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Orient & Pacific Lines ships sail from San Francisco, Los Angeles, Vancouver. Photograph bv Tom Hollyman. 

Where will you be when you land — Australia? Fiji? Hawaii? 

YOUR Orient & Pacific liner is at Suva in the 
Fiji Islands. Six sunlit days ago you were in 
Hawaii. In another six you'll be in Australia. 

The men on the pier belong to the Fiji 
Military Forces Band, which greets you with a 
stirring concert. (Captain Cook got a different 
reception. He called these the Cannibal Islands.) 

Fiji is a fascinating place to explore. You can 
shop for primitive art and rare sea shells. Have 
a suit made to measure by an Indian tailor in 
six hours. Or turn back the clock at a native 
feast and listen to old Polynesian songs. 

Your trip is just as exciting between ports. 
Each Orient & Pacific liner has two swimming 
pools and thousands of feet of open deck for 
sun and games. At night there are brilliant par- 
ties and dances. Your meals are prepared by 
chefs trained on the Continent. 

What does a vacation like this cost? As little 
as $24 a day! Round trips to Australia start at 
$604 -to the Far East at $640 

Orient & Pacific Lines: Suite D, 210 Post St., 
San Francisco. Cunard Line: General Passenger 
Agents in United States and Canada. 

by Dr. Franklin S. Harris, Jr. 

A Recent Study 

A recent study by UNESCO found 
that at least fifty percent of scien- 
tific literature is in languages which 
more than half the world's scien- 
tists cannot read. Nearly two-thirds 
of the engineering literature is in 
English, but more than two-thirds 
of the world's professional engineers 
cannot read English, while a still 
larger proportion of English-reading 
engineers cannot read scientific 
literature in other languages. 

Study of Primitive Tribes 

A study of the primitive tribes of 
Mexico, Guatemala, and Peru by 
Drs. Hans H. Neumann and N. A. 
DiSalvo has confirmed that soft diets 
and lack of exercise contribute to the 
presence of caries in "higher" civili- 
zations. The natives didn't use 
toothbrushes or toothpaste; they ate 
diets high in carbohydrates, even 
containing simple sugars; and the 
water had too little fluoride to be 
important. The diets included mate- 
rials such as hard, crusty bread or 
nuts. The Peruvians can exert a 
force of 184 pounds with their jaws, 
the Mexicans 168 pounds, while 
American athletes averaged 127 

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When the appetizer, or the snack, 
calls for crackers, taste what a 
difference Saltines by 
Purity makes. 

At your favorite grocer's 
in 1 and 2 pound cartons 

PURITY BISCUIT COMPANY Salt Lake • Phoenix • Pocatello 



The Improvement Era, The Voice of the Church, Volume 61, Number 11, November 1958 

Ofhcial organ of the priesthood quorums, Mutual Improvement Associations, ward 
teachers, Music Committee, Department of Education, and other agencies of the Church 
of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 

■■■ ■■■:■ ■ : ' ■ 

Church Features 

The Editor's Page: The Power of Prayer President David O. McKav 806 
Your Question: Biblical Evidence that Joseph Smith Was Called of God 

President Joseph Fielding Smith 808 
Preliminaries to the Restoration-Cone. Milton V. Backman, Jr. 846 

The Presidents of the Church 825 to 844 

The Church Moves On, 802; Melchizedek Priesthood; Priesthood Quorums in the 
Missionary Cause, 820; The Presiding Bishopric's Page, 822. 

Special Features 

"Ah, Wilderness"— The Beginning of Adolescence (So That's 

What Boys Are Made Of)-V W. Cleon Skousen 810 

Exploring With Books 813 

Leadership Development: The Three Ts" Sterling W. Sill 816 

Good Teaching and Discipline DonF. Colvin 818 

Through the Eyes of Youth: "Wickedness never Was Happiness" 

John Harmer 824 
The Spoken Word from Temple Square 

Richard L. Evans 852, 860, 864, 882 

Exploring The Universe, Franklin S. Harris, Jr., 785; Letters and Reports, 791; These 
Times, The National Defense Act of 1958, 796; A Recording for Church Organists, 859. 

Today's Family: The Family that Reads Together, Elizabeth Larimore 866 
Don't Keep the Children in the Dark about Family Finances 

Florence J. Johnson 870 

Stories, Poetry 

The Gold Poke 

Lee Martinsen 814 

812, 854, 859, 860, 879, 882 

David O. McKay and Richard L. Evans, Editors; Doyle L. Green, Managing Editor; 
Marba C. Josephson, Associate Managing Editor; Elizabeth J. Moffitt, Production Editor; 
Albert L. Zobell, Jr., Research Editor; John Kinnear, Editorial Associate; Florence B. 
Pinnock, Today's Family Editor; Ralph Reynolds and Ed Maryon, Art Directors. 

Our cover this month 
is a full-color reproduction 
of an oil painting 
of the Sacred Grove, 
Palmyra, New York. The 
painting, by Elder Frank 
Magleby, now hangs 
in the Eastern States 
Mission home, 
New York City. 

Archibald F. Bennett, G. Homer Durham, Franklin S. Harris, Jr., Milton R. Hunter, 
Hugh Nibley, Sidney B. Sperry, Contributing Editors. 

Joseph T. Bentley, General Manager; Bertha S. Reeder, Associate General Manager; 
Verl F. Scott, Business Manager; A. Glen Snarr, Subscription Director; Thayer Evans, 
Regional Advertising Representative. 

The Improvement Era Offices, 50 North Main Street, Salt Lake City 11, Utah 

Copyright 105S by Mutual Funds, Inc., and published by the Mutual Improvement Associations of the Church of Jesus Christ 

of Latter-day Saints. All rights reserved. Subscription price, $2.50 a year, in advance; foreign subscriptions, $3.00 a year, in 

advance; 25c single copy. 

Entered at the Post Office, Salt Lake City, Utah as second-crass matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage 

provided for in section 1103. Act of October 1917, authorized July 2, 1918. 

The Improvement Era is not responsible for unsolicited manuscripts, but welcomes contributions. Manuscripts arc paid for on 

acceptance at the rate of Use a word and must be accompanied by sufficient postage for delivery and return. 

Thirty days' notice required for change of address. When ordering a change, please include address slip from a recent issue 

of the magazine. Address changes cannot be made unless the old address as well as the new one is included. 







Give the gift that endures . . . 
There's a book for every age 

and taste at 

Answers to Gospel Questions 

-VOL. II Joseph Fielding Smith 

In this second volume, President Smith gives an- 
swers to fifty vital questions, many of which have 
never been presented to the public before. Among 
these, answers on: non-segregation, guided missiles 
and interplanetary travel, the authority of Jesus, 
cremation of the dead, and others. 

VOLUME l-$2.50 

Pocket Triple Combination 

Handy, portable triple combination — Book of 
Mormon, Doctrine and Covenants, Pearl of Great 
Price — bound in genuine black leather with fab- 
ric lining. Clear legible type. 

White Leather-$6.75 

'M. W. 

Christmas shop the easy way 
—from your chair at home. 
Use convenient gift order 
blank on page 790. 






A Century of Singing 

J. Spencer Cornwall 

J. Spencer Cornwall, conductor of the 
Tabernacle Choir from 1935 to 1957, 
writes an all-inclusive dramatic book on 
this inspired 111-year-old singing organi- 
zation. It is filled with many colorful 
anecdotes and is highly entertaining as 
well as informative. 


He That Liveth 

Doyle L. Green 

This family book, a must for parents and children to 
read and discuss together, about Jesus the Christ, is 
written by the managing editor of The Improvement 
Era and answers a real need in the Church. Ten 
masterpieces from the facile brush of the master 
Danish painter, Carl Bloch, are included. 

Do your Christmas shopping by mail from DESERET BOOK 



WHERE IS WISDOM? Stephen L Richards 

The rich and mature philosophy of President Richards 
is expressed in this outstanding collection of sermons 
and addresses. This is a wonderful book for speech 
preparations and lesson-giving — one you'll want to own 
and also one you'll want to give. $2.95 


J. Reuben Clark, Jr. 

President Clark sets forth clearly and concisely the 
reasons why the LDS Church accepts the King James 
Version of the New Testament. He cites opinions of 
Biblical authorities and scholars on various translations. 
An interesting, absorbing book. $4.75 

SAY THE GOOD WORD Oscar A. Kirkham 

Readers will thrill to the significance of "How to Build 
a Fire" and "He Could Sleep When the Wind Blew" 
and other favorites in this treasure chest of stories, 
poems and speeches by one of the greatest leaders of 
youth. $3.50 


Doyle L. Green 

A pictorial history of the Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints, with concise information on histori- 
cal events and places. It spans early days to the present. 
Wonderful as an "extra" gift. $1.00 


(A Compendium of the Gospel) 

Bruce R. McConkie 

Here is a reference text that will save countless hours 
of research on thousands of gospel subjects. It is the 
only major attempt to digest, explain, and analyze all of 
the important doctrines of the LDS Church — the only 
extensive compendium of the whole gospel. $5.00 

Compiled by Llewelyn R. McKay 

In this vital volume a series of valuable guideposts 
point the way to lasting happiness and a full rich life. 
President McKay offers keen insight into such subjects 
as education, courtship and marriage, free agency, death, 
home life and personal aspirations. $3.95 


Compiled by Brigham Young University 

Thousands of young people have been inspired to better 
living by the Devotional, held weekly on the Brigham 
Young University campus. Here, arranged according to 
subject, are excerpts from these speeches. $2.95 


Noel C. Stevenson 

Collected here are a number of penetrating articles that 
explain how to do more and better genealogical work 
and how to avoid the common pitfalls of genealogical 
research. Well-chosen examples make this book vibrant 
and absorbing. $2.50 


A wonderful book for all adventure-seekers that de- 
scribes early days in San Juan County. There are many 
hair-raising tales about the Indians and other dangers 
facing the pioneers. A perfect book for active boys — 
ages 8 to 12. $1.95 


Howard R. Driggs 

True-to-life happenings are related by Howard R. 
Driggs, master storyteller, who reflects upon his early 
childhood when the West was rugged and still had a 
frontier. A wonderful gift selection for boys 8 to 12. 



Rulon S. Howells 

Here, in one amazing book, are pictures, graphs, maps 
and charts that cover nearly every hard-to-explain fea- 
ture of Mormonism. There are awe-inspiring full page 
pictures in color of Joseph Smith's first vision and other 
treasures. $3.95 

A LOOK AT MORMONISM Benjamin Alward 

Achievements of the LDS Church and its people are 
told through 385 picturesque black-and-white photo- 
graphs and interesting captions. $4.00 


«•- * - «««»»«»», 

■■■vi-y- .■:--- : ,.y\''y ■ ■ 

i issi ir 





3 LE7 





Mail Order 


44 East South Temple 
Salt Lake City, Utah 


Enclosed you will find ( ) check ( ) money 
order ( ) I have an account. Piease charge. 

Amount enclosed $ - for the 

following checked books: 


Volume II $2.50 

Volume I $2.50 




□ WHERE IS WISDOM? - $2.95 





of the Gospel) $5.00 





SAN JUAN $1.95 








City Zone State. 

Residents of Utah include 2% sales tax. 

Dead Sea Scrolls and 
Original Christianity 

O. Preston Robinson 

Dr. Robinson, Editor and General Manager of 
the Deseret News, toured the Holy Land and made 
a first-hand study of all existing facts relating to 
the Dead Sea Scrolls. He has come up with some 
startling facts. Read this highly-interesting book 
and become better informed about one of the most 
exciting religious discoveries in centuries. Presented 
from an LDS point of view. 


The Candle of the Lord 

Adam S. Bennion 

Readers will almost hear again the talks and ser- 
mons of the beloved Adam S. Bennion — his com- 
mon-sense counsel to youth, to parents, to teachers, 
to bankers and businessmen, to industrialists and 
labor leaders, to all who have personal problems 
and who need guidance and strength. 



.,.. 44 East South Temple - Salt Lake City. Utah ..---J 



^^.■-.■. .:■■■. .-. ■itf™"'^™"'- ■■■ 


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the -iOTi 







One of the brethren at priesthood meet- 
ing asked why the Idaho Falls Seven- 
teenth Ward couldn't have a temple ses- 
sion of their own. They decided to find 
out. President William L. Killpack of the 
Idaho Falls Temple agreed that a third 
temple session could be had on the regular 
North Idaho Falls Stake temple day if 
enough came to fill it. The Relief Society 
sisters offered to help by assisting in 

getting temple clothing ready. The MIA 
arranged a list of girls who would do baby 
sitting, accepting it as a church assign- 
ment instead of receiving money for it. 
The session was a great success, sixty-six 
men and sixty-three women attending— 
about ninety percent of the ward mem- 
bers holding temple recommends had 
been present. Later in the evening the 
group met for cake and ice cream, and to 
have their picture taken. 

Paradise, California 
Dear Editors: 

My family has received about five issues 
of The Improvement Era and we look 
forward to a new one each time. 

Being converts of seven months, we find 
strength and guidance in Sterling W. Sill's 
features on leadership development. I like 
it so much that when I had the privilege 
of speaking at my high school graduation, 
I read his article called "The M Factors" 
and made it the foundation for the talk. 


Beverly J. Pessner 

Seattle, Wash. 
Attention: The Editors 

I have been a reader of the Era for a 
good many years— in fact, since becoming 
a member of the Church in 1940. The 
Era was to a certain extent instrumental 


in my being converted, and since then 
has been very close to my heart. 

I like the new Era because of easier 
readability, better arrangement, better il- 
lustrations, etc. Though I personally am 
interested mainly in the gospel articles, 
... I am very disappointed in the new 
method of showing footnotes at the end of 
the magazine. Footnotes should be at the 
bottom of the page where they are easily 
accessible to those interested in them. 
Even though it is an all-purpose magazine, 
those articles of a scholarly nature with 
footnotes should be printed the way 
scholarly articles are normally printed, 
with footnotes at the bottom of the page. 

The Era has meant so much to me the 
past ten years or so that I have gone to 
the trouble and expense of acquiring a 
complete set, from Vol. 1 to the present, 
all of which are bound. I find them price- 

( Continued on page 804 ) 


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1. MORMON DOCTRINE - A Compendium 
of the Gospel 

by Bruce R. Mc Cortkie 

No LDS home should be without this clear 
and concise encyclopedia on Mormonism. 
, lains thousands of beliefs of the Church 
. with scriptural references cited for further 
/. Basic principles of salvation, as 
jvealed anciently and again in modern 
times, are defined and outlined with rare 
insight to bring the reader to a complete 






DA 8-0566 



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Gardner, Harland, and Smith 

;re is a most comprehensive course in basic record 
keeping and research for Stake and Ward geneaiogical 
training programs. Written by professional genealogists, 
these two best selling volumes teach step-by-step 
procedures in research, and record keeping, and 
evaluation of evidences which confront beginner and 
veteran. Adopted as official te^t by many 
wards and stakes. 

$3.95 each 


by Emma Marr Petersen 

The wonderful adventure 

in the life of a little orphan 

subtly tells the entire story 

of baptism as practiced in 

the LDS Church. Children 


love the excitement 
of the story. 


by Emma Marr Petersen 

A fascinating sequel to 

"About Baptism", this warm, human 

story follows the further adventures of an 

orphan boy who went to live with Mormon 

foster parents. His exciting experiences 

and his escapes from harm teach 

young readers "about prayer." 





ftfwa , 

Mm Wo** 




by Riley Lake Dixon 
Oft-asked questions concerning the Book of 
Mormon, its locale and people are discussed 
in this fascinating and scholarly study. Who 
were the Jaredites? From whence did they 
come? What became of them? Which course 
did the Nephites travel? Where did they 
land? Did they occupy the land 
these United States? H 




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by David O. McKay 

and Llewelyn R. McKay 

true story and a fantasy make delightful 
reading at Christmas time. These warm human 
stories will tug at your heart as you read them 
to your children . . . and your youngsters will 
want to read them or hear them again and again. 



Christmas Silhouettes 







H *"** 



by David O. McKay 

Here is a book you'll love 

and cherish for it contains 

some of the choicest of 

President McKay's sermons and 

writings. Chosen and compiled by his son, 

Dr. Llewelyn McKay, these articles clearly refit 

the profound thoughts, emotions and keen 

insight of President McKay. 



by Rulon S. Howells 

People all over the world are asking abou 
the Mormon Church and its story. This pictorial 
account of Mormonism beautifully tells the history, 
growth and progress of the Church in the 
form of pictures, maps, graphs, charts 
and skillfully written commentary. Many 
full-color paintings. 


by Dr. Milton R. Hunter 

This marvelous volume is packed w 
material on vital gospel topics extr 
from 72 inspiring talks given by 
General Authorities. This companion 
volume to "Gems of Thought" and 
"Gospel Sermonettes" contains 
excellent material for 
priesthood leaders and 
officers and teachers of 
all the auxiliaries. 



by Ora Pate Stewart 


by James Edward Clark 


by Lucy Thomson 


by Lucy Thomson 

ft All 1^ WI «1 

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Aunt Penny's recipe for 
an old-time favorite 

Baked Macaroni & Cheese 

Heat 1 can Aunt Penny's White Sauce 
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macaroni in greased casserole in al- 
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sauce, finishing with cheese on top. 
Bake in moderate oven (375° F) for 20 
to 25 minutes or until bubbly and 
cheese is melted. Serves 6. 

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These Times 

:.■;■ :■:■.:■■ ■ ;■.:■:■ :::■: 

The National Defense 
Education Act of 1958 

by Dr. G. Homer Durham 
Vice-President, University of Utah 

September 3, 1958, President 
Dwight D. Eisenhower signed into 
law the National Defense Education 
Act of 1958. This enactment, by the 
85th Congress, 2nd Session, brings 
more change into American higher 
education than any measure since 
the Land-Grant College Act of 1862. 
That law, the Morrill Act of 1862, 
helped produce the universities of 
California, Illinois, Minnesota, Wis- 
consin, and other state "land-grant" 
colleges and institutions in every 
state of the Union. 

Old programs in these and other 
well-established institutions will now 
receive new stimuli. Less-estab- 
lished institutions will receive, by 
grant or contract, the means of new 
development. State boards of edu- 
cation and their administrative of- 
ficers, as well as universities and 
colleges, will enter into new rela- 
tions with the federal government. 
The purpose *will be to strengthen 
elementary and secondary instruc- 
tion as a background for higher edu- 
cation. There is really nothing 
much new in the act. The pattern 
goes back to Abraham Lincoln's ad- 
ministration. The newness will re- 
sult from the weaker and less-well 
financed institution's new ability to 


develop programs heretofore the 
province of better-nurtured or bet- 
ter-managed ones. Utah, for example, 
had no land-grant college until 
stimulated by various Acts of Con- 
gress, especially those making fed- 
eral funds available in 1887. Then, 
Utah State at Logan was brought 
into being. 

The result of the 1958 law will be 
to raise the level of preparation for 
college, and, wider improvement of 
the nation's collegiate resources 
generally. These things are expressed 
in the general policy statement, 
Section 101, of the act: 

"The Congress hereby finds and 
declares that the security of the na- 
tion requires the fullest development 
of the mental resources and technical 
skills of its young men and women." 

The general philosophy of the bill, 
now law, may be further summa- 
rized as follows: 

1. National defense depends upon 
mastery of existing knowledge and 

2. The discovery and development 
of new knowledge has even more 
critical importance. 

3. Efforts must be increased to 
identify and educate talent. 

4. "Existing imbalances in ed- 







A day for thanks . . . 
A day for feasting . 

A day for family and friends , . . 

Stuffed turkey, cranberry sauce and candied yams, not to mention 
plum pudding, whipped-cream-smothered pumpkin pies, 
cookies, cakes and candy, all help to make Thanksgiving the 
special day that it is. For your fancy Thanksgiving recipes 
and throughout the year, use U and I Sugar. It's as fine, 
as white, as pure a sugar as money can buy, and it is available 
at your grocers in 5-lb., 10-lb., 25-lb. and 50-lb. bags, or in 

the handy 1-lb. cartons: Brown, Powdered, Superfine 
Dessert or Fifte Granulated. 

Always buy U and I 




fall favorite — bermuda cloth 



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lapel neckline style, above, 
in 14 to 20. Portrait col- 
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Utah residents add 2% state tax. 

ideational programs," specifically, 
insufficient people educated in 
science, mathematics, modern for- 
eign languages, and those trained 
in technology, must be corrected. 

5. The states and local communi- 
ties "have and must retain control" 
of public education. 

6. National interest, however, re- 
quires that the Federal Government 
must, as since 1862, "give assistance" 
for "programs which are important 
to our defense." 

7. A national emergency exists 
which "requires additional effort at 
all levels of government." 

8. It is therefore the purpose of 
the National Defense Education Act 
"to provide substantial assistance in 
various forms to individuals, and to 
states and their subdivisions, in 
order to insure trained manpower 
of sufficient quality and quantity to 
meet the national defense needs of 
the United States." 

So runs the national response to 
Sputnik and the tremendous, strides 
taken by Soviet education in the 
past forty years. 

The act has ten titles. From each, 
many programs will grow, beginning 
immediately. Something like $40 
million is available this year. The 
Department of Health, Education, 
and Welfare, through the U. S. Of- 
fice of Education, will be the na- 
tional administrative agency, aided 
by new advisory committees. Col- 
lege and university presidents, if 
alert, have already been to Wash- 
ington in the past six months, 
making anticipatory plans. Commis- 
sioner Laurence Derthick of the 
Office of Education, convened sev- 
eral state superintendents of public 
instruction in a three-day confer- 
ence the same week the President 
signed the bill. The dollar figures 
in the material which follows repre- 
sent patterns of authorization. Ac- 
tual funds available the first year 
will be around $40 million unless 
supolemented by the 86th Congress. 

Here are its main features: 

Title I— General Provisions (see 
above ) . 

Title II— Loans to Students in In- 
stitutions of Higher Education. This 
title appropriates $47V2 million. 
From this sum, institutions of higher 
education, by contributing one- 
ninth, may establish new Student 
Loan Funds. From them a student 
may borrow $1,000 a year, not to 
exceed $5,000 total, at 3 percent in- 
terest. Interest becomes payable 



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Friend of the Family 
Friend of the Farmer 

It's always "Eat-More-Tur- 
key-Time" at Safeway. 

Thanksgiving is an extra 
special time for turkey but 
Safeway Stores promote the 
sale of turkey at Easter, in mid- 
summer and the year around. 

This is done to cooperate 
with Utah Farmers. Utah has 
become a leading turkey pro- 
ducing state with ideal climate 
and conditions for raising the 

Production has grown so 
large that 90% of the turkeys 
are now sold out of the state. 
The problem is to find the mar- 

Safeway does its part by 
featuring turkeys for local 
consumption and shipping large 
quantities of quality Utah tur- 
keys to other states. 

Last year Safeway purchased 
$379,183 worth of turkey from 
Utah farms to help solve a seri- 
ous over-production problem. 

Friend of the Family 
Friend of the Farmer 


one year after completing school. No 
interest accrues while in school or 
the armed forces— ( three year maxi- 
mum for the latter). There are ten 
years to pay. Loans must be given 
"especial consideration" for studeats 
who plan to teach, or "whose aca- 
demic background indicates a su- 
perior capacity ... in science, 
mathematics, engineering, or a mod- 
ern foreign language. . . ." 

Title III— Financial Assistance for 
Strengthening Science, Mathematics, 
and Modern Foreign Language In- 
struction. This title carries $70 
million for equipment, "minor re- 
modeling," and loans, through state 
plans, primarily for the public 

Title IV— National Defense Fel- 
lowships. One thousand fellowships 
are authorized this year, fifteen hun- 
dred each year thereafter, for three- 
year periods. Designed for graduate 
students (Ph.D. candidates), these 
will carry stipends of $2000, $2200, 
and $2400 during successive years, 
plus $400 for each dependent; and, 
aims at increasing the short supply 
of university professors— "the geese 
that lay the golden eggs" now being 
"drained off" by higher salaries in 
other fields. 

Title V— Guidance, Counseling, 
and Testing; Identification and En- 
couragement of Able Students. This 
title appropriates $15 million for 
grants to state educational agencies 
to assist them in improving public 
school counseling. An additional 
$6.25 million is available to contract 
with universities for short-term or 
regular training institutes in this 
field. The University of Utah, for 
example, established the old "Bureau 
of Student Counsel" under Dr. 
Arthur L. Beeley in 1926. From 
this beginning has come a variety of 
graduate training programs at the 
Utah school, now producing scores 
of Master's degrees and several 
Ph.D.'s each year. Such well-estab- 
lished programs are likely centers 
for training contracts. 

Title VI— Language Development. 
The commissioner is given $8 million 
to contract with universities to estab- 
lish "Language and Area Training 
Centers." For example, the Uni- 
versity of Utah had such a program 
under an army contract, 1942-1945, 
and continued some features at the 
graduate level through its Institute 
of Government "Area Studies" be- 
ginning in 1946. Harvard, Colum- 
bia, and Michigan have had much 

more expensive and specialized pro- 
grams. Under the new law, institu- 
tions contracting for "Language and 
Area Centers" must contribute 50 
percent of their cost. "Language 
Institutes" of short-term nature are 
also authorized in this title, with 
$7Mj million available, to train pub- 
lic elementary or secondary lan- 
guage instructors. 

Title VII— Research and Experi- 
mentation in More Effective Utiliza- 
tion of Television, Radio, Motion 
Pictures, and Related Media for 
Educational Purposes. This provides 
$3 million the first year ($5 million 
thereafter) for grants, contracts, and 
co-ordination, to promote effective 
use of these new media. A new 
"National Advisory Committee on 
New Educational Media" of four- 
teen persons is to assist. 

Title VIII— Area Vocational Edu- 
cation Programs. Fifteen million 
dollars is available for state plans, 
through state agencies, to generate 
wide improvements in this field, 
especially in the scientific-technical 
aspects. Despite the long-established 
programs at Weber College, Utah 
State, the Salt Lake area, and central 
Utah vocational schools, (for exam- 
ple, the recent coming to Utah of 
Sperry-Rand, Litton Industries, Mar- 
quard, Thiokol, and others) there 
has been revealed a marked short- 
age of this type of training. 

Title IX— S ci e nc e Information 
Service. This is a new agency, cre- 
ated under the National Science 
Foundation, to index, abstract, trans- 
late, and disseminate scientific in- 
formation. In the long run it may 
prove to be the most important 
single feature of the National De- 
fense Education Act of 1958. 
"Knowledge is power." 

Title X— Miscellaneous Provisions. 
The principal substantive element 
of this title is section 1009, "Im- 
provement of Statistical Services of 
State Educational Agencies." Grants 
to a state department of education 
up to $50,000 a year are authorized 
"to improve and strengthen the 
adequacy and reliability of educa- 
tional statistics provided by state 
and local reports. . . ." This is the 
basis for future policy planning. 

Here is a measure which orients 
the United States' educational sys- 
tem towards the rapidly changing 
world order of these times. New 
dimensions, new opportunities, new 
"fields to conquer," new problems 
for public policy will follow. 



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The Church 
Moves On 

September 1958 

-„ Endowment sessions began in the London Temple. The first 

1 of these sessions were reserved for British members of the 

Church going through the temple for the first time. Other 

sessions will be held in English and in the Scandinavian languages 

this week. 

On a suggestion by the First Presidency, many of the wards 
and branches built today's Sacrament meeting program 
around the divinity of the American Constitution. 

President David O. McKay returned to Salt Lake City by 
air from London, where he dedicated the temple there. 

Appointment of Elder Alma A. Gardiner as general secre- 
tai tary of the Deseret Clubs was announced. The clubs are 

organizations for small groups of LDS students on uni- 
versity campuses throughout the nation that do not have LDS 
institutes of religion. 

"Helaman Halls" has been selected as the name of the men's 
residences on the campus of Brigham Young University. The 
central dining room and business building will be named after 
George Q. Cannon. Individually, the seven residences will be 
known as David John Residence Hall, Stephen L. Chipman Resi- 
dence Hall, Thomas N. Taylor Residence Hall, Hinckley Residence 
Hall, Walter Stover Residence Hall, William Budge Residence 
Hall, and Marriner Wood Merrill Residence Hall. The group of 
residences for women students, in operation for several years, is 
known as "Heritage Halls." 

The First Presidency announced the appointment of Elder 
Fred A. Turley of Snownake, Arizona, to preside over the 
Southwest Indian Mission, succeeding President Alfred A. 
Rohner. Active in Church work all his life, President Turley filled 
a mission in the Eastern States 1915-17, and he and Mrs. Turley 
filled a mission in Texas-Louisiana, 1951-53. For the past year he 
has assisted with the operation of the Church-owned ranch in 
Florida. Mrs. Turley will accompany him to this new field of 

The appointment of Mrs. Darlene Stevenson Parkinson of 
Salt Lake City to the general board of the Primary Association 
was announced. 

Elder Malcolm C. Young sustained as president of North 
Box Elder (Utah) Stake with Elders Varsel Chlarson and 
Lee R. Andersen as counselors. They succeed President 

Vernal Willie and his counselors, Elders Elbert R. Beecher and 

J. Delos Thompson. 


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BOB AND SUE, like thousands of their elders, have learned the truth 
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HAVE YOU seen through the glamorous haze thrown up by the 
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Letters and Reports 


less and use them constantly in my study 
and research work. 

Sincerely yours, 
Jerreld L. Newquist 

Denver, Colorado 
Dear Sirs: 

As I am being discharged from the army, 
would you kindly send future Era to my 
home in Denver? 

I have enjoyed very much the more 
recent issues of the Era. Especially the 
articles by Sterling W. Sill on leadership 
development. They have been a great aid 
in my job. 

Thank you for bringing the Church 
closer to me in Europe. 


John R. Schneider 

Phoenix, Arizona 
Dear Editors: 

Just a word of appreciation for your 
untiring efforts, manifest so amply in the 
pages of the Era. We have thoroughly 
enjoyed the pages of past Eras— and are 
certainly proud of your present format and 
organization. May our Father ever help 
and bless you to continue presenting the 
gospel through the Era. 

David C. Jones 

Lehi, Utah 

I feel I have gained a great deal in 
working to fill my Golden Gleaner re- 
quirements. I am especially grateful for 
The Improvement Era. We have taken 
the Era for many years, but I have never 
taken the time to read much of it. But 
in filling an assignment of required read- 
ing of four or five articles from each issue 
for one year, I learned to dearly love it. 

Now I read it from cover to cover and 
can hardly wait for the next issue. Thank 
you from the bottom of my heart. 

Faye B. Godfrey 

Waterloo, Iowa 
Dear Sirs: 

I want to say that I think the Era is a 
very wonderful magazine, I've learned so 
much about the Church. We've had the 
Era ever since October of 1954, and I 
wouldn't miss a copy. The questions and 
answers department I think is swell. All 
the wonderful poems and recipes. I'm 
a collector of both. I have read the "Jesus 
the Christ" in the Era, also I'm reading it 
in the book. It's a wonderful book. 

I have been the Era Director for almost 
4 years, and I have to know what I'm 
selling. I'm very proud and happy of the 
opportunity I have had in selling the Era. 

I have interested two others in the 
Church through the magazine. 

Keep up such fine work, I'm sure you'll 
have willing people helping you in the 

May God guide you always. 

Sincerely yours, 

Sister Eldora Jane Williams 


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The Power 

by President 

There are a number of virtues which I consider 
to be essential in order that the prayers of men may 
prove to be efficacious: 

The first and most fundamental virtue in effective 
prayer is faith. A belief in God brings peace to the 
soul. An assurance that God is our Father, into whose 
presence we can go for comfort and guidance, is a 
never-failing source of comfort. 

Another essential is reverence. This virtue is 
exemplified in the model prayer given by the Savior 
in the words "Hallowed be thy name." (Matt. 6:9.) 
This principle should be exemplified particularly in 
our houses of worship. 

The third essential element is sincerity. Prayer is 
the yearning of the spirit. It is a message of the 
soul sent directly to a Loving Father. The language 
is not mere words, but a loving heart in tune with 
the Infinite. Sincere praying implies that when we 
ask for any blessing or virtue we should work for 
the blessing and cultivate the virtue. 

The next essential is loyalty. Why pray for the 
kingdom of God to come unless you have in your 
heart a desire and a willingness to aid in its estab- 
lishment? Praying for his will to be done and then 
not trying to live it, gives you a negative answer at 
once. You would not grant something to a child 
who showed that attitude towards a request he is 
making of you. If we pray for the success of some 
cause or enterprise, manifestly we are in sympathy 
with it. It is the height of disloyalty to pray for God's 
will to be done and then fail to conform our lives 
to that will. 

A final essential is humility-not an outward, hyp- 
ocritical pretense, but a humility that springs from the 
heart, from an absence of self-righteousness. Self- 
respect is a virtue, but self-conceit is an inhibition. 
The principle of humility in prayer leads one to feel 
a need of divine guidance. Self-reliance is a virtue, 


The Editors Page 

of Prayer 

David O. McKay 

but with it should go a consciousness of the need of 
superior help— a consciousness that as you walk firmly 
in the pathway of duty, there is a possibility of your 
making a misstep; and with that consciousness is a 
prayer, a pleading that God will inspire you to avoid 
that false step. 

If our young people will have faith and approach 
their Father in heaven in prayer, there are at least 
four great blessings that will come to them here and 

The first is gratitude. Their souls will be filled 
with thanksgiving for what God has done for them. 
They will find themselves rich in favors bestowed. 
The young person who closes the door behind him, 
draws the curtains, and there in silent prayer pleads 
with God for help, should first pour out his soul in 
gratitude, for health, for friends, for loved ones, for 
the gospel, and for the manifestations of God's exist- 

The second blessing of prayer is guidance. I can- 
not conceive a young man's going astray or a young 
girl's going far wrong who keeps in close communica- 
tion with his or her Father in heaven. I cannot 
think that a Latter-day Saint will hold enmity in 
his heart if he will sincerely, in secret, pray God to 
remove from his heart all feelings of envy and malice 
toward any of his fellow men. 

The third blessing is confidence. Let us teach the 
thousands of students who are earnestly striving to 
gain an education that if they desire to succeed in 
their lessons, they should seek their God; that the 
greatest teacher known to the world stands near to 
guide them. Once the student feels that he can ap- 
proach the Lord through prayer, he will receive 
confidence that he can learn his lessons, that he can 
prepare his speech, that he can stand before his fel- 
low students and deliver his message without fear 
of failure. Confidence comes through sincere prayer. 

One who prays will receive inspiration. It is not 
imagination that we can approach God and can 
receive light and guidance from him, that our minds 
will be enlightened, our souls thrilled by his spirit. 
Washington sought and found it; Lincoln received 
it; Joseph Smith knew it. Inspiration is manifest to 
all who will but open their eyes to see and their 
hearts to understand. 

The Lord's prayer has been given us as a pattern 
for prayer. Let us analyze part of that prayer as it 
is recorded in the sixth chapter of Matthew: 

"Our Father which art in heaven . . . ," is an 
acknowledgment of his existence. He that cometh to 
God must believe that he is. 

"Hallowed be thy name . . . ," expresses reverence. 

"Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done . . . ," is at 
once a plea for its establishment on earth, and an 
implied promise loyally to co-operate in bringing 
peace on earth, good will to men. 

"Give us this day our daily bread . . .," is an 
acknowledgment of our dependence upon God for 
our very subsistence-at least that we are in need of 
his help and guidance in all our constant strivings. 

"And forgive us our debts [or trespasses], as we 
forgive our debtors [or those who trespass against 
us] . . . ," makes our forgiveness entirely dependent 
upon the sincerity of our hearts in forgiving others, 
and upon the extent to which we render forgiveness, 
we shall receive forgiveness in proportion to our for- 
giveness of those who have offended us. 

"And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us 
from evil, . . ." is the yearning plea of a humble heart 
for strength and guidance of an acknowledged su- 
perior power. 

May we ponder these things as we prepare our- 
selves for prayer in our secret places, in our families, 
and in our Church gatherings. 




swered bv 
Joseph FiJjding Smith 

. ■ 

President of the Council of the Twelve 



Biblical Evidence that 
Joseph Smith Was 
Called of God 


"If Joseph Smith was truly called to be a prophet 
of God, surely there would be some prophetic refer- 
ences to him in the Bible. Is it possible to point out 
any ancient predictions showing that he was so called?" 


There are many passages in the Bible pointing to 
the fact that a prophet would be called in the last 
days, and that there would be revelations and visions 
and restoration of the gospel in its fulness. If a person 
thinks the name of Joseph Smith ought to be found 
in the Bible spelled out in so many letters, he will 
search in vain. It seems rather strange that the truth, 
which is so plainly written showing an apostasy, and 
a restoration of the gospel in the last days, would be 
so generally misunderstood. The Bible is filled with 
predictions of an universal apostasy and the need for 
a restoration, and that again the heavens would be 
opened and our Eternal Father and his Son Jesus 
Christ, would commune with prophets and establish 
the gospel on the earth. We are now living in the 
Dispensation of the Fulness of Times, when Paul said 
Christ would "gather together in one all things in 
Christ, both which are in heaven, and which are in 
earth; even in him." 1 Peter called it "the times of 
refreshing," and the "restitution of all things, which 
God hath spoken by the mouth of all his holy prophets 
since the world began." 2 

These predictions being true, then, in our time there 
must be a prophet and a church recognized by the 
Father and the Son in which divine revelation is 
found. Surely there could come no restitution or time 
of refreshing, without a prophet clothed with divine 
authority as was Moses, holding this authority from 
heaven, for no such authority can be assumed by any 
person without a divine call. Therefore there would 
have to be an opening of the heavens with new revela- 
tion and commandment. Moreover, the Lord through 
many prophets predicted that all things would be 
restored and that the Lord would again make cove- 
nants with his people. 3 

In a brief article it is impossible to point out all 
the references in the- writings of ancient prophets 

( See page 883 for footnotes. ) 



bearing on the restoration of the gospel and the 
coming of a new and final dispensation wherein 
prophets would speak and say: "Thus saith the Lord." 
Elders Parley P. Pratt in his Voice of Warning, which 
was published over a hundred and twenty years ago, 
and his brother Orson Pratt, who wrote a few years 
later, have published to the world an abundance of 
evidence showing the fulfilment of prophecy in the 
mission of the Prophet Joseph Smith. It is unnecessary 
to repeat over and over again, this evidence which 
has been so faithfully declared. Many others also have 
spoken and their words have gone forth to an un- 
believing world. The attention to sincere believers in 
the divine mission of Jesus Christ is again called to 
the writings of these men. If any person desires a 
complete answer to this question, then he should 
obtain these publications: by Elder Parley P. Pratt, 
in the Voice of Warning: 

Prophecy Already Fulfilled; 

Prophecy Yet Future; 

The Kingdom of God; 

Restoration of the Saints and of all Things; 

Origin of the American Indians. 

Publications by Elder Orson Pratt: 

Divine Authority— Or Was Joseph Smith sent 

of God; 

The Kingdom of God; 

Divine Authenticity of the Book of Mormon. 

When any person has read these chapters, if he is 
not convinced, then his case indeed, is hopeless, for 
the light of truth either cannot penetrate his soul, or in 
spite of it he refuses to believe. Since this matter is so 
carefully and completely handled by these brethren, 
and the evidence is available, I shall turn my attention 
to a few other matters of the most vital significance. 
Let us consider first the prophecy of Malachi: 

"Behold, I will send my messenger, and he shall 
prepare the way before me: and the Lord, whom ye 
seek, shall suddenly come to his temple, even the 
messenger of the covenant, whom ye delight in: 
behold, he shall come, saith the Lord of hosts. 

"But who may abide the day of his coming? and 
who shall stand when he appeareth? for he is like 
a refiner's fire, and like fullers' soap. 

"And he shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver: 
and he shall purify the sons of Levi, and purge them 
as gold and silver, that they may offer unto the Lord 
an offering in righteousness. 

"Then shall the offering of Judah and Jerusalem be 
pleasant unto the Lord, as in days of old, and as in 
former years. 

"And I will come near to you to judgment; and I will 

be a swift witness against the sorcerers, and against 
the adulterers, and against false swearers, and 
against those who oppress the hireling in his wages, 
the widow, and the fatherless, and that turn aside the 
stranger from his right, and fear not me, saith the Lord 
of hosts." 4 

Bible interpreters have declared that this was ful- 
filled in the days of Christ's ministry; but this is not 
so. It is very evident, notwithstanding the fact that 
John the Baptist came in the Dispensation of the Me- 
ridian of Time, and was the forerunner of Christ, that 
this prophecy was not fulfilled at that time, but was to 
be fulfilled at a later day, or in the Dispensation of 
the Fulness of Times. This prophecy declares that 
(1) Christ was to come suddenly to his temple; as 
the messenger of the covenant; (2) He was to be like 
a refiner's fire, and like fullers' soap, to be a refiner 
and purifier, to purify the sons of Levi and purge them, 
that they "may offer unto the Lord, an offering in 
righteousness." (3) It was to be a day when the of- 
fering of Judah and Jerusalem would be pleasant, as in 
days of old and former years. (4) It was to be a day 
of judgment and swift witness against the sorcerers 
and adulterers, false swearers, and those who oppress 
the widow and the fatherless. Surely these things did 
not happen in the days of the ministry of our Lord 
when he dwelt among men. In that day the Levites 
and the sons of Judah turned against him and brought 
him to his death; every one abode his coming, and 
he did not come in that ministry in judgment like a 
refiner's fire. The sons of Levi were not purged, and 
they did not offer an offering in righteousness. 

No! We must look for a later day for the fulfilment 
of this prophecy. Much of this prophetic prediction 
by Malachi is yet future; some of it has been fulfilled. 
The Lord did come suddenly to his temple on the 
third day of April 1836. It was on that day when 
other heavenly messengers came, and when the keys 
for the gathering of Israel were restored by Moses. It 
was on that day when Elias, who lived in the days of 
Abraham, came and bestowed the keys of the Dispen- 
sation of Abraham: It was when Elijah came in ful- 
filment of the prophecy of Malachi, and restored his 
keys of turning the hearts of the fathers to their chil- 
dren and their children to their fathers. 

On this occasion Christ accepted and approved the 
work of his servants, Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery, 
thus turning the key for the redemption of Judah and 
Levi that they might, in the due time of the Lord, 
make offerings that would be acceptable. Malachi in 
very definite language declared that Elijah must 
come, "before the coming ( Continued on page 873 ) 



Fifth of the Series 

So That's What Boys Are Made Of 

; A h, Wilderness ' 

the beginning of adolescence 

by W. Cleon Skousen 
Chief of Police, Salt Lake City 

(Behavior Patterns and Problems, Ages 12 and 13) 

Portrait of a 12-Y ear-Old 

Adolescence is like a ride on a roller coaster, and 
age 12 is the slow, easy climb that leads up to a high 
summit— to be followed, in due course, by a sudden 
plunge into the breathless depths of a big dip at 13. 

A 12-year-old knows he is climbing to new excit- 
ing heights. He also knows that he doesn't under- 
stand a lot of what is happening. Nevertheless, 
because he temporarily feels a new inner peace he 
takes the climb in stride. Just as at 3, 5, 7, and 10, 
Junior senses that everything is going to work out all 
right. He notes that he is not as rebellious, cantanker- 
ous and sassy as he was last year during his 11-year- 
old thrust. He gets along with adults better, including 
his teachers and parents. He enjoys conforming more 
than last year. He hears his mother whisper to Dad, 
"I think Junior is over the hump." In response Dad 
may merely grunt or mumble. He has seen Junior 
get over humps before. What he wants to know is 
when should the family prepare for the next slump. 
He remembers enough about his own adolescence 
to recall that it was one continuous round of humps 
and slumps. 

Usually, however, a 12-year-old has one full year 
of ebb-tide ahead of him. 

Physical Traits 

Physically, a 12-year-old may look pretty much 
like his 11-year-old self. He is still a "little boy" 
in many ways. Parents can't understand what hap- 
pens to all the bread, milk, meat, potatoes, and 
double desserts he has been wolfing down the past 
year. Won't it ever show? It finally does. Fre- 
quently the latter part of age 12 is when there is a 

pattern of growing and rounding out of bone and 
muscle that signals the gradual transition from boy- 
hood to youth. 

However, rapid growth requires so much vitality 
that often this will compete with Junior's ambition 
in athletics or in other physical activities. We may 
therefore see him burning up all kinds of energy at 
a sand lot baseball game and then coming home to 
literally collapse. This is not an act. It is Mother 
Nature's way of saying that Junior has reached bed- 
rock and needs a rest. His recovery rate is likely to 
be slow— requiring several hours usually— and if he 
is continually goaded back into activity before re- 
vitalization has taken place we may find him becoming 
very susceptible to colds or other maladies resulting 
from low resistance. 

Usually a 12-year-old also has frequent complaints 
about his feet. These should not be ignored. Weak- 
ness resulting from rapid growth may cause the muscle 
structure of the arch to give way. Also ill-fitting shoes 
on rapidly growing feet may be the cause of serious 
problems in later years. 

The Mind and Emotions of a 12-Y ear-Old 

Mentally and emotionally, Junior usually finds dur- 
ing age 12 most of the things he was looking for during 
age 11. He no longer bullies his parents and pals to 
try and prove his status. He now feels he can take 
himself and his acceptance more or less for granted. 
He feels more relaxed. His behavior becomes more 
generous, less egocentric. He enjoys talking with 
people and copies many new grownup expressions. 
He does better in school. 

Because Junior is no longer so self-centered he 
makes a fairly good listener. But only on new things! 
He cannot stand to hear a joke twice. If a teacher 



forgets where the lesson left off and goes back for a 
little review a 12-year-old may wrap himself in a 
mantle of gloom because he "heard it already." 

Junior is getting sophisticated now. He prides 
himself in keeping his emotions and fears under con- 
trol. He complains that mystery stories don't scare 
him like they used to. He also boasts that he doesn't 
"bawl any more like the little kids." In reality he is 
capable of a real good boohoo session, but it does 
not happen very often. An achievement which is far 
more notable but seldom mentioned is the fact that 
since he became 12, Junior doesn't have those ex- 
plosive temper outbursts like he did last year. 

The Social 12-Y ear-Old 

As far as sociability is concerned, Junior, is far 
better adjusted at 12 than the year before. It reminds 
his parents of the content- 
ed days of 9 or 10. He 
will often complain, however, 
that his father is "too busy, 
and ought to spend more time 
at home." This may not be 
altogether true, but it is worth 
the time of a father to make 
sure that there are weekly ses- 
sions together in work and 
play or maybe just talk. The 
father should be prepared for 
the disappointment of dis- 
covering, however, that a 12- 
year-old does not need a 

father's attention nearlv so much as he claims. In fact, 
many a conscience-stricken father has cancelled im- 
portant engagements to spend more time with his son, 
only to discover that fifteen or twenty minutes of 
being together is about all his boy can stand. The 
interests of each are still too far apart. Unless they 
engage in some common activity or project, the com- 
panionship quickly disintegrates as the boy wanders 
off to find one of his pals. Another couple of years 
and Junior will be ready for "long talks" or "just being 

At 12, however, a boy not only finds it difficult to 
spend a lot of time with his dad— he also avoids 
making soul partners with any of his pals. He sort 
of covers the field— first favoring one friend, then 
another. Mostly, he likes people in groups. Dis- 
crimination comes later. 

Attitudes and Aptitudes 

The opinions of his friends are very important to a 
12-year-old. Their opinions often get priority over 
his parents' ideas. He listens avidly to their pros and 
cons covering important subjects like "the best 

by Iris W. Schow 

The sun is up there shining; 
All know that this is true; 
But while fog fills the valley, 
Its rays cannot come through. 

God's love is there, too, waiting, 
Some know beyond a doubt; 
But greed and wilful blindness 
Form fog that keeps love out. 

movies," "girls," "favorite teachers," and "who will win 
the World Series." 

A boy's attitudes and aptitudes during age 12 make 
it an ideal time to work him hard in any organized 
boy's program. But it must be organized! He likes 
a "sharp" outfit with discipline and lots of planned 
activity. He even wants to help with the planning, 
but woe be the day if the plans are not carried out. 
A recent survey of dropouts in a national youth or- 
ganization indicated that the boys generally lost 
interest "because we never did anything," or "because 
nothing was organized." 

It is common for boys of this age to have an all- 
consuming enthusiasm for athletics. However, there 
are many perfectly normal boys who do not. These 
boys will shy away, especially from football, basket- 
ball, or other "team" sports. Often they will partici- 
pate if it is required in 
school, but they will not 
voluntarily do it for fun. How- 
ever, the one sport which this 
type of boy will usually go 
out for is swimming. It 
seems to be a universal fa- 
vorite, and many schools and 
colleges are enlarging their 
athletic program to include 
swimming. This type of boy 
may also acquire a zest for 
some specialized sport such 
as tennis, handball, wrestling, 
golf, or boxing. 

Is Right and Wrong Important? 

Authorities generally agree that by the time a boy 
is 12 he should have overcome most of his problems 
of lying, cheating, and stealing. Everything else 
being equal, parents should consider themselves run- 
ning behind schedule if this is not accomplished by 
around 12. There will be exceptions, of course, but 
they should be rare ones. Any pattern of lying, cheat- 
ing, or stealing is what the law calls "delinquency." 

Authorities point out that unless a boy has de- 
veloped rather mature ethical values by 12 he is 
likely to get into difficulty as he tries to cope with 
the many new insights and powerful drives which 
come alive during adolescence. For example, many 
things which he considered downright "bad" as a 
child will receive a far more sympathetic considera- 
tion during adolescence. A case in point is the fact 
that he is likely to feel much more tolerant toward 
swearing, drinking, and smoking, and may try out all 
three. He is likely to identify these with being grown- 
up, and doing "grownup things" is mighty important 
to an adolescent. (Continued on page 874) 



FAMILY NIGHT READER, A Guide for Teaching the Gospel 
in the Home, S. Dihvorth Young 
Bookcraft, Salt Lake City. 1958. $2.50. 

This is a book for Latter-day Saint parents to hand to their 
young people for their reading and understanding of gospel 
principles which will affect their lives for good. It is, more- 
over, a book that can well be used as its title and subtitle 
suggest, for hours when the family comes together for gospel 
discussions. If the family will make this a working text, they 
will all grow in faith and unity in their homes as well as in the 
Church program.— M. C. }. 

HE THAT LIVETH, Doyle L. Green 

Deseret Book Company, Salt Lake City. 1958. $3.25. 

This book for young and old deals with the life and work 
of the Savior of mankind. Written in language that is at 
once beautiful and understandable, He That Liveth is in 
addition an artistic masterpiece, including ten full-color, 
full-page reproductions of paintings by the famous Danish 
artist, Carl Bloch. 

This is a book that Latter-day Saint homes will desire to 
have in their libraries since it includes the story of Jesus 
from all of the Standard Works of the Church.— M. C. J. 

Louis Darling 

William Morrow and Co., New York. 1958. 64 pages. $2.50. 
This is a story of mammals with pouches— the kangaroo, 
marsupial moles, and the koala bear (teddy), and others. 
Mr. Darling has written and illustrated an engrossing book 
about the habits and characteristics of these lovable animals 
with pockets.— E. /. M. 


William Morrow and Co., New York. 1958. 48 pages. $2.50. 
Jerrold Beim has, as always, accurately portrayed the in- 
terests and yearnings of a small boy, and Leonard Shortall's 
drawings are filled with warmth and gentle humor. A book 
to delight every child who has ever longed for the mailman 
to bring him a letter of his very own.— E. }. M. 

AND LEGENDS, Maria Leach, Illustrated 
World Publishing Co. 1958. S19 pages. $4.95. 

This book includes State Lore, Bad Men, Tall Talk, Strange 

fi xplore with Books 

Tales, Local Legends and Popular Tales, and other sections 
dealing with American folklore that are fun for winter evenings 
when apples are polished for eating and the fire's burning 
brightly, and the children are gathered round for reading. 
Billy the Kid, Pecos Bill, and Paul Bunyan roam through the 
pages to the never-ending delight of young and old.— M. C. J. 

FAMILY READING FESTIVAL, Stories and Poems to Read 
Together, Selected and edited by Frances Cavanah, Illustrated, 
326 pages. $5.95. 

The purpose of this book is to entertain all the members 
of the family, to inspire them, to expand their horizons. 
That Frances Cavanah should have made the selection and 
clone the editing is significant since she is a writer of rare 
talent herself. The book is interesting too in that it contains 
some of the best of the contemporary writers for young people 
as well as the established authors— and if young people enjoy 
them so will the older folk. This is a recommended book 
for family reading.— M. C. ]. 

THE ARABS, Harry B. Ellis, Illustrated, 

World Publishing Company, Neio York. 1958. 124 pages. $2.95. 
Written for children by an expert who has won recognition 
for two previous books, Heritage of the Desert and Israel and 
the Middle East, this book will increase understanding for our 
neighbors in the Middle East. 

If young people will learn the brotherhood of man, soon 
the entire world will become more ready to accept the Father- 
hood of God, and peace may then become a reality.— M. C. J. 



The World Publishing Company, New York. 1958. 127 pages. 


The author begins with a quotation from the diary of 
Bernal Diaz del Castillo, one of the Spaniards who accom- 
panied Cortez into the land of the Aztecs. The author has 
included the placement of the Maya, the Olmec, the Toltec, 
and the Totonac as well as the Aztec. 

The framework is a story, but the material has been care- 
fully gleaned from history, and the index bears out the truth 
of the book.-M. C. J. 

LITTLE BURMA, Robert M. McClung 

William Morroto & Co., New York. 1958. 256 pages. $2.95. 

Quietly Ben Forrest climbed over the window sill and 
dropped to the ground. He was running away— from the farm, 
from his harsh guardian, from the drudgery and unhappiness 
of his life. But what could a 12-year-old boy do in New York 
town in the year 1796? Ben's love of animals gave him the 
answer. Little Burma, the first elephant brought to America 
was to become his special charge, and the experience of 
training and exhibiting the elephant opened up an exciting 
new world to him.— E. J. M. 



The Lost Gold Poke 

by Lee Martinsen 

Through Indian country, mountains, deserts, 
swampy valleys, and narrow, rugged canyons where 
danger dogged every hard-earned step of himself and 
his weary mules— that was the life of a freighter back 
in the 'seventies and 'eighties. And my father, Bill 
Martinsen, had a good route— from Salt Lake City 
to Butte, Montana, with two heavy wagons in the 
spring; then to Canada, and return to Salt Lake City 
by the dead cold of winter. 

But this once when Bill returned to Butte from 
Canada, snow was already falling in what was surely 
to be an early hard winter. He knew he must travel 
faster than his heavy freight wagons could go if he 
were to get home to Salt Lake City before the trails 
were closed by drifts and ice. 

Bill sold his freight outfit in bustling Butte, buying 
a light wagon and a good team of horses, and was on 
his way home. He now carried about twenty-five 
hundred dollars in gold dust— a sizable poke— which 
was his profit for the northward trip, plus what he 
received from his freight outfit. 

Traveling south as fast as his team could stand the 
heavy going, he pulled into Beaver Canyon, a deep 
gorge on the Idaho side of the divide, just as the sun 
was setting in the early winter evening. He had to 
make camp soon for the night. He knew a familiar 
campsite up ahead, and drove toward it. But he was 
surprised to find six men already on those camp- 

There was plenty of room for him, but to Bill's 
observing eye those campers were pretty rough- 
looking. The first thing Bill thought about were the 
chances of being robbed of his gold, his outfit, and 
even his life. 

It was dark in the canyon now and too dangerous 
to drive on, so he camped near to the six men and 
their wagon. Where was some place to hide his poke? 
Going about his chores, he decided to bury the gold. 
He found a mound of dirt by a hole of a rodent, and 
buried his poke, being careful to cover it over again. 
He retired feeling better about the night ahead, wak- 
ing in the morning to find his strange neighbors for 
the night almost ready to break camp. 

"Hurry up and get ready," they called in a friendly 
manner. "We'd better travel together in this weather. 
We can help each other out." 

But Bill called: "Thanks, just the same. You go on. 
I've got to tighten a shoe for one of the horses." 

(It was just an excuse— he wanted privacy in travel- 
ing with that gold poke.) 

The six men left moments later, waving good-bye 
and good naturedly telling him not to delay too long 
in that weather. 

Bill started his morning chores, feeding his team, 
eating breakfast himself, then loading his gear on the 
wagon, not hurrying in order to give the men a big 
start before he went for his gold. When he did, it 
was gone! His summer of hard work plus the value 
of six mules and two freight wagons were gone. He 
tore at the mound with his hands, flattening it, but 
the gold just wasn't there! 

What would his family do through a hard, cold 
winter? Where and how would he get another start 
as a freighter? Those thieves! He would catch those 
men and get his gold back or die in the attempt! 

But in taking another look at his own campsite, he 
knew that it couldn't have been they. There were no 
tracks in the snow except his own near the mound or 
between the two campsites. They couldn't have taken 
his gold; but what happened to it? 

Bill took a shovel and started digging into the dirt 
mound. Frantically he dug for about five hours, 
following the hole as it twisted and turned in the 
earth. About ten feet from the starting place and 
five feet deep, he found his precious gold intact. The 
inquisitive little animal had dragged the gold poke 
into his den. 

All this happened before I "was born. As a man I 
retraced that freight route with my father, Bill 
Martinsen. Standing in Beaver Canyon, this pioneer 
of rawhide and spring steel pointed out the site of 
the mound, and brushing a tear from his seventy-year- 
old eyes, finished the story with: "My son, this was the 
best lesson of my life. Never, under any circum- 
stances, accuse anyone of dishonesty unless you have 
positive proof of your accusation." 



Leadership Development 

The Three Fs 

by Sterling W. Sill 
Assistant to the Council of the Twelve 

One of the first steps toward any accomplishment 
is to find out what the problem involved in that 
accomplishment is. Effective leadership in or out 
of the Church, must know the goal to be reached and 
the difficulties that must be overcome. In Church 
work we need to know why some people are not "on 
schedule" for the celestial kingdom and what to do 
about it. Effective treatment must always be pre- 
ceded by an accurate diagnosis. We should therefore 
ask ourselves, what are the sins that make people 
lose their blessings? 

The Lord has made it clear that the two most 
grievous sins are: first, the sin against the Holy 
Ghost, and second, the shedding of innocent blood. 
Now suppose that we figure out what percentage of 
the people in our particular ward or stake will be 
kept out of the celestial kingdom because of these 
two most serious sins. Fortunately we would find the 
percentage to be very small. Yet we know that ". . . 

wide is the gate, and broad the way, that leadeth 
unto destruction, and many there be which go in 
thereat." (Matt. 7:13.) That is, a very large per- 
centage of people disqualify themselves for the 
celestial kingdom for other reasons. We must know 
what those reasons are if we plan to give effective 

We all know about the subheadings of learning 
called "The Three R's." But how much do we know 
about the subheadings of sin called "The Three I's?" 
The Three I's are particularly dangerous because they 
are usually regarded as "the little sins." Yet they 
undoubtedly cause more people to lose their exalta- 
tion than all of the other sins combined. That is, "it 
is not the giant redwoods that trip us up as we walk 
through the forest; it is the vines and the underbrush." 
In fact, the three I's might appropriately qualify 
among the sins as "The Big Three." They are: 
Ignorance, Indecision, and Indifference. 




To become a son of perdition, one must sin 
against great knowledge. That is the sin of the 
greatest enormity. But the sin of the greatest fre- 
quency is ignorance— that is not to know in the first 
place. The religion of Jesus has always suffered more 
from those who did not understand than from those 
who opposed. It is largely our ignorance that stands 
between us and our blessings. 

Upon the cross Jesus said, "Father, forgive them; 
for they know not what they do. . . ." (Luke 23:34.) 
The sin of the Jews was the sin of ignorance. They 
didn't understand. Pilate didn't know the real iden- 
tity or importance of this young peasant carpenter 
who was standing before him. But why didn't he 
know? There is only one logical answer, and that 
is that he had not invested the time nor the honest 
effort necessary to find the truth. Pilate could have 
found out who Jesus was if he had made an earnest 
and adequate investigation. For "they never sought 
in vain who sought the Lord aright." They only fail 
to find who fail to seek. 

Almost all of the sins in the world are in one way 
or another the sins of ignorance. This was true in 
the days of Noah; it was true in the days of Jesus; 
it is true in our own day. The young man who dis- 
obeys the ten commandments doesn't really under- 
stand what he is doing. The young woman who fails 
to develop her spirituality by not obeying the word 
of the Lord doesn't know what she is doing, nor does 
she realize what the consequences are going to be. 
Some sins may be forgiven, but who can forgive us 
our ignorance? 

There is an old fable that tells of a horse that once 
ran away from its master. Then the horse repented 
and returned and said to its master, "I have come 
back." The master said, "Yes, you have come back, 
but the field is unplowed." It is very difficult to 
repent of unplowed ground, and it is very difficult 
to repent of lessons not learned and self-improve- 
ment not made. To dispel ignorance is one of the 
great challenges to those who have Church leader- 
ship responsibilities. 


The second "I" is indecision. Some sins are com- 
mitted because 'we do wrong; other sins are 
committed because we do nothing. Some people 
just don't make up their minds one way or the other. 
In consequence, they develop a kind of permanently 

"suspended judgment." Ancient Israel had this 
problem. Elijah said to them, ". . . how long halt 
ye between two opinions? if the Lord be God, follow 
him: but if Baal, then follow him." (I Kings 18:21.) 
In other words, Elijah said, "Make up your minds," 
But the record says, "And the people answered him 
not a word." (Idem.) That is the pattern of most 
indecision. We just don't move, one way or the 
other. Our minds are left dangling between choices. 

Procrastination is a part of indecision. When we 
can't or won't make up our minds we just postpone 
action, sometimes permanently. Just think how many 
people lose their blessings because of procrastination. 
So far as frequency is concerned, procrastination is 
a far greater sin than murder. No one would de- 
liberately choose to miss the celestial kingdom, but 
exactly the same result can be achieved by just a 
series of postponements, until our will gets weak and 
our interest dies. Everyone wants to go to the 
celestial kingdom sometime; they just don't want to 
go right now. 

Recently a mission president talked with an eighty- 
nine-year-old investigator who kept putting off join- 
ing the Church. The mission president said, "Do you 
believe the gospel is true?" The investigator said, 
"I know it is true as well as you do." The president 
said, "Do you believe that Joseph Smith was a 
prophet?" The investigator said, "I know that as 
well as you do." The mission president said, "Then 
why aren't you baptized?" The investigator said, 
"Don't rush me. I'll let you know when I'm ready." 
He is already eighty-nine. Think of the blessings he 
has lost by procrastination. 

After too much procrastination and vacillation, 
some actually lose the power to make a decision. I 
know of one man whose mind is so perfectly bal- 
anced between the positive and the negative that 
he has great difficulty getting an opinion either one 
way or the other. His mind resembles a teeter-totter 
in perfect balance. There is as much weight pressing 
down on one side as on the other. He has difficulty 
getting enough of a majority on either side to get 
a conviction. Another man just about wears himself 
out every morning trying to make up his mind 
whether or not he is going to shave. He rubs his 
chin and makes up such a perfect mental balance 
sheet of pros and cons that his mind locks in neutral. 

This same infirmity holds some of us back in our 
Church work. We have difficulties making firm de- 
cisions about things. There are some people who 
haven't made up their ( Continued on page 879 ) 



Conducted by 

the Unified 

Church School System 

Qt>*>A> 'Jt^cJl^A^ 

<64,*4h \J\^X^JLA^it' 

The title of this article implies that good discipline 
is a matter of good teaching. Although the implica- 
tion is not entirely justified, it does have much basis 
in fact. It is not that the good teacher has no behavior 
problems or potential disturbances, but the good 
teacher has learned and applied preventive techniques 
and proper corrective measures which minimize 
breaches of acceptable conduct. 

Successful discipline must take into account three 
basic factors: first, what good discipline is; second, 
what the causes of disciplinary problems are; third, 
corrective procedures that can be followed. 

Good Discipline 

One definition of discipline is, "Control gained by 
enforcing obedience or order." Actually as many 
definitions exist, as do different schools of thought 
as to what constitutes proper classroom control. 
Views on the subject range from complete autocratic 
control by the teacher (typical in schools a century 
ago) to some modern liberalists who allow complete 
freedom and expression. The latter approach leaves 
control largely to the group of students with guidance 
by the teacher in imposing needed restrictions on 

In teaching, then, discipline can be considered as 

the control of normal and abnormal behavior. How 
this control is achieved will depend in large part on 
the personality of the teacher. In most classrooms 
today, desirable control exists where students are 
properly motivated to perform the tasks of learning 
and do so in relaxed, friendly atmosphere. Hence, 
good discipline becomes basically a matter of interest- 
ing both the individual and the group on the group 
level. Normal problems of misbehavior are at a 
minimum when a class is properly motivated. How- 
ever, abnormal behavior problems may still exist and 
often need careful attention or even help from agen- 
cies outside the classroom or school. 

In order to operate an effective and rightful con- 
trol, the good teacher must first be aware of the pos- 
sible causes of poor conduct before he can either 
prevent or correct it. The two basic roots of discipli- 
nary problems are those caused by the teacher and 
those caused by the students. 

Problems Caused by Teachers 

Violation of the rules of conduct are usually at- 
tributed to students, but students are not always the 
basic problem. Many times, in instances where stu- 
dent conduct seems at fault, the problem can be 
traced to some weakness in the instructor or his 



methods. Disciplinary problems caused by teachers 
usually fall into two basic classifications— lack of social 
skills and lack of teaching skills. 

Lack of social skills. Many problems arise in this 
area because of the teacher's being guilty of any or a 
combination of the following: embarrassing a student 
in front of his peers, being rude or impolite, being 
too stern, playing favorites, being inconsistent, failing 
to hold sacred that which a student has privately 
confided to the teacher, being unaware or failing 
to give consideration to students with handicaps, 
ignoring or treating lightly reasonable requests or 
questions by the students, being moody, allowing 
over -familiarity with students (being one with them 
but not one of them ) . 

Lack of teaching skills. Some common failures of 
teachers in the areas which breed disciplinary prob- 

by Don F. Colvin 

Seminary Instructor 

South High, Salt Lake City 

lems are: lacking in preparation and organization; 
lacking variety in methods; making assignments too 
difficult, too easy, or too ambiguous; failing to insure 
the comfort of students (heating, lighting, ventilation, 
and so forth); being too easily swayed or taken off 
the subject by student pressures; testing of subject 
materials not covered by the class; failing to make 
clear the learning procedures to be followed; spend- 
ing time out of the classroom; lacking any democratic 
approaches to learning. 

Problems Caused by Students 

The disciplinary problems caused by students gen- 
erally fall into three classifications: 

(a) Relationship of students with other students. 
Behavioral problems arising here are as follows: 
cheating on examinations or assignments, not passing, 
flirting, noisy conversing, the disliking of others in 
the classroom, and developing of cliques and so forth. 

(b) Relationship of students to school activities. 
The teacher must be aware of and sensitive to some 
of the following situations which, if not handled 
properly, can cause real disciplinary problems: the 
last few days of school; the days just before a holiday 
or vacation period; the period following pep rallies 
or assemblies; events such ( Continued on page 877) 



Melchizedek Priesthood 

■.■■ y. ■,.;:> .... y . ■■£££%. 


Priesthood Quorums 

in the Missionary Cause 

What part should Melchizedek Priesthood quorums 
play in carrying forward the organized missionary 
work of the Church? 

True, every member of the Church— male or fe- 
male, priesthood bearer or not— is under solemn 
covenant, made in the waters of baptism, to spread 
the message of the restoration and to take every hon- 
orable opportunity to tell our Father's other children 
about the plan of salvation. This is a personal obli- 
gation; it is carried on in addition to the organized 
missionary enterprises of the Church. 

•But what part should the priesthood quorums as 
such play in spreading the gospel? Are they doing 
all they can where the formal and organized mission- 
ary work of the kingdom is concerned? 

Here are some concrete suggestions: 

1. Missionary Training Program 

Please read pages 23 and 24 of the Melchizedek 
Priesthood Handbook. Note that one of the three 
great duties resting upon the Church is "to teach the 
gospel to those who have not yet heard it or accepted 
it." Note that priesthood quorums are organized to 
aid in carrying on the responsibilities resting upon 
the Church; and then note that the first of four ob- 
jectives which these quorums have is to aid their 
members "to become better acquainted, through care- 
ful study, with the doctrines of the gospel and their 
application to life." 

There is a woeful lack of real gospel scholarship 
among priesthood holders. Counsel such as, "Search 
these commandments" (D & C 1:37), though falling 
from the lips of Deity, has not been obeyed as fully 

as becometh those who serve as the Lord's agents. 
Too few of our brethren are "ready always to give an 
answer to every man that asketh you a reason of the 
hope that is in you." (I Pet. 3:15.) 

With special reference to the proselyting work, and 
in addition to the regularly scheduled lesson material, 
priesthood quorums should train their members in 
presenting the lessons in the standard missionary 
plan. Returned missionaries who are familiar with 
these lessons could be used to good advantage in 
teaching them. It is recommended, for instance, that 
elders quorums hold regular cottage meetings with 
their own inactive brethren and that they teach these 
brethren the lessons in the regular missionary plan. 

It would also be an excellent thing if all quorum 
members would read and gain a working knowledge 
of all of the proselyting literature of the Church. 
Stake mission presidents will be happy to make tracts 
available for this purpose. 

2. Actual Missionary Service 

An increasing number of quorum members should 
qualify themselves to serve as missionaries and 
should arrange their affairs so they can serve on stake 
and foreign mission assignments. This obligation to 
serve as full or part-time missionaries rests upon 
elders, seventies, and high priests. 

As a matter of fact, all of the young brethren called 
into the foreign missionary service may well go out 
as elders rather than as seventies. The effect of this 
policy is to return zealous and enthusiastic mission- 
aries to their homes for service in elders quorums 
where their talents are needed more than they would 



be in high priests or seventies quorums. Further, 
young returned missionaries are benefited by such a 
policy because of the opportunities for priesthood 
service in elders quorums which would not in prac- 
tice be available to them if they were seventies or 
high priests. 

Many older and more mature brethren and their 
wives, who do not have family obligations to keep 
them at home, might well be called to serve six 
months or more in the full-time missions. There is 
a great need in many missions for the services of 
experienced couples who can both do active prose- 
lyting work and become great pillars of strength in 
small mission branches. 

3. Financial Help for Families of Missionaries 

Priesthood quorums should give financial assist- 
ance to the families of missionaries in cases where 
such is needed. Such a practice will, of course, 
mean that greater numbers of brethren will be avail- 
able for short or full-term foreign missions, and it is 
in conformity with the revealed word. 

". . . thus saith the Lord unto you, O ye elders of 
my church, . . . 

". . . it is the duty of the church to assist in support- 
ing the families of those, and also to support the 
families of those who are called and must needs be 
sent unto the world to proclaim the gospel unto the 

"Wherefore, I, the Lord, give unto you this com- 
mandment, that ye obtain places for your families, 
inasmuch as your brethren are willing to open their 

"And let all such as can obtain places for their 
families, and support of the church for them, not fail 
to go into the world. . . . 

"And again, verily I say unto you, that every man 
who is obliged to provide for his own family, let him 
provide, and he shall in nowise lose his crown; and 
let him labor in the church. 

"Let every man be diligent in all things. And the 
idler shall not have place in the church, except he 
repent and mend his ways." (D & C 75:23-26, 28-29.) 

Such was the command in 1832; and such is the 
principle both then and now. True, the Lord is not 
now calling brethren to make the great financial sac- 
rifices in connection with spreading the gospel that 
he called them to make in the early days. But none- 
theless there are many more of our priesthood 
brethren who could go on missions, particularly if 
their quorums would give partial assistance to the 
family at home, as for instance in planting or harvest- 
ing crops. 

4. Quorum Missionary Funds 

Every Melchizedek Priesthood quorum should col- 
lect and disburse substantial amounts of money 
through a quorum missionary fund. This should be a 
separate account from the general funds of the quo- 
rum, and it should be administered on a quorum and 
not a group basis. Groups having missionary or other 
funds are expected to turn them in to the quorum for 
use and replenishment. 

Full-time missionaries should never be supported by 
quorums or others than their immediate family, ex- 
cept to the extent absolutely necessary in the indi- 
vidual case. Individuals and families are expected 
to make whatever sacrifice is consistent with reason 
and good judgment to send their own relatives on 
missions. But there are many people in the Church 
who are otherwise worthy and qualified, who never 
could have the joy of (Continued on page 862) 



The Presiding 

Bishopric 's 



While we are still receiving a few belated applica- 
tions for awards for last year, the records are so 
nearly complete as to justify their publication at this 

While there has not been an increase in the num- 
ber of stake awards issued, this is not disturbing be- 
cause we cannot complete this feature in our program 
until the very last— after we have heard from all of 
the wards. There will yet be a substantial increase in 
the number of stake awards issued for last year. 

The records to September 1 indicate that the follow- 
ing numbers of awards and attendance seals were 
approved for 1957. We publish a comparison with 
the total issued last year for 1956: 


Issued to 

Last Year 

and Seals 

Sept. 1, 1958 


Stake Awards 



Ward Awards 



100% Seals 



95% Seals 



90% Seals 



Individual Awards 













Our award records for 1958 are nearly completed. 
In the little time remaining until December 31, stake 
and ward leaders in the program for Aaronic Priest- 
hood under 21 are respectfully urged to check every 
young man's record and, wherever possible, help him 
to overcome any lag which may keep him from receiv- 
ing the individual award for 1958. 

Calvin Jensen 

Glade Perry 

Evan L. Echols 


Calvin is a priest in the Boise Sixth Ward, Boise (Idaho) 
Stake, and has earned five individual Aaronic Priesthood awards 
in as many years. He was recently elected president of the 
National Council of Hi-Y and Tri-Hi-Y organizations of high 
school students devoted to extending the high standards of 
Christian character in home, school, and community. Calvin's 
stated goal is "To promote higher ideals in the hearts and 
minds of American youth." 


Glade is a priest in the Pleasant View Second Ward, East 
Sharon (Utah) Stake. He has attended all priesthood and 
Sacrament meetings in his ward for four years; was president 
of the deacons quorum;, has earned the Duty to God Award; 
is a ward teacher; and has recently received his Eagle Scout 


Evan is a priest in the Gilbert Ward, East Mesa (Arizona) 
Stake, and has established the exemplary record of perfect 
attendance at priesthood meeting, Sacrament meeting, and 
Sunday School since he was ordained a deacon nearly seven 
years ago. Evan is the son of Charles and Evalyn Echols. 




The primary purpose for attending Sacrament 
meeting is to partake of the Sacrament. For this reason 
this meeting has been designated as Sacrament meet- 
ing. Despite the clarity of two revelations given in 
this dispensation instructing the members of the 
Church to go to the house of the Lord on the Sabbath 
day, there are those who believe if they attend Sunday 
school and partake of the Sacrament, they are under 
no obligation to attend this meeting. 

The Lord first mentioned partaking of the Sacra- 
ment in this dispensation when he gave to the Prophet 
Joseph Smith the revelation on Church government. 
On that occasion he said, 

"It is expedient that the church meet together often 
to partake of bread and wine in the remembrance of 
the Lord Jesus." (D & C 20:75.) 

Later when emphasizing the sanctity of the Sab- 
bath day, he instructed the Saints to go to the house 
of prayer on this day to offer up their sacraments. 
(Ibid., 59:9.) The first of the foregoing revelations 
was given sometime in April prior to the organization 
of the Church, April 6, 1830. Sixteen months later, 
August 7, 1831, the second revelation was given. 

Since the first Sunday School was not held until 
December 9, 1849, there can be no doubt that the Lord 
was referring to Sacrament meeting and not to Sunday 
School in both of the revelations referred to. Sacra- 
ment meeting, therefore, is the official meeting of the 
Church. While Sunday School is a wonderful meet- 
ing, it does not in any way take the place of Sacrament 
meeting. There is no reason for confusion in this 
matter. All members of the Church are under obliga- 
tion to attend Sacrament meeting each week. 


The Spirit of Christmas 

The Christian world is once again preparing to 
commemorate the birth of Christ. The message of 
"Peace on earth, good will toward men" will be re- 
emphasized. While we are at peace, it must be 
acknowledged, that it has not come to us in the spirit 
of peace, but because the power of some nations to 
make war has been completely dissipated, and other 
nations are held in check because of the power of 
their enemies. The peace that we enjoy has come as 

a result of force rather than of goodwill. Prejudice, 
hate, and jealousy are still deep-seated. Secretly 
burning in the hearts of the leaders of some nations 
are the desires for revenge. 

Permanent and satisfactory peace depends upon 
whether nations shall effect a peace built upon justice, 
equality, and fairness for all. Those who dictate the 
terms of peace should have in their hearts the spirit 
of peace, and this is determined largely by the attitude 
and desires of the people whom they represent. We 
are willing to talk about our ideals, let us be willing 
to live by them. We can best let our influence for 
peace be felt by living in peace and harmony with our 
families and our neighbors. 

For all of us at this Christmas season, there should 
be a revaluation of all fundamental Christian prin- 
ciples, with the resolution to incorporate in our lives 
those things we need most. Let us determine to give 
those gifts which Christ gave. It was said of him, "he 
went about doing good." This is within the reach of all 
of us, and in so doing there will be found a place for 
each of us in the hearts of our fellow men. Let us not 
try to take more from life than we give. Before in- 
dulging in luxury let us think of those who may lack 
even the necessities. When we give of our material 
substance, let us do so with our full love, that our 
hearts may expand through giving. 

While we are giving, here are a few suggestions 
which will enrich both the giver and the receiver: 
love, affection, sympathy, understanding, courage to 
the fearful, tolerance to the erring, and strength to the 
weak. Remember that one kind word may send our 
neighbor in quest of a better life. These are gifts we 
can give each day, and by being generous we bring 
love to our homes, peace to neighbors and to our 
nation, and joy to our Father in heaven. Peace for 
the world rests upon the practise of these Christian 
fundamentals in our daily lives. 


Our Book Of Life 

As we begin another new year, it is a good time to 
look back over the progress of the past year. This one 
thought we should keep fixed in our minds— there are 
no second editions of the book' of life. The pages are 
written as we live them. There will be no revisions 
except as we may make them by living better today 
than we did yesterday. Only in this way can we 
improve our book of life. 



Through the Eyes of Youth 


Wickedness never Was Happiness 


By John Harmer 

One night, about a year and a half ago, I stood in 
the midst of a great crowd of people, a people that 
were seeking happiness through wickedness on New 
Year's Eve. These people were seeking happiness 
through drinking, through loud laughter, through 
other sensuous ways, and as I watched them I felt 
in my heart a great pity and a great love for them. 
I knew these people. Each day I had entered their 
homes, and I had testified to them of the gospel of 
Jesus Christ, and I knew that for the most part they 
were not a happy people. They had decayed spirit- 
ually, and they were dying because they had turned 
away from the commandments and the laws of God. 

As I watched them I realized that they would 
never find true happiness so long as they sought it in 
ways contrary to the will of God. In the army I had 
occasion to associate with a large number of men 
who were never going to learn to realize that wicked- 
ness is not and cannot be happiness. I remember 
especially one young man who continually chided 
me for my refusal to go with the boys on their "happy" 
night out. I remember, too, when he broke out with 
great open sores on his arm and his face, mute evi- 
dence of the venereal disease that was eating away 
his body, and the look on his face then was not one 
of happiness. 

What is wickedness? 

What is wickedness? It is the disobedient act. The 
young person who finds himself or herself in trouble 
or in a sad situation in life can usually check back 
and find it is because of having disobeyed the will of 
God. For wickedness is disobedience, and the result 
of disobedience is unhappiness, and it is just as true 
that righteousness is obedience, and the result of 
righteousness and obedience is true happiness. 

What is happiness then? Do you remember the 
Lord telling the Prophet Joseph Smith these words: 
"But learn that he who doeth the works of righteous- 
ness shall receive his reward, even peace in this world, 
and eternal life in the world to come." (D & C 59:23.) 
And so we are promised that happiness is peace, and 
what is this peace? Is it mere rest from toil? Is it 

escaping our responsibilities? No, this is not peace! 
Peace is a deep and rich possession. It is not be- 
cause we have material abundance that we have 
happiness. It is not because of some superficial 
pleasure, because of some outward experience, that 
God grants us peace. But peace and happiness are 
vibrant and joyful possessions of the inner being. 
It was this peace that the Prophet Joseph felt when 
he went from Nauvoo to Carthage, even as a lamb to 
the slaughter. It was this peace that filled a pioneer 
father as he entered Salt Lake Valley, having left 
on the long trail from Illinois, a wife and three chil- 
dren buried in unknown graves. It was this same 
peace that filled the Savior as he stood after prayer in 
Gethsemane, and faced with calm assurance the most 
terrifying experience that has ever befallen any in- 
dividual in the history of the world. 

Because they obeyed 

Is there anyone so foolish as to believe that such 
peace, such eternal happiness as filled their hearts 
was the result of some dissipating act? It was theirs 
because they had obeyed, because true peace and true 
happiness is the result of righteousness, and righteous- 
ness only. The great Greek poet Horace wrote these 
words: "Reason and sense remove anxiety, not houses 
that look out over the sea. Why should we move to 
find climates and countries of another kind, for what 
exile can leave himself behind?" 

As young people we face the most challenging 
period in the history of the world, and if, as the youth 
of Zion, we could learn one lesson today, would it 
not be to learn what is true happiness, how to 
attain it, how to keep it? Suppose our material pos- 
sessions were taken from us, what would be the 
source of our happiness then? If we have been wise, 
our happiness will still be ours because it will be 
within. It will have been the peace that God promised 
those who serve him in righteousness. 

One may ask, is there a formula for gaining such 
happiness? Perhaps there is. For myself I have chosen 
three statements by the Savior as guideposts along 
my pathway to try to find (Continued on page 883) 



In all gospel dispensations, the Lord has raised up 
great prophets to direct his work upon the earth. Nine 
men have thus been chosen in the "latter days." Each 
has been especially qualified and trained to accomplish 
the tasks required. All have devoted, without qualifica- 
tion, their lives to the service of God and his people, and 
God has walked with them all their days. These are the 
"prophets, seers, and revelators" of the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-day Saints. In word and full-color pic- 
ture The Improvement Era presents in the pages that 
follow these nine men who have served as 

The nine oil portraits reproduced herein were painted especially for 
the Los Angeles Temple. The artists who painted the pictures upon assign- 
ment from the Church are: Edward T. Grigware (The Prophet Joseph 
Smith and President Brigham Young); Harris Weberg (Presidents John 
Taylor, Wilford Woodruff, and Lorenzo Snow); Alvin Gittins (Presidents 
Joseph F. Smith, Heber J. Grant, George Albert Smith, and David O. 
McKay.) The written word is by Elder Gordon T. Alfred, with assistance 
from other members of The Improvement Era staff. 

Joseph Smith, the 
Prophet of the restora- 
tion, born December 23, 
1805 at Sharon, Vermont; 
first vision, spring 1820; 
received Melchizedek 
Priesthood 1829; organ- 
ized the Church April 6, 
1830; sustained January 
25, 1832 as President of 
the High Priesthood; 
martyred June 27, 1844, 
Carthage, Illinois. 

A lofty polished granite shaft in the Green 
Hills of Vermont and an aging headstone on 
a hill overlooking the Mississippi River in Nau- 
voo, Illinois, mark the birthplace and burial 
place of Joseph Smith, Jr. Between these two 
monuments, and encompassed in a short life 
of less than four decades, is crowded such a 
multitude of momentous events, impressive expe- 
riences, and great deeds, that it seems incredible 
that they could have happened to one individual 
in such a short period of time. 

But happen they did, and to Joseph Smith, the 
American Prophet! 

This was the man who Josiah Quincy, Mayor 
of Boston, predicted in 1844 might be named by 
future generations as the historical American of 
the nineteenth century who has exerted the most 
powerful influence upon the destinies of his 

While still a boy of fourteen Joseph Smith 
was visited by God the Father, and by his Son, 
Jesus Christ, and told of the work he had been 
chosen to do. Eight years of schooling followed, 
during which time he was visited eight times 
by a heavenly messenger. This left but sixteen 
years of his earthly life. 

In those sixteen years he translated the Book 
of Mormon from ancient inscriptions on gold 
plates; received revelations from heaven which 
fill a 250 page book (the Doctrine and Cove- 
nants), and part of another (the Book of Moses 
in the Pearl of Great Price); translated some 
writings of Abraham from one ancient record; 
wrote a 3200 page history of himself and the 
Church; and was visited and given instructions 
and authority by the Savior, John the Baptist, 
Peter, James and John, Moses, Elias, and Elijah. 

All this added up to a restoration of the gos- 
pel, which in turn brought answers to the major 

questions of humanity— the true nature of God 
and the Godhead, the truth about pre-earth 
life and the creation of the world, the purpose 
of mortality and the destiny of man, the mis- 
sion of Jesus Christ, the true meaning of the 
atonement and resurrection, and the nature of 
eternity and eternal progression. In addition, 
out of revelation came new truths concerning 
the sacredness and eternal nature of the family 
and marriage, freedom and free agency, a happy 
society, the importance of education, and the 
necessity of work for the dead. 

During these same years he organized the 
Church, set up an extensive missionary system, 
built one temple and started another, built the 
largest city in Illinois and became its mayor, 
established a model city government, headed a 
military organization, was a candidate for Presi- 
dent of the United States, and planned the 
westward migration of the Saints. 

All this, and much more, he did in the face 
of great adversity and relentless persecution. 
Some forty-seven times he was arrested on false 
charges and spent long months in jail. He sub- 
mitted voluntarily to arrest on June 24, 1844, 
which he knew would be his last. Three days 
later a lawless mob brutally murdered him. 

The Prophet was dead, but the true test of 
his divinity was just beginning. Could the com- 
bined forces of evil destroy the Church he had 
established, the work he had started? 

Fewer than 130 years have passed since the 
Church was established, yet it has grown to a 
million-and-a-half members, with world-wide 
recognition and influence. More and more peo- 
ple are recognizing the Prophet Joseph Smith's 
greatness, and proclaiming his divinity. The 
prediction of Mayor Quincy will yet come to 




President B r i g h a m 
Young, born June 1, 1801, 
at Whitingham, Ver- 
mont; ordained an apos- 
tle February 14, 1835; 
President of the Council 
of the Twelve at the 
death of the Prophet 
Joseph Smith; sustained 
as President of the 
Church, December 27, 
1847, Winter Quarters, 
Nebraska; died August 
29, 1877, Salt Lake City. 

"""Mp** * B B|iy' 

One fall evening in 1832, a man named Joseph 
Smith uttered a prophecy. "The time will 
come," he assured an earnest group of brethren, 
"when Brigham Young will preside over this 
Church." The prophecy seems especially sig- 
nificant, since Joseph Smith and Brigham Young 
had met for the first time that very day. 

The thirty-one-year-old Brigham Young, how- 
ever, was unaware of this prediction at the time, 
unaware that it would be fulfilled in twelve 
years following the martyrdom at Carthage and 
the persecution at Nauvoo. Of this he was 
aware: that Joseph Smith was a prophet, called 
of God to restore the everlasting gospel. 

Brigham Young had followed a rugged path 
from his birth in 1801, in Vermont, to the gate of 
baptism in the true Church. Back along that 
path, he had received the guidance and love of 
a spiritually-minded mother, Abigail Howe 
Young, and of a righteous father, John Young, 
a soldier of the Revolutionary War. He had 
known the association of ten brothers and sisters, 
some of whom later accepted the gospel. Along 
that path, when he was only fourteen, his mother 
died, and the entire Young family was dispersed, 
"farmed out." He made his way alone from 
then on, becoming at twenty-two a carpenter 
on the Erie Canal. Shortly thereafter he mar- 
ried Miriam Works. 

It was several years later that he heard of 
the "gold bible," and the Mormons, at Mendon, 
New York. Mendon was a landmark. There, 
on April 14, 1832, he was baptized and ordained 
an elder. September of that year brought his 
first visit with the Prophet in Kirtland, and the 
portentous prophecy. 

Following this historic meeting, the Smith- 
Young friendship flourished, and within only 
three years, February 1835, Elder Young was 
ordained an apostle. Later, with the Prophet he 
fled by night to Far West, Missouri, and then 
went on alone to Nauvoo, Illinois, where he 
strove to protect the Saints from mob ravage. 

In April 1839, Brigham Young, so sick he 
could scarcely stand, left his poverty-stricken 
family for a mission to England. There, in 
slightly over a year, he and other members of 
the Twelve baptized between seven and eight 
thousand converts. 

Following the martyrdom, on August 7, 1844, 
Elder Young assumed leadership of God's 
Church on earth, and three years later, was 
ordained its President. 

To people within and without the Church, the 
story of the Mormon pioneers is legend— their 
flight from Nauvoo during the blasts of an 1846 
winter, their back-breaking grind across a conti- 
nent, fraught with sickness, death, and innu- 
merable dangers. The march of the Mormon 
Battalion, is remembered as a part of those 

Brigham Young's pronouncement upon view- 
ing the vast valley and the Great Salt Lake 
beyond, July 24, 1847, is readily quoted by both 
Mormon children and adults: "This is the 

When in 1850, Utah was made a territory, 
Brigham Young became governor, and the fol- 
lowing years though arduous, were ones of 
growth. The Salt Lake Temple was begun and 
additional colonies started. During a span of 
thirty years, President Young directed the spir- 
itual upbuilding of God's Kingdom, pioneered 
the unmapped wilderness, built temples, a tab- 
ernacle, a theater, roads, railways, established 
irrigation in the Rockies, and colonized some two 
hundred settlements with over 100,000 in- 

Following a brief illness, on August 29, 1877, 
the Church's second President died. A moment 
before his passing, like Stephen of old, he stared 
"steadfastly into heaven," and seemed to have 
glimpsed someone waiting. "J 0Se P n > Joseph, 
Joseph," came the final words. Brigham Young 
upheld the confidence. He had fulfilled his 

■■.:■■'■■■.' ' .'-' ''. . 



President John Taylor, 
born November 1, 1808, 
at Milnthorpe, England; 
joined the Church in 
Canada; ordained an 
apostle December 19, 
1838; with the Prophet 
Joseph at martyrdom; 
sustained President of the 
Church October 10, 1880; 
died July 25, 1887, Kays- 
ville, Utah. 

J ay "TBT ""W? 

ohn Taylor 

At sixteen minutes and twenty-six seconds 
past five p.m., June 27, 1844, a shot was fired 
which may have saved a life, and helped deter- 
mine who would be the third President of the 
Church. On a torpid summer afternoon, violence 
exploded, and some of the Church's most dra- 
matic history was made. The place: Carthage 
Jail, Illinois; the event: the martyrdom of the 
Prophet Joseph Smith. 

There were four men in the jail's upper story 
when a mob closed in and began firing. One 
of the four had fallen wounded across a win- 
dow sill and was actually toppling out, when 
something hurled him back into the room. It 
was a lead ball, fired from outside, which struck 
a watch in his breastpocket. 

The man was John Taylor. When he was 
born November 1, 1808, in Milnthorpe, England, 
his parents, James and Agnes, would have been 
astounded and frightened had they foreseen the 
dramatic future awaiting him. Certainly his 
early years as a barrelmaker and a wood turner 
portended nothing of what was to come. 

Had it not been for his voyage to Canada at 
twenty-two, John Taylor might have plied the 
same obscure trade all his days. Possibly he 
never would have heard of a "curious" people 
called the "Mormons" nor they of him. 

Following John's marriage to Leonora Can- 
non in Toronto, Canada, he became interested 
in the missionary teachings of Elder Parley 
Pratt. An active but discontented Methodist, 
he began an assiduous examination of the re- 
stored gospel, and on May 9, 1836, both he and 
his wife were baptized. Shortly afterward, he 
was ordained an elder. 

From then on, the once placid Taylor life was 
altered, the changes coming at a rapid pace. A 
few months after his conversion, he was placed 
in charge of all the branches in upper Canada. 
A year later the Prophet called him to Kirtland, 
Ohio, and in 1838, he was ordained an apostle. 

Whether the tall, well-built Englishman had 
fully anticipated what lay in store, no one knows. 
Radically uprooted from a life of comparative 
solitude, he was suddenly cast into the fervid 
heat of persecution, weighed down with tre- 
mendous obligations. 

Shortly after arriving in America, the Taylor 
family fled to Illinois to escape mob violence. 
With scant time to settle, ill and threadbare, 
Elder Taylor prepared to leave on a mission for 
England with others of the twelve. Upon his 
return, having been blessed with great success, 
he undertook important journalistic pursuits for 
the Church, a job for which he was well suited. 
New Year's, 1844, saw John Taylor prosperous 
and happy. June of that same year found him 
critically wounded on the floor of Carthage 
Jail, four bullets in his body. But the Lord 
had plans for John Taylor. Even before his 
wounds had healed, he was meeting with the 
twelve, performing his labors as an apostle. 

In following years, he journeyed again to 
England, returned, and followed Brigham Young 
westward, leading a second band of pioneers 
with Parley P. Pratt. Then came missions to 
France and Germany, and the Eastern States. 
Twenty years of intense religious and civic 
activity followed in Utah, and on August 29, 
1877, at the death of Brigham Young, John 
Taylor as President of the Twelve began di- 
recting the activities of God's Church. He was 
sustained as President of the Church in October 

Between the time of his baptism and his pass- 
ing on July 25, 1887— forty-one years— John 
Taylor had given his entire soul to work of the 
kingdom, demonstrating his courage, selflessness, 
and love in countless ways— boldly facing rabid 
mobs, giving liberally of all he owned to those 
in need, and attacking every problem whether 
physical, mental, or spiritual with an almost 
awesome zeal. 

■.. ' ..., •• : ..... 

." . v: 

Wutord Woodruff 

President W i 1 f o r d 
Woodruff, born March 1, 
1807, at Avon, Connecti- 
cut; ordained an apostle, 
April 26, 1839; one of the 
Church's great missionary 
leaders; sustained Presi- 
dent of the Church April 
7, 1889; died September 
2, 1898, San Francisco, 

One wonders if the pages of history contain 
many accounts more incredible than the series 
of near tragedies that befell young Wilford 
Woodruff between his third and seventeenth 
birthdays. In separate accidents he fell into a 
caldron of scalding water and fell from the top 
of a barn; broke arms falling down stairs and 
from a lumber pile; narrowly escaped being 
gored by a bull and was kicked in the abdomen 
by an ox; broke a leg in a sawmill and another 
when thrown from a wild horse; was buried by 
an overturned load of hay and had to be rescued 
from thirty feet of water; was blinded in a snow- 
storm; split a foot open with an ax; and was 
attacked by a mad dog. And, in later years, 
he narrowly escaped being crushed by a falling 

Truly, it would seem that some power tried 
to prevent Wilford Woodruff from fulfilling his 
earthly calling. Conversely, it would also seem 
that a greater power did want him to; otherwise, 
he might never have survived. Strangely enough, 
Wilford Woodruff, who became the fourth 
President of the Church, lived to be ninety-one. 

Wilford Woodruff was born March 1, 1807, 
in Farmington (now Avon), Connecticut, the 
third son of Aphek and Beulah Woodruff. For 
twenty years this sturdy lad toiled with his hands, 
farming and working in a sawmilj. Along the 
way, he learned to read and write competently 
and familiarized himself with the Bible, his 
favorite book. 

It was at Richland, New York, in 1833 that 
he heard the gospel, was converted, and bap- 
tized in ice-choked waters on the final day 
of that year. That spring he met the Prophet 
Joseph and his brother Hyrum in Kirtland, Ohio. 

Swiftly to recognize and accept the Prophet 

for what he was, Wilford Woodruff now dedi- 
cated himself and all that he owned to the up- 
building of God's kingdom, and from thenceforth, 
for many years he was on the move, preaching 
the gospel. During his first mission in the 
Southern States, he was beset three times by 
mobs, and was even followed by wolves. 

Just one month after his marriage to Phoebe 
Carter, in 1837, he was off on an important 
mission to the northeast. During the following 
summer he received word from Missouri that 
the Lord had called him to the apostleship, and 
on April 26, 1839, he was thus ordained. 

Arriving with others in England in January 
1840, he found the field white and ready for 
harvest. After eight months' labor, eighteen 
hundred people were brought into the Church. 
Certainly, Wilford Woodruff is among the great- 
est missionaries the Church has ever known. 

Other missions followed, and in 1847, he ac- 
companied the first band of Saints westward, 
and heard Brigham Young proclaim, "This is 
the place." (It is his personal diary that has 
given us much of the history of the soul-stirring 
events of that period.) Once established in 
Utah, his labors became even more intense; 
touring outlying settlements, working on the 
temple, building dwellings, farming, placing his 
experience and drive behind the Church and 
civic projects. 

Following the death of John Taylor, Wilford 
Woodruff was sustained as President of the 
Church at the April 1889 conference. In April 
1893 he dedicated the Salt Lake Temple, having 
watched its development during its entire forty 
years of construction. 

President Woodruff died on September 2, 
1898 in San Francisco. 

President Lorenzo 
Snow, born April 3, 1814, 
at Mantua, Ohio; or- 
dained an apostle Febru- 
ary 12, 1849; sustained 
as President of the 
Church September 13, 
1898. In the three years 
of his presidency he re- 
converted the member- 
ship to the principle of 
tithing; died October 10, 
1901, Salt Lake City. 

On a mountainside above the city of Pied- 
mont, Italy, a young man knelt in prayer. 
There in the Alps, for six hours he humbly and 
stedfastly petitioned the Lord for the answer to 
a crucial question. When the long hours had 
terminated, he arose with an expression of 
radiant conviction, left the mountainside, and 
entered the home of a man named Grey. There 
he placed his hands upon the head of a dying 
child and pronounced a blessing. Almost in- 
stantly the child was healed, as God had prom- 
ised in answer to the prayer on the mountain- 
side. Through that manifestation of divine 
power, the gospel was introduced to Italy. 

Lorenzo Snow, then only thirty-six, had come 
a long way since his birth at Mantua, Ohio, 
April 3, 1814— not only geographically, but also 
physically, intellectually, and spiritually. He 
was an apostle of the true Church, valiant in the 
sight of his Heavenly Father. 

As in the case of his great predecessors, formal 
education was not easily come by for Lorenzo 
Snow, even though his thirst for learning was 
insatiable. It was while journeying to Oberlin 
College as a young man that he met Apostle 
David W. Patten and was stirred by his testi- 
mony. Later, when an older sister, Eliza R., 
invited him to meet the Prophet at Kirtland, he 
readily accepted. 

In June 1836, he entered the waters of baptism, 
but it was not until two or three weeks after 
his confirmation that the Holy Ghost was mani- 
fest in the manner he desired. When its pres- 
ence was truly felt, he was filled with an in- 
effable joy, a strengthening of testimony, and 
an overwhelming knowledge that "J esus Christ 
is the Son of God." 

With such a testimony, it was natural that 
Elder Snow should begin carrying the gospel to 
the world. In 1840, he was called to labor in 
England, where his efforts were greatly blessed. 
Following his return four years later, he was 

called to disseminate the Prophet's "Views of 
the Powers and Policy of the Government of 
the United States," to the people of Ohio. 

February 12, 1849, Lorenzo was asked to at- 
tend a meeting of the Council of the Twelve, in 
Salt Lake City, and was nearly overwhelmed to 
learn that he had been selected as an apostle. 
In October of that year he began a mission to 
Italy, and while journeying across the plains 
to embark from New York, Elder Snow and his 
companions experienced some of the most re- 
markable manifestations of God's power ever 

Although deep snows covered the plains, the 
wind continually swept a path before them. 
Once an Indian war party of two hundred 
rushed upon the small band of elders, intent 
on destroying them, only to be abruptly halted, 
"as an avalanche sweeping down the mountain- 
side, stops in the midst of its course by a hand 
unseen." When they arrived at the Missouri 
River, "her waters immediately congealed [froze 
solid] for the first time during the season, thus 
forming a bridge over which we passed to the 
other side; this was no sooner accomplished 
than the torrent ran as before." 

Following his return from Italy and a second 
mission to Hawaii, Lorenzo developed a series 
of splendid co-operative enterprises within the 
Church, including among other things, a tannery, 
wool factory, sheep and stock herds, and a dairy. 
Later came a mission to Europe, and the Holy 
Land which he dedicated and consecrated to the 
return of the Jews. 

Lorenzo Snow was sustained President of the 
Church September 13, 1898, a position he held 
until his death, October 10, 1901. 

A floral offering at his funeral bore the words, 
"As God Is Man May Be," reminiscent of a 
revelation he had once received— an exalting 
promise to all mankind, a symbol of that divine 
light he had ever walked toward. 


■■.■■>:.■■■■■■.■■:■■.■•-.■.'.■ ■/■:■,. y <■;.: 

■ ■ ■. ■ ■ ... ■:■■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ . ■■ 

President Joseph F. 
Smith, born November 
13, 1838, at Far West, 
Missouri; ordained an 
apostle July 1, 1866; 
sustained as President of 
the Church October 17, 
1901; first to travel ex- 
tensively in Europe and 
South Seas as President; 
died, November 19, 1918, 
Salt Lake City. 



Joseph F. Smith, son of Hyrum and Mary 
Fielding Smith, was born in the very furnace of 
persecution. At the time of his birth, November 
13, 1838, at Far West, Missouri, his father and 
the Prophet Joseph Smith were languishing in 
chains at Richmond, having narrowly escaped 
death by a firing squad. Alone, sick, and appre- 
hensive, with a large family to care for, Mary 
Fielding brought forth her son— one who would 
play such a significant part in Church history. 

Many years later, addressing a small group of 
Saints, Joseph F. Smith said emotionally, "I can 
much easier weep for joy than for sorrow. I 
suppose perhaps it is due to some extent to the 
fact that all my early remembrances were painful 
and sorrowful." And truly, they could not have 
been otherwise. From his earliest infancy, he 
had felt the scourge of hatred. As a child he 
had nearly been smothered in his own home by 
wicked men. He had bid his father and "Uncle 
Joseph," good-bye on that fateful June day in 
1844, had watched them disappear with the other 
brethren along the road to Carthage. On a dark 
summer night, he had heard a knock on the 
window, followed by the words, "Sister Smith, 
your husband has been killed!" He remembered 
well the screams and the wailing that sounded 
through the long, leaden hours. 

He remembered the trip west with his 
widowed mother, the harshness of the wagon 
captain when she would not permit her nine- 
year-old son to stand night guard duty and 
perform the duties of a grown man. Poignantly, 
he recalled how less than five years later, his 
mother died in Salt Lake City, leaving him alone, 
but leaving a legacy of wondrous courage and 

The life surrounding Joseph F. Smith was not 

one for a timid soul. He was being cast in 
the refiner's fire, to become a sterling instru- 
ment in God's hands. At only fifteen, already 
tall, muscular, and stalwart in the faith, he was 
called to the Sandwich Islands Mission, where 
he served for four years. Upon his return he 
enlisted in the "legion" to defend his people 
against Johnston's Army. 

In 1859 he was called to labor in England. On 
this mission he began gaining acclaim as an elo- 
quent and powerful public speaker. Following 
this mission, he visited branches throughout 
Europe, and returned at twenty-two a world 
traveler and an experienced missionary. 

At about this time, he was employed in the 
Church Historian's Office, and at twenty-seven, 
was ordained an apostle. Having attained that 
holy calling, he rededicated his life and from 
that time forward was totally absorbed in 
promulgating the gospel. Important among his 
labors were two periods of presidency over the 
European Mission, and a special mission to the 
Eastern States to obtain historical information 
about the Church. Most significant of all, of 
course, was his appointment as Church President 
at sixty-two, on October 17, 1901. 

During President Smith's administration many 
buildings were constructed, and the Church was 
entirely cleared of debt. "Get out of debt; keep 
out of debt; never mortgage your homes nor your 
farms," was his oft-repeated admonition. 

Four times during his Presidency, Elder Smith 
traveled to Hawaii, and in 1915, dedicated the 
temple site at Laie. "Neat, methodical, diligent, 
wise, loving . , ." such epithets characterize the 
prophet, Joseph F. Smith, during his eighty years 
on this earth. 

He passed from this life on November 19, 1918. 

President Heber J. 
Grant, born November 
22, 1856 at Salt Lake 
City; ordained an apostle 
October 16, 1882; sus- 
tained President of the 
Church November 23, 
1918; served as President 
longer than any Presi- 
dent, except President 
Young; died, May 14, 
1945, Salt Lake City. 

Heber J. Grant 

Great purpose and determination guided the 
life of Heber J. Grant, son of Jedediah M. and 
Rachel Ridgeway Ivins Grant. Such dedication, 
directed toward righteous ends as it was, helped 
qualify him as a prophet of the Lord, and as 
seventh President of the Church. 

The mighty will to achieve was manifest early 
in Heber J. Grant's life— sometimes in humorous 
and even ironical ways. A neighbor, for exam- 
ple, referred to him as "the laziest boy in the 
Thirteenth Ward," because the lad spent hours 
each day throwing a baseball at his barn. What 
the neighbor did not realize was the motive be- 
hind this rather curious action. Lacking physi- 
cal stamina in his early years, he had been 
belittled and called a "sissy," by his baseball 
companions. "So much fun was engendered on 
my account," he said, "that I solemnly vowed 
that I would play baseball in the nine that would 
win the championship of the Territory of Utah." 
Through sheer persistence, he made good the 
promise to himself, and having done so, "retired 
from the baseball arena." 

More significant goals were sought and at- 
tained during President Grant's life, but all his 
efforts were characterized by the same sense of 
dogged, unflinching determination. As a youth, 
he aspired to be a bookkeeper for Wells Fargo. 
He not only obtained the job, but also labored 
with such enthusiasm and diligence as to delight 
his employer, establishing an excellent reputation. 

When he was only a child, his mother at- 
tempted to teach him singing but failed com- 
pletely because he simply could not carry a 
tune. A music teacher did no better. As he 
grew older, however, he was determined to 
learn the art of singing at any cost. Under the 
proper tutelage he finally learned to sing church 
hymns in a passable manner, and on one occa- 
sion astonished and nearly exhausted two travel- 

ing companions by singing over one-hundred 
hymns in a single day. 

More important than all these things was the 
way in which he qualified himself as a servant 
of God. At only twenty-four, three years after 
his marriage to Lucy Stringham, he became a 
stake president. His account of struggling to 
become a public speaker— the agonizing times 
when he stood at the pulpit scarcely able to 
force words from his throat, his weeping in a 
secluded field, with shame and humiliation, and 
his ultimate triumph— is an inspiring example 
of achievement. 

" 'Never despair' has been one of the guiding 
stars of my life," he once remarked. Perhaps no 
single event strengthened this philosophy in his 
own mind or lent stronger realization to his own 
calling as an apostle than a revelation he received 
in the wilderness at twenty-five. While alone 
in the wilds, it was manifested powerfully to 
him that his calling was in part a fulfilment of 
the desires of his own father and the Prophet 
Joseph Smith in the next world. 

As with the great Church leaders preceding 
him, Heber J. Grant served important missions. 
Notable were his opening the doors of the gospel 
to Japan, and his presidency to the European 

November 23, 1918, Heber J. Grant was called 
to preside over the Church until his death May 
14, 1945. His life was succinctly and accurately 
summed up by President David O. McKay when 
he said, "Persevering in accomplishment, sincere, 
honest, upright in all his dealings, positive in 
expression, dynamic in action, uncompromising 
with evil, sympathetic with the unfortunate, 
magnanimous in the highest degree, faithful in 
life to every trust, tender and considerate of 
loved ones, loyal to friends, to truth, and to 
God— such was our beloved President." 

President George Al- 
bert Smith, born April 4, 
1870, at Salt Lake City; 
ordained an apostle Oc- 
tober 8, 1903; sustained 
President of the Church 
May 21, 1945; died on 
his eighty-first birthday, 
April 4, 1951, Salt Lake 

i •wPflY'CfP /\/hpYf~ S^Ttiifh 

The banker was shocked. He spoke in blunt 
terms. Imagine a man in George Albert Smith's 
position wanting to mortgage his home to re- 
habilitate a seemingly hopeless alcoholic. 

The alcoholic, however, wasn't hopeless so 
far as George Albert Smith was concerned. 
Elder Smith had faith that the man could be 
rescued from his wretched state, that, for all 
his weakness, he was important in God's sight, 
that he had great spiritual potential. Elder 
Smith, a paragon of spirituality and selflessness 
himself, staked nearly all he owned on that testi- 
mony, and despite the banker's adamant disap- 
proval, the home was mortgaged. 

The change didn't come in a day, not in many 
days. But, the man was redeemed. He over- 
came his problem and went on to become one 
of the great youth leaders in the Church. 

George Albert Smith, eighth President of the 
Church, had love for his earthly brothers and 
sisters, and love for his Heavenly Father, a 
Father whom he communed with all his days. 

The son of John Henry and Sarah Farr Smith, 
George Albert was born in Salt Lake City, April 
4, 1870. Following the steps of his father and 
grandfather, he likewise became an apostle, and 
greater still— the prophet, seer, and revelator 
of the Church. Because of this noble heritage, 
Elder Smith was ever mindful of his obliga- 
tion to honor the illustrious name of Smith. He 
was the third by that surname to become Church 

The fall of 1891 found Elder Smith under- 
taking his first real missionary work, laboring 
in behalf of the MIA in Juab, Millard, Beaver, 
and Parowan stakes. The following year he was 
married to Lucy Emily Woodruff. His second 
mission took him to the Southern States, after 
which he was selected to head the YMMIA or- 
ganization of Salt Lake Stake. 

At the October conference, 1903, he was ap- 

pointed to the apostleship— fulfilment of a prom- 
ise made in his patriarchal blessing years before. 
Like all of the Church Presidents before him, 
from Brigham Young on, he served a mission to 
England, where he established himself more 
firmly than ever as a staunch servant of his 
Father in heaven. 

Less than three months before the end of 
World War II, May 21, 1945, Elder Smith was 
sustained President of the Church, and thus he 
remained until his peaceful passing on his eighty- 
first birthday, April 4, 1951 in Salt Lake City. 

In addition to his intense religious activities, 
President Smith was extremely active in civic 
affairs. His many offices and honors included: 
President of the International Irrigation Con- 
gress and International Dry Farm Congress, 
Federal Receiver of Public Moneys and Special 
Disbursing Agent for Utah. He received the 
Silver Buffalo award for "outstanding service to 
boyhood," the highest award in scouting. Under 
President Smith's leadership over one hundred 
historic monuments and markers have been 
erected from Nauvoo, Illinois to California, most 
prominent of which was the "This Is the Place" 
monument at the mouth of Emigration Canyon. 
In addition, he was one of aviation's outstanding 
pioneers, and served for a time as director of 
Western Air Express, now Western Airlines. 

President Smith was a man without guile, of 
warm and gentle humor, a man willing to point 
out his own failings in order to instruct others 
or save them undue embarrassment. One of his 
favorite scriptures, the fourth section of the 
Doctrine and Covenants, contains the words, 
". . . faith, virtue, knowledge, temperance, pa- 
tience, brotherly kindness, godliness, charity, 
humility, diligence." And these words, which 
he so cherished, for all they implied, became not 
only the pattern, but part of the fabric of 
George Albert Smith. 


' :-..".'. . '■ 

f s 

President David O. 
McKay, born September 
8, 1873 at Huntsville, 
Utah; ordained an apos- 
tle April 9, 1906; sus- 
tained President of the 
Church April 9, 1951; has 
dedicated four temples, 
traveled more than a half 
million miles as apostle 
and President 

Eighty-five years of earth life is a long time 
according to man's reckoning. In the last eighty- 
five years nations have risen and fallen; mighty 
vistas of scientific progress have been unveiled. 
Leaders, great and small, righteous and wicked 
have gone to their reward, and the kingdom 
has rolled forth. All these things and many more 
have passed before the eyes of broad-shouldered, 
silver-haired David O. McKay. 

Through eyes that have witnessed so much, 
our prophet, seer, and revelator has recently 
gazed back along the ever-widening wake of his 
life and glimpsed at the sunlit waters: 

"If I named the blessings I have at eighty-five 
I would list health, sweet memories, joy in labor, 
faith in God and his goodness, an unselfish de- 
sire to serve and bless his children, loyal friends, 
brotherhood, and the companionship and love of 
loved ones— and the assurance that these cher- 
ished loved ones may be ours, always and for- 
ever." Such are his blessings— all in accordance 
to a law "irrevocably decreed in heaven before 
the foundations of the earth." 

At fourscore and five, two decades after many 
men retire, President McKay continues to carry 
the weight of his calling with a straight back 
and a stedfast zeal that is simultaneously hum- 
ble and unobtrusive. While others bide life's 
twilight hours to the resigned creak of a rocking 
chair, President McKay arises 'at dawn to meet 
countless obligations and continues to traverse 
the earth dedicating temples and houses of wor- 
ship, preaching this gospel of the kingdom, 
bringing hope and joy to the souls of his brothers 
and sisters. 

Such a man scarcely has time to live in the 
past. Eternity with all its joys and blessings 
lies ahead. But still, the prophet of this Church 
must feel a happy yet poignant nostalgia each 
time he sights the waters of Pine View, and the 
far fields of Huntsville, Utah— hillsides below a 

tabletop mountain, land where the wheat stands 
amber in the sun of late afternoon, where 
the hay lies sweet and pungent in the cool of 
evening, when the crab apples are turning. For 
there is the home of his boyhood, a hallowed 
home, often silent and empty now, faintly echo- 
ing the bygone days, and the memories. 

September 8, 1873, David O. McKay was born, 
the first son of David and Jennette Evans McKay. 
In that home he learned the precepts of the 
gospel and, from parental example, the godly 
life. He gained his thirst for wisdom and his 
first interest in great literature, which has be- 
come so important a part of his life. In Hunts- 
ville, Utah, he not only developed a love for his 
fellow man but also for animals, the soil, and 
the things it grew. 

The same Huntsville school which President 
McKay attended as a boy, he later presided over 
before attending the University of Utah, where 
he became a football player, president, and 
valedictorian of his class. Then came a mission 
to Scotland and following his marriage to Emma 
Ray Riggs, the principalship of Weber Academy. 

Memories, expressions, a few general facts . . . 
these are all that can be included in a page, 
when volumes are inadequate. Of importance 
among his endless accomplishments and offices 
was his ordination as an apostle in 1906, his 
assignment in 1921 to visit Church missions 
throughout the world, his presidency over the 
European Mission, his service from 1934 in the 
councils of the First Presidency. He was sus- 
tained President of the Church April 9, 1951. 

Thus he stands, our prophet, seer, and reve- 
lator, in the month of November, 1958. In the 
words of Elder Richard L. Evans: 

"May he have wisdom and guidance and in- 
spiration, and strength and health and endurance, 
equal to every decision and demand that faces 
him in these difficult times." 

"■" ■ •'.: ,■ 

Prophets Are 

by Joseph Fielding Smith 

President of the Council of the Twelve 

In the far-distant past before the foundations of this earth 
were laid, a grand council was held in heaven. At that council 
plans were perfected and an organization formed for the gov- 
ernment of this earth during its mortal probation. Our Eternal 
Father, knowing the end from the beginning, chose from among 
the spirits those to be his rulers and prophets to assist in carrying 
through his eternal purposes on this earth in relation to the final 
destiny of men. All this the Lord revealed to Abraham, who 
declared that among these assembled spirits were "many of the 
noble and great ones." 

And God saw these souls that they were good, and 
he stood in the midst of them, and he said: These I will 
make my rulers; for he stood among those that were 
spirits, and he saw that they were good; and he said unto 
me: Abraham, thou art one of them; thou wast chosen 
before thou wast born. (Pearl of Great Price, Abraham 

Abraham was not the only prophet thus selected before he 
was born. Similar information is recorded of Jeremiah and other 
prophets, and we have good reason to believe that all the proph- 
ets were likewise called and foreordained. 

In this grand council, Michael was chosen to come as the 
progenitor of the human family and to bring mortality into the 
world. Jesus Christ was chosen to come in the Meridian of Time 
to redeem man from the mortal state, and, on condition of re- 
pentance and faithfulness to the eternal plan, to extend redemp- 
tion from individual sin. Abraham was appointed to become 
the "father of the faithful," and the founder of the house of 
Israel. Moses was chosen to lead Israel from Egyptian bondage, 
and Joseph Smith to stand at the head of the greatest of all 
dispensations, that of the Fulness of Times. 

In this grand council, we are informed, "the morning stars 
sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy," because 
they were to receive the privilege of coming to this earth and 
partake of all the vicissitudes of mortality, fraught with such 
glorious and momentous possibilities. 

Speaking of the appointment of Joseph Smith in this grand 
council, President Brigham Young has said: 

It was decreed in the councils of eternity, long before 
the foundations of the earth were laid, that he, Joseph 
Smith, should be the man, in the last dispensation of this 
world, to bring forth the word of God to the people, 
and receive the fulness of the keys and power of the 
Priesthood of the Son of God. (Journal of Discourses 

From The Improvement Era, Vol. 44, p. 716. 


You hit the high spots when you cross the Sierra by day 
on S. P.'s famous San Francisco Overland to California. 
Inspiring scenery looms on all sides, while inside you 
enjoy comfortable, lazy-does-it train travel, Pullman 
or Chair Car. Fine meals and refreshments, and room 
for plenty of hand baggage, free. The Overland east- 
bound goes to Denver, Kansas City, St. Louis. 



uttttil u-.i ai„ n,n— IB 

Massive freight shipments now enjoy dependable, safe 
rail movement via S. P., thanks to our depressed center 
flatcars. Recently we built twenty of these cars at our 
own freight -car assembly line in Houston. It was the 
largest number ever built at one time by a U. S. railroad 
— and a good example, we think, of how S. P tries to 
help shippers with ever better and broader services. 

S ou thern 

serving the West and Southwest with 

The 8-state Golden Empire served by Southern 
Pacific is one of the fastest growing, most productive 
areas in the United States. S. P.'s job is to match 
this vitality with dynamic railroading. We hope our 
customers and neighbors feel that we are doing so. 



Part 1/ 

to the Restoration 

by Milton V. Backman, Jr. 

Swnmary of Part I: Before the gospel of Jesus Christ 
could have been promulgated successfully, religious 
toleration had to be a reality, and the orthodox, 
medieval theology had to be liberalized. Favorable 
conditions for a restoration did not prevail during the 
Middle Ages or the sixteenth century. The reformers 
were unable, through their rationalization, to restore 
the gospel; and they did not sponsor religious tolera- 
tion. They merely attempted to purify the church 
but without direct assistance from God. At that time, 
Christians were not prepared to accept a radical de- 
parture from their traditional beliefs. The conditions 
which existed in the world prior to the eighteenth 
century reveal that had the Restored Church been 
established, it would have probably remained in an 
isolated status, and missionaries would not have been 
able to spread effectively the message of Christ among 
men. However, the developments of the eighteenth 
century created favorable conditions for the restora- 
tion and prepared the people for the acceptance of 
the correct teachings of our Savior. 

After the Glorious Revolution of 1688, a century of 
investigation, of rationalization, and enlightened think- 
ing occurred. The spirit of this age was evident not 
only by an increase in the investigation of physical 

phenomena but also by the extensive search into re- 
ligious beliefs. During the Age of Enlightenment, 
an eighteenth century reformation (or it could also 
be named the Second Reformation) vexed the minds 
of many Christians. The zeal for perfection stimu- 
lated the intellects to embrace a program of reform of 
the orthodox beliefs which the Protestants had in- 
herited from the medieval church. In this age, as in 
the previous two centuries, men attempted to purify 
religion and restore what they considered was the 
truth. However, the ecclesiastical priming produced 
a century of bitter controversy, and Christianity itself 
was placed on trial. After approximately fourteen 
centuries of rigid intolerance, Christianity was sub- 
jected to its first modern critique by reason under a 
relative degree of freedom of discussion. 

One of the chief controversies that developed cen- 
tered about the Trinity, and free thinkers rationalized 
that it was inconsistent to believe that the Father, 
Son, and Holy Ghost were one in body. They argued 
that one, plus one, plus one produced the sum of 
three and not one as "orthodox" Christians continued 
to assert. Consequently, Christianity's traditional God 
was subjected to a cross-examination for the first time 
since the Arian heresy had been crushed in the early 
Middle Ages. Immediately, the charge of atheism 



and scepticism was hoisted on all those who today 
would merely be called healthy religious inquirers. 1 
But the spirit of opposition did not silence these re- 
formers any more than it put a cessation to the work 
of Calvin or Luther. Their influence increased, and 
their investigation into Protestant beliefs was extended 
to include other traditional doctrines. The infallibility 
and all-inclusive nature of the Bible was challenged; 
the doctrine of heaven and hell was revised; Calvin- 
istic ideas of original sin and predestination were 
replaced by the concept of the free agency of man; 
the doctrine of the creation, as interpreted by the 
average Christian, fell under disrepute by scientific- 
minded scholars; and the concept was popularized 
that all men were to be judged according to their 
works. These reformers also sought to enhance the 
intellectual climate by sponsoring educational pro- 
grams; and then, they took effective command of the 
fight to eliminate state churches and establish com- 
plete religious freedom. 

Since Deism, the religion of the enlightenment, was 
mainly confined to a small group of intellects, this 
philosophy did not reach the masses to the degree 
attained by the sixteenth century leaders. It is further 
evident that their rational thinking led many Chris- 
tians to reject the writings of Paul, to denounce the 
miracles of Christ, and turn from the acceptance of 
the Savior to a belief in one God who never inter- 
fered in the affairs of man. But these cankerous 
blemishes in their beliefs do not eliminate their con- 
tributions to humanity. Since the sixteenth century 
reformers also erred in doctrines, the leading 
eighteenth century rationalists stimulated the process 
of correcting the misconception in the Protestant 
churches. Patriots and Deists such as Benjamin 
Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and James Madison were 
influential Americans who indirectly promoted the 
liberalization of the Christian theology. In harmony 
with the contributions of the leaders of the enlighten- 
ment, Christians continually grew more sympathetic 
toward original ideas and provocative philosophies 
and cautiously loosened their tenacious hold on tra- 
ditional concepts. 

The leaders of the enlightenment also proudly wit- 
nessed the manifestation of their ideals by the estab- 
lishment of religious freedom in this country and 

(See page 883 for footnotes.) 

other nations. At the same time that Americans were 
incorporating the philosophy of natural rights to sup- 
port their move for independence, the liberals and 
dissenters were uniting politically to establish natural 
religious rights for all citizens. During the Ameri- 
can Revolution, the Anglican establishments were 
crushed; and in 1786, Virginia became the first state 
in the modern world to provide by self-imposed 
statute complete religious freedom for all denomina- 
tions. In this same decade the spirit of peace and 
toleration was extended to the dissenters of New 
England, and the principle of religious liberty was 
included in the First Amendment to the Constitution. 
As the nineteenth century was ushered in, a new 
wave of religious fervor swept America. Protestants, 
in an attempt to arrest the declining status of Chris- 
tianity suffered by the impact of enlightenment, 
promoted a wave of vigorous revivals and the second 
great awakening became a reality. Converts poured 
into the churches. The revival spirit spread rapidly; 
and in the West the camp meeting developed as an 
effective institution to arouse souls to accept Christ. 
Crowds numbering in the thousands gathered to lis- 
ten to the ardent preachers that prolonged their serv- 
ices for days. Some of the zealots in attendance were 
ignited into action by the enthusiastic sermons and 
began rolling, jerking, crying, shouting, and demon- 
strating their emotional aspirations through a variety 
of physical demonstrations. Even though the major- 
ity who emerged from the fires of the great awakening 
were satisfied with the existing religions, a few were 
discontent, and began seeking religious truths outside 
the pale of orthodoxy. Seekers were plentiful, and the 
augmentation of the spirit of inquiry and the estab- 
lishment of religious freedom fostered the rapid rise 
of a multitude of radical sects. The Shaker, the 
Rappite, and Amana communities were among the 
religions nurtured in this new environment. These 
movements were inaugurated across the Atlantic; and 
when the leaders of these sects brought their followers 
to America, their societies attracted numerous con- 
verts. The doctrines accepted by these Christians 
reveal striking similarities; for all believed that their 
influential leaders, who attempted to restore primi- 
tive Christianity, received revelations. The followers 
of these prophets (or as in the case of the Shakers, 
the prophetess, Mother Ann Lee) abandoned their 



literal interpretation of the Bible and replaced it by 
the revealed word. These Christians also awaited 
eagerly the approaching millennium and courageously 
prepared themselves for the second coming. In their 
attempts to purify themselves, they organized into 
communal societies where they benevolently shared 
the fruits of their labors. Their extremism was further 
accentuated by their alterations of the prevailing atti- 
tudes toward marriage, for the Rappites and Shakers 
advocated celibacy, and the members of the Amana 
community frowned upon the procreation of the 
human race. Increase in their sects resulted from con- 
versions of Protestants, and the fact that the millen- 
nium was right at hand eliminated the necessity of 
raising children to continue their work. 

The fervent attitude toward the approaching millen- 
nium is also evident by the rise of the Millerites. 
Even though the evangelists of that generation had 
continued to proclaim the strong Puritan belief of a 
millennium, William Miller won followers by an- 
nouncing the exact date of Christ's coming. By an ex- 
amination of the scriptures, he fixed the year of the 
second advent at 1843; and, in 1831, he began his 
mission to warn the people of the United States of the 
approaching end of the world. His prophecy was not 
fulfilled, but from his activities emerged, in 1846, the 
Seventh Day Adventists. 2 

Meanwhile, in New England, the strength of the 
Congregational Church was being sapped by the 
sudden popularity of the Unitarians. That the en- 
lightenment extended its influence to the nineteenth 
century generation is clearly evident by the con- 
victions adopted by these Christians. In this period 
the Unitarians accepted the Bible but rejected the idea 
of the infallibility of the scriptures and believed in 
emnloying reason as the basis of their interpretation 
of the Word of God. They believed that Jesus was the 

Son of God, but not the same as God, that he was 
divine, but distinct and inferior to his Father. They 
rejected the doctrines of original sin, predestination, 
election, and hell; and they supported the concept of 
free agency and judgment according to one's works. 3 
By sponsoring these unorthodox views and controlling 
the Divinity School at Harvard they became an influ- 
ential body in liberalizing Calvinism. This trend was 
transported into the Congregational and Presbyterian 
churches where ministers began to reinterpret their 
beliefs. Numerous Christians reconsidered traditional 
beliefs, and a period of social unrest and continued 
controversy paralleled the rise of the reformed 

At the same time the liberal sects were flourishing, 
many Protestants were leading a crusade aimed against 
the consumption of alcoholic beverages. The temper- 
ance leaders passionately spelled out the physical and 
social ills created by liquor and pleaded for immedi- 
ate abstinence. Clergy cried from their pulpits: 
"Drinking is an abominable sin and must be eradi- 
cated before Christ will reappear." Temperance 
societies were organized and revival techniques were 
employed to reform Christians and purify society. 
Other Americans not only pleaded for total abstinence 
but also centered their reform in the use of tobacco, 
tea, coffee, sifted flour, and meat. Sylvester Graham, a 
Presbyterian minister and leader of the physiological 
reform movement, also recommended the abundant 
assumption of fruits and vegetables; and advocated 
the unorthodox opinion that man should bathe three 
times a week, even during the winter months, and 
should open bedroom windows at night for ventila- 
tion. This era was not only an age of reform in men's 
diets, but also a period when men fervently attempted 
to alter the morals of the iniquitous, when Sabbath 
day societies proclaimed the need to return to the 


by Leone E. McCune 

I walked today where Father walked 

Along the path from house to barn, 

Now overgrown with weeds and grass. 

On either side where gardens grew, 

Pink clover blooms in wild profusion. 

Red barns stand sagging and decayed. 

The doors are barred, and through cracked panes 

I see the empty bins and stalls. 

Here all is silence now. His work is done. 

I turned to find great trees had cast 
Their lengthened shadows on the path, 
And summer's sweetness filled the air. 
This place because of him will be 
Forever hallowed, ever blest. 
I paused and felt his presence there! 






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Unsurpassed in value 

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First it was 02227x . . . 

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Puritan observance of the Lord's 
day, and when abolition societies in- 
creased in fervor. The zeal for re- 
form was carried into nearly every 
phase of American life, and the 
decades of the early nineteenth 
century were years when humani- 
tarian and social reforms proceeded 
from the stages of planning to active 
accomplishments. Historians, in 
summarizing this age, have often 
employed the term, the age of ro- 
manticism. Extremism, immediat- 
ism, radicalism, and emotionalism 
are words that writers have con- 
tinually applied to characterize the 
intellectual climate of the generation 
that plunged this nation into the 
Civil War. It was the youth of this 
same generation that witnessed the 
accumulation of religious enthusiasm 
and the establishment of numerous 
communal societies in western New 
York. In this burned-over district, a 
storm center for religious activity and 
an infected region of habitual re- 
vivalism, Americans first experienced 
the impact of Mormonism upon the 
historical scene. 4 The preliminaries 
of the restoration had been com- 

The time was so ripe for the 
restoration that some historians have 
commented that Mormonism could 
not have been founded in any other 
period.* In fact, some scholars have 
asserted that Joseph Smith created 
a new religion by borrowing heavily 
from the teachings of various radical 
groups that flourished in North 
America in the early nineteenth 
century. Such statements reveal 
that the authors have only super- 
ficially considered Mormon theology. 
Mormonism is not merely a reflec- 
tion of the contemporary religious 
developments, as is evident by the 
unique features of this religion. It 
is true that Joseph Smith received 
visions and revelations, organized a 
communal society, advocated a re- 
turn to the doctrines taught by Christ 
and his apostles, declared millennial 
principles, asserted unconventional 
views on marriage, taught dietary 
reforms, proclaimed Sabbath ob- 
servance, and stressed the law of 
chastity. But these principles were 
also advocated by God's prophets of 
former ages. The accomplishments 
of Joseph Smith clearly dictate that 
he did not copy from his con- 
temporaries. The Prophet, in har- 
mony with other reformers of the 
period, denounced the orthodox 



Colorful Big K Sportscaster 
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The first award of its kind ever made, Mountain States 
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sportscaster Dean Bennett for his ". . . whole-hearted 
cooperation with football officials of the Conference"; 
for his knowledge of the rules of the game, his accuracy 
in reporting and for "not trying to call the fouls before 
the officials blew their whistles." The Big K is mighty 
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years and is heard with a special sports report each week 
night at 7:00 p.m. 

9 t 


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trinitarian concept of God, but he 
also replaced the traditional teaching 
by a doctrine that was not advocated 
by any other reformer of his day. He 
replaced the controversial belief of 
a heaven and a hell by establishing 
the scriptural concept of paradise, 
salvation for the dead, and the three 
degrees of glory. He argued against 
the infallibility and all-inclusive na- 
ture of the Bible but supported the 
truthfulness of the scriptures by 
translating a work that proved to be 
a new witness for Christ and a veri- 

fication of the writings located in the 
Old and New Testaments. He re- 
established the Church as it existed 
in the Meridian of Time, but in a 
manner not comprehended by any- 
one living in his generation, and 
named the Church after its founder 
Jesus Christ. He restored the con- 
cept of pre-existence and revealed 
the blessings that temple work con- 
tributes to humanity. He restored 
the priesthood, clearly manifest its 
powers by his actions, and suc- 
ceeded in being an instrument in 

The character to carry 





Richard L. Evans 

Among the distinguishing differences between peo 
pie— one which classifies and separates men 
significant measure— is the willingness, the ability, 
the character, the demonstrated desire to accept 
an assignment, to take responsibility, to follow 
through. In a sense, nothing simply does itself. Someone has to 
do everything that is done. Someone has to produce; someone has 
to improve the process and the product; someone has to sell; some- 
one has to stay solvent. Almost everyone, it seems, can make some 
suggestions— some semifinal decisions— but sooner or later someone 
has to make final decisions— to decide what to do and when it would 
be best to do it. At home, at work, in all public and private places, 
always and in everything, someone has to see that every essential 
thing is followed through. And there is no real happiness, no real 
contentment, no great growth of character, and little sense of 
accomplishment, in running away from responsibility. And if free- 
dom from responsibility were ever to become an ultimate ideal, it 
would be a matter of very serious concern. Of course there are 
times when we need temporary respite from responsibility— when 
we are overweary of being pressured and pushed— when we need 
some diversion from the same daily round of routine. Every per- 
son needs a change of pace, a change of sights and scenery. Vaca- 
tion, yes; we need refreshment, recreation, the hour of rest, relief, 
and relaxation between the doing of duties, all these we need. No 
one can stay fresh without refreshment. No one can effectively 
carry responsibility relentlessly and ever remain unrelieved. But 
the sincerest satisfactions in life come in doing and not in dodging 
duty; in meeting and solving problems, in facing facts, in being 
a dependable person. There is ample evidence that the Lord God 
himself, when he sent us here, expected us to use our time and 
talents and intelligence, to think, to act, to make commitments, to 
keep commandments, and to accept real responsibility. And one 
thing that separates men in significant measure, is the willingness, 
the character, the ability, the demonstrated desire to take responsi- 
bility, to accept assignments, to follow through. And one of the 
great discoveries in life is finding a dependable person. 

The Spoken Word" from Temple Square presented over KSL and the 
Columbia Broadcasting System, August 31, 1958. Copyright 1958. 



Vast resources o 


to enrich and inspire... 

A Baldwin Organ in your church will provide just the 
sound you desire to help establish the proper religious 
feeling and devotional response. Only Baldwin offers 
the organist traditional organ tone plus the unique 
additional resources of tone made possible by modern 
electronics. Combined with the extensive complement 
of unduplicated, independently-voiced stops, you get 
subtle refinements of tone that are truly inspiring . . , 
from quiet meditation to grand, triumphant moments 
of praise and glory. The Baldwin Organ is indeed an 
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more detailed information concerning the selection 
of a new organ for your church, you are invited to 
send in the coupon for Baldwin's free informative 
new book, "Questions and Answers." 




In Baldwin ... Precise tonal quality to enrich every 
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Creating a devotional atmosphere. 


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The beautiful fireplace in this award home, Model "A" 

designed and built by Mitchell and Coffin 
of the Chestnut Hills Estates, was built 
around Model "A" HEATFORM, the warm- 
air circulating fireplace unit. This is one of 
the many hidden values which have helped 
the sale of their homes. 

Five HEATFORM models of various sizes are available to accommodate any design of single 


passing the authority and power of 
the priesthood to later generations. 
He not only preached free agency 
but also restored Adam's position in 
history by proclaiming: "Adam fell 
that men might be; and men are, 
that they might have joy." 5 Wit- 
nesses of the miracles of God also 
were permitted to add their con- 
victions to the one who sealed his 
testimony, with his blood. And un- 
like false prophets, Joseph Smith was 
succeeded by other God-inspired 
prophets who have continually 
demonstrated to the world the 
reality of the restoration. An analy- 
sis of the Book of Mormon, Doctrine 
and Covenants, and Pearl of Great 
Price provides abundant evidence 
that Joseph Smith was led by God 
to restore to mankind truths on many 
subjects. By direct revelation from 
God, the latter-day Prophet suc- 
ceeded in restoring the gospel upon 
the earth, and successfully re-estab- 
lished Christ's Church for the benefit 
of all mankind. The fact that re- 
ligious liberty was a reality, that the 
orthodox Christian doctrines had 
been liberalized, and that many 
Christians were prepared in the 
early nineteenth century to accept 
the restored truths bear evidence 
that this century was the most op- 
portune moment in the history of 
the world for the ushering in of the 
fulness of the gospel. The "fruits" 
of Joseph Smith are a testimony to 
the world that Isaiah's and Nephi's 
prophecies have been fulfilled. 

Dept. — 4325 Artesia Avenue 
Fullerton, California 


Dept. — 601 North Point Road 
Baltimore 6, Maryland 

by Alfred I Tooke 

The violin of itself can make no 

the strings alone vibrate no melody; 

but when submissive to the master's 

then, only then, can melody be born. 

So man himself is impotent, but in 

the Master's hands his soul awakes, 

and heartstrings vibrate to the Mas- 
ter's touch 

to radiate a lovely melody. 


The Thankful Heart 

If human hearts know shame, 
Ah, then truly it must be 
That this one blushes crimson. 

To consider how these misered fists 

Seize Heaven's every gift 

As though it were deserved . . . 

To think how this vain self, 

In all its utter thanklessness, 

Takes Life and Love 

As its due heritage . . . 

Makes unproved claim 

To Sight and Sound 

And Touch and Taste 

And all of Life's endowments . . . 

To reflect how this ungrateful mind 

Dares trifle even its mean talents into dust . . 

Dares squander even one small skill, 

And play the profligate with Time . . . 

To know this petty creature that I am 
Dares taking Beauty for its own, 
Makes property of all the stars, 
The sun, the earth, the very universe, 
Deems Art its rightful slave 
And Poetry its handmaid . . . 

To know with what effrontery it deigns 
To pilfer particles of Wisdom's fund 
And make them playthings . . . 
Make keys of friendships, coin of Truth, 
And mold of Faith a luckpiece . . . 

To ponder this . . . 

To ponder this, and recognize too well 
One's proud and selfish image there, 
Reflected so in gross ingratitude . . . 

Ah, then it is this heart must blush 

And beat its tardy thanks — 

Its sincere and humble thanks . . . 

For this beggar's bag of blessings! 

"Pruning Hands" 


Alhrecbt Diirer 


Copyright 1958 • John Deere • Moline • Illinois 

Thanksgiving, 1958 





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g^-wt-j^^ ■..; : ^:/ 

... .. ' ■.■■' '• .:. 



**-.-' HP W_ . f4 
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has a stake 

in a better 



The photograph above shows some of 
the people whose products or services 
are used by a typical employee in indus- 
try and his family. This is an example 
of the chain reaction of benefits set off 
by just one job in a community. 

Further dramatic proof of the impor- 
tance of jobs is provided by a recent 
survey* which shows that 100 industrial 
j obs in a community can create : 

74 additional jobs 

112 more households 

4 more retail stores 

296 more residents in the community 

$590,000 more income per year 

$360,000 more in retail sales per year 

The jobs that bring widespread bene- 
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healthy and profitable businesses. And 
business, in order to grow and prosper, 

looks to the community for a healthy 
business climate. 

What are some of the conditions 
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They are the same things that thought- 
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Honest and efficient government, sup- 
ported by a strong majority of alert and 
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at heart. 

Fair taxes for both business and indi- 
viduals, without restrictive regulations 
or discriminatory financial burdens. 

Conscientious law enforcement which 
protects the rights of all citizens, cor- 
porate and private. 

Equitable pay and benefits which reward 

employees for applying their full effort 
and skill to the job. 

*"What Industrial Jobs Mean To A Community," U.S. Chamber of Commerce 

] ' J' 




; r ■": 

■ n mMM 






Responsible union leadership and free- 
dom from unwarranted strikes and slow- 
downs where collective bargaining is in 

Qualified people to fill employment 
needs, with educational facilities to pre- 
pare people for a wide range of jobs. 

Adequate community facilities such as 
stores, banks, utilities, transportation, 
hospitals, and commercial services. 
A social and cultural atmosphere in 

which people will enjoy living and 
working, including schools, churches, 
libraries, theaters, a responsible press, 
and healthful recreational facilities. 

Throughout America, businesses, 
municipal and state governments, and 
individual citizens are taking an in- 
creased interest in gaining these good 
business climate conditions for their 

There is still much to be done, how- 
ever, on local, state, and national levels. 
You can help by asserting your views 
on the need for a good business climate 
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the polls. You'll be helping achieve the 
conditions that will enable your local 
businesses to operate successfully — with 
the greatest benefit to you. 
• • • 

To find out more about how you can help 
appraise and improve the business climate 
in your community, write to Business Cli- 
mate, Dept. O, Box 2490, Grand Central 
Station, New York 17, N. Y. 

Building job 
opportunities is 
a continuous ef- 
fort at General 
Electric. To 
help build sales 
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employees, the company's half a 
million share owners, the men and 
women of 45,000 supplier firms, and 
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General Electric products are carry- 
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Progress fs Our Most Important Product 




Where does the day begin? 

Where does dust come from? 

Do dogs dream? 

Why does soap make me clean? 

Where am I when I sleep? 

you'll find the answers to your child's questions in 


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...the wonderful gift of knowledge. 


In The Book Of Knowledge are 12,000 

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The Book Of Knowledge is not just a 
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The Grolier Society, 2 West 45th St. 
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A Recording For 
Church Organists 

The Latter-day Saint Organist is 
the title of a new record issued by 
the General Music Committee of the 
Church. This record will be a great 
boon to organists of the Church. 

Elder Alexander Schreiner, Salt 
Lake Tabernacle Organist and a 
member of the General Music Ex- 
ecutive Committee, has made the 
recording on a 12 inch, high fidelity 
disc. One side of the record has to do 
with hymn playing. Copious illus- 
trations are given of hymns of dif- 
ferent styles, such as the stately, the 
vigorous, and the sustained, with 
brief verbal instructions. On this 
side are also two examples of post- 

The reverse side of the record con- 
tains six preludes of varying charac- 
ter, all of which are suitable for 
Sacrament and other meetings. 
These preludes are played with a 
variety of registration, illustrating 
the different tone colors that can be 
obtained by the organist. 

Records are being recognized as a 
very effective medium of education, 
and their use is rapidly extending 
to nearly all branches of learning. 
They are particularly useful in the 
field of music where actually hearing 
the sound of musical combinations 
is most important. 

It is hoped that all organists of the 
Church will obtain this record for 
their personal use. It will be a source 
of great help to them in making their 
hymn playing more effective and 
their prelude music more appropri- 
ate and devotional. 

This record may be purchased at 
the office of the General Music Com- 
mittee, 69 East South Temple Street, 
Salt Lake Citv, Utah, for $2.00 or 
$2.50 if mailed. 


by Lucretia Penny 

Your name may be Smith, Brown, or 

Or Twilight McPlanet O'Dawn. 
I can only keep stalling 
Now while you're calling. 
It will come to me after you're gone! 


Holiday Treats 

• . . festive, fancy and sweet 
with double-rich Morning Milk 

Morning Milk Pumpkin Pie 

(Makes 9-inch single-crust pie) 

I cup sugar 
l ! /a teaspoons cin- 
Vz teaspoon cloves 
Vi teaspoon allspice 
Vi teaspoon nutmeg 

s h teaspoon ginger 
Vi teaspoon salt 
2 eggs 
l'/a cups canned 

1% cups (1 large can) 

&-inch single-crust 
unbaked pie shell 

Blend sugar, spices, and salt together. Add eggs and pumpkin. Mix well. Stir 
in Morning Milk. Pour into unbaked pie shell. Rake in hot oven (425" F.) 15 
minutes; reduce to moderate heat (350° F.) and continue baking about 35 
minutes, or until knife inserted in pie mixture comes out clean. Cool. 

COCCI Booklet of Holiday Treot recipes at your grocer's 
rK.CC. Mornjng Mi | k di S p| ay . 

Nothing demonstrates the sensitive tempo of 

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pulse of markets and commerce. 

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illuminating beacon reaching into 

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"For God so loved 
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John "5.16 

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Away from home . . . 

Richard L. Evans 

With the passing summers and seasons, there come 
times of leave-taking. Many leave home, many 
young people particularly, for school, for work, for 
other opportunities. And leaving home-ties is al- 
ways in some ways a trying time— even leaving for 
pleasant prospects. There is always change when one is away— 
change in us, change in others, change in circumstances and situa- 
tions. There is change in every new experience, change in every 
separation, and parents cannot see sons and daughters leaving, 
(nor can those who leave,) without some sobering thoughts- 
thoughts of gratitude for opportunity, mixed with some sentiment 
and some cause for concern. What will happen to us and to others? 
What events will intervene? What will there be of the altering of 
attitudes? Who will be here when they come back? Both those 
who stay, and those who leave, wonder. Yet, the coming and 
goings, the meetings and partings in life are always, it seems, in- 
evitable—and few there are, if any, who live without some separa- 
tion. (And the certainty of these separations gives us added 
gratitude for the assurances of reunion and for the everlastingness 
of life. ) Now as to those who go: What have we a right reasonably 
to expect of them when they leave home and friends and familiar 
places? This we would say is a minimum for them to remember: 
that always, wherever they are, they remember who they are and 
what they are; that they remember home teachings, high standards, 
courteous and trustworthy conduct; that they remember that what 
was basically right at home must be basically right also away from 
home— for there is no geography of principles, there is no geography 
of decency, of morality, or of honesty; there is no geography as to 
character, as to keeping the commandments, as to gentlemanly and 
kindly and considerate conduct. We are what we are, wherever 
we are. And you who go away: Remember parents waiting and 
wondering, parents praying and pleading for your peace and happi- 
ness and protection. Remember fathers, mothers, teachers, family, 
friends. And let the best of all that has been taught you, remain 
with you to guide you and guard you and bring you back to those 
you leave, to those you love, to those you would one day return to. 
And remember also the day of returning to him who sent you here 
to live this life. 

"The Spoken Word" from Temple Square presented over KSL and the 
Columbia Broadcasting System, September 14, 1958. Copyright 1958. 


"by Elaine V. Emans 

Lord, I have long tried it, 
And I, too, believe 
That it is more blessed 
To give than receive. 

But teach me the equally 
Serious art 

That takings more blessed 
Than hurting a heart. 




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Melchizedek Priesthood 

(Continued) missionary service 
without financial aid from some per- 
son or quorum or other organization. 
This is particularly true of young 
church members in some foreign na- 
tions where the economic standards 
of the people generally are much 
lower than in the United States. 

In dispensing their missionary 
funds, it is assumed that Melchize- 
dek Priesthood quorums would pre- 
fer to aid brethren or sisters in their 
own wards and stakes who are 
known to them. The First Presi- 
dency maintains a general mission- 
ary fund to which they have invited 
contributions from individuals and 
quorums. The First Council of the 
Seventy also renders the same serv- 
ice through a fund it administers. 
Quorums of seventy in particular 
are invited to contribute their excess 
missionary funds to this account, so 
that the money may be used for the 
present rolling forth of the Lord's 

Priesthood quorums should feel 
free to aid brethren and sisters irre- 
spective of the priesthood affiliation 
of those helped. There is no reason 
why a seventies quorum, for in- 
stance, should hesitate to help a 
young member of an elders quorum. 
There should be no feeling that a 
young man should be ordained a 
seventy and thereby be precluded 
from possible priesthood service as 
an elder upon his return from the 
mission. The Church is one king- 
dom, and a spirit of fraternalism and 
unselfishness should pervade all its 

5. Special Missionary Obligation 
of Seventies 

Seventies should be missionaries, 
teachers, and expounders of the gos- 
pel to all who are in need of such 
teaching whether such persons are 
in the Church or out of it, and they 
should be relieved of positions of 
presidency and administration in the 
organizations of the Church so that 
they can work in the field of their 
primary responsibility. 

As many seventies as possible 
should make themselves available 
for service in the foreign missions. 
The great majority of brethren 
serving in the stake missions should 
come from among the seventies. 

Presidents of quorums of seventy 
should set an example in missionary 
service. Three brethren, for in- 




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stance, can run a seventies quorum 
as easily as three can run an elders 
or high priests quorum. It always 
takes three members of a presidency 
in active service so that the chair- 
manship of the three standing com- 
mittees can be filled. This leaves up 
to four of the presidents of each 
seventies quorum available for mis- 
sionary service at all times. 

Presidents called as missionaries 
may include, where appropriate, the 
senior president of the quorum. 
Those so serving are to be released 
from all committee obligations and 
other quorum duties. They need 

not, among other things, attend 
presidency meetings unless such are 
held at an hour when it is not ap- 
propriate to do missionary work. 
Once a seventy or other priesthood 
holder is called on a stake mission, 
he is to devote his full Church serv- 
ice time to the missionary work, ex- 
cept that he is to attend Sacrament 
meeting, quarterly conference ses- 
sions, and priesthood meetings. 

If Melchizedek Priesthood quo- 
rums would step forth and do all 
they should in the great missionary 
cause, there is no end to the good 
that would result. 

"On Relying on Laws and Locks 





Richard L. Evans 

In many ways we take great pains to protect our 
property and to safeguard ourselves. We pass many 
laws and we make many locks. But after all 
other considerations are taken into account and 
given their proper appraisal, we had just as well, 
first and always, face this fact: There is no such thing as being 
permanently safe simply with laws or with locks. The only things 
we can count on ultimately are honesty, integrity, and high quali- 
ties of character. No lock was ever made that gives full and lasting 
protection against a cunning and determined dishonesty— because 
the same kind of brains that can make a so-called safe lock can 
also unlock a so-called safe lock. The same kind of brains that 
can make a code can break a code. The same kind of mind that can 
devise a so-called "foolproof" system, can outsmart a so-called 
"foolproof" system. Laws and locks retard dishonest people, but 
they don't stop dishonesty. Only honesty can stop dishonesty- 
only integrity, only high qualities of character. And whenever we 
have to put ourselves in someone else's hands, as we often do, 
whenever we have to trust other people in any occupation, in any 
profession, in any relationship in life, we should look beyond skill, 
beyond talent, beyond personality, beyond appearance, beyond 
ability— even beyond all these (but including them also if we can) 
we should look for high qualities of character. And if we can't 
count on character, there is very little we can count on. No man 
has reason to sleep very well if his whole trust is placed in laws 
and locks and alarms, for people have proved repeatedly, with 
boldness and craftiness and quiet cunning, that they can invade the 
most safely guarded places, that they can perpetrate repeated frauds 
upon the public, that they can circumvent accounting systems, 
audits, and rules, and regulations. And with more laws and locks 
than we have ever had before, with more men checking on other 
men, with more and more people policing other people, there is more 
and ever more violation of laws and of locks. Too often, in too 
many places, too many of us have too much put our trust in mere 
physical factors, and have too much forgotten the inner make-up 
of the man. But when we have found high qualities of character, 
someone without evil intent, someone who knows the difference 
between what is his and what isn't, what is honorable and what 
isn't, when we have found someone to trust, we have found one 
of life's greatest safeguards and satisfactions. 1 

"The Spoken Word" from Temple Square presented over KSL and the 
Columbia Broadcasting System, September 7, 1958. Copyright 1958. 




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Today's Family 

That Reads 

by Elizabeth Larimore 

One evening between Thanksgiving and Christmas 
in 1926 we could hear Dad's footsteps crunch on the 
snowy walk as he arrived home from the office. He 
came in jauntily, enveloped in the cold air of his 
walk from the streetcar, and peered over his steamed- 
up glasses at my sister and me, curled in warm 
comfort at each end of the couch. Flourishing an 
oblong package, he announced with a good deal of 
fanfare that he had brought us a book— A Christmas 
Carol by Charles Dickens— and that he was going to 
read it aloud after dinner. - 

From the time that we could sit up and listen 
Mother had read to us. We had loved being read 
to so much that we often kept her at it until her voice 
gave out. But I was now twelve, my sister ten, cer- 
tainly old enough to take care of our own reading. 
Dad had never read to us much before. We wondered 
why he was so set on it now, when we were practical- 
ly grown up. We were at the serious age, and I was 
engrossed in The Little Colonel, my sister in The 
Bobbsey Twins. We took a dim view of Mr. Charles 

Dickens who sounded old-fashioned and musty to us. 

From the very first paragraph Dad's rendition of 
Marley being as dead as a doornail had us enthralled. 
We were transported in time and place to gloomy 
London of the nineteenth century and could feel the 
chill fog creeping all about us as we sat before our 
cheerful fire. Mother was a good reader but not 
nearly so dramatic as Dad. He punched every sig- 
nificant verb, every colorful adjective with gusto. 
He was Scrooge; he was Bob Cratchit; he was the 
Ghost of Christmas Past. Imbued with Christmas 
spirit, he was giving a dearly beloved book everything 
he had. We sighed with regret when he laid it down, 
saying that was enough for one night. On successive 
evenings we could hardly wait until dinner was over 
to get back into the story again. 

I believe that the repeated sharing of good books 
forges a bond between people never to be broken. I 
started reading to my children when they were two, 
continuing until they were ten, never from a sense of 
duty, but always with pleasure. Whether the story 



was Peter Rabbit or Treasure Island, 
I enjoyed it as much as they did. 
And we all enjoyed the companion- 
ship that goes with reading together. 
Children need a guiding hand into 
the world of good literature. Just 
as Dad introduced me to Dickens 
through A Christmas Carol, then 
went on to Great Expectations, so I 
have introduced my son and daugh- 
ter to my favorite juvenile classics. 
Bringing your children and your 
favorite books together starts a life- 
time of good reading habits. They 
may take up comic books and a cer- 
tain amount of trash from time to 
time, but they will always recognize 
the best and return to it. 

Reading aloud to children is re- 
laxation for you as well as for them. 
You don't need a pill to put you to 

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sleep after an evening spent floating 
down the Mississippi on Huck Finn's 
raft. There is spiritual enrichment 
in discovering or renewing acquaint- 
ance with Beatrix Potter's delight- 
ful animals; Winnie-the-Pooh, Tom 
Sawyer, Mary Poppins, Anne of 
Green Gables, and all of the time- 
less characters and plots from which 
children absorb good taste, good 
vocabulary, and a knowledge of peo- 
ple and ways of life. 

I know that my children and I 
are not unique in this enjoyment of 
reading together. When I was a 
librarian, I participated in story 
hours in big city and small town 
libraries. Sarah Bernhardt never 
had a more spellbound audience. 
The most fractious child will quietly 
hang on every word of a good story 
well delivered. You don't have to 
be endowed with dramatic ability to 
read aloud effectively to children. 
What you do need is enthusiasm, the 
knack of viewing the story through 
their young eyes, so that you impart 
your enthusiasm to them. If you 
care about the characters and how 
the whole thing will turn out, your 
audience will care, too. 

There is bound to be, sooner or 
later, a strain in parent-child rela- 
tionship. But no matter how far 
apart you grow in interests and atti- 
tudes, there will always be that 
closeness instilled when a warm lit- 
tle body leaned against you to hear 
a story. My parents were dignified 
and reserved. They never got down 
on the floor and romped with my 
sister and me. But through those 
sessions with good books they com- 

municated their affection for us and 
wove a strong family tie. 

My twelve-year old daughter is 
at the "anti-parents" phase and con- 
siders us tiresome people who go 
out of our way to obstruct her pur- 
suit of happiness. Recently, while 
ill with scarlet fever, she said the 
three words I used to hear frequent- 
ly and hadn't heard for a long time— 
"Read to me!" The library is a good 
distance across town, and the sup- 
ply of juveniles on our shelves had 
been thoroughly exhausted long 
ago. Casting about for something 
different I came up with Conan 
Doyle's The Hound of the Basker- 
villes. I remembered the pleasur- 
able thrills I had experienced over 
it. Maybe it was too old for her, 
but we would give it a try. I don't 
know of a better escape yarn, and 
the suspenseful hours with Sherlock 
Holmes and Dr. Watson in their 
adventure on the wild English moor 
took our minds off her illness, be- 
sides renewing our old companion- 
ship which has only been lying 

The more you can do to establish 
something in common between you 
and your children in their formative 
years, the better you will get over 
that hump between the time they 
leave childhood and enter adult- 
hood. There comes a time when it 
is difficult to get through to them. 
But there will be understanding with 
words unspoken if you have shared 
good things all along. Good litera- 
ture is the best of company. I have 
great faith in its power to bring out 
the best in people. 


by Patricia Duff McGinley 

The kitchen air is sweet with new-baked pie 
And warm with light. Here, standing at the sink, 
I watch the last sun leave the clouds and die. 
"It's nearly six; he'll soon be home." I think. 

The dinner's almost cooked; the table's set. 
This little time alone is left to wait; 
But, oh, how every minute seems to fret 
Until I hear him coming in the gate. 



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by Leonard J. Arrington 

Associate Professor of Economics, Utah State University 
Fulbright Lecturer in Economics 

This book presents as a "case study" in American economics the problems, 
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Enclosed you will find ( ) check ( ) money order ( ) 1 have an 

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by Florence J. Johnson 

Are you keeping your financial 
problems to yourself? 

We learned that when the chil- 
dren shared the knowledge, many a 
problem was eased, and solutions 
were willingly suggested for which 
we would never have asked. 

It began when it seemed that the 
demands by the children for extra 
money were becoming more and 
more frequent; and that when the 
demands were denied, we had sul- 
len, unaccommodating boys and 

We had a family meeting one 
evening and gathered around the 
big dining room table. Paper and 
pencil was given to each one, and 
then my husband gave out figures- 
how much was set aside for food, 
for current expenses, for individual 
allowances, and the money laid by 
each month to make the payments 
that are due every six months, or 

once a year such as taxes and in- 

When the children added up the 
figures, he then gave them the 
amount of income for the month. 

The figures that had been given 
were those of the past month, and it 
was Tom, the oldest boy who 
reached the answer first. 

"Why, there is only ten dollars 
left," he said, staring at his paper. 

"Yes," said his father. "That is the 
emergency fund." 

"What is the emergency fund?" 
asked Sharon, whose request for a 
new party dress ("that she just had 
to have") had brought about this 
family meeting. "You already have 
one marked 'the unexpected.' ' 

' 'The unexpected' is for big emer- 
gencies, like the damage done by 
that windstorm which was not fully 
covered by insurance, for the paper- 
ing job in the guest room when the 



window was left wide open, and 
that big repair job on the car," said 
her father. "The emergency fund is 
for such things as the track shoes for 
Tom, and those theater tickets you 
both wanted last month after your 
allowances had been spent." 

"Did they come out of this ten 
dollars?" asked Jimmy, our sober 
little ten-year-old, whose allowance 
melted away under the spell of air- 
plane and ship make-it-yourself kits. 

"No. They were paid for out of 
the previous month emergency fund. 
This ten dollars is still available, but 
today is only the eighth of the 
month, and there are still three 
weeks to go," I answered. 

"Then we could get the material 
for my party dress," Sharon said 
eagerly. "Darcy's has the loveliest 
pattern in their window." 

"Wake up, Sharon. If you get the 
party dress, how about my Father- 
and-Son dinner tickets, and the 
birthday gift Jimmy needs for the 
party next week? Maybe Mother 
and Dad have a desire for something 
extra, too." Tom scowled at the 
figures on his sheet of paper. "Do 
we really eat this much?" he asked. 
"That should buy enough food for 
an army." 

"If your mother wasn't a clever 
cook, it would be a lot higher," said 
his father. My husband looked at 
me, and we both smiled. Maybe it 
wasn't such a bad idea, after all, to 
lay the facts before the children. 

"Well, we sure can't ask for an 
increase on our allowances," Tom 
said slowly. "Fred Clinton has the 
right idea. He said he couldn't af- 
ford to go out for sports because he 
had to work before and after school. 
If I had a job, it would help—" 

"Can you afford it?" asked his 
father quietly. "Fred has to help 
his mother out with the living ex- 
penses, because his father is dead. 
You are planning on college and a 
scientific career. You need to keep 
physically fit as well as mentally 
alert. You need competitive sports." 

"I don't need those music lessons," 
Sharon pointed to one item. "I'll 
never set the world afire as a musi- 

"We don't expect you to," I told 
her. "But it is a little social gift 
worth knowing." 

"Where does the Christmas money 
come from?" Tom asked suddenly. 
"We always get extra allowance at 


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that time. Then, there's the money 
you spend for gifts." 

"Part of the savings is a Christmas 
fund, and then your mother and I 
add to it little by little. Your 
mother, when she finds a bargain 
when shopping; I, when we use less 
gas for the car or have fewer calls 
for repairs. Then, there are other 
little things that all add up so we 
have a little extra money to spend 
for Christmas and for vacations," 
said his father. 

Tom nodded. 

"Like the golf club fees when you 
spend your day off manicuring the 
front lawn, and other chores?" 

"Well, one is as good as the other 
for keeping the waistline trim after 
your mother's famous spaghetti 

"I can paint the sailboat I just 
finished." Jimmy stopped chewing 
his pencil. "Frank wants one. It 
can be my birthday gift to him." 

"I can pay for the tickets out of 
my jalopy fund," said Tom. "I 
won't have time to fool around with 
it this summer. Mr. Winters asked 
me yesterday if I would like to help 
him in his lab with some experi- 
ments. Maybe we could let Sharon 
have part of the money for the party 
dress she needs." 

Sharon shook her head. 

"I don't need it. I wanted one 
because Phyllis was getting a new 
one. What are you figuring now?" 
she asked, as she saw her brother 
was putting down some numbers. 

"My allowance. Maybe if I knew 
just how much I can spend for each 
breakdown, I wouldn't be forever 
in the red." 

"That goes for me, too. I know 
I've been buying too many choco- 
late malts." 

"It really pays to have the figures 
down in black and white," said their 
father. "Here comes your mother 
with some refreshments. Let's drink 
a toast to—" 

"To the Fentons' financial round 
table discussion," said Tom with a 
grin, lifting high his glass of orange 

True wisdom is to know what is 
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Your Question 

(Continued) of the great and 
dreadful day of the Lord" to turn 
the heart of the fathers to the chil- 
dren and the children to the fathers, 
lest the earth be smitten with a curse. 
There is abundant evidence that can 
be produced showing that the hearts 
of the children have turned to their 
fathers. This is manifest in the na- 
tions of the earth, as well as in the 
Church of Jesus Christ. The abun- 
dant research in genealogical study 
and knowledge and the seeking after 
the dead is evidence that this proph- 
ecy has been fulfilled. Unto whom 
did Elijah come? Is there a minister 
or other person any place in the 
world who can testify that Elijah 
came and bestowed these kevs to 
him to save the earth from a curse, 
except the Prophet Joseph Smith 
and Oliver Cowdery? Since no one 
else has made such a claim, and the 
evidence is too strong indicating that 
this authority has been restored, we 
must look to Joseph Smith and Oliver 
Cowdery for the fulfilment of this 

Again: The Lord through his an- 
cient prophets said that the time 
would come when the Israelites 
would seek their native land and 
that they should be established upon 
it. That this gathering has com- 
menced is evident to all the world. 
The ancient prophecies are being 
fulfilled. Has any one except Joseph 
Smith and Oliver Cowdery ever laid 
claim to the restoration of these keys 
of authority? • The evidence is here 
that they have been restored. Has 
any other minister or priest ever 
claimed that the Lord has revealed 
to him, and restored, the keys of the 
Dispensation of the Fulness of 
Times? Only Joseph Smith and 
Oliver Cowdery. Yet Paul and 
Peter have clearly predicted the 
restoration of this divine authority. 
Surely the Lord will do nothing 
without revealing it to his servants 
the prophets. The Christian world 
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themselves. They have declared 
that there is to be no more revela- 
tion, coming of angels or visions, 
therefore they cannot lay claim to 
the receiving of any keys pertaining 
to the restoration; yet we see the 
evidence of this restoration taking 
place on the earth. The ancient 
prophecies concerning the coming 
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(the Israelites) all taking place on 
the earth. These cannot come with- 
out the aid of divine authority and 
duly authorized servants appointed 
through the opening of the heavens. 
In the remarkable vision given to 
King Nebuchadnezzar of the image 
representing the nations from the 
days of Nebuchadnezzar to the time 
of the coming of Christ, we read 
that in the days of the kingdoms 
represented by the toes the "God of 
heaven" was to set up a kingdom 
"which shall never be destroyed; 
and the kingdom shall not be left 
to other people, but it shall break 
in pieces and consume all these king- 
doms, and it shall stand forever." 
The Latter-day Saints maintain that 
this kingdom is the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-day Saints. More- 
over that it is the "stone" cut out 
of the mountain without hands 
which eventually is to take pre- 
eminence upon the face of the earth. 
"And the kingdom and dominion, 
and the greatness of the kingdom 
under the whole heaven, shall be 
given to the people of the saints of 
the most High, whose kingdom is an 

"Ah, Wilderness"— The 
Beginning of Adolescence 

(Continued) Nevertheless, these 
are boobytraps to a growing boy. 
Cussing and vulgarity will usually 
alienate him from adults and the 
"successful" group at school. And 
drinking among adolescents always 
means slopping it up until they 
get high. Getting high means dis- 
aster. It means doing crazy things— 
to people, to cars, to themselves. 
Smoking is something else. It isn't 
spectacular like drinking, but it is a 
symbol. It represents defiance. It is 
"just to show the principal or parents 
that it's a free world." There is no 
pleasure in smoking until after the 
boy gets "the habit." Then it is a 
necessity. As one boy described it, 
"I have to smoke so I won't get the 
shakes." Then he added, "I can quit 
if I want to. I've done it lots of 

Another activity that usually 
sprouts up during early adolescence 
is a suddenly developed talent for 
the telling of dirty stories. These 
are not nearly as significant to the 
boys as they sound to adults who 
overhear them, but it is likely to 

everlasting kingdom, and all domin- 
ions shall serve and obey him." 5 

No one else, but Joseph Smith, has 
ever made the claim that this resto- 
ration and setting up of the kingdom 
(i.e. Church of Jesus Christ) has 
ever been revealed. Yet all indica- 
tions point to the fact that the pre- 
dicted signs of the approach of the 
second coming of our Lord are here. 
Surely the preparatory work of that 
coming must precede it. The restored 
unadulterated gospel must be here. 
Prophets who can receive revela- 
tion and who possess heavenly 
powers must be here. The heavens 
must be open and divine communi- 
cations received bv someone who is 
commissioned to set in order, under 
the guiding hand of Jesus Christ, 
all things preparatory to his appear- 
ance as King of kings and Lord of 
lords. Joseph Smith has proclaimed 
to the world that such power, keys, 
and authority were bestowed upon 
him. No one else has arisen to make 
such a claim; yet, this was revealed 
preparatory to these momentous and 
final restorations. 

shock a parent to hear the resound- 
ing guffaws which accompany some 
weird tale being told by his pink- 
cheeked boy with the innocent 
countenance. Even at eleven, boys 
frequently gather to swap stories and 
indulge themselves in expressions of 
vulgarity, but their major theme at 
that age is usually centered around 
routine physical functions such as 
elimination processes. Beginning 
around twelve, however, a boy 
begins to have a highly emotional 
fascination for the subject of sex. 
He secretlv wishes he knew more 
about it and feels like giggling when- 
ever the subject is mentioned. This 
new mysterious theme often becomes 
a tremendous source of humor for a 
twelve-year-old boy, and even a 
poorly told or pointless story on this 
subject will send him into gales of 

Authorities believe this proclivity 
for off-color stories at this particular 
age is an attempt to show bravado 
and knowledge concerning a subject 
which they actually know is beyond 
them. It gives them a sense of se- 
curity to see what "shockers" they 
can tell— as though they knew all 
about it. Perhaps it is Mother Na- 



ture's way of saying, "Puberty is 

Problems of Puberty 

Physical development leading to 
puberty takes a long time. As we 
have previously mentioned, normal 
children become sexually alive at 
around 3 years of age. Therefore 
the approach of puberty in early 
adolescence is simply an intensifica- 
tion of feelings that have been 
gradually increasing through the 

In fact, long before puberty a boy 
will have been doing something 
about these powerful forces of life 
within him. Either he will have 
tried to sublimate and control these 
tensions or he will have sought op- 
portunities to exploit them. He 
may have battled back and forth 
in both directions during the pass- 
ing years. This is extremely im- 
portant for parents to understand. 
Parents who leave young children 
together for long periods without 
supervision can expect that as early 
as age 4 or 5 they will have become 
sufficiently curious about themselves 
and their feelings to try to do some- 
thing about it. This natural and 
inherent curiosity makes young 
children extremely vulnerable to 
exploitation by older children or 
predatory adults. Studies of im- 
moral behavior reveal that unfor- 
tunate experiences in very early 
childhood frequently cause a subse- 
quent pattern of reckless promis- 
cuity, or abnormal, deviate activity. 

Puberty should be discussed by a 
father with his son in a very casual, 
matter-of-fact way. A boy needs to 
understand that while life is an 
amazing and awesome thing, it is 
intended to be a happy and satisfy- 
ing pattern of existence. Many 
parents know that their own lives 
would have been far happier if 
someone had told them that the early 
control of the powers of procreation 
is essential to the happiest and most 
satisfying kind of life. Every boy 
deserves to know this, and he should 
hear it from his own father if pos- 

It should not be difficult for a 
father to tell his 12-year-old rather 
casually what puberty will mean to 
him. A boy should be given a rather 
thorough understanding of his own 


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physiology and the glandular devel- 
opment which should be expected at 
this particular stage of his life. Many 
good books are available for this 
purpose. He should understand 
that the tensions he will seek to con- 
trol will be easily stimulated and 
that it will be easier for him if he 
deliberately avoids the obscene pic- 
tures and pornographic literature 
which "some of the kids" will be 
passing around. He will need to 
know that physical activity is the 
best distraction from morbid thoughts 
which are likely to prey upon his 
mind. He should also be assured 
that the strange flights of imagina- 
tion which his dream mind may take 
is something which happens to 
everybody. It should just be ac- 
cepted as part of "growing up." Such 
a discussion will take the mystery 
out of the many new experiences 
which await the 12-year-old boy, 
and it should help protect him from 
the feelings of fear and guilt which 
might otherwise creep into his mind. 

A wise father will also have a sug- 
gestion or two for his boy concern- 
ing the maverick activities of his 
associates at school or in the neigh- 
borhood. Even some adult may seek 
to induce him to abandon sublima- 
tion and control in favor of exploita- 
tion. Fathers who never discuss 
such problems with their boys be- 
cause they think "my boy would 
never fall for anything like that" are 
only deceiving themselves. The 
police across the country learn from 
the thousands of cases they are re- 
quired to process each year that the 
ignorant and unprepared boy is the 
most vulnerable of all. 

On the other hand, a boy is for- 
tunate indeed if he has a father 
who has carefully counseled with 
him through the years. Where this 
is done a boy can approach puberty 
with understanding and confidence. 
He can also enter the strange wilder- 
ness of adolescence with a fixed de- 
termination to remain morally con- 
tinent as part of his maturity and 
preparation for marriage. Many 
adults who read this article will have 
successfully achieved this high goal 
themselves, and even those who 
may not have been quite so success- 
ful will no doubt recognize the 
value of it and earnestly recommend 
it to their children. 

(To be continued) 


Good Teachers and Discipline 

(Continued) as state champion- 
ships, tragedies, scandals, and so on. 

(c) Problems of personality. The 
immature person has definite and 
varied problems which arise as the 
personality grows toward maturity. 
In this growth process mistakes will 
be made. The teacher's task is to 
give guidance and help in develop- 
ing healthy personalities. To do so 
he must recognize that two facets 
exist in the problem of personality- 
caused disturbances: There are 
minor disturbances which can be 
helped or corrected, and there are 
major or deep-seated problems which 
are often beyond the teacher's abil- 
ity to correct. 

Because of these personality- 
caused disturbances, it is essential 
that a teacher understand child de- 
velopment and the problems con- 
fronting the age group he teaches. 
The teen-aged student, as an exam- 
ple, is confronted with the conflict of 
dependence and independence. As he 
makes the transition to adulthood, he 
may show signs of rebellion, moodi- 
ness, disobedience, impudence, at- 
tention-seeking behavior, and so 

on. The wise teacher recognizes 
these signs for what they are, seeks 
to find the individual cause in 
each student, and removes the cause 
if possible. To be able to approach 
a student with such a personality 
disturbance, the teacher must mani- 
fest a sincere personal interest in 
him, and over a period of time, earn 
the student's confidence and trust. 
Once this is accomplished, the 
teacher is in a position to help. 

Deep-seated personality problems 
are sometimes manifested in the 
same behavioral patterns as men- 
tioned above. They can be recog- 
nized when the student does not 
respond to the usual workable pro- 
cedures of control. They may also 
be manifest by erratic behavioral 
patterns, extreme hostility and ag- 
gression, nervous tics, anxiety, and 
other similar responses. Students 
suffering from deep-seated malad- 
justments can be helped to some 
degree by the teacher and the group 
if they are made to feel loved and 
accepted. Again the teacher's sin- 
cere personal interest in the student 
is invaluable in giving that student 
a sense of security and confidence. 
But beyond this, students with deep- 

seated personality problems often 
need the help of professional agen- 
cies outside of the school. 

Correction of Disciplinary 

Avoid the use of threats. When a 
teacher threatens certain disciplinary 
action for contrary behavior, he is 
merely placing a temptation before 
the class members. Should the class 
or an individual yield to the tempta- 
tion, the teacher is in the awkward 
position of following through on a 
punishment that may not * fit the 
situation. Instead of threatening, 
the teacher should exercise good con- 
trol by giving proper and timely 
correction after a rule of good con- 
duct has been broken. 

Avoid show of emotion. The 
teacher who loses his temper or be- 
comes emotionally upset is not in 
control of the situation but is being 
controlled by it. It is better for the 
teacher to wait until he has com- 
plete emotional control before he 
tries to correct the contrary indi- 
vidual or the class. 

Gain group support. The we or 
our concept in a class is one that the 



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teacher should consciously build 
with himself and the students. If the 
class is convinced that they have the 
love and respect of their teacher 
and that it is their class as well as 
his, they will take in good spirit the 
periodic corrections that are needed. 
When a teacher finds himself against 
the entire group, he is in a sad situa- 
tion, and most likely the fault can 
be traced largely to him. 

Inspect self and methods often. 
Teacher-caused problems can only 
be corrected by frequent critical 
introspection and a determination 
not only to recognize but also to cor- 
rect the difficulty. The beginning 
teacher is certain to make mistakes, 
but he can rise above them if he 
will look for the cause of his failures 
and then work to overcome them. 
Even the so-called master teacher 
must constantly be alert and avoid 
falling into pitfalls. The teacher 
then should learn to master the de- 
sirable social traits and teaching 
skills which lead to success. 

Learn the characteristics of the 
age group concerned. In addition, 
the teacher must come to know the 
characteristics of the age level he 
is teaching; he must learn to recog- 
nize the general behavioral patterns 
and deviations he must meet. He 
should seek new and better methods 
and take advantage of advanced 
training in those areas which will 
make him a better person and a 
better teacher. He must ever bear 
in mind that a good teacher does not 
teach subject matter but he teaches 
students. The religion teacher must 
do all in his power to help the stu- 
dent equip himself with the keys 
that- bring exaltation and happiness. 

Follow the scriptural injunctions. 
The religion teacher faces added re- 
sponsibilities in considering the wel- 
fare of the individual students. 
Perhaps no better advice could be 
given a teacher who should be in- 
spired of God than that given by the 
Lord concerning the exercise of the 
priesthood. It must surely apply to 
the teacher of God's children in the 
field of religion: 

"No power or influence can or 
ought to be maintained by virtue 
of the priesthood, only by persuasion, 
by long-suffering, by gentleness and 
meekness, and by love unfeigned; 

"By kindness, and pure knowledge, 
which shall greatly enlarge the soul 
without hypocrisy, and without 


"Reproving betimes with sharp- 
ness, when moved upon by the Holy 
Ghost; and then showing forth after- 
wards an increase of love toward 
him whom thou hast reproved, lest 
he esteem thee to be his enemy." 

(D & C 121:41-43.) 

By Dorothy }. Roberts 

With maples' flame burned into ash, 

and deep 
Brown of oak but dust of cinnamon; 
With freckled gold of ivillows 

banked in sleep, 
Fall's splendor on the plain and hill 

is gone. 
Now over earth's gray slumber 

blooms the sky, 
All cloud and color, rayed with the 

broken wheel, 
The rimless spokes of sunlight. 

Above the dry 
Forsaken land, swirl streamers the 

tint of steel, 
Gold-haloed in the leagues of mov- 
ing air 
Once blue and placid as a lake of 

Sight climbs beyond the mountain's 

faded stair, 
Above the monotones of tree and 


To the pastel glory of the falling sun, 
One beauty ending: another but 


The Three "Vs" 

(Continued) minds as to whether 
or not they are going to Church next 
Sunday. In fact, that question is 
not usually decided in their minds 
at all. They wait to see how much 
weight will be put on the teeter- 
totter on Sunday morning by the 
weather, how they feel, and what 
the other external conditions will 
be. There are some people who 
have not decided whether or not 
they are going to be honest, or 

Get Your Education 
The Y's Way- 

BYU graduates are in demand over the nation because 
of their superior training, not only in their academic 
fields but also in preparation for life. The Church 
university is able to train the WHOLE man, resulting in 
deep education of mind and soul together. Get your 
education the Y's way. Plan NOW to attend winter 

Winter Quarter Instruction begins Jon. 5, 1959 
For information write Public Relations Dept. 

Brigham Young University 











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Made in the West by 

L.D.S. workmen. 
BISHOPS— Before you buy, compare Ban- 
quetmasters for quality of material and 
workmanship, beauty of design. Write 
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Satisfaction Guaranteed 

Sample table sent for your inspection. 

Write or telephone collect JA 2-6601. 


Idaho Falls, Idaho 

for every Church need 

A 4 ft. (S-4-CT) Checkerette pro- 
vides ventilated hat shelves and 
either 24 coat hangers or 32 coat 
hooks. A double (D-4-CT) Checker- 
ette of equal length accommodates 
48 on hangers or 64 on hooks. Both 
can be set-up anywhere or dis- 
assembled in less than a minute 
without nuts, bolts or tools, can be 
stored like folding chairs, or will 
stand rigid for years. The double 
Checkerette comes on large casters 
for easy movement when it ia 
assembled. Checkerettes can be 
assembled "high" for robes or vest- 
ments, "normal" for adult wraps or 
"low" for children. Checkerette 
Wall Racks come in 2, 3 and 4 ft. 
lengths and will accommodate up to 
12 coats and hats per running foot. 
They are mounted on wall at 
proper heights for each age 
group. Write for Bu || e tj n CT-690 
showing these and other 
modern steel wardrobe units. 


The Coat Rack People 
1127 West 37th Street, Chicago 9, Illinois 

whether or not they are going to 
be tithepayers, or do their ward 
teaching. They wait to see what 
pressures will be applied by cir- 

One of the functions of leader- 
ship is to help people make firm 
decisions about things, draw an- 
swers out of their minds so that 
important questions may be settled 
once and for all. For as no one can 
be saved in ignorance, just so, no 
one can be saved in indecision. 


The worst sin of many people is 
not that they disbelieve in God; 
their skepticism is more serious — 
they just haven't thought about him 
one way or the other. It isn't that 
they disbelieve the doctrines of the 
Church; what is far worse, they 
just don't care. It is one thing to 
lack faith, but it is still worse to 
lack interest. 

There are some people who call 
themselves by the rather fancy name 
of agnostic. They seem to take pride 
in saying, "I don't believe, but I 
don't disbelieve." That is, they are 
neither one thing nor the other. 
Someone said there is one folly 
greater than that of the fool who 
says in his heart there is no God, 
and that is the folly of him who 
says that he doesn't know whether 
there is a God or not. In some 
measure, agnosticism is a mere con- 
fession of indifference indicating a 
lack of ambition, or a lack of enough 
interest to try to find the truth. 

When one is indifferent, the spirit 
remains apathetic and detached. 
There is then a natural lack of any 
involvement that would lead to faith. 
No one deliberately decides to be 
ignorant. Ignorance is indifference 
to learning. Sloth is indifference to 
industry. Weakness is indifference 
to strength. One man had an "in- 
different" automobile horn. He said 
it just didn't give a hoot. 

Certainly no man can be saved in 

These three sins probably rob 

more people of their blessings than 
do all of the other sins combined. 

Recently I talked with a man who 
told me that he had never read one 
single book in the last five years. 
Woodrow Wilson indicated this 
natural weakness when he said, "The 
greatest ability of the American 
people is their ability to resist in- 
struction." Unfortunately most of 

The Intermountain West's 

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ANTHEMS NO. 3 1.25 



Music Sent on Approval 

Use this advertisement as your order blank 


15 E. 1st South 

Salt Lake City ll r Utah 

Please send the music indicated above. I 
□ On Approvaf □ Charge 
□ Money Enclosed 



City & St 

Daunes Music 

15 E. 1st So. 


145 NORTH UNIVERSITY, PR0V(W' Salt Lake City 11, Utah 

us have our share of this unprofit- 
able talent. 

Thomas A. Edison makes our 
problem seem more difficult when 
he said, "There is no limit to which 
man will not go to avoid thinking." 
And yet scripture reminds us that 
"as he [a man] thinketh in his heart, 
so is he." (Proverbs 23:7.) Now if 
we are what we think, and then if 
we don't think, the seriousness of 
our situation is evident. 

Emerson was also conscious of the 
problem when he said, "On the brink 
of the ocean of life and truth we 
are miserably dying. . . . Sometimes 
we are furthest away when we are 
closest by. . . . We stand on the 
brink of an ocean of power, but each 
must take steps that would bring 
him there. . . ." The Jews were so 
near and yet they were so far away. 
We must not repeat their mistake. 
We have three great volumes of new 
scripture. But what good does it 
do us if we are not familiar with 
them so that we can make their 
teachings a part of our lives. We 
are so near and yet we may be so 
far away. 

The Athenians put Socrates to 
death principally for his attempts 
to deliver them from the oppression 
of the three I's. Jesus was crucified 
for the same reason. We seem to 
hang on to our ignorance, indecision 
and indifference for dear life. One 
cried out, "O God, why dost thou 
take so much interest in our welfare 
when we take so little in our own?" 

The three I's have always been 
our biggest problem. We remain 
stricken with ignorance and poi- 
soned by a continuous succession of 
small thoughts. We become centers 
of indifference. This prevents our 
progress. Indifference has been de- 
fined as inactivity in perpetuity. 

Now what are we going to do 
about it? The logical solution is to 
learn how to develop antidotes for 
the three I's. We need to learn how 
to get people to study, think, ponder, 
pray, and make decisions about im- 
portant things and then carry the 
decisions through to their proper 
conclusion. When we break the 
oppression of the three I's, our lives 
will take on new meaning. 

Branch Rickey was once asked 
what was the greatest thrill he had 
ever had in baseball. His reply was, 
"I haven't had it yet." Our greatest 
thrill may also be in the future. It 
will come when we have learned to 
free ourselves and others from the 
degradation of the three I's. 


For the Missionary. . . 


l_^f istinctive choice of 
programs to make the 
farewell complete. The mis* 
sionary's photograph in- 
cluded in folded 

The West's Finest 
Printers and Binders 


• EM 4-2581 





Here's how to get it 

Deposit $100.00 or more 
at State Savings and 
along with a big 3V2% 
interest* you will receive 
a Sheaffer cartridge 
fountain pen and pencil 
set. This is an executive 
type set that writes with 
ink. However, when the 
pen runs dry, just slip in 
a new cartridge. Four re- 
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You'll be pleased with 
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savings account earning 
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■■■ *Current dividend 3V2% 

You may open your account by mail and receive your Sheaffer pen and pencil set. 


Name - 

Street or RFD 

City State 

Savings Amount Enclosed $ 

(Check or Money Order) 

Your pen and pencil set will be mailed to you. 


56 South Main, Salt Lake City, Utah 









ilkMtfcute Set 

Reg. $3.50 Value 

^ and can lid 

c*J nJLu S II OO °<° ™ r p e \° s h 9 c 

^~T H" 1 ^ bag of Jolly 

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Shipped Postpaid direct from Europe 

Jolly Time— most delicious pop corn ever 
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ceptance and delivery ! 

"Are we good for each other?" 




Richard L. Evans 

To an audience of young people, a wise counselor 
recently proposed a question concerning those with 
whom they kept company — a question which all 
of us could well ask concerning ourselves and all 
our associates: "Are we good for each other?" 1 
It is a question which in youth could well be asked of pals and 
playmates. A boy and a girl well could ask it of those with whom 
they keep company. It is a question that people should surely ask 
as they select business associates. And it certainly is a question 
that all should ask before making a commitment as to marriage. 
It is a pertinent question in the selection of all associates. Inevitably 
we tend to be affected by the character and qualities of those with 
whom we keep company. Tennyson said it in a single sentence: 
"I am a part of all I have met." 2 We take from others; we give to 
others; and something of us all rubs off on all of us in any associa- 
tion. And in school, at work, wherever long or short friendships, 
and especially where romantic interests are in mind or in the 
making, we should earnestly consider: "Are we good for each 
other?" 1 A boy and a girl must consider whether or not in being 
together they bring out the best. Do they encourage and inspire — 
or pull each other down. Do they neglect work and duties unduly 
when they are keeping company? Do they neglect school, church, 
preparation, practice? Do their marks go down? Do they lift each 
other to live to high standards, or tempt each other to let down to 
lower standards? Some affect others adversely. Some are under- 
standing, and others aren't. Some are coldly critical, and some 
are constructively encouraging. Young people who become en- 
amoured of each other sometimes tend to spend together too 
long a time, to linger too long and too late, and neglect too many 
other things, and exclude too many other friends, and draw too 
much away from family. In this life which moves so swiftly, and 
which reaches so far in its everlasting effects, those with whom 
we would want to live our lives, should lift our lives, and bring 
out the best, and help us to be better. And well would we ask each 
other always and frankly concerning ourselves, and as to all our 
associates: "Are we good for each other?" 1 In the lasting things 
of life, do we help each other to be at our best? 

"The Spoken Word" from Temple Square presented over KSL, and the 
Columbia Broadcasting System, September 21, 1958. Copyright 1958. 

( See page 883 for references. ) 

By Mabel Law Atkinson 

I bow before the beauty of old hands, 
All gnarled and knotted, bleached as autumn hay; 
They speak of wresting life from barren sands 
And have the grace to fold while old lips pray 
Before a table with its simple food- 
Old hands in the design of gratitude! 




Cover, Frank Magleby; John Davenport, 785, 
884; Max Tharpe, 796; Deseret News, 804; 
Ralph Reynolds, art, 806, 808, 846, 870; Ted 
Cannon, 806; Harold M. Lambert Studios, 810; 
Ed Maryon, art, 814; Dale Kilbourn, art, 816, 
819; Lorin Wiggins, 820, 821; H. Armstrong 
Roberts, 820; Jeanne Lindorff, art, 821, 822; Dave 
Burton, art, 866-867. 


Preliminaries to the Restoration 

: Roland N. Stromberg, Religious Liberalism in 
Eighteenth Century England (London: Oxford 
University Press, 1954) 1-18. 

2 WilIiam Warren Sweet, The Stori/ of Religion 
in America (New York: Harper and Brothers, 
1950), 277-279. 

3 Peter G. Mode, Source Book and Biblio- 
graphical Guide for American Church History 
(Wisconsin: The Collegiate Press, 1921), 404- 

^Whitney R. Cross, The Burned-over District 
(Ithaca; Cornell University, 1950). 

5 2 Nephi 2:25. 

The Spoken Word 

"Are We Good for Each Other" 

^mily H. Bennett. 

2 Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Ulysses. 

Your Question 

iEph. 1:10. 

2 Acts 3:19-21. 

3 Isaiah 11:10-12., Ibid 29:10-14; 

Jer. 31:31-34. 
^Malachi 3:1-5. 
SDaniel 2:29-44; Ibid. 7:18-27. 

"Wickedness never Was 

(Continued) happiness. He said 
from the hillside: 

"Labour not for the meat which 
perisheth, but for that meat which 
endureth unto everlasting life. . . ." 
(John 6:27.) 

And again he prayed in Geth- 
semane: ". . . nevertheless not my 
will, but thine, be done." (Luke 

The people on New Year's Eve 
had not labored for a meat which 
should not perish. The young man 
in the Army learned that the 
result of wickedness was not happi- 
ness, and I testify to you that al- 
though I am young, and although 
I am inexperienced in the ways of 
life and the world, it is my discovery 
and my witness, and I leave it with 
you that if you would find true 
happiness, spend your days labor- 
ing for that meat which does not 
perish as is found in the gospel of 
Jesus Christ. Let your prayers and 
your desires be above all ". . . not my 
will, but thine, be done." (Luke 22: 
42.) Learn to serve and to sacrifice 
in feeding his sheep. 

•for* th 


i-t th< 



Home Office 

65 East Fourth South 

Salt Lake City, Utah 

A Member of the Farm Bj| 
Insurance Companies \^p^ i 
over $1,000,000,000.00 

■ ■ ■-■'■ : ■■■■ : ■.■ ■■ ■ ■::■ 

(See Advertisement on Back Cover) 

Beneficial Life Insurance Company 
Beneficial Building 
Salt Lake City 1, Utah 

Please send full-color reprints in 13'/2"xl6" size of the Thanksgiving Prayer 

painting. I am enclosing 25c for each print to cover packing and mailing costs. 


Street or RFD 


Zone State. 

, _ (See Advertisement on Inside Back Cover) ... 

World Book Encyclopedia, Dept. IE 1, Box 3565, Chicago 54, III. 

[~] Please send me your quiz book, "What Do You Know?" We want to match wits with 
the World Book Encyclopedia editors. 

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Address County 

City Zone State 

In Canada, write: World Book Encyclopedia, 85 Bloor St., E., Toronto 5, Ont. 



The Last Word 

Teacher : Tommy, 
where are elephants 

Tommy: Elephants 
are so big that they 
hardly ever get lost. 

Confucius No Say 

Man who leave home to set world on fire, often 
come back for more matches. 

When man works like horse, everybody rides him. 

Man can read some people like book but can't 
shut them up so easily. 

We read that in some European countries they are 
considering placing a tax on American tourists. 
Maybe they just want to make them feel at home. 

It is no great thing to be humble when you are 
brought low, but to be humble when you are praised 
is a great and rare attainment. 

—St. Bernard 

A problem was presented to the sixth graders for 
solution: "How can a rich man be poor in spirit?" 

Blank faces told the teacher he had posed a prob- 
lem which was truly a problem! He then put it this 
way: "If you had four cars, three homes in differ- 
ent states, a private plane, and a sailboat of your 
own, how could you still be poor in spirit?" 

Suddenly it was all so simple. One of the boys 
knew the answer: "Just pay your taxes!" 

It is not a tragedy to have only one talent; the 
tragedy is in not using it. 

Driving along a lonely road a man saw a woman 
looking helplessly at a flat tire. He stopped and 
changed the tire, and as he picked up the tools, the 
woman said: "Please let the jack down easy. My 
husband is asleep in the back seat." 

Wife: "Mrs. Jones has another new hat." 
Husband: "Well, if she were as attractive as you 

are, my dear, she wouldn't have to depend so much 

upon the milliner." 

As the soil, however rich it may be, cannot be 
productive without culture, so the mind without 
cultivation can never produce good fruit. 







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Gift for eternity 

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World Book Encyclopedia, Dept. IE 1, Box 3565, Chicago 54, III. 

|"~1 Please send me your quiz book, "What Do You Know?" We want to 
match wits with the World Book Encyclopedia editors. 

(~1 Also, please send complete information and prices of World Book 

Do you own an encyclopedia? Yes No 

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In Canada, write: World Book Encyclopedia, 85 Bloor St., E., Toronto 5, Ont. 

If you do not wish to mar this cover— use extra coupon on page 883 

_Xr ^Jime of- ^Jkanhfuu 

ne55 . 

• • 

With bowed heads and grateful hearts, 
America now turns its thoughts to found- 
ing fathers who dedicated this season of 
the year as a time of Thanksgiving. Right 
thankful are we for this glorious land of 

abundant living, for freedom of conscience 
and individual opportunity, for happy 
families and hopeful futures; for Faith 
itself. This is the legacy they left. Will 
we do as well for those who follow us? 

Beneficial Building 
Salt Lake City 1, Utah 

Please send full-color reprints of 13Vz"xl6" size 

of the Thanksgiving Prayer painting. I am enclosing 25c 
for each print to cover packing and mailing costs. 


Street or RFD 

City Zone State 

This advertisement first appeared in the November 1954 Era. We are repeating: 

it this month because of the numerous requests for copies of the Thanksgiving: 
Prayer scene depicted by Artist Dale Kilbourn. We can now supply LIMITED 
reprints of this popular painting in full-color, extra-large (13%"xl6") size, ready for 
framing. Just mail the coupon. 



If you do not wish to mar this cover— use 
extra coupon on page 883 

Virgil H. Smith, Pres. 

Salt Lake City, Utah