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Full text of "The Improvement Era"

Hie IMPROVEMENT 



April 1952 



Cooking is so much easier 

with a new 



automatic gas range 




ClZZLING, char-type steaks perfectly 
^ cooked under the pure, live flame of 
a smokeless Gas broiler! Beautiful 
feather-light cakes evenly browned in an 
air-circulated, king-size Gas oven! Burn- 
ers that give trigger-fast cooking heat 
from slow simmer to rolling boil. Instant 
automatic lighting without matches. 
And whole dinners oven-cooked by 
clock control. These are features the 
new automatic Gas ranges have . . . 
plus many more. 



And something else you'll like; auto- 
matic Gas cooking requires no watching 
or waiting so you save valuable time 
for other things. It's thrifty too — long 
on economy. When you go "range 
shopping" check these advantages first- 
hand, and let your Gas appliance 
dealer show how easy it is to own 
a brand-new, handsome Gas range 
right now. 



SEE YOUR GAS APPLIANCE DEALER, 
PLUMBER, CONTRACTOR OR 



MOUNTAIN FUEL SUPPLY COMPANY 




By DR. FRANKLIN S. HARRIS, JR. 



p>ELGiUM produces about 320 bushels 
of potatoes on each acre compared 
with 110 for the United States. There 
is only one of the nineteen countries 
of northern Europe that has yields of 
less than 160 bushels on each acre. 
The production of grain in the United 
States amounts to 18.6 bushels an acre 
compared to the United Kingdom fig- 
ures, Denmark 39.3, Germany 29.8 
the Netherlands and Belgium 37.7. 

"•he reason is unknown as to why 
the temperature in the stratosphere 
is 90° F. lower over the equator than 
over the poles. 

HP he present chemical process of mak- 
ing cortisone involves thirty-seven 
processes. Cortisone is useful in the 
treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and 
other diseases. 

A compass which points east and 
west instead of north and south 
could be made if the alloy silmanal 
were used instead of ordinary iron. 
Silmanal can be magnetized sideways 
instead of the usual lengthwise. 

HP he Korean alphabet (On mun) in- 
vented in the fifteenth century, is 
the only native alphabet of the Far 
East. The Korean language is quite 
different from the Chinese though it 
may be written in characters of Chinese 
origin. Chinese is monosyllabic, and 
Korean is polysyllabic and forms com- 
pound words by combining simple 
words. 

""he debris which accumulates with 
occupation of cities over long periods 
of time may reach surprising thickness. 
At the site of Beth-Shan in Palestine 
the depth of material was over seventy 
feet, nearly as much at Megiddo and 
about as much at Jericho. Archaeologists 
can read the history of the city as they 
dig down through the layers of suc- 
cessive periods to the earliest period on 
the bottom. The reliable method of 
dating the sites and the levels is based 
on comparison of pottery shapes and 
decorations. What will future archaeol- 
ogists think of us when they dig down 
through our garbage dumps and suc- 
cessive rebuildings? 

APRIL 1952 



1b Safer 



CHOCOLATE DROP 
COOKIES 

are always perfectly 

baked, perfectly 

delicious! 

And they cost less 

than home-baked 

cookies of equal 

quality. 




A cellophane-protected carton 
of TOWN HOUSE Cookies 
contains an average of 34 
cookies. That means the cost 
per dozen is very low indeed. 



PURITY BISCUIT COMPANY 



SALT LAKE - 



PHOENIX 

209 



FOR perfect, low cost 

PUBLIC SEATING 

NEW 

All-Metal 

Samson 

Folding Chairs 




*Also available with spring cushion or wood 
seat. 

Ideal for 

• Schools • Churches 
• Meeting Halls • Lodges 
or any hall where public seat- 
ing comfort is essential. 

"*■ Larger, more comfortable seat 

W Strong enough to stand on 

«■ Safety seat hinge can't cut fingers 

* Noiseless folding action compact, 
easily stored 

~k Six smart decorator colors 

"A" Will not tip or fold when open 

X Electrically welded steel tube legs 

* Chip proof, non-chalking enamel fin- 

ish on all metal parts 

* Specially arched tubular steel cross 

braces for extra rigidity 

* Electrically welded steel tube seat 

Frame — no screws used throughout 

"k Steel furniture glides with replace- 
able new-type rubber feet 

* Padded, cushion-comfort spring seat 

w Concave, form-fitting, upholstered 
back rest 

~k All metal parts rust-proofed by "bon- 
derizing process" 

ZCMI 

OFFICE OUTFITTERS 

57 SO. STATE ST. SALT LAKE CITY 

Phone 3-1575 - Ext. 442 



PRESIDENT TRUMAN'S PROPOSED 
1952-53 BUDGET 



HPhe fiscal year of the national gov- 
ernment of the United States com- 
mences July 1 and ends the following 
June 30. In January 1952, an election 
year, President Harry S. Truman's 
budget message proposed spending of 
about 85^2 billion dollars July 1, 1952- 
June 30, 1953 — the next fiscal year. The 
figure approximates $85,444,000,000.00. 

Eighty-four cents of every dollar of 
this sum (84 percent) is proposed to be 
spent for military services, military 
foreign aid, foreign economic assistance, 
veterans' care, and interest on the na- 
tional debt, some $72,454,000,000.00. 

The President estimates tax revenues 
during the year, from all sources, will 
amount to only $70,998,000,000.00— or 
seventy-one billion in round sums. 

The seventy-one billion to be raised 
in taxes is about $472.00 for every man, 
woman, and child in the 
U. S. A. My family of 
five, to pay its aver- 
age share, would pay 
$2360.00 to the national 
government. Inasmuch as f . 

the other members of a \uM 

my family are not wage- 
earners, I will, sup- 
posedly, have to dig all 
this up myself. So, the 
$472.00 a person average is some- 
what unrealistic, because family heads, 
or family heads and working wives 
together, will have to "divvy up." 
Of course General Motors and Clark 
Gable will pay some big money. But 
the little fellows are going to pay 20-23 
percent of their net, or more, too. 

This seventy-one billion, please note, 
will not quite pay for the foreign aid 
and military spending, if the costs of 
the last war in veterans' care and inter- 
est on the national debt are included. 

The President's program calls for a 
deficit of 14'/ 2 billions. This will boost 
the national debt by a similar amount. 
This deficit will be necessary to pay 
for the "peanuts" in the budget (assum- 
ing the "84c" gets top priority) : 

2.6 billion for welfare and security 
.67 billion for housing programs 
.62 billion for education and research 

1.5 billion for agriculture 

3.4 billion for natural resources, con- 
servation developments, irriga- 
tion projects, et al. 

1.6 billion for transportation and 

communication 

.83 billion for finance, commerce, 
and industry 

.25 billion for labor law administra- 
tion and services 




210 



By DR. G. HOMER DURHAM 

Head of Political Science Department, 
University of Utah 

1.5 billion for "general government." 
These "peanuts" amount to about 16c 
(16 percent) in the budget dollar pro- 
posed to be spent in 1952-53. 

THE OTHER 84c (84 percent) GOES 
FOR THE COST OF MAN'S IN- 
ABILITY TO LIVE IN PEACE WITH 
HIS FELLOWS ON THIS PLANET: 
War and the consequences of war. 

If the total budget does not make us 
think, at least the problems posed by 
the 84c should make us think. 

War was described two decades ago 
by Robert E. Sherwood, as I recall, as 
Idiot's Delight. 

The only comfort is that we, the 
Americans, are not the only idiots. 
We have extensive com- 
pany among our fellow 
men in the human race 
the world over. 

It has been computed 
that in the first 156 years 
under the American Con- 
stitution, the nation col- 
lected 248 billion dollars 
— through two world 
wars and President F. D. 
Roosevelt. 

In the past six years, 1945-51, 260 
billions were reported to have been 
collected, the bulk of which has been 
spent for rearmament and the kindred 
preparations for and consequences of 
the threat of war. 

Former President Hoover, on January 
27, 1952, addressed the nation via radio 
and television, questioning whether or 
not we were really threatened by a 
military attack from Russia and whether 
such sums (which threaten to bleed us 
white) were required for national se- 
curity. 

As stated many times in these 
columns, the necessity for armed strength 
to maintain national security, and to 
guard the peace of the world, cannot 
be questioned. We cannot put our 
heads in the sand. But how much 
armed strength, at what price? And, 
must our strength be placed only in the 
armed arm of flesh? 

The crucial issue lies in the field of 
foreign policy. The shape of our foreign 
policy will control the shape of our 
budget. Currently, the President's pro- 
posals seem to place the American 
economy, as well as the national se- 
curity, in the hands of the generals. 

(Concluded on page 280) 
THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 




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The whole gigantic drama 
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Orig. pub. ed., $5.00. 





THE PRESIDENT'S LADY 

By Irving Stone 
The gripping love story 
of Rachel Jackson — how- 
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nation and attacked by 
her enemies — yet over- 
came all odds through de- 
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lead him to the Presiden- 
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Publisher's edition, $3.50. 



AMERICA COOKS 

By The Browns 

Contains over 1600 reci- 
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of the 48 states — from 
mouth-watering old-fash- 
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the-minute taste sensations 
that will delight your 
palate. Crystal-clear di- 
rections make it impossi- 
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10,000 GARDEN 
QUESTIONS ANSWERED 

Ed. by F. F. Rockwell 

Covers the whole field of 
gardening in question and 
answer form, with impor- 
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HANDY HOME 
MEDICAL ADVISER 

By Morris Fishbein, M.D. 
One of America's fore- 
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this clear, complete and 
authoritative guide that 
will help you understand 
many of our own illnesses. 
Covers symptoms and 
treatments in easily un- 
derstood terms. 




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The Family Reading Club makes this unusual 
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What Membership Means To You 

There is no charge for membership in the 
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MINEOLA, NEW YORK 




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DOCTOR IN BUCKSKIN 

By T. D, Allen 
An exciting pioneer story 
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gaining the respect and 
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Publisher's edition, $3.00. 



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1 

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Also enroll me as a member of the Family Reading 
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*m i 



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APRIL 1952 



211 





IMPROVEMENT 

ERST 



'THE VOICE OF THE CHURCH'' 




^affisTit^' 




n^> n-> 



VOLUME 55 



NUMBER 4 



n-J 



iAmlt 1952 



n-> 



Editors: DAVID 0. McKAY - JOHN A. WIDTSOE - RICHARD L EVANS 

Managing Editor: DOYLE L. GREEN 

Associate Managing Editor: MARBA C. JOSEPHSON 

Manuscript Editor: ELIZABETH J. MOFFITT - Research Editor: ALBERT L. 

ZOBELL, JR. - "Today's Family" Editor: BURL SHEPHERD 

Contributing Editors: ARCHIBALD F. BENNETT - G. HOMER DURHAM 

FRANKLIN S. HARRIS, JR. - HUGH NIBLEY - LEE A. PALMER 

CLAUDE B. PETERSEN - SIDNEY B. SPERRY 

General Manager: ELBERT R. CURTIS - Associate Manager: BERTHA S. REEDER 

Business Manager: JOHN D. GILES - Advertising Director: VERL F. SCOTT 

Subscription Director: A. GLEN SNARR 



The Editor's Page 



The "Whole" Man David + McKay 221 

Church Features 

Evidences and Reconciliations: CLXIV — Are Latter-day Saints 

Homeowners? „. John A + Widtsoe 222 

Latter-day Saint Settlement at Winter Quarters 

Joseph Fielding Smith 224 

The Doctrine of the Resurrection Orson F. Whitney 227 

Microfilming in Ireland and Wales James R« Cunningham 235 

The World of the Jaredites— VIE Hugh Nibley 236 

Spirituality and Armed Conflict (The Book of Mormon Speaks on 

Current Problems) William E. Berrett 242 

Appointee to Y.W.M.I.A. Gen- Does Tobacco Soothe the Nerves? 

eral Board 213 Science Says No! Asahel D. 

The Church Moves On _ 216 Woodruff 277 

Melchizedek Priesthood 276 Presiding Bishopric's Page ....j 278 



Special Features 



The Mormon Pioneer Memorial Bridge H* L. Karrer 228 

The Meaning of Arbor Day Walter P* Cottam 230 

A Report on M Men Basketball 1951-52 ....'. Doyle L, Green 249 

The Spoken Word from Temple Square 

..Richard L* Evans 256, 260, 268, 292 

Exploring the Universe, Franklin On the Bookrack ....239 

S. Harris, Jr. ...209 Report of an Inspiring "Family 



These Times — President Truman's 
Proposed 1952-53 Budget, G. 
Homer Durham 210 

God Bless Men Like These, Verne 
C. Frame -.-. 214 

That Master Teacher 218 

Today's Family — 

Color Selection, A. D. Mac- 
Ewen _ 284 

How May I Become More 
Popular? Rex A. Skidmore ....286 



Hour," Don F. and Mary West 
Riggs 223 

A Young Girl's Prayer, Patricia 
Austin Hayes 265 

Your Page and Ours 296 

Notes on Vitamins 288 

Handy Hints 289 

Ways with Eggs ....290 



Stories, Poetry 



The Opened Door — An Easter Story Lucile Hawkins Furr 232 

Supper Guest — An Easter Story ____ Janie Rhyne 240 

Apple Pie in April Frances Stockwell Lovell 245 



Poem in Gold, Grace V. Watkins-213 
Poetry Page 217 

Frontispiece, Flowerseller's Song, 

Solveig Paulson Russell 219 

Pink Lines, John Nixon, Jr 246 



Morning Resolve, Elaine V. 

Emans —.256 

Leap Year, Nell Griffith Wilson....273 
River Tunnel, Christie Jerreries ....283 
Flowers, Evelyn Wooster Viner....294 



212 



\Jfhciai \Jraavi ot 

THE PRIESTHOOD QUORUMS, 
MUTUAL IMPROVEMENT ASSOCIA- 
TIONS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCA- 
TION, MUSIC COMMITTEE, WARD 
TEACHERS, AND OTHER AGENCIES 
OF 

,+Jhe L^hufck of 
of cLatter-dciu -S^ainfe 



Uke C-g 



ouer 



MORMON PIONEER MEMORIAL 
BRIDGE 

This full-color painting of the Mor- 
mon Pioneer Memorial Bridge, being 
built across the Missouri River, is the 
work of Arnold Friberg and was drawn 
especially for The Improvement Era. 
(See also page 229.) 



EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS OFFICES 
50 North Main Street 

Y.M.M.I.A. Offices, 50 North Main St. 
Y.W.M.I.A. Offices, 40 North Main St. 

Salt Lake City 1, Utah 



Copyright 1952 by Mutual Funds, Inc., a Corpora- 
tion of the Young Men's Mutual Improvement 
Association of the Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints. All rights reserved. Sub- 
scription price, $2.50 a year, in advance; foreign 
subscriptions, $3.00 a year, in advance; 25c 
single copy. 

Entered at the Post Office, Salt Lake City, Utah, 
as second-class matter. Acceptance for mailing 
at special rate of postage provided for in section 
1103, Act of October 1917, authorized July 2, 
1918. 

The Improvement Era is not responsible for un- 
solicited manuscripts, but welcomes contributions. 

All manuscripts must be accompanied by sufficient 
postage for delivery and return. 



Change of Address 

Fifteen days' notice required for change of ad- 
dress. When ordering a change, please include 
address slip from a recent issue of the magazine. 
Address changes cannot be made unless the old 
address as well as the new one is included. 



National Advertising Representatives 



EDWARD S. TOWNSEND COMPANY 

Russ Building 

San Francisco, California 

HENRY G. ESCHEN, 

EDWARD S. TOWNSEND COMPANY 

1324 Wilshire Blvd. 

Los Angeles 17, California 

SADLER AND SANGSTON ASSOCIATES 

342 Madison Ave. 

New York 17, N. Y. 

RAY H. DAVIS 
30 N. LaSalle St. 

Chicago, Illinois 

Member, Audit Bureau of Circulations 



THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 



RITA JONES NASH 
Appointed lo 
General Board 




Mrs. Rita Jones Nash has been ap- 
pointed to the general board of 
the Young Women's Mutual 
Improvement Association where she 
will serve on the Junior Gleaner 
committee. 

Mrs. Nash, who has been serving 
in double capacity as Liberty Ward 
Junior Gleaner leader and as a mem- 
ber of the Liberty (Salt Lake City) 
Stake Sunday School board, is the 
daughter of Willard L. and Lois Earl 
Jones. They are now ordinance 
workers at the Salt Lake Temple. 
Elder Jones was the first president 
of the Moapa (Nevada) Stake, having 
served in that position for twenty- 
seven years. The new board member 
is the wife of Elder Karl E. Nash, 
first counselor in the Liberty Ward 
bishopric. Their only child died in 
infancy. 

She is a graduate of the Utah State 
Agricultural College. She is formerly 
a speech director on the stake 
Y.W.M.LA. boards in the Salt Lake 
and Moapa stakes. 



POEM IN GOLD 

By Grace V. Watkins 

HP he darkest day can have a bit of sun, 
■*- Even though clouds are heavy in the 

sky: 
A pan of muffins or a sponge cake done 
To gold perfection, a spring butterfly 
Hovering where hollyhocks are tall, 
A little girl in a yellow pinafore, 
And honeysuckles by a garden wall 
Or thick and sweet beside a kitchen door. 

And even if no yellow can be seen 
With the eye, if there is laughter in the 

heart, 
If love shines like a glory, each routine 
However small and humble plays its part 
Even as mighty suns beyond our sight, 
For all the shoreless universe is light. 
APRIL 1952 



,,:{ggi 




SEE WHY FARMERS SAY IT'S THE 

LIGHTEST RUNNING 
FORAGE HARVESTER 

Tate a look at a Case Forage Harvester. Turn the knife-wheel pulley 
by hand. Notice how easy it turns, how it keeps on going. This easy- 
rolling wheel is just one of the many things that make Case "the 
Lightest Running Forage Harvester." Anti-friction bearings, oil-bath 
gears, high-strength steels for light weight, simple design with few 
moving parts — all leave extra power for cutting extra tons every day. 
Both Standard and Long-Cut models use interchangeable row-crop, 
windrow pick-up, and cutter-bar units. Both do good work with a full 
2-plow tractor, have strength and capacity to make use of 5-plow power. 
Engine attachment available. 



You don't have to shut 
down in the field, waiting 
for the Case Forage Blower 
to catch up. It puts surpris- 
ing tonnage into tall silos, 
with, moderate power. Has 
reliable safety features, 
spring-hinged hopper. Au- 
tomatic unloader available 
for false-endgate wagons. 
Works fine as grain blower, 
too. Get full details from 
your Case dealer. 



SENDTOUTtitTULL STOW 




Case builds 25 great tractors and a full line of 
farm machines. Mark or write in margin those 
you may need. Mail coupon to J. I. Case Co., 
Dept. D-44, Racine, Wis. 

DLong-Cut Forage 

Harvester 
D Stand ard-Cnt 

Harvester 
QForage Blower 



DAutomatic Baler 
QSelf-Propelled 
Combines 

DPuIi-Type 
Combines 
(Give size 



NAME. 



POSTOFFICE_ 



RFD_ 



.STATE 



213 




VkvA Bun/an 
never saw one lifcerftfc 



Paul Bunyan was used to big things. 
He logged the Upside Down Moun- 
tain and dug Puget Sound for Babe 
the Blue Ox. But he never saw a train 
the like of ours, and all brand new! 
Our new Southern Pacific train 
has 452 diesel locomotives, 185 pas- 
senger cars, 46,180 freight cars (in- 
cluding 10,100 jointly owned refrig- 
erator cars for Pacific Fruit Express), 
cost $388,000,000 and coupled to- 
gether would be 400 miles long! 

That's quite a Paul Bunyan sort 
of train. It represents the rolling stock 
Southern Pacific has ordered since 
V-J Day. And we've invested millions 
more in other facilities to serve the 
West better, and to keep in step with 
our country's defense program. 

We've increased our freight car 
ownership 27% in the last six years, 
compared to about 4% average in- 
crease by the nation's railroads as 
a whole. And, "getting there the 
fustest with the mostest" on our 



13,700 miles of railroad (see map 
below), we set our all-time efficiency 
record last year. More efficiency 
meant not only more speed, but 
more cars for Western and Westward 
shippers. 

We don't tell you these things to 
brag, but to show you that this ex- 
panding, demanding, give-us-more- 
of- everything West is something to 
keep up with. 

And we intend to keep on keeping 
up with it, making free enterprise work 
for your prosperity and ours. 




A SYMBOL OF/^tH^NWESTERN PROGRESS 




SwiiiHS^S!*!! « v:i^:>iwK ::0:iw**«>fij(iV ' 



Southern Pacific Company, D. J. Russell, President 



214 



GOD BLESS 
MEN LIRE THESE 

by Verne C Frame 

AS the Church grows, and two 
stakes or two or three wards 
L are organized where only one 
has functioned before, one of the 
major problems is new priesthood 
and auxiliary organization leader- 
ship. One answer is bringing back 
into full Church activity those 
members who have slipped away. 
But how is this accomplished? 

One stake president found him- 
self in such a predicament. His 
stake had been so divided that 
most of the tried and true leader- 
ship had gone into the "other" 
stake. Prayerfully he and his coun- 
selors approached the problem. 
Then they began calling on their 
people — fine brothers and sisters — 
some of whom had not been too 
active in the Church recently. 

Their answer to that first call 
among non-active members was 
generally the comment: "I do not 
feel that I am worthy of this call. 
To accept it would only increase 
my feeling of guilt." 

Then came a gentleness, a kindli- 
ness, a sympathetic understanding 
emanating from the Spirit of our 
Father in heaven as the stake presi- 
dency replied: "None of us has 
the state of perfection to which he 
aspires. In fact, that is one of the 
reasons for our life on earth. We 
who are visiting you tonight find 
ourselves constantly in need of the 
help and the love of our Heavenly 
Father to aid us in our assignments. 
We, too, felt as you now feel when 
the opportunity to serve came to 
us. Now, we feel that we need the 
help that you can give us. Would 
you consider putting yourself in 
condition to accept?" 

After a long pause came the 
humble reply: "Yes, I would like to 
think it over." 

"Then, you think it over for a 
month or six weeks, and we'll call 
again." 

At the end of this time the stake 

presidency returned to these homes. 

Some felt that they were ready to 

accept Church assignments: others 

(Concluded on page 283) 

THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 



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APRIL 1952 



215 



THE CHURCH MOVES ON 



February 1952 



3 Elder Joseph R Merrill of the 
Council of the Twelve died in his 
sleep. 

President David O. McKay, and Elder 
Alma Sonne, Assistant to the Council 
oi the Twelve, meeting with stake 
and mission presidents at Los^ Angeles 
discussed plans for the financing of the 
construction of the Los Angeles Temple. 

Sunday evening programs in many 
of the wards and branches of the 
Church were given by the Boy Scouts, 
February being the anniversary month 
of their organization. 

Elder Alonzo F. Hopkin succeeded 
President Joseph I. Williams of the 
Woodruff (Wyoming-Utah) Stake. New 
counselors sustained are Elders Law- 
rence B. Johnson and Ross William 
Warner. They succeed Elders Victor 
W. Matthews and J. Wilburn Bowns. 

Some 27,700 persons had visited the 
new Primary Children's Hospital during 
its week of inspection, which closed 
this Sunday. 

o The First Presidency announced 
" the appointment of Elder Peter J. 
Ricks, Rexburg (Idaho) Stake Patriarch, 
as president of the Southern States Mis- 
sion, succeeding Albert Choules. Presi- 
dent Ricks is a former bishop of the 
Rexburg Third Ward, and served for 
sixteen years as president of Rexburg 
Stake. 

n Funeral services for Elder Joseph 
' F. Merrill of the Council of the 

Twelve were held in the Salt Lake 

Tabernacle. 

Elder Ezra Taft Benson of the Council 

of the Twelve dedicated the chapel of 

the Ames (Iowa) Branch, Northern 

States Mission. 

i A President S. Dilworth Young of 
x V trie Fi rs t Council of the Seventy 
dedicated the chapel of the Axtell Ward, 
Gunnison (Utah) Stake. 

Elder David H. Yarn, Jr., of the 
faculty of Brigham Young University 
and a member of the Young Men's 
Mutual Improvement Association gen- 
eral board, began a series of addresses 
over KSL on the Church Radio hour. 



12 



Patients were moved from the 
old Primary Children's hospital 
to the new building. Although it was 
snowing most of the day, the move was 
accomplished on schedule and without 
mishap. 

216 



-| 9 The First Presidency announced 
A ** the appointment of Elder Delbert 
G. Taylor, first counselor in the Rex- 
burg (Idaho) Stake presidency, as presi- 
dent of the Eastern States Mission, suc- 
ceeding President George Q. Morris, 
recently sustained as an Assistant to 
the Council of the Twelve. President 
Taylor filled a mission in the Eastern 
States 1920-23, and has been bishop of 
the Rexburg Fourth Ward. 

It was announced that General 
Superintendent Elbert R. Curtis; Gen- 
eral President Bertha S. Reeder; Marvin 
J. Ashton, Y. M. M. I. A. athletic super- 
visor, and Mrs. Edna K. Pay, Y. W. 
M. I. A. sports director, had been named 
members of the board of control of 
Deseret Gymnasium. At the same time 
membership rates are cut in half for 
every boy who wins an individual 
certificate of award in his Aaronic 
Priesthood work and for every girl who 
wins a certificate of award in the 
Y. W. M. I. A. attendance program. 



i i» Plans for a new two-mi 11 ion- 
dollar expansion program of 
L. D. S. Hospital in Salt Lake City 
were announced. Included will be the 
early construction of a seven-story ad- 
dition. 



O A An announcement was made that 
' " construction was nearing comple- 
tion on a new dry-spraying unit at the 
Pioneer welfare region milk plant 
which is capable of drying six hundred 
pounds of skim milk an hour by the 
spray method. This will produce fifty 
pounds of dried or powdered milk. 



O g The annual all-Church M Men 
' basketball tournament began. This 
year twenty teams are competing. 
Facilities of both Deseret Gymnasium 
and the University of Utah field house 
will be used. 



O H The First Presidency announced 
the appointment of Elder O. P. 
Pearce to preside over the Tahitian 
Mission, succeeding President LeRoy R. 
Mai lory who has presided there for three 
years. President Pearce filled a mission 
to these islands from 1922 to 1925. He 
is an assistant in the Sunday School 
superintendency of the Granger (Salt 
Lake County) Third Ward. 

Colorful ceremonies officially opened 
the all-Church M Men basketball 
tournament. 



March 1952 



■I Redondo Ward of Southern Cali- 
x fornia won the all-Church M Men 
basketball tournament by defeating 
Capitol Hill (Salt Lake City) by a 52-40 
score. Third place was won by Reno, 
Nevada, followed by Dublan, Mexico; 
Spanish Fork First, Utah; Logan Twen- 
tieth, Utah; Waterloo, Salt Lake City; 
Logan Fifth, Utah; Minersville, Utah; 
and Honeyville, Utah. Minersville re- 
ceived the sportsmanship trophy. 

The First Presidency announced the 
appointment of Elder Donovan H. Van 
Dam as president of the Netherlands 
Mission. President Van Dam succeeds 
President John P. Lillywhite, who re- 
turned home last January following the 
death of his wife at The Hague, Decem- 
ber 22, 1951. Elder Don W. Rapier, 
former secretary and first counselor to 
President Lillywhite is now acting head 
of this mission. President Van Dam, who 
filled a mission in the Netherlands be- 
ginning in 1928, is currently first coun- 
selor in the Stratford Ward, Highland 
Stake, bishopric in Salt Lake City. 



9 President David O. McKay dedi- 
cated the Primary Children's 

Hospital. 

President Stephen L Richards dedi- 
cated the chapel of the Mantua Ward, 
South Box Elder (Utah) Stake. 

Elder John Longden, Assistant to 
the Council of the Twelve dedi- 
cated the chapel of the Newdale Ward, 
North Rexburg (Idaho) Stake. 

Presiding Bishop LeGrand Richards 
dedicated the Bountiful Fourth Ward 
chapel, South Davis (Utah) Stake. 

Bishop Joseph L. Wirthlin of the 
Presiding Bishopric dedicated the chapel 
of the Smithfield Fourth Ward, Smith- 
field (Utah) Stake. 



6 Elder Delbert L. Stapley of the 
Council of the Twelve addressed 
a meeting of the United States House 
of Representatives of an inter-faith 
group, in Washington, D. C, on the 
invitation of Utah's Congresswoman 
Reva Beck Bosone. 

The annual M. I. A. music festival 
opened in the Assembly Hall, on Tem- 
ple Square, with fourteen quartets 
participating. 

THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 



SPRING AGAIN 
By Zelda Davis Howard 

Again the grass and trees are wearing 

** velvet, 

Spring's favored fabric in all the shades of 
green; 

Lilacs have donned their capes of per- 
fumed purple, 

And the crocus tilts a cap that may be seen 

From the window. The tulip buds show 
smiles of 

Sunshine, matched by the gold of the 
daffodils. 

The chirp of the robin is a cadenced call 

Announcing spring to the valley and the 
hills. 

Springtime is a season of gay magic 
That is performed without a single sound, 
In serene stillness sleeping buds and roots 
Awake to the warming touch of gracious 
ground. 

Of all the seasons the springtime is most 

fair; 
With winter past, our days seem devoid of 

care. 



REBORN 
By Catherine E. Berry 

I will be wise, I said, 
And guard my heart. 
To no one shall I give 

A beggar's part 
Of any dream of mine. 
These I will hold 
Above the stress of winds 
That may blow cold. 

But fires of spring can make 

An ice jam move; 
Even a hard-packed seed 

Will burst the groove 
So long confining it 

And upward shoot, 
A stilled heart touch the strings 

No longer mute. 

As summer garments earth 

With glowing ilame, 
And beauty spreads like wildfire 

Never tame, 
So, too, my heart reached up 

Beyond the rue, 
The locked dreams scattered far 

By love of you. 



SWORD OF FAITH 
By Gene Romolo 

Unsheathe the sword of faith and keep 
it bright 
To battle for a world's reconsecration! 
A world grown heedless of God's guiding 
And blind to fetters forged by unbelief 
Has need of shining blades unstained by war 
To cleave its bonds lest, like a blighted 

sheaf, 
Man's soul shall atrophy and it be cast 
Into a holocaust of his creating. 
Unsheathe faith's sword! The time is long 

since past 
For weak procrastination! 
Unsheathe the sword 
That knights mankind for service to the 

Lord! 

APRIL 1952 



VENTURE 

By Beulah Huish Sadleir 

Tt is time for the spring 
•*• Trailing young lambs and goats 
To come over the hill in her gay petticoats- 
Pink bows on her bonnet, 
And branches of yew, 
Lady slippers toe-tilted to 
Catch starlit dew. 

It is time for the spring 
To call up her plump robin, 
To sew leaves on the trees 
With her shuttle and bobbin, 
To drape the bare lilac with 
Quaint heirloom lace 
And attach feather petals 
To each daisy face. 




— Paul Hadley 

DICTATED BUT NOT READ 

By Eleanor A. Chaffee 

HPake a letter to April; and no copy, 
■*■ please. . . . 

Dear April that I knew when I was young, 
Who gravely waked the tall New England 

trees 
And danced where winter's silver scarf 

was flung, 
I think of you now; and of that stranger 

here 
Who masquerades on city streets and wears 
An unfamiliar mask of warmth drained 

clear. 
No one smiles at her or even dares 
To speak her name. Yet, April, there are 

those 
Who live between stone walls and dream 

at night 
Of little hills where unforgotten goes 
The echo of your footsteps, sure and light. 
Of these am I, and you may find my heart 
On any stem where the first white snow- 
drops start. 



PRESIDENT GEORGE ALBERT SMITH 

A Tribute to the President After His Passing 

April 4, 1870— his' birthdate 

By Ruth May Fox 

He lay so quiet and so still, 
Obedient to the Father's will; 
His gentle spirit took its flight 
To dwell with God in endless light. 

Prophet, President, and Seer, 
His ministry doth now appear 
To place a halo on his brow, 
To which in reverence we bow. 

A friend to all, he loved mankind 
And for them wrought with heart and mind. 
God's children all must hear the word, 
The gospel message is restored. 

With joy he traversed many lands, 
Living and teaching God's commands; 
"Love one another" was his theme 
As written in the law supreme. 

As he traveled near and far, 

Ever before him shone a star, 

The star of hope for a stricken world, 

When Christ's banner is unfurled. 

Oh, glorious rest; at last, at last, 
Your cares and sufferings all are past; 
Ten thousand tongues your praise shall tell, 
And so dear friend, farewell, farewell. 



~*-*ffc»->*- 



WHEN APRIL COMES 
By Mabel Jones Gabbott 

When brown clods part to welcome 
blades of green, 
And pungent earth, new-turned, smells good 

and clean; 
When rain-sweet winds t6ss tumbled tufts 

of white 
Against a Wedgewood sky, so blue, so 

bright; 
When blossomed fragrance tantalizingly 
Hops every other breeze and rides it free; 
And bluebirds perch on porch and picket 

fence 
To trill a gay note full of confidence; 
When April comes, my littlest heartbeats 

sing— 
I am in love with heaven and earth and 

spring. 



TAKE TIME TO DREAM 

By Beatrice Munro Wilson 

HPake some time for dreaming! 
*■ Every mortal needs 
Time to note the rainbows 
That spring from pansy seeds. 

Quiet hours to remember 

Every lovely thing 

Was once God's dream; the brown bud 

That is a leaf, come spring. 

He surely dreamed of bird's song 
Or birds would all be mute. 
He dreamed the lovely blossom 
Before he gave us fruit. 

Let us dream, then, planning lilies 
Where only thistles grew. 
Lord, let us dream the right dreams — 
Give us strength to make dreams true! 



217 



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salt Lake City 4, Utah 



MASTER TEACHER 



K 



arl G. Maeser had been in 
Provo for one week, that April 
of 1876, and was just beginning to 
realize the enormity of the task of 
organizing an academy. Worse 
still, he had just received a dis- 
patch that Friday afternoon, stat- 
ing that in three days President 
Brigham Young would be in Provo 
to examine the written plans for the 
carrying out of this fine project. 

But there were no written plans. 
He immediately went to his desk 
and endeavored to get the heaven- 
born ideas that flitted, spirit-like, 
through his consciousness, upon 
paper. But his arduous labor was 
to no purpose; the dawn crept in 
to find his task not yet begun. All 
day Saturday he spent at his desk, 
but to no avail; Saturday night 
proved a repetition of the night 
before, and all through the long 
Sabbath he engaged his mind in 
the same fruitless attempt. Sunday 
evening he was heartsick; President 
Young would be there in the morn- 
ing to review the plans that did 
not exist. 

Almost overcome with despair, 
he dropped to his knees saying: "O 
Father, show me the way, help me 
to make the plans for this great 
work. I cannot do it of myself." 

All at once the burden was lifted 
from his heart, and it seemed al- 
most as if a voice said to him, 
"Brother Maeser, why did you not 
think to ask before?" 

He sprang to his desk and wrote. 
In an hour or two the plans were 
ready to submit to President Young. 

And in later years, Dr. Maeser 
would often tell his students this 
story, ending it with the plea: "al- 
ways ask Father first." 



Fill 

218 




THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 



Flowersellers Song 




by Solveig Paulson Russell 

affies for sale! Sweet daffodils, 

Just picked this morning 
From dawn-spangled hills! 

Picked with the sunrise caught in each one, 
Beauty for lamplight 
When daytime is done! 

Daffies for sale! Sweet daffodils, 
Gay dancing beauties 
In fragrant gold frills! 

Daffies for sale! A wonderful buy! 
Sweet bits of magic 
From God's earth and sky! 



—Wayne B. Hales 




APRIL 1952 



219 




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The "Whole" Man 




^»«>«*^^fSii.VV#'' 



by President David O. McKay 



c/i 



'n Shakespeare's Othello, these 
words are uttered by Iago: 

"Who steals my purse steals trash; 'tis some- 
thing, nothing; 

'Twas mine, 'tis his, and has been slave to 
thousands; 

But he that filches from me my good name 

Robs me of that which not enriches him, 

And makes me poor indeed." 

{Othello Act III, Sc. 3.) 

This suggests in some respects the relative 
importance of the outward tangibles and the 
inner intrinsic values. If we are true within, 
if we remain steadfast in integrity, we are 
rich in the eyes of God, who sees the heart and 
judges therefrom. The true life within is 
largely the measure of what we are. But we 
are dual beings: our body, the outward part 
is the temple, if you please; and the spirit 
within, the true life. We cannot ignore the im- 
portance of the complete picture, as suggested 
by the Apostle Paul (in speaking of the Church) 
in the twelfth chapter of Corinthians: 

"For the body is not one member, but 
many. . . . 

"And the eye cannot say unto the hand, I 
have no need of thee: nor again the head to 
the feet, I have no need of you." 

(I Cor. 12:14, 21.) 

I like this comparison, because it suggests 
the importance of inward and outward "com- 
pleteness." The healthy man, who takes care 
of his physical being, has strength and vitality; 
his temple is a fit place for his spirit to reside. 

There are many things which attack the 
vitality of the body. We are exposed to dis- 
ease which may make its inroads in one organ, 
which, being weakened, weakens and impairs 
other organs, the result being that the body 
succumbs to the attack. Thus bodily ailments 
deprive us of the full exercise of our faculties 



and privileges and sometimes of life itself. It 
is necessary, therefore, to care for our physical 
bodies, and to observe the laws of physical 
health and happiness. 

Here is a selection from Edward Everett 
Hale, reflecting his views on some of the 
physical factors of life, and written a half 
century or so ago: 

"The peril of this century is physical decay. 
This peril is gravely eminent with respect to 
all who dwell in our great cities. All the con- 
ditions of life in the modern American city 
favor it; wealth or the accumulation of the 
wherewith to gratify the desire is the great 
incentive of our contemporaneous life, and 
under its fevered stimulation, vast numbers of 
men and women, utterly careless of the body's 
needs or demands, struggle in the great con- 
flict and eventually go down victims of the 
unchangeable law of nature. . . . There is 
a great natural truth, universally demonstrated, 
with regard to the various forms of living or- 
ganisms, and that is when all the functions of 
the body work together harmoniously . . . there 
is found a normal, strong, healthy organism, 
capable of existing under conditions that would 
mean the quick dissolution of one in which 
there was a derangement of the natural func- 
tions." 

But, great as is the peril of physical decay, 
greater is the peril of spiritual decay. The 
peril of this century is spiritual apathy. As the 
body requires sunlight, good food, proper exer- 
cise, and rest, so the spirit of man requires the 
sunlight of the Holy Spirit; proper exercise of 
the spiritual functions; the avoiding of evils 
that affect spiritual health, that are more 
ravaging in their effects than the dire diseases 
that attack the body. Physical diseases may 
stop the manifestations of life in the body, but 
the spirit still lives. But when disease of the 
spirit conquers, life ebbs eternally. 

{Concluded on following page) 



APRIL 1952 




THE EDITORS PAGE 



(Concluded from preceding page) 
When men become spiritually sick, they do not 
care much for religion. They think it is not necessary 
for them to attend to their spiritual wants. Dis- 
satisfied with themselves, they find fault with those 
who do enjoy the true life of spirituality. Why? 
Because they don't know what real spiritual life is. 
They succumb to the diseases that are attacking 
the spirit. 

I have in mind young people who become asso- 
ciated with the wrong kind of company, and who 
spend their time in wanton and wasteful ways — 
and withdraw themselves from the things of the 
spirit, and in doing so invite into their souls a 
malady that is more fatal than a wasting fever. 
They become infected with the virulent germs of 
spiritual disease. This condition keeps them from 
their quorum meetings, from Sunday School, and 
from other Church associations. They lose the 
moral strength to go to these places for spiritual 
sunlight, and for the healthful exercise of the spirit. 
There are also other manifestations of spiritual 
poisoning: The man who hates his brother has in 



his spirit a disease which will impair his spiritual 
life. The man who cheats his neighbor (I care not 
whether anyone else knows it or not) is weakening 
his spirituality. Dishonesty is a spiritual disease. 
The man who steals is inviting into his soul that 
which will prevent him from growing to the perfect 
stature of Christ. The man who fails in any way 
to live up to that which God and conscience tell 
him is right is weakening his spirituality — in other 
words, is depriving himself of the sunlight in which 
his spiritual nature will grow. 

If we are true within, if we are pure, if we are 
sincere, God is our stay and our inspirer, and the 
outward attacks and temptations cannot hurt us 
any more than the lions hurt Daniel in the den when 
God protected him. They cannot hurt us any more 
than the fire hurt the three Hebrew children when 
they were cast into the flame. But we are outwardly 
strong only to the extent that we are pure and 
true as individuals, by seeking the truth and living 
in harmony with it; and by resisting every influence, 
every power that tends to destroy or to dwarf in 
any way the spiritual life. 



Are Latter-day Saints Homeowners? 



The 1950 census of the Church 
under the direction of the 
Presiding Bishopric reveals 
many interesting things about 
the Latter-day Saints. 

The members of the Church have always taken 
pride in being owners of their homes. In recent 
days it has become more customary for certain groups 
of people to live in rented homes or apartments. 
The census reveals that at the present time nearly 
sixty- two percent of all the people in the Church, 
both in the stakes and in the missions, either own 
their homes or are paying on a contract basis for 
the homes in which they live. In the stakes alone, 
seventy percent of them own their homes. However, 
this is not as high a percentage as in early pioneer 
days when every family built for itself a modest 
home. In those days, the people themselves and 
their friends worked together to get the humble home 
constructed. Those days have pretty much passed. 
However, sixty-two percent is a higher percentage 
of home-owning people than in the United States 
generally; for example, the government census shows 
that in 1950 in the United States 
nearly fifty- five percent of the 
people owned their homes or 
were buying them. This is 
seven percent less than the Lat- 
ter-day Saints. The city census 
shows that in Salt Lake City, 
which is chiefly an apartment 
center in Utah, nearly sixty 
percent of the homes are owned 



% (y°^ n -^- vi/ id t doe 

OF THE COUNCIL OF THE TWELVE 



Evidences 

AND 

Reconciliations 



CLXIV 



222 



by the families occupying them. 
This is a little lower than for 
the Church as a whole and 
naturally would be so because 
of the people in the city who 
have not grown up with the idea that families must 
own their own homes or who in the industrial 
development of the city are often driven by necessity 
to renting their homes. 

The census also reveals that of the people in the 
Church who own their homes or are trying to buy 
their homes, the farming community heads the list. 
In the missions, only sixty-one percent of the farmers 
own their homes, in the stakes, ninety- two percent 
own their homes, and in the Church as a whole, of 
the farm community, over eighty-five and one-half 
percent are homeowners. 

Next to the farm element, the largest homeowners 
are miscellaneous groups of proprietors, managers, 
and officials of various kinds. The smallest per- 
centage reported, about forty percent, were domestic 
service workers and protective service workers who, 
because of their occupations which require much 

travel, were not so frequently at 
home. 

However, the census does show 
that people generally like to live 
in their own homes; otherwise, 
over fifty percent of the people 
in the land as well as in the 
Church would not be so living. 
Home ownership has a distinct 
value to a family. There is 

THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 



greater freedom in one's own home; and the neces- 
sary labor of keeping up a home develops many 
of the intangible but important needs of man- 
kind. 

Latter-day Saints should be anxious to own their 



own homes. The subjoined table may be of interest 
to members of the Church if carefully examined. 
We are grateful that at the present time the Latter- 
day Saints enjoy so high a percentage of home 
ownership. 



PERCENT OF HEADS OF FAMILIES BY OCCUPATION 

AS REPORTED IN THE 1950 L. 



Code Occupation 

Professional and Semi-professional 

1 Farmers, Farm Laborers, Owners, and Managers 

2 Proprietors, Managers, Officials, etc. 

3 Clerical, Sales, and Kindred Workers 

4 Craftsmen, Foremen, and Kindred Workers 

5 Operatives and Kindred Workers 

6 Domestic Service Workers 

7 Protective Service Workers 

8 Service Workers (excl. Domestic & Protective) 

9 Laborers, (excl. Farm and Mine) 

10 Educational Workers 

11 Occupations not reported (Retired, Misc., etc.) 

TOTAL AVERAGE PERCENT owning or 
buying homes 



WHO OWN OR ARE BUYING THEIR HOMES 


D. S. CHURCH CENSUS 




Missions 


Stakes 


Church 


(Percent Home 


(Percent Home (Percent Home 


Owners) 


Owners ) 


Owners) 


38.50 


59.85 


54.26 


61.11 


92.14 


84.52 


51.98 


69.18 


65.09 


36.77 


57.97 


51.81 


46.03 


66.06 


59.55 


39.43 


61.11 


53.32 


23.26 


61.40 


41.46 


22.73 


60,08 


45.45 


35.80 


62.86 


53.00 


35.59 


61.37 


50.94 


37.30 


63.37 


57.90 


31.47 


58.23 


47.57 



43.14 



70.15 



61.78 



REPORT OF AN INSPIRING "FAMILY HOUR" 



Laveen, Arizona 



Dear Editors: 



Our niece, Regina West, attended 
one of our family evenings and 
asked that I submit this little 
picture and story to you. 

When our children were small, our 
weekly "home evenings" were reli- 
giously carried out, and we felt great 
good was derived therefrom. 



Since our children have married 
and have children of their own, each 
one tries to carry on the same pro- 
gram. At our invitation, they spend 
the second Thursday of the month at 
our home in a joint family evening. 
Thus far it has brought a feeling of 
unity and a time and place for our 
children, old and young, to express 
themselves, and for the gospel to be 
taught. 



It has been our plan to have a 
buffet supper so that the fathers could 
come directly from their work. 

After the meal was over we would 
begin our meeting by singing, prayer, 
and then our regular appointed sec- 
retary would always read the minutes 
for approval, and our missionary fund 
which we have started was reported 
at this time. 

(Concluded on page 266) 




APRIL 1952 



223 




This monument by Avard Fairbanks stands in the Pioneer Mormon Cemetery. 

The building of the Mormon Pioneer Memorial Bridge across the Mis- 
souri River at Florence, between Nebraska and Iowa, turns our minds back 
more than a hundred years to the early 

latter-day Saint Settlement at 

WINTER QUARTERS 

by Joseph Fielding Smith 

PRESIDENT OF THE COUNCIL OF THE TWELVE, AND CHURCH HISTORIAN 



When the enemies of the Church 
accomplished their wicked pur- 
pose in the martyrdom of the 
Prophet Joseph Smith and his brother 
Hyrum, they were confident that they 
had brought the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-day Saints to its 
end. They were sure that it could 
not survive and that its members 
would be scattered to the four winds. 
They gloated over their murderous 
accomplishment, but this gloating 
was of short duration. To their 
amazement the members of the 
Church rallied and continued to build 
and pursue their daily vocations. In 
224 



the eyes of the mob this would not 
do, and so the persecutions continued 
with renewed determination. Mob 
conventions were held, and demands 
were made that the Latter-day Saints 
should leave the state of Illinois. It 
is regrettable to say that these ene- 
mies had the sympathy and treacher- 
ous aid of Governor Thomas Ford. 
The Saints asked for time to dis- 
pose of their property and in their 
petition to their enemies said: 

That we will use all lawful means, in 
connection with others, to preserve the 
public peace while we tarry; and shall ex- 
pect, decidedly, that we be no more molested 



with house-burning, or any other depreda- 
tions, to waste our property and time, and 
hinder our business. 

That it is a mistaken idea, that we have 
proposed to remove in six months, for that 
would be so early in the spring that grass 
might not grow nor water run; both of 
which would be necessary for our removal. 
But we propose to use our influence to have 
no more seed time and harvest among our 
people in this country after gathering our 
present crops; and that all communications 
to us be made in writing. 

The request of President Brigham 
Young and his brethren was granted, 
but within a week was broken, and 
the fury of the mob increased as the 

THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 



mob issued an ultimatum that the 
Saints make an immediate removal. 
Wednesday, February 4, 1846, the 
first of the Saints left Nauvoo and 
crossed the Mississippi on their way 
to the West. Others followed as 
rapidly as they could. It was an 
extreme winter. They were without 
sufficient food, clothing, and prov- 
ender for their teams. Their covered 
wagons would not successfully shed 
the snow and rain, and many wagons 
were without covers. On Sugar Creek 
a temporary camp was made. On the 
first night of the encampment, nine 
infants were born. President Young 
spent February 16, 1846, in organ- 
izing the camp. March first the 
camp was broken, and the journey 
resumed in cold, stormy weather. 
Several members of the camp died 
from exposure. Some four hundred 
wagons, without sufficient teams, had 
been assembled to transport these 
miserable exiles. By April the great 
body of the Saints was on its way. 
Near the Chariton River the exiles 
were organized into companies with 
captains over tens, fifties, and hun- 
dreds. The Apostles were appointed 
to take charge of divisions. 

April 24, 1846, a settlement was 
selected on Grand River, Iowa, and 
named Garden Grove. Here a coun- 
cil meeting was held, and three hun- 
dred and fifty-nine laboring men were 
reported in the camp. From these, 
one hundred were appointed to cut 
trees and make rails; ten to build 
fences; forty-eight to build houses; 
twelve to dig wells, and ten to build 
bridges. The remaining number were 
to prepare land for cultivation. A 
temporary organization to look after 
the spiritual as well as the temporal 
needs of this settlement was also ap- 
pointed. May 18, 1846, some twenty- 
seven miles farther west, Parley P. 
Pratt with his company had camped. 
It was decided here to make another 
temporary settlement, and it was 
named Mount Pisgah. As in Garden 
Grove, arrangements were made for 
the convenience of those appointed 
to remain. These temporary camps 
were essential to the welfare of the 
exiles and were organized for the 
purpose of raising grain and provi- 
sions to help the members on their 
westward journey. 

On June 14, President Brigham 
Young, Heber C. Kimball, Parley P. 
Pratt, and others with the advanced 
companies, arrived on the banks of 
the Missouri River, not far from 
APRIL 1952 



Council Bluffs. The next day a coun- 
cil meeting was held, and it was de- 
cided to move back onto the Bluffs 
where spring water could be obtained 
and there would be protection from 
the Indians. The brethren found 
that the Potawatami Indians were 
very friendly and their chief showed 
the Saints some favors. The Omaha 
Indians across the river were not so 
friendly. 

June 29, 1846, a ferryboat was 
finished on the east bank of the 
Missouri. The building of this boat 
was under the supervision of Freder- 
ick Kesler, who for many years was 
the bishop of the Sixteenth Ward, 
Salt Lake City, and incidentally the 
bishop of President Joseph F. Smith's 
family. The next day President 
Young and others crossed the river 
seeking a site for the location of the 
camps of Israel. In early September 
such a site was chosen and named 
Winter Quarters. This place was to 
be the outfitting point for those who 
were to continue their journey to the 
Great Basin. A regular city was laid 
out according to the plans which were 
adopted for the settlements of the 
Latter-day Saints. Several years 
later, after the abandonment by the 
Saints, the place was named Florence 
and today is a suburb of the city of 
Omaha. Winter Quarters, under the 
direction of twelve men appointed 
for the purpose, was organized into 



wards over each of which was a 
bishop. These bishops so appointed 
at this early period were Levi W. 
Riter, William Fossett, Benjamin 
Brown, John Vance, Edward Hunter, 
David Fairbanks, Daniel Spencer, 
Joseph Matthews, Abraham Hoag- 
land, David D. Yarsley, and Joseph 
B. Noble. 

In a very short period of time, for 
the settlers labored diligently, Winter 
Quarters took on the appearance of a 
city. The houses were chiefly built 
of logs gathered from the surround- 
ing forest, but some of the Saints 
made their dwellings by making 
caves. Some trouble arose through 
the stealing of cattle and horses by 
the Indians, and this loss the mem- 
bers of this settlement could not 
afford. Their number of horses, 
mules, and cattle was too meager and 
was sorely needed for the ploughing 
of the land and for the anticipated 
journey to their promised land in the 
Rocky Mountains. Most members of 
the Church are familiar with the 
story told by President Joseph F. Smith 
of his encounter with the Indians 
when he was a herd boy of only 
eight years, and how through his 
ingenuity and the blessing of the 
Lord he saved the cattle but lost his 
horse and was himself miraculously 
saved from death. This occurred just 
out of Winter Quarters. 

(Continued on following page) 




-Otto Done 

225 



LATTER-DAY SAINT SETTLEMENT AT WINTER QUARTERS 



(Continued from preceding page) 
The Indians felt that the members 
of the Church who were dwelling 
on their lands were intruders; no 
doubt they felt justified in their 
marauding, done in part at least, in 
the spirit of retaliation, for the settlers 
were killing and eating the wild game 
and cutting the trees to build houses 
and corrals on these Indian lands. 
Chief Big Elk tried to restrain his peo- 
ple, but they would not be controlled. 
President Brigham Young counseled 
the^members of the Church to treat 
the- Indians kindly but was forced 
to build a stockade around Winter 
Quarters as a protection against In- 
dian raids. 

Knowing the need of keeping the 
people busy, President Young as- 
signed duties to all, keeping the minds 
of the Saints occupied and thus more 
contented than if they had idle time 
on their hands. Of course there 
were cattle and horses to feed and 
fields to be cultivated preparatory to 
a harvest in the rapidly approaching 
fall. A gristmill was built, as much 
to furnish employment as to be of 
need in the preparation of flour and 
other grains. President Young said 
if the Saints did not continue to use 
it, the Indians could. According to 
Latter-day Saint custom, this mill was 
built with a condition of permanency 
although it was known that in a 
short time Winter Quarters would be 
abandoned. In addition to the build- 
ing of houses and a gristmill, a coun- 
cil house was constructed suitable to 
these primitive conditions, where 
council meetings, sacrament, and 
other meetings for the benefit of the 
settlers at Winter Quarters could be 
held. We think today that we have 
difficulties in housing two and some- 
times three wards in one meeting- 
house, but these bishops , in Winter 
Quarters had no separate buildings 
of even houses where two wards 
could meet with staggered time. 
Such meetings as were held had to 
be in this council house or in the 
open. The duty of the bishops was 
largely in caring for the members 
who were under their jurisdiction, 
temporally and spiritually Without 
tike convenience of separate places 
of worship. A condition of this kind 
had prevailed in Nauvoo where many 
wards were ereated, but houses, of 
worship were riot provided. Notwith- 
standing this inconvenience, regular 
226 



meetings were held where the mem- 
bers partook of the sacrament and 
were instructed. 

This council house was used for 
all general purposes. Dances and other 
entertainments were held in it. All 
amusements were opened and closed 
by prayer. It was at Winter Quarters 
where President Brigham Young, 
January 14, 1847, received a revela- 
tion of encouragement and direction 
for the members of the Church, to 
govern them while on their journeys 
and encampments preparatory to the 
settlement in the Salt Lake Valley. 
In this word of the Lord, directions 
were given as to the travels of the 
Saints, their deportment on the way 
and in their camps. They were 
taught to be unselfish and helpful 
to those who were less fortunate, the 
widows and fatherless, and were 
given a promise of blessings if they 
would remain faithful. The original 
pioneer company was ordered to go 
in advance with its captains over 
hundreds, fifties, and tens. The mem- 
bers were instructed and encouraged 
to "praise the Lord with singing, 
with music, with dancing, and with 
prayer or praise and thanksgiving." 
If sorrowful, to "call on the Lord" 
with supplication, that their souls 
might be joyful. Some thoughtless 
persons have condemned the pioneers 



for their dancing and merriment 
while on the plains, but all of this 
was done by commandment of the 
Lord, and in the spirit of prayer and 
thanksgiving. Truly it was, as with 
David of old, "dancing before the 
Lord" and done in the spirit of true 
humility. Would that all of our 
dancing and amusement entertain- 
ments today could be conducted in 
like spirit. How much better the 
Saints would be, how much happier 
than when many of these things are 
conducted in the spirit of the world. 
The Saints were told not to fear 
their enemies, for they were in the 
hands of the Lord. They were not 
to harbor feelings of revenge or hatred 
towards their enemies. The Saints 
were to be tried in all things, and if 
they would bear chastisement, they 
would be worthy of the kingdom of 
God. It was made known to them 
why the Prophet and Patriarch had 
to meet a violent death and have their 
blood shed. The Lord said, "Many 
have marveled because of his (Joseph 
Smith's) death; but it was needful 
that he should seal his testimony with 
his blood, that he might be honored 
and the wicked might be condemned." 
(D. & C. 136:39.) The conclusion 
of this counsel was: "Be diligent in 
keeping all my commandments, lest 
judgment come upon you, . . . and 
your enemies triumph over you. So 

(Continued on page 281) 



This plaque was erected 
by the Major Isaac Sad- 
ler Chapter, Daughters 
of the American Revolu- 
tion, in 1931 at historic 
Winter Quarters, now 
Florence, Nebraska. 




THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 



The 

DOCTRINE 

of the 

RESURRECTION 



by Elder Orson F. Whitney 



OF THE COUNCIL OF THE TWELVE 

(April 9, 1906-May 16, 1931) 



and take it up again. But when he appeared to the 
Apostles in his risen body they were frightened, deeming 
him an apparition. "It is I, be not afraid," said he y 
"for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me 
have." He wished to convince them that he had actually 
come forth from the grave, and he succeeded in convinc- 
ing them of that fact. One, however, was absent, and 
when he, Thomas, was told by his brethren that the 
Lord had arisen and had been with them, he replied, 
"I will not believe it, unless I can feel the prints of the 
nails in his hands, and thrust my hand into his wounded 
side." Now Thomas was one of the Twelve Special 
Witnesses whose mission was to proclaim the resurrection 
of Christ, and these men had to know what they were 
preaching. They could not go out into the world and 
say, "We believe Christ has risen from the dead; it is our 
opinion that it is so; -per adventure it happened, as he 
said it would." What kind of a message would that 
have been to a waiting world, hungry for the words of 
eternal life? These men had to know, not merely believe, 
and that is why he allowed them to hear his voice, and 
even to touch him, that they might be convinced beyond 
a doubt. And so, when he condescended to come 
again — this time to Thomas — he said: "Reach hither thy 
hand, feel of me, and see that it is I." Thomas, no longer 
doubting, fell at his feet, exclaiming, "O Lord, my God! 1 ' 
The Savior then said: "Thomas, thou hast believed be- 
cause thou has seen, but blessed are they who have 
believed and have not seen." (See Luke 24:36-39; John 
20:24-28.) 



(From The Improvement Era, April 1916) 



Christ's resurrection was an astounding event. There 
had been nothing like it upon this planet, though 
there had been upon other worlds; for this is not 
the only one of God's creations. He had made many 
earths before he made this one and had peopled and 
redeemed them. This earth was created for the children 
of Adam and Eve, a portion of our Father's universal 
family; and here we undergo the experiences, often sad 
and painful, that many have passed through upon other 
planets, and that many will pass through on planets 
yet to come; with the promise of eternal life, through 
the merits of the Son of God, the only name given under 
heaven whereby such things can be. 

These facts are so marvelous, so far beyond the com- 
monplace happenings of human existence, that some 
people would fain do away with them. Men calling 
themselves scientists or philosophers tell us that Christ 
was nothing more than a good and great man, a wise 
and wonderful teacher; that he did no miracles — did not 
walk upon the water, did not feed the multitude with 
a few loaves and fishes, and did not come forth from 
the grave after his burial. We are asked to throw all 
that away and substitute the vain theories of men for 
the great hope of eternal life, based upon the atonement 
of the Savior. 

Jesus knew it was an astounding proposition — the 
doctrine of the resurrection. He told his disciples before 
the crucifixion that he had power to lay down his life 

APRIL 1952 




— Camera Clix 

227 



The Mormon Pioneer 

MEMORIAL BRIDGE 

by Dr. H. L. Karrer, Chairman 

NORTH OMAHA BRIDGE COMMISSION 



A modern and majestic bridge, 
named the Mormon Pioneer 
Memorial Bridge to commemorate 
and honor the Mormon pioneers 
and their descendants, is being 
built across the mighty Missouri 
River at Florence, Nebraska. The 
building of this bridge has been a 
dream of the citizens of this vicinity 
for many years. At the present time, 
the bridge is about half-completed. 
The pioneers who crossed the river 
at this site were a brave and fearless 
lot, having a firm belief in the right 
to worship their God in their own 
way. They were willing to make 
whatever sacrifices were necessary to 
obtain their objective. 

The bridge is being built and will 
be operated by the Douglas County 
North Omaha Bridge Commission. 
The commission is a public body and 
an arm of the state of Nebraska. The 
present commission is composed of 
three members: Dr. H. L. Karrer, W. 
F. Schollman, and L. Dale Matthews. 

The first attempt to build this 
bridge was made in 1856, almost a 
century ago, but in those early days 
there was much rivalry between Flor- 
ence and Omaha, Nebraska, and the 
natural hardships, augmented by dis- 
cord and confusion, thwarted the 
purpose. But the need for a bridge 
at this site has ever been present. 
The initial idea did not die, and 
through the years it persisted in the 
minds of the leaders and the citizens 
of that part of the community. No 
united effort was started from 1856 
until 1922, when again it was revived, 
and a concentrated and active effort 
was made. The sponsors secured a 
franchise from the Congress of the 
United States to build the bridge, but 
it came to naught because of adverse 
circumstances. 

In 1936 another franchise was se- 
cured from the Congress of the United 
States. Again the sponsors went to 
work, but due to the worldwide de- 

228 



pression it was impossible to secure 
the necessary financing for the con- 
struction. For fourteen more years 
there was a continuous effort made 
by the citizens of North Omaha, and 
in 1950 the present organization was 
able to function. This was the result 
of an act passed in 1946 by the Con- 
gress of the United States designated 
as the General Bridge Act, granting 
consent to public bodies such as 
Douglas County, Nebraska, North 
Omaha Bridge Commission, to con- 
struct, maintain, and operate bridges, 
and build approaches to bridges over 
navigable rivers in the United States. 
Following this enactment, the state 
of Nebraska passed enabling legisla- 
tion to accomplish the creation of the 
Bridge Commission. The act grants 
the right of the commission to issue 
revenue bonds in the sum necessary 
for the construction and the building 
of approach roads. The bonds are 
not a liability of any governmental 
subdivision such as state, county, or 
city but are solely an obligation 
against the tolls derived from the 
bridge. 

This commission had neither 
money nor experience. All it had 
was the burning desire to succeed 
where others in the past had failed. 
Their first step was to communicate 
with various agencies concerned with 
the building of the bridge, but they 
were somewhat handicapped. They 
had no money, not even an office, and 
no definite idea concerning how to 
proceed. The first contact was made 
with the firm of Schmid, Snow, and 
Ford, who were employed as attor- 
neys. 

Next they consulted several firms 
of consulting engineers. Many weeks 
and much time were spent interview- 
ing the various firms of engineers, 
and a firm of national repute — Har- 
rington and Cortelyou of Kansas 
City, Missouri — was selected. 

The next step was to ask the various 



investment bankers if they would be 
interested in financing this project. 
All the answers were the same: yes, 
if it were economically feasible; the 
only way the commission could prove 
that it was economically feasible was 
to employ a firm of traffic engineers, 
who made a long and thorough study. 
In approximately two months they 
came up with a report that it was 
economically feasible and would pay 
off in approximately fifteen years. 

Then the commission was in a 
position to negotiate and enter into 
a contract with an investment bank- 
ing firm, Smith, Barney and Company 
of New York City. 

The engineering firm had com- 
pleted its plans and specifications, and 
on December 19, 1950, the contract 
for the bridge was let. The bonds 
and indenture and all negotiations 
were completed. The commission 
was in a very happy frame of mind, 
feeling sure that all the hurdles had 
been negotiated, and the bridge was 
assured. Then out of a clear sky 
came the blow that was almost fatal. 
A suit was filed in the courts against 
the commission, alleging that it did 
not have the authority to sell bonds 
and build a bridge and its approaches. 
The suit was tried immediately. The 
attorneys spent many nights and days 
preparing a defense and were suc- 
cessful in having the suit tried within 
a week. We were successful in the 
District Court, but the plaintiff had 
the right to appeal to the Supreme 
Court, and the issue looked very dark 
indeed. However, our attorneys 
forced the issue, and the suit was 
dismissed. 

The financing of the bridge was 
completed. Bonds in the amount of 
$3,450,000.00 were issued. They were 
all sold within one and a half hours 
after being offered to the public. 
While all this negotiation was going 
on, the Korean War, sometimes called 
the "police action," started. Critical 
THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 




Within fifty feet of the exact spot where the Latter-day Saints crossed 
the Missouri River, the Mormon Pioneer Memorial Bridge is being erected. 
In the above painting Arnold Friberg pictures the structure from the Nebraska 
side. 



materials became scarce, but the com- 
mission secured a delivery order from 
the government for steel on April 2, 
which was one of the earliest de- 
livery order ratings given in the 
United States. Approximately 3800 
tons of steel were needed. The next 
problem was to get the steel mills 
to accept the orders. Two thousand 
tons of steel were accepted, leaving 
us a balance of 1800 tons to secure. 
It was absolutely necessary for us to 
obtain the acceptance of this 1800 
tons in the year 1951. If we were not 
successful, it would not be possible 
to obtain another allocation of steel 
for that amount in 1952. Mr. Schmid, 
the attorney, and Dr. Karrer pro- 
ceeded to Washington. After a week 
of negotiations and conferring with 
the different department heads, these 
gentlemen were able to obtain an 
acceptance of the order, except for 
102 tons of the required amount, 
which were to be secured in the first 
quarter of 1952. 

The state of Nebraska was very 
cooperative. They issued an alloca- 
tion for the required balance of the 
steel needed. This left the state with 

APRIL 1952 



only sixty-nine tons of steel for their 
own use to do necessary building and 
repairing of roads and bridges. But 
all through our negotiations the vari- 
ous public bodies such as the federal, 
state, county, and city governments 
lent us all the assistance that was 
within their power to give. We shall 
always appreciate what they did for 
us. 

In April 1951 the first piece of 
equipment was moved to the place 
of construction. Work was begun. 
The five miles of grading for the new 
highway is now finished. The pav- 
ing will be completed by June 30. 

On May 12, 1951, the ground- 
breaking ceremonies took place. The 
governor of Iowa, William S. Beards- 
ley; the governor of Nebraska, Val 
Peterson; the mayor of the city of 
Omaha, Glenn Cunningham, and 
various other public officials took part 
in the ceremonies. Bishop LeGrand 
Richards, Presiding Bishop of the 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 
Saints, gave the main address at the 
ceremonies. He painted so well the 
picture of sturdiness, faith, and un- 
daunted courage of the people of his 



faith in making their trek from 
Nauvoe, Illinois, to an unmarked 
and untamed country, that all there 
felt there must have been divine 
watchfulness and guidance over these 
men and women. 

As to choosing the site, it proved 
that the judgment of this group of 
Latter-day Saint men and women was 
good then, as now. The bridge will 
cross the river within fifty feet of 
the exact spot where the pioneers 
crossed it. 

At the present time, the abutments 
are in, and all fourteen piers are 
completed. We expect that by 
October, or not later than November 
1, 1952, the bridge will be completed 
and ready for traffic. The commis- 
sion and the people of Omaha feel 
that we have been greatly honored 
by the Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints in giving approval 
to name the structure the Mormon 
Pioneer Memorial Bridge, and one of 
our greatest desires is to have the 
Church and its official representatives 
take a leading part at the dedication 



ceremonies. 



229 



In every state of this broad land 
of ours, a day is officially pro- 
claimed each year for the planting 
of trees. It is significant jthat the 
observance of Arbor Day originated 
in Nebraska, the most tree-impover- 
ished state of the Union. The year 
was 1872. The man immediately 
responsible for both the name and its 
nation-wide observance was J. Ster- 
ling Morton, who later became U. S. 
Secretary of Agriculture. 

f Trees have always played a major 
role in the successful colonization of 
a new land, for there is never con- 
tentment at home nor community 
stabilization without them. Brigham 
Young, one of the most successful 
colonizers of all time, realized this 
fact. It is significant that in the 
pioneer trek of over a century ago 
some of these farsighted pioneers 
walked in order that seeds and even 
cuttings of trees might find a place 
in the beds of over-burdened wagons. 
How well our honored pioneers 
planned and labored for their own 
and our comfort may be visualized 
when we try to imagine the sylvan 
Salt Lake Valley as it appeared one 
short century ago. It was a grassy 
valley without trees except for water - 
loving species such as cottonwoods, 
willows, and box elder confined to 
the stream banks. The lone juni- 
per tree (or cedar) that grew near 
Third South and Sixth East streets, 
Salt Lake City, stands today a genu- 
ine but lifeless tribute to a home- 
loving people who recognized the 
importance of trees in colonization. 
Today nearly 150 varieties of trees 
totalling countless thousands — every 
one planted by the hand of man — 
form one vast assemblage of green 
that makes this community one of 
the best shaded cities in all America. 

The institution of Arbor Day is 
no accident, nor can the observance 
of it be attributed to the genius of 
one man. In spirit, the admiration 
and reverence of man for trees seems 
to have been born of the race. For 
sustenance and shelter man for all 
time has been dependent on the 
forests and their products. For 
spiritual rejuvenescence man, since 
history's dawn, has sought solace and 
strength in the groves that were 
"God's first temples." 

We need to broaden the meaning 
of Arbor Day. The planting of trees, 
I believe, should be a ceremony that 
serves mainly to remind us of 
values — economic and cultural — that 

230 




— Photo U. S. Forest Service 



The Meaning of 



ARBOR DAY 



by Walter P. Cottam, Ph.D. 



HEAD OF DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY, UNIVERSITY OF UTAH 



lie at the very root of our civilization 
here in this desert land. 

All of us to a greater or lesser de- 
gree appreciate the value of trees in 
our desert communities. Indeed, life 
here would be intolerable without 
them, but few of us realize the im- 
portance of our native forests either 
in the historical development of our 
state or in its economic and cultural 
future. 

Utah is an arid land where deserts 
occupy close to sixty percent of the 
total area. The remaining moun- 
tainous terrains with elevations above 
5500 feet are sparsely and intermit- 
tently timbered. In diaries, many 
pioneers expressed regret and disap- 
pointment over the scarcity of timber, 
yet they undoubtedly found much 
more of it here in our mountains 
than is present today. Stumps on 
the rugged slopes of mountains ad- 
jacent to Salt Lake City and other 
early settlements show clearly that 



many areas grown to shrubbery or 
supporting little vegetation at all car- 
ried considerable amounts of acces- 
sible timber a century ago. Logging 
from City Creek began before the 
main body of the pioneers reached 
this valley. By 1848 several sawmills 
were established near Salt Lake City, 
and by 1853 there were a hundred or 
more mills in various parts of Utah. 
Mountain forests furnished many 
thousands of ties, for railroads ex- 
panding into the west. From them 
came the telegraph poles that made 
instant communication with the 
world possible. Charcoal was pro- 
duced for the smelting of ore, and 
even the carbon ingredients of gun- 
powder came from our local willows. 
From the wood of mountain mahog- 
any and yellow pine the Salt Lake 
Tabernacle organ was constructed, 
and from these and other refined 
woods musical instruments from 
drumsticks to flutes were made. 

THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 



Rough and finished lumber necessary 
for the construction of homes and 
public buildings, including the 
wooden pegs used to bind them to- 
gether, came entirely from the local 
timber resource. 

But with the advent of the rail- 
road the vast lumber resources of the 
northwest soon made the exploitation 
of the scattered and limited timber 
resource of Utah unprofitable for 
milling purposes. To be sure, small, 
independent sawmills continue to 
supply rough lumber for home con- 
sumption, but only a small percent- 
age of Utah's annual lumber needs 
are supplied by its forests. Indeed 
if all of the available timber was har- 
vested on a sustained yield basis, 
Utah could supply barely half of her 
current lumber needs. 

Utah could never have been col- 
onized without its timber resource. 
But despite the decline of the com- 
mercial use of timber, Utah could 
not long endure the destruction of 
its forests. Why is this so we might 
well ask. The answer lies in the 
simple and obvious fact that the 
greatest service of our timber areas to 
man is in water conservation. We 
must never forget that our water for 
culinary purposes and for irrigation 
is dependent on a well- conserved 
soil of which trees and other vegeta- 
tion are the perennial guardians. 

Of the twenty- two percent of Utah 
land area lying above 7000 feet in 
elevation and which constitutes the 
vital watershed source, less than ten 
percent is forested. Practically all 
of it has been heavily grazed since 
settlement with dire consequences in 
soil loss. Heavily eroded soil loses 
half its power of water absorption 
and water retention. Floods have 
resulted — streams have run red with 
silt — aquatic life has perished — and 
our springs have dwindled in the 
volume of their discharge. With the 
depletion of soil, fewer plants survive 
to buffer the eroding force of rain 
drops, and the vicious process of soil 
erosion becomes accelerated. Trees, 
like human beings, deprived of their 
proper nutrition, fall victims to disease 
and insect depredations, and Utah 
forests today are in serious danger of 
impending destruction. 

The basic idea back of that first 
Arbor Day was the ever-expanding 
need throughout America for the con- 
servation and rehabilitation of our 
forests. The realization by forward- 
looking citizens everywhere that our 
APRIL 1952 



country could neither become great 
nor remain so without a perpetuation 
of the many human values inherent 
in abundant forests led to the general 
association of Arbor Day exercises 
with public school programs. The 
objective of this day, therefore, is to 
foster, through public support, a na- 
tional, state, and community policy 
that seeks to preserve and enrich for 
ourselves and our posterity the bless- 
ings of a well- conserved forest area. 
Such a policy demands, first, a public 
enlightenment on what these bless- 
ings are, and second, a well- conceived 
plan for forest management fortified 
by genuine public concern and sup- 
port. 

The administration and manage- 
ment of our forest lands must ever be 
intrusted to a well-trained, scientific 
personnel. For a community of trees, 
like a community of human beings, 
presents problems of tree health, 
sanitation, growth, and development 
far beyond the power of the untrained 
layman to understand. We will never 
attain a healthful, well-preserved for- 
est unless and until we as citizens 
tender the same confidence and sup- 
port to the trained scientists who 
manage our watersheds as we do to 
the trained staff that protects the 
physical well-being of our human 
communities. When an epidemic 
threatens our city, there is no quib- 
bling over the inconvenience of a 
few quarantined for the protection 
of the general public. When the 
San Francisco earthquake unleashed 
fire that threatened the entire city, 
there was no hestitancy in dynamit- 
ing whole blocks of buildings for 
the public good. This philosophy of 
"the greatest good, for the greatest 
number, for the longest time" which 
most of us assume to be necessary 



for the perpetuation of an organized 
human society must be extended to 
our forests. For here, too, the per- 
sonal liberties of a few citizens must 
often be curtailed if the many of us 
are to survive. 

In order to understand this fact, 
the public must become informed of 
the multiple use of the forest lands. 
School children and adults alike must 
come to realize that the first and 
most important use of the forests of 
Utah is in water conservation. This 
is a use to which all others must ever 
be subservient. There is ample 
scientific evidence that our dwindling 
water supply as well as ever- increas- 
ing floods are the direct result of 
accelerated soil erosion on watershed 
areas. The public must insist that 
such necessary rehabilitation meas- 
ures be consummated regardless of 
minor inconveniences to minority 
groups of our citizenry. 

A second use of forest lands and 
one on which much of the financial 
well-being of Utah depends is the 
grazing of livestock and wild animals. 
The public can well serve this graz- 
ing use of our forest areas through 
an alertness to evidence of over -use 
and by an appeal to our elected repre- 
sentatives for support of reseeding 
and revegetation measures. 

A third use of forest lands is for 
lumber and wood products. The 
public can serve this function by 
urging and supporting measures of 
reforestation, and by insisting that 
forest cropping must be based strictly 
on a policy of sustained yield manage- 
ment regardless of whether or not 
the land is privately or publicly 
owned. The potential forests that 
lie cut and wasted on vendor lots 
in any city Christmas morning 

(Concluded on page 274) 










231 




For three days there was total blackness . 
light of any kind. 



and there was no 



Omar and his wife, Elana, sat 
quietly talking outside their 
house. It was in the cool of the 
evening, and the gentle breeze from 
the large oak tree was soothing and 
refreshing after the heat of the day. 
The happy voices of children at play 
came merrily from the nearby hill, 
and Omar and Elana sat watching 
the children playing. Their glances 
rested lovingly on the little figure 
who sat in a wheelchair with his 
crutches across his kness. This was 
their son, Ezrom, slight of build with 
pale, serious face topped with blond, 
curly hair. It was the eyes, however, 
in the child's face which people re- 
membered. They were enormous 
brown eyes, and in them were 
shadowed all the pain and suffering 
he so patiently bore. All the denial 
of play and running and jumping 
that other boys knew was pictured 
in their depths, but bravery and pa- 
tience were mirrored there also. 

Now he sat watching the others as 
they played with each other, and he 
laughed and shouted with them as 
232 



they rushed back and forth in their 
abandoned play. Forgotten were his 
crippled legs, forgotten the wheel 
chair and crutches his father had 
labored with such care to make for 
him, forgotten everything but the 
happiness and abandon of his friends 
at play. 

Back at the house, Omar glanced 
over at his wife, and she hurriedly 
busied herself with the sewing she 
held in her lap so her husband might 
not see the tears that welled so quick- 
ly in her eyes. Omar's eyes, too, were 
sad and his voice bitter as he spoke. 
"Our son, too, should be playing with 
the others instead of limping around 
on crutches while they play. It isn't 
fair that the sickness should leave 
him crippled and weak while other 
children are straight and strong." 

"No, Omar," his wife spoke gently, 
"you mustn't feel bitter. The Lord 
was good to us when he spared his 
life." 

"What's good about it?" he spoke 
angrily. "Sometimes I think it would 
have been better had he been taken 



than to go through life with no pleas- 
ure, nothing but pain and self- 
denial." The piece of wood Omar 
was carving snapped sharply in his 
powerful hands. 

"Oh, Omar, please don't say such 
things. You frighten me. There are 
things he is able to do which he 
enjoys. Why just today he carved a 
little figure of a horse, almost as good 
as you can do, and he is strong, 
strong in character, Omar, because 
of his suffering. He has learned, 
patience and kindness, and he has a 
way of understanding life and things 
which few adults have. He enjoys 
life, I am sure, when the pain isn't 
too bad." 

"That's it," her husband retorted, 
"when the pain isn't too bad! And 
when is that? Hardly ever! Oh, 
I know he doesn't complain, and he 
tries to keep cheerful; but I know 
and you know what he goes through, 
and it isn't fair, Elana, it isn't fair 
that it should be this way!" 

Rising abruptly, Omar thrust his 
hands deep into the pockets of his 
tunic and turned toward the house. 
"I'm going down the road to see my 
friend, Enor. He has said the 
Prophet Nephi is going to speak again 
tonight in the public square, and he 
has asked that I should go with him." 

"I'm so happy, Omar, that you are 
going to hear the prophet. With so 
much dissension and wickedness in 
the land and one tribe plotting 
against the other, we do need 
words of advice and admonition to 
show us the way." 

Omar turned, looking tenderly at 
his wife. "It may be late before I 
return. You and the boy shouldn't 
be concerned for me but retire early 
that you both may rest, and I will 
tell you the words of the prophet in 
the morning." 

After Omar's departure, Elana sat 
for some time sewing the braid on 
her son's tunic. She always tried to 
find bright, cheerful colors with which 
to trim the clothes he wore, and she 
was always rewarded by the happiness 
in his voice as she placed them before 
him. 

"Oh, this color, look Mother Elana, 
so cheerful and bright, like the colors 
of the flowers growing on the hill- 
side!" At other times, "This one, 
Mother, is the one I choose, green, 
like the grass that grows so deep in 
the meadows and makes our sheep 
so fat. Green is a nice color. Some- 
times when out in the meadow I 

THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 



crawl from my chair and lie face 
down in the cool grass and pretend 
I am straight and strong and can run 
like the deer that graze on the hill- 
side. This is the color I choose this 
time." 

Tenderly Elana put the last stitch 
in the tunic and carefully folded it. 
She continued to sit and enjoy the 
coolness of the evening. How wonder- 
ful it is, she mused, to be sitting in 
our own yard close to the house 
Omar has built so well. It would 
last many, many years and be used 
to house many generations to follow 
after them. How grateful they should 
be for the fine sheep grazing in the 
meadow nearby! They had taken 
good care of these sheep, for the wool 
made their clothes, and once or twice 
a year they killed one for the meat. 
Yes, the Lord had been good to 
them. 

Her eyes traveled beyond the 
meadow to the skyline of the distant 
city, and they clouded as she thought 
of the wickedness in that mighty city 
of Zarahemla. Throughout the land 
a secret order had been growing 
rapidly. It was a wicked group of 
men who belonged to this order. They 
were selfish, deceitful men who mur- 
dered for money and high position, 
who loved gold more than their own 
souls. These men were called the 
Gadianton Robbers, and many who 
professed to be good, honest people, 



secretly belonged to this vicious order. 
So powerful had this group become 
that the people in the land had di- 
vided into bands with leaders over 
each group that they might protect 
themselves from the cunning vicious- 
ness of the Robbers. But even in 
these very groups which sought to 
protect themselves, many of their 
leaders themselves had become wicked 
and treacherous and were flattered 
and won over to join with the Rob- 
bers. Surely something must happen 
to change this state of affairs or the 
country would perish from hunger: 
hunger for true brotherhood, honesty, 
integrity, and the word of the Lord. 
Had their forefathers not been di- 
vinely guided over land and sea to 
this fruitful land of lush grass and 
towering mountains? Had not their 
granaries been filled to overflowing 
with rich golden grain, and were 
their bins not bulging with fruits 
and vegetables of all kinds? The 
soft, rolling hills had given freely of 
their rich deposits of gold, copper, 
silver, and other precious ores. These 
metals had been refined and used to 
make implements for farming the 
rich soil and to make steady and 
firm the tall buildings rising in the 
cities. Now these same ores were 
being used to make spears and other 
implements of war. Yes, their fore- 
fathers had been given the promise 
that this land would be theirs to 



inhabit and enjoy as long as they 
would remember him and keep his 
commandments. Now so many had 
forgotten this sacred promise that 
they were rapidly outnumbering the 
righteous and were plunging blind- 
ly into the dark well of unbelief and 
destruction. 

Elana's mother had told her as a 
child of the great prophet Samuel, 
who had warned the people to re- 
pent and had told them it would 
not be long before the Savior of the 
world would be born, and it was 
only five years after his warning when 
the Christ child was born in the far- 
off country across the sea. At one 
time for two days and a night, he 
said, there had been no darkness and 
the sun shone brightly. The people 
here in the promised land had re- 
joiced, and for a few years after 
lived righteous, peaceful lives. It 
wasn't long, however, before the love 
of power and lust for gold crept into 
their lives, and they soon drifted 
back into wickedness. The Prophet 
Samuel had also predicted that this 
same Jesus would be crucified and 
would suffer three days and then 
would be buried but would come 
forth from the tomb a resurrected 
being. During this time there would 
be no light throughout the land, and 
the sun and moon and stars would 
cease to shine and there would be 
(Continued on following page) 



|;|||.r-s.^; : ; ; : : 


gpsf :--;■:: : : 


■- " ■■ ■ ■■ ..." 


^%WmSm a ''' 


*:;"i illBPlipIs 


r . :: , ; ... : ,, 

S-™>>!-:;S : j->m : K:Wk5;:':o-; 




"Elana's mother had told her as a child of the great prophet, Samuel, who had warned the people to repent. ..." 
APRIL 1952 233 



(Continued from preceding page) 
great storms, earthquakes, and cities 
and people would be destroyed. Soon 
after this, Christ was to come to this 
land and teach the people. Many of 
the people had laughed at the 
prophet and sought to take his life, 
but the Lord had preserved him 
until he had accomplished his mis- 
sion. 

Thirty- three years had passed 
since that memorable day, and the 
Prophet Nephi, a descendant of the 
Prophet Nephi who had left Jeru- 
salem over six hundred years ago and 
led his people to this land, went from 
city to city telling the inhabitants to 
repent or great calamities would 
come upon the earth and they would 
be destroyed. 

How thankful I am, El ana thought, 
that Omar and I have been taught 
the gospel and to believe in the 
prophet's teachings. She and Omar 
had always had great faith and had 
taught Ezrom to have faith also, 
and they believed that some day 
Ezrom would be able to walk again. 
Tonight had been the first time she 
had ever seen Omar rebellious be- 
cause of his son's affliction. It was 
good that he had gone to hear the 
prophet. It would renew his faith 
and trust in the Lord. 

Elana started suddenly from her 
thoughts as she heard a distant peal 
of thunder, and looking up she saw 
huge, black clouds gathering in the 
sky. Hurriedly she gathered up her 
sewing and started for the hill where 
the children were scurrying home- 
ward before the rain started. 

Ezrom had already started his chair 
rolling toward her, and he called to 
her as she came toward him. "I'm 
coming, Mother, as fast as I can!" 
Elana hurried faster. Reaching her 
son she took hold of his chair to help 
him along. Loud peals of thunder 
came closer and lightning was like 
jagged teeth of flame across the sky. 

"I think if we hurry we can reach 
the house before the rain starts," she 
said. "It all came up so suddenly. 
One minute the sun was shining 
brightly and the sky was blue, and 
the next, the wind was blowing and 
it was thundering and lightning." 

"I know, Mother," the boy replied. 
"I have never seen anything like it 
before." As he spoke there was a 
rumbling as if the whole mountain 
were caving in on them, and the 
234 



THE OPENED DOOR 

earth trembled beneath their feet. 
It was getting so dark they could 
scarcely see their little house. They 
barely reached the door when tor- 
rents of rain fell from the black 
clouds. Safe inside, she sat down to 
catch her breath. The tempest in- 
creased. Never had she heard the 
wind shriek so loudly. Never had 
the rain come down in such torrents; 
the thunder was deafening! Could 
this be the prophecy coming true? 
Impulsively she reached out and took 
hold of her son's hand and held it 
tightly. 

"Don't be afraid, Mother. I am 
all right, and I'm sure we will be 
protected, no matter what happens. 
I won't ever be afraid as long as you 
are with me." 

Elana looked at him wonderingly, 
a little startled that his thoughts had 
been the same as hers. So often 
when they were together with silence 
between them and one or the other 
broke that silence, they would both 
laugh joyously to find their minds 
running in the same channels, 
pondering the same problems or 
musing over some delightful experi- 
ence of the day. Now she looked 




questioningly at her son and spoke 
with a quick intake of her breath. 
"Then you, too, feel this is the time 
of which the prophets have warned 
us?" 

"Yes, Mother," he replied, "I have 
the strangest feeling as if I had lived 
through this very moment before, as 
if I had been waiting all my life for 
this to happen. All the things you 
and Father have taught me about 
the Christ having to suffer for us 
must now be coming true in that 
land across the sea. At this moment, 
he must be suffering terribly so that 
we will be saved, just as the Prophet 
Samuel has told us. I'm not afraid, 



Mother. I am only sorry our Savior 
must suffer so and die for us." 

Elana squeezed his hand gently, 
and there were tears in her eyes as 
she said softly, "Yes, dear, I, too, wish 
with all my heart he might be spared 
this terrible thing which has come 
to him." 

She rose to light a candle, but 
the darkness was so thick and damp 
by now that the taper would not 
burn, and she returned to sit by her 
son. 

"If only your father might find his 
way home to us, I would not tremble 
so. Surely he will be guided safely 
home, for he is a good man, and we 
need him here by our side. We can't 
tell what lies ahead the next few 
hours, and his very presence gives 
me courage. I know we have been 
promised the righteous would be 
spared, and we have tried to live 
up to the teachings of the prophets, 
but when I hear the noise of the wind 
and thunder and the shaking of the 
earth, I cannot help feeling a little 
frightened. Perhaps it is because I 
realize more than ever how small and 
helpless we humans are when the 
elements are turned loose. All we 
have is our trust in our Heavenly 
Father, and Ezrom, this is the great- 
est protection anyone could ask for." 

"Yes, Mother," he spoke quietly, 
"and let us pray now to Heavenly 
Father to bring Father Omar back to 
us safely." 

It wasn't long before their prayers 
were answered, for suddenly the door 
was flung open and then quickly 
closed against the storm, and Omar 
called to them, his voice thick with 
anxiety. "Elana, Ezrom, are you 
safe?" 

"Oh, Omar, you have come back 
to us!" Elana cried, and Omar, 
stumbling through the dark to them, 
soon held both wife and son close in 
his arms. 

"I thought I would never get here 
fast enough to see if you were both 
safe, and now I am with you my 
heart is full of thankfulness. The 
Lord has been good to us this night, 
and we must continue to have faith 
that all will be well with us." 

Elana trembled in his arms. "Is 
this the time the prophets told us 
was coming, Omar?" 

"Yes, Elana. As soon as the storm 

commenced, Nephi told us to hurry 

to our homes, that this was the be- 

(Continued on page 274) 

THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 



Genealogy— 



Microfilming in Ireland and Wales 

by James R. Cunningham 

GENEALOGICAL CHAIRMAN OP THE BRITISH MISSION 




Diamid Coffey 
Keeper of the Records, 
Public Record Office, Dublin, Eire. 

We are still very busy here in the 
British Mission microfilming and 
carrying out research. 

The microfilming is now as com- 
plete as possible in Ireland. June 5, 
1951, marked the close of nineteen 
months work there. The camera used 
in Ireland was immediately trans- 
ferred to Edinburgh, Scotland, to aid 
in the filming of census returns and 
parish registers there. 

Dublin Castle proved to be a mine 
of genealogical information which is 
now safely on microfilm. Hundreds 
of large volumes contained the proven 
pedigrees of the leading Irish families 
for three centuries, besides many 
transcripts of parish registers, wills, 
lists of papist non-conformists, church 
census returns, etc. 

The- most valuable archives for 
genealogists in Ireland are those of 
the Public Record Office and the 
Registry of Deeds, both in Dublin, 
which records cover the whole of 
Ireland — Eire — and what is now 
called Northern Ireland. The De- 
partment of Justice, realizing that 
microfilming could have saved copies 
of the records from the disastrous 
fire of 1922 which destroyed the 
"Four Courts of Dublin," readily 
gave its consent for its records to be 
copied. 

Several hundreds of volumes con- 

APRIL 1952 



taining indexes to wills and census 
returns were recorded on film. Con- 
trary to usual opinion the census of 
Ireland was not entirely lost. Al- 
though the original returns were 
burnt save a few fragments, a dupli- 
cate record has been in large part 
made up from copies in government 
offices which were scattered over the 
country. 

In examining this material after it 
was filmed, I found to my delight 
what seems to be my grandmother's 
family. More information was given 
in the 1851 census for Ireland than 
in the corresponding censuses in 
England or Scotland. The date of 
marriage of parents and children is 
given; also the names of members of 
the family now alive but residing 
elsewhere. Under this last heading 
many are shown as residing in Amer- 
ica. The householder, too, reported 
all those belonging to the family 
who had died since the 1841 census, 
giving the name, age, date of death, 
and cause of death of each. 

The will indexes are particularly 
helpful, giving a brief abstract of each 
will, the date and place of death of 
the testator, etc. 

The registry of deeds is unique, I 
have been informed, being the fore- 
runner of the system of land and 
property registration in the whole 
world. Commencing in 1709 and 
running to date, all transfers of land, 
bills of sales, wills, mortgages, etc., 
are recorded in very large volumes. 
Two indexes of names and places for 
these volumes have been prepared 
over the years, the indexes alone cov- 
ering two thousand five hundred 
large volumes of one hundred and 
fifty pages each. Besides the name or 
the place in the index is a reference 
number, by which number the orig- 
inal deed can be located. We have 
filmed the index, (1709-1851), but 
not yet the great number of volumes 
of deeds. A typed copy of any deed 
can be obtained at a cost of six pence 
for seventy-five words. 

Vital records of birth, marriage, 
and death may be obtained from the 



General Registry, Custom House, 
Dublin. It is patterned after one 
kept at Somerset House, London, and 
charges for certificates are the same 
as at Somerset House. Births and 
deaths and Catholic marriages were 
registered in Ireland from the year 
1864; Protestant marriages date from 
1846. 

Not all the desirable records in 
Ireland have been filmed. The val- 
uable records kept by the "Society 
of Friends" of births, marriages, and 
deaths, from the beginning of that 
church in Ireland, were not made 
available to us. In the Church Dona- 
tion and Bequest Office are seventy 
large volumes in alphabetical order, 
containing wills granting bequests to 
the church, with a full index of 
names, 1801-1920. We have been 
invited to film them when convenient. 

The government of Northern Ire- 
land withheld permission for us to 
microfilm the parish registers which 
have been gathered into the Public 
Record Office at Belfast. Neither 
could we induce the Presbyterian 
Historical Society to allow us to 
photograph its fine collection of non- 
conformist parish registers. 

A small quantity of material was 

copied in the Royal Irish Academy 

and in Trinity College. We were 

{Concluded on page 295) 




Presenting film copies to J. W. Dobbs, 
Registrar, Register of Deeds, Dublin, Eire. 

235 




THE 



WORLD 



Most numerous and broadest 
rivers in the world 



adest ^fe^ 

— I X 



ofthe JAREDITES 



by Hugh Nibley, Ph.D. 

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR, HISTORY AND RELIGION, 
BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY 



Part VIII 



Dear Professor F. 

IF my insistent harping on central 
Asia annoys you, let me remind 
you again that the Book of Ether 
gives us no choice. It never lets us 
forget that what the Jaredite kings 
did was a conscious imitation and 
unbroken continuation of the ways 
of "the ancients," of "them of old," 
on the other side of the water. This, 
incidentally, is another indication 
that we are not to regard the Jaredite 
migration as taking place immediately 
after the flood, for the fall of the 
tower saw the destruction of an an- 
cient and established order. The 
Jaredites left their homeland driving 
great herds of cattle before them in 
the immemorial Asiatic manner, and 
even if they had never been nomads 
before, they certainly lived the life of 
the steppes during those many years 
before they set sail (Ether 3:3); and 
when they embarked, they crammed 
all they could of their beasts into 
their small boats, "flocks and herds" 
and other beasts {Ibid., 6:4) and, 
upon reaching the New World, con- 
tinued to cultivate "all manner of 
cattle, of oxen, and cows, and of 
sheep," just as their ancestors had in 
the old country. (Ibid., 9:18.) Noth- 
ing could be better calculated to keep 
the Old World ways alive than those 
notoriously conservative secret so- 
cieties which Ether always traces 
back to "the oaths of the ancients" 
and which at all times have exerted a 
fatal attraction on the men of Asia. 
We have already noted that such 
secret abominations are the neces- 
236 



sary product of a society in which so- 
cial ties may be easily broken. The 
political history of the Jaredites clear- 
ly betrays in all its aspects the ways 
of the "space people." 

Jaredite history in the New World 
was formally inaugurated by a gen- 
eral assembly and census of the en- 
tire nation (Ibid., 6:19), a thorough- 
ly Asiatic practice which goes back to 
the days of prehistoric hunters and 
which lies at the root of all ancient 
political organization, as I have dem- 
onstrated in a number of articles. 180 
Strictly in accordance with the an- 
cient pattern, this assembly was the 
occasion for the choosing of a king, 
and the establishment of a dynasty, 
which as the brother of Jared clearly 
foresaw, could only lead straight to 
the slough of Old World intrigue and 
turmoil from which the Jaredites had 
already been once delivered (Ibid., 
6:23.) He was right, for presently 
one Corihor ". . . rebelled against his 
father, and went over and dwelt in 
the land of Nehor; . . . and drew 
away many people after him." (Ibid., 
7:4.) Then he went back to the 
land of Moron and captured his fa- 
ther but was subdued by his right- 
eous brother Shule who achieved an 
ambition of every Asiatic monarch to 
". . . spread his kingdom upon all 
the face of the land." (Ibid., 7: ll.) 181 
Shule then gave his capable brother 
and erstwhile rival "power in his 
kingdom" (Ibid., 7:13), a surprising 
but quite authentic touch, from which 
it appears that emirs shared in the 
immense task of ruling the empire, 
as in Asia. Shule's grandson ". . . re- 




belled against his father, and came 
and dwelt in the land of Heth," 
drawing people away until he had 
gained half the kingdom. (Ibid., 8:2.) 
His deposed father ". . . departed out 
of the land with his family, and 
traveled many days" to reach the 
place where later the Nephites were 
to be destroyed; from there he con- 
tinued eastward until he reached the 
sea (Ibid., 9:3), where he lived in 
tents and was joined in time by other 
refugees from his distracted kingdom 
(Ibid., 9:9), where civil war had re- 
duced the population almost to zero 
— another Asiatic touch, as we shall 
see. Years later, when the roval 
brothers Shared and Coriantumr 
fought for the kingdom, the latter 
beat his brother, "did pursue him to 
the wilderness of Akish," where the 
two armies raided each other by 
night and "did lay siege to the wilder- 
ness," until Coriantumr emerged vic- 
tor, chased his brother's successor to 
the seashore, only to be beaten in 
turn and pursued back to the wilder- 
ness of Akish, taking "all the people 
with him, as he fled before Lib. ..." 
(Ibid., 14:15.) More battles and an- 
other pursuit to the coast (Ibid., 14: 
26), thence to the waters of Riplian- 
cum, then southward to camp in 
Ogath, then to the hill Ramah for 
the showdown. 

THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 




The most formidable deserts 
in the world 



The highest mountains in the world 



«k''/ - Mt. Everest 



INDIA 




Conquests and migrations of 
Mongol Hordes, roughly indi- 
cated, to show immense length 
of yearly marches in Asia, com- 
pared with distances in North 
America 



This sampling should give a pic- 
ture of the peculiar warfare of the 
Jaredites, a war of motion with no 
set frontiers, great armies sweeping 
over the continent in flight or pursuit, 
making the most of space by continu- 
ally falling back on this or that 
"wilderness," setting up rival camps 
for a period of a year or two, while 
dissenting groups or individuals join 
themselves to one army or another. 
It is Asia all over again, and it calls 
for a geographical note. 

The North American continent is 
a rough copy of the Asiatic, with 
tundra and forest in the north giving 
way to open grasslands, deserts, and 
finally tropical jungles in the south. 
The main difference is that in Asia 
everything is bigger: the forests and 
plains seem never-ending, the deserts 
are wider, hotter and drier, the moun- 
tains far higher and more forbidding, 
the jungles deeper and more danger- 
ous, the rivers wider and deeper. And 
yet these formidable barriers have 
not prevented the rapid and cease- 
less marches and countermarches of 
mighty armies in every age. One of 
the earliest of Aryan texts is the 
prayer: "May we go smoothly along 
the roads, find good pathways in the 
mountains, run easily through the 
forests, and cross happily the rivers!" 182 
During one campaign, we are told, 

APRIL 1952 



the army of Juji "was separated by 
only about twelve hundred miles" 
from the main body of Mongols. 1S3 

That should give some idea of the 
distances covered by these hordes that 
would winter in the plains of France 
or Hungary and make their summer 
camps in the Altai or on the Onon 
River almost within sight of the 
North Pacific. It was not all flat 
plains, either, for the kings of the 
steppes extended their rule time and 
again to China, India, Persia, Asia 
Minor, Europe, and Siberia, which 
meant regularly traversing some of 
the greatest deserts, highest moun- 
tains, and widest rivers on earth. 

The Asiatic state consists of two 
main elements, on the one hand a 
sedentary populace living in oases 
cities and bringing the arts, industry, 
and agriculture to sometimes aston- 
ishing peaks of perfection, and on the 
other hand a migratory ruler, moving 
at the head of his warlike host — a 
tribal army of conquerors with his 
own tribe and family as its nucleus — 
ever marching from city to city and 
from castle to castle over burning 
wastes or freezing mountain passes 
to overawe the world, stifle rebellion, 
and above all curtail the ambitions 
of any possible rival to world domin- 
ion. 183 " This army is a moving nation, 
with its wives and children — the 



Mongols when they left their fam- 
ilies behind inaugurated a radical 
change in steppe warfare, achieving 
a speed and mobility that quickly 
paralyzed the slower-moving hordes 
or their rivals, who still observed the 
old-fashioned custom of marching 
with their families and household ef- 
fects. The Hyksos in the eighteenth 
century B.C., and the People of the 
Sea five hundred years later were just 
such nations on the march — a devas- 
tating army, but an army carrying 
all their goods and families along 
with them as they sought new lands 
to settle, "sweeping off the inhabi- 
tants of the land, all who would not 
join with them," exactly in the Jared- 
ite manner. (Ibid., 15:27.) 184 At all 
times among the people of the steppes 
"the nation and the army are one 
and the same; the lord of the clan 
or rex becoming duke or vovoid" in 
battle. 185 This is certainly the case 
with the Jaredites, whose kings are 
before everything leaders in the field, 
and who go to battle "with their 
wives and their children — both men, 
women, and children being armed 
with weapons of war, having shields 
and breastplates, and head-plates, and 
being clothed after the manner of 
war." (Ibid., 15:15.) The armor de- 
serves mention, since it is now known 

(Continued on following page) 

237 



THE WORLD OF THE JAREDIIES 



(Continued from preceding page) 
that armor is another central Asiatic 
invention of great antiquity, bor- 
rowed in later times by Europe and 
the Far East, but reaching a high 
state of perfection on the steppes in 
prehistoric times. 188 

Since the Jaredite kings with their 
migratory armies were constantly on 
the move in the best Asiatic manner, 
is there any reason why they should 
not have covered Asiatic distances? 
Then why all the fuss about Cumo- 
rah? From the Narrow Neck of Land 
to New York state is a distance that 
staggers us, but for Juji or Timur it 
would be a milk run. Because we 
think of journeys in terms of hours 
or days at the most we are liable to 
forget that people who never stop 
moving think of space not in terms 
of time but of stages, and that when 
it is broken down into stages, the 
longest route on earth becomes ne- 
gotiable even to the most primitive 
means of transportation — in a word, 
distance is no object. A glance at the 
map will show that the vast extent 
of territory covered by the Jaredites 
is really rather moderate by Asiatic 
standards. The Brigham Young Uni- 
versity expedition of 1900 actually 
took teams and wagons from Provo 
to Peru in a matter not of decades 
but of weeks. 

When King Omer was overthrown 
by his son Jared, he had to travel 
"many days" before he was beyond 
the reach of the usurper who had 
seized a kingdom that was "spread 
upon all the face of the land." {Ibid., 
9:3, 7:11.) In fact he fled as far as 
he possibly could, from Central Amer- 
ica to the Great Lakes and New Eng- 
land coast regions, which were to be- 
come the classic hiding and fighting 
grounds of the latest Jaredites. It is 
here that we must seek the bones and 
burial mounds of the Jaredites, but 
not their cities. Just as the great 
structures of the Mongols, among the 
noblest buildings on earth, are to be 
found in the south and west, far 
from the primordial hunting and 
fighting grounds of the tribes, so the 
great monuments of Jaredite civiliza- 
tion abound in the lands of the south 
that they first settled rather than in 
the wilderness of the last great bat- 
tles. One of the strange paradoxes 
of history is that the nomads of the 
steppes were perhaps the greatest 
builders of all time, though their nor- 

238 



mal type of "city" was "more sug- 
gestive of an ordo-like tent-city than 
a town in the usual sense." 187 In the 
lands that the Mongol conquers, he 
builds Taj Mahals and Jehols, but in 
his own lands the "winds clean up the 
place which has been soiled, the pas- 
tures which his flocks have cropped 
grow greener than ever, and Nature 
promptly repairs all the mischief he 
has done to her clean orderliness." 1 * 8 
And so "mighty nomad empires rose 
and vanished into the unknown" 
without a trace. The thing to note 
is that in the Asiatic pattern: camp 
culture, that leaves no mark behind, 
and city culture have been character- 
istically sponsored by the same tribes 
and rulers since the beginning of his- 
tory. That people should live as no- 



The Throne of Darius, depicting among 
other things Darius himself sitting upon 
the throne. An inscription on the throne 
reads: "Behold the representation of those 
who bear my throne, and you shall know 
how great is the number of the lands 
which Darius the King has seized." Com- 
pare this with the "exceedingly beautiful 
throne'' of Riplakish (Ether 10:6) and 
the oppressive means by which he got it. 



/*= 




mads and yet build great cities is no 
more contradictory than that they 
should be both hunters and farmers 
or both herdsmen and merchants at 
one and the same time. But from the 
first, men have preferred to practise 
hunting, grazing, and farming in spe- 
cial areas set aside for the purpose, 
a custom duly observed by the Jare- 
dites, as we have seen. (Ibid., 10:19- 
21. ) 189 A study of the old Asiatic 
system will provide a ready explana- 
tion for any apparent difficulties in 
locating Cumorah where the Book of 
Mormon says it was. 

The normal life of Asia is one of 
chaos, violence, and insecurity pro- 
duced by constant warring between 
the tribes and rivalry among ambi- 
tious men within them. From time 
to time a superman appears who, first 
gaining complete control of one tribe, 
ruthlessly crushes his neighbors one 
by one, forcing the survivors to make 
common cause against him and form 
a great coalition; a final showdown 
in which this coalition is either de- 
stroyed or victorious in a great "battle 
of the nations" decides the fate of the 
world for generations to come. If 
the great man wins, the world knows 
a period of enforced peace and unity 
under the absolute sway of one iron 
will. At any moment in his career 
the world conqueror has to face one 
particular rival, his most dangerous 
rival of the hour, against whom his 
whole attention is directed with pas- 
sionate personal hatred and dedicated 
fury. This can be shown from almost 
any page of the life of any would-be 
cosmocrat from Sargon to Hitler. It 
is the leitmotif of Jaredite history as 
well, which, whenever it becomes co- 
herent, crystalizes about the person of 
some dreadful but competent warrior 
pitted against an equally alarming 
rival. While "Coriantumr dwelt with 
his army in the wilderness for the 
space of two years, in which he did 
receive strength to his army," his op- 
ponent Shared "also received strength 
to his army" through the operation 
of "secret combinations." Later Cori- 
antumr pitched his tents by the hill 
Ramah and spent four years "gather- 
ing together the people." (Ibid., 15: 
11-14.) Just so, Genghiz Khan hid 
out in the wilderness for two years 
recruiting an army against his rela- 
tive Wang Khan, who was doing the 
same thing, 190 and later devoted four 

(Continued on page 258) 
THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 




N TIHI 



E^ j^N &<Azsts£ie\& 



DRINKING AND WHAT TO 
DO ABOUT IT 

(William A. DeWitt. Grosset & Dun- 
lap, Inc., New York, N. Y. 186 pages. 
$2.00.) 

A large number of books of recent 
publication point out the folly of 
alcoholic consumption whether by 
individual or state. This may mean, 
let us hope it does, that America is 
awakening to the evil of intemperance. 
In seven brief but comprehensive chap- 
ters the problem is discussed, including 
the things to lessen the drink habit. 
The attached very useful bibliography 
will help students of the subject. The 
book can be recommended to all inter- 
ested in the subject. — J. A. W. 

THE BOOK OF ABRAHAM 
BROUGHT FORTH BY DIVINE 

MEANS 

(Arch S. Reynolds, 80 West First North, 
Springville, Utah. Published by the 
author. Paper bound. 62 pages. $.50.) 
Tn this pamphlet has been accumulated 
a great number of facts connected 
with the Book of Abraham which can 
be easily found and used by students. 
It is an interesting contribution to 
literature of this remarkable book. 

—]. A. W. 

OUR LEADERS 

(Compiled by Doyle L. Green. Deseret 
Book Co., Salt Lake City. 1951. 122 
pages. $1.00.) 

/^\ur leaders, a small volume compiled 
and arranged by Doyle L. Green, 
managing editor of The Improvement 
Era, is the outgrowth of the "Solemn 
Assembly," held on April 9, 1951, fol- 
lowing the death of President George 
Albert Smith, for the purpose of re- 
organizing the First Presidency and 
sustaining Elder Joseph Fielding Smith 
to preside over the Council of the 
Twelve. 

The book is arranged in four sections, 
the first dealing with President David 
O. McKay, the second with President 
Stephen L Richards, the third with 
President J. Reuben Clark, Jr., and the 
fourth with President Joseph Fielding 
Smith. In each of these sections there 
appears a page or more of quotations 
from the sermons of the respective pres- 
idents and a brief biographical sketch, 
followed by his "Solemn Assembly 
address." 

This volume is worthy to be in the 
libraries of all Latter-day Saints to re- 
mind us of the great occasion when the 
present First Presidency and President 
Joseph Fielding Smith — beloved proph- 
APRIL 1952 



ets of God — were called by the Most 
High and sustained by the Saints to 
direct the activities of the Church and 
kingdom of our Lord and Savior, Jesus 
Christ.— M. R. H. 

BORN OF THOSE YEARS 
(Perry Burgess. Henry Holt & Co., New 
York. 1951. 307 pages. $4.00.) 
r pHis autobiography is much more than 
the story of one man's life, for it is 
his valiant battle against the dread 
disease leprosy. The author states in 
his foreword that an autobiography 
"must be undertaken in a spirit of great 
humility. . . . My work has taken me 
over the Seven Seas, mountains, and 
through jungles. I have poked my nose 
into almost every country on earth. 
Mine has been the most absorbing work 
a man can do, because it is an attempt 
to meet the problems of the most tragic, 
the most neglected, and the most gallant 
people on the face of the earth — those 
who are the victims of leprosy." 

One of his first assignments was that 
of raising funds to enable Dr. Wilfred 
Grenfell, the famed Labrador doctor, to 
carry on his work. GrenfelPs "passion to 
preserve human dignity" is good to read 
about. 

Fascinating as a novel, this book will 
prove of lasting value because of the 
factual nature of the work done by Dr. 
Burgess and others to help these victims 
of leprosy.— M. C. /. 

OVER A BAMBOO FENCE 

(Margery Finn Brown. William Morrow 
& Co., New York. 1951. 239 pages. 
$2.50.) 

'HPhe author, an army officer's wife 
who lived in Japan for about two 
years, states that there are three Japans: 
"The old Japan which is far from dead, 
the future Japan which is anybody's 
guess, and occupied Japan. ..." More- 
over, the author states, "We have an 
opportunity to make eighty million 
friends on the other side of the world. 
We can't afford to be apathetic." Funda- 
mentally, in spite of different cultures, 
ideals, and geography, Japanese and 
Americans want the same things: food, 
shelter, and opportunity for happiness. 
Mrs. Brown points out differences as 
well as indicating points of comparison. 
Some needs in Japan could easily be 
met by understanding people. 

The book indicates the difficulties 
of occupation and fundamental differ- 
ences in points of view on life. Genuine 
understanding may, however, bridge the 
gaps that are now so apparent. — M. C. /. 



THE WORD LIVES ON 
(Frances Brentano. Doubleday & Co., 
Inc., Garden City, New York. 1951. 355 
pages. $3.95.) 

nTHis collection of sixty-four selections 
from popular and classical fiction 
dealing with religion will provide in ad- 
dition to good reading, a springboard to 
other writings that will provide addi- 
tional hours of reading pleasure. The 
author has included, with biographical 
material, some of the best-known and 
widely accepted books other than the 
excerpts which she has included in this 
book. 

The collection will be particularly 
helpful to those who need concrete ap- 
plication for their teaching. — M. C. /. 



THE FAMILY SCRAPBOOK 

(Ernest G. Osborne. Association Press, 

New York. 1951. 457 pages. $3.95.) 

"P\r. Osborne in this book indicates 
approaches that may solve prob- 
lems — and save dispositions and even 
family unity. Thirteen major sections, 
with page-by- page analyses, make the 
book particularly helpful. Some of the 
section titles will indicate the useful- 
ness of the entire book: Family Begin- 
nings, When They Are Very Young, The 
Lively Period, Boys and Girls Together, 
Dads Are Necessary, Too, This Busi- 
ness of Discipline, Parents and Children 
Look at One Another, Family-Centered 
Activities, Hints for Handy Home 
Crafts. A complete index also in- 
creases the usefulness of the book. 

— M. C. /. 

MASTER PLAN U.S.A. 

(John Fischer. Harper & Bros., New 

York. 1951. 253 pages. $3.00.) 

HpHis analysis of the foreign policy of 
the United States is one that de- 
serves careful evaluation by all citizens 
of this country. Furthermore, the book 
will have great import for the allies 
of the United States as well as for those 
who are opposed to United States' 
ideology. The section headings will 
indicate in large measure the pattern 
for the book as well as its development: 
The Planners and their Plan, the Master 
Plan in Action, Forecast. Mr. Fischer, 
who has studied world politics, has an 
insight into this problem that cannot 
afford to be overlooked. It is a serious 
book by a serious, qualified author who 
would like an informed public. The 
author concludes his analysis by stating, 
"Soviet dictatorship remains enormously 
powerful and menacing. Its challenge 
may well test the courage and endur- 
ance of the Western world to the utter- 
most limits. Both justice and the course 
of history are on our side, however. . . ." 

— M. C. /. 
239 



Miriam stalked up the steep path, 
her full water jar balanced on 
her gray head. At a turn just 
above the well she stopped, listening 
to the women below. 

"Miriam's sullen again. Did you 
hear her snap when I asked for her 
date bread recipe? 'I cannot give 
away a secret recipe traditional in 
my Jerusalem family!' " mimicked the 
old midwife of Emmaus. "What's her 
family more than mine? All of us 
Jews are under the Roman curse!" 

"Cleopas neglects her to burrow 
through the musty scrolls of the 
prophets," Miriam heard another 
say; "they say he has a scroll of the 
prophets up his tunic sleeve when 
he goes to pasture sheep! No wonder 
she neglects his house! And what a 
mess it is!" 

"Well, who's happy married to a 
mole or a heavy-witted bear?" piped 
the old woman and cackled, "some 
day she'll poison his pottage." 

Miriam hurried past Cleopas, who 
was slouched on the terrace, a parch- 
ment roll spread over his knees, deaf 
to the bleats of sheep not yet led to 
pasture. In her limestone hut she 
slammed the jar down, laughing at 
the startled outcry of Cleopas. Then 
she dropped to the floor, leaned on 
her kneading trough and sobbed 
aloud, "I hate those old musty 



scro 



lis!" 



Cleopas clumped in, paid no at- 
tention to her tears, but ordered, 
"Make ready a good supper; we are 
to have a guest," then went out. 

Her spirits brightened as she 
worked. A guest would be nice, 
even if Cleopas, as usual, should 
plop his great paw down to hold 
every argument. A guest would be 
a change. She dashed out, plucked 
her husband's sleeve with her floured 
fingers, asking, "Tell me, who is our 
guest to be?" 

"A young teacher from Galilee 
visiting his cousins by the Jordan. Go 
in and don't disturb me again. I 
must finish this roll and get it back 
to the priest so he will lend me an- 
other." 

She went in humming. A young 
man from Galilee; he could tell her 
how things went in that province 
where her five sons had scattered 
with their families. 

The room took on cheer; she filled 
a bowl with drooping almond plumes 
and set it on the rude table. She 
sighed with relief to see Cleopas busy 
clearing the dooryard of rubbish. 

240 




SUPPER GUEST 



by Janie Rhyne 



Suddenly she heard children's 
laughter. Swinging up the winding 
path thronged by neighborhood chil- 
dren came a sturdy young man. He 
loosed one hand from the hold of a 
little girl, snipped a wayside lily, 
stooped to let each child see its 
beauty, held it to the nose of the 
tiniest tot, then playfully tucked it in 
her curls. At the door he waved the 
children away, stood with his head 
almost touching the lintel, his strong 
features radiant. He smiled as he 
made his own introduction; and by 
the time Cleopas came to begin a 
lengthy ceremonial of greeting, she 
already knew their guest! 

When the meal began, he broke a 
loaf of date-almond bread and gave 
thanks. He ate heartily; again and 
again he broke a warm fragrant loaf, 
spread it with curd and praised its 
goodness. All aglow, Miriam had 
him repeat three times after her the 
recipe he must take back to his mother 
in Nazareth. His tales rippled through 
the hour like pleasant music. There 
was none of the ponderous talk that 
Cleopas and his friends used, keep- 



ing their women ignorant during 
conversation. Yet Miriam, clearing 
up the table while the men strolled 
over the meadow, as she went over 
his stories, found rich, hidden kernels 
of truth, strong food for hope. They 
were the very bread of life! 

She felt so gloriously alive she must 
hurry out to him to miss not a min- 
ute more of his stay! 

He was merry as a boy; and 
Cleopas' stocky figure shook with 
mirth as they watched a lamb frisk- 
ing. But after she joined them and 
the talk sobered to the best methods 
of sheep raising, the teacher sudden- 
ly broke off and said in tones that 
shook with conviction: "I am the 
good shepherd; the good shepherd 
giveth his life for his sheep." Miriam 
could not understand. 

When he had gone and they went 
in, their dark hut seemed to glow. 
Cleopas dropped his hand on 
Miriam's shoulder, looked deep into 
her eyes. His voice was husky: 
"His words are so wonderful Miriam. 
Could he be- — oh, how Israel needs 
the Messiah our prophets have fore- 

THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 



told!" Then she understood, and 
with shame, the selfless yearning that 
had kept him poring over the scrolls! 

In the weeks that followed, to 
think of the teacher was to have, 
within, a fountain of joy and strength. 
Her work was a delight. Fellowship 
with the simple neighbors seemed 
natural and good; she shared her 
housewifely lore with them, even the 
recipe she'd let become a fetish. "It 
is the bread the Master enjoyed," 
she would say proudly; and Cleopas 
often added, "My wife's bread is the 
best in all Judea." 

The two shared chores all day, 
and their place took on an air of 
prosperity. Twilights they would sit 
in the doorway, his heavy arm about 
her, as they studied the scrolls. One 
balmy summer evening, he let her 
make up his mind. She rolled up 
the scroll, laid it aside. "Take it back 
to the priest tomorrow," she said. 
"The shearing has long been done; 
the young lambs are hardy now. We 
will go to visit our sons; and we'll 
follow the teacher about until his 
words satisfy our question." 

They were gone for weeks, and 
many of the Emmaus folk were with 
them. When they came home, 
Miriam hurried to the well, found 
the old busybody midwife. "You 
must know the good news," she 
jubilated. "He heals the sick; thou- 
sands follow him; he fed thousands 
from the few barley loaves I had 
put into my little grandson's lunch 
basket! But, oh, best of all, he held 
our grandchildren on his knees, and 
he blessed them! Think of it, he 
must be the very Messiah! And my 
son's sons have his blessing!" 

A man near the well answered: 
"We must have him come here soon!" 

"I'll give him lodging," the old 
midwife said, hesitantly. 

Miriam answered, "He will be our 
guest!" 

'"Then winter set in. Shut up long 
evenings with Cleopas, Miriam 
was smothered again with his old 
moroseness. She dragged the reason 
from him: "I cannot understand the 
word people bring of the teacher. He 
hides from the crowds that would 
make him king!" 

One day he went to Jerusalem and 
returned, saying nothing about the 
bulge she saw in his tunic sleeve. That 
night she peeped at him, down in the 
lower room near the donkey stall, 
miserably bowed over a scroll. When 

APRIL 1952 



he finally came to bed, she slipped 
back, pulled the roll from where he 
had hidden it above the low rafters. 
There were marks left by his pudgy 
fingers near the line: "As a sheep 
before his shearers is dumb, so he 
openeth not his mouth." 

Only one other time that winter 
did he mention the Master's name. 
"They say in Jerusalem that only 
Nicodemus of all the rulers believes 
in him. He angers the priests by 
healing on the Sabbath." 

Miriam exploded: "Tell me, do the 
sick and the dead mind his saving 
them on the Sabbath?" So the old 
wall of silence rose between them. 
Many a night, while Cleopas slept, 
she would cry aloud, "If he could 
just come for one more meal with us, 
everything would be all right again!" 

Questioning neighbors from time 
to time, she learned how Jesus' fol- 
lowers fell away; how he had almost 
been stoned; how the Pharisees sent 
spies to trick him. She was frantic. 
What little sleep she got was terrible 
with nightmares. In them he became 
confused with her own sons in 
identity. Her very own were in 
desperate danger and she was help- 
less! She determined that this Pass- 
over nothing should keep her from 
Jerusalem. She would find him there, 
bring him home, and hide him until 
the anger of the priests and elders 
burned out. Who would look for 
him in out-of-the-way Emmaus? 

She said nothing of her purpose 
to Cleopas; not even on the journey, 
which they took moodily alone. They 
had gone as far as Bethany with 
hardly a word. There they were 
caught up in a sea of excitement, a 
crowd that swept them apart, a yell- 








\Aa-0 




^- vu Wv, 



ing mass of humanity surging toward 
the temple in Jerusalem. 

"Hosanna! Hosanna!" the crowd 
clamored. 

"Who is it? What is it?" Miriam 
screamed at the man nearest her. 

"The Teacher. See him on the 
white ass? Shout, daughter of Israel, 
shout, 'Hosanna to the Son of 
David!' " She shouted herself hoarse, 
even while something deep inside her 
shouted, "This is a fickle mob!" In the 
uproar she could single out the deep 
bass of Cleopas. He leaped up and 
down, clapped his hands, and yelled 
as if the very strength of his cries 
could push the Teacher to a throne. 

More and more voices yelled, more 
and more bodies packed and pushed. 
Outside the temple Miriam, tiptoeing, 
saw the Teacher disappear within. A 
few minutes later, she wrung her 
hands to see the oxen stampeding out 
of the great gates, lashed by a whip 
in his hand; to see the maddened 
money-changers stumble out the im- 
posing doorway, lashed by his ring- 
ing shout: "You have made my 
Father's house a den of thieves!" 

She must wedge her way to him! 
But trying, she was trampled down. 

Through every day of Passover 
week she felt that people and events 
were being shoved toward the brink 
of doom by a force none dared resist. 
At night she inquired from door to 
door, "Where does the Teacher 
dwell?" She pushed her way into 
every crowd, straining to see if he 
were there. 

The day before the Sabbath she 
found herself among the mob by the 
road to Calvary. Roman soldiers 
urged him on as he fainted beneath 
his cross. 

"Weep not for me, daughters of 
Jerusalem," he said; and his pitying 
eyes met Miriam's. She stretched 
her arms toward him, crying, "I 
came to take you home with me!" 

Then, helpless as a clod, she 
watched him climb his way to 
Calvary. 

Tt was mid-morning of the first day 
of the week. In the throng that 
swarmed out of Jerusalem's upper 
gate, Cleopas urged forward his wife, 
now suddenly old and shriveled and 
weak. Brushing past a Roman soldier 
with a gleaming spear, he hurried 
her roughly into the lonely Emmaus 
road. 

They dragged along wearily for 

hours. By late afternoon a sense of 

(Continued on page 280) 

241 



SPIRITUALITY and 




-Salt Lake Tribune Photo 



Are those who worship God justi- 
fied in going to war — in taking 
L human life — in building battle- 
ships, guns, and atomic bombs? 

What should be the attitude of the 
Church in time of war? 

Will the righteous be protected on 
the field of battle? 

Do nations, humbled by the rav- 
ages of war, turn to God? 

Why, if God exists, does he not 
stop war and destruction among his 
children? 

These questions face us almost 
daily and are calling forth confused 
answers. 

War is an Evil 

Most men will agree that war is an 
evil because the business of those 
engaged in war is to kill the enemy 
and destroy his property. War is 
considered evil because it arouses 
hatred, promotes greed, and destroys 
spirituality. There are, however, 
voices raised here and there in de- 
fense of war. The arguments put 
forth are the age-old arguments that 
wars make a nation virulent, keep 
the population of the earth in check, 
and provide the incentive for new 
inventions which in turn bless man- 
kind. 

Christian Confusion 

Because certain passages of scrip- 
ture, taken by themselves, seem to 
condemn all who take up the sword, 
so-called Christians in general have 
many problems in time of war. 

"Thou shalt not kill," declared the 
Lord on Mt. Sinai. (Exodus 20:13.) 

Again, we hear the words of the 
Savior to Peter, "... Put up again 
thy sword into his place: for all they 
that take the sword shall perish with 
the sword." (Matt. 26:52.) 

To the twelve disciples the Lord 
taught, 

Ye have heard that it was said by them 
of old time, Thou shalt not kill; and who- 
soever shall kill shall be in danger of the 
judgment: 

But I say unto you, That whosoever is 
angry with his brother without a cause 
shall be in danger of the judgment: . . . 
(Ibid., 5:21-22.) 



Ye have heard that it hath been said, 
An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tqoth: 

But I say unto you, That ye resist not 
evil: but whosoever shall smite thee on thy 
right cheek, turn to him the other also. 
(Ibid., 5:38-39.) 

There are those among the Chris- 
tians who consider these passages as 
constituting the whole law. Most 
prominent among these is a group 
whose position in regard to war has 



III 

The Book of Mormon 

speaks on current 

problems 



242 



become so well-established that many 
countries respect their point of view 
and, in time of war, appoint their 
conscripted young men to tasks other 
than the manipulation of weapons 
of destruction. Others have refused 
to support war in any capacity. Such 
views are in direct contrast to that 
of another sect who has justified wars 
so long as the leader directs his sub- 
jects to fight them. Historically, 
some religious leaders have called 
upon Christians to fight for the Holy 
Land and have even directed princes 
of Europe to war upon their neigh- 
bors, where the neighboring king- 
doms became rebellious. Others have 
supported what are called "just wars." 

Most churches have abhorred war, 
but in time of conflict have given 
support along lines of economic or 
national interest. Churches have 
often divided in time of war. Such 
a division occurred in the United 
States during the Civil War. A 
typical example of Protestant con- 
fusion on the issue of war is shown 
in the report of the Oxford Confer- 
ence of 1942. Although the question 
of what position the so-called Chris- 
tian churches should take in the rag- 
ing world war came up for prolonged 
discussion, no unanimity of opinion 
was reached, and the delegates went 
home with the injunction, "Support 
your respective countries," and they 
might have added, "right or wrong." 

THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 



ARMED CONFLICT 



by William E. Berrett 



ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION, 
BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY 



The Book of Mormon Speaks 

In the midst of this Christian con- 
fusion the Book of Mormon speaks 
with a clarion voice. And the voice 
is that of servants of the Most High. 
The Nephite prophets, like all proph- 
ets of God, condemned war and 
valiantly sought peace. Nevertheless, 
these prophets prized liberty even 
above life and were ready to fight to 
preserve it. 

Notwithstanding the horrors and 
evils of war and the beauty of peace, 
there is a greater purpose in life 
than merely remaining peaceful. Life 
calls for growth of the soul. Oppor- 
tunities for growth arise only where 
man retains his freedom, his free 
agency, his right to live, work, and 
worship according to the dictates 
of his own conscience. To retain for 
man this free agency, without which 
progress is impossible, God rejected 
Lucifer and his plan for man on the 
earth. (See Moses 4:3.) 

Preparation Often Prevents War 

The Nephite people with the sanc- 
tion and often the direct aid of their 
prophets prepared arms, walls, and 
towers for the defense of their cities. 
Thus we read: 



raandments ye shall prosper in the land. 
(Jarom 1:8-9.) 

The great general, Moroni, himself 
a mighty man of God, seeing the La- 
manites preparing for war, hastened 
to prepare his own people for the 
defense of their liberties. 

Now it came to pass that while 
Amalickiah had thus been obtaining power 
by fraud and deceit, Moroni, on the other 
hand, had been preparing the minds of the 
people to be faithful unto the Lord their 
God. 

Yea, he had been strengthening the 
armies of the Nephites, and erecting small 
forts, or places of resort; throwing up 
banks of earth round about to en dose his 
armies, and also building walls of stone 
to encircle them about, round about their 
cities and the borders of their lands; yea, 
all round about the land. 

And in their weakest fortifications he 
did place the greater number of men; and 
thus he did fortify and strengthen the land 
which was possessed by the Nephites. 

And thus he was preparing to support 
their liberty, their lands, their wives, and 
their children, and their peace, and that 
they might live unto the Lord their God, 
and that they might maintain that which 
was called by their enemies the cause of 
Christians. (Alma 48:7-10.) 

It is well to note what Mormon 
writes of this great general, after 
whom he named his own son: 



And Moroni was a strong and a mighty 
man; he was a man of a perfect understand- 
ing; yea, a man that did not delight in 
bloodshed; a man whose soul did joy in the 
liberty and the freedom of his country, 
and his brethren from bondage and slav- 
ery; . . . 

Yea, and he was a man who was firm 
in the faith of Christ, and he had sworn 
with an oath to defend his people, his 
rights, and his country, and his religion, 
even to the loss of his blood. (Ibid., 48:11, 
13.) 

Prophets Fight to Protect Life, 
Liberty, and Property 

That the Nephites believed that 
God expected them to fight if neces- 
sary to preserve their life and liberty 
is shown by the following comment 
of Mormon: 

Nevertheless, the Nephites were inspired 
by a better cause, for they were not fighting 
for monarchy nor power but they were 
fighting for their homes and their liberties, 
their wives and their children, and their 
all, yea, for their rites of worship and their 
church. 

And they were doing that which they 
felt was the duty which they owed to their 
God; for the Lord had said unto them, 
and also unto their fathers, that: Inasmuch 
as ye are not guilty of the first offense, 
neither the second, ye shall not suffer your- 
selves to be slain by the hands of your 



enemies. 



(Continued on following page) 



And I, Nephi, did take the sword of 
Laban, and after the manner of it did make 
many swords, lest by any means the people 
who were now called Lamanites should 
come upon us and destroy us; for I knew 
their hatred towards me and my children 
and those who were called my people. 
(II Nephi 5:14.) 

Jarom also believed in prepared- 
ness for war, for he wrote: 

And we multiplied exceedingly, and 
spread upon the face of the land, and be- 
came exceeding rich in gold, and in silver, 
and in precious things, and in fine work- 
manship of wood, in buildings, and in 
machinery, and also in iron and copper, 
and brass and steel, making all manner 
of tools of every kind to till the ground, 
and weapons of war — yea, the sharp 
pointed arrow, and the quiver, and the 
dart, and the javelin, and all preparations 
for war. 

And thus being prepared to meet the 
Lamanites, they did not prosper against 
us. But the word of the Lord was verified, 
which he spake unto our fathers, saying 
that: Inasmuch as ye will keep my com- 




* (See page 296 for note on author) 
APRIL 1952 



—Harold M. Lambert Photo 

243 



SPIRITUALITY AND ARMED CONFLICT 



(Continued from preceding page) 
And again, the Lord has said that: Ye 
shall defend your families even unto blood- 
shed. Therefore for this cause were the 
Nephites contending with the Lamanites, 
to defend themselves, and their families, 
and their lands, their country, and their 
rights, and their religion. (Ibid., 43:45-47.) 

The Prophet Alma armed his peo- 
ple and personally led them in a civil 
war against a wicked king who had 
seized the throne. Of one of the 
battles we read: 

And it came to pass that Alma fought 
with Amlici with the sword, face to face; 
and they did contend mightily, one with 
another. 

And it came to pass that Alma, being a 
man of God, being exercised with much 
faith, cried, saying: O Lord, have mercy 
and spare my life, that I may be an in- 
strument in thy hands to save and preserve 
this people. 

Now when Alma had said these words 
he contended again with Amlici; and he 
was strengthened, insomuch that he slew 
Amlici with the sword. (Ibid., 2:29-31.) 

The Nephite missionary Ammon 
did not hesitate to defend property 
entrusted to his care even though 
such defense resulted in the shedding 
of the blood of those who attacked 
him. (See Ibid., 17:25-39.) 

The Nephite governor, Pahoran, in 
a letter to the great General Moroni, 
justifies the shedding of blood by 
warfare in these words: 

And now, behold, we will resist wicked- 
ness even unto bloodshed. We would not 
shed the blood of the Lamanites if they 
would stay in their own land. 

We would not shed the blood of our 
brethren if they would not rise up in 
rebellion and take the sword against us. 

We would subject ourselves to the yoke 
of bondage if it were requisite with the 
justice of God, or if he should command 
us so to do. 

But behold he doth not command us 
that we shall subject ourselves to our ene- 
mies, but that we should put our trust in 
him, and he will deliver us. 

Therefore, my beloved brother, Moroni, 
let us resist evil, and whatsoever evil we 
cannot resist with our words, yea, such as 
rebellions and dissensions, let us resist 
them with our swords, that we may retain 
our freedom, that we may rejoice in the 
great privilege of our church, and in the 
cause of our Redeemer and our God. (Ibid., 
61:10-14.) 

God helps the Righteous in Their 
Battles 

The Nephites were taught that God 
would prosper them in battles fought 
in self-defense: 
244 



Now the Nephites were taught to de- 
fend themselves against their enemies, even 
to the shedding of blood if it were neces- 
sary; yea, and they were also taught never 
to give an offense, yea, and never to raise 
the sword except it were against an enemy, 
except it were to preserve their lives. 

And this was their faith, that by so doing 
God would prosper them in the land, or 
in other words, if they were faithful in 
keeping the commandments of God that 
he would prosper them in the land; yea, 
warn them to flee, or to prepare for war, 
according to their danger. (Ibid., 48:14-15.) 

The method by which God aided 
the righteous in their battles is most 
interesting: 







And also, that God would make it known 
unto them whither they should go to 
defend themselves against their enemies, 
and by so doing, the Lord would deliver 
them; and this was the faith of Moroni, 
and his heart did glory in it; not in the 
shedding of blood but in doing good, in 
preserving his people, yea, in keeping the 
commandments of God, yea, and resisting 
iniquity. 

Yea, verily, verily I say unto you, if all 
men had been, and were, and ever would 
be, like unto Moroni, behold, the very 
powers of hell would have been shaken 
forever; yea, the devil would never have 
power over the hearts of the children of 
men. (Ibid., 48:16-17.) 

That God did not condemn his 
prophets for taking up the sword in 
defense of life and liberty is shown 
by the fact that he did not withdraw 
his Spirit from them. Nephi received 
remarkable visions and visitations by 
angels after slaying the wicked King 
Laban. Alma is visited by an angel 
not long after killing Amlici in battle. 
Ammon is full of the Spirit both 
during and after his battle with the 
Lamanite bandits. Moroni is directed 



in battle by the Spirit of the Lord, 
which informs him of the movements 
of the enemy. 

The Righteous May Be Slain in 
Battle 

In a remarkable letter to Pahoran, 
governor of the Nephite lands, the 
prophet-general, Moroni, gives an- 
swer to a question every soldier's 
mother is asking: "Will God permit 
a righteous boy to be slain on the 
field of battle?" Some of the Nephite 
parents must have been asking the 
same question, for in his letter Moroni 
says: 

Do ye suppose that, because so many of 
your brethren have been killed it is because 
of their wickedness? I say unto you, if ye 
have supposed this ye have supposed in 
vain; for I say unto you, there are many 
who have fallen by the sword; and behold 
it is to your condemnation; 

For the Lord suffereth the righteous to 
be slain that his justice and judgment may 
come upon the wicked; therefore, ye need 
not suppose that the righteous are lost 
because they are slain; but behold, they 
do enter into the rest of the Lord their 
God. (Ibid., 60:12-13.) 

Moroni did not expect God's help 
unless his people should become dili- 
gent in their own cause. 

And now behold, I say unto you, I fear 
exceedingly that the judgments of God will 
come upon this people, because of their 
exceeding slothfulness, yea, even the sloth- 
fulness of our government, and their ex- 
ceeding great neglect towards their brethren, 
yea, towards those who have been slain. 
(Ibid., 60:14.) 

God Will Not Take Away Mans 
Free Agency 

As the blood and carnage of battle 
spread across the earth, there are 
always those who are ready to deny 
a God who will not put an end to 
such brutality and slaughter. Why 
does a just God permit the innocent 
to be slain? 

Again the Book of Mormon gives 
answer. God will not take away from 
men their free agency. Men may 
abuse their free agency. They may 
in its exercise become carnal, sensual, 
and devilish. They may make war 
on their neighbors and put the inno- 
cent to death, but interfere with that 
free agency and the whole purpose of 
life is frustrated, and progress is 
ended. The law is set forth in plain- 
continued on page 271) 
THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 




— Farrell R. Collett 



"I told you young ones not to come sneakin' up and scare 
the daylights out of a person like that. I got a weak heart!" 



Apple Pie in April 



by Frances Stockwell Lovell 



The thin sunshine of an April 
afternoon sifted down upon the as- 
paragus bed where Uncle bent his 
stiff knees to the spring job of hoeing 
around the new green shoots. His 
trousers bagged at the knees when he 
stood up from time to time to ease 
his back under the old suit coat that 
Aunty made him wear in the garden. 
It was his best coat ten years back. 

He straightened up at the end of 
the row and leaned his hoe against 
the Blue Pearmain tree beside the 
house next door. He raised his old 
felt hat, worn to the shape of his 
head and that used to be his best 
one when he worked at the express 
office, and scratched the thin place 
on top. He smoothed back his 
mustache and took a look at the 
April sky that already had a warm- 
ish look as if the snows of winter 
were slowly dissolving up there. He 
noticed the buds on the old apple 
tree. He felt a quickening in his 
bones as though something exciting 
would happen today! 

"That's the trouble with you," 
Aunt would have said. "You've not 

APRIL 1952 



grown up yet, and when those young 
ones up the street come visitin' around 
here, you get into trouble!" 

Uncle sighed gently and looked 
up at the swollen branches of the 
old tree. 

"Got another year of life in you, 
too," he mused. "Always think come 
spring, you'll have to go for fire- 
wood!" 

He could hear Prince pawing the 
floor in his stall, feeling the spring in 
his withers. 

Prince, going on fourteen springs, 
was getting as stiff in the knees as 
Uncle. Not even the fire horses 
next door could instil energy into 
Prince, now. 

The kitchen door slammed, and 
Aunt stood on the porch, untying her 
apron in jerky stabs that meant she 
was going somewhere in a hurry. 
Her face was flushed from the wood 
fire and her blonde, graying hair 
hung in hot wisps from her amber 
side combs. 

"I left that apple pie on the kitchen 
table," she called. "You better take 
it up to the church right off before 



you forget it. The supper's at six, 
and the committee'll want it. I got 
to go over to Mis' Bigsby's. She's 
had another spell. Beats all how some 
people are so stubborn they will live 
alone when they're eighty-five — and 
got children, too!" 

Uncle scraped his hoe around a 
few more green tips as the door 
slammed again. Funny, he thought, 
the way you could keep track of 
people by doors slamming. Every 
door had a different slam. Aunt 
was always slamming, doors. The 
kitchen door slammed short and 
sharp like Aunt herself, but the front 
door was heavy and decorous and 
shut with a slow, funereal air. It 
was only used for the special visitors. 
The pantry door had a soft, swishing 
sound like all the good things inside, 
and the dining room door always 
slapped shut into the kitchen as if 
to tell company not to come snoop- 
ing around out there! And the parlor 
door sounded just like the hair- 
wreath on the parlor wall looked. 

Aunt, her clothes changed, came 
out the kitchen door with a basket 
on her arm. Uncle listened to the 
smart sound of her feet fading away 
down the street. He chopped stead- 
ily at the witch grass; this row was 
almost done. 

"Hello, Uncle!" 

He jumped and chopped off a 
whole hoeful of green tips. He swung 
around belligerently to face two chil- 
dren grinning like leprechauns. The 
older one carried a large, fancily 
wrapped package in her arms. 

{Continued on following page) 

245 



APPLE PIE IN APRIL 



(Continued from preceding page) 

"I told you young ones not to 
come sneakin' up and scare the day- 
lights out of a person like that. I 
got a weak heart!" 

"You ain't, either, Uncle! Auntie 
says it's all in your head." Beth, the 
gangling young lady whose short 
honey-colored hair stood out like a 
stiff brush, hugged her package and 
smiled at him. 

"How'd my heart be in my head, 
Td like to know?" Uncle scraped 
jerkily. "Your mother know you're 
here?" 

"She sent us," piped the small 
boy. "We brought the cake plate 
back." 

"Hm." Uncle growled. "Looks like 
a present or something, to me." 

"That's what Mama said!" Beth 
cried. "She said folks ain't got much 
respect for people that borrow all the 
time, but a present's different. Every- 
one'll think it's a present." 

"You didn't borrow it; Aunt sent 
up a cake on it." He knocked his 
hoe against the apple tree. 

"I know, but Mama says it ain't 
what things are in this world that 
count. It's what people think they 
are." 

Uncle grunted and stood up to 
ease the kinks in his back. 

Beth was ten, and Eddie was the 
next. Beth said they went by two's 
in her family until you got to the 
baby who wasn't two yet, so you 
couldn't tell if there would be any 
more or not. They lived two blocks 
down the street, and Uncle was their 
best friend. He played Indian with 
them in the jungle that was the 
asparagus bed in summer. That was 
when Aunt was away. He made 
them ships with real sails and cabins 
and everything, and doll houses that 
Aunt furnished with spool chairs and 
real glass windows and rugs on the 
floor. Aunt and Uncle had never 
had any children. 

Aunt shooed their muddy feet from 
her clean kitchen floor and baked 
them tiny tarts and cakes. Sundays, 
she made them sit stiffly on the horse- 
hair sofa which stuck like needles 
through their clothes, while Uncle 
sat in the Lincoln rocker and bel- 
lowed "Land ob Jubilo" and "March- 
ing Through Georgia" through his 
mustache. 

Aunt said it was enough to raise 
the dead, but they listened, spell- 
246 



bound, munching Russet apples that 
Uncle found in the barrel at the 
foot of the cellar stairs, clean up to 
spring. 

"I got to go up to the meetinghouse 
and bring a pie for the supper to- 
night. You young'uns want to walk 
up with me?" 

Beth's nose quivered like that of 
a foal when it hears its dam whicker. 
Her long legs, ungainly as a colt's, 
encased in long black stockings, 
skipped beside Uncle, as he turned 
toward the' house, like two animated 
exclamation points. Eddie's short, 
fat ones struggled to keep up with 
them. 

"Uncle," Beth's voice was choked 
with excitement. She snapped the 
rubber band of her hat beneath her 
chin with trembling fingers, "can't 
you drive up to the church? I bet 
Prince hasn't been exercised for days. 
I saw Auntie going to Mis' Bigsby's," 
she added. 

Uncle scraped his hoe on the edge 
of the steps. 

"Might be. Only there ain't much 
sense gettin' him all harnessed up to 
go ridin' alone." Now he'd done it! 
He could feel trouble brewing like 
yeast in the April air! 

Two pairs of small legs covered 
the ground to the barn before he 
could clear his throat. When he got 
there, Eddie was in the buggy with 
the summer lap robe of red and 
blue plaid over his knees. In winter, 
in the sleigh, it was plush, heavy 
and prickly, with a man-eating lion 
in vivid colors. It gave you goose 
flesh just to hold that lion on your 
lap! Beth was patting Prince's sur- 
prised nose over the edge of his 



PINK LINES 
By John Nixon, Jr. 

From poems pink with fragrance 
(From redbud boughs in bloom), 
We clip delightful stanzas 
For our room. 

We scrapbook these in vases 
And doubt the epic rose 
Could equally enchant our 
Days of prose. 

Then lest the verses shatter, 
We file their redolence 
Inside our hearts for later 
Reference. 



stall. She shoved the cake plate at 
Uncle. 

"I most forgot it," she said. 

"I got to change my clothes," 
Uncle said. "And don't you kids 
get too near Prince. And don't 
let me forget that pie! Guess Aunt 
would want me to wear my second 
best," he added to himself. 

Prince was backed into the shafts 
while Beth and Eddie sat like 
maharajas above him, the plaid robe 
over their knees. Uncle hurried, 
for as Beth said, you never could 
tell what ideas Aunt might have 
about taking Prince out just to go 
around the corner to the church. 

Uncle climbed in the buggy, took 
the reins, clucked sharply to Prince, 
and they backed down the ramp into 
the yard. In the April sunshine, 
spring danced in the eyes of all three, 
and Prince tossed his head like a 
two-year-old. Uncle held up his 
head to the wind, and his mustache 
spread out like sails as they headed 
up the street. 

Suddenly Beth screamed and 
clutched Uncle's arm. 

"The pie!" she cried. 

"Jumping Jehosophat, the pie!" 
Uncle sawed on the reins and Prince 
almost sat down in the laps of his 
passengers. "You young'uns knock 
everything clean out of my head!" 
Uncle swung Prince around and 
slapped the reins, and Prince tore 
back down the street like six of a 
kind. He sat down on his haunches 
at the back door, like a bronco. Uncle 
wrapped the reins around the whip 
and jumped to the ground. He re- 
trieved the pie from the kitchen table 
and laid it carefully on the floor of 
the buggy. 

"And the first one of you that 
steps in it is a goner," he warned 
fiercely. He picked up the reins 
again, cramped the wheel around, 
and they swung out into main street. 

"Uncle," Beth said sweetly, "Do 
we have to go straight to the church? 
Couldn't we drive around by the 
school? It's such a lovely day!" 
Prince made the turn by the 
school in record time. Beth suddenly 
looked agonized. 

"Don't go so fast!" she pleaded. 
"I — I get sick to my stomach some- 
times." Uncle worriedly pulled 
Prince down to a walk again. Beth 
settled back in satisfaction. You had 

(Continued on page 266) 
THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 



for Gardening News 
at its Timely Best 
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in Your 




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APRIL 1952 



247 



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You now can apply special cultivating ad- 
vantages for fast, thorough work : 

1. Front and rear tool bars can be lifted 
independently. 

2. Delayed lifting of rear bar is auto- 
matic. 

3. Double tool bars are 2>6-inch square, 
double-welded. They permit unlimit- 
ed shank mounting variations. 

4. Both front and rear tool bars are 
adjustable to various tilted positions 
as well as level position. Makes 
possible the exact cultivating action 
of steels you desire. 

Current production is limited. See your Allis- 
Chalmers dealer early. 



For tall crops, flatland-planted, 
such as tomatoes, asparagus 
and broccoli — EXTRA 
HIGH LIFT setting 
provides clearance 
of 29 inches. Tool bars 
available are : front, < 

84 inches (two 42-inch) and 
132 inches (two 66-inch) ; rear, 
96-inch and 120-inch. 

For bedded crops such as let- 
tuce, beets and celery — 
HIGH LIFT setting pro- 
vides clearance of 20*4 
inches. Same 84-inch front 
tool bars as above are 
convertible for this setting. 
One cultivator is all you need! 

Any standard WD Tractor front 
wheel equipment can be used 
with the new HIGH CLEAR- 
ANCE cultivator — (1) dual 
front wheels; (2) single front 
wheel; or (3) adjustable 
front axle ( illustrated ) . 



Shank clamps are reversible, can 
be fastened to either side of the tool 
bar for staggered settings to 
provide greater trash clearance as 
needed. These clamps will securely 
hold all standard cultivator shanks. 




( ALUS-CHALMERS ^ 

\ llRACTOR DIVISION • MILWAUKEE 1, U. S. A. M 




1AZ 



Another Great Implement Advancement 

Engineered and Built in the 

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THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 




Minersville, Beaver (Utah) Stake, reecives the sportsmanship 
trophy from General Superintendent Elbert R. Curtis. 

A Report on 

M MEN BASKETBALL 

1951-52 



by Doyle L. Green 

MANAGING EDITOR 

Only one team can emerge victorious, it is said, and 
that is true when the purpose of a competitive 
activity is solely to name a winner. But when a 
program is built around more lofty ideals, no one can 
lose, and no matter how the final standing appears on 
paper, every team may be a champion and every player 
a star. 

To accomplish this goal is the purpose of the athletic 
program of the Young Men's Mutual Improvement As- 
sociation, and stories coming out of the 1951-52 all- 
Church M Men basketball tournament and the stake 
and division playoffs leading up to it show that the 
program is filling a definite need of young men in the 
Church. In addition to the physical and recreational 
values being given, it is aiding our young men to face 
the future more valiantly by developing good sports- 
manship, leadership, love and respect for their fellow 
men, and the ability to compete with others. This 
type of wholesome recreation, under proper leadership, 
cannot help building better Latter-day Saints. 

Ten thousand six hundred and seventy young men 
from many parts of the United States as well as from 
Canada and Mexico were given a boost up that road 
to manhood by participating in the M Men basketball 
program this year. Teams from 790 wards, representing 
all but fifteen stakes of the Church, took part. 

Play was climaxed by twenty teams on February 26, 
27, 28, and 29 in the all -Church tournament held in 
the Deseret Gymnasium and the University of Utah 
Field House in Salt Lake City. In the final game of the 
thirty-two-game tournament, Redondo Ward of Ingle- 
wood Stake of California outscored Capitol Hill Ward 

{Continued on following page) 
APRIL 1952 



Redondo, Inglewood (California) Stake, receives the champion- 
ship trophy from First Assistant General Superintendent A. Walter 
Stevenson. 




Second Assistant General Superintendent David S. King presents 
the second place trophy to Capitol Hill, Salt Lake Stake. 




Spanish Fork First won the consolation championship and fifth 
place. 




All-Church players, 1951-52 are, I. to r., are: Chuck Ryerse, Reno; 
Keith Widdowson, Capitol Hill; Grant Harline, Redondo; Gayle 
Bluth, Dublan; Reed Nelson, Spanish Fork. 

249 




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SALT LAKE CITY 



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250 



Hill Spring and Waterloo 
open the 1952 All-Church 
tournament. 

A Report On M Men 
Basketball 1951-52 

(Continued from preceding page) 
of Salt Lake Stake 52 to 40 to win 
the championship. This marks the 
sixth time in twenty years that a 
California team has gone home vic- 
torious. 

The ten top teams in the order in 
which they finished are: Redondo 
Ward, Inglewood (California) Stake; 
Capitol Hill Ward, Salt Lake Stake; 
Reno Ward, Reno (Nevada) Stake; 
Dublan Ward, Juarez (Mexico) Stake; 
Spanish Fork First Ward, Palmyra 
Stake; Logan Twentieth Ward, East 
Cache Stake; Waterloo Ward, Wells 
Stake; Logan Fifth Ward, East Cache 
Stake; Minersville Ward, Beaver 
Stake; and Honey ville Ward, North 
Box Elder Stake. Other teams par- 
ticipating were: Provo Ninth Ward, 
East Provo Stake; Thurber Ward, 
Wayne Stake; East Midvale Ward, 
East Jordan Stake; Sugar City Ward, 
North Rexburg (Idaho) Stake; 
Pleasant Grove First Ward, Timpa- 
nogos Stake; Grantsville Second 
Ward, Grantsville Stake; Ogden 
Fourth Ward, Ogden Stake; Hill 
Spring Ward, Alberta (Canada) 
Stake; East Glendale Ward, Glendale 
(California) Stake; and Paul Ward, 
Minidoka (Idaho) Stake. 

To a plucky team from Minersville 
went the sportsmanship trophy 
awarded yearly by the General 
Superintendency of the Young Men's 
Mutual Improvement Association to 

THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 



the team which displays the greatest 
amount of sportsmanship during the 
tournament. Judges always find the 
selection of a team to be given this 
award most difficult. During the entire 
tournament hardly a single unsports- 
manshiplike act was committed by a 
player, a team, or a coach. This fact 
alone speaks volumes for the suc- 
cess of the program. 

All- Church players, each of whom 
was awarded an individual trophy 
by Brigham Young University, were: 
Reed Nelson, Spanish Fork First 
Ward; Grant Harline, Redondo 
Ward; Keith Widdowson, Capitol 
Hill Ward; Chuck Ryerse, Reno 
Ward, and Gayle Bluth, Dublan 
Ward. Other outstanding players 
named on the second and third all- 
tournament teams were: second 
team, Frank Brooks, Waterloo Ward; 
Kirk Kidman, Redondo Ward; Dave 
Hale, Capitol Hill Ward; Clair 
Frischknecht, Logan Twentieth 
Ward; and Wayne Gillins, Miners- 
ville Ward; third team, Lynden 
Bluth, Dublan Ward; Clinton Cut- 
ler, East Midvale Ward; Jack McLea, 
(Concluded on page 254) 




....'■.■ r- 
i \ i i 1 r | * i 



During the Redondo-Capitol 
championship game. 
APRIL 1952 



Hill 




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251 



Now you can make jpw 



Bell ^Howell 

brings you great- 
est motion picture 
development since 
"talking pictures'.'., 
a 16mm recording 
projector, the new 

Filmosound 
"202" 



In 




Not since the introduction of sound movies has there been 
a motion picture development of such importance! 

Now Bell & Howell brings the making of sound movies 
within your reach. Here is the new 16mm Filmosound 202 — 
not just a sound movie projector — not just a magnetic sound 
recorder — but a combination of both for making and show- 
ing sound movies. To make your own sound film, you will 



need no expert knowledge, no costly professional equipment. 
With the Filmosound 202, you can put countless films to 
specific uses simply by directing each message you record 
on the magnetic sound track to the needs of your audience. 
Changing the sound and recording again are done simulta- 
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at but the cost of the film and sotjndstripe. 






Record your message right on the film as it 
is being projected onto the screen through 
your Filmosound 202. This same film may be 
used again and again simply by changing the 
message to suit the occasion or to reach a new 
audience. 

252 



Reach every age level with a single film. 
It's possible now with the addition of a 
magnetic sound track. Your school's film 
library will grow in usefulness as you re- 
place obsolete sound tracks with current 
commentary. 



Making sound movies starts with a Bell 
& Howell 70 -DL camera, now specially 
adapted for single -perforated film. After 
you've edited your processed film, you take 
it to your Bell & Howell dealer for the 

SOUNDSTRIPE. 

THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 



cost sound movie 





What you save on your first sound film will more than pay for the cost of 
equipment With your Filmosound 202, you can, add sound to old 16mm silent 
films . . . new sound to a film with an obsolete sound track . . . and project any 
16mm film, silent or sound, black-and-white or color. 

Use the coupon for full details on how you can use magnetic sound movies . . . 
how economical it is to own the Filmosound 202. Or see your Bell & Howell dealer 
today. Ask for a demonstration ! 





Interlocking feature prevents accidental 
erasure of recordings. This button must be 
pressed to put machine in recording posi- 
tion, and only then will previous recording 
be erased. Simple controls make the Filmo- 
sound 202 almost foolproof. 

APRIL 1952 



"Clutch" permits stopping film with pic- 
ture on screen for "cue" marking. Optical 
and magnetic sound pick-up, record and 
erase heads are all positioned together as a 
unit. Synchronization of sound with pic- 
ture is easily achieved. 













Easy as talking on the telephone, you re- 
cord sound onto magnetic track while pro- 
jecting picture with Filmosound 202. Instant 
playback or correction of recording errors 
with flip of reverse switch. Magnetic sound 
track will last for life of film. 




Add sound to silent 16mm film, then play 
back at silent speed to retain normal action. 
Add new sound to optical sound film with- 
out harming original sound track. Change 
from magnetic to optical track without vary- 
ing sound quality. Musical background and 
sound effects easily mixed with voice. 

You buy for life when you buy 

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Guaranteed for life: During the life 
of the product, any defect in work- 
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Please send me, without cost or obligation, 
complete information on the new Filmosound 
202 recording projector. I am interested in its 
use for: 

□ School □ Church 

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□ 70-DL Movie Camera 



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Address 

Organization (if any) 

City_ County _. Stc !e 




253 



Deseret 

BOOK CO. 



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wf 



Your 
Special 

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Representative for 
the Intermountain Area 

(See advertisement preceding page) 




See us for help in solving your 
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certified repair service of your 
present machines. 

Enrich your programs with the 
sound-films of the L.D.S. Confer- 
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films from the libraries of Films 
Incorporated for whom the Des- 
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mountain distributor. 



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Deseret 

BOOK CO. 



^^tPSISw? 



44 E. So. Temple 

DIAL 3-6716 

254 




These Salt Lake area Gleaners were the sponsors: First row, left to right: Allene 
Anderson, Joyce Miller, Marilyn Newman, Elaine Robbins, Marilyn Jackson, and 
Ann Ballard. Second row, Raida Nebeker, Helen Barlow, Anita Kehl, Doris Argyle, 
Mary Knowlton, and Carolyn Woodruff. Third row: Anne Pettigrew, Pat Bryan, 
Anne Bennion, Jacquie Anderson, Anita Rosenvall, and Merrilyn Fullmer. 



A REPORT ON M MEN BASKETBALL 1951-52 



(Concluded from page 251) 
Logan Fifth Ward; Glenn Dalling, 
Sugar City Ward; and Ray Hale, 
Capitol Hill Ward. 

Gayle Bluth of Dublan was 
chosen most valuable player in the 
tournament and was presented with 
a wrist watch by The Deseret News. 

As the several trophies were being 
presented in ceremonies following the 
final game, the words of our beloved 
President, the late George Albert 
Smith, uttered at another tournament 
a few years ago, came back to my 
mind. On that occasion he said, 
"You represent thousands of the finest 
boys to be found anywhere in all 
the world. You should prize this 
trophy not for the intrinsic value but 
rather because it stands for all that 
is good and righteous. Always re- 
member that you could not have won 
it except for the clean lives you have 
led." 

TUESDAY'S RESULTS 

Waterloo 37, Hill Spring 23. 
Redondo 54, Minersville 44. 
Spanish Fork First 43, Reno 44. 
Thurber 52, Grantsville Second 47. 
Glendale East 53, Sugar City 55. 
Dublan 60, Ogden Fourth 54. 
East Midvale 42, Provo Ninth 53. 
Capitol Hill 56, Paul 27. 

WEDNESDAY'S RESULTS 

CONSOLATION BRACKET 

Ogden Fourth 46, Minersville 55. 
Hill Spring 37, East Midvale 54. 



Spanish Fork First 42, Glendale 
East 41. 

Grantsville Second 54, Paul, 51. 

CHAMPIONSHIP BRACKET 

Dublan, Mexico 41, Logan Twen- 
tieth 38. 

Honey ville 21, Capitol Hill 44. 
Pleasant Grove 36, Provo Ninth 38. 
Logan Fifth 51, Sugar City 50. 

THURSDAY'S RESULTS 

Spanish Fork First 56, Grantsville 
Second 43. 

Logan Twentieth 68, Pleasant 
Grove 36. 

Honeyville 49, Sugar City 28. 

Minersville 49, East Midvale 42. 

Reno 49, Logan Fifth 46. 

Redondo 46, Dublan 42. 

Waterloo 31, Provo Ninth 29. 

Capitol Hill 46, Thurber 33. 

FRIDAY'S RESULTS 

Redondo 49, Waterloo 30. 
Capitol Hill 59, Reno 40. 
Dublan 42, Provo Ninth 36. 
Logan Fifth 53, Thurber 49. 

SATURDAY'S RESULTS 

Dublan 33, Logan Fifth 28. 
Reno, Nevada 51, Waterloo 42. 
Logan Twentieth 50, Honeyville 



31. 



Spanish Fork First 46, Minersville 
35. 

Redondo 52, Capitol Hill 40 
(championship) . 

THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 




"What does it take 
from an oil company 
to run an airlift?" 



Ever since mid-summer of 1950, military 
activity in Korea has called for heavy trans- 
pacific air traffic by civilian cargo planes. Over 
one of their routes they fly a round trip of 13,450 
miles — some 26 times the length of the famous 
Berlin airlift. Hundreds of companies help supply 
this operation. Maybe you'd like to know what it 
takes from an oil company to run an airlift. 

Standard's part in the Pacific airlift shows 
that it's a big help to have large companies on 
hand when the going gets rough. Our work is 
focused mainly at Wake Island, that pinpoint 
some 4000 miles from the U. S. West Coast. 
After World War II, Wake was a refueling stop for 
commercial airliners en route to the Orient. But 
then came the struggle at the 38th parallel — 




Before trouble kindled in Korea, only 
20 planes a week refueled at Wake Island. 
Then that number multiplied many times 
— calling for more gas fast. We'd been serv- 
ing the island; when the U. S. asked us to 
step up deliveries, we were able to do it. 
As a big, integrated company, we called on 
our own tanker fleet. 



To secure the special loading equip- 1^ 
ment needed by the ground crews, a 
Standard ship picked up the nearest 
available — at far-off Canton Island. 
And at U. S. request, we helped build 
new storage facilities at Wake. 





As air activity stepped up even 
more, Wake needed larger ground 
crews. Standard's bigness helped again. 
Using facilities in Honolulu, we quickly 
trained men to handle high-octane gas, 
tripled our manpower on Wake. 



■>&,. 




To keep Wake and the airlift supplied 
on a regular basis, Standard drew once 
more on its tanker fleet. We now operate 
a shuttle service to Wake from the Pacific 
Coast. Again, being big and having our 
own facilities helps us serve. 



**VS&** 



&fa*t&- ^lOf course, the transpacific airlift starts in America, 
and at home on this end of the route Standard keeps some 
10 airlines supplied with aviation gasoline. It would take a 
stack of drums a mile high to hold our increased daily out- 
put for this use. At the same time, we're also supplying 
military needs . . . and our usual volume for motorists. 



STANDARD OIL COMPANY OF CALIFORNIA 

• plans ahead to serve you better 



APRIL 1952 



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Ask your friendly Lumber Dealer 



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BUILDING MATERIAL DISTRIBUTORS 

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RICHARD L. EVANS 



/^\ften we presume to know other men's hearts and minds 
and motives, and to condemn and to condone. And 
no doubt we are often right in our appraisal of other people. 
But we cannot be certainly assured of all that moves other 
men. And as we judge others (which in some ways we 
have to do, and which in other ways we have no right to 
do), we shall find, as time uncovers unforeseen facts, that 
we have misjudged many men in many ways. Sometimes 
when we have assumed they were deceiving us, we shall 
find that they were telling the truth. And sometimes 
when we have accepted their assurances, we shall find 
that we have been deceived. Sometimes when we have 
thought they were feigning — that they were exaggerating 
an ailment or an illness — that they could do more than 
they were doing — the unfolding future may show us that 
they were doing the best their situation and circumstances 
permitted; and that others who we thought were lifting a 
full load could have done much more. Often also we 
fail to understand other men's fears because their fears are 
not our fears. We judge them by what we know, not by 
what they know; by what we have experienced, rather than 
by what they have experienced. It is sometimes difficult 
for someone who hasn't been through something to under- 
stand someone who has. Sometimes some of us even forget 
when we were children and forget why we did what we did. 
But we earnestly hope that the Father of us all will not 
soon forget why we do some of the things we do, for there 
is nothing more sure than that we shall all someday be 
called to account for what we have done with what we have 
had. And in the meantime, as Paul wrote: "Let us not . . . 
judge one another any more" 1 — beyond the necessity of 
enforcing the law and beyond the essential minimum that 
we must judge in living and moving among men, for we 
simply do not know enough to appraise other people in all 
that is held in their hearts, and in all that has gone into 
their making in the immediate and infinite past. The longer 
we live, the more we find that there are in the hearts and 
lives of others those things which we weren't aware of. 
And the more we judge, the more we shall find that we have 
misjudged many men. 



Romans 14:13. 



Jke Spoken lA/ord from temple square 

PRESENTED OVER KSL AND THE COLUMBIA BROADCASTING 
SYSTEM, JANUARY 27, 1952 

Copyright, 1952 



MORNING RESOLVE 



By Elaine V. Emans 



Not one more look upon the gray 
Defeated hours of yesterday, 
Not any thoughts how sad I was 
Shall I allow myself, because 
My eyes and intellect and heart 
Will be so busy from the start 



256 



Of this new day until it's done. 
What doing? They must keep the sun 
Within its rightful place, and song 
And faith and hope where they belong, 
And love — so wanting yesterday — 
In and around me all the way. 

THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 



Build for the years ahead 
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Buehner - Crete 

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APRIL 1952 




Top Photo: Typical auditorium showing use of sound-absorbing attractive 
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257 




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WELCOME TO 

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(Continued from page 238) 

years to building up an army to meet 
the emperor of Khwarizm, who 
worked feverishly to build up his 
army, each doing everything in his 
power to "draw off" his enemy's sup- 
porters to his own side. 190 

This system of "drawing off" is, as 
we have noted before, very ancient 
in Asia. There is even a special Ara- 
bic word for it jadhab. "From whom 
shall I take away . . . the awful 
sovereignty?" asks Mithra in the 
Avesta, which is full of legendary 
heroes who draw off each other's 
followers." 1 The gathering of rival 
forces is regularly accompanied, as 
in the Book of Mormon, by exchange 
of personal letters between the chiefs 
and the sending of formal challenges: 
"Let the Shanyu come to the South 
and either meet the emperor in open 
battle or else become a subject and 
pay reverence to the imperial throne," 
is a typical example. 192 Jealousy and 
ambition, says Xenophon (Cyrop VI, 
ii), are the essence of Asiatic king- 
ship, which is an intensely personal 
thing; he describes how Croesus and 
Cyrus devoted every ounce of their 
energy and treasure, gathering to- 
gether huge conglomerate armies to 
fight it out for the rule of all Asia. 
How intensely personal this rivalry 
was has been recounted in the un- 
forgettable pages of Herodotus. In 
the Egyptian annals Pharaoh alone 
is the only victor and the only hero, 
and the issue of every war is simply 
his personal argument with the op- 
posing monarch. 103 Every king of 
Babylonia or Assyria performs all of 
his tremendous feats singlehanded, 
as the monuments explain, and makes 
it a point to report that his Majesty 
personally dispatched the rival king: 
"In the midst of the battle my own 
hand captured Kashtilash, the Kas- 
site king"; "against the king himself, 
at the point of the spear, unto the 
setting of the sun I waged battle." 18 * 
This last vividly recalls the Book of 
Mormon picture of Shiz and Corian- 
tumr fighting with each other un- 
til nightfall. (Ibid., 15:20ff.) The 
actual exploits of a Sargon, Cyrus, 
Thothmes III, or Rameses II, more- 
over, give us to understand that the 
personal combat between kings was 
no mere hollow boast but actually 
took place. 

Since every war was a personal 
combat between two kings, it was 



258 



customary for them to challenge each 
other to single combat. The king of 
the Scythians sent his challenge to 
the king of the Massagetae and also 
to the great Darius, whose father ex- 
changed challenges with an earlier 
queen of the Massagetae; the king of 
the Visigoths challenged the Emperor 
Honorius to single combat as King 
Lazarus of Servia did Amurath the 
Turk, and so on. 196 I need not point 
out at this date that the whole sys- 
tem of chivalric etiquette originates 
on the steppes of Asia. The great 
khans when their rivals were cap- 
tured in battle would personally be- 
head them, as Chinese generals still 
do other Chinese generals. 186 Queen 
Tomyris not only beheaded Cyrus, 
according to Herodotus (I, 205), but 
mad with hatred, sloshed his head 
around in a skin filled with blood. 
It was common among the rulers of 
the steppes to convert the skull of a 
personal enemy into a drinking cup, 
as the emperor of the Bulgars did 
with the skull of the Emperor Nice- 
phorus, and the king of the Hiung-nu 
did of the top piece of the ruler of 
Iran. 187 The ancient Ukranians would 
take their oaths by drinking blood 
from such vessels. 187 The Assyrian 
rulers collect the skins of rival mon- 
archs, as the Ja Lama did in our own 
dav. 198 

J 

We have dwelt at unsavory length 
on these gory details because it is 
necessary to explain what the Book 
of Ether is about. The grim ferocity 
with which the rulers of Asia con- 
centrate all their wrath against the 
person of a rival king belongs to the 
Jaredite tradition: "And it came to 
pass that Coriantumr was exceedingly 
angry with Shared, and he went 
against him ... to battle; and they 
did meet in great anger." (Ibid., 13: 
27.) And "when Shiz had received 
his epistle, he wrote an epistle unto 
Coriantumr, that if he would give 
himself up, that he might slay him 
with his own sword, that he would 
spare the lives of the people." (Ibid., 
15:5.) During the battle that en- 
sued, "Shiz arose, and also his men, 
and he swore in his wrath that he 
would slay Coriantumr, or he would 
perish by the sword." (Ibid., 15:28.) 
What these men seek before every- 
thing else is not power or victory but 
settlement with a personal rival. 

(Continued on page 260) 
THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 




V 



ogether we've come a mighty long way . • . 

Together, the people of Utah and your neighbor, Utah Copper, have 
come a long way from a pioneer beginning. Because of this we all 
live better. 

The mine at -Bingham, and a remnant from the original Rogers stamp 
mill show just how far we have come. 

The Rogers mill was used by Daniel C. Jackling in 1899 to test ore 
from the mine. It was the beginning of a new era in copper — an era that 
proved the mine at Bingham was not a worthless part of Utah's landscape/ 
as some experts then believed, but a vast source of vitally needed "rqpper. 

This pioneering made possible the development of a Utah enterprise 
that produces 30% of our nation's new copper. Over the years, Utah 
Copper has been able to increase its purchase of supplies, add to its 
payrolls and meet higher tax payments. This has benefitted everydne 
in our State. 

These benefits have grown through the years, because Utah Copper 
has developed new methods and machines to keep production up, even 
though the copper content of the ore has gone down. 

Because Jackling and his associates had the vision to foresee a 
better way to obtain copper, the courage to test their vision, and the 
skill to prove it, the people of Utah live better. 




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260 



THE WORLD OF THE JAREDITES 



(Continued from page 258) 

Wars of Extermination 

Both Shiz and Coriantumr as they 
moved about on their endless cam- 
paigns "swept off the inhabitants be- 
fore them, all them that would not 
join them." (Ibid., 14:27.) This is 
the classic Asiatic method of forced 
recruiting: "If the neighboring 
province to that which they invade 
will not aid them," says an eyewit- 
ness of the Tartan technique, "they 
waste it, and with the inhabitants 
whom they take with them, they pro- 
ceed to fight against the other 
province. They place their captives 
in the front of the battle and, if they 



do not fight courageously, put them 
to the sword.'" ''' In such a way the 
Asiatic war lords from the beginning 
"... swept the earth before them" 
like Shiz (Ibid., 14:18), and like the 
Communist hordes of our day, forcing 
all that lay in their path to become 
part of them. "I counted them among 
my people," says the Assyrian con- 
queror of one nation after another, 
and this ancient formula would seem 
to go back to our old friend Nimrod, 
whom popular superstition saw re- 
incarnated in Genghiz Khan as he 
"became a mighty hunter," accord- 
ing to Carpini (Ch. vi.) "He learned 
to steal men, and to take them for 



rom 



^r4ere Lsn . . . 



RICHARD L. EVANS 



I 



T seems that there are always some regrets in the living of 
life. No matter what decisions we make or fail to make, 
we are likely to wonder what would have happened if we 
had done differently; and often we are likely to feel sure 
that we should have done differently. Being human, as we 
all are, we make mistakes. To some extent, at least, most 
of us are feeling and fumbling our way along; and perhaps 
there is almost no day that we couldn't look back upon and 
wish to improve. There is perhaps almost no day that we 
couldn't wish we hadn't said some things we have said, that 
we hadn't thought some things we have thought, or that 
we hadn't done some things better than we did. Life, it 
seems, is in part a process of repentance. In a sense, progress 
itself is a process of repentance; and the man who thinks 
he doesn't make mistakes is deceiving himself. Individually, 
collectively, privately, publicly, there is no doubt we have 
made many mistakes, and our problems and perplexities and 
debts and difficulties, our regrets, and serious uncertainties 
are in part a payment for the mistakes of the past. There is 
no use denying them, when we know we have made them. 
The future will be more as we would want it to be if we 
admit our mistakes and repent and improve and not per- 
sistently say there weren't any errors, and not doggedly 
pursue the same disastrous path and pattern. We pay the 
penalties sooner or later. As Emerson observed: "Always 
pay, for first or last you must pay every debt." 1 And the 
sooner we repent and pay, the lighter is the compounding of 
the penalties. Having admitted our mistakes, having sin- 
cerely repented of the past, there remains an incentive to 
look forward from here, with hope, and with faith for the 
future. If there is anything we deeply regret, from here on 
is our opportunity — for great is the power of repentance. 

iEssay on Compensation. 

"DL SpoLn WorJ" FROM TEMPLE SQUARE 
PRESENTED OVER KSL AND THE COLUMBIA BROADCASTING 



SYSTEM, FEBRUARY 3, 1952 



Copyright, 1952 



^THE^MPROVEMENT ERA 



prey. He ranged into other countries 
taking as many captives as he could, 
and joining them to himself," as 
Nimrod had done, by awful oaths. 
This system of "sweeping the earth" 
explains how it was possible for 
small and obscure Asiatic tribes to 
rise very quickly to be conquerors of 
all Asia and most of Europe: The 
tribe that gave its name to the con- 
quering hordes was merely the 
nucleus of an army which snowballed 
into a world army by forced recruit- 
ing of all it met. 

A great deal has been written 
about the calculated Schrechlichkeit 
of the great conquerors, especially 
Genghiz Khan, whose practices have 
been condoned by recent biographers 
on the grounds that there is no better 
weapon than terror to soften up op- 
position, provoke early surrender, and 
thus save lives. Certainly terror is 
the keynote of Asiatic warfare with 
its "absolute contempt for human 
life,"" a and the boast of an Assyrian 
king might be echoed by many an 
ancient and modern successor: "I 
marched victoriously, like a mad dog, 
spreading terror, and I met no con- 
queror."" 01 Being a mad dog seems 
to us a poor thing to boast of, but 
the terror was carefully calculated. 
Shiz would have understood as in his 
pursuit of Coriantumr "... he did 
slay both women and children, and 
he did burn the cities. And there 
went a fear of Shiz throughout all 
the land; yea, a cry went forth 
throughout the land — Who can stand 
before the army of Shiz? Behold, he 
sweepeth the earth before him!" 
(Ibid., 14:17-18.) When Corihor 
gained a victory, it was his turn to be 
the terror of the earth and "... the 
people began to be frightened, and 
began to flee before the armies of 
Coriantumr. ..." (Ibid., 14:27.) 

An important by-product of the 
Asiatic-Jaredite system of rallying 
armies and absorbing nations is an 
efflorescence of robber bands on all 
the face of the land. All who will 
not join the great armies are put to 
death, as we have seen, but what of 
those who escape? They are natural- 
ly outlaws, having no allegiance to 
any king and hence no rights or 
claims to protection. To survive, 
these people band themselves to- 
gether, and since all are deserters 
whose heads are forfeit, their be- 
havior becomes very dangerous. Asia 
has at all times swarmed with rob- 

(Continued on following page) 
APRIL 1952 









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THE WORLD OF THE JAREDITES 



(Continued from preceding page) 
ber bands, exactly as did this conti- 
nent under the Jaredites, and from 
time to time these robber bands have 
formed coalitions strong enough to 
ruin states and overturn thrones. 
After wars between the Mongols and 
Mamelukes had exhausted all their 
resources and brought ruin to many 
lands, soldiers from both sides banded 
together in robber armies, gathered 
up the outcasts in the deserts and 
mountains, and came near to con- 
quering all of western Asia. 202 The 
pages of Bar Hebraeus swarm with 
these robber bands and good descrip- 
tions of how they operate. Whenever 
central governments became weak- 
ened by wars and corruption, bands 
of robbers would appear as if out of 
the earth, as when early in the ninth 
century the robber Omar became the 
terror of all the Near East and joining 
forces with the robber-chief Nasir in 
the north "began to destroy the 
world." 203 

Just as robber bands often formed 
the nucleus of world-conquering ar- 
mies (some Chinese emperors had 
whole armies composed of "bad young 
men"), so those world armies, once 
beaten, promptly broke up into rob- 
ber bands again, while their leader, 
lately a world ruler, would find him- 
self again nothing but a bandit 
chief. 204 The years during which 
Justinian and Chosroes were locked 
in deadly rivalry for the rule of the 
world saw the rise in western Asia 
of a motley array of robber gangs 
numbering 12,000 men, who brought 
complete ruin upon a large part of 
the civilized world; in this time of 
panic and insecurity "great schism 
fell upon the Arabs (i.e. the inhabi- 
tants), and in every quarter a man 
rose up who did not agree with his 
companion." 205 This typical and re- 
current state of things vividly recalls 
the awful days of the Jaredite robbers, 
when every man slept on his sword 
to guard his property from every 
other man — and still had it stolen. 
(Ibid., 14:1-2.) 

We need not dwell on the path- 
ological aspects of Asiatic warfare — 
the hideous disguises, the bloody 
oaths, the insane yells, the pyramids 
of heads and all that. In Taras Bulha 
Gogol describes the Kazakh hordes 
as going quite insane in battle or, as 
Ether puts it: "... they were drunk- 
en with anger, even as a man who is 



262 



drunken with wine." (Ibid., 15:22.) 
One unpleasant aspect of the business 
worthy of mention is the universal 
custom of scalp collecting, at all times 
practised with zeal on the steppes of 
Asia as in America. 20 " It was the rule 
in Asia for great conquerors to dis- 
seminate the belief that they were 
not human but actually incarnations 
of the devil! 207 

The insane wars of the Jaredite 
chiefs ended in the complete annihila- 
tion of both sides, with the kings the 
last to go. The same thing had al- 
most happened earlier in the days of 
Akish, when a civil war between 
him and his sons reduced the popula- 
tion to thirty. (Ibid., 9:12.) This all 
seems improbable to us, but two cir- 
cumstances peculiar to Asiatic war- 
fare explain why the phenomenon is 
by no means without parallel: (1) 
Since every war is strictly a personal 
contest between kings, the battle 
must continue until one of the kings 
falls or is taken. (2) And yet things 
are so arranged that the king must 
be the very last to fall, the whole 
army existing for the sole purpose of 
defending his person. This is clearly 
seen in the game of chess, in which 
all pieces are expendable except the 
king, who can never be taken. "The 
shah in chess," writes M. E. Mogha- 
dam, "is not killed and does not die. 
The game is terminated when the 
shah is pressed into a position from 
which he cannot escape. This is in 
line with all good traditions of chess 
playing, and back of it the tradition 
of capturing the king in war rather 
than slaying him whenever that could 
be accomplished." 208 You will recall 
the many instances in the Book of 
Ether in which kings were kept in 
prison for many years but not killed. 
In the code of medieval chivalry, 
taken over from central Asia, the 
person of the king is sacred, and all 
others must perish in his defense. 
After the battle the victor may do 
what he will with his rival — and 
infinitely ingenious tortures were 
sometimes devised for the final 
reckoning — but as long as the war 
went on the king could not die, for 
whenever he did die, the war was 
over, no matter how strong his sur- 
viving forces. Even so, Shiz was 
willing to spare all of Coriantumr's 
subjects if he could only behead 
Coriantumr with his own sword. In 
that case, of course, the subjects would 

THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 



become his own. The circle of war- 
riors, "... large and mighty men 
as to the strength of men . . , 
(Ibid., 15:26) that fought around 
their kings to the last man, represent 
that same ancient institution, the 
sacred "shieldwall," which our own 
Norse ancestors took over from Asia 
and which meets us again and again 
in the wars of the tribes, in which 
on more than one occasion the king 
actually was the last to perish. So 
let no one think the final chapter of 
Ether is at all fanciful or overdrawn. 
Wars of extermination are a standard 
institution in the history of Asia. 

To cite a few examples, when 
Genghiz Khan overcame the great 
Merkit nation, he left only one man 
alive — the brother of his favorite 
wife. 209 The Assyrian kings would 
systematically annihilate every living 
thing in the lands they conquered, 
sowing fields with salt, like the 
Romans, and flooding the sites of 
cities they destroyed to convert them 
into uninhabitable wastelands. 210 In 
cities of a million inhabitants the 
Mongols left not a dog or a cat alive, 
and they converted vast provinces into 
complete deserts. zu The great island 
of Cyprus was an uninhabited waste 
for seven years after the Turkomans 
took ii m 

The Goths in a single battle 
entirely exterminated the Sciri 
(Jordanes, Ch. 53), as the Huns 
did the Scythians and Alans, and as 
the Mongols did the Tartars. 213 The 
Mongols themselves met retribution in 
1732 when their own kinsmen, the 
Manchus, wiped out nine- tenths of 
the Oret Mongols in a Chinese- in- 
spired project aimed at the complete 
obliteration of both sides. 214 Such 
mutual suicides of nations were not 
uncommon: the Kin and the Hsia 
Hsia, the two greatest empires of their 
day and as closely related in blood 
as were the people of Shiz and 
Coriantumr, engaged in fifteen years 
of warfare that wiped out eighteen 
million people — a figure that makes 
Ether's two million (Ibid., 15:2) look 
rather paltry. 215 

Incidentally, the wars of Genghiz 
Khan cost China alone forty mil- 
lion lives! 215 The Hunnish Jao 
Dynasty of the North and the 
Dsin Empire of the South almost 
achieved mutual quietus during a 
civil war in which "neither side was 
willing to make peace until the 
other was completely crushed. " 2U In 

(Continued on following page) 
APRIL 1952 



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264 



THE WORLD OF THE JAREDITES 



(Continued from preceding page) 

the first century B.C., the Huns 
divided to follow two brothers, Jiji 
and Huhansie. Twenty years of war 
followed, and the deadlock was only 
when in 43 B.C. Jiji's people in 
despair finally fled west in the best 
Jaredite manner, leaving "vast 
stretches of land bare and deserted" 
behind them. 216 

This sort of history should con- 
vince the most skeptical that the 
Book of Ether is not exaggerating in 
what it tells us either of what hap- 
pened or of the scale of events. The 
whole picture is a conservative one 
by Asiatic standards but by the same 
standards completely authentic. 

What the Jaredites left behind was 
a land littered with bones, for "... 
so swift and speedy was the war," 
that "... the whole face of the land 
was covered with the bodies of the 
dead," (Ibid., 14:21f), and a genera- 
tion later "... their bones lay scat- 
tered in the land northward." (Omni 
1:22.) A medieval traveler, passing 
Kiev years after the great wars be- 
tween the Mongol and Russian 
hordes, reports: "When we were 
traveling through this country, we 
found an innumerable multitude of 
dead men's skulls and bones lying 
upon the earth." Far away, in Corn- 
mania and Cangle, "we found many 
skulls and bones lying upon the 
ground like cattle-dung." All the 
living inhabitants, he notes, were re- 
duced to slavery. 217 Where burial was 
at all possible after such battles, the 
only practical procedure was to heap 
up the bodies in great piles and cover 
them with earth, "erecting great 
tumuli over them," as when the whole 
Naiman nation was buried in mounds 
after its destruction. 218 Joinville, 
traveling a whole year through Asia 
to reach the court of "the cham of 
Tartary," saw all along the road of 
Tartar conquest "large mounds of 
bones." 219 A comparison of the pre- 
historic mounds of Asia and America 
is still to be undertaken. 

(To be continued) 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

180 Nibley, Wstn. Pol. Quart. IV (1951), 
238ff. 

' sl Ihid., pp. 226-230. 

1S2 Darmesteter, op. cit., II, 65. 

18S M. Prawdin, Mongol Empire, p. 162. 

1S3a The earliest kings are always described 
as perpetually "going the rounds." Thus 
Pharaoh in the Pyramid Texts "goes the 
rounds" of the Two Regions as of the skies, 



and the Babylonian gods have from shrine 
to shrine, i.e., from castle to castle, as 
Apollo (II. I, 37ff) and Poseidon (e.g. Od. 
V, 381) do in the beginning. 

1S4 A. Jirku, "Aufsteig u. Niedergang der 
Hyksos," ]nl. Palest. Or. Soc. XII (1932), 49- 
61; W. F. Albright, "Egypt & the Early His- 
tory of the Negeb," Ibid. IV (1924), 134; Ed. 
Meyer, Gesch, des Altert. II. 1.72. For dates 
see W. F. Albright, The Archaeology of 
Palestine (Penguin Books, 1951), pp. 85, 109. 

185 Hoernes, Natur- u. Ur gesch., II, 396. 

^E. A. Speiser, in ]nl Am. Or. Soc. LXX 
(1950), 47 ff; Hurrian words for armor indi- 
cate central Asian origin, id., p. 49. 

1S7 Wittfogel & Chia-sheng, in Am. Phil. 
Soc. Transactions XXXXVI, 663; H. Has- 
lund, op. cit., p. 237. 

lf *M. Cable, The Gobi Desert, p. 264. See 
especially E. N. Fell, Russian and Nomad 
(N.Y.; 1916), p. 9f. 

1SB The whole question is treated in my 
two articles cited above, note, 179. 

J90 Krause, Cingis Han, pp. 14-27; Prawdin, 
Mongol Empire, pp. 147ff. 

i£,1 Darmesteter, op. cit., II, p. 148. A de- 
scription of the technique of "drawing off" 
another's supporters is in Al-Fakhri's Al- 
Adah as-Sultaniah wal-Daula-l-Islamiyah 
(Cairo), p. 5. 

192 McGovem, Early Empires, p. 143; cf. 
Nibley, Wstn. Pol. Quart. IV, 244fT. 

193 Max Pieper, Die Aegyptische Literatur 
(Potsdam: Athenaion, 1927), p. 74. 

191 Luckenbill, Anc. Records I, 57, 60, 40, 
cf. II, 124 (No. 247): "I seized him alive 
with my own hands," etc., speaking of the 
rival king. 

^Herodotus IV, 126 IV, 11; Jordanes, 
Bell. Goth, xxx; Creasy, Hist, of the Ottoman 
Turks, p. 46. 

190 Krause, op. cit., p. 26; H. Haslund, 
Men & Gods in Mongolia, p. 155. 

197 Vernadsky, Anc. Russia, p. 298; G. N. 
Roerich, Trails to Inmost Asia, p. 368; C. R. 
Beazley, The Dawn of Modern Geography 
(London, 1901) II, 267. 

19S B. Meissner, Babylonien u. Assyrien I, 
112; Haslund, loc. cit. 

1B9 Carpini, Ch. 16, in Komroff, op. cit., 
p. 26. 

200 R. Grousset, UAsie Orientale des 
Origines au XVe Siecle (Paris: Presses 
Univers taires, 1941), pp. 304f, 307; Hoernes, 
Nat.-u. Urgesch. II, 392-403. 

201 Luckenbill, Anc. Records II, 99 (No. 
176). 

202 Budge, Chronogr. of Bar Hebraeus I, 
465. 

2 ™Ibid., p. 124. 

204 This is well-nigh the leitmotiv of 
Arabshah's Life of Timur, Kitab 'Ajaib al- 
Maqdur, etc. (Cairo, A. H. 1335); princes 
when defeated regularly become highway 
robbers according to Chinese annals, Krause, 
op. cit., p. 24. Attila's descendants be- 
came leaders of robber bands though heirs 
to world empire, e.g. Jordanis, Bell. Goth. 
Ch. 58. That this is the primordial state 
of things appear from Darmesteter, Zend- 
Avesta II, p. 171. 

205 Budge, op. cit., I, 103, 11 Iff. 

206 Herodot. IV, 64, 66, 70; Pliny HN VII, 
ii, 10; Ammianus, Ch. 31; Luckenbill, Anc. 
Records II, 396 (No. 1050); Budge, op. cit. 
I, 465; McGovern, Anc. Empires, p. 54. 

THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 



207 Arabshah, op. cit., pp. 4-6, lists great 
world conquerors who propagated the be- 
lief that they were devils. Cf. Lipkin, 
Manas Vyelikodushniy, pp. 14ff, 18, etc. 

208 M. E. Moghadam, in ]nl. Am. Or. Soc. 
58 (1938), p. 662; cf. L. Thorndike, "All 
the World's a Chessboard," Speculum VI 
(1931), p. 461. 

209 Krause, op. cit., p. 26; Grousset, 
L'Asie Orientate, p. 291. 

210 Luckenbill, Anc. Records II, 311 (No. 
811); 152 (No. 340). 

211 Prawdin, op. cit., pp. 191f, 469, 472. 

ai2 Constantine Porphyrogenitus, De admin, 
imper. xlvii, in Patrol. Graec. 113, col. 365. 

213 Eunapius, ch. vi, in PG 113, 656f; 
McGovern, Early Empires, p. 366. 

2U H. Haslund, Men and Gods in Mongolia, 
p. 206f. 

21 -'Prawdin, op. cit., pp. 221, 329. 

218 McGovern, op. cit., pp. 335, 189-191. 

217 Carpini, Ch. 13, 21, in Komroff, Con- 
temps, of M. Polo, pp. 22, 37. 

21s Krause, op. cit., p. 17. 

21u Joinville, Memoirs (Trs. T. Johnes) I, 
199. 



"A YOUNG GIRL'S 
PRAYER" 

By Patricia Austin Hayes 

Dear Lord, today I am sixteen. 
My feet are on the threshold 
of young girlhood, and the 
"road of life" lies ahead clear and 
shining. I don't askr for fame and 
fortune, but only for the things 
that really count. As I journey 
down this "road of life," I want 
it to be with unfaltering steps. Help 
me to keep from wandering off on 
the little paths of temptation, be- 
cause I want to meet the challenges 
of life with unfailing courage and 
faith. Let me be proud and un- 
ashamed, and keep the threads of 
my life from becoming tangled and 
broken, because, when I've reached 
the close of life here on earth, I 
want it to be like the end of a beauti- 
ful day, peaceful and loved, to be 
remembered with pleasant thoughts 
and kind words. 

Help me, dear Lord, to keep my- 
self pure and untouched for the 
man I will marry someday and for 
the children I will bear. Give me 
the knowledge and understanding to 
help those who have strayed and 
fallen by the wayside. Give me 
faith in the finer things of life and 
the courage to stand by my ideals. 
All these things I ask of you, for 
I know that alone I cannot fight 
the temptations life offers, but with 
your help I can make my life worth 
while and my happiness complete. 

APRIL 1952 



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(Concluded from page 223) 
Each family unit took its turn at 
presiding, having the program out- 
lined and prepared. We planned to 
have two talks each evening by our 
older grandchildren, and time was 
shared with the little ones, then a 
short skit was prepared by the older 
group, a game or two, some good 
laughter, our song and closing prayer, 
and all leaving, not too late, and 
counting the weeks till the next fam- 
ily evening. 

The evening Regina was here our 
eldest grandson, Ray Riggs, who had 
just passed his eighteenth birthday, 
gave a beautiful talk: "What I feel 
I have most to be thankful for." 



One of our fifteen-year-old grand- 
sons, Grant Smith, gave an inspiring 
talk the same evening on "What it 
means to honor our priesthood." Our 
granddaughters and our ten grand- 
sons have given beautiful expressions 
which have made us older ones feel 
humbly grateful. 

We bear our testimony to the value 
of the "Family Hour" which came to 
us through our inspired Church 
Authorities. 

Sincerely, 

/s/ Don F. and Mary West Riggs 
Grandparents 



APPLE PIE IN APRIL 



(Continued from page 246) 
to use guile with these men! A. 
titilating sound struck their ears. 

"The hand organ man!" Beth 
and Eddie screamed together, cling- 
ing in rapture to their respective 
sides of the buggy. Uncle always 
deemed it wisdom to sit between them. 
A slap of the reins and Prince 
changed his gait again. This varied 
procedure, he mused, was really too 
much for his years! 

Around the corner by the school 
was a thick knot of children. From 
the vantage point of the buggy seat, 
Uncle and the children could see the 
squat Italian and his organ, propped 
on the ground by the short stick at- 
tached to it. He ground out the 
beguiling strains of "The Blue Dan- 
ube" to small, entranced ears. At the 
end of a rope, a monkey in a red 
suit, and looking for all the world 
like his master, collected pennies and 
nickels in a tin cup while he held 
his red cap in his other hand. 

The Italian pulled the monkey to 
his shoulder again and moved to- 
ward the buggy. The monkey leaped 
into Beth's lap, and she squealed 
with joy and terror. Uncle found 
some pennies in his old wallet, and 
the children dropped them into the 
tin cup. 

It took quite awhile to watch the 
monkey. Then they jogged along, 
past Turpin's grocery store, outlined 
with the gold and yellow of oranges 
and lemons on the sidewalk like 
globes of spring itself. Uncle pulled 
Prince up beneath a soft maple that 
dropped red tassels in their laps. 



266 



"You reckon they sell licorice 
here?" he asked, vaguely. 

"Oh, yes!" Beth answered, as 
Uncle pulled out the old wallet again. 
Then she added, importantly, "Eddie, 
you stay here and help Uncle with 
Prince!" 

"Happen they have any of that 
gum in long sticks, you might get 
some of that, too," Uncle said. Beth 
marched into the store, stepping 
regally over the roller skates and 
rubber balls of the children who did 
not have a buggy to ride in. She 
returned, carrying in one hand 
snaky strips of what might be rubber 
shoelaces but which, upon mastica- 
tion, proved to be licorice. In the 
other she held aloft red, white, and 
blue-striped paper sticks of an espe- 
cially satisfying gum which chewed 
up like candle wax flavored with 
peppermint. With the change, she 
had invested in some cone-shaped 
chocolates which, upon a sharp bite, 
exuded a cherry syrup which ran 
down her chin. Beth wasn't sure 
how Uncle would get along with 
any of it, what with his mustache 
and false teeth, but since he had 
paid for it, it was only polite to offer 
him some. But he shook his head 
and pulled Prince into a jogging trot 
again. 

"I ain't sure what the effect would 
be, me bein' along in years. I'll wait 
and see what it does to you young'uns 
first." 

The sun had warmed up the lawns 
along the street to a new green, and 
lilacs were fat- budded. Crocuses 
flecked the grass like broken rain- 

THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 



bows. Tulips pushed up red noses 
impaled with leaves like clowns 
jumping through circus hoops. Side- 
walks were full of skipping ropes and 
small rubber balls that bounced back 
at you at the end of a long elastic. 
But Beth and Eddie had more than 
these things; they had a buggy and 
a lapful of intriguing sweets which 
their mother, Beth reflected, would 
not have condoned, not all at once! 
With a wad of licorice in one cheek 
and candied cherries running down 
their chins, they rode through the 
spring afternoon like royalty. 

Uncle sat straight as a Viking and 
slapped Prince repeatedly into the 
gallop that he repeatedly forgot. The 
ice-wagon horse was startled out of 
a year's oats as Prince came around 
the corner with Uncle slapping the 
reins and clucking. The grocer boy's 
horse jerked at his blinders and 
snatched at his bit and tried to fol- 
low them but thought better of it 
and went back to drooping between 
his shafts again. 

The April air seeped under Uncle's 
old hat, which he had not changed, 
he suddenly remembered. If they 
should meet Aunt — but Aunt had 
gone the other way, and the spring 
sun was heady. He lifted his mus- 
tache and from under it rolled the 
delicious strains of "Land of Jubilo" 
and "Marching Through Georgia." 
The children joined him, kicking the 
front of the buggy to keep time. Peo- 
ple looked up and laughed, but Un- 
cle did not notice them. They were 
having a wonderful time! 

Ahead the river gleamed blue as 
an opal. Now how did we get way 
up here! he thought. Church was 
right the other way. He pulled sud- 
dently on the reins. Before he could 
persuade Prince to turn around, Beth 
laid her hand on the reins. 

"Uncle, it's Mayflower time," she 
said. "And we're almost to the Pond 
Road!" Eddie could not control him- 
self and began to kick violently at 
the dashboard in his happiness. 

"Well, we got this far, reckon we 
may as well take a turn up that 
way," Uncle said into his mustache. 
"But I got to get that pie to the 
church." 

The Pond Road was still muddy in 
places, and Prince made a chore out 
of climbing it. The pond was the 
town water supply, and woe betide 
anyone caught fishing or boating or 
swimming there! But it was a magic 
place where chestnuts fell into the 
(Continued on page 269) 
APRIL 1952 



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267 



WHY THIS 
NEW TESTAMENT 
IS THE PERFECT 
GIFT AT EASTER 



This year, you can help those you love to 
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19 East 47th Street, New York 

268 



^2>S\!iNS : Ssiw 



-rom, 




mcoivi 5 




RICHARD L. EVANS 



I 



n the days and years before and immediately following 
the martyrdom of Abraham Lincoln, many earnest and 
eminent men expressed themselves concerning his qualifica- 
tions and contributions to his country From these we sample 
some few excerpts at this hour, first one from Frederick 
Douglass, born to the people whose slavery was at issue. 
As to Lincoln, he said: "We saw him, measured him, and 
estimated him; not by stray utterances . . . not by isolated 
facts torn from their connection; nor by any partial and 
imperfect glimpses, caught at inopportune moments; but by 
a broad survey, in the light of the stern logic of great events: 
and, ... we came to the conclusion that the hour and the 
man of our redemption had met in the person of Abraham 
Lincoln. . . . His moral training was against his saying 
one thing when he meant another." 1 

From Daniel Dougherty, speaking during Lincoln's life- 
time on "The Perils of the Republic," came these words: 
"Amid all these events and scenes . . . the people, like a 
sleeping drunkard, will not awake . . . and . . . the . . . evil 
spirits of the nation, with whom fair is foul and foul is 
fair, . . . are . . . dancing around the boiling cauldron of 
partisan hate, . . . [yet] knowing that in this dread crisis 
whatever our fate, all must share it alike. . . . [The people] 
have deceived themselves and been deceived. . . . and partisan 
leaders have flattered their follies, praised their weaknesses, 
. . . and made them believe even defeats in the field were 
strategic triumphs." But of Abraham Lincoln: "No fair man 
can question his personal integrity and patriotic motives." 2 

By Josiah Gilbert Holland, these words were spoken four 
days following Lincoln's death: "... You, Christian men 
who have voted, and voted, and voted again, for impure 
men, for selfish men, for drunkards, for unprincipled men 
. . . have learned a lesson from the life and achievements of 
Mr. Lincoln which you cannot forget without sin against 
God and crime against your country. . . . We have wit- 
nessed in the highest seat the power of Christian wisdom 
and the might of a humble, praying man. Let us see that 
we remain a Christian nation — that our votes are given to 
no man who cannot bring to his work the power which has 
made the name of Abraham Lincoln one of the brightest 
which illustrates the annals of the nation. . . . " 3 

Thus spoke the contemporaries of Abraham Lincoln, 
who lived and died with the prayer and purpose "that this 
nation, under God [should] have a new birth of freedom, 
. . . and . . . [should] not perish from the earth." 4 



J^poken lAJord 



FROM TEMPLE SQUARE 



"7/ 

PRESENTED OVER KSL AND THE COLUMBIA BROADCASTING 

SYSTEM, FEBRUARY 10, 1952 

Copyright, 1952 

iFrederick Douglass, What the Black Man Wants, Delivered at the annual meeting 
of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society at Boston, 1865. 

2 Daniel Dougherty, Address on the Perils of the Republic. 

3 Josiah Gilbert Holland, Eulogy of Abraham Lincoln, Delivered in Springfield, 
Massachusetts, April 19, 1865. 

4 "Gettysburg Address." 



THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 



Apple Pie In April 

(Continued from page 267) 
iry leaves in October, and you could 
take picnics on its shore in the sum- 
mer. In spring there were arbutus 
and checkerberries along the road. 

Uncle got out and let down the 
bars, and Beth drove importantly 
through while Uncle put them up 
again. Farmer Newman kept his 
cows in here. A brook gallivanted 
down the hillside like a thing pos- 
sessed. Beth looked at it yearningly. 
If she and Eddie were not in the 
buggy and in a hurry, they would 
have cleared it of its spring melee of 
sticks and stones and leaves. Uncle 
would have helped, too. But they 
had to get the pie to the church! 
Prince was in no hurry; he stopped 
achingly at every water bar that 
Uncle called "thank-you-marms." 

"Someday," Uncle said, "I bet you 
they'll build up here in these woods. 
Like they did in town. I remember 
woods once where the school is to- 
day." 

He stopped the buggy under a 
birch tree that shook gold tassels 
to the blue sky. The pink porcelain 
of arbutus was thick in the sun. The 
children climbed out over the wheel, 
although Uncle cramped it around 
for them. It was more fun that way. 
Uncle wound the reins around the 
whip and climbed stiffly down. Sud- 
denly he gave a cry of pure anguish 
and paused with one foot in the air 
like a great beetle. Beth screamed. 

"Uncle! You've stepped in the 
pie!" Her eyes were popping with 
horror. Uncle stared unbelievingly 
at his foot. 

"I clean forgot that pie being 
there," he said, his mustache twitch- 
ing angrily. "You young'uns!" He 
got down and wiped his shoe care- 
fully on the grass. "Never mind about 
them flowers! We're going home!" 

"There's no use hurryin' home with 
that pie now," Beth said sharply. 
"We might just as well get some 
Mayflowers." She pulled at the 
woody stems recklessly, cramming 
her arms full. Eddie crowded his 
hands with the scarlet checkerberries, 
bright as blood among their leathery, 
last year's leaves. Uncle came to- 
ward them in two long strides. 

"How many times I got to tell 
you not to pull up the roots like 
that! First thing you know, there 
won't be no Mayflowers on this 

(Continued on following page) 
APRIL 1952 





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APRIL 23 

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269 



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270 



Apple Pie In April 

{Continued from preceding page) 
road." He opened his old jackknife 
and carefully cut the tough stems. 
Then he marshalled them firmly into 
the buggy. He backed Prince 
around in the narrow road. 

"Uncle, you're gonna hit the stone 
wall!" Eddie squealed rapturously. 
His face fell when Uncle safely 
maneuvered Prince past the stone 
wall and down the road. He touched 
him sharply with the whip at every 
thank-you-marm, which Prince re- 
sented with such gusto that the chil- 
dren clung to the buggy sides as they 
rocketed down the road. 

"I don't see," Beth said breathless- 
ly, "why you have to hurry— now! 
You can't bring that pie to church!" 

"Might's well face the music and 
have it over!" Uncle said between 
tight lips. "Reckon it'll be a whole 
orchestra, too!" 

The bars went up and down in 
record time while Prince pawed the 
ground. If they wanted a ride, he 
would give them one! He tossed 
clods of April mud into the laps of 
his tormentors. He swung down the 
main street as if, for once in his life, 
he had his heart's desire and was on 
the fire engine! 

Aunt was waiting on the back 
porch. Her big hat with the shiny 
wings shivered on her head, and her 
stiff shirtwaist heaved until her 
watch, pinned to it with a fleur-de-lis, 
vibrated like a motorboat. She picked 
up her heavy black skirt in both 
hands and followed the buggy into 
the barn. How on earth, Beth 
thought, could she know? 

Aunt charged across the barn floor 
and pulled up nearer to Prince's 
heels than she had ever let herself 
come before! Her face was scarlet, 
and she held Uncle with a furious 
eye. Beth and Eddie held their 
breath. 

"You should have known," Aunt 
cried, suddenly almost in tears, "that 
the church supper ain't till tomor- 
row! I got too much on my mind, 
with spring cleaning and Mis' Bigsby 
down sick! Don't unhitch that horse. 
Now you've had him out traipsin' all 
over town with those young ones! 
Up the Pond Road again, I'll be 
bound!" She eyed the arbutus in 
Beth's lap. "Turn right round and 
go back to the church and get that 
pie. The whole town'll be laughin' 
at me for leavin' my pie settin' on 

THE IMPROVEMENT ERA. 



the church steps all afternoon!" Her 
voice broke. Her reputation was 
ruined, she who never missed a 
church supper. 

Slowly Uncle reached under the 
lap robe. The children watched him 
in frozen silence. He held out mutely 
what was left of the pie. 

"Forgot to leave it at all," he said. 
"Had a little accident with it, too." 

Aunt's eyes bulged like marbles. 
She gazed at the mess of apple in 
unbelief, wrath, and finally, thank- 
fulness. She let her breath out 
slowly. Then she clutched her skirt 
high above the litter of the stable 
floor and turned back to the house. 
At the barn door she turned, holding 
up her skirt on each side like a fan. 

"You might as well all come into 
the house and eat up some of those 
doughnuts I made." She looked at 
the three pairs of feet dangling from 
the buggy like so many pendulums. 
"But don't a one of you go further'n 
the kitchen. Been traipsin' 'round 
the woods again!" As she crossed 
the yard to the house, they heard her 
add, to herself, "I'll make another 
pie tomorrow and take it up to the 
meetinghouse myself. Can't trust 
him for a minute when those young 
ones are around." 

She hadn't said one word, Beth 
thought, as they climbed down from 
the buggy, about which one stepped 
in the pie! 



Spirituality and Armed Conflict 

(Continued from page. 244) 
ness by Father Lehi speaking to his 
sons: 



And the Messiah cometh in the fulness 
of time, that he may redeem the children 
of men from the fall. And because that 
they are redeemed from the fall they have 
become free forever, knowing good from 
evil; to act for themselves and not to be 
acted upon, save it be by the punishment 
of the law at the great and last day, ac- 
cording to the commandments which God 
hath given. 

Wherefore, men are free according to 
the flesh; and all things are given them 
which are expedient unto man. And they 
are free to choose liberty and eternal life, 
through the great mediation of all men, 
or to choose captivity and death, according 
to the captivity and power of the devil; for 
he seeketh that all men might be miserable 
like unto himself. (II Nephi 2:26-27.) 

Samuel, the Lamanite prophet, 
teaches the same doctrine: 

And now remember, remember, my breth- 
ren, that whosoever perisheth, perisheth 
(Continued on following page) 
APRIL 1952 




Building 

tomorrow's 

youth 




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The Fate of the Persecutors 

of the 

Prophet Joseph Smith 

With Foreword by Dr. John A. Widtsoe 



* 



* 



* 



His 



Contents by Chapters with Rare Illustrations 

1— The Prophet Joseph Speaks for Himself 

2— The Greatness of the Prophet Joseph 

3— Persecutions of the Prophet and the Saints 

4— Persecution Led by Modern Preachers 

5— Conspiracies Against the Prophet Joseph 

6— Imprisonment in Liberty Jail 

7— The Only Way to Escape Martyrdom 

8— Personal Farewells of the Prophet to 

Friends 
9— The Martyrdom by Willard Richards and John 
Taylor 
10— The Prophet's Body Not Permitted to be Mu- 
tilated 
11— Comments of Friends and Foes on the Martyr- 
dom 
12— Preparation and Funeral of the Martyrs. 
13— The Sorrow and Mourning of the Saints 
14— The Identity and Trial of the Murderers 
15— The Prophet Joseph in Zion's Camp 
16— Physical and Mental Suffering of the Perse- 
cutors 

PRICE $3.00 PER COPY 
Also compiler of . . . 

The Vision 

Temples of the Most High 

Masterful Discourses of Orson Pratt 

Assorted Gems of Priceless Value 

Faith Like the Ancients 

Inspired Prophetic Warnings 

Bookstores and individuals send orders to: 

N. B. Lundwall 

Compiler and Publisher 

Box 2033 

Salt Lake City, Utah 

272 




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Spirituality and Armed Conflict 

{Continued from preceding page) 
unto himself; and whosoever doeth iniquity, 
doeth it unto himself; for behold, ye are 
free; ye are permitted to act for yourselves; 
for behold, God hath given unto you a 
knowledge and he hath made you free. 
He hath given unto you that ye might 
know good from evil, and he hath given 
unto you that ye might choose life or death; 
and ye can do good and be restored unto 
that which is good, or have that which 
is good restored unto you; or ye can do 
evil, and have that which is evil restored 
unto you. (Helaman 14:30-31.) 

During the missionary work of 
Alma and Amulek in the land of 
Ammonihah, they were arrested and 
forced to witness the burning of those 
whom they had converted: 

And when Amulek saw the pains of the 
women and children who were consuming 
in the fire, he also was pained; and he 
said unto Alma: How can we witness this 
awful scene? Therefore let us stretch forth 
our hands, and exercise the power of God 
which is in us, and save them from the 
flames. 

But Alma said unto him: The Spirit 
constraineth me that I must not stretch 
forth mine hand; for behold the Lord re- 
ceiveth them up unto himself, in glory; 
and he doth suffer that they may do this 
thing, or that the people may do this 
thing unto them, according to the hardness 
of their hearts, that the judgments which 
he shall exercise' upon them in his wrath 
may be just; and the blood of the innocent 
shall stand as a witness against them, yea, 
and cry mightily against them at the last 
day. (Alma 14:10-11.) 

Alma's answer goes to the heart 
of the problem. God will not inter- 
fere with the free agency of his 
children that his judgments may be 
just, nor can we expect him to stop 
wars and evil in our day for the same 
reason. But the law of compensation 
catches up with the wicked. This 
law is stated clearly by Mormon: 

But, behold, the judgments of God will 
overtake the wicked; and it is by the wicked 
that the wicked are punished; for it is the 
wicked that stir up the hearts of the chil- 
dren of men unto bloodshed. (Mormon 
4:5.) 

Wars Turn the Nations Away from 
God 

Mormon observed that wars came 
about because of the wickedness of 
men and are destructive of both life 
and faith. 

One might suppose that the poverty 
and misery resulting from war would 
turn people back to God, but listen 
to the words of a great observer of 
the rise and fall of nations: 

THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 



And it came to pass that when I, Mormon, 
saw their lamentation and their mourning 
and their sorrow before the Lord, my heart 
did begin to rejoice within me, knowing 
the mercies and the long-suffering of the 
Lord, therefore supposing that he would be 
merciful unto them that they would again 
become a righteous people. 

But behold this my joy was vain, for 
their sorrowing was not unto repentance, 
because of the goodness of God; but it was 
rather the sorrowing of the damned, be- 
cause the Lord would not always suffer 
them to take happiness in sin. 

And they did not come unto Jesus with 
broken hearts and contrite spirits, but they 
did curse God, and wish to die. Neverthe- 
less they would struggle with the sword 
for their lives. 

And it came to pass that my sorrow did 
return unto me again, and I saw that the 
day of grace was passed with them, both 
temporally and spiritually; for I saw thou- 
sands of them hewn down in open rebellion 
against their God, and heaped up as dung 
upon the face of the land. And thus three 
hundred and forty and four years had 
passed away. (Mormon 2:12-15.) 

This is also true in our day. The 
two world wars have nearly emptied 
the churches of Europe, and spiritual- 
ity has sunk to a new low. 

Where Shall the Church Stand? 

What then shall be the position 
of the Church in time of war? Clearly 
the Church shall use all of its influ- 
ence to avoid war between nations 
and individuals. This is best done 
by preaching the gospel of Jesus 
Christ to all men by precept and 
example, that mankind might come 
to love peace and abhor war. 

But the Church also believes in 
the right of preserving life and liberty 
and will encourage its members to 
fight for their preservation against 
aggressor nations. Further, a mem- 
ber of the Church who is called 
to serve his nation in the cause of 
freedom may enter into battle with 
confidence that so long as his desires 
are righteous, God's Spirit will not 
desert him, and if death overtakes 
him on the field of battle, he will be 
received by that God who gave him 
life. 



■ ♦ ■ 



LEAP YEAR 



By Nell Griffith Wilson 



Tn this month of leap year wooing 

* How can a man say — "No"? 

When a crocus warms old winter's heart 

And pushes through the snow. 
APRIL 1952 



EYE CARE 

ISA 
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273 




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THE MEANING OF ARBOR DAY 



(Concluded from page 231) 
should haunt every tree- loving citi- 
zen throughout the year. Many of 
these wasted trees come from private- 
ly-owned property on your water- 
sheds. Yet the mere insistence by 
the public on proper tagging would 
readily solve this evil. 

The fourth basic use of our forested 
areas lies in the realm of recreation. 
This constitutes the greatest popular 
use of forest lands. Last year 
110,000 people hunted big game 
in Utah and many thousands fished 
our streams. Practically every citi- 
zen at some time or other enjoyed 
the camping and picnic facilities of 
some secluded sylvan retreat in a 
favorite canyon. 



I submit that this emphasis on our 
natural forests is a timely topic and 
one thoroughly in keeping with the 
purposes and ideals of Arbor Day. 
As a public we need to regard our 
city as an integral part of the moun- 
tainous forested area that actually 
supports it. The beauty that we 
create here through planting should 
be a symbol of our determination to 
preserve the pristine glory of our 
native forests. 

"He that planteth a tree is a servant 

of God — 
He provideth a kindness for many 

generations, 
And faces that he hath not seen shall 

bless him." 



THE OPENED DOOR 



(Continued from page 234) 

ginning of the three days of darkness 
and for us to stay inside our homes 
and continue to pray, then we would 
have nothing to fear. He told us 
there would be earthquakes and fires 
and huge cities would be destroyed, 
but that the faithful would be pre- 
served. We will pray now and thank 
our Heavenly Father that the three 
of us are together. No matter what 
may happen outside, we will not be 
afraid here in our little home." 

So for three days there was total 
darkness, so thick neither candle or 
torches would burn, and there was 
no light of any kind, save when the 
lightning flashed. The noise of the 
thunder and earthquakes and the 
shrieking of the wind were terrible 
to hear, and people cried out in fear 
saying, "Oh, that we had repented 
before this great and terrible day 
and had not stoned and killed the 
prophets!" And there was great sor- 
row and anguish throughout the 
land. The great city of Zarahemla was 
burned, and many other wicked cities 
destroyed and swallowed up in the 
earth. But inside their snug little 
home, Omar and his wife and son 
continued to pray, and they with 
many other righteous ones were saved 
from destruction, and they praised 
their Heavenly Father for preserving 
them. 

Then out of the darkness a voice 



274 



was heard among the people saying, 
"Behold I am Jesus Christ, the Son 
of Godl" And the voice continued 
to talk to them and give counsel and 
advice, then all was quiet for many 
hours. And once more the same voice 
spoke to them, and once more all 
was quiet except for the noise of 
the storm. When the darkness 
cleared, a great multitude of the peo- 
ple who had not been destroyed 
gathered around the temple in the 
land of Bountiful. The Prophet 
Nephi was there, and Omar and his 
wife and son had journeyed to be 
near him to talk of the wonderful 
things which had occurred. Omar 
had pushed the wheel chair all the 
way to the temple, and he was very 
tired. Ezrom was tired, too, but 
happy because he could be near his 
beloved prophet. While they were 
all busy talking of the storm and of 
hearing the voice of the Savior, they 
heard another voice from the heavens 
saying, "Behold my Beloved Son in 
whom I am well pleased, in whom I 
have glorified my name — hear ye 
him." And they looked up into 
heaven, from where they saw a man 
descending out of heaven, clothed 
in a white robe; and he came down 
and stood in the midst of them and 
stretched out his hand to them say- 
ing, "Behold, I am Jesus Christ, whom 
the prophets testified shall come into 
the world. 

"And behold, I am the light and 

THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 



the life of the world; and I have drunk 
out of that bitter cup which the 
Father hath given me, and have 
glorified the Father in taking upon 
me the sins of the world. . . . ' 

And the people fell upon their 
knees and rejoiced. And Omar and 
his wife and Ezrom rejoiced with 
them, and the Savior stayed many 
days and taught them many things. 
He chose his Twelve Disciples to 
carry on and teach the people after 
he should leave them, and he showed 
them how to bless the sacrament and 
partake of it. 

He told them of his teachings in 
the land across the sea; of his Twelve 
Apostles in Jerusalem and how they 
had wanted him to tarry with them, 
but he had said to them, "... other 
sheep I have which are not of this 
fold; them also I must bring, and 
they shall hear my voice; and there 
shall be one fold, and one shepherd." 
But his Apostles had not understood 
him. He turned to the Nephites and 
Lamanites gathered around him and 
said, . . . ye are they of whom I 
said: Other sheep I have . . . behold, 
ye have both heard my voice, and 
seen me; and ye are my sheep, and 
ye are numbered among those whom 
the' Father hath given me." 

Many other marvelous and wonder- 
ful things he taught them, even as 
he had taught the people across the 
sea, and then he told them he must 
leave them, and the people were 
sorrowful. He saw the tears in their 
eyes, and he, too, wept and said, 
"Have ye any that are sick among 
you? Bring them hither. Have ye 
any that are lame, or blind, or halt, 
or maimed, ... or deaf or that are 
afflicted in any manner? Bring them 
hither and I will heal them." 

And the people did bring their 
sick, and they were healed, and the 
boy Ezrom with his great faith went 
forth and was healed also, and he 
stood straight and strong and tall, 
and he rejoiced with his father and 
mother and gave thanks. A new day 
had dawned for him. The door had 
been opened to a new life full of 
hope and promise, and Ezrom stand- 
ing on the threshold looked beyond 
into the glorious future. The door 
had been opened because this same 
Jesus who had brought about the 
miracle of his healing had died and 
been resurrected that he and all 
generations to follow after might have 
eternal life. 
APRIL 1952 




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275 



Melchizedek Priesthood 
Monthly Quorum Meetings 



Every Melchizedek Priesthood quo- 
rum (high priests, seventies, and 
elders) throughout the entire 
Church is strongly urged by the First 
Presidency, the Twelve Apostles, and 
the Church Melchizedek Priesthood 
committee to hold quorum meetings 
once each month in addition to its 
weekly group meetings. The only 
exception to this requirement is in 
certain areas where special permission 
has been granted to quorums to hold 
meetings quarterly because extensive 
geographical distances prohibit them 
from holding those meetings more 
often. 

Pertinent instructions and sug- 
gested order of business for Mel- 
chizedek Priesthood monthly quorum 
meetings may be found on pages 35- 
36 of the Melchizedek Priesthood 
Handbook. As a part of those defi- 
nite instructions, the following ap- 
pears: 

The quorum meeting is indispensable to 
the success of the quorum. When a quo- 
rum of the priesthood is confined to the 
borders of a single ward, ... the second 
meeting in each month is to be designated 
as the monthly quorum business meeting. 
. . . Where the members of a quorum of 
the priesthood live in more than one ward, 
a monthly quorum meeting should be held 
and the suggested time is during the second 
week of each month. 
i 

It should be thoroughly understood 
by all stake presidencies and by all 
Melchizedek Priesthood quorum presi- 
dencies throughout the Church that 
when quorum members reside in two 
or more wards, group meetings 
should be held every Sunday; and, in 
addition to those group meetings, a 
special monthly quorum meeting 
should be held at a definite selected 
time convenient to the quorum mem- 
bers involved. Quorum presidents are 
hereby cautioned to be sure not to 
set their quorum meetings at a time 
Which would interfere with the regu- 
lar priesthood meetings of wards hav- 
ing Melchizedek groups connected 
276 



with the quorum involved. Many 
Melchizedek Priesthood quorums 
throughout the Church have found 
through experience that a Sunday 
afternoon around 2:00 o'clock — 
probably the second Sunday of each 
month — furnishes a convenient time 
for all members to meet in their 
monthly quorum meetings This pro- 
cedure is suggested to the Melchizedek 
Priesthood quorums throughout the 
Church. 

One point of great importance is 
for every Melchizedek Priesthood 
quorum to select a definite time for 
its monthly quorum meetings and 
never fail to hold its meetings at that 
appointed time. Irregularity in hold- 
ing quorum meetings and indefinite- 
ness as to the hour of the meetings 
both cut desired attendance. 

If the presidents expect to have 
successful meetings, well attended by 
quorum members, there must be a 
definite closing time, strictly adhered 
to, as well as a definite beginning 
time. 

The Melchizedek Priesthood reports 
for 1951 indicate that the attendance 
at the monthly quorum meetings 
throughout the entire Church was 
only approximately fifty percent, as 
good as was the attendance at the 
weekly priesthood group meetings. 
Why should this be the condition? 
Members of the Church Melchizedek 
Priesthood committee are inclined to 
believe that, in the quorums where 
such a condition exists, the quorum 
presidents have not devoted sufficient 
intelligent planning, hard work, and 
powers of leadership to the problem. 
It is their challenge — and no quorum 
presidency should rest feeling satis- 
fied until its monthly quorum meet- 
ings equal or surpass in percent of 
attendance the weekly group meet- 
ings. 

What, you may ask, can quorum 
presidencies do to help remedy a con- 
dition wherein they have low at- 
tendance at their monthly quorum 



meetings? Of course, there is no 
general formula that fits all cases, 
since conditions differ in the various 
quorums. The responsibility defi- 
nitely rests upon the shoulders of 
the quorum presidencies to analyze 
their own individual problems and to 
work intelligently until they are 
solved. However, a few helpful sug- 
gestions are herewith given: 

First: The quorum presidency at 
the quorum council meetings which 
are held weekly should give careful 
consideration to all business matters 
that are to be presented to the quo- 
rum and should come to a unity of 
agreement and understanding before 
the presidency appears before the quo- 
rum members to conduct said busi- 
ness. 

Second: Since the Melchizedek 
Priesthood monthly quorum meeting 
is a business meeting, the business 
should be conducted intelligently and 
with dispatch. 

Third: The president who con- 
ducts the monthly quorum meeting 
should have every item of business 
carefully written out and well in 
mind before he stands before the 
group. 

Fourth: Special numbers on the 
program also should be well-prepared 
and be presented as artistically as 
possible. 

Fifth: After quorum business has 
been disposed of, individual problems 
of quorum members or questions from 
quorum members could with profit 
be entertained. 

Sixth: In addition to these sugges- 
tions, the one already mentioned of 
opening and closing meetings ac- 
cording to the appointed time is very 
essential if the presidents expect to 
have the monthly quorum meetings 
well attended. 

In conclusion, all stake presidencies 
throughout the Church are urged to 
see that the quorum presidents under 
their jurisdiction hold weekly presi- 
dency meetings and monthly quorum 
meetings. Also all quorum presiden- 
cies are earnestly encouraged to fol- 
low this procedure in order that they 
may magnify their callings in the 
priesthood and build up the work of 
the Lord in their respective quorums. 
THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 



DOES TOBACCO SOOTHE THE NERVES ? 



Science Says "NO!" 

by Asabel D. Woodruff 

DEAN, GRADUATE SCHOOL, BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY 



The effects produced upon the hu- 
man system by nicotine have been 
studied recently at the University 
of Georgia in seven experiments 
somewhat more carefully controlled 
than most such experiments. The 
study was carried out by A. S. Ed- 
wards and his students, and was re- 
ported in the Journal of Applied 
Psychology, published by the Ameri- 
can Psychological Association. The 
results of these seven experiments are 
probably more dependable than those 
some past studies have produced be- 
cause of the better techniques em- 
ployed. Finger tremor was used as 
the element of physiological behavior 
to be measured, and the experiments 
included smoking one-half a cigaret, 
taking eight puffs in one minute, in- 
haling and not inhaling the smoke, 
eliminating smoking for two hours 
in the case of habitual smokers, the 
effect of so-called "denicotinized" 
cigarets, smoking corn silk both in- 
haled and not inhaled, and occupy- 
ing a smoke-filled room without 
actually smoking. Two questions 
were under study — does smoking in- 
crease finger tremor, and is it true, 
as some students argue, that they 
should not be required to go through 
two or three hour test periods without 
smoking? In general, the answer to 
the first question is emphatically yes, 
and to the second question no, as far 
as the smoke itself is concerned. Here 
are some of the specific findings. 

In the first place, women react 
more severely to nicotine than do 
men. Women tend to have less 
tremor before smoking, and more 
tremor after smoking than do men. 
In the second place, and this may be 
surprising to some, habitual smokers 
react with more tremor and a greater 
increase in tremor than do non- 
smokers when each is required to 
smoke the same amount. A third 
finding is that inhaling is much more 
effective in producing tremor than 
non-inhaling of the tobacco smoke. 
Corn silk, whether inhaled or not, 
shows no reaction and produces no 
tremor. So-called "denicotinized" 
cigarets are apparently as bad as 
standard brands, for they produce as 

APRIL 1952 



much tremor as the latter. Finally, 
when habitual smokers are denied 
cigarets for two hours, they become 
steadier; they report that they actually 
feel better, often to their surprise, and 
they often come to the conclusion 
that what they crave is the habitual 
routine of smoking rather than the 
smoke itself. 

In the experiments, the middle 
finger of the right hand was placed 
in a loop drawn tight near the finger- 
nail. By means or an apparatus 
known as the finger tromometer, it is 
thus possible to measure exactly 
front-back, right-left, and up-down 
finger movements. Conditions of the 
experiment were held constant for 
all subjects, so differences in per- 
formance could be held to the effect 
of the smoke. As an example of the 
technique, non-smokers were asked 
to smoke one-half a cigaret. Imme- 
diately the tremor rose from 31.2 
mm. to 36.8 mm. on the average, 
which is a small increase of eighteen 
percent and not large enough to be 
statistically significant. On the other 
hand, when smokers are asked to 
smoke one-half a cigaret, the tremor 
rises from an average of forty- eight 
mm. to an average of sixty-seven mm., 
which is statistically significant and 
represents an increase of thirty-nine 
percent. Eight puffs in one minute 
brought an increase of eighty -four 
percent in smokers, which is highly 
significant. Non-smokers again re- 
sponded to a much less extent. In- 
haling proved to have a much greater 
increase in tremor than non-inhaling, 
using cigarets, cigars, or pipes. One 
example is typical — a pipe smoker 
whose tremor was thirty before smok- 
ing, went up to seventy-two, sixty- 
four, and sixty-three as measured at 
ten- minute intervals after smoking. 
Smoking without inhaling seemed not 
to produce significant differences in 
tremor. 

It appears from this study that 
those who excuse their participation 
on the basis that they use "de- 
nicotinized" tobacco are the victims 
of rationalization and unscrupulous 
advertising. Such cigarets produced 
fully as much tremor as standard 



brands, although smoking corn silk 
did not result in tremor, even when 
several pipefuls were smoked. Those 
who took a cigaret, however, at the 
conclusion of the corn silk experi- 
ment, showed an immediate increase 
in tremor. 

In the experiment on smoke-filled 
rooms, a well- ventilated room was 
used as a control. Subjects were 
measured in the control room before 
being taken into the smoke-filled 
room and were measured in the 
smoke- filled room at the end of three, 
six, and nine minutes. In one ex- 
perimental room the smoke was in 
quantity somewhat beyond the typi- 
cal smoke-filled room, and in the 
other experimental room there was 
so much smoke that the subjects com- 
plained that their eyes were affected 
and they were physically uncomfort- 
able. In spite of the disagreeable 
feelings reported by the subjects, no 
significant results in tremor were 
found in either room. Such a find- 
ing certainly renders invalid the ra- 
tionalization sometimes heard, that 
one might as well smoke since he 
has to be where others are smoking. 

Some rather clear facts seem to be 
established in this study. Tobacco 
smoke is sure to create a loss in 
steadiness when it is inhaled, regard- 
less of the amount, and regardless 
of any current commercial attempts 
to remove the nicotine. When it is 
remembered that steady smokers 
rarely practise non-inhalation, it 
seems that whoever smokes in any 
fashion will sooner or later suffer 
undesirable effects on the nervous 
system. Furthermore, the longer one 
smokes, the greater seems to be the 
cumulative effect of the nervous dis- 
order produced. Smokers who wish 
to quit, but feel themselves enslaved, 
might do well to recognize the dif- 
ference between a continued need for 
nicotine, and the compelling effects 
of pure muscular habits involved in 
the act of smoking. In the light of 
this experiment one can easily agree 
with that portion of the word of wis- 
dom which says "tobacco ... is an 
herb for bruises and all sick cattle." 
It is unfit for man. 

277 



Celebrating the Anniversary of the Restoration of the Aaronic Priesthood 



'T'he anniversary of the restoration of 
the Aaronic Priesthood will be cele- 
brated in the stakes and wards of the 
Church May 17-18, 1952. On May 15, 
the Aaronic Priesthood will have been 
restored one hundred and twenty-three 
years. 

Saturday, May 17, as heretofore, 
should include all out-of-door activities. 
Camping trips extending into the Sab- 
bath Day should not be undertaken. 

It is recommended that stake Aaronic 
Priesthood committees, during the stake 
priesthood leadership meeting for April, 
discuss and make plans for the celebra- 
tion. In this meeting, where the stake 
committee meets with bishoprics and 
coordinators, it should be decided as to 
whether the activities of May 17 should 
be undertaken on a ward or stake basis. 
If it is decided to conduct the day's 
activities on a stake basis, the program 
should be planned jointly by the stake 
committee and ward bishoprics. 

When no stake function is planned, 
it should be the objective of every ward 
in the stake to plan some special and 
appropriate activity for Saturday, May 

17. In too many instances, there is 
not enough attention being given to the 
Saturday activities in connection with 
the celebration program. This day pro- 
vides an excellent opportunity for an 
all-out program of athletic and sports 
events, pilgrimages to places of special 
interest, and other outdoor activities 
especially interesting to boys. 

With the approval of the First Presi- 
dency, the sacrament meeting of May 

18, 1952, is to be set apart in each ward 
for the presentation of the restoration 
program suggested below. In stakes 
where quarterly conferences are sched- 
uled for May 18, the suggested Aaronic 
Priesthood program should be presented 
during the sacrament meeting the week 
before or following the quarterly con- 
ference. 

Program for Sacrament Meeting 
May 18, 1952 

The following program is suggested 
for the sacrament meeting May 18, 
1952, in commemoration of the restora- 
tion of the Aaronic Priesthood. The 
bishop and his counselors, as the presi- 
dency of the Aaronic Priesthood, will 
conduct the meeting. 

All musical numbers for this meeting 
should be rendered, wherever possible, 
by bearers of the Aaronic Priesthood. 

278 



Girls of corresponding ages may also be 
asked to participate in combined youth 
choruses. M. I. A. organizations will 
be happy to assist with this part of the 
service since these organizations are now 
in charge of our youth chorus program. 

The Theme: Priesthood in Everyday Life 

Preliminary music by Aaronic Priest- 
hood members, where possible. 

1. Opening song — "We Are Mormon 
Boys" — page^ 26, Aaronic Priest- 
hood Choruses, by Aaronic Priest- 
hood or youth chorus. 

2. Invocation — deacon, teacher, or 
priest over 21, by advance assign- 
ment accepted by him. 

3. Sacrament Song — "An Angel from 
on High" — page 14, Aaronic Priest- 
hood Choruses, by Aaronic Priest- 
hood or youth chorus. 

4. Administration of the sacrament by 
Aaronic Priesthood members. 

5. Solo and quartet or chorus — "A 
Mormon Boy" — page 90, Aaronic 
Priesthood Choruses. 

6. Brief review of the details of the 
restoration of the Aaronic Priest- 



hood, by coordinator of ward boy 
leadership committee, 5 minutes. 

7. How I May Honor the Priesthood 
on the School Grounds — a deacon, 
5 minutes. 

8. How I May Honor the Priesthood 
in the Field of Sports — a teacher, 5 
minutes. 

9. Vocal duet — "Just a Boy" — page 33, 
or "On Lovely Susquehanna's 
Banks" — page 36, Aaronic Priest- 
hood Choruses. 

10. How I May Honor the Priesthood 
in My Courtship — a priest, 5 min- 
utes. 

11. How a Young Man May Honor the 
Priesthood in His Everyday Life — 
a young unmarried woman of 
priest's age, 5 minutes. 

12. How Honoring the Aaronic Priest- 

hood Helped Prepare Me to Be- 
come the President of the Aaronic 
Priesthood — the bishop. 

13. Closing song: "True to the Faith" 
— page 56, Aaronic Priesthood 
Choruses. 

14. Benediction — deacon, teacher, or 
priest, over 21, by advance assign- 
ment accepted by him. 



Aaronic Priesthood 

New Report Forms Available for 
Reporting Stake Visits to Wards 

A new report form on which members 
of the stake Aaronic Priesthood 
committee may report visits to wards 
is now available in the Presiding Bishop- 
ric's office and will be furnished with- 
out charge upon request. The reports 
are single sheets gummed in pads of 
one hundred. 

A visit to the ward during the ward 
priesthood meeting hour is to be re- 
ported on one side of the report and 
a visit to the ward boy leadership com- 
mittee meeting is to be reported on the 
other side of the report. 

There are extra spaces for reporting 
special visits as well. 

It is suggested that the stake commit- 
tee desiring to use these reports order 
only one pad at a time. The secretary 
of the committee, during the monthly 
council meeting, will provide each com- 
mittee member with one report sheet 



for each visit contemplated during the 
ensuing month, keeping in mind that 
each report will take care of one visit 
to the ward priesthood meeting and 
one visit to the ward boy leadership 
committee meeting. 

The committee members' written re- 
port of each visit made during the past 
month will be reviewed by him during 
the council meeting and then handed 
to the secretary for filing and future 
reference. 

Each time a committee member is 
assigned to visit a ward, he should se- 
cure from the secretary the file of written 
reports for that ward so that he may be 
fully informed of the conditions as pre- 
viously reported. He should especially 
check for records of recommendations 
made and inquire as to whether such 
recommendations have been acted upon 
by the bishopric. When a recommenda- 
tion is once made, it should be indicated 
in the written report and carefully fol- 
lowed up by each subsequent visitor 
until favorable action is taken thereon. 

The file of written reports for the 

ward should always be returned to the 

secretary at the next council meeting. 

THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 




k|2jf I spared by <=Lee ^At. f^ain 



mer 



A Challenging Record 




GAYLAN BURR 

Gaylan, a priest in the Salina Second 
Ward, North Sevier (Utah) Stake, has 
maintained a one hundred percent at- 
tendance record at priesthood meeting, 
sacrament meeting, Sunday School, and 
Y.M.M.I.A. for the past five years. He 
has also established a perfect record in 
ward teaching visits since he became a 
ward teacher three years ago. 



Adult Leaders 

Win An Argument— Lose A Soul 

/^roup advisers for adult members of 
the Aaronic Priesthood would do 
well to remember that in their discus- 
sions with group members the gentle 
curve of persuasion is more powerful 
for good than the acute angle of rebuff. 
Too frequently the winning of an argu- 
ment means the losing of a soul. 

What a thrilling thing it is to be on 
the winning side of a verbal controversy, 
but have you ever analyzed the feelings 
of the loser of such a foray? Have you 
ever considered the cost of such a vic- 
tory? Usually one who is overruled in 
an argument, even though evidence and 
authority be against him, will not 
change his opinion, and it is rare, in- 
deed, that such a loser doesn't resent 
the victor. 

Pointed words hurled as arrows can 
do no more than widen the breach of 
misunderstanding. The gentle word 
wins far more respect than the strong 
rebuke. A man's good will is more de- 
sirable than to be proclaimed the winner 
in any battle of words. 

Unity, love, harmony, patient con- 
sideration, and respect for the other 
man's point of view are the Lord's way 



and should characterize the relationships 
between group advisers and their group 
members. Friction, argumentation, dis- 
harmony, and the verbal slap are the 
devil's cheap counterfeits. With their 
"fool's gold" glitter, he hopes to hinder 
the progress of the Lord's work. 

When an objection to a point is 
raised by a group member, the group 
adviser should consider it as an aid to 
the discussion rather than a declaration 
of war. Accept such objections as an in- 
dication of interest and with a spirit 
void of offense; support your principle 
with authoritative evidence and reason- 
ing. 

It is seldom wise to directly attempt 
to destroy an objection. Disregard it, 
if you must. With a "yes- but" ap- 
proach, go around it if you will. Let 
him who raised it tear it down with 
the tools that you tactfully supply for 
the purpose. 

One who argues can seldom win. He 
loses the argument; he loses a friend; 
or he loses both. 



Adult Members 

Group Advisers— Are You 
Promoters Or Builders 

A RE you, as a group adviser for adult 
members of the Aaronic Priesthood, 
a promoter or a builder? Is it your 
sole objective to advance the group 
members to whom you have been as- 
signed to the Melchizedek Priesthood or 
is it your concern to nurture the seed of 
faith that God has planted in each 
heart that it might germinate and 
develop into a firm testimony of the 
gospel? 

The promoter cares nothing for 
foundations; he builds for show. He 
wants above all else a beautiful front 
wall. He deals in surface beauty. Favor- 
able first impressions are his whole 
desire. 

Much of the work of the builder is 
underground, work that the eyes of man 
may never see. He builds for tomorrow 
as well as today. He realizes that the 
beautiful front, to endure, must be built 
on a firm foundation and not upon the 
sand. He is interested in beauty, but he 
APRIL 1952 



is even more interested in security. The 
materials he chooses to be used in 
hidden places must meet rigid tests, and 
he is as interested in the quality of the 
inner wall as he is in the beauty of the 
outer. 

Some group advisers spend their time 
persuading their group members to for- 
sake their bad habits that they might 
be advanced to the Melchizedek Priest- 
hood. Such a course is the work of a 
promoter. 

The builder group adviser knows that 
if he teaches prayer and the funda- 
mental principles of the gospel, he lays 
the foundation for an unshakable testi- 
mony. He realizes that each additional 
principle taught is another stone in the 
temple of character. Yes, the builder 
knows that when a man has a testimony 
of the gospel, his habits are more likely 
to take care of themselves. He is satis- 
fied that when such a man is advanced 
to the higher priesthood, it is more 
likely to be an eternal blessing for him- 
self and his family. 

Don't be a mere promoter group ad- 
viser. Get the vision of your calling. 
Be a builder, a builder in the kingdom 
of God! 



Ward Teaching 

Hardness With Each Other 
Should Be Avoided 

{"^ne of the evils which Jesus contended 
with during his ministry was the 
hardness of the hearts of those who op- 
posed him. So calloused were the hearts, 
of the Sadducees and the Pharisees, that 
it became necessary for Jesus to rebuke 
them sharply. These men had no 
sense of justice. They were ruled by 
personal prejudice. Their hearts were 
not open to reason and truth. They 
were cruel, oppressive, and severe in 
dealing with their fellow men. 

In this dispensation, the Lord has 
sought to prevent a recurrence of such 
a condition. To prevent and overcome 
the growth of any tendencies in this 
direction, he has issued a mandate to 
those who teach, to see that there is no- 
"hardness with each other." 

Those who are inflexible and over- 
exacting in dealing with their fellow 
men should be taught the value of 
compassion. Individuals or firms that 
are merciless or unsympathetic in their 
demands are found wanting for friends 
and patrons. 

Where hearts are not hardened, there 
is an increase of love, good will, co- 
operation, and genuine Christian 
achievement. 

27? 




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THESE TIMES 



(Concluded from page 210) 
On January 27, 1952, Mr. Hoover 
asked why Russia had not already at- 
tacked during the past five and one- 
half years, when we were weaker. 

Have we been sold a bogey-man? 
Few would say yes. Yet the persons 
whose opinion Mr. Hoover ascertained, 
western Europeans, felt that Russia 
would not attack. They didn't seem to 
be worried. Similar reports have been 
heard from many Europeans who won- 
der what the Americans are so excited 
about. 



What are we excited about? Commu- 
nist doctrine? I suppose. Russian mili- 
tary power? Yes, we are told — here is 
the enemy. Mr. Hoover suggests that 
if the Kremlin is as wise as it is reported 
to be, they would have attacked long 
before now, before we began to rearm. 

Well, you're apt to hear a lot about 
this during the campaign this summer. 

What do you think about the budget 
and military spending in these times? 
Have you your $472.00 (or $2360 or 
more) handy? 



SUPPER GUEST 



(Continued from page 241) 
oneness in sorrow persuaded them to 
tell each other their separate experi- 
ences of the past days. Each recount- 
ing brought Miriam back to: "If he 
could have had only one more meal 
with us!" 

And Cleopas' answer was with 
black finality: "If he had been the 
Christ, he would have come down 
from the cross!" 

Then, as master of the family, he 
locked the door of remembrance for- 
ever on those dismal days. "Never 
speak of it all again! I will never 
again strain my eyes over the scrolls! 
If another teacher comes, let the 
priests and elders decide if he be the 
Christ!" 

When Miriam stumbled on the up- 
climb, he put his arm about her and 
kept it there. They walked with 
heads bowed so low they failed to 
see another traveler until he over- 
took them and slackened his buoyant 
step to their plodding. They glanced 
up casually, then fastened their eyes 
again on the path. 

"What manner of communications 
are these that you have one with 
another, as you walk and are sad?" 
His tones were as cheery as morning 
chimes but suggested the amiable 
rebuke of an old acquaintance. 

Cleopas answered, "Surely you are 
a stranger in Jerusalem not to know 
that things have happened there 
these past days to burden the heart 
of every child of Israel!" 

"What things?" So Cleopas told 
him listlessly of Jesus of Nazareth. 
He concluded, sighing, "He was a 
mighty Prophet. My wife and I had 
him in our home; we did hope he 



280 



might be the Messiah our prophets 
promised. But it is the third day 
since he was crucified. Our hope is 
dead with him." 

Then he added in afterthought, 
"Oh, it is true, some who went to 
the tomb early this morning said his 
body was gone, and they had seen 
angels who said he was risen from 
the dead. But who could believe 
that? If he had been Christ, he 
would have come down from the 
cross." 

"O fools and slow of heart to be- 
lieve," the stranger chided, "ought 
not Christ to have suffered these 
things to enter into glory?" And be- 
ginning at Moses he explained all 
the prophets with such power of 
reasoning as they had never heard. 
Miriam saw Cleopas straighten his 
tired shoulders, saw understanding 
glimmer on his heavy features. Once 
in the speaker's gestures, the sleeve 
of his gleaming robe brushed her. 
She could have kissed the hem in 
gratitude! 

The path grew more rugged, but 
their steps were quick and light. 
Twice the stranger halted them with 
his hand, till their minds caught his 
logic. Cleopas murmured, "Stupid 
fool that I was!" 

They turned into the, path that 
wound up to their dooryard. The 
visitor bent his height to walk be- 
neath the low olive branch. Soon 
he spoke of journeying on and began 
the usual Jewish ceremony of fare- 
well. Still half- dazed, they let him 
go. He was down in the Jerusalem 
highway when Miriam rushed after 
him and called: 

THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 



"It is nearly night; come back and 
stay with us!" 

He came back. He leaned against 
the wall while Cleopas went briskly 
at his chores. 

Miriam hummed a little tune as 
she hurried and made a fire in the 
back-yard oven. She dashed down 
to the little stream that babbled past 
the lower wall and from a cool recess 
in the rock took a covered bowl of 
dough. Soon her date bread was 
baking. Every so often she glanced 
at Cleopas, marveling at how buoy- 
antly he turned off his tasks. Why, 
he seemed younger than he had for 
years! 

Then the men came to the table. 
She looked closer at the stranger — 
hadn't she known him somewhere 
before? No, never before had she 
seen such radiance in a face; never 
before had anyone's conversation 
made her heart burn so within her. 

As the men reclined, eating, she 
served them, sitting on a low stool. 
One flickering candle furnished light. 
Miriam passed their guest a mug of 
goat's milk and the barley loaves, 
warm and sweet-smelling. He took 
one and, looking up, he gave thanks 
and broke it. 

She recognized him! In the break- 
ing of the bread, she knew! 

Exaltation shook her. Through a 
mist of rapture, she saw the shocky 
head of Cleopas bow low. She heard 
him whisper, "My Lord, the Christ!" 

The next instant, as each of them 
raised a hand to touch the Presence, 
it had gone! 

"Oh, Cleopas, Cleopas," Miriam 
cried over and over, "he came to sup 
with us again; he came to sup with 
us again!" 



LD.S. Settlement at 
Winter Quarters 

(Continued from page 226)' 

no more at present. Amen and 
Amen." (Idem, 42.) 

The principal diet of the people at 
Winter Quarters in the winter of 
1846-47. was corn and pork. These 
articles could be secured more readily 
and were brought to Winter Quar- 
ters from what was called "Upper 
Missouri," along the western borders 
of that state. There were very few 
gristmills in that part of Missouri at 
that time where the grain was bought. 

{Concluded on following page) 
APRIL 1952 



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U.S. SETTLEMENT AT WINTER QIJARTERS 



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282 



(Concluded from preceding page) 
Some of the brethren found work 
during these trying months and by 
that means were able to purchase 
their meagre supplies preparatory to 
the journey to the Rocky Mountains. 
Wheat, boiled whole, and corn, such 
as could be obtained, was ground in- 
to meal in hand mills, a few of them 
being in the camps. In the fall of 
1846, in Upper Missouri, wheat sold 
for nineteen to twenty-five cents and 
corn for ten to twelve cents a bushel, 
but these prices were advanced to 
twice the price as the Saints continued 
their purchases. While these prices 
were low, yet they placed a strain 
upon the pocketbooks of the poor 
exiles, for their means were woefully 
deficient. Besides the feeding of the 
people, cattle and horses had to be 
fed, and this required grain. With- 
out the abundant mercy and assist- 
ance from the Lord these impover- 
ished Saints would have perished. 

Notwithstanding all their hard- 
ships and the poverty of the Saints, 
they were usually happy, for they 
had the Spirit of the Lord to guide 
them and they had leaders with in- 
domitable wills and wonderful re- 
sourcefulness aided by the help of 
the Lord. There were a few among 
them who lacked the faith to con- 
tinue the journey and fell by the 
wayside, among them Bishop George 
Miller and Alpheus Cutler. 

After the encampment was made at 
Winter Quarters, November 1, 1846, 
Major H. M. Harvey, superintendent 
of Indian Affairs, called on President 
Young at Winter Quarters and 
stated that he wished the camp to 
remove from the Indian lands; that 
the members of the camp were burn- 
ing the Indians' wood, and he had 
received letters from Washington 
from the Department of Indian Af- 
fairs giving instructions that no white 
settlers were to be permitted on the 
Omaha Indian lands without the 
authority of the government. Presi- 
dent Young told Major Harvey that 
the government had called into the 
service of the United States army the 
most efficient men from the camps of 
the pioneers, thus weakening and 
placing extra burdens upon those who 
remained. This had caused delay, 
It was later learned that such drastic 
demands had not come from Wash- 
ington. 



Winter Quarters was not com- 
pletely abandoned until 1848, and it 
continued to be the place for fitting 
out companies for the journey across 
the plains and mountains to the Salt 
Lake Valley. Many of the members 
of the Church had located at Coun- 
cil Bluffs, and those not prepared to 
cross the plains moved to the eastern 
side of the Missouri. This new 
settlement was named Kanesville, in 
honor of General Thomas L. Kane 
who had befriended the Latter-day 
Saints on several occasions. Kanes- 
ville became a thriving town before 
the members of the Church were 
called to abandon it. During its 
most prosperous days there were more 
members of the Church there than 
in the Salt Lake Valley. A newspaper 
called the Frontier Guardian was 
published, with Elder Orson Hyde of 
the Council of the Twelve as editor. 
It was at Kanesville that Oliver 
Cowdery came in October 1848 to 
plead for admission back into the 
Church; his request was granted. 

Twelve days after the arrival of 
President Brigham Young on the 
bank of the Missouri River, Captain 
James Allen of the United States 
Army arrived at Mt. Pisgah with a 
call from the government for four 
or five companies of volunteers to 
serve in the Mexican War. He was 
advised to go to Council Bluffs to 
see President Brigham Young. He 
arrived there on the thirtieth day of 
June and the following day met with 
President Young and the brethren. 
President Young informed him that 
the volunteers would be furnished. 
It was moved by Heber C. Kimball 
and seconded by Willard Richards 
that a battalion of five hundred men 
be raised, which was carried unani- 
mously at a meeting of the brethren 
who were called together for this 
occasion. This necessitated the re- 
turn of President Young to Mount 
Pisgah and the sending of letters to 
Garden Grove and Nauvoo notifying 
the members of the Church in these 
places of this action. The calling 
of this Mormon Battalion and its 
wonderful march and achievements 
are well-known among the Latter- 
day Saints, but the true spirit and 
significance of their march has never 
received the proper honor and place 
which it should have been accorded 
throughout the nation. 

THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 



God Bless Men like These 

(Concluded from page 214) 

felt that they needed more time to 
prepare themselves for the tasks, 
and this was given them. 

That stake is now fully officered. 
The presidency reports that these 
men are humble in their efforts, 
zealous, and very grateful for the 
confidence expressed in them. Their 
families have found strength and 
unity that did not exist before. 

There is a goodly supply of these 
people in every ward and stake of 
the Church. All that many of them 
need is someone to express confi- 
dence in them. God bless these 
men, and the men who, like the 
stake presidency, approach them 
with gentleness, patience, forgive- 
ness, and love. 



RIVER TUNNEL 
By Christie Jefferies 

A llied with science, fighting river flood, 
'** The sandhog burrowed here in slime 

and mud. 
Shovel and pick, gunpowder's deadly 

force 
Combined to shape the tunnel's winding 

course. 
The walls rose, welded to the solid rock, 
Walls strong to bear the intermittent shock 
Of river water, beating like a drum 
While traffic rolls with steady droning 

hum. 

Cars storm the narrow gate and pass 

within 
The blue-white dusk. Reflected lights 

begin 
To toss like juggler's balls across car tops 
A golden flow which fades but never 

stops. 
The cool air rushes past; the walls slip 

by; 
And lights flash faster than the watching 

eye 
Can count. Curve blends with curve; the 

sections march 
Dizzily until we pass the exit arch. 

Once more man is the conqueror; once 

again 
Nature has bowed before machines and 

men. 





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APRIL 1952 



283 



TODAY'S 




. . . vDuin Shepherd, 



EDITOR 




—A Hal Rumel Photo 



COLOR SELECTION 



by A. D. MacEwen 



Selecting color for our homes is 
not quite as cut and dried an 
affair as putting in a new auto- 
matic washer or deep-freeze unit. 
There is no little book of detailed 
instructions to cover every contin- 
gency. Consider any room. It has 
certain dimensions, certain lighting, 
both natural and artificial, and — if 
you're like the rest of us — certain 
pieces of furniture that just accumu- 
lated. Familiar as they may seem 
to you, look them over one by one 
before selecting colors for the walls, 
ceiling, and trim. It will pay divi- 
dends. 

Concentrate first on the room it- 
self. Here you can make good use 
of the automatic action of the eyes 
to seemingly affect the dimensions. 
Without getting too technical, here's 
how it works. When light of color 
toward the red end of the spectrum 
enters the eye, it bends in passing 
through the eye lens to a lesser 
degree than other colors. As the eye 
284 



automatically adjusts to focus an ob- 
ject of red color (say, a painted wall) 
on the retina, the lens expands, and 
the object seems to advance or come 
closer to the observer. Thus, if your 
room is long and narrow, painting 
one or both end walls in an "advanc- 
ing" color will help the proportion- 



al second article on color 
for the home 



ing. On the other hand, colors to- 
ward the blue end of the spectrum 
seem to recede as the eye focuses, for 
the eye lens must contract in the 
process. If a room is too small, a 
feeling of greater spaciousness is ob- 
tained by painting the walls in paler 
shades of blues or greens. So here 
we find that illusions we have talked 



about for years turn out to have 
scientific reality. We can select the 
colors we like and at the same time 
do a practical job of proportioning. 

Another little trick in a high-ceil- 
inged room is to lower the ceiling 
by painting it a deeper tone than the 
walls. In a room where a feeling 
of height and airiness is desired, a 
lighter-toned ceiling will help. Quite 
frequently, especially in older homes, 
there will be certain features which 
can be emphasized or camouflaged; 
for instance, a chimney panel in a 
lighter or darker tone of the wall 
color gives real character to that wall; 
a closet door can be painted in the 
same color as its wall to avoid that 
"cut-up" look. 

The same general principles can 
be applied to furnishings. That 
prized, soft green chesterfield will look 
better against a warm rose or tan 
wall; the maple dining-room sideboard 
against a deep green or blue-gray. 
That old-style bathtub will be less 
conspicuous with a background of the 
same general color tone. If all this 
sounds a little obvious, think how 
seldom we see these simple principles 
put into planned application. 

Now, there are one or two more 
things to consider. They have to 
do with what can be called intensity 
and brilliance of color. About the 
only actions of our eyes that we con- 
trol voluntarily are those of the eye- 
lids and the direction of vision. The 
amount of light that gets in is auto- 
matically controlled by the pupils. 
Also automatic are the focussing ac- 
tion and the nerve translations, which 
give us perception of form and 
shadow, as well as type and degree 
of color. Every time we look from 
one object to another, muscles and 
nerves go into action to tell us about 
the new thing in view. The eye 
muscles, like the muscles of the heart, 
are about the most constantly work- 
ing muscles we have. Overwork 
them, and we have the all-too-familiar 
headache, and with some people, fever 
or upset stomach. Daily work rou- 
tine gives our eyes enough exercise — 
let us select our color values to mini- 
mize it where we can. 

THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 



Brilliant, pure colors are essential 
to interest and life but should be 
used sparingly. Colors en masse are 
usually toned down by additions of 
black or white, or both. Color areas 
joining at eye- level are best in the 
same depth or color value to prevent 
muscular strain, otherwise the eyes 
must work at trying to focus on two 
colors at the same time or at passing 
from one to the other. 

There are two other important con- 
siderations that will affect our eyes 
for better or for worse: the lighting 
in the room, and the lustre or gloss 
of the painted surface. 

Now, where is all this leading us? 
Simply to an appreciation of the value 
of color; that it can be functional 
while beautifying, and that it is easy 
to set up and use a set of progressive 
"steppingstones" in correct selection 
for any room or area. Let's call them 
"considerations." Here they are, with 
their "whys" and "wherefores": 

Primary Considerations 

1. The function or "purpose" of 
the room. (Here the general color 
associations govern.) 

2. Personal color preferences. 
(These will determine the color 
"areas" that are acceptable, while 
still satisfying the color purpose de- 
sired.) 

Secondary Considerations 

1. The room's dimensions. (This 
will be a factor in color placement; 
mass colors, accent colors — to "bal- 
ance" the whole.) 

2. The furnishings. (This narrows 
the field of selection to direct match- 
ing, or modification within the areas 
of the primary considerations.) 

3. The lighting. (Light — both 
natural and artificial — determines the 
best "depth" of colors, their place- 
ment and modification to adjust for 
direct or reflected light.) 

These may seem difficult to grasp 
all-of-a-piece. Don't be too con- 
cerned. As we discuss other types of 
rooms in a home, in future articles, 
you will see that they work; and no 
matter what your personal "consider- 
ations" are, if they're followed, you'll 
end up not only with good purposeful 
decoration, but also with your own 
personal preferences — perhaps most 
important of all. 

APRIL 1952 



g*f COLOR/ZZR PAUm 





Quick, Eaoj 

Color Mafthing 

and Harmonizing 

Now you can have paint coiors to 
match or harmonize with your dra- 
peries, floor coverings, wallpaper, 
or furniture! Choose from 1,322 ac- 
tual paint samples in the amazing 
Colorizer Album. (See your paint 
dealer, painter, or decorator.) Col- 
ors are arranged for easy selection, 
and show exactly how your paint 
will look when dry. 

Any Color at 
Budget PtiC£S 

Colorizer Paints cost no more than 
ordinary paints — yet give you the 
same beautiful tints and shades 
used by famous decorators! 

Any Color, Right 
Over the Counter 

Get any color immediately! No 
waiting for special mixes! No mea- 
suring or guesswork! 

Any Color m Any 
Paint Finish 



By 



BENNETT'S 

65 West First South 
Salt Lake City, Utah 



239 South LaBrea Avenue 
Inglewood, California 

DEALERS 

throughout the Intermountain West 

and Southern California 



285 




THE MAKERS 

MARCAL PAPEil UikPlim% 




L 





FOR NYLONS! 



As advertised over Television and Radio 

A harmless, miracle powder which 
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Makes them resistant to: 

• SNAGS 

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ONE TREATMENT 
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Try it on an inexpensive pair of nylons 
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Send cash, check or money order to 



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I 



? 



How May I Become More Popular? 



by Rex A. Skidmore, Ph.D. 

PROFESSOR OF SOCIOLOGY AND SOCIAL WORK, UNIVERSITY OF UTAH 



odney and Jerry, both fifteen, at- 
tended the same junior high 
school. Yet how different they 
•were! Rodney was shy, backward, 
and spent much of the time by him- 
self. Occasionally he talked with a 
boy, but seldom with girls. Yet deep 
down, he wished with all his heart 
that he had more boy friends and 
that the girls liked him better. What 
was the matter? Why didn't he get 
along well with others? Jerry, on the 
other hand, although not a Romeo 
or a Van Johnson, was enthusiastic 
and interesting; he was sought after 
by boys and girls. He was skinny 
and tall, yet possessed a pleasant 
smile and was friendly wherever he 
went. 

Nearly all youth hanker for more 
friends than they have. Fortunately, 
nearly all persons, young or old, may 
increase their friendliness and charm. 
And singularly enough, home is 
usually the best place for developing 
the ability to enjoy oneself and to 
be enjoyed by others. If youth feel 
happy and appreciated in their own 
families, they are likely to get along 
well outside the home, with friends 
and others. 

There are many misunderstandings 
about popularity. One is not born 
popular or unpopular; popularity is 
mainly a result of learning. It is re- 
lated to one's feelings about himself 
and his attitude towards others. As 
teen-agers learn to understand them- 
selves and each other, they usually 
increase their popularity. Physical 
beauty and skill are often over- 
exaggerated by youth. The shape 
and size of the body makes little 
difference if the person accepts him- 
self as he is, keeps clean and tidy, 
and develops some of his talents. 
Physical attraction is relative; for 
example, most persons marry, sooner 
or later, regardless of shape or size, 
and are considered beautiful or hand- 
some in the eyes of their mates. 

Another important factor to re- 
member is that all normal persons at 
times feel inadequate. Sensing this, 
the shy person should learn to accept 
himself as being as worth while as 
anyone. It is impossible for Rodney 
to compare himself fairly with Jerry, 



as Rodney sees the strong points in 
his friend and the weak points in 
himself. It is best to compare your- 
self mainly with yourself — that is, 
compare yourself as you are now with 
what your abilities and talents equip 
you to become — and gain satisfaction 
through watching your own growth. 
Developing the capabilities which are 
yours, and all teen-agers have them, 
is fun and worth while. 

Teen-agers, here are a few im- 
portant suggestions to help you get 
along better with your friends and 
families: 




BaBi 

alitititiilti 




286 



— A Monkmeyer Photo 

Be Personally Presentable 

Keep your body and wearing ap- 
parel clean and attractive. Body 
odor, dirty fingernails, stringy hair, 
or dingy, unpressed clothing may be 
offensive to others. 

Appreciate Yourself 

Be yourself — not a poor copy of 
someone else. Each individual is a 

THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 



personality gem of his own! One 
who does not particularly enjoy being 
what he appears to himself to be, 
must learn to express more of his 
good qualities. 

1 . Recognize that you cannot com- 
pare yourself fairly with anyone but 
yourself. Then set your goals and 
watch yourself grow and develop. Re- 
member that how you think others 
feel about themselves is often wrong. 
One teen-age girl resented a friend 
who was beautiful and appeared to 
have so much poise. Actually the 
second girl, inside, felt very inferior 
and eventually received professional 
help to adjust to life. 

2. Don't be an idle dreamer; work 
to develop your abilities and inter- 
ests. It is impossible to excel in many 
fields, but all normal youth can 
achieve and enjoy many things if they 
but use the talents they possess. The 
retiring young man who early learns 
to be a good swimmer may gain con- 
fidence by teaching his companions 
to be better swimmers. 

3. Participate in religious activities, 
including worship as well as recrea- 
tion. Our Church offers ample op- 
portunities to take part and to have 
fun; through these activities we can 
learn how to get along better with 
others. Regular Church classes, fire- 
sides, M.I.A. programs, the family 
hour, and recreational events invite 
young people to have fun and learn 
to enjoy one another. 

4. Share your abilities and time 
with others — with brothers, sisters, 
and parents, and in an ever-widening 
circle, of course, with relatives and 
friends outside the family. 

5. Give of yourself: As you become 
less concerned about what you want, 
how you impress others, how they 
treat you, and more interested in 
what others want and how you may 
help supply their needs, you will 
move along the path toward popular- 
ity. 

Appreciate Others 

1. Be a good listener. The teen-ager 
who listens with interest, sympathet- 
ically, nearly always wins friends. As 
a person confides in another, he gives 
him part of himself and a friendship is 
usually started. 

2. Remember the first names of 
young people you meet. A person's 
name is music to his ears. Meeting 
many people, calling them by name 

(Concluded on following page) 
APRIL 1952 



SEGO MILK is so good 
for babies 



No milk you can buy for 
your baby is easier to digest . . . 
or more uniformly rich ... or safer 
. , . than Sego Milk. 





No other milk does more to help 
your baby build strong, straight 
bones and sound teeth — because 
Sego Milk is fortified with vitamin 
D, the sunshine vitamin, 
in pure crystalline form! 



No other milk is more carefully } - 
safeguarded at every step . . . 
more rigidly controlled for 
highest quality . . . and no 
other evaporated milk has 
behind it the years of 
experience and constant 
improvement that have 
made Sego Evaporated Milk 
such a wonderful milk 
for your baby! 





your doctor about SEGO MILK 



£cg51Sl5i 




»» 

1 1 



COUNCIL ON 
FOODS AND 
NUTRITION 






287 




RED CLOVER TEA 

Alvita's Red Clover is a whole- 
some product of the sun and 
soil. The young tender cuttings 
are chock-full of rich natural 
goodness. .. and it brews a 
mildly alkaline tea of soothing, 
flavorful quality. 



'J0Ktk 



X H"! Gi/ifaiSiie. i 




PEPPERMINT LEAF TEA 

It's everybody's favorite . . . for 
the flavorable taste and minty 
aroma of freshly made Pepper- 
mint Tea is irresistible. ..and as 
refreshing and wholesome as a 
Spring morn. 



STRAWBERRY LEAF TEA 

Preferredforitsall-around 
goodness. A tasty, natural 
wholesome drink . . . that's 
mildly alkaline — an excellent 
substitute for ordinary tea and 
coffee. 
Write Today for our Free Brochure, 
"Natural Foods For Wholesome Enjoyment" 



AlVITA PRODUCTS CO. • PAS AD E N A, CA 1 1 FO R N I A? 



At Your Local Health Food Store 




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HOW MAY I BECOME MORE POPULAR? 



(Concluded from preceding page) 
in a friendly way, and knowing some- 
thing about them, all aid in develop- 
ing popularity. 

3. Give sincere praise and com- 
mendation. As you do this, you 
develop a warm feeling inside, and 
the recipient also feels the glow. If 
you have something good to say, say 



it; keep the uncomplimentary to your- 
self. 

Remember, genuine popularity 
develops from within. How you un- 
derstand and guide your own feelings 
in relation to others will determine 
the number and kinds of friends you 
will have. To have friends, you must 
be a friend. 



■ ♦ 



NOTES ON VITAMINS 

These lists are based on major functions of vitamins as now known, and does not 
attempt to characterize completely each vitamin. Also, it should be remembered that all food 
nutrients work together for health, and good diet cannot be neglected in favor of dietary 
supplements. 

WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS 



Good Sources 

The B Family 1 
Thiamine (Bj) 
Whole grains (especially 
in the germ where life is 
reproduced) 
Liver, heart 
Legumes, green peas, greer. 

limas, soy beans 
Nuts 
Egg yolk 
Leafy greens 
Brewer's yeast 

Riboflavin (B 2 ) f\si 

Whole grain bread 
cereals, wheat ger: 
Milk and m/\k pro 
Eggs 

Greerf4ca%e^geta 
Live\>iear1^ kidneys 
Legum es, d ried Mimas, a 

Brewer^ yea^M)lack mo- 



FUNCTIONS 



1. Prevents beriberi — disease/efrYifervous system 
characterized by numbrfe^j^lngling in toes 
and feet, stiff ankle^crarrfping^pains in legs, 

sdifficub^. paralysis) ^^ ) 

2. Stimulate^ theCajjpetite; aids digestion 



e'VfcrrEs fatig 

4 Helps^v1?rco 

5. Heliis maintai] 

ale'f vitam 

jort time, 

jjion, inabi 



•o? 




iS&patiL,-. 
_Jy nerves. 



Called 



?es 



mor- 
ce deficiency, even for a 
irrit^m^^ moral depres- 
oncemrffte 



^/events cWeTlbsiV characterized by fissures at 
K~"Ncorners of muuth,Vk&pped lips, red eyes and 
J f tongue, rough arms and back 
\4l. Necessary for healthy eyes — deficiency symp- 
toms are burning- nf th e eves, dimness of vi- 
iorbid-Tits4irW6f light ,— >. 

-ofxjiigestjrve and 



sic 



lOtll 



tone 



terns 



^ 



Niacii 

Livc^r, lean meat,' cbJ 
Wholewheat, soyaj Hot 
Peas, bea^Ssjpeanuts r ~ 
Tuna, salmon 
Brewer's yeast, \tark wo 
lasses 

Vitamin C 

(Ascorbic acid) 
Citrus fruits, tomatoes 
Canned and fresh fruit 

and vegetable juices 
Strawberries, loganberries, 

cantaloupe 
Potatoes, raw cabbage, 

fresh green leaves, green 

peppers 



Q 1. Prevents and cures" "pelfegra — skin disease 
iracterized by reddish rash on body, rough 
sore~mouth~aTrd tnrigiu^_diarrhea, mental 
depression" 
2. Helps prevent skin eruptions, soreness of 
mouth 



1. Builds resistance to infections, known as the 
"anti-infection" vitamin 

2. Speeds healing of wounds and bones 

3. Helps prevent bleeding gums 

4. Prevents and cures scurvy — disease character- 
ized by swollen gums and joints due to 
breaking of small blood vessels under the 
skin, gums pull away from teeth and cause 
pyorrhea, skin dries and breaks 

5. Helps relieve rheumatism, muscular weakness 



288 



lr There are many other B vitamins— pantothenic acid, biotin, folic acid, inositol, 
pyridoxine, choline, and others— whose definite role in human nutrition is not well- 
established. Generally speaking, one who is conscientious enough to get a good supply 
of the main B vitamins will also be supplied with the others. 

THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 



FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS 



Good Sources 



Vitamin A 

All green and yellow vege- 
tables and their juices 
Yellow fruits 
Liver, red salmon 
Egg yolk 

Whole milk, butter, cheese 
Fish liver oils 
Dried peas, nuts 



Vitamin D 

Sunshine is best source- 
skin should be directly 
exposed 

Fish liver oils 

Liver, egg yolk, red salmon 



Vitamin E 

Whole grains, especially 

the germ 
Wheat germ oil, vegetable 

oils — corn, cottonseed, 

peanut 
Green leafy vegetables 
Alfalfa, lettuce, avocados 



Vitamin K 

Green leafy vegetables 
Liver, egg yolk 
Alfalfa 
Soy bean oil 



Functions 



1. Prevents and cures xerophthalmia, disease of 
the eyes, and night blindness 

2. Keeps skin in good condition — helps prevent 
and cure scaly condition of skin and inflam- 
mation of eyelids 

3. Promotes growth 

4. Builds resistance to infections, especially 
respiratory infections as colds, sinus trouble, 
sore throat, etc. Necessary to health of all 
mucous linings of the system 

5. Necessary to form and maintain tooth enamel 

1. Chief role is to help lay phosphorus and 
calcium for tooth and bone formation. De- 
ficiency in childhood results in rickets, char- 
acterized by protruding stomach, enlarged 
wrist and ankle joints, bow legs, rosary ribs, 
misshapen jaw, deformed head 

2. Helps prevent tooth decay 

3. Increases resistance to infections 



1. Insures complete utilization of carotene and 
vitamin A. Necessary for fertility, reproduc- 
tion, growth, and neuro-muscular health in 
animals. Much used to treat muscular 
dystrophy and heart disease in humans but 
not generally accepted as treatment for such. 
Widely available in natural foods. Amount 
needed for humans not established and must 
await more fully-controlled investigation 



I. Necessary for coagulation of the blood. 



HANDY HINTS 



Payment for Handy Hints used will be 
one dollar upon publication. In the event 
that two with the same idea are submitted, 
the one postmarked earlier will receive the 
dollar. None of the ideas can be returned, 
but each will receive careful consideration. 

A discarded card table makes an excellent 
frame for hooking rugs. Cut away the 
top, leaving the framework. It is the right 
height for working and may be folded and 
put away when not in use. — R. G. A., Elm- 
hurst, N. Y. 

Pour your freshly popped corn into a 
French-fryer basket. All unpopped kernels 
will fall through the holes, leaving only 
fully popped corn. — Mrs. L. A. T ., Salt 
Lake City, Utah. 

Suet will grind easier if the food chopper 
is first heated by dipping it in boiling 
water. — Mrs. D. L., Bremerton, Wash. 

Save leftover bits of soap! Dry them thor- 
oughly and run through food chopper, us- 
ing finest blade. Makes soap powder that 
dissolves in hot water. — Mrs. E. A., Louis- 
ville, Miss. 
APRIL 1952 



Never throw away old shoulder pads. 
You can pad the knees of your blue jeans 
and when down on your knees gardening 
or waxing floors, the pads will protect your 
knees — and protect your jeans, too. Sew 
them on the insides at the knee point. 
— R. S., Atlanta, Ga. 

When you serve lemon with tomato juice, 
fruit juice, etc., don't serve flat slices. Serve 
wedges that are easy to squeeze. — H. L., 
Lake George, N. Y. 

When getting a package ready for mail- 
ing, dampen the string first, then tie. As 
string dries, it shrinks and binds package 
tighter. — Mrs. E. M., Lansing, Mich. 

Invest in a child's set of garden tools and 
you'll find they come in very handy in 
caring for your flower boxes or potted plants. 
— Mrs. S. R., Los Angeles, Calif. 

Empty waxed milk cartons may be used 
for singeing fowl. They give a hotter flame, 
are much easier to handle, and are less 
ant to throw sparks than plain paper. 
—1. R. B., Provo, Utah 



I guarantee* 
extra-ricn 

CKocowry 

GOODMKS 




with my 




DB/lCS FOOD MIX 




Thanks to my Duff's Devil's 
Food Mix, you'll bake 
» devil's food cakes like 
j / you've never baked before! 
U^**~-^/ I positively guarantee 
perfect results! 

yfv- See my money-back guarantee on every package. 

289 




THE ONE AND ONLY 
DIFFERENT DARK BREAD 



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WAYS WITH EGGS 




Lemon Egg 

4 eggs 
Y & tsp. salt 
l / 3 cup honey 

2 lemons, juice only 

3 cups plain or carbonated water 

Beat eggs, salt, honey, and lemon juice 
thoroughly. Add water and blend. 
Serve over cracked ice. Ingredients, ex- 
cept water, may be mixed in advance 
and stored in refrigerator. 

Egg Pancake 
2 eggs 

Vi ts P- s& it 

1 tbsp. sugar 
J /3 cup sifted whole-wheat flour 
l / 2 cup milk 

1 tsp. fat 

Beat eggs, salt, and sugar together. 
Add flour and milk and beat until 
smooth. Heat fat in a deep skillet until 
a drop of water in skillet sizzles. Pour 
in all of batter. Cook two minutes. 
Place in hot oven and bake 15 minutes 
or until surface is browned. Dot with 
butter and honey or stewed fruit. Roll 
or fold like a jelly roll and turn out 
on warm platter. Serves two. 



Molded Egg Salad 



1 

3/ 



salad dressing, or 



290 



envelope unflavored gelatin 
cup cold water 
cup mayonnaise, 

yogurt 
lemon, juice only 
tsp. salt 

tsp. grated onion 
hard-cooked eggs 
cup chopped parsley 
cup finely chopped green pepper or 

celery 



Soften gelatin in cold water. Dissolve 

over boiling water. Cool slightly. Add 

mayonnaise, lemon juice, salt, and 

grated onion. Place center slices of 

{Continued on page 292) 

THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 



A new family is in your 
neighborhood.. 




Now, at your grocers, you'll 
find a new family of four 
pure specialty sugars. It's the 
new U and I family . . . brown, 
powdered, fine granulated and 
superfine granulated. Invite 
them into your home . . . you'll 
become close friends quickly: 



U and | FINE GRANULATED 

. . . the same dependable 
fine granulated sugar you've 
always enjoyed now comes to 
you in a handy one - pound 
shelf size. 




U and | SUPERFINE GRAN- 
ULATED . . .the finest sugar 
available. It's a quick dis- 
solving dessert sugar. Tops for 
use in drinks, fine cakes and 
pastries, and smooth boiled 
icings. 



U and | BROWN SUGAR 

. . . captures the rich, dis- 
tinctive, "nutty" flavor 
brown sugar. Good in so 
many recipes. 



sugar] 



SUPtfflM 
BRANUIATIO 



N£rWE ' 5H ' o„, OUK , 




U and I POWDERED . . . 

so soft and white it makes 
perfect icings and finishing 
touches for your special des- 
serts. 



APRIL 1952 



291 




WAYS WITH EGGS 



(Continued from page 290) 

hard-cooked egg around inside of an 
oiled ring mold. Separate remaining 
yolks and whites of the eggs. Sieve 
yolks. Chop whites. Combine yolks 
and half the gelatin mixture; place as 
a layer in ring mold. Then add parsley 



gelatin. Chill until set. Unmold on 
platter and fill center with chicken or 
vegetable salad. 



Creamy Egg Slaw 



1 egg 



and green pepper as a layer. Cover with 3 tbsp. brown sugar 

the egg whites mixed with remaining (Concluded on page 294) 



Why Share Your Space 
with a Swinging Door? 

a "MODERNFOLD" 
door takes none 

• MORE SPACE FOR LIVING 

• NEW COLORFUL BEAUTY 

• RIGID - STRENGTH OF STEEL 
O MOVABLE WALLS 



the doors that fold 
like an accordion 




mnd am In III 



For demonstration write or phono 

ALDERS 

1343 SO. MAIN SALT LAKE CITY 

Phone 7-1531 

Please send me your free booklet entitled 
"More Space for Living" IE-4. 

NAME 

Address 

City State 



HERE IS 

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if your hair needs 
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292 — 



v-Se L^arefwl l/i/nai 
Lyon oLook J-or 



RICHARD L EVANS 



I 



t is true that we tend to find what we want to find. If it 
is trouble we are looking for, it is almost certain we shall 
find it. If we're looking for faults, we shall find faults. If 
it's flaws we want, they are always there. What we see 
depends much upon what we want to see. There is almost 
no one with whom we work or live, in whom we could not 
find much that is good and some things that we might wish 
were otherwise. And people who live under the same roof, 
who sit across the same table, can greatly magnify faults, 
much to the sorrow of all concerned; or they can concentrate 
on the finer qualities, even where they fail to find perfection. 
When we find ourselves in an unfamiliar place, new noises 
sometimes bother us so that we cannot sleep. But gradually 
we learn to be less aware of them. And then we find rest. 
We shall sooner find rest in living with people who lack 
perfection (and who doesn't?) as we learn to let their im- 
perfections annoy us less. Sometimes faultfinding is prompted 
by jealousy or envy. Sometimes we may seek to build our- 
selves up by running others down. But we do not add 
stature to ourselves by belittling the stature of others. Of 
course it is the essential business of some to look for defects. 
Detectives must look for trouble — and find it. Doctors must 
look for trouble — because many maladies become much more 
dangerous if not diagnosed soon enough. And if it is essen- 
tially our business to look for faults and flaws, then we must 
do what it is our business to do. But for most of us it would 
be wiser not to overwork ourselves at faultfinding, for we all 
say or do things which may not sound or seem to others 
as we intended they should sound or seem — and any man 
may be made an offender for a word; any utterance may be 
misconstrued; any character may be condemned; any motive 
may be misunderstood by someone who is determined to 
misunderstand. If it's trouble we're looking for, if it's flaws 
and faults we want, we'll find them. But with those we 
live with, we'll live happier lives if we don't pursue our 
search too persistently. 

" FROM TEMPLE SQUARE 

PRESENTED OVER KSL AND THE COLUMBIA BROADCASTING 

SYSTEM, FEBRUARY 17, 1952 

Copyright, 1952 



THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 



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This is the tentative program for 1952 



-A four-color cover and story— President Levi Edgar 

Young of the First Council of the Seventy— and spe- 
cial features. This issue will be a tribute to the 
Seventies of the Church. 

-A comprehensive report of the April General Con- 
ference with pictures. 

-A four-color cover featuring the M.I.A. in a man- 
ner entirely new and thrilling. 

-A four-color cover and story— Presiding Bishop 
LeGrand Richards— a tribute to the Aaronic Priest- 
hood. 



-A great triple feature— Priesthood Authority— Gen- 
ealogy— The Missions of the Church— with picture 
pedigrees and other illustrations. 

-The Physical Growth of the Church. An impressive 
picture story of progress. 

-A comprehensive report of the October General 
Conference— plus Christmas features and an in- 
spiring four-color cover. 

-An early issue will show the new Primary Chil- 
dren's Hospital in active operation. 



APRIL 1952 



293 



Wins Ribbons and Trophy 
in State Fair Cooking Contests 




Mrs. Audrie Jensen of Salt 
Lake City holds the awards she 
won last fall for her cooking 
prowess. It was Mrs. Jensen's 
first cooking competition at the 
Utah State Fair . . . and alto- 
gether she won 13 first-prize 
ribbons, 5 second prizes, and a 
special silver trophy. An excel- 
lent record even for a more 
seasoned contestant! 

Like so many prize-winning 
cooks, Mrs. Jensen gives plenty 
of credit to Fleischmann's Ac- 
tive Dry Yeast. "It's the hand- 
iest yeast ever," she says, "the 



Prize cook praises speedy Dry Yeast 

way it rises so fast . . . and 
stays fresh for months!" 

It's wonderful — the rich, de- 
lectable flavor of yeast-raised 
goodies. A treat for your family 
— and nourishing, too! When 
you bake at home, use yeast. 
And use the best you can buy! 
That's Fleischmann's Active 
Dry Yeast, of course. This grand 
Dry Yeast is always depend- 
able, wonderfully convenient. 
It's fast rising, fast dissolving 
— stays fresh for months. Buy 
a supply of Fleischmann's Ac- 
tive Dry Yeast. 



...its that heavenly Tea Garden grape juice! 




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(Concluded from page 292) 

3 tbsp. cream or evaporated milk 
3 tbsp. vinegar or lemon juice 
1 small head cabbage (about 1 quart 
shredded) 

Beat egg and sugar. Add cream. Add 
vinegar or lemon and blend. Stir into 
finely cut cabbage. Serves 8. 

Cheese Souffle 

4 tbsp. butter or margarine 

4 tbsp. flour 

1 cup milk 
J /4 lb. sharp cheese, grated 

4 eggs, separated 
3 /4 tsp. salt 

Melt butter, add flour, blend well and 
cook over low heat until bubbly. Add 
cold milk all at once and cook, stirring 
constantly, until thickened throughout. 
Remove from heat; add cheese to white 
sauce and stir until well blended. Add 
salt to egg whites and beat until stiff. 
Fold yolk-cheese mixture into whites. 
Pour into large ungreased casserole 
(souffle will increase in volume in bak- 
ing); set in pan of hot water and bake 
in slow oven (325° F.) about 1 hour, 
or until delicately browned and knife 
inserted in center comes out clean. 
Serve promptly. Serves 4. 

Souffleed Cheese Sandwich 

6 slices whole-wheat bread 
sliced cheese to cover bread 
! /4 tsp. salt 

3 eggs, separated 
'/4 cup salad dressing 

Toast bread on one side. Cover un- 
toasted side with cheese. Add salt to 
egg whites and beat until shiny and 
whites stand in peaks when beater is 
withdrawn. Add salad dressing to yolks 
and beat until light. Fold yolk mix- 
ture into whites. Heap on top of cheese. 
Bake in moderate oven (350° F.) until 
puffy and brown, about 15 minutes. 
Serve promptly. Makes 6 sandwiches. 



294 



FLOWERS 
By Evelyn Wooster Viner 

Fond Mother Nature likes to wear 
Four lovely flowers in her hair — 
A snowdrop's dancing bell to ring 
An anthem to the newborn spring. 
A four o'clock is summer's flower 
To count each cherished, fleeting hour. 
The purple aster's petals part 
To mirror autumn in its heart. 
For winter she'll take anything 
The florist's boy should chance to bring. 
THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 



Microfilming In Ireland 
and Wales 

(Concluded from page 235) 

highly fortunate in securing a film 
copy of nine reels of film supplied by 
the National Library of Ireland, of 
French genealogies concerning Irish- 
men who moved to France to live 
during the "Irish trouble." 

Wales 

The microfilming project in Wales 
was temporarily completed in Septem- 
ber 1951. 

Nearly five years ago, on July 1, 
1947, filming commenced in the 
National Library of Wales, at 
Aberystwyth, where great quantities 
of records had been gathered, in- 
cluding over 500,000 wills and tens 
of thousands of marriage licenses; 
Bishops' transcripts of parish regis- 
ters arranged in alphabetical order; 
thousands of manuscripts of ancient 
Welsh pedigrees, some claiming to go 
back to the days of the ancient 
patriarchs of the Bible; several hun- 
dred volumes of Schedules of Manor- 
ial Deeds and Records, with brief 
genealogical abstracts of the persons 
concerned; and membership records 
of the Calvinistic Methodist faith. 

Official permission has been given 
and arrangements have been made 
for us to film all the parish registers 
of Wales when these are sent in by 
the ministers to the National Li- 
brary. It is hoped that the non- 
conformist records of Wales will also 
be deposited at the National Library. 

We are now having copied for us 
the 1851 census returns for the 
thirteen counties of Wales. This is 
now practically complete. 

One document filmed was a list of 
original Welsh settlers in Chubut, 
Patagonia, South America. A recent 
report in the Church Section of the 
Deseret News told of how a party of 
elders had uncovered this "hidden 
valley" of Welsh descendants in 
Patagonia and were making consider- 
able progress in preaching the gospel 
to them. 

A second old manuscript volume 
describes how a Welsh colony left 
for Russia and "disappeared from 
man's ken." May we hope they are 
also gathered in some secluded spot 
waiting for the restored gospel. 

APRIL 1952 




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WILLIAM EDWIN BERRETT 

Elder William E. Berrett, 
who concludes his se- 
ries, The Book of Mormon 
Speaks On Current Prob- 
lems, in this issue, has been 
a stalwart teacher for the 
Church, especially in the 
Sunday School and depart- 
ment of education, for a 
full lifetime. He obtained 
his bachelor of arts degree 
from the University of Utah 
in 1924, and his LL. B. 
from that institution in 
1933. He is an associate 
professor of religion at 
Brigham Young University. 
He has given thirteen 
years of service to the gen- 
eral board of the Deseret 
Sunday School Union, di- 
vided into two terms, hav- 
ing served as a member of the East Mill Creek Stake presidency 
in between. He has written some of the most popular Sunday 
School courses during this time. His writings also include 
The Restored Church and Doctrines of the Restored Church. 

<♦> 




North Korea 
Dear Editor: 

IT is with great humility yet deepest gratitude that I express 
my thankfulness to you and the great Improvement Era. 
I glory with you in your success and commend you for such a 
noble and worthy work. 

My sweetheart subscribed to The Improvement Era, 
sending it to me in Korea as a gift. I can think of no better 
gift. 

There is a little incident I would like to relate: Being a 
front line infantry soldier it was very difficult to locate or find 
out if there were other Mormon fellows in the company. To 
make it short, The Improvement Era was the means whereby 



BIND YOUR ERA FOR 1951 

Subscribers who wish to bind or to otherwise pre- 
serve the 1951 volume of THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 
are informed that the annual index is now being pre- 
pared- You may reserve your index by sending your 
name and address to THE IMPROVEMENT ERA, 
50 North Main St., Salt Lake City 1, Utah. Please 
enclose a three-cent stamp with your request to cover 
cost of postage. 



J. C. Riggs was able to locate and know that I was a Latter- 
day Saint. 

From papers and packages at the mail tent he saw The Im- 
provement Era, and from there he sought which squad and pla- 
toon I was in, and we had great rejoicing together. We met 
whenever possible, checked on each other after patrols, etc. Our 
faith and testimonies have been greatly increased by our com- 
panionship. 

We glory with you in the true gospel of Christ and of the 
good you have brought to countless people the world over (yes, 
even here in Korea) by disseminating the truth and spreading 
joy and hope through such a good and worth-while magazine 
as The Improvement Era. It presents lofty and clean reading 
which I feel the fellows here need so much. 

I bear a fervent and burning testimony that God truly lives 
and answers prayer, that Jesus is the very Son of God and our 
redeemer, that David O. McKay is a prophet of God carrying 
on the worthy work that was so gloriously ushered in by angels 
through the living, loving Prophet Joseph Smith. I bear my 
testimony humbly and meekly in Jesus' name. 

I didn't intend to make this letter so long, but there are so 
many lovely and beautiful things as well as hopeful things 
in the gospel of Our Master. I really love the gospel and 
the Church. 

With sincere and deepest wishes for your success in the 
future, and with personal regards to each and every worker 
and sustainer of The Improvement Era, I am 

Your grateful and thankful admirer 
with aloha and love, 
A friend and soldier 



-<$- 



INSTEAD OF A QUEEN .... 

A T their Gold and Green ball Rivergrove First Ward, West Utah Stake, honored all girls achieving seventy-five percent 
***■ attendance for the year in Mutual, Sunday School, and sacrament meeting. Twenty-eight girls were so honored, 
with special recognition given in the form of Gold and Green crowns, to the Gleaners and Junior Gleaners. 

Pioneer Ward of the same stake honored all their Gleaner Girls, instead of having one queen, and presented to each 
a copy of the book / Dare You. Their floor show included their young people of all ages from Scouts and Bee Hive Girls 
to M Men and Gleaners. All costumes and dresses were up to Church standards. 

Reported by Miss Hannah Baker, age-group, counselor. 




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JL HIS Mormon Pioneer Memorial Bridge will soon carry traffic 
across the same part of the Missouri River where pioneer wagons 
once ferried from Winter Quarters to Council Bluffs. 

In Pioneer days a sturdy wagon and a well aimed rifle were 
the best insurance a man could have . . . nowadays the best 
insurance for any family is Beneficial Life. 



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