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THE INCAS AND THEIR 
INDUSTRIES 



Mute I 




PORTRAIT OF A DIGNITARY 

(Front tlic Si.illi He/tori of tin- \alional Art Collet-lion Funil, 
in the Author's collect inn) 



Front 



THE INCAS AND 
THEIR INDUSTRIES 



BY 

HENRY VAN DEN BERGH 



LONDON 

GEORGE ROUTLEDGE & SONS, LTD 

NEW YORK : E. P. BUTTON & CO 

1921 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

i. PORTRAIT OF A DIGNITARY - Frontispiece 

FACING PAGE 

II. CYCLOPEAN WALL, PALACE OF THE INCA 

ROCCA, CUZCO - - 2 

III. MONOLITHIC GATEWAY, TIAHUANACO, 

BOLIVIA 3 

IV. UPPER TERRACE, FORTRESS OF OLLANTAY- 

TAMBO 4 

LOWER TERRACES : OLLANTAYTAMBO - 4 
V. SUN-CIRCLE, SILLUSTANI - 5 
VI. THE GREAT PYRAMID OF MOCHE - 6 
PRINCIPAL FORTRESS OF OLLANTAYTAMBO - 6 
VII. BRIDGE OF THE APURIMAC 7 
VIII. LOOKING ACROSS THE BRIDGE - IO 
IX. INCA WALL WITH NICHE I CUZCO - II 
X. NICHE IN TERRACE WALLS OF THE COL- 
CO MP ATA - 12 
INCA DOORWAY, CUZCO - - 12 
XI. DOORWAYS - 13 
GATEWAY AT CEMETERY I FRONT VIEW - 13 
XII. MUMMY FROM THE COAST, ANCON - 14 

PERUVIAN MUMMIES - 14 
v. 






vi LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

FACING PAGE 

XIII. CHULPA OR BURIAL-TOWER - 15 

XIV. PERUVIAN POTTERY - 1 6 
TAMBOURINE-PLAYER - 1 6 

XV. PERUVIAN POTTERY (3 ILLUSTRATIONS) - IJ 

XVI. TRUMPET, BAKED CLAY 2O 

FISH ORNAMENTS FROM THE CHINCHA 

ISLANDS - 20 

THE SERPENT SYMBOL - 2O 

SNAIL FROM CHIMU VASE - - 2O 

XVII. TWO VASES - 2O 

POTTERY VASE AND POTTERY TRUMPET - 2O 

XVIII. POTTERY (iN THE AUTHOR'S COLLECTION) AT 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM - 22 

XIX. PERUVIAN POTS - ~ 2 3 

XX. POTTERY TYPES - - 26 

XXI. WARRIORS FIGHTING - 2J 
XXII. TYPES OF DWELLINGS ON THE COAST (FROM 

VASES) - 28 

HUNTING SCENE (FROM A VASE) - 28 

XXIII. FISHING SCENE (FROM A VASE) - 29 

ILLUSTRATIONS IN TEXT 

POINTED-FOOTED JAR - 22 

SANDALS - 24 

HEAD-DRESSES -. - 25 

JAR PORTRAIT OF A SOLDIER - 28 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTKR PAGE 

I. INCA RULE AND SPANISH WARFARE I 

II. PHYSICAL ASPECTS - "4 

III. THE INCA RULERS - "9 

IV. LAW AND RELIGION - 12 
V. ARCHITECTURAL REMAINS - - 15 

VI. INDUSTRY - - 19 



Vll 



The Incas and their Industries 

CHAPTER I 

INCA RULE AND SPANISH WARFARE 

IF we look backward, across the centuries lying 
behind us, we notice that, although the ways 
differ, all nations and their rulers try to arrive 
at general prosperity by laws and regulations. 

The ancient Hebrew system of short leases offered 
undoubtedly certain guarantees that families who had 
"waxed poor," as Leviticus expresses it, were not 
condemned to everlasting poverty, but able to make a 
fresh start in " the jubilee " year. 

" For the land is mine," spake the Lord unto 
Moses. Democracy of our day seems to proclaim 
the same principle : and it tries to come to the rescue 
of the poor, by attacking landed property, acquired 
generations ago, by means alleged to be illegal, and 
held by generation after generation to the present day. 

The Incas of Peru followed another principle to 
promote a certain equality among their subjects, and 
in the twelfth century issued an agrarian law, according 
to which all the land was divided among the people 
according to the size of each family, with periodical, 
annual redistributions. 

It was a remarkable effort, remarkable because so 
many thinkers have sought to attain a similar result, not 
only for land and agriculture, but for all means of 
production. In his " Looking Backward," a book 
that made a great impression about a quarter of a 
century ago, the author, Edward Bellamy, gave a 



2 THE INCAS AND THEIR INDUSTRIES 

concise description of his system to nationalise wealth 
as far as industry is concerned. He assumes that : 
"The nation organised as the one great business 
corporation in which all other corporations were 
absorbed ... it became the one capitalist, the sole 
employer, the final monopoly in the profits and 
economies of which all citizens shared. In a word, the 
people of the United States concluded to assume the 
conduct of their own business, just as they had as- 
sumed the conduct of their own government, organis- 
ing now for industrial purposes on precisely the same 
grounds that they had organised for political pur- 
poses." 

Bellamy further asserts that entrusting commerce 
and industry to private persons and irresponsible 
corporations and syndicates " is a folly similar in kind, 
though vastly greater in magnitude, to that of sur- 
rendering the functions of political government to 
kings, autocrats, and nobles." 

The Peruvians of the twelfth century probably 
never dreamed of interfering with the actions of their 
Incas, but submitted to any regulations these kings 
decided to make, and accepted that about the equal 
partitions of the land. Anyway, this attempt to 
institute "egalite," perhaps with "fraternite," but 
without "liberte," shows the spirit by which the 
Incas were guided, and which formed the basis of 
their government until they were conquered and 
despoiled of all power by the Spaniards, many genera- 
tions later, who also destroyed Peruvian civilisation 
and wealth. 

In consequence of this ruthless warfare it is ex- 
tremely difficult to investigate Peru's history, her laws, 
her municipal or communal government, industries, 
and customs. The Incas left no written records 
about the greater part of their history ; the Peruvians 
being, therefore, so far a prehistoric people, about 
whom knowledge can only be arrived at by inference. 



Plate II 




CYCLOPEAN WALL, PALACE OF THE INCA ROCCA, CUZCO. 

(From SQUIER'S Peru) 



INCA RULE AND SPANISH WARFARE 3 

Specimens of their pottery, textiles, and other 
objects have, however, been collected, and these give 
here and there a clue to the wonderful civilisation of 
this remarkable people. They came to light in recent 
times through excavations in Peru, and fortunately 
could be secured for the nation, and are now in the 
British Museum, accessible to the general public. 

They seem not only to form a convincing and 
reliable confirmation of previous conjectures as to the 
idolatrous form of the Peruvians' religion, but also give 
an idea of their warlike habits and peculiar customs. It 
may be considered useful to precede an account of this 
collection of pottery by some remarks about the 
country itself, and the places where these objects were 
found. 



CHAPTER II 



PHYSICAL ASPECTS 

AS far as Peru's history is known, her frontiers 
varied a good deal in the course of time. 
Originally the country was only two hundred 
and fifty miles long and sixty wide, but the Incas 
conquered vast territories, |until ( in ithe sixteenth 
century their kingdom, during the period of its 
highest prosperity, comprised the now independent 
republics of Ecuador, Bolivia and Northern Chile, as 
well as the immense wooded tracts along the Amazon 
and its tributaries, of which even now only little is 
known. 

Peru, as we know it, covers about six hundred and 
eighty thousand square miles, with a coast-line along 
the Pacific of some one thousand three hundred and 
fifty miles, and inland frontiers giving a width varying 
from three hundred to seven hundred miles. These 
latter frontiers were arranged at different times and 
by various agreements, frequently amended as gradually 
the country became better known and was more 
accurately surveyed. The oldest of these agreements 
is the frequently revised Treaty of San Ildefonso 
(1777) between Peru and Brazil, whereas as recently 
as 1913 British officers surveyed the borders between 
Peru and Bolivia. Even this survey left some points 
unsettled where the Neath River separates the two 
republics. As a so-called natural boundary a river has, 
of course, certain advantages, but, unless it is well 
dyked in, these advantages are more or less theoretical, 
as floods often alter its course and dense forests 
frequently make exploration difficult. 



Plate IV 




UPPER TERRACE, FORTRESS OF OLI.ANTAYTAMBO 




LOWER TERRACES : OLLANTAYTAMBO 

(From South American Archceology, by kind permission of the Author, MR. T. A. JOYCE; 



Plate V 




SUN-CIRCLE, SILLUSTANI. 

(From SQUIER'S Peru : Harper & Brothers, Nezv York) 




PHYSICAL ASPECTS 5 

But, however imposing these tremendous rivers be, 
Peru's outstanding feature, determining the aspect of 
the country as well as the life and characteristics of the 
population, are her mountains, the Andes that 
tremendous range running across the whole continent 
of South America, on an average about twelve thousand 
feet high, and, for the greater part, covered with 
eternal snow. 

It is interesting in this connection to quote the 
words of one of Britain's prominent men. In his 
work, " South America : Observations and Im- 
pressions." (London. Macmillan & Co., Ltd. 1912.) 
Lord (then Mr. James) Bryce, says on page 5 about 
Peru : 

" The foreground of wandering sand and black 
stones, the sense of solitude and of boundless space, a 
space useless to man and a solitude he can never 
people, the grimness of these bare walls of rock and 
pinnacles of untrodden snow rising out of a land with 
neither house nor field nor flower nor animal life, but 
only two lines of steel running across the desert floor, 
would have been terrible were it not for the exquisite 
richness and variety of the colours. In the foreground 
the black rocks and the myriad glitter of sand crystals 
were sharp and clear. The tints were more delicate 
on the red hills beyond, and the stern severity of the 
precipices in the far background was softened into 
tenderness by distance. The sunlight that burned 
upon these lines of iron and danced in waves of heat 
upon the rocks seemed to bring out on all the nearer 
hills and all the distant crags varieties of hue, some- 
times contrasted, sometimes blending into one another, 
for which one could find no names, for pink melted 
into lilac, and violet into purple. Two months later, 
in the forests of Brazil, we were to see what the sun of 
the tropics does in stimulating an exuberant life : here 
we saw what beauty he can give to sterility." 

The Andes divide into two large parallel arms, 



6 THE INCAS AND THEIR INDUSTRIES 

connected by transverse ranges, so-called " Knots." 
Whereas the main arms enclose the tablelands, " the 
Knots " form basins in these lands. One of these 
basins lies twelve thousand five hundred feet above the 
sea, between the Cuzco Knot in Peru, at 14.30 S.L. 
and the Potosi Knot in Bolivia at 22 S.L. ; it is three 
hundred and sixty miles long and one hundred wide, 
and contains the sacred lake of Titicaca. 

This is undoubtedly one of the most remarkable 
freshwater seas in the world, and the largest lake in 
South America. Near the southern bank are two 
small islands, of which the one, Titicaca, was dedicated 
to the Sun, and the other, Coati, to the Moon. Many 
Inca remains are found here, of which a Convent of the 
Virgins of the Sun is still in good preservation. The 
lake has not yet been surveyed, and different travellers 
give different estimates, varying between one hundred 
and sixty-five and one hundred and twenty miles for 
its length, and between sixty-three and thirty-eight 
miles for its width. However, its size must have 
decreased considerably, for the ruins of Tiahuanacu, 
the ancient city, built on its shore, are now at some 
distance from it, and this may account for the difference 
in the measurements given above. 

It receives the water of several small rivers, and 
discharges its own into the river Desaguadero. Its 
water has a bad taste, but contains a great variety of 
fish, and consequently large numbers of waterfowl live 
here. These form the main food for the small popula- 
tion of mountaineers, for cereals cannot ripen at this 
high altitude, only green barley, used for fodder. 

North of the Titicaca tableland and the Cuzco 
Knot is, at a distance of four hundred and forty miles, 
the Pasco Knot. Between these two knots and the 
converging Andes chains lies, over eleven thousand feet 
above sea level, the plateau on which Cuzco, Peru's 
ancient capital, is built. 

It is clear from the above that the country may be 



Plate VI 




THE GREAT PYRAMID OF MOCHE. 




PRINCIPAL FORTRESS OF OLLANTAYTAMBO. 

(From SQUIER'S Peru) 



Plate VII 







OF THK AI'UK1.M\< 

(From SQUIKR'S Peru) 



PHYSICAL ASPECTS 7 

divided into three longitudinal regions : the sandy 
coast, the mountains, and the Eastern Amazonian 
slopes of the Andes. 

The coastal region between the Andes and the 
Pacific is a desert intersected by rivers running into the 
sea. About half of these do not reach the snow line, 
with the unavoidable result that, except during the 
rainy season, they are dry from June to September, 
when there is also much fog, called " Garnua." 

The heat and dryness are greatest from November 
till April, and next to no vegetation is possible in the 
deserts between the rivers deserts that have sometimes 
a width of seventy miles. Fertility is only found in 
the valleys, along the banks of those rivers that have a 
constant supply of water, because they originate high 
up in the Andes in the snow line. Here one finds 
abundant sugar-cane, cotton, vine, olives, and large 
forests. 

The second region of the three, that of the moun- 
tains, the Andes themselves, forms about one-fourth 
of the country. It is called the " Sierra " and consists 
of enormous chains of mountains, high-lying tablelands 
of tremendous size, deep fertile valleys, and ravines. 

The third and eastern part is the exact and com- 
plete opposite of the first. Although it is called the 
" Montana," it does not contain the mountains 
themselves, but only their slopes, descending into the 
plains of the Amazon. It is moist and fertile and 
absolutely tropical. Its low-lying plains are full of 
dense forests through which large rivers run, all 
ending in the Amazon, that carries their water into 
the Atlantic. Here grow the rubber trees, on whose 
account the boundary commissions are busy. Cacao, 
coffee, sugar-cane and manioc are grown here. Peru 
is, moreover, the country from which two famous and 
for medical purposes useful drugs are obtained, 
cocaine and quinine, for the coca, from which 
cocaine is extracted, and the chinchona, whose bark 



8 THE INCAS AND THEIR INDUSTRIES 

provides the quinine, grow here. The Indians, when 
they are travelling, also use the coca leaves, mixed with 
a little lime, thus providing a satisfying and sustaining 
food. Whether they themselves or the Jesuit mis- 
sionaries discovered the beneficial qualities of the 
" Peruvian bark " seems uncertain, but at all events, 
the latter were the first to send it to Europe, for which 
we owe them a great debt of gratitude. 

The mineral wealth of Peru is well known and 
excited European cupidity from the time the country 
was first invaded by the Spaniards, who possessed 
themselves of the immense quantities of gold of the 
Incas. The silver mines of Cerro de Pasco were the 
richest of all ; the Cordilleras de los Andes are rich 
in veins of gold, copper, lead and bismuth, whereas a 
considerable trade is going on in nitrate of soda. 

These mines might be worked to much greater 
advantage if there were better roads in the mountains. 
As it is, they are only accessible by mule tracks and over 
rather frail bridges, so that the heavy mining machinery 
has no other means of transport than the backs of 
mules and llamas. 

With regard to the climate, it is obvious that it 
varies in the three regions. At the coast it is unhealthy ; 
the tropical lowlands of the " Montana " are hot ; in 
the higher regions it is mild ; whereas the highest 
mountains are covered with eternal snow. 

The result is that nearly every crop, European and 
other, can be and is grown here. All sorts of domestic 
stock can be raised, especially sheep of European 
origin, who multiply amazingly. The llama is the 
native sheep and also the native beast of burden, but 
the vicunas and huanacos live in a wild state. These 
are, however, carefully preserved, for they give the 
most beautiful wool of admirable fineness, from which 
the famous textiles of the Incas were woven. 



CHAPTER III 

THE INCA RULERS 

MANCO CAP AC and his sister-wife Occllo, 
the first Inca King and Queen, were said to 
be Children of the Sun, who were sent to 
Peru by their father, that they might teach the 
barbarian natives to plant maize, breed flocks, build 
houses, found cities, weave wool, and other industries 
and arts. 

Manco Capac with his Queen descended from 
heaven on the Island of Titicaca, in the lake of that 
name, thereby making it a sacred spot; and after 
some time the two travelled north, across the table- 
land near Cuzco, until they found land soft enough to 
drive in the sceptre of gold, which their father, the 
Sun, had given them for this purpose. 

Here, in a beautiful valley, they founded Cuzco, 
their capital. 

This legend, one of the many about the origin of 
the Incas, may safely be taken to prove two things. 
The first is that the Incas, when invading Peru, found 
there advanced civilisation, the second that this 
invasion took place in prehistoric ages of which there 
are no records as these are usually understood. Proof 
for the first may be found in the immense structures, 
megalithic and otherwise, on the mainland near the 
Island of Titicaca, probably erected long before the 
Inca rule. 

And, as Spanish chroniclers relate, the Incas seem 
to have built on the foundations of civilisation which 
they found. They promoted agriculture, introduced 
the cultivation of useful crops, taught the people to 



lo THE INCAS AND THEIR INDUSTRIES 

build terraces on the slopes of the mountains, and 
initiated a system of irrigation, conveying the water by 
extensive aqueducts to the coast and other parts where 
the soil suffered from drought and the dryness of the 
climate hindered vegetation. 

These developments necessitated legislation, and 
the Incas became great law-givers as well. They kept 
in being the local village communities, the " Ayllus " 
which they found in the conquered country, and 
through these carried on husbandry in a more or less 
communistic way. The distribution of the land in 
equal shares has already been referred to. They 
" rationed " the allotment holders with regard to the 
quantity of water each was allowed by the overseers. 
These local overseers also saw to it that no land was 
left uncultivated, and no terraces allowed to fall into 
decay, in the same way as during the late war British 
farmers were controlled by government officials and 
if necessary punished. 

So idleness, unemployment and poverty were 
unknown, and certainly not encouraged or endowed. 
If calamities destroyed crops the victims were sup- 
ported from the village stores, to which each inhabitant 
had to give part of his harvest. If illness or other 
causes prevented a man from doing his work, his neigh- 
bours were obliged to come to the rescue, and till 
the land for him. 

To show how great an importance the government 
attached to agriculture and husbandry, the Inca 
ploughed the land on the day of the great festival of 
the Sun. On these occasions he used a golden plough, 
and thereby showed that tilling the earth iTrwork well 
worthy of the Children of the Sun. 

It was perhaps only natural that these Children of 
the Sun considered themselves a superior race, being 
of divine descent, forming a separate caste who ac- 
quired superior learning, and thereby secluded them- 
selves still more from the common population ; they 



Plate VIII 




LOOKING ACROSS THE ERIDGE. 

(From SQUIER'S Peru) 



Plate IX 




[Photo, Underwood 
INCA WALL WITH NICHE : CUZCO 

(From South American Archaeology, by MR. T. A. JOYCE) 



THE INCA RULERS ' n 

asserted that they could prophesy the future, and 
perhaps had some knowledge of astronomy mixed up 
with notions of astrology. 

It also deserves notice that they called their capital 
Cuzco, the Inca word for " Navel." This Cuzco be- 
came a very great city, as a matter of fact the Rome of 
the gradually expanding Inca empire, the residence of 
princes and nobles, where the great Temple of the Sun 
was built, the goal of numberless pilgrims. 

The Incas' favourite residence was, however, 
Yucay, a few miles away from Cuzco. There they 
built their villas in another beautiful valley, sheltered 
from the winds by the surrounding mountains, watered 
by crystal streams, which afforded them the luxury of 
refreshing baths. 

They derived their wealth from the mineral 
products of the country, and indulged even in the 
luxury of having their palaces and other residences left 
intact after their earthly death. For the Children of 
the Sun believed in resurrection and had their bodies 
embalmed. On certain important festivals these 
mummies were even taken into the central square of 
Cuzco, where banquets were served ceremoniously in 
grand style, as if they were still alive. 

It is surely a ground for pity that the Spaniards 
destroyed the country with nearly modern ruthlessness, 
and ruined it so thoroughly that even now the wounds 
of that conquest are not healed. 



CHAPTER IV 

LAW AND RELIGION 

AGRARIAN and other social laws give the 
measure of a nation's civilisation ; the 
criminal laws and the punishments prescribed 
therein indicate how far it has progressed from 
savagery and barbarity. 

A very important social law obliged every Peruvian 
to marry at a certain age, whereas the community 
provided the Jiagpy couple with a house and a plot of 
land, which increased or decreased annually according 
to the number of children born or leaving the paternal 
roof. The Incas did not believe in equal rights for 
men and women, for the allotment for a son was 
double of that allowed for a daughter. Whereas 
monogamy was the rule, it was not compulsory ; the 
Incas and Nobles were allowed to have a great many 
wives, and had in consequence so many children that 
these marriages not only must have become agrarian 
questions, but also made them a considerable factor of 
the community in other ways. There are accounts of 
families of seven hundred wives and two to three 
hundred children. 

Probably there was a sufficient fixity of tenure, 
notwithstanding the annual redistributions, for as 
neglect of the land was a criminal offence, the necessity 
of eviction must have occurred only on rare occasions, 
and it may be assumed that the annual holder was in 
fact a tenant for life. 

The criminal law was a much cruder product of 
legislature, and might have satisfied the Queen in 
" Alice in Wonderland." Capital punishment was 



Plate X 




NICHE IN TERRACE WALLS OF THE COLCOMPATA. 




INCA DOOR-WAY, CUZCO. 

(From SQUIER'S Peru) 




DOOR-WAYS. 




GATE-WAY AT CKMETERY FRONT VIEW. 

(From SQUiEiTs Peru) 



LAW AND RELIGION 13 

the greatest deterrent from repeated crime ; theft, 
adultery, murder, burning of a bridge or a house, 
turning a neighbour's water into one's own irrigation 
system they were all punished by loss of life. 

Rebellion in town or province was followed by 
devastation of the place or district and extermination 
of the population. 

Life was primitive ; every family was self-sustaining 
or nearly so ; there was no trade, no coinage, and 
hardly any real estate. So no laws were necessary 
regulating those matters. 

The judicature was equally simple. Each town 
and community had its own tribunal, with jurisdiction 
on small offences ; important cases were dealt with by 
superior judges. But every case had to be settled 
within Jive days, and returns sent to Cuzco, the seat 
of the central government. At regular intervals the 
local courts were visited by inspectors, who checked 
these returns and examined the magistrate's or judge's 
findings and sentences. Any member of the Bench 
who was found to have made a judicial mistake was 
subjected to the sentence that he ought to have pro- 
nounced, and in such a case the criminal went scot 
free. This may have induced the judge frequently to 
give defendant the benefit of the doubt. 

So much for the law. 

Not much more is known of the Incas' religion, and 
it may be doubted whether the accounts given by 
Spaniards perhaps bigoted are entirely reliable. 

For an agricultural community it was only natural 
to worship the Sun as the Supreme Deity, the source 
of light and warmth, the ultimate director of the fate 
of man, the father of the founders of the Inca empire. 
Every village and every city had its temple or temples 
dedicated to the Sun, with their altars on which it is 
asserted even human beings were burnt as offerings. 

Next to the Sun came his sister-wife, the Moon, 
and further the Stars, Thunder, Lightning and the 



14 THE INCAS AND THEIR INDUSTRIES 

Rainbow, the royal emblems worked in the banners of 
the Kings as the beautiful emanation from the Sun and 
his divine glory. 

Minor meteorological and physical phenomena also 
came in for their share of worship : the Winds, the 
Mountains, the Rivers, but not nearly so much as the 
Sun. 

Blasphemy against the Sun and cursing the Incas, 
the deity's offspring, were sins punished with death. 
There was of course a clergy, whose head was the 
Huillac Umu, or High Priest, the next in rank and 
status to the Inca, from among whose brothers or next 
of kin he was usually chosen. The minor clergy were 
also descendants of the sacred race of Incas, - and in 
Cuzco alone it is said there were over four 'thousand of 
these priests. 

The church rituals seem to have been very complex 
and elaborate, and there were religious festivals in each 
month. Of these, the grandest was the Raymi, the 
festival of the Longest Day, the Solstice, 'and next 
came those of ^the two equinoxes in March jand Sep- 
tember. Sundials 'of various sorts were used by the 
priests to watch the Sun, and as a rule they used a 
column on a platform to observe when exactly the 
Sun rose due east and set due west. Very likely the 
" Stonehenge " arrangement near Tiahuanaco jwas 
also erected in connection with these or similar 
astronomical observations. 

In how far the educated and learned among the 
Inca priests had a conception of a Creator who made 
the Sun, and worshipped the latter as a symbol of the 
former, is a matter for conjecture, but the masses 
probably saw the Creator in the Sun itself. 



Plate XII 




MUMMY FROM THE COAST, ANCON [after Rciss and Stiibcl] 
(From South American Archceology, by kind permission of the Author, MR. T. A. JOYCE) 





PERUVIAN MUMMIES. 

(From SQUIER'S Peru) 



Pltite XIII 




CHULPA, OR BURIAL-TOWER. 

(From SQUIER'S Peru) 



CHAPTER V 

ARCHITECTURAL REMAINS 

MENTION has already been made of the 
ruthless manner in which the Spanish 
invaders dealt with the unhappy empire of 
the Incas. There are a great many remains that 
prove how, under the Incas, Peru had better govern- 
ment, greater security -for life and property, more 
facilities for {attaining jprosperity than it had since 
that unfortunate Conquest. 

At that time, under Huyana Capac, the Inca 
empire had obtained its greatest extension, and he 
could not add to it, for the Peruvians never succeeded 
in subduing the savage tribes living in the forests at 
the eastern foot of the Andes or in taking possession 
of the fertile plains beyond them. What they could 
not do was performed later by the narrow-bladed 
American axe, that became the conqueror of the 
forests of a continent. 

But Huyana Capac made a fatal mistake. He had 
a son, Atahualpa, by the daughter of the conquered 
chief of Quito, and another, Huascar, by his wife-sister 
in Cuzco. He tried to divide his kingdom between 
these two, but tried in vain, and civil war was the 
result. This civil war facilitated the conquest, that 
the Spaniards could not have effected otherwise, 
although at first they frightened the Peruvian warriors 
by their horses, animals Peru had hitherto not known, 
and by their apparent control of lightning and thunder 
from their guns and cannons. 

Thus came an end to Peru's independence, different 



1 6 THE INCAS AND THEIR INDUSTRIES 

from what might have been the consequence of the 
civil war, which probably would have resulted in a 
division of the country, each part following its own 
development, that would most likely have carried 
Peruvian civilisation to the highest point of American 
aboriginal culture. 

But this was not to be : devastation took the place 
of civilisation of which Peru's architectural remains are 
the surviving proofs. 

There are two sorts of these remains in Peru, 
the older ones from the times before the Incas, 
milestones on the road of progress, placed there in an 
early and comparatively rude past. 

Besides the elaborate remains of Tiahuanaco, that 
are almost as admirable as those of Assyria, Egypt, 
Greece or Rome, there are analogous structures to 
those of Stonehenge in England and Carnac in 
Brittany, remains occupying the remotest place in 
monumental history. 

The rude sun-circles of Sillustani, almost under the 
shadow of the finest Inca structure, are very like 
those in England, Denmark and Tartary. 

There are only very few of these older remains 
left, for the Incas ruled over a steadily increasing 
population, occupying a very restricted inhabitable 
and arable area. Necessity compelled them to use 
every square foot for food production, and hence they 
were obliged to disregard utterly the traditions and 
monuments, the temples and cemeteries that stood in 
the way of land development. 

It is a country of which the fertile part is sur- 
rounded by deserts and mountains, where every blade 
of grass, every stalk of corn is valuable ; no wonder 
that the Incas did not respect the rude structures, 
public or private, of their predecessors, about whom 
little is known in consequence. The wonder is that 
not everything has disappeared. 

Garcilasso is the principal Spanish authority, who 



Plate XIV 




PERUVIAN POTTERY 

(7/i the Author's collection) 




TAMBODRINE-PLAYER. 

(From SQUIER'S Peru) 



Phite XV 




PERUVIAN POTTERY 





PERUVIAN POTTERY PERUVIAN POTTERY. 

(In the Author* x collection} 



ARCHITECTURAL REMAINS 17 

recorded what he was told by the son of an Inca 
mother about their ancient history, customs, traditions. 
But there is no possibility of checking either the relia- 
bility of his sources or his own as a chronicler. It is 
known that the so-called " Amautas " taught the 
ancient history in the schools of Quito, but it is 
also known how carefully such oral records must be 
sifted. They used "quipus," or knotted cords, prob- 
ably for recording of dates and numbers ; but even 
this is not certain, and these " quipus " were decidedly 
inferior to the painted records of the Mexicans, or 
the, probably syllabo-phonetic, writings of the inhabi- 
tants of Central America. 

In no way do they provide reliable evidence, and 
since written or graphic documents do not exist, 
architectural monuments become of the greatest value 
for the knowledge of Peruvian history. 

The remains of the great fortresses at Ollantay- 
tambo and Pisac give an indication of the military 
positions ; ruins of towns confirm the tradition that 
they were founded or destroyed by some Inca. These 
two, fortresses and towns, and remains of great public 
works show that the Incas must have ruled a population 
both numerous and industrious. They also give an 
insight into their proficiency in the sciences. 

The ruins of the villages and their sites indicate 
how dense the populations must have been ; aqueducts 
and reservoirs point to the efficiency of their agri- 
cultural system, as bridges, roads, and " tambos," or 
stores, tell the story of intercommunications. There 
are some prisons, telling their own tale, and ruins of 
structures indicating that they may have been built 
for the purpose of executions and giving a clear idea 
of the way in which these were performed. 

With regard to the condition of the masses, there 
is eloquence in the absolute absence of any remains of 
the dwellings of the common people. These dwellings 
were evidently not built for the ages, and even now 



1 8 THE INCAS AND THEIR INDUSTRIES 

Bryce found in Cuzco " mud huts with grass roofs." 
The ruins of their " chulpas " and tombs prove their 
belief in a future life and resurrection. What is found 
there gives an idea of their household utensils and 
implements and the texture of their garments. There 
were found also the various specimens of pottery, now 
placed in the British Museum. 



CHAPTER VI 

INDUSTRY 

ONLY a few more remarks are necessary before 
proceeding to deal with some urns, vases, and 
bowls found in Peruvian cemeteries, pyra- 
mids and palaces. It was explained that Peru's coastal 
region is intersected by valleys and rivers, where is 
found the clay, the raw material for the potter's in- 
dustry. That industry could not exist and develop in 
the eastern mountainous and rocky part, as clay is not 
found in those regions. 

This explains how the ancient buildings along and 
near the coast are built of sun-dried bricks (adobes) 
and also proves that their architects were not the Incas, 
but the Chimus, who inhabited the coastal region long 
before they were conquered by their more warlike 
eastern neighbours. 

Whether the Incas removed the potters themselves 
to the inland, to let them do their work there, or had 
the finished articles sent up, is a matter of conjecture. 
Possibly the bulk of these artisans stayed where they 
found an abundance of raw material to work on, 
whereas a few came to Cuzco ; and these few may have 
been the best and ablest workmen among them, who 
would find their craft more highly valued in the aris- 
tocratic circles of the Incas' capital than among the 
simpler dwellers along the coast. 

Another point should not be lost sight of, and that 
is the similarity between Chimu and Peruvian art and 
that of various ancient remains in the so-called Old 
World. 



20 THE INCAS AND THEIR INDUSTRIES 

There are the truncated pyramids built of bricks ; 
there is the absence of the arch in their architectural 
constructions, in consequence of which, for instance, 
doorways, gates and niches in Ollataytambo, Col- 
compata and other places resemble Old Greek struc- 
tures, such as the famous gate at Argos. Further, the 
ornamentations of vases and bowls resemble so strongly 
those of the Greek that it is difficult to believe that the 
two came into existence and developed independently 
of each other. 

And then there are the faces into which some of the 
vases are moulded. These have more often than not a 
Caucasian type, whereas in some cases the expression, 
or lack of expression, and attitude of arms and hands 
remind one of Buddha images. 

Another peculiar feature of the vases and jars in 
the shape of human forms is that the artist gave 
great attention to the face. The same may be 
noticed in the ancient Egyptian images of the various 
gods and goddesses ; the face is treated with great 
care, but the arms and legs, as well as the trunk, are 
dealt with in a more or less sketchy manner. 

All this seems to point to the possibility, if not even 
probability, of a lively intercourse between Peru and 
other parts of the Old World, which " Old " World 
may have appeared a new one to the Chimus, whose 
civilisation is considered by archaeologists to be some 
5,000 years older than our own. 

~^Be that as it may, it is obvious that through the 
pottery we get an idea of the people themselves by 
whom and for whom it was made ; in it we find 
faithful records of national manners and customs 
modelled on the vases. There are depicted warriors, 
sportsmen, sailors, fishermen, modes of punishment, 
costumes of all sorts, the personal ornaments they 
adorned themselves with, the food they used, the arms 
they fought with nothing seems to have escaped the 
potter's eye. They show all sorts of birds, fruit, sea- 



Plate XVI 




TRUMPET, BAKED CLAY. 




FISH ORNAMENTS FROM THE CTIINCHA ISLANDS. 




THE SERPENT SYMBOL. 




SNAIL FROM CHIMU VASE. 

(From SQUIER'S Peru) 



Plate XVII 




(From Elseriefs Geillustreerd Maandschriat : by permission) 




POTTERY VASE, POTTERY TRUMPET (Scale 5^) (British Museum) 
(From South American Archtcology, by kind permission of the Author, Mu. T. A. JOYCE) 






INDUSTRY 21 

lions, monkeys, penguins from the South, parrots, 
llamas, lizards, frogs, and many other objects ; every 
touch by the potter's finger of the soft clay is the 
expression of a thought. Modern plates and dishes 
of uniform pattern and with stereotyped orna- 
mentation tell one very little, but the burial mounds 
of Peru, her pottery and her mummies, enable one to 
form an idea of a civilisation which has now passed 
away. 

There is no doubt that a simple vessel, made solely 
to hold water, gives the earliest form of industry such 
as a jar found at Ancon, on the coast not far from 
Lima. Later the forms became much more elaborate, 
but the first ornamentation was evidently moulded, 
as many of the earlier vases are stamped with shells 
and other objects found on the shore. Thus some 
have a helix into which the clay has been pressed, and 
another with a scallop shell, which forms the body of 
the jar and makes a simple ornament of some beauty ; 
after this the potters went further and produced jars 
in great variety in the shape of fish. A fish, being a 
more or less hard object, could be easily moulded in 
the clay, but they were not so successful with birds, 
and it is difficult to know which birds the jars are 
intended to represent. Although by their faulty 
workmanship these primitive bird- jars impress one as 
a step downwards, they are really a step upwards as 
the potter has given up the stamped moulding and 
taken to modelling by hand. The first results are not 
very good, but they are a great advance towards the 
later elaborate designs. 

Many of the jars found in the coastal region have a 
bifurcated spout, which is in fact a distinctive mark of 
the coast 'pottery. These jars are also very simple, 
but even here one finds a small animal sitting in the 
angle of the spout ; it shows how, even in those early 
days, they loved to ornament everything./ It has been 
thought that the more intricate spouts were thus made 



22 THE INCAS AND THEIR INDUSTRIES 

for fear of creeping animals finding their way into the 
jars, and also for the purpose of stopping evaporation. 
This coast pottery appears to have led to an 
alteration of the form of the jar from the flat or round- 
bottomed to the point-footed shape, as many have 
been found in this form. As the Peruvians were 
usually squatting on the ground, nearly all jars repre- 
senting human figures have this form, and even the 
mummies have a similar attitude. It is probable that 
the native, when resting, had such jar filled with some 




beverage before him, to quench his thirst, and as the 
coast region was all sand, a point-footed jar would 
stand even better than a flat-bottomed one. In the 
rocky ground of the Sierras they would be of little use, 
and yet some have been found inland, which suggests 
that there the point-footed jar was put to some other 
use. It is also possible that the pointed form was 
useful for heating the contents over a fire. 

Anothertype of jar has two openings connected 
by the TianctteTancl in some of the vases with only one 
opening the body is double the two vases being 
connected at the bottom, the upper part serving as a 
handle. One of these, known as the man eating his 
lunch, is now in the Smithsonian Collection at Wash- 
ington, 



Plate XVIII 






6 






1, CARVED STONE VESSEL, CU7CO. 2-5, BLACK TOTTERY: TRUXILLO. 

6. 7, 8, RED POTTERY : TRUXILLO (In the Author s collection at the 
British Museum) 

(From South American Archccology, by kind permission of the Author, 
MR. T. A. JOYCE) 



Plate XIX 




PERUVIAN POTS 



(In the Author s collection, showing increasing artistic ability 
of the makers) 



INDUSTRY 23 

There are a great many of these double jars with a 
great variety of figures. Some of these, known as 
whistling jars, are s6 constructed that the handle 
passes from the spout on one side to a similar projection 
on the other, on which the head of a bird or other 
animal is represented. The filling or emptying of the 
vessel produces a sound like the piping of a bird, the 
cry of some animal, or the human voice, according to 
the head on the jar. In the death-like stillness of the 
desert regions even a whistling jar was probably a 
desirable companion. 

The Peruvians, no 'doubt, had a taste for music, 
like the natives of all tropical countries. The sun, 
setting soon after six o'clock, is gone for about twelve 
hours, and this all the year round ; this gives rather a 
long evening, and music, song, and an occasional dance 
would vary the monotony. In any case, there are many 
musical instruments represented on the jars, such as 
tambourines beaten with a stick, and trumpets. 

For the purpose of dancing they had various 
instruments. There was the drum, or cajas, made of 
llama skin ; the gwena, a sort of flute ; " Pandean 
pipes," made of reeds ; the lyre, a stringed instrument 
like a guitar or banjo ; and on grand occasions they 
used the clarion, a long reed instrument with a sort of 
bag at one end and holes in the mouth's end for finger-^ 
ing, in fact a sort of bagpipe, though a Scots piper 
might not recognise it as such. The Incas evidently 
ruled over a pleasure-loving people, who liked play- 
acting, and were fond of poetry and recitations. They 
used many objects for personal adornment : necklaces 
of gold, silver, copper, bands for the head, and bracelets, 
ear-rings and finger-rings, all found in the tombs where 
the mummies of great people also had precious stones 
pierced and strung to necklaces. They seemed par- 
ticularly fond of turquoise, of which a great number 
are found among the mummy jewels. 

The jars and tombs tell us also which shoes they 



24 THE INCAS AND THEIR INDUSTRIES , 

wore. Probably they mostly went about on bare feet, 
but some sort of protection was needed on the stony 
ways in the mountains. They used sandals, of which 




one was found at Ancon, on the coast. It served as 
sole for most of the footwear, but there were many 





ways of fastening them on. Some were quite dressy, 
while 'the soldiers wore a very strong shoe. 

)The general dress was the poncho, a square piece 
of cloth or blanket with a hole in the middle for the 
head to pass through. These ponchos were of various 



INDUSTRY 25 

lengths ; some only covered the chest, and underneath 
a sort of shirt was worn, of which garments specimens 
have been found. Sometimes the poncho came down 
to the feet, and workmen had holes cut in the sides for 
the arms ; sometimes the shirts themselves had 
sleeves, to make manual labour possible. 

The head-dresses show a great variety, but all were 
thick, substantial coverings to protect the head 
against the heat of the sun. 




INDIAN HEAD ORNAMENT WITH GOLD PLATES. 

Massive golden ear-plugs were worn by the higher 
classes. These rings were so large and heavy that they 
stretched the lobes of the ear so as to almost touch the 
shoulder. Long ears were thus a mark of high rank. 
The Spaniards called these aristocratic Peruvians 
Ore] ones, or people with great ears. The ears of all 
nobles were pierced by the Inca at the time of the 
great festival, when they were admitted with great 
ceremony as warriors of the King. 



26 THE INCAS AND THEIR INDUSTRIES 

The jars give also some idea of the dress of soldiers. 
A soldier on a jar, found at Moche, on the coast, wears 
a sort of helmet and carries a small shield in his left 
hand ; he has apparently no weapon. Another jar, 
also found at Moche, shows a warrior fully ready for 
the fray, armed with a very formidable club and what 
would appear to be heavy stones in his left hand and 
forearm a forerunner of our present bomb-thrower 
or grenadier. 

We also find sporting scenes on the jars. On a 
beautiful jar, found at Santa, the sportsman wears the 
plumed helmet of a chief. He is running after a 
spotted animal which looks like a hind but may be 
something else ; he is apparently about to give it a coup 
de grace with his spear, holding his club in his other 
hand ready to strike. It would rather seem as though 
the animal were previously driven into a pit or trap. 
However, it gives us an idea of the weapons they used, 
the dress they wore, and the game they went after for 
food. 

The Incas may or may not have had much to do 
with the sea, but the coast region was inhabited by an 
earlier race, about whom a legend existed that they 
^came to Peru on rafts. So we find that these people 
had boats for fishing, or voyages to the guano islands 
to get manure for the land. A jar found at Chima 
tells us what the boats and sailors were like. By the 
Spaniards these boats were called " caballitos " ; they 
were made of bundles of rods, across which the boat- 
man sits astride, and rowed with a double paddle. 
The prow is turned up in front. Other similar jars 
have been found on the coast settlements, but the 
Chima jar shows a rather more solid boat, although the 
shape is the same. Two sailors are seated in this one ; 
the man in front is apparently paddling, the man 
behind appears to be doing nothing, but there is a 
rowlock in front of him, so perhaps he is resting. The 
spout and handle of the jar surmount the central part 




POTTERY TYPES 

1, 2, 3, TRUXILLO (In the Author's collection at the British Museum). 

4, YCA. 5, ARICA. 0, RECUAY NEAR TRUXILLO. 7. 8, 9, TITICACA. 

(From South American Archceology, by MR. T. A. JOYCE) 



Plate XXI 




WARRIORS FIGHTING (From a Vase ; Truxillo) 
(From South American Arcfucology, by kind permission of the Author, MR. T. A. JOYCK) 



INDUSTRY 27 

of the boat, which gives it more or less the appearance 
of a steamer with her funnel. 

It must also be remembered in this connection that 
Inca Yupanqui is said to have made an expedition by 
sea, and to have reached the Galapagos Islands in the "L 
Pacific Ocean. He had a number ofbalsas constructed 
of inflated sealskins fastened together, and took with 
him a large detachment of his army. The Inca and 
his men sailed away and disappeared below the 
horizon. It must have been an exciting adventure, 
but he returned in safety after an absence of nine 
months. Sarmiento believes that he even reached the 
Solomon Islands, but this is doubtful. It shows, at any 
rate, that the Incas had boats fit for a sea voyage, out , 
and home, of at least 1,400 miles. 

Besides all these details", the jars tell us also what 
sort of people the Incas were, and how they looked. 
There are no pictures left, if any ever existed, and we 
have only a few rather vague descriptions by Spanish 
writers of the race they conquered and practically 
destroyed. Still, we know that they were a fine race, 
brave and hardy, and of great intellectual powers to 
have produced such statesmen and generals and such 
victorious -armies. Fortunately a favou'rite form of 
Peruvian pottery was, like the Greek drinking-cup, the 
human head, and these are evidently not only life-like, 
but also show much character. 

There is, for instance, such a jar found at Santa, 
obviously the portrait of a man of strong character, 
fierce-looking, and with a hard, cruel mouth. His 
ears are pierced and he wears ear-rings, probably of 
gold, and he evidently belonged to the warrior class. 
In another the head is thrown back and, to balance 
this weight, the face is thrust forward ; the nose is 
well formed, and the lower jaw is strong. The syphon 
handle runs from forehead to crown. 

Another even finer head wears a close-fitting cap 
with heavy flaps behind. The face, full of strength, 



28 THE INCAS AND THEIR INDUSTRIES 

vigour and determination, is that of a ruler of men. 
The shape of the jar shows that it probably was made 
at Cuzco, and it may be the portrait of some eminent 
personage. If he was one of the rulers one can no 
longer wonder at the moral force they exercised over 
the people and the wisdom of their laws. 

There is another jar in the Smithsonian Institution, 
obviously the portrait of a soldier, evidently a born 
fighter and determined leader. He wears a head-dress 
which may indicate some high military rank. He 
wears the large ear ornaments of the ruling class, and 
perhaps had led the Inca's troops to victory. But 




even more beautiful and lifelike heads are some of 
those in the British Museum collection. They were 
photographed at the Museum to illustrate an article 
in the Burlington Magazine for April, 1910. The 
faces seem familiar, as if one might recognise these men 
in the street, if one met them ; one feels that they are 
like somebody one knows or has seen. 

Most of them came from the Tombs in the Chicama 
Valley in the Chimu country. 

But from the fact that the jars, etc., were found 
low down in the burial places, one must conclude , 
\ that not many were .made after the Spanish conquest 
\ (1524); some, indeed, must have been made two 



Plate XXII 




TYPES OF DWELLINGS ON THE COAST (from VaSCS ; TfUxillo) 




HUNTING SCENE (from a Vase ; Truxillo) 
(From South American Archaeology, by kind permission of the Author, MR. T. A. JOYCE) 



INDUSTRY 



29 



hundred years or so earlier, and before the Inca 
conquest, for Chimu pottery was evidently famous at 
the time of the latter conquest, as is shown by the fact 
that many potters were moved to Cuzco by the 
conqueror. On the other hand, the figures on the jars 
seem to represent the Inca's people themselves, 
whereas, if they had been the work of pre-Inca people, 
one would expect to find a change of type after the 
conquest ; but there appears no marked difference 
beyond that arising from increased skill in the manu- 
facture. That the craft was practised up to a com- 
paratively late period is shown in the later ware, found 
in the same tombs with the earlier ones, and represent- 
ing Spanish soldiers. 

There are no accounts left about the way in which 
Peruvian pottery was made, nor have any kilns or 
ovens been found to show how it was baked, but one 
thing strikes one at once, namely, the great variety of 
colour from white to black. A large part of the pottery 
is black, and this was at first attributed to the influence 
of time. On this ground the jj ar _k ware was thought r ~2 
to be the oldest ; but this does not seem to be the 
case. In the first place, the clay is found in the coastal 
deposits of various colours, some being quite white 
and some almost black ; this is chiefly caused by 
metallic and mineral matter with which it is mixed 
a great deal of broken pottery has been tested; and even 
gold has been found to be mixed with the clay in 
considerable quantities. 

But in the second place, clay of whatever colour 
requires something to render it coherent, otherwise it 
would crumble to pieces during the drying process, and 
the jar be ruined. Various ingredients were used by 
the potters, as was found on examination of the ware. 
For ordinary pottery finely-chopped straw, reduced 
almost to powder, was mixed with the clay ; some of 
the finer vases contained mica and pounded shells, 
ashes of various sorts, and charcoal dust, while for the 



30 THE INCAS AND THEIR INDUSTRIES 

black ware graphite was used. To these admixtures a 
great deal of the difference in colour of the ware is due, 
but something must be attributed to the way of 
baking, the fineness of the paste and its homogeneity. 
How the vases were baked is not known. Monsieur 
Wiener, member of the French expedition in 1875, 
records a Peruvian tradition that the vases were placed 
in the middle of a wall of taquia, a sort of dried llama 
dung, which burns with a very fierce flame, and that 
about half a dozen Indians sat round the fire, blowing 
through long reeds, thus producing the required 
intense heat. It is said that even now Indians are 
occasionally seen using this process for small clay 
objects, made by themselves for domestic use, some- 
times simply covering the article they want to dry with 
a fire which is kept burning for some hours, and which 
seems to answer the purpose. For painting their 
vases the potters are said to have mixed a mineral 
colour with a little clay, which they then stirred in a 
large quantity of water, thus acquiring a very thin 
colouring matter. When the jar was half baked a 
thin coating was applied, and the baking was then 
finished. In this way the colour assimilated itself 
with the jar. 

The Peruvians do not seem to have used glaze, but 
were able to get a very fine polish by burnishing the 
jars with a piece of wood suitably shaped. But the 
favourite way of obtaining a polish was by rubbing the 
surface with the thumb-nail, a process not unknown 
to schoolboys when part of their exer'cises requires 
erasure, and the paper has lost its smoothness in 
consequence. 

The potters at Cuzco seem to have excelled in 
giving a very fine surface to their wares, but in the 
coast region only the black ware was so polished. The 
coast vases were very light and delicate, while the 
inland vases were perhaps finer in shape but all much 
heavier ; it is difficult to give any reason for this 



INDUSTRY 31 

difference, but it assists to decide in which particular 
region it was manufactured. Some of the patterns on 
the commoner vases were no doubt applied by moulds, 
many of which have been found in excavations in 
various parts of the country. 

This rapid survey of Peru and her pottery is in- 
tended to excite a desire in the visitor to the collection 
in the British Museum for more information about 
this interesting country. The literature about Peru, 
already extensive, is rapidly growing, and the present 
writer owes a debt of gratitude to the various authors 
of scientific works from which he gleaned the preceding 
remarks. 




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