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Natural Gas 

Serving an Ever-Increasing Number 
of Customers Since 1929 




An automatic traffic cop using radar 
is now available which measures 
and records the speed of every passing 
automobile without the motorists' 
knowledge. Using the short-wave 
radar echoes from the moving automo- 
bile this instrument can be set up at 
any point on the highway and does 
not require a specially measured base 
line. This will eliminate arguments 
of prejudiced witnesses and misleading 
speedometer readings. 

A mother can influence the health of 
her grandchildren. By insuring 
plenty of vitamin D, extra vitamin 
such as from fish liver oil may be 
necessary, the bones will develop 
normally, and if a girl's pelvic bones 
develop normally, the grandchildren 
will be born without injuries, with 
normally shaped heads after short easy 
labors. The pelvic opening of healthy 
infants as of normally developed 
adults is round, but during growing 
years the pelvis may become flattened 
and oval in shape as with most white 
women. However, the shape of the 
pelvis is not determined by race or 
color but apparently by the amount of 
vitamin D during childhood and 

'T'here is a Perpetual Ice Cave in 
New Mexico which has 25,000 
cubic feet of solid ice buried sixty feet 
below the surface of a geologically 
recent extrusion of lava. 

A violin entirely of aluminum has 

been constructed by J. E. Maddy 

at the University of Michigan. It is 

said to have a good sound resembling 

that of violins made of thick wood. 

r\ESERT birds get the water they need 
in various ways. The Texas 
nighthawk, cactus wren, and gnat- 
catcher get their moisture from the 
insects they eat, and the prairie falcon 
and the raven from the mammals or 
reptiles. Seed-eaters such as Gambel's 
quail and the doves must make daily 
trips to water holes or streams. The 
quails always live near water, but the 
doves may fly fifty miles for their 
daily drink of water. 


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And — you always get perfectly baked and 
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(nw urn 

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use Morning Milk undiluted, 
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The smooth texture, rich fla- 
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L^ritchheia -jrawiiw 




'"Phe Lewis R. Critchfield family of 
Cassia Stake, Oakley, Idaho, 
deserves to be proud of the record 
made by them individually and col- 
lectively. Four of the daughters 
are Golden Gleaners, having won 
this enviable recognition for the 
leadership they have displayed in 
their Mutual and Church activities. 
These four Golden Gleaner daugh- 
ters have also accepted mission calls 
as has their mother, Zella Critch- 
field. Their father is stake presi- 

The family are modest about their 
achievements, and it took consider- 
able effort on the part of the stake 
Y.W.M.LA. president, Melda M. 
Hale, to ascertain the facts. Sister 
Critchfield filled a mission to the 
Central States; Thelda (Mrs. 
George B. Robinson) was on a 
mission in the North Central States 
Mission; Norma, now Mrs. Grant 
Bowen of Rexburg, Idaho, likewise 
served as a missionary in the North 


■ .: •■: :;: : 



Central States Mission; Zetta re- 
turned in December from the 
California Mission; and Enid left 
October 14, to serve in the British 

Each of the girls has attended 
college at least two years. They 
have all held responsible positions 
in both ward and stake capacities. 
Sister Critchfield is in the stake 
presidency of the Relief Society. 

The girls as well as Sister Critch- 
field are all musically talented. They 
have been widely active in civic 
affairs as well as in religious activi- 
ties of their ward and stake. The 
Critchfields are also successful 
seamstresses and make many of 
their own dresses. 

The example of the Critchfields 
has been a salutary one in the com- 
munity in which they live. Other 
families throughout the Church 
could benefit from following their 
example. — M.C.J. 


why the ^mmhjReadirw Club 



YES, you are invited to accept any two of the won- 
derful new books shown on this page as your 
FREE Membership Gift Book and first FREE Bonus 
Book when you join our book dub! The Family 
Reading Club was founded to find and distribute 




books for the whole family— books which are worth- 
while, interesting and entertaining without being 
objectionable in any way. Read, below, how the 
Family Reading Club operates ; then mail coupon to 
join the Club ^nd get your TWO free books— today! 




By Fulton Oursler 

A reverent, faithful tell- 
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Jesus, bringing him and 
those whose lives were 
entwined with his excit- 
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Publisher's edition, $2.95. 


By Paul L Wellman 

The rich, fashionable con- 
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declared war on the young 
new pastor who dared to 
open "their" church to 
the poor. How he beat 
them is a story you mustn't 
miss— by the author of 
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Publisher's edition, $3.00. 


By Alson /. Smith 

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triumph over the frustra- 
tions and conflicts of 
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Smith proves that you can 
conquer fear and find the 
key to happiness in faith! 
Publisher's edition, $2.50. 


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The first basically differ- 
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Publisher's edition, $5.50. 


By Gladys Hasty Carroll 

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this heart-warming story 
of a beautiful young 
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from poverty and loneli- 
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she thought was an im- 
possible dream. A new 
kind of love story. Pub- 
lisher's edition, $3.00. 


EACH MONTH publishers are invited to 
submit books they believe will meet 
the Family Reading Club standards. Our 
Board of Editors then selects the book it 
can recommend most enthusiastically to 
members. These are the books which ev- 
ery member of your family can read — 
books to be read with pleasure, remem- 
bered and discussed with delight, and re- 
tained in your home library with pride. 
For instance, among recent books which 
members obtained through the Family 
Reading Club are such fine books as 
"Peace of Mind" and "Father Flanagan 
of Boys Town" — and such outstanding 
fiction best-sellers as Elizabeth Goudge's 
"Pilgrim's Inn" and Frances Parkinson 
Keyes' "Came A Cavalier." 

What Membership Means to You 
There is no charge for membership in 
the Family Reading Club beyond the cost 
of the books themselves. You pay only 
$1.89 each (plus postage and handling 
charge) for the books you purchase after 
reading the book review which will come 
to your home each month. It is not neces- 
sary to purchase a book every month — 
only four each year to retain your mem- 
bership. All selections are new, complete, 
well-printed and well-bound; each will be 



a real addition to your library. And your 
books will be delivered to your door by 
the postman — ready to read! 

Free "Bonus" Books 

The Family Reading Club distributes a 
"Bonus" Book free for each four Club se- 
lections you take. These books will meet 
the high Club standards of excellence, in- 
terest, superior writing and wholesome 
subject matter — and you can build up a 
fine home library this way at no extra 
expense. The purchase of books from the 
Club for only $1.89 each — instead of the 
publishers' regular retail prices of $2.50 to 
$4.00— saves you 25% to 35% of your 
book dollars. And when the value of the 
Bonus Books is figured in, you actually 
save as much as 50%! 

Join Now — Send No Money 

If you believe in a book club which will 
appeal to the finest instincts of every mem- 
ber of your family, let us introduce you to 
the Family Reading Club by sending you 
your choice of any TWO of the books 
shown above as your free Membership 
Gift Book and first free Bonus Book. Just 
mail the coupon. However, as this unu- 
sual offer may be withdrawn at any time, 
we urge you to mail the coupon NOW! 






Please enroll me in the Family Reading Club and 
send me the two books I have checked below as 
my Membership Gift Book and first Free Bonus 

□ The Greatest Story 
Ever Told 

□ The Chain 

□ Faith to Live By 

□ Complete Stories of 
the Great Operas 

G College Standard 

□ West of the Hill 

Each month you will send me a review of 
the Club's forthcoming selection— which I may 
accept or reject as I choose. There are no mem- 
bership dues or fees — only the requirement that 
I accept a minimum of four Club selections 
during the coming twelve months at only $1.89 
each, plus postage and handling. 



Street and 





Occupation . 


. . . State 

Age, if 
. Under 21 

Same Price 



: 105 

Bond St., Toronto 2 





NUMBER 2 — 3ek 


l i 



Managing Editor: DOYLE L. GREEN 

Associate Managing Editor: MARBA C. JOSEPHSON 

Manuscript Editor: ELIZABETH J. MOFFITT - Research Editor: ALBERT L. ZOBELL, JR. 

"Today's Family" Editor: BURL SHEPHERD - Art Director: NELSON WHITE 



General Manager: ELBERT R. CURTIS - Associate Manager: BERTHA S. REEDER 

Business Manager: JOHN D. GILES - Advertising Director: VERL F. SCOTT 

The Editors Page 

Perpetuating Liberty George Albert Smith 93 

Church Features 

Evidences and Reconciliations: CXLII — Whence Came the Temple 

Endowment? John A. Widtsoe 94 

Lehi in the Desert—Part II Hugh Nibley 102 

President George F. Richards and His Scouting Family. .Forace Green 118 

Four Golden Gleaners among 
Critchfield Family, Marba 
C. Josephson 82 

The Church Moves On 88 

All-Church M Men Basketball 
Tournament 88 

New appointees to the M.I.A. 
General Boards are an- 
nounced 90 

Melchizedek Priesthood 140 

No-Liquor-Tobacco Column, 

Conducted by Joseph F. 

Merrill _ 141 

Presiding Bishopric's Page, Pre- 
pared by Lee A. Palmer 142 

November Missionaries 158 

December Missionaries 159 

Special Features 

The University of Utah — An Institution that Grew from the Ideals 

of the People Levi Edgar Young 96 

Gathering Material for your Speech — IV Louise Linton Salmon 99 

Orson F. Whitney — Poet James E. Asper 100 

A Story of Vision and Accomplishment . . . Ann Mousley Cannon... 

Madelyn Stewart Silver 107 

Colonization of the Big Horn Basin by thje Latter-day Saints 

Eliza R. Lythgoe 110 

An Expedition to Central America M. Wells Jakeman 112 

The Spirit Path Karl E. Young 120 

The Spoken Word from Temple Square 

...Richard L. Evans 128, 132, 148, 156 

Exploring the Universe, Franklin 
S. Harris, Jr. 81 

These Times — World Leadership 
— Not World Domination, — G. 
Homer Durham 85 

On the Bookrack 115 

Today's Family Burl Shepherd 

Fabric Finishes, Do You 

Know Them? 124 

Blueprint for Beauty 124 

Soup's On _. ....124 

Do's and Don't's for the 

Party 130 

Your Page and Ours 160 

ies, Poetry 

Water Under the Bridge Milton Waring 101 

A Pair of Skates Alvin S. Schow 105 

While Dancing the Varsovienne Alice Morrey Bailey 108 

The Fort on the Firing Line — XVIII Albert R. Lyman 116 

Frontispiece, Swept Autumn- sen 91 

ward, Berta Huish Christen- 

Poetry Page 


Lsfficiai \Jraan of 


^Jke L^nurck of 
of <=Latter-aau J^alnti 


February 5 has been designated as 
Scout Sunday throughout the Church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. The 
spiritual values of scouting have always 
been first in the eyes of the leaders of 
scouting in the Church and the nation, as 
exemplified by the Scout law, "A Scout 
is Reverent." The young Scout pictured 
on the cover of this month's Era, was 
photographed by George Bergstrom. 

50 North Main Street 
Salt Lake City 1, Utah 

Copyright 1950 by Mutual Funds, Inc., a Corpora- 
tion of the Young Men's Mutual Improvement 
Association of the Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints. All rights reserved. Sub- 
scription price, $2.50 a year, in advance; foreign 
subscriptions, $3.00 a year, in advance; 25c 
single copy. 

Entered at the Post Office, Salt Lake City, Utah, 
as second-class matter. Acceptance for mailing 
at special rate of postage provided for in section 
1103, Act of October 1917, authorized July 2, 

The Improvement Era is not responsible for un- 
solicited manuscripts, but welcomes contributions. 

All manuscripts must be accompanied by sufficient 
postage for delivery and return. 

Change of Address 

Fifteen days' notice required for change of ad- 
dress. When ordering a change, please include 
address slip from a recent issue of the magazine. 
Address changes cannot be made unless the old 
address as well as the new one is included. 

National Advertising Representatives 

San Francisco and Los Angeles 

New York 


Member, Audit Bureau of Circulations 




it vl/ond <JDominaUon, 



Head of Political Science Department, 
University of Utah 

ft is announced in the press that the 
*• retirement of Mr. George Kennan, 
chief policy planner of the United 
States Department of State (and a 
young man still in his forties ) , will 
take place this coming spring. 

Mr. Kennan's influence on recent 
American foreign policy is well-known 
for the doctrine of steady and con- 
stant pressure against the Soviet Union 
at all points, in the hope that within 
ten or fifteen years (perhaps at the 
demise of Stalin) external pressure 
would produce an internal "explosion" 
(political) within the U.S.S.R. The 
Truman doctrine, the Marshall plan, 
the North Atlantic pact — everything 
except our China policy (and even 
there we tried!) — fit into the Kennan 

Continual external pressure against 
the Soviet is a natural and to-be-ex- 
pected doctrine as the normal reaction 
to the "appeasement" policies of the 
thirties. But is it wise? It may be 
insufficient justification that it is anti- 
appeasement and that it is an offensive 
against the threat of communism, 
Soviet brand. There have been ob- 
noxious states exhibiting obnoxious 
doctrines to their neighbors, and over- 
running them, before 1950. After 
Stalin is forgotten, there will probably 
be other, similar, undermining or over- 
riding- threats. Is there a real clue to 
a sound position in the present China 
policy of "waiting until the dust 

There is a tremendous difference be- 
tween being the world's greatest power, 
which we probably are, and running 
the world, which we cannot. As a 
people we are unprepared for our role 
as a world power, let alone to (a) run 
everything for (b) everybody (c) 
everywhere. The greatest evidence of 
this immaturity and unpreparedness 
lies in the constant reminder that we 
must now prepare to face the tasks 
of world leadership, coupled with the 
popular response and re- 
action that unthinkingly 
and incorrectly assumes 
that our task is world- 
operation, when, cur- 
rently, it is at most 
merely world leadership. 

The leader sets a good 
example. He may even 
lend a constant helping 


hand. But even in American prag- 
matic-instrumentalist thought, even in 
the "progressive" notions of Mr. John 
Dewey, philosopher, nowhere do we 
find justification for the successful 
leader doing (a) everything (b) for 
everybody (c) everywhere. Perhaps 
to take a page out of one of Mr. 
Dewey's tomes, as currently exhibited 
in a "progressive" schoolroom where 
the teacher seems to be (a) letting 
everybody ( b ) do anything ( c ) in any 
way, could be suggestive for American 
conduct in foreign affairs. 

At any given time, the world situa- 
tion poses questions of fact to be 
grasped at and judged with caution, 
perspicacity, foresight, and wisdom. 
To respond, doctrinaire fashion, with 
either "global internationalism" or 
"isolationism" is both futile and spu- 
rious. There are fundamentals of posi- 
tion, geography, climate, economics, 
societal make-up, and, unfortunately, 
questions of industrial and technical 
power, that will always determine 
foreign policy no matter what kind 
of political views, stylish or unstylish, 
men hold. Over and above these 
fundamentals looms the fundamental 
political fact, given the present organ- 
ization of our world into national 
states, that it is impossible, short of 
external, forceful domination, internal 
surreptitious penetration, outright pur- 
chase or occupation, for the govern- 
ment of one nation to dominate an- 
other and live in peace. This, I as- 
sume, is what we learned in China in 

When people therefore ask why we 
don't do something about China or 
about Peron or Franco or the Mar- 
shall plan countries, or British social- 
ism, or Timbuktu — we might remem- 
ber this forgotten fact of international 
life. This does not mean that we sit 
idly by while the world is sovietized. 
Far from it! It means that we, here 
and now, must attempt to try to learn 
the distinction between 
world leadership in the 
cause of freedom, and 
world domination, lest 
enthusiasm lead us blind- 
ly into the Soviet mis- 
take, the latter role. 

I have a prejudice 

that a nation forced to 

{Concluded on following page) 

Knocks Again 

Valuable opportunities for 
intellectual and professional 
advancement are opened to 
Latter-day Saint youth with 
each new quarter at Brigham 
Young University. 

New classes will be avail- 
able for beginning students 
and old, who will find courses 
adapted to aid them in reach- 
ing their educational goals. 

Those entering for the first 
time should send entrance ap- 
plications to the Admissions 
Committee at least one month 
prior to the quarter in which 
they plan to register. 


March 20 to June 2 


June 12 to August 25 







Basketball Tourne 

MARCH 1-2-3-4 


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Reserved Seats $4.00 
General Admission $2.50 

Advance orders now being filled. 
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World Leadership 


{Concluded from preceding page) 

choose between American domination 
and Soviet domination might prefer 
the former. But I entertain a suspicion 
that both would be unpalatable to 
those dominated. James F. Byrnes' 
words of "patience with firmness" 
uttered at Stuttgart in 1946 are 
suggestive. To carry the "firmness" 
to the point of harrying, provok- 
ing, and irritating the U.S.S.R. might 
suggest that the Department of 
State, without ceasing to be firm, con- 
sider the words of an eighteenth 
century man. They reflect political 
realities often lacking in twentieth- 
century "scare-or-soothe" documents: 

"Observe good faith and justice to- 
wards all nations. Cultivate peace and 
harmony with all. . . . 

"In the execution of such a plan 
nothing is more essential than that 
permanent, inveterate antipathies 
against particular nations and passion- 
ate attachments for others should 
be excluded. . . . The nation which 
indulges toward another an habitual 
hatred or an habitual fondness is in 
some degree a slave . . . either of which 
is sufficient to lead it astray from its 
duty and its interest. . . . 

"The great rule of conduct for us, 
in regard to foreign nations, is, in ex- 
tending our commercial relations, to 
have with them as little political con- 
nection as possible." 

The above words, attributed by 
some to Alexander Hamilton's keen 
mind, are taken from Washington's 
Farewell Address. It is a sound state- 
ment of principle. It is also for the 
benefit of current fashion, "inter- 
nationalist" and "global." The At- 
lantic pact, even, can be supported 
from the document. But the address 
is also a conscious exhibit of a great 
political truth — given the nature of the 
contemporary world — that in extending 
our interests, our influence, and our 
commercial relations, in short what 
has today become our world position 
of leadership, we should be sensitive 
to the fact that politically, the juris- 
diction of our government is still 
limited. To maintain a position of 
leadership based on harmony and 
friendship, we should have with 
foreign nations "as little political con- 
nection as possible." This little will 
still be much. 

The nature and extent of this little 
muchness is among the great issues 
for judgment by the American people 
in these times. 




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^A ^Uau IJo Jjay Chronology \Jf Uiurck Cvents 

November 1949 

217 Burl First Ward, Twin Falls 
* (Idaho) Stake, organized from 
part of Burl Ward; Earle Quigley, 

Burl Second Ward, Twin Falls 
(Idaho) S^ake, organized from part of 
Burl Ward; Clyde Cox, bishop. 

speaker. The centennial box, contain- 
ing Sunday School mementos and les- 
son aids, was sealed to be opened fifty 
years from now. 


Marie Stuart and Ethel Baker 
Callis appointed to general board 

Memorial services held in the 
Assembly Room, Church Ad- 
ministration building, on the 144th 
anniversary of the birth of the Prophet 
Joseph Smith. 


of Y. W. M. I. A. 



December 1949 

Highland Park Ward, San 
Fernando ( California ) Stake, 
created from portions of Garvanza 
Ward; Thomas Jones, bishop. 

Glendale (California) Stake, cre- 
ated from portions of San Fernando 
Stake, comprised of Sunset, LaCre- 
centa, Glendale East, Glendale West, 
Garvanza, Elysian, and Highland Park 
wards. President Edwin S. Dibble, 
formerly second counselor in San 
Fernando Stake, sustained as presi- 
dent, with Nephi L. Anderson, form- 
erly first counselor ki the San Fernando 
Stake, and Harry Brooks as counselors. 
Remaining in San Fernando Stake are 
Burbank, North Hollywood, Studio 
City, Van Nuys, Reseda, and San Fer- 
nando wards. President Hugh C. 
Smith and counselors Russel F. Dailey 
and Wetzel O. Whittaker, sustained. 
Retiring president of San Fernando 
Stake, David H. Cannon, served eigh- 
teen years. Elders Harold B. Lee and 
Spencer W. Kimball of the Council 
of the Twelve directed the organiza- 
tion of the 175th stake of the Church. 

a Centennial year of the Sunday 

" School closed, with appropriate 

services at which President David O. 

McKay, former general superintendent 

of Sunday Schools, was principal 

1-t Capitol Ward, Washington 
A (D. C.) Stake, dedicated by 

Elder Ezra Taft Benson of the Council 
of the Twelve. 

1o President David O. McKay 
" dedicated the Granger Second 
Ward chapel, North Jordan Stake, Salt 
Lake County. 

Milford First Ward, Beaver (Utah) 
Stake, created from portions of Mil- 
ford Ward; Clarence E. Tuttle, bishop. 

Milford Second Ward, Beaver 
(Utah) Stake, created from portions 
of Milford Ward; Carlyle F. Gronning, 

Elder Stephen L Richards of 
the Council of the Twelve spoke 
to the title "The Great Day of Giving" 
on the "Church of the Air" of the 
Columbia Broadcasting System. 


Microfilming of Church records 
began at the Church historian's 
library. It is expected that the mem- 
bership records will be filmed first, 
followed by manuscripts, and then by 
rare books, in the project which it is 
believed will last two years. 



President Stayner Richards 
of Highland (Salt Lake City) 
Stake, appointed president of the Brit- 
ish Mission by the First Presidency, 
succeeding President Selvoy J. Boyer, 
who has presided in London since May 

President Lucian Mecham, Jr., of 
Mesa (Arizona) Stake, appointed 
president of the Mexican Mission by 
the First Presidency, succeeding Presi- 
dent ArweH L. Pierce who has pre- 
sided there since August 1942. 

Mormons Bog (Danish-Norwegian 
Book of Mormon) , announced as being 
off the press in a new translation. This 
is the sixth edition of the Book of 
Mormon in that tongue. 

Y. W. M. I. A. enrolment for 
1949 was announced as 100,675 
as follows: stake and mission boards 
5525, ward boards 19,913, Special 
Interest groups 20,797, Gleaner Girls 
15,571, Junior Girls 12,854, and Bee- 
Hive Girls 26,015. 

Visitors on Temple Square, Salt 
Lake City, totaled 1,046,000 for 1949. 

The receipt of a thirty-inch high 
Meissen vase from the women of the 
Swiss-Austrian Mission was an- 
nounced by the Relief Society general 
board. The vase, which was made 
in 1830, the year of the organization 
of the Church, will be placed in the 
planned new Relief Society building. 

January 1950 

^ President George Albert Smitk 
1 dedicated the L. D. S. Institute 
of Religion adjacent to the University 
of Utah campus, Salt Lake City. 


Olans for what is expected to be 
the biggest all-Church M Men 
Basketball tournament in history are 
nearing completion. Dates of the 
tourney are March I, 2, 3, and 4. 
Because of the growing popular- 
ity of the annual cage classic, the 
final two nights of the tournament 
will be held in the University of 
Utah field house. This will enable 
more than twice as many fans to 
attend the tournament on these two 


to Be Held March 1, 2, 3, and 4 

nights. The first two nights will 
be held in the Deseret Gymnasium. 

Play-offs in the thirteen M Men 
divisions are scheduled for the early 
weeks of February. Winners of 
each division qualify for the all- 
Church tournament. The other 
three teams to make up the sixteen 
team bracket will be chosen after 
play-offs among the runner-up clubs 
of the larger divisions. Each player 

in the tournament will be presented 
with a gold participation medal, 
and other special awards will be 

Marvin J. Ashton is chairman of 
the athletic committee of the Y. M. 
M. I. A. general board. Committee 
members in charge of the event are 
Dale Curtis, Verl F. Scott, Walter 
Woffinden, Dick Collett, and Parry 

(See page 85) 






' tffo 4acM ?<no catoT fazed, 

Put an "old-timer" behind the wheel of a modern John Deere 
Tractor for the first time. Show him the Powr-Trol lever 
that controls equipment hydraulic ally and let 
him make a few rounds. He'll come back, grin- 
ning from ear to ear, with one enthusiastic 
comment — "Who said you can't teach an old 
dog New Tricks?" 

Everywhere, farmers are taking to Powr- 
Trol like a duck takes to water. And 
no wonder, for it's the greatest 
contribution to easier, faster, 
better farming made in recent 

John Deere Powr-Trol is an exclusive, fwo- 
way hydraulic system that gives you com- 
plete, effortless control of (1) integral tools 
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machines through an easily-attached, double- 
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vided. A fast speed quickly angles or straight- 
ens disks, raises or lowers other tools; a slow 
speed permits accurately selecting any in- 
between position ... all at a touch of your hand on a 
convenient lever, while the tractor is "on the go" or 
standing still. 

A "first" by John Deere in 1945, and steadily 
improved since then, Powr-Trol is the foremost hy- 
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country over. It offers you effortless control of the 
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fill out the coupon and mail it — today. 


Model "G" 

3-plow power; all-fuel engine- 

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Gentlemen: Please send complete information I 
on John Deere General-Purpose Tractors with | 

Hydraulic Powr-Trol. 



, R.F.D State ' 





Yes, how long has it been since you 
reviewed your insurance to find out 
if you have enough to re-build or 
replace in case of loss? Ask your local 
KOLOB AGENT today to analyze your 
coverage to see if you have enough 
protection to meet today's increased 


Frank Salisbury, Mgr. 

330 Judge Bldg. Salt Lake City 

Here's how you can 
get your car and a 


for less than the de- 
livered price of the car! 

Order your car from your home 
town dealer . . . have him arrange 
for you to take delivery at the fac- 
tory. Go Greyhound to the factory 
city, and save enough to pay for 
your pleasant highway sightseeing 
trip! Ask your Greyhound Agent 
for full information today. 






"Pthel Baker 

Callis was 
born in Mercur, 
Utah, the daugh- 
ter of A. S. Baker 
and the late Mar- 
garet M. She 
received her 
training in the 
Stewart Training 
School, the Uni- 
versity Prepara- 
tory School, and 
the University of Utah, where she 
received her A,B. degree with a 
major in public speaking. She has 
done graduate work in the University 
of California at Los Angeles and Uni- 
versity of Southern California and is 
now completing work for her master's 
degree from the University of Utah, 
where she is also teaching. 

She has been active in professional 
theater work, running a little theater 
with her husband in El Paso, Texas, 
being associated with the Moroni 
Olson players, the Henry Duffy group 
in San Francisco and Long Beach, and 
the Ben Erway-Gladys George com- 
pany in Salt Lake City. She has ap- 
peared in many University Theater 
plays, and won the outstanding player 
award for her characterization of Mrs. 
Oliver Wendell Holmes. She is a 
member of Theta Alpha Phi, national 
dramatic fraternity, and Zeta Phi Eta, 
national speech fraternity. 

Mrs. Callis has also done personnel 
work, serving the J. C. Penney Co., 
the Veterans' Administration, and 
handling problems of movie extras. She 
also did social case work for a time 
in Los Angeles. She organized and 
is directing a course in human rela- 
tions and personality development at 
Henager's Business College, Salt Lake 
City. Furthermore, she has done radio 
work for the past eight years in Salt 
Lake City and prior to that time in 

Mrs. Callis' activities in the Church 
have included that of Sunday School 
teacher and counselor in the Junior 
Sunday School in Wilshire Ward, 
California, teacher in the Tenth and 
Ivins wards' Sunday Schools, stake 
board member of the Wells Stake 
Sunday School, and counselor in the 
Ivins Ward Y.W.M.I.A 

Mrs. Callis, whose husband has 
passed away, is the mother of two 
daughters. The elder, Mrs. E. C. 
Wimmer, lives in Salt Lake City, and 
the younger, Margaret, is attending 
high school in Los Angeles. 

Mrs. Callis has been assigned to the 
drama committee of the general board. 



[arie Stuart, 
a daughter 
of Ella M. and 
the late Alba Air- 
met Stuart, was 
born in Rock- 
ford, Illinois, 
, < , while her mother 

I ,>, I / pjy was on a visit to 

■HHKL- H'>' her parents. Miss 

Stuart made her 

home in Preston, 

Idaho, for sixteen 

years (where she completed her 

grammar school education) prior to 

moving to Salt Lake City. 

A graduate of Latter-day Saint Uni- 
versity, she attended the University 
of Utah for two years to obtain her 
teaching certificate for the grammar 
grades. Since that time she has con- 
tinued her studies through extension 
classes and summer schools to her 
B.S. degree. 

Sister Stuart has served as secretary 
of the American Childhood Education 
Association. She has taught school in 
Sevier County, Granite district of Salt 
Lake County, and is now a teacher in 
the Salt Lake City school system. 

Her Church work has consisted of 
teaching in the East Ensign Ward 
Sunday School, of taking charge of 
the two-and-a-half-minute talks for 
that organization, and also of being 
a stake Sunday School board member 
of Ensign Stake, a position from which 
she was released when she received 
her general board appointment. Miss 
Stuart has also been a Special Inter- 
est director in East Ensign Ward, and 
for a year was assistant ward clerk 
of the same ward. 

Miss Stuart has been assigned to the 
Special Interest department of the 
general board. 


Fred A. Schwendiman, Elvis B. 
Terry, and Richard S. Tanner have 
been appointed to the general board 
of the Young Men's Mutual Im- 
provement Association. Elders 
Schwendiman and Tanner are resi- 
dents of Salt Lake City, and Elder 
Terry resides at Orem, Utah. 

Elder Schwendiman is assigned to 
the M Men committee, Elder Terry 
to the music committee, and Elder 
Tanner to the athletic committee. 

Pictures of these brethren together 
with biographical sketches will ap- 
pear in the March Improvement 









hey are betraying love who only sing 
Its springtime fire in the heart still young, 
And leave its embered radiance unsung. 
Impassioned syllables that kiss and cling 
Upon the lips to bless the nuptial vow 
Will fade as blossoms fade that quickly pass 
Into the silent tapestry of grass, 
Swept autumnward beyond the petaled bough. 
Yet they may kindle in the heart a flame 
Of stength, enduring as its shared belief, 
The glowing embers, warm against all grief, 
Still as the quiet calling of a name. 


-—Photograph bg H. Armstrong Robert* 


I know, for I have watched through memoried 

The taper light, unwavering, that lies 
Constant and wisdom-warm within his eyes. 
And I have felt above the weight of tears, 
Faint as a leaf fall in the autumn blue, 
His reassuring touch upon my arm. 
Tender, though passion free, it is more warm 
Than any fire that the springtime knew. 
They are betraying love unto the young 
Who leave its embered radiance unsung. 



By Elaine V. Emans 

'T'he north wind blew the lad inside the 
-*■ door, 

And he was glad of it, because his jacket 
Was low in storm-resistance, while he 

No mitten on the hand that held a packet 
Of flower seeds to sell me if he could! 
But when we closed the door, we shut away 
The snowy winter afternoon and stood 
Knee-deep among petunias, and gay 
Snapdragons, marigolds, and rainbow 

And giant zinnias, and four o'clocks. 
And I gave all the change my cupboard 

To buy the packets from the bright-eyed 

And wished that it were more, for, with 

the seed, 
He left the voucher /or the spring I need. 


By Lael W. Hill 

/^ray is a gentle color; 
V' Gray days are gentle days 
Whose quiet, kindly hours 
Have quiet, soothing ways. 

Gray is a restful color 
When brilliant moments pall — 
Apart from any other, 
Encompassing them all, 

For gray beyond the twilight 
Knows violet its own, 
And indigo lies hidden 
Within gray monotone. 

The gentle soul knows, surely 
As shadow grays with night, 
That blue is gray dawn early — 
Silver is gray grown bright. 


By Mabel Jones Gabbott 

T sought one word to guide my heart 
•*■ That crystallized this perfect life, 
To temper happiness, to chart 
The buffetings of toil and strife. 

Could it be majesty or power, 
Or friendliness or sympathy, 
Or courage equal to the hour, 
Compassionate divinity? 

"In the beginning was the Word" . . . 
I read the record; heaven above 
Had known that Jesus would be heard 
And symbolized by one word, "Love." 


By Thelma Ireland 

I - would like to write a poem 
*■ But I'm busy; muse is mute, 
So I'll make a housewife's poem 
Out of pie dough and some fruit. 


BEQUEST . . . 

By Georgia Moore Eberling 

My country is not merely "rocks and 
Although I love each mile of rolling plain, 
Its lakes and rivers and the purple hrlls 
That gleam in silver-satin after rain. 
My heritage is Jamestown; and the men 
Who left their bloody footprints in the 

At Valley Forge; and those who rallied 

Rebellion's hurricane began to blow; 
Those boys who sailed away to find no 

Their gay, lost youth, who laid their young 

lives down 
At barren outposts on foreign shore 
Forever to be gems in freedom's crown. 
This is the rich bequest they left to me: 
The will to live, or die, for liberty. 


By Julia W. Wolfe 

"Deauty is found in unsuspected ways: 
'-" Within some knotted hand that labors 

long ( 
For duty's sake; upon the wrinkled brow 
Of one who speaks no word through all 

his days 
Of beauty's presence; but, at evensong, 
Makes home a very heaven, he knows 

not how. 
We have discovered beauty wrapped in 

And veiled with sorrow's measureless 

Beauty is love's remembrance, we know, 
And though words that love spoke long 

Their beauty stays and dwells in quietness; 
We hear their music when the sun is low, 
And rainbow colors flood the evening sky, 
Holding the world in silent loveliness. 
And, when the purpose of this life is done, 
Shall not the soul adventure wider 

Finding that beauty has but now begun 
To show the face hid through all the years? 


By Inez Clack Thorson 

T_Jere in this winter-prisoned ground 
■^ * There is a subtle stirring, 
More of promise than of sound, 
More of primal urge to rise 
After the long sleep. 

This, God's promise unto men — 
That after the long waiting 
Light will follow dark again, 
Flame break through the ash once more- 
Life will conquer death! 

m ■ 

By Frances P. Reid 

I love this western land o'f mine, 
For vistas spread before my eye 
Of verdant meadows lush with grain; 
Dense clumps of poplars bending nigh 
To touch the roofs of homes and barns; 
For willow-banked canals that wind 
Like gentle serpents through the plain; 
For canyons lashed by fury blind; 
For snowy peaks forever swathed 
In cloud-spun drapes and pristine snow; 
Forever there, they beckon me — 
A lowlander who yearns to leave his hoe. 
I love the silence of the desert; 
To smell the sage wet down by rain, 

To bask in unrestrained sun 

Or glimpse the cacti blooms again. 

I love the rise or drop in land 

That lets our town seem neighbor 

To twinkling lights of others miles away 

And draws us close like ships in harbor. 

Within this land there lies a strength 
But lately won through turbulence, 
A peace that stills unquiet minds, 
An awesome beauty all can sense. 


By Opal Tanner 

Tn her brown eyes you will find 

* The wisdom 

Of the ages. 

Her voice is but a whisper, 

Gentle as the evening breeze. 

She had shown me new horizons. 

Opened wide 

For me the world, 

Started me upon a new path; 

Where it leads 

I do not know. 

Would that I could have her hand 

Gently guiding, deftly steering 

As I stumble here and there. 

For the path is steep 

And rocky, 

And I fear that I shall falter 

Long before I reach the top. 

— Photograph by Keystone View Co. 


By Katherine Fernelius Larsen 

'T'errible, the beauty that lies in frost 
-*■ Sparkle — snow whiteness; Death 
Gripping the throat of Life; yet beauty not 

In the wild lovely order of the world. I say 

that breath, 
That life quickens the more for just that 

That all grows lovelier from the lash still 



X 'j^ -&~**O r *s&~**O r > ' 


£d<a [^ resident Ljaorae bribed S^wilth 

. » „ <£!3iBS8!^&* i - * 





E have come again to the 
month which marks the birth of two of 
America's great patriots. We are fortunate 
in having our freedom, and it is deeply 
gratifying to me to have the conviction that 
our Heavenly Father is interested in us, and 
in our government, and has been since the 

Man is affected by good and evil influ- 
ences, and there are in the world two powers 
that tend in opposite directions. Surely we 
would not wish to depart from the advice 
and counsel of our Heavenly Father, and 
follow those philosophies that would lead us 
to destruction. 

Knowing that the Lord prepared this land 
that it might be a haven of liberty for those 
who dwell here, and understanding that he 
desires a continuation of those conditions 
that the builders of this republic contended 
for, we who are members of his Church 
ought, in every possible way, to assist in 
perpetuating that liberty. 

More than a century ago this word came 
to this people from our Father in heaven: 

And now, verily I say unto you concerning 
the laws of the land, it is my will that my people 
should observe to do all things whatsoever I 
command them. 

And that law of the land which is constitu- 
tional, supporting that principle of freedom in 
maintaining rights and privileges, belongs to all 
mankind, and is justifiable before me. 

Therefore, I, the Lord, justify you, and your 
brethren of my church, in befriending that law 
which is the constitutional law of the land; 

And as pertaining to law of man, whatsoever 
is more or less than this cometh of evil. 

(D. & C. 98:4-7.) 

In other words, if we fail to sustain the 
constitutional law of the land we have trans- 
gressed the will of our Heavenly Father. 

I, the Lord God, make you free, therefore ye 
are free indeed; and the law also maketh you 

Nevertheless, when the wicked rule the peo- 
ple mourn. 

Wherefore, honest men and wise men should 
be sought for diligently, and good men and wise 
men ye should observe to uphold; otherwise 
whatsoever is less than these cometh of evil. 

{Ibid., 8-10.) 

When the Constitution of our country is 
assailed, openly or subtly, by those who have 
no understanding of the purpose of God re- 
garding this great country, it behooves those 
who do understand to consider seriously and 
faithfully the benefits that will flow to us by 
honoring and sustaining the principles of 
government that were divinely established. 

We are a peculiar people in many ways, 
and in this particularly are we peculiar, in 
that we believe that the Constitution of the 
United States was inspired by our Heavenly 
Father, and he has told us that he raised up 
the very men who 
framed the Constitution 1 
of the United States. I 
Knowing that, we | 
should not be led astray 
by the fallacies of individuals who would 


{Concluded on following page) 

' c^^^f^^^-^0^ , ^y''-0^-C^-'- J ^^0^^9^^^ ■ 




{Concluded from preceding page) 
undermine that which our Heavenly Father 
has prepared for the people of this land. 

In a very early day in the Church our 
people promulgated these principles with 
reference to the law of the land and the 
purpose of government. The statement of 
these principles is preserved in Section 134 
of the Doctrine and Covenants and is worthy 
of our reading and re-reading. 

There is only one way whereby we may 
enjoy peace and happiness, and that is by 
observing the law of our land, and by sus- 
taining the principles embodied in the Con- 
stitution which was inspired by our Heavenly 
Father at the inception of this great govern- 
ment. So, as Latter-day Saints, we may 
know that no man is a faithful member of 
this Church who lends himself in any way 
to break down that organized system of laws 
that has been prepared for the good of all 

The Lord directs that we seek after good 
men and great men, and that we pray for 
and sustain them, in order that the laws that 
are enacted for our government may be such 
as he would be pleased to indorse. 

When we choose those who will enact and 
enforce the laws of the nation and the states, 
we have the word of our Heavenly Father 
that we should select men of honor, and that 

the franchise that we are blessed with should 
be exercised in the interest of orderly gov- 
ernment and in the interest of the perpetua- 
tion of a system of laws that shall continue 
to bring peace and freedom to all. 

This nation was established under divine 
guidance, as part of our Father's plan where- 
by men may enjoy freedom, and where all 
faiths and beliefs and doctrines may enjoy 
liberty and be amenable to the law of the 
land; and where no group of individuals 
may array themselves against the rights and 
privileges of their fellows. 

The Lord himself said: 

. . . for this purpose have I established the 
Constitution of this land, by the hands of wise 
men whom I raised up unto this very purpose, 
and redeemed the land by the shedding of blood. 

{Ibid., 101:80.) 

I say to you: Sustain the Constitution of 
the United States, and let not our voices be 
heard among those that deride or would 
violate the Constitution that is so important 
for us and for all men. 

I am grateful to my Heavenly Father for 
his advice to us that we support the Consti- 
tution of the United States and maintain the 
liberty that we enjoy under it. 

l/l/nence v^ame the 


Btf JoL ^4. Wik 



It was inevitable that those who have sought to 
destroy the truth of the Prophet Joseph Smith's 
message would misinterpret the temple endow- 
ment. They have set up the theory that Joseph 
Smith merely adapted the temple conception and 
ritual from the rituals of fraternal, secret organiza- 

The charge that the temple endowment is so 
derived is not confirmed by the evidence at hand. 
First, almost from the organization of the 
Church, Joseph promised the people a higher en- 
dowment, a continuation of that received in bap- 
tism. It was to be a gift bestowed upon those 
who had attained a greater maturity in gospel life. 


To this end the Kirtland Temple was hurried 
to completion in 1836, though amidst much toil 
and sacrifice. Then, at the dedication, some 
ordinances were given preparatory to the fuller 
endowment to come. There was nothing new 
about temple work when it came in its greater 
completeness. It was expected. 

Second, on January 19, 1841, when Joseph 
Smith had not yet belonged to a fraternal organiza- 
tion, he recorded a revelation which explains in 
general outline the temple ritual. It says: 

"For there is not a place found on earth that 
he may come to and restore again that which was 
lost unto you, or which he hath taken away, even 
the fulness of the priesthood. . , . 



"Therefore, verily I say unto you, that your 
anointings, and your washings, and your baptisms 
for the dead, and your solemn assemblies, and 
your memorials for your sacrifices by the sons 
of Levi, and for your oracles in your most holy 
places wherein you receive 

conversations, and your 

statutes and judgments, for 
the beginning of the reve- 
lations and foundation of 
Zion, and for the glory, 
honor, and endowment of 

all her municipals, are or- 

dained by the ordinance 

of my holy house, which my people are always 

commanded to build unto my holy name. . , . 

"For I deign to reveal unto my church things 
which have been kept hid from before the founda- 
tion of the world, things that pertain to the dis- 
pensation of the fulness of times. 

"And I will show unto my servant Joseph all 
things pertaining to this house, and the priest- 
hood thereof, and the place whereon it shall be 
built." 1 From the pulpit the Prophet announced 
thenceforth the building of the temple and the 
work to be done therein for the living and the 

On May 4, 1842, he administered the temple 
endowment in rooms in the upper story of his 
brick store, improvised for the purpose. 2 All the 
while, before and after, he gave instructions con- 
cerning the temple to be built and the endowment 
therein to be given. 

Third, many of the men who joined the 
Church were brethren in frater- 





nal circles, such as Hyrum Smith, 
the Prophet's brother, Heber C. 
Kimball, Newel K. Whitney, 
George Miller, Austin Cowjes, John 
Smith, Elijah Fordham, aria others. 
Nowhere can a word be found from 
these many men indicating that 
they placed temple work in a class 
with the ritual of the fraternal orders 

belong to the common heritage of mankind. 
Joseph Smith had the right to employ such com- 
monly used methods and symbols without being 
charged with plagiarizing from any particular 
group. The Prophet taught baptism by immersion; 

but none so far has held 
that he purloined that type 
of baptism from the Bap- 
tists. Immersion comes 
down the ages from the 
days of Jesus Christ and 
before. The beginnings of 

such practices are lost in 

the mists of antiquity. 
The temple ritual is essentially symbolic. Its 
ordinances are not only ancient but also represent 
profound truths. They may be widely used by 
others than Latter-day Saints, but they do not 
have the same meaning in all organizations. 

Fifth, women as well as men receive the temple 
ritual. Only a man and a woman together can 
receive the highest blessings of the temple. 
Usually, perhaps always, men only receive the 
rituals of the many manmade secret societies. The 
women form auxiliary organizations. 

Sixth, there is a great difference between the 
objective of temple work and those of the many 
secret organizations, though they no doubt have 
high ideals of living. 

In the temple endowment the final ideal is that 
by obedience to God's law man may be in as- 
sociation with God. The endowment has the 
promise of eternal growth, of endless blessings. 
This is not the ordinary objective of a man-made 
secret society. 

Seventh, finally it may be said that the temple 
endowment is not secret. All who meet the 
requirements for entrance to the temple may 
enjoy it. Since it is sacred, it is not bandied 
about the streets or in gossiping parlors. It is, 
in outline: the story of man's eternal journey; 
instructions to make the endless journey in- 
creasing and progressive; covenants that we will 
live as to make the journey an upward 


^Arn ^fn,5wer to the (ajueltiond or Lyoum 

to which they belonged. Had there 
been such, some of these men would 
have mentioned it, for not all re- 
mained true to the Church. 

Fourth, that there are similarities 
in the services of the temple and 
some secret organizations may be 
true. These similarities, however, 
do not deal with basic matters but 
rather with the mechanism of the 
ritual. Moreover, they are not pecul- 
iar to any fraternity. They are used 
and have been used by people 
throughout the centuries. They 

ID. & C. 124:28, 39, 41-42 
2 History o[ the Church, Volume 5:1 

as to maKe cne journey an 

one; a warning that sometime we shall be called 

upon to show whether we have 

kept our covenants; and, the great 

reward that comes to the faithful 

and the righteous. 

Every member of another organization will 

know whether this is like his fraternity ritual. 

Many members of secret societies have joined 
the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 
They have been faithful to their covenants. But 
as they have come to the temple of the Lord, they 
have said, in the words of one former member, 
"Secret societies have nothing to teach the Latter- 
day Saints," 

Carefully and intelligently studied, the proposi- 
tion that the Mormon endowment was built 
upon secret fraternal rituals cannot be accepted 
by any thoughtful person. 

Joseph Smith received the temple endowment 
and its ritual, as all else that he promulgated, by 
revelation from God. 







IT was forty years ago last Janu- 
ary 23, that President Levi Ed- 
gar Young was set apart as a mem- 
ber of the First Council of the 
Seventy of the Church. He had 
been sustained during the October 
1909 conference, and Elder John 
Henry Smith of the Council of the 
Twelve set him apart in New York, 
where President Young was follow- 
ing academic pursuits. President 
Young had already accomplished 
much in his life as teacher in Utah 
and missionary for the Church, going 
to Europe in 1901 as a missionary, 
and presiding over the Swiss 
Austrian Mission from 1902-04. 

As a student among students, he 
rose as a faculty member of the 
University of Utah, serving for many 
years as professor and head of the 
department of western history. More 
recently he presided over the New 
England States Mission. He be- 
came senior president of the First 
Council of the Seventy on the death 
of President Rulon S. Wells in 
May 1941. 

President Young celebrates his sev- 
enty-sixth birthday on February 2. 

Daniel Tyler, in his History of 
the Mormon Battalion, tells 
about a book that was exten- 
sively read by the pioneers while 
in their camps in Iowa during the 
winter of 1846. The people had 
crossed the Mississippi River on 
the ice at the beginning of their 
exodus to the Far West, and had 
begun their march in midwinter. 
The cold was intense, and "they 
moved," says Tyler, "in the teeth 
of keen-edged northwest winds, 
such as sweep down the Iowa 
peninsula from the icebound regions 
of the North." Nine children were 
born the first night in the snow 

and icebound camps. "After days 
of fatigue, their nights were often 
spent in restless efforts to save 
themselves from freezing." One of 
the company had a book entitled 
Elizabeth, or the Exiles of Siberia, 
by Marie (Sophie) Cottin, pub- 
lished in 1805. It was a popular 
story in that day and was so sought 
after that some read it from the 
wagons by moonlight. With all 
their suffering, "the people sang 
their songs of Zion as they sat 
around the fires and passed along 
doxologies from front to rear when 
the breath froze on their eyelashes." 






TThe pioneers of Utah were readers of books . . . and the library 
of their fledgling university was possibly the finest ever collected 
in pioneer America. 

^Jhat \jmw worn the ^rdeatd 

The pioneers of Utah were 
readers of books. Many of them 
had received some kind of training 
in the frontier schools of America. 
Orson Pratt was a college graduate, 
as was Orson Spencer. Dr. Willard 
Richards had his medical degree 
from a noted university; and nearly 
every family who crossed the plains 
carried the Holy Bible, which re- 
calls the great saying of John 
Ruskin, "He who reads the Bible 
becomes an educated man." As 
the people began to build their 
homes, they also built meeting- 
houses where the schools of the 
villages and towns might be housed. 
Every child of Utah knows the 
story of Mary Jane Dilworth — 
how she opened a school in the 
Old Fort in October 1847. The 
pupils met in an old tent, shaped 
like an Indian wigwam, and there 
she taught the children until the 
winter snows came. Even when 
it was very cold, the little children 
came to her and huddled in the 
tent, while outside at the entrance 
a fire was kept up, for the burning 
sagebrush was very warm. When- 
ever a group of Latter-day Saints 
went into the valleys both north 
and south of Salt Lake City, schools 
were always opened, and good 
teachers put in charge of them. 

Soon after the organization of 
the provisional government of the 
State of Deseret, in 1850, Governor 
Brigham Young signed an act, 
passed by the first legislative as- 
sembly, incorporating the Univer- 
sity of the State of Deseret. This 
was February 28, 1850, and reads 
in part: 

of me l^eople 





Section I: Be it ordained by the Gen- 
eral Assembly of the State of Deseret: 
That a University is hereby instituted 
and incorporated, located at Great Salt 
Lake City, by the name and title of the 
University of the State of Deseret. 

Section II. The powers of the Univer- 
sity shall be vested in a Chancellor and 
Twelve Regents, the number of which 
regents shall be increased when necessary, 
who shall be chosen by the joint vote of 
both Houses of the General Assembly, and 
shall hold their office for the term of four 
years, and until their successors are quali- 

Section III: The Chancellor shall be 
the chief Executive officer of the Uni- 
versity, and Chairman of the Board of 

The University of Deseret, or 
the "parent school" was opened in 
the home of John Pack in the 
Seventeenth Ward of Salt Lake 

[■^reiidenti or the Mniverdltu 

VERSITY IN 1851 AND FROM 1856 TO 1876 

:-: : 'vy:-'^ : ^ : :::i : :i : :'; : '' : ':::!:::;;; : :ri : 

4* >• 

. • • Wxr 

■ 1 f I 

i * c "1 

I if 

.. ■,'■■'- ■ ■:■■■■ ■ 


»; ' 



City, November 11, 1850. The 
Deseret News of November 16, 


The parent school commenced on Mon- 
day last at Mr. Pack's home, under the 
tuition of Mr. Collins. The object of the 
parent school is to qualify teachers for 
the District or Ward schools, and then for 
a higher order of schools, as fast as pos- 
sible, that there may be a uniformity in 
the method of teaching throughout Deseret. 
We understand that the parent school al- 
ready commenced is designed for gentle- 
men, and that as soon as a room can be 
prepared, another school, similar in its 
object and characters will be instituted for 

(Continued on following page) 






(Continued from preceding page) 

We recommend every man who has any 
design ever to keep a school, to enter 
the parent school, and prosecute his 
studies in such a manner as to prepare 
him for his intended labors; and should 
there not be enough to occupy all the 
room, let the young men, middle aged, 
old men, and all men, married or un- 
married, who do not know too much to 
be taught, come forward as speedily as 
possible and fill the house, keep the 
teacher busy, and give him a chance to 
earn his money. Mr. Collins appears to 
be well qualified to instruct in any branch 
of science, which needs to be taught in 
the parent school, and is very familiar in 
his communications, and affable in man- 
ners, and we confidently anticipate he will 
be enabled to give great satisfaction to his 
patrons. Mr. Collins and pupils have our 
best wishes. 

In the same issue, the News an- 
nounced the arrival of schoolbooks, 
which were brought across the 
plains by Wilford Woodruff. The 
Pack house was situated on the cor- 
ner of West Temple and First 
North immediately east of the 
present Seventeenth Ward chapel. 

The legislature, with the approval 
of the governor, appointed the fol- 
lowing regents: Daniel Spencer, 
Orson Pratt, John M. Bernhisel, 
Samuel W. Richards, W. W. 
Phelps, Albert Carrington, William 
I. Appleby, Daniel H. Wells, Hosea 
Stout, Robert L. Campbell, Elias 
Smith, and Zerubbabel Snow. At 
a subsequent meeting, Governor 
Young announced that he had 


Sflims mi $ir&mU 


/C/tppM|C/i!- Y£,Aj* nS6*- 9 . • 

GENTS IN 1919, 

picked out a site immediately east 
of Salt Lake City for the location 
of the university. A short time 
after, the city council of Salt Lake 
passed an ordinance designating the 
east bench as grazing ground, 
particularly to be used by those who 
worked on the wall that was to 
surround the new campus. The first 
report of the regents says that 
the territorial treasury had given 
$4,589.14 for the university and 
primary schools, and from subscrip- 
tions and donations the amount had 
been increased by the winter of 
1851 to $7,948.08. 


The second term of the Univer- 
sity or Parent School began Mon- 
day, February 17, 1851, in the up- 
per room of the State House, after- 
wards known as the Council House. 
Orson Spencer, the chancellor, and 
Regent W. W. Phelps were the in- 
structors. The school had forty 
students. The following October, 
the school was removed to the 
Thirteenth Ward schoolhouse. At 
the close of the fourth term, in 
1852, the university was discon- 
tinued. The zeal for the building 
of a university in those pioneer 

days was a sign full of promise, 
and is a striking proof of the gov- 
erning spirit and genius of Brig- 
ham Young. The concept of a 
college of art, science, and litera- 
ture was realized when the uni- 
versity was built on the hill east of 
Salt Lake City, in 1890. 

In November 1867, the univer- 
sity was reopened with David O. 
Calder as principal. In February 
1868, Mr. Calder resigned, and 
Dr. John R. Park was called from 
Draper, Utah, to become the presi- 
dent of the institution. The school 
was organized on a new and more 
extensive basis with the announce- 
ment of five courses of study: 
preparatory, commercial, normal, 
scientific, and classical. 

Dr. Park made a careful study 
of the times in which he lived and 
adapted the university courses to 
the real needs of the people. Yet 
he never forgot that education is 
for the spiritualizing of people, and 
not primarily for the mere purpose 
of solving the material problems of 
life. An advocate of the "humani- 





ties," he always printed in the 
university catalogues courses of 
studies that tended to keep before 
the students the spirit of history and 
the classical languages. In the third 
annual catalog, printed in 1870-71, 
we have the following courses of 
study for the classical course. 


Freshman Year 

First Term — Cicero (Orations), Latin 
Prose Composition, Xenophon's Anabasis, 
Greek Prose Composition, Higher Alge- 
bra completed, Natural Philosophy. 

Second Term — Virgil's Aeneid, Latin 

Prose Composition, Xenophon's Anabasis, 

Greek Prose Composition, Cubic and Bi- 

(Continued on page 152) 


Gathering Material 


"Rinding material for a speech is 
sometimes difficult, even though 
we can draw from all of our own 
experiences and those of our as- 
sociates as well as from the world 
of experiences that have been re- 
corded in print. With such vast 
sources of supply we can greatly 
simplify our task by making our 
search systematic. 

Begin by taking an inventory of 
the knowledge you already have. 
Think through your own ideas. Jot 
down your opinions and experiences 
that are related to your subject. If 
you take time to discover what you 
really think, believe, and know of 
your subject, you will find that you 
have much more pertinent informa- 
tion than you had dreamed. Writ- 
ing down your thoughts will not 
only clarify them but will also help 
you to recall them easily when you 
are later actually planning your 

Such introspection will, however, 
reveal a number of gaps in your 
knowledge. You will find that some 
facts are too vague in your memory 
to present to your listeners; for in- 
stance, if your subject is the Word 
of Wisdom, you may recall that 
an absurd amount of money is spent 
on cigarettes annually, but you've 
forgotten the exact amount or there 
will be phases of your subject about 
which you know very little. Per- 
haps you know nothing about the 
chemical reaction of alcohol on the 
body, and you feel you should in- 
clude this point in your speech. 
Your next step then is to fill these 
gaps either by reading or by talk- 
ing to qualified authorities. 

Conversation will often yield rich 
information to you — if you are care- 
ful to evaluate the qualifications of 
the persons with whom you con- 
verse; for instance, if you know an 
excellent doctor, he can probably 
explain clearly and simply to you 
the chemical reaction of alcohol on 
the body. On the other hand, an 
untrained person is likely to give 
you only misleading information. 

There is a personal quality to 
ideas gained through conversation 
that is hard to duplicate; for in- 


For Your 


l i 

<=Loui5e cJLlnton S^aw 



stance, if you are talking about the 
process that the city uses to purify 
its water, you can talk much more 
convincingly if you have visited the 
purification plant than if you have 
merely read about the process. 

When personal contacts have 
been exhausted, however, you 
fortunately can go to the printed 
page for help. In the billions of 
words that are printed each year, 
you can find information on almost 
any subject. The problem here is 
two-fold: how to make sure that 
the author is qualified to write as 
he does and how to know which of 
the millions of books and maga- 
zines contain the data you need. 

The only solution to the first 
problem is to read thoughtfully; for 
instance, one man writes that Mr. X 
would be a better senator than Mr. 
Y. Another writes that Mr. Y 
would be the better senator. Which 
judgment shall you accept? It is 
not enough merely to accept the 
opinion that agrees with the opinion 
you happen to hold. You can find 
truth only if you courageously and 
with an open mind look at the 
qualifications of both writers and 
weigh their opinions carefully. 

The solution to the second prob- 
lem, locating the material you need, 

can be given only in part here. 
Your local librarian will be able 
to give you great aid. A table of 
contents will tell you if your sub- 
ject is treated extensively in a book; 
the index will refer you to more 
specific detail. And do not be dis- 
couraged if you cannot find your 
topic listed as you feel it should be. 
Explore all possibilities; for in- 
stance, in the Book of Mormon 
"Paradise" is indexed under such 
titles as "Alma," "Hell," "Para- 
dise," and "Resurrection." 

Obviously, gathering material for 
a speech is a time-consuming task. 
However, you can save yourself 
many hours of work if you make it 
a constant thing rather than a job 
that you do a day or two before 
your speech. 

Most speakers keep a file on the 
topics in which they are interested. 
Perhaps you have six or eight gen- 
eral subjects on which you would 
enjoy speaking. If so, write these 
subjects down, and always be on 
the lookout for information on them. 
Keep a careful record of this in- 
formation. Some people like to 
use a loose-leaf notebook; they can 
carry it with them wherever they 
go. Others prefer filing cards; they 
can index these more easily and can 
build a larger file. Still others like 
manila folders; they have a folder 
for each subject, and when they 
find a clipping or make a note, they 
merely drop it in the folder. But 
whatever system is used, the fol- 
lowing suggestions will be helpful: 

1. Write on only one side of the paper 
or card and put only one note on a 
page. Otherwise the notes become 
hard to file and use. 

2. Be sure to copy a quotation exactly 
or to summarize it accurately. You 
want to be confident of your informa- 

3. Make a careful note of the source of 
your information. If you got it in 
conversation, write the date and name 
of the person with whom you spoke. 
If you got the information from a 
book, write the name of the author, 
the title of the book, the date and 
place it was published, and the page 
number; if from a magazine, write 
the name of the author, the title of 
the article and of the magazine, the 
date and volume of the magazine, 
and the page number. 

{Concluded on page 139) 


Lyrdon ^y. l/wkltne 




Among those early residents of Salt 
Lake Valley, there was one, 
L Orson Ferguson Whitney, who 
maintained "that a people cannot 
perish as long as its literature lives." 
Throughout his life he pursued the 
fine arts and found expression for 
his own writing almost exclusively 
through the media of poetry and 
poetic prose. He was an avid read- 
er of not only the scripture but the 
classics as well, especially of Homer 
and Milton. His ideal was analo- 
gous to Milton's. His poetry was 
didactic and of a religious nature. 
His philosophy concerning the edu- 
cation of the people shows definite 
Miltonic influence. Elder Whitney 
was constantly reminding his peo- 
ple, through the medium of his pro- 
found verse, what Milton had earlier 

The end, then, of learning is to repair 
the ruins of our first parents by regaining 
to know God aright, and out of that knowl- 
edge to love him, to be like him, as we may 
be the nearest by possessing our souls of 
true virtue, which being united to the 
heavenly grace of faith, makes up the 
highest perfection. 1 

The purpose of writing, then, as 
Elder Whitney saw it, is to draw 
man close to God; more exactly, the 
purpose of poetry is to give man the 
key to the symbolism of the uni- 

In his essay on Poets and Poetry, 
Orson F. Whitney stated: 

There are many who think there is no 
poetry in religion. Such I fear, do not know 
what poetry means, or what religion means. 
Religion is full of poetry and poetry is 
full of religion. . . . The fabled fire that 
Prometheus filched from heaven is not more 

iTohn Milton, Of Education 


strikingly a symbol for poetic inspiration 
than is the Spirit of the eternal God the 
very muse that has inspired all true poetry 
that was ever written. 2 

"Touring the years 1870-1874 at the 
University of Deseret, now the 
University of Utah, Orson F. Whit- 
ney and a few friends organized the 
Wasatch Literary Association. He 
was its first and, four years later, its 
last president. He was then be- 
coming recognized for his poetry, 
and even then he contemplated writ- 
ing an epic poem explaining the 
philosophy and doctrine of Mor- 
monism. However, it was not until 
1904 that his ambition was realized. 
His epic, Etias, was then published 
in an edition de luxe, limited to one 
hundred and fifty copies. Later a 
less pretentious edition was sub- 
scribed for by his friends. 

Previous to this time he had been 
writing lyrical poems of a religious 
nature. No doubt these poems gave 
him the impetus to write a poem of 
the character and scope of Elias. 
Elder Whitney had prayed in poet- 
ry for the conviction and strength 
to undertake this task. His lines in 
"The Poet's Prayer" exemplify this 

God of my fathers! Friend of humankind! 
Almighty molder of creative mind, 
That sitt'st enthroned aloft from mortal ken, 
Showering thy mercies on the sons of men! 

It was this God to whom he 
prayed within his lines; this is the 
God from whom he would seek in- 
spiration to write an epic. He felt 
that if God had endowed him with 
the mind — the sensibility of a poet, 
he would be one, otherwise he would 
fail. In one of his acclaimed critical 
essays, he stated: 

Education cannot make a good poet; 
though it may polish and develop one. The 
poet is the child of nature [of God], and, 
as the old proverb says, "is born not 
made." 8 

(~}rson F. Whitney's literary life 
falls very naturally into three 
divisions. The first, an early poetic 
period, is marked principally by his 
short lyrics and an occasional satire. 
These were published in 1889. His 


£5u /famed (L>. ^J4& 

2 Orson F. Whitney, Poetical 
Lake City, 1899, pp. 165-166 
Vbid.. 159 

Writings of. Salt 


early poems are distinguished by 
their religious fervor, sincerity, and 
conversational tone. They contain, 
generally, richer imagery than his 
later works, though they are, com- 
pared to his later Elias, mere frag- 
ments. The second, or epic period, 
is one in which Elder Whitney be- 
came widely recognized for his 
genius. The third and final period, 
in the light of the Church, is his 
greatest. He was ordained an 
Apostle, April 9, 1906, when he was 
fifty-one. It was then he became 
renowned for his letters and pro- 
phetic counsel. 

Elder Whitney's friends remem- 
ber his poetry for the solace it gave 
to them. His critics, many who have 
never seen him, praise the profundi- 
ty of Elias, knowing little of the 
author himself. 

Elias- — An Epic of the Ages is. 
as the author states in the foreword 
of his book: 

An attempt to present, in verse form, 
historically, doctrinally, and prophetically, 
the vast theme comprehended in what the 
world terms "Mormonism." 

In the "Argument," he briefly de- 
fines his purpose as follows: 

The aim of this poem is to point out 
those manifestations of the Divine Mind 
and those impulsions from human enter- 
prise which have contributed in all ages 
to the progress of the race toward perfec- 
tion. 4 

At the time Orson F. Whitney 
started this poem, he was ill. He 
prayed in all humility that he might 
live to realize his ambitions, the 
greatest being the creation of Elias, 
for he desired more than anything 
else in the world to continue his 
ministry as a teacher after his mortal 
tongue was stilled. He recovered 
from his illness and was inspired to 
write this epic and perform many 
good material deeds before his 

^Whitney, Etias, An Epic of the Ages. Salt Lake 
City, 1914, ix 

(Continued on page 148) 

Water Under 3L Bridge 

Gig stood in the lane leading to the 
farmhouse. He looked at it 
hungrily, letting the feel of it 
soak into his heart. 

There it was — the place he'd 
dreamed of for three years. The place 
he'd wondered many times if he'd 
ever see again. Home! 

He flung his half-filled barracks bag 
on the ground, drew in a deep lung 
full of the crisp, autumn air, and sat 
down a moment to brace himself for 
the ordeal ahead. 

Three years ago he had left that 
house with a feeling of dread, but 
a different kind of dread. Then — 
he'd been headed for the unknown, 
but now . . . . " 

Smoke was drift- 
ing lazily from the 
chimney. A peace- 
ful, American 

The little farm- 
house in Germany 
had looked peace- 
ful too. Until sud- 
denly everything 
had blown up. It 
had happened so 
fast that they hadn't 
had a chance. They 
had been sitting 
there eating, of all 
things, fried eggs. 

It was a different 
kind of egg that had 
blown him across 
the room, where minutes or hours 
later, he didn't know which, he'd 
looked with listless eyes at the 
mangled bodies of his buddies. He'd 
seen too much of that in the past 
three years. 

Do people ever forget those things, 
he wondered. Could a man take up 
where he had left off before the war? 
He remembered a letter his brother 
Joe had sent him while he was con- 
valescing in a hospital in France. 

The letter had surprised him, for 
Joe had written things in that letter 
he'd never imagined Joe felt. Deep, 
understanding things, that had helped 
him face the long, weary months. 

But now, all that was past. He was 
home — or was it home, now? Would 
he be just Gig to them here, or would 
he be the battle-torn mental case re- 
turning from the wars, to be treated 
with kid gloves, to be coddled and 

He shook off this mood, and 
shouldering his bag, started slowly up 
the lane. He remembered four years 
ago, about this time of year. He'd 


& Wliton 1U 



been duck hunting and was returning 
with the limit. Cool, fall days — how 
good they'd been! Life had been 
easy then. Luxuries like fried eggs 
had been taken for granted. 

He remembered how Joe had 
scowled at him that morning at break- 
fast when he'd said he was going after 
ducks. Joe was teetering back in his 
chair. "Duck huntin', eh?" he'd 
growled, "Wish I had time for such 
as that. Somebody's got to dig those 
beets. Guess I'm the goat." 

Gig had known that he didn't mean 

anything. He just liked to grumble. 

A pang of homesickness hit him. It 
would be heaven to hear Joe grumble 
again. Panic shook him. What if 
they treated him as a psychosis case? 
He couldn't take that. He just 

He approached the house, and 
leaned against the jamb a moment be- 
fore opening the door. 

Mary was setting the table. The 
smell of food . . . the warm kitchen 
. . . all, just as he had seen it last. 

Joe rose from his chair, laid the 
paper down carefully, before grasp- 
ing Gig's hand in a crushing grip. He 
looked deeply into the younger man's 
eyes. "Well, look who's here! In 
time for supper, I see." 

Mary smiled and nodded. They 
had never been a demonstrative fam- 

Joe carried the conversation for 
the next few minutes — idle, familiar 
talk, new methods and ideas Joe had 
for the improvement of the farm. 

Mary said finally, "Supper's on." 

They ate in silence for a few 
moments. How soon, Gig thought. 
How soon before the questions start, 
before morbid curiosity overcomes 

There was little talk during the 
meal. Mary remarked that the milk 
production had fallen off, but the 
hens were laying good for this time 
of year. 

Joe finished and pushed back his 
chair, teetering lazily back and forth. 
"Well, Gig," his voice sounded loud 
in Gig's ears, "your workin' clothes 
are waitin' for you. Been a hard 
haul without you. Seems to me," he 
added, "you could'a stayed home 
where you'd'a done some good. 
Stead' a gallivantin 
all over the coun- 

Gig looked fixed- 
ly at his plate, not 
trusting himself to 
speak. What a fool 
he'd been! Of 
course his brother 
would know noth- 
ing of psychosis, 
battle fatigue, or 
shattered, raw 
nerves. He read 
very little, and in 
this peaceful, rural 
section, the war had 
probably seemed 
unreal; a nightmare 
in another world. 
He looked up, the 
tightness around his mouth relaxing as 
he watched Joe picking his teeth un- 

"Well, anyhow, you're here now." 
Joe grumbled, "It's five in the mornin' 
for you, my lad. Lotta work to catch 
up on." 

Gig grinned. "Oh, yeah? Looks 
like good duck weather to me. Might 
be I'll go over to Beck's pond in the 

Joe teetered back in his chair, eye- 
ing him shrewdly. "Humph! Ain't 
changed a bit, have ya? Well, some- 
body's got to dig those beets. Guess 
I'm the goat." 

Later when Gig had been long 
asleep, Joe looked thoughtfully at 
Mary. "The boy's been through a lot, 
Mary, but him havin' only one leg 
won't handicap him any, if we help." 

Mary pressed his arm softly, nod- 
ding her head so he wouldn't notice 
the shine in her eye was suddenly 
blotted with tears. 


^-Illustration by William M, Johnson 


THE compiler of this article was 
once greatly puzzled and per- 
turbed over the complete absence 
of Baal names in the Book of Mor- 
mon. By what unfortunate oversight 
had the authors of that work failed 
to include a single name containing 
the element Baal, which thrives 
among the personal names of the 
Old Testament? Having discovered, 
as we thought, that the book was in 
error, we spared no criticism at the 
time, and indeed had its neglect 
of Baal names not been strikingly 
vindicated in recent years it would 
be a black mark against it. Now 
we learn that the Book of Mormon 
stubborn prejudice against Baal 
names is really the only correct atti- 
tude it could have taken, and this 
discovery, flying in the face of all 
our calculations and preconceptions, 
should in all fairness weigh at least 
as heavily in the book's favor as the 
supposed error did against it. 

It just so happens that for some 
reason or other the Jews, at the 
beginning of the sixth century B.C., 
would have nothing to do with 
Baal names. An examination of 
Elephantine name lists shows that 
". . . the change of Baal names, by 
substitution, is in agreement with 
Hosea's foretelling that they should 
no more be used by the Israelites, 
and consequently it is most inter- 
esting to find how the latest ar- 
chaeological discoveries confirm the 
Prophet, for out of some four hun- 
dred personal names among the 
Elephantine Papyri not one is com- 
pounded of Baal . . . "° 7 * 

Since Elephantine was settled 
largely by Jews who fled from Jeru- 
salem after its destruction, their 
personal names should show the 
same tendencies as those in the 
Book of Mormon. Though the 
translator of the Book of Mormon 
might by the exercise of super- 
human cunning have been warned 
by Hosea 2:17 to eschew Baal 
names, yet the meaning of that 
passage is so far front obvious that 
Albright as late as 1942 finds it 
"... very significant that seals and 
inscriptions from Judah, which . . . 
are very numerous in the seventh 
and early sixth centuries, seem 
never to contain any Baal names." 68 

*Numbers refer to bibliography at end of article 



EH1 in the 


It is very significant indeed, but 
hardly more so than the uncanny 
acumen which the Book of Mormon 
displays on this point. 

Let us close our short disgression 
on names with a quotation from 
Margoliouth. Speaking of the oc- 
currence of a few Arabic names in 
the Old Testament, that authority 
observes, "Considering . . . that the 
recorded names are those of an in- 
finitesimal fraction of the popula- 
tion, the coincidence is extraordi- 

erary device that is highly charac- 
teristic of Egyptian compositions. 62 
Typical is the famous Bremer-Rhind 
Papyrus, which opens with a 
colophon containing ( 1 ) the date, 

( 2 ) the titles of Nasim, the author, 

(3) the names of his parents and 
a word in praise of their virtues, 
with special mention of his father's 
prophetic calling, ( 4 ) a curse 
against anyone who might "take 
away" the book, probably "due to 
fear lest a sacred book should get 

TThere is ample evidence in the Book of Mormon 
that Lehi was an expert on caravans, as one would 

nary." 5S This consideration applies 
with multiple force to the very fre- 
quent coincidence of Book of Mor- 
mon names with non-Biblical Old 
World names. 

There is much in Nephi's writing 
to show that, as he claims, he is 
writing in Egyptian- — not merely in 
Egyptian characters, as some have 
maintained. 80 When Nephi tells us 
that his record and that of his 
father are in the language of the 
Egyptians (not that the language of 
his father was the language of the 
Egyptians), we can be sure he 
means just that. And what could 
be more natural than that he should 
choose to record his message, ad- 
dressed not only to the Jews but also 
"to all the house of Israel" (I Nephi 
19:19) and all the Gentiles {Ibid., 
13:39-40) in a world language 
rather than in his own tribal He- 
brew?" 1 Did not later Jews adopt 
Greek, an international world lan- 
guage, in preference to Hebrew, 
even as a vehicle of holy writ, for 
the purpose of commanding the 
widest possible hearing not only 
among the Gentiles but also among 
the Jews themselves? 

The first three verses of I Nephi, 
sharply set off from the rest of the 
text, are a typical colophon, a lit— 

into impure hands." 88 Compare this 
with Nephi's colophon: (1) his 
name, (2) the merits of his parents, 
with special attention to the learn- 
ing of his father, ( 3 ) a solemn 
avowal (corresponding to Nasim's 
curse) that the record is true, and 
the assertion, "I make it with mine 
own hand" — an indispensable con- 
dition of every true colophon, since 
the purpose of a colophon is to 
establish the identity of the actual 
writer-down (not merely the ulti- 
mate author) of a text. 0i Egyptian 
literary writings regularly close with 
the formula "and so it is."' Nephi 
ends sections of his book with 
the phrase, "And thus it is, Amen." 
The great preoccupation and con- 
cern displayed in the Book of Mor- 
mon for matters of writing, Lehi's 
passion for writing everything down 
(Ibid,, 1:16), and the obvious pride 
of writers in their skill, are peculiar- 
ly Egyptian. Nephi's "I make it 
with mine own hand," is simply the 
Egyptian "written with my own 
fingers," and we can almost hear 
Nephi speaking in the words of an 
Egyptian sage: "Copy thy fathers 
who have gone before thee. . . . 
Behold, their words are recorded 
in writing. Open and read and 
copy. . . . Certainly Nephi him- 

Dm ^Mnak 



,, PL 2). 

were mystified to find that a demotic whence thou art sprung . . . the land 

prophecy datable to the time of is utterly perished, and nought re- 

Bocchoris ( 718-712 B.C.), in which mains ... the earth is fallen into 

coming destructions were predicted misery for the sake of yon food of 




self was diligent in keeping this 
seboyet.™' It was the Egyptian, not 
the Hebrew gentleman who adver- 
tised his proficiency in the arts of 
the scribe. 07 Thoroughly Egyptian 
also is Lehi's didactic spirit and his 
habit of giving long formal ad- 
dresses on moral and religious sub- 
jects "in the manner of the fathers" 
to his sons. Like a good Egyptian 
he wrote all this down, of course. 

with the promise of a Messiah to 
follow, was put into the mouth of 
"the Lamb" (pa hib). 70 Greek 
sources inform us that this prophecy 
enjoyed very great circulation in 
ancient times. 71 The strange word- 
ing of Lehi's great prophecy, ut- 
tered by "the Lamb" (Ibid., 13:34, 
41 ) is thus seen to be no anachro- 
nism, taken from Hellenistic or 
Christian times, as was once 

Typical of the Egyptian prophets 
is one Neferrohu, whose prophecies, 
though of uncer- 
tain date, were 

The form of these discourses, with credited with great 

their set introductions and formal 
imagery" might have come right out 
of an Egyptian schoolroom, though 
their content smacks more of the 
"learning of the Jews," as Nephi 
himself observes. (Ibid., 1:2.) Both 
in form and content, however, the 
writings of the prophets and the 
wisdom of Israel are found to re- 
semble the prophetic and "wisdom" 
literature of Egypt very closely, " 
so that we need not be surprised 
if Lehi's prophecies do the same. At 
the end of the last century scholars 

antiquity. This 
man describes him- 
self as a com- 
moner, but withal 
a valiant man and 
"a wealthy man of 
great possessions," 
and he is proud of 
his skill as a scribe. Like Lehi in 
other things, he recalls also that he 
brooded much "over what should 
come to pass in the land," and hav- 
ing done so was moved to prophesy: 
"Up my heart, and bewail this land 

J-Jis family accuse Lehi of 
folly in leaving Jeru- 
salem and do not spare his 
personal feelings in making 
fun of his dreams and vi- 
sions, yet they never ques- 
tion his ability to lead 



aph by Three Lions 

Twenty-six hundred years ago the Jews felt themselves much closer to the people of the desert 
than they ever have since. They themselves were desert people originally, and they had not forgotten it. 


the Bedouins who pervade the 
land. . . . Yet he looks forward 
to a savior-king who is to come.' 72 
The situation is not unique but is 
a characteristic one both in Egypt 
and Judah, and no one could deny 
that if Lehi was not a fact, he was 
at least a very authentic type. Nephi 
says his father was but one among 
many prophets in his own day. 

Lehi and the Arabs 

Lehi was very rich, and he was a 
trader, for his 
wealth was in the 
form of "all man- 
ner of precious 
things" such as 
had to be brought 
from many places. 
Very significant is 
the casual notice 
that he once had a 
vision in a desert 
place "as he went forth" (Ibid., 
1:5): as he went he prayed, we are 
told, and as he prayed a vision came 
to him. The effect of the vision 
was to make him hasten back "to 
his own house at Jerusalem," where 
he had yet greater visions, showing 
that it was not necessary for him 
to "go forth" either to pray or to 
have visions; he did not go forth 
expecting a vision, but one came to 
him in the course of a regular jour- 
ney as he went about his business 
and forced him to change his plans. 
Lehi's precious things and gold 
came to him in exchange for his 
wine, oil, figs, and honey (of which 
he seems to know a good deal), not 
only by sea (hence the great im- 
portance of Sidon) but necessarily 
by caravan as well. There is ample 
evidence in the Book of Mormon 
that Lehi was an expert on cara- 
vans, as one would expect. Con- 
sider a few general points before 
we introduce particulars. 

Upon receiving a warning dream, 
Lehi is ready, apparently at a 
moment's notice, to take his whole 
"family, and provisions, and tents" 
out into the wilderness. While he 
took absolutely nothing but the 
most necessary provisions with him 
( Ibid., 2:4), he knew exactly what 
those provisions should be, and 
(Continued on following page) 


(Continued from preceding page) 
when he has to send back to the 
city to supply unanticipated wants, 
it was for records that he sent and 
not for any necessaries for the 
journey. This argues a high de- 
gree of preparation and knowledge 
in the man, as does the masterly 
way in which he established a base 
camp in order to gather his forces 
for the great trek, in the best ac- 
cepted manner of modern explorers 
in Arabia. 7 ' Up until Lehi leaves 
that base camp, that is, until the day 
when he receives the Liahona, he 
seems to know just where he is 
going and exactly what he is do- 
ing: there is here no talk of being 
"led by the Spirit, not knowing be- 
forehand ..." as in the case of 
Nephi in the dark streets of Jeru- 
salem. (Ibid,, 4:7.) 

His family accuse Lehi of folly 
in leaving Jerusalem and do not 
spare his personal feelings in mak- 
ing fun of his dreams and visions, 
yet they never question his ability 
to lead them. They complain, like 
all Arabs, against the terrible and 
dangerous deserts through which 
they pass, but they do not include 
ignorance of the desert among theii 
hazards, though that would be their 
first and last objection to his wild 
project were the old man nothing 
but a city Jew unacquainted with 
the wild and dangerous world of the 
waste places. 

Lehi himself never mentions 
inexperience among his obstacles. 
Members of the family laugh 
contemptuously when Nephi pro- 
poses to build a ship (Ibid., 
17:17-20) and might well have 
quoted the ancient proverb, "Show 
an Arab the sea and a man of 
Si don the desert." 74 But while they 
tell him he is "lacking in judgment" 
to build a ship, they never mock 
their brother as a hunter or a dude 
in the desert. The fact that he 
brought a fine steel bow with him 
[torn home and that he knew well 
how to use that difficult weapon 
shows that Nephi had hunted much 
in his short life. 

Lehi has strong ties with the 
desert in his family background. 
Twenty-six hundred years ago the 
Jews felt themselves much closer to 
the people of the desert than they 
ever have since. 75 They themselves 
were desert people originally, and 


they never forgot it; for them the 
desert was always just next door, 
and there was a constant going and 
coming between the two realms, 76 
especially in the days of great com- 
mercial activity. 77 The Jews always 
felt a spiritual affinity with the 
nomad which they never felt to- 
wards the settled cultivators of 
Palestine. 78 

We have often been told that 
the patriarchs were wandering 
Bedouins; 79 their language was that 
of the desert people; many of whose 
words are to this day closer to 
Hebrew than to modern Arabic. 80 

This ostracon, found at Elath (Tell el-Kheleifeh, 
the site of King Solomon's copper refineries on the 
Gulf of 'Aqaba) in 1940, dates from the fifth or 
fourth century B.C. The second line reads Ihy 
'bid] . . . "Lhy the servant of ... " The letters 
of the name are the same as those in the place-name 
Lehi in Judges 15:9, 14, 19, and this object definite- 
ly proves the occurrence of Lehi (Prof. Glueck 
vocalizes it Lahai) as a personal name among the 
desert people in ancient times. (After a facsimile 
copy illustrating an article by Nelson Glueck i~ *:ie 
Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Re- 
search, No. 80 (Dec. 1940), p. 5, fig. 2). 

Of recent years the tendency has 
been more and more to equate He- 
brew and Arab, and Guillaume con- 
cludes the latest study on the sub- 
ject with the dictum that the two 
words are really forms of the same 
name, both referring originally to 
"the sons of Eber." 81 The name 
Arab is not meant to designate any 
particular race, tribe, or nation but 
a way of life: Arab means simply 
a man of the desert and was applied 
by the Jews to their own cousins 
who remained behind in the wilder- 
ness after they themselves had 
settled down in the city and coun- 

Now of all the tribes of Israel 
Manasseh was the one which lived 

farthest out in the desert, came into 
most frequent contact with the 
Arabs, intermarried with them most 
frequently, and at the same time had 
the closest of traditional bonds with 
Egypt. 83 And Lehi belonged to the 
tribe of Manasseh. (Alma 10:3.) 
The prominence of the name of 
Ammon in the Book of Mormon 
may have something to do with the 
fact that Ammon was Manasseh's 
closest neighbor and often fought 
her in the deserts east of Jordan; 
at the same time a prehistoric con- 
nection with the Ammon of Egypt 
is not at all out of the question. 84 
The semi-nomadic nature of Manas- 
seh might explain why Lehi seems 
out of touch with things in Jeru- 
salem. For the first time he "did 
discover" from records kept in 
Laban's house that he was a direct 
descendant of Joseph. Why hadn't 
he known that all along? Nephi 
always speaks of "the Jews at Jeru- 
salem" with a curious detachment, 
and no one in I Nephi ever refers 
to them as "the people" or "our 
people" but always quite imperson- 
ally as "the Jews." It is interesting 
in this connection that the Elephan- 
tine letters speak only of Jews and 
Aramaeans, never of Israelites, 85 
while Lachish Letter No. 6 de- 
nounces the prophet for spreading 
defeatism both in the country and 
in the city, showing that Lehi could 
have been active in either sphere. 
Even the remark that Lehi "dwelt 
at Jerusalem in all his days" would 
never have been made by or for 
people who had never lived any- 
where else, and a dwelling "at 
Jerusalem" would be an aid rather 
than a hindrance to much travel. 88 
There is one clear indication that 
Lehi's forefathers were not natives 
of Jerusalem. We learn in Mosiah 
1 :4 that certain plates were written 
"in the language of the Egyptians." 
Nephi informs us (I Nephi 3:19) 
that these same plates were in "the 
language of our fathers," and that 
the possession of them was neces- 
sary if a knowledge of that lan- 
guage was to be preserved among 
his people. Lehi's children could 
have produced from their own re- 
sources any number of books in 
their own language, so that when 
Nephi expresses his belief that with- 
out that one volume of plates a 
language will be lost — the ancient 
{Continued on page 155) 

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1 '. ,«•'■ «v''..v 



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Toe c«/ wor? 

■ sharply in and 
took the inside 
■track. . . . 

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Verne Amos slid to a stop at the 
edge of the ice pond and 
stepped up by the bonfire 
among the group of boys clustered 

"Hi," he said casually. 

Half a dozen of the boys an- 
swered him, just as casually. Then 
they went on with their talk. 

Verne warmed himself, listening. 
He wanted to enter the conversa- 
tion but contented himself with 
looking interested. He had tried 
to enter their conversations before, 
but some of his opinions had met 
with disapproval. And, disap- 
proved, they had brought on the 
remark that he was "like his dad, 
always wanting to have things his 
own way." So now he remained 


silent, satisfied to pick up the quiet 
feeling of friendship that came to 
him simply by standing among 

He hardly understood just what 
it was that kept them from accept- 
ing him as one of them. Somehow 
he had the feeling it was his father's 
money. It wasn't his fault his 
father owned the factory where 
many of their fathers worked nor 
that his father was the richest man 
in town. And he had no intention 
of taking advantage of his position. 
Nevertheless, there it was, and he 
learned through bitter lessons to 
accept what the other boys were 
willing to give and not to try to 
force his way among them. 

He slipped away from them and 

©irrlo;flje pond to join the game 
of^]5'6pLp-pqm.p-pull-away that was 
g : Qifi;g;-"on. Here he was on his 
eWff.Tahd the rest of the players 
had to accept him as an object to 
chased, 'Cwhen he came dashinq 
through them. 

^Jxt& : Brownj one of the boys at 
the rTr^'^vatched Verne go. 
.,, : J'Sqme skates he's got," he said, 
a ( slight, note of envy creeping into 
his voice. He looked down at his 
own, an old-fashioned pair that 
clamped to his shoes. 

'Yeah," Tad Nelson said, "his 
"ited gets him anything he wants. 
Nothin' but the best, either." 

"Soft," Joe said. "Wish I had 
'em, and he had another pair just 
like 'em." 

"Bet you could get 'em, Joe," 
Terry Lane spoke up. 

"Yeah? How?" 

"Pal around with him," Terry 
said. "He gave Bert a keen tennis 
racket just because Bert played 
with him, and his racket was worn 

'Yeah, sure," Joe said, "but who 
wants that? First thing you know 
he'd be buying his way in with all 
of us, and then he'd want to run 
things to suit himself. Nobody's 
going to buy me." 

That ended the conversation, and 
they all drifted onto the pond to 
join the game. 

Joe was the recognized leader of 
"the gang." As with so many other 
things, his poverty did not keep 
him from that. And his widowed 
mother was proud that he tried to 
keep them playing the game fair 
and square. 

But Joe's very poverty made him 
feel that Verne's riches were a 
menace to him. People with money 
got used to buying things with it, 
and if you weren't careful, they'd 
be buying you. Once they had you 
bought and paid for, you had to 
(Continued on following page) 



(Continued from preceding page) 
do what they wanted. So he in- 
stinctively had snubbed Verne, and 
he snapped back at anyone who 
made a mild protest. 

On the pond the game was going 
on. Joe and his pals joined Verne 
and the few others who remained 
among the uncaught. There were 
more skaters trying to catch them 
now than there were trying to get 
through the lines. As they started 
through, each of them knew his 
chance of getting through without 
being caught was pretty slim. 

They started down in a body 
then spread out over the full width 
of their marked course. Next they 
tried to weave through the skaters 
coming to meet them. Skate skil- 
fully as they did, Verne was the 
only one to get through. 

Then they all turned to get him 
on the return run. He started out 
from the middle of the pond, then 
cut sharply over toward one side. 
Like a flock of sheep every skater 
on the pond started toward that 
side to meet him. Then, when they 
were pretty well bunched, Verne 
doubled back and streaked toward 
the other side of the course, hoping 
to run around them. 

Joe had been in the lead of the 
skaters, and now he took off across 
the pond right behind Verne. Strok- 
ing with all his might, he tried to 
close the small gap between them, 
but it was no use. Verne kept out 
of his way. They were nearing the 
edge of the course, and it was 
necessary for Verne to make a turn 
to his right to keep within bounds. 
Crossing foot over foot, and throw- 
ing all the force he could into it, 
he came around, picking up a lit- 
tle speed as he did so. 

Joe now had the inside track, 
but he was unable to gain any 
ground. Verne was outskating him. 

Suddenly a few other skaters 
who had angled back across the 
pond instead of following Joe and 
Verne almost straight across and 
then down the opposite side, ap- 
peared in front of them. Verne 
tried to weave through them, but 
one of them slapped him on the 
back as he darted through. That 
ended the game. 

At his home that night, Joe's 
mother said to him. "You don't 

play with Verne Amos very much, 
do you?" 

"A little," Joe said, looking sur- 

"I've noticed he doesn't get in 
with your gang," his mother con- 
tinued. "I wonder why? He seems 
such a nice boy, too." 

"Oh, he's all right," Joe said; 
"only he just doesn't belong." 

"Why doesn't he belong?" his 
mother persisted. 

"Well, gee," Joe squirmed a lit- 
tle, "if we let him in with us, he'll 
want to run things just because he's 
got plenty of money. 

"I see," his mother replied. 

Joe felt uncomfortable. He knew 
his mother did see. He felt more 
explanation was needed. 

"Well," he said defensively, 
"people like him think their money 
will buy anything." 

"Maybe we make them that 
way," his mother said quietly. "You 
see, people like Verne need friends 
just as you and I do. We give our 
friendship to others, but sometimes 
we won't give it to people with 
money like Verne because we're 
afraid of what they'll do. And 
when we won't give them our 
friendship, all they can do is try 
to buy it. Perhaps if we gave it 
to them, they would be just as good 
friends as anyone else." 

"Maybe," Joe said doubtfully, 
and his mother wisely dropped the 

The following Saturday brought 

the town's ice carnival. Everyone 
turned out to the ice pond to skate, 
to eat barbequed sandwiches, and 
to try to win one of the prizes 
given in the contests. Joe and his 
gang were there, their spirits high. 
And Verne was there, too, but he 
was just quietly friendly, not mak- 
ing any advances. 

Joe skated over to the huge bon- 
fire for a sandv/ich. One of the 
ladies made one for him, and then 
he noticed Mr. Amos helping them. 

"Hello, Joe," Mr. Amos said, 

"Hello, Mr. Amos," Joe said, 
feeling a little overawed. 

He began to munch his sand- 
wich. Mr. Amos looked friendly 
enough. t He was working with the 
others just as if he didn't have ten 
times as much money as all the rest 
of them. Maybe he would be hap- 
pier, too, if people were friendly 
with him just as they were with 
everyone else. Maybe his mother 
was right. She was working there, 
too, and she was friendly with 
him. She even called him "Will" 
right in front of everyone else. 

"Joe," Mr. Amos was talking to 
him again, "here's something you'd 
like." He held up a pair of skates. 
"That's the prize for the race you'll 
be in." 

"Gee," Joe took them and looked 
at them, "they're swell." 

"They tell me you're a good 
enough skater to win them," Mr. 
Amos said. 

Joe grinned a little. "Gee, I don't 
know," he said humbly. "I'm afraid 
Verne is better than I am." 

Mr. Amos laughed, "Well, I 
hope you win them anyway." 

Joe went back to the pond. A 
pair of skates like that! He would 
give almost anything for them. He 
was pretty sure he could beat all 
of the boys but Verne. And he 
was pretty sure Verne could beat 
him. A thought struck him. May- 
be if he was friendly with Verne, 
Verne would let him win. He was 
immediately ashamed of himself. 
He wouldn't do that. He believed 
in winning fair and square, if he 
did win. He remembered what his 
mother had said. Maybe that 
wasn't fair to Verne, either. Maybe 
he wanted to win fair and square, 

(Continued on page 131) 

^4 J^tor 


iSion an 

d ^Tccomplishment . 

p x 

Ann Mousley Cannon 

Have faith 

Seek knowledge 

Safeguard health 

Honor womanhood 

Understand beauty 

Know work 

Love truth 

Taste the sweetness of service 

Feel joy 

Iong before the "Spirit of the 
Hive" was formulated in these 
words, its ideals dominated the 
life of Ann Mousley Cannon. Her 
eager quest for knowledge began 
early' ( she was born 
September 29, 
1869) and contin- 
ued through all her 
life. Her faith in 
womanhood, her ap- 
preciation of health, 
her love of service 
helped in the estab- 
lishment of the Bee-Hive work. 

For some years she had been 
watching her nieces, as well as girls 
everywhere. She heard their com- 
plaints at irksome household tasks; 

O/ l/l/ladeLn Stewart SlL 


ventures; she chaperoned groups on 
hikes and canyon parties. She read 
all she could about the Girl Guides 
organized in England to parallel the 
Boy Scouts, and the Camp Fire 
Girls organized in America by Dr. 
and Mrs. Luther H. Gulick. 

President Martha H. Tingey of 
the Young Ladies' Mutual Improve- 
ment Association appointed her to 
investigate and formulate some ac- 
tivity for young 
women. Almost im- 
mediately Sister 
Cannon entered in- 
to correspondence 
with Dr. Gulick and 
organized a Camp 
Fire group. The 
members included 
Cannon, Maurine Bennion, 
Edith Teudt, Annie Merrill, Aledia 
Tobiason, and Madelyn Stewart. 
Later this group was enlarged to 
include Venice Morris, Ada Olson, 
she heard them discuss stories of . Lilly Thalmann, Marie Cook, and 
boarding school and girl group ad- Marie Hjorth. All were members of 

^nnie Cannon nev- 
er called the organ- 
ization the Mutual. 
She spoke ahvays of it 
as Muttial Improve- 


Graduating class, University of Deseret 1886. Edna Wells (Sloan), left, Ann M. Cannon, right. 


the Forest Dale Ward. For about 
two years these girls met in regular 
activities which included camping 
trips, ceremonial fires, the awarding 
and wearing of the Indian costume 
and leather thongs of honor beads. 
All this was under the direction of 
Ann M. Cannon, assisted part of 
the time by a young English con- 
vert, Lydia Champion. 

Presently a number of wards in 
the Church were selected to experi- 
ment with Camp Fire work as part 
of the Young Ladies' Mutual Im- 
provement Association. During all 
this time Sister Cannon was examin- 
ing the values and difficulties of 
Camp Fire work as a Church 
project. Expense was one of the 
greatest problems, so it was sug- 
gested that the Church organize a 
girls' group of its own. 

The general board committee was 
composed of Ann M. Cannon as 
chairman; Charlotte Stewart, an ex- 
pert in all phases of recreation and 
health; Emily C. Adams, a woman 
of wide experience and excellent 
judgment; and Elen Wallace, a true 
poet possessed of great spiritual in- 
sight and inspiration. Rachel Grant 
Taylor was an early member, but 
later was transferred to another 

These four women analyzed and 
studied many fields of activity for 
girls and young women. They 
sought professional advice and 
recommendation in planning work 
in the various fields. 

(Continued on page 134) 


Elaine covered the vague disquiet 
of her mind with a smile. Being 
in love was a blow-hot-blow- 
cold affair, with never any time for 
level analysis — even for a sociology 
major. It was like traffic with green 
lights for straight ahead one min- 
ute and the next all signals flash- 
ing red for stop, only it was too 
late for red signals now, with 
Craig's diamond sparkling on her 
finger. At the moment the lights 
were green, for wasn't Craig here 
at precisely six o'clock, beautifully 
on time to take her to church on 
this Sunday evening? 

All the time she had spent dress- 
ing was rewarded by the look in 
his eyes as she came down the 
stairs of Stanley Hall. His approv- 
ing glance noted the blonde bob, 
feathered back from her face, the 
turquoise blouse, and the slim black 
skirt. He gave a low whistle and 
crossed the room in two strides. 

"Craig, not here!" she said, not- 
ing his intent — no telling how many 
of the girls would be peering over 
the banisters. 

"Then let's get out of here, my 
pigeon," he said promptly. Craig's 
impetuosity was thrilling. 

His car was out in front. She 
knew by the slight movements of 
the upper curtains that the girls 
were watching them and waved at 
the windows impishly. Not one of 
them but envied her Craig, the most 
handsome and "lucrative" date at 
the U, and undoubtedly the most 

"What's the matter? Do they 
spy on you?" 

"Oh, Craig, no! Not spy. They're 
just interested. Mainly in you. You 
are considered the catch of the year, 
you know." 

"I don't believe it," said Craig, 
but his expression softened. He did 
believe it, Elaine knew, because he 
thrust out his chin in a little, un- 
conscious gesture of pride. Perhaps 
one day she would love that gesture 
as her mother loved the springy 
way her father walked. 

"/^raic we've passed the chapel," 
she said, rousing to look 

"Right," said Craig. 

"But it is time for church." 

"We're not going to church to- 
night, Elaine." 

"But, Craig! We planned to go. 
You promised." 

While Dancing The 

"I've changed my mind," Craig 

said shortly. 

"Oh," said Elaine, sudden anger 
boiling up in her, and there was a 
stiff silence. 

Three blocks farther on Craig 
slid her a sidelong glance. "It's 
spring, Elaine. I want you to my- 
self. Do you have to go to church?" 

"No," said Elaine, melting. "But 
I should be there. Tm the stake 
dance director, you know, and all 
the officers — " 

"Duty! They won't miss you 

"That isn't it," said Elaine. "I 
wanted to go." 

"Wanted to go to church?" 
echoed Craig in disbelief. 

"Particularly tonight. I wanted 
to find out who the new dance di- 
rector for the M Men is going to 
be. Then, too, Paul Delaby is home 
from his mission. He is the speaker 
tonight, and I wanted to go very 

"Paul Delaby? Who is he? Some 
special friend of yours?" 

There was quick and unmistak- 
able suspicion in Craig's voice. 

"Certainly. Paul and I have been 
friends for years — ever since I 
moved into this ward to go to the 
U. He was my first friend when 

I was a green little homesick 

"Somebody you used to go out 
with," guessed Craig. 

"Well yes. Occasionally," ad- 
mitted Elaine. "But I don't see—" 

"I do, quite well!" answered 
Craig shortly. 

They drove on in uncomfortable 
silence, an edge of enmity between 
them again — past the monument and 
the zoo, into the mouth of the can- 
yon. This time it was Elaine who 
had to break the silence. 

"Craig," she said tentatively, "it 
is you I am engaged to." 

Craig looked at her under dark 
brows and pulled to the side of 
the road. "I'm sorry," he said, tak- 
ing her into his arms. "Believe me, 
Elaine, it's because I love you so 
much. I'm jealous of everything 
that takes you away from me. Of 
school, of church — that stake danc- 
ing — and of every boy you ever 
went out with. After we're married 
all that will be changed. I want you 
all for my own." 

Through the pleasure of having 
things cleared between them, a lit- 
tle fear crept in. What would 
marriage to Craig be like? When- 
ever she thought of marriage, she 
thought of her mother and father. 



and of their family in church on 
Sunday morning — her father on 
the stand, for he was the bishop, 
her mother with a baby in her arms 
and the look of an angel in her 
face, and her brothers and sisters 
dotted through the audience in 
their respective departments. Some- 
how Craig didn't harmonize with 
that picture. 

"But Craig — " she began. 

"I won't listen," said Craig, stop- 
ping her mouth effectively. "If you 
loved me like I love you, you'd feel 
the same way." 

"I guess so," said Elaine miser- 
ably, remembering with a feeling 
of guilt her uncertainty where Craig 
was concerned. Surely there was 
no reserve on Craig's part. If her 
love for him was genuine, she 
nought, she wouldn't have 

he came up to her, both hands out. 
He was changed, grown in stature, 
and there was a look of controlled 
power about him. His mouth was 
still sweet and his features clean- 
cut. "I didn't expect you here." 

'You can from now on," Paul 
told her. "It seems that I've been 
appointed the new stake dance di- 
rector for the M Men. How's that 
for a rusty old missionary?" 

"You'll get back into practice 
soon. Paul, I'm sorry I missed your 
homecoming. I wanted to be there." 

"I wanted you there, too, Elaine. 
The house was jammed, but I kept 
looking for you. I felt as if I was 
talking to empty benches." 

"Oh, Paul!" she said, but she 
didn't explain, although Paul 
searched her face. "I didn't know 
it meant that much — to you." 


this little fear of it. Why, oh why 
had she taken his ring before she 
was sure? Sure! Even now she was 
thinking of church, wondering about 
Paul's speech, with a sense of 
eternal loss at not hearing it. 

"Craig," she said, putting it out 
of her mind with her will, and re- 
laxing deliberately. "I'm going to 
forget everything but you and en- 
joy the evening." 

"Atta girl!" approved Craig. 
"That goes for this fellow, Paul, 

"Paul, too," agreed Elaine, think- 
ing it best not to try explaining the 
freedom and friendliness of her re- 
lationship with Paul. It was more 
an appreciation that took in the 
whole world and had never come 
down to the confinement of two 



'JThursday night she saw Paul. The 
stake dance directors were meet- 
ing at the Gardens for instruc- 
tion in square and old-time danc- 
ing. Although it was a workout, 
Elaine wore a long, full-skirted 
dimity because it suited the dance 
movements, and went in a cab. Paul 
saw her come in at the door. 

"Paul!" she said, delighted when 
fEBRUARY 1950 

"My dear girl! Don't mistake my 
meaning. I loved being there. 
Those people are home to me, but 
this is really coming home — seeing 
you. It meant that much every 
minute I was out in the field. For 
the good of my work I tucked you 
in the back of my mind at least four 
times daily. But when I was com- 
ing home- — I made that speech up 
especially for you." 

A feeling of mingled remorse and 
elation swelled Elaine's heart, but 
she subdued it. 

"We're learning the varsovienne 
tonight — just beginning; so we can 
learn it together," she evaded. 

"Right. It is the beginning, and 
we will learn it together," said 
Paul. There was a deeper meaning 
in his voice, but Elaine ignored it. 
"Do you realize, my dear woman, 

that I don't even know your ad- 
dress? It will take years of con- 
versation to catch up — for me to 
tell you about my mission, for you 
to tell me about school. You've 
caught up to me, and we'll graduate 
together. Won't that be fun?" 

Elaine knew suddenly that she 
wanted all those things, but she bit 
back a reply and was relieved just 
then that the instructors took all 
their attention to demonstrate the 
right and left Scotch rolls. 

"We can do that," exulted Paul, 
and turned Elaine under his hand 
until her skirt flared. "Just like a 
hollyhock. Elaine you are beauti- 

"I don't hear those rusty hinges 
squeaking," Elaine parried. 

"It's the partner," Paul smiled, 
and his arm tightened about her. 

"Plaine's head, as well as her feet, 
was in a whirl. W^hy should 
Paul's words bring such joy to her 
heart? Why should she feel this 
happy comfort in his presence when 
she was engaged to Craig? Why, 
indeed, if she was not fickle and 

It was obvious Paul hadn't heard 
about her and Craig, for, although 
his attention was apparently on the 
instructor and the intricacies of the 
step, Elaine felt emotion surging 
through his hand to hers, and his 
eyes told her he was very much 
aware of her. Somehow she must 
tell him she was engaged, and be- 
fore he committed himself too far. 
"Paul — " she began when the 
steps threw them together in the 
waltz steps. 

"Elaine, I love you," he said in- 
to her ear. "I loved you before I 
left. I knew then that I wanted 
you for my wife, but it was a mat- 
ter of first things first. I've waited 
so long to say this. Now — " 

A million fragments of light 
splintered in her head, splintered 
and fell to darkness in her heart. 
Their feet stopped dancing. 
"Paul! oh, Paul!" she said. 
His gaze followed her own to 
the third finger on her left hand. 
His face turned pale, and he closed 
his eyes, swaying a little. 

"It looks like you two need help," 
said a voice at Elaine's shoulder, 
and the instructors were there. The 
man whirled her competently away 
while the woman took possession 
of the unprotesting Paul. 

(Continued on page 135) 


One of the first houses in Cowley, Wyoming, built by Thomas Lythgoe in 1901. 

Colonization of the Big Horn 

Colonization by the Church 
has a familiar ring — whether 
it was under the direction of 
the Prophet Joseph Smith in 
Ohio, Missouri, or Illinois; or 
under the direction of Presi- 
dent Brigham Young and his 
successors in the West. 

Dm (L*liza /\. c=X.utk 




The coming of the Pioneers — 
usually told of the Salt Lake 
Valley pioneers — was relived 
with other faces and with slightly 
different incidents each time a new 
settlement was begun. This is the 
story of pioneering in the Big Horn 
Basin of northwestern Wyoming. 

A small body of churchmen went 
into the Big Horn Basin about 1897 
and settled at Burlington, Wyo- 
ming. Stories of the country were 
written to friends in Utah. The 
knowledge that land and water were 
available caused the leaders of the 
Church to investigate. 

Colonel William F. Cody (Buf- 
falo Bill) was an admirer of Brig- 
ham Young and often praised his 
ability as a colonizer. He said, "If 
the Mormons will take over this 
Cincinnati Canal' proposition, I am 

'Several years prior to 1898, Cincinnati interests, 
represented by G. H. King and H. L. Early, had 
submitted proposals for a canal along the north side 
of the Shoshone River, and had been awarded a 
contract for its construction. But delay in initiating 
operation had smothered faith in the Cincinnati 
Company, and in 1898 the state board of land 
commissioners requested a relinquishment. — Lindsay, 
The Big Horn Basin, p. 192. 


sure it will succeed, as I know they 
will work together on it. I can see 
in my mind fields of alfalfa and 
grain and homes for many people 

Elder A. O. Woodruff of the 
Council of the Twelve and fourteen 
other prominent men were sent in 
February 1900, to look over the 
country, not only the land that the 
Cincinnati Canal would cover, but 
also the level land surrounding it. 
Colonel Cody came down and met 
them near the place where the Sidon 
Canal now heads. He spent a 
pleasant evening recounting many 
of his experiences. 

An application to divert, appro- 
priate, and use the waters of the 
Shoshone River had been made by 
Colonel Cody and Nate Salisbury, 
their application being approved by 
the state engineer on May 22, 1899. 2 
On April 24, 1900, Colonel Cody 
and Nate Salisbury signed a re- 
linquishment of these rights to the 
state of Wyoming, permitting the 
state to assign the land and water 
rights to another party. The 
Church, having filed an application 
for the construction of a canal on 
January 11, 1900, subsequently re- 
ceived the rights Colonel Cody held. 

While the delegation was at 
Bridger, Montana, a hardware 
dealer by the name of Haskins was 
consulted in regard to the purchase 

2 This application is now recorded in the official 
record of the state engineer of Wyoming, Volume 
9, page 478. 

of plows, scrapers, crowbars, picks, 
and shovels. Though these men 
were entire strangers to Mr. Has- 
kins, he agreed to secure the re- 
quired tools for them. 

A favorable report of the proposi- 
tion in Wyoming was made to the 
Presidency of the Church, and the 
organization for colonizing the new 
country was started. Soon after 
this the canal was resurveyed, and 
preparations to go to work were 
immediately made. 

Elder A. O. Woodruff was put in 
charge of the colony to build this 
canal. Staunch, experienced men 
like Byron Sessions, a frontiersman, 
Charles A. Welch, an expert ac- 
countant, and other stalwart men 
of experience were sent to see about 
work. Young men of strength and 
courage who were seeking land and 
wanted to grow up with a new 
country came, accompanied by their 
wives and children. None of them 

Children born in Cowley in 1901 and 1902. Photograph 
taken in 1914 with Charles Merchant, teacher. 


Volney King, father of Eliza R. Lythgoe, on the horse leading the parade on Pioneer day in 1905. 

m3 i\ \3 1 1 1 bu me c=Lattep-dcnA faints 

ever thought of going back or of 
failure. They came in covered 
wagons containing food, dishes, 
beds, clothing — the bare necessities 
of life. 

Since my three-weeks-old baby 
and I were unable to leave Salt 
Lake City for Wyoming when my 
husband and the others left in May 
1900, we made the trip by train 
the following July, and since I 
want to present the experiences of 
a woman who did make the journey 
by team, I secured an account of a 
trip from my friend, Sarah J. 
Partridge, who, with three families, 
began her overland journey to the 
Big Horn Basin April 3, 1900. Mrs. 
Partridge said, "Everyone going to 
the basin started out on the road to 
Ham's Fork 3 where they, all were 
to meet." 

In her party were the W. C. 
Partridge, the Edward Partridge, 

•'Ham's Fork was a smaii settlement near the 
present site of Kemmercr. Wyoming. 

and the Ben Salisbury families. She 
continued, "Our eldest boy, Clay- 
ton, walked and drove the milk 
cows. Realizing we were going to 
an unsettled country, we loaded our 
two wagons with everything we 
could not sell, even taking two or 
three hundred pounds of lead. Our 
wagons and teams were overloaded. 
Now, after forty years when I think 
back how we strewed the road with 
chickens, washers, etc., I sometimes 
laugh and sometimes cry. We were 
eight weeks on the road from Provo, 
Utah, to the Big Horn Basin in 
Wyoming, arriving at the head of 
the canal May 29, 1900. 

"One reason why the start had 
been made early in the spring was 
to get across the rivers before high 
water, but you can still hear a 
group of our pioneers talk of the 
time they forded this river or that, 
and how they were almost washed 
downstream at one river or another. 
I'll never forget the evening we 

forded Big Wind River. The water 
was above the front wheels of the 
wagon. The men led the horses 
through the stream with water 
above their waists. If ever the 
Lord helped us on our journey, he 
helped us then. 

"A day's journey from Ham's 
Fork a blizzard swept over the 
company. The wagons were driven 
into what shelter could be found, 
the horses tied to the wagons and 
given a small feed of oats. Not 
much sleep was had by anyone as 
the horses gnawed the wagon boxes 
or any other wood not covered by 
irons. How the wind howled and 
shook the wagons in which everyone 
was trying to sleep! The storm 
lasted three days, and when it 
abated, nearly two feet of snow 
covered the ground. 

"The morning after the blizzard 
the teams had to move on so that 
feed might be found in order to save 

(Continued on page 150) 

The Willis Construction Crew. Photograph taken at Grey Bull, Wyoming, just after the railroad was built in 1914. 



Area of the ancient Middle American civilizations. "Stepped 
pyramid" symbol indicates the location of some of the principal 
discovered ruined cities (ancient name in most cases unknown). 
Circled part is the region of the main explorations of the ar- 
chaeological expedition described in this article. 


Archaeology has been aptly de- 
fined as "a rescue expedition 
sent into the far parts of the 
earth to recover the scattered pages 
of man's autobiography," 1 i.e. the 
ruins of his ancient cities, and other 
material relics of his early past. 

One of the "far parts of the 
earth" where such records have 
been found in especial abundance is 
that of the great tropical forest re- 
gion of northern Central America. 
Here archaeological expeditions of 
the past hundred years have un- 
covered the remains of several an- 
cient, previously unknown civiliza- 

This article describes one such 
expedition to Central America, un- 

iAnn Morris, Digging in the Southwest, Garden 
City, N. Y., 1933, p. xv. 


dertaken recently, in the wint 
months of 1948. 2 

Recent Developments and the 
Purpose of the Expedition 

'"Phis expedition grew out of a 
number of important recent de- 
velopments in the archaeology of 
Central America and of Mexico. 
Foremost of these has been the 
coming to light, in this "middle" 
region of the New World, of still 
another ancient civilization. 

This newly-discovered civiliza- 
tion dates to an early period in the 
archaeological history of Middle 
America. Its remains have been 
found underlying those of the well- 
account taken in part from the writer's report 
of the expedition to the Mexican government, pre- 
pared in accordance with the expedition's archae- 
ological contract with that government. 

known classic cultures ©f the region 
such as the Maya, Zapotec, and 
Teotihuacan Toltec, which dates it 
back to the first centuries of the 
Christian era and the immediately 
preceding centuries. Evidence is 
mounting to the effect that it was a 
widespread and highly developed 
civilization, more or less ancestral 
to the classic cultures. As yet, 
however, its origin and people re- 
main unknown, 


The most distinctive features of 
this new early "pre-classic" civiliza- 
tion of Central America and Mexico 
have so far been discovered at sites 
located in the Gulf Coast plain of 
southern Veracruz and western 
Tabasco, in the narrow-neck-of- 
land region of the Isthmus of 
Tehuantepec. It is at these sites 
(comprising what may be called the 
"Early Olmec" aspect of this civili- 
zation 3 ), that some of the most re- 
markable finds in the history of 
American archaeology have been 
made. These include the earliest 
dated object of the New World 
( Stela A at Tres Zapotes in south- 
ern Veracruz, bearing a probably 
contemporaneous hieroglyphic date 
near the birth of Christ), stone 
sculptures and pottery figurines de- 
picting bearded men, other figurines 
showing people wearing oriental- 
like turbans, and, most sensational 
of all, toy wheeled vehicles, proving 
the existence at one time in ancient 
America of knowledge of the wheel, 
i.e. one of the fundamentals of Old 

portance <jl ihis Olmec-Gulf Coast 
region as an early center of the 
newly uncovered pre-classic civili- 
zation, raise the possibility of even 
more significant discoveries await- 
ing future archaeological research 
in this region. Numerous unexplor- 
ed, or only partly explored, mound 
ruins dot the maps of this area. 
Though some of these sites have 
already been identified, usually as 
ceremonial centers of the well- 
known Classic Maya civilization ( or 
of the Classic Olmec or "La Venta" 
culture ) , others remain entirely un- 
classified as to civilization or period 
of flourishment. Many other ancient 
ruined cities undoubtedly remain 
still hidden or undiscovered within 
the dense jungles of this region. 

The expedition forming the sub- 
ject of this article had for its main 
purpose an archaeological recon- 
naissance of one part of this region, 
namely the Xicalango district of 
western Campeche. This district 
was selected because it was the 
center of an area which was archae- 
ologically the least explored and 

least known part ox the Gulf Coast 
region, where no distinctive centers 
of the pre-classic civilization had yet 
been discovered, and which conse- 
quently comprised an extensive 
break in the territorial continuity of 
that civilization. The reconnaissance 
was therefore directed toward the 
possible discovery of additional sites 
of the pre-classic civilization in this 
"gap area." or of other evidence 
linking up the discovered develop- 
ments of the civilization in the 
Tehuantepec, Yucatan, and south- 
ern highland areas. There was also 
the possibility of finding evidence in 
this area leading to the discovery of 
the civilization's original or main 
center of development, still unlo- 

The Expedition 

HPhis archaeological reconnais- 
sance of the Xicalango Gulf 
Coast area was undertaken under 
the auspices of the Department of 
Archaeology of Brigham Young 
(Continued on following page) 

: ■ . . ' ■ ■ /.' : ■ . '■ -/ ' ;/ vv;V. .:.: : ; ---/- ^: ; :v-;.': ; : . ■ ' : : ' 



World civilization, which had long 
been denied by Americanists. The 
last three of these discoveries 
strongly bolster, of course, the ex- 
treme "migrationist" theory of an- 
cient American origins, i.e. that the 
ancient civilizations of America had 
their ultimate origin to transoceanic 
migrations from some early center of 
civilization in the Old World. 4 

These amazing finds, and the im- 

S A phase of the so-called "Olmec" development 
of the Gulf Coast region, to be differentiated from 
the succeeding "Classic Olmec" or "La Venta" 
phase which equates temporally with the beginnings 
of the Classic Maya culture of Yucatan. 

1 For 'further information on these recent discoveries 
see, e.g., Matthew W. Stirling, "Discovering the 
New World's Oldest Dated Work of Man," iii The 
National Geographic Magazine, August 1939, and 
"Great Stone Faces of the Mexican Jungle," ibid., 
September 1940: George C. Vaillant, "A Bearded 
Mystery," in Natural History, vol. 31 (1931), pp. 
243-252; and Thomas Stuart Ferguson, "The Wheel 
in Ancient America," in The Improvement Era, vol. 
49, (December 1946), pp. 785 arid 818-819. 

FEBRUARY 1950 :m 

Expedition members on the partially uncovered stairway of an an- 
cient pyramid temple at Agvacatal. From left to right: W. Glenn 
Harmon, Thomas Stuart Ferguson, the writer, and Abel Paez. Photo- 
graph taken by expedition guide Manuel Lara. 




(Continued from preceding page) 
University." The expedition mem- 
bers consisted of the writer, as di- 
rector and archaeologist; Thomas 
Stuart Ferguson of Oakland, Cali- 
fornia, as transportation manager 
and field assistant; W. Glenn Har- 
mon of Berkeley, California, as pho- 
tographer; and Abel Paez of 
Mexico City, as general aide. 

The members gathered at Mexico 
City on January 10, 1948, where 
final preparations were made, in- 
cluding the securing of the neces- 
sary governmental permit for ar- 
chaeological work in Mexico. Valu- 
able suggestions for the success of 
the expedition were contributed by 
Frans Blom of Mexico City, former 
director of the Middle American 
Research Institute of Tulane Uni- 
versity of Louisiana, and by H. 
Carlos Frey, also of Mexico City, 
professional jungle explorer and one 
of the discoverers of the now fa- 
mous Maya ruins of Bonampak, 
Chiapas. Generous assistance in ob- 
taining the large amount of special 
photographic supplies required for 
the expedition was given by Otto 
Done, representative of the Eastman 
Kodak Stores in Mexico City. 

Leaving Mexico City on January 
18, the party proceeded by plane to 
the tropical eastern Gulf Coast 
island and town of Carmen, Cam- 
peche, in geographical Central 
America, which had been selected 
as the immediate base of opera- 
tions. Here additional supplies 

5 As the "Second Brigham Young University 
Archaeological Expedition to Middle America." The 
first such undertaking was an exploring expedition of 
Brigham Young University to Central and South 
America in 1900, under the leadership of University 
president Benjamin Guff. The expedition of 1948, 
however, was the first distant archaeological field 
project of the University to be undertaken through 
its recently established Department of Archaeology. 

Expedition members landing — modern archaeology by air. 

The Black God of the Maya holds the symbol of 
corn in his hands. 

were obtained and arrangements 
made for motor launch transporta- 
tion across the great inland sea of 
the Laguna de Terminos to the 
Xicalango mainland. Here also 
much valuable information was fur- 
nished by local citizens on the 
known sites and antiquities of the 
Xicalango-Laguna de Terminos 

The area to be explored lay 
across the Laguna de Terminos 

............... ._^,. - 

In the state of Yucatan is a massive ruin known as the Palace of Sayil, the building 
is low and rambling, three stories high, and about one-half block long. 


from the Island of Carmen, on the 
Xicalango mainland. This is a 
low, flat country of jungle, swamps, 
and numerous small lakes or la- 
goons, presenting many difficulties 
to the explorer. Much of it is 
flooded in the rainy season, from 
June to December. This, together 
with the discomfort and mud 
caused by the incessant rains, neces- 
sarily restricts archaeological work 
in the area to the so-called "dry" 
season, from January to May, when 
it rains only every few days. Even 
in the "dry season" there are 
numerous stagnant swamps, left- 
overs from the rains, which ef- 
fectively hinder exploration. 

Dense jungle or low rain forest 
covers most of the area, especially 
along the shores of the lagoons, 
where the trees crowd even into the 
water, leaving no open shores or 
beaches except on the tide-washed 
Gulf coast and Xicalango coast of 
the Laguna de Terminos. The jun- 
gle inland, however, is occasionally 
broken by comparatively open 
stretches of swamp-water and 

The jungle itself consists mainly 
of coconut palms, wild aguacates 
or avocado trees, and various other 
tropical trees, especially mangroves, 
which flourish in the swamps and 
along the shores of the lagoons 
where they have the peculiarity of 
sending many roots out from their 
branches and back down into the 
water, forming an impenetrable bar- 
rier of tangled roots and branches 
fronting these shores and mak- 
ing landings impossible for long 
stretches. In the jungle inland from 
these mangrove thickets is an al- 
most equally impenetrable under- 

(Continued on page 144) 

Bln th 

E_ J^ OiAz^t^CMsX^ 


(D. W. Thorne and H. B. Peterson. 

The Blakiston Company, Philadelphia. 
288 pages. 74 illustrations. $5.00.) 
HPhis volume, beautifully printed and 
bound, will be welcomed wherever 
irrigation is needed and that means 
over more than one half of earth's land 
area. The fertility and management 
of irrigated soils, basic considerations 
for permanent irrigation agriculture, 
are clearly discussed in the light of re- 
cent knowledge. How much water 
is needed, the farmer's insistent ques- 
tion, is given little, probably inadequate 
attention. The book, in organization 
and treatment, is essentially suited for 
classwork, but any intelligent farmer 
can read its twenty-five chapters with 
great profit. The frontispiece carries 
the pictures of Dr. E. W. Hilgard, 
notable pioneer worker with arid soils, 
and of Dr. F. S. Harris, distinguished 
worker in the use of water for irriga- 
tion. The book is marred by the impli- 
cation, in the face of earlier irrigation 
literature, that twenty-five years ago 
was the beginning of irrigation knowl- 
edge. It is hoped that this excellent 
book is but the precursor of a new era 
of irrigation works, which recently has 
sorely languished. — /. A. W. 

(Lester F. Beck, Ph.D., assisted by 
Margie Robinson, M. A. Harcourt, 
Brace and Company, New York. 124 
pages. 1949. $2.00.) 
JLJow life begins and goes on is the 
theme of this book on sex educa- 
tion for teen-age children. It is an 
amplified text presenting in clear and 
simple language with pictorial help 
the story in the recent successful film, 
Human Growth. Sound and scientific 
facts to answer children's questions 
form the basis of the discussions. The 
book is proof that sex matters may be 
discussed with children in a clean 
and health-promoting manner. All 
parents would do well to read and 
use this valuable contribution to the 
solution of one of the difficult prob- 
lems of parenthood. — /. A. W. 

(Henrie Andrews Howell. American 
Association of Colleges for Teacher 
Education, Washington, D. C. 94 
pages. 1949.) 

"C-Tow a worn-out farm may be re- 
stored to fertility is the theme of 
this excellent story. What is more im- 
portant, it points out methods by which 


a farm never need wear out. While 
the story is about a rainfall farm, it 
will be profitable reading for farmers 
everywhere. The theme is one which 
for national self-protection should be 
taught in every school, college, and 
university. — /. A. W. 


( Charles Capp, Jr. Thomas Y. Crowell 
Co., New York City, 1949, 179 pages, 

HpHE alcohol habit, drunkenness, is a 
curse upon the nation. Most 
treatises on the subject set up possibili- 
ties for reforming the alcoholic. This 
book deals rather with methods of 
preventing alcoholism. That is more 
important. So, in very simple, direct 
language the author states the causes 
which, in his opinion, lead people to 
drink alcoholic beverages. He con- 
tends that it is not the taste for liquor 
that is responsible for alcohol-soaked 
America, but rather conditions existing 
before drinking begins. His argument 
is convincing. — /. A. W. 


(Published by the Utah State Histor- 
ical Society four times annually. Salt 
Lake Capitol. Salt Lake City, Utah. ) 

HPhe two most recent volumes of the 
Historical Quarterly have come to 
our attention. While periodicals 
would not normally find space on this 
page, the contents of these volumes 
are well worth attention. Principally 
they include accounts of the Explora- 
tion of the Colorado River and the 
High Plateaus of Utah in 1871-72 
during the second Powell Expedition, 
which accounts are taken from the 
journals of W. C. Powell, Stephen 
Vandiver Jones, and John F. Steward, 
with biographical data on the authors 
of these journals. 

Many historical documents and dis- 
sertations are to be found within the 
covers of Utah Historical Quarterly, 
most of which are not readily acces- 
sible elsewhere. — R. L. E. 


(Beryl Williams. Julian Messner, Inc., 
New York. 1948. 216 pages. $2.75.) 
Tfrns biography of Lillian Wald, 
who became a nurse in order to 
alleviate the misery and pain and in- 
adequacy of the profession in the late 

1800's, should prove of value to the 
Junior Girls, whose reading course 
book it is. The dynamic story of a 
girl born to comforts, who sought out 
those less fortunate than she and be- 
gan to mitigate their woes, is one 
that should prove conducive of good 
among those who are at the threshold 
of life — and stimulating to those who 
have reached maturity. — M. C. /. 


(Louise Lane Morrisey and Marion 
Lane Sweeney. Houghton Mifflin Co., 
Boston. 1949. 203 pages. $2.50.) 
Cince this book of recipes came from 
the kitchens of Boston's "Club 
of Odd Volumes," it presents many 
food delicacies which, as the book 
states, are "appreciated by the gour- 
met." It offers some interesting ideas 
in hors d'oeuvres and in meat and game 
cookery and would be a novelty for 
those who can afford many cookbooks. 
Since it also advocates the use of 
soda, pepper, and wines in cooking, 
and boiling of vegetables, it is not a 
modern volume of health cookery and 
not particularly valuable as a hand- 
book in the kitchen. — B. S. 

(John Gunther. Harper and Bros., 
New York. 1949. 363 pages. $3.00.) 
VJU'ith his usual facility and unusual 
phraseology, Gunther quips his 
way through what he considered call- 
ing Inside Outside Russia because he 
was widely "in Russian-saturated ter- 
ritories." One can't help wondering 
at times whether the author's delight 
in the clever phrase and his glibness 
may give something of a twist that 

Gunther is a clever writer and 
fascinates his readers with his adroit- 
ness. The situation involving Tito 
and Stalin, as well as the men around 
Tito, is discussed at length and will 
prove valuable to those who may be 
confused by the off-again, on-again 
characteristics of the Jugoslav-Russian 
situation. In his discussion of Greece, 
the author quotes Anne O'Hare 
McCormick: "Greece is a preview of 
the frontless, almost faceless war of 
tomorrow ... of spectral forces that 
slip back and forth across the 

On the whole the book is a serious 
attempt to explain situations in Europe 
to a lethargic America, which has 
carelessly closed its ears to anything 
and everything concerning any country 
but our own since World War II. 
While Gunther's style prevents its be- 
coming a grim book, Behind the 
Curtain certainly contains elements of 
grimness. — M. C. J. 


on ine 


Firing Line 

& -JiLt £ X 





Bluff listened with tingling ears: 
the log meetinghouse at Monti- 
cello had been the scene of a 
pioneer dance, the anniversary of 
the arrival of the Saints in Salt Lake 
Valley more than forty years before. 
That past event was very significant 
to the brave pioneers in their isola- 
tion at Blue Mountain — they had 
featured it in a parade; they had 
sung about it, listened to an en- 
thusiastic oration; and now they 
were dancing in the midst of their 
hardships as their ancestors, had 
danced on the plains en route from 
the eastern states. 

To the bad men of the hills, that 
celebration with its well-executed 
program of order looked too much 
like the coming of the hated law. 
Their dominant impulse was to 
spoil and devour it, to ride over it, 
trample it underfoot. With no 
courage and no excuse to make an 
aggressive beginning on such a 
harmless gathering, they smothered 
with whiskey what little intelligence 
was still functioning in their vitiated 
brains, and headed for the dance. 

A fellow with red eyes and 
flushed face staggered into the hall 
and, seeing that his presence was 
not relished, he drew his gun and 
ordered everybody outside. . There 
in the moonlight he harangued and 
threatened them, declaring in awful 
words he would kill anyone trying 
to leave the crowd. His close friend 
tried to reason with him. 

"Listen, Tom," pleaded Joe, "No- 
body here wants to hurt you." 

But Tom ordered Joe not to come 
a step nearer. 

"See, Tom, I have no gun," Joe 
went on, confident he could get 
him to release the terrified crowd 
with its innocent people, its women 
and girls, on whom this was a most 
cowardly imposition. The thing 


that makes a man better than a 
brute was missing from Tom's dis- 
ordered brain. He growled another 
order to come no nearer or be shot 
through, but Joe still counted on 
their friendship and acquaintance 
of the years and tried to make his 
reasons clear while the crowd 
caught its breath in suspense. 

A terrible figure, Tom stood there 
in the moonlight gesticulating with 
his glittering pistol, shouting his 
incoherent threats and orders, while 
the dancers in gay attire watched 
him as a master tragedian on a 
stage. Yet this was no drama of 
things pretended, but a life-crisis 
of stern reality. With gasps and 
screams they saw the madman turn 
his gun on his trusting friend and 
shoot him to death before their 

Into the cries of hysteria and 
fright, broke the loud boom of a 
big gun from another quarter, a 
shriek, a hush, and -words whispered 
quickly by white lips, "They've 
killed Aunt Jane!" 

A man intending to shoot the 
murderer and release the crowd had 
fired accidentally and shot Mrs. 
Jane Walton near the heart. She 
had barely time to turn to her son 
and tell him she was hurt before 

. . . they clung to their 
forts, they toiled on for 
their livelihood and ate 
their humble bread under 
the humiliating leer of 
cow puncher -thieves . . . 

she fell dead in his arms. Confu- 
sion and consternation reigned 
while the frenzied Tom mounted his 
waiting horse and dashed away. 
The quick beat of his hoofs died 
in the distant night, and he was 
gone. Ready confederates covered 
his retreat, gave him full protection 
of their empire, and he was never 
brought to judgment, punishment, 
or even trial. Major problem three 
towered big in fiendish majesty over 
the people who marched with bowed 
heads in that slow funeral proces- 

The people of Monticello had 
few cattle and no respected rights 
on the range. The hills swarmed 
with "rustlers" waiting for any 
horse or cow left out of sight. One 
fellow starting with half a dozen 
cows made a remarkable record the 
first season — one of his cows had 
thirty-five calves! He had an 
ingenious trick of making a calf 


lead willingly behind his horse, and 
every calf he found old enough to 
live without its mother, he led away 
to be adopted into the numerous 
family of one of his prolific cows 
in his hideout down among the 

The Texas outfit with their 
scrawny livestock, every animal 
displaying the imposing placard: 
ELK M, on a thousand hills had 
made aggressive claim to the best 
springs on the mountain and the 
best water holes on the winter 

Hot on the trail one day came an 
officer from Texas — he had traced 
his man here, but whether the man 

tain. It was building and growing 
strong with the dangerous material 
chased out of the surrounding 
states and territories. Every day 
on jaded horses, new subjects ar- 
rived at this, the most faraway and 
the safest retreat from law in all the 

Other officers came with lather- 
ing horses on hot trails to San Juan 
and headed down the river. What 
was the use? They had chased the 
rat down a hole, and if they ven- 
tured into that hole, they would 
never come out. They knew that 
much by the looks and the squeaks 
of the rats playing and watching 
there on the surface. All that re- 

was still here peeping from cover 
or whether he had gone on, the 
officer could not find out. The out- 
law had vanished among the devi- 
ous hallways of Hotel De Rincone 
and was not to be found. What 
were the eager officer and his 
deputies to do? When they had 
investigated, they discerned that the 
only safe thing to do was to go 
back at once empty-handed to 
Texas. They went. 

An empire was forming in San 
Juan County, Utah: a pirate's em- 
pire with one capital at Rincone and 
another at the base of Blue Moun- 


mained for them was to go back in 
disgust to Texas, to New Mexico, 
or Arizona, without bringing back 
a much-wanted desperado. 

All through the western states 
people heard and believed that there 
was what they called a "Robber's 
Roost," an organized gang of out- 
laws with a headquarters some- 
where in southeastern Utah. They 
were known to have a rendezvous 
at different places of remoteness in 
Wyoming, Colorado, and other 
states and territories, but their ac- 
tive operations in the region of 
Henry Mountains gave the impres- 

sion that their center of activity was 
somewhere in the broken country 
north of there, possibly on the 
Dirty Devil or the lower San Rafael. 
Mail service of that day was 
slow and infrequent, telephones 
non-existent, and false reports 
taught men to discredit nine-tenths 
of what they heard. The public 
was not ready to believe that San 
Juan County, Utah was the inner 
and untouchable sanctuary of a far- 
reaching system, and that all under- 
ground railroads and blind trails 
led, as necessity demanded, to these 
impregnable rocks where no arrest 
had ever been made. 

In desperation the people of 
Bluff sought out the owners of 
the ELKM cattle and asked 
them to quote a price, but they 
only smiled in smug amuse- 
ment. Sell out their hotel? Not 
on your life — it was the wait- 
ing heir to all of San Juan 
County. Bluff was to be ab- 
sorbed as one of its lesser as- 

Things looked bad, and a 
dark shape was appearing on 
the distant horizon which 
threatened in its development 
to sweep the whole troubled 
region. A bill had been intro- 
duced in Congress providing 
that San Juan County should 
be given as a reservation to 
the Piutes and that all white 
settlers and stockmen be 
moved out. 

HpHE Piutes had long since 
been appointed a reserva- 
tion in Colorado, and had been 
ordered and then urged to go 
there. To the orders and to 
the urges they made flat and 
uncompromising refusal. They 
had also invited the Utes from 
their Colorado reservation to come 
and join them, and it had seemed 
about as much as the government 
could do by threats, and by sending 
special committees and army of- 
ficers to San Juan, to induce the 
runaway Utes to return home. And 
now, after the seeming inability of 
Uncle Sam to get the Piutes to take 
his orders, he seemed to be ob- 
sequiously proposing to give official 
approval of their doing just as they 

The Piutes smiled exultantly 
(Continued on page 138) 


President GEORGE F. RICHARDS a JJ4u 

AS Nanny Richards walked alone 
up the dark and deserted can- 
yon road, there were mixed 
emotions in her heart. Her fear 
for her young son was the greater 
because of her love for him. He 
had left that morning with a cart 
and team cf oxen to bring home a 
load of wood from Farmington 
Canyon. It was long past time for 
him to return. 

Visions of George F. pinned un- 
der a fallen tree, run over by the 
heavy cart, or trampled beneath a 
maddened ox kept fighting against 
her knowledge that he was a good 
woodsman. She knew that al- 
though he was only fifteen years of 
age he had learned how to take 
care of himself. Many times be- 
fore he had made the same trip 
alone. As most other pioneer boys 
had had to do, he learned early the 
meaning of independence. 

But what could be keeping him? 

Mrs. Richards didn't know it on 
that dark night, but the boy she 
was seeking was to become one of 
the best loved and most respected 
men in the Church. He would 
serve in many high places, includ- 
ing the Quorum of the Twelve, 
president of the Salt Lake Temple, 
and finally President of the Quo- 
rum. He was also to gain another 
distinction, one she could know 
nothing of then. He was to be- 
come the father of one of the largest 
and most active scouting families in 

President George F. Richards will be 89 years of age February 23. Shown with him are 
two members of his scouting family, a son, Ray, center, and Donald, a grandson, left. 

night, but all his life he has loved 
her the more for coming after him. 

]^Jrs. Richards did not know it, but the boy she 
was seeking on that dark night was to become one 
of the best loved and most respected men in the 

That summer morning in 1876, 
President George F. Richards had 
set out early. He had ridden the 
wagon behind the plodding oxen 
without incident, cut a large load of 
wood, loaded it, and started for 
home. But the road was rough and 
the load heavy, and the wagon 
tongue broke. It took a long time 
to make another one, long enough 
to keep him until after dark. He 
was sorry he caused his mother the 
anxiety and the long walk that 


When President Richards was 
born on February 23, 1861, in 
Farmington, Utah, 
the Pioneers had 
been living in the 
Salt Lake Valley 
less than fourteen 
years. His father, 
Franklin D., who 
later also became 
president of the 
Quorum of the 
Twelve, and his 

J-Je was also to gain an- 
other distinction ; one 
she could knoiv nothing 
of then. He ivas to be- 
come the father of one 
of the largest and most 
active scouting families 
in America. 

mother both had crossed the plains 
in 1848. They had moved to 
Farmington at the direction of 
President Brigham Young and had 
built a small log cabin. 

The summer that he had been de- 
layed in the canyon the youth did 
most of the work in adding two new 
rooms to this house. 

"Early that spring my elder 
brother went on a mission to Eng- 
land," he recalls. "With the oxen, 
cart, and chains he 
left, I hauled wood 
from the canyon 
and traded it to the 
gristmill for grist 
stuff, to the mo- 
lasses, and in this 
way helped provide 
for the family. 

"With cordwood 
I paid a mason for 



co a un 





"Youth is not altogether a time of life," 
President Richards says, "it is a state of 
mind. People grow old by deserting their 

Ea 3t 




laying up a stone wall four and 
one-half feet high on the south side 
of our lot. This was laid up with 
lime mortar. I hauled the lime, the 
rock, and the sand with the oxen. 

"We put an addition of two 
rooms on our house, the walls of 
which were built of adobe," he con- 
tinued. "I hauled all the material, 
tended the mason, and assisted with 
the work." 

Along with the other boys of his 
time, President Richards learned 
to play as well as work. Many a 
day he started for the canyon an 
hour or more "be- 
fore the stars quit 
shining" in order to 
get a load of wood 
and be home for a 
four o'clock ball 
game. He liked to 
play marbles. Base- 
ball was another 
favorite sport. 

President Rich- 
ards was ordained 
an elder when he 
was fifteen and re- 
ceived his endowments at the En- 
dowment House. Shortly after this 
his mother became very ill. Some 
of the elders were called in to ad- 
minister to her. She did not seem 
to be relieved of her intense suffer- 

"When they had gone, my mother 
called me to her bedside and re- 
quested that I administer to her," 
he relates. "You may imagine how 
I felt, young as I was, and never 
having undertaken to administer 
alone in that sacred ordinance. 

"I went into another room, and, 
after shedding some tears and of- 
fering up a fervent prayer, I re- 
turned to her room and performed 
the ordinance of administration as 
best I knew how. Although my 
prayer was brief, the Lord heard 
my prayer and gave her immediate 
relief and peaceful sleep. 

"You may imagine the gratitude 
I felt," he concluded, "that the Lord 
would hear and answer the prayers 
of one so young and inexperienced 
in such a remarkable way." 

Although scouting was not to be 
founded in the United States until 
forty-nine years after his birth and 



Chief Scout Execu- 
tive of the Boy Scouts 
of America, visited Presi- 
dent Richards while in 
Salt Lake City recently 
and complimented him 
on having the largest 
scouting family in 

thirty-seven years after he became 
of Scout age, it was to play an im- 
portant part in the life of President 
Richards and the life of his large 
family. Most men at forty-nine 
have lived a good part of their lives. 
But in 1910, when scouting came to 
America, he saw in the program, 
as did other leaders of the Church, 
a chance to give our youth the type 
of activity program they needed. 

There was no question in his 
mind but that the program was 
divinely inspired. Lord Baden- 
Powell, he thought, had put into 
it most of the ele- 
ments that a boy. 
program should 
have. "On my hon- 
or I will do my best 
to do my duty to 
God," the Scout 
oath started. The 
law ended with "A 
Scout is Reverent." 
As a supplement to 
the Aaronic Priest- 


hood program it was ideal. 

"Any boy who goes through the 
merit badge program has the equiv- 
alent of a junior college education," 
President Richards said. "It is a 
valuable part of the program of the 

In 1882 President Richards mar- 
ried Alice Almira Robinson. By 
1910 they had ten daughters and 
five sons. All of these are still living 

except two girls. The three eldest 
boys were too old to join the pro- 
gram as Scouts, but the two young- 
est registered. Oliver L. had reached 
the second class rank when his 
Scoutmaster was drafted in 1917 
and the troop became inactive. Ray 
became one of the best known 
Scouts in the United States. Bishop 
LeGrand has never been a Scout 
but has been active as a Scouter. 
There are now thirty living 
grandsons. Everyone of them is 
or has been a Scout. They have far 
excelled the average record for 
advancement. In the Salt Lake 
Council, which is above the national 
average, only about twenty-eight 
percent of Scouts registering reach 
the first-class rank. Of the thirty 
in the Richards family, twenty-five, 
or well over eighty percent, became 
first-class Scouts or better. Ten 
became star Scouts, three reached 
the life rank, and four have so far 
become Eagles. This is about thir- 
teen percent making the top rank. 
This is far above the national aver- 
age of between two percent and 
three percent. 

Of the thirty-six great-grand- 
sons, only four are now twelve 
years of age or over. All four are 
active in scouting. One is a star, 
one a first-class, one a second-class, 
and one a tenderfoot Scout. All are 
still advancing. 

Collectively this is a wonderful 
record. There are thirty-two great- 
grandsons too young to become 
Scouts, but the family tradition will 
assure them all a chance to take 
part in the program. 

Individually, the record is just 
as impressive. Many of the group 
have been Scouters; one is a field 
executive in Hawaii. Any boy who 
reaches the Eagle rank has an indi- 
vidual story. There are five of 
these in the family. All agree, how- 
ever, that the record made by Ray, 
youngest son of President Richards, 
is the most impressive. 

Ray Richards was born in Salt 
Lake City on October 1 1 of the 
year scouting was born in America 
forty years ago this month. He reg- 
istered as a tenderfoot when he was 
twelve and advanced rapidly. He 
wasn't satisfied with the Eagle 
(Concluded on page 134) 



_vv ^>ketck of Jri 






When the armed men who had 
been hunting down Old Posey 1 
during the last Indian upris- 
ing in Utah in 1920 found the old 
Piute 2 warrior dead in a cave on a 
remote hillside, they discovered be- 
side his withered body a rifle and 
a woven willow water jug. The 
rifle was a lever action Winchester 
such as could have been bought 
over any counter in a good country 
store during the first twenty years 
of the century, but the water jug 
was something special. It was 
shaped like a giant gourd with a. 
slender, tapering neck, and a beauti- 
fully symmetrical base. It was con- 
structed of long, smooth withes split 
from the tough shoots of the squaw- 
bush that grows along canyon 
streams in Utah. The jug had been 
made watertight by rolling hot pitch 
all over its inner surfaces. The crev- 
ices in the woven-work had been 
partially sealed with pitch on the 
outside also,, and the gum gave a 
warm brawn tinge to the surface of 
the vessel. It was a handsome piece 
of Piute craftsmanship, and the 
aged chief, who had given up his 
life bravely but ignorantly, fight- 
ing for his beloved Indian pattern 
of living, had taken his final rem- 
nant of the Indian way with him to 
his last campfire. 

The day has been when such 
baskets as Old Posey's were rela- 
tively common in Utah, especially 
in the homes of oldtimers of San 
Juan and Grand counties. Many 
excellent woven water jugs of the 
type must have hung from the rail 
all around the gallery in Redd's 
fascinating store in Blanding, or 
stood on the shelves in Wing's 
Trading Post at Fort Duchesne, 
for the Piutes were artists of un- 
usual ability in the craft of basketry, 

iSee The Outlaw of Navajo Mountain, Improve- 
ment Era, Vol. 39. 

"Other spellings are: Pah'yut, Piute, Pauite. 

and their talents were known and 


Above, pieces of tjidioit 
craftsmanship. The "mind 
line" or "spirit path" can be 
seen in three of the baskets. 

Maggie Mountain Sheep, old-time Ute woman 
from Ouray on the Green River. She wove the 
basket out of split squawbush. 

respected by Indians of other 
tribes as well as by white people. 
Down south of the Piute country the 
Navajos and Hopis have used a 
shallow Piute basket for their wed- 
ding ceremonies for so long that 
this special basket has become a 
fixed part of the traditional wedding 
ceremony of the Navajos. It is 
the basket in which the sacred, 
hand-ground, blue corn meal is 
served by the bride to her mother- 
in-law and her mother, and then 
to her father-in-law and her father. 
After the principals at the wedding 
have each eaten some of this corn 
meal, the Piute wedding basket is 
passed around for all of the guests 
to take a pinch of the bride's sacred 
meal and thus participate in the 
ceremonies more intimately than 
they would as mere spectators. 
The design of this wedding bas- 

-:-> 7 ■rS^KS 


ket is simple and bold. From a soft, 
brown band of color midway up the 
basket graceful black pyramids rise 
toward the rim; inverted pyramids 
fall from the same brown band to- 
ward the center. That is all there 
is to it, but the' effect is strik- 
ingly beautiful. Apart from the 
artistic merit of the design, one 
of the most fascinating bits of 
folklore in all Indian art survives in 
this old pattern. It will be noticed 
that the design does not quite close. 
The narrow line that breaks the 
pattern is called by anthropologists 
the "mind-line" or "spirit-line." Ac- 
cording to some explanations, the 
basket weaver leaves the opening 
for evil spirits to get out of the 
basket and for good spirits to come 
in. Another explanation is that the 
weaver fears that if she continues 
to put part of her mind into each 
basket that she weaves, without 
leaving a place for the mind to get 
back out, she will eventually "go 

In addition to the interest and 
beauty of the design of the Piute 
wedding basket, the durability of 
the basket is remarkable. So stur- 
dily is it constructed that when it 
is turned upside down a grown man 
can stand on it without fear of 
crushing it. Moreover, it can with- 
stand years of scuffing about be- 
fore the tough squawbush withes 
wear through. And even then the 
basket does not come to pieces 
when a few withes are broken. Al- 
most never do the coiled squawbush 
cores give way, and the withes with 
which the cores are wrapped hold 
their shape very stubbornly. Very 


few wedding presents that are given 
today by white people could be ex- 
pected to outlast a Piute wedding 

The art of basketry was de- 
veloped especially among nomadic 
Indians. Perhaps the chief rea- 
son for this lay in the fact that clay 
pottery could not hold up under the 
bumps and hard knocks that were 
inevitable when people were con- 
tinually moving camp. Hence the 
camp dwellers came to depend upon 
durable basketry-type water jugs 
and other woven household imple- 
ments instead of earthen jars. 

The baskets they wove took sev- 
eral forms, according to the use to 
which they were put and the mate- 
rials out of which they were made. 
Some items had to be rigid, as for 

example, trays for holding food, 
pack baskets for carrying heavy 
loads, and broad, shield-shaped im- 
plements for winnowing pine nuts 
and other seeds. Such articles were 
made by interlacing or weaving to- 
gether willows, slender twigs, or 
strips of wood carefully split or 
peeled from the sap wood of chosen 
trees or bushes. In the Utah area 
the squawbush provided the finest 
material for this kind of weaving, 
and the Utes and Piutes became ex- 
perts at handling this stubborn raw 
material. Another type of fabrica- 
tion was necessary when soft and 
pliant articles were needed. Thus 
cradles called for twisting and twin- 
ing of soft fibers on a rigid frame- 
work. Grasses, bark, and roots 
lent themselves to the demands in 

Native Americans at a roadside shelter where they 

this direction, and articles varying 
from primitive "market-bags" to 
warm robes, in which fluffy feathers 
were twined together with twisted 
bark, resulted from this kind of 
weaving. Still a third type of 
basketry may be distinguished in the 
process of matting together reeds 
and rushes for walls in dwellings, 
floor coverings, roofing, and other 
comparable uses. 

From what has just been said 
about basketry, the reader may eas- 
ily conclude that it was in reality a 
primitive process of textile manu- 
facturing. Almost everything which 
the Indian wove had first of all a 
practical purpose. Later, when the 
immediate necessity had been satis- 
fied, the craftsman could think of 
decoration. The chief means of 
decoration were dyes and paints 
which the Indian boiled down from 
vegetables or mixed up with clay 
and animal fats. Sometimes he put 
symbols into his weaving because of 
some religious belief or superstitious 
(Continued on following page) 

hMmm^ 9; z?'mi 

fEBRUARY 1950 


(Continued from preceding page) 
fear. But it would be wrong to 
suppose that every design or figure 
in a design meant something to the 
Indian who created it. Very fre- 
quently the stars, crosses, zigzags, 
triangles, and bars that appear in 
Indian designs were employed sim- 
ply because they appealed to the 
weaver as being attractive. I have 
a large beaded purse in my own 
collection with a design found no- 
where in Indian art. The woman 
who made the purse had copied a 
medal such as soldiers used to wear, 
ribbon, pendant, and all. And she 
liked it so much that she recopied it 
on the purse. Even images that 
can be identified in nature, such 
as the thunderbird (the eagle), 
scorpions, snakes, fishes, and leaves 
of familiar plants often have no 
particular significance. And when 
they do have significance for the 
weaver, it would be unsafe to sup- 
pose that they would have the same 
meaning for other Indians, even of 
the same tribe. In other words the 
use of images by artists was com- 
monly personal, and if they put 
meaning into their patterns, the 
meanings were individual rather 
than universal. The creator would 
generally have to tell other Indians 
what his design meant if he in- 
tended that they should know it. 

The same generalization may 
be made about designs or pat- 
terns in Indian pottery, blankets 
and beadwork. Though many 
symbolic elements exist in the 
decorations, the symbolism is not 
so common as white men are 
likely to suppose. Though the 
representation of the sun, stars, 
clouds, rain, and lightning in some 
pleasing way may have made primi- 
tive Indians feel that good effects 
would naturally follow, later ar- 
tists using the same motifs may 
have had nothing in mind except at- 
tractive decoration. As symbols be- 
come conventionalized, they lose in 
meaning. Even the interpretation of 
the "mind line" in the pattern of 
the Piute wedding basket, which 
was discussed above, may not be 
acceptable for any one basketmaker 
today. The woman who decided 
to weave a wedding basket might 
go ahead with the traditional pat- 
tern that has always been used on 
wedding baskets without even a 



thought about what the pattern 
meant — if it meant anything to her 
at all. 

Let us turn our attention now for 
a few moments to rug and blanket 
weaving. The practice of this craft 
was greatly accelerated among In- 
dians in the West after the arrival 
of the Spaniards in New Mexico 
during the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries. Yarn made from sheep 
and goat wool was much easier 
to work and to control than the 
clumsy bark fibers and scarce cotton 
which native craftsmen had em- 
ployed before. Within a short time 
the Indians' inborn feeling for color 
and line led them to create some 
of the marvelous fabrics which 
made Navajo blankets so famous. 
Some of the most beautiful early 
blankets were made by Indian 
women who unraveled the fine yarn 
from brilliant Spanish uniforms and 
rewove it in typical Indian patterns. 
These were the so-called bayetas, 
blankets that are prized collectors' 
items today. 

Oldtime blanket weavers almost 
never put a border around their 
blankets. The pattern ran in bars 
or wavy lines from one edge of the 
blanket straight across to the other 
edge. Sometimes the lines were 
zigzagged, sometimes even broken 
into fragments, but the pattern ran 
through from edge to edge. Some 
experts have seen in this character- 
istic of oldtime pattern in blankets 
the same precaution that led ancient 
basket weavers to leave the "mind 
line" in a basket design. However, 
as Navajo blankets became famous, 
commercial interests led the Indian 
weavers to frame their designs with 
borders, and thus enclose the "mind 
line" or "spirit line" within the 

Both baskets and blankets may 
have been comparatively easy for 
nomadic tribesmen to work at, but 
pottery-making generally required a 
more or less permanent location be- 
cause of the fragile nature of the 
clay vessels. Hence the Pueblo In- 
dians of the Southwest have become 
the most distinguished pottery mak- 
ers, while the Navajo herdsmen and 
the tipi-dwelling (teepee) Apaches 
and Piutes have become some of the 
outstanding blanket and basket 
weavers. Oddly enough the ancient 
potters of the Southwest region 
produced better pottery than In- 
dians of historic times. The shapes 
of the vessels, the designs employed, 
and the glaze or surfacing of an- 
cient pots was generally superior 
to those of more recent times. 
Nevertheless, the methods used by 
modern pottery makers seem to re- 
semble closely those of prehistoric 
workers. Perhaps the commonest 
method is to build up a vessel by 
adding strips upon a clay base un- 
til the desired height is reached. 
Sometimes a basket is used to hold 
the soft clay walls in shape until 
they have hardened enough to set 
well. The practice of forming the 
clay vessel within a basket may have 
given rise to the "basket design," 
which is common on Southwest pot- 
tery, for the damp clay must have 
received the impression from the 
wickerwork of the basket, and the 
potter took advantage of this ready- 
made decoration. 

Some of the earliest vessels had 
painted decorations on the inside. 
This fact may be accounted for by 
our knowledge that many pots were 
used in fires, and the outside sur- 
faces became blackened and grimy 
and hence unfit for decoration. 
Later, when people found use for 
clay vessels other than as cooking 
utensils, they began to paint and 
incise patterns on exterior surfaces. 
Certain tribes of Indians developed 
a very attractive style of design by 
painting birds and deer or other 
animals and plants on their pots. 
They thus gave life and motion to 
objects which never move. The 
Zunis and Acomas have shown un- 
usual taste in this direction. The 
fact, that the animals have become 
stylized or conventionalized does 
(Concluded on page 134) 

How America's first service station was born 

One day back in 1907, a Standard of Cali- 
fornia man stood watching a line of impa- 
tient motorists in goggles and linen dusters 
waiting to buy five-gallon cans of gasoline 
at Standard's Seattle plant. He had an idea 
for serving customers more efficiently, more 

The next day a thirty-gallon tank which 
had been a kitchen water heater was in- 
stalled opposite the main gate at the plant. 
To it were attached a valve-controlled hose 
and a glass gauge ... so gas could be poured 
directly into the customers' cars. 

That makeshift arrangement was the first 
service station in America. 

Today there are more than 10,000 Com- 
pany and Independent Dealer stations sell- 
ing Standard of California products. The 
services and conveniences they offer . . . the 

improved products they sell . . . would 
probably make them hard to recognize by 
the men who developed the first station. 
For the people of Standard today, as then, 
continue to seek ways to make better prod- 
ucts—and to serve better the people who 
use them. 



i5uri J^kepkerd, C^ditor' 


<J-Jo Lyon ~J\now Jheml 

Weighting. Because various 
women's groups in the United States 
combined their efforts successfully 
in having a law passed regarding 
silk labeling, there is little or no 
weighted silk on the market now. 
Silk, according to law, may be 
weighted with metallic salts up to 
seventy-five percent of the weight 
of the fabric, if it is so labeled. But 
if the terms pure~dye silk, pure silk, 


Will it wash? Will it iron? Will 
it hold its shape for months 
of service? We all ask ourselves 
and the salesclerks these questions, 
often with quite unsatisfactory an- 
swers. This is the second article 
on fabric finishes designed to ac- 
quaint the shopper with some of the 
ways of modern clothing manufac- 

^Photograph by Harold M. Lambert Studios 

Sizing and Weighing 

Sizing {Durable Starchless fin- 
ishes ) : Home starching methods of 
past days are no longer needed on 
such fabrics as lawn, organdy, 
dotted swiss, net, and draperies. 
These are now treated to retain 
their permanent stiffness, and re- 
quire no addition of starch after 
laundering. In this treatment the 
fiber fuzz is sealed down, and the 
yarns are smooth, so the fabric 
feels smooth to the hand. They 
keep clean longer, as dirt does not 
become embedded in the fibers, and 
are easily laundered. This finish 
is used on cotton, linen, and rayon. 
Here again there are many trade 
names — "Bellmanized," "Perma- 

Starch," "Apponized," "Sayler- 
ized," "Wat-a-set" — but labels 
change rapidly, and there is no 
point in memorizing names; it is 
best to look for some identification 
of a permanent finish. 

The "Wat-a-set" label on rayon 
drapery material also carries a guar- 
antee to repel destruction by the 
silver fish insect. In some localities 
this tiny culprit has been eating 
its head off on rayons. The insect 
is about one-third inch long, but so 
fine in structure it can scarcely be 
seen. It glides across moist surfaces 
like a fish, and no damage is ap- 
parent until the draperies are 
laundered — then small holes show 
up. Insect repellency is another 
innovation in fabric finishes. 

or silk, are used, such fabrics may 
contain no metallic weighting and 
must not contain more than ten per- 
cent dyeing and finishing material, 
except black silk, which may contain 
fifteen percent. Weighted silks were 
never satisfactory from the stand- 
point of durability because of split- 
ting, and because of the destruc- 
tive effects of sun, water, and 
perspiration on them. 

(Continued on page 128} 



Assuming that we all have im- 
perfections and that most of us 
would do something about them 
if we just knew what to do, we now 
approach the discouraging task of 
listing all our weaknesses. Oh, my! 
Well, it's not so bad. The worst 
mess we can possibly get into would 
be one including overweight, poor 
posture, bowed legs, dry, lifeless 
hair, bad breath, yellow teeth, dull 
eyes, wrinkles, acne, rough hands, 
broken nails, dirty elbows, negative 
mental attitude, a couple of aller- 
gies, and poor taste in clothes. Can 
you think of others? 

Most of these undesirable ele- 
ments can be worked over to ad- 
vantage. Not all. There are some 
things we just have to accept — for 
instance, our general contour, our 
height, and our birthdays. But 
these are no cause for grief. Many, 
many people can testify that our 
greatest trial may be our greatest 
blessing, and that if we're smart, 
we'll look for it. 

But it may cheer us up to look at 
the credit side of the ledger, and 
list there our advantages. These 
may not be so numerous, but they 
are decidedly important, for the 

*R£ t-heV 

girl who is wide-awake emphasizes 
her best feature, whether it be thick, 
shining hair, beautiful eyes, a well- 
proportioned figure, or simply grace 
on the dance floor. Everyone has 
some attribute of beauty which may 
be outstanding, and this is the secret 
of individuality. 

Take our voices, for instance — 
not our singing voices, our speaking 
voices. For although first impres- 
sions may come from appearance, 
second impressions, which are more 
lasting and vital, come when . we 
open our mouths and speak. A 
well-modulated voice, good enuncia- 
tion, correct grammar, and some- 
thing interesting to talk about are 
indispensable to the person who 
would be charming. "Your voice," 
says one beauty teacher, "is really 
the contact point between the in- 
side you and the outside world." 1 
{Continued on following page) 

'Ann Ashton. "Classroom Notes," page 20 





Cave those potato peelings, carrot 
tops, celery, cabbage and spin- 
ach leaves for the soup pot. Rich 
in vitamins A, B, and C, calcium 
and iron, they are the essence of 
good hot soup. They may be sim- 
mered together with water to cover 
for half an hour, and the broth 
used as a basic stock for many soup 

Tuna Chowder 

1 medium onion, sliced 
1 tablespoon fat 

1 cup boiling water or vegetable broth 
{Continued on page 127) 





Oh, lovely Blonde! My voice I raise, 
Your tender, golden charms to praise: 

When I am soiled beyond belief, 
Your perfume heralds prompt relief. 

Beneath your swiff and gentle care^ 
shun all washday wear and tear. 

And when with me you've had your way 
I'm cleansed of 'Tattle-Tale-ish' Gray. 

All subsfifufes i now decline, 


Fels-Naptha Soap 






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Royal Baking Co., Salt Lake and Ogden 
Since 1892 

Your f/ectric SeTNQrA 

Of Course— 

A service that performs 
many, many household 
tasks — 

A service that costs so 
little and does so much. 





A fire may mean you are out of a place to live with 

tremendous added expense before you find another. 

Let us explain your need for ample insurance to 

cover today's higher values. 


HEBER I. GRANT & CO., General Agent, Salt Lake City 


All Our Weaknesses 

(Continued from page 125) 
It is the sounding board of emotion. 
It reveals what we think of our- 
selves, what we think of others, 
what we know, and what we have 

A loud, coarse voice, for instance, 
is usually associated with an un- 
desirable person. High-pitched, 
nasal, or raspy tones are also dis- 
agreeable to others. Few people 
are blessed with naturally beauti- 
ful speaking voices, but those who 
are can be charming and attractive 
even though lacking many other 
beauty traits. Therefore, it be- 
hooves us, in our beauty plan, to 
check up on our speech habits, for 
the man or woman who talks well 
is more easily admired than one who 
does not. 

Voice recordings are always re- 
vealing, for we do not hear our- 
selves as others hear us, and a 
recording may be played over and 
over to reveal defects in speech. 
Also, friends and teachers may, if 
asked, point out in a friendly way 
our speech weaknesses. The causes 
of poor speech are many and varied, 
making speech correction an indi- 
vidual problem. But all of us may 
learn gentler voice tone, clearer 
speech, and good grammar. Many 
books on voice training are avail- 
able, and we would all do well to 
read at least one. 

We may learn much about our- 
selves and our voices by develop- 
ing a sensitivity to the reactions of 
others when we speak; for instance, 
do people on the bus turn and look 
when we talk in what we think are 
normal tones? Does the one we're 
talking to wince or look annoyed oc- 
casionally, or does he ask us to re- 
peat what we have said? 

We might also choose an ideal to 
watch and study, for most of us 
learn a good deal if we are alert 
to what others are doing and say- 

Elbert Hubbard has said that 
the way to get a mild, gentle, and 
sympathetic voice is to be mild, 
gentle, and sympathetic. And per- 
haps, after all, as far as most of 
us are concerned, it is our attitude 
toward life and toward others which 
determines whether we shall one 
day write with a flourish "the voice 
with a smile" on the credit page of 
our personal achievements. 


Soup's On! 

(Continued from page 125) 

3 teaspoons salt 

3 potatoes, washed and sliced, not 

1 7-oz. can tuna 
1 cup peas, cooked 

3 cups milk 

Saute onions in tuna oil or other fat. 
Add water, salt, and potatoes. Simmer 
until potatoes are cooked (about fif- 
teen minutes ) , then add tuna, peas, and 
milk. Heat and serve. Minced pars- 
ley or other herb favorites may be 
added for flavor. 

Corn and Tomato Chowder 

34 cup minced onion 
Ys cup diced celery 

2 cups raw potatoes, diced 
2 cups boiling water or vegetable 

1 bay leaf 

Y2 teaspoon basil 

2 tablespoons butter 
2 cups corn, cooked 

\y 2 cup milk 

1 cup tomatoes 

4 teaspoons salt 

Yi cup grated cheese 

Tie seasonings in small bag, and 
place with butter, onion, celery, po- 
tatoes, and water in covered kettle, 
and cook till the potatoes are tender. 
Remove bag of seasonings. Add the 
other ingredients and stir till the cheese 
is melted. 

Leek and Potato Soup 

4 leeks, minced (use the white and 
part of the green) 

1 small onion 

2 tablespoons butter 

1 quart water or vegetable broth 

2 teaspoons salt 

3 potatoes, diced 
2 cups milk 

Put leeks and onions in saucepan 
with fat. Cover and cook till soft. 
Add water, salt, potatoes, and cook. 
Add hot milk when ready to serve. 
Meaty-flavored extract such as Savita 
or Vegex, bouillon cubes, or other meat 
extracts may be added for flavor. 

Creamed Vegetable Soup 

Using any available green leaves, 
carrot tops, etc., as mentioned in para- 
graph one, add thick peelings of po- 
tatoes, a cup of diced parsley, diced, 
unpeeled carrots, and simmer together 
one-half hour. Mash through a sieve, 
retaining all pulp possible. Add cream 
or rich milk and season to taste. This 
may be thickened with a little flour 
and milk mixture, if desired. 

Which is 

Mrs. Collins 1 


• •• 

One wee baby is enough to fill 
your whole world with happiness. 
But Mrs. Collins discovered that 
a mother's love is big enough lor 
four, when the stork paid her an 
amazing visit in a New York hos- 
pital on May 4, 1949. 

In the midst of her joy, Mrs. 
Collins had some serious questions. 
Would all her loving care bring 
her babies safely through? They 
were so tiny, so delicate that their 
lives could hang upon a single 
thing: the right food. 

Happily, this problem was solved 
when a wise physician approved 
milk made by the producers of 
Sego Milk for their feeding. He 
knew that this milk is the kind of 
milk that helps all babies to build 


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strong bodies and to make the best 
of growth. Always easy to digest. 
Every drop uniformly rich in the 
food substances of good whole 
milk. And as safe, in its sealed 
container, as if there were no 
harmful germs in the world. He 
knew, too, that this mdk supplies 
vitamin D — the sunshine vitamin 
all babies must have in order to 
develop straight, strong bones and 
sound teeth. 

How are the Collins babies today? 
Thriving — just as five other sets 
of quadruplets, hundreds of trip- 
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made by the producers of Sego 
Milk, on doctors' orders. Ask your 
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(Continued from page 124) 


Mercerization is a chemical finish 
which is widely used today to give 
cottons and linens greater strength 
and to enable them to take a clearer, 
brighter, and more permanent dye. 
The process changes the structure 
of cotton fibers, taking out the 
twists which give the fabric its in- 
herent dullness, and effecting a 
lasting and pleasing shine on the 
material. It consists of a caustic 
soda bath and a mild acid rinse, 

accomplished under heat and pres- 

Water Repellents 

What is the difference between a 
water-repellent garment, and one 
that is waterproof? 

Water repellents are chemicals 
which penetrate only the fibers of 
the cloth and leave the "pores" 
open so that air can permeate them, 
and the garment is comfortable to 
wear. Waterproofing is a coat- 


U Jswiporbarit, but . 


Cuppose that someone who needs something approaches 
us for some service—a service that is reasonable and 
honorable and easily within our reach. And suppose that 
we hide behind the actual or alleged fear of precedent in 
refusing the favor. In short, suppose we say: "I'd like 
to do it for you, but if I do it for you, I'll have to do it 
for everyone. I am so sorry." Certainly this sounds like 
logic, and certainly it can be used as a convenient way out. 
But let's see where such logic could lead: Suppose that 
a boat overturns and there are several men in danger 
of drowning and we refuse to save any of them because 
we can't save all of them. To add other illustrations: 
Suppose that if we can't go to everyone's party, we assume 
that we shouldn't go to anyone's party; suppose that if 
we can't invite everyone to dinner, we don't invite anyone 
to dinner. These are samples of what such seemingly 
simple logic could lead to if pursued to absurdity. We 
know to begin with that, individually, we can't do some- 
thing for everyone. But should this be construed as a 
valid reason why we shouldn't do anything for anyone? 
The fact is that if we didn't ever do anything for anyone 
that we couldn't do for everyone, we would never do 
anything for anyone. Of course, precedent is important; 
and departure from precedent can be embarrassing. And 
certainly under some circumstances we may be clearly 
prevented by precedent; under some circumstances we 
may be clearly bound by invariable rules and by the intent 
and letter of the law. But if we always let the premise 
of precedent prevent us from doing something we could 
do and should do, we may never do very much of any- 
thing for anyone else or for ourselves, either. When the 
right of discretion and decision is ours, and when the 
facts seem to justify, just because we can't do something 
for everybody is no reason why we shouldn't do something 
for somebody. If we wait until we can do something for 
everyone, we'll never do anything for anyone. 

Uke Spoken lA/ord FROM TEMPLE 



ing applied to close the pores of the 
cloth and keep water from going 
through. Since it also keeps air 
from going through, garments so 
treated are uncomfortable in warm 
weather and are detrimental to 

There are two types of water re- 
pellents, both of which make fab- 
rics resistant to water, rain, snow, 
and non-oily spots: (a) durable — 
in which chemicals are used to 
impregnate the yarn fibers and will 
not wash out; they are applied to 
cottons, linen, viscose rayon, silk, 
or mixtures; (b) non-durable — in 
which a wax-type chemical is used 
to coat the yarn. This finish will 
need to be replaced after washing 
or dry cleaning, but many cleaning 
establishments are equipped to give 
this service. The finish may be 
applied to any fabric. 

The label should state whether or 
not the treatment is durable for the 
normal life of the fabric. Otherwise 
the garment likely will not be water 
repellent after the first cleaning. 
"Zelan" is a trade name for a du- 
rable finish, as is "Cravenette" if the 
label also states "long life." "Ari- 
dex" and "Impregnole" are non- 
durable finishes. 

Finishes are Never-Ending 

There are other finishes: Flock 
dots applied to cottons are not 
permanent unless they are electrical- 
ly applied and not pasted on; the 
moire finish applied to rayons is 
not permanent unless the fabric is 
acetate rayon; design finishes em- 
bossed (stamped under pressure) 
on a fabric are not permanent and 
require careful handling if the finish 
is to be retained. 

The dry goods department man- 
ager may supply information on 
fabrics which are mildew or moth 
resistant, flame resistant, perma- 
nently glazed, or even germproof 
for cotton. 

Since labels and finishes are con- 
stantly changing, there is no defi- 
nite guarantee of buyer-satisfaction 
if one asks for materials by their 
trade names. If we want crease- 
resistant cotton, we must ask for 
crease-resistant cotton and make 
sure the label states that it is treated 
so. Otherwise the purchase is "a 

(Continued on following page) 


The Case Slicer-Baler for 1950 puts 
up ventilated bales — and it's the only 
baler that does. It's a proved baler, 
already used by more farmers than 
any other. And remember — it's the 
slicer-baler that costs less to own. 

For two years, an agricultural col- 
lege compared ventilated bales and 
ordinary bales, side by side. The 

tests included different lots of hay, 
and a variety of weather — some of it 
very poor for hay curing. Expert hay 
graders did the judging. They found 
that the ventilated bales averaged 
consistently higher in grade. 

Plan now to feed hay of still higher 
quality . . . save grain and concen- 
trates. . .put more meat on the ribs 
and more milk in the pail. See your 
Case dealer now; learn how little it 
costs to have your own Case Slicer- 
Baler, avoid waiting on others. And 
be sure to use the coupon, today. 


Mark machines that interest you; write in margin any 
others you may need; mail to J. I. Case Co., Dept. B-44, 
Racine, Wis. 

□ Slicer-Baler 
D Trailer-Mower 
D Tractor Rake 

D Heavy-Duty Baler 
D Light Power Baler 
D 3-Way Elevator 

O Forage Harvester 
□ Forage Blower 
Q Hammer Mill 


POSTOFFICE __________ 



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The Natural Herb Tea 


Healrhy habits mecin healthier . . . hap- 
pier living. Make ALVITA FOENUGREEK 
TEA one of your daily beverages. Drink il 
often, you'll agree it's the best tea you've 
ever tried. It's pleasant . . . soothing and 
often relieves the distressing discomforts 
of acid upset stomach, sourness, stomach 
gas and belching. Foenugreek tea does 
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ALFALFA-MINT TEA-4V2 oz. $ .40 


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Capitalize on QUISH 
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A delightful 

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(Concluded from preceding page) 
pig in a poke." Instructions as to 
proper care of material are also im- 
portant, for a finish permanent to 
dry cleaning may not be permanent 
in the wash water. On the other 
hand, a finish which is temporary 
today may be made permanent to- 
morrow, and if so, the label will 
tell the story. 

Clothing and textiles, like food, 
are indispensable essentials in life, 
and though it is often difficult to 
keep up with scientific use and 
abuse of them, to do so is profitable. 


Dana, Margaret, Behind the Label 
Boston: Little Brown & Co., 1938. 

"Dictionary for Textile Fabrics, 
Films, Fibers, and Finishes for 
the Postwar World," House 
Beautiful, February 1946. 

Hess, Katherine P. Textile Fibers 
and Their Use. J. B. Lippincott 
Co., 1936. 

"Manual of Fabric Finishes," Pub- 
lished by Hearst Magazines for 
Good Housekeeping Magazine. 

Wingate, Isabel. Textile Fabrics. 
Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1935. 




hat to do, what to say! The 
formal party is on the way! 

1 . A girl always takes her part- 
ner's right arm at a formal ball, or 
on entering the dining room at a 
formal dinner. 

2. A boy always thanks his part- 
ner for a dance. She may say 
"Thank you" or reply "I enjoyed 
it, too." 

3. In trying to press through the 
crowd on the ballroom floor, the 
boy precedes the girl. He does not 
use her as a bumper to clear the 

4. A girl does not parade across 
the ballroom unescorted. 

5. A boy does not leave his part- 
ner to shift for herself at any time. 
He makes sure she has another 
partner or is otherwise appropriate- 
ly taken care of. 

6. If there is music at a party, 
other than for dancing, it is ex- 
tremely rude to talk or move about 
while it is going on. Guests who do 
not care for it should go to another 
room before it starts. 

7. At the punch table, if there 
is no one to serve, the boy serves 
both himself and his partner. The 
girl does not serve herself. 

8. On being introduced to a boy, 
a girl may either bow slightly or 
shake hands if she prefers. When 
a boy or girl comes into a room 
full of people, it is courteous to 
shake hands with everyone unless 
there are too many people, or some 
are difficult to reach. The guests 
should always shake hands with the 
host and hostess. 

9. When being introduced, it is 
best to say simply "How do you 

do" not "I am pleased to meet you" 
or something similar. Neither is 
it good form to say "I am so pleased 
to have met you," as this is rather 
affected. Say preferably, "I hope 
I shall see you again." 

10. When a boy is introduced to 
a group, his name is not repeated 
to each person. It is best to men- 
tion his name first, and then to name 
the members of the group. 

11. "I don't mind if I do" is un- 
gracious .and affected. A simple 
"Yes, thank you" or "Thank you 
very much" is better. Simplicity 
always makes for better manners. 

12. It is bad taste for either a 
girl or a boy to use a comb or nail 
file in public. 

13. Profanity is always in bad 

14. Chewing gum in public de- 
tracts from the appearance of a 
boy or girl. 

15. The social gesture of greatest 
importance in public is not to make 
any gesture which is conspicuous. 
It is good manners in a restaurant or 
at a dance not to be noticed for 
anything but good looks or smart 

16. A girl always likes to be told 
she looks well, whether the compli- 
ment comes from a man or a woman. 
It is bad taste, however, for a boy 
to pay a girl lavish compliments. 

17. If her partner is not present, 
a girl helps another girl into her 
coat. Fellows always help each 

18. A boy does not walk along 
the street with a girl with his arm 
through hers. He may take it briefly 
at a curb, or ask her to take his if 


it is slippery, but it is always an 
occasion, not an everyday gesture. 

19. A boy always walks on the 
outside, that is, nearest the street, 
whether he is with one girl or two 
or three. He does not walk be- 
tween two girls. In a taxi or car 
which he is not driving, he sits 
on the left side if he is with one 
girl or between them if there are 
two. He alights from a car, street- 
car,' or bus ahead of the lady, in 
order to assist her in getting out. 

20. A young woman always gives 
a young man every opportunity to 
display gracious manners. If he 
does not do so, she must cover up 
his errors as best she can and make 
no sign by word or look that he is 
lacking in social graces. If she does 
not enjoy his company, she need not 
go with him again. 

A Pair of Skates 

(Continued from page 106) 

He skated around, trying to think 
of some way to increase his speed 
just a little. A little was all he 
would need. He was sure of that. 

When he came back over by the 
bonfire, he met Verne. 

"Hi," Verne said casually. 

"Hello," Joe replied. 

"I'd like to talk with you alone 
a minute," Verne said. 

Joe looked a little surprised. May- 
be this was it. Maybe Verne would 
try to buy his way in, because he 
knew Joe wanted those skates. 

"All right," he said. Might as 
well find out, anyway. 

They went off to the side a little. 
Then Joe noticed Verne had an 
extra pair of skates with him. Swell 
ones, just like his own. They sat 
down on a log. 

Verne said quietly, "I think you 
or I will win our race today. If I 
win, I want it to be all fair and 
square. I know your skates aren't 
very good, so I thought maybe 
you'd wear these. Then if I win, 
I'll know you had just as good a 
chance as I did." 

Joe swallowed. Then he grinned, 
a little shamefaced. 

"I really shouldn't take them, 
Verne," he said, "but I'm going to." 

"I'm glad," Verne said. "And if 
you ever want to borrow them 
again, you may." 

When it was time for the race, 
the boys lined up. There were 
(Concluded on following page) 




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in half. Mark the pieces of toast in squares with a piping of cream 
cheese, then in one square place strawberry jam; in another square 
put apricot-pineapple jam. A pastry tube is just the thing for adding 
the cheese. And for flavorful sandwiches every time, be sure you 
use Fisher's Enriched White Bread. No wonder folks call Fisher's— 
bread at its best! 



(Continued from preceding page) 
plenty of them running, but to 
Verne and Joe there were only the 
two of them. Neither had any 
worries about anyone else. 

Joe found the new skates giving 
him a little more speed, a little more 
sureness. But he wasn't sure it 
was enough. Verne had always 
outdistanced him before. Maybe 
he still would. 

At the starting gun, they sprang 
into action. In the first fifty yards 
they began to string out. Then Joe 
and Verne came out in front, each 
striving to outdo the other. 

The race was to the end of the 
pond, around a post frozen in the 
ice, and back to their starting line. 
They began cutting wide to make 
the turn around the post. Then 
Joe found he was going to be on 
the outside of the turn. He tried 
to increase speed so as to get ahead 
of Verne and take the inside track 
around the post, but it was impos- 
sible. Verne held with him. Then 
they cut in to make the turn, and 
Joe had to drop behind. Stroking 
foot over foot they came around. 
As they passed the post, Joe cut 
more sharply in and took the in- 
side track. By so doing he picked 
up the few feet he had lost when 
they started around the turn. 

As they came into the home 
stretch in a dead heat, Joe glanced 
aside at Verne. His own breath 
was coming hard, but Verne's 
seemed to be coming harder. With 
new hope, Joe struck out in a sprint 
over the last hundred yards. Gamely 
Verne held with him. But it 
couldn't last. Because Verne was 
not one of the gang, he hadn't 
skated as much as Joe, and his wind 
wasn't as good. Slowly Joe pulled 
ahead, an inch at a time. Verne 
made one last desperate attempt to 
pull out ahead, but Joe held his 
lead. They flashed over the finish 
line within a few feet of each other. 

Joe knew that was the hardest 
race he ever had run. He also knew 
he couldn't have won it if Verne 
hadn't lent him the good skates. 

Both of them were puffing hard 
as Verne skated up to Joe. 

"Congratulations," he said, smil- 
ing that casual friendly smile that 
asked nothing, that seemed afraid 
of being rebuffed. 

Joe smiled in return. But this 

time his was a frank, friendly smile. 
He knew now his mother was right. 
He had to do something to fix 
things up right. 

"Mother said I could have some 
of the fellows up for doughnuts 
after the carnival," he said. "Will 
you come?" 

"Gee, that'll be swell," Verne 
smiled frankly this time, and Joe 
saw that everything was going to 
be all right. 

He felt at ease now. "Let's go 
over and watch the rest of the 
races," he said, and they skated off 

^Jke L^onduct of 


'J'here is an bid Oriental proverb which reads, "The 
reputation of a thousand years may be determined 
by the conduct of one hour."' Sometimes it may not 
seem to be just and fair for such short intervals to be so 
all-important— for things that matter so much to be made 
and unmade by the act of one moment— or for the labor 
of a lifetime to be laid low by one ill-advised hour. But 
it isn't the length of time that matters so much as what 
goes before, or what has happened inside, to make any 
particular act or action possible— the qualities of char- 
acter, the habits, the thinking that precede our perform- 
ance. Some things we do, no doubt, are only inadvertent 
acts, and some may be unmistakable accidents; but there 
is a set of background circumstances that leads to every 
act and incident. The word that can't be recalled, the 
deed that can't be undone- — these may be only occur- 
rences of carelessness, or they may be evidence of some- 
thing more significant inside. Of course, we all make 
mistakes, but when a man makes a serious mistake, he 
must expect to be placed on probation in the opinion of 
other people until they satisfy themselves as to whether 
the mistake was an inadvertent error or an indication of 
some corrosion of character, some lack of loyalty, some 
perversion of principle. Of course, people can repent, 
and when repentance is sincere, we must accept it. We 
can and must forgive a repentant person for a momentary 
misstep. But it is often easier for men to forgive than 
to forget, and somehow old errors may keep cropping 
up— and this is only one reason, besides what happens 
inside, why it is so everlastingly important to be on 
guard against the ill-advised action of any one moment, 
of any one hour, or of all the hours of life. The reputa- 
tion of a lifetime — and many things more important even 
than reputation— may be determined by the conduct of 
one hour or by the misstep of a moment. There is no 
doubt of it, there is a premium paid for constancy and 
consistency of performance — there is a premium paid for 
enduring consistently to the end. 

'Japanese Proverb 

^Jke Spoken (A/ord from temple 




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(Concluded from page 122) 
not detract from the vitality which 
they give to the objects they adorn. 

Some of the most beautiful mod- 
ern Indian pottery is fashioned at 
Santa Clara and San Ildefonzo. In 
both of these pueblos a glossy 
black and a tawny sand-red finish 
are given to vessels. Both colors 
are obtained from the same kind of 
clay. The difference is a result of the 
firing process. The black is achieved 
when the smoke from the caked 
sheep manure with which the pots 
are burned is carefully controlled. 
The carbon combines with the clay 
to produce the fine black. 

Some Indian pottery is so sym- 


metrical as to make one believe that 
it could not have been shaped ex- 
cept upon a potter's wheel. But 
Indians have never adopted the 
wheel. Their pots are formed free- 

Indians all over the West have 
found Navajo silver work to their 
liking. The Navajos learned silver 
from the Mexicans and became very 
proficient, at making various kinds 
of articles for use and adornment. 
Belt buckles, buttons of all sizes, 
pins, rings, and necklaces were 
pounded out of Mexican coin silver 
with very primitive tools. Mexican 
dollars, which the Indians melted 
down, had a very high percentage 

of sterling in them, and the brace- 
lets made out of this silver wore 
smooth and developed a lustre of 
great beauty. 

In this brief discussion I have 
mentioned only Indian arts that 
have already found a place in the 
white man's way of life. The pro- 
ficiency which Indian craftsmen 
have developed in beadwork and 
embroidery, leatherwork, and the 
use of feathers in costuming is uni- 
versally appreciated in the West. 
Indian art is individual and strong, 
and our own art will be added to 
and strengthened as we learn to 
assimilate more fully the ideas and 
patterns of our red brothers. 


( Concluded from page 119) 
rank, but went on to conquer the 
field of merit badges. It takes 
twenty-one to become an Eagle. 
By the time Ray was eighteen he 
had earned seventy-four of the 
seventy-six merit badges available. 
Only one other Scout in the United 
States had that many. He was 
Wendell Gibbs, of Ray's own Ram 
Patrol in Troop 39. They lacked 
only canoeing and seamanship, and 
these weren't given locally at that 

That same year Ray attended the 
International Jamboree in England. 
He won many honors while there 
and was recognized internationally 
for his scouting achievements. After 
the Jamboree he stayed on in Eu- 
rope to fill an L.D.S. mission in 

{Continued from page 107) 
This committee had two funda- 
mental aims: to create a means to 
train girls for rich Latter-day Saint 
womanhood; to develop an organ- 
ization that would represent the 
Church and the state. 

The Camp Fire Girls used Indian 
symbolism to represent American 
girlhood. What symbolism would 
best represent Latter-day Saint girl- 
hood? Out of the past came the 
Book of Mormon word, "Deseret," 
which means "honey-bee." And to 
amplify and glorify the state symbol 
of the beehive, came Maurice 
Maeterlinck's Life of the Bee, only 

When he returned home, Ray 
continued in the program. He 
moved to Springville where he be- 
came a commissioner, and he earned 
more merit badges as they were 
added to the program. He now 
has eighty-nine and is still working 
in scouting with his son Donald, 
who is a first-class Scout seeking the 

Although President Richards will 
be eighty-nine on February 23, 
1950, he is still a young man. 
'Youth is not altogether a time of 
life," he says, "it is a state of 
mind. People grow old by desert- 
ing their ideals." 

"We are as young as our faith, 
as old as our despairs." 

It was this spirit of youth and 
love for the program that has done 

so much for his family that led 
him to accept a position this year 
on the executive board of the Salt 
Lake Council. 

"Where scouting is properly 
used," President Richard states, "it 
will do much for the boys of our 
Church. This year, the fortieth 
anniversary of the program, the 
Boy Scouts of America has adopted 
the slogan, 'Strengthen the Arm 
of Liberty.' 

"The ideal of freedom in America 
has been basic in our belief ever 
since our Church was founded by 
Joseph Smith through revelation. 
The Liberty Crusade is another 
indication that the ideals of scout- 
ing follow the ideals of the Church 
of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 


published in book form in 1914. 
With Mae Taylor Nystrom's sug- 
gestion that the organization be 
called the Bee-Hive Girls, the pat- 
tern of symbolism was complete. 

In 1915 the organization of the 
Bee-Hive Girls was presented to 
the Y. L.M.I. A. as summer work. 
The first handbook represented 
arduous labor by the committee. 
These women had worked with 
complete and loving unity. They 
heaped together all their past ex- 
perience and present study, their in- 
spiration, and their eager desire for 
perfection. Then they selected and 
discarded, chose and criticized, until 

their own personalities were lost in 
the magnificent wealth and beauty 
they presented in their book, the 
Bee-Hive Handbook. 

The art work was contributed by 
young Latter-day Saint artists, 
among whom were Rena Olson and 
Lucile Cannon. They put into 
design the chosen symbols of the 
organization, its three ranks and 
seven fields; they created the seals, 
and the covers, borders, and il- 
lustrations for the book itself. 

Ann M. Cannon as chairman 
loved to tell of the harmony and in- 
spiration that attended the efforts 
of all the people who built the Bee- 


Hive work in those early days. She 
would mention gratefully the stake 
and ward presidents who coop- 
erated and adjusted and reported 
results to the main committee. 

She had learned early to coop- 
erate with committees, and to give 
each member full credit for her 
share in accomplishment. From 
childhood she had worked in the 
Church, and as early as 1891, she 
began her forty years of service on 
the general board of the Young 
Ladies' Mutual Improvement As- 
sociation, later changed to Young 
Women's Mutual Improvement As- 
sociation. "She was a power in the 
administration" of Elmina S. 
Taylor, first general president. 
Nineteen years she was general sec- 
retary, then a position without fi- 
nancial remuneration. She inaugu- 
rated the roll books with duplicate 
annual report blanks still in use 
today. For ten years she was 
general treasurer. She was long 
a member of the Board of Control 
of the Deseret Gymnasium. 

Perhaps she loved best the five 
years when she was editor of the 
Young Woman's Journal. Always 
she had responded to literature. Her 
bookshelves at home held volumes 
of the classics: Plato, Aristotle, 
Shakespeare, Goethe, Dickens, John 
Stuart Mill. There were books by 
American poets: Bryant, Long- 
fellow, Walt Whitman. And from 
the Church works, from the 
fearless audacity of her ancestors, 
she believed that her own 
people could themselves produce 
great literature. So, she sought out 
the new Church writers: the poetry 
of Kate Thomas, the editorials of 
Susa Young Gates, the stories of 
Elsie C. Carroll and Josephine 
Spencer. She invited contributions 
of Church Authorities of literary 
ability. Always she was alive to the 
points of view of her predecessors. 
Always she strove to make the 
publication represent the best the 
Mutual Improvement Association 
had to offer. 

Annie Cannon never called the 
organization the Mutual. She spoke 
of it always as Mutual Improve- 
ment. For of what else was life 

Her convention trips led her into 
all sorts of adventures. Once she 
and her companions were marooned 
in a stagecoach by a washout on 
the desert of southern Utah. She 

visited Zion Park when it was only 
a small settlement and made various 
trips over the country. She came 
home speaking enthusiastically of 
the fine women in the then distant 
outposts of the Church: Shiprock, 
Mesa, Cardston. 

Twice she represented the Young 
Women's Mutual Improvement As- 
sociation at the National Council of 
Women, in Washington. She took 
her fifteen-year-old niece, Adele 
Cannon, to one of these conven- 
tions. Her contacts with the im- 
portant women of the time were 
thrilling to Ann M. Cannon, and 
she enjoyed telling of their hospital- 
ity and appreciation of the Utah 

And all this time Ann Cannon 
was earning her own living. Her 
brother, George M. Cannon, began 
teaching her business principles 
when she was thirteen. She con- 
tinued an active business life until 
she was seventy-five. She was an 
expert bookkeeper; she had a clear 
understanding of real estate trans- 
actions. For five and a half years 
she was Salt Lake County deputy 
recorder, and for a long period she 
was associated with the Prudential 
Building and Loan Association. 

During these active years she was 
making a home for her father and 
invalid mother, Angus Munn and 
Sarah Mousley Cannon. This home 
was a haven of culture and hap- 
piness for all the numerous nieces 
and nephews, actual and spiritual. 
( Anyone who felt the sweetness of 
her spirit called her Aunt Annie.) 
Here they could read from the 
crowded bookshelves; they could 
study the magnificent paintings on 
the walls; they could learn the saga 
of the artistic Fairbanks family. 
During one period they could meet 
John Hafen, for he was painting 
grandmother's portrait. He was not 
famous then, and Ann Cannon was 
a true friend to him when she bought 

several of his pictures. Her interest 
in art was constant throughout her 
life. The needlepoint she stitched 
was unusual, of rare colors and de- 
signs. In her late sixties she took 
up pottery making. She gloried in 
the feel of the clay and its power 
for beauty. She was one of the 
organizers of the Art Barn and was 
always active in its affairs. 

At the time of her graduation 
from the University of Deseret in 
1886 at the age of sixteen, she was 
a slim, pretty girl. Among her 
teachers were John R. Park, J. H. 
Paul, George M. Ottinger, the 
pioneer Utah artist. At the celebra- 
tion of the fiftieth anniversary of 
her graduation, she helped organize 
the U of U Emeritus Club. 

In 1926, Ann M. Cannon joined 
Lucy M. Van Cott on a memorable 
voyage to Europe. While there she 
visited the Isle of Man, the home- 
land of her Cannon ancestors. She 
formed an acquaintance with Mr. 
and Mrs. William Cubbon, then 
curator of the Manx Museum. 
Through the years she corre- 
sponded with Mr. Cubbon, mostly 
regarding genealogical work. Be- 
cause of her interest in Manx 
records and her influence in having 
them microfilmed, she was made a 
member of the Antiquarian Society 
of the Isle of Man, and her picture 
now hangs in the museum of that 
faraway island. 

Ann M. Cannon died November 
9, 1948. But in reality she has 
joined George Eliot's 

Choir invisible 

Of those immortal dead who live again 

In minds made better by their presence. 

Her whole attitude in life is well 
expressed by the "Honey Gather- 
er's Song." 

Out in the dew-sparkling dawn I dart 
Straight to the fragrant flower heart, 
Skies are blue and days are fair, 
Honey lies hidden everywhere, 
Joy to gather my share. 


(Continued from page 109) 
"Now, I'm sure you can do it," 
they were told when they came back 
together. "It's easy. Just sweep, 
step, glide. Sweep, step, glide." 

|Daul's eyes sought Elaine's. "I'm 
sure we can do it," he said. 
"Thank -you." 

His voice was warm, and Elaine 
knew he was really thanking them 
for his regained composure. The 
rest of the evening was a night- 
mare. Paul was gay — too gay, and 
Elaine felt brittle as ice. When it 
was over. Paul steered her to his 

[Continued on following page) 



when your hubby flies home 
some night with improved 



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(Continued from preceding page) 

"I'll drop you off," he said. 

"Craig wouldn't like that,*' she 
said, thinking aloud. "I'd better 
get a cab." 

"I'm no claim jumper," said Paul 
tightly, and Elaine, feeling rather 
silly, got in. 

"Paul," she said, when they were 
nearing the hall. "I want you to 
know that I have always cherished 
your friendship." 

"Sounds like a speech," said 
Paul. "But I know you mean it. 
You'll always have my friendship, 

"I'm afraid not," said Elaine un- 
happily. "You see, Craig — " 

"I see," said Paul, and was silent. 

"Paul, I'm going to resign from 
the stake board. I have some other 
obligations — " 

"Resign! You can't do that, 

"I think it would be better." 

"You're right, Elaine. This won't 
do, but if there is any resigning to 
do, I'll be the one." 

"No. I have to anyway. You 
see — 


"Yes, Craig!" admitted Elaine. 
"Oh, Paul, doesn't the Bible say 
you should leave all else, and 
cleave — " 

"The Bible says, "Seek ye 
first — ' " Paul said gruffly. 

Ulaine didn't see Craig's car 
when they drove up, perhaps be- 
cause it was parked two doors down 
the street. She did not see Craig 
until he detached himself from the 
shadow of the entrance. He was 
shaking with anger. 

"I thought so! I thought so!" 
His voice was high with accusation. 

"Craig, this is Paul." 

"You don't need to tell me who 
it is," said Craig uncivilly. "I 
have been following you. I know 
what you are up to." 

"You do?" said Elaine, her anger 

"You can trust Elaine," said Paul 

Paul knew that, but Craig didn't. 
Marriage without trust wouldn't be 
marriage. "You can trust Paul," 
she added. 

"My! My!" said Craig with sar- 
casm. "A regular little trust com- 

1 1 

pany. (Continued on page 138) 


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( Concluded from page 1 36 ) 
i4 r^RA\G f this isn't what it looks 
like," said Paul. "I can ex- 
plain — " 

"I know all I want to know," 
said Craig, turning on his heel. 

"I'd better go," whispered Paul. 
"You can get this straightened out 
better without me. I'm sorry, 

( Continued from page 117) 
when they heard of this extraordi- 
nary proposition, and selected the 
homes in Bluff and in Monticello 
which they would occupy when the 
settlers were kicked out, and they 
boasted of how they would run 
things in the undisturbed ways of 
their ancestors. Somebody took 
pains to keep them informed, or 
misinformed, about this pending bill, 
making them worse neighbors than 
they had been before. 

A year passed — two years. The 
Texas outfit refused to talk sale. 
Why should they? Every month 
saw them more firmly established 
and better known to their profitable 
customers of the "underground" 
from half a dozen states and ter- 
ritories. Their business looked bet- 
ter all the time. 

The builders of the fort saw in it 
a picture dark indeed. They had 
won the Navajos, and among them 
they had found many pleasant 
acquaintances. Yet the Navajos, 
however valuable their good will 
and their confidence, represented 
but the first of the three major 
problems set for the mission to 

Yet by some unfaltering intuition 
of fidelity the people clung to their 
two forts, cherishing their promise 
of ultimate triumph. They toiled on 
for their livelihood and ate their 
humble bread under the humiliating 
leer of cowpuncher-thieves who 
rode arrogantly about on their 
stolen horses with their wide hats 
cocked banteringly on one side, and 
their flaming bandanas in jaunty 
style around their necks. 

The day of the desperado cow- 
puncher was nearer to its close than 
anyone imagined. When the pendu- 
lum of human fortune has swung as 
far as it can to the right, it must 

"No, stay, wait for me." 

She was flying down the walk to 
Craig's car, and there were no 
doubts now. Her purpose was clear. 

"Craig, here. Take this with 
you." She took off his ring and 
dropped it into his palm. 

"Craig, I know this is partly my 
fault. I should have known that 


swing back to the left. That 
pendulum had reached its ultimate 
limit on one side in San Juan, and 
a change was inevitable. 

Two daring robbers held up and 
stripped a Denver and Rio Grande 
train and then sank from sight in 
eastern Utah. State Marshal Joe 
Bush took up the tracks and fol- 
lowed them beyond the watching 
eyes of the waiting world into the 
remote and obscure San Juan. 

At Bluff, Bush called for men 
to go with him, yet he wanted more 
than men: he wanted a strategist 
to outwit the smooth thing which 
had cheated every officer who fol- 
lowed a criminal into San Juan. 

Somebody awakened that day to 
the greater meaning of Bluff's vic- 
tory over Problem One, the winning 
of the Navajos. Kumen Jones had 
cherished the hope that Jim Joe 
would sometime help to save his 
own people and to save the Mor- 
mons as well. So he proposed to 
Joe Bush that the hunt be turned 
over to Jim Joe. Jim grasped the 
idea in a second. When he and 
his sleuths cut across the wide 
region at the mouth of Chinalee, 
they picked up the tracks of the 
robbers, and led the marshal over 
them as fast as any bloodhounds 
could have gone. 

Astonished to see horsemen com- 
ing over the sand behind them, the 
robbers climbed up into the rocks 
where all who followed them would 
have to pass single file between two 
great boulders, where one man with 
enough ammunition could dispose 
of a regiment. Jim knew just which 
men to move and which to reserve. 
Stringing his sleuths out on the 
trail behind him to advertise their 
numbers for the benefit of the men 
up in the rocks, he figured that he 
had told the robbers in the plainest 

we aren't right for each other. I'm 

"I'll bet," said Craig, and raced 
the motor to a start. 

Elaine watched the car careen 
down the street and went shakily 
back to where Paul was waiting. 
"It looks like you won't lose your 
dancing partner after all," she said. 

words, "Shoot a Navajo in this 
reservation, and your cake is dough, 
and you know it." 

Then he climbed right up that 
narrow trail, stalked boldly between 
the big boulders, and called to Joe 
Bush to come on without fear. He 
marched up to the robbers with a 
boldness that changed their blood 
into streams of ice, and all the time 
he held his gun leveled upon them 
with uncompromising purpose, and 
called back over his shoulder to the 
marshal asking, "Shootey? Killey?" 
( Shall I shoot 'em? Shall I kill 'em? ) 

But the robbers, reaching fran- 
tically for the sky, made it very 
clear they would not have to be 
killed nor to be shot; they wouldn't 
so much as hurt a little chicken. 
They wanted very much to live, and 
they stood with ashen faces and 
trembling hands while Bush put 
irons on their wrists and their ankles 
and had them march meekly down 
out of the rocks. He took them 
back up out of the rathole; he took 
them away out of San Juan. Gun- 
men of the underground had been 
arrested beyond Rincone — they had 
been taken away out of the country 
and brought to trial. The Navajos 
and the Mormons had become al- 
lies — what would it mean? 

The builders of the fort took 
heart. They told Bush about the 
cattle rustling. When he returned 
from the north, Bush rounded up 
the rustlers. 

After this, the very mention of the 
name Jim Joe was welcome. If Ku- 
men Jones had never done anything 
more in San Juan than to discover 
and get response from this magnifi- 
cent Navajo, he would still be one 
of the most important builders of 
the country. Instead of fearing the 
Navajos any more, the builders of 


the fort doted on them, felt more 
secure because of them. 

The E L K M company could 
depend no more on finding men to 
work for their board or ten dollars 
a month. Times had taken a ter- 
rible change; their hotel business 
was shot through, and the owners 
of the Texas outfit began to think 
that possibly they could do better 
somewhere else. They offered to 

The figure they quoted was a 
big one. Bishop Nielson took the 
matter home with him for the most 
careful consideration, and when he 
came limping back next morning, 
he told them to buy. 

The deal was closed. The last 
of the Texas outfit rode away; the 
echoes of their offensive operations 
died in the cliffs; the wind blew 
their tracks from the trails; and a 
sweet hush settled down on the 
hills and the camps where they had 

From the sources of unexplain- 
able fortune, a new element entered 
forcefully onto the scene. It was 
drouth, more blighting and more 
persistent than anything of its kind 
they had known in San Juan. The 
old-time rains which brought the 
big floods and made big grass on the 
hills seemed to be a thing of the 

( To be concluded ) 

*.- . i ■ 

Gathering Material for 
Your Speech 

(Concluded from page 99) 

And when all this has been done, 
you have one more step to take. You 
must add something of yourself to 
whatever information you gather. 
Perhaps your contribution will be 
your arrangement of the ideas, or 
perhaps it will be your interpreta- 
tion of them. Full credit should 
always be given to the author of the 
ideas you borrow; but until you are 
familiar enough with those ideas to 
make them part of you, you are not 
ready to communicate them to your 
listeners. Without such familiarity 
your speech will be merely a re-hash 
of other people's thoughts. With it 
your speech will have originality. 


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L^omerttone of the 

Priesthood has been described 
by Elder John A. Widtsoe of 
the Council of the Twelve as 
"the authority derived from the Lord 
. . . committed to man to meet first 
personal needs, and also to be used 
within the Church for carrying out 
the purposes of the plan of salva- 
tion. Since priesthood roots in 
knowledge and the intelligent use 
of knowledge, it must be a real 
force, a real power, to be used in 
solving any or all problems of life, 
whether personal or within the 

Priesthood is a cornerstone of 
the Church. The Prophet Joseph 
Smith and his companion, Oliver 
Cowdery, received the Aaronic 
Priesthood from John the Baptist, 
May 15, 1829, and the Melchizedek 
Priesthood from the hands of Peter, 
James, and John, a short time later. 
These events preceded the organi- 
zation of the Church by many 

And wherever the priesthood has 
been used in righteousness, the 


Church and the men who hold it 
have been strengthened. 

At Kirtland, Ohio, in the latter 
part of October 1834, the elders be- 
gan to come in, and in the words 
of the Prophet Joseph Smith, "... 
it was necessary to make prepara- 
tions for the school for the Elders, 
wherein they might be more per- 
fectly instructed in the great things 
of God, during the coming winter." 
(D. H. C, Vol. II, p. 169.) When 
the Prophet dedicated the school a 
year later on November 3, 1835, 
he prefaced his prayer with "... 
some remarks upon the object of this 
school, and the great necessity of 
our rightly improving our time and 
reining up our minds to the sense 
of the great object that lies before 
us, viz, — the glorious endowment 
that God has in store for the faith- 

This was the period of the 
Church when the quorums of the 
Church were being fully organized 
(both the Council of the Twelve 
and the First Council of the Seventy 

V $ 

date back to February 1835 ); it was 
also the period when the priesthood 
members were building the Kirt- 
land Temple. Consequently, over 
one hundred brethren were blessed 
on March 7, 1835, for their labors 
on the temple construction. In in- 
dividual blessings, some were prom- 
ised wisdom and ability to proclaim 
the gospel; others were blessed and 
were ordained elders at this time; 
some were given the promise of 
doing missionary work among the 
Lamanites, and one, William Car- 
ter, who was blind, was promised 
the restoration of his sight if he 
remained faithful. This same month, 
section 107 of the Doctrine and 
Covenants, commonly known as the 
great revelation on priesthood, was 
received by the Prophet Joseph 

In the dark days following the 
martyrdom of the Prophet and the 
Patriarch, the presidents of the 
various quorums of seventies met 
on November 26, 1845, and ac- 
cepted the assignment to furnish 
two rooms of the Nauvoo Temple 
with carpets, two settees for the 
stand, tables, chairs, stoves, and 
other needed furniture. In mid- 
December 1845, the seventies and 
their wives were invited to receive 
their temple endowments at Nau- 



voo. Almost daily (including 
Christmas day) the names of those 
who came to the temple for that 
purpose were recorded. The temple 
activity continued during January 
1846, and although preparations 
for the exodus to the west were 
being feverishly pushed, the last 
endowments in the Nauvoo Temple 
were given February 7, three days 
after the first of the Pioneers had 
crossed the frozen Mississippi. 

After the arrival in the valley, 
the seventies met in the bowery, 
on what was to become Temple 
Square, and commenced their Ly- 

ceum on November 7, 1851. This 
indicates quorum activity of the 
highest kind — "... the improving 
of our time and reining up our 

At that time quorum members 
were usually uniformly poor in this 
world's goods. But they knew the 
value of working together — that 
strength resulted from unity of 
purpose. And quorum members to- 
day can receive blessings and joy 
from working with each other. The 
wide-awake quorum has a project. 
What is yours? 




(conducted I?u *UJr. doieph \jr. 



TThe American Business Men's Re- 
search Foundation sent out a re- 
lease during December that gives a 
fairly good statement of the situation 
relative to the consumption of alcoholic 
beverages from the time of repeal of 
the Eighteenth Amendment up to the 
present. They picture the story in a 
most interesting way. It is worthy 
of this column because its data all come 
from official sources. Here it is: 

T3ip Van Snooze, the eminent objec- 
tive student of public problems, 
who fell into a coma at the height of 
the controversy on the relative merits 
of prohibition and repeal and who 
awakened from a twenty-year sleep 
yesterday, lapsed into a sound sleep 
again today. 

As the experts who had attended 
him and studied his condition during 
his twenty-year sleep had predicted, 
he immediately made inquiry upon 
awaking concerning the matter that 
had thrown him into his trance. 

"Did we repeal the prohibition law?" 
he asked in a surprisingly strong 
voice. When told that the law was 
revoked sixteen years ago he imme- 
diately demanded to know how repeal 
was working. 

The babble from those surrounding 
him confused him and he remarked 
that the only two words he could dis- 
tinguish were "lousy" and "swell," 
but he presumed that there was 
moderate opinion also expressed. 

"I am a deep student of the ques- 
tion," he said, "so I am going to pre- 


pare a few questions, the answers to 
which I hope you will present tomor- 
row. Now I want to know who won 
the pennant in 1930, if Hoover was 
re-elected and — " 

When the specialists and the press 
assembled the next day, Mr. Van 
Snooze took up the prohibition-repeal 
question at once. 

"Did the old-fashioned saloon re- 
turn, despite promises that it would 
not, and if so was any effort made to 
prevent it?" 

"It did return, indeed," replied the 
specialist to whom had been assigned 
the question. "President Roosevelt 
upon repeal promised that the saloon 
would not return, but that is all that 
was done about it. We now have 
482,033 legal retail liquor outlets, as 
we now call them, and the number is 
growing. In 1945 the number was 
only 359,127." 

"Has drinking increased or de- 
creased as promised?" 

"As measured in terms of absolute 
alcohol, it has increased from 0.58 
gallons per capita in the first year of 
repeal to 1.64 gallons in 1949." 

"What! It has nearly tripled?" Mr. 
Van Snooze asked, but not waiting 
for a reply, passed to the next ques- 
tion. "Was the working man appeased 
with his glass of beer and does he 
eschew strong drink?" 

"Apparently not," replied a re- 
porter. "The per capita consumption 
of beer has increased from 7.90 to 
18.58 gallons but, as you put it, strong 
drink also increased from .33 to 1.21 
gallons in the same period, almost four 
times as much." 

"How about drunkenness?" 

"The F. B. I. reports a rise from 
1,490.1 to 2,492.3 for each 100,000 
population in persons held for prosecu- 
tion for drunkenness." 

"Did the crime rate come down?" 

"The same source gives the number 
of persons held for prosecution for all 
causes. It shows an increase from 
6,639 to 30,110 in 1948." 

"But," interjected another reporter, 
"a lot of those were arrests for park- 
ing, and things like that — " 

"Well, leaving those out and taking 
only major crimes, the increase was 
from 3,450.90 to 5,103.54 for each 
100,000 inhabitants an increase of over 
forty percent." 

"How about family life — has it been 

"Evidently not, the divorce rate in- 
creased (each 1,000 population) from 
1.6 in 1933 to 3.5 in 1945." 

"More than doubled," Mr. Van 
Snooze sighed. "Well how about 

"Now we have something," said 
the expert who had screamed "swell" 
repeatedly the day before. "In 1948 
the total public revenue from alcoholic 
beverages was $2,953,480,752.00." 

"Splendid," said Mr. Van Snooze, 
"then I presume, as the association 
against the prohibition amendment 
promised, all income taxes have been 
repealed, and I hope the national debt 
wiped out?" 

"I am sorry to say, Mr. Van 
Snooze, that your personal income tax 
has increased five fold while you slept, 
and the national debt has increased 
from $19,487,000,000 at the end of the 
fiscal year 1932 to $252,292,000,000 at 
the end of June, 1948 — nearly thirteen 

"But there was a war," said one 
voice, and another added, "and Roose- 
velt" — and then a confusion of voices 
drowned out all possibility of Mr. 
Van Snooze understanding. 

"This is where I went to sleep 
twenty years ago," he said in a tired 
voice, "I think I'll try another short 

Turning over he was sound asleep 
in a second. 


"\Tn r E were recently astonished to read 
a newspaper statement saying 
that a newly elected commissioner of 
Salt Lake City advocates "sale by the 
drink" of alcoholic beverages, assert- 
ing his belief that among other things 
better control could thus be secured 
and that a large addition to the city 
treasury could be obtained by the sale 
of licenses. As readers of this column 
know, we have been uniformly op- 
(Concluded on page 144) 


Youth Speaks 

The Power Of Testimony 

Ward Teaching 


Prayer In The Home Is Still Popular 

(Excerpts from an address by Wil- 
liam Gordon Rogers, a deacon, New 
Castle Ward, Cedar (Utah) Stake.) 

\17e must test the gospel with our 
own powers. No one can do it 
for us. 

President George Albert Smith has 
expressed his feelings in words similar 
to the following: "It is important that 
our sons and daughters become estab- 
lished in their faith and know, as 
their parents know, that this is our 
Father's work." 

Since testimony is the moving power 
behind the accomplishments of our 
parents, then surely it is most important 
that young people work for the same 
assurance, the same testimony. I am 
sure my father and mother would 
never spend the hours they do, serving 
in the Church, without knowing the 
gospel is true. 

Elder John A. Widtsoe has written : 
"A conviction of the truth of the 
gospel, a testimony, must be sought if 
it is to be found." (Evidences and 
Reconciliations, p. 6.) 

Matthew recorded from the Master's 
Sermon on the Mount, "But seek ye 
first the kingdom of God, and his 
righteousness; and all these things shall 
be added unto you." (Matt. 6:33.) 

If we try earnestly to do the Lord's 
work, a testimony will come to us, 
and we need not worry about other 
things. The Lord's promise alone 
should urge us to learn the truth for 

Bishop Thorpe B. Isaacson of the 
Presiding Bishopric in a recent ad- 
dress said, "The best defense against 
the spirit of Satan is the Spirit of the 

We must have faith that our 
Heavenly Father's plan is right, for 
faith is a prerequisite to the obtaining 
of a personal testimony. 


11 /Tost ward teachers of twenty-five 
or more years ago will recall 
that prayer with the family was the 
first order of business when the ward 
teachers called. By contrast, most 
ward teachers with only a few years 
of recent experience in ward teaching 
have never knelt in prayer with the 
families they visit. 

What has happened? Why the 
change? Apparently, Latter-day Saint 
families were in need of the Lord's 
blessings a quarter of a century or 
more ago. Has the need for family 
prayer with the ward teachers been 
modified of recent years? Who ef- 
fected the change? Only a little 
thought is needed to encourage the 
conclusion that we are as much, if 
not more, in need of family prayer and 
its blessings today as our parents were 
in yesteryears. 

Monument Park Ward Bishopric, 
Bonneville Stake, Sets Example 

Bishop Alvin R. Dyer, Monument 
Park Ward, Bonneville (Salt Lake 
City) Stake, tells of the experience 
he and his counselors had in the ward 
on the matter of prayer in the home: 

We have suggested that our ward 
teachers have prayer with the Saints in 

their homes as a part of their ward teach- 
ing visits each month. 

The report reached us that some of our 
teachers felt they could not have prayer 
in the homes because so many of the 
families seemed to resent it. 

Therefore, as a bishopric, we decided 
to find out for ourselves. Accordingly, 
we selected forty-five families who were 
either relatively inactive families, or fam- 
ilies where the father or the mother is 
not a member of the Church. For nearly 
one year now, the bishopric have visited 
among these families, at least two of 
them every Monday night. We have not 
been in one such home yet where we were 
not entirely welcome to kneel with the 
family in prayer. The response to the 
suggestion has been most encouraging. 

As a result, our ward teachers are now 
encouraged to have prayer in every home 
when visiting the Saints. It is good 
to hear the people say, "Yes, we had the 
ward teachers last Monday night, and 
they had prayer with us, too." 

When we say, or even think, "It 
can't be done," let us examine our own 
attitudes as ward teachers. It is not 
old fashioned to pray, in the homes, 
with the Saints. If we would do it, 
we would know better than to say, 
"It can't be done" — we would know 
that prayer often, if not always, 
spreads its forceful influence deeper 
into the human heart than any other 
form of expression. 

LP. S. Girls 

Effect Of Visits Reflected In Attendance Records 

Tt has always been maintained that there is no substitute for the influence 
of one person- on another in effecting either a reformation or an improve- 
ment. Emphasis has always been placed on the value of the personal visit in 
the L.D.S. girls' program. 

A tabulation of the personal visits of advisers to members of these groups 
throughout the Church reveals that more than 27,000 visits (not calls) were 
made during the first ten months of 1949. The attendance records given below 
suggest the effect of these personal visits on the records of all L.D.S. girls 
in the Church for that period: 

Sacrament Sunday 

Meeting School Y.W.M.I.A. 

January 43% 54% 54% 

October 46% 59% 58% 

Consider well what the effect would have been had four, five, or more 
times 27,000 personal visits been made as could easily have been the case if 
approximately 4,500 ward advisers had done their full duty in visiting the 
members of their groups, and particularly the inactive members. 

The personal visit is the genius of the L.D.S. girls' program. If any are 
looking for a substitute for this feature of the work, they should give up the 
search — there is no substitute if we are to do for our girls that which is desired 
for their welfare and blessing. 



g j-^ re payed btf ~J4. j-^alt 




Adult Members 
Aaronic Priesthood 

WhaT Went Wrong Along 
The Way? 

[is hair is snow white; his shoul- 
ders lean forward in spite of his 
heroic effort to walk straight in the 
face of his more than fourscore years; 
his manner is mild; his entire bearing 
is that of a cultured, refined gentle- 

One day he will answer the call, 
and his life's mission will be finished. 

The work of the Lord has suffered 
a great loss through the inactivity of 
this grand old man. Why did he 
become inactive? 

Years before an unbridled tongue 
had broken loose and before it could 
be brought under control, it had lashed 
him with hard, cruel words that cut 
deep into his young heart. 

The wounds? They have never 
healed, nor has anyone really tried to 
heal them. 

Who is he? He is real — this story 
is true, and there are many more like 
him. He could be a member of your 
ward, your neighbor across the way, 
or that grand old man down the street. 
Are you sure he isn't one of these? 

Come, now! There may be time, 
even yet — he is still alive. But the sand 
in his hourglass of life is running out. 
He may be waiting this very moment 
for our call, our kind words, our ac- 
tive interest in his being prepared 
to live — hereafter. 

L D. S. Girls 
Aaronic Priesthood 

Check 100 Percent 
Attendance Records 

HThis will remind leaders that special 
one hundred percent seals are to 
be affixed to the Individual Certificates 
of Award for Aaronic Priesthood 
members with a perfect attendance 
record at priesthood meeting and at 
sacrament meeting for the full year, 
and for L.D.S. girls with perfect at- 
tendance records at sacrament meet- 
ing, Sunday School, and Y. W.M.I. A. 
for the year. 

The new application blanks call for 
this information which should be care- 
fully supplied to avoid disappointment 
to those with perfect attendance rec- 
ords in addition to meeting all other 
requirements for the individual award. 


Aaronic Priesthood 

Quorum President Persists 
And Wins 

Cix years ago, the president of a dea- 
cons quorum persisted in the use 
of the telephone and in making per- 
sonal calls to encourage an inactive 
member to attend to his priesthood 
duties. It seemed hopeless, but he 
kept on with his work. 

Finally the boy came out to his 
priesthood meeting. He enjoyed it, 
found new interest, made friends. But 
this was not all. 

Eventually, he persuaded his father, 
long inactive, to accompany him to 
priesthood meeting and then to other 
Church meetings. Then the mother 
became interested. Finally his sisters 
found new joys in Church activity. 
The entire family became active. 

The result? Today, the boy, now 
a man, is group leader on board a 
ship in the U.S. navy; father, mother, 
and sisters are all teachers in the Sun- 
day School. 

Aaronic Priesthood 

Newcomers lo Be Enrolled 

Tt is suggested that, when a bearer of 
the Aaronic Priesthood moves into 
a new ward, his name be placed on 
the proper quorum roll immediately, 
and that his attendance at all meet- 
ings be indicated, without waiting for 
his record of membership to be re- 
ceived, nor for his formal acceptance 
by the membership of the ward. 

One of the reasons for this recom- 
mendation is that the boy may be try- 
ing for an Individual Certificate of 
Award which he may not receive if 
his record is not kept between the 
time of his arrival in the new ward and 
his acceptance as a member when his 
record of membership is presented for 
the vote of the Saints. 

The boy should not be voted into 
membership in the quorum, nor given 
priesthood assignments, until after the 
receipt of his record of membership. 

• ♦ 

Father, Three Sons, Son-in-law Advanced To Melchizedek 


Left to right — Group Adviser Charles Checketts; Lyle Miller, son; Svlvanus Miller, father; Woodrow 
Miller, son; Joyce Miller, son; Jesse Brailsford, son-in-law. 

TT7hen a father, with his three sons 
and a son-in-law, all adult mem- 
bers of the Aaronic Priesthood, are 
ordained elders on the same day, who 
can estimate, or even imagine, the 
measure of rejoicing sent ringing 
through the corridors of heaven? But 
not in heaven alone is there rejoicing. 
In the now of time, there is joy even 
beyond words. 

Dreams long cherished by loving 
wives and tender mothers are in the 
morning of their fulfilment and the 

days ahead are filled with promise. 
Faithful lives, and the words "for 
all eternity," spoken in holy places, 
may soon take "time" out of family 
relationships and continue them for- 

Yes, there is much rejoicing — and 
with good reason. 

This accomplishment, in the Bear 
River Ward, North Box Elder Stake, 
is attributed, in large measure, to the 
untiring efforts of Charles Checketts, 
group adviser and a former bishop of 
the ward. 



(Continued from page 114) 
growth of thorny bushes, ferns, and 
wild grasses, often extending above 
the head. Vivid flowers abound, 
among which flit immense, bril- 
liantly-hued butterflies; while the 
upper reaches of the forest are 
the home of a heavy bird popula- 

For what it lacks in larger animal 
life, the Xicalango region more than 
makes up in an oversupply of in- 
sect population, especially hordes of 
mosquitoes, chiggers, ticks, and 

Finally, this area is afflicted, as 
is other parts of Middle America, 
by that ancient scourge of the 
tropics, malaria, which constitutes 
the chief hazard of archaeological 
work in these lands. 

At the present time the Xicalango 
region is almost totally uninhabited. 
Only a few lone huts and tiny 
settlements of coconut plantation 
workers break the almost-continu- 
ous wall of jungle along the shores 
of the lagoons. This is in marked 
contrast with the dense population 
of ancient times indicated by the 
archaeological findings to be de- 

The few inhabitants that do man- 
age an existence in this wilderness 
are mainly of native Indian stock, 
mostly of the Chontal branch of 
the ancient Mayan linguistic family, 
known to have been established in 
the Gulf Coast region from early 
pre-Columbian times. Despite primi- 
tive living conditions, debilitating 
tropical diseases, and an extremely 
high child mortality, these people 
maintain a surprisingly cheerful 
disposition. They were always most 
friendly and hospitable to the expe- 
dition party, and furnished it with 
reliable guides and excavation 

The expedition's reconnaissance 
of this region was accomplished 
by means of airplane photog- 
raphy, coastwise surveys by launch 
and dugout canoe, and finally 
land explorations. In the coast- 
wise reconnaissance, important 
aid and information was given 
by Ignacio Matemala of Ciu- 
dad del Carmen, son of the owner 
of the hacienda of Xicalango and 
pilot of one of the launches used in 
the survey. A cayuca or native dug- 
out, propelled with a pole by a na- 
tive boatman, was used to explore 


the shallow interior lagoons. Only 
a few landings could be made, 
however, because of the density of 
the jungle growth along the shores 
and the additional obstacle of 
shoals, along the coast of the La- 
guna de Terminos. The means of 
landing on these shallow coasts 
from the launches was by cayuca, 
when available; otherwise landings 
were accomplished by the exploring 
party riding to shore on the 
shoulders of the crew. Since the 
expedition members all greatly out- 
weighed their native mounts, this 
method proved to be rather hazard- 

Finally, the difficult land ex- 
plorations, carried out on foot 
through jungle and swamps, were 
accomplished through the guide as- 
sistance and expert machete-wield- 
ing of a native Chontal Indian 
worker of the hacienda of Xicalan- 
go, Manuel Lara, who served as 
expedition guide during most of the 
Xicalango project. 

By these means, three new mound 
ruins were located, for the first time 
archaeologically (with one partial 
exception as noted), viz. Zapotal 
(local name, as given by Manuel 

No liquor-Tobacco 

(Concluded from page 141 ) 
posed to "sale by the drink" for many 
reasons, some of which have been here- 
in previously expressed. So we have 
urged that all candidates for political 
office who would have anything to do 
with the making or enforcing of laws 
shall be asked before election for their 
views relative to "sales by the drink." 
If this matter should again come 
up for action by the electorate, in 
Utah, we hope that readers of 
this column will find that we con- 
tinue to oppose the election of 
candidates favorable to methods of 
handling liquor that will result in 
greater consumption. And according 
to the records, greater consumption 
always results by increasing the num- 
ber of places that have alcoholic 
beverages for sale, as the license sys- 
tem always does. To keep our en- 
vironment as free from evil and evil 
tendencies as feasible is both a moral 
and religious duty, as we see it. We 
hope that readers of The Improve- 
ment Era will always be opposed to 
the methods of the underworld — to 
those methods that result in multiplying 
evils or increasing the ease for partici- 
pating in them. 

Lara, expedition guide; a group of 
several fairly large mounds); Punta 
Gorda (local name, as given by 
expedition guide; three fairly large 
mounds ) ; and Panteon ( local name, 
as given by Ignacio Matemala and 
other native informants; three small 
mounds). 8 The locations of these 
sites, and other data resulting from 
this reconnaissance, have been 
charted on a new large-scale ar- 
chaeological map of the Xicalango 
region to be published later in a 
final report of the expedition. 

A general survey was also made 
for the first time of the known ruins 
of Aguacatal 7 (discovered a few 
years before by a party of Mexican 
archaeologists ) . This was the work 
of ten days of exploration at this 
site, accomplished in the face of 
great natural difficulties. Foremost 
of these was the density of the 
jungle, which reduced observation 
to only a few feet in any direction, 
completely concealing beyond this 
distance the various ruin mounds 
comprising the site. This, together 
with the heavy jungle growth 
covering the mounds themselves, 
necessitated constant machete- 
wielding by Manuel Lara in locating 
and partially clearing these mounds 
for measurement, and made impos- 
sible more than a rough map of the 
ruins at this time. 

Other difficulties were the tropi- 
cal heat — though the season was 
that of our winter — and the insect 
pests, especially the hordes of 
voracious mosquitoes. Against the 
latter, however, the party was for- 
tunately somewhat fortified, with 
repellents, head nets, mosquito ham- 
mocks, and anti-malaria drugs/ 
Another difficulty was that caused 
by the heavy rains which occasion- 
ally flooded the camp, and made 
necessary the construction of a plat- 
form to keep the expedition's store 
of supplies off the ground, and a 
palm-thatched shelter for protection 
from the rain. Still another prob- 
lem developed when the provisions 
of food and purified water from 

Verification of an oral report of ruins near th» 
settlement of Xicalango recorded in the Atlas 
arqueoldgico de la Republica Mexicana. 1939. p. 20 
and map. 

'Local name, meaning ' Aguacate or Avocado-tree 

8 The expedition of Mexican archaeologists who 
first visited the site had an even more difficult 
time, being able to remain only one day because of 
the mosquitoes, as their visit occurred in May when 
these pests increase to still greater numbers with the 
beginning of the rainy season, at which time they 
almost succeed in driving out even the hardened 
native inhabitants. 


Carmen gave out before the end of 
the scheduled work at this site, 
which required more days than ex- 
pected. However, Manuel and his 
two brothers Pedro and Juan, who 
comprised the expedition's native 
crew at Aguacatal, came to the 
rescue by bringing in a supply of 
bananas and tortillas from their 
home, and by cutting down coco- 
nuts for coconut milk. 

Three main groups of mounds 
were found at Aguacatal, in this 
first general survey of the site. One 
consists of several fairly large 
mounds representing the ruins of 
temple pyramids and foundation 
platforms, partially surrounding a 
plaza; another, a number of much 
smaller mound ruins of similar na- 
ture arranged in what may be a 
second and possibly older plaza 
group; and a third, several large 
mounds of undetermined arrange- 
ment, somewhat detached from the 
other two groups. The largest 
mound of the first group, which 
was designated Mound Al, meas- 
ured approximately 150 ft. long by 
100 ft. wide and 15 ft. high; and 
the highest, Mound A5, approxi- 
mately 65 ft. square and 30 ft. high. 
The largest of the second group, 
Mound Bl, measured approximately 
45 ft. long by 30 ft. wide and 6 ft. 
high; and the largest of the third, 
which was also the highest dis- 
covered at the site, Mound Cl, ap- 
proximately 100 ft. square and 45 
ft. high. 

All of these mounds were found 
to have as their outermost layer — 
under the blanket of jungle growth 
— a thick, hard conglomerate of 
earth and oyster shells, evidently a 
"kitchen midden" deposit left by 
some shellfish-eating people who 
had lived on the mounds after the 
abandonment of the city by its 
original inhabitants. An exploratory 
trench run into the side of one of 
the mounds (A5) through this 
surface midden revealed a stepped 
pyramid inside. This in turn was 
found to enclose a still older stepped 
pyramid, which also, in turn, ap- 
peared to encase still another and 
even more ancient pyramid in a 
telescoping "jack-in-the-box" fash- 
ion, with the two outermost pyra- 
mids obviously representing succes- 
sive enlargements of the original 
temple pyramid. The construction 
of these pyramids is of earth and 
shell-midden, with sloping retaining 
(Continued on following page) 


NOT just a list of book titles with prices— 

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(Continued from preceding page) 
walls of cement or irregular stone 
slabs. Other brief excavations in 
this mound and in Mound A2 (be- 
gun by the previous Mexican ar- 
chaeologists) revealed portions of 
stairways ascending the pyramids, 
built of stone block masonry. 

None of the mounds at this site, 
so far as could be determined, had 
any standing building on its sum- 
mit. This indicates that the build- 
ings which must have originally sur- 
mounted these pyramids and plat- 
forms were probably constructed 
of wood, with thatched roofs, and 
have consequently long since disap- 

The most interesting feature dis- 
covered at Aguacatal, however — 
perhaps, in fact, the most important 
discovery of the entire expedition — 
is a great earthen embankment with 
steeply sloping sides, measuring 
some 25 ft. wide at the base and 
10 ft. wide at the top, 6 to 10 ft. 
high on the outer side, and 3 ft. 
high on the inner side, partially 
surrounding the first two groups of 
mounds and apparently terminating 
at the edge of the lagoon near 
which the ruins are situated. On the 
north and west, this embankment 
separates these groups from a 
swamp lying at a level several feet 
below that of the area of the 
mounds (compare the above meas- 
urements as to height on outer and 
inner sides). Possibly this embank- 
ment represents the remains of an 
ancient dyke, built to protect the 
city from the flooding waters of the 
swamp in the rainy season; or, al- 
ternatively, an ancient wall fortifi- 

In the course of this survey, and 
the Xicalango reconnaissance in 
general, a surface collection of sev- 
eral hundred ancient potsherds was 
also obtained. This was augmented 
by subsurface samplings from a 
stratigraphic test trench in the plaza 
of Group A at Aguacatal. The proc- 
essing of the pottery material (in 
camp and at Ciudad del Carmen) 
completed the field work of the ex- 
pedition in the Xicalango region as 
originally projected. 8 

There still remained, however, a 
number of supplementary projects 

9 A description and classification of this material 
will be presented in the final report. It is mainly 
on the basis of ceramic evidence that the affiliations 
and chronology of the ancient settlements of the 
Xicalango region have been worked out. 


of the expedition. One of these was 
a voyage by launch up the remote 
Palizadas River (one of the dis- 
tributaries of the Usumacinta, in 
the main region of jaguars and 
poisonous serpents) and the series 
of jungle-rimmed lakes by which this 
river enters the Laguna de Terminos. 
This acquainted the party with the 
main route of water travel from the 
Gulf of Mexico into the interior 
"Usumacinta province" of the Maya 
area, along which ancient civiliza- 
tion probably spread; and also with 
the nature of the country in the 
heart of the archaeologically little- 
known eastern Gulf Coast area. 

Following this exploration, and a 
visit to the archaeological site of 
Huaraxe on the Island of Carmen, 
a trip by plane was made to north- 
ern Yucatan, for a brief study also 
of the famous ruined Maya cities 
of Uxmal and Chichen Itza. 

On the return flight from Yuca- 
tan, a stop of several days was made 
at Minatitlan, in the Tehuantepec 
Isthmus area of the "Olmec" sites 
of the pre-Classic civilization, where 
there are also known to be many 
unexplored mound ruins. Working 
out of Minatitlan, an air photo- 
graphic study by cub plane was 
made of the Gulf side of the Isthmus 
and the nearby Tuxtla Mountains 
(a cloud-capped, heavily forested 
mountain wilderness, still largely 
unknown archaeologically), as far 
as the northernmost discovered 
"Olmec" site of Tres Zapotes. 

From Minatitlan the party con- 
tinued by plane up the coast to 
Veracruz City, thence inland past 
snow-capped Orizaba and other 
high peaks of the Sierra Madre 
Oriental, and so back to Mexico 
City. Here several more days 
were spent in a preliminary classifi- 
cation of the pottery material ob- 
tained in the Xicalango-Aguacatal 
survey, on the basis partly of a com- 
parative study of collections in the 
National Museum. This final "field" 
task was completed on February 21 , 
at which point the expedition ter- 


Tt may be stated, in conclusion, that 
the expedition's purposes were 
generally achieved. Not only were 
several new sites discovered in 
Xicalango Gulf Coast region, but 


also many additional temple pyr- 
amids and other ancient structures 
at the already-discovered ruins of 
Aguacatal, and the first general 
survey of that site accomplished. 10 

These new discoveries, moreover, 
established the fact that this region 
was heavily populated in ancient 
times by a civilized city and temple- 
building people; and that the settle- 
ment of Aguacatal in particular, in 
view of the relatively large number 
and size of its temples, pyramids, 
and other structures, including the 
possible wall fortification, was prob- 
ably the principal or capital city 
of the district in those times." 

On the other hand, none of these 
Xicalango sites can be said — at 
least on the basis of this prelimi- 
nary exploration — to have been the 
original or main center of the pre- 
classic civilization. Nor was any 
evidence found which might lead 
us to the discovery of this center. 

From the indication of certain 
architectural features, however, 
(such as the absence of standing 
stone buildings) and the identified 
ceramic styles, it may be concluded 
that the settlement at least of 
Aguacatal belongs (in its earliest 
and main period) to the pre-classic 
civilization. This therefore in- 
creases the number of known sites 
in the eastern Gulf Coast area 
establishing the territorial continuity 
of the pre-classic civilization 
through this region, from the 
"Early Olmec" aspect in the Isth- 
mus region to the closely-related 
"Early Maya" development in 
Yucatan. 12 

Other results of the expedition 
will be described in the final report, 
along with plans now under way 
for another expedition to Central 
America, within a year or two of 
this writing, including an extensive 
project of further excavation at the 
important site of Aguacatal. 13 

10 Besides the notes, drawings, still photographs, 
and other detailed records of the expedition's 
findings, several thousand feet of colored motion 
pictures were also obtained, providing a general film 
record of the expedition, for use especially in archae- 
ology classes at Brigham Young University studying 
field methods of archaeology in Central America and 
other tropical lands. 

u It should be noted that the ancient name of 
Aguacatal is unknown. 

^See the introductory section on the purpose of 
the expedition. A few other sites besides Aguacatal 
are also now known in this area as belonging to 
the pre-classic civilization. 

13 To be published in "Bulletin No. 2" of the 
University Archaeological Society, affiliate organi- 
zation of the Department of Archaeology of Brigham 
Young University. A copy of this final bulletin 
report, and of other publications of the University 
Archaeological Society and the Department, may be 
obtained through membership in the Society. For 
information on the conditions of membership address 
the Department of Archaeology, Brigham Young 
University, Provo, Utah. 


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(Continued /rom page 100) 
The poem is written in conven- 
tional epic form, twelve parts — a 
prelude, ten cantos, and an epilogue. 
The measure is English heroic 
verse, with and without rhyme. 
Whitney rejects rhyme in some 
cantos for no other apparent reason 
than that blank verse fits the mood 

He opens the poem with a spirit- 
ual awakening. In Canto I and 
throughout the poem, the Holy Spir- 
it acting through Elias, the genius 
of progress, is manifested. Here, in 
Canto I, we read of the theme that 
prevails throughout the work — one 
of the main purposes of the poem. 
The theme is eternal life, salvation, 
faith, and good works on earth. 
And in his spiritual awakening the 
author conceives it as follows: 

Naught can be vain that leadeth unto light; 
Struggle and stress, not plaudit, maketh 

Victor and vanquished equally may win, 
Climbing far heights, where fame, eternal 

White as the gleaming cloak of Arctic hills, 
Rests as a mantle, fadeless, faultless, pure, 
On loftiest lives, whose snowy peaks, sun- 
Receive but to dispense their blessedness. 

Eternal life demands a selfless love. 

Hampered by pride, greed, hate, what soul 
can grow, 

Conceive a selfish God! fhou canst not, 

Then let it shame thee unto higher things. 

Who strives for self hates other men's suc- 

Who seeks God's glory welcomes rivalry. 

Seeking, not gift, but Giver, thou shalt find 

No sacrifice but changes part for whole. 

Fare on, full sure that greatest glory comes, 
And swiftest growth, from serving human- 
Toil on, for toil is treasure, thine for aye; 
A pauper he who boasts an empty name. 

The poem develops smoothly, and 
in Canto II the author changes his 
rhyme scheme to a lyrical form in 
depicting the soul of song. Here 
the epic of time and eternity is sung, 
and Elras makes his first appear- 
ance. Here the author makes refer- 
ence to a new Zion which is to stand 
upon the ancient site of the Garden 
of Eden. Here he satirizes poets 
who exalt the material over the spir- 
itual, the sensuous over the intellec- 

Let us note now how he alludes 
to this in Canto II of Elias: 


See now my sacred heritage, the prey 
Of ribald rhymesters, sensuous, half ob- 
Of gloating censors, glad o'er my decay, 
And deeming all but best I ne'er had been! 
The body's bard throned, sceptering the 

A groveling worshiper of earth and time. 
Arise! and with thy soul's celestial sheen, 
Shame these false meteors, change the rul- 
ing chime; 

My minstrel, I thy muse, sing thou the 
song sublime! 

Canto III is concerned with the 
gospel of Christ, God's love for 
man. The divine plan of human 
guidance is explained, the plan em- 
bracing the fall and redemption of 
man. Here the Mormon doctrine of 
man's purpose is explained and 



jzl ^.: 









and l^rocrastiviation 

'"The more a subject is talked of, the more difficult it is 
to add any ideas on it. But, old as it is, perhaps it 
is expected that something shall be said on the theme that 
dominates these days. We wouldn't change the giving 
of gifts or the festivities or the feasting. We wouldn't 
eliminate the lights or the trimming of trees or the fond 
conspiracy about presents or the wide-eyed wonder of 
children at this welcome and wonderful season. We wish, 
of course, that we could prepare under less pressure, but 
the pressure is partly because of our own procrastination. 
We know right now, as we knew a year ago, that all 
this would soon be again upon us. But most of us do 
little about it until it comes close. And from this perhaps 
we could learn a lesson and do something sooner about 
things which are sure to come. We know right now, as 
surely as we know that another year will come quickly, 
that life constantly calls for an accounting. We know that 
debts come due, and we shouldn't let the time of account- 
ing catch us without some earnest effort in advance to 
meet what shall surely come. We know that if we want 
friends when we need them, we must be friendly when 
others need us. We know right now that if we want to 
be trusted when much may depend upon it, we must give 
people reason to trust us all along the way. We know 
that if we want to be believed at some particularly im- 
portant time, we must earn the right to be believed in 
small and seemingly unimportant things. We know that 
if we want men to be merciful, we must deal with them 
as we would be dealt with. We know right now that if 
we ever lift our heads above the common level, men will 
look at our lives with searching scrutiny, and if we want 
to be able to stand their gaze, we had better make the 
record look as it should look now, and always and under 
all conditions, and not wait until the pressure is upon us. 
These are but a few of the lessons we might well learn 
from facing the pressure of this season again so breath- 
lessly soon. Only a short while ago it seemed so surely 
that there was plenty of time to prepare for it. And there 
was — then. But the years come quickly, and we could 
Well do something sooner about things which are sure 
to come. 

Jhe ~2)pohen i/Uord from 


>pol?en i/i/ora from temple 



the poem from then on falls back on 
this teaching: 

The love that hath redeemed all worlds 

All worlds must still redeem: 
But mercy cannot justice rob — 

Oh, where were Elohim? 
Freedom — man's faith, man's work, God's 
grace — 

Must span the great gulf o'er; 
Life, death, the duerdon or the doom, 

Rejoice we or deplore. 

Canto IV through to the end of 
the poem sweeps powerfully through 
the doctrine of the Church. We see 
am allegory of the Christian dispen- 
sation, following the death of Jesus; 
we read of Ramah and Cumorah, 
Book of Mormon names. These two 
factors lead up to the Book of Mor- 
mon and the content of this volume. 
The book is considered as a testi- 
mony to God and a testimony of 
the Bible. It embodies the prehis- 
toric story of America, related by 
the angel custodian to the translator 
of the buried book of gold. The 
entire story of the foundation of 
the Church is unveiled, and refer- 
ence is made to America as the land 
of Zion. 

The Gentile comes, as destiny decrees, 
To Zion's land, for freedom held in store, 

The poem ends with Elias, the 
angel, ascending from the east. His 
response forms the body of the 
epilogue, and the sign of the second 
coming of Christ is given. And with 
this prophecy, Elias is heralded as 
the prophet of the dawn. 

HPhis was Elias — an epic of the 
ages — and this was Orson F. 
Whitney. He was part of it. In- 
numerable poets were inspired by 
his lines to carry on where he left 
off. After the publication of Elias, 
Elder Whitney lived twenty-seven 
years to see the merit and teaching 
of his work. His work was his 
philosophy, and his thought that "a 
people cannot perish as long as its 
literature lives," has proved true. 

There are critics in our modern 
age who have said that there has 
not been, prior to the twentieth cen- 
tury, any noteworthy literature from 
the west, that it is actually just now 
beginning. Could it be that these 
men have not read the works of 
Orson F. Whitney, or, having read, 
been prejudiced before they turned 
the title page? Those who uphold 
such an idea would do well to com- 
pare Whitney's scholarly work with 
any now on sale in our bookstores. 


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( Continued from page 111) 
the animals. Oats were obtained 
at Opal, Wyoming, which, with 
the salt sage and dry grass, kept 
the animals alive. 

Other companies continued to 
come over the same route. Camps 
were established, and sources of 
supplies were sought out. Many 
pictures of those days came to my 
mind. Tents were lined up and 
down along the river, and how plain- 
ly everyone could be heard! In the 
evenings the horses were taken out 
across the river on the hills and 
herded, while people gathered in 
groups here and there, talking over 
conditions, playing a guitar, singing 
songs that were popular or hymns. 

One menace was the rattlesnake; 
a woman found one in her tent, 
which made us all afraid. 

As stated before, arrangements 
had been made to secure tools from 
Mr. Haskins, the hardware dealer 
at Bridger, Montana. An order for 
the necessary tools was sent to him 
by Mr. C. A. Welch, who collected 
the money, went to Bridger, and 
paid for them. Freight wagons 
were sent to Bridger for the tools, 
grain, food, and other necessities. 

For the freight wagon, two or 
three wagons were hitched together, 
with eight or ten horses. The freight 
wagons supplied the country with 
food, clothes, tools, everything! 
Fifteen or twenty miles a day was 
their speed. 

There were about two hundred 
people now at the head of the canal. 
Elder Franklin S. Richards, attor- 
ney for the Church, drew up articles 
of incorporation of the Big Horn 
Colonization Company. The canal 
on which they were to work was 
to be called the Sidon Canal. 

Then came the most important 
day of all, May 28, 1900. Nearly 
everyone in camp went to the river, 
and all joined in singing, "Come, 
Come, Ye Saints." 

Elder Woodruff outlined the task 
before them, "The canal will be 
about thirty-seven miles long. It must 
be large enough to carry water to ir- 
rigate between twelve and fifteen 
thousand acres. It will take united 
effort to perform this gigantic task, 
for we are few in number. I urge you 
to pay your tithes and offerings. 
Keep the Sabbath day. Do not 
profane the name of Deity. Be 


honest with all men, and if you do 
all these things, this will be a land of 
Zion to you and your children and 
children's children throughout the 
generations to come." 

Elder Woodruff then held the 
plow; Byron Sessions drove the 
team and plowed a furrow. The 
canal was started! Then teams and 
men went to the canal to work, boys 
laughing, harnesses rattling, women 
with babies in their arms seeing 
them off. 

Wages to be paid for men and 
teams were set at four dollars, and 
for single hands, two dollars and 
twenty-five cents. Six dollars an 
acre was to be charged for the land, 
two dollars of this to be paid in cash 
at the time the amount of land was 
signed for, the rest in work. 

Sometime later a new note 
crept into the regular morning 
and evening community prayers. 
Often when President Sessions 
prayed, he asked for a way to 
be opened up that food and 
shelter might be obtained by them 
for the coming winter. I believe it 
increased every day, and a question 
began to form in my mind as to 
whether it was a serious problem. I 
knew they had very little money, 
but then that youthful spirit in all 
of us believed some way had always 
been provided and always would 
be. Then a fast and prayer were 
observed. In later years one of my 
strongest testimonies was the an- 
swer to that prayer meeting. 

Strangers were observed in camp 
one day. The rumor spread that 
they were railroad men and had 
come to see if the people there did 
not want to take some of the road 
grading to do. This meant food, 
means for living, feed for horses. 

Now when the train goes by, it 
seems to me that the railroad was 
built at that time to help accomplish 
the building of the canal. Half 
the colony remained on the canal 
and half on the railroad, each group 
getting half money and half ditch 
stock for their pay. 

These people were in an un- 
known country; their tents and 
wagons, their only homes; they had 
no doctors or hospitals. Years 
would pass before they could have 
any of these comforts. But the plans 
were made; the canal was started; 
and after this it was, "ditch, ditch." 


The land was surveyed, and two 
towns laid out — Byron near the 
head of the canal, named in honor 
of our leader, Byron Sessions, and 
Cowley on Sage Creek near the foot 
of the Pryor Mountains. 

Cowley at its present site was 
laid out in the early fall of 1900. 
Joseph Neville and others surveyed 
the land and laid it out into lots. 
As soon as all lots were staked out 
and numbered, a drawing for these 
lots was planned. We had all been 
in camps both at the head of the 
canal and on the railroad and had 
shared so many experiences we had 
become fast friends. 

A number representing a lot was 
put in a hat. Those who had worked 
up or paid for a certain amount of 
land or ditch stock were allowed 
to draw a number. As each stepped 
up and drew his number, he be- 
came the owner of a lot on which to 
build his home. (Mine, for ex- 
ample, was lot 3, block 44. ) Charles 
A. Welch had the map of the town. 
Some were elated, some disap- 
pointed, but very few thought of 
changing. Going to look those lots 
over was like going home. 

Following the drawing in Sep- 
tember 1900, the canal work was 
discontinued, about eight miles of 
the ditch having been completed. 
Many person began hauling logs 
from Pryor Mountain in Montana 
with which to build log cabins to 
house themselves and their families 
for the winter; however, most of the 
people moved their tents up Sage 
Creek near Pryor Gap to work on 
the railroad. These families spent 
the winter in boarded-up tents. I 
was thankful for my log cabin. 

Our land was at what is now 
Cowley. The men went up Sage 
Creek to the Pryor Mountains 
over a poorly made road and ob- 
tained logs. Two loads made our 
house. There was no lumber ex- 
cept in and around the door and 
one small window. The house was 
twelve by fourteen feet, with a 
roof of small poles nailed to a ridge- 
pole sloping to the sides. These 
were daubed with mud. My, this 
house was grand to me; walls to 
keep off storms, a place to hang 
things up, a rag rug from our Utah 
home on the floor, a cupboard on 
the wall, a frame for the bedsprings. 
My cook stove kept it warm. Home! 
We moved into it November 1, 

{Concluded on following page) 






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(Concluded from preceding page) 
About sixteen families remained 
in Cowley during the winter of 
1900 and 1901. These families were 
desirous of having a school, but 
they had no books and no money. 
Pioneers, however, usually find a 
way to overcome difficulties. One 
of the men, WMliam W. Willis, 
had gone down on the Shoshone 
River with his family in order to 
look after his cattle. He had built a 
log cabin, and it was decided that 
it would do for the school. The 
people hired me to teach the school, 
for I had previously taught in Utah. 
The salary was to be enough to 
hire a girl to look after my two 

The school opened January 2, 
1901, with twenty- four pupils and 
closed May 1, 1901. 

One of the things that we missed 
so terribly was water. Cowley was 
situated on a dry bench six miles 
from the Shoshone River, the near- 
est water. The first winter, all 
the men went back to the railroad 
as it had to be finished by a certain 
date. After that was completed, 
everyone would go back to work 
on the canal. A Mr. Dickson was 
left at Cowley to haul water. 

The night the water from the 
river came to the town of Cowley 
through the canal, July 14, 1902, 
everyone was out serenading, beat- 
ing tin tubs, cans, and anything 
that would make a noise. How we 
rejoiced — and who does not over 
the successful accomplishment of a 
task! Yes, and the successful com- 
pletion of a dream! 

Land and water must be brought 
together to make the soil produc- 
tive in agriculture. Our first gardens 
were raised in Cowley in 1902, 
every radish, bean, or tomato pro- 
ducing a thrill. How we irrigated 
them — perhaps too much! 

Twenty-seven miles of railroad 
were finished August 22, 1901. Dur- 
ing the years 1905 to 1908 the rail- 
road was continued on to Thermop- 

I. S. P. Weeks, who had charge 
of the railroad work, said to Jesse 
W. Crosby, Jr., "Mr. Crosby, the 
work you contracted has been com- 
pleted, and we are more than 
pleased with the way you have 
handled the job. You have done the 
best work with the least trouble of 


anyone who ever worked for the 
Burlington Railroad." 

By February 23, 1905, when the 
first train arrived at the Cowley 
depot, the people had earned be- 
tween ninety and one hundred thou- 
sand dollars, which had all gone to 
the building of the country. 

As I sit here this evening, with 
these bright lights all around, and 
then think of that first Christmas, 
it seems a complete "blackout." 

About seven small one-room log 
houses made up this town. One 
coal-oil lamp in each house gave 
very little light. If the lady of 
the house did not pull down the 
blind too tightly, you might have 
seen here or there a faint gleam, 
otherwise there was darkness every- 

Almost all the men were up near 
Frannie working on the railroad, 
which left the women to put over 
anything they could to please the 
children, and to help keep their 
faith in Santa alive. Stockings 
were hung up in faith, and many 
a mother wondered how on earth 
to save heartbreaks. Candy made 
in secret, a small pie, a dressed-over 
doll, one of Dad's knives, and a 
few marbles were all we had. 

One small store down near the 
river had kerosene, salt pork, and 
some dried fruit. The storekeeper 
proudly told the ladies he had some 
figs in for Christmas. A package 
from the folks back home saved 
many a child sorrow. 

Early Christmas morning we 
awoke to a clear, cold, bright sun 
and the sound of a distant neigh- 

bor's boy playing a harmonica. 
That, and the determination of 
everyone not to grumble or quit, 
are the characteristics of the settleia 
that stand out in my thoughts to 
night as I have traveled back forty- 
nine years to that first Christmas iu 

Our first real celebration waa 
New Year's Eve, December 31, 
1900. That was a big red-letter 
night to us, for the pioneers of 
Cowley had very, very few "big 
times." Yes, we had a dance, and 
a big one, too! W. C. Partridge, 
Sr., had just laid the floor in his 
house. They intended to have two 
rooms, but they had not yet built 
the partition., and it certainly did 
seem large. 

How we danced: quadrilles, 
polkas, waltzes, and schottisches! 
There was a smile on everyone's 
face and laughter above the music. 
Mrs. Frazer caused much amuse- 
ment by telling funny stories, and 
Hyrum Cook had some difficulty 
in calling for the quadrilles. The 
ladies' skirts were so long they 
swept up every particle of dust. 

Everyone had brought his lam^ 
along. One of the men had made a 
trip on foot the day before, and we 
had a gallon of coal oil from Cook's 
store on the river, so we wouldn't 
have to go home too early. 

The children went to sleep on 
the benches while the dancing con- 
tinued. We had the picnic at mid- 
night, more dancing, and then went 
home through the piercing cold, 
lamps in hands, babies in arms; our 
thrilling time was over. 


(Continued [com page 98) 
quadratic Equations, Natural Philosophy. 

Third Term — Virgil's Aeneid, Latin 
Prose Composition, Homer's Iliad, Greek 
Prose Composition, Geometry, Roman 

Fourth Term — Virgil's Bucolics, Homer's 
Iliad, Greek Prose Composition, Greek 
Testament (Gospels), Geometry, Roman 

The courses of study for the 
sophomore, junior, and senior years 
were along these same lines, and the 
library in the old Council House 
made it possible for the students to 
study the classical subjects. The 
library was possibly the finest ever 

collected in pioneer America, and 
comprised a rare collection of liter- 
ary and scientific works. It was 
brought by ox teams to this state in 
1851, and was purchased in New 
York City by Dr. John M. Bern- 
hisel. There were the works of 
Shakespeare, Milton, Bacon, Homer, 
Juvenal, Lucretius, Virgil, Euripi- 
des, Sophocles, Plato, Montaigne, 
Tacitus, Spenser, Herodotus, Gold- 
smith, and many others of the 
masters of the world's best litera- 
ture. The library received copies 
of the New York Herald, New 
York Evening Post, the Philadel- 

phia Saturday Courier, and the 
North American Review. Of the 
scientific works there were New- 
ton's Principia, Herschel's Outlines 
of Astronomy, and Von Humboldt's 
Cosmos. The treatises on phil- 
osophy included the works of John 
Stuart Mill, Martin Luther, John 
Wesley, and Emanuel Swedenborg. 
The school had an enrolment of 
two hundred and twenty-three stu- 
dents. The number of students was 
more than doubled the next year, 
and the University of Deseret from 
then on had a steady growth. In 
1875, thirty-six graduates received 

Every catalog that followed 
through the years gave the names 
of the faculty members. There 
were teachers who played a great 
part during their lives in the educa- 
tional, social, and, in some instances, 
political activities of the state. It 
would take a book to say what 
should be said about the old profes- 
sors who gave their lives as finely 
trained men to the educational in- 
terests of the state. As one recalls 
them, one remembers how they all 
taught young men and women to 
seek eagerly the meaning and 
beauty of the things of the spirit. 
There was then, and there always 
has been, a high concept of moral 
principles which grew out of the 
teachings of Christ, in the belief that 
every subject that enlarges the 
horizon of the student and gives 
him a truer, saner, and more liberal 
view of man and life should be- 
come part of the curriculum. It is 
not the subject that determines these 
qualities, but the spirit in which it 
is taught. Many of the graduates 
of Utah may recall how Professor 
William M. Stewart liked to re- 
cite the words of Epictetus: 

You will confer the greatest benefit on 
your city, not by raising the roofs, but 
by exalting the souls of your fellow- 
citizens; for it is better that great souls 
live in small habitations, than that abject 
slaves should burrow in great houses. 

A notable event in the history of 
the university was the memorial 
service, held June 9, 1919, when the 
Park Building was dedicated. Hun- 
dreds of old graduates and students 
came to the campus to honor the 
former president who held office 
from 1868 until 1893. The services 
were impressive, for no teacher of 
Utah was held in greater respect 
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than was Dr. Park. During his 
years of presidency he became 
known throughout the West, and 
lectured extensively before the 
teachers of the public schools. The 
march of the alumni that day, to- 
gether with the president, regents, 
and professors then in the univer- 
sity, was an impressive thing. It 
was led by Held's band, and the 
program included an address by 
Senator Joseph L. Rawlins, who 
was a professor in the university 
in the early seventies. Professor 
Willard Weihe, former professor 
of music, gave a violin solo, and 
the ode to Dr. Park, composed by 
Evan Stephens, was read by the 


Ye halls that rise, 

A firm foundation lies 

Of everlasting mighty hills beneath 

your walls. 
Strong and secure, 
Cemented to endure 
Through ages yet to come, what- 

e'er befalls. 

Greater than ye, 

Though strong and fair ye be, 

Ariseth even now a fond and 

honored name 
For which ye stand, 
And crown our beauteous land, 
Where shall endure for aye his 

work and fame. 

Knowledge and art 

And love shall ne'er depart 

From this fair temple in his honor 

built and named. 
Long side by side, 
All glorious shall abide 
Your names, together blent, be- 
loved and famed. 

Immediately after the program in 
the gymnasium, the crowd assem- 
bled in front of the administration 
building, where William W. Riter, 
chairman of the Board of Regents, 
gave an address in which he re- 
counted the long years of service of 
Dr. Park. Dr. Seymour B. Young, 
a graduate from the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons of New 
York, gave the dedicatory prayer, 
and brought his eloquent message 
to a close with these words: 

. . . Founded by the pioneers for the 
education of the youth of this Common- 
wealth, we are grateful that our children 
have this beautiful campus and these 
buildings as a centre of learning for thy 
glory and honor. Many noted men have 
gone from these halls as graduates and 
they, with the hundreds of other Alumni, 
hold them in deep and lasting reverence. 
We dedicate this building, O Lord, to be 
a sovereign centre for the highest intel- 
lectual and moral life of all its students, 
and we ask thee to bless it for all time 
to come. May it be a light unto the 
many young people who will come in 
future days to study here, and may they 
walk in the paths of learning that lead 
to thine eternal truths. May they never 
falter in the Cause and Purpose of thy 
Holy Word. 

Professor F. M. Bishop gave the 
address at the grave of Dr. Park, 
when the students covered it with 
flowers. Professor Bishop closed 
his remarks by quoting from an ad- 
dress given by Dr. Park to the 
teachers of the Salt Lake City 
schools at the beginning of his 
career as president of the Univer- 

It takes a peculiar man to be the right 
sort of teacher. As to his intellectual 
qualifications, his mind should be a foun- 
tain and not a reservoir, so that his knowl- 
edge and illustrations will gush up of them- 
selves, and not have to be drawn as by 
a windlass. He should be a man of 
ingenuity and tact, of various resources 
and expedients, and not a helpless crea- 
ture of custom, plodding on day after 
day in the same beaten path, like a horse 
in a bark mill. He should be fresh in 
his feelings and sympathies and not a 
statue or petrified post; his heart should 
be young in all its pulsations, though his 
head be as bald as that of the prophet 
Elisha. His mental storehouse should be 
filled with the fruits of various and ex- 
tensive reading, so that he need not be 
compelled to draw his illustrations, for 
the recitation room, from the tales of his 
grandmother, nor from the old textbooks 
he studied years ago, nor alone from the 
examples and methods of his own former 
teacher, nor from the treasures of last 
year's almanac. 

No two persons are exactly alike in 
their views and actions. There may be 
points of resemblance, but there will be 
shades of difference more or less striking. 
While the teacher should ever be thank- 
ful to learn from others, he should never 
seek to attain results in precisely the same 
way that he has seen them secured by 

During all the years since the 
University has graduated students, 
annual commencement exercises 
have been held to honor them and 
to send them forth into life that 
they might take part in the living 
present and work out their destinies 
as honorable citizens. They look 
forward, and the hopes for the 
future inspire them. 

Life at the university today is 
cosmopolitan, and the students are 
taking part in the living present. 
Their lives are freshened by the 
idea of original discovery and new 
thought. They are students of the 
literature, philosophy, and sciences 
of the world. Students from the 
Oriental nations are adding a novel 
life to the campus, and the Hindus 
and Chinese are discussing the 
plays of Shakespeare and the 
philosophy of William James. "As 
for the Holy Bible," says one, "it 
is the book that will yet unite the 
world in the Fatherhood of God 
and the brotherhood of man." On 
the campus these foreign students 
recite their individual faiths and 
impart their beliefs in such words as 
the following: 


I will halt here today; and, having puri- 
fied myself, will go forth tomorrow; and 
worship at the temple of the Deity. 

— Kojiki 133 


Let one cultivate good will towards all 
the world, — a mind illimitable, unob- 
structed, without hatred, without enmity. 
This mode of living is the supreme good. 
— Sutta-Nipata 150-151 


. . . and they shall beat their swords 
into plowshares, and their spears into 
pruninghooks: nation shall not lift up 
sword against nation, neither shall they 
learn war any more. 

— Isaiah 2:4 


Blessed are the peacemakers: for they 
shall be called the children of God. 

— Matthew 5:9 

The ideals of the founders of 
the university have been realized. 
Its graduates have gone into all the 
world to play their parts in making 
the world better. They go with the 
words of an ancient sage, remem- 
bered for all time: 

Not thine to complete the work, neither 
art thou free to lay it down. 


lehi in the Desert 

(Continued from page 104) 
language of his fathers — he cannot 
possibly be speaking of Hebrew. 
The necessary precautions to pre- 
serve Hebrew would naturally in- 
clude possession of the scriptures, 
but these could be had anywhere in 
Judah and would not require the 
dangerous mission to Laban. The 
language of Lehi's forefathers was 
a foreign language; and when the 
Book of Mormon tells us it was the 
language of the Egyptians, it means 
what it says. 

Not only do both Nephi and Lehi 
show marked coolness on the sub- 
ject of tribal loyalty, but both also 
protest that tribe counts for nothing, 
that the same blessings are avail- 
able to all men at all times and in 
all parts of the world (Ibid., 10:17- 
22), that "the Lord esteemeth all 
flesh in one" (Ibid., 17:35), there 
being no such thing as an arbitrarily 
"chosen" people. (Ibid., 17:37-40.) 
This is in marked contrast to the 
fierce chauvinism of the Jews at 
Jerusalem and is of a piece with 
Lehi's pronounced cosmopolitanism 
in other things. Lehi, like Moses 
and his own ancestor, Joseph, was 
a man of three cultures, being edu- 
cated not only in "the learning of 
the Jews and the language of the 
Egyptians," but in the ways of the 
desert as well. This three-cornered 
culture is an established pattern in 
that part of the world where the 
caravans of Egypt and Israel pass 
each other, guided through the 
sands by those men of the desert 
who were the immemorial go-be- 
tween of the two civilizations. 87 
Without the sympathetic coopera- 
tion of the Arabs any passage 
through their deserts was a terrible 
risk when not out of the question, 
and the good businessman was the 
one who knew how to deal with 
the Arabs — which meant to be one 
of them. 88 

The proverbial ancestor of the 
Arabs is Ishmael. His is one of the 
few Old Testament names which is 
also at home in ancient Arabia. 89 
His traditional homeland was the 
Tih, the desert between Palestine 
and Egypt, and his people were 
haunters of the "borders" between 
the desert and the sown; 90 he was 
regarded as the legitimate offspring 
of Abraham by an Egyptian 
(Continued on following page) 


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(Continued from preceding page) 
mother. 90 His was not a name of 
good omen, for the angel had 
promised his mother, "... he will 
be a wild man, his hand will be 
against everyone, and every man's 
hand against him . . . ,"" L so the 
chances are that one who bore his 
name had good family reasons for 
doing it, and in Lehi's friend Ish- 
mael we surely have a man of the 
desert. Lehi, faced with the pros- 
pect of a long journey in the wilder- 
ness, sent back for Ishmael, who 
promptly followed into the desert 
with a large party; this means that 
he must have been hardly less adept 
at moving about than Lehi himself. 
The interesting thing is that Nephi 
takes Ishmael (unlike Zoram) com- 
pletely for granted, never explain- 
ing who he is or how he fits into 
the picture — the act of sending for 
him seems to be the most natural 
thing in the world, as does the mar- 
riage of his daughters with Lehi's 
sons. Since it has ever been the 
custom among the desert people for 
a man to marry the daughter of 
his paternal uncle (bint 'ammi), it 
is hard to avoid the impression that 
Lehi and Ishmael were related. 

There is a remarkable association 
between the names of Lehi and 
Ishmael which ties them both to 
the southern desert, where the 
legendary birthplace and central 
shrine of Ishmael was at a place 
called Beer Lehai-ro'i. 92 Wellhausen 
rendered the name "spring of the 
wild-ox (?) jaw-bone," but Paul 
Haupt showed that Lehi ( for so he 
reads the name) does not mean 
"jawbone" but "cheek," 93 which 
leaves the meaning of the strange 
compound still unclear. One thing 
is certain, however: that Lehi is a 
personal name. Until recently this 
name was entirely unknown, but 
now it has turned up at Elath and 
elsewhere in the south in a form 
which has been identified by Nelson 
Glueck with the name Lahai 
which "occurs quite frequently 
either as a part of a compound, 
or as a separate name of deity 
or person, particularly in Minaean, 
Thamudic, and Arabic texts." 04 
There is a Beit Lahi, "House 
of Lehi" among the ancient place- 
names of the Arab country around 
Gaza, but the meaning of the 
name has here been lost. So If 


the least be said for it, the name 
Lehi is thoroughly at home among 
the people of the desert and, so far 
as we know, nowhere else. 

The name of Lemuel is not a con- 
ventional Hebrew one, for it occurs 
only in one chapter of the Old 
Testament (Proverb 31:1, 4), 

where it is commonly supposed to 
be a rather mysterious poetic sub- 
stitute for Solomon. It is, however, 
like Lehi, at home in the south 
desert, where an Edomite text from 
"a place occupied by tribes de- 
scended from Ishmael" bears the 
title, "The Words of Lemuel, King 


With Jrtd J^robtewis and /-"/ 


Come nineteen centuries or so ago there walked among 
men one Jesus of Nazareth, the Christ, the Son of 
God, the Prince of Peace. His fortunes varied from being 
acclaimed King to being condemned to death. Even the 
sick whom he healed did not always pause to give grati- 
tude. And in his time of greatest need he could not even 
count on those who but a few days before had strewn 
his path with palms. The principles he proclaimed were 
not popular with the prevailing powers of his time and 
were not well understood by the people. And because 
his precepts and principles apparently have not prevailed, 
men have sometimes become cynical, have sometimes 
despaired, have sometimes lost hope and faith in the 
future. But let no man lose faith in the future: The 
spirit of this day is proof of what life could be like when 
his precepts are put even into partial practice. And the 
spirit of many darker days is proof of the price we pay 
for departing from his principles. But even though men 
have made many mistakes in the use of their God-given 
freedom, the promising part of the picture is this: not that 
so many men forsake these principles — but that the prin- 
ciples themselves persist — that they are here and await 
only a time when men shall turn to them. If there were 
no plan, no pattern, no purpose, if there were no all-pre- 
vailing Providence, no way provided for the solution of 
the problems, the depth of despair would be unbounded; 
but the fact is that there is an answer, that there is a 
pattern for peace, that there is an all-prevailing purpose, 
and that there is sound reason for an unfailing faith in 
the future — in the gospel of the Prince of Peace, which 
is here, and ever ready for us to turn to whenever men 
shall have learned their lessons. And now soon again, 
after this day and tomorrow, we shall go back to our 
pressing problems, back to the pressure of the daily pur- 
suits that make more and ever more demands upon our 
patience. And as we do, we could well determine to take 
with us the spirit of this day, which lights the eyes of chil- 
dren and puts laughter on their lips and mellows the 
hearts of men. In the words of Dickens: "Nearer and 
dearer to our hearts be the Christmas spirit. . . . God bless 
us, everyone." 

*Jke Spoken lAJord FROM TEMPLE 





of Massa."" 6 These people, though 
speaking a language that was al- 
most Arabic, were yet well within 
the sphere of Jewish religion, for 
"we have nowhere any evidence 
that the Edomites used any other 
name for their God than Yahweh, 
the God of the Hebrews." 96 

The only example of the name 
of Laman to be found anywhere 
to the writer's knowledge is its at- 
tribution to an ancient Mukam, or 
sacred place, in Palestine. Most of 
these Mukams are of unknown, and 
many of them of prehistoric, date. 
In Israel only the tribe of Manasseh 
built them." 7 It is a striking coinci- 
dence that Conder saw in the name 
Leimun, as he renders it ( the vowels 
must be supplied by guesswork), 
a possible corruption of the name 
Lemuel, thus bringing these two 
names, so closely associated in the 
Book of Mormon, into the most 
intimate relationship, and that in 
the one instance in which the name 
of Laman appears. 98 Far more popu- 
lar among the Arabs as among the 
Nephites was the name Alma, which 
can mean a coat of mail, a mountain, 
or a sign. 99 

It should be noted here that 
archaeology has fully demonstrated 
that the Israelites, then as now, 
had not the slightest aversion to 
giving their children non-Jewish 
names, even when those names 
smacked of a pagan background. 100 
One might, in a speculative mood, 
even detect something of Lehi's 
personal history in the names he 
gave to his sons. The first two 
have Arabic names — do they recall 
his early days in the caravan trade? 
The second two have Egyptian 
names, and indeed they were born 
in the days of his prosperity. The 
last two, born amid tribulations in 
the desert, were called with fitting 
humility, Jacob and Joseph. Wheth- 
er the names of the first four were 
meant, as those of the last two sons 
certainly were (II Nephi 2:1, 3:1), 
to call to mind the circumstances 
under which they were born, the 
name^s are certainly a striking indi- 
cation of their triple heritage. 
{To be continued) 


•'"}. Offord, "Further Illustrations of the Elephan- 
tine Aramaic Jewish Papyri," PEFQ 1917, p. 127. 

ss Archaeol. Q the Relig. of Israel, p. 160. 

59 D. S. Margoliouth, The Relations Between Arabs 
and Israelites Prior to the Rise of Islam (The 
Schweich Lectures, London, 1924) p. 13. 

The Persians in Egypt wrote Aramaic because 
Egyptian script was too clumsy and hard to learn, 
according to Th. Noeldeke, Die Semitischen 
Sprachen (Leipzig, 1899) p. 34, yet we are asked 
to believe that the Jews reversed the process and 
learned the awkward Egyptian script just so they 


could use it to write their native Hebrew in a 
little less space! It is unthinkable that they should 
have shelved their sacred and superbly practical 
script (Torczyner, Lachish Letters, p. 15) to sweat 
at learning one of the worst systems of writing 
ever devised simply to save space — and that at 
the grave risk of being misunderstood on every 
line. The main objection to the theory, however, 
is that one can't save space by writing Hebrew 
in Egyptian characters. Any script to compete 
with Hebrew in economy would have to be a 
shorthand. We know that the demotic Egyptian 
of Lehi's time was almost that, and we also know 
that shorthand is short by virtue of being very 
closely adapted to the peculiar sound combinations 
of . a particular language, i.e., it is the most 
highly idiomatic form of writing known, and as 
such cannot be transferred from one language to 
another without losing its economy. Hebrew can 
be written in Egyptian characters, as German and 
Russian can be written in Gregg, bwt not economical- 
ly, to say the least. Lehi "... had been taught 
the language of the Egyptians" while he was still 
living in Palestine; and for what would he have 
used Egyptian script in Palestine? Not for writ- 
ing Hebrew, certainly, but for writing the only 
language to which that script is adapted— Egyptian. 
rhat the prehistoric Semitic alphabet was derived 
from Egyptian characters has of course no bearing 
on the case — in the end our own English alphabet 
has the same origin, but that does not make it 

•"Granted that he knew his writing would have 
to be translated for both Jew and Gentile (this 
would not have been the case had he written in 
Hebrew!). Nephi, like Mormon (8:35), thinks of 
himself as actually addressing his unseen future 
readers. The natural thing in such a case is to 
conform as nearly as possible to the situation that 
one is idealizing. For Nephi the situation calls 
for Egyptian. Had he written in Hebrew, the 
gift and power of God would not have been necessary 
for the translation of his work, which would have 
required at most a knowledge of Hebrew and a 
chart of but twenty-two symbols, which could 
easily have been reconstructed from the text. More 
than twenty-two symbols brings up the shorthand 

C2 E. J. Bickerman, "Colophon of the Greek 
Esther," Jnl.Bib.Lit. 63 (1944), 339ff, showing that 
the tradition of the colophon was most carefully 
preserved in Egypt. R. O. Faulkner, "The Bremer- 
Rhind Papyrus— II" Jnt. Eg. Archaeol. XXIII 
(1937) 10; cf. F. LI. Griffith, "The Teaching of 
Amenophis the Son of Kanakht," JEA XII (1926), 

6M FauIkner, loc. cit. 

04 Bickerman, op. cit. 

on The formula is iw-f pw. lit. "it is thus," and 
concludes the Story of Sinuhe and the Maxims of 
the Sages Ptahotep and Kagemeni, K. Sethe, 
Aegyptische Lesestuecke (Leipzig, 1924) pp. 17, 
42, 43; discussed in his Edaeuterungen zti den aeg. 
Lesestuccken (Leipzig, 1927) pp. 21. 58, 61. "That 
is its end" concludes the Teaching of Amenophis, 
Griffith, op. cit. p. 225. 

M A. H. Gardiner, "New Literary Works from 
Ancient Egypt," JEA I (1914) 25; incidentally, 
the Egyptian here quoted had connections with 
Palestine, id. p. 30. 

97 Meyer, Gesch. d. Alt. 1:2, 176. 

68 The Teaching of Amenophis is addressed, "For 
his son, the youngest of his children, little compared 
to his relations . . . ." Then follows a long text 
presenting a number of surprising parallels to the 
Book of Proverbs (p. 202) and a remarkable one 
to Ps. I, the righteous man being compared to "a 
tree grown in a plot (?) . . . its fruit is sweet, 
its shade is pleasant," etc. Compare this to II 
Ne. 2 and 3. Lehi's description of fruit as "white" 
(I Ne. 8:11) is a typical Egyptianism (A. Erman 
6 H. Grapow, Woerterb. d. aeg. Sprache III, 206f, 

"The foregoing note illustrates this; see A. von 
Gall, Basileia tou Theou (Heidelberg, 1926) pp. 
48-82; Meyer, G.d.A. 1:2, 274; Albright, Archaeol. 
& the Relig. of Israel, p. 21; D. C Simpson, "The 
Hebrew Book of Proverbs and the Teachings of 
Amenophis," JEA XII (1926), 232ff. 

™Von Gall, op. cit. pp. 65-68; Breasted, History of 
Egypt, p. 547. 

71 Von Gall, p. 67f. 

72 Gardiner, v. Gall, op. cit. pp. 49-55. 

73 The danger of preparing for an expedition in the 
city is obvious, since the curiosity aroused leads to 
dangerous questions and may have far-reaching 
effects, see Bertram Thomas, Arabia Felix (N. Y., 
Scribners, 1932) p. 36, with the account of prepara- 
tions and activities at the "base camp" pp. 112-124; 
H. St. J. B. Philby, The Empty Quarter (New York, 
Henry Holt, 1933) pp. 9-13. 

74 Cowley, Aramaic Papyri, col. xiv. 1.208. 

75 E;d. Meyer, Die Israeliten und ihre Nach- 
barstaemme (Halle, 1906), p. 307. 

76 To this day there are farmers in Palestine who 
spend much of their time living in tents on the 
desert; our friend Mose Kader was of this class, 
see G. E. Kirk, "The Negev, or Southern Desert 
of Palestine" PEFQ 1941, p. 60. On the other 
hand. Lord Kitchener (PEFQ 1884, p. 206) noticed 
tent-dwelling Arabs, true Bedouins, sowing barley 
on the land around Gaza. Of the Moahib Arabs 
Doughty writes [Travels in Arabia Deserta. 1933, 

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I, 276): "Their harvest up, they strike the hamlets 
of tents, and with their cattle go forth to wander 
as nomads." Karl Raswan, Drinkers of the Wind 
(N.Y., Creative Age Press, 1944) describes at 
length the easy coming and going between desert 
and city, rich Arabs of the town often going out 
to spend a season or a few hours on the sands. 

"J. W. and G. M. Crowfoot, in PEFQ 1933. 
p. 24. Nearly a contemporary of Lehi is "the Arabian 
chief who camped in the outskirts of Jerusalem at 
Nehemiah's time and bore the good North Arabic 
name of Geshem (Jusham) ..." N. A. Paris (ed.) 
The Arab Heritage (Princeton University Press, 
1944), p. 35. 

™Ed. Meyer, op. cit. p. 305; cf. G.d.A, 11:1, 486f, 
342ff, 347. 

TO Ph. J. Baldensperger, "The Immovable East," 
PEFQ 1922, 163: 1926, 93-97; Dhorme, "Le Pays de 
lob," Revue Biblique N.S (1911), 102-7; G A. 
Barton, "The Original Home of the Story of Job," 
Jnt.Bibl.Lit. 31 (1912) 63. This is not to say that 
the patriarchs were "primitives," for ". . . we are 

learning to think of the immigrants not as nomads 
in the savage or semi-savage state, but as colonists 
carrying with them to their new homes the memories 
of a developed political organization, with usages 
and practices having a history behind them." Mar- 
goliouth, Arabs and Israelites, etc. p. 25. 

8 «P. Baldensperger, in PEFQ 1923. p. 176. As 
recently as 2000 B. C. Hebrew and Arabic had 
not yet emerged from "what was substantially a 
common language, understood from the Indian Ocean 
to the Taurus and from the Zagros to the frontier 
of Egypt. This common language (excluding Ac- 
cadian) was as homogeneous as was Arabic a 
thousand years ago," W. F. Albright, "Recent 
Progress in North Canaanite Research," BASOR 
70 (1938) p. 21. The curious and persistent homo- 
geneity of culture and language among the desert 
people of the Near East has often excited comment, 
e.g.. Margoliouth. op. cit. p. 5; Philby, The Empty 
Quarter, p. 65; Noeldeke, Semit. Sprachen, pp. 52, 
57; Meyer, Israeliten, p. 305, 307; Margoliouth even 
notes (op. cit. p. 8) that "A Sabaean (south Arab) 
would have found little to puzzle him in the first 
verse of Genesis." 

^A. Guillaume, "The Habiru. the Hebrews, and 
the Arabs," PEFQ 1946, 65f; 67: "I do not think 
that there is much doubt that the Hebrews were 
what we should call Arabs, using the term in its 
widest sense." Id. 78: "Somewhere about the 
beginning of the first millennium B.C. the name 
Habiru or Hebrew gradually gave way before the 
formJArabu.' " W. F. Albright, in BASOR 70, p. 
21: "No sharp distinction is made between He- 
brews, Aramaeans, and Arabs in the days of the 

^Guillaume, op. cit. p. 77, citing Noeldeke. 
Though the Jews have always shown great capacity 
for assimilating other cultures, by far the "most 
readily assimilated . . . was the influence of the 
kindred Semitic culture of Arabia," S. L. Caiger, 
Bible and Spade (Oxford University Press, 1936) 
p. 84. 

M A. Bergman, "Half-Manasseh," Jnl. Pal. Or. Soc. 
XVI (1936) p. 225; Manasseh was born in Egypt 
and adopted by Jacob (id. p. 249). In a Manas- 
site genealogy "the names show a preponderance of 
Arabic etyma ..." indicating "continual influx 
from the desert," (p. 228). Manasseh by an 



Reading from left to right, first row: Don Bennion, 
Glen C. Lyons, C. Edgar Peterson, Jr., Lynn J. Hess, 
Ernel Le Roy Anderson, Howard Hinckley, Darwin 
W. Manship, David A. Randall, Homer P. Johnson, 
H. Dean Bowler, Lynn O. White, Edward C. Horsley. 

Second row: Daryl Vance Hodson, Barbara Hall, 
Mavis Plowman, Thiel Kunz, Marilyn Baird, Max 
D. Reading, Carol Sanderson, Mack William Tueller, 
Neil Karren, Byron J. Horrocks, Darrell H. Holt. 

Third row: J. James Ratter, Lynn Pendleton, R. 
Dean Harrison, Daniel Nield, Maud Nield, Lois 
Brown, J. Vergil Bushman, Ruth F. Bushman, Melva 
Taylor, Lloyd P. Oldham, Lydia O. Oldham, S. 
Boyd Smith, Shirley Steadman. 

Fourth row: Hestella A. Kowallis, Theresia Ander- 
son, Bessie Eleanor Jensen, Dorothy Gardner, Gene 
McDaniel, Carol Gene McClellan, Oscar L. Rider. 

Fifth row: Vernon Garner, James Bel I ridge, Ruby 
fames, Merle Lloyd, Robert S. McClellan, Jessica C. 
Richey, Mrs. Hazel Weber, Fred Weber, Frances 
Neff, Jeanne Bowen, Marilyn Randall, Mary Astad, 
Wilma Slaughter. 

Sixth row: Watson Ririe, Robert L. Mercer, Shel- 
don L. Nicolaysen, Elden H. Moss, Wallace L. 
Livingston, Fauntelle Clarke, Mae T. Kunz, Abel 
Kunz, Fay Perrett, Beth L. Hakes, Barbara Cambell, 
Winnie Blackner, Zona E. Walker, Fredrick Sei- 

Seventh row: ReNee Harper, Rosalie Arave, Leona 

Carlson, Jean Hanneman, LaMon Neubert, Clifford 
H. Jensen, Iwan M. Black, Curtis W. Slade, Ralph L. 
Thacker, Hal Clarke, Dean Bingham, Jayne Knowl- 
ton, Goldwyn Wimmer, Ingeborg L. Forschner, Emit 
Amann, Dick Wright. 

Eighth row: Rex B. Lybbert, Harold Alan Wood, 
Morgan Eugene Hurd, Robert L. Kendall, J. Reed 
Bird, Bert Glen Lund, Francis J. Black, George S. 
Goble, Orin L. Crump, William L. Perkins, Harrison 
Kerry Frost. 

Ninth row: Carlos E. McCombs, Gail S. Young, 
Golden J. Waite, A. Laron Kunz, Gerald N. Atkin- 
son, John H. Nielson, Grant Clegg, LaDee W. 
Chadwick, Fredrick Kerkman, Joel K. Mellor. 

Tenth row: Wesley C. Wootton, Reid H. Good- 
rich, Vern W. King, John R. Fridell, Jay A. Thomp- 
son, Owen J. Benson, Doyle Lavard Wilkins, Layne 
B. Forbes, Gordon Eli Sloan, R. Richard Gray, 
Gerald M. Finch, Leon C. Miller. 

Eleventh row: Eugene B. Ronneburg, Richard S. 
Despain, Edward Fillerup, Herbert H. Osborn, 
Darrell William Jackson, Ross B. Hutchinson, H. 
Don Ashcroft, Jay Fawson, Delbert J. Seamons, 
Dean Carroll, Roy Warburton, William Glenn. 

Twelfth row: Thomas Oakes, Frank Jacobsen, 
Allan Nelson, Clair Burr, Dean H. Seely, Dean 
Holmes, Bob Breinholt, Newel Dee Cox, Lynn 
Wilkes, P. R. Heilbut, David K. Darley. 

Thirteenth row: Emil Junior Rothlisberger, Cleon 
Smith, Earl Dean Knighton, William C. Roberts, Jr., 
Robert D. Biggs, Glen W. Vance, Harrison Eldon 
Maughan, James Moyer Grow, Norman J. Mont- 

gomery, Melvin O. Dearden, Floyd W. Crump, George 
Sterling Nixon, Clair E. Jorgensen, Dale L. Singleton. 

Fourteenth row: Morris E. Neilson, Leo C. Peterson, 
Gail M. Rogers, Max C. Johns, Robert D. Sellers, 
Raymond S. Kellis, Gail Pew, Joseph Hancock, 
Gary B. Lyman, James R. Moss, John W. Derricott. 

Fifteenth row: James Bird Allen, Jr., Gary Lloyd 
Love, Charles W. Hillier, Don Brown, Robert Van 
Wagenen, Oman M. Tracy, Richard H. Shorten, 
Elwyn L. Smith, Randolph Bergesen, Gene F. Deem, 
R. Lynn Harrison, Roy E. Wendt, Douglas Wallace, 
Merlin Frank Anderson. 

Sixteenth row: Ezra Max Hatch, Richard A. 
Smith, Stanley Kay Taylor, L. Dean Jones, Richard 
A. Jensen, Henry Lloyd Goldsmith, Roy R. Gibson, 
Charles F. McGuire, John H. Gerstner, Jr., Leon 
Thomas Ward, R. Dean Titensor. 

Seventeenth row: Donald W. Brown, Donald H. 
Sly, Calvin E. Clark, Virl R. Nuttall, Reed C. 
Seegmiller, Richard W. Goldsberry, Richard M. 
Taylor, Ronald E. Ashcroft, Daryle Morgan, Dean 
Robinson, Myron W. Thompson. 

Eighteenth row: Delbert Murray Madsen, Shorland 
Garth Hunsaker, John R. Schneider, A. Keith 
Schlappy, Boyd Dale Hansen, Vernon R. Spencer, Neil 
C. Farr, James C. Hoggan, L. Vernon Woodbury, 
Dale Weston Gordon, Dan Jay Workman. 

Left balcony: Harold G. Gardner, Douglas L. 
Orton, Dean L. Hailstone, Howard McArthur. 

Right balcony: Reed L. Mickelson, J. Robert 
McAdam, Arthur E. Hutchens, Wendell Collier, 
Marcus Barnes, John Keith Haws, John L. Durrani. 



Aramaean concubine begot the father of Giiead, 
and the portion of Manasseh himself was the land 
of Giiead, "wholly Transjordanlc." {loc. cit. ). M. 
H. Segal, "The Settlement of Manasseh East of 
the Jordan," PEFQ 1918, pp ; 125-131, refutes the 
common theory that this was "a reflux of emigration 
from the western side of the Jordan," the alternative 
being that Manasseh, the most powerful of all 
the tribes, was already in the desert from the 

M It has been suggested that Ammon, like his 
competitor Aton, was originally from Syria-Pales- 
tine, a theory that has somewhat to recommend it, 
especially since Wainwright has shown the pre- 
historic Palestinian associations of Min of Coptos 
(the original Amon), G. Wainwright, "The Em- 
blem of Min, "JEA XVII (1931), 186-93, and 
XVIII (1932), 161ff, and XIX (1933), p. 43. 

^Albright, Archaeot. & the Relig. of Israel, p. 

^Thus "the Arabs of the south, though settled 
at their bases, were indomitable travelers and 
merchants. . . ," Guillaume, PEFQ 1946, p. 67. 
There is nothing to prevent Lehi, though settled 
at his base, from being an indomitable traveler, 
unless one interprets I Nephi 1:3 to mean that 
he never set foot outside the city from the day of 
his birth— a palpable absurdity. 

87 "The natural character of the Bedu tribes has 
always been to act as a kind of intermediary peo- 
ple, with no fixed politics. . . ." Baldensperger, 
PEFQ 1925, p. 85. Even today "the 'Arishiye(t) 
Bedus on the Egyptian frontier carry goods by 
land from Gaza to Egypt and vice versa. They 
are a peculiar intermediate class; they practice 
commerce and agriculture and are camel rearers," 
(Baldensperger, PEFQ 1922, p. 161), cf. J. L. 

Burckhardt, Notes on the Bedouins and Wahabys 
(London, 1831) I, 9, 26f, 30f, 275f. In the sixth 
century B.C. the Arabs took Gaza, the northern 
anchor of the Egyptian trade line (Herodot. Hist. 

III. 5, 7, 91, Albright, in Jnl. Pal. Or. Soc. 

IV, 130). Arab merchants, enriched by the three- 
cornered trade founded the Nabataean state (Geo. 
E. Kirk, "The Negev or the Southern Desert of 
Palestine," PEFQ 1941, p. 62). At all times tie 
Palestine-Egyptian trade was the main, if not the 
only source of wealth to these people, T. Canaan, 
in Jnl. Pal. Or. Soc. II, 144. On the antiquity of 
the three-cornered trade see Lieblein, Handel u. 
Schiffahrt, pp. 76, 134-6; W. J. Phythian-Adams, 
"Israel in the Arabah," PEFQ 1933, p. 142; G. 
E. Kirk, in PEFQ 1941, p. 61f; S. Perowne, "Note 
on I Kings, ch. X, 1-13 ..." PEFQ 1939. p. 
201; Albright, in Jnl. Pal. Or. Soc. IV, 130-2. 

8s It is equally in the interest of the Bedouins 
to have alliances with the town dwellers and 
farmers; the result is a far closer affinity between 
the two ways of life than one would suppose: "All 
the desert tribes have their allies or relations among 
the Bedouins or fellahin in the cultivated portions 
of Palestine and Egypt ... no doubt this was 
at first dictated by policy . . . but it cuts both 
ways, and anybody who takes the trouble to in- 
vestigate and understand these relationships will 
find it comparatively easy to make arrangements 
with tribes in the desert, however far they may 
be," PEFQ 1997, p. 45. From the beginning the 
Jews were forced by their geographical position 
to deal with Arabs and to engage in trade, see 
Elias Auerbach, Wiiste und Gelobtes Land (Berlin, 
1932) p. 2 

SB Margoliouth, Arabs and Israelites, p. 29. Guil- 
laume. PEFQ 1946, p. 80. 

^Meyer, Israeliten. p. 302. 

B1 J. Zeller, "The Bedawin," PEFQ 1901. p. 198. 

91a "A man has an exclusive right to the hand of 
his cousin; he is not obliged to marry her, but she 
cannot without his consent, become the wife of 
another person." Burckhardt, Notes I, 113. The 
fact that there was no obstacle to the group mar- 
raige of Lehi's sons with Ishmael's daughters may 
almost be taken as proof that the young people were 

B2 Meyer, op. cit., p. 322f. 

^P. Haupt, "Heb. Lehi, cheek, and lo-a', jaw," 
Jnl.Bibl.Lit. XXXIII (1914) 290-5. 

<*N. Glueck, "Ostraca from Elath," BASOR 80 
(1940) 5-6, fig. 2. 

m The Survey of Western Palestine. Name Lists 
(E. H. Palmer, Comment., London, 1881) p. 358. 

m E. ben Yehuda, "The Edomite Language," 
Jnl.Pal.Or.Soc. I (1921) 113-5. 

B ~C. Clermont-Ganneau, "Moslem Mukams," in 
Survey of Western Palestine. Special Papers, p. 

^C. R. Conder, in same vol. as above, n. 97, p. 

ao Surv. of Wstn. Palest., Name Lists, pp. 40, 
17, 66. 

1( »A. Reifenberg, "A Hebrew Shekel of the 5th 
Century B.C." PEFQ 1943, p. 102f; Albright, 
Archaeol. Q the Relig of Israel, p 113. Among 
the children of those contemporaries of Lehi who 
fled to Egypt, Persian, Babylonian and "even 
Arabian names may be suspected," though they 
remained good Jews, S. A. Cook, "The Jews of 
Seyene in the Fifth Century B.C." PEFQ 1907, 



Reading from left to right, first row: Iris Nelson, 
Arthur W. Reynolds, Robert Kent Richeson, Ted B. 
Secrist, Verda Eschler, Don B. Colton, director; 
Norma Jones, Leona Stevenson, Vivetta Hunter, 
Dorothy Cahall, Grace Johnson. 

Second row: Wilma Mendenhall, Ethelyn Erickson, 
Annie Darlene Price, Lila Carol Brimley, Faye 
Elizabeth Coombs, Norma Fae Lundberg, Barbara 
Anderson, Nancy Barker, Marion Cherrington, 
Thomas A. Williams, Elmo Calapp, Elizabeth Wag- 

Third row: William S. Hill, Lois H. Hill, Samuel 
Pollock, Emily Pollock, Ralph J. Wilcock, Annie L. 
Wilcock, J. A. McMurrin, Mae McMurrin, Donna 
Chapman, Ina S. Butler, Charlene Armstrong, 
Dwaine Wagner. 

Fourth row: Chester Lew Bolingbroke, Ruel A. All- 
red, Harry Bitton, Julia Bitton, Laura Stephens, 
Carl D. Stephens, Stanley H. Rich, Catherine W. 
Rich, Clarice J. James, J. W. James, Clara Milner, 
George B. Milner, Jr., Stewart M. Buttars. 

Fifth row: Joseph James Buckley, William James 
Skidmore, Carl M. Shaner, Jr., DeVon K. Nelson, 
Calvin E. Wheeler, DeLoy U. Otttey, Darwin O. 

Metcalf, James Holladay, Graydon K. Colder, W. 
Farrell Pilkington, Samuel Banner, Ray E. Wayman, 
Horace S. Baugh. 

Sixth row: Norman Ensign, Wanda Livingston, 
lona Roundy, Caroline Hobson, Barbara Dumke, 
Lucille Chapman, Eldon A. Jones, Cleon Hodges, 
LaVar Zohner, Mac F. Reynolds, Kerry M. Heinz, 
S. Grant Jewkes, Wendell Jones. 

Seventh row: Lealen Blain Collard, Mary Peel, 
Minnie Hamilton, Norma Smith, Phyliss Wardle, 
Tharin Bigler, Dean D. Baxter, John Colt, Dan 
R. Sorensen, Verion T. Jackson, Mack W. Brown. 

Eighth row: Sam J. Hughes, LeRoy M. Whiting, 
Robert R. Forsberg, Arthur W. Wiscomb, Jr., Max 
Perkins, Clair A. Millett, Donald N. Arbon, Dean 
Martin, Robert Liddle, John W. Terry, John P. 
Redd, Clay Graham, Darrell W. Nield, R. E. Green. 

Ninth row: Jack O. Peterson, Roy D. Hatch, 
Calvin Decker, George M. Hall, W. B. Speakman, 
John W. Waite, Dayle W. Dunkley, Loraine K. 
Duffin, Joseph L. Peterson, Jay G. Macfarlane. 

Tenth row: Henry O. Holley, Owen L. Gibson, 
Grant M. Patch, Clark J. Kidd, Eldon R. Howick, 
J. Cal Roberts, Kenneth L. Ropp, Mark Lindsay, 
DeVon R. Woodland, Varon L. Howell, Francis W. 

Eleventh raw: Donald W. Moore, Mark W. Staphs, 
Ashel Rex Mellor, Ross M. Young, Dale J. Laub, 
William D. Smith, Richard Kent Miner, Floyd Tuttle, 
Duane Bishop, Burdell Dyches, Fred Thornton, Fenton 

Twelfth row: John D. Cope, Arnold L. Frazier, 
Rodney T. Clark, Harold William Scholes, Milton A. 
Christensen, Clive Barney, Ellis Call, Donald Hunt, 
Boyd Burbidge, Ray L. Sargent, A. W. Ritchhart. 

Thirteenth row: Ronald B. Anderson, Eldred W. 
Irving, William Heber Hardy, Wayne Nelson, Robert 
Frame, Albert M. Farnsworth, Jay W. Kotter, 
Sterling Tolman, Jay P. Broadhead, Douglas J. 

Fourteenth row: Lyle H. Robinson, John D. 
Lenkersdorfer, Jimmie Hughs. 

Fifteenth row: Donald T. Bailey, Loren H. Grover, 
Ray B. Munns, J. Gordon Vaughn, John J. Buch- 
miller, William B. Klinger, Orvell Ray Jackson, 
Royal J. Rigby, Milton Ellis Bond, H. Vard Leany. 

Sixteenth row: Benjamin L. Dickison, Meade Squire, 
Douglas Low, Glenn Hamberlain, Earl Beecher, 
Dale R. Street, Daniel Jones. 

Seventeenth row: Orville D. Carnahan, Gerrard 
B. Denkers, Jr., Herbert W. Wilkinson, Frank Chand- 
ler, Glenn B. Mecham, Glen E. Rich, Morris J. Brady. 





§ "Speak the Speech" 

K. A N ur 9 ent P^ ea nas come from a patriarch that we empha- 

j ** size the correct pronunciation of patriarchal. A little 

& care and observance of the spelling of the word should 

& indicate the difference between that word and patriotic. The 

J word patriarchal derives from the word patriarch, which 

§ means father. A patriarchal blessing is one inspired by our 
Eternal .Father and is delivered by the appointed patriarchs 
of our Church for the guidance and comfort of members of 
the Church. Patriotic refers to the feeling that is prompted 

& by love of country. — M. C. /. 

§ * " 

& Fairmount, West Virginia 

t- My very dear friends: 

§ T received your wonderful magazine containing my beloved 

<v * son's poem, " 'lection time." It made me very proud to 

? see his name listed with the others. Many thanks. 

y 1 am reading The Improvement Era regularly as it con- 

& tains so many encouraging and beautiful truths, you surely 

^ have gone a long way and accomplished much. May the 

y good work go on. 

& Faithfully a friend to the cause. 


& P\ecember 5, I head toward Denver via Salt Lake City, 

c *-' where resides the major part of my far-flung family. So 

V many relatives in Utah . . . and I love my native state. If 

& you have the time to see me, I am going to take the op- 

\ portunity of running up and meeting you, personally. . . . 

]s I am eager to know all of you connected with this brilliant 

§ publication of ours, The Improvement Era. Congratula- 

& tions to you on the splendid, superior type of work you 

£ are doing. 

y ® 


1 104 24th St., Cor. 24th 6 "C," San Diego, Calif. 
615 'T" St., Marysville, Calif. 
1594 So. Beretania St., Honolulu, T.H. 

r^<^c^'-^<^<^t^t^V^<^^ °^ -^ 

/s/ Mary S. Cartright 

Denver, Colorado 
From a letter written by Vontella H. B. Kimball 

zine in every way. More power to the contributors and 

all others connected with it. Together we read one article ^ 

from it nearly every night, and in this way we read just f 

about everything in the magazine. My own particular | 

favorite articles are those written by Mary Brentnall (which ^> 

seems to be missing from the October issue.) £ 

Sincerely yours, y 

Harriet Pearson £ 
(Mrs. Albert M. Pearson) 


Red Tape £ 

A busy man forgot to file his income tax return until a ^ 

few days after the deadline. § 

"I just forgot," he wrote. "I have no excuse. I am en- £ 

closing an additional five percent for the fine." ( y 

He received an official letter from the government asKing ^ 

would he be good enough to fill out and return the enclosed c 

form, stating his reasons for his delinquency, and have it y 

notarized. „ y 

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A few days later he received a letter: "No excuse," it said, 
"is not an excuse. Please file notarized affidavit testifying that 
you had no excuse." 

The Improvement Era 

Gainesville, Florida 


? Dear Editors: 

y T've been telling my husband for at least a year that some 
& * day I was going to write to you and tell you how much 
we both enjoy the Era, and it has taken a "missing issue" 
to get me finally at it. 

No doubt anything nice which I might say about The 
Improvement Era has already been said many times, and 
perhaps expressed better than I can do it, but this will just 
let you know that my husband and I are two more of the 
many, many readers who feel that it is a very fine maga- 

Success is built on small margins. The fastest runner 
in the world isn't more than five percent faster than scores 
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horse and a good race horse is only a few seconds. No 
man can be successful for more than a minute in which he 
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A good way to construct a speech is to use the outline 
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"First I tell 'em what I'm going to tell 'em. Then I tells 
'em. Then I tell 'em what I done tol' 'em." 





Scouts of Pima, Arizona 

FIVE Scouts and one Scouter received Eagle awards re- 
cently at the Court of Honor held in Pima Ward, St. 
Joseph Stake. 

The Scouts are left to right, top row: Ernest Griffin, Troop 
19, Thatcher, Arizona; Reece Jarvis, Troop 29, Pima, Arizona; 
and Clarence McBride, Troop 29, Pima, Arizona. 

Bottom row: Keith Crockett, Troop 29, Pima, Arizona; 
Scouter L. E. Patterson, District Commissioner, Pima, Ari- 
zona; and Bruce Harless, Troop 19, Thatcher, Arizona. 

Submitted by Albert O. Quist 
Scout Executive 



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of widely beloved apostle. 


Order these and other official L.D.S. Publications 
from your local dealer, or 


P. O. Box 958—44 East South Temple Street 
Salt Lake City 10, Utah 

Be Prepared 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

This motto of the Boy Scouts of America, 
celebrating their 40th birthday this month, 
might well serve wise fathers who want to 
plan ahead for the education and security 
of their sons. It is always good judgment to 
"fre prepared" with adequate life insurance. 


Salt Lake City, Utah 

George Albert Smith, President