeared on the 
horizon, Tubby (known as Harold 
to parents and teachers ) was imme- 
diately head-over-heels in love; and 
he, Cuthbert, cast for the role of 
Cupid, by a malign Fate long ago, 
would be involved in the plot sooner 
or later. Now, watching his friend's 
face at the Class meeting, while the 
English teacher earnestly discussed 
plays, he felt an old familiar sinking 
at the pit of his stomach at what he 
saw. 

"Have you any suggestions as to 
a suitable play, Harold?" Miss Nor- 
wood asked, prettily appealing to 
Tubby, whose fatuous expression 
was causing Cuthbert such acute 
embarrassment. 

"Well," Tubby said, judicially, "it 
all depends on what we are going 
in for. If we're going in for tragedy, 
my idea is, we couldn't do better than 
Shakespeare. For instance," he en- 
larged in the stunned silence that 
followed this bomb, "Romeo and 
Juliet can't be beat when it comes to 
good old-fashioned tragedy. Of 
course," he added hastily, "You'd 
have to be Juliet, Miss Norwood, and 
14 



By ESTELLE WEBB THOMAS 

(hwih&Jv QjudhbsUiL M&uf ire which, 
ihsL Afii/uL d$, QhhL&ijmaA. ihwvnphA, 
oju&A. alt impA. x>^ adv&Mjfy. 



— and — most any of us fellows could 
take the part of Romeo!" 

Tubby modestly forebore to men- 
tion that he already saw himself in 
that romantic role. 

"Nonsense!" said Mr. Beamish, 
briskly, "You youngsters try Shake- 
speare! I suggest Dickens' 'Christ- 
mas Carol'!" Mr. Beamish, the 
Natural History teacher, was also 
new to Pleasantville High School — 
round-faced, smiling, assured 



a 



young man, who would know a 
great deal more about the psychology 
of youth when he became a little 
older himself. At his crass sugges- 
tion, Tubby turned a look of anguish 
upon his unconscious back. So 
pained was his expression, that 
Cuthbert leaned nearer and whis- 
pered, sympathetically, "Stomach 
ache, Tubby?" 

"No, a pain in the neck!" Tubby 
muttered, eying Mr. Beamish malev- 
olently, "What's he doing here, any- 
way? He hasn't any say about our 
English class!" 

"O, just helping Miss Norwood, 
I guess," answered Cuthbert, "I 
notice he's generally around where 
she's at." 

Tubby winced, not at the gram- 
matical error, and Cuthbert swal- 
lowed hard. At least he knew. 
"Now, listen, Tubby," he whisper- 
ed, earnestly, "You watch out! 
You're going to get all involved up 
in another love affair, first you know, 
and work me into it! I can always 
tell! Now you just — " 

"Let's have everyone's attention, 
Cuthbert!" said Miss Norwood, re- 
provingly, "We must get on with 
this. Everyone agree to 'A Christ- 
mas Carol'?" 

"I don't!" grunted Butch, the 
school rough-neck, "I've seen that 
thing a million times, at least. Why 
not have something up-to-date? A 
murder mystery or something?" 

"Well," Miss Norwood hesitated, 
loath to hurt anyone's feelings," I 
hardly think — " 

"Nonsense!" said Mr. Beamish 
again, positively, "The 'Christmas. 
Carol' is always suitable, and some- 



thing you children could handle. I 
think you should be the one to de- 
cide on a play, Nadine!" 

"Well, then," Miss Norwood 
smiled, "if it's satisfactory with all 
of you, we'll play the 'Christmas 
Carol.' Now, we must get on with 
the casting, as it's getting late." 

"Did you get that 'Nadine'?" 
Tubby nudged Cuthbert and shot a 
black glance in the direction of the 
beaming Mr. Beamish. All right 
for you, my beamish boy!" And 
Cuthbert jumped when Tubby's 
voice rang out, "I suggest Mr. 
Beamish for the part of Scrooge!" 

"O, no, thanks!" Mr. Beamish 
said, hastily, a quick flush dyeing his 
round, shining face, "I'm here merely 
to help. But if I should take a part 
in the 'Carol,' it would certainly not 
be the leading one. I really think 
the role of the Nephew more suited 
to my type, don't you, Na — Miss 
Norwood?" 

"Butch would make a good 
Scrooge!" little Helen Ward sug- 
gested, sweetly. 

"And Harold would do for Mar- 
ley's ghost," said Mr. Beamish. 
Tubby glared. 

"If I got to be in it, I'll be Mar- 
ley's ghost!" said Cuthbert, quickly, 
sensing trouble," and let's have 
Tub — I mean Harold for Bob 
Cratchit, the clerk." 

Thus with many heart-burnings 
and subtle under-currents the play 
was finally cast and rehearsals got 
under way. There was very little 
time, for Miss Norwood had not had 
her bright idea until a short two 
weeks before the Christmas holidays. 
But, as Mr. Beamish pointed out, 
the play was such an old favorite, 
and he was so glad to help out, it 
should go off with a bang. 

He was only too glad to help, 
Tubby complained to Cuthbert, 
behind the wings. Himself a very 
grouchy Bob Cratchit, he watched 
Mr. Beamish's pollyannish interpre- 
tation of the worthy clerk with a 
jaundiced eye. 



THE IMPROVEMENT ERA, JANUARY, 1939 



"That kind of face hooked up to 
that kind of name is a terrible temp- 
tation," he whispered, later. Cuth- 
bert looked blank. "What do you 
mean?" 

"Why, that verse from Alice in 
Wonderland, you know; something 
about 'My beamish boy*. I think 
it's in 'Alice Through the Look- 
ing Glass.' It's hard to remember 
he's a teacher and not quote it at 
him!" 

.From the very first, noth- 
ing went right with the play. Mr. 
Beamish was genial and condes- 
cending. He was helpful and offi- 
cious. He laughingly mimicked these 
adolescents to whom dignity was 
more precious than life itself, and 
then kindly demonstrated how it 
should be done. Miss Norwood, in 



futile efforts to keep the peace be- 
tween the sullen students and over- 
zealous Mr. Beamish, fluttered like 
a wounded dove. 

Then, just two days before the 
play was to be presented, Butch's 
little sister stopped Miss Norwood 
in the hall. "Butch said to tell you 
he's got mumps and can't even come 
to the play," she announced calmly. 
Her tone conveyed the idea that 
mumps were a welcome alternative 
to Butch. Before night, The Spirit 
of Christmas Past, Martha Cratchit 
and The Spirit of Christmas Yet To 
Come, had all succumbed, and Miss 
Blair, of the Second Grade, sent 
word that Tiny Tim was threatened. 

As difficulties increased, Miss 
Norwood's determination increased 
in proportion. Like most gentle per- 
sons, she was tenacious as glue. De- 



IF HE NEVER SAW ANY OF HIS DEAR FRIENDS AND CLASS- 
MATES AGAIN, IT WOULD STILL BE TOO SOON. SO WITH 
A FURTIVE GLANCE ABOUT, HE SLIPPED OUT THE BACK 
DOOR AND STOLE SILENTLY AWAY. 




1Mlk0 k 




fying Fate, which had certainly 
given fair warning, at the eleventh 
hour she cast and re-cast with a 
reckless hand. 

Mr. Beamish, who from much 
coaching, knew every part, nobly 
stepped into the breach and took 
over the part of the Nephew, for 
which he had delicately declared 
himself fitted at first. Later, though 
Tubby was never quite clear as to 
how it happened, he was also Bob 
Cratchit, since the two parts did not 
conflict, and Tubby found himself a 
reluctant Scrooge. 

The fateful night eventually ar- 
rived and even Cuthbert, whose his- 
trionic ability was nothing to write 
home about, was too excited to eat 
his dinner. Nothing more need be 
said to indicate the high tension ex- 
isting in the cast, generally. The 
Cratchit family, having been struck 
most disastrously by the mumps epi- 
demic, was composed almost entirely 
of new recruits. To make up for 
what they lacked in knowledge of 
their parts, they had provided a 
really sumptuous Christmas dinner. 
Miss Norwood was aghast when 
they filed in laden with chicken 
(masquerading as goose) pies, pud- 
ding with vinegar sauce, and various 
delicacies not mentioned in the text. 

"Why, girls, there'll never be 
time to eat all that!" she exclaimed, 
as they arranged the food carefully 
on a convenient bench and threw a 
table cloth over it. 

"Well, the actors can eat what's 
left, afterward, if they all went with- 
out supper like I did!" declared 
Martha. 

Later, Mr. Beamish and Patsy 
Brown insisted that Tubby was right 
there and heard all this, but he and 
Cuthbert proved that he was on the 
other side of the stage, getting into 
Scrooge's long-tailed coat and chin 
whiskers. 

However that was, the initial scene 
between the miser and his friend 
Marley's ghost went off very poorly 
indeed. Cuthbert had been in the 
very act of clanking onto the stage 
at Tubby's cue, delivered in a point- 
edly raised tone of voice, when he 
found himself jerked swiftly back 
by Mr. Beamish, just back from his 
own encounter with Scrooge. 

"Why are those long black 
trousers showing a foot or so under 
your shroud?" he demanded, "ghosts 
don't wear black pants!" "Mother 
fixed it so they didn't show," mut- 
tered Cuthbert, " but I can't seem to 
get the hang of it. Seems to be 
more me than sheet!" 

"Take them off! Take them off. 
(Continued on page 57) 

15 



Utah's pioneer 



WOMEN DOCTORS 



By CLAIRE WILCOX NOALL 




INTRODUCTION 

The Unique Urgency Which Led 
to the Study of Medicine 
Among Mormon Women 

INTO their pioneer Mormon back- 
ground the lives of Utah's early 
women doctors inevitably blend. 

In the far-spreading settlement of 
the vast Territory of Utah, large 
families were an infinite blessing. 
However, there were few doctors in 
this Land of Promise. Though 
certain midwives of the period 
have left records that reflect the in- 
estimable worth of their long and 
patient service, most of them labored 
in the populous counties near the 
original colony. 

Distance then had not been swal- 
lowed by time, and in remote dis- 
tricts, all too often dreadful suffer- 
ing and even death resulted from 
the absence of both physician and 
practiced midwife. 

And yet into the dry and bloodless 
heart of arid lands as well as into 
fertile valleys, the staunch-hearted 
people penetrated. Even after hav- 
ing converted barren ground into 
green fields they would once more 
pack their belongings into the deep 
cradles of their covered wagons and 
move again if the command came 
from Brigham Young. 

This dynamic man combined vis- 
ion with action. He was not content 
to limit the new stronghold to nar- 
row boundaries. As he cried: "This 
is the place!" from his high vantage 
on the last steep slopes of the Wa- 
satch, his inspired eyes must have 
seen far beyond the mountain-en- 




ROMANIA BUNNELL AT AGE 15 



circled valley at his feet. In the 
diversion of population and settle- 
ment there were strength, independ- 
ence, and self-sufficiency, three of the 
most important phases of the great 
colonization. 

And yet the farther from Salt 
Lake City that families settled, the 
greater the hazard of childbirth be- 
came. Mothers were fortunate in 
the outlying stakes if they were min- 
istered to by another woman who 
had received any training at all in 
midwifery. Children were born un- 
der heartrending circumstances. At 
times, when a mother's frightful 
agony lapsed into the silence of 
death, babies too were lost. The 
hour of travail was fraught with 
danger and the dread fever left many 
with incurable rheumatism. 

Even so, no woman refused to go 
into the far and unknown places of 
the new Zion. Deep snow itself was 
no bar to moving if the order came 
when it lay piled upon the ground. 
Still no matter how harrowing the 
conditions which Mormon pioneer 
women faced, they all were grateful 
to their Father in heaven for the 
privilege of becoming mothers in 
Israel. 

Brigham Young was not unmind- 
ful of the dangers to which they 
were subjected. Nor did he fail to 
realize that cholera infantum, 
whooping cough, and diphtheria, 
which at times were not even rec- 
ognized as such, took their sad toll. 
He knew that woeful loss left grief 
and absence in their wake which 
were hard to assuage. His heart 
bled when he heard tales of pitiable 
cases, just as it swelled with pride 
when he visited the stakes of Zion 
and there beheld the fine healthy 
children and the happy women who 
survived to live their wholesome, 
saintly, and religious way of life. 
And the amazing aspect of those 
pioneer days was not that so many 
lives were lost from disease and 
childbirth as it was that so many 
women studied to curtail its ravages. 

From the first, Brigham Young did 
everything within his power to 
minimize suffering and increase 




ROMANIA BUNNELL PRATT AS SHE APPEARED 
ABOUT 1879. 



health. Within a year after the ar- 
rival of the Pioneers, while they were 
still living in the old walled Fort, 
he called Dr. Willard Richards and 
his wife, Hannah, an English nurse, 
to teach women practical nursing, 
midwifery, and care of children. But 
the scope of this couple was limited 
— they lived in Salt Lake City; the 
Territory was measureless. And a 
quarter of a century passed before 
the first woman studied medicine. 
It was 1873 when Romania Bun- 
nell Pratt set out to attend the Wom- 
an's Medical College in Philadel- 
phia. 

Brigham Young had asked Heber 
John Richards, Willard's son, to be- 
come one of Utah's first men physi- 
cians. The request was not much to 
this young man's liking, since he had 
intended to become a surveyor, but 
he deferred to President Young's 
wishes, and studied for the pro- 
fession. 

Now Brigham Young proposed to 
overcome distance in behalf of 
motherhood. It was part of his 
design that Romania B. Pratt should 
return to Utah and teach other 
women to serve competently and 
with scientific cleanliness in cases 
of childbirth. Though some of them 
lived in stakes that were hundreds 
of miles from Salt Lake City, "sis- 
ters" were to come to her from their 
own localities for training in mid- 
wifery. They could return to their 
homes with a portion of her vital 
knowledge as their own, and life 
could be saved. President Young 
saw this. His vision resulted in the 
most remarkable flowering of medi- 
cine among women during the sec- 
ond quarter century of the Mormon 
settlement of Utah, and the large 
territory about it, that ever has 
existed in any one region on the 
face of the earth. 



16 



THE IMPROVEMENT ERA, JANUARY, 1939 



I 



T almost seems as if the Halls of 
Medicine had been opened to 
welcome these very women. 

In 1847 — significantly coincident- 
al year — Elizabeth Blackwell pio- 
neered her way into a regular school 
of medicine. She was the first 
woman in the world to be graduated 
from such a university — a man's — 
Geneva Medical College of New 
York! After ridicule, scorn, and be- 
littling in other places this persistent, 
English-born but American-bred 
woman was admitted to this college 
because the student personnel was 
so boisterous and rowdy that the 
young men thought her presence 
would prove hugely amusing. They 
put the matter to the vote. After 
coercing the only dissenting member 
they decided to let her enroll, look- 
ing forward to her admission with 
vulgar anticipation. But a strange 
hush came over their auditorium 
when she first entered it. However, 
no blush mounted to her cheek — 
there was no cause. She brought 
dignity into chaos, and was gradu- 
ated at the head of her class. And 
then . . . the Women's Medical 
College at Philadelphia was estab- 
lished. Women came to it from the 
four quarters of the globe, but no 
concentration of women in medicine 
ever occurred proportionately to 
equal the number of women doctors 
among the pioneers of Utah. 

Most of these women led lives of 
great activity both before and after 
studying medicine. Many of them 
were mothers of several children 
before they became doctors; most of 
them bore children while they were 
practicing. Elvira Stevens Barney 
filled a mission and taught school in 
the Hawaiian Islands before she 
studied. All of them — because there 
was hardlv a live-minded woman in 



Utah who did not — took active in- 
terest in woman suffrage, and later 
two of them became members of the 
state legislature. 

Among those who followed Dr. 
Pratt in the profession were Ellis R. 
Shipp, Martha Hughes Paul Can- 
non, Margaret C. Shipp Roberts, 
Mary Minor Green, Emma Atkins, 
Mary Emma Van Schoonhoven, 
and Jane M. Skolfield. 

Belle Anderson Gemmell and 
Justine Anderson Mclntyre, daugh- 
ters of Dr. W. F. Anderson, were 
non-Mormons who left pioneer 
Utah to return with medical degrees. 

Martha Hughes, as she was then 
known, and Emma Atkins were the 
most youthful of the group. They 
made up their minds when they 
were girls to follow the profession. 
Martha had a brilliant career, but 
Dr. Atkins, an excellent student of 
Dr. Pratt's and one who was in- 
spired by her to become a doctor, 
went to Nephi to practice, where 
she met with an early and tragic 
death. 

Undoubtedly there is no more 
colorful page in all history than that 
which is illumined by this group of 
Mormon women who bore the title, 
Doctor of Medicine. But even they 
were preceded in Salt Lake City by 
one other. 

In one of the earliest numbers of 
The Women's Exponent, a distin- 
guished magazine and for many 
years the only woman's periodical 
between Boston and Portland, Ore- 
gon, an interesting advertisement ap- 
peared. Mrs. Ellen B. Ferguson, 
M. D., a convert of Elder Orson F. 
Whitney's, announced herself as a 
specialist in the diseases of women. 
Extremely intellectual and highly 
cultivated, she taught drawing, elo- 





DR. PENROSE 
ON THE PORCH 
OF THE HOME 
OF HER LATER 
YEARS. 



ELDEST GRANDDAUGHTER AND ELDEST GREAT- 
GRANDCHILD OF DR. PENROSE— EDNA PRATT 
SUTHERLAND AND HER SON WILLIAM C. 

SUTHERLAND. 



cution, and piano lessons in addition 
to her practice of medicine. She 
also was interested in woman suf- 
frage. A great traveler, she expound- 
ed Mormonism wherever she went; 
and she mingled among America's 
most brilliant leaders in the feminist 
movement. However, there were cer- 
tain characteristics which distin- 
guished Dr. Ferguson as being some- 
what different from the sturdy type 
of true pioneer woman doctor of 
Utah. The accomplished Dr. Fer- 
guson, despite her tremendous loy- 
alty to the Church during a large 
part of her life, occupied a place 
almost by herself in the community. 

Nearly all of Utah's women doc- 
tors were great travelers; and they 
too were international in their out- 
look. Many of them were strong- 
minded, highly opinionated, forceful 
women. Some were successful in 
business; a few of them had more 
knowledge and ideas than friends, 
but in the hearts of those friends 
who were their own, true admiration 
ruled. And if, in others, their 
faults had not been so few, how 
could their goodness have been so 
great? Professional jealousy and 
over-ambition were largely ruled 
from their lives. Some of them 
were great women — truly great. 
They could not have fallen short of 
this high standard had they done 
nothing more than disseminate the 
knowledge of midwifery in the 
saintly way in which they carried on. 

Their presence in the measureless 

territory of the new Zion was almost 

like the unseen hand of God, who 

ministers in His own divine way to 

{Continued on page 51) 

17 




THE LITTLE HAND AND CONSTANT FIGURES 
STANDING EVER NEAR IT. 



THE STORY THUS FAR: Down in 
the land of the Navajos, where the 
great, weird shapes of Monument Valley 
punctuate the skyline of the Southwest, 
Yoinsnez and his son and his daughter, 
Eltceesie, live in a hogan, neighboring 
Husteele and his little son Peejo. But de- 
spite their neighborliness in all other things 
there is a bitter rivalry between the two for 
the capture of a phantom horse — Beleeh 
thlizhen (blackhorse) — a stallion of Arabian 
type that appeared full-grown on Husk- 
aniny Mesa on the Utah-Arizona line, and 
which defied all efforts for his capture, 
whether of trickery, stealth, or force. As 
the occupants of each hogan would attempt 
his capture, the occupants of the other would 
lie in wait to see if they were successful. 
Suddenly, however, the dread influenza 
struck the hogan of Yoinsnez and crushed 
the life from his son and prostrated all 
others. While they were so stricken, 
Husteele and Peejo sought again to capture 
Blackhorse — but without success. Then the 
devastating plague visited the hogan of 
Husteele. Ten days later, after Yoinsnez 
had finally gained strength enough to visit 
his neighbor, only eleven- year-old Peejo 
was still alive. Yoinsnez took the boy to 
his own roof and cared for him. He also 
took Husteele's horses and herds and min- 
gled them with his own, and burned down 
Husteele's hogan in an effort to blot out 
the destruction of the dread epidemic. 
Yoinsnez's first feeling of compassion soon, 
however, turned to rising resentment and 
bitter distrust when Peejo seemed reluctant 
to tell all that he and his father, Husteele, 
had learned of Blackhorse. 



Courtesy Harry Goulding, Trading 
Post Operator, Monument Valley. 



&> NATIVE BLOOD 



By ALBERT R. LYMAN 



a nother gripping story comes from out of 
the Southwest by the author of "The 
Outlaw of Navajo Mountain." 



Chapter III 



W H 



'hen the two children 
had proved they could keep the 
flock, the task was theirs — dawn to 
dusk — dawn to dusk again They 
gazed wearily from their endless 
task at misty distance for long, 
long hours at a time. They com- 
mented on every feature of its 
dreary face, suggesting the least 
break in its killing boredom, and 
nothing else in all their wide hori- 
zon held greater charm than those 
18 



mysterious "Mittens," raised ever 
as hands in solemn affirmation. 

"That big hand is mine," declared 
the boy. "It is giving command. 
Some time I'll give command." 

"Then the other is mine," ans- 
wered the little shepherdess, "I am 
answering your command." 

Yoinsnez got an intoxicating 
thrill from riding Husteele's fleet, 
black mare. He proved the bay to 
be almost as good, and even the 
white mare could pass his top horse. 
They fitted gratifyingly into his am- 
bitions and he appraised them with 
avaricious hope. The momentary 
tide of love or pity which had im- 
pelled him, in taking Peejo, to reach 
beyond the narrow bounds of his 
old prejudices, made but temporary 
change in the ways of his wonted 
self. His former ambitions began 
at once to twist the new situation — 
the orphan boy felt it even before 
he was able to leave the hogan. He 
had come grieving and desolate to 
the home of his father's hard rival 
only to meet the offensive tenden- 
cies he had learned to hate from 
infancy. And the old man put a 
testy curb around the motherly ten- 
derness of his gentle noloki in the 
love she wanted to offer to his ri- 
val's son. 

Peejo was in a changed world — 



a world in which no one but the 
artless little girl could offer com- 
fort from a full and trusting heart, 
and to her, with childish intuitions, 
he betrayed as much as his pride 
would permit, the shattered idols 
of a lost home. After one short, 
sick look at the black ruin which 
had been his father's hogan, he 
made it a point to go that way no 
more. The deep impulses which 
had bound him to father, mother, 
and sisters, groped despairingly in 
a desolate world and found in all 
the narrow limits of his new ex- 
istence no responsible one but the 
little shepherdess to answer the si- 
lent cry of his aching soul. 

As soon as Yoinsnez perceived 
this pronounced attachment be- 
tween his only child and his rival's 
son, he disapproved with emphasis. 
The big furrows deepened across 
his sloping forehead, and he al- 
lowed Eltceesie to go with the flock 
at less frequent intervals. When 
the rival's son, in spite of his game 
and silent efforts could not tend 
them alone, the old man had Nat- 
awney Begay come over from Klee 
Betow and take part of the respon- 
sibility. 

Not yet in his teens, Natawney 
Begay, son of the big medicine man, 
was vainly aware of his prepossess- 



THE IMPROVEMENT ERA, JANUARY, 1939 



ing appearance, his arched nose, 
eagle eye, and faultless build. Even 
before he spoke or made a gesture, 
he was a haughty and offensive 
challenge to the half-invalid orphan 
from the burned hogan. 

Whether it was Begay's charm 
for Eltceesie or for her father, or 
because the sheep really needed a 
third herder as the spring advanced, 
the little girl still spent much of 
her time with them on the hills. And 
on the first day of her coming, as 
soon as the three children found 
time to rest on a sand bank above 
the sheep, the medicine man's son 
hooked his fingers banteringly be- 
fore the other boy's eyes, "Ha- 
coon," (Come on) he sneered. 

It was a banter to wrestle, but it 
was more — it was a bid for the pref- 
erence of the shepherdess — she 
would give it to the champion — 
tribal tradition had declared the 
most fit to be the most deserving. 
Inherent pride of championship 
came with hot throbbings into the 
face of Husteele's orphan son, but 
he knew he was not recovered from 
the deep sting of the monster that 
had killed his father's household. 

Eltceesie knew little of what that 
monster had done to Peejo, and 
how nearly he was still crippled 
from the terrible ordeal, and if he 
refused the challenge she would 
think him a coward, nothing more. 
He was no coward — he hated the 
shame of it worse than death, and 
to carry that shame where the dear 
shepherdess could see him — that 
was too much to bear. 

Without a word he braced him- 
self in answer to the challenge, and 
they sprang at each other, grappling 
for under hold while Eltceesie 
watched in silence. Peejo had the 
prowess, the game nerve, but his 
big fight for life had left him no 
strength with which to meet the 
medicine man's son. When he had 
been forced to the ground, he asked 
with wounded pride for a second 
trial which brought even more hu- 
miliation. 

Still he scorned to plead his unfit- 
ness — that would be admitting the 
very thing he wanted most of all to 
disprove. He sank panting on a 
stone to rest, but the glory of it was 
too sweet in Begay's proud breast 
to stop without more; he extended 
his index fingers horizontally, push- 
ing one ahead of the other, a chal- 
lenge to run. 

Eltcessie still watched, her ver- 
dict pending. The game blood of 
Husteele would still admit of no 
craven refusal, and his orphan son 



gathered himself without a word 
and exerted all his depleted power 
to run as he used to run for his 
father's approving smile. It was 
of no use, his feet dragged heavily, 
and his weary limbs should have 
been still resting on the sheepskin 
by the fire. 

With sweet exultation 
Begay caught the approving smile 
of the shepherdess and gazed hero- 
ically away over the desert to the 
hazy "Mittens." "That big hand 
is mine," he told her, "I am the win- 
ner. 

Her glance turned from him to 
the little hand and then to Peejo — 
had he nothing to say? Had he 
meekly surrendered his claim to 
that big hand — the command that 
she said she would answer? 

While the words still hung on 
the air, a needless insult to the in- 
jury he had suffered, Peejo arose in- 
dignantly to his feet, "Chinde be- 
kigiel" (Snake Skin) he hissed, 
squaring himself for what he knew it 
would mean. 

The medicine man's son leaped 
at him in a fury, but he dodged, at 
the same time tripping Begay so 
that he fell headlong on the sand. 
Before he could rise Peejo kicked 
him in the side and jumped astride 
of his back, pinning him to the 
ground. And still the chivalrous 
daring of Husteele's blood could 
not compensate for what the mon- 
ster had taken from his son. Begay 
in a rage writhed himself to upper 
place, and when the straying sheep 
made it necessary for him to run 
after them, he left Peejo in a mass 
of bruises and blood. 



All this red evidence and the sto- 
ries told that night to Yoinsnez, 
made matters no better for Hus- 
teele's orphan son. Begay's great- 
er fitness won the old man even 
more than it won his little daugh- 
ter. The old man was eager to be 
won — it was to head off Peejo's too 
apparent attachment for Eltceesie 
that he had induced the handsome 
champion over from Klee Betow, 
and for that champion he express- 
ed his preference in words and fa- 
vors intended to sting Peejo. 

Everything conspired to widen 
the breach between the rival's son 
and the father in his new home, till 
at length Peejo asked to be given 
his father's sheep and horses and 
left to go his way alone. At this 
the old man exploded in wrath — 
the very idea of parting right now 
with these three fleet mares when 
his way was open to capture Black- 
horse! True to the meaning of his 
name, Yoinsnez was large and lion- 
like, and after watching the storm 
of his fury, the boy decided not to 
mention it in that way again. 

But the breach widened. With 
these fleet mares and no opposition, 
the old man prepared to make a 
grand roundup of the mesa. Peejo 
wanted more than anything else to 
go with him — he was weary to 
death of the blatting sheep; he had 
been rewarded with vacations when 
he did good work for his father; 
and he figured he deserved a vaca- 
tion now. He wanted to ride the 
black mare, his mare, and have Be- 
(Continued on page 56) 

THE NAVAJO, HIS HORSE AND HIS HOGAN 
BY THE BARE ROCKS AND THE DRY SAND 
WHERE THE FITTEST HAVE SURVIVED THROUGH 
AGES OF DROUTH AND PRIVATION. 

Courtesy Harry Goulding, Trading 
Post Operator, Monument Valley. 








JhsL PROTESTORS OF 
CHRISTENDOM 

x. WjoUdivL 3bu±hsA, 



By JAMES L BARKER 

Head of the Department of Modern Languages at 
the University of Utah, and a member of the Gen- 
eral Board of the Deseret Sunday School Union 



T 



here is little doubt that if the 
church had corrected itself 
in time, it would have avoid- 
ed the Reformation." 1 

"This interior and voluntary re- 
form of the church, that some of its 
most illustrious doctors (Saint Ber- 
nard, Gerson) had demanded, was 
constantly postponed or refused by 
short-sighted popes, concerned more 
with temporal than with spiritual 
affairs." 1 

Though attempts to reform the 
church before the sixteenth century 
failed, discontent with her was deep- 
seated and persistent. 

The Albigensian heresy was 
quenched in blood; Wyclif 's follow- 
ers were suppressed; John Huss was 
burned and a holy war declared 
against his followers; even the at- 
tempts to reform the church by the 
general councils had failed. The 
councils of Pisa, Constance, and 
Basle achieved no reforms of conse- 
quence, reforms constantly demand- 
ed, but never accomplished. 

Malet says the doctors of Paris 
had tried to force the adoption of 
reforms in these general councils, but 
"The popes succeeded in ridding 
themselves of the councils, in re- 
maining masters of the church, and 
in bringing about no reforms.'" 

Conditions did not improve. 
Martin Luther, the son of a peasant 
miner, was to make another attempt, 
where others had failed, to free the 
church from abuses. Were he en- 
trusted with a divine mission, his 
birth could not have been more op- 
portune. 

Less than ten years after Luther's 
birth, Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia was 
elected Pope as Alexander VI. "His 
irregular life was known to all." 
"The flood of paganism, after having 
invaded the Roman Curia, mounted 

iReinasch, Francis, p. 94. 

a Malet. Histoire de France, vol. 1, p. 289. 

20 



even to the throne of Saint Peter. " 3 
"An astonishing thing! In the 
reports of ambassadors and in the 
chronicles of the period, this election 
is mentioned without the slightest 
allusion to the [corrupt] manners of 
the newly elected; and this absence 
of scandal is perhaps the greatest 
scandal of this period."* 

Alexander VI should have pro- 
ceeded to reform the church. But 
how could he? 

According to the historian Pastor 
(Catholic), his election had been 
bought. 5 He was the father of six 
children. He made his third son, 
Caesar Borgia, gonfalonier (stand- 
ard bearer) of the church. Caesar 
Borgia "was almost always followed 
by his confidential assassin, don Mi- 
chelotto," 5 and among his numerous 
crimes, he is credited with having 
caused his brother-in-law to be 
strangled. "The 18th of August, 
1 500, Caesar provoked by Alphonse 
[husband of Lucrecia Borgia] pene- 
trated into the bedroom of his 
brother-in-law, and had him stran- 
gled before his eyes by don Michel- 
otto."* Pastor says: "The pope 
passed the sponge over this horrible 
event." 

The inaptitude of Alexander VI 
to reform the church was manifest. 
Mourret says that his life was "the 
most complete contradiction of the 
lessons of Him, whom he was 
charged to represent on the earth." 7 

He not only initiated no reforms, 
but frustrated the attempts at reform 
of Savonarola. However, Savon- 
arola had placed himself in rebellion 
against the pope : "If the one sitting 
in the chair of Saint Peter is in evi- 
dent opposition to the law of the 
gospel, I shall say to him," said 

a Mourret (Catholic), La Renaissance ct la Deforme, 
p. 201. 

4 Mourret, La Renaissance et la Reforme, p. 201. 
•"Pastor, Geschichte dec Papste. 
"Mourret, La Renaissance et la Reforme, p. 204. 
"Mourret, La Renaissance et la Reforme, p. 219. 
7 Mourret, La Renaissance et la Reforme, p. 219. 




MARTIN LUTHER 

Savonarola, "you are not the Roman 
Church, you are only a man and a 
sinner." 8 Moreover, Savonarola 
maintained that the election of Alex- 
ander had been obtained by bribery, 
was consequently invalid, and that 
the orders of Rodrigo Borgia ( Alex- 
ander VI ) were not binding on him; 
and he appealed to a general council 
of the church. 

No doubt Alexander did not agree 
with these views, and it is also prob- 
able that his views did not disagree 
greatly with the opinions of later Ro- 
man church historians; "in purely 
religious matters, he [Alexander 
VI] was not open to any blame:" he 
busied himself seriously with bring- 
ing the utraquists [those who ad- 
ministered the sacrament under both 
forms] of Bohemia to the unity of 
the faith, and he sought to protect 
the faithful against a remnant of the 
Waldensees in Moravia." 8 "It seems 
that Providence had wished to show 
that, if men are capable of injuring 
the church, they are incapable of de- 
stroying the work of Christ." 9 
"Again, one must indeed recognize 
that, under the pontificate of Alex- 
ander VI, the faith of the Roman 
Church remained immaculate."' 

If historians of the Roman church 
are right and the doctrines and au- 
thority of the Christian church had 
been preserved, in spite of simony, 
crime, and the abuse of force, 
throughout the ages and, moreover, 
were preserved during this period of 
degradation, then Luther did too 
much; if the true doctrines and or- 
dinances had been abandoned for the 

8 Mourret, La Rennaissance et la Reforme. p. 219. 
9 Mourret, La Renaissance et la Reforme, p. 222. 
9 Mourret, La Renaissance et la Reforme, p. 219. 



THE IMPROVEMENT ERA, JANUARY, 1939 



doctrines and ordinances of men and, 
if through disobedience and sin, the 
divine authority had been lost, then 
Luther did well, but there was more 
to be done. 10 

At the death of Alexander, the 
College of Cardinals was com- 
posed of 38 members, of whom 27 
had been created by him. Picolo- 
mini was elected pope as Pius III. 
Though Pius regarded Caesar Bor- 
gia "as one of the supports of the 
church," 11 he outlined a program of 
complete reform to the Sacred Col- 
lege, including pope, cardinals and 
the curia. However, he died ten 
days after his coronation. 

The College of Cardinals then 
elected Julien de la Rovere as Pope 
Julius II. Pastor (Catholic) is of 
the opinion that his election was 
simoniacal. 12 Curiously enough his 
coronation was deferred from No- 
vember 19 to November 26 because 
the astrologers had signaled an "es- 
pecially favorable position of the 
planets" on that day. Julius died 
February 21, 1513. 

Jean de Medicis was elected his 
successor and took the title of Leo X. 
The son of Lawrence the Magnifi- 
cent of Florence, his education had 
been entrusted to the humanist, Auge 
Politien, "one of the most funda- 
mentally pagan souls of his cen- 

10 It is interesting to compare the belief of the 
Roman Church that no matter what the disobedience 
and sin of the leaders of the church, the Lord still 
preserved the church and now recognizes its authority, 
with the following: "The rights of the priesthood 
are inseparably connected with the powers of heaven, 
and . . . the powers of heaven cannot be controlled 
nor handled only upon the principles of righteousness. 
That they may be conferred upon us it is true; but 
when we undertake to cover our sins, or to gratify 
our pride, our vain ambition, or to exercise control or 
dominion or compulsion upon the souls of the children 
of men, in any degree of unrighteousness, behold the 
heavens withdraw themselves; the Spirit of the Lord 
is grieved; and when it is withdrawn, amen to the 
priesthood or the authority of that man. "'-Joseph 
Smith. (Doc. and Cov. 121:36, 37.) 

Many of the early church writers (Justin Martyr, 
Aristides, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Eusebius) 
taught that the gospel in the time of Jesus was not 
new, and Ireaneus wrote that "Man having been 
lost . . . God worked to save him progressively, 
giving successively the four testaments [dispensations] 
from Adam to Noah, from Noah to Moses, from 
Moses to Jesus Christ, and again by [Jesus Christ] 
our Lord." In Tixeront, Histoire des Dogmes. 

Why was it necessary to send the Gospel to the 
earth more than once? When the Lord said to His 
Apostles, "I am with you always, even to the end 
of the world" (Matthew 28:20), did He mean that 
the church would remain on the earth in unbroken 
authority to the end of the world? Was He with 
His servants in the earlier dispensations and will He 
be with them until the end of the world, even 
though the people of their time were disobedient? 
He also said, "Upon this rock I will build my church, 
and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it" 
(Matthew 16:18.) In previous dispensations, the 
authority of His church disappeared from the earth, 
but did "the gates of hell" on that account prevail 
against the church? 

It is also interesting to note that the New Testament 
contains no such promise as that made in regard to 
the church in our day: "and the kingdom shall not 
be left to other people . . . and it shall stand for- 
ever." (Daniel 2:44.) 

If the church were to have been preserved regard- 
less of disobedience, then the first dispensation would 
have lasted to the end of the world, and there would 
have been no need for more than one. 

n Hefele-Leclercq, Histoire des Conciles, VIII. I, 
p. 240. 

32 Pastor, Geschichte der Papste, VI, pp. 192, 193. 



tury." 13 At fourteen, Jean de Mede- 
cis had been made a cardinal. Like 
his predecessor, he was a great 
patron of art that, even when reli- 
gious, was largely paganized. 14 So 
completely paganized had the 
church become that "grave Cardi- 
nals hardly dared to call the Holy 
Spirit, the Virgin, and heaven by 
their traditional names. Cardinal 
Bembo will speak of the 'Zephir' and 
the 'Goddess'," etc. 15 

It is thus that in Italy the Renais- 
sance or Revival of Learning, in its 
admiration of the literature and cul- 




THE DOOR OF THE CHURCH AT WITTENBERG 
ON WHICH MARTIN LUTHER POSTED HIS 
95 THESES. 

ture of Greek and Roman antiquity, 
tended to introduce pagan ideals 
and pagan moral standards. In the 
north, the effects of the Renaissance 
were somewhat different. The hu- 
manists were delighted with the 
study of the original texts of the an- 
cients, and from the study and criti- 
cism of the profane texts, it was only 
a step to the study of the original 
text of the scriptures. The year be- 
fore Luther nailed his ninety-five 
theses to the Castle Church door in 
Wittenberg, Erasmus published his 
Greek New Testament. A new 
spirit was getting abroad in the 
world, opposed to the spirit of ab- 
solute authority which prescribed 
the text of the scriptures to be read, 
the Vulgate, and proscribed the 
books not to be read, the Index, and 
dictated the opinions to be accepted 
on pain of excommunication and 

13 Mourret, La Renaissance et la Reforme, p. 253, 
14 The doors of Saint Peter's were sculptured in the 

reign of Eugene IV under the direction of Donatello. 

They figure "the most immoral scenes of pagan 

mvthology". Mourret, La Renaissance et la Reforme, 

p. 247. 

15 Mourret, La Renaissance et la Reforme, p. 256. 



death. This spirit of free examina- 
tion, personal judgment, and re- 
sponsibility was the very essence of 
the Reformation. 

A Jewish convert to Christianity 
persuaded the Emperor Maximilian 
to order the confiscation of Jewish 
books. Entrusted with the inquiry, 
the Archbishop of Mayence con- 
sulted the humanist Reuchlin and 
the Dominican inquisitor in Cologne. 
The inquisitor favored the destruc- 
tion of the books; Reuchlin urged a 
better knowledge of Hebrew, de- 
fended the Hebrew literature, and 
suggested friendly discussion with 
the Jews as a substitute for burning 
their books. The inquisitor then ac- 
cused Reuchlin of heresy. The case 
was appealed to Rome where it 
dragged on until 1520 when it was 
decided against Reuchlin. The hu- 
manists regarded the proceedings as 
the outgrowth of intolerance and ig- 
norance. 

Since the seventh general council 
(787), the bishops were forbidden 
to consecrate new churches which 
possessed no relics. Belief in the 
miraculous power of relics was uni- 
versal. "Princes rivaled each other 
in collecting the relics of saints. . . 
Frederick the Wise . . . had ac- 
cumulated no less than five thousand 
of the sacred objects. In a cata- 
logue of them, we find the rod of 
Moses, a bit of the burning bush, 
thread spun by the Virgin, etc. The 
elector of Mayence possessed even 
a larger collection, which included 
forty-two whole bodies of saints and 
some of the earth from a field near 
Damascus out of which God was 
supposed to have created man." 16 

Discontent with the corruption 
and avarice of the church was gen- 
eral. The peasants suffered from 
the compulsory collection of tithes, 
which were no longer a free will 
offering as in the early church. 
There was discontent with the nom- 
ination by the pope to vacant offices 
in Germany. "These offices were 
given either to favorites of the pope 
or to whosoever offered the highest 
price, no matter what the origin of 
the buyer." 17 

For two centuries the desire for 
reform had been growing. A bold 
strong leader was needed to give it 
expression and favorable circum- 
stances to prevent it from being 
crushed. The leader was found in 
Luther and the favorable circum- 
stances in the ambitions and political 
alliances of Europe. 

(Continued on page 50) 

ls Robinson, History of Western Europe, pp. 377. 
378. Ranke, Geschichte der Reformation. 
"Malet, Histoire de France, vol. 1, p. 288. 

21 



THE STORY OF OUR 
• HYMNS 



It is interesting to note how richly 
the British Isles have contributed 
to Latter-day Saint hymnology. 
Such names as Charles }. Thomas, 
George Careless, Ebenezer Beesley, 
Joseph J. Daynes, John Jaques, Evan 
Stephens, Thomas C. Griggs, Adam 
C. Smyth, John Tullidge, John 
Lyon, John Nicholson, Charles W. 
Penrose, William Clayton, and 
others have graced the pages of our 
hymn books. And among this 
coterie of poets and musicians, Hen- 
ry W. Naisbitt, the subject of this 
sketch, is not the least. 

He was born in November, 1 826, 
in the little hamlet of Romanby, 
England, so named because it was 
on the road built by the Roman in- 
vaders. He grew up to early man- 
hood at the near-by town of North 
Allerton, Yorkshire. His father was 
a Wesleyan exhorter and Henry was 
reared in a serious religious at- 
mosphere — a Bible student at home, 
and a faithful attendant at Sunday 
School. His love for reading 
amounted almost to a passion, his 
favorite authors in addition to the 
Bible, being Gray, Thompson, Cow- 
per, Mrs. Barbould, Mrs. Segourey, 
Elliott, Massey, and Cooper. 

After joining the Athenaeum and 
Mechanics institutes, of London, 
Henry W. Naisbitt revelled in the 
works of Shakespeare, Milton, By- 
ron, Burns, and Moore, later being 
especially attracted by the poems of 
Eliza Cook, Henry Kirk White, and 
Mrs. Hemans. Henry's father died 
when the son was only nine years 
old and the widow with five children 
was left to meet life's difficulties. 
Henry continued as a Wesleyan un- 
til 1 850, when he first heard the Gos- 
pel preached by Orson Pratt. He 
was doubtful at first, but gradually 
became convinced of its truth and 
joined the Church in Liverpool, im- 
migrating to Utah in 1854. 

In his mountain home, Brother 
Naisbitt contributed many inspiring 
poems, among which was the hymn, 
"Rest, Rest for the Weary Soul." In 
1902, he published a book of poems 
entitled Rhymelets in Many Moods, 
in which he transferred to verse the 
thoughts — some of which he said had 
come to him on the street — jotted 
down on the back of an envelope; 
others that had reached him in the 
midnight hour when nothing satis- 
fied him but to arise and commit the 
22 



By GEORGE D. PYPER 

General Superintendent of the Deseret 
Sunday School Union and First Assist- 
ant Chairman of the Church Music 
Committee 



XXXVA. 

SouL 

WORDS BY 

HENRY W. NAISBITT 

MUSIC BY 

GEORGE CARELESS 



REST, REST FOR THE WEARY 
SOUL 

By Henry W. Naisbitt 

Rest, rest for the weary soul, 
Rest, rest for the aching head. 
Rest, rest on the hillside, rest, 
With the great uncounted dead. 

Rest, rest, for the battle's o'er, 
Rest, rest, for the race is run, 

Rest, rest, where the gates are closed 
With each evening's setting sun. 

Peace, peace where no strife intrudes, 
Peace, peace where no quarrels 
come, 

Peace, peace, for the end is there 
Of our wild life's busy hum. 

Peace, peace, the oppressed are free. 

Rest, rest, oh, ye weary, rest, 
For the angels guard those well 

Who sleep on their mother's breast. 

Peace, peace, there is music's sound, 
Peace, peace, till the rising sun 

Of the resurrection morn 
Proclaims life's vict'ry won. 




lines to paper; others that had come 
to him on the railway trains, and 
others, when, fresh from missionary 
labors, the spirit of a theme stirred 
his mind. 

Brother Naisbitt filled two mis- 
sions to his native land, one in 1 876- 
1878 when he labored as assistant 
editor of the Millennial Star and the 
other in 1898-1901 when he was 
counselor to Platte D. Lyman, in 
the presidency of the European Mis- 
sion. He died February 26, 1908. 

Five of Elder Naisbitt's hymns 



HENRY W. NAISBITT 

are included in Latter-day Saint 
Hymns, viz: "Rest, Rest for the 
Weary Soul" (No. 65), JThis 
House We Dedicate to Thee" (No. 
59), "We Here Approach Thy 
Table, Lord" (No. 54), "Weep Not 
for the Early Dead" (No. 119), 
"What Voice Salutes the Startled 
Ear" (No. 226). 

Two poems are found in Deseret 
Sunday Schools Songs, viz: "For 
Our Devotion, Father, We Invoke 
Thy Spirit" (No. 100), "We Are 
Watchers, Earnest Watchers" (No. 
160). 

The Hymn and the Composer 

Blessed are the dead which die in the 
Lord, from henceforth: yea, saith the spirit, 
that they may rest from their labors; and 
their works do follow them. (Rev. 14:13.) 

HThe beauty of Henry W. Naisbitt's 
"Rest, Rest on the Hillside 
Rest" is its simplicity. It is poetic 
and rhythmic. It is a beautiful, 
comforting song — full of solace and 
peace. It declares that death is a 
happy release from the battles of life 
and that one enters into a peace 
where no strife intrudes, no quar- 
rels come; where the oppressed are 
free and the weary at rest. 

But Henry W. Naisbitt did not 
believe that the spirit of a deceased 
person was buried in the cemetery. 
He believed in the Latter-day Saint 
doctrine that only the mortal remains 
are placed there; that the spirit, the 
intelligent part, is taken to the par- 
adise of God to await the resurrec- 
tion morn. This is beautifully told 
by the Nephite Prophet Alma, as re- 
corded in the Book of Mormon: 

(Concluded on page 50) 



CONFIDENCE 



ft 



.N early morning 
zephyr sweeping down the canyon 
met the circular camp of the little 
emigrant train and broke in eddying 
currents around the covered wagons. 
Mary Anne, fresh and cheery in a 
bright gingham dress, drew her gray 
shawl closer about her shoulders and 
moved with her frying pan and pan- 
cake batter to the other side of the 
fire. The ribbon of smoke wavered 
for a moment, then followed her. 
She rubbed her smoke-filled eyes. 

"Fiddlesticks!" she exclaimed im- 
patiently. 

"Smoke alius f oilers the purtiest," 
chuckled a masculine voice. "You 
see it don't bother me." 

Mary Anne looked up in surprise 
to find the keen, blue eyes of the 
old trapper, Bill Tarkin, smiling 
down at her. She liked Old Bill with 
his indispensable rifle and his leath- 
ery brown face that wrinkled so 
easily into a happy smile. His pres- 
ence in the camp made the journey 
much more pleasant. She smiled 
back and then broke into a hearty 
laugh as the smoke from the fire turn- 
ed and enveloped him. 

"You look as fresh as a buttercup, 
Mary Anne," he said as he moved 
to her side of the fire. "Them In- 
jun signals that we saw on the hill 
last night must not have kept you 
from havin' a good night's sleep." 

"No," she answered, "I don't 
worry much about the Indians; they 
won't bother us." 

"Well, they ain't never done, but 
we're gettin' into the country now 
where they're most usually at their 
worst. Your pa stood guard last 
night, didn't he?" 

"Yes, he and Allan Motte." 

"Allan Motte. So that's why 
you're so certain the Injuns won't 
bother. Hm-m. Well, I reckon 
you're right; a handsome, strappin' 
young feller like Allan wouldn't let 
no pesky redskin carry you off." 

"Now, Mister Tarkin," she said, 
"that wasn't what I meant at all," 
She looked up at him and her face 
grew serious. "I feel the same way 
about it no matter who is on guard 
duty. You see, we came out here to 
make homes and to find peace, and I 
don't think our protection is left en- 
tirely to human hands. We treat the 
Indians fairly and we take precau- 




By LORIN F. BUTLER 

A SHORT 
SHORT 
STORY 

COMPLETE ON THIS PAGE 

tions against attack, but still I have 
confidence that He who led us out 
here is watching over us." 

"You Mormons are a queer lot," he 
remarked meditatively. "You know 
how treacherous and bloodthirsty 
the blamed Injuns are and still you 
talk of holdin' 'em off with faith and 
confidence. You know what hap- 
pened to Marcus Whitman and his 
family because they trusted the In- 
juns and wasn't prepared to defend 
themselves." 

"I know, but — well, you have 
faith, too, Mister Tarkin, else you 
wouldn't be here." 

"Yes, I have faith, but it's faith 



in the white man's alertness and in 
the business end of a good rifle." 

Jed Aranby and Allan 
Motte, the two men who had been 
standing guard at a point of rocks 
a hundred yards away, were re- 
turning to camp. Bill Tarkin's eyes 
twinkled with satisfaction as he 
watched them, 

"There is the reason why I could 
sleep well," he explained. "I knew 
those fellows were standin' out there 
with their rifles ready. My faith 
was a faith in them." 

The two guards leaned their rifles 
against the wagon wheel and came 
up to the fire. Old Bill tossed more 
wood on the flames and then picked 
up the weapons and looked at them 
fondly. He was a lover of good fire- 
arms and these guns pleased him. 
They were high-powered Win- 
chesters exactly alike. He squinted 
over the sights at an imaginary In- 
dian, clicked his tongue, and grin- 
ned. 

"Mighty nice little weapons," he 
said. "Yes, Mary Anne, I got 
plenty good solid confidence, I guess 
— confidence in tangible things like 
these and the boys that use 'em." 
Bill put the guns down and moved 
on in his morning visits around the 
circle of wagons. 

"They are good guns," Jed re- 
marked. "And it's pretty hard to 
tell 'em apart." 

"Yes," Allan agreed, "they're 
twins. It was a lucky thing for me 
that they are the same calibre." He 
grinned sheepishly at his companion 
and went on. "When Captain An- 
drews asked me to stand guard with 
you last night, I didn't have a single 
cartridge in my gun. I was right 
out, but, our guns being the same, 
I knew I could get some from you if 
I needed them." 

"You — " the older man's face 
whitened for an instant and then 
flushed crimson, "you didn't have 
any shells for your gun?" 

"I guess it does sound ridiculous 
to an old scout like you." 

Jed shook his head and silently 
watched the flames as they twisted 
and leaped in a miniature war dance. 

Jed looked up from the fire. "Ri- 
diculous," he repeated slowly, half 
to himself, "yes, because — I didn't 
have any ammunition either!" 



23 



An imperial luau 



It was autumn in Hawaii — the 
birds were singing and flowers 
were in bloom everywhere. Ha- 
waii seemed to be a paradise. Gor- 
geous shades of red, yellow, and 
pink hibiscus lined the wooded 
ways, while shower trees of pink 




1. BROTHER GEORGE MOSSMAN WITH A GROUP 
OF HULA DANCERS. 

2. HOW THE NATIVES EAT POI. 

3. THE WHITE MAN EATS POI THE NATIVE 
WAY. 

4. STAKE PRESIDENT RALPH E. WOOLLEY 
(RIGHT) AND BISHOP J. F. WOOLLEY, 
GENERAL LUAU CHAIRMAN (LEFT) ARE 
CAUGHT IN THE MIDST OF PROCEEDINGS. 

5. PART OF CROWD AND THE TEMPORARY 
STAGE ON WHICH THE TWELVE HOUR PRO- 
GRAM WAS RENDERED. 



Sister Emma Kelulalanikulani 
Mossman, the author of this ar- 
ticle, and her husband, Elder George 
Mossman, are attempting to preserve 
for the present generation the fine 
culture of the ancient Hawaiians. 
Their Lalani Hawaiian Village at 
2558 Kalakauia Street on Waikiki 
Beach, is one place that all visitors to 
Hawaii should see. Sister Mossman 
is a good example also of the pedi- 
grees of the island people. Her great 
grandfather was a brother of King 
Kamehameha I, who united the is- 
lands under one ruler; on her moth- 
er's side she is descended from the an- 
cient kings of Maui, her maternal 
grandfather fought on the side of the 
Colonies in the war of the Revolu- 
tion. 



24 



J Jul ffjahiL StaluL puiiu ov&Jv thsL 
By EMMA KELULALANIKULANI MOSSMAN 

Descendant of Hawaii Maul Molokea Oahu, Kaua 

and gold flung their beauty over- 
head. The white ginger and jas- 
mine wafted their sweet perfume. 
The royal poincian, most brilliant 
of all flowering trees, flamed with 
living-fire every road and garden. 
Bougainvillaes and Mexican creep- 
ers trailed along on lattice-work 
and walls, while down hillsides, yel- 
low allamandas brightened the way. 

Somehow, here in Hawaii, au- 
tumn is grander — the moon nearer, 
warmer, and brighter. The sea is 
bluer and the clouds are whiter. 
Music is sweeter, laughs are gayer, 
welcome is truer, love is stronger, 
and people are happier. Life here 
seems more like living. 

So, as nature filled the hearts of 
the people with loveliness and 
grandeur, the Saints and officials of 
the Oahu Stake of the Church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 
were inspired to stage a gigantic 
luau or native feast, used formerly 
in connection with the religious cer- 
emonies of the Hawaiians in the 
spirit of thanksgiving. The pur- 
pose of the feast was three-fold: 
First, to create a keener interest 
and greater spirit of cooperation 
among the members of the stake 
through mass participation; second, 
to raise a fund towards the erection 
of the projected tabernacle in Ha- 
waii; third, to establish a more 
friendly relationship between the 
Church and the community. 

For weeks the Saints and their 
friends, more than one thousand, 
coming from their daily occupa- 
tions, gave of their time to help 
build on the beautiful, treegrown, 
flower-covered site of the coming 
tabernacle, a temporary lanai or ar- 
bor about two-hundred-fifty feet by 
fifty feet, where nine hundred peo- 
ple could be seated at tables at one 
time. Storehouses, tables, benches, 
and service tables were also erect- 
ed. A platform was built near by, 
under the spreading branches of a 
huge mango tree, on which an en- 
tertainment of song, dance and pag- 
eant was to take place. Trees and 
hedges were trimmed and the nec- 
essary area for the coming crowds 
cleared. 

Meetings of the several commit- 
tees were held weekly. And there 
were of necessity committees aplen- 



ty, under the guidance of the stake 
presidency, and headed by the Gen- 
eral Chairman, Bishop J. Frank 
Woolley, and the assistant chair- 
man, Elder George Mossman. It 
was planned to put over the biggest 
undertaking the stake or the islands 
had ever attempted. Ticket sellers 
combed the city. Some of the wards 
sold their quota of tickets, and 
others sold more than their share. 
Fully one-third of the food was do- 
nated. Private individuals and bus- 
iness firms contributed food and 
materials for the occasion. 

Two days before the luau, the 
women peeled taro, which came 
from Laie, where the temple now 
stands. These women worked all 
day long, and by evening the taro 
was ready to be put into large ma- 
chines, operated by the men, to be 
turned into two and a half tons of 
poi, the famous native Hawaiian 
dish, and the chief article of food of 
the Hawaiian. Anciently, poi was 
pounded on a board, often two men 
worked on one board as they sang 
and joked. Today, machines do 
the work more efficiently. 

The next day some of the boys 
and men went to the mountains for 
tons of rMeaves and ferns — the 
leaves for wrapping fish and vege- 
tables to be cooked in the imu or 
earth oven; the ferns for decorative 
purposes. Some of the women went 
to the beach for sea weeds, one of 
the unique ingredients of the luau 
meal. Others went to the taber- 
nacle grounds in four-hour shifts to 
prepare the food for cooking. 



THE IMPROVEMENT ERA, JANUARY, 1939 



AN IMPRESSION OF THE 

IMPERIAL LUAU 

By Virginia Woolley 

Brown hands, toughened through long 

use, 
Lift steaming rocks from the imus. 
Native hands, in swirling rhythm, 

mix poi. 
To feed a multitude. 
Eager, haole hands gesturing direc- 
tions, 
Pale, oriental hands diligent in their 

service; 
Hands moving softly across guitar 

strings, 
Accompanying hands in graceful 

motion that 
Tell the story of an age-old hula . . 
Helpful, industrious, patient hands! 
Hands in the attitude of prayer: 
"Bless our labors, oh Lord, for to 

thee 
Is dedicated this work," 

imu is the pit where the pig is cooked. 
haole is the word for white-man. 
hula is the traditional, interpretive dance 
of the Hawaiian people. 



Chickens and fish were cleaned, 
hacked, and cut, then put into ti~ 
leaf wrappers to be cooked in the 
imu. 

The imu or oven was a hole dug 
in the ground several feet in diam- 
eter and about a foot deep. This 
was lined with rocks. On top came 
a layer of dry twigs for kindling, 
then layers of wood, and last of all 
came other stones, which being 
porous would not crack when heat- 
ed. When the burning, hard wood 
made the stones red hot, the oven 
was ready for use. Green banana 
stumps were pounded flat and 
placed upon the hot stones; upon 
them in turn were placed large 
banana leaves. On this bedding were 
placed the pig, potatoes, fish, and 
other delicacies, covered by more 
layers of leaves and finally by a thick 
layer of soil, and allowed to cook 
from one to three hours. 

Thirty pigs, 4,000 pounds; 300 
chickens, 1,500 pounds; salt sal- 
mon, 500 pounds; dried fish, 150 
pounds; raw fish, 200 pounds; sweet 
potatoes, 5,000 pounds; poi, 5,000 
pounds; taro tops, 45 bags; sea- 
weeds, 150 pounds; fresh pineap- 
ples 800 pounds; coconuts, 1,800; 
onions and tomatoes, 200 pounds; 
kukui nuts and red salt, 300 pounds 
— a total of nine tons of food was 
prepared for the luau. 

Everywhere on the grounds men 
and women were busy at work. 
Many worked until midnight. As 
they worked under the palms and 
amidst tropical trees and bushes, 
some of the women and men with 
ukeleles and guitars sang old-time 
Hawaiian songs. The air rang 



with music and happy laughter as 
they worked like one large happy 
family. Never was there such a 
demonstration of cooperation 
among the Saints as was shown that 
night and during the luau. It was 
a thrilling sight. 

At last, the day of luau came! 
Workers arrived early to deco- 
rate and set their tables. At noon 
everything was ready. Preceded 
by the Royal Hawaiian band, and 
led by President Ralph E. Woolley 
of the Oahu Stake and the Mayor 
of Honolulu, the first section en- 
tered the Arbor, now gayly and 
beautifully decorated, to partake of 
the feast, which was to be given 
in five sections, at 12 noon, 2, 4, 6, 
and 8 in the afternoon and evening. 
And a feast it was! The imu-cooked 
food melted in the mouth; the poi 
gave double relish to the taste; the 
people lingered at the tables. 

Nearly six thousand guests, with 
bright colored leis, flocked during 
the day to the spacious tabernacle 
grounds. All day long they came. 
By six in the evening, the crowds 
grew so large that some of them 
crashed the gates. People of all na- 
tionalities were there. Many of 
Honolulu's notables were there too, 
business and professional men, 
members of the legislature, etc., 
and Errol Flynn, the movie actor, 
was there also, to be nearly mobbed 
by youngsters asking for his 
autograph. The Saints of Hawaii 
were honored with the presence of 
Elder John A. Widtsoe of the Coun- 
cil of the Twelve and his good wife, 
who were special guests at the luau. 

At the four o'clock sitting, the 
opening of the imu, the sizzling of 
the roast pig, and the singing were 
broadcast by KGMB over a na- 
tional hook-up, perhaps the first 
time that roast pig has been so hon- 
ored. 

The feast did not end with eat- 
ing. From noon until nearly mid- 
night, on the stage erected under 
the shade of the mango tree, there 
was rendered an unequalled, con- 
tinuous program of singing, danc- 
ing, and representations of native 
customs, ending with a stirring 
pageant of ancient Hawaii. 

Beautiful girls from all parts of 
the islands danced the rhythmic 
dance of Hawaii. The hula, a sa- 
cred, ceremonial temple dance, a 
part of religious service, interpret- 
ing the meaning of life, of earth, 
and sky, of bird and beast, of sun- 
shine and angry waves, was given 
in its perfection. Powerful men of 
Hawaii displayed their skill and 



prowess. Colorful pageantry by 
Samoans and Hawaiians added to 
the spectacular performance. Imag- 
ine! Twelve hours of continuous 
music, singing, dancing and feast- 
ing, in a tropical garden of ferns 
and island flowers of every hue. A 
picture never to be forgotten! 

{Concluded on page 50) 




1. CHIEF OF THE IMU— A FINE TYPE OF 
HAWAIIAN MANHOOD. 

. PREPARING COCONUTS FOR THE LUAU. 

. OPENING THE IMU OR NATIVE OVEN— 
BENEATH THE HOT STONES ARE PIG AND 
FISH, POTATOES, VEGETABLES, ETC., 
BAKED OR ROASTED TO A TURN. 

. ILLUSTRATING THE NATIVE ARTS. 

. WELL-FED AND AT PEACE IS THE NATIVE 
CHILD. 

25 



Lehi's route 
to america 



I 



N WHICH IS SET FORTH ONE MAN S 
VIEW ON A MOOTED QUESTION. 



By C DOUGLAS BARNES, Ph.D. 



M' 



I any Book of Mormon 
scholars will disagree with 
the point of view herein set 
forth, and it is presented here, 
not as the view of the Church, 
but as the speculation, opinion, 
and possible conclusion of one 
thoughtful student of the sub~ 
ject, and is submitted for what 
value it has as a creator of in- 
terest and stimulator of thought 
in these channels. 



Concerning the migration of 
Lehi and his colony from 
Jerusalem, as disclosed in the 
Book of Mormon, Dr. James E. 
Talmage in The Articles of Faith, 
states: 

The company journeyed somewhat east 
of south, keeping near the borders of the 
Red Sea; then changing their course to the 
eastward, crossed the peninsula of Arabia; 
and there, on the shores of the Arabian 
Sea, built and provisioned a vessel in which 
they committed themselves to Divine care 
upon the waters. Their voyage carried 
them eastward across the Indian Ocean, 
then over the South Pacific Ocean to the 
western coast of South America. (Page 
271, 9th Edition.) 

By referring to the conventional 
terrestrial globe and tracing the path 
as outlined by Dr. Talmage, it is 
clear that the point of embarkation 
was somewhere on the southeastern 
extremity of the Arabian peninsula. 
In order to reach the Americas from 
this point, it required traversing in 
excess of 13,000 miles, or more than 
halfway around the world. While 
it is unlikely that we shall ever have 
sufficient information to define pre- 
cisely the path followed by that 



group in reaching America, perti- 
nent data have been accumulated 
which are quite illuminating and 
which lead to at least a rough defi- 
nition of the probable path followed 
in the migration under discussion. 

The ocean journey of Lehi, de- 
pending as it did upon natural agen- 
cies, such as wind and currents, for 
propelling the craft, undoubtedly oc- 
cupied many months. Although not 
claimed in the Book of Mormon ac- 
count of the journey, 1 which is quite 
condensed, it is logical to assume 
that the colony stopped as occasion 
demanded or opportunity presented 
to provision the craft and to re- 
plenish the water supply. The mem- 
ory of these stops, or contact with 
lands and possibly peoples en route, 
may have been perpetuated through 
the centuries in the traditions of 
descendants of the Lehi colony, and 
we turn for such evidence to the 
Hawaiians, who putatively are 
among the posterity of the Lehi 
group. 

As regards the mechanics of this 
protracted journey, it has been found 

!I Nephi 18. 
DIAGRAM SHOWING A SPECULATIVE POSSIBILITY 



that ocean currents exist which in 
proper season move eastward from 
the Arabian peninsula toward India 
and even to Sumatra. By taking ad- 
vantage of mergings into other ex- 
isting ocean current systems, it is 
possible to outline an ocean route to 
the Americas. These points will 
now be amplified. 

Study of Ocean Currents 

Quoting from An Introduction to 
^- Oceanography, by James John- 
stone, D. Sc, Professor of Ocean- 
ography in the University of Liver- 
pool: 8 

North of the equator the streaming of 
the Indian Ocean is dominated by the mon- 
soon wind systems. Figure 60 (the upper 
one) represents the winter conditions when 
the North-East Monsoon has been estab- 
lished, while the lower figure shows the 
streaming set up in the conditions of the 
South-West Monsoon which blows during 
the summer months. . . . 

... As a rule the heating and cooling 
effect of the continental land masses is in- 
sufficient to do more than set up local modi- 
fications of the prevailing wind currents, 
but the Indian Ocean, in its relation to the 
great and high Asiatic continent, is a strik- 
ing exception. In the summer months the 

2 Pages 282-284. Publisher: The University Press 
of Liverpool, Ltd., Hodder and Stoughton, Ltd., Lon- 
don, 1928. 




26 



THE IMPROVEMENT ERA, JANUARY, 1939 




r ~ ZSouTfern _»*f*I " - _ „ - „ 







FIG. 60. THE CURRENT SYSTEMS OF THE 
INDIAN OCEAN. 
The upper figure represents the generalized con- 
ditions during the winter months and the lower figure 
shows the summer conditions in that part of the Ocean 
where the circulation reverses with the season. (Con- 
tinuous lines represent warm currents and broken lines 
cold ones.) 

elevated lands become so strongly heated 
that a wind system, lasting for some months 
is established, this is the South-west Mon- 
soon. In the winter months the continental 
land is strongly cooled and then a reversed 
condition is set up: the North-east Monsoon 
is established and blows also for some 
months. 

The Figure 60 referred to is re- 
produced for reference. It is quite 
evident from an inspection of the 
lower chart of the figure that in sum- 
mer months ocean currents (south- 
west monsoon drift ) move eastward 
from the Arabian shore, touch In- 
dia, and move into the Bay of Bengal. 
In winter months the northeast mon- 
soon drift (cf. upper chart Figure 
60) would be less favorable for an 
easterly migration since the currents 
move toward the African rather than 
the Indian Coast. Continuing again 
it is clear from the lower chart that 
there is a movement of water south- 
east from the Bay of Bengal, be- 
tween Sumatra and the Malay 
peninsula, and on into the South 
China Sea. Also other currents in 
the South China Sea move north- 
ward past Borneo. In addition there 
is an eastward movement through 
the archipelago north of Borneo and 
iust south of the Philippines and into 
the Pacific Ocean. At this point, 



referring to Figure 59 ( page 28 ) re- 
produced from the same text, an 
ocean stream running counter-current 
to the north and south equatorial 
streams moves eastward in about 
the 5° north latitude, finally dividing 
and reversing itself just off the 
shores of Central and South Amer- 
ica. Thus by a series of currents a 
path from Arabia to America has 
been outlined. 8 

Point of Arrival in the Americas 

Tt is proposed by the author that 
the Lehi colony reached the 
Americas by means of the current 
combinations outlined above. 

Provided the craft followed the 
natural ocean stream eastward 
across the Pacific Ocean, as de- 
scribed, it appears logical that the 
colony arrived at a point on the 
western shore of Central or South 
America, somewhere between the 
equator and 15° north latitude. 

Expansion and Division of the 
Lehi Colony 

"Deviewing briefly the Book of 
Mormon history, the colony 
lived in the new land for a time in 
relative harmony. Eventually, how- 
ever, a division occurred, based on 
religious principles in which the less 
righteous group followed Laman, 
one of the older sons of Lehi, while 
the righteous remained under the 
leadership of Nephi, a younger son 
of Lehi. In contrast to their broth- 
ers, the Nephites, and as a distin- 
guishing mark set on them by the 
Lord, the Lamanites became more 
highly pigmented, and today we 
point to the American Indian, still 
carrying this pigmentation, as their 
descendants. 

The colony as a whole grew and 
spread northward, ultimately and 
after several centuries, reaching a 
high state of civilization, as judged 
both by the written history in the 
Book and by the physical evidences 
found in the ruins in Central Amer- 
ica. During this development the 
activities of a portion of the group 
extended again to the sea, and within 

s An interesting account of a recent passage of a 
craft from Singapore, through the China Sea and 
finally eastward just south of the Philippines into the 
Pacific Ocean was published by Alan J. Villiers in the 
National Geographic Magazine (Feb., 1937, p. 221) 
under the title "North About." The feasibility of 
the journey is outlined in the following excerpt from 
the account: "From Singapore there are two routes 
by which a square-rigged ship may hope to reach 
Sydney, New South Wales. Either she may make 
the best of her way to the southward, through Soenda 
(Sunda) Strait, or around the north of Sumatra with 
the southeast monsoon, standing down the west coast 
of Australia and then running her longitude down in 
the wild west winds to the south of that continent; 
or she may go northward around Borneo and eastward 
into the Pacific, hoping that when that difficult stage 
of the voyage is past she may make her southing with 
the southeast trade." 



approximately the century of 
Christ's advent, colonizers were be- 
ing carried by boats under Hagoth 
to the land northward, and the claim 
is made in the record that at least 
two boat loads of people and pro- 
visions were lost at sea/ 

It is naturally assumed that these 
marine activities extended into both 
the Pacific Ocean and Carribean 
Sea, and some students of the Book 
of Mormon claim it resulted in the 
transplanting of a portion of Lehi's 
descendants into the Hawaiian and 
other of the Polynesian islands, 
possibly representing the boat loads 
which were lost as just mentioned. 8 
The acceptance of a direct relation- 
ship between the Hawaiians and the 
descendants of the Lehi colony in 
America is important from the stand- 
point of what follows, for if it is 
established, it means that the pro- 
genitors of the Hawaiians originated 
in Jerusalem and came first to Amer- 
ica as the Lehi colony, before mi- 
grating to the Islands. On this basis 
any information as to the travels of 
the Hawaiian progenitors may log- 
ically be applied to the travels of 
the original Lehi colony. With this 
in mind we shall review evidences 
of Polynesian origin and of their 
travels. 

Fornander's Research on 
Polynesian Origin 

Judge Abraham Fornander some 
years ago, and with the help of 
well-educated native research assist- 
ants, investigated the traditions and 
folklore of the Polynesian races and 
his discoveries, which are quite illu- 
minating, were presented in three 
volumes as : An Account of the Poly- 
nesian Race: Its Origin and Migra- 
tions. 9 Certain pertinent data are 
summarized in the following ex- 
cerpts: 

That the reader may know at a glance 
the result to which my investigations in the 
Polynesian folk-lore, as well as its compar- 
ison with that of other peoples, have led 
me, it may be proper here at the outset to 
say that I believe that I can show that the 
Polynesian family can be traced directly 
as having occupied the Asiatic Archipelago, 
from Sumatra to Timor, Gilolo, and Phil- 
ippines, previous to the occupation of that 
archipelago by the present Malay family; 
that traces, though faint and few, lead up 
through Deccan to the north-west part of In- 
dia and the shores of the Persian Gulf; that, 
when other traces here fail, yet the language 
points farther north, to the Aryan stock in 
its earlier days, long before the Vedic ir- 

*Alma 63:5-10; Helaman 3:14. 

^Improvement Era, March, 1934. p. 164; Nov., 
1935. p. 672; Utah Genealogical Magazine, January, 
1933. 

a These books were published in London: Volume 1, 
Second Edition and Volume 3, Kegan Paul, Trench, 
Trubner & Co., Ltd., 1890; Volume 2, Trubner & Co., 
Ludgate Hill, 1880. 

27 



THE IMPROVEMENT ERA, JANUARY, 1939 



ruption in India; and that for long ages the 
Polynesian family was the recipient of a 
Cushite civilization, and to such an extent 
as almost entirely to obscure its own con- 
sciousness of parentage and kindred to the 
Aryan stock. 7 

How long the Polynesian family had 
dwelt in the Asiatic Archipelago ere it de- 
bouched in the Pacific there are now small 
means of knowing, hardly of forming even 
a conjecture. Its reminiscences of that 
period are not many, and are confused with 
memories of older date and of other habi- 
tats. 8 

The author may have startled some and 
shocked others by seeking a Polynesian 
ancestry beyond the Malay Archipelago; 
but their undoubted folklore, their legends, 
and chants, gave no warrant for stopping 
there. They spoke of continents and not of 
islands, as their birthplace. They referred 
to events in the far past which have hither- 
to been considered as the prehistoric heir- 
looms of Cushites and Semites alone." 

Referring to his earlier volume, he 
says: 

To recapitulate in an inverse order the 
findings to which that folklore has led, I 
would briefly say that I have found a 
vague, almost obliterated, consciousness in 
some of their legends that the head, and 
front, and beginning of the Polynesians 
lay in a white (the Arian) race. 

He found they must have come 
into intimate contact with early 
Cushite, Chaldeo-Arabian civiliza- 
tion, also evidence of "amalgama- 
tion" with the Davidian peoples 
south of Chaldea in India. Next 
they occupied the Asiatic Archi- 
pelago from Sumatra to Luzon and 
Timor. 10 

Probably there is no race upon earth 
which, in proportion to its numbers, has 
been the subject of so much interest and of 
such minute investigation as the Poly- 
nesian. This is owing not only to the in- 
teresting character of the race, but also to 
the mystery, as yet unsolved, which shrouds 
their origin, and to their extreme isolation. 
The evidence both of language and tra- 
dition points unmistakably to the East In- 
dian Archipelago as at least a stage in their 
eastward migration." 11 

Messrs. Logan and Hodgson discovered 
remarkable, and, as they believed, conclusive 
analogies between the languages and cus- 
toms of the Bhotiya races and those of 
South-Eastern Malaysia and Polynesia. The 
researches of our author, however, as he 
believes, have tracked the footsteps of the 
first Polynesian emigrants still farther to 
the highlands of South-Western Asia, and 
revealed the impress of the ancient Cushite 
civilization in their religion and customs. 12 

Summarizing, Judge Fornander 
found evidence leading to the fol- 
lowing conclusions concerning the 
Hawaiian progenitors: 

1. They were originally a white 
race. 2. They came from the high- 
lands of Southwestern Asia. 3. 
They had contact with peoples south 

7 Volume I, page 2. 
8 Volume I, page 36. 
"Page VI of the Preface to Volume II. 
10 Volume II, page 1. 

n Preface to Volume 3. page V, by Professor W. D. 
Alexander of Punahow College, Honolulu. 
12 Preface, Volume 3, page XI. 

28 



of Chaldea in India ( Northwestern 
India). 4. They touched Deccan 
(India, south of the Norbada River 
including the southern tip). 5. They 
contacted points in the Asiatic 
Archipelago bounded by Sumatra 
and Timor on the south to Luzon in 
the Philippines on the north. 

Judge Fornander was unable to 
establish the time of arrival of the 
group at the archipelago, but gene- 
alogies and legends indicate that in 
roughly the first or second century 
A. D. properly organized migrations 
of Polynesians into the Pacific Ocean 
took place from the archipelago. He 
believed they went first to the Fiji 
Islands, although he states there ap- 
pears to be nothing to indicate that 
some of the migratory expositions 
may not have pushed on to some of 
the eastern, northern, or southern 
groups of the Pacific now held by 
the Polynesians. Also he claims 
"that branch of the Polynesian fam- 
ily from which the oldest ruling line 
of Hawaiian chiefs claim descent ar- 
rived at the Hawaiian group during 
the sixth century of the Christian 
Era." 13 

Judge Fornander, in his discus- 
sion, raises a logical question which, 
if unanswered, might interfere with 
the acceptance of his theory of mi- 
gration involving the archipelago as 
a stopping point. Briefly it is in sub- 
stance: Why should they have 
pushed some thousands of miles into 
the Pacific Ocean before establish- 
ing themselves in new homes instead 
of stopping at islands closer to the 
point of embarkation? 1 * In answer 
he suggests that they were forced on 

13 Volume 2, page 2. 
14 Volume 1, page 32. 



eastward by the superior forces of 
hostile peoples they found on the 
islands in their path. 

Correlating Fornander Data 

With Book of Mormon 

History 

A dmitting that the Polynesian race 
came from the Lehi colony, 
then, as already pointed out, the 
same basic travel history should ap- 
ply to both peoples. The Book of 
Mormon history and Judge For- 
nander's data coincide, in that orig- 
inally a white race was involved, 
and this race came from or occupied 
in their travel southwestern Asia. 
The points of occupancy in north- 
western India, southern India 
( Deccan ) and the archipelago men- 
tioned by Fornander, coincide with 
points mentioned earlier in defining 
the path of existing ocean currents. 

It is interesting to note that the 
date of departure from the archi- 
pelago, and therefore the approxi- 
mate date of arrival in the islands 
constituting their new homes, about 
the first or second century, A. D., 
is startlingly close to the time in 
which Hagoth and other ship build- 
ers already referred to were reported 
in the Nephite record as being ac- 
tive, and at which the two shiploads 
of people were missing at sea 
(roughly 55 B.C.). 15 

Perhaps the Book of Mormon 
even holds the answer to the ques- 
tion of Judge Fornander as to why 
the immigrants pushed so far east- 
ward into the Pacific Ocean before 
settling and establishing homes. 



35 Alma 63:5-10. 



(Concluded on page 49) 



FIG. 59. GENERAL 
SCHEME OF THE CIR- 
CULATION IN THE 
PACIFIC OCEAN. 

(Continuous lines rep- 
resent warm currents and 
broken lines cold cur- 
rents.) 




'iv^% 



>/n 



'J^tJeFnyteS? Zi7jjoT<£ r lTE " **<y&j£SS j 



* — + 



~qPT~*> 



«r— ,-yr Q-sJ 3B 33 — -5j.~ ~V atr— a-„i iy « k> . yg gg 



t 




A CALENDAR 
By Grace C. Jacobsen 

January 

Month of snow and biting frost, 
When ice-bound streams lie still, 
When over mountain hill and vale 
Majestic beauty to the world is lost. 

February 

Young thou art and passing fair, 
Beneath thy lovely ermine cloak 
The earth is soft and warm 
And tiny roots lie sleeping there. 

March 

How chill the winds that blow all day, 
How shrill the blackbird's singing 
As through the pussy willow fields 
That saucy gent goes winging, 

April 

Showers drench thy lovely form, 
Pale green thy costume rare, 
Eager buds burst forth anew 
To greet the mild spring air. 

May 

Queen of all the glad New Year, 
Blossom time and perfume sweet, 
Meadow lark and humming bee 
Return thy smiling face to greet. 

June 

Month of happy brides and roses, 
Nature sheds her wealth on thee, 
Perfect are thy ways and gentle 
Like a calm upon the sea. 

July 

Pinnacle of Summer time art thou, 
Strength of all the earth is thine, 
The waning sun rides high 
Along its course of slow decline. 

August 

Hazy skies and golden grain fields 
Proclaim the harvest near, 
All the joys of summer time 
Are gathered now in thee. 

September 

Quiet, serene, listening with contented ear 
To the music of the cricket's chirp, 
The farewell song of departing birds 
Seeking new homes from far and near. 

October 

Flaming colors meet us everywhere 
And falling leaves are crisp; 
Beneath our feet again to mingle 
With the dust and autumn mist. 

November 

Dull and somber in her dress, 
Taking her ease as seemeth best 
For she is old and longs for rest. 

December 

Hearts turn to home and loved ones, 
Holy peace is in the air, 
For the Christ Child lives among us 
And we feel His presence there. 




SENTINEL 
By Coursin Black 



u 



Alone," you say "on a barren hill, for- 
saken and drear and gnarled." 

Alone? 

Companied by the mauve mystery of ma- 
jestic mountains, 

The purple ranges stretching to unseen 
horizons, 

Silver in the eternal snows, 

Spectral in the frosty mist-wraiths of dawn, 

Solemn in the unknown depths of night . . . 

Alone? 

Among the dream clouds, riding high, 

Or the weird, black-edged whips of storm 

That mock the lazy, happy puffs of fleece 
. And urge them, thunder-driven, out of sight: 

Or the summer rain, pelting like fairy feet, 

Dancing on the somber slopes . . . 

Alone? 

Who knows what birds alight to whisper 
songs, 

What creatures of the wild that come to rest, 

What elves and pixies join in magic ring? 

Alone? 

With God? 



CHRIST SPEAKS 

By Claire Stewart Boyer 

MY heart is rich with Christmastide, 
May I abide 
A moment at your hearth, unseen and still? 
May I but fill 

A moment with the love that I alone 
Give to my own: 
To spirits who have sought the rugged 

heights, 
The farther lights, 
That their salvation might be wholly theirs? 

grant me this remembrance in return — 
Tell me you yearn 

As I, in brotherhood to all mankind, 

That you may find 

The Way, the Light, the Word, to bring 

them peace, 
To bring release 

To this, my world of torn and weary men, 
And then . . . O then 

1 shall be king again! 



■ <» 



FRIENDSHIP 
By Miranda Snow Walton 
"pRiENDSHiP is like a pine tree: — in the 
*■ heat of the summer of life it affords a 
sheltering shade; in the autumn it is a pro- 
tection against the winds of adversity, and 
it is the one bright spot in life's winter of 
desolation. 



TO A MUSTANG 
By A. Lincoln Thomson 

Poor mustang, grubbing in the beaten 
snow, 
To find scant browse to hold your bones 

and hide 
From falling limp when desert winds that 

blow 
Freeze sunbeams to an icy glow; 
And Death with spurs and whip waits by 

your side 
To goad you on a never-ending ride. 

You sniff the air for gentle winds that blow 
The waterfowl, which on warm zephyrs ride 
To northern climes, where swollen rivers 

glow 
Like blood as sun rays stab the snow; 
And soon fresh grass upon the mountain side 
Shall weave new flesh beneath your scab- 
rous hide. 

And with the spring your enemies shall ride 
Upon your kind, whose eyes with anger- 
glow, 
As gory spurs are sunk into the hide, 
And saddles gall each tender side; 
For whips lash harder than the winds that- 

blow, 
And spurs cut deeper than the swirling, 
snow. 

Go to the mountains while you may and hide 
From enemies that come with melting snow; 
For you shall be a slave for men to ride — 
A chattel with a branded side. 
Mid-summer winds that sear the flesh will 

blow, 
But they are cool beside the iron's glow. 

A new-born colt shall nuzzle at your side 
When birds fly north and dancing zephyrs 

blow, 
And it will be stampeded in the 'ride';. 
Go now into the hills and hide! 
Wild violets on the southern slopes now 

glow — 
Their warming hue is driving back the snow. 

Oh mustang, brave these bitter winds that 

blow. 
Let Death with whip and spurs beside you. 

ride . . . 
Keep grubbing for a spear beneath the 

snow, 
'Tis better than the iron's glow; 
For when the mark is seared into your hide 
Your freedom ends — you have a branded 

side! 

The birds will ride soft winds that soon 

shall blow; 
Fat days will glow with ripples on your 

hide, 
And at your side your colt will grub in 

snow. 

■ m ■ 

MEDALLIONS OF SNOW 

By Edna S. Dustin 

TDoreas with chilling breath 

*-' Trails somber clouds across the sky.. 

Their heavy folds he gently clips; 

Then knits each raindrop passing by 

Into a white medallion flake, 

And joins them with a silver chain. 

Then leaves the earth to sleep beneath 

A white angora counterpane. 

29 



"SEEK NOT FOR RICHES 7 ' 



Maestoso et espressivo. 



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dolce. poco meno mosso.Riten.Attaccosubito. molto. 




BASED ON ONE OF THE MOST GLORIOUS PASSAGES OF MODERN SCRIPTURE. THIS DISTINCTIVELY MORMON ANTHEM WAS ORIGINALLY WRITTEN BY 

THE COMPOSER FOR THE L. D. S. MALE CHORUS WHICH HE CONDUCTS. 



FROM PLOWBO Y TO PROPHET AND 
MOTHER STORIES FROM THE 
BOOK OF MORMON. 

(William A. Morton, Reprinted, 
Deseret Book Company, 1938. 128 
and 134 pages. $1.25.) 

TWO former Church favorites for the 
young have been reprinted under one 
cover, and are now available in an at- 
tractive binding at a reasonable price. Both 
lend themselves for reading by young peo- 
ple or reading to young people. They 
are faith-promoting stories appealingly pre- 
sented. — R. L. E. 

SAGEBRUSH LITERATURE 
(John W. Saunders, Deseret News 
Press, 1938. 342 pages. $2.50.) 

This book informally treats miscellaneous 
topics in the homespun commonsense 
manner of the author. Typical chapter 
headings are: "Charity to Fit Every Hu- 
man Fault," "Funeral Extravagance," 
"Mental Life and Health," etc. There are 
37 such topics in all. Few quotations are 
used; the author's own words fill most of 
the book and he allows himself many lati- 
tudes within the limits of his title. This 
book represents the wholesome thinking of 
a man who has seen much of the growth 
of the inland West. — R. L. B. 

BABIES ARE HUMAN BEINGS 
(D. Anderson Aldrich, M. D., and Mary 
M. Aldrich, illustrated, Macmillan Com- 
pany, New York, 1938. 124 pages. $1.75.) 

Dr. Anderson states that babies are hu- 
man beings in a three-fold sense: as 
products of their heritage, as dynamic living 
creatures, and as potential adults. This 
book points out the changes which will occur 
as babies grow older and lays the founda- 
tion for happiness in helping make parental 
adjustments. Written delightfully, this 
book tells first of all how "The World 
Comes to the Baby," how "The Baby Re- 
sponds to the World," then it gets into the 
reasons why "Babies Are Different" and 
"Among the Do's and Don'ts." — M. C. J. 

ROOTS IN THE SKY 

(Sidney Meller, Macmillan Company, 
New York, 1938. 759 pages. $3.00.) 

This story of the transplanting of a Jewish 
family from old Russia to America and 
their adjustment to the changed conditions 
is significant reading. The book is a well- 
written nostaligic on the power of well- 
seasoned faith to carry one successfully and 
happily through life. — M. C. J. 

DOCTOR AT TIMBERLINE 
(Charles F. Gardiner, M. D., illustrated, 
Caxton Printers, Caldwell, Idaho, 1938.) 

More than fifty years ago, Dr. Gardiner 
left New York to practise as a young 
physician among the silver mines and the 
cattle ranges of western Colorado. The 
experiences that he went through began 
with dentistry, continued through veter- 
inary medicine, and ended in full-fledged 
doctoring. 

Of course the conditions of the country 
into which Dr. Gardiner moved were par- 
ticularly trying in this early time, since 
there was little law and much disorder. 

The book in addition to the information 
which it so fully imparts is fascinatingly 
written. — M. C. J. 



YOUTH TELL THEIR STORY 
(Howard M. Bell, Conducted for The 
American Youth Commission, American 
Council of Education, Washington, D. C, 
1938. 270 pages. $1.50.) 

FOR leaders of young people this book 
will prove invaluable, analyzing as it 
does what young people are doing and 
thinking and feeling, based on personal in- 
terviews with more than 13,500 young 
people between the ages of 16 and 24 in the 
state of Maryland and the result of collab- 
oration on the part of over 60 investigators, 
who were given a special course of instruc- 
tion. 

The young people interviewed were 
chosen from every field where young people 
are found: on farms, in coal mines, in cities, 
in dances, in churches. The application of 
this study is made to the youth of the United 
States by a careful checking of character- 
istics of the Maryland sample with charac- 
teristics of the national youth population 
as gained from the Fifteenth Census of the 
United States (1930). 

Graphs and statistics dramatically por- 
tray conditions in city and far communities, 
in professional laboring groups, and among 
boys and girls. By defining the work along 
the lines of home, school, work, play, church, 
and attitudes, the Commission has done a 
commendable work, which should prove 
illuminating and helpful to leaders of youth. 

— M. C. ]. 

WILLIAM AND DOROTHY 
(Helen Ashton, Macmillan Company, 
New York, 1938. 414 pages. $2.50.) 

Although a novel dealing with the lives 
of Dorothy and William Wordsworth, 
the author tells us that she could not pos- 
sibly have written the book without constant 
reference to a biography written about 
Dorothy Wordsworth or without permis- 
sion of Macmillan Company to quote and 
paraphrase freely from their publication of 
Dorothy Wordsworth's journals. The con- 
versations are based wherever possible on 
the actual Wordsworth family letters. Into 
the pages of the novel walk other literary 
figures of this age: Charles Lamb and his 
sister Mary, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, 
Robert Southey, and Walter Scott. The 
delightful English countryside takes a fresh 
vigor from Miss Ashton's touch. — M. C. J. 




Jacket design for 

"William and Dorothy" 

by Helen Ashton 

(Macmillan) 



RIDERS AT THE GATE 

(Joseph Auslander, Macmillan Company, 

New York, 1938. 83 pages. $1.75.) 

IN the first half of the book, this familiar 
author pours vitriol into the aching 
wounds of the world, trying thereby to 
make thinking people rebel before the horse- 
men whom John the Revelator saw on the 
Isle of Patmos ride us to destruction. 

In the last half of the book the author 
is recaptured by fancy, fantasy, and his 
sheer love of beauty. At times, however, 
there is in even his most fanciful tale, a 
feeling of his knowledge of beauty's futility 
in dealing with conditions which prevail. 

— M. C. J. 

OLD HAVEN 

(David Cornel DeJong, Houghton 
Mifflin Company, Boston, 1938. 
559 pages. $2.50.) 

A Houghton Mifflin fellowship award 
made possible the writing of this book 
by one who, although born in Holland, is 
now a naturalized American. That he 
knows the locale and the life of the people 
about whom he writes is self-evident as 
one reads into his story. 

The poignancy of the life lived in this 
little land of dikes and fisherfolk and class 
warfare is much the same as that of the class 
distinction in other lands — M. C. /. 

THOSE FIRST AFFECTIONS 
(Dorothy Van Doren, Houghton 
Mifflin Company, Boston, 1938. 
291 pages. $2.50.) 

"Cor parents who are eager to learn 
about the working of youngsters' 
minds, this book dealing with the life 
of Sarah Tower from the age of 6 to 
15 will prove to be a veritable mine of 
information as well as being an in- 
triguing novel, for mothers and prob- 
ably fathers to read. 

The author is the wife of the poet, 
Mark Van Doren, who is a name to be 
remembered in American letters. And 
his wife is proving her worth in her 
own contributions to literature. 

— M. C. /. 

YOUR EVERYDAY SPEECH 
(William N. Brigance, McGraw- 
Hill Book Company, Inc., 1937, 
New York. 230 pages. $2.50.) 

TThe common faults of American 
speech are, according to Dr. 
Brigance: the thinness, the nasal, and 
the muffled quality, and the sloppiness 
of our voices. The author verifies the 
statement that "Those who possessed 
good speech have risen as a class far 
above those who did not, until . . . 
I am forced to admit that under an 
outward disregard America pays 
dividends for good diction." 

Speech is so good a tool that every 
one of us should study the book, Your 
Everyday Speech, and apply it, both 
in our homes and in any associations, I 
social or religious, which we may have. 
The book is practical and clear enough 
for the untrained to use readily and 
fruitfully.— M. C. /. 

31 



fcdii&aaL 



"01 OnsL Shod!' 



A RE all men equal before God? Should they be 
equal before men? These questions loom large 
before mankind today. For answer we may turn 
to sacred history. 

Soon after the ascension of the Lord, the same 
questions appeared in slightly different form among 
the former-day Saints: Are all people worthy to 
hear and receive the Gospel? Though the Lord 
had commanded His disciples to preach the Gospel 
to every kindred, tongue, and people, the brethren 
wondered if they had understood him correctly. 
Had they not been taught that the calling of Abra- 
ham and the promises made to him implied that 
the greater blessings of the Lord were reserved for 
the descendants of this great patriarch? 

Yet, they recalled also that the Master had said 
to those who claimed privileges because of their 
descent, that the Father was able to raise up chil- 
dren to Abraham from the stones under their feet. 
This figure of speech implied that Gospel kinship 
transcends ties of blood. Finally, after earnest 
prayer, Peter had the great vision in which he was 
commanded to kill and eat of "all manner of four- 
footed beasts of the earth, and the wild beasts, and 
creeping things, and fowls of the air," whether or 
not they were common or unclean under the Mosaic 
law. Then the matter became crystal clear: All 
men were entitled to hear and receive the Gospel. 
Thenceforth the doctrine of the Master was 
preached to all the world as far as the weary feet 
of the disciples could carry them. They knew that 
before God all were equal, therefore equal before 
men. 

The explanation of this doctrine was summarized 
in brief but eloquent words by the Apostle Paul: 
"God hath made of one blood all nations of men." 
All are children of God, hence all are entitled to 
the promised heritage of the sons and daughters of 
the Father — the possession of the privileges and 
blessings of the Gospel. Wealth, lea'rning, rank, 
or even race, are but minor marks of a human being. 
To rate one child of God as of high and another 
of low degree, or to persecute our fellow men, is 
contrary to the divine pedigree and right of man, 
and is sinful in the eyes of God. 

The differentiations among men, acknowledged 
by God, rest wholly upon man's willingness to re- 
ceive truth. He whose will is bent towards truth 
and righteousness — God's truth and command- 



ments — may claim the higher blessings whatever 
his race or place may be. He whose will despises 
truth and accepts evil, forfeits the promised bless- 
ings. This is made exceedingly clear in Joseph 
Smith's translation of the Book of Abraham, where 
it is declared that the children of Abraham, those 
entitled to the blessings of the Gospel committed 
to the great Friend of God, are those who do works 
of righteousness. Every person, of any descent, 
who accepts the Gospel becomes an adopted mem- 
ber of the chosen people; while those of the physical 
blood of Abraham, unless they are faithful, are 
counted out of the Gospel family. 

These are thoughts which in these days should 
occupy* the minds of men, if the Lord shall be 
pleased with His children. The common man, and 
the rulers of nations should keep in constant mem- 
ory that "God hath made of one blood all nations 
of men."—/. A. W. 



YOUNG PEOPLE GOING TO LARGE 

CITIES FOR STUDY OR 

EMPLOYMENT 

Attention is again called to the serious prob- 
*"* lems confronting young people who leave 
their homes for study or employment. Special 
attention is directed to the welfare of such young 
people who go to large cities where temptations 
and distractions are frequently disastrous. 

The counsel given by the First Presidency in a 
special message on this subject last January is 
again urged for serious consideration of stake 
and ward officers and parents. 

When young people go to other communities, 
parents should urge them to seek and maintain 
contact with the local Church organizations which 
now are established in all large cities of the nation. 
Bishoprics who know of their ward members 
being in large cities are urged to write to the 
bishoprics or branch presidencies in those cities, 
giving them the names and, if possible, the ad- 
dresses of young people, asking them to do what 
they can to encourage these young people in 
Church activity and regard for the teachings of 
the Gospel. Such service may help to avert 
serious results. 

Special appeals have been made by ward and 
branch officers in some of our large cities, prin- 
cipally New York, for such information in order 
that they may assist the young people who come 
to their communities, aiding them to establish and 
maintain regular associations with Church organi- 
zations and giving counsel and advice where de- 
sirable. 

It is suggested that bishoprics again call this 
matter to the attention of parents and cooperate in 
an effort to have our young people who are away 
from home, given every assistance, encourage- 
ment, and safeguard. 

The Presiding Bishopric. 



32 




SAN BERNARDINO HEARS 
PRESIDENT GRANT 

At the invitation of the City of San 
^* Bernardino President Heber J. 
Grant was guest speaker Sunday morn- 
ing, November 20th, at city-wide 
church services held in the municipal 
auditorium. Services culminated a 
four-day covered wagon celebration 
attended by Elder Richard R. Lyman. 

CALIFORNIA MISSION 
HEADQUARTERS MOVED 

President W. Aird McDonald sends 
word that the headquarters of the 
California Mission have been moved 
from 153 West Adams to 2067 South 
Hobart Boulevard, site of the old 
Spanish-American Mission Home un- 
der President Pratt. The West Adams 
address was first established thirty 
years ago by Joseph E. Robinson, and 
had been continuously occupied until 
the present change. 

DR. F. J. PACK, GEOLOGIST, 
CHURCHMAN, DIES 

/^\ne of Utah's foremost educators, 
^^ Dr. Frederick James Pack, Des- 
eret Professor of Geology at the Uni- 
versity of Utah and member of the 
General Board of the Deseret Sunday 
School Union, died Friday, December 
9, at the age of 63. He was nationally 
known as an authority on underground 
water supply and for his analysis of 
earthquakes in western America. A 
member of the world's foremost geo- 
logical societies, he was moreover 
known for his devotion to the Church 
and especially for his crusading in be- 
half of the Word of Wisdom. 

DEATH ENDS CAREER OF 
Y' PROFESSOR 

llTpss Alice Louise Reynolds, pro- 
fessor of English literature at Brig- 
ham Young University and former 
member of the general board of the 
National Women's Relief Society, 
whose magazine she edited from 1923 
to 1930, succumbed December 5 after 
a brief illness. She was 65 years old. 
Throughout her life she had been active 
in state and national women's organi- 
zations. The Alice Louise Reynolds 
library at B. Y. U. was endowed and 
named in her honor, and 21 literary or- 
ganizations in the United States are 
known as Alice Louise Reynolds clubs. 

Sunday, November 6, 1938. 

Elder Albert E. Bowen dedicated the 
Panguitch South Ward Chapel, Pan- 
guitch Stake. 

Elder Charles A. Callis dedicated a 
chapel and recreation hall at Magrath, 
Taylor Stake. 



Sunday, November 13, 1938. 

The Ogden Fifth Ward Chapel, Mt. 
Ogden Stake, was dedicated by Presi- 
dent Heber J. Grant. 

D. B. Stewart was sustained as Bish- 
op of the University Ward, Ensign 
Stake, succeeding Bishop LeGrande 
Richards. 

Sunday November 16, 1938. 

President Heber J. Grant was the 
guest at a program in Nephi South 
Ward today. He was praised for giv- 
ing to the Elders' quorums of Nephi 
3,500 acres of land. He in turn lauded 



the Elders for planting 650 acres to 
wheat this fall, and for raising 16,864 
bushels of wheat on 960 acres this year. 

Sunday, November 20, 1938. 

Wehrli Pack was appointed as Bish- 
op of the Mount Olympus Ward, Cot- 
tonwood Stake, succeeding George E. 
Coxe. 
Sunday, November 27, 1938. 

President Heber J. Grant dedicated 
the 32nd Ward Chapel, Pioneer Stake. 

The Saints of the Ogden 22nd Ward, 
Ogden Stake, held their first Sacrament 
meeting in their new meetinghouse. 

(Continued on page 41) 




(UPPER PHOTO) MISSIONARIES LEAVING FOR THE FIELD FROM THE SALT LAKE MISSIONARY HOME 
ARRIVED NOVEMBER 14, 1938— DEPARTED NOVEMBER 24, 1938 

Identified alphabetically: George J. Angerbauer, Courtney Brewer, Joseph T. Blake, Harold E. Bushman, 
Robert H. Burton, Glen R. Barlow, Jay S. Broadbent, Sidney V. Badger, Leslie W. Beer, Ferrelt W. Bybee. 

Jesse Z. Chandler, Jack A. Cherrington, Samuel W. Clark, Ross W. Covington, Albert Colclough, Ray J. 
Crane, Virginia Lee Divers, Clayton S. DaBell, Harold A. Dalebout, Roy M. Elkins, Earl W. England. 

Lamar E. J. Fairbanks, Fost W. Flake, Virginia Freebairn, Grant D. Fridal, Benjamin C. Gertsch, Norman 
R. Gulbrandsen, Riley U. Goodfellow, Burton R. Howard, Richard V. Hansen, Velma Hill, Orland K. Hamblin, 
Arthur T. Hansen, Glen L. Hoffman, Mirl B. Hymas, Victor D. Hatch, Kathleen Hamblin. 

Edward W. Johnson, Phil D. Jensen, Sterling M. Jensen, Erick G. Johnson, Dick L. Jackson, Mona M. 
Keppner, Mai-ton L. Kearl, Lloyd E. Kjar, Paul C. Lyon, Jr., Vern S. Lake, Clarence M. Larsen, Elno J. Lunt, 
Clarence L. Littlewood. 

Wayne H. Mecham, Maria Muro, Winfield H. Mackay, Wilford B. Mitchell, Paul R. Men-ell, Evan J. 
Overson, Zella Putman, Elmer L. Perry, Carl 0. Peterson, Douglas H. Pack. 

George J. Reeder, Wayne A. Robison, Beulah Ricks, Jessie A. Rasmussen, Miles W. Rotnney, Glen S. 
Raulings, Orson B. Spencer, Earl R. Sponseller, Ora Steed, Blanche Swasey, Lilian L. Sessions, Daniel L Smith. 

Dan N. Taylor, Howard R. Taylor, J. Willmore Turner, Ralph M. Wilkins, Myrtle Wadsworth, Joseph A. West. 

(LOWER PHOTO) MISSIONARIES LEAVING FOR THE FIELD FROM THE SALT LAKE MISSIONARY HOME 
ARRIVED NOVEMBER 28, 1938— DEPARTED DECEMBER S, 1938 

Left to right, first row: Barry Wride, Arthur Wheeler, Russel W. Myers, Donna Lewis, Beth Burt, Orlene 
Peterson, Adrienne Willis, Carl Johnson, Kenneth Harrison, Devont Stowell. 

Second row: President Don B. Colton, Leslie Reese, Scott Thorn, Erma Adams, Eunice Wood, Sister Don 
B. Colton, Ervin L. Child, Evan W. Chaffin, William Luke, Miles Harston. 

Third row: Colvitt R. Tanner, Max L. Camrth, Lawrence Murphy, Pearl Dudley, Martha Geddes, Don C. 
Archibald, George Jenkins, Gordon Wood, Willis Cheney, James A. Cope, Jr. 

Fourth row: Eldon Pace, Chadwin Burbidge, Dale Young, Merlin Miskin, Barnard Seegmiller, Ray Bennett, 
DeWilton C. Parkinson, Dell Smith, Thad 0. Yost. 

Fifth row: Paul R, Stoddard, Norman L. Perry, William M. Halls, Burwell D. Hatch, Douglas Francis, 
Cyril B. Cluff, Jr., Reo Heaton, Wayne R. McTague, Carl T. Rhoades, Dee Sanford. 

Sixth row: LaMar S. Elison, Grant D. Johnson, Victor D. Hatch, Berkley Hall, Harold Smith, Mario 
Robertson, Leroy A. Hill, Howard Starr, Frank Lyman, Robert Graham. 

Seventh row: Ralph Robinson, Harry E. Snow, Alva Duvall, Eugene B. Stucki, Keith J. Bult, Lloyd Maughan, 
Louis J. Heine, Frank T. Eastmond, Nephi Pratt, Alfred H. Crofts. 

Eighth row: Henry Jones, Rulen E. Morris, Edwin Haroldsen, Phil Peterson, Murry G. Robertson, Charles 
N. Ackroyd, Burton H. Price, Collins E. Hassell, Horace Lloyd, Class H. Henry. 

Ninth row: Stephen A. Adams, Ted Bryner, Alan Richman, Neil R. Partridge, Glen Sagers, Donald S. 
Lyon, William E. Morrell, Cecil A. Cherry. 

Tenth row: Martin Koplin, Albert Kingsford, Arvil N. Peterson, Laurence Mecham, Ira Stevens, Merrill 
Colton, Raymond Young. 

33 



THE SPICE OF THE MEAL 
By Mathilda Baron 

Although American housewives of 
today have little in common with 
the European women of 1492, 
one bond remains in our dependence 
on spices and we may still appreciate 
the voyage which Columbus under- 
took in 1492 in order to find a short 
route to the spice-growing countries, 
so that the ladies of Europe could en- 
joy rare spices in their culinary activ- 
ities. 

Choice Cinnamon From Ceylon 

/"^innamon has long been a favored 
^ spice. If you are inclined to doubt 
that statement, just look through any 
standard cook book and notice the 
number of recipes that call for its use. 
Bread, buns, puddings, cakes, meats, 
preserves, and pickles are all improved 
with a dash of cinnamon. 



Mustard 



CONDUCTED BY MARBA C. JOSEPHSON 




SORTING CINNAMON, DUTCH EAST INDIES 
Courtesy American Spice Trade Association 

This subtle spice grows in many of 
the Asiatic countries, but the choicest 
comes from Ceylon. Most of us are 
familiar with it in three forms: long 
stick cinnamon, cracked cinnamon, and 
the ground or powdered form. Ac- 
tually it is the bark of a tree. Some of 
the bark is paper-thin, and this is the 
choicest, but on other trees the bark 
may be a quarter of an inch in thickness 
and this latter is used when full-bodied 
fragrance and flavor are desired. 

When the bundles of whole cinnamon 
arrive in this country they are ground 
in huge grinders, and the resulting 
pieces are pulverized until they can be 
sifted through a silk screen. Every 
precaution known to the industry is 
taken to assure that the full richness, 
aroma, and flavor of the spice is pre- 
served for our delectation. But, as 
with other spices, the spice aroma and 
flavor will evaporate if exposed to the 
air, so it's up to us to see that the 
containers are kept tightly shut when 
not in use. 

34 



HPhree kinds of mustard preparations 
■*■ are in general use: Dry mustard 
is widely used to rub into meats, and 
it peps up sauces that are served with 
fish. Of course, everyone is familiar 
with the prepared or wet mustard of 
which there are various brands on the 
market. This is used to add zip to hot 
dogs, ham sandwiches, and is some- 
times used in sauces. The other form 
of mustard is mustard seed, so use- 
ful in pickling. 

The earliest use of mustard was 
medicinal. The Chinese and Arabian 
pharmacists undoubtedly used it, and it 
was, of course, known to the Hebrews 
in Biblical times. Today, mustard is 
found growing in China, India, north- 
ern Africa, Europe, and the United 
States. England and Holland are both 
famous for their mustards — among 
other things — and these two nations 
produce greater amounts than the other 
countries in which it grows. 

Cloves 

Asa good cook of course you've been 
**" using cloves for years, but you'll 
enjoy hearing the story of this spice. 
In the early days, cloves were really 
scarce and hard to get. Cloves orig- 
inally came from Cathay and many 
dangers beset the caravans that trans- 
ported this luxury from the Orient. To- 
day, the Dutch East Indies, the British 
possessions and Madagascar are the 
chief source of supply of this very 
useful spice. 

A few whole cloves in with stewed 
tomatoes, with boiled beets, or even 
with applesauce add a zest to these 
rather ordinary, but necessary, acces- 
sory dishes. A little powdered clove 
added to your favorite chocolate recipes 
will give a tantalizing difference to the 



flavor, that is at once pleasing and 
"more-ish" in its appeal. There are 
so many delectable delicacies that may 
be improved with cloves that a list of 
them would be portentous. 

Nutmegs and Mace 

HThe story is told about an English 
importer who, in looking over his 
books one day, noticed that he could 
purchase all the nutmeg that he want- 
ed, but that mace, on the other hand, 
was extremely difficult to obtain and 
very expensive. He wrote the plan- 
tation owners in the Far East whence 
he imported his nutmeg and suggested 
to them that they cut down some of 
their nutmeg trees and plant mace in- 
stead. Imagine his surprise on receipt 
of their reply that nutmeg and mace 
both come from the same tree! 

It's quite likely that you are as sur- 
prised as the English merchant to learn 
that these two spices are the product 
of the same tree, particularly as they 
look so different when in their whole 
form, and when powdered there is also 
a considerable difference in both aroma 
and appearance. The nutmeg tree has 
the distinction of being the only one 
which gives us two separate and dis- 
tinct spices. The dictionary will give 
us the definitions of these two spices, 
so we will just confine our remarks to 
their culinary application. 

Mace may be used either whole or 
in powdered form, but American wom- 
en don't use mace very much. Just 
drop one or two mace blades into some 
soup or stew, or, better yet, try the 
same experiment just dropping them 
into the water in which you boil your 

CRACKING NUTMEGS AT GRENADA 
Courtesy American Spice Trade Association. 




THE IMPROVEMENT ERA, JANUARY, 1939 



next fish dinner. For that last sugges- 
tion you might also add a small onion, 
a little celery salt, and a bayleaf . Even 
the most tasteless of fish would not then 
need a savory sauce. Powdered mace, 
too, is tasty just sprinkled on broiled 
fish. It's a wonderful seasoning in that 
form when used in bread stuffings for 
poultry, veal, or beef roulades. It 
should be added to stuffings at the rate 
of one-half to one teaspoonful to every 
half-pound of stuffing, according to 
your preference. 

Nutmeg is one of the most fragrant 
of the spices. Sprinkle a little over a 
cauliflower. Add a pinch of it to a cream 
sauce intended for the cauliflower. Sift 
a little into spinach, and even Popeye, 
that spinach lover, would find a new 
zest in eating it. Stir a pinch in with 
some melted butter and serve it over 
lima beans. Some of the creamed 
soups as, mushroom or asparagus, are 
improved with a dash of ground nut- 
meg. 

When one stops to consider all the 
spices, the herb spices, the blended 
spices, and the herb salts that are avail- 
able, one wonders why more delectable 
dishes are not served in our homes. Is 
it that we are lacking in culinary ar- 
tistry, inventive genius, or imagination? 
Let us do some personal experimenta- 
tion and see if we can't pep up some 
of the dishes which have become so fa- 
miliar as to be almost distasteful, and 
which we neither enjoy cooking, serv- 
ing, or eating. A can of paprika will 
help to brighten many a sad looking 
•dish and give us an appetite to tackle 
it, and a savory meal is one which 
pleases our olfactory senses, delights 
our eyes, and satisfies our gastronomic 
appreciation. 



When the children are home from 
school with so much candy and 
nuts around, the problem of what 
to eat becomes doubly difficult. 
Here's one recipe that will bring 
them to the luncheon table with 
mouths watering — and it will be a 
hard thing to get them to leave the 
table, too: 

WAFFLES AND DRIED BEEF 



V2 c. butter. 
V4 lb. dried beef. 
1 quart milk. 
6 tb. Globe "Al" 

Waffles. 



flour. 



Melt butter in saucepan, add 
dried beef cut into small pieces and 
frizzle in the butter a few minutes; 
add flour and mix thoroughly. Slow- 
ly add milk and cook until thick, 
stirring constantly. For the waffles, 
use Globe "Al" Pancake and Waf- 
fle Flour, following the recipe on 
the package. Serve the creamed 
dried beef on the hot waffles. 

This will be a welcome relief from 
the sweets of the Yule season. 



NO MORE SKIMPY 
BREAKFASTS 

at OUR house! 




...when THREE 
PANCAKES cost 
ONLY A PENNY! 



What a difference a good, sub- 
stantial PANCAKE breakfast 
makes in the day's work! Folks 
have more energy and pep these 
cold mornings when they eat 
nourishing breakfasts of Globe 
"Al" pancakes, served with 
ham, bacon or sausage for va- 
riety. Serve a pancake break- 
fast tomorrow — buy a package 
of Globe "Al" Pancake and 
Waffle Flour. It contains lots 
of good, old-fashioned butter- 
milk for extra flavor. 



PA tfAKE 

WAFFLE 




*4DE 



BUTTER 






ECONOMICAL! 

■ — makes three pancakes for 
a penny. 

QUICK! 

— just add liquid. 

DEPENDABLE! 

— the ingredients are always 
the same, always perfectly 
mixed. 



GLOBE "AT" 

PANCAKE AND WAFFLE FLOUR 



35 



CONDUCTED BY THE MELCHIZEDEK PRIESTHOOD COMMITTEE OF THE COUNCIL OF THE TWELVE — 
JOSEPH FIELDING SMITH, CHAIRMAN; MELVIN J. BALLARD, JOHN A. WIDTSOE, AND JOSEPH F. MERRILL 



THE PRIESTHOOD STUDY COURSE IS READY 



Priesthood and Church Welfare, 
the Priesthood Course o£ Study for 
1939, more fully described in the No- 
vember, 1938, issue of The Improve- 
ment Eva, is now ready for delivery. 
This attractive and useful cloth- 
bound book of 300 pages is priced 
the same as last year's study course, 
$1.25 for single volumes, or $1.00 a 
volume when ordered in groups of six 
or more. Send money and orders to the 



Deseret Book Company, Salt Lake City. 

Every member of the Priesthood will 
want one of these books — not only for 
the year's Priesthood study, but for per- 
manent library reference and reading. 

Outline helps and supplementary his- 
torical readings to assist quorum mem- 
bers and class leaders in the con- 
sideration of this material are printed 
here for the first month's lesson. ( See 
pages 37 and 38. ) 



WHAT ARE YOUR NEW YEAR RESOLUTIONS? 



r** ood resolves are commonly made 
^ on the coming of a New Year. 
While reforms are in order any time, 
there is no better time for them to com- 
mence than at the beginning of a New 
Year. This certainly is true of all re- 
forms associated with Priesthood ac- 
tivities. Further, there are no kind 
of activities in the Church having 
greater opportunities for reform. While 
improvements in these activities during 
1938 were, on the whole, very com- 
mendable, perfection is yet only an ideal 
— a long way off. It can be brought 
much nearer. 

Among other things this is prac- 
ticable by doing the following: 

1. The keeping of complete records 
by every quorum — a record of all those 
items needed to fill the Quarterly Re- 
port forms. 

2. The prompt sending by the offi- 
cers of every quorum of two copies of 
its Quarterly Report to the stake Mel- 
chizedek Priesthood committee. 

3. The holding of monthly quorum 
meeting by every quorum that covers 
two or more wards. This applies to 
all High Priests' quorums, most quo- 
rums of Seventy and many quorums of 
Elders. The regular weekly meetings 
of quorums that are wholly within a 
ward are quorum meetings; for others, 
they are only group meetings of quo- 
rums. A suggested "Program for 
Monthly Quorum Meetings" of all 
quorums that meet weekly as groups 
may be found in The Improvement Eva 
for the month of December, 1937, page 
769. It will be noted that this program 
is of a form that permits it to be used 
month after month without becoming 
stale. 

4. Keeping the quorums fully organ- 
ized. This includes the four standing 
committees as well as the officers. 

5. Carrying forward several projects 
by every quorum. Among the required 
projects are : securing increased activity 
on the part of members, the Anti-Li- 
36 



quor-Tobacco project, and one or more 
Welfare projects. 

6. Regular attendance by all officers, 
class leaders, and others as needed, 
at the monthly union meeting with the 
stake Melchizedek Priesthood com- 
mittee. 

The numbered items here given indi- 
cate things in which every quorum may 
improve upon its 1938 record. Life is 
characterized by progression or retro- 
gression; there is no standing still of 
an object that is alive. Retrogression 
is hardly tolerable in Priesthood work, 
so the officers of every quorum are 
faced with a challenge. 



ANTI-LIQUOR-TOBACCO 
COLUMN 



WHAT IS THE ANSWER? 

'T'he Anti - Liquor - Tobacco Cam- 
paign has at last gotten well under 
way in most of the stakes. 

1. How is it faring in your stake? 
In your ward? Are the suggested com- 
mittees organized and actively work- 
ing? 

2. Has the first shipment of the book- 
let Alcohol Talks to Youth been com- 
pletely distributed? Have you kept a 
record of who received these booklets? 

3. Have the booklets sent to your 
stake, Nicotine on the Aiv and The 
Wovd of Wisdom in Pvactical Terms, 
all been distributed? 

4. In your stake and ward do you 
plan to get at least one copy of each 
of these booklets into every Mormon 
home? 

5. Do you plan to induce every mem- 
ber in the family who can read to learn 
the contents of these booklets? 

6. To make an affirmative answer 
to 4 and 5 how many additional copies 
of each booklet will you need in your 
stake? How soon do you propose to 
order them? 



7. Do you know that orders for ad- 
ditional copies should be addressed to 

The General Campaign Committee, 
47 East South Temple St., 
Salt Lake City, Utah. 

8. Do your committees plan to learn 
the reaction to each booklet of those 
who read it? This will generally re- 
quire that each person shall be con- 
tacted at least twice — once to deliver 
the booklet and then to learn the result. 

9. In the approved plan of campaign 
do you know that each Priesthood 
quorum — Melchizedek and Aaronic — 
should carry on this work among its 
own members? 

10. Do you know that it is planned 
to make this campaign thorough and 
complete as above indicated? Are you 
willing to do your part by reading the 
booklets, inducing others to do so and 
helping in every way that you may be 
asked? 

Yes, you would prefer to be free 
from the use of liquor and tobacco, and 
to have every member of your family 
free. Hence join in this great Church- 
wide campaign and your wishes can 
become a reality. (See also President 
Grant's message on page 7.) 



QUORUM PROJECTS 



WHAT IS YOUR QUORUM 
DOING? 

Alberta Stake, 

1st Quorum o/ Elders 

'T'he interior of the ward chapel and 
classrooms was painted and kal- 
somined. Over 1,000 man-hours were 
devoted to this project by the quorum 
members under the direction of the 
personal welfare and miscellaneous 
committees. 

Bannock, Bear Lake Stakes 

The quorums of High Priests, Sev- 
enties, and Elders in both these stakes 
made their major contributions for the 
year just ended in the form of wheat. 
Pledges amounting to scores of acres 
and hundreds of bushels on the part of 
individual quorums were faithfully 
kept. Reports from the second quar- 
ter indicated that prospects were good 
and in many cases inactive members 
were being drawn into participation. 

Bonneville Stake 
33rd Ward Elders 

We are keeping one missionary in 
the field. We have renovated two 
widows' homes. We have faithfully 
completed one-third of the block- 
teaching in the ward. 



THE IMPROVEMENT ERA, JANUARY, 1939 



WHAT ONE QUORUM DID 

\kjE publish the following letter 
"* knowing that other Priesthood 
quorum officers will be pleased to learn 
the methods used by the High Priests' 
quorum of Ogden Stake to make its 
efforts highly successful. "What man 
has done man may do." The achieve- 
ments of others always stimulate and 
guide us in our own efforts. 

Dear Brother: November 14, 1938. 

The Quarterly Conference of the stake 
will be held next Sunday with a special 
meeting of the Priesthood Saturday eve- 
ning. The conference system of the Church 
is marvelous and most unique. Its value 
cannot be estimated. We are all stirred up 
to our highest point of efficiency in an 
effort to reach an ideal, and thereby we 
set a standard for the future. 

As your leaders, we desire every mem- 
ber of this quorum on hand at the 4th Ward 
Chapel at 20 minutes after 7 o'clock Satur- 
day evening. You will be given a slip 
with your name and ward on it. Drop 
this slip into the basket at the door to 
register your attendance. We are sure that 
every effort put forth to attend will be 
rewarded ten fold. Come Sunday also. 

We are all justly proud that every 
member of this quorum was a tithepayer 
in 1935, 1936, and 1937, and we feel sure 
this will be done again as only a com- 
paratively few have yet to respond for this 
year. 

At the quorum meeting in December last, 
it was agreed by unanimous vote that every 
one of us would do his best to abstain from 
the use of liquor and tobacco. For some 
this has required an effort, and for a few 
it means a struggle — a supreme struggle, 
but we do not hesitate to assure you that 
the greater the struggle the sweeter the joy 
of overcoming. 

Besides, permit us to remind you in all 
humility, that you are a member of a quo- 
rum in the Holy Priesthood — a wonderful 
quorum of 461 wonderful men, men of 
achievement, men of responsibility and des- 
tiny, every one of them. That's saying a 
lot, and maybe you will be asking your- 
self, "Do I measure up?" Possibly you 
are the only one who can answer. Are you 
rising to your highest possibilities in the 
wonderful ooportunities the Church has put 
in your way? Are you applying yourself 
to the best of your ability to your task, 
humble though it may appear to you, and 
possibly insignificant at times? And surely, 
we are all living up to the best we know 
every day, every hour, in thought and in 
our daily conversations, for little do we 
realize at what moment the entire group 
is being judged by our lives, or even by 
a single act. 

If you are — if you are giving the best 
you have, you measure up 100% with the 
strongest among us. We honor you. We 
appreciate you. Do the best you can, Dear 
Brother, under the circumstances in which 
you find yourself, and as your humble 
servants in the presidency, we feel in our 
hearts to say, God bless you and make you 
equal to your great responsibility, and may 
He bless and sustain you in your struggles 
no matter what they may be or how little 
others may understand, and may the spirit 
of love and peace abide with you in your 
home and attend you in all your labors, is 
our desire and our prayer for you. 
Your brethren, 

Frederick Barker, 
Albert W. Bell, 
W. R. McEntire, 
Presidency, High Priests' Quorum 
The Ogden Stake of Zion. 



PRIESTHOOD AND CHURCH WELFARE 

(See also Historical Readings and Supplementary References on next page) 



LESSON I 

The Beginnings of the Plan (Chap. 1 ) 

I. Provision for care of needy has been in 
the Church in principle and practice 
from the very first. 

a. The word of the Lord. 

b. During the Missouri and Illinois 
periods. 

c. Pioneer institutions. 

d. The increasing complexity of life. 

e. New methods, old principles. 

II. The 1935 relief survey revealed a 
startling condition in the Church. 

III. A challenging situation — something 
must be done to meet it. 

a. Experimental plans in wards and 
stakes. 

b. The Church Welfare Plan an- 
nounced April, 1936. 

c. A call to every member to set an 
example in self-reliance, initiative 
and independence. (See Historical 
Readings, references Nos. 1, 2 at 
end of outline.) 

IV. The purpose of the Church to develop 
work and welfare for every member. 

a. Immediate objective to care for ma- 
terial wants of the needy. 

b. Ultimate objective to help the peo- 
ple help themselves. (See Historical 
Readings, references Nos. 3. 4. 5.) 

c. Through economic security to spir- 
itual rehabilitation. (See Historical 
Readings, references Nos. 6, 7.) 

V. Guiding principles. 

a. Fast offerings to be increased to one 
dollar per member per year. 

b. Tithing to be paid in full, in cash 
or in kind. 

c. The Ward Teachers and the Re- 
lief Society to seek out the needy. 

d. Interchange of surplus cash or 
goods between wards and stakes. 

VI. The inspiration for the plan. 

a. A system founded upon the wisdom 
of God. 

b. The expression of a philosophy as 
old as the Church itself. (See His- 
torical Readings, reference No. 8.) 

VII. The plan uses the present Church or- 
ganization. 

a. The responsibility with the Priest- 
hood officers and quorums. 

b. The plan an enlargement of the 
Personal Welfare Committee's 
work. 

c. The facilities and experience of the 
Relief Society can cope with the 
relief phase of the problem. 

VIII. Reactions and attitudes. 

a. Of the Church membership — whole- 
hearted cooperation and shouldering 
of individual responsibility. 

b. Of the world at large — -admiration 
of the "new pioneering spirit." (See 
reference No. 9. See also questions 
at end of chapter.) 

LESSON II 

Objectives of the Welfare Plan 
(Chap. 2) 

I. Spiritual safeguards. 

a. Relief not to be given as charity. 

b. Relief given for work or services 
will preserve feeling of equality and 
independence. (See Historical 
Readings, reference No. 10.) 



II. Work and industry the basis of eco- 
nomic safety. 

a. All we have is the product of hu- 
man labor. 

b. Productive labor should be the de- 
sire of all. (See Historical Readings, 
reference No. 11.) 

c. Thrift a companion principle to 
work. 

d. Individual faith essential to a com- 
munity of effort. 

III. Where does the responsibility lie? 

a. First responsibility with the indi- 
vidual. (See Historical Readings, 
reference No. 12.) 

b. The charge of the family. 

c. The immediate community. 

d. The state, as the last resort. 

IV. Immediate objectives. 

a. Relief for the unemployed. 

b. Work for the jobless through 
Church agencies. 

c. Progressive improvement of exist- 
ing conditions. 

d. Encouragement of private and co- 
operative enterprise. 

LESSON III 

Organization of the Welfare Plan 
(Chap. 3.) 

I. The Welfare Plan a program of ac- 
tivity for the Priesthood. 

II. Consideration of the organization 
chart. 

III. The Priesthood needs the cooperation 
of all auxiliaries. 

a. The Relief Society already trained 
for special service. 

b. Facilities and power of Primary and 
M. I. A. in leisure-time guidance. 

c. Unity of faith and worship to be 
accomplished through religious edu- 
cation in Sunday School. 

d. Spiritual objectives to be realized 
by Department of Education. 

e. Welfare can increase only as spir- 
itual meaning of the plan compre- 
hended by the Church membership. 

IV. Ward committee the hub about which 
the whole program revolves. 

a. Committee membership. 

b. Meetings. 

c. Duties. 

V. The Stake Committee an aid to the 
stake Priesthood. 

a. Surveys, reports, policies. 

b. Quorum responsibility in adminis- 
tering relief. 

VI. The grouping of stakes into regions. 

a. Educational advantages. 

b. Administrative advantages. 

c. Distributional advantages. 

VII. The General Committee. 

a. The aid of the First Presidency. 

b. Church-wide coordinator of Priest- 
hood activities. 

VIII. Centralized direction without sacrifice 
of stake, ward, or quorum initiative. 

IX. The wider program. 

a. The immediate objectives a means 
to an end. 

b. Full development and protection of 
the individual. 

c. A vision of social reform. 

d. For all men — ultimate benefits to 
the community at large. 



THE IMPROVEMENT ERA, JANUARY, 1939 



HISTORICAL READINGS 



SUPPLEMENTARY REFER- 
ENCES FOR PRIESTHOOD 
AND CHURCH WELFARE 
LESSONS 

(See Lesson outlines for 
suggested use ) 

1. I know it is the will of God that 
we should sustain ourselves, for if we 
do not, we must perish, so far as re- 
ceiving aid from any quarter, except 
God and ourselves. (Brigham Young, 
Journal of Discourses, 11:139.) 

2. The service motive in a Christian 
community must include industry. The 
Church should have for its goal a time 
when pride in workmanship and loyalty 
in service will be the motives animating 
industry and when all work will be so 
organized that these motives may be 
possible for all workers. (Dr. John 
M. Versteeg.) 

3. This is true charity and should en- 
gage the efforts of every philanthropist, 
not only to feed the hungry and clothe 
the naked, but to place them in a situ- 
ation where they can produce, by their 
own labor, their subsistence. (Mill. 
Star 18:51, from the Thirteenth Gen- 
eral Epistle of the First Presidency, 
Oct. 29, 1855.) 

4. Bishops, we have a word of coun- 
sel to you. You are the fathers of the 
poor, and stewards in Israel. Lend 
your efficient aid in collecting together 
the tithing and consecrations of the 
Saints; and see that all is preserved and 
taken care of, and faithfully deposited 
in the storehouse of the Lord, and not 
diverted from its legitimate use. True 
charity to a poor family or person con- 
sists in placing them in a situation in 
which they can support themselves. 
In this country there is no person pos- 
sessing an ordinary degree of health 
and strength, but can earn a support 
for himself and family. (Mill. Star 
16:421, from the Eleventh General 
Epistle of the First Presidency.) 

5. I am satisfied that the mechanical 
ability of the people of this Territory 
will rank with that of any other people, 
but there is not one in five hundred 
that knows how to husband his ability 
and economize his labor when he first 
comes to this new country. They are 
for a time like a feather in the wind, 
until some circumstance occurs to set- 
tle them in some position where they 
can begin to do something to provide 
for themselves. (Brigham Young, 
Journal of Discourses, 10:20.) 

6. We pick up the beggar in the 
street in England— and we have bap- 
tized hundreds of them — we bring him 
here and put him in a situation to earn 
his living. They never owned any- 
thing before, but after they come here 
they soon begin to own a pig, a cow, 
a few chickens, and bye-and-bye a 
team; then open farms and soon become 

38 



men of wealth. It is our business to 
elevate the beggar and not keep him 
in ignorance. (Brigham Young, Jour- 
nal of Discourses, 10:190.) 

7. We have gathered thousands from 
many nations. By the aid of the Al- 
mighty we have raised them out of 
penury and miserable dependence and 
have taught them how to become 
wealthy in possession, useful to them- 
selves and their neighbors, good citi- 
zens, and, I trust, faithful Saints. 
( Brigham Young, Journal of Discourses, 
12:195.) 

8. The present system of Church 
security and welfare is not a new and 
revolutionary plan. It is simply a 
modern attempt to practice the cooper- 
ative principles which the pioneers de- 
veloped. The present plan is but a 
re-dedication to the social customs 
upon which the commonwealth of Des- 
eret was founded. The success of the 
present movement is due to the char- 
acteristic organization of the Church 
and the rich background in social and 
economic training which has been be- 
queathed to us. (E. Cecil McGavin. ) 

9. The leader of a company of gold 
seekers wrote: "The Mormons are 
not dead, nor is their spirit broken. 
And if I mistake not, there is a noble, 
daring, stern democratic spirit dwell- 
ing in their bosoms, which will people 
these mountains with a race of inde- 
pendent men and influence the destiny 
of our country and the world for a 
hundred years." (Journal History, 
July 8, 1849.) 

10. The dignity of labor is held sa- 
cred by the Mormons. ... A lazy per- 
son is either accursed or likely to be; 
usefulness is their motto, and those who 
will not keep themselves or try their 
best are left to starve into industry. . . 
This is included in their creed. . . . 



The president sets the example in the 
valley by working at his trade of car- 
penter. . . . The labor for support of 
oneself and family is taught to be as 
divine a character as public worship 
and prayer. (Gunnison, The History 
of the Mormons, 141-2.) 

1 1 . I am going to preach you a short 
sermon concerning our temporal duties. 
My sermon is to the poor, and to those 
who are not poor. As a people, we 
are not poor; and we wish to say to 
the bishops, not only in this city, but 
through the country, "Bishops, take care 
of your poor." The poor in this city 
do not number a great many. I think 
there are a few over seventy who draw 
sustenance from the General Tithing 
Office. They come to the Tithing Of- 
fice, or somebody comes for them, to 
draw their sustenance. If some of our 
clever arithmeticians will sit down and 
make a calculation of the hours lost in 
coming from the various parts of the 
city to the Tithing Office, and in wait- 
ing there, and then value those hours, 
if occupied in some useful employment, 
at twelve and a half cents each, every 
eight of them making a dollar, it will 
be found that the number of dollars 
thus lost by these seventy odd persons 
in a week would go far towards 
sustaining them. We have among us 
some brethren and sisters who are not 
strong, nor healthy, and they must be 
supported. We wish to adopt the most 
economical plan of taking care of them 
and we say to you bishops, take care 
of them. You may ask the question, 
"Shall we take the tithing that should 
go to the Tithing Office to support 
them, or shall we ask the brethren to 
donate for that purpose?" If you will 
take the time consumed in obtaining 
the rations drawn by them out of the 

(Concluded on page 50) 



MONTHLY REPORT OF THE L. D. S. STAKE MISSIONS 

Made by The First Council of the Seventy to The Council of the Twelve Apostles 
For the Month of October. 1938 



1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 



16. 



MISSIONARY ACTIVITIES Oct. 

1938 

Evenings or part days spent in missionary work.- _ 6,891 

Hours spent in missionary work - - 16,390 

Number of calls made 12,668 

Number of first invitations in 4,143 

Number of revisits _ - 4,416 

Number of Gospel conversations _ 1 2,239 

Number of standard Church works distributed { Does not include Books of Mormon 

reported under Item No. 10) _ _ 326 

Number of other books distributed ._ _ 398 

Number of tracts and pamphlets distributed ™ - _ ..14,246 

Copies of Book of Mormon actually sold „ _ 197 

Number of hall meetings held by missionaries 294 

Number of cottage meetings held by missionaries 571 

Number of missionaries who attended cottage and hall meetings „ 2,282 

Number of investigators present at cottage and hall meetings _ - - 2523 

Number of baptisms as a result of missionary work _ 155 

(1) Of people over 15 years of age _ „ 57 

(2) Of people under 15 years of age: 

a. Both of whose parents are members _ 48 

b. Others under 15 years of age.- _ 50 

Number of inactive members of Church brought into activity through stake missionary 

service during the month 246 



ADDITIONAL INFORMATION 

Number of stakes in the Church „ 124 

Number of stake missions organized 119 



MISSIONARIES ACTIVELY ENGAGED 



Number of stakes reporting 
Number of districts 



98 

383 



Elders 274 

Seventies 1,221 

High Priests _ _ 257 

Women „ 353 

Total „ „ 2,105 



Oct. 

1937 

5,742 

12,509 

12,570 

3,096 

4,197 

11,016 

365 

357 

16,476 

173 

206 

500 

2,472 

2,092 

112 



249 



118 
113 



99 

336 
255 
1,104 
236 
244 

1,869 



CONDUCTED UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF THE PRESIDING BISHOPRIC — EDITED BY JOHN D. GILES 



WARD TEACHING BY AARONIC 
PRIESTHOOD REACHES 
HIGH MARK 

/^\NE of the most gratifying reports of 
^ Aaronic Priesthood activity in 
Ward Teaching has come from the 
compilation made from stake reports 
by the Presiding Bishop's Office re- 
cently. This report shows that 34 
stakes have more than 100 members 
of the Aaronic Priesthood serving as 
Ward Teachers. 

The percentage of Aaronic Priest- 
hood members to the total number of 
Ward Teachens ranges as high as 
approximately 50% in some wards. An 
increase in this service in the past 
few years has been most commend- 
able and reports indicate that results 
from the teaching in the homes by these 
young Priests and Teachers is of a 
very high order. In some stakes the 
bulk of Ward Teaching is now done 
by the Aaronic Priesthood with ex- 
cellent results being reported. 

A tabulation of the stakes with more 
than 100 Aaronic Priesthood members 
in Ward Teaching service is as follows : 



Wasatch 120 

Cache 119 

Weber 118 

Maricopa 114 

Utah Ill 

Moapa 110 

Bear Lake 109 

St. George 108 

St. Joseph 108 

Deseret 106 

Big Horn 106 

Palmyra 105 

Riqby 102 

Nebo 101 

Shelley 101 

East Jordan 100 

Mt. Ogden 100 



Ogden 250 

Cottonwood 185 

Rexburg 175 

Hyrum 167 

Logan 164 

Pioneer 157 

No. Davis 155 

Salt Lake 153 

Liberty 146 

Pocatello 144 

Bear River 138 

Box Elder 135 

Grant 130 

Ensign 127 

No. Weber 125 

Smithfield 124 

Los Angeles 123 

Wells 122 

Ogden Stake is the only one report- 
ing more than 200 Aaronic Priesthood 
members acting as Ward Teachers. 

ADULT PROGRAM SHOWS 
ADVANCE 

Probably the greatest advance yet 
■*■ indicated in the Adult Aaronic 
Priesthood program is reflected in the 
report for the first nine months of 
1938. A brief summary of the report 
indicates the following: 

Total rating 26, a gain from 19 in 1937. 

Wards with classes gained from 130 to 
182. 

Average attendance advanced from 3% 
to 13%. 

Assignments filled increased from 14,347 
to 16,423. 

Members filling assignments increased 
8% to 9%. 

Members acting as Ward Teachers in- 
creased from 1,313 to 1,348. 

Wards with adult supervisors gained 
from 176 to 259. 



Number of stake supervisors increased 
from 146 to 176. 

Number of visits to wards gained from 
1,022 to 1,520. 

Number of adult class meetings increased 
from 2,263 to 3,451. 

The number of adults reported increased 
from 35,837 to 37,550. 

Salt Lake Stake, pioneer in Adult 
Aaronic Priesthood work, leads in total 
rating (71); in total class meetings 
(310); in wards with classes (11); in 
assignments filled ( 858 ) ; in wards with 
supervisors (11); in number of stake 
supervisors (13); in number of visits 
to wards ( 250 ) ; and in average attend- 
ance of supervisors (89%). 

AARONIC PRIESTHOOD 
EXTENSION PLAN MAKES 
MARKED PROGRESS 

"Deports from stakes and wards 
^ throughout the Church indicate that 
the Aaronic Priesthood Extension Plan, 
which replaces the former Correlation 
Plan, is being adopted generally with 
excellent results. 

Stake and Ward Cavalcade For 
Youth meetings are reported to be un- 
usually successful and to have accom- 
plished beneficial results. 

It is urged that in stakes and wards 
where the Extension Plan has not yet 
been adopted that it be set up imme- 
diately and that every possible effort 
be made during the present year to win 
and hold in Church activity every pos- 
sible young man and boy between the 
ages of 12 and 20, whether they have 
been ordained to the Aaronic Priest- 
hood or not. 

In connection with the Extension 
Plan, stake and ward supervisors of 
Aaronic Priesthood are urged to confer 
with leaders of similar groups in Sun- 
day School and M. I. A. for the proper 
development of a balanced and definite 



program of activities for the coming 
year. If such programs are prepared 
in cooperation with other groups in- 
volved, conflicts in dates and interests 
will be avoided and unquestionably bet- 
ter results will accrue to the program. 

BONNEVILLE STAKE AARONIC 
PRIESTHOOD CONDUCTS 
SUCCESSFUL PROJECTS 

'"Phe Aaronic Priesthood of Bonneville 
Stake has carried out two projects 
during the last few months to increase 
attendance at various meetings. 

The first of these projects was an 
attendance contest in connection with 
stake conference, in which all the 
Aaronic Priesthood quorums in the six 
wards of the stake participated. The 
Aaronic Priesthood members formed 
a chorus directed by Edwin Kirkham 
which sang at two sessions of the con- 
ference. 

A beautiful trophy was offered for 
the ward which had the largest per- 
centage of its Aaronic Priesthood 
members at both sessions of the con- 
ference to sing, and also at one pre- 
liminary practice. 

The tropny was won by the Aaronic 
Priesthood of the 33rd Ward, with an 
average attendance of over 50%. Other 
wards were near that figure. The 
trophy was presented at a Sacrament 
meeting given over to the Aaronic 
Priesthood, who furnished all the music 
as well as some of the speakers. Pres- 
ident Marion G. Romney made the 
presentation. 

At the Aaronic Priesthood conven- 
tion October 9th in the Assembly Hall, 
the Aaronic Priesthood chorus of Bon- 
neville stake furnished the music with 
a chorus of 1 67 boys and many leaders 

BONNEVILLE STAKE AARONIC PRIESTHOOD 
CHORUS. THIS CHORUS SANG AT AARONIC 
PRIESTHOOD CONVENTION, OCTOBER 9, 1938. 




THE IMPROVEMENT ERA, JANUARY, 1939 



directed by Dr. D. E. Smith. Lloyd 
Keddington, Deacon of Emigration 
Ward, sang "I Am a Mormon Boy" — 
accompanied by the chorus 

All the boys who attended this meet- 
ing and helped make the project a suc- 
cess were entertained in Yalecrest 
Ward recreation hall by the Stake 
Aaronic Priesthood Committee, Broth- 
ers Don Cameron, J. E. Gleave, and 
Clyde Cummings, with the cooperation 
of the stake presidency. 

A venison barbecue with all "trim- 
mings" was followed by an evening of 
games and athletic events 

Approximately two hundred boys, 
leaders, and members of bishoprics of 
the various wards attended. 

NEW SUPERVISORS' GUIDE 
FOR ADULTS 

A new guide for supervisors of Adult 
** Aaronic Priesthood groups will be 
ready for delivery by January 1st. The 
new book contains suggestions for or- 
ganizing, conducting, and supervising 
the adult program and in addition a 
lesson guide for adult classes. 

The lesson portion of the guide was 
prepared originally by Elder George 
W. Skidmore of Logan, Utah, who used 
it with outstanding success. The guide 
has been amplified and will doubtless 
be of material assistance to supervisors. 
The price is 10c. All orders, with 
remittance accompanying, should be 
sent to the Presiding Bishopric, 40 
North Main Street, Salt Lake City, 
Utah. 

NEW MANUALS READY 

1V7[anuals for Priests, Teachers, and 
Deacons quorums and for adult 
Aaronic Priesthood supervisors are 
now ready for distribution and are be- 
ing sent to the field as rapidly as orders 
are received. A handbook for super- 
visors is also ready. This is a guide 
for the organization, operation, and 
supervision of Aaronic Priesthood 
quorums. 

The price of each of the books is 
10c. Orders with remittances should 
be sent to the office of the Presiding 
Bishopric, 40 North Main Street, Salt 
Lake City, Utah. 

STANDARD QUORUM AWARDS 
PLANS URGED UPON 
SUPERVISORS 

Cupervisors of Aaronic Priesthood 
**■* Quorums are urged to set up im- 
mediately standards for the coming 
year, as outlined in each of the Aaronic 
Priesthood manuals and also in the 
supervisor's handbook. This plan sets 
up standards for each quorum to follow 
which are intended to increase the in- 
terest of members in their duties and 
activities, and also to set objectives 
for the quorums to reach during the 
year. 

Stake chairmen of Aaronic Priest- 
hood are charged with the responsi- 
bility of checking the records of all 

40 



quorums for 1938, and reporting to the 
Presiding Bishopric those which have 
earned the Standard Quorum Award 
for the past year. These awards will 
be sent to the stake chairman for pres- 
entation at some stake gatherings, 
where proper recognition can be given 



to the officers of quorums winning the 
award. 

It is urged that these reports be 
sent in as early as possible in order that 
they might serve as an incentive to in- 
crease activity during the year ahead. 
{Concluded on page 41) 



THE WORD OF WISDOM REVIEW 

A Monthly Presentation of Pertinent Information Regarding the 

Lord's Law of Health 



WIN OR LOSE 

A Glimpse at the Life of a Mormon 
Boy Who as Scholar-athlete 
Set an Example on and off 
the Field 

By Clark Stohl 

Dichard Young Bennion, twenty - 
year-old son of Dr. Adam S. Ben- 
nion and Minerva Young Bennion, who 
"Just wanted to be a carbon copy of 
his dad," has distinguished himself, his 
university, his state, and his Church by 
his accomplishments. He is known as 
one of the finest tennis players produced 
in the Rockies, and competent critics 
from east to west today rate his blister- 
ing overhead, which he smashes with 
both feet well off the ground, as sec- 
ond to none in the country. Already 
in 1936 "Dick," as he is better known, 
ranked fourth in the national junior 
singles and doubles, and in 1937 he won 
the intermountain net crown. Then, 
with Gordon Giles, another Mormon 
lad of splendid habits and attainments, 
he became co-holder of the Eastern 
Intercollegiate doubles title, won in 
July, 1938, at Montclair, New Jersey, 
undoubtedly the most eminent con- 
quest any Utahns have ever made in the 
tennis world. 

Dick was stand-out in the broad- 
jump, too, and while at the University 



of Utah, where he was student-body 
president, led the Mountain States con- 
ference, making his best mark in 1937 
when he bounded 23 feet 8]^ inches. 

In athletics, Dick has naturally 
found the Mormon design for living 
his unfailing support. "You can't 'play 
around' with strong drinks and nicotine 
and become a champion," he says. Dur- 
ing the Eastern Intercollegiate, he and 
Gordon Giles were invited to play an 
exhibition before the Army officers 
stationed at Governor's Island, New 
York. The Utahns were magnificent 
in trimming Julius Heldman and 
Bradley Kendis, top ranking team from 
the University of California at Los- 
Angeles. A reception followed, at 
which the Mormon boys were guests. 
Cocktails and tea were offered, but by 
special request, Dick Bennion and 
Gordon Giles had milk. 

Another time, on a hot Saturday 
morning in May, 1937, Dick captured 
the western division Rocky Mountain 
singles by whipping Dan Freed, then 
paired with Jack Hardy to turn back 
Malcolm Booth and Bill Pardoe of 
B. Y. U. in the doubles finals. With 
two hard-earned victories behind him, 
Dick went over to the stadium that 
afternoon and leaped 23 feet 2y 2 inches 
to take the state college event. Such 
endurance is born of life-long observ- 
ance of the Word of Wisdom. 



Dick Bennion (left) and Gor- 
don Giles (right), who teamed 
together to annex the Eastern 
Intercollegiate Doubles at Mont- 
clair, New Jersey, in July. This 
is the only major tournament any 
Utahns have ever won outside the 
intermountain country. Giles is 
seen completing a forehand drive. 
in 1936, Bennion and Giles were 
the fourth ranking junior doubles 
duo in the country. Dick Ben- 
nion is the son of Dr. Adam S. 
Bennion, and Gordon Giles is the 
son of Professor Thomas E. Giles. 
Both are clean-living Mormon lads 
with brilliant promise and achieve- 
ments in the field of athletics. 




CONDUCTED UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF THE PRESIDING BISHOPRIC EDITED BY JOHN D. GILES 



IjJcUuL J&achsUi&u 71/hAhaqsi, ^stbhuwu}, 1939 

SOMETHING FOR NOTHING 

'T'he desire to secure something for nothing has caused untold grief and 
■*■ misery in the world in all ages. The "get-rich-quick" idea in one form 
or another has been used by promoters of schemes and "rackets" of various 
kinds, to induce people to make expenditures in the hope that they might 
be the "lucky" ones and gain comparatively large sums of money thereby. 

Probably never in the history of the world has this spirit been so 
rampant as at the present time. The schemes being perpetrated upon the 
public have invaded practically every field of business activity. House- 
wives are urged to spend comparatively small amounts for products they 
may or may not be able to use in the hope that, out of the millions of 
women who enter such "contests," they might find the end of the rainbow 
and secure the pot of gold. 

Young people are confronted on all sides by devices, games, and 
gambling schemes to induce them to send money. The amusement field in 
many communities has also been invaded with "something-for-nothing" 
schemes, and those who can least afford it are frequently the ones who are 
attracted in largest numbers. 

Any scheme, plan, device, game, or other arrangement that has as its 
motive and incentive the hope of securing something for nothing should 
be avoided by Latter-day Saints, as being immoral and unwholesome and 
not in harmony with the spirit of our religion. Gains thus secured have, 
in large numbers of cases, been unfortunate and disastrous. Winners of 
lotteries and other schemes, whose stories have reached the public, have 
testified that their winning has been a curse rather than a blessing. 

Homes have been broken, mothers and children have been made to 
suffer; young men have been sent to prison; men have lost their self-respect, 
families have been impoverished; and many young people started on the 
wrong road in life through such schemes. 

Latter-day Saints should observe the teachings of our Church leaders 
in this respect. Gambling in any form should be avoided. Such schemes 
and plans do not come from our Father in Heaven. 



COUNT YOUR MANY 
BLESSINGS 

There is perhaps no home in which 
there is no trouble. 

There are few people, rich or poor, 
but that have some sorrow in their lives. 

It would seem to be a part of God's 
plan for the training of His children, 
and when we consider it, how tasteless 
life would be without the variation of 
the sweet and the bitter. 

It is by these contrasts that we 
achieve happiness. All the joy we have 
or may hope to have will find their 
roots in these comparisons in life. 

Then why bewail and mourn because 
we have them? 

Is it not better cheerfully to face and 
endure them? 

One fine old philosopher said that 
when he felt to be discouraged be- 
cause of some difficulty, real or fancied, 
he would go out on the street and 
could always, in the course of a short 
walk, find someone worse off than 
himself. 

Have you heard of the man who had 
no arms, and who rigged a system of 
straps and pulleys, so that with the 
wiggling of his toes he could scratch 



his nose when it itched? He made the 
most out of what he had and got some 
happiness out of it. 

But with all our troubles, how many 
are the blessings that we enjoy. 

We should follow the advice of that 
fine Sunday School song, and count 
them occasionally. Let us now count. 
Some one or more of these every one 
has: 

The blessing of our family: Our 
fathers, our mothers, our children — - 
who could buy them? 

The privilege to labor, for what 
would life be without work? 

The blessing of Faith which enables 
us to hold onto things unseen. 

The blessing of Hope which holds 
out to us a constant light! 

The blessing of Charity — the love of 
man for his fellow man. 

And above all, to the Latter-day 
Saint, the blessing of the knowledge 
that has come to him, that God lives, 
that Jesus Christ is His Son, our Elder 
Brother, and that through Him we may 
be saved. That while learned men 
of the world are doubting the reality of 
God, and the mission of His Son, we 
know that His word is true, and that 



He lives in person, and by His Holy 
Spirit is everywhere. 

We have troubles enough now, per- 
haps, and there is no doubt that we 
shall have more, for we are at the 
beginning of the last days, but if we 
keep the commandments of God, we 
shall have faith to hold on until the end. 

Then will the value of our trials 
appear. 

Then will the justice, mercy, and love 
of God be fully manifest. 

Note: The above was used as a 
Ward Teachers Message by the Poca- 
tello Stake. 



Aaronic Priesthood 

{Concluded from page 40) 

SEPTEMBER 30TH REPORT 
SHOWS AARONIC PRIEST- 
HOOD GAINS 

Cubstantial gains in Aaronic Priest- 
**■* hood activity for the first nine 
months of 1938 are indicated in the 
report tabulated by the Presiding Bish- 
op's Office. Average attendance in- 
creased from 32% to 37% over the 
same period of 1937. 

Assignments filled were 597,802, 
compared with 540,148 in 1937. The 
number of members of Aaronic Priest- 
hood acting as Ward Teachers in- 
creased from 9,327 to 9,654. Quorums 
organized increased from 2,928 to 
3,010. The number of wards havina 
quorum supervisors increased from 955 
to 971. The total Aaronic Priesthood 
under 20 at the time of the report was 
46,008. 

Leading stakes in total rating, cover- 
ing all activities, are as follows: 

Ogden 86 Pasadena 80 

Highland 82 Shelley 80 



Timpanogos 80 

Maricopa 79 

Phoenix 79 

Pioneer 79 ! 



Grant _ 81 

Los Angeles 81 

Salt Lake 81 

Bear Lake 80 

Logan 80 

Cache, Granite, Gridley, Hollywood, 
and Pocatello Stakes have reached a 
rating of 78 for the period. 



Church Moves On 

( Continued from page 33 ) 

JULIA BUDGE NIBLEY 
PASSES ON 

At the age of 77, Julia Budge Nibley, 
widow of Charles W. Nibley, 
former member of the First Presidency 
of the Church, died December 5 at her 
home in Salt Lake. Long active in 
Church work, Mrs. Nibley had also 
been the first telegraph operator and 
also the first postmistress of Paris, 
Idaho, where her father had been sent 
by Brigham Young to preside over the 
L. D. S. settlements there. 

(Concluded on page 42) 

41! 



OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS OF THE GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY OF UTAH 



JOSEPH FIELDING SMITH. 

President and Treasurer. 

JOSEPH CHRISTENSON. 
Vice President. 

ARCHIBALD F. BENNETT, 

Secretary and Librarian. 



JOHN A. WIDTSOE, 

A. WILLIAM LUND. 

JAMES M. KIRKHAM, 

MARK E. PETERSEN. 
Directors. 



HAROLD J. KIRBY, 

Assistant Secretary. 
L. GARRETT MYERS. 

Assistant Treasurer and 
Superintendent of Research Bureau 
ELLEN HILL, 

Assistant Librarian. 



ACTIVITIES OF CANNON 
FAMILY 

r VnE George Cannon Family Asso- 
■*■ ciation are to be commended for 
the interest they are taking in family 
history and temple work. Right now 
they are gathering funds so as to micro- 
film the parish registers of the Isle of 
Man from which place the Cannon 
progenitors came. 

We reproduce below a few para- 
graphs taken from their letter recently 
sent to members of the family, show- 
ing the need of securing the records 
and how they can be copied in the 
modern way: 

Last year many of the most valued rec- 
ords of China, some of which go back to the 
time of Confucius, were bombarded. Prac- 
tically all the cultural treasures of Spain 
have also been destroyed during the pres- 
ent war. Tomorrow this same thing may 
happen all over Europe, destroying forever 
the record of our ancestors which we have 
been charged, at the peril of our own sal- 
vation, to collect, thus fulfilling the proph- 
ecy that "the night cometh when no man 
can work." 

As a family, we have delayed. 

A great opportunity is now offered us. 
A new, efficient and remarkably econom- 
ical method of copying these records has 
been developed. It is called the microfilm. 
It consists of photographing books, page 
by page, on a strip similar to a movie film, 
which can be projected by the reader 
through a small hand-turned machine. 

Brother Archibald F. Bennett, secretary 
of the Church Genealogical Association, en- 
courages the Cannon family to lead out in 
procuring copies of the parish registers in 
the Isle of Man by this method. 

Last year one L. D. S. Manx family 
spent to secure only part of its Manx lines 
by the old method what is probably more 
than would be required to make copies of 
and bring here by this new process, all the 
parish registers of the Isle of Man. 

To get this project started we must have 
funds. Will you do your part by buying a 
membership in the Cannon Family Associa- 
tion at once? 

A Bit of Cannon History 

To show the value and importance of 
old letters in gathering genealogy and 
the help they are in compiling a family 
history we quote from a recent circular 
sent out by the Cannon family asso- 
ciation. 

Through the kindness of Inez Phillips 
Baker, granddaughter of Catherine Quayle 
Quirk, Ann M. Cannon recently came into 
possession of a priceless letter which has 
been almost miraculously preserved from 
Pioneer days. The letter was written from 
St. Joseph, Missouri, by Mary Alice Cannon 
Lambert when she was yet under twenty 
and uncomplainingly mothering five little 

42 



children. It was sent to her mother's sister, 
Catherine Quayle Quirk, who resided in 
Brooklyn, Long Island. 

Ann Quayle Cannon, having a premoni- 
tion that she would pass away before she 
reached the main body of the Saints and 
being determined that her children should 
"gather" with them, charted her course via 
New Orleans, for she knew that if they 
went via New York, her sister would keep 
the motherless children and they would not 
be privileged to reach Zion, since Catherine 
Quayle Quirk did not join the Church. 

St. Joseph, Missouri, 
November 26, 1848. 
Dear Uncle, Aunt, and Cousins: 

I take up my pen to drop a few lines to 
you, thinking it will be interesting to you 
to hear from us. You will, I expect, think 
it very unkind of me not answering your 
letters before this, but we have been so un- 
settled that I have not written to any- 
body. I suppose you have heard of my 
being married. I will be married four years 
the twenty-eighth of this month. I have 
got a very good husband. His name is 
Charles Lambert. He is a stone mason and 
cutter by trade. He comes from York- 
shire. I have Angus, David, and Leonora 
[her younger brothers and sister] living with 
me and also I have two fine boys of my 
own. The oldest was three years old the 
fifth of this month. His name is Charles 
John. The other will be eight months old 
the eleventh of next month. His name is 
George Cannon. George and Ann [her 
brother and sister] went to Salt Lake with 
Aunt Taylor. I have had several letters 
from them. They like the country very 
well. We should have gone when they 
went but the Indians killed our three yoke 
of oxen. 

I will now give you a small history of 
what we passed through since we left Eng- 
land. We sailed on the 18 of September 
and our dear mother departed this life on 
the 28 of October. We did not get to 
Nauvoo until April the 12 and on February 
the 28 Father got married to a widow. 
Her name was Mary White. He went to 
St. Louis in about six months after he was 
married. When he had been there a week, 
he strained his back with lifting and the first 
day he went to work he took sick and he 
had to leave at 2 o'clock and he died at 10 
that same night. They said it was a fit of 
apoplexy that he died in. Stepmother had 
a little girl six months after he died. Her 
name is Elizabeth and since she [step- 
mother] has gone to St. Louis and got mar- 
ried to a man by the name of Charles 
Taylor. . . . George had gone to learn 
the printing business before Father's death. 
Aunt [Leonora Cannon Taylor] took Ann 
to live with her, and Charles took the rest 
of them. He behaves like a father to them. 

I expect you have heard of the battle in 
Nauvoo. We were there at that time wait- 
ing for our wagon to be finished. They 
were painting it when the battle commenced. 
The cannonballs fell guite thick around 
our house. We were driven across the 



river without receiving one cent for our 
property. We had forty acres of land on 
the prairie and a city lot with a brick house 
on with four rooms and a good well. We 
had to leave it all to a wicked and ruthless 
mob. We started for Council Bluffs. When 
we got to Soap Creek, I got run over. Both 
wheels went over my back. There was 
thirty hundred weight on the wagon at the 
time. They took me up for dead, but with 
the blessing of the Lord, I was enabled 
to be about in a few days. It injured my 
health very much. As soon as we had got 
out to the Bluffs and got a house built 
Charles went to St. Joseph to work and he 
stayed until spring when he came home 
and we moved there to live. We now live 
twenty miles from there at the Nodaway 
quarry. Charles is now working about fif- 
teen miles from here putting a foundation 
for a house. I expect him home in two 
weeks and then he is going to cut stone at 
home all winter. I would like to write more 
but I don't get time to write often as I am 
kept busy preparing for starting in the 
spring. I should like to see you all very 
much but it is useless to think about it 
without you should come out to Salt Lake 
valley. 

George had a letter from Uncle Charles 
[Quayle] and Grandmother [Quayle] when 
Uncle Taylor [President John Taylor] came 
home. Grandmother was in very poor 
health when he was there. I was very sorry 
to hear of Aunt Emma's [Quayle] death. 
I would like you when you write to Grand- 
mother to send her all the news I send you, 
and when we get to Salt Lake I will write 
and give them all the news. Angus, David, 
and Leonora send their love with me to you 
all and if Charles were here, he would join 
with us. Give my love to Uncle Joseph 
[Quayle, brother of Catherine and Ann] 
and Elen. I must now draw to a close. 
From your affectionate niece, 

Mary Alice Lambert. 

Dear Mary Ann: [a cousin] I thank you 
for writing to me and hope you will write 
as soon as you receive this letter and I can 
answer it before we start. Direct for Charles 
Lambert, Stone Mason, St. Joseph, [Mis- 
souri]. Send me the names of all my 
cousins. 

From your affectionate cousin, 

M. A. Lambert. 



Church Moves On 

(Concluded from page 41 ) 

MORMON HANDICRAFT 
FOSTERS HOME INDUSTRY 
"JV^ormon Handicraft is the name given 
a new branch of the Church Wel- 
fare program, a project being sponsored 
by the Relief Society which enables 
women to sell articles made in the home 
at a gift shop which has been opened 
at 21 West South Temple Street in 
Salt Lake City. 



General Superintendency 
Y. M. M. I. A. 

GEORGE Q. MORRIS 

JOSEPH J. CANNON 

BURTON K. FARNSWORTH 

OSCAR A. KIRKHAM. 

Executive Secretary 



General Offices Y. M. M. I. A. 

50 NORTH MAIN STREET 
SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH 

General Offices Y. W. M. I. A. 

33 BISHOP'S BUILDING 
SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH 

Send all Correspondence to Committees Direct to General Offices 



General Presidency 
Y. W. M. I. A. 

LUCY GRANT CANNON 

HELEN S. WILLIAMS 

VERNA W. GODDARD 

CLARISSA A. BEESLEY, 

Executive Secretary 



Jo J/wAfL U)ho iu&fcttG- 



w f^NCE, some Wise Men were guided by a Star to a manger where a Child 

\^_y lay. They brought gifts and worshiped Him, as the Son of God. 

Today, after long centuries, wise men still follow the star of faith which leads to Him and still bring 
their gifts of love and service to lay at His feet. 

As nineteen-thirty-eight closes and a New Year dawns, we greet our beloved fellow workers in the Cause 
of M. I. A. and extend our sincere wishes for happiness, peace and prosperity. We trust that success may 
attend the efforts of every faithful officer and leader, that all may have the satisfaction and joy which come 
from service well done. 

And most of all we pray that love of God may be in every heart, and the assurance that Jesus Christ is 
His Son and the Redeemer of the world. May we make Him our Companion and Friend. May we read His 
holy Word. May we do His works. Thus shall the Star still shine about us and our lives be permeated by 
its radiance. 




Y . M. M. I. A. General Superintendency. 






Y. W. M. /. A. Presidency. 




THEME-PROJECT 

Although Marie Curie wished to 
^* have a radium institute built in her 
beloved Poland, she felt that the im- 
poverished condition of her people 
after the World War made such an 
achievement impossible. Her sister 
finally evolved a plan whereby the in- 
stitute could be built without too great 
a hardship on any one person. Each 
was to contribute one brick toward 
the edifice. In this manner, a close 
cooperation was effected since each 
could do one simple thing which by 
united effort would rise to a mag- 
nificent structure. 

Our theme this year is capable of 
just such a united service and significant 
results: "By love serve one another, 
for all the law is fulfilled in one word, 
even in this, 'Thou shalt love thy 



neighbor as thyself." Each of us is 
encouraged to act separately as persons 
with other persons until the result will 
be felt for good throughout the Church. 
The particular assignment for the Ex- 
ecutives is to aid someone in over- 
coming the desire to smoke or drink. 
In many cases, this theme-project has 
been accomplished already. But there 
are crying instances where effort on 
our part as leaders would encourage 
those who, although smokers or drink- 
ers, are eager to overcome their failing. 

One executive talked to a young 
man and told him that he had built up 
so strong a habit of smoking that she 
was sure he couldn't overcome it. He 
laughed and said, "Oh, I'm not so weak 
as that. I'm sure I can quit." Each 
time she saw him, she would ask him 
how he was progressing. One week 
he told her that he had been three weeks 
without touching tobacco. He is still 
trying to overcome his bad habit. 

We should like you to re-read the 
article, "So You're Going to Stop 



Smokinq?" by Dr. Henry C. Link, 
which appeared in the September, 1938, 
Era. This article is stimulating and 
will be conducive of good if passed 
to those who are inveterate smokers. 
President Grant was especially pleased 
with this article because he said that 
when he visited Dr Link a year or so 
ago, Dr. Link smoked constantly. Now 
he has learned the harm of smoking 
and has proved that he can quit. An- 
other article to be re-read is "Thanks, 
But I Don't Drink," in the Era of De- 
cember, 1937. 

As executives, we do not have to 
reform the whole Church in the matter 
of smoking; we work with one person 
at a time. To fortify ourselves, we 
should look through our New Testa- 
ments again and count the number of 
times that Christ did His work with 
single persons in contrast to the very 
few times that He talked to multitudes. 
If each Executive will convert one per- 
son, soon the whole Church will be 
made better. 

(Continued on page 44) 

43 



THE IMPROVEMENT ERA, JANUARY, 1939 



(Continued from page 43) 
If you have made positive progress 
in accomplishing your theme-project, 
we should like to hear your methods 
that we may pass the information and 
help to other wards and stakes. 

ORIGINAL ASSEMBLY 
PROGRAM 

HPhe project for the Assembly pro- 
gram committee is to create one 
program in addition to producing those 
which have been published in the Ex- 
ecutive Manual. The time has now 
come when the program for next year 
is being prepared. If you feel that 
your original program is unusual 
enough and general enough to merit 
use in other wards, will you please get 
them in immediately to the M. I. A. 
General Board offices at either 50 North 
Main, or 33 Bishop's Bldg., Salt Lake 
City, Utah. 

DANCE FESTIVAL 

Cince executives and dance directors 
^ are now beginning to plan for their 
dance festival, this report of a suc- 
cessful affair from Pocatello Stake, held 
April 7, 1938, in the Stake Recreation 
Hall under the direction of the stake 
dance directors, Mr. and Mrs. Law- 
rence Walker, should prove stimu- 
lating. The total number of partici- 
pants was gratifying. In the dances 
104 entered; in the presentation, there 
were 45; 30 singers and 12 musicians 
performed, bringing the total to 191 
who benefited by the activities. The 
event included the following numbers: 
1. The Gleam Waltz, M. I. A. Official 
Waltz — All Wards; 2. Ladies Chorus (a) 
An Old Violin (b) Because — Third Ward, 
Mrs. George L. Matthews, director; 3. Gold 
and Green Cotillion, 1927-28 Contest Dance 
— Fourth Ward; 4. Original Waltz — North 
Pocatello; 5. Gold and Green Caprice, 
1928-29 Contest Dance— Fifth Ward; 6. 
Original Waltz — First Ward; 7. Vocal Solo 
— Anthony Picciano; 8. Original Fox Trot — 
Second Ward; 9. Gold and Green Cen- 
tennial Waltz, 1929 Contest Dance — Third 
Ward; 10. Stake Gleaner Girls' Sextette, 
directed by Ann Pearson. Presentation of 
Queens and Attendants of all Ward Gold 
and Green Balls held this season. Directed 
by Mrs. S. R. Meadows and Charles Green, 
Stake Drama Directors. Designer, Ann 
Meadows; Stage Lighting, Wayne Slaugh- 
ter, Roy Cox, and Norton Marler; Violins, 
Ralphene Varley, Ann Pearson, Sybil Mat- 
thews; Piano, Lillis Hill. Announcer, Lloyd 
Call; Salutation, June Marshall. Pocatello 
Stake Original Waltz — All Ward Dance 
Directors. 11. Original Fox Trot — Sixth 
Ward; 12. Gold and Green Caprice, M. I. 
A. Official Group Dance — -Third, Sixth, 
North Pocatello and American Falls; 13. 
Original Waltz — Fourth Ward; 14. Sen- 
orita MIA, 1931-32 Contest Dance— First 
Ward; 15. Original Fox Trot— Fifth Ward: 
16. Gold and Green Tango Waltz, 1933-34 
Dance — Sixth Ward; 17. Rage Quadrille. 
Special Feature Dance — Directed by Don 
Miner — Fifth Ward; 18. Original Waltz — 
Third Ward; 19. Gold and Green Fox Trot 
—Rockland Ward; 20 Aloha Oe (Goodbye 
and Love Go With Thee) , M. I. A. Official 
Fox Trot — All Wards; Song, "Carry On" 
— Congregation. Orchestra: Mildred, Rich- 
ard Dale, and Margaret Barrett. 

44 




SCENES FROM POCATELLO STAKE DANCE FES- 
TIVAL (APRIL 7, 193S). 

NEW Y. M. M I. A. BOARD 
MEMBER ANNOUNCED 

Alma H. Pettegrew, for eight years 
*"* General Secretary of the Y. M. M. 
I. A. has been made a member of the 
Y. M. M. I. A. General Board, it was 
recently announced by the General 
Superintendency. Brother Pettegrew's 
appointment became effective August 
24, 1938. He will continue his secre- 
tarial duties. 



number of officers at the monthly lead- 
ership meeting. The ward Mutual 
winning it the greatest number of times 
during the year will be awarded it per- 
manently. 

The banner is in the form of a shield 
and is made of heavy green felt with 
gold letters. The cost was $4.00. 
Considerable interest has already been 
manifested in good-natured rivalry. 







I * 



LIBERTY STAKE PROMOTES 
"LET'S GO TO MUTUAL" IDEA 
Asa stimulator in the campaign to 
^* increase attendance the Liberty 
Stake M. I. A. has provided a "Let's 
Go to Mutual" banner. It will be 
given to the ward having the greatest 



THE ADVERTISERS 




and Where You Will Find 


Their Messages 




American Smelting Co 


..59 


Beneficial Life Insurance Co 




Back Cc 


>ver 
..59 


Brigham Young University 


Continental Oil Company 


..59 


Deseret News Press 


..62 


Globe Mills 


..35 


Hotel Lankershim 


..59 


International Harvester Co 


.. 1 


KSL Radio Station 




Inside Back Cover 


L. D. S. Business College.. 


..61 


Mountain Fuel Supply 


..63 


New Grand Hotel 


..57 


Ogden School of Beauty Culture. 


..59 


Provo School of Beauty Culture. 


..57 


Quish School of Beauty Culture- 


..63 




..57 


Shell Oil Company 




Inside Front Cc 


>ver 
..55 


Tee Gee Garment Company 


Utah Engraving Company 


..57 


Utah Home Fire Insurance Co.... 


..57 


Utah Oil Refining Co 


... 3 


Utah Power & Light Co 


57 



THE IMPROVEMENT ERA, JANUARY, 1939 



EFFECTIVE LIBRARIANSHIP 

By Amelia Bennion 

'T'he question has been asked about 
A the equipment and material needed 
for the starting and maintaining of a 
library. Keeping in mind the simplest 
of these, I suggest the following : 

1. A catalog file box. 

2. A box in which to keep cards of 
books that are in circulation. 

3. Catalog cards. 

4. Book cards. 

5. Book pockets. 

6. Date-due slips. 

7. Book plates. 

8. Labels. 

9. Accession books. 

10. Paste, pen, India ink, typewriter, when 
possible. 

If you haven't much money in your 
budget some of these things can be 
made at home as I have suggested in 
previous articles. Another reason for 
making them at home is that it is very 
expensive to buy them in small quan- 
tities. 

Of course library procedure ranges 
from a small collection as in most wards 
to collections of millions of volumes 
with staffs of hundreds of people. This 
makes the work of librarianship very 
intricate and makes special library 
training necessary. There are about a 
dozen library schools in the United 
States that offer postgraduate work 
with B. A. and M. A. degrees and very 
intensive training for one or two years. 

During this fall, have you been col- 
lecting the books that belong to the 
ward? Try in every way possible to 
do this and also to collect suitable books 
that people wish to give to your col- 
lection. Do this especially if you live 
in a community where there is no pub- 
lic library. You might interest some 
people in your ward or community to 
give yearly magazine subscriptions. 
Prepare your magazines for circula- 
tion just as you do books, with pockets 
and date-due slips, but it is not neces- 
sary to accession them unless you bind 
a volume of them. This is very worth- 
while with very good magazines, espe- 
cially our Church ones. 

Another thing you might be doing to 
add to your library is to keep news- 
paper clippings, not for circulation. It 
will take some time for this to become 
especially valuable, but the sooner 
you begin the better. From each daily 
paper, cut out the articles which are 
of interest in an historical way. The 
Salt Lake Public Library has done this 
for years and now has some very 
valuable historical material about Salt 
Lake City and about Utah that cannot 
be found in books of any kind. You 
know your community and you will 
know what the people are interested 
in. To keep these clippings, get manila 
folders or make them of newspapers. 
Then separate the clippings according 
to subject and file to make them easily 
accessible. On each folder write 
plainly at the top the subjects of the 



articles. For instance, in a beet-grow- 
ing district, collect articles on that sub- 
ject and file them together. Somebody 
at some time might wish quickly to find 
history of that subject in your com- 
munity. Always write the name of the 
paper and the date of publication on 
the clipping. 

You who are doing this work might 
be interested to know that Harry M. 
Lydenburg of the New York Public 
Library has asked that the Church 
send to his library a copy of everything 
that is and has been published by or 
about the Church. 




Axel A. Madsen and Grace C. Neslen, chairmen; 
Richard L. Evans, Dr. L. A. Stevenson, Aurelia 
Bennion, Gladys E. Harbertson. 

ADULT SOCIAL EVENINGS 

A n important part of the Adult 
"^ M. I. A. program is its social 
features, during which men and women 
come down from the formal plane of 
study and academic deliberation and 
learn to know their neighbors. Many 
of the most permanently successful and 
enjoyable Adult groups in the Church 
have been built upon the tradition of 
neighborliness and social riecreation. 
Below are cited the details of a success- 
ful Adult social evening held recently 
in Ensign Stake. From it, some may 
take ideas for their own wards: 

Adult Social of the Ensign Stake 

HpHE annual Adult party of the Ensign 
A Stake was held November 8th, 
1938, in the 27th Ward Amusement 
Hall. For the past five years this social 
has been the culmination of the efforts 
of the teachers and Stake leader, Mrs. 
Arthur Adams in the Ensign Stake, and 
the party this year was considered the 
most successful from the point of num- 
bers in attendance and also in the pres- 
entation of a superb program which was 
enjoyed by those in attendance. 

Two months in advance, the prepara- 
tions for the party were begun and the 
date announced in each of the Adult 
classes. The teacher and class mem- 
bers formed the invitation committee. 
Each ward was responsible for one 
number on the program. A finance 
committee was appointed who secured 
appropriations from each ward to cover 
the expense of an orchestra and re- 
freshments. 

The master of ceremonies, Professor 
Joseph F. Smith, announced the fol- 
lowing program: 

Singing: "The Lord is My Light." 
Piano selection: Sister Elizabeth Haynes, 
of the 13th Ward, who is eighty-five years 
young. 

Song: Mary Ann Madsen 
Piano selection: Mrs. Don Swenson. 
Trombone solo: Henry Tanner 
Accordion Band: Twenty young girls 
and boys made up the band. 



A skit: "The Fussy Mother," presented 
and directed by Mrs. Albert Toronto of 
the University Ward. 

Comic reading: "O! How He Loved 
Me," Mrs. Albert Toronto. 

Penrose Trio of the 11th Ward: Two 
selections. 

Song : Jaceta Johnson. 

The last number on the program was 
a demonstration of dances by Mr. and 
Mrs. John H. Chapman, who were in 
charge of the dancing. They demon- 
strated a number of old-fashioned 
dances and introduced a new one. The 
rest of the evening was spent in a grand 
ball which was greatly enjoyed by all 
present, especially by the older members 
of the stake, who danced until the party 
was over. The waltz was the favorite 
number of the evening, which was at- 
tested by the request for the "Blue 
Danube Waltz" by Strauss to be play- 
ed three times. 




Frank W. McGhie, chairman; Dr. Franklin S. 
Harris, Homer C. Warner, Floyed G. Eyre, 
Werner Kiepe, Dr. Wayne B. Hales, Alma H. 
Pettegrew. 

BUILDING M MEN MORALE 

A n M Men department in any and 
all of its activities is a potent factor 
of the M. I. A. to the degree that it 
has "mental pep," group compact, 
mental and social alertness, spirit, or 
morale. Our department, through its 
morale, should give the intellectual, so- 
cial and spiritual tone to the M. I. A. 
The morale of a group is said to be the 
zeal, the spirit, or the confidence of the 
group. It is not a mysterious power. 
There is no "hocus pocus" about it. 
Griffith says, "Some men have it; all 
can acquire it. It is a frame of mind." 
High morale is the ideal frame of mind 
and spirit for our deportment for it is 
a permanent intellectual virtue. It does 
not come easily. It takes time to de- 
velop it. It is not rabid emotionalism 
but spiritedness all of the time. 

Professor Griffith in his book The 
Psychology of Coaching, chapter eight, 
says: "Morale is an intangible mental 
virtue. It is a state of mind that makes 
evasiveness, slacking, and cowardice 
impossible. It is a kind of bodily and 
mental attitude which makes an indi- 
vidual 'fit' for any task. Morale is the 
measure of the quality of a man. It is 
mental and physical integrity." He 
further says, "A mind in a high state of 
morale is a peppy, spirited mind. It 
is a cold weather mind. There is a 
sparkling crispness about it. It is a 
mind that knows how to 'snap into it.' 
Electric currents never sleep, and 
neither do spirited minds." 

Here are a few practical suggestions 
on how to build this morale in our M 
Men department: 

(a) Keep up with the Gleaners in 
all activities. 

{Continued on page 46) 

45 



THE IMPROVEMENT ERA, JANUARY, 1939 



(Continued from page 45) 
(b) Practice it. 
{ c ) Control fear and doubts. 

(d) Use slogans, placards, chal- 
lenges. 

( e ) Furnish living examples. 

(f) Keep a healthy spirit. 

(g) Take time. 

At the Ogden M Men school the fol- 
lowing sportsmanship code was given 
by the speaker, Brother Mark Bailiff: 

1. We shall try to be graceful winners, 
if winners we may be; we shall try to be 
good losers, if losers we must be. 

2. The referee was chosen by mutual 
agreement of the competing groups. We 
believe he is competent and fair. His de- 
cisions are to be respected. 

3. "Booing" is the worst form of un- 
sportsmanship known. It will not be toler- 
ated. 

4. It shall be the responsibility of the 
home group to insist that any person who 
continually evidences poor sportsmanship 
be requested not to attend the activities. 

5. Recognize and applaud an exhibition 
of fine play or good sportsmanship on the 
part of the visiting team. 

6. It is good sportsmanship to be as quiet 
as possible while a player shoots a free 
throw. 

At the same school the following 
ethics for our coaches was given. We 
suggest it to your coaches and urge its 
use in spirit and practice. 

Basketball Ethics For Coaches 

1. Instruct your players according to the 
letter and spirit of the rules. 

2. Insist that your players do not ques- 
tion the judgment decisions of a referee. 
In disputes covering misinterpretation of 
rules, have your captain call time-out and 
discuss in a gentlemanly manner with the 
referee the situation, insofar as the rules 
cover it. 

3. Treat the visiting team coach with the 
same friendly attitude that you would hope 
for, when your team plays on an opponent's 
court. 

4. There is no one more vitally interested 
in having a well-officiated game than the 
official himself. A basketball official is 
called upon to make many judgment decis- 
ions and occasionally he will make mistakes. 
Usually, however, the average official does 
not make the number of mistakes that the 
average coach or player is guilty of during 
the course of a game. 

5. We find that the attitude of the coach 
on the bench either encourages good spec- 
tator and player sportsmanship or throws 
fuel on the fire of poor sportsmanship which 
we are attempting to eliminate. If the coach 
is in the habit of making uncomplimentary 
gestures every time the official calls a foul 
on one of his players, then you can 
be assured that the patrons of his team will 
break loose in their loud disapproval of the 

1. South Bountiful Chorus, at Stake Tabernacle. 

2. The Gold and Green Ball Queens and attendants 
from Bakei-sfield, California. 

3. Queen and attendants of the Gold and Green Ball 
at Gray's Harbor Mutual, Aberdeen, Washington. 

4. The crowning of the Queen of the Gold and Green 
Ball held in Sevier Stake. 

5. Queen and attendants of Gold and Green Ball held 
in Susanville Branch of the Nevada District. 

6. Queen and attendants of Provo First Ward, Utah 
Stake, Gold and Green Ball. 

7. North Hollywood Ward Bee- Hive Girls. 




46 



THE IMPROVEMENT ERA, JANUARY, 1939 



decision. This condition sometimes leads to 
worse situations of the court, as spectators 
exercise a tremendous influence in determin- 
ing the sportsmanship attitude or the lack 
of it among the contestants. 

6. The coach should make efforts prior 
to the opening of the season to encourage 
good spectator sportsmanship. The coach 
should stress the fact that it is unethical 
and ungentlemanly for a spectator to ex- 
press disapproval in a vociferous manner of 
the decision of an official. The coach also 
should encourage players and spectators to 
regard the opposing team's players as 
friendly rivals, who happened to be guests 
of the ward or stake, and not as hated op- 
ponents. Making disconcerting noises 
when an opposing player is attempting a 
free throw and booing an opponent are the 
principal faults in unsportsmanlike conduct. 

7. Instill in your players that, in a com- 
petitive sport like basketball, it is necessary 
for a boy or young man to mobilize fre- 
quently, during the course of a game, all the 
skill, intelligence, and courage, that he 
possesses; to do this when opposed by com- 
petent opponents endowed with similar abil- 
ity and purpose; to do this with a spirit 
of genuine sportsmanship, that we will not 
permit him to stoop to that which is base 
and mean in order to secure some advan- 
tage over his opponent. 

8. Emphasize to your players that when 
any of them resort to unsportsmanlike con- 
duct of action during the course of a bas- 
ketball game, he injures hundreds of per- 
sons other than himself. Each player is a 
representative of his institution. If he 
violates the principles of good sportsman- 
ship, he brings disgrace upon the ward 
and upon the stake. 




Katie C. Jensen, chairman; Freda Jensen, Grace 
Nixon Stewart, Helena W. Larson, Florence 
B. Plnnock. 

GOOD NEWS! 

'HThe Gleaner Department in The Im~ 
"*■ ptovement Era will hereafter be 
conducted as a Suggestion Box. Mem- 
bers of the Gleaner Committee desire 
to help the field as much as possible 
and feel that if they answer questions 
sent by you on your own problems and 
also print suggestions that you can 
make because of your experiences, 
■everyone will be happy about it and will 
find real inspiration in this new material. 

Remember that it will take about two 
months to get your questions into the 
Era after you write them, so think 
ahead and let us have them and also 
your fine suggestions. Tell us what 
you are doing, especially those things 
that have been successful and helpful 
to you. 

GLEANER QUERIES 

1. What are we to do on the second 
comradery night. January 24th? 

This is an excellent time to present 
the Gleaner pins to the girls who have 
applied for them. Girls appreciate their 
pins more if they are presented to them 



in a little ceremony rather than passed 
out promiscuously any time. ( See page 
205 of your manual). New girls 
should be introduced at this time, too. 
The most important thing is to plan a 
nice social evening together. Have a 
program and light refreshments. 

2. What requirements must a girl fill 
before receiving her pin? 

The Gleaner Committee has specified 
only that girl be enrolled in the Gleaner 
class and that she understands before 
she receives the pin that wearing it 
means she is trying to live up to the 
Gleaner Sheaf. Some wards, however, 
make the requirements of a certain per- 
centage of attendance, participation in 
an assembly program, work on a com- 
mittee, earning money for the pin, etc. 
Use your own plans, but don't make 
them too difficult to achieve, for every 
girl should have the privilege of wearing 
a pin. 

3. Are young married girls of Gleaner 
age supposed to go in the Senior 
class? 

No, they are supposed to remain in 
the Gleaner class until of Senior age, 
unless local conditions make this in- 
advisable. In such case they should go 
in the Senior class only with the per- 
mission of the executives. 

4. When can we have time to work 
on our Treasures of Truth books? 

There is no time for this in the 
Gleaner Class, but some groups have 
become so interested in this project that 
they are meeting at each other's homes 
once or twice a month on some night 
other than Tuesdays or on Sunday af- 
ternoons to work on their books. 

5. May we have a Stake Valentine 
Dance? 

The M Men and Gleaners are to plan 
a Valentine party for their own Ward 
for Tuesday night, February 14. How- 
ever, you might have a stake dance on 
some other night if you can do both 
well. 

SUGGESTIONS 

Tn order to introduce class members 
*■ and add to the success of joint work, 
one ward M Men Leader asked various 
people to change seats and introduce 
themselves to their neighbors at the be- 
ginning of the class. It was arranged 
that the fellows alternated with the 
girls as much as possible and all sat by 
someone they did not know very well. 
It was lots of fun and has made the 
young people like to meet together be- 
cause they know each other better. 

Another ward asked members whose 
birthdays were in January to sit in the 
first row, February second row and so 
on. This gave even strangers a com- 
mon topic for conversation. 

Gleaner Manuals are sold out. How- 
ever, you can get the lesson material by 
buying an M Men Manual. In order 
to cover the Gleaner special activities, 
a pamphlet has been printed including 
all of this information and will be sent 



to all Gleaner leaders who order the 
M Men Manual. 




HThis time of year we always review 
■*■ our past and try to pick up a few 
broken threads and mend them. These 
mends are resolves. Will you — and 
you — and you — add just one more re- 
solve to your list? Resolve to be 100% 
on your toes as Gleaner and M Men 
officers? To do this, your leadership 
meetings must be worthwhile and help- 
ful. 

We hope you have found Youth and 
Its Culture just what you need. After 
all, culture is the art of knowing ex- 
actly what to do with one's self at all 
times. Have your mutual lessons this 
year helped you along that road of 
knowing exactly what to do with your- 
selves? 

The February lesson, "Poise and 
Good Manners in Public Places" is es- 
pecially good. Of course you M Men 
and Gleaner officers are thinking and 
planning for this lesson already, be- 
cause you know that it is yours to 
present in February. You stake offi- 
cers, be prepared at the January leader- 
ship meeting to give some good helpful 
suggestions to the ward officers. Have 
you read the book, The Road to Cul- 
ture by Charles Gray Shaw? Your 
Life magazine for December contains 
the book in a condensed form. This 
lesson for the seventh of February may 
be taught effectively by demonstration. 
Young couples could demonstrate the 
correct way of dancing, entering a 
room, crossing a ballroom, entering a 
theatre, etc. Then, too, the negative 
side sometimes shouts the lessons louder 
than the positive. A few of the don'ts 
in the lesson could be dramatized. This 
lesson on poise and good manners is 
one of the most important ones in the 
manual. A good lively discussion 
could follow the demonstration if lead- 
ing questions were asked. 

Have you appointed committees to 
work on your Valentine Party? This 
is to be a ward affair and the executives 
have given the Gleaners and M Men 
the responsibility for the evening. No 
lessons have been outlined for Feb- 
ruary 14. Plan an evening to be long 
remembered, M Men and Gleaners. 
Suggestions for this night may be found 
in the manual (page 14). 

Speaking of committees, has the ban- 
quet committee been appointed and is 
it at work? 

A happy New Year is our wish for 
every M Man and Gleaner. 

SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA 
M MEN-GLEANERS CONVENE 
"PVelegates from San Bernardino, 
^-* Pasadena, Hollywood, Los An- 
geles, and Long Beach stakes, together 
with representatives from sections of 
(Continued on page 48) 

47 



THE IMPROVEMENT ERA, JANUARY, 1939 



(Continued from page 47) 
the California Mission met at Long 
Beach for three days, from December 
2 to December 5, in the first annual 
M Men and Gleaner Girl convention 
to be held in Southern California. 
Conference sessions were conducted in 
the spacious concert hall of the muni- 
cipal auditorium. An historical pageant 
to which the public was invited cul- 
minated a full program of luncheons, 
committee meetings, and conference 
sessions. 




M. Elmer Christensen, Chairman; Mark H. Nichols. 
Elwood G. Winters. 

VANBALL 

TThe Annual Inter-council Vanball 
A Tournament will be held at the 
Deseret Gym, Salt Lake City, March 
3 and 4, 1939. 

Participation in the official competi- 
tive Athletic Sport for Explorers has 
been much greater this year than ever 
before. With keener competition and 
wider representation, this year's tourna- 
ment promises to be the best one ever 
conducted. 

Council winners who will partici- 
pate in the tournament must submit 
the names, ages, scouting rank, and 
ward affiliation to the General Board 
Y. M. M. I. A., 50 North Main, Salt 
Lake City, by February 20. 

SAFETY SURVEYS 

HThe Explorer Theme-Project, Safety 
Surveys, should be intensively pro- 
moted during February, 1939. Safety 
surveys of highways, churches, public 
buildings, and homes should be thor- 
oughly conducted and the results sub- 
mitted to proper authorities. Con- 
densed reports of such activities should 
also be sent to the General Board of 
Y. M. M. I. A. 



^ 



umiou 



Marba C. Josephson, chairman; Lucile T. Buehner, 
Emily H. Bennett, Angelyn Warnick, Evangeline 
T. Beesley. 

A new day is always a happy thing 
*^ to have before us — and a whole 
New Year should be a "joy forever." 
It offers unlimited opportunities and 
hopes to the girl or woman who is young 
in spirit and who does not let the mis- 
takes and disappointments of last year 
blot her vision for the promise of 1939. 

Shall we as Junior leaders make new 
resolutions? Best, perhaps to call them 
"plans." The most satisfactory plan- 
ning is done with a pencil and paper. 

First — ourselves — are we living laws 
of health that will keep us "fit" for 
our work. Let's answer it "yes" or 
"no," and if "no," let's write a workable 
health plan that will keep us in trim 
for doing a good job and doing it with 

48 



enthusiasm. Then are we "up" pro- 
fessionally? Are we going ahead even 
a little on our teaching ability? Are 
we alert to educational systems, do we 
study our subject, and think about it — 
do we know our psychological pat- 
terns? Again, let's answer "yes" or 
"no" and make an educational plan for 
ourselves. And last (and most import- 
ant of all) are we near to our Heav- 
enly Father — open in attitude and desire 
to the help and inspiration which He is 
so anxious to give us? Let's make 
spiritual plans that will clear divine 
channels for us all. 

Secondly — others — have we our 
theme in mind in all of our work? These 
Junior Girls of ours are, next to our 
own families, our most immediate and 
important "neighbors." By love let's 
serve them. They are our particular 
assignment and a most endearing one, 
as all of us know. Let's plan our 
service — let's keep it to 1939, to the 
theme and to the Gospel Message. 

It seems to us that the keynote of 
1939 is "speed" — we're moving faster 
scientifically, technically and mechan- 
ically. Only a comparable pace spir- 
itually will make this speed serve us 
in life instead of death. 

What are the spiritual implements 
for handling speed? First, control, sec- 
ond, danger signals, and third, guid- 
ance. 

Control, of course, means self-control 
— control of moods, fears, irritations, 
appetites. List them for yourself. Help 
your girls see the vitality and strength 
of control instead of its inhibitions. 
Help them to feel smart and modern 
and strictly 1939 in being spiritually 
prepared for "speed." Is this any help 
in teaching the "Word of Wisdom?" 
Do liquor and tobacco entail a terrific 
loss of control, and are you serving your 
girls by love in helping them see this 
in a modern, young sense? 

Now — danger signals — how shall we 
present them? It seems to us that here 
again is a grand opportunity to dram- 
atize for Junior girls the significance 
of "light". All over the country, roads 
are equipped with "reflectors" which, 
when lit by our head lights, give back 
the guides — -"curve ahead," "winding 
road," "slow" and so forth. Every ex- 
perience of our lives should be made of 
this "reflective material" so that when 
a younger or less experienced person's 
searchlight for truth is turned upon us, 
every force of our life will inevitably 
give off these warnings or encouraging 
signals that will "light up" the road 
for others. Have you sung that lovely 
song, "The Builder"? Be sure and do 
it. And you will have another graphic 
pattern for your own life and for your 
Junior girls. 

And what about guidance? All of 
the January Gospel lessons are on 
guidance — a great essential in the New 
Year of a speedy world. Let's try to 
give our Junior girls a real feeling for 
the Priesthood — that it is authority 
from God Himself. Let's show them 



their guides and their helpers — prayer, 
good books, good friends — no service 
could be more potent in 1939. 

We hope that you have had or are 
having a delightful holiday party? We 
hope your 1939 plans include a working 
calendar correlating all your endeavors 
and that you have been able to put 
"fun" and joy into your work. We'd 
love to see some of your plans and to 
hear of your successes and problems. 
Won't you write us and help us in the 
practical phases of our own New Year's 
work? A glorious New Year to all of 
you — not only on the first day but 
throughout the entire span — is the wish 
of the Junior Committee. 




D, E. Hammond, Chairman; Philo T. Farnsworth, 
Arthur E. Peterson. 

Doy Scout Week for all L, D. S. 
, * J Scout and Explorer Troops should 
commence with appropriate exercises 
Feb. 5, 1939. The Sunday evening 
service should feature the Boy Scout 
and Explorer departments of the M. 
I. A. 

Since this is the first Anniversary 
Week since the Jubilee of Scouting in 
the Church, the program in each ward 
might well depict the progress of 
Scouting under L. D. S. sponsorship. 
The history of Scouting in the ward and 
stake should be reviewed and objec- 
tives for the future adopted. 

The program should be well planned 
and executed. Members of the Boy 
Scout and Explorer Troops should par- 
ticipate upon the program in the form 
of speeches, dramatizations, choruses, 
or other musical renditions. 




Ethel S. Anderson, chairman; Margaret N. Wells, 
Bertha K. Tingey, Ileen Ann Waspe, Lucy T. 
Andersen, Caroline Adams. 

/~\nce again a New Year lies ahead. 
^™ / Along with the other resolutions 
you make for the coming year why not 
include some that pertain to your Bee- 
Hive work. Ask yourself a few ques- 
tions such as the following and per- 
haps you will be able better to judge 
how effective you are making your 
Bee-Hive program: Am I Bee-Hive 
conscious the week through or just 
for a few hours Tuesday night? Do I 
devote enough time to preparing my 
work? Am I alert for supplementary 
material concerning the adolescent girl 
that I may better understand my girls? 
How is the order and discipline in my 
swarm? Have I done all I could to 
arrange for adequate and pleasing 
equipment for my Bee-Hive room? 
What have I contributed to the Stake 
Swarm? 

Now is the time to start planning for 
{Concluded on page 49) 



THE IMPROVEMENT ERA, JANUARY, 1939 



the March Sunday night conjoint. The 
following is a suggested program for 
that occasion. You will note it is slight- 
ly modified and in greater detail than 
the one in the Executives' Manual. 

1. Preliminary Music: Bee-Hive Songs. 

2. Bee-Hive Call by Bugle or Organ. 

3. Bee-Hive Girls inarch up the aisles to 
soft, appropriate chapel music. Re- 
main standing and sing the Bee-Hive 
Call. 

4. Song Service: "I'll Serve the Lord 
While I am Young," "Let the Holy 
Spirit Guide," "Sunshine in the Soul," 
"Have I Done Any Good in the 
World Today." (Choose any two of 
the above.) 

5. Prayer: Bee- Hive Girl. 

6. Chorus by Bee-Hive Girls— "I Hear 
the Bees a Humming," "Spinning 
Song." 

7. Words of Welcome: Ward Y. W. 
M. I. A. President or Ward Bishop. 

8. Choral Reading: The Bee-Hive Prom- 
ise with the Salute. (Girls should have 
Bands. ) 

9. Building the Band: A blue paper 
Band should be fastened where all the 
congregation can see it. A Bee-Hive 
girl pins on the awards (which have 
been cut from stiff paper or cardboard) 
on the Band as other girls, following 
the outline below explain and tell how 
they may be earned. The Bee-Hive 
girl who gives the talk which precedes 
the placing of the awards on the band 
should conclude by turning or pointing 
to it and stating that having completed 
the requirements she may now place 
the violets (substitute other awards) up- 
on her band. When completed the 
Band should resemble the one on the 
cover of the Handbook. You may, 
of course, use other symbols. 

a. "What our Emblem stands for." The 
purpose and ideals of the Bee-Hive 
Girls' organization presented by a 
Bee-Hive girl. (At the conclusion 
the brown bee-hive is pinned on the 
Band.) 

b. "My Trial Flights." A Builder in 
the Hive gives the requirements of 
the Trial Flight and tells about one 
of the Trial Flights she enjoyed. 
(Hexagonal Cell is pinned on.) 

c. "Filling Cells." A Builder in the 
Hive qives a short statement of how 
she filled a Foundation or Structural 
Cell and the requirements of the 
Builder's Rank. (Two violets are 
pinned on.) 

d. Builder's Purpose. 

e. "What our symbols do for us." Ex- 
planation of individual and Swarm 
symbols by Gatherer of Honey. 
(Symbols are pinned on.) 

f. "Honey Gatherer's Song." (Gold 
bee is pinned on.) 

g. "Makinq a Bee-Line. " A Guardian 
of the Treasurer may tell about the 
Bee-Line she has most enjoyed mak- 
ing, and other requirements for this 
Rank. (Bee-Lines are pinned on.) 

h. Guardian's Resolve. 

i. "What an Honor Badge symbolizes" 
and requirements necessary to be 
an Honor Bee-Hive Girl. An ex- 
planation, demonstration or exhibit 
of the accomplishments for an Honor 
Badge. It would be well to have 
this given by an Honor Bee-Hive 
Girl of last year. ( Honor Badges are 
then pinned on.) 
10. Instrumental trio by Bee-Hive Girls. 



Suggestions: Brahms "Lullaby." "Min- 
uet in G," Beethoven. "Melody in F," 
Rubenstein. 

11. "As I have seen the Bee-Hive Girls on 
the Road to Happiness." 

a. Personal observation of their activ- 

ities. 

b. How they need your help. 

c. Their Theme Project: "I will taste 
the sweetness of service by neigh- 
borly acts for children." 

d. Call for responses from the three 
Ranks. 

e. One girl from each Rank tells of 
the joy they have found in carrying 
out the Theme-project. 

12. "A Prayer," by Bee-Hive Girls (p. 
141). 

13. Closing prayer: Bee-Hive Girl. 

It is always a pleasure to hear from 
you and the special activities of your 
Bee-Hive Swarms. The following re- 
port was received from Sadie Soren- 
son, Stake Bee-Keeper, Benson Stake: 

The Benson Stake Bee-Hive Buzz was 
held October 17th at the stake tabernacle 
in Richmond. During the evening stunts 
and musical numbers were presented by 
the girls from each ward in the stake. As 
a special event of the program recognition 
was given to three stake and two ward Bee- 
Keepers who had become Honor Bee-Keep- 
ers during the summer. At the close of the 
program refreshments were served to one 
hundred forty girls and their Bee-Keepers. 
The girls then repeated the "Builder's Pur- 
pose," the "Guardian's Resolve," and sang 
"The Honey Gatherer's Song." 



Lehi's Route to America 

(Concluded [com page 28) 

Those involved in that stage of the 
migration, if Lehi's descendants, 
moved westward to the Islands, not 
eastward, coming immediately from 
the Americas, rather than directly 
from the East Indies. Naturally the 
islands adjacent to America would 
be given first consideration in select- 
ing their new homes. 



A Further Point 



I 



f the relationship of the Lehi 
colony to the Hawaiians is accept- 
ed, there is further evidence that 
Lehi followed the path defined, and 
in particular that he entered the Bay 
of Bengal as a step in his migration 
to the new land. Sugar cane, claim- 
ed to be a native of Bengal, 18 was 
known in India prior to 327 B. C., 17 
only 270 years after the Lehi colony 
passed en route to America, and it 
is probable that it was cultivated 
there well in advance of that date. 
Also it is claimed that it was culti- 
vated exclusively in India until the 
5th century, 18 A. D. Yet it was 
found in the Hawaiian Islands by 
Captain Cook in 1778. 

10 Dr. Geo. Thomas Surface, (citing Karl Ritter, 
German scientist) in The Story of Sugar (D. Appleton 
& Co., 1910, page 15). 

i7 Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Vol. 27. p. 
989, Sept., 1935. 



Traditionally, 18 at least, the cane 
was carried to the islands by early 
Polynesian immigrants, ancestors of 
modern Hawaiians. 

It would not be difficult to believe 
that Lehi, while en route to Amer- 
ica, visited the Bengal shore, or ad- 
jacent islands, and that he added to 
his limited cargo, growing sugar 
cane plants, cuttings, or perhaps 
even seeds, which in some varieties 
are fertile, which later were a 
source of sugar for his people in 
America. Naturally, if these plants 
were available, new colonizers leav- 
ing the Americas would take with 
them the necessary starts, and it is 
proposed that groups migrating from 
continental America to the islands 
carried cane with them, ultimately 
establishing the plant in many 
islands, and particularly in the 
Hawaiian group. 

The fact that early explorers in 
the Americas did not report the dis- 
covery of sugar cane need not be 
considered contradictory to the 
theory presented, since the native 
American discovered by explorers 
in the late 15th or the early 16th 
century was poorly adapted to 
agricultural pursuits. It would not 
be surprising to learn then that an in- 
dustry depending on agriculture 
had wholly disappeared as the early 
civilization waned in America. 

Conclusion 

/~\N the basis of material which has 
been presented, it is not difficult 
to harmonize the account of the jour- 
neying of the Polynesian progeni- 
tors with the story of Lehi's travels. 
It appears probable, therefore, that 
Lehi followed the ocean currents to 
the new land, as outlined above, and 
furthermore, that he made the jour- 
ney in stages, stopping perhaps only 
for very brief periods at the various 
places perpetuated in the traditions 
and folklore of the Hawaiians. This 
information makes it possible to out- 
line, tentatively at least, the possible 
path of the journey, as shown in the 
accompanying chart (p. 26). Since 
the early stages of the journey ap- 
pear to have followed the southwest 
monsoon drift, it might be postulated 
that the Lehi colony embarked in 
their craft and left the Arabian 
peninsula in the spring or early sum- 
mer, some twenty-five centuries ago. 

18 Mr. R. S. Kuykendall, Assistant Professor of 
History, The University of Hawaii, letter to Dr. C. 
Douglas Barnes, May 15, 1936: "I have talked with 
members of the Departments of Botany and Anthro- 
pology here at the University and with one of our 
local anthropologists not connected with the University, 
and they seem to agree that the evidence indicates 
(they would not say 'proves') that sugar cane is not 
indigenous to the Hawaiian Islands, but that it was 
brought here by early Polynesian immigrants, ancestors 
of the modern Hawaiians." 

49 



THE IMPROVEMENT ERA, JANUARY, 1939 



An Imperial Luau 

( Concluded from page 25 ) 

The occasion was a grand affair. 
Colossal! Gigantic! The biggest 
of its kind since the days of the 
ancient kings of Hawaii, and per- 
haps not surpassed then. The 
weather was ideal; the air full of 
music. Never was there such an 
entertainment in all the land! 

Many were reminded of by-gone 
days, of the time of heroes, eight or 
nine feet tall, who wielded spears 
ten yards long, and warriors with 
feather helmets of red and yellow; 
of a time when our people lived in 
grass huts and gray old bards sat at 
their doors to chant songs of love 
and praise; of the days when 
George Q. Cannon came to these 
islands and found here men and 
women of faith and great valor, of 
men who gave their all for the 
Gospel of Jesus Christ. 

Today, their children, their chil- 
dren's children, and Saints from 
other lands are to build here a tab- 
ernacle unto the Lord, where thou- 
sands will come to hear the word 
of God. 

Honolulu is to become the spear- 
head of Mormonism in the Pacific 
area. The tabernacle will bring 
additional beauty and increased in- 
spiration to a community already 
beautiful; and full of kindness and 
love. 

We are grateful to the Lord that 
our luau was a success. 

The Protestors of 
Christendom 

(Continued from page 21) 

Though there had been two cen- 
turies of growing criticism of the 
church, Luther nevertheless began 
his work as a faithful son of the 
church; he did not desire to found 
a new church, but only to correct 
certain abuses in the old church and, 
as he hoped, according to her own 
standards. The submission of cer- 
tain beliefs and practices to the tests 
of scripture and reason as he under- 
stood them gradually drove him out 
of the Church. 

Chortly after Luther's birth at 
° Eisleben (Nov. 10, 1483), his 
father settled at Mansfeld, a rich 
mining town. In Mansfeld, Hans 
Luther acquired economic independ- 
ence. However, Luther's early life 
was spent in poverty and he was 
subjected to severe discipline both 
at home and in school. The people 
of the town were superstitious and 
Luther heard stories of sorcery and 
50 



The Story of Our Hymns Melchizedek Priesthood 



( Concluded from page 22 ) 
Now, concerning the state of the soul 
between death and the resurrection — Be- 
hold, it has been made known unto me by 
an angel, that the spirits of all men, as soon 
as they are departed from this mortal body, 
yea, the spirits of all men, whether they be 
good or evil, are taken home to that God 
who gave them life. And then shall it come 
to pass, that the spirits of those who are 
righteous are received into a state of hap- 
piness, which is called paradise, a state of 
rest, a state of peace, where they shall rest 
from all their troubles, and from all care 
and sorrow. (Alma 40:11-12.) 

George Careless added to the ar- 
tistic simplicity of this hymn when 
he wrote the tune to "Rest, Rest For 
the Weary Soul." It was probably 
conceived at the burial of a friend 
and written in the choir loft of the 
Tabernacle, where he often com- 
posed his music. The diapason of 
the great pipes of the organ must 
have inspired the bass in the har- 
mony of the last line of this truly 
beautiful song. To hear it sung, on 
the hillside, in the red glow of an 
evening's setting sun, carries one 
close to the gates of paradise, where 
the righteous await the glories of the 
resurrection. Truly, Henry W. 
Naisbitt and George Careless, na- 
tives of England, in the combination 
of their poetic and musical genius, 
have given solace to thousands of 
bereaved Saints, and added a pre- 
cious contribution to Latter-day 

Saint hymnody. 

■ » ■ 

witchcraft, of evil spirits and devils. 
He grew up in the belief that the 
Emperor ruled by divine right and 
that the pope stood at the head of 
the church of God. His deepest re- 
ligious feeling was fear and the 
greatest problem how sinful man 
could be reconciled with God and 
escape His punishments. 

After frequenting the village 
school, Luther attended school for 
one year in Magdeburg, then for 
three years (1498-1501) at Eisen- 
ach, where he acquired Latin, then 
the indispensable language for uni- 
versity work. He also came into inti- 
mate contact with the people. At 
Eisenach he contributed to his own 
support by singing in the streets and 
in the church choir. At the age of 
eighteen, he left Eisenach to attend 
what was then the foremost German 
university of Erfurt. As a univer- 
sity student, he was outstanding, 
and, in 1 502, he took his Bachelor's 
and, in 1505, his Master's degree. 

Luther was a pious member of the 
Roman Church, as were his parents. 
Erfurt possessed a drop of the blood 



( Concluded from page 38 ) 
General Tithing Office — for every per- 
son who is not able to come must send 
some one for them — and have that time 
profitably employed, there will be but 
little more to seek for their sustenance. 
Get a house in your Ward, and if you 
have two sisters, or two brethren, put 
them in it, make them comfortable, find 
them food and clothinq, and fuel, and 
direct the time now spent coming to 
this Tithing Office wisely in profitable 
labor. (Brigham Young, Journal of 
Discourses, 12:114.) 

12. Some people have so much faith 
that although the grasshoppers are 
around in such vast numbers, they are 
confident of an abundant harvest, be- 
cause of the movements made to gather 
the poor this season. They say the 
Lord would not inspire His servants to 
bring the poor from the nations that 
they might starve. And so believing, 
they will go and sell the last bushel of 
wheat for comparatively nothing, trust- 
ing in God to provide for their wants. 
My faith is not of this kind; it is rea- 
sonable. If the Lord gives good crops 
this season, and tells us to lay up that 
abundance, I do not think He will in- 
crease His blessings upon us if we fool- 
ishly squander those He has already 
given us. I believe He will bless the 
earth for His people's sake; and I will 
till it and try to get a crop from it; 
but if I neglect to take advantage of 
the goodness of the Lord, or misuse or 
treat lightly His mercies, I need not 
expect that they will be continued upon 
me to the same extent. (Brigham 
Young, Journal of Discourses, 12:219- 
220.) 

of Christ and each year celebrated 
the Festival of the Holy Blood. In 
1502, a Papal Jubilee was celebrated 
in the city. There were processions 
full of pomp; relics were displayed, 
and indulgences sold. Undoubted- 
ly, Luther took part in the festival 
and, probably, with no thought of 
dissent. 

Luther had gone to Erfurt to study 
law, but had so far devoted himself 
to scholastic philosophy and human- 
istic studies. The death of a friend 
and a narrow escape from death in 
a thunder-storm on his own part 
caused him to enter the monastery at 
Erfurt (1505). In 1507, he was 
ordained a priest. In 1508, he was 
called as professor of philosophy to 
the University of Wittenberg, 
founded six years earlier. 

It was probably in 1509 that he 
was sent on a mission for his order 
to Rome. When he came in sight of 
the city, "he fell upon the earth, 
raised his hands, and exclaimed, 
'Hail to thee, holy Rome'." 18 

^Kostlin, Martin Luther, ch. 2. 

(To be Continued) 



THE IMPROVEMENT ERA, JANUARY, 193 9 



UTAH'S PIONEER WOMEN DOCTORS 



(Continued from page 17) 

those whose need is great. Their in- 
fluence was carried so far by those 
who came to them for study. With 
utter simplicity of heart and man- 
ner, but with sublime faith in the 
good that their disciples could do, 
Utah's pioneer women doctors im- 
parted their knowledge to their stu- 
dent classes. And through the dark 
hours of night as well as the long, 
busy days of their practice, they — 
who were often less able to stand 
upon their feet than their patients 
themselves — ministered to the sick, 
the unfortunate, and the needy. 



PART ONE 

Romania B. Pratt 

"Cor what a bountiful harvest Brig- 
ham Young sowed when he set 
apart Romania Bunnell Pratt to 
study medicine! . . Small of stature, 
irregular in feature, brown-haired, 
brilliant-eyed, Romania Pratt sat 
beside her husband in the Salt 
Lake Tabernacle at a Confer- 
ence meeting, 1873, and heard the 
voice of Brigham Young, her proph- 
et-leader, as it rang through the vast 
hall: "From fertile lands we came 
to these sterile plains amid the 
mountains ..." he said. Brigham 
Young was aging now, but there 
was work yet for him to do. In this 
gathering he had a special message 
for the sisters. "If some women 
had the privilege of studying they 
would make as good mathema- 
ticians as any man. We believe 
that women are useful not only to 
sweep houses, wash dishes and 
raise babies, but that they should 
study law ... or physic ..." 

Physic! Romania's spirit was at 
once host to the thought. Her 
heart responded within her at the 
very suggestion that women could 
prepare themselves for a life of 
medicine. How well she would like 
to be a doctor! 

But how much there was to in- 
terfere with that course! Could it 
be accomplished? she asked herself 
as she sat tense and alert for every 
word that might follow this mo- 
mentous statement. Suddenly a 
great well of silence opened with- 
in her. She herself had so re- 
cently gone through the valley of 
the shadow to bear her fifth son, 
she seemed very close to the import 
of this meeting. In her memory the 
ordeal of travail was still clear. Her 
whole being was tuned to this mes- 



sage, to the remarkable statements 
that were issuing from the lips of 
this inspired man: "The time has 
come for women to come forth as 
doctors in these valleys of the 
mountains ..." 

Why Romania saw herself in the 
light of the chosen, she did not 
know. But it seemed to her as 
though Brigham Young had already 
released her from the usual path of 
life to minister at the bedside of the 
sick. 

The usual path of life! Hers was 
one of responsibility. . . . She had 
five little boys; the eldest was en- 
tering his teens . . . but the young- 
est was an infant. Had she lost her 
reason to think of herself in this 
light? "No!" she said. 

And then her thoughts ran on: 
"The man to whom I am listening 
does not speak from his heart alone. 
As surely as the river of Galilee 
flows from the heights into the blue 
lake of the plain below, the words 
of Brigham Young are flowing from 
a divine source through my being. 
I shall study medicine, and I will not 
delay! . . ." 

"Parley," she said that night af- 
ter they had talked the matter over 
in their home, "It is such a tremen- 
dous step. My baby. ..." 

But Parley encouraged Romania 
to pursue this course. 

There was a special mission that 
he himself was most desirous of 
performing. His father, the Apostle 
Parley P. Pratt, had written his 
autobiography, and had dedicated a 
large sum of money to its publica- 
tion. Parley had been living for the 
day when he could fulfill this wish. 
And now, strangely enough he saw 
both himself and his wife carrying 
into effect their great desires. 

'T'he baby stirred. His cry was 
hardly past that of an infant's. 
It went straight to Romania's heart. 
But even as the baby wailed, Ro- 
mania recalled her mother's strug- 
gle for the sake of the Gospel. And 
she knew that this great woman 
would help her to further its cause. 
Surely, Esther would care for all of 
her little boys, and no harm would 
befall the baby. 

She recalled other times when her 
mother's role had indeed been he- 
roic. Swiftly the memories of a 
lifetime flashed before her. And she 
thought of the earliest of them all as 
the solemn voice of her father came 



back to her from the close of one 
momentous day: 

"Esther, is it done?" 

"Yes, Luther, it is, ... ' His 
wife had gone down into the waters 
of baptism to become a despised 
Mormon. 

Why the tones were hushed the 
baby Manie did not know. Three 
years of life were not enough to 
tell her that it was an awesome 
deed for a woman to take such a 
step in advance of her husband, nor 
why the harmony that came to their 
home when her father's immersion 
followed was also reefed about 
with terrific anxiety. But the Bun- 
nells traveled the badgered course 
of other Mormons in moving from 
settlement to settlement. 

Once again the temple under 
construction in Nauvoo came be- 
fore Romania's eyes. She could 
see the glistening white font sup- 
ported by the twelve oxen. "Mar- 
ble font! White marble oxen!" 

Again, as she sat before the fire 
in the tiny house with Parley, the 
sound of martial music rang through 
her ears. She was fired with the 
playing of the flutes as she had been 
when the Mormon Battalion march- 
ed from Winter Quarters on their 
dire way to Mexico. 

Romania did not see those tat- 
tered men in the lacerating condi- 
tion of their return. Had she done 
so her spirit would have been 
marked also with the anguish of 
their suffering — her heart was al- 
ways open to compassion. 

Her parents longed to gather 
with the Saints in Utah, but they 
were forced to return to the banks 
of the Mississippi. Romania was 
their only living child. Esther was 
expecting another baby, and no 
chance could be taken with her 
health. Yet, even after the little 
Josephine was born, the Bunnells 
could not leave for the West. They 
had no money. Reluctantly, they 
returned to the land of Luther's 
fathers in Ohio. Here, two sons 
were born. 

At last, with one desperate hope 
of making the migration possible, 
Luther left his family and went to 
the gold fields of California to try 
for the stake that would make pos- 
sible their dreams. 

He found his gold; his pay-dirt 
glittered with it. But his family 
never saw him again. He died of 
fever among his diggings. The 
recollection of the years that fol- 
(Continued on page 52) 

51 



THE IMPROVEMENT ERA, JANUARY, 1939 



UTAH'S PIONEER WOMEN DOCTORS 



( Continued from page 5 1 ) 

lowed brought the tears now to Ro- 
mania's eyes. Esther sacrificed for 
her during that period of her life. 
Luther had cached his treasure so 
well nothing could be learned of it. 
But poverty did not deter Roma- 
nia's attendance at a female semi- 
nary in Indiana where the family 
had moved. 

It came to Romania in this mo- 
ment how fortunate it was that she 
had received her education. Of 
what avail would her desire for a 
life of medicine be without those 
years in the Seminary? 

Curiously enough, and though 
years passed, a male relative event- 
ually found Luther's treasure. Had 
the widow's guardian prevailed, 
however, she would have taken 
none of it to Utah. "The Mormons 
themselves will be the first to rob 
you of it," he had said. But no protest 
could daunt the fervor that lived 
in Esther Bunnell's breast. Pur- 
chasing an outfit, she, with her four 
children, commenced the exodus to 
the Valley in 1855. Romania was 
sixteen years old. 

There were many admirers in In- 
diana with whom she had to part. 
She remembered with a smile how 
happy her mother had been to get 
her away from "Babylon," where 
her blooming womanhood was an 
attraction to the young men of he* 
acquaintance. Romania had tingled 
with delight at the very thought of 
seeing the "Promised Land." The 
trek was one of endless pleasure to 
her. Her heart sang with antici- 
pation every mile of the way. But 
no disappointment ever equalled the 
one that assailed her when she 
reached the brow of Little Moun- 
tain. As she looked out over the 
high-walled valley, the vision failed 
to impress her with its glory. 
Where was the city of shining tow- 
ers and flashing metallic cupolas of 
which she had dreamed? When she 
learned that the few black splotch- 
es on the plain far below represent- 
ed the City of Zion, she thought 
that she did not know what Zion 
meant. But faith whispered, and the 
beauty of baptism comforted her. 

Privation followed the arrival of 
the Bunnells. To add to the hard- 
ship of becoming established, fam- 
ine was upon the land. The crick- 
ets descended; the streams them- 
selves were thirsty. But her fam- 
ily was not entirely without bless- 
ings. She was chosen to teach in 
Brigham Young's school. 
52 



"I'll go to President Young and 

ask him for his blessing now," she 

thought. "As he set me apart then, 

he will again. . . . Where the 

money will come from I do not know. 

But I must have faith. ... I must 

have faith. ..." 

• * * 

VJ/ithout foreseeing its result. 
Mother Esther Bunnell had 
already taken one step for the 
cause of Romania's going away. 
Not long after she and her family 
reached the Valley, she traveled all 
the way to St. Louis by ox team to 
purchase a piano for her two daugh- 
ters. By the same tedious method 
she returned, bringing a massive 
oblong instrument of ebony and ex- 
cellent workmanship with her. Jo- 
sephine did not play well, but Ro- 
mania was a good musician, and the 
fine-toned instrument became her 
own when Josephine married and 
moved to Indiana. 

Suddenly it seemed to Romania 
as if her heart was wrenched wide 
open with the force of the decision 
that came to her. "The piano!" she 
said. "I'll sell it. We'll need 
every dollar that we can lay our 
hands on. No matter what has been 
set aside to publish the book, we'll 
need more money for my work." 

It took months to prepare for the 
years that were to be spent away 
from home, but Romania was reso- 
lute, and one day she said to her 
husband, "Parley, the house. . . . 

"Yes, Romania, the house. ..." 

That, too, was sold and a farm 
also, which had been part of Par- 
ley's inheritance. They had to in- 
crease their funds to the utmost. 
Everything that would bring any 
money at all went for the dual enter- 
prise. But there was another part- 
ing that was even more poignant 
than these when the day for de- 
parture came. Romania took her 
nine-months-old baby from her 
breast and placed him in her moth- 
er's arms. She and Parley left for 
the train. 

Little Parley, fourteen years of 
age, had gone to Ogden to work in 
a broom factory. He must add his 
mite to this great cause; he would 
send his grandmother Bunnell what 
he could to help with the care of the 
four little brothers. Esther had 
an orchard, and there was a gar- 
den where she raised strawber- 
ries. Through diligent care both 
brought her some income. The lads 
should not go hungry while their 
parents were away. 



Romania entered the Woman's 
Medical College of Philadelphia. 
She had a terrific struggle during 
her first semester. All that she 
could do was to get her bearings — 
and pray for guidance. 

Her second term, however, told 
a different story. She spent the 
summer as a private student, toiling 
while her classmates enjoyed their 
holidays. She even became the first 
woman to enroll in Bellevue Col- 
lege, New York. In the fall those 
students at Philadelphia who had 
before derided her were compelled 
to yield their admiration. 

Although Romania — individualist 
that she was — had left to study 
medicine presumably for the sole 
purpose of midwifery, she special- 
ized in the study of the eye and 
ear. But her funds were running 
dangerously low, and continued 
schooling looked doubtful. Unable 
to remain longer in Philadelphia 
she boarded the train for Utah, al- 
most penniless. 

When she arrived she was 
greeted with acclaim. Almost at 
once she was made president of 
the Retrenchment Society, fore- 
runner of the Young Ladies' Mu- 
tual Improvement Association. This 
society was organized by Brigham 
Young to encourage simplicity in 
dress. She was the very person to 
take the lead in this endeavor. But 
did not her President realize that 
she herself was beset with anxiety? 
That she could see but vaguely the 
way to accomplish the mission on 
which she had already embarked? 
She might have known that it was 
not for him to see her profession cut 
short. He who so long ago cre- 
ated projects where men might 
earn their bread could certainly 
visualize a plan to get her through 
school. The Relief Society, spurred 
on by Zina D. Young, Eliza R. 
Snow and others, raised money for 
her to continue. 

Had the great mosaicist seen the 
changes that would result from this 
woman's completion of her work he 
still would not have altered his 
course. That the lines of personal- 
ity were chiseled more deeply, that 
shadows were lengthened and high 
lights were brightened in shifting 
the pattern of a life, were merely 
by-products of a great and neces- 
sary result. 

Two more years of study were 
lightened for Romania by remark- 



THE IMPROVEMENT ERA, JANUARY, 1939 



UTAH'S PIONEER WOMEN DOCTORS 



able experiences at different hos- 
pitals and in clinical research in 
Boston, New York, and Philadel- 
phia. A great stroke of fortune came 
to her when she was once more 
deeply troubled over the lack of 
money. She was required to meet 
the expenses for a term of training 
at a lying-in hospital, but she had 
no resources for the purpose. A 
friend who had paid for one in Bos- 
ton was called away. She transfer- 
red the privilege of her entrance to 
Dr. Pratt. 

But even the great triumph of Ro- 
mania's graduation was shadowed 
by this dreadful problem. It was 
June, 1877, when she received her 
diploma. She stood upon the plat- 
form clothed in cap and gown, 
thirty-eight years old, and on the 
verge of a new life. Before she 
stepped over the boundary, how- 
ever, she had one more case of fi- 
nancial stringency to overcome. 
How was she to get home? Truly, she 
was at a loss. But Josephine, her sis- 
ter, who lived in Indiana, was expect- 
ing a baby. Her husband offered 
to pay Romania's expenses home if 
she would serve as attending phy- 
sician. Again Romania felt that the 
hand of destiny had touched her 
shoulder. . . . This offer was good 
pay. Midwives in Utah were re- 
ceiving three dollars a case! 

At this high moment of her life — 
the occasion of her first case in her 
own right — another deeply arrest- 
ing religious experience came to 
her. At Clifton, New York, where 
she stopped on the way to Indiana, 
the manager of her hotel offered to 
take her with his other guests as a 
tourist to see the Hill Cumorah. But 
she — a tourist? She who had missed 
being sent to Europe as student 
representative from the lying-in 
hospital in Boston because, while 
there, she had ardently defended 
her religion? Not Romania! 

She visited the sacred hill as one 
who belonged to its tradition. In 
her heart Cumorah was enshrined 
as the place where the Angel Mo- 
roni had delivered the plates of 
beaten gold into the hands of Jo- 
seph Smith, the prophet. To her 
this experience was almost of as 
great significance as the projected 
trip abroad would have been. It 
outshone all of the precariousness 
through which she had passed on 
her way to graduation. 

But oh, what a symbol for new 
life in the far-away "Valley" that 
graduation was! It was the begin- 



ning of the epoch of the West with 
the caduceus in woman's hand. . . . 

A fter less than two years of prac- 
tice Dr. Romania returned to 
New York for further specializa- 
tion in her chosen field. But this 
was the last time she left Utah 
while her mother lived. After leav- 
ing Josephine with her baby in her 
arms, she could hardly wait to see 
her mother and her sons while the 
train made its laggard way to Utah. 
Her eyes softened with maternal 
love at the thought of seeing her 
babies. But even her youngest 
boys were no longer babies when 
she returned. Esther's house was 
silent when she entered it. Roman- 
ia ran to the orchard — that same 
orchard which had helped to feed her 
boys. "Children! Mother!" she 
cried. But the smallest child greet- 
ed her as a complete stranger. It 
was hard to allay that pang. 

For thirty years she was one of 
the chief figures in Utah's medical 
history. Her career was not entire- 
ly to the satisfaction of the male 
fraternity. The struggle which all 
of the women doctors of Utah went 
through to gain the respect of the 
men was indeed comparable to the 
long effort of their educational 
achievement. "How is Dr. P.? 
Teaching her Sunday School 
class?" one of them would invari- 
ably ask if he found her in obstet- 
rical session with her following. 

Still she was never refused as- 
sistance by the men if she asked 
for it in difficult operative cases. 
She removed diseased eyes; she 
used the knife upon mastoids, and 
she subdued other dreadful scourg- 
es. She delivered thousands of ba- 
bies, and she corrected as many 
cases of defective vision in her 
well-equipped office in the Godbe- 
Pitts building. She sponsored the 
valiant work of the Deseret Hos- 
pital; and she became its resident 
physician. But never once was 
this professional work unaccompa- 
nied by the religious theme of her 
life. That resisted all change. For 
years she was assistant general sec- 
retary to the Relief Society. Later 
she was a member of the organiza- 
tion's General Board. 

She loved good clothes, and she 
wore fine apparel when she could. 
She had learned the joy of homage; 
a good appearance was part of that 
pleasure. But neither had she for- 
gotten the promptings of a kindly 
heart. To the needy she was al- 



ways helpful. She was generous 
to her sons, whose own lives had 
been changed through this new life 
of hers. When she went into resi- 
dence at the Deseret hospital, the 
grandmother again cared for them. 
In turn, Romania gave her the most 
tender, loving care throughout 
Esther's aging years. Romania was 
never too tired, even after working 
day and night, to answer her moth- 
er's bedridden greeting with fine 
cheer when she entered the house. 
"Manie! Manie . . ." Esther would 
call. 

"Yes, dear. . . ." 

"Can you come here?" 

Manie went to give her the lov- 
ing caress which she needed, and 
to perform some small service 
which was invariably requested. 
Esther was blind, and over ninety 
years old. 

And now into Romania's life 
came the last great change. She 
became the third wife of Charles 
W. Penrose, an Apostle, later a 
member of the First Presidency of 
the Church. Through the shifting 
of the mosaic a new pattern had 
emerged. The final picture of her 
life was of magnificent design. Her 
outlook was broadened by half a 
world. Some time after their mar- 
riage, Dr. Pratt Penrose accompa- 
nied her husband to England, where 
he presided over the British and 
European missions. 

Always certain that Mormonism 
represented the true and everlast- 
ing Gospel of Christ, she was un- 
compromising toward the practices 
of others. She gloried in the cathe- 
drals of Germany architecturally, 
but she deplored the worship that 
went on within those beautiful 
buildings. Seated at the window of 
her hotel opposite the Dom, she 
wrote: 

"I sat long gazing on this grand 
structure, and wondered when the 
mummery which is used in the 
name of religion would be stilled 
and the sublime structure dedicated 
to the true and living God." 

And again: ", . . It is an actual 
positive truth that the Christians, 
so-called, worship an unknown 
God, just as much as they did in 
Paul's day, and the only difference 
between them and the heathen is 
they have nothing in their mind's 
eye, while the heathen look upon 
a tangible idol." 

But she had always been high- 
(Continued on page 54) 

53 



THE IMPROVEMENT ERA, JANUARY, 1939 



UTAH'S PIONEER WOMEN DOCTORS 



(Continued from page 53) 

spirited, and, at times, uncompro- 
mising in her attitude. In her 
rounds at the Deseret Hospital, she 
had been kindness itself to one pa- 
tient, while to a sufferer in the very- 
next bed she was sometimes curt 
and sharp-spoken. 

Even now, during this European 
experience, hers was not the heart 
for universal sympathy, nor the 
mind for wide tolerance — the fire 
of enthusiasm, the fearlessness of 
decision distinguished her. But now 
indeed her religion was coupled 
with a world movement! 

She was fervent in the cause of 
equal suffrage. Who could remain 
indifferent to this great question 
when associated with Emmeline B. 
Wells? — and Dr. Romania had 
been so associated. But, had it not 
been for the dignity of her profes- 
sional calling, she might not have 
played the active part in suffrage 
gatherings which now became her 
privilege. At no meeting of this kind 
in America had a Mormon woman 
ever been allowed to speak. The 
question of polygamy was too sore 
a point. But when Dr. Penrose was 



afforded the opportunity in Europe 
she expressed herself fearlessly. At 
the International Suffrage Alliance 
in Amsterdam, and in London two 
years later, she did not hesitate to 
invoke religious testimony. 

There she stood, gazing into the 
countenances of this vast audience. 
Her brown eyes were sparkling — 
age had not dimmed them. Her 
small figure was plumped by the 
years, but she still was heroic and 
commanding. 

After speaking of political offices 
for which women were especially 
adapted, she said, ". . . This (the 
fortuitous use of the ballot) has 
been exemplified in the workings of 
equal suffrage in my own community, 
and the universal acceptance of this 
righteous equality cannot fail to 
bring to the world greater freedom, 
higher justice, and closer union and 
advancement in everything that 
will elevate humanity, and bring 
them to that condition of harmony, 
fraternity and peace, foreseen by 
the prophets ... of ancient and 
modern times. . . ." 

The prophets ... of modern 
times! To speak so in such a gath- 



ering was truly a courageous act. 

But Romania loved her religion 
above any earthly way of life. It 
comforted her when near-blindness 
came upon her after she passed her 
ninety-second birthday. She was 
past her ninety-third when the mists 
of death surrounded her. 

But, because she had pursued the 
path of righteousness within the 
close of her faith, because she was 
at times intolerant, because hers 
was not the heart for universal 
sympathy, who can say that she did 
not worship the Most High God? 
That she did not sense the spirit 
of universal love? In the first flush 
of wifehood she had used the ex- 
quisite craft of her fingers to em- 
broider tiny garments in anticipa- 
tion of the holy joy of motherhood; 
on her mission abroad she served 
long and diligently for the poor; 
as a doctor she devoted her fine 
skill not only to the cause of suffer- 
ing in her own city, but to her sis- 
terhood as a whole; as a traveler 
she reveled in the glory of nature; 
in the seas of molten gold whose 
tide washed the shores of the North 
Cape, "where the midnight sun did! 
not sink but rose to shine again. . . " 



( Continued from page 8 ) 

The governor of the state; the 
mayor of the city; a Catholic bishop; 
a public utilities executive; the chair- 
man of the board of trustees of a 
university; the publisher of two 
newspapers; the general manager 
of one of the world's largest 
mining operations; a young man be- 
ginning his career; and a Church 
associate were among thosei who 
spoke their tributes. The Taber- 
nacle Choir sang its praises. Hun- 
dreds of tributes came by letter, 
telephone, and telegraph, and the 
guests assembled — and hundreds of 
thousands who were not — said an 
honest and thankful "amen" to all 
that was there done and said. 

The birthday cake, more than six 
feet high on its pedestal, with spun- 
sugar flower adornments of unbeliev- 
able realism, was the work of art of 
Chef Hans Bendl of the Hotel Utah 
staff. The unusual decorations car- 
ried a theme of progress from 1856 
to 1 938 — and did it well. A printed 
souvenir program, prized and much 
in demand during and since the ban- 
quet, was also a feature. The verse, 
54 



TRIBUTE TO A LEADER 

written for the occasion by the Hon- 
orable John M. Wallace, Mayor of 
Salt Lake City, as part of his tribute 
(reprinted on page 8) was also 
noteworthy. And then came the 




Tribune Photograph. 

THE COPPER CHEST CONTAINING A THOUSAND 

SILVER DOLLARS, PRESENTED TO PRESIDENT 

GRANT. 

presentation to the President of a 
beautifully hand-fashioned copper 
chest ( the work of the Utah Copper 
Company), filled with a thousand 
new silver dollars for the President's 
disposal in any work of charity or 
benevolence he chooses. Then fol- 
lowed the response from the guest 



of honor, with a fulness of gratitude 
and appreciation. 

The General Committee who or- 
ganized and executed the banquet 
consisted of: 

John F. Fitzpatrick, Chairman; 
Orval W. Adams, Nelson W. Aid- 
rich, Gus P. Backman, Julian M. 
Bamberger, Harold H. Bennett, 
Richard L. Evans, George M. 
Gadsby, Edward O. Howard, Rob- 
ert L. Judd, James J. Kelly, David D. 
Moffat, Wendell M. Smoot, Elias 
S. Smith, Guy R. Toombes. 

J. Spencer Cornwall directed the 
Tabernacle Choir. Dr. Frank W. 
Asper was at the organ. Edith 
Grant Young, one of the President's 
daughters, appeared as a soloist. 
The KSL String Orchestra, under 
the direction of Gene Halliday, was 
supplemented by the singing of An- 
nette Dinwoodey and Virginia 
Barker. Harold H. Bennett, Earl 
J. Glade, and Tracy Y. Cannon con- 
stituted the Music Committee. 



HpYPiCAL excerpts from the tributes 
of the evening are here quoted: 



THE IMPROVEMENT ERA, JANUARY, 1939 



John F. Fitzpatrick, publisher, Salt 
Lake T ribune-T elegvam: 

It would be difficult anywhere else in the 
world to draw together such a representa- 
tive group as a result of the leadership of 
a single individual. Represented here is a 
cross-section of the business, civic, and re- 
ligious life of a state to pay honor to a man 
who has been a leader in each of these fields. 
Your presence here is a sincere, beautiful 
tribute to him. All are his friends. 

George M. Gadsby, President and 

General Manager, Utah Power & 

Light Co.: 

We are here to honor a man who has im- 
pressed the richness of a full life on the 
community and has exerted an influence for 
good, an influence for integrity and all the 
finer things in life. 

Hon. John M. Wallace, Mayor of 

Salt Lake City: 

This occasion belongs neither to today 
nor this year, but to the long years to come 
that will be enriched by the good deeds of 
President Grant. 

Hon. Henry H. Blood, Governor 

of Utah: 

He is a citizen, business man, and civic 
leader with the courage and vision to strive 
unceasingly until his dreams come true. He 
is a man with vision whose face is always 
turned toward the rising sun of progress. 
. . . Where there is no vision, the people 
perish . . . You have said that age is a 
quality of mind, so we do not salute your 
age as much as we acclaim the spirit of 
youth that is in you. 

Frederick P. Champ, Chairman 

of the Board of Trustees, Utah State 

Agricultural College: 

We of Utah can recount with pride the 
various manifold fields in which our guest 
has and continues to manifest himself. . . . 
He has made notable contributions to the 
economic and industrial life of this country. 
His is an inspiring example of what can be 
accomplished by hard work and devotion 
to high ideals. 

Bishop D. G. Hunt of the Catholic 

diocese of Utah: 

I have found you and your people to be 
very wonderful neighbors. I say this be- 
cause it is a tribute we of the Catholic 
Church feel is due and this is a happy oc- 
casion to say so. 

Lane W. Adams, young business- 
man of Salt Lake City: 

He is a man of varied life and spiritual 
leadership and has injected his religious 
philosophy into his business life, in which 
he has practiced the great principle of the 
Golden Rule. . . . President Grant's life 
and influence have given courage to every 
young man who comes after him. 

President J. Reuben Clark. Jr., of 

the First Presidency: 

He stands today, like the great mountain 
which has resisted the chiselers of nature, 
all the dross and refuse washed away and 
the enduring elements of his nature stand 
serene among the clouds. . . He is a man 
that it is a privilege to know, a man that can 
come into our lives rarely. . . He has 



TRIBUTE TO A LEADER 

sounded the depths of spiritual humility and 
has mounted to spiritual heights. . . God 
give him many years to come. 

D. D. Moffat, Vice-President and 
General Manager, Utah Copper 
Company: 

Nothing has pleased you more through- 
out your life than to help the needy. . . . 
We give you Utah silver to carry on your 
unselfish work. . . This will give you in- 
creased power and opportunity to express 
your generosity. 

Dart of the evening's procedure 
was devoted to the reading of 
greetings from those who were un- 
able to be in attendance. Limited 
time necessarily shortened this fea- 
ture of the program, but among those 
read were messages from: 

W. A. Harriman of New York City, 
Chairman of the Board of the Union Pacific 
Railroad Company; Ralph Budd, Chicago, 
President and Board Chairman of the Chi- 
cago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Com- 
pany; Alfred L. Aiken, New York Citv, 
President of the New York Life Insurance 
Company; Henry C. Link, New York City, 
of the Psychological Service Center; Merle 
Thorpe, Washington, D. C, Editor of Na- 
tion's Business; General Charles G. Dawes, 
Chicago, former Vice-president of the 
United States and financier; George 
Sutherland, Washington, former justice of 
the supreme court of the United States; 
General Frank T. Hines, Washington, Vet- 
erans' Bureau Administrator; Dr. Herman 
L. Kretschmer, Chicago; William M. Jeffers, 
Omaha, President of the Union Pacific Rail- 
road Company; H. F. Dicke, Allentown, 
Penn., President of the Lehigh Valley Tran- 
sit Company; Bernard M. Culver, New 
York City, insurance executive; W. S. Rose- 
crans, President of the Los Angeles Cham- 
ber of Commerce; L. B. Hampton, formerly 
of Salt Lake City, now District Manager 
of Crane Company at Portland, Oregon; 
Ross Beason, formerly of Salt Lake City, 
New York City financier, who telegraphed 
from Sarasota, Florida; M. F. Taggart, 
South Bend, Indiana; Newcomb Carlton, 
New York City; S. R. Inch, New York City: 
Carl R. Gray, New York City, Vice Chair- 
man of the Board of the Union Pacific Rail- 
road Company; Charles Elsey, San Fran- 
cisco, President of the Western Pacific 
Railroad Company; Louis S. Cates, New 
York City, President of Phelps-Dodge 
Corporation. 

Colonel D. C. Jackling, President 
of the Utah Copper Company, wired 
greetings and congratulations from 
Omaha, Nebraska, as follows: 

Seldom, if ever before in my lifetime, 
have I experienced such grave disappoint- 
ment — amounting, in fact, to real sorrow — 
as now befalls me in being prevented by 
causes beyond my control from joining 
President Grant's associates and friends in 
doing honor to him on the occasion of his 
eighty-second birthday. 

It has been a rare privilege to me, as with 
countless others, to know this upright, 
kindly man; to observe the exemplification 
of his high principles as patriotic citizen 
and as counselor and leader in the great 
spiritual, social, and economic causes in 
which he has been so ardently and effectively 
engaged for well beyond a half century. 



On previous occasions President Grant 
has heard me proclaim my indebtedness to 
him, his associates, and the wonderful or- 
ganization of which he is now the preceptor 
and stalwart guide, for their character- 
molding examples. 

Shortly after my first arrival in Utah, 
about 43 years ago, I became deeply im- 
pressed by the fine tenets of good fellow- 
ship, righteous purpose, and fair dealing 
evidenced in the teachings and practices in- 
herent in the institutions over which this 
reverend and exalted guest of honor presides. 

These early observances, respecting con- 
sideration of human rights and welfare and 
of rectitude in dealing with the life prob- 
lems of mankind, contributed much of in- 
spiration with me toward whatever attrib- 
utes I may now possess of straight thinking 
and considerately honest dealing. 

Thus my privilege of joining in tribute 
to President Grant is manifold. I do this 
with high admiration and deep respect for 
his person and character, with profound 
reverence for the great cause he leads, and 
with utmost esteem for his fine citizenship 
as demonstrated by his conduct, which af- 
fects all of us, in public relationships. 

May the Great Giver of all good afford 
him continuing health and happiness, and 
spare him for prolonged usefulness to hu- 
mankind, as it now prevails, not only in his 
home region, but throughout the civilized 
world. 

And thus it was that a man was 
honored by his friends. 

WANT 

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THE IMPROVEMENT ERA, JANUARY, 1939 



(Continued from page 19) 

gay take his place a day with the 
sheep. 

On the morning of the hunt, hav- 
ing never said a word or attempted 
any arrangement with the real 
owner of the mares, the old man 
rode away on the black followed 
by the medicine man's son on the 
bay. Begay sat up there in great 
dignity as he rode off, at least he 
seemed so to the little girl, and she 
followed him with admiring eyes. 

Peejo, too, fixed his eyes on them 
as they mounted the rise towards 
the mesa, but not with the least ad- 
miration. He was left with the 
sheep, a woman's work, while they 
rode his father's choice horses! The 
hot blood throbbed in his temples as 
he thought of it. He was tempted 
to get the white mare and follow 
them — or maybe, better still, to 
leave the country. 

The old man had been compelled 
for the safety of the flock to recog- 
nize that Peejo was not able to tend 
them alone, and however much he 
may have disliked it, he sent the 
shepherdess to help him. She found 
Peejo in a sullen humor. He was 
angry not only at her father and Be- 
gay, but also at her for the fickle 
change of her preference. 

"See my hand away over there?" 
he pouted, indicating the big "Mit- 
ten," and regarding her steadily 
from under his straight brows, "It 
is raised in anger — it says your 
father shall not even see Black- 
horse." 

They stopped on a hill above the 
sheep. 

"Your father will not even see so 
much as the track of the black 
horse today!" he swore in vengeful 
exultation, and closed his firm jaw 
with a pronounced emphasis. 

"Why do you say that? How 
do you know?" she asked, opening 
her innocent black eyes in aston- 
ishment. "You don't know he won't 
see the track." 

"I do know!" he insisted, "That 
big hand says so," and he eyed her 
unblinkingly from under his level 
brows, "Your father will come back 
early and tell us Blackhorse is not 
there." 

"You'll see," he added after a 
long pause, and his fiery eyes and 
square face showed a commanding 
wrath and resolution she had never 
seen there before. More than that, 
his looks betrayed possession of 
some mysterious knowledge which 
he had will power to with-hold, and 
56 



THE NATIVE BLOOD 

it restored all the honor his rival 
had tried to claim. 

Xvestored again to her 
favor more surely than if she had 
told him so in words, he went on 
in tones more mild but none the 
less positive, "Your father will 
never see the black horse nor his 
track again till he gives me my 
sheep and my horses." 

She was startled — there was 
something in it dreadful and un- 
failing, but the sheep had started 
down a sandwash and he turned to 
run after them. 

Yoinsnez returned while the sun 
was still high in the west, and he 
was troubled. Blackhorse was due 
to have been there with his band, 
but he was not with them, no trace 
of him, his following was scattered 
on a dry ridge with no leader to 
sound the alarm or direct the course 
of their flight. Then the little shep- 
herdess told him he would never 
see the horse nor his track till he 
restored Peejo's sheep and horses. 
The furrows deepened quickly 
across his sloping brow as he 
frowned threateningly. When he 
got the whole account of what 
Husteele's son had said, he was 
furious, but he was also disturbed. 

He called the boy to the hogan, 
"Why did you say I would not find 
the black horse's track today?" he 
demanded, his long teeth muddy 
from riding in the dust. 

"I said it because it is true," came 
the dogged answer, "you didn't find 
them," and he eyed the old man 
steadily from under his straight 
brows. 

"Why did you say I will never 
see Blackhorse till I give you all the 
sheep and horses you want to 
claim?" he pursued severely, the fire 
rising in his bloodshot eyes, "What 
do you know about it? You de- 
clared to me at the first that you 
knew nothing." 

Stung by the veiled accusation 
that he was claiming more than his 
own, the boy straightened up stoic- 
ally, "Watch and see whether I 
know anything about it," he coun- 
tered, closing his square jaw with 
emphasis. 

The old man studied him in 
astonishment and alarm, "Ingrate!" 
he broke out, after a troubled pause. 
"What kind of witchery are you 
trying to practice against me? Who 
took you from among the dead and 
nursed you to health?" 



The outraged blood of Husteele 
would condescend to no further 
answer, and the boy reclined sul- 
lenly on his sheepskin. 

Serving his private purposes and 
his private fears, but also modified 
in his policy by the mildness of his 
motherly noloki, the old man re- 
frained from the punishment he was 
furious to give. He simply sent 
Peejo back to the sheep, compelling 
him more often to care for them 
alone. And still Begay and Elt- 
ceesie were often with him, and he 
had to endure the bully in silence. 
All the same the spirit of invincible 
championship in his heart swore si- 
lently but fervently that this score 
would sometime be evened to the 
last degree. 

When Blackhorse had had more 
time to return to his band, Yoinsnez 
went hopefully on another hunt. 
And again he rode the black mare, 
followed by the bay carrying the 
medicine man's son, while Peejo and 
the shepherdess watched them 
mount the trail towards the mesa. 

At first he was just an ominous 
cloud, dark and silent, and when 
at length he spoke, he seemed to 
bite his words as he let them go. 

"I have been robbed," he declared 
bitterly, "and I have been made a 
slave!" 

He told her to look at his big 
hand raised away over there on the 
horizon — it was giving furious com- 
mand to the desert mists to hide 
Blackhorse and his track from her 
father. "He will see nothing but 
hateful mirage," the boy declared 
emphatically, "and he will hear 
nothing but the mocking wind 
across the mesa. He will come back 
again discouraged. I know. You 
see if I don't know." 

He closed his jaw with that pe- 
culiar threatening emphasis and 
looked at her from under his 
straight brows with a steadiness 
that compelled her to believe all he 
said. 

Again she told her father when 
he came home early as predicted, 
and again the old man was angry, 
more so than before, and more 
alarmed. He called for the boy to 
give an accounting, and his long 
teeth between his parted lips meant 
something violent and unusual 
would happen. Husteele's son was 
mocking at his kindness with some 
dark treachery, and he would be 
forced to confess everything. 
(To be Continued) 



THE IMPROVEMENT ERA, JANUARY, 1939 



u O Frabjous Day" 

{Continued from page 15) 

and be quick about it!" Mr. Beam- 
ish hissed, and Cuthbert, protesting 
but obedient, modestly retired be- 
hind a convenient cupboard and re- 
moved the offending trousers, though 
he privately considered them far 
more decorative than his thin, hairy 
shins. 



luBBY, still smarting from 
his bout with the redoubtable Mr. 
Beamish, cast as his Nephew, and in 
whose acting even he could find no 
flaw, was mightily affronted when 
he saw said Nephew yank Marley's 
Ghost away at the precise moment 
he was due to appear. Consequently 
he out-Scrooged Scrooge himself, 
when the ghostly Marley finally 
clanked himself in. That is, until 
his eyes, straying from the ghastly 
features and clanking chain, wan- 
dered to the long sharp shins and 
knobby knees displayed beneath the 
winding sheet. 

The audience was puzzled there- 
after, by a Scrooge who seemed sud- 
denly shaken by grief or some other 
emotion, which kept his head buried 
in his hands and his voice curiously 
muffled. Overcome presently by its 
onslaughts, which sounded strangely 
like smothered snorts of laughter, 
Scrooge jumped up and rushed wild- 
ly behind the wings. Marley's 
dreary warning ceased abruptly and 
he gazed vacantly after the flying 
coat-tails. 

Past Miss Norwood's reproachful 
face Tubby rushed and threw him- 
self, pell-mell, upon a white-covered 
bench. Miss Norwood's horrified 
exclamation coincided with the 
squashing sound of smashed food 
and crunch of crockery. Simul- 
taneously, Tubby was drenched in 
vinegar sauce and currant jelly, with 
smattering of other edibles here and 
there. The wreckage was supreme. 
While Tubby scraped and sopped 
vinegar sauce from his person, the 
indignant Cratchits, including Tiny 
Tim, gathered up the scattered re- 
mains of the Christmas feast. At 
this inauspicious moment came Miss 
Norwood's frantic call for Scrooge. 

"Come on, Harold, come on! The 
Spirit of Christmas Past is waiting!" 

"I can't," croaked Tubby, in an 
agonized whisper, "I'm still dripping 
pudding sauce!" 

Miss Norwood gazed about wild- 
ly. "O, what can we do? O, how 
awful! Come, Cuthbert, you'll have 
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57 



THE IMPROVEMENT ERA, JANUARY, 1939 



"O FRABJOUS DAY 



it 



(Continued from page 57) 

to be Scrooge this time! Please, 
come on!" 

Poor dazed Cuthbert found him- 
self being pushed onto the stage 
from which he had just gladly es- 
caped. As he passed Miss Nor- 
wood, she clutched frantically at his 
shroud. 

"Take that thing off! Take it 
off!" she hissed forcefully. 

Cuthbert clutched it just as fran- 
tically to his person; he had not for- 
gotten his missing trousers if she 
had. "Not a chance!" he gritted, 
hoarsely and clanked on, to be con- 
fronted, not by the original Spirit of 
Christmas Past — that Spirit was 
spending the evening in bed in 
swollen solitude — but by the ubiqui- 
tous Mr. Beamish. Mr. Beamish 
was no less taken aback to be met 
by Marley's shrouded ghost when 
he had expected Scrooge. It was 
disconcerting, but he was gifted with 
more presence of mind than Cuth- 
bert. 

"I am the Spirit of Christmas 
Past!" he intoned deeply, and after 
a pause which Cuthbert made no ef- 
fort to fill, he amplified, "Of Christ- 
mases long past!" Still Cuthbert 
stood as one petrified. Mr. Beam- 
ish's smile became a bit stiff. "Say 
something," he muttered, out of the 
corner of his mouth, "Say some- 
thing!" 

"What?", whispered Cuthbert, 
vacantly. He had never learned 
Scrooge's speeches, being one who 
had his hands full with his own, and 
now he felt himself deprived of even 
his usual modest resources. 

"Anything!" insisted Mr. Beam- 
ish, and even to Cuthbert's numbed 
senses the smile on the Spirit's round 
face seemed thinly spread over a 
fast-mounting rage. Frantically, he 
cudgelled his brain. He must say 
something, something, anything at 
all. He must forget the audience 
and say something to Mr. Beamish. 
Mr. Beamish looked mad. Say 
something quick to Mr. Beamish. 
Beamish, a funny name. Beamish 
boy. That's what Tubby said, 
Beamish boy. Say something quick 
to the Beamish boy! And suddenly, 
to his own, as much as to everyone 
else's amazement, Cuthbert's voice 
rang out, loud and clear: 

And hast thou slain the Jabberwock? 

Come to my arms, my beamish boy! 
O, frabjous day! Callooh, callay! 

He chortled in his joy! 

Amid shouts, whoops and cat- 
calls, Miss Norwood presently suc- 
58 



ceeded in having the curtain 
dropped. But when she was free to 
deal with him she was unable to find 
Cuthbert. For Cuthbert had felt 
suddenly, an urgent desire to be 
somewhere else, immediately. When 
the last, incredible words of the Jab- 
berwocky had left his startled lips, 
his next impulse was to be safely at 
home. He longed for his own room, 
with the light turned off and his 
head under the pillow. An ache for 
solitude possessed him. If he never 
saw any of his dear friends and 
classmates again, it would still be 
too soon. So with a furtive glance 
about, he slipped out the back door 
and stole silently away. Silently, 
that is, except for his still clanking 
chains, which he had been unable, 
so far, to unfasten from his wrist. 
Thus he missed the scene which a 
few minutes later put Tubby in his 
own felonious class. 

JMr. Beamish, trembling 
with rage at Cuthbert's unheard of 
affront, refused point blank to ap- 
pear on the stage again. Presently, 
however, he succumed to Miss Nor- 
wood's tearful pleas and hastily 
stuck on the long, red-tipped putty 
nose, he had gaily modelled in a hap- 
pier hour. It was to be the point of 
distinction between the seedy Bob, 
and gay young Nephew. It sat 
strangely in the expanse of his 
round, beaming face and Tubby 
stood transfixed when the humble 
fellow sidled onto the stage to im- 
plore him pitifully for a Christmas 
holiday with his family. It was not 
the ludicrous appearance of the nose 
that struck Tubby, so much as the 
fact that it trembled violently at 
Cratchit's every movement. Before 
his fascinated eyes, it parted com- 
pany with the left side of Mr. Beam- 
ish's face entirely, and hung, quiv- 
ering to the right as he indignantly 
repeated his cue. 

There, it was certainly going to 
fall! With desperate and unthink- 
ing haste, Tubby reached up to press 
it more firmly onto Mr. Beamish's 
more static feature, before that much- 
tried actor should suffer the crown- 
ing calamity of losing his nose; but 
the disillusioned gentleman misun- 
derstood the gesture. At Tubby's 
touch, he drew back haughtily, but 
not until Tubby had grasped the 
nose and stood looking very foolish, 
indeed, with the misshapen thing in 
his hand. Mr. Beamish, in spite of 
the flecks of putty here and there on 
his own original nose, did so deadly 



a job of glaring, as would strike 
envy to the heart of a seasoned vil- 
lain. 

The curtain descended quickly on 
this moving tableau and the audience 
howled with merriment. Slap-stick 
comedy finds a warm welcome with 
a large per cent of humanity and 
here was low comedy at its lowest. 
Brought out this cold winter night 
by the various urges of family or 
school loyalty, hoping for the best, 
but prepared for an evening of mar- 
tyred boredom, they were, for the 
time being, mightily diverted at the 
turn the play had taken; though later 
there was to be much head-shaking 
and speculation as to the probable 
fate of such boys as Cuthbert and 
Tubby. 

While the hilarity was at its wild- 
est, Miss Norwood, very pink as to 
eyes and nose, stepped out and 
rapped for sufficient order to make 
the announcement that "owing to 
unforeseen circumstances" the play 
could not be finished and the aud- 
ience was dismissed. Into the en- 
suing hub-bub, came hurtling a 
black bomb on a blast of icy air, as 
the street door was burst violently 
open and a colored boy threw him- 
self into the hall, shouting wildly, 
"A ghos', a ghos'! Ghos's is walk- 
in'! I saw it wif my own eyes! I 
saw it! Seven feet tall, it was, a- 
runnin' and a-rattlin' chains!" His 
anguished tones were lost in the 
general tumult, as the throng rushed 
out in quest of new thrills. 

Poor Cuthbert reached the haven 
of his own room just in time, for 
it had suddenly occurred to some- 
one who the ghost must be, and a 
crowd of yelling boys had struck 
down the street to catch him if pos- 
sible and prolong the joke. He lay 
in his room at home steeped in an 
agony of remorse as the receding 
shouts died away. For suddenly all 
his personal humiliation was forgot- 
ten in the realization of how the 
teachers must feel at this fiasco. Poor 
Miss Norwood, how horribly they 
had wrecked her kind plans! And 
she had tried so hard! And — yes, 
poor Mr. Beamish! He was really 
a good guy after all! He had only 
been trying to help the class out, and 
it wasn't his fault he had such a 
funny name! 

Cuthbert sprang up and pounded 
his pillow, viciously. Why, the 
whole thing was Tubby's fault! 
Tubby never had his heart in the 
play. And if he hadn't gone and 
got all jealoused up over Mr. Beam- 



u O Frabjous Day" 

ish, he would never have reminded 
Cuthbert of that silly old verse in 
Alice, and it wouldn't have lodged 
in his subconscious — he'd heard 
Professor Norris describe it all in 
Psychology class — and he would 
never have spouted it out when he 
got stage fright and could not think. 
He dropped off to sleep, finally, 
resolving to be such a model student 
in Natural History and English 
classes (poor hopeful Cuthbert!) 
that it would atone for the whole 
sorry business. "And if I ever get 
mixed up in another of Tubby's love 
affairs," he muttered, drowsily, "I 
hope somebody — I hope — I — ' 

-Liny Tim, dozing on a 
property trunk, was awakened by 
the commotion of the departing 
audience. He sat up and stared 
about in dismay. All around him, 
would-be actors were gathering up 
belongings in disgruntled silence. 
He dashed out onto the stage. Why, 
the people were all leaving! His 
lips began to quiver. He had borne 
the destruction of the Cratchit's 
Christmas dinner fairly well, but 
now they were all going before he 
had said his speech! He had stayed 
out of bed long past his usual bed- 
time and kept himself awake — or 
nearly awake — by sheer will power, 
and now he had no intention of be- 
ing cheated out of his Big Moment. 
Swiftly he ran to the front of the 
stage, and standing on tip-toe, 
stretched out his little arms toward 
the oblivious, departing backs, "God 
bless us every one!" cried Tiny Tim, 
imploringly. 

"Amen!" murmured Mr. Beamish, 
reverently, from the wings, and 
gathering Miss Norwood into his 
arms, he tenderly kissed her tear- 
stained face. She relaxed against 
his shoulder for an instant, with a 
heart-felt sigh. It was the end of 
a perfectly awful day, but — the end 
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THE IMPROVEMENT ERA, JANUARY, 1939 



PORTRAIT OF A YOUNG MAN 



(Continued from page 13) 
After dinner spent an hour or two 
at the office. Took the 3:40 train 
for Woods Cross. Called on my 
sisters Mrs. Marshall and Mrs. 
Muir and on Aunt Susan Grant. 
Met Hyrum, Lewis, and Frank 
Grant. A little before six o'clock 
I started for home on my horse Dan, 
... I feel somewhat tired this eve- 
ning, having traveled since 3 p. m. 
yesterday 40 miles by team, 1 miles 
horseback and 139 by rail. 

"Am much pleased to be home 
again* with my family. Have en- 
joyed the trip to Oakley very much, 
feel that our visit was greatly appre- 
ciated. They were very hospitable 
and kind and our party were enter- 
tained as well as could possibly be 
asked." 

"Saturday, September 30th, 1882: 
I spent the day at the office, I wrote 
up an account of our Idaho trip for 
the Deseret News. Should not have 
done so had not Brother Lyman re- 
quested me to write said account. 
This letter is the first and only thing 



I ever wrote for publication, and it 
was not of sufficient interest to pub- 
lish and I should never have thought 
of handing it in for publication had 
I not been requested to do so. 

"Wife and I attended the theatre. 
The Madison Square Company 
played 'Hazel Kirke' in a most pleas- 
ing manner." 

A little over two weeks later Fa- 
ther was called to be an Apostle 
while he was still under twenty-six 
years of age. Thus his work as a 
stake president ended. A later entry 
in his journal expresses his feelings 
regarding the people with whom he 
had been so closely associated for 
two years: 

"I hope when I get through my 
labors as an Apostle that I shall have 
as much pleasure in looking back 
over the same, as I do when recall- 
ing my labors for the past two years 
in Tooele. Not that I have a great 
deal to be thankful for or praise for 
my own labors, but the kindness 
and respect and the aid and assist- 



ance that I received from my breth- 
ren and the support of the people is 
something that I will always re- 
member with feelings of pleasure as 
well as gratitude. There is a pleas- 
ure which a person has when looking 
back over missionary life and ex- 
periences that is almost beyond the 
person's power to explain. 

"I do not think that among any 
other people but Saints that a young 
man could have had the same ex- 
perience as I had in Tooele. Look- 
ing at things naturally the people 
should have been disgusted at hav- 
ing a young man called to preside 
over them who could only talk from 
five to eight minutes; instead of be- 
ing disgusted they endeavored to 
help me out by being as faithful as 
possible. There were exceptions to 
this rule, but I am glad to say that 
they wetfe few and far between. 
The people of Tooele County will al- 
ways have a warm place in my af- 
fections; especially will this be the 
case with the brethren with whom I 
was most closely associated." 



THE POWER TO ACHIEVE 



( Continued from page 11) 
Suggestion: 

This is January, a month of be- 
ginnings. Let's each of us set up a 
definite savings program, 'with a 
specific objective, to be reached one 
year hence, January, 1940. 

As a rule, in settling our 
debts, we pay everyone but the 
Lord and ourselves. If we will 
but tithe our earnings, and then 
set aside a comparable amount 
for savings to be held inviolate 
for ourselves against a future 
need, and make the remaining 
80% meet our obligations, in 
honor, we shall be definitely on 
the way to a new power in our 
personal affairs. 

Saving has a way of building 
cumulatively, and its compensations, 
once momentum is attained, are so 
varied as to be incredible. Chief of 
these is the attaining of a position 
of credit-solidarity among our fel- 
lows. That is priceless! 

The gaining of the first nucleus 
is the real struggle — the first $100 
or $500 or $1000— after that the ac- 
crued power one has already at- 
tained makes the way toward the 
future easier. 
60 



Saving Makes Us Value- 
Conscious 

YVThen we earn and save, we 
gradually come to know values 
better. A noted university presi- 
dent recently inquired at a men's 
shop the price of a belt. "$2.50," 
said the clerk. "Why, that," re- 
sponded the president, "is the price 
of five bushels of wheat." 

Now, even urban folk know that 
it takes a lot of energy, besides that 
of the sunshine and moisture, to sow, 
raise, and harvest five bushels of 
wheat; therefore, the belt, when 
purchased, was truly appreciated. 

If boys and girls, when buying 
the things youngsters like, will just 
pause a moment to recall how hard 
that money was to earn, they will 
develop a fine ability to appraise 
values. One value-conscious young- 
ster, in treating a group of friends, 
recently said: "Well, here goes the 
interest on a dollar for ten yeafs." 
That says it graphically. At \ x /i% 
per annum it takes a dollar a long 
time to earn a silver quarter. 

On the death of his father, a high 
school boy was sent to the factory 
to bring home his father's work 
clothes. In the locker, the youngster 
found the soiled shirt, and the worn, 



grease-covered overalls. On the 
floor of the locker were the father's 
shoes, in the soles of which were 
large holes covered on the inside by 
improvised inner soles rudely cut 
from cardboard. As the boy stoop- 
ed to pick the shoes up, his eyes 
dimmed and for the first time he 
realized the sacrifice the father had 
made that his son might go to high 
school. 

Experiences of this sort are 
freighted with significance when it 
comes to building appreciation of 
money and its power. 

While the Sales Tax has its 
annoying aspects, this good 
thing can be said about it: it 
has taught us all how much 
money a penny really is — espe- 
cially in those states where mills 
are in use. 

Most of us had never seen the 
equivalent of a mill before the ad- 
vent of the tax; in fact, we hardly 
knew there was such a thing. And 
to think that a penny is ten of them! 

These foregoing suggestions are 
not to be construed as a curb on 
buying at its best, for that we must 
have and plenty of it. It is the ap- 
preciation of a keener sense of 



THE IMPROVEMENT ERA, JANUARY, 1939 



THE POWER TO ACHIEVE 



values that we are trying to stimu- 
late. 

Power Through Attitude and 
Interest 

(Certainly some forms of work are 
* not what might be called inter- 
esting. However, this condition can 
be largely counteracted, if, in con- 
templating the job and what it offers, 
the mind can be interested. 

So-called prosaic work, like that 
of monotonous routines, can be 
boresome, and boresomeness, in al- 
most no time, will bring about dis- 
content and fatigue. Just the same, 
if we make it part of our work to 
strike an attitude of active interest, 
as for instance, in ways to improve 
the methods used, or to achieve an 
excellence never before attained, 
that very work, instead of being 
boresome, will actually become 
stimulating — it will energize, instead 
of enervate! 

Edison proved this; so did Bur- 
bank. The late Jesse Knight dem- 
onstrated this when he prospected 
for years before he hit upon his now 
famous Humbug mine, from which 
more than ten million dollars is said 
to have been taken before his death. 
Always the -drive of a tremendous 
interest was there to prod him, re- 
gardless of the monotony of drilling, 
blasting, and mucking. 

So then, in building power to 
achieve, especially in the fields 
of manual work, we must realize 
how utterly vital are one's atti- 
tude toward and interest in the 
work immediately at hand. The 
query, therefore, is not so much 
whether the work is interesting, 
as it is whether the mind is in- 
terested. 

Power Through One's Vocation 

N these trying days of job-hunting 
and work-finding, it is not enough 
to know how to do one thing inimit- 
ably well. One must also be ac- 
quainted with several kinds of work 
activity. Especially should we all 
learn to do some things well with 
our hands. In the days ahead, a 
real premium will be paid young men 
who acquire important manual 
skills. 

For example: the press and radio 
recently carried a notice of the ele- 
vation of Ray T. Elsmore to a po- 
sition of executive responsibility 
with the Western Air Express. Mr. 
Elsmore is a lawyer by profession. 



At the time of the war, he went into 
the air service where he acquitted 
himself with great honor, and for 
the last decade or so has been flying 
the Western Air Express transports 
on the northern route from Salt Lake 
City. He is one of the most highly 
skilled pilots in America. He is 
also a reserve officer in the United 
States Army Air Corps. His train- 
ing, therefore, for his new executive 
assignment, is ideal. His versatility 
and resourcefulness have made his 
services very valuable. 



Mathematics of Versatility 



D' 



I 



|R. Pitkin has suggested that to- 
day, according to the mathe- 
matic theory of probability, two- 
skill, three-skill, and four-skill men 
will arrive much sooner than one- 
skill men. Their chances pile up in 
geometric progression. For instance, 
a three-skill man has seven times 
the chances of locating work that a 
one-skill man has. A four-skill man 
is at least fifteen times better off in 
finding work than a one-skill man. 

Versatility, therefore, means ad- 
ditional power to achieve because it 
enhances the number of opportuni- 
ties to be of service. 

Today, there has come al- 
most a reverence for work. Em- 
ployment, as it is known in com- 
merce and industry, is so scarce 
that those letters W-O-R-K, 
arranged in this sequence, al- 
most seem to have a quality of 
sanctity. Versatility generally 
means work. 

The Trades to the Front 

Tn the days ahead, the trades are 
coming to their own. Skilled 
craftsmanship will undoubtedly be 
well paid and, it is hoped, the hours 
of service will be fair to all. 

The crafts will be respected very 
much as the professions are today. 
This is certainly as it should be. 
Surely the work of the truly skilled 
baker or auto mechanic, each of 
whom has served an adequate ap- 
prenticeship, is not far removed, in 
significance, from that of profes- 
sional men. 

Young men should, therefore, 
start now to get into apprentice- 
ships in the physical sciences — ma- 
chine work, cabinet making, archi- 
tecture, bridge-building, highway 
construction, steel construction, con- 
tracting, automobile and airplane 
construction, etc. 

(Concluded on page 63) 



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61 



THE IMPROVEMENT ERA, JANUARY, 1939 

Solution to December Puzzle Scriptural Crossword Puzzle-Lent to the Lord (I Sam. 1: 27; 28) 






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62 




ACROSS 



1 Through faith Abraham almost 
... 7 across; a ram took his 
place 

7 His son Jacob deceived him 

11 "Samuel arose . . . went to Eli" 

12 "he shall be lent to . . . Lord" 

13 "neither was the ... of the 

Lord yet revealed unto him" 

14 Part of the Bible 

15 State; note 

16 "I did but taste a little honey," 

said Jonathan, "and, . . . , I 
must die" 

17 River in Europe 

18 "smooth stones out . . . the 

brook" 

20 "and . . . ark of God is taken" 

21 "That the . . . called Samuel" 

22 Eli can be seen in this deception 
24 Mother 

26 "Now Eli . . . very old" 

27 "my soul was ... in thine eyes" 
32 Autocrat; Roman cot (anag.) 

34 King of Israel 1 Kings 16: 23 



the 



35 "My heart rejoiceth . . 

Lord" 

36 "it came to pass in . . . days" 

37 "and the . . . were not expired" 

38 "then he shall ... his head" 

40 "And he worshipped the Lord 

41 "but her voice . . . not heard" 

42 "it is . . . good report that I 

hear" 

44 Lot lived here Gen. 19: 23 

45 Indian millet; raid (anag.). 

47 "Wherefore the ... of the young 

men was very great" 
'O Lord, . . . thou my lips" 
'Samuel feared to shew Eli 

the . . ." 
'The Lord . . . thee, and keep 

thee" 
'The . . . God is thy refuge" 



48 
50 

52 

53 



Our Text from Samuel is 11, 12, 13, 
18, 20, 21, 26, 27, 35, 36, 37, 40, 
41, 42, 48, and 50 combined 



DOWN 



l 



of God unto 



'there came a . 
Eli" 

2 "he will give you . . . our hands" 

3 Northwestern 4 down 

4 "the last ... of that man is 

worse than the first" 

5 Expression of inquiry 

6 Erase 

7 Isle of Wight 

8 Passable 

9 The sandarac tree; on the way to 

Ararat 
10 Babylonian god ; repeated notice 
19 Cake with special filling 
21 Resinous substance 

23 Certain lines on the earth's sur- 

face; tie horses (anag.) 

24 "with what measure ye . . ." 

25 Egyptian goddess 

26 David . . . when he fought Go- 

liath with a sling and stones 



27 "for I have not . . . them." 

28 ". . . it, even to the foundation 

thereof" 

29 Containing iodine 

30 Grandson of Esau; roam (anag.) 

31 The needlebush (Australia) 

32 Middle 

33 Burn 

38 "descended in a bodily . . ." 

39 "I will ... up against you a 

nation" 

40 "if thou lift up thy . . . upon it, 

thou hast polluted it" 

41 The Bible is "Holy..." 

42 Feminine name 

43 "And the child Samuel grew . . ." 

46 Salutation 

47 "he had a . . . , whose name was 

Saul" 
49 Canadian province 
51 A Benjamite 1 Chron. 7: 12 



THE IMPROVEMENT ERA, JANUARY, 1939 



THE POWER TO ACHIEVE 



( Concluded from page 6 1 ) 
When a young man becomes truly 
skilled in a craft, he has an acquisi- 
tion that is priceless, and he forth- 
with becomes a power to be reckoned 
with. 

Power Through Property 
Ownership 

f^UR Mormon youth should be en- 
couraged in every possible way 
to become owners of real property. 
The financial companies may well 
afford to encourage our young men 
into property ownership with all of 
the liberality compatible with good 
business. This goes not only for 
the ownership of the home, but also 
for that of business property. Real 
estate bought at a fair price provides 
an incomparable anchorage. Our 
young men should want to own prop- 
erties and do everything in their 
power honorably to acquire them. 

Power Through the Creation 
of Work 

A MAN who, through his initiative, 
vision, enterprise, and courage 
builds a factory in which Tie manu- 
factures a quality product that so- 
ciety needs and in this process 
makes agreeable work opportunities 
for men and women, has done a 
noble thing. His effort is just as 
important and vital as that of almost 
anyone in the community. A fac- 
tory that is properly operated and 
performing a great public service 
deserves to stand side by side in 
importance with the school, and, in 
some respects, with the Church. 

Every reasonable thing that can 
be done to foster such enterprise 
should be forthcoming. Our peo- 
ple have long excelled in the pro- 
fessions of medicine, dentistry, law, 
teaching, and finance. They should 
now be given every inducement to 
qualify for leadership in commerce 
and industry. Therein lies real 
power. Our own home folk should 
prepare for this leadership. It re- 
quires preparation, vision, courage, 
and capital, all of which we have 
or can secure. 

Power Through Agriculture 

"VTothing would help our common- 
wealth more than a well in- 
trenched, prosperous farming in- 
dustry. Combined with animal hus- 
bandry and poultry, many inter- 
mountain farmers and ranchers have 
achieved a brilliant success. 



Our youths will do well to look 
carefully into the opportunities af- 
forded by agriculture. When the 
problem of crop distribution has been 
happily disposed of, farmers should 
come into their own. The poultry- 
men have done it; why can't the 
other divisions of the industry? 
Much time must be devoted to the 
study of marketing. 

Again, our farm youth must also 
watch the development of propa- 
gating crops with chemicals. It is 
in the laboratory stage now, but one 
of these days, out it will come! 

There is no more admirable figure 
in American life than a successful 
farmer. Right there opportunity 
beckons to real men who want to> be 
near the earth and who want to serve 
as the true builders of our common- 
wealth. 

Summary 

"Ror years our Church leadership 
has importuned us of the Priest- 
hood to realize the power that is 
actually and potentially ours. They 
have urged us "to rise and shine" 
and to capitalize that power for 
good. 

Obviously, much of this great 



power is spiritual and mental; but a 
good deal of it also has directly to 
do with business affairs. 

The hour has struck for the youth 
of the Church to realize this and to 
go out, in honor, to earn and claim 
their own! 

The Great Executive wants us to 
want things properly — not /or the 
love of money and property them- 
selves — but for the good that can 
be done with them by men of power, 
actuated by the loftiest of Christian 
motives. 

The challenge is here! May our 
youth prove worthy of it! 



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63 



LET'S SAY IT CORRECTLY 

Real is an adjective: That flower is real; Mary is a real girl. 
Very is an adverb and as such is used to modify either an 
adjective or an adverb: We had a very pleasant time at the 
party; The car was going very swifdy when the light changed. 

$ 

Dear Brother: 

LET me compliment you again upon the fine magazine which 
you are putting out each month. 

(Signed) Harvey Fletcher, 

Director of Physical Research, 
Bell Laboratories, New York. 

WE wouldn't know how to keep house without the Era. It 
has been a regular part of our home since we were 
married twenty-four years ago. 
Respectfully, 
(Signed) John Thornton, 

Box 586, Blackfoot, Idaho. 

FROM DUNEDIN 

16 Tennyson St. 
Dunedin, New Zealand 
August 26, 1938. 
Dear Brother: 

I would like to assure you of the good work the Era is doing 
in this end of the "Vineyard" (this is the city Admiral 
Byrd used as a base during his South Pole Expedition), and 
express our appreciation for your good work and the way 
that you are aiding us in our missionary work. 

We are doing our utmost to put the Era in the homes in 
place of the detective magazines and other deteriorators of 
the mind. 

May you have continued success in your work and the bless- 
ings of the Lord always is the hope of your brother in the 
Gospel. 

(Signed) Elder Del M. Beecher. 



^>- 



3 Nov. 1938 
Dortmund 
Bruckstr. 39/3 
Germany 
Dear Editor: 

Enclosed you will find a snapshot taken in front of the 
Maas Station in Rotterdam, Holland. It shows the mis- 
sionaries of the West German Mission reading the Era as they 
are waiting to meet their brethren who were arriving later. 




WEST GERMAN MISSIONARIES READING THE "ERA" 
IN ROTTERDAM, HOLLAND. AT THE TIME THE 
GERMAN MISSIONARIES WERE TRANSFERRED OUT 
OF GERMANY, IN SEPTEMBER, 1938. TAKEN BY 
EUGENE H. HILTON, SUPERVISING ELDER OF THE 
RUHR DISTRICT, WEST GERMAN MISSION. 

We certainly do appreciate the Era and the closer contact 
it gives us with the Church and with our loved ones at home. 
We wish you many years of success in the publication of this 
fine magazine. 

Sincerely yours, 

Eugene S. Hilton. 




"Fk? 



The portly gentleman had bumped into the rather "lean and 
hungry Cassius." 

"From the looks of you," he said belligerently, "there must 
have been a famine." 

"And from the looks of you," replied the lean one, "you're 
the guy who caused it." 

INFLUENCE 

Father: "Aren't you glad now that you prayed for a baby 
sister?" 

Son (after viewing his twin baby sisters) : "Yes; and 
aren't you glad I quit when I did?" 

POOR MR. SMITH 
"You can't see Mr. Smith," retorted the sharp-faced, sharp- 
tongued woman to the political canvasser at the door. 

"But, Madam, I merely wish to find out what party he 
belongs to." 

"Well, then, take a good look at me. I'm the party he 
belongs to." 

INFLATED 

The weighing machine was out of order, but no notice to 
that effect had been posted. An unsuspecting fat lady clamb- 
ered on and inserted a penny. Among the curious bystanders 
was an inebriated gentleman intently watching the dial. The 
scale registered seventy-five pounds. "My gosh," he whispered 
hoarsely, "she's hollow." 

ALL FOR CHARITY 

Maud: "I'm going to sell kisses at the Charity Bazaar to- 
night. Do you think a dollar apiece is too much to charge 
for them?" 

Marie: "No, I think not. People expect to get cheated at 
these charity affairs." 

ANTEDATED 

Politician: "Don't forget, the Constitution was written 
away back in the horse and buggy days." 

Voter: "Yes, and don't forget, the Ten Commandments 
aren't yet out of date, even though they were written back 
in the horse and chariot days." 

HOSPITABLE SON 

Dad (giving Billy a lecture) : "Now when I was your size, 
Billy, I didn't have a big house like this to five in and I didn't 
have pretty clothes like yours to wear. Why I had to go to 
bed without my supper sometimes because there wasn't any." 

Billy: "Gee, Daddy, ain't-cha glad you're living with us 
now." 

THE BAIT 

The boss called the manager into the office one morning. 

"I find," he said, "that last year's trading was the best since 
I went into the business. I know how much hard work you 
have put in the firm, and, as a mark of esteem, I have made 
out a check for five hundred dollars in your favor." 

The manager beamed his thanks. 

"Yes." went on the boss, "and if next year's business is as 
good, I'll sign it." 



64 



A 



NOTHER L AGE 






Time turns another page as 1938 
becomes 1939. For KSL, this 
signalizes the end of one momen- 
tous year and the beginning of 
another. 



As in each year since 1922, 
KSL prepares to meet your 
demands for more hours of jp 
worthwhile radio entertainment. 
And as in every year past, this 
station pledges you the out- 
standing pleasure you expect from 
"The Voice of the West". 






Day by day during 1939, keep tuned 

to KSL for music, drama, comedy, 

the progress of the world's news, 

and for KSL's newly-conceived programs 

contributing to your cultura 

advancement. 




-. 





KSL 



Columbia's 50,000 Watt 
Affiliate in Salt Lake City 




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(rtoken and unprotected? 





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