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Full text of "Inauguration: President Henry Churchill King of Oberlin College: May 13, 1903"

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INAUGURATION 

PRESIDENT HENRY CHURCHILL KING 
OF OBERLIN COLLEGE 

MAT 13 1903 



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INAUGURATION 

PRESIDENT HENRY CHURCHILL KING 

OBERLIN MAY 13 1903 



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INAUGURATION 

PRESIDENT HENRY CHURCHILL KING 
OF OBERLIN COLLEGE 

MAY 13 1903 



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OBERLIN OHIO 

PUBLISHED BY THE COLLEGE 

1903 



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THE IliPBRlAL PRBSS CLEVELAND 



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• 



V • 



CONTENTS 



THE INAUGURATION EXERCISES .... 7 

INAUGURAL ADDRESS BY PRESIDENT HENRY 

CHURCHILL KING 21 

ADDRESS BY PRESIDENT WILLIAM JEWETT 

TUCKER, D. D., LL. D 53 

ADDRESSES BY 

HON. J. G. W. COWLES, LL. D., ON BEHALF 
OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES . . .61 

PROFESSOR EDWARD INCREASE BOSWORTH, 

D. D., ON BEHALF OF THE FACULTY . . 67 

PRESIDENT WILLIAM GOODELL FROST, 
PH. D., D. D., ON BEHALF OF THE ALUMNI 71 

MR. DAHL BUCHANAN COOPER, ON BEHALF 
OF THE STUDENTS 75 



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INAUGURATION 

OF 

PRESIDENT HENRY CHURCHILL KING 

At the Annual Meeting of the Board of Trus- 
tees of Oberlin College, held in Oberlin on 
Wednesday, November 19, 1902, Professor Henry 
Churchill King was elected President of Oberlin 
College. A committee, consisting of Dr. Lucien 
C. Warner, Dr. Henry M. Tenney, and Dr. Judson 
Smith, was appointed to notify the President-elect 
of this action. At a reception given at Baldwin 
Cottage on the evening of that day, Professor King 
announced his acceptance, following this with a 
further statement to the students at the chapel ex- 
ercises on Thursday, November 20. President 
King undertook immediately the performance of 
the duties of the new position. 

On January 21, 1903, the Faculty appointed the 
following Inauguration Committee : Professor A. 
S. Root, Professor H. H. Carter, Mrs. A. A. F. 
Johnston, Secretary G. M. Jones, Professor C. W. 
Morrison, Professor J. F. Peck, and Professor A. 
T. Swing. This committee recommended to the 
Faculty that the inauguration be held on Wednes- 
day, May 13, 1903, in connection with the "May 
Festival" concerts of the Oberlin Musical Union, 
May 12 and May 13, and with the graduation ex- 
ercises of the Oberlin Theological Seminary on 
Thursday, May 14. 

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•;{.i^i the special meeting of the Board of Trustees, 
held Thursday, February 5, 1903, the arrange- 
ments already made for the inauguration were ap- 
proved, and the Trustees asked the Faculty to 
arrange all further necessary details. The Com- 
mittee thereupon appointed the following sub- 
committees : 

Entertainment: Mr. L. D. Harkness, Mr. C. P. Doo- 
little, and Professor C. W. Morrison. 

Invitations and Publications: Secretary G. M. Jones, Pro- 
fessor E. I. Bosworth, and Treasurer J. R. Severance. 

Decoration : Professor F. O. Grover, Mr. C. P. DooHttlc, 
Mrs. C. P. Doolittle, Professor A. S. Kimball, and Mrs. Her- 
bert Harroun. 

Music: Professor C. W. Morrison, Professor G. W* 
Andrews, and Professor A. S. Kimball. 

Procession : Professor A. A. Wright, Professor C. E. St. 
John, Professor W. G. Caskey, Mr. C. H. Adams, and Mr. S. 
K. Tompkins. 

Seating: Professor A. E. Heacox, Mr. W. J. Homer, and 
Mr. C. S. Pendleton. 

Invitations were sent to the President of the 
United States, the Governor of the Commonwealth 
of Ohio and other officials, to the presidents of 
other colleges and universities, to the clergymen 
and members of the Council of the village of Ober- 
lin, to all alumni, and to friends of the college. 

The colleges and universities arranged in the or- 
der of seniority which were represented at the 
inaugural exercises were as follows : 

LIST OF DELEGATES 

Harvard University 

Professor Edward Caldwell Moore, Ph.D., D.D. 

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Yale University 

Professor Frank Knight Sanders, Ph.D., D.D. 
University of Pennsylvania 

Professor Edwin Grant Conklin, Ph.D. 
Columbia University 

Professor Walter Taylor Marvin, Ph.D. 
Brown University 

Mr. Charles G. King, Jr. 
Dartmouth Q)llege 

President William Jcwett Tucker, D.D., LL.D. 
Williams College 

President Henry Hopkins, D.D., LL.D. 
Andover Theological Seminary 

Professor William Henry Ryder, D.D. 
Allegheny College 

President William H. Crawford, D.D., LL.D. 
Indiana University 

Professor Albert Frederick Kuersteiner. 
Miami University 

Professor Andrew D. Hepburn, D.D., LL.D. 
Kenyon College 

Professor Henry Titus West, A.M. 
Western Theological Seminary 

Professor Thomas Hastings Robinson, D.D. 
Western Reserve University 

President Charles Franklin Thwing, D.D., LL.D. 

Mr. W. S. Tyler 
Lane Theological Seminary 

Professor Henry Goodwin Smith, D.D. 
McCormick Theological Seminary 

Professor Augustus Stiles Carrier, D.D. 
Denison University 

Professor Augustine S. Carman, A.B. 
Hartford Theological Seminaiy 

Professor Charles S. Thayer 
Marietta College 

President Alfred Tyler Perry, D.D. 
Union Theological Seminary 

President Charles Cuthbert Hall, D.D. 

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University of Michigan 

Professor Albert Benjamin Prescott, M.D., LL.D. 
Mount Holyokc College 

Professor Nellie A. Spore 
University of Missouri 

President Richard Henry Jesse, LL.D. 
University of Notre Dame 

Professor William Hoynes, LL.D. 
University of Toronto 

Professor John Roaf Wightman, Ph.D. 
Ohio Wesleyan University 

President James Whitford Bashford, Ph.D., D.D. 
Olivet College 

Professor Walter Eugene Colbum Wright, D.D. 
Wittenberg College 

Professor Charles Girven Heckert, D.D. 
Baldwin University 

President E. O. Buxton, D.D. 
Mount Union College 

President Albert Burdsall Riker, D.D. 
Beloit College 

President Edward D. Eaton, D.D., LL.D. 
Otterbein University 

President George Scott, Ph.D. 
University of Wisconsin 

Professor William Axnasa Scott, Ph.D. 
Heidelberg University 

President Charles E. Miller, A.M. 
Northwestern University 

Dean Thomas Franklin Holgate, Ph.D. 
Wa5mesburg College 

President Archelaus Ewing Turner, A.M. 
Hillsdale College 

President Joseph W. Mauck, LL.D. 
Berea College 

President William Goodell Frost, Ph.D., D.D. 
Michigan Agricultural College 

President J. L. Snyder, Ph.D. 
Union Christian College 

President Leander Jefferson Aldrich, D.D. 

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology 

Mr. E. A. Handy 
Carleton College 

Professor Wilmot V. Metcalf, Ph.D. 
Cornell University 

Professor Waterman Thomas Hcwett, Ph.D. 
University of Woostcr 

President Louis Edward Holden, D.D., LL.D. 
Ohio State University 

Professor William Henry Scott, LL.D. 
Buchtel College 

President A. B. Church, A.M. 
Smith College 

President L. Clark Seelye, D.D, LL.D. 
Welleslcy College 

President Caroline Hazard, A.M., Litt.D. 
Johns Hopkins University 

Professor John Martin Vincent, Ph.D. 
Case School of Applied Science 

Acting President Charles Sumner Howe, Ph.D. 
Tuskegee Institute 

Mrs. Booker T. Washington. 
Yankton College 

President Henry Kimball Warren, A.M., LL.D. 
Findlay College 

President Charles Manchester, D.D. 
Clark University 

Professor Herbert Austin Aikens, Ph.D. 
The Woman's College of Baltimore 

Professor Maynard M. Metcalf, Ph.D. 
University of Chicago 

Professor George Herbert Mead, A.B. 
Lake Erie College 

President Mary Evans, A.M. 

The Inaugural Procession comprised the follow- 
ing divisions : 

1. The Students. 

2. The Obcrlin Musical Union. 

3. The Alumni. 

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4. Representatives of the village of Obcrlin — the Board 
of Q>mmerce, the village Q)uncil, the Teachers in the Public 
Schools, the Board of Education, and the Pastors of the 
Churches. 

5. The Faculty, Office Staff, and Prudential Committee. 

6. Invited Guests, not representatives of Colleges. 

7. Representatives of Colleges and Universities. 

8. The Board of Trustees, the Speakers and the Pres- 
ident-elect. 

The movements of the procession were under the 
direction of Mr. Seeley K. Tompkins, Marshal- 
in-Chief, and his assistants. As Honorary Marshal, 
Mr. Louis H. Severance acted as the special escort 
of President King. Student marshals directed the 
marching of the students in division i ; division 2 
was in charge of Mr. Earl F. Adams. Mr. Charles 
H. Kirshner, of the class of 1886, acted as head 
marshal of the Alumni, assisted by Professor 
Azariah S. Root. Division 4 was in the charge of 
Mr. Charles K. Whitney; division 5, of Professor 
William G. Caskey; division 6, of Professor Fred 
E. Leonard; division 7, of Professor Charles E. 
St. John; and division 8, of Mr. William C. 
Cochran. 

The various divisions assembled at 8 130 o'clock, 
at the appointed places, and moved promptly at 
9 o'clock over the following route: South from 
Peters Hall to the corner of West College and 
North Professor streets; thence northward upon 
the west side of North Professor street as far as 
Tappan Walk; thence eastward under the Me- 
morial Arch and along Tappan Walk, to the east 
side of the campus ; thence northward on the wesl 

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side of North Main street, to the First Congrega- 
tional Church. 

Upon arriving at the steps of the Church, the 
students comprising division i halted and opened 
ranks, forming a passage way through which the 
other divisions of the procession passed. 

Hon. John G. W. Cowles, LL. D., senior mem- 
ber of the Board of Trustees, presided at the Inau- 
guration exercises, the program being as follows : 

INAUGURATION EXERCISES 

Processional H)aiin, "Our God, our help in ages past/' Watts 

Our God, our help in ages past, 

Our hope for years to come ; 
Our shelter from the stormy blast, 

And our eternal home! 
Under the shadow of thy throne 

Thy saints have dwelt secure; 
Sufficient is thine arm alone. 

And our defense is sure. 

Before the hills in order stood. 

Or earth received her frame. 
From everlasting thou art God 

To endless years the same. 
A thousand ages, in thy sight, 

Are like an evening gone; 
Short as the watch that ends the night 

Before the rising sun. 

Time, like an ever-rolling stream. 

Bears all its sons away; 
They fly, forgotten, as a dream 

Dies at the opening day. 
Our God, our help in ages past, 

Our hope for years to come, 
Be thou our guard while troubles last, 

And our eternal home. 

Organ Prelude. — March from Tannhauser, Wagner 
Invocation. Rev. Washington Gladden, D.D., of Columbus, O. 
Music: "Banquet Chorus," from the Odysseus, Bruch 
By the Oberlin Musical Union 

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Address by Hon. J. G. W. Cowles, LL.D., on behalf of the 

Board of Trustees 
Response by President Henry Churchill King, D.D. 
Addresses by: — 

Professor Edward Increase Bosworth, D.D., on behalf of 

the Faculty 
President William Goodell Frost, Ph,D., D.D., of the 

class of 1876, on behalf of the Alumni 
Mr. Dahl Buchanan Cooper, of the class of 1903, on 
behalf of the Students 
Music: "And the Glory of the Lord," Chorus from the 
Messiah, Handel. By the Oberlin Musical Union 
Address: "Is Modem Education Capable of Idealism?" 

President William Jewett Tucker, D.D., LL.D., of Dart- 
mouth College 
Inaugural Address: "The Primacy of the Person in College 
Education." President Henry Churchill King, D.D. 
Hymn, "O Master, let me walk with Thee." W. Gladden. 

O Master, let me walk with thee 
In lowly paths of service free; 
Tell me thy secret, help me bear 
The strain of toil, the fret of care. 

Help me the slow of heart to move 
By some clear, winning word of love; 
Teach me the wayward feet to stay, 
And guide them in the homeward wav. 

Teach me thy patience ; still with thee 
In closer, dearer company. 
In work that keeps faith sweet and strong, 
In trust that triumphs over wrong. 

In hope that sends a shining ray 
Far (fown the future's broadening way, 
In peace that only thou canst give. 
With thee, O Master, let me live. 

Qosing Prayer and Benediction, President Charles Cuthber 
Hall, D.D., of Union Theological Seminary 

Organ Postlude, March from Aida, Verdi 

At the close of the exercises in the First Churcl 
a luncheon was given at Warner Gymnasium ii 

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honor of the representatives of other colleges and 
universities, and at this luncheon brief addresses 
were made by President James Whitford Bash- 
ford, of Ohio Wesleyan University, President 
Caroline Hazard, of Wellesley College, and Pro- 
fessor Waterman Thomas Hewett, of Cornell 
University. 

Late in the afternoon, from 4 o'clock to 5:30 
o'clock, the President of the College and Mrs. 
King gave a general reception to all friends at 
Talcott lawn. 

By the generosity of the Oberlin Musical Union 
the College was able to give to visiting delegates 
and friends tickets for reserved seats for the three 
concerts of the May Festival. The May Festival 
exercises consisted of the following events : 

Tuesday, May 12, 7 P. M., Concert by the Oberlin Musi- 
cal Union, assisted by the Boston Festival Orchestra, Lohengrin, 
Wagner. 

The soloists for the Lohengrin concert were as follows : 
Anita Rio, Elsa 
Isabelle Bouton, Ortrud 
William A. Wegener, Lohengrin 
Emilio de Gogorza, Frederick of Telramund 
Frederic Martin, King 

Wednesday, May 13, 2 P. M., Orchestra Concert, Richard 
Wagner program, by the Boston Festival Orchestra and soloists.. 
The program for this concert was as follows: 

Emil MoUenhauer, Conductor 

Vorspiel Tristan and Isolde 

Aria, Adriano Rienzi 

Mme. Isabelle Bouton 
Siegfried Idylle 

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Prize Song (arranged for violin) Die Meistersinger 

Mr. John Witzcmann 

Ritt der Walkuren Die Wdkure 

Romanza, "The Evening Star" Tannhauser 

Mr. Frederic Martin 

Overture The Flying Dutchman 

Wednesday, May 13, 7 P. M., Concert by the Oberlin Musi- 
cal Union, assisted by the Boston Festival Orchestra, Lohengrin, 
Wagner. 

. The events of Inauguration Week closed on 
Thursday, May 14, with the dedication of the 
Memorial Arch at 10 o'clock A. M. and the ex- 
ercises in connection with the Seventieth Annual 
Commencement of the Theological Seminary at 
2 130 P. M. The program at the dedication of the 
Memorial Arch was as follows : 

DEDICATION OF THE MEMORIAL ARCH 

Rev. Judson Smith, D.D., Secretary of the American Board of 
Commissioners for Foreign Missions, Presiding 

Dedicatory Address, Rev. Frank S. Fitch, D.D., of Buffalo, 
N. Y. 

Dedicatory Prayer, Rev. Henry M. Tenney, D.D., of Oberlin 
Hymn, "The Scm of God goes forth to war," Heber 

The Son of God goes forth to war, 

A kingly crown to gain; 
His blood-red banner streams afar: 

Who follows in his train? 

Who best can drink his cup of woe, 

Triumphant over pain. 
Who patient bears his cross below — 

He follows in his train. 

The martyr first, whose eagle eye 

Could pierce beyond the grave, 
Who saw his Master in the sky. 

And called on him to save: 4' 

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A glorious band, the chosen few, 

On whom the spirit came — 
Twelve valiant saints, their hope they knew, 

And mocked the cross and flame. 

They climbed the steep ascent of heaven 

Through peril, toil, and pain : 
O God ! to us may grace be given 

To follow in their train ! 

Benediction, Rev. John W. Bradshaw, D.D., of Oberlin 

At 1 1 :oo o'clock, in connection with the gradu 
tion exercises of the class of 1903 of the Oberl 
Theological Seminary, there were two addresses 
the Memorial Arch by students of the Seminary, 
follows : 

Monument Oration, by Mr. Paul Leaton Corbin, of 1 
Senior Class. 

Reply, by Mr. Guy Hugh Lemon, of the Middle Class. 

The program of the Seventieth Annual Cor 
mencement of the Oberlin Theological Semina 
was as follows : 

COMMENCEMENT EXERCISES OF THE THEOLOGICAL SEMINA 

Invocation, by Dean Frank K. Sanders, Ph.D., D.D., of Yj 

Divinity School 

Music: Selection from The Redemption Goun 

By the Choir of the Second Congregational Church 
Inauguration of the Dean of the Theological Seminary: 

Address by President Henry Churchill King, D.D. 

Response by Professor Edward Increase Bosworth, D. 

Music: "O Salutaris Hostia" Lu 

Ladies' Quartette 
Commencement Address, "The Call of Christ to the Minist 

of Christ," By President Henry Hopkins, D.D., LL.D., 

Williams College 
Presentation of Degrees and Diplomas 
Benediction, by Professor William H. Ryder, D.D., of A 

dover Theological Seminary 

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The enjoyment of the exercises of Inaugural 
Week was heightened by the unusually attractive 
weather which prevailed. The temperature on the 
morning of Inaugural Day was ideal for such a 
function as the Inaugural Procession, and the even- 
ings were warm enough for the full appreciation 
of the campus illuminations which had been ar- 
ranged by the Committee on Decoration. 



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INAUGURAL ADDRESS^ 

THE PRIMACY OF THE PERSON IN COLLEGE 
EDUCATION 

BY PRESroENT HENRY CHURCHILL KING, D. D. 

The numerous inaugurations of college presidents in the 
last three or four years, have necessarily called out extended 
discussions of educational aims. A late-comer in the field hardly 
feels at liberty to ignore, and he certainly does not wish merely 
to repeat, what has been already well said. To a certain extent 
he must probably do both; for he can hardly contribute more 
than his individual view-point, and may, perhaps, count himself 
fortunate, if, taking advantage of the discussions of his predeces- 
sors, he can by a single degree advance to greater clearness the 
exact problem of college education. 

But he may still find encouragement to believe that the task 
naturally set him is not wholly useless, when he remembers, that, 
in spite of a considerable consensus of opinion on the part of 
college presidents as to what a college education in general ought 
to be, the problem of the precise place of the college in our actual 
educational system has perhaps never been at a more critical 
stage than now. That at least an increasing number of thought- 
ful observers feel this to be the Case there can be no doubt. Pres- 
ident Butler only voices the fear of many when he says : "The 
American college hardly exists nowadays, and, unless all signs 
mislead, those who want to get it back in all its useful excel- 
lence will have to fight for it pretty vigorously. The milk-and- 
water substitutes and the fiat universities that have taken the 
place of the colleges, are a pretty poor return for what we have 
lost." 

For the rapid changes that have taken place in college edu- 
cation in the last twenty-five years have carried with them, in 



iQnly a portion of the full discussion that follows was presented at the 
Inauguration Exercises. 

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many quarters at least, unforeseen and far-reaching conse- 
quences. The study of these consequences has brought to some 
of the most careful students of education, with whatever recog- 
nition of gain, a distinct sense of loss, most definitely expressed, 
perhaps, by Dean Briggs in his "Old-fashioned Doubts concern- 
ing New-fashioned Education." 

Other changes in other departments of education have 
greatly complicated the problem of the relation of the different 
members of our educational system. Revolutionary changes, 
that seem almost, if not quite, to involve the elimination of the 
college, are soberly, even if reluctantly, suggested by distin- 
guished educators. And other changes of relations that appear 
at first sight less serious, in which the colleges themselves are 
acquiescing, may in the end make any adequate attainment of 
the older college ideal equally impossible. The result of the 
entire situation, therefore, is to press today upon American 
educators as never before these questions: Has the American 
college a real function, a logical and vital place in a compre- 
hensive system of education ? or is it the blunder of a crude time 
and a crude people, an illogical hybrid between the secondary 
school and the university, that ought to hand over a part of its 
work to the secondary school and the rest to the university, and 
to retire promptly from the scene with such grace as it can 
muster? or, at best, is its older function now incapable of 
realization ? 

I. THE FUNCTION OF COLLEGE EDUCATION. 

Just because these questions concern the place of college 
education in a system of education, they can be answered only 
in the light of a comprehensive survey of the entire problem 
of education. 

The problem of education in its broadest scope may per- 
haps be said to be the problem of preparation for meeting the 
needs of the world's life and work. Much of the training be- 
longs necessarily to the home and to the interactions of the in- 
evitable relations of life. Much of it, probably, can never be 
brought into any organized system. But organized education 

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must do what it can to insure, first, that no men shall lack that 
elementary training and knowledge without which they are 
hardly fitted at all for ordinary human intercourse, or for intel- 
ligent work of any kind in society, still less for growing and 
happy lives; second, that there shall be those who can carry on 
the various occupations demanded by our complex civilization, 
in the trades, in business, and in the professions; third, that 
there shall be investigators, scientific specialists, extenders of 
human knowledge, in all spheres. None of these needs are 
likely to be denied — not even the last; for our age has had so 
many demonstrations of the practical value of scientific discov- 
eries, that it is even ready to grant the value of the extension of 
knowledge for its own sake. That, then, every man should have 
the education necessary to render him a useful member of so- 
ciety; that the necessary occupations should be provided for; 
that there should be a class of scientific specialists constantly 
pushing out the boundaries of human knowledge, — ^we are all 
agreed. And to this extent at least, the problems, first, of the 
elementary schools; second, of the trade, technical, and profes- 
sional schools; and, third, of the university proper, are recog- 
nized and justified. 

Our diflSculties begin when we try to define more narrowly 
just what is to be included in our first group of schools. Ex- 
actly what education is indispensable that one may become a 
useful member of society? Virtually we seem to have decided 
that that indispensable education is covered in our primary and 
grammar grades; for the majority do not go further, and com- 
pulsory education does not require more. And yet, with prac- 
tical unanimity, the United States have decided that the State 
is justified in furnishing, and, indeed, is bound to furnish, that 
smaller number of its children who are willing and able to 
take further schooling, opportunity to continue for three or four 
years longer in studies of so-called "secondary" grade. The 
State can justify this procedure only upon the ground that 
such further study prepares still better for citizenship, and that 
it is of value to the State that even a much smaller number 
should have this better preparation; or, also, and perhaps more 

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commonly, upon the practical ground that the secondary educa- 
tion furnishes the knowledge and training which, if not indis- 
pensable to citizenship, is indispensable to many of the higher 
occupations and forms of service to the State. No sharp line,, 
certainly, can be drawn between the studies of the grammar 
school and those of the high school. And we all recognize and 
justify the secondary school, and unhesitatingly include it, as- 
practically indispensable to the State if not to all its citizens, 
in our first group of schools, to form the unified public school 
system. 

But it needs to be borne clearly in mind, that if the true 
justification of elementary and secondary education is the prepa- 
ration of useful members of society, it cannot be regarded as^ 
merely intellectual. The moral side of the matter is, if there is 
any difference, even more important — the learning of order, of 
obedience, of integrity in one^s work, of steadfastness in spite 
of moods, of the democratic spirit, of a real sense of justice, and 
of the rightful demand of the whole upon the individual. If 
these are not given in some good measure, then, whatever the- 
intellectual results, in just so far, from the point of view of the 
State, public-school education is a failure. And yet no doubt 
it must be said, that since in America the school children are- 
all in homes, the American public-school teacher has, quite nat- 
urally, not regarded himself as primarily charged with anything 
but the intellectual training of the child. Other training has. 
been largely incidental — taken up only so far as the order of 
the school demanded, or as it was inevitably involved in the 
situation. Even so, the moral training has been by no means un- 
important. But it may be doubted if there is any change in 
public-school education so important today as that the teacher 
should plainly recognize that his real responsibility is to train 
his charges to be useful members of society, with all that that 
implies. Let the child and the parent and the teacher all alike 
understand that the State undertakes the free education of all 
its children just because it hopes thus to prepare them to be- 
valuable members of a free people; and that whatever is neces- 
sary to that end, provided it does not violate individual con- 

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sciences, is within the function of the public school. This means^ 
of course, that it is the business of the public school to teach 
living, as well as studies. 

But with this recognition of the broader function of the 
public schools, with the necessary acknowledgment of a real 
broadening even on the intellectual side of technical and profes- 
sional courses, and with the present common admission of the 
danger of a specialism not broadly based, is the distinct functioa 
of the college clearer, or has it rather been taken on by the other 
members of the educational system? To a certain extent, no* 
doubt, the latter is true and ought to be true. 

But we might well argue for college education, in line with 
the more practical argument already made for secondary educa- 
tion, that the highest success in the great occupations of the 
world's work, including scientific specialism, requires an educa- 
tion preliminary to the technical training, more extended not 
only, but of a broader type than secondary education can fur- 
nish. This seems commonly granted now by the technical 
schools themselves. And this position is no doubt correct. But 
is this the chief reason for college education? It is not merely 
for the purpose of carrying on the world's work in this external 
sense that college education exists, nor does this sufficiently 
define its function. The college does not look beyond to the 
technical or professional school, or to the university proper for 
its justification ; but rather is itself the culmination of the work 
that at least ought to be undertaken by the public schools. 

We might, therefore, argue again and more truly, probably,, 
for college education, in line with the other argument for sec- 
ondary education ; that the world needs pre-eminently the lead-^ 
ership of a few of greater social efficiency than any of the other 
types of education by their necessary limitations are able ta 
offer. For when all is said that can possibly be said for ele- 
mentary, secondary, technical, professional, and specialized train- 
ing, what still do the world's life and work need? All these 
are necessary, but obviously, for the highest life of sodety, much 
more, and much that is greater, is demanded. Here are instruc-^ 
tion and discipline, technical skill and professional training,. 

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and heights of specialized knowledge. "But where shall wisdom 
be found, and where is the place of understanding?" The ele- 
mentary school saith, It is not in me; and the secondary school 
saith, It is not with me. It cannot be gotten for technical skill, 
nor shall professional success be weighed for the price thereof; 
It cannot be valued with the gain of the specialist, with his en- 
larged knowledge or his discovery. Whence then cometh wis- 
dom, and where is the place of understanding? 

One cannot answer that question by raising small inquiries 
of immediately appreciable gain. Let us ask, then, the largest 
questions and note their generally admitted answers. Assum- 
ing that the world and life are not wholly irrational, what is 
the best we can say concerning the meaning of the earthly 
life? What is the goal of civilization? What is the danger of 
the American nation? What are the greatest needs of the in- 
dividual man ? 

The wisdom of the centuries has not been able to suggest 
a better meaning for the earthly life, than that it is a preliminary 
training in living itself. The goal of civilization, our sociolo- 
gists tell us, is a rational, ethical democracy. Our political 
students insist that the foremost danger of the nation is the 
lack of the spirit of social service. The greatest needs of the in- 
dividual man are always character, happiness, and social effi- 
ciency. If these are even approximately correct answers to our 
questions, then the deepest demands to be made upon an educa- 
tional system are, that, so far as it may, it should give such wis- 
dom in living, as should insure character and happiness to the in- 
dividual, and that spirit of social service that should make men 
efficient factors in bringing on the coming rational and ethical 
democracy. 

This requires that somewhere in our educational system 
we should attack the problem of living itself and of social serv- 
ice in the broadest possible way, and in a way that is broader 
than is possible to either the elementary or secondary school, 
though neither of these may legitimately shirk this task. Just 
this, then, is the function of the college: to teach in the broadest 
way the fine art of living, to give the best preparation that or- 

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ganized education can give for entering wisely and unselfishly 
into the co?nplex personal relations of life, and for furthering 
unselfishly and efficiently social progress. As distinguished from 
the other forms of education, it has no primary reference to 
the earning of a living, or to the performance of some specific 
task; it faces the problem of living in a much broader and more 
thoroughgoing fashion; it does not specifically aim or expect 
to reach all, but seeks to train a comparatively small self -selected, 
number who shall be the social leaven of the nation. 

If the task so set the college seems too large, let us re- 
member not only that the admitted individual and social goals, 
require no less, but also that the outcome of the maturest think- 
ing upon man and his relation to the world, indicates that the 
best anywhere can be attained only through such breadth of aim. 

For if we seek light from psychology, we are confronted 
at once with its insistence upon the complexity of life — the re- 
latedness of all — ^and upon the unity of man. But these prin- 
ciples deny point-blank the wisdom of an education exclusively 
intellectual, and require rather, that, for the sake of the intel- 
lect itself, the rest of life and the rest of ipan be not ignored.. 
Positively, they call for an education that shall be broadly in- 
clusive in its interests, and that shall appeal to the entire man. 

If we turn to sociology, we meet, if possible, an even 
stronger emphasis upon the complexity of life, and a clear de- 
mand that, back of whatever power the individual may have, 
there should lie the great convictions of the social consciousness, 
that imply the highest moral training, and set one face to face- 
with the widest social and political questions. No narrow edu- 
cation can meet the sociological test. 

And if we ask for the evidence of philosophy, we have to^ 
note that its most characteristic positions today in metaphysics 
and theory of knowledge — its teleological view of essence, its 
insistence that the function of knowledge is transitional, and 
that the key to reality is the whole person — ^all refute a purely 
intellectual conception of education and logically require a 
broader view of education than has anjrwhere commonly pre-^ 
vailed. 

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And if as a Christian people, professing to find our I 
ideals in the Christian religion, we seek guidance from its 
that all men should live as obedient sons of the He 
Father and as brothers one of another — ^we are face t 
;again with that problem of the complex world of persona 
tions, that cannot be solved except through the training 
entire man. 

In all these lines of psychological, sociological, philc 
•cal, and Christian thinking, our theories are right; our p: 
in education at best lags far behind. Every line of modern 
ing is a fresh insistence upon the concrete complexity of li 
upon the unity of man, and demands an education, 
enough to meet both. Nothing justifies the common ex 
dinary emphasis on the intellectual as the one aim oi 
•cation. 

It is not, then, by accident that we speak of the nectsi 
a liberal education. For let us notice that even on the 
lectual side, the most valuable and vital qualities cann 
.^ven by rule or by any narrow technique. The suprea 
mand is for what we call sanity, judgment, common 
adaptability — all different names, perhaps, for the same 
namely, ability to know whether a given case is to be ti 
•according to general precedent — by appeal to a general 
ciple — or decided upon its individual merits; to know wl 
our problem is one of classification, or one of more tho: 
:acquaintance with the particular. No rules or methods oi 
cedure can make a reasoner or an investigator; for the 
point is to pick out of a new situation the exact element 
which is significant for the purpose in hand. The case c 
have been anticipated ; the only help that education can g 
through much practice in discrimination and assimilation, 
through the bestowal of a wide circle of interests, aBstheti< 
-practical, even more than intellectual. Interpretive pou 
similarly conditioned, and calls for the richest life in th 
terpreter. Even the scientific spirit, then, — the most val 
gift of a scientific training, — is not merely intellectual. Stil 
.•are the historical spirit and the philosophic spirit intellect 

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conferred ; they require at every turn the use of the key of the 
whole man. 

And we certainly have a right to ask of education that it 
bring men to appreciation of the great values of life — what else 
does culture mean? — to aesthetic taste and appreciation, to 
moral judgment and character, to the capacity for friendship, 
to religious appreciation and response. 

But if we have a right to demand from an educational 
system in any measure these qualities — ^judgment, adaptability, 
discernment, interpretive power, the scientific, historical, and 
philosophical spirit, and the culture adequate to enter into the 
great spheres of value — aesthetic, personal, moral, and reli- 
gious, — ^it is evident that they can be given only indirectly and 
through the most liberal training. Do they not lie, in the na- 
ture of the case, quite beyond the limits of elementary, second- 
ary, professional, or specialistic training, and constitute the great 
aims of college education? Is there anything else likely to take 
the place of the college in performing this greatest educational 
work? 

It will hardly be contended by any, I judge, that technical 
or professional training, for the very reason that it does and 
must aim primarily at direct preparation for a particular call- 
ing, can give with any adequaqr this indirect and liberal edu- 
cation. 

And it is difficult to believe that any one who has measured 
with seriousness the greatness of the need of which we have 
just spoken, and the breadth of the education required to meet 
the need, will be able to think that the secondary school, even if 
extended two years, is, or can be made, sufficient to the task. 
For, in the first place, it is only reasonable that our educational 
system should somewhere recognize the special significance of the 
transitional character of the period of later youth, and definitely 
provide for it. That period peculiarly needs the kind of sepa- 
rate training given by the college, with its increased call for in- 
dependent action, and (as compared with the high school) its 
greater possibility of bringing all sides of the life of the student 
under some common and unified training. Is it too much to 



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claim that the college, at its best, has proved an almost 
transition from the stricter supervision of the secondary sc 
to the complete individual liberty of the university proper ? 

Moreover, it is quite wide of the mark to argue, as aga 
the need of the college, that the high-school graduate of to 
has often done as much work in many lines as the college gi 
uate of fifty years ago. That may be true, but the real qi 
tion is this: Is he proportionally as well prepared to meet i 
complex demands of modern life, as the college graduate of i 
older time, the conditions of the much simpler life he co 
fronted? The question, in other words, is not one of absolu 
attainment, but of proportional preparation for life; nor one < 
amount of knowledge merely, but of adaptive power. In ed\ 
cation, we are least of all at liberty to ignore the increasing con 
plexity of modem civilization. 

But the decisive reason, after all, why the secondary schoo 
cannot take the place of the college is this : that one has only t< 
review the list of qualities required for the completest training 
for living, to see that the deepest of the interests involved simply 
cannot be appreciated at the secondary school age, even if ex- 
tended two years. I have no desire to underrate the attain- 
ments of the secondary school graduate, but I cannot forget 
that the true scientific spirit, the historical spirit, the philosophi- 
cal spirit, power of wise adaptation, and appreciation of the 
greatest spheres of value, are all plants of slow growth, and 
necessarily presuppose a certain maturity of mind. What does 
the whole principle of psychological adaptation in education 
mean but just this, that you cannot wisely overhasten life's own 
contribution ? It seems to me too often forgotten, that the two 
later years which it is sometimes proposed to cut off from the 
college course are precisely the years, which, from the broader 
and deeper point of view, can least of all be spared. Generally 
speaking, you simply cannot make a philosopher of a sophomore. 
He has not lived enough. In like manner, the key to the great- 
est values of life is simply not yet held before the dawning, at 
least, of some real maturity. 

Nor do statistics as to age seem to me greatly to affect the 

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problem. With an advancing civilization, the period of youth 
for women certainly has been generally extended with real gain ; 
probably it is wisely extended for both men and women. In any 
case, I see no reason for believing that the average sophomore 
is relatively maturer today than his compeer of the earlier time. 

These considerations seem to me sufficient to show that we 
have no good reason to expect the secondary school to take the 
place of the college. 

And we have still less reason to expect the university to 
take the place of the college, unless college and university are 
regarded as essentially interchangeable terms. If the university 
proper has any really distinctive function, so far as I am able 
to see, that must be regarded as the training of the scientific 
specialist. I am quite ready to admit and to assert, that even 
the university cannot wisely ignore the claims of citizenship; 
but just because its primary aim is specific and limited, its recog- 
nition of these claims must be almost wholly incidental — in 
spirit and atmosphere rather than in its proper training. 

The university, then, properly so-called, cannot do the 
work of the college, first, because its aim is distinctly and en- 
tirely intellectual; and, second, because it assumes, with some 
reason, that it is dealing with fully mature men, in whose case 
any imposition of conduct and ideals would be out of place ; and 
this assumption accentuates still further its strictly intellectual 
aim. But, besides this, in the very nature of the case, in its 
exclusive specialism, the university lacks, necessarily, the breadth 
of aim required in the fullest training for living, and quite fails 
to make its appeal to the entire man ; and so shuts out both in- 
dispensable interests and indispensable training. Even on the 
purely intellectual side, for the very reason that it looks to spe- 
cialism in each line, it is likely quite to lack those general courses 
that even the specialist needs in other lines than his own. These 
three essential differences, then, — the purely intellectual aim, 
the assumption of the maturity of its students, and its exclusive 
specialism, — ^make the atmosphere of the university distinctly 
different from that of the college, and make it impossible that it 
should ever do the work of the older college. 

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In fact, it is hardly too much to say that the greatest losses 
that college education has suffered are due to the fact that the 
attempt has been mistakenly made to carry over the spirit of 
the university into the college. As American educators awak- 
ened only slowly to the true conception of the university proper, 
and then, with the natural enthusiasm of a new-found ideal, 
exaggerated the value of the university's function, the college 
and university ideals were naturally confused, and the true col- 
lege ideal almost lost in the process. Many circumstances have 
favored this tendenqr. The confusion was real and honest. 
Colleges were growing into universities. Many changes in 
college education itself were necessary. But the greatest dam- 
age was done, simply because the colleges were cowardly in the 
face of unwise and ill-founded criticism made from the stand- 
point of the university, and were either ashamed to resist the ex- 
clusively intellectual trend, or lazily unwilling to keep the in- 
creasingly diiScult responsibility of the broader college training. 

As a natural consequence, many of our colleges and uni- 
versities have presented the anomalous condition of being filled 
with students who claimed both the liberty of men and the ir- 
responsibility of boys. Naturally, too, aside from sham univer- 
sities, those colleges have been in most danger in this respect of 
losing true college ideals, that have been in closest connection 
with the university, especially where the same courses and in- 
structors and methods and discipline and aims have served both 
college and university. Courses admirably adapted for the ex- 
clusive specialist may be quite unprofitable as the chief pabulum 
of a college course: and a method of treatment, not only justi- 
fied, but almost demanded in dealing with really mature men, 
may be quite inadequate and unwarranted for the student 
whose ideals are in flux, and the appeal of whose entire per- 
sonality no instructor has a right to ignore. "Is not the life 
more than meat? and the body than raiment?" The college 
needs much more than a highly trained specialist in the teach- 
er's chair; it can never spare, without disastrous loss, the close 
personal touch of mature men of marked interest in the wide 
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And it cannot spare a real training that is far more than intel- 
lectual. Indeed, if I understand President Butler aright, in his 
tentative suggestion of halving the college course, it is exactly 
the state of the universitized college that has made him regard 
the halving of its course as no great disaster. The suggestion 
would seem warranted, however, only if we must regard the 
cause of the college as already lost, and count it hopeless that 
cither educators or the public should be again awakened to the 
priceless value of the work of the true college. 

Nor do I believe that> with whatever losses, the college has 
quite failed to give the liberal training required. Many a col- 
lege teacher can confirm from his own repeated observation 
President Wilson*s words: "Raw lads are made men of by 
the mere sweep of their lives through the various schools of ex- 
perience. It is this very sweep of life that we wish to bring to 
the consciousness of young men by the shorter processes of the 
college. We have seen the adaptation take place ; we have seen 
crude boys made fit in four years to become men of the world." 

Mistakes, no doubt, have been made, serious losses sus- 
tained, and there are grave dangers to be guarded against in all 
our colleges. The utilities have been over-insistent ; the aim has 
been too merely intellectual; specialism has claimed too much; 
the standpoint and method of the university have prevailed to 
an extent quite beyond reasonable defense; and, in consequence, 
at multiplied places the rights of the entire personality have 
been ignored. 

But, on the other hand, no mere reaction to the older col- 
lege is either desirable or possible. Men came to see that tl\ey 
were in a new world that required for wise and fruitful living 
a broader curriculum than the older college ever afforded. A 
change here was inevitable. 

So, too, it can hardly be doubted that there was needed 
greater emphasis on a close and living and practical relation to 
the actual world ; fuller recognition of the meaning of hard, hon- 
est, intellectual work, and of the sound psychological basis of 
the laboratory and seminar methods ; a better adaptation to dif- 
fering individuals; and, for the very sake of greater power in the 

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more general courses, a real approach to something like spe- 
cialism in at least one line of study. In all these important re- 
spects, the changes toward the newer college have been not 
only practically justified but thoroughly right. 

Now, is it possible to combine the gains of the new with 
the indisputable advantages of the old? What changes in the 
present situation are demanded, if the true function of the 
college is to be completely fulfilled? The present lack seems 
to me plainly to lie in the comparative neglect of the entire per- 
sonality. How are these needs of the complete personality to 
be met in education? What are the means, and what is the 
spirit required ? 

The direct study of human nature in its constitution and 
in the relations of society ought to enable one to answer these 
questions with some precision. In other words, if college edu- 
cation has really the broad function that has been ascribed to 
it, it ought to be able to meet a psychological and sociological 
test. Modern psychology — ^with what seems to me its pre- 
eminent fourfold insistence, upon the complexity of life, the 
unity of man, the central importance of will and action, and 
the concreteness of the real, involving a personal and a social 
emphasis — has its clear suggestions. And modern sociology, too, 
with its demand for a social consciousness that shall be charac- 
terized by the threefold conviction of the essential likeness of 
men, of the mutual influence of men, and of the value and 
sacredness of the person, has its definite counsel. The proper 
fulfillment of the function of the college, this seems to indicate, 
requires as its great meansy first, a life sufficiently complex to 
give acquaintance with the great fundamental facts of the world, 
and to call out the entire man ; second, the completest possible 
expressive activity on the part of the student; and, third, per- 
sonal association with broad and wise and noble lives. And the 
corresponding spirit demanded in college education must be, 
first, broad and catholic in both senses, — ^as responding to a 
wide range of interests, and looking to the all-around develop- 
ment of the individual; second, objective rather than self-cen- 
tered and introspective ; and, third, imbued with the fundamental 

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convictions of the social consciousness. These are always the 
greatest and the alone indispensable means and conditions in a 
complete education, and they contain in themselves the great 
sources of character, of happiness, and of social efficiency. The 
supreme opportunity, in other words, that a college education 
should offer, is opportunity to use one's full powers in a wisely 
chosen, complex environment, in association with the best; — and 
all this in an atmosphere, catholic in its interests, objective in 
spirit and method, and democratic, unselfish, and finely reverent 
in its personal relations. Such an ideal definitely combines the 
best of both the older and the newer college. And the colleges 
that most completely fulfill this ideal have, I judge, a work 
which is beyond price, and without possible substitute. 

Before passing to the discussion of the means and spirit 
demanded in a true college education, a word further concern- 
ing the relation of the college to the professional training seems 
desirable. In this whole problem of the possible shortening of 
the college course for the sake of students looking to professional 
studies, several things need to be kept closely in mind if confu- 
sion is to be avoided. 

In the first place, if the professional course is a full rigorous 
four-year course, this ought to mean, and usually does mean, 
that it has been laid out on somewhat broad and liberal lines, 
and not with reference to mere narrow technique. And the 
student who is to continue his study through such a course 
can more easily afford to abridge the time given to the two 
courses. 

This same broadening of the professional course, more- 
over, makes possible ian entirely legitimate adjustment to the 
coming professional study on the part of the college. In every 
broadly planned professional course of four years, there is quite 
certain to be at least a year of work of so liberal a character 
that it may justly be counted toward both the college and the 
professional degree. And the colleges which can offer such 
work of first quality for the different professions can meet 
squarely and strongly every legitimate demand for abridging the 
entire period of study; and can then, in all probability, in the 

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great majority of cases, render a better service to the stu< 
himself, to the professional school, and to society, by retail 
the student in the atmosphere of the college through his 
four years. 

It is further to be noted that in any case this reason 
shortening college courses holds only for such professional 
dents. For the majority of college students, including aln 
all the women, such shortening is not called for, and woulc 
only a calamity. Even the smallest real colleges, theref 
that can do very little in the way of adjustment to professic 
courses, and that may have to lose many, perhaps most, of tl 
looking to professional work, would still have their former n 
important service to render for the majority of their students 

Moreover, it seems to me wholly probable that a good i 
portion of the very ablest and clearest-sighted of those go 
into the professions, will still choose not to deprive themse] 
of the very best the college can give them, and will there! 
prefer not to specialize in college in precisely those subjects 
which the larger part of all their later study in any case m 
be devoted. And, through specialization in other lines, such 
ceptional students will look forward confidently to a larger '. 
and a higher professional success than could otherwise come 
them. These wisest students will certainly not wish to sa< 
fice acquaintance with the natural great broad human subjc 
of the last year in college to professional specialization. A 
even those students who feel compelled to abridge their ent 
period of study, if they are wise, will so scatter their preli 
inary professional study through their college course, as to 
sure that at least a part of their maturest time in college n: 
be given to those great subjects, like philosophy, that requ 
some real maturity of mind to be most profitably taken. I 
not believe that the proper demands of both liberal and prof 
sional training can be met where it is attempted to cover be 
courses in six years. Even where the requisite subjects are ; 
covered by brilliant students the value of the outcome may w 
be doubted. It is not to be forgotten that it is time, and soi 
real sense of leisure, and opportunity to take in the full signi 

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cance of one's studies and to knit them up with the rest of one's 
thinking and living — it is just these things that distinguish 
real education from cramming. 

II. THE GREAT MEANS IN COLLEGE EDUCATION. 

A. A Complex Life, — And, first, the college must furnish 
a life sufficiently complex to insure to the student a wide circle 
of interests, and to call out his entire personality. 

Aside from its psychological basis, justification for this 
prime emphasis on breadth in college education is ever3rwhere at 
hand. For philosophy has practically to recognize, even when 
it does not theoretically and directly assert, that "to be is to be 
in relations." Science cannot forget that as the scale of life 
rises, there must be correspondence to a more complex environ- 
ment. The philosophical historian finds the main safeguard 
against the retrogression of the race in an increasing self-control, 
due to the steady pressure of great and many-sided objective 
forces organized in institutions, laws, customs, and education. 
The supreme educational counsel, and the secret of full mental 
wakefulness both seem often to be found in concentration upon 
relations. Our follies usually go back to the ignoring of some 
relation or other of the matter in hand. And it is not diflScult 
to show that our world, our experience, our sanity, our free- 
dom, and our influence, — all depend in no small degree on the 
largeness of our circle of interests; while simple understanding 
of our complex modern civilization alone requires great breadth 
In training. 

It cannot be denied that such breadth of education is at- 
tended by serious dangers of over-sophistication and pessimism 
through loss of convictions and ideals. And yet the breadth is 
to be welcomed; for the remedy is not in less breadth, but in 
more breadth. For breadth certainly does not mean the nar- 
rowness of ignoring the results of experience. It is a false lib- 
erality that treats with equal respect exploded and verified 
hypotheses. The entire lack of prejudice upon which some so 
pride themselves is curiously akin to stupid and obstinate folly. 
Some things have been proved in the history of the race. 

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Nor does breadth mean the abandonment of all discrim- 
ination in values — ^putting all values on a dead level. It is a 
strange reversal of scientific estimates, that turns unscientific 
lack of discrimination into science's broad openness to light. 
There are many points of view, but they are not therefore all 
of equal importance. The noble virtue of tolerance is not pos- 
sible to such cheap and easy indifferentism. Only the man of 
convictions and ideals, with a strong sense of the difference of 
values, can be tolerant, for only he cares. The view of any 
single individual is no doubt limited; but the point of view 
which results from the gradual and careful cancellation of the 
limitations of many minds, is more than an individual view. 

Nor, once more, does breadth mean a narrow intellectual- 
ism, for if we can trust the indications of our intellect, we 
ought to be able to trust the indications of the rest of our 
nature; and in any case the only possible key and standard of 
truth and reality are in ourselves — the whole self — ^and the so- 
called "necessities of thought" become, thus, necessities of a 
reason which means loyally to take account of all the data of the 
entire man. 

Obviously, then, no attempt at mere reaction to simpler 
conditions will avail in education. Indeed, we cannot return 
to them if we would; though the temptation to do so is often 
real enough. But, even if the return were possible, it would 
mean nothing less than a declaration that our Christian ideals 
cannot conquer a complex situation. This would be really to 
give up the whole battle; for we have not only found reason 
fully to justify the greatest breadth on general grounds, but the 
ideal interests themselves suffer from any spirit of exclusive- 
ness. Human nature certainly avenges itself for any attempted 
disregard of the wide range of its interests; and, in truth, the 
denial of legitimate worldly interests only limits the possible 
sphere of morality and religion. It is for just this reason that 
the separation of the sacred and secular is the heresy of here- 
sies. The simplicity to be sought lies — not in environment — 
but in a spirit that, having great convictions and great ideals, 
clearly discriminates the greater from the less, and unhesitatingly 

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subordinates all relative goods. This insures that singleness of 
aim that makes the genuinely simple and transparent life. It is 
a spirit that can recognize the full value of the material in its 
place, but with the clear vision that "a man's life consisteth 
not in the abundance of the things which he possesseth" will not 
allow itself to be absorbed in the "passion for material comfort" 
The simplicity of higji ideals, consistently and resolutely pur- 
sued, is possible to any college in the very midst of the most 
varied interests. And only such a simplicity' can conquer in 
the end. 

The college, of course, must meet these demands for breadth 
of training by the wide range of its studies and of its interests. 
In its studies it aims to let the student share in the world's best 
inheritance in each of die great realms of human thinking. I 
need not repeat the often given argument for the different 
studies to be recognized in a liberal training. It will include 
the older and newer studies, mathematics, ancient and modem 
languages and literatures, natural science, history, economics and 
sociology, philosophy, and physical training. And it seems to 
me hardly open to question that it ought to provide courses that 
shall prove valuable introductions to the intelligent appreciation 
of music and of art, as well as of literature. These studies will 
represent all the great classes of facts in the midst of which 
every man must live, and afford the full range of fundamental 
educational values. But liberal training need not mean neces- 
sarily, I think, large numbers of greatly detailed courses; nor 
for any one man acquaintance with all branches of natural 
science. The scientific spirit it must give, with the involved some- 
what thorough knowledge of at least one science. The study 
of material objects has great advantages for the scientific spirit 
and method over the study of any other objects; but we are not 
at liberty to forget that our primary relation in life is, never- 
theless, not to things but to persons. 

But in any case the interests of the college must be wider 
than the curriculum. It is only a part of our excessive intel- 
lectualism that it is so often assumed that the curriculum makes 
the college. Some of the most important interests in a liberal 

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education can be best met only indirectly. Surroundings, or- 
ganization, discipline, and atmosphere may here count for more 
than definite instruction. We have the needs of the entire 
man — ^physical, intellectual, aesthetic, social, moral, and reli- 
gious — to meet in a truly liberal education. The intellectual 
needs can doubtless be met more easily and directly in the cur- 
riculum than any of the others; but none of them may be ig- 
nored without serious loss. 

Physical education makes its rightful claim upon the col- 
lege. The college must not only talk about the sound mind in 
the sound body, but do something really to secure that sound 
body for its students. It must not only thoroughly recognize 
in its psychological teaching the intimate way in which body 
and mind are knit up together, the physical basis of habit, the 
critical importance of surplus nervous energy, the influence of 
physical training upon the brain centers, and the close connec- 
tion of the will with muscular activity; but if it really believes 
these things, it must practically recognize them in the organi- 
zation of its work. This means, not only, that there must be 
scrupulous care about sanitary conditions, careful supervision 
of the health of students by thoroughly trained physicians, and 
general hygienic instruction, but such scientifically planned 
and graded courses in physical training as shall deserve to count 
as real education on the same basis as laboratory courses. Un- 
less our modern psychology is wholly wrong, such phjrsical edu- 
cation that can be applied to all students, has a great contribu- 
tion to make, not only in health and in the systematic develop- 
ment of the body, but intellectually and volitionally as well. 

If athletics are to make their true contribution to the col- 
lege life — and a most valuable contribution that may be — a wide 
range of sports must be encouraged that shall enlist a great 
portion of the students, and not merely a small number of spe- 
cially athletic men; and the spirit of genuine play must be 
brought back into all college so-called sports. They have their 
most valuable office, it should never be forgotten, not as serious 
business or money-making enterprises, but simply as play. A 
relative good becomes a serious evil, when it is allowed to over- 

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top greater values; but in its place it contributes to the sanity- 
and health of all other interests. Such a contribution, I have 
no doubt, athletics have it in their power to make, and to a con- 
siderable extent do make even now; and physical education, as 
a whole, demands greater attention from the college. 

The universally recognized demand of the intellectual ia 
college education needs no argument. 

The fact that man is as truly an asthetic being, as phy- 
sical and intellectual, the college has less often sufficiently recog- 
nized. But if it is the mission of a liberal training to produce 
the man of culture, it can hardly refuse to furnish, in some 
form, ability to appreciate the great aesthetic realms of literature, 
music, and art. What it already does in large measure for lit- 
erature, it ought also to do for music and art We must not 
forget the kinship of the aesthetic with the still higher values,, 
and its own large contribution to the sanity and happiness of 
life. The college cannot wisely ignore this need of man. Doubt- 
less, the real need cannot be fully nor perhaps chiefly met in 
courses or in their equipment. The college needs to be able to 
put its students to such extent as is possible in the presence of 
the best in these realms, and to permeate the common life of each 
student with something of the beautiful. It is no small service, 
which is so rendered. Music has certain great advantages in 
this respect, especially in a coeducational institution. 

And certainly, unless one denies the legitimacy of the very- 
aim — social efficiency — with which either the state or the church 
enters upon the work of education at all, the place of the social 
and moral in college education cannot be questioned. Men may 
differ as to the best way of meeting these needs ; they can hardly 
differ as to their imperative claim upon any education that is to 
be called liberal. No let-alone policy here is enough. The 
moral in its broadest scope should be a clearly recognized part 
of college education — to be most wisely and considerately done, 
no doubt, with all possible recognition of the moral initiative of 
the pupil — ^but to be done, nevertheless. Much talk upon this 
point seems to make the most singular assumption that the only 
real necessity in that finest and most delicate of all worlds, the 

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world of personal relations, is moral backbone; and that a sit- 
uation that tends to develop that is doing all that can be asked 
for moral education. But what of aims and ideals and wisest 
means in all this? What of that sensitive moral judgment, and 
creative imagination, and deep sense of the meaning of life, 
without which no high moral attainment can be made? What 
ri^t have we indifferently to let things take their course 
here? This is nothing less than to give the student a shove 
downward; for other influences do not keep their hands off in 
the meantime. What else is the object of education, but to make 
a man all around a better man than he would have otherwise 
naturally become? 

And, once more, unless one is ready to deny altogether the 
value of the function of religion in the life of men, the religious 
need also deserves recognition in some way in any education 
that is to be called complete. Any ideal view of life, such as 
a broad education must itself assume, virtually implies a faith 
in the rationality of the world which is practically religious. It 
is shallow thinking that imagines that religious faith is a matter 
K>f small concern, and easily to be set aside. If, as Emerson 
tells us, any high friendship transfigures the world for us, cer- 
tainly there is no such contributor to peace and joy as a real 
faith in God. And ethical earnestness and social efficiency, no 
less than happiness, surely find their strongest support in a re- 
ligious faith. Why should the man of ethical earnestness be- 
lieve that he is more in earnest to be honest and kind than the 
Source of all whence he has come? Is man indeed himself the 
Highest? And what rational defense has any man for the en- 
thusiasm with which he throws himself either into his own 
calling, or into work for social progress, who cannot believe 
that in both he is working in line with the eternal forces, and 
that a plan greater than his own encircles all his plans and 
makes effective all the bits of his striving? None of us are going 
seriously and enthusiastically to attempt to dip out the ocean 
with a cup. And if we really believe in the value of our call- 
ing, or of our own social endeavor, whether we recognize it or 
not, our belief is at bottom a genuinely religious faith. Man 

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is inevitably a religious being. For this very reason, too, a pe- 
culiar responsibility is laid upon education. For this means- 
that some kind of religious life and thought every man is bound 
to have; the only question is, whether that religious life and 
thought shall be well considered and adequate. 

Either the function of religion is much less than the great 
majority of the more thoughtful of mankind have always^ 
thought, or the religious need of men deserves to be met in edu- 
cation without apology and with an effectiveness seldom found- 
It concerns a people to know whether its educational system is 
helping to an intelligent and genuine religious life. So great a 
need as this will not take care of itself. Where is it being ade- 
quately met today? Few things are more discouraging than the^ 
large amount of surprisingly unintelligent Christianity in sup-j 
posably educated men. How many of our college graduates have 
really awakened, for example, to the significance of the serious 
self-limitation of philosophy in its setting outside its field the 
great facts of Christian history? 

It is a chief aim of a liberal education — is it not? — to bring 
a man to true culture — to ability to enter into all values with ap- 
preciation and conviction. And all values — all the marvelous 
content of literature and music and art — we may not forget, are 
but the revelation of the riches of some personal life. All 
values go back ultimately to persons. And the highest achieve- 
ment of culture is the understanding and appreciation of the 
great personalities. And the Christian religion, therefore,, 
makes its rightful appeal to the truly cultivated man in the tran- 
scendent person of its Founder. May not the college be asked 
to send out men sufficiently cultured to be able to appreciate 
that transcendent person of history? 

Doubtless, in many of our institutions the use of anything 
like definite religious instruction and motive by the Iiistitution 
itself is necessarily excluded. Even so, it means a limitation in 
the education, which is to be made good so far as possible by^ 
other agencies. The necessity of these situations is, l>owever, 
by no means to be made into a prescription for all otheis. And 
the teacher may well rejoice, who, in the midst of his teaching, is. 

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jree to give utterance to his deepest and most significant conrk- 
tions. 

In general, those colleges will best meet the demands for 
l)readth of education, that are most free and best organized to 
meet the entire range of human interests. The advantage here 
lies in part with the larger and in part with the smaller in- 
stitutions. 

In all cases, with whatever inevitable limitations of situa- 
tion, it must at least be demanded that the spirit pervading the 
college should be heartily, though discriminatingly, catholic. 
There should be, certainly, no vaunting of our limitations. And 
this discriminating breadth of view, it should be noticed, in its 
recognition of the complexity of life, and of the unity of man, if 
truly interpreted, itself affords moral support; for it furnishes a 
motive against mere impulse, and helps directly to that delibera- 
tion which is the secret of self-control; and, because it believes 
that all life is so knit up together, is also strenuous counsel 
against deterioration at any point. 

Beyond this breadth in interest and appeal, the great reli- 
ance of an education that is to meet the needs of the entire man 
must be, as we have seen, upon making all possible use of ex- 
pressive activity on the part of the student, and of personal as- 
sociation. 

B. Expressive Activity, — ^And, first, if the "voluntaristic 
trend" in modern psychology has any justification, if in body and 
mind we are really made for action, if for the very sake of 
thought and feeling we must act, then any soundly based educa- 
tion must everywhere make much of the will and of action, must 
in all departments of its training of the individual — physical, 
intellectual, aesthetic, social, moral, and religious — specifically 
seek expressive activity. 

This goes without saying in physical education, and it is 
just at that point that physical education has its greatest con- 
tribution to make to all other training. And the educational 
value of earning one's way in college is not to be overlooked 
just here. It is easy to overdo the amount of direct financial 
aid to students. It is not the ministry alone, as seems often 

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gratuitiously assumed, that suffers in this respect. In spite of 
the temptation of a short-sighted competition that sets colleges 
to bidding against one another for students, it remains true that 
no college that aims at the highest results can afford to ignore 
social axioms in giving its beneficiary aid. Care by the college in 
providing opportunities for self-help is the very best form of aid. 
For such aid does not pauperize, but calls out useful active serv- 
ice from the student himself. But the possibilities of develop- 
ment in this direction depend very largely on the fidelity of 
students. Each student generation holds a trust in this respect 
for the next generation. 

The principle has already been widely recognized in intel- 
lectual training in many of the changes of the newer education — 
in the introduction of laboratory and seminar methods, and in 
the extension of these methods so far as possible to all subjects of 
tstudy, and specifically in the revolution of the teaching of 
English composition. But this principle of the fundamental 
meed of expressive activity deserves ever-widening recognition, 
as a real guiding principle even in intellectual teaching. The 
pupil's own activity is to be called out at every point ; the fullest, 
clearest, and most accurate expression of his thought in speech, 
in writing, and, wherever possible, in action, is to be sought. 
Even our ideas are not ours until we have expressed them, and 
they are more perfectly ours, the more perfect the expression. 
The old-fashioned recitation, when well conducted, had a real 
aground of justification, and no lecturing by the teacher can fully 
Teplace it. 

In aesthetic education the same principle holds. Some ac- 
tual attainment in each of the arts is no doubt a real aid to in- 
telligent appreciation. And no art lends itself more easily than 
•music to such attainment, even quite outside the work of the 
Tegular curriculum. No doubt the main dependence in this 
•matter of aesthetic education must be upon the molding influence 
of the best in these realms, so far as the college can furnish this. 
To a considerable extent this is possible in all the arts, if the nec- 
essary means are granted. But if these influences are to do their 
full work, it sihould be noted, there must be some real response 

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on the part of the student, made possible directly through courses 
intended to introduce to the arts, and indirectly through the less 
systematic but not less stimulating suggestion of a widespread 
interest in the atmosphere of the college. 

And aesthetic education has not done its full work until it 
has brought the student to the recognition of the demands of the 
beautiful in all his work and in all his surroundings, and to the 
cherishing, as a permanent aim, of the ideal expression of the 
ideal life. 

But it is in the realms of the social, moral, and religious 
that expressive activity is most imperatively demanded. If men 
are to be saved from mere passive sentimentalism they must put 
their desires, aspirations, and ideals into act. The very em- 
plo5mient of the student in bringing him continually face to face 
with noble sentiments, peculiarly subjects him to this danger. 
That which is not expressed dies. A man can be best prepared 
for moral earnestness, social efficiency, and a genuine religious 
response in life only through active expression in each of these 
spheres. Men are best trained for society by acting in society, 
for the responsibilities of a democracy by taking their part in a 
really democratic community, for the best fulfillment of personal 
relations by honest answer to the varied personal demands — 
human and divine. The student life should not be a hermit nor 
cloistered nor exclusive life. The more natural and normal the 
personal relations, both to men and women, in the midst of 
which the student lives, the better the preparation for the ac- 
tual life that awaits him. And let his relations to the com- 
munity life, civic and religious, so far as possible, be those of 
an ordinary law-abiding citizen, and let him act as such a citizen, 
so far as such action is open to him. 

Wherever the college calls for the attainment of definite 
ends, w'herever it sets tasks to be faithfully done at given 
times, wherever it calls out the will of the student in the larger 
liberty its life affords him, it is doing something for the develop- 
ment of his moral and religious character. But its responsibil- 
ity cannot end with these means. The atmosphere of a college 
should be sudh as to enlist the enthusiasm of the students in 

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valuable causes — and there are a great variety of them — in 
which they may already have some share. The naturally self- 
centered life of the student peculiarly needs such enlistment in 
objective causes. In the midst of a life permeated with a demo- 
cratic, unselfish, and reverent spirit, he should find increasingly 
such a spirit called out from him. Living in personal rela- 
tions which may well be among the closest and richest of his life, 
he is to learn the capacity for friendship in the only way it can 
be learned, through some form of actual, useful service. So far 
as college traditions are in conflict with such an ideal, they lag 
behind any really Christian civilization. Certainly the college 
should itself afford the best opportunities for the students' own 
initiative and expression in both the moral and religious life. 
And as — apart from personal association — it can best help the 
moral life by an atmosphere permeated with the convictions of 
the social consciousness, so it can best help the religious life by 
making dominant a conception of religion that shall make it real 
and rational and vital for the mind that really gives it attention. 
By such a conception, the student's own response is most natur- 
ally called out. 

C. Personal Association, — But it is called out even so, 
not so much by the teaching as by the spirit of the men back of 
the teaching. And we are thus brought to the greatest of all 
the means available in an all-around education — personal as- 
sociation — already necessarily anticipated in part. I make no 
doubt that the prime factors in a complete education are always 
persons, not things, not even books. It would not be difficult to 
show how powerful is personal association in all the lines of edu- 
cation, even in scientific work; but it is, of course, most indis- 
pensable in moral and religious training. 

The inevitable interactions of the members of a cosmo- 
politan student body are themselves of the greatest intrinsic 
value. The great fundamental social convictions— of the like- 
ness of men, of the mutual influence of men, of the sacredness of 
the person — are developed in a true college life almost perforce. 
And the more genuinely democratic the college, the more cer- 
tain is its ability to make socially efficient citizens. For the sake 

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of its own highest mission, it can afford to stand against the aris> 
tocracy of sex, against the aristocracy of color, against the 
aristocracy of wealth, against the aristocracy of the clique, 
against the aristocracy of mere intellectual brilliancy. And it 
can safely carry this democratic spirit very far into all its or- 
ganization and working. 

Beyond these inevitable social interactions of the college 
life, it is a great thing for the development of a man to be sur- 
prised into really unselfish friendships. And the college, by 
its great conununity of interests and its natural atmosphere of 
trust, has peculiar power in bringing about just such unselfish, 
friendships. The contribution which it so makes not only to 
character but also to happiness, the college man knows well. 
But either in morals or in religion we know but one royal 
/ road to the highest life — through personal association with 
! those who possess such a life as we ought to have, to whom we 
can look in admiration and love, and who give themselves un- 
stintedly to us. There is no cheaper way. Even so high a 
service is often rendered to one student by another student; but 
It is a wholly just demand to make upon a college that that serv- 
ice should be rendered in pre-eminent degree by its teachers. 
Whatever may be true in other parts of the educational system^ 
the college teacher must be one from whom the highest living 
can be readily caught. In the interests of simple honesty, the 
college teacher must be thoroughly prepared to teach what he 
professes to teach. We cannot begin in character-making with 
a fraud. And for the same reasons, professing to teach he 
should be able to teach. He must have sanity, too, and tact — 
real wisdom, for the insights of only such a man will be sure to 
count with others. And, as a man who must stand as a convinc- 
ing witness for the best, he cannot be excused from the requisites 
of the effective witness — undoubted character and conviction^ 
genuine interest in the deepest life of others, and that power in 
putting the great things home, that should belong to his teaching 
ability. His highest qualification is character-begetting power — 
power to inspire other men to their absolute best. When one 
tries to measure the power of even one or two such men in a 

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college community, he begins to see at last what the one indis- 
pensable factor in a college is, and how much is at stake in the 
choice of a faculty. Nothing, let us be sure, so certainly bxings 
about the deterioration of the college, as carelessness in the seleo 
tion of its teachers. A few compromising 2^>pointments here 
may easily make impossible the maintenance of the college's 
highest ideals or best traditions. The spirit of a college cannot 
go down in its buildings or grounds or forms of organization. 
If its best continues at all and grows, it must continue and grow 
in persons ; and the petty and ignoble cannot carry on the work 
of the great and worthy. We seem to be in the midst of a great 
awakening to the over-weighting importance of moral and reli- 
gious education, and the movement comes none too soon ; but let 
us not for a moment imagine that any change in courses or 
methods or organization can ever take the place of the one great 
indispensable means — the personal touch of great and high per- 
sonalities. And if they are not found in our colleges, where 
may they be sought? 



in. THE REQUISITE SPIRIT IN COLLEGE EDUCATION. 

And when one turns to characterize the spirit of the true 
college he must parallel, as we have seen, the great means of a 
complex life, of expressive activity, and of personal association, 
with the demand for a spirit — ^heartily but discriminatingly cath- 
olic, thoroughly objective, and marked by the great convictions 
of the social consciousness. In the discussion of the means, the 
spirit needed has been in no small part implied. I certainly need 
not say more concerning the catholicity that must unmistakably 
mark the true college. 

But it does deserve to be emphasized that, if psychology's"), 
insistence upon the importance of action is at all justified, then : 
our normal mood, the mood of the best work, of the best associa- . 
tions, and of happiness itself, is the objective mood. The great . 
means in education, of using one's powers in an interesting and 
complex environment, even for the very sake of the ideal, itself 
demands the mood of work. And this needs to be particularly 
remembered in moral and religious training. The student life 

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/ 



1 



in any case is quite too prone to be self-centered, and therefore 
needs all the more the objective emphasis. But aside from this 
peculiar need of the student life, the introspective mood itself 
has a smaller contribution to make to the moral and religious 
life than has been commonly assumed. Just so much introspec- 
tion is needed as to make sure that one has put himself in the 
presence of the great objective forces that lead to character and 
to God. When this is determined, the work of introspection is 
practically done. The dominant mood should be objective 
through and through. 

And one chief and good cause of reaction, no doubt, from 
some of the older methods of moral and religious training in 
college, has been the lack of this objective spirit. This does nat 
mean any underestimation of the significance of personal reli- 
gion, but a wholesome sense that no man may come into right 
personal relations with God without sharing the life of God, and 
that life is love ; and love cannot be cultivated in selfishness and 
self-absorption. 

But if the college looks pre-eminently to social efficiency, 
and if its greatest means is personal association, its spirit must be, 
above all, permeated with the great convictions of the social 
consciousness. Nowhere should the atmosphere be more genu- 
inely and thoroughly democratic, charged with the strong sense 
of the likeness of men in the great essentials; nowhere a more 
evident setting aside of all artificial and merely conventional 
standards in the estimate of men. No small part of the value 
of the college education lies in bringing a man steadily to the 
test of the worth of his naked personality. And when conven- 
tion rules, the very life of the college has gone out. 

And the college must add to its democratic spirit the spirit 
of responsibility and service. Its life must be permeated with 
the conviction that men are inevitably members one of another, 
and that responsibility for others, therefore, is inescapable ; that, 
moreover, much of the best of life comes through this knitting 
up with humanity in many-sided personal relations, and, in con- 
sequence, this mutual influence of men is not merely inevitable, 
but desirable and indispensable. Surely, a true cosmopolitan 

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college must be able to send out men marked by the sense of 
responsibility and of the obligation of service. 

But no high development is possible in personal friendship 
or in society without a deep sense of the value and sacredness 
of the person. What even the golden rule really demands of a 
man, depends upon his sense of the significance of life, of the 
value of his own personality. And if even the sense of the like- 
ness and of the mutual influence of men is to bear satisfying 
fruit, it must be informed throughout by reverent regard for the 
liberty and the person of others. 

And nowhere is this reverence for the person more needed 
than in moral and religious education. For the very aim of 
such education is to bring a man to a faith and a life of his own. 
This requires at every point the most careful guarding of the 
other's liberty, the calling out everywhere of his own initiative. 
There can be, therefore, in the nature of the case, no mere im- 
position upon another of any genuine moral and religious life. 
And more than this is true. What you will do, what you can 
do, for another will be measured by your sense of his value. 
If men are for you mere creatures of a day with but meager 
possibilities, nothing can call out from you the largest service in 
their behalf. Nor is this all. With the sense of the value, the 
preciousness, of the person, comes a genuine reverence, that not 
only sacredly guards the other's moral initiative, but under- 
stands that the inner life of another is rightly inviolate; that in 
any high friendship, nay, in any true personal relation, there can 
be only request, never demand. The highest man stands with) 
Christ at the door of the heart of the other, only knocking that; 
he may come in, by the other's full consent alone. 

And, if the college is to grapple in any effective way with 
moral and religious education, it must, beyond all else, have a 
spirit instinct with such reverence for the person. On this very) 
account, indirect methods here may be really more effective than! 
direct methods. Some wise instruction undoubtedly is desirable, 
and even imperative, but it must be given by men who have a 
delicate sense of what personality means ; and the spirit that per- 
vades the college is here more effective even than the instruo 

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tion ; and it would not be difficult to overdo definite instruction 
in this field. Character and religion are always rather caught 
than taught. 

I cannot doubt, then, that a second important reason for 
reaction from the older college in its moral and religious educa- 
tion has been because it too often forgot the supreme need of 
reverence for the person of the pupil. The disrepute into which 
the so-called ''paternal'' methods have fallen implies as much. 
But is it not worth our while to remember that the name — 
paternal — is falsely given in such a case? The highest char- 
acteristic of the true father is a deep sense of the value and 
sacredness of the person of his child, not the desire to dominate. 
And no moral and religious education worthy of the name Is 
possible in a college where such reverence for the person does not 
prevail; for that reverence, deep-seated and all-pervading, is the 
finest test of culture, the highest attainment in character, and 
Jthe surest warrant for social efficiency. 

And these great ends — culture, character, and social effi- 
ciency — the true college must set before itself. The great 
means to these ends are unmistakable: an environment suffi- 
ciently complex to give acquaintance with the great fundamental 
facts of the world and to call out the entire man ; the completest 
possible expressive activity on the part of the student ; and per- 
sonal association with broad and wise and noble lives. The 
spirit demanded is equally indisputable — broadly but discrimi- 
natingly catholic in its interests; objective in mood and mctlKKl; 
democratic, unselfish, and finely reverent in its personal relations. 

In all — means and spirit — the primacy of the person is to 
be steadfastly maintained. All that is most valuable in college 
education exists only in living men. "God give us men." 



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IS MODERN EDUCATION CAPABLE OF IDEALISM? 

ADDRESSES BY WILLIAM JEWETT TUCKER, D.D., LL.D., PRESIDENT 
OF DARTMOUTH COLLEGE. 

I assume that I have your assent to these two propositions : 
first, it is the business of education to accept, when it may not 
create, the material of knowledge ; second, it is the business of the 
higher education to idealize whatever material of knowledge it 
accepts. 

No greater calamity, it seems to me, can befall an age, apart 
from a moral lapse, than to have its intellectual training de- 
tached from the mind of the age. Wherever men are thinking 
most vigorously, there those who are to follow after must be 
trained to think, otherwise there will be in due time intellectual 
revolt with its consequent delays and wastes. 

But more knowledge, whether it be old or new, is not the 
€nd of education, but rather knowledge penetrated by insight 
and alive with motive. A fact is something which has been 
done, something which has found a place in the world of reality. 
There may be that in the creation of a fact which declares its 
whole power. There are deeds from which nothing can be 
taken and to which nothing can be added. But most facts, es- 
pecially those which have not been accomplished by the hand of 
man, await questioning. When an answer comes back we 
speak of discovery. When the full answer comes back we an- 
nounce a theory, a principle, a law. The understanding of 
facts, whether personal or impersonal, of man's doing, that is, 
or of nature's doing, the relating of facts to one another, the 
discovery of the moral incentive in facts, make up in part the 
idealizing process which belongs to the higher education. 

Modern education differs from the education which has 
come to us by long inheritance through the vast amount of 
subject-matter which it has put into our hands, awaiting the 

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idealizing process. The new subject-matter is in large degree 
the raw material of knowledge, not having passed through the 
alchemy of time, devoid of sentiment, lacking in those associa- 
tions which make up the moral increment of knowledge. It 
represents literatures which have not reached the final form, 
sciences which run straight to application rather than to philo- 
sophical conclusion, and theories of society and government 
which are too serious and urgent to be held in academic dis- 
cussion. 

But the new subject matter of knowledge is powerful, 
nevertheless, subtle enough to create an atmosphere, and tangible 
enough to create an environment. Mr. A. J. Balfour has used 
a term which expresses with rare exactness one of the relations 
of the new knowledge to our thinking. It has created, he says, 
a new, "mental framework." I quote the brief passage which 
holds this definition. In an address upon the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury, he remarked that it is not the distinction of the century 
"that it has witnessed a prodigious and unexampled growth in 
our stock of knowledge. Something much more important than 
this has happened. Our whole point of view has altered. The 
mental framework in which we arrange the separate facts in the 
world of men and of things is quite a new framework. The 
spectacle of the new universe presents itself now in a wholly 
changed prospective: we not only see more but we see 
differently." 

The term, a "new mental framework," suggests at once the 
idea of adjustment, and if you will review the educational work 
of the decades just passed, you will see how definitely, how 
completely I may say, adjustment has been our business. The 
process has been carried on partly in strife and contention, partly 
by inquiry, and partly through that understanding which comes 
only from the actual handling of unfamiliar knowledge. For so 
large an undertaking the process has been rapid. Let me re- 
mind you that it was on the first of October, 1859, that Mr. 
Darwin sent out his abstract, as he termed it, on the Origin of 
Species, accompanying the volume with the modest prophecy that 
"when the views entertained in this volume, or when analogous 

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views are generally admitted, we can dimly foresee that there 
^m]l be a considerable revolution in natural history." 

The process of adjustment is nearly over, so nearly over 
that we may now, I think, address ourselves to a severer but 
nobler task — that of idealizing our new knowledge and the 
methods of its acquisition. And the essential condition, let me 
say, of undertaking the task is that we approach it in the right 
state of mind. The traditional mind is not altogether in the 
right state. It is too ready to draw offliand distinctions between 
culture and utility, too ready to ignore the ethical possibility of 
the new education. What we need just now in the educational 
world more than anything else is an ethical revival at the heart 
of education. We shall not have it until we realize more 
clearly the need of it. 

If we should make a careful assessment of the present 
moral values in the subject-matter of education, we should be 
surprised, I think, to see how large has been the diversion or 
decline of these values. I refer, of course, to subjects and to 
the mode of their treatment. The old discipline which held the 
Hebrew literature with its elemental righteousness, so much 
of science as could be classified under natural theology and a 
philosophy which vexed itself with the problems of human des- 
tiny, was a discipline prosecuted under the very sanction of re- 
ligion. But when the transfer was made in literature to the 
classics and when the sciences began to be applied and when the 
end of philosophy changed in part with the change of data, the 
subject-matter of the higher education ceased to be religiously 
ethical. We have been singularly unconscious of the change. 
Under changes in form we have kept the same sentiment. Cul- 
ture has become with us a kind of morality. So long as the old 
discipline kept its associations and its methods and gave us con- 
sistent results, we asked few questions about the moral content 
of teaching, and therefore made no comparison of values. In 
fact, we have silently abandoned the idea that the chief ethical 
value of college instruction lies in the curriculum. The reserva- 
tions which we make in behalf of certain distinctly ethical or 
semi-religious subjects are too few to bear the weight of moral 

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obligation which the higher education ought to assume. 

Where then shall we look for the recovery and advance- 
ment of education to its highest ethical power? Chiefly, I 
1>elieve, to our capacity for carrying on the idealizing process 
through which we accustom ourselves to think reverently of all 
knowledge, to insist upon all intellectual work as a moral dis- 
cipline and to hold all intellectual attainments and achievements 
as tributary to the social good. 

I believe that the finest, partly because it is the really dis- 
tinctive product of academic life, is the knowing mind. The 
-moral danger from it is inappreciable. Pride, conceit, arrogance, 
if they ever attend knowledge, are intruders and transients. 
They are not companions or guests. Knowledge leads to awe, 
and awe to faith, or to that kind of doubt which is as humble as 
faith. It is the unknowing mind with its triviality, its uncer- 
tainties, its double vision, from which we have most to fear. 
And if we get the knowing in place of the unknowing mind, it is 
not of so much account how we get it, as that we get it. For 
this reason I deprecate any academic discrimination against use- 
ful knowledge. If utility can create the knowing mind, we 
want its aid. I would accept at any time the moral result of 
serious thinking on the inferior subject in place of less serious 
thinking upon the greater subject. 

The mental gymnastics of the old dialectic had no ethical 
value. The subject-matter of discourse might be God himself, 
but that did not necessarily make the discourse religious or moral. 
It was the play of the mind, not its serious business. No one, 
I am sure, can overlook the immense moral gain which has taken 
place through the transfer of thought in so large degree from 
speculation to sober inquiry. Very much of the change is due of 
course to the incoming of such a vast amount of new subject- 
matter within reach of the human mind. It was natural that 
men should now begin to search where before they had tried to 
conjecture, and that they should attempt to prove or disprove 
what before they had afErmed. The change of method soon 
became, as I have said, morally significant. After the first 
excitements and confusion attendant upon the change the ideal- 

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izing process set in. A type of mind was developed which in- 
stinctively put first the love of truth. I do not fear that in 
the long run the love of gain will prove to be the successful 
competitor. The noble fellowship of seekers after truth is being 
augumented, not decreased in these latter days. And through- 
out this fellowship, though its work may take the whole range of 
nature, the increasing tendency is toward faith. "I have never 
been able," President Eliot has said in these reverent words, "to 
find any better answer to the question, what is the chief end of 
study in nature? than the answer which the Westminster Cat- 
echism gives to the question, what is the chief end of man? 
namely to glorify God and to enjoy Him forever." 

Next to the reverence for knowledge which is akin to the 
love of truth, I should insist in our idealizing process upon the 
morality of that more active discipline which characterizes mod- 
ern education. The old education, as we well know, was based 
morally on the will trained to obedience. It was not a passive 
training. It is never passive to obey. But it was not an ac- 
tive discipline in the sense in which modern training is carried 
on. And in so far as the material of training lay in the past 
the mind was set upon interpretation more than upon creative or 
productive work. The receptive faculties were by no means 
exclusively developed, for there was always a fine appeal to the 
imagination and to the sensibilities, but the prescription of sub- 
jects put education largely into the hands of the master. 

Modern education lays the stress upon the discovery of the 
individual to himself, preferably by himself. It does not remove 
the period of intellectual compulsion, but it reduces that period 
to the limits of early training. It addresses itself necessarily to 
the will, but it changes the appeal as soon as practicable from 
obedience to choice. Its first effort is to awaken, its second and 
constant effort to create the sense of responsibility. Education 
is made co-operative. It is made as quickly as possible the con- 
senting, choosing action of the mind. Modern education rests 
upon the individuality of the individual, not upon his necessary 
likeness to others. It assumes that the mind of each individual 
if properly awakened and left free to act will separate itself from 

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other minds in the satisfaction of its own desires, and the devel- 
opment of its own powers. The logical outcome of this con- 
ception is not the compulsory course of study, continued beyond 
the necessary elements of knowledge, in the farther interest of 
discipline or of culture, but the elective course of study in the in- 
terest of self-development and personal attainment in knowledge. 
It takes the risks of intellectual freedom for the sake of the 
greater possibilities of intellectual freedom. 

Now the ethical quality which resides in freedom is responsi- 
bility, and the intellectual expression of responsibility is choice* 
Will the one thus choosing become morally a strong man ? Not 
necessarily. It is not safe to argue from intellectual obedience — 
even to a creed — that the further result will be complete moral 
character. You may have the inmioral scholar, as you may have 
the immoral believer. But the morality of the intellect is not the 
least among the guarantees of general morality. And the in- 
tellect trained by responsibility ought to be as strong morally as 
the intellect trained by obedience. There is, I think, a certain 
elevation which comes to one who has found and proven himself ^ 
which can hardly be reached in any other way, a kind of scorn 
for that incapacity for nobler things which leads one to do the 
meaner thing. I have seen college men on their way to littleness 
and shame so often recovered and saved by the intellectual 
awakening through some subject of personal choice, a subject 
without any moral significance in itself, that I cannot doubt the 
ethical value of the method. I am not concerned with the moral 
supremacy of either method. It is quite too early to determine 
this point. What we need to do is to recognize the moral ele- 
ment in the method, which for other ends, we have adopted. 
We can make modern training a morality if we will. The ele- 
ments of moral power are present and active. The full recogni- 
tion of them is a great means to their development. 

Beyond the reverence for knowledge which is akin to the 
love of truth, and the recognition of the moral power which is 
latent in an active intellectual discipline, I would see our modern 
education permeated with the sense of the social obligation. The 
essential nobility of the old education lay in the open fact that it 

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was for somebody. There was no concealment of this purpose. 
It was graven on all the foundations of the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries and on many of those laid in the nineteenth 
century. It was blazoned on their seals. It was illustrated in 
the life of devotion which characterized so large a proportion of 
the earlier graduates. They sought the most direct avenues of 
approach to the heart of humanity. 

There can be no other kind of nobility worthy of the pur- 
pose of any great school of learning. A training which lacks 
these motives, or which fails to keep this aim in full view cannot 
be touched with ideality. But modern education meets this dif- 
ficulty, that it must fit men for an immensely widening applica- 
tion of the principle. Under the old education the great services 
were delegated. Elect souls were set apart for high and ex- 
ceptional duties. It was the age of the prophet, the missionary, 
the reformer, and the occasional man of public career. Today 
it is not possible for one educated man to find a place where he 
can be free from the social obligation. It has become the task 
of modem education to train the average man for duties which 
are sufficiently imperative and exacting for the exceptional man. 
The opportunity of the more devoted callings of other times is 
matched in every department of life. The decision of a great 
judge, the example of a great employer, the insight of a great 
teacher, the self-sacrifice of a great investigator, all rank among 
the powers which make for righteousness. The "hard sayings" 
of our generation which those only who can hear them are able 
to receive, are concerned with integrity, justice, courage, charity, 
and sacrifice. Sacrifice, I say, and to the degree of Christian 
consecration. 

The hi^est place in our land, if to position be added per- 
manency, is a seat on the bench of the Supreme Court of the 
United States. When a man puts by the offer of this position 
that he may serve an alien and dependent people in the interest 
of the common humanity, I rank this surrender to duty among 
the consecrated examples of the foreign missionary service. And 
if our foreign policy as a nation shall develop a like spirit among 
those who aspire to, or who accept political office, we shall bring 

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back again that old fundamental unity which made of one 
spiritual kin the servants of the church and of the state. 

It was in view of these demands that I said a little while 
ago that the greatest present need in the educational world was 
that of an ethical revival at the heart of education. The idealiz- 
ing process cannot stop with culture ; it must somehow culminate 
in righteousness. And if it be asked again, Is modern education 
capable of such idealism? I say yes, provided the question be 
accepted not as a question, but as a challenge. Modem educa- 
tion is here, with its materials of knowledge, with its active dis- 
cipline, with its environment of duty. It is quite aside to com- 
pare the idealism of the old and the new. If I were asked what 
is the equivalent of Greek, I should reply with Professor Nor- 
ton, "there is no equivalent." But that is not the issue. The 
clear and sharp issue is, can we idealize modern education ? Can 
we put ethics at the heart of it? I would not evade the issue,, 
nor lessen its meaning. 

In the old cemetery, where the founder of my college lies 
there runs this epitaph on his tomb, "By the Grospel he sub- 
dued the ferocity of the savage. And to the civilized he opened 
new paths of science. Traveler : Go, if you can, and deserve 
the sublime reward of such merit." 

I like to go there from time to time and read this challenge 
out of the heart of the eighteenth century. It seems to say to 
me, "Man of the twentieth century, go, if you can, do an equal 
task, declare an equal purpose, show an equal spirit." 

The past has earned the right to challenge the men of to- 
day. But stronger than any words of the past are the words of 
the present need. I have tried to give them utterance and in- 
terpretation. It remains for me only to express my faith in the 
idealizing process which is going on in the educational world, 
and declare my confidence in the motives and purposes and 
methods of those who are guiding its thoughts and activities^ 
and more especially to welcome to this supreme position of in- 
fluence the man of your choice, qualified for all its duties, and 
standing preeminent among his brethren in his new fellowship, 
in his new capacity to understand and to satisfy the ethical de- 
mands of modem education. 

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ADDRESS BY HON. J. G. W. COWLES, LL.D., 

ON BEHALF OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 

The election and inauguration of Professor Henry Church- 
ill King as the sixth president of Oberlin College, in its sev- 
entieth year, mark the progress and growth of the college along: 
the lines of its origin and history, without radical change, ex- 
cept in the lives of men, who must pass away 3rielding their 
places and their labors to their successors. 

We have now a larger and better Oberlin than was con- 
ceived by the founders and established here in the wilderness 
seventy years ago. That was great only in embryo and in 
ideals: for Shipherd and Stewart, if not prudent were prophetic. 
What they lacked in worldly wisdom they made up in enthusi- 
asm and single-mindedness. What they wanted in money they 
made up in energy and self-denial. If their faith, being un- 
warranted by reasons, appeared presumption, the tide of provi- 
dential events carried their enterprise over shoals and rocks 
threatening its destruction into deeper and wider seas of oppor- 
tunity than their most sanguine hopes imagined. A divine 
guidance made their aim, though sometimes erring, hit a mark 
beyond what they foresaw. They appeared eccentric because- 
they did not conform to established customs, nor hold experi- 
mental theories as abstractions, but projected them at once- 
into inconvenient and uncomfortable action. Conscience dom- 
inated more than judgment, but as always happens when men 
do right as God gives them to see the right, the heavens did 
not fall, though the earth (or some part of it) rose in insur- 
rection. 

The first president and faculty of Oberlin College were- 
strong men, not only in relation to the institution, but by what- 
ever standard of measurement and comparison their force and 
value may be estimated. 

The first president, Asa Mahan, and the second, Charles 



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G. Finney, came here together and were associated from the 
beginning, their two terms as president covering thirty years. 
Both exercised a powerful influence upon the college and upon 
the public in relation to it, but the influence of President Fin- 
ney at all times predominated, and continued constant and un- 
diminished for more than forty years. 

He was not a college bred man nor an ideal college presi- 
dent, either as executive or from the standpoint of classical or 
scientific education. He was a preacher and evangelist, and a 
teacher of theology, not only in the class but through the pulpit 
and the press. He was a man of God, and Oberlin may rightly 
be called the college of the Holy Spirit Spiritual rather than 
material forces, spiritual even more than intellectual concep- 
tions and causes, operated in the creation of the college. It was 
not alone a Christian, it was a spiritual movement. Learning 
was valued, sought for, imparted, offered to all of either sex 
and any color, less for its own sake than for its influence on 
character. It was not only for education but for salvation, for 
the Kingdom of God, that the college stood and labored. 

The third president, James H. Fairchild, was a product 
of Oberlin, conceived in this spirit : a pupil of Mahan and Fin- 
ney, and associated with the latter through his presidency, not 
only as a professor, but practically as Dean of the Faculty, be- 
ginning then in fact the administration which he afterward car- 
ried on as president for a further period of twenty-three years. 

Finney and Fairchild were the constructive presidents of 
the college who more largely than any or all other influences 
have made it what it has been and is to be. 

The agreements and differences of these men have added 
greatly to the total results of their joint and successive labors 
for the college. The legacies of thought and influence, of per- 
sonality and power, left by them are our greatest riches, which 
their immediate successors, the fourth president, William G. 
Ballantine, and the fifth president, John Henry Barrows, in 
their briefer terms of office, could only use, preserve and apply 
to present needs without much altering or much increasing. 
The work of President Barrows was more largely financial 

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than scholastic or even administrative, nearly doubling the pro- 
ductive endowment, while Professor King conducted the in- 
ternal administration of the college. 

Thus Professor King was the natural and logical suc- 
cessor of President Barrows; also of President Fairchild; for 
the transition from Fairchild to King, though interrupted and 
postponed, was most intimate and vital, intellectually and 
spiritually, as that from teacher to pupil, especially in phi- 
losophy and theology, as well as in the constructive and admin- 
istrative work of the college. 

Thus there has been preserved from the beginning a singu- 
lar unity in aim, purpose, spirit and method in the conduct of 
the college, without interruption or diversion from the original 
plan and object of its foundation, viz.: (as stated in the first 
annual report in 1834) "the diffusion of useful science, sound 
morality and pure religion among the growing multitudes of 
the Mississippi Valley" and "to bear an important part in ex- 
tending these blessings to the destitute millions which over- 
spread the earth" ; by means of first, "the thorough education of 
ministers and pious school teachers; second, the elevation of 
female character, and third, the education of the common 
people with the higher classes in such a manner as suits the 
nature of Republican institutions." It is indeed remarkable 
how largely these aims have been realized. 

The peculiarities of the college Which long made it of- 
fensive to public opinion have disappeared in the common ac- 
ceptance of its principles. Its anti-slavery position was vin- 
dicated by the act of emancipation after thirty years. Its anti- 
caste position in the admission of colored students became com- 
mon in the American colleges in the change of sentiment fol- 
lowing the civil war. The emphasis it gave to the education 
of young women, giving them equal rights and opportunities in 
the college classes in the innovating system of co-education, has 
been followed not only by the adoption of co-education in many 
colleges and universities at home and abroad, but also by the 
building of many separate and also associate colleges for wo- 
men only, of which when Oberlin was founded there were 

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none. Co-education here was an incident to the larger purpose 
of furnishing a classical and liberal education to the "under- 
valued and neglected sex." And the theology of Finney then 
so far advanced beyond orthodox Calvinism as to be charged 
with heresy now stands in the front of evangelical conservatism, 
against the extreme liberal tendencies of religious thought. 

So we stand now on the common level, with no factitious 
advantages or disadvantages, in building up and carrying for- 
ward the work of the college. We are in closer association 
both of fellowship and also of competition, with other colleges 
than formerly. Our chief distinction hereafter, if any, must be 
in excellence in common methods. Our place is still is and will 
be in the class of Christian colleges. These are largely in the 
majority of our educational institutions. Out of 460 classed 
as higher institutions of learning 360 were founded or conducted 
by some branch of the Christian Church, with two-thirds of 
the students in colleges enrolled in them. Christian ideals, the 
Christian spirit and motive, and the practice of religion, no less 
than instruction in religious truth, do and must continue here 
coordinate with the teaching of the learned languages and liberal 
arts and sciences. The evangelical and the missionary spirit do> 
and no doubt will continue to prevail in a large degree, though 
it may appear to be in less proportion to the whole value and 
effect of the education furnished. 

The college stands now upon a better financial founda- 
tion than ever before. Its needs are still great, but not dis- 
tressing. The president may safely give his first and best 
thought and effort to the work of education in its broadest 
sense, rather than to the business of advertising and of solicit- 
ing increased endowments. The latter should come and will 
come, not without effort, but more as the reward of merit than 
as the result of special pleading. It is significant and encourag- 
ing that a few weeks after the election of President King, a 
friend of the college who had recently given $50,000, wrote to 
a trustee offering to give another $50,000 (later increased to 
$100,000) toward a second half million dollars to be raised, 
saying in his letter "with the emphasis placed on the teaching 

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side in the selection of the new president, the college has fol- 
lowed, I think, the true order, — dignifying at the same time 
the office of trustee, in placing more fully upon the Board the 
responsibility of provision of facilities by which the president 
and faculty can do the best work"; and he adds that "having 
been founded in the interest of the 'things of the Spirit,* Obcr- 
lin is still informed by the same spirit, in its present aim and 
work and so worthy to command cordially and effectively the 
interest of good people." 

Oberlin has always been poor and may long remain so 
relatively to other colleges, to the numbers of its faculty and 
students, and to the work accomplished: (I think no other col- 
lege has done so much with so little). Its presidents and pro- 
fessors have been and still are underpaid, receiving, as has been 
said reproachfully, "missionary salaries." But is not this a term 
of praise and honor rather than of reproach, signifying that they 
give themselves to the cause for the good to be done? The 
highest salary received by President Fairchild in his twenty- 
three years' presidency and sixty years* teaching service for the 
college, was $2,000 a year; most of the time much less. With 
such examples of unselfishness, showing the greatness of unre- 
warded service, we shall more surely avoid becoming avaricious 
and worldly-minded in the false opinion that money makes or 
can make the college; except in so far as it commands, employs 
and liberates men for the intellectual and spiritual uses of a 
higher than material life. 

Would we exchange our poverty and history, our poverty 
and our achievements with it; the influences exerted, the good 
done, the reforms begun, aided and carried forward in learning 
and literature and music, in theology, for missions, for women, 
for the colored race, for the state, the nation and the mankind ; 
for a quick endowment of scMne millions in a new beginning, or 
on the foundation of a buried or barren past? Nay, our in- 
heritance is our riches, our record is our pledge of progress 
and enlargement; our service of God and benefactions to man- 
kind are our title to the generosity of present and of future 
givers to the cause of education. 

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This is the day to resolve that the work of the college be 
not only maintained, but improved and enlarged without yield- 
ing to the Academy one year of the College Course and re- 
serving from the university, with its specialties and professional 
schools, the ancient right of the college to furnish a liberal edu- 
cation and the opportunity of character-building, while intel- 
lectual and moral training advance together with e£Eective reli- 
gious teaching and influence as the basis of morality. 

We feel that this union is secured in this inauguration, in 
a presidency which should serve the college, preserving its 
original ideals, animated by its traditional spirit of democracy 
and loyalty and Christianity for another period of twenty-five 
years, or to its first centennial in 1933. 

Let these be our thoughts and aspirations for the college 
while, with mutual congratulations upon the present and with 
firm assurance for the future, the trustees and faculty, the 
alumni and the student body, and all friends and well-wisfhers 
of the college join in welcoming President King to the presi- 
dency of Oberlin, and in pledging to him and to the college 
loyal and liberal continued support 



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ADDRESS BY PROFESSOR EDWARD INCREASE 
BOSWORTH, D.D„ 

ON BBHALF OF THE FACULTY. 

The situation which finds its culmination today is not an 
arbitrary creation, but the result of a growth. For twenty-five 
years in the logic of events the premises have been forming for 
the conclusion that we recognize today. None have had better 
opportunities to see this than those for whom I speak — the 
Faculty of Oberlin G)llege. We know Henry King and he 
knows us. He knows that we know him, and we know that 
he knows us. This being so, no more significant thing can be 
said than that upon this glad day, not only in appearance, but 
in heart, the Faculty of Oberlin College rejoices. We who 
have seen him repeatedly at the points where disillusion is likely 
to be experienced, if at all, are the ones who have unwavering 
confidence in him and who have eagerly anticipated this day. 
Those who have worked with him in the close relationships 
which often breed petty jealousies are the ones whose satisfac^ 
tion is most sincere. 

We have a confidence, grounded in long experience, that 
under his leadership we shall be able to realize the true ideal 
of Christian education. Wc know well his ideal of the intel- 
lectual attainment essential to broad education; there will be 
honest work in dass room, laboratory, and seminar. We know 
that in his ideal of education, broadening aesthetic culture is an 
essential element. We know that no ideal of education which 
does not involve the development of a sincere Christian char- 
acter will ever prove satisfactory to him. The College will do 
what it ought only as it turns out men and women fitted for 
life — ^men and women simply honest, shrewdly sympathetic^ 
spiritually poised, fitted for life in the new order that we call 
the Kingdom of God among men. 

This high and broad ideal of Christian education we tx- 

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pect, for two reasons, to see realized in ever-increasing measure 
under his leadership. We are sure, in the first place, that we 
shall retain our individuality. The atmosphere of Oberlin has 
always favored free development of individuality. The divine 
right to be one's self and to do a thing in one's own way has 
always been recognized. The men the memory of whom con- 
stitutes our Oberlin tradition were pioneers in thought and 
life. We recognize in President King the child of such an 
ancestry. His own quiet independence of thought and readiness 
to be himself, to have his own message and deliver it in his own 
way, have given him power among men in which we rejoice 
today. We know that under his leadership wholesome en- 
thusiasms, deep and strong, will develop in the student body 
without apology. This shall always be a place where everyone 
can get a chance at the best things in his own way, and have his 
own inspiring vision of life. 

We are confident that under his administration we shall 
be able, not only to develop our own individuality, but also to 
relate ourselves to others. This *has always been our tradition. 
Legitimate peculiarity has seldom developed into rank eccen- 
tricity. It is somewhat remarkable that in a situation where 
religious feeling has at times been so tense, the recluse and the 
doctrinaire have been so seldom in evidence. The atmosphere 
of the College has always been one favorable to the close rela- 
tionship of education and the practical life of the world. Great 
moral reforms, and practical politics as well, have appealed to 
both teacher and student, and we believe that such will con- 
tinue to be the case. He who has thought so profoundly and 
spoken so clearly upon "Theology and the Social Consciousness" 
will be able to lead men and women of marked individuality 
into close and sensitive connection with the life of the great 
world. 

To the formation of this ideal of Christian education that 
characterizes our life. President King in the last twenty-five 
years has made no small contribution. Today we as a Faculty 
pledge him our loyal co-operation in the effort to secure under 
his leadership as President a larger realization of the ideal that 



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he as teacher has helped to create. From the college men and 
women of the country have always come a large proportion of 
those destined to lead in its life and thought. It is they who 
must ever stand listening, eager to hear voices calling them to 
launch out upon the great sea of undiscovered truth. It is our 
joy today to see placed at the center of our little group in this 
great company Henry King, our seer, our leader, and our friend. 



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ADDRESS OF PRESIDENT WILLIAM GOODELL 
FROST, PH.D., D.D., 

OF THE CLASS OF 1 876, ON BEHALF OF THE ALUMNI. 

John Shipherd, the pioneer; Asa Mahan, the prophet; 
Charles G. Finney, the preacher; James H. Fairchild, the 
philosopher; William G. Ballantine, the scholar; John Henry 
Barrows, the publicist; Henry Churchill King, the educator* 
King is Oberlin's seventh son. 

As a graduate and the son of a graduate, I am set to 
speak a word for the alumni. We return too seldom, but when 
we come, it is as to Jerusalem. We have left our plow in the 
furrow. A thousand important enterprises stand still today 
in order that we may gather at this center of inspiration, that 
we may look once more at those ideals of conduct and character 
which our Alma Mater gave us to be the stars of our firmament, 
and that we may bid God-speed to a new spiritual leader. 

This is the eloquence of Oberlin to us: Here was the 
burning bush where God spoke to us. From these choir seats 
Allen and Chamberlain sang forth the challenge, '^Must Jesus 
bear the cross alone?" Under that gallery James Monroe gath- 
ered his great Bible class. From this pulpit Morgan, and 
Cowles, and Brand poured out the everlasting Gospel. And in 
yonder class-rooms Hudson, and Peck, and Thome, Hiram 
Mead, and Judson Smith, Cross, and Dascomb, and Ellis, and 
Mrs. Johnston, and Shurtleff, and Churchill, and Ryder opened 
up to us the inner and the outer universe. This is our debt to 
Oberlin: we came here callow, purposeless boys and girls, and 
we were shown that a great struggle was going on between right 
and wrong, between progress and conventionality, and that each 
one of us had a chance to be a soldier. This was our place of 
enlistment. 

But Oberlin reminiscences all have a face to the future^ 
We have come to repeat our oath of fealty to Oberlin and to 

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express our confidence in her new President. We pledge him 
our united and our unreserved support. 

And, President King, we realize that we are inducting 
you into an office which is no mere honor. The duties of a 
governor, a bishop, or a commodore do not compare in weight 
and intricacy with those of a true college president, who must 
be at once a Joseph in finance and a Paul in self-forgetful zeal. 
It is a task to be undertaken only in the spirit of consecration: 
a task which will both gladden your heart and shorten your life. 

We sometimes speak of the trying times in the history of an 
institution or a nation. But, my friends, all times are trying 
when there are heroes on the stage. The only times which do 
not try men's souls are the times of negligence, supineness, and 
disgrace. It is because we know King will have an adminis- 
tration full of the storm and stress of real achievement — ^achieve- 
ment which does not float upon the tide, but stems it — that we 
are here to strengthen his hands. 

In the history of all institutions the test comes not in the 
founding, but in the maintaining and reforming. Every head 
of a religious establishment like Oberlin College has two cease- 
less wars, one against worldliness, and one against scholasticism. 

Here is the great tide of worldliness, like the Mississippi 
chafing at its levees, which surges against every endowed in- 
stitution. It is Christ's testimony that those who sit in Moses' 
seat, and are engaged as we are, in building the tombs of the 
martyrs, are subject to special temptations. Let us face the 
fact that most of the great religious bodies, including the one 
to whidi Oberlin chiefly belongs, have almost ceased to grow. 
The minister has settled down with a good reason why his 
Sunday School cannot increase, and why his preaching cannot 
lead to conversions. We hardly send our ablest sons into the 
ministry, or our ablest ministers to the hard fields where growth 
should come. These noble bodies stand splendid in their history 
and equipment, going through ineffective motions like the army 
of McClellan. Our eyes are filled with other things and we 
do not see the people who need spiritual guidance — the white 
harvest fields are unreaped. It is worldliness — putting the ex- 

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ternal and secondary in the place of the highest, setting great 
and good things, like commerce and music, above religion, 
abolishing the Day of Prayer for Colleges, that we may have 
one more lesson in Chemistry and the History of Art. Now, 
Finney's pulpit is tlie place, and the inauguration of a new presi- 
-dent is the time to raise the question, where shall the reaction, 
the next spiritual renaissance, begin? Must it begin as at other 
times in some obscure sect, some persecuted band of students, 
or can it begin in the hearts of a faculty of teachers? 

The first inspiration of our founders came from the Alsa- 
tian pastor, John Frederick Oberlin. And there has just come 
another prophet's voice from those same far-off Alsatian Moun- 
tains. It is Wagner's little book, "The Simple Life," full of 
the ideals which we back numbers of the alumni received from 
our teachers in Oberlin, and which are at once recognized by 
the elect everywhere as part of a universal and infallible Gos- 
pel. Let us pass on these high traditions to our pupils of today. 
■**Labor," he says, "for people whom the world forgets; make 
yourselves intelligible to the humble; so shall you open again 
the springs whence these Masters drew, whose works have de- 
fied the ages, because they knew how to clothe genius in sim- 
plicity." 

And there is the other battle against scholasticism. When 
a young pastor fails in his parish, the Seminary instead of teach- 
ing him to give a warmer handshake sometimes invites him to 
return to the seclusion and comfort which have been his un- 
<ioing, and take a fourth year in Hebrew and the History of 
Doctrine ! 

President King, we desire above all things to have 
our children get in Oberlin what we received — the impulse to 
1>e soldiers. If my boy is as coltish and wrong-headed as his 
father at the same age — if he escapes the influence of the or- 
<iinary pastor and the chance teacher — we shall send him to 
Oberlin, not because you have a gymnasium and a laboratory, 
though we rejoice in these, but because you have teachers of 
character-forming power. When the choice comes between the 
specialist who is interested in his specialty, and the educator 



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who is interested in young men and women, the Alumni cast 
their votes for the educator. 

So we must separate tomorrow to our several posts of duty* 
But we go strengthened by this meeting. We hail President 
King as the Lord's anointed for this high office. He has spoken 
words which our hearts recognize. From every compass-point 
we look to this College. We belong to Oberlin. And we are 
glad to feel that Oberlin has a leader. 



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ADDRESS BY MR. DAHL BUCHANAN COOPER, 

OF THE CLASS OF I903, ON BEHALF OF THE STUDENTS, 

Obcrlin Friends, Members of the Faculty, and Fellow Students: 
Six months ago with band pla3dng, with Hi-O-Hi's ringing, 
with the old chapel bell making a last strenuous effort to outdo 
itself, the Oberlin students inaugurated their President in their 
own student way. Today we come with less clamor, but with 
a zeal grown greater with the days, to add our testimony to that 
of riper years on this memorable occasion. Nor do we fear to 
raise our voices in jubilant inauguration chorus, because we feel 
and know that the Oberlin student yields to no one in his in- 
terest in this day's event. Who more than he is a part of his 
Alma Mater? Who more than he has the right to show en- 
thusiasm at her inauguration hour? 

Today, with hearts thoughtfully glad we cease our daily 
round of student life, and plunge ourselves in depths of loyalty 
to the college which is our college. We live in thought the life 
of her historic past and are filled with reverence for it. We 
live back her pioneer days, toil with her founders, and rejoice 
with them in the humble beginnings whidi made the present 
hour possible. We follow in sympathy her struggling growth 
and are glad with the world for the influence of that struggle. 
AVfaat but unbounded college patriotism can issue from a glimpse 
into this rugged past! And yet we are not content. In the 
midst of our admiration presses the thought that in all this we 
have had no part. This history has been made and we* honor 
those who made it. But to rest content with a glorious past is 
not within our power. We realize that Oberlin history is still 
making and we are making it. Students are still walking her 
halls and we are those students. Hearts are still strong in her 
service, and ours are those hearts. 

As on this occasion the college begins another eventful era, 
we claim an honest pride in being the students who witness its 

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beginning. Yet ours is not an enthusiasm born of the hour. It 
is deep rooted in a firm belief in the principles of the college we 
love. Ours is not a narrow enthusiasm; we stand today for 
the best and broadest that Oberlin gives us. Ours is the spirit 
which would cheer lustily as the crimson and gold crosses the 
goal line. Ours is the spirit which would bow reverently as the 
silent testimony of mission martyrs is borne across the sea 
from China land. 

Standing in the presence of representatives of our sister in- 
stitutions of America, we invite the criticism that we are proud- 
Proud of our college with her glorious past; prouder still that 
we are students in her more glorious present. We would yield 
to the sons of the Harvards and Yales a loyalty similar to ours^ 
we would yield to none in the degree of that loyalty. For the 
student today who is not aglow with the spirit of his college, we 
pity. Pity him as a man without a college. He cannot be 
claimed as our own. 

And yet our love for our college is not a sentimental love^ 
We love her because we can love her. We love her as radical, 
who has dared to lead in right when to lead was to lead alone^ 
We love her as conservative who has refused to follow when 
to follow was to sacrifice her usefulness. We love her simple 
democracy which knows not wealth or poverty ; which places the 
hand-soiled student with his stern stuff in the van of her moving: 
forces. We love that democracy, and though the student prayer 
is for endowment millions, that same prayer would forbid those 
millions to sully the motto of learning and labor of the poor 
man*s college. And last of all we love the college which stands 
for character; which pours moral-minded men into the world's 
hard places with honest heart and quickened brain combined 
in Christian usefulness. 

It is little wonder then that we joy today in honoring our 
college by honoring him whom we are placing at its head. We 
as students are glad to renew our heart-born allegiance to him 
who has done so much to shape the ideals of the college; who- 
today embodies those ideals in a personality that we deeply love. 
As he assumes the responsibility for what promises to be Ober- 

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lin's brightest days, we as students shall labor with him. We 
shall be responsible for her student life to make it worthy of 
the name it bears. With the rugged, resolute spirit of true sons 
and daughters of Oberlin, we pledge our best to her best, our 
lives to her life; and when with waning years the administra- 
tion now beginning shall have its close, today's enthusiasm of 
youth shall give place to the time-tried loyalty of venerable years, 
and Oberlin shall have recorded her most brilliant epoch in a 
most glorious history. 



SONNET TO HENRY CHURCHILL KING 

On His Accession to the Presidency of Oberlin College. 

In Paolo's marble chancel, mute I gazed 
Upon the carven altar's majesty of art; 
Its wondrous fretted beauty smote my heart 
To hungry sighs — at such achievement mazed. 
I turned to leave ; when, like a radiant psalm, 
Through the pane's crimson, throbbed the glorious light. 
My heart, song-filled, surged eager at the sight, 
And swept me into hope's triumphant calm. 
So, thou art not the object of men's cries. 
Posed for the plaudits of the admiring throng, 
But like the lucent cr5^tal, to our eyes 
Thou dost transmit the glory and the song 
Of the eternal morning. Hope, serene and wise. 
And heart-ripe faith we learn; and we are strong. 
; James Rain^ 



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