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2 1917 


THIS Supplement is designed to supply a double need : it furnishes an 
analytical index to the entire series of twenty volumes ; and it affords a 
great deal of additional information, bearing on the subject-matter of 
these volumes, but which from its very nature it was impossible to incor- 
porate in the text. This additional information includes biographical 
sketches of the characters mentioned in each volume ; similar sketches 
of prominent Canadians who for one reason or another do not appear in 
any of the twenty volumes; and brief descriptions of wars, battles, 
treaties, and political and other events having a vital bearing on the 
history of Canada. References have been added, wherever necessary, 
to the principal sources which the student may consult for further in- 
formation. The whole has been thrown into one alphabetical arrange- 
ment, and it constitutes, to a large extent, a dictionary of Canadian 

To satisfy further the desire of those who, after reading the foregoing 
volumes, find it profitable to investigate more fully certain lines of in- 
quiry suggested by the narratives, it has been thought advisable to add 
a list of manuscript sources from which new material may be gleaned. 
The collection of documents most convenient for this purpose is to be 
found in the Dominion Archives. It is not possible in the present work 
to do more than indicate the principal documents, as there are fifteen 
thousand volumes of manuscript in the Archives bearing on Canadian 
history. The sources indicated here are drawn principally from the 
series designated A, B, C, F, Q, M. The letter refers to the series, and 
the number to the volume. The Calendars published by the Archives 
in the Annual Reports should also be consulted by the student. For 
convenience of reference, it has been deemed preferable to group the 
manuscript sources under general headings, and print the list as a 
separate section in the volume. N 

In the preparation of the biographical references, the object has 51 been 
to include only those works that have a direct and vital bearing on the 




subject. A complete bibliography in each case would obviously be 
neither possible nor desirable. Nor, except in special cases, has any 
attempt been made to include articles or papers in periodicals or in the 
publications of learned societies. It will be sufficient to make a general 
reference here to some of the more important sources of information on 
the many topics covered in this volume. First among these sources 
should rank probably the publications of the Royal Society of Canada. 
The Society has published in a separate volume a very full General 
Index to its Proceedings and Transactions, 1882-1906, compiled by Dr. 
Benjamin Suite. For volumes subsequent to 1906, the individual in- 
dexes should be consulted. A key to the Annual Reports of the Geolog- 
ical Survey of Canada is found in two General Indexes, one covering the 
years 1863-1884, and the other the years 1885-1906. The latter, com- 
piled by F. J. Nicolas, is very complete. Wurtele's Index to the Trans- 
actions and other Publications of the Literary and Historical Society of 
Quebec, 1829-1891, furnishes a guide to the material issued by this 
oldest of Canadian learned societies. Unfortunately, no general index 
is available for the publications of the Canadian Institute, which cover 
a very wide and important field ; nor for those of the Historical and 
Scientific Society of Manitoba, the Ontario Historical Society, the Nova 
Scotia Historical Society, and various other Canadian institutions of 
a similar character. Much important material, bearing on, or supple- 
mentary to, the topics treated in the several volumes of the Makers of 
Canada will be found in the foregoing publications. The reader may 
also find it profitable in many cases to consult the publications of the 
American Historical Association, and the State Historical Societies of 
New York, Maine, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. A great deal 
of important material is also to be found in Canadian and other period- 
icals. Of the more significant of these, the Revue Canadienne marked 
the completion of its fifty-third volume in 1907 by publishing in separate 
form a comprehensive Index to the entire series up to that year. In 
consulting other Canadian magazines, reference must in most cases be 
made to the individual indexes in each volume. The series of the Cana- 
dian Monthly and the New Dominion Monthly are, however, fully cov- 
ered by Poole's Index ; the Canadian Magazine, to a large extent, by 
Wilson's Guide to Periodical Literature, as well as by a General Index 
published by the magazine in 1907. A key to the publications of sev- 
eral Canadian historical societies and periodicals, since the year 1906, is 


furnished by the Magazine Subject-Index (Boston). The three admi- 
rable American guides mentioned above, that is, Poolers Index, Wilson's 
Guide, and the Magazine Subject-Index, with their annual or cumulative 
supplements, provide also a key to the great body of literature in the 
principal American and English periodicals, bearing on Canadian topics. 

Among other important guides to Canadian subjects, historical, 
political, biographical, social, literary, and scientific, should be men- 
tioned the Review of Historical Publications Relating to Canada, edited 
by Wrong and Langton ; Larned's Literature of American History, which 
includes a section on Canada ; the various encyclopaedias ; the annual 
bibliographies of Canadian scientific work published in the Transactions 
of the Royal Society of Canada ; Gagnon ; s Essai de Bibliographic Cana- 
dienne; Morgan's Bibliotheca Canadensis; James's Bibliography of 
Canadian Verse; Horning and Burpee's Bibliography of Canadian 
Fiction; Tanguay's Dictionnaire Genealogique des Families Canadiennes; 
and the very full bibliographies of material published in or about the 
province of Quebec, by Dr. N. E. Dionne. A general reference may 
also be made here, for all subjects in this volume relating to Canadian 
history, to such general works as those of Parkman, Kingsford, Bourinot, 
Dent, McMullen, Ferland, Faillon, Charlevoix, Bibaud, Garneau, Suite, 
Miles, Christie, Haliburton, Murdoch, Campbell, Hannay, Bryce, and 
Begg. In addition to the principal source of Canadian manuscript 
material, the Archives at Ottawa, a large number of important docu- 
ments will be found in the Provincial Archives at Halifax, Quebec, 
Toronto, Winnipeg, and Victoria, as well as in the universities of Laval, 
McGill, and Toronto. Finally, reference may be made to the various 
biographical dictionaries in the accompanying list. 

The inclusion in the Supplement of several names of Canadians, both 
living and dead, who are not of the very first importance, and the omis- 
sion of others who filled at least as important a place in the history of 
the country, will be explained largely by the fact that the former were 
incidentally mentioned somewhere in the series, and therefore had to 
be included, while the latter were not. 

L. J. B. 
A. C. D. 

OTTAWA, January, 1911 


To avoid unnecessary repetitions, references to sources are abbreviated as 

follows : 

Bibaud, Did* 

Bibaud, Pan. Can. 
Canada: An Ency. 

Casgrain, Biog. 
Chambers, Biog. Diet. 
Cyc. Am. Biog. 
David, Biog. 
Dent, Can. For. 
Diet. Eng. Hist. 

Did. Nat. Biog. 
Morgan, Bib. Can. 
Morgan, Can. Men. 

Morgan, Cel. Can. 

Morice, Diet. 

Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog. 

R. S. C, 
Tache*, Men. 
Taylor, Brit. Am. 

Who's Who. 

Dictionnaire Historique des Hommes Illustres du Can- 
ada et de FAmerique, par Bibaud. 1857. 

Le Pantheon Canadien, par M. Bibaud. 1858. 

Canada: An Encyclopaedia of the Country, by J. 
Castell Hopkins. 1898. 

Biographies Canadiennes, par FAbbe* Casgrain. 1873. 

Chambers's Biographical Dictionary. 1902. 

Cyclopaedia of American Biography. 

Biographies et portraits, par L. 0. David. 1876. 

Canadian Portrait Gallery, by John Charles Dent. 

Dictionary of English History, edited by Low and 

Dictionary of National Biography. 

Bibliotheca Canadensis, by Henry J. Morgan. 1867. 

Canadian Men and Women of the Time, by Henry J. 
Morgan. 1898. 

Sketches of Celebrated Canadians, and Persons Con- 
nected with Canada, by Henry J. Morgan. 1862. 

Dictionnaire Historique des Canadiens et des Me*tis 
Erangais de TOuest, par A. G. Morice. 1908. 

Cyclopedia of Canadian Biography, by George Maclean 
Rose. 1886. 

Royal Society of Canada Transactions. 

Men of the Day, edited by Louis H. Tache". 

Les Canadiens de POuest, par J. Tasse*. 1882. 

Portraits of British Americans, by W. Notman, with 
letter press by Fennings Taylor. 1865. 

Who's Who. London; 1910. 







The titles of the volumes in the series are indicated by initial letters as follows : 

B , . . George Brown. Bk . . 

BL . . Baldwin-La Fontaine-Hincks. C . . . 

Cfc . . Samuel de Champlain. D . . 

Dr . . Lord Dorchester. E . . 

JP . . . Count Frontenac. H . . 

Hd . . Sir Frederick Haldmand. L . . . 

Me . . William Lyon Mackenzie. Md . . 

MS . . Mackenzie-Selkirk-Simpson. P . . . 

It ... Egerton Ryerson. S . . . 

Sy . . Lord Sydenhain. WM . 

General Brock. 

Sir Georges E. Cartier. 

Sir James Douglas. 

Lord Elgin. 

Joseph Howe. 

Bishop Laval. 

Sir John A. Macdonald. 

Louis Joseph Papineau. 

John Graves Simcoe. 


WT . Wilmot-Tilley. 



Abbott, Sir John Joseph Caldwell (1821-1893). Educated at McGill Uni- 
versity; studied law and called to the bar of Lower Canada, 1847. A candi- 
date for the Legislative Assembly for Argenteuil, 1857, but defeated by Sydney 
Bellingham. Bellingham subsequently unseated and Abbott declared elected, 
1860. Solicitor-general for Lower Canada in Macdonald-Sicotte ministry, 
1862-1863, and for a few days retained same position in Macdonald-Dorion 
ministry. From 1867 to 1874 and from 1880 to 1887 represented Argenteuil in 
House of Commons. May, 1887, admitted to Macdonald ministry as minister 
without portfolio, and at same time appointed to Senate, where he became leader 
of Conservative party. On death of Macdonald, became prime minister, 
June, 1891 ; held this position until ill health compelled him to resign, Novem- 
ber, 1892. A recognized authority on questions of commercial and con- 
stitutional law. Framed Insolvent Act of 1864, and Jury Law Consolidation 
Act of Lower Canada. Index : C Countenances Annexation Movement in 1849, 
44-45. BL On the Annexation Manifesto, 336. Md A witness before Pacific 
Scandal Committee, 204. Bib. : Annual Register, 1893 ; Terrill, Chronology of 
Montreal; Thomas, History of Argenteuil and Prescott; Weir, Sixty Years in 
Canada ; Dent, Can. Por. and Last Forty Years. 

Abbott, Joseph (1789-1863). Born and educated in England. Came to 
Canada, 1818. Missionary of the Church of England. Wrote The Emigrant, 
containing information for farmers about Canada. 

Ai>enaquis Indians. See Abnaki. 

Abercrombie, James. Entered the army, and obtained a captaincy in the 
42nd or 1st Battalion of Royal Highlanders, 1756. Appointed aide-de-camp to 
Major-General Amherst, 1759, with whom he made the campaigns in Canada 
of that and the following year. Appointed major of the 78th or 2nd Highland 
Battalion, 1760, and, in September following, employed by General Ainherst 
in communicating to the Marquis de Vaudreuil the conditions preparatory to the 
surrender of Montreal, and in obtaining his signature to them. The 78th Regi- 
ment having been disbanded in 1763, retired on half-pay. Again entered active 
service, 1770, as lieutenant-colonel of the 22nd Regiment, then serving in Amer- 
ica under the command of Lieutenant-General Gage; killed in the battle of 
Bunker Hill, June 17, 1775. Bib. : Doughty, Siege of Quebec. 

Abercromby, James (1706-1781). Entered the army, and obtained commis- 
sion as major, 1742; lieutenant-colonel, 1744; colonel, 1746. Sent to America 
with 50th Regiment, 1756; superseded Shirley and Webb in command of 
the army; and then resigned command to Lord Loudon. In 1757 com- 
manded second brigade against Louisbourg. On Loudon's recall, became 
commander-in-chief, 1758. Led expedition against Ticonderoga, with Lord 
Howe as second in command. On Howe's death, the campaign became 
a dismal failure for the British, Abercromby being outgeneralled at every 
point by Montcalm. Returned to England, and in 1772 deputy-governor of 
B 1 


Stirling Castle. Index: WM Sent to America with reinforcements, 33; com- 
mands division intended to operate by way of Lake Champlain, 54; repulsed at 
Fort Carillon, 55-61. Hd His recall, 21. See also HOWQ; Rogers; Ticonderoga ; 
Carillon. Bib.: Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe; Rogers, Journals dunng the 
Late War, ed. by Hough. . . 

Abercromby, Sir Ralph (1734r-1801) . Commanded a brigade m Holland under 
Duke of York, 1793, and wounded at Nimeguen. Afterwards appointed com- 
mander-ia-chief of the forces in the West Indies. Held successive commands in 
Ireland Scotland, in the expedition to Holland, and, in 1801, appointed to com- 
mand the expedition against the French in Egypt. Won a brilliant victory near 
Alexandria, but died of wounds received in the battle. Index : Bk Brock serves 
tinder, in Holland, 14. Bib. : Dunfermline, Sir Ralph Abercromby: a Memoir; 
Did. Nat. Biog. 

Aberdeen, John Campbell Hamilton Gordon, seventh Earl of (1847- ). A 
baronet of Nova Scotia. Born in Edinburgh, Scotland. Succeeded to peerage, 
1870. Appointed viceroy of Ireland, 1886. Appointed governor-general of Can- 
ada, 1893. Again appointed viceroy of Ireland, 1905. Bib. : Morgan, Can. Men; 
Who's Who. ... - 

Abnaki Indians. A tribe of the Algonquian family, inhabiting a portion of 
what is now the province of New Brunswick. They were early converts of the 
French missionaries, and made common cause with the French against the Eng- 
lish colonists. A number were brought to Canada in the seventeenth century, 
and formed a settlement on the St. Francis River, a few miles above its junction 
with the St. Lawrence. The Indian town was destroyed by Robert Rogers in 
1759. Index : F Hostile to New England, 240 ; incited by Governor Denonville, 
249 ; ravages committed by, 316 ; attack settlement at York, 326 ; repulsed at 
Wells, 327 ; disposed to make peace with New England, 328 ; French influence in 
opposite direction prevails, 330 ; attack settlement of Oyster River, 330 ; fired 
on from Fort Pernaquid under flag of truce, 331. L Ravages committed by, on 
New England settlements, 12 ; in Acadia, 228. WM Enemies of the English, 16. 
Bib. : Parkman, Frontenac and Montcalm and Wolfe; Pilling, Bibliography of 
Algonquian Languages; Vetromile, The Alnakis and their History. 

Abraham, Plains of. See Plains of Abraham. 

Academy of Arts. See Royal Canadian Academy of Arts. 

Acadia. The name Acadia or " la Cadie " is found as early as Nov. 8, 1603, 
in the commission of Henry IV appointing Pierre du Gua, Sieur de Monts, 
lieutenant-general in La Cadie, extending from the fortieth to the forty-sixth 
degree of north latitude. The limits were afterwards reduced, and the boun- 
daries of Acadia became a cause of contention between France and England. 
France claimed that the English possessions were restricted to the peninsula of 
Nova Scotia, and that the territory now known as New Brunswick had not been 
ceded to England. The first settlement in Acadia was on the Island of St. Croix 
in 1604, but the following year it was transferred to Port Royal, and abandoned 
in 1607. Three years later the Sieur de Poutrincourt established a new settle- 
ment at Port Royal, which was destroyed by Argall in 1613. In September, 
1621, James I granted the territory of Acadia, under the name of Nova Scotia, to 
Sir William Alexander. This grant was renewed in July, 1625, by Charles I. A 
small Scottish settlement was established at Port Royal by the grantee. Acadia 
was restored to France by the treaty of St. Germain-en-Laye in 1632, and during 
the same year new settlers were brought from France. Acadia was finally ceded 
to Great Britain by the treaty of Utrecht in 1713. Index : Cfc Its resources and 


limits, IS ; English king indisposed to restore, 213. F Attempt to form, settlement 
in, 6 ; seized by English under Kirke, 22 ; subsequent vicissitudes, 268-272 ; seized 
under orders from Cromwell, 268 ; settlers disposed to trade with New England, 
270 ; Port Royal (Annapolis) made capital, 270 ; visited by Meulles and Saint 
Vallier, and census taken, 271 ; Port Royal and other posts captured by PMpps, 
who establishes government, 274; passes again under French control, 316. 
Bib. : Champlain, Voyages; Lescarbot, New France; Denys, Acadia; Parkman, 
Pioneers of France; Rameau de Saint-Pere, Une Colonie Feodale; Calnek and 
Savary, History of the County of Annapolis; Moreau, Histoire de I'Acadie; 
Hannay, History of Acadia; Campbell, History of Nova Scotia; Murdoch, His- 
tory of Nova Scotia. 

Acadia College. Situated at Wolfville, Nova Scotia. Founded by the Nova 
Scotia Baptist Education Society, 1838. Application made to the Nova Scotia 
Assembly for incorporation as " The Trustees, Governors and Fellows of the 
Queen's College." The corporation created with university powers, 1840. At 
the next meeting of the Legislature its name changed to Acadia College. Power 
of appointing governors transferred from the Education Society to the Baptist 
Convention of the Maritime Provinces, 1851. Final changes in the Act of 
Incorporation, 1891. Index: H Founded by the Baptists, 1838; first known 
as Queen's College, 81; defended by James W. Johnstone, 83. Bib.: Canada: 
An Ency.j vol. 4. 

Acadian, Newspaper published at Halifax. Index: H Formerly Weekly 
Chronicle, 6 ; purchased and edited by Joseph Howe, 6 ; sold by Howe, 6. 

Acadians. The first permanent settlers were those who came with De Razilly 
in 1632, and from these the Acadians of to-day are descended. Other French 
immigrants were brought by d'Aulnay de Charnisay from 1639 to 1649, and by 
La Tour and Le Borgne in 1651 and 1658 respectively. There were also small 
immigrations at divers later dates. The first general nominal census was taken 
in 1671, and gave a population of 392 souls. In 1686 there were 885 persons in 
Acadia. Seven years later the inhabitants numbered 1018. When Acadia 
was ceded to Britain in 1713, the Acadian population was 2500. Although 
from 1713 to 1745 a number of families had escaped to the new French colonies 
of Isle Royale and Isle St. Jean (now Cape Breton and Prince Edward Island), 
still in 1749, when the British settled Halifax, there were about 12,500 Acadians 
in the province. Another large influx of population to the same colonies, and to 
the St. John River, took place between 1749 and 1755, yet there remained in the 
latter year in the peninsula and in the Isthmus of Chignecto some 10,000 in- 
habitants, of whom nearly 7000 were deported in 1755. The rest escaped to the 
woods ; some went to Miramichi, and later to Baie des Chaleurs ; others crossed 
over to the Isles Royale and St. Jean, and quite a number found their way to 
St. John River, and from thence to the province of Quebec. The whole popu- 
lation of Acadians in the peninsula, the Isthmus of Chignecto, the St. John 
River, Isle Royale, and Isle St. Jean, at the time of the expulsion, is computed 
at 16,000. Bib. : Murdoch, History of Nova Scotia; Campbell, History of Nova 
Scotia; Haliburton, Historical and Statistical Account of Nova Scotia; Hannay, 
History of Acadiaj Raymond, St. John River; Gaudet, Acadian Genealogy 
(Report on Dominion Archives, 1905, vol. 2). 

Acadians, Expulsion of the. Governor Lawrence in 1755, with the advice of his 
Council and of Admirals Boscawen and Mostyn, but apparently without consult- 
ing the home government, decided that the Acadians must be deported from Nova 
Scotia. The reason for this decision was the obstinate refusal of the Acadians 


to take the oath of allegiance, and the conviction of the governor that the safety 
of the colony depended upon their expulsion. In September, 1755, all prepara- 
tions having been made with the utmost secrecy, Monckton at BeausSjour, Win- 
slow at Grand Pre, Murray at Piziquid, and Handheld at Annapolis, seized the 
inhabitants and held them prisoners until the arrival of the transport and pro- 
viion ships These having been delayed, the final embarkation did not take 
place until late in December. The Acadians were distributed among the British 
colonies along the Atlantic seaboard. Some hired vessels in 1763, and sailed to 
Miquelon, and in 1767 and following years returned gradually to their old Acadian 
home. Others came directly to Nova Scotia in 1766, there being no longer any 
reason for their exclusion, while others went north to Quebec or south to Louisiana. 
The present Acadian population in the three Maritime Provinces is over 150,000, 
and these are the descendants of the few families who escaped deportation, and 
of those who returned from exile. Index : See references under Acadia. Bib. : 
Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe; Richard, Acadia; Casgrain, Un PeUrinage 
au Pays d'Evangeline; line Seconde Acadie; Les Sulpiciens d les Pretres des 
Missions Etrangeres en Acadia; Documents In6dits sur I' Acadie, 1710-1815; 
Archibald, Expulsion of Acadians (N.S. Hist. Soc. Coll., 1887) ; Selections from 
the Public Documents of Nova Scotia, ed. byAMns; Calnekand Savary, History 
of the County of Annapolis, 

Accommodation. First steamboat on the St. Lawrence. Built by John 
Molson at Montreal Arrived at Quebec from Montreal, Nov. 5, 1809, making 
the run in 36 hours. The vessel measured 85 feet over all, had 16 feet beam, and 
was equipped with an engine of six-horse power. See also Molson ; Steamships. 
Bib. : Semi-Centennial Report of Montreal Board of Trade, 1893. 

Adams. Bk United States brig on Lake Erie, 178 ; surrendered to British, 
256 ; name changed to Detroit, 274 ; captured by Americans at Fort Erie, 289 ; 
burnt, 290. Bib. : Lucas, Canadian War of 1812. 

Adams, John. Came to Nova Scotia from Boston. Appointed member 
of the Council, 1720. After the death of Lawrence Armstrong, administered 
the government during 1739 and 1740. Returned to Boston, 1740, as Blindness 
prevented him from attending to his duties. 

Addison, Robert. S First chaplain of Upper Canada Assembly, 85, 158 ; 
opens a school at Niagara, 167. R Member of Board of Education, Upper 
Canada, 58. 

Adet, Pierre Auguste (1763-1832). Appointed on the 10th thermidor, mem- 
ber of the French Council of Mines. In 1795, went to the United States in the 
capacity of plenipotentiary. In 1796 presented to the United States Congress 
the tricolour flag on behalf of the French nation; and the following year, 
handed to the secretary of state the famous note in which the Directoire, com- 
plaining to the American government of breach of neutrality, stated that the 
republic would give to every neutral flag the same treatment that the latter 
would get from Great Britain. Index : Dr French minister to United States, 
intrigues of, 300, 301. 

Agniers. See Mohawks. 

Agriculture. Societies for improving the conditions of agriculture were 
founded in Nova Scotia, 1789 ; in Quebec the same year ; and in Upper Canada 
in 1792. Simcoe in Upper Canada and Dorchester in Quebec did much to 
further agricultural interests, but Quebec owes most to J. F. Perrault (q.v.), and 
Nova Scotia to John Young (q.v.). An agricultural school was founded at Ste. 
Anne de la Pocatiere in 1859 ; the Guelph Agricultural College was established 


in 1874 ; the Nova Scotia School of Agriculture, 1885 ; and the Macdonald Col- 
lege, at Ste. Anne de Bellevue, opened in the fall of 1907. Agricultural Colleges 
are also in operation in connection with the provincial universities of Manitoba, 
Saskatchewan, and Alberta. Index : F In New France, difficulties in the way 
of, 87. S Progress of, in Upper Canada, 108, 109 ; Simcoe's endeavours to 
promote, 110, 198. E Elgin on, 49-^50 ; department of , established by Hincks- 
Morin government, 117 ; charged with founding of model farms and agricul- 
tural schools, 117. MS Agricultural experiments of the Red River colony, 
1820-1835, 222-223; experimental farm at Red River, 237; Governor Simpson's 
views, 273-278. D In British Columbia, 256-257, 329-330. B Splendid field 
for in North- West predicted by Toronto Globe, in 1852,, 213-215. See also 
Farmers; Wheat; Flour-milling; Puget Sound Agricultural Society. Bib,: 
Canada : An Ency., vol. 5 ; Johnson, First Things in Canada. 

Aguesseau, Henri-Francois (1668-1751). Studied law; appointed third 
barrister of the Parliament* of Paris, 1690 ; and attorney-general, 1700. Seven- 
teen years later became chancellor. His opposition to Law's financial scheme 
brought about his temporary disgrace. Reappointed after the failure of Law's 
bank, and retired, 1722. Joined the administration again in 1727 as minister of 
justice, and finally retired, 1750. Index : F On French Parliaments, 153. 

Aiguebelle, d 7 . WM In battle of Ste. Foy, 257. 

Aiken, Thomas B. H Contributes to The Club in Howe's Nova Scotian, 10. 

Aikins, James Cox (1823-1896). Educated at Victoria College. Elected for 
Peel County, 1854, and sat in Assembly until 1861. Elected to Legislative 
Council, 1862; and at Confederation became a member of the Dominion 
Senate. Secretary of state in Macdonald administration, 1869-1873, and again 
in 1878-1880; minister of inland revenue, 1880-1882; lieutenant-governor of 
Manitoba, 1882-1888; again called to Senate, 1896. Index: R Graduate of 
Victoria College, 143. Bib.: Dent, Can. For.; Morgan, Can. Men.; Rose, 
Cyc. Can. Biog. 

Ailleboust de Coulonge, Louis d'. Administered settlement of Villemarie 
during the absence of Maisonneuve. Promoted to governorship of Three Rivers. 
Became governor of Canada, 1648. Succeeded by Lauzon, 1651. Adminis- 
tered the colony, 1657. Died at Quebec, 1660. Index : F Succeeds Montrnagny 
as governor, 35 ; interim governor, 42. L His pious administration, 8. Bib. : 
Parkman, Old Regime; Douglas, Old France in the New World. 

Aillon, Father de la Roche d'. Ch R6collet interpreter and negotiator with 
the Kirkes, 188-190; returns to France, 208. Bib.: Kirke, The First English 
Conquest of Canada. 

Aix-la-Chapelle, Treaty of. Signed between Great Britain and France, April 
18, 1748. Brought the War of the Austrian Succession to a close. The prac- 
tical effect of the treaty was to renew the status quo. Ail former treaties were 
renewed and all conquests restored. So far as British North America was con- 
cerned, the most vital article was that which provided for the restoration to 
France of Cape Breton. Bib. : Hertslet, Treaties and Conventions. 

Alabama Claims. Md Exploits of the Alabama, 98 ; inflicts injury on North- 
ern shipping, 165 ; causes irritation in United States, 167 ; claims referred to 
Joint Commission, 168-169 ; personnel of Commission, 169 ; claims finally sub- 
mitted to arbitration, 181. See also Washington, Treaty of. 

Alaska Boundary Question. Arose out of differences of opinion as to the in- 
terpretation of the 1828 Convention between Russia and Great Britain, and par- 
ticularly as to the boundary of the coast strip. The United States contention 


St m & 

^^f^l^^S^A^m^ substantially what they had 
contended for Ldex: D Effect of Russian occupation, 38 ; early. history oi, 
119 Sr of dispute, 340-341. Bib. : Hodgins, British and American Ihplo- 
macuiSnnCmada MacArthur, The Alaska Boundary Aware Lin the Umv 
Mat December 1907 ' Bourinot, Canada under Bntu>h R^; Proceedings of 
tKTBouS Tribunal, Washington, 1904; Ewart, The Kingdom of 

Canada. __. . - -- 

Aibanei, Charles. L Explores Hudson Bay, 11. Tnrludpq the 

Alberta Created a province of the Dominion on Sept. 1, 1905. Includes tiie 

territoTof Alberta was named in honour of the Princess Louise. Seat of gov- 
ernment, Edmonton. See ako North-West Territories 

Alberta, IMversity of. Created by Act of the Legislature of Alberta passed 
at the first session after provincial autonomy had been granted. First president 
appointed, 1908. Seat of university at Strathcona, across the Saskatchewan 
River from Edmonton, the capital of the province. 

Albion. Newspaper published at New York. Index: B Peter Brown contrib- 
utes to 2; a weekly newspaper, published at New York for British residents 
of United States, 2. BL On Draper's pronouncement as to responsible govern- 
ment 94 on Bagot's reception at Montreal, 118 ; on Hincks's appointment as 
inspector-general, 120; on the seat of government, 182; on the Metcalfe 
Crisis 100 

Alexander VII, Pope (1599-1667). Born Fabio CMgi, Elected pope, 1655. 
Index: L Appoints Laval Ms vicar apostolic, 7. . 

Alexander of Modes, Father. L Recommends Laval for mission work in India, 


Alexander, Sir William. See Stirling, Earl of. 

Algcraqiiian Indians. The name is now applied to what is probably the most 
widely-distributed linguistic stock of North America. In the days of French 
Canada, it was given to a comparatively small and unimportant tribe, whose 
home was on the banks of the Ottawa. Index : L Two camps of, destroyed^ 9 ; 
missions destroyed by drunkenness, 175. Bib. : Parkman, Conspiracy of Pontiac; 
Brinton, The Lenape and Their Legends; Pilling, Bibliography of the Algonquian 


Aliens. Dr Dorchester has Act passed in 1794 by Assembly, 288 ; designed to 
guard against danger of anti-British sentiment, 288. Me Act passed in Upper 
Canada, 1804, 88 ; designed to guard against sedition, 88-89 ; terms of British 
Act of 1790, 140-141 ; hardships of, 141 ; Act of 1826, 141-143. 

Alix, Marguerite, Ch Mother of Helen BouilM, 66. 

Alix, Simon. Ch Director of Company of New France, 170. 

Allan, George William (1822-1901). Born in York,Upper Canada. Educated 
at Upper Canada College; studied law and called to the bar, 1846. Served in 
the volunteers during the Rebellion of 1837. Mayor of Toronto, 1855; elected 
member of the Legislative Council, 1858; appointed to the Senate, 1867; Speaker 
of the. Senate, 1888-1891. From 1877 until his death, chancellor of Trinity Uni- 
versity, Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men. 


Allan, Sir Hugh (1810-1 8S2) . Founder of the Allan line of steamships. Came 
to Canada from Scotland, 1826, and in 1831 entered the shipbuilding finn of 
James Millar & Co., Montreal, of which he became a partner in 1835. In 1853 
his firm began building iron screw steamships, and their first vessel, the Canadian, 
made its first voyage in 1855. The following year, with a fleet of four vessels, 
a regular service was opened between Canada and England, with fortnightly 
sailings. In 1859 the fleet was increased to eight steamers, and a weekly service 
opened. From these small beginnings, the Allan Line has risen to a foremost 
place in transatlantic transportation. Index ; Md President of the Canadian. 
Pacific Railway Co. his agreement with American capitalists, 201-202 ; cor- 
rupt bargains with government, 202 ; denies charges, 205 ; Macdonald denies 
corrupt bargain, 207 ; Cartier's connection with, 207 ; his Company compelled to 
abandon railway project, 233. C His Company offers to build transcontinental 
railway, 53 ; asked to subscribe to Conservative election fund, 53 ; his indiscreet 
letters, 53. H President of Montreal Board of Trade, presides at public dinner 
to Joseph Howe, 138. D His connection with transcontinental railway project, 
321. E His line secures mail subsidy, 115. See also Transportation; Molson; 
Canard; Royal William. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.; Dent, Can. For.; Taylor, 
Brit. Am.; Canada: An Ency.j vol. 3; Semi-Centennial Report of Montreal 
Board of Trade, 1893. 

Alianshaw, James. WT Appointed to Legislative Council, New Brunswick, 69. 

Allard, Father Germain. L R6collet missionary, arrival in Canada, 109. 

Allcock, Henry. Studied law at Lincoln's Inn, and called to the bar, 1791. 
In November, 1798, appointed judge of Court of King's Bench for Upper Canada. 
Elected to Legislative Assembly for constituency of Durham, Simcoe, and E. 
York, 1800, but unseated by the Assembly, June, 1801. Under the direction of 
Lieutenant-Governor Hunter, engaged in the preparation of a bill to establish 
a Court of Equity in the province, and was to have been the first chancellor of 
the Court. The Court of Equity, however, was not at this time established, 
and on the removal of Chief Justice Elmsley to Lower Canada, October, 1802, 
was appointed chief justice of Upper Canada, and a member of the Executive 
and Legislative Councils. On the death of Elmsley, promoted to chief justice 
of Lower Canada, July 1, 1805. In August, 1806, took his seat as a member of 
the Executive Council, and in January, 1807, appointed a member and chairman 
of the Legislative Council. Died at Quebec, Feb. 22, 1808. Bib. : Read, Lives 
of the Judges; Cartwright, Life and Letters of Richard Cartwright. 

Allen, Ethan (1737-1789). Index: Dr Seizes Ticonderoga and Crown Point, 
83 ; marches against Montreal, 98 ; captured with part of his force, 99 ; put 
into irons, 100 ; proposes separate arrangements between Vermont and Canada, 
244, 245. Hd His intrigues in connection with political status of Vermont, 
197-216 ; his great duplicity, 209, 213 ; proposes secret treaty to Haldimand, 
214; true to Vermont only, 217. See also Montgomery; Arnold; American 
Invasion. Bib. : Allen's Captivity; Being a Narrative Containing his Voyages, 
Travels, etc.; Henry Hall, Ethan Allen; Jared Sparks, American Biography, 
ser. 1, vol. 1; Cyc. Am. Biog.; Bradley, The Making of Canada. 

Allen, Ira (1751-1814). Index : Hd Brother of Ethan has conference with 
British emissary, 204 ; little confidence placed in good faith of, 205, 209 ; receives 
documents justifying his mission, 210; proposes secret treaty with Britain, 214; 
true to Vermont only, 217. Dr His plans for attacking Canada, 299, 300. 

Allen, John Campbell. WT Solicitor-general, New Brunswick, 1856, 183; 
opposition candidate in York, 1865, elected, 228; his sterling honesty, 229; 


attorney-general in Smith government, 233; a Conservative, 233; appointed to 
the Bench, 235, 237 ; chief justice, 229. Bib. : Dent, Can. For ^ 

AIHson, Joseph. H On Ms death, 1839, Joseph Howe offered his^seat in Execu- 
tive Council, Nova Scotia, but refuses, 72. 

Allouez Father Claude. Came to Quebec, 1657. Left for the West, 1665. 
Laboured for twenty-five years among the tribes of what are now the states of 
Wisconsin, Michigan, and Minnesota. Met La Salle in Illinois, 1679. Died in 
1690 Index : L Missionary labours of, 11 ; impresses Indians of Sault Ste. Mane 
with power of French king, 104. Bib. : Shea, Discovery and Exploration of 
the Mississippi Valley; Griffin, Discovery of the Mississippi. 

Allsopp, George. Settled in Quebec, 1761, and became prominent m main- 
taining the rights of the civil authority as opposed to the military. January, 
1766, appointed deputy secretary, clerk of the Council, and registrar of enrol- 
ments, but because of his opposition to the government, Murray refused to 
admit him to office. In April, 1768, Carleton confirmed him in these appoint- 
ments, which he retained until superseded by George Pownall in 1775. From 
1771 to 1776 deputy commissary-general. One of the original members of the 
Legislative Council, under the Quebec Act. In 1780, when the Legislative 
Council presented an address to Haldimand opposing the passing of an ordinance 
amending the judicial system of the province in accordance with royal instruc- 
tions to the governor, voted against the address and caused a strongly worded 
protest to be entered in the minutes of the Council. This action resented by 
members of the Council, and ultimately led to his dismissal by Haldimand, 
February, 1783. Index: Hd Member of Council suspended for sedition, 
1783, 175. Bib.: Christie, History of Lower Canada. 

Almon, William Bruce. HA" bitter Tory/ 7 86 ; called to Executive and 
Legislative Councils of Nova Scotia, 1843, 86 ; his appointment leads to resig- 
nation of Howe, 87 ; challenges Howe to a duel, 236. Bib. : Campbell, History 
of Nona Scotia; Saunders, Three Premiers of Nova Scotia. 

Alwington. Sy Name of governor-general's residence at Kingston, 294. 

American Colonies. Dr Their objections to the Quebec Act, 70. Hd Lou- 
don's letter to Pitt regarding taxation of, 11; objections to in colonies, 58; 
Haldimand's opinion of, 84 ; feeling in London against taxation of, 86. 

American Invasion (1775--1776). Grew out of the belief entertained by the 
rebellious colonists that the French of Canada could readily be won to their side. 
As a matter of fact the latter, while for the most part showing no enthusiasm 
to join Carleton's forces, were still less inclined to cooperate with the invading 
army under Montgomery and Arnold, or to support the movement for union 
with the New Englanders. On the other hand, the Americans had a number 
of English-speaking sympathizers in Montreal men who had come there from 
the colonies to the south. This, and its geographical position, made the capture 
of Montreal ah easy matter ; but Quebec was a different problem. Here Carle- 
ton gathered a small but efficient force of regulars and militia, and successfully 
held the town against the invading army. Montgomery was killed in the as- 
sault, Dec. 31, 1775, and in the spring of 1776 the siege was raised. The invading 
army hastily retreated to Montreal, and finally was driven out of the country, 
Index: P Joseph Papineau carries despatch to Carleton, 5. Dr Agitation 
worked up by American emissaries, 79-80 ; disaffection in Montreal, 82 ; seizure 
of Ticonderoga and Crown Point, 82 ; Arnold captures vessel on Lake Cham- 
plain, 83 ; defence of St. Johns, 84r-85 ; martial law proclaimed, 86 ; militia 
out, 86-88 ; the habitants indifferent or disaffected, 88 ; English-speaking 


inhabitants of Montreal refuse to serve, 88 ; Guy Johnson raises Indian levies, 88 ; 
measures of defence, 90-93; Congress decides to invade Canada, 95-96; Arnold 
starts for the Kennebec, 96 ; Montgomery assumes command, 97 ; Alien appears 
before Montreal, is captured and sent to England, 98-99; Montgomery lays 
siege to St. Johns, 100-101 ; Chambly captured by the Americans, 101 ; Preston 
surrenders at St. Johns, 102; Arnold marches on Quebec, 106-111; Carleton 
escapes to Quebec, 112-113; organizes the defence, 114-115; progress of the 
siege, 118-124; Montgomery and Arnold attack the city, 124-126; death of 
Montgomery, 126 ; failure of Arnold's attack, 127-132 ; Franklin's mission to 
Montreal, 135-136; arrival of the fleet at Quebec with, reinforcements,, 137; 
Carleton attacks the Americans, 138-139 ; evacuation of Canada, 141-147. 
See also Montgomery ; Arnold ; Dorchester ; Ethan Allen. Bib. : Kingsf ord, 
History of Canada; Smith, Our Struggle for the Fourteenth Colony; Stone, Inva- 
sion of Canada; Codman, Arnold's Expedition to Quebec; Lucas, History of 
Canada; Coffin, The Province of Quebec and the Early American Revolution; 
Bradley, The Making of Canada. 

American Revolution. WM Traced to battle of the Plains, 205. WT Loy- 
alists in, 144-145. 

Americans. Dr Settled in Canada, disloyalty of, 82, 85 ; disorderly retreat 
of, 146. 

Amherst, Jeffrey, Baron (1717-1797). Sent to America,' 1758, and in co- 
operation with Admiral Boscawen, captured Louisbourg that year. With Gen- 
eral Prideaux and Sir W. Johnson, took Ticonderoga, 1759. Reduced Montreal 
the following year. Appointed commander-in-chief and governor-general in 
America, 1761. Raised to peerage, 1776, as Baron Amherst of Holmesdale. 
Index : WM In command of Louisbourg expedition, 73 ; commander-in-chief 
of forces in America, 77 ; operates against Montreal, 77 ; his slowness of move- 
ment, 97, 122; held in check by Bourlamaque, 131; compels Bourlamaque to 
evacuate Ports Carillon and Frederic, 146. Hd Replaces Abercromby, 21; 
wrecks Fort George, 22 ; his delay at Lake Champlain, 25 ; praises Haldimand's 
forbearance at Niagara, 27 ; builds a strong fort at Crown Point, 28 ; arrives at 
Oswego, 34; Montreal surrenders to, 38; takes up quarters at New York, 40; 
nominal governor of Canada, 41 ; notifies Haldimand of promotion, 42 ; ap- 
proves scheme for smelting old guns, 47 ; retirement of, 53 ; letter from Haldi- 
mand, 82 ; recommends Haldimand for New York command, 83 ; his interest in 
Louis Haldimand, 88 ; blind to true situation in America, 103 ; anxious to see 
Haldimand on his return to England, 105-106 ; meets Haldimand at Sydneys, 
311; entertainments given by, 324-325 ; Haldimand on, 326,332; Haldimand 
visits, 337, 339. Dr Canada surrendered to, 2; grants religious freedom, 10. 
See also Louisbourg ; Ticonderoga ; Crown Point. Bib. : Expedition of British 
and Provincial Army . . . against Ticonderoga and Crown Point; Samuel Waldo, 
Reduction of Louisbourg (Dominion Archives, 1886) ; Johnstone, Journal of 
Louisbourg , 1750-1758 (Coll. de doc. rel. a la Nouvelle France, vol. 3) ; Diet, 
of Eng. Hist.; Diet. Nat. Biog.; Bradley, The Fight with France; Parkman, 
Montcalm and Wolfe. 

Amherstburg. A town on the Canadian side of the Detroit River. Index : 
Bk Fort, village, and naval station, 59 ; deputy quartermaster-general stationed 
at, 80 ; military importance of, 177, 236 ; garrison of, 202, 235. BL Early 
municipal government of, 298. Bib.: James, Early History of the Town of 

Amfcersfs Regiment WM On British left, at Quebec, 189. 


Amiens, Treaty of. Signed between Great Britain and France, March 25, 
1802. Brought to an end the war that had lasted since 1793. Among other 
provisions, the Newfoundland fisheries were restored to the same position held 
before the war. Index: Bk Preliminaries of peace entered into in London, 
and treaty signed at Amiens, 30-31. Bib. : Hertslet, Treaties and Conventions; 
Bowman, Preliminary Stages of the Peace of Amiens. 

Amnesty Act, 1838. Me Enables the government to extend conditional par- 
don in certain cases to political offenders, 474-475. 

Amnesty Act, 1849. E William Lyon Mackenzie takes advantage of, 91. 
BL Proposed by Elgin, on behalf of Imperial government, as a measure of pardon 
for those implicated in the Rebellion of 1837-1838, 287; Act passed, 292. Me 
Mackenzie takes advantage of, 480. Bib.: Dent, Last Forty Years. 

Amusements in Canada. Hd Contemporary accounts of, in 1781, 221-224. 

Anadabijou. Ch Montagnais chief, makes long harangue to Champlain, 10; 
Ms relations with Champlain, 50-51. 

Anahotaha. L Huron chief, joins Dollard at Long Sault, 69. 

Andastes. A once-powerful tribe, who spoke a dialect of the Iroquois, but 
were at deadly enmity with the Five Nations, by whom, according to Parkman, 
they were nearly destroyed about the year 1672. Index : Ch Indian tribe of 
Virginia, 90 ; adopted into the Hurons and spoke their language, 90. 

Andehoua. Ch Indian youth baptized, 233. 

Anderson, Captain. Dr British officer killed at Sault au Matelot barrier, 130. 

Anderson, A. Caulfield. An officer of the Hudson's Bay Company, employed 
for many years in the New Caledonia district, under Dr. McLoughlin. Index : 
D In charge at Alexandria, on the Lower Fraser, 186 ; explores a road from Earn- 
loops to the Lower Fraser, 186. 

Anderson, Anthony. Me Given command of the rebels, 360; moves on 
Toronto, 363 ; takes prisoners, 364 ; victim of Powell's treachery, 365. 

Anderson, David (1814-1885). Born in London, England. Educated at 
Edinburgh Academy and at Exeter College, Oxford. Vice-principal of St. Bees 
College, Cumberland, 1841-1847, and incumbent of All Saints', Derby, 1848-1849. 
Came to the Red River Settlement as bishop of Rupert's Land, 1849. Remained 
until 1864, when he returned to England. Subsequently vicar of Clifton and 
chancellor of St. Paul's Cathedral, London. Bib. : Works : Notes on the Flood; 
Net in the Bay. For biog. see, Mockridge, The Bishops of the Church of England 
in Canada and Newfoundland; Machray, Life of Archbishop Machray. 

Andros, Sir Edmund (1637-1713). Appointed governor of New York, 1674; 
governor of all the New England colonies, 1685. Recalled on account of his 
extreme unpopularity, 1688. Subsequently governor of Virginia, 1692-1698. 
Index : F Governor of New England, 263 ; seized and imprisoned, 266. L His 
offer respecting liquor traffic, 173. Bib. : Whitniorc, Andros Tracts (Prince 
Soc., 1868-1874) ; Ferguson, Essays in American History. 

Aneda. Ch An Indian chief, 29. 

Aneda. An evergreen, used by Jacques Cartier and his men as a remedy 
against ^scurvy. Parkman suggests that it was a spruce, or, more probably, au 
arbor-vitae. Douglas believes it to have been balsam. Cartier spells the name 
ameda, and Lescarbot, annedda. Index : Chi Remedy for scurvy, 29 : the Iroquois 
word for spruce tree, 30. 

Ange Gardien. A village on the St. Lawrence, north shore, below Quebec. 
Index : WM Wolfe seriously ill at, 154. 

Angers, Auguste Real (1838- ). Born in Quebec. Studied law, and called 


to the bar; made Q. C. 1880, and the same year appointed a puisne judge of the 
Superior Court of Quebec. Lieutenant-governor of Quebec, 1887 ; resigned and 
called to the Senate, 1892. Minister of agriculture, 1892-1895 ; president of the 
Council, 1896. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Hen; Chapais, Angers (Men of the Day). 

Anglican Church. See Church of England. 

Angiin, Timothy Warren (1822-1886). Born in Ireland. Came to St. John, 
New Brunswick, 1849. Established Weekly Freeman that year. Elected to New 
Brunswick Legislature for St. John, 1860. Opposed Confederation. Elected to 
the House of Commons, 1867, for Gloucester. Elected Speaker, 1874, and again 
in 1878. Index : C Demands disallowance of New Brunswick Act abolishing 
separate schools, 73. WT Elected for St. John to New Brunswick Assembly on 
Anti-Confederate ticket, 227 ; member of Smith government, 233 ; his influence, 
235 ; differences with colleagues in railway matter, 236 ; resigns his seat, 1865, 
237; defeated for county of St. John, 1866, 251. Bib.: Dent, Can. For. 

Angus, Richard Bladworth (1831- ). Bom at Bathgate, near Edinburgh. 
Came to Canada, 1857, and joined the staff of the Bank of Montreal. Rose 
steadily in the service of the bank, and in 1869 became general manager. Presi- 
dent of the Bank of Montreal, 1910; and director of the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way. Index : Md Director of Canadian Pacific Railway syndicate, 236. BII). : 
Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who. 

Anian, Strait of. Dr. Ruge says that the name arose through a misunder- 
standing of Marco Polo ; s book (bk. 3, ch. 5). His Ania " is no doubt the present 
Anam, but the Dutch cartographers thought that this land was in north-east Asia, 
and called the strait that was said to separate the continents the Strait of Anian." 
The name appears for the first time on Gerh. Mercator's famous maritime chart 
of 1569. Index : D History of search for, 2 ; De Fuca's voyage to, 9 ; Carver's 
River of Oregon, 20. Bib. : Soph. Ruge, Fretum Aniam; Dawson, Canada. 

Annand, William (1808-1892). Born in Halifax County. Entered the Nova 
Scotia Assembly as one of the members for Halifax, 1836 ; financial secretary in 
Howe's ministry, 1860-1863. An active opponent of Confederation. Formed 
the first Anti-Confederate or repeal government in Nova Scotia, 1867 ; retired in 
1874 to accept the position of immigration agent at London, where he died. 
Index : H Elected to represent Halifax in Nova Scotia Legislature, as Joseph 
Howe's colleague, 1836, 29 ; assumes control of Nova Scotian, 74-75 ; publishes 
Morning Chronicle, 75 ; advocates central non-sectarian college for Nova Scotia, 
82; becomes financial secretary of province, 169; Wm. Miller brings action 
against for libel, 188 ; goes to London, 1866, as Anti-Confederate delegate, 192 ; 
becomes head of Nova Scotia government, 202 ; member of repeal delegation to 
London, 1868, 204 ; turns against Howe, 208, 209, 217 ; receives vote of thanks 
from Nova Scotia Legislature, 218. Bib.: Campbell, History of Nova Scotia; 
Saunders, Three Premiers of Nova Scotia. 

Annapolis Royal. When Nicholson, with his fleet and New England troops, 
captured Port Royal in 1710, he changed the name to Annapolis Royal, in honour 
of Queen Anne. It was besieged the following year by the Acadians with their 
Micmac and Penobscot allies, but the New England garrison held the fort. 
Under treaty of Utrecht, 1713, ceded to England by France. In 1744 Paul 
Mascarene successfully defended the place against Du Vivier. See also Port 
Royal. Bib. : Calnek and Savary, History of the County of Annapolis; Nichol- 
son, Journal of the Capture of Annapolis (N.S. Hist. Soc., vol. 1). 

Anne, Saint. I/ Chapel dedicated to, in the church at Quebec, 84 ; chapels 
erected to, at Beaupre*, 101 ; relic of, 102. 


Annexation to United States. A fitful movement, never reaching serious pro- 
portions, and generally the result of temporary or local dissatisfaction with 
political conditions, or of commercial depression. Goldwin Smith i was Jto many 
years its prophet. Index: Md Favoured by small wing of Reform party 23; 
manifesto issued by business men of Montreal, its causes, 39, 40, 95 ; opposition 
to Confederation raises hopes of American party, 118; .movement ; m Nova 
Scotia, 145; movement in British Columbia, 149; Goldwin Smith, the gloomy 
prophet of/ 293; advocated by Edward Fairer, 312-313. Me WL Mackenzie 
not in favour of, 10. BL Manifesto of 1849, 336; Sir John Abbott on, 806; 
advocated by many of the Radicals of Lower Canada, 343. C Advocated by 
Democratic party in Quebec, 26 ; said by Elgin to be popular among commercial 
classes in 1849, 44 ; countenanced by Sir John Abbott and L. H. Holton, 44-45 ; 
what it would mean for Quebec, 64. B Threatened by repeal of Corn Laws in 
1846, 31, 32 ; the Montreal Manifesto, 36-37 ; sentiment for, charged against 
Clear Grits, 42 ; opposition charged with, in Confederation debate, 185 ; Brown 
holds that Reciprocity scheme designed to promote, 194 ; charge of, denied by 
Canada First party, 237. E Sentiment for, in 1847, 5 ; Elgin on, 58 ; Montreal 
Manifesto, 80-82 ; advocated by the Parti Rouge, 109 ; Elgin's efforts to counter- 
act movement, 189-190 ; Durham on, 192-193; conditions favouring movement, 
194r-195 ; repeal of Reciprocity Treaty designed to promote, 202. P Threatened 
in Ninety-Two Resolutions, 92-93 ; advocated in 1848, and since Confederation, 
96 ; advocated by Papineau, O'Callaghan, and their friends, 97. Bib. : Dent, 
Last Forty Years; Weir, Sixty Years in Canada; Kirby, County Manifesto to 
the Annexationists of Montreal; Denison, The Struggle for Imperial Unity. 

Anse des Meres. WM Frigates stationed at, 87 ; British vessels anchored 
at, 124. 

Anstruther's Regiment. WM In the attack on Quebec, 135 ; secures Sillery 
road, 183 ; detachment keeps Bougainville's corps in check, 189. 

Antell. Dr A disaffected Montrealer, 122. 

Anticosti. The first mention of the island is in Cartier's narrative of his first 
voyage, 1534. The following year he again visited the island, which he named 
Isle de PAssomption. On the origin of the present Indian name, see W. F. 
Ganong's note, Royal Society Trans., 1889, II, 51. Placed under jurisdiction 
of Newfoundland in 1763 ; transferred to Canada, 1774. Bib. : Huard, Labrador 
et Anticosti; Quay, Lettres sur Vile Anticosti; Schmitt, Monographie de Vile 
$ Anticosti; Lewis, Menier and his Island. 

Apprenticeship, System of. L Adopted with new-comers, in New France, 78. 

Archambatilt, Louis. C Confirms statements as to Cartier's action in connec- 
tion with alleged alterations in British North America Act, 103. E Member 
of Seigniorial Commission, 186. 

Archibald, Sir Adams George (1814r-1892). Educated at Pictou Academy. 
Studied law ; in 1838 called to the bar of Prince Edward Island ; and to that 
of Nova Scotia in 1839. Elected to the Nova Scotia Assembly for Colchester, 
1851. Attorney-general of Nova Scotia, 1860-1863. Delegate to the various 
Conferences leading up to Confederation. Became secretary of state for tho 
provinces in first Dominion ministry. Lieutenant-governor of Manitoba, 1870- 
1872; and of Nova Scotia, 1873-1883. Knighted, 1885. Index: Md. Secretary 
of state for provinces in first Dominion ministry, 135; succeeds MacDougall as 
lieutenant-governor of the North-West Territories, 161-162. H Becomes solici- 
tor-general and member of Executive Council of Nova Scotia, 1856, 157; 
attorney-general, I860, 169 ; leader of the opposition, 176 ; delegate to Charlotte- 


town Conference, 1864, 177 ; supports Confederation, 186 ; goes to England as 
delegate to complete Confederation, 189 ; Ms interview with Joseph Howe, 189 ; 
member of first Dominion ministry, 1867, 198 ; retires from ministry, and suc- 
ceeded by Howe, 226. C First lieutenant-governor of Manitoba, 130. "WT 
Delegate from Nova Scotia to Charlottetown Conference, 215; delegate to 
Quebec Conference, 219 ; secretary of state in first Dominion ministry, 271. 
Bib. : Expulsion of Acadians (N. S. Hist. Soc., vol. 5). For biog., see Dent, 
Can. Por.; Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog. 

Archibald, Samuel George William (1777-1846). Born in Colchester County, 
Nova Scotia. Studied law and practised in Nova Scotia ; obtained a seat in the 
Legislature; became Speaker, solicitor-general, and afterwards attorney-general 
of the province. Chief-justice of Prince Edward Island, 1824-1828, remaining 
Speaker of the Nova Scotia Assembly and solicitor-general, during the whole 
term of his incumbency of the chief-justiceship. Index: H Contributes to 
The Club in Howe's Nova Scotian, 10 ; in House of Assembly, 18 ; leader of 
popular party, 35 ; becomes Speaker, 57 ; appointed master of the Rolls, 74. 
Bib. : Campbell, History of Nova Scotia. 

Archives. Provision was made by the Parliament of Canada, in 1872, for an 
Archives Branch, and Douglas Brymner was appointed Dominion Archivist. His 
first report appeared in 1873. The earlier reports were of a preliminary nature, 
but in 1884 the first of the important series of calendars was included in the 
report. Abb6 Verreau made a special report on historical material hi Europe 
bearing on Canadian history, published in 1874. A report on manuscript 
material in the colonial archives at Paris, by Edouard Richard, was published 
as a supplement to the report for 1899. Dr. Brymner died in 1902, and Arthur 
G. Doughty was appointed Dominion Archivist in 1904. The report for 1905, 
in 3 vols., represented a new departure; the publication of calendars was 
abandoned, and replaced by volumes containing series of documents relating to 
definite subjects, systematically arranged. The archives were moved into a 
special building in 1907. In 1910 began the issue of a series of publications, 
containing historical journals and other special material. Provincial archives, 
of a more or less distinct character, have also been established in the provinces 
of Quebec, Ontario, Nova Scotia, British Columbia, Manitoba, and Alberta. 
Index : Hd Quoted, 254 ; Haldimand collection in, 319. 

Arctic Archipelago. Embraces the islands lying north of the mainland of 
Canada. Transferred to the Dominion by an Imperial order-in-council, Sept. 
1, 1880. Bib. : Johnson, Canada's Northern Fringe. 

Argall, Sir Samuel. Born in Walthamstow, England. A type of the found- 
ers of British colonial dominion. Sent, May, 1609, with a small vessel to the 
new settlement at Jamestown, Va., to trade and fish. The following year took 
out Lord Delaware to Jamestown, arriving in time to save the colony from 
starvation. In 1812 carried off Pocahontas to the settlement of Jamestown. 
Later in the year sent with a vessel of 14 guns to destroy the French settle- 
ments on the north coast, regarded as infringing on the Virginia patent. 
Captured Mount Desert, St. Croix, and Port Royal. On return voyage forced 
the commandant at New Amsterdam to recognize English suzerainty by haul- 
ing down the Dutch flag and running up the English. May, 1617, made 
deputy governor of Virginia. In 1620 served against the Algerine pirates under 
Sir Robert Mansell. Knighted in 1622. In 1625 admiral of a squadron cruis- 

ing after a hostile Dunkirk fleet, and took some prizes. In October, 1625, 
with the futile expedition against Cadiz under Lord Wimbledon. 

Died, 1626. 


Bib.: ArgalFs own narrative; Parkman, Pioneers of France; Calnek and Savary, 
History of the County of Annapolis. 

Argenson, Pierre de Voyer, Vicomte d' (1626-1710). Succeeded Jean de 
Lauson as governor of New France, 1658, His governorship marked by per- 
sonal quarrels with Laval, and a series of humiliating raids throughout the 
colony by the Iroquois. Recalled in 1661. Index: F Arrives as governor, 43; 
on Laval, 45. L His opinion of Laval, 29; hostility to Maisonneuve, 176. 
Bib. : Parkman, Old Regime; Douglas, Old France in the New World. 

Argyll, John Douglas Sutherland Campbell, ninth Duke of (1845- ). 
Married H. R. H. Princess Louise, 1871 ; succeeded to dukedom, 1900. Rep- 
resented Argyllshire in Parliament, 1868-1878. Governor-general of Canada 
(as Marquis of Lome), 1878-^1883. Founded Royal Society of Canada, 1881. 
Index : Md Refers LeteUier difficulty to Imperial government, 249-250. Bib. : 
Works: Memories of Canada and Scotland; Imperial Federation; Canadian 
Pictures; Passages from the Past. For biog., see Dent, Can. Por.; Who's 
Who; Collins, Canada under the Administration of Lord Lome. 

Arkansas River. L Reached by Jolliet and Marquette, 146. 

Armistice. In War of 1812. Index: Bk Effects of, 261-263, 269, 272 ; termi- 
nation of, 270 ; position of enemy strengthened during its continuance, 272. 

Armour, John Douglas (1830-1903). Educated at Upper Canada College and 
the University of Toronto ; studied law and called to the bar, 1853 ; made 
Q. C. T 1867 ; Bencher of the Law Society, 1871, Appointed a puisne judge of 
the Court of Queen's Bench of Ontario, 1877 ; raised to the chief-justiceship, 
1887. Chief-justice of Ontario and president of the Court of Appeal, 1890. 
Judge of the Supreme Court of Canada, 1902; in the same year represented 
Canada on the Alaska Boundary Commission. Bib. : Morgan, Can. Men; Dent, 
Can. Por. 

Armstrong, Lawrence. Came to Nova Scotia as lieutenant-colonel of General 
Philipps's regiment. Appointed to the governor's Council, 1720. Appointed 
Heutenant-governor of Nova Scotia, 1724; held office until 1739. Served in 
America for more than thirty years. Committed suicide, 1739. Bib. : Camp- 
bell, History of Nova Scotia; Selections from the Public Documents of Nova Scotia , 
ed. by Akins. 

Arnold, Benedict (1741-1801). A druggist at New Haven, Conn. When the 
War of Independence broke out, in 1775, organized an expedition against British 
on Lake Champlain. The same year led a body of picked men to Quebec by 
way of the Kennebec and Chaudie're. After the unsuccessful assault on Que- 
bec, was in several small engagements near Montreal ; finally driven out of the 
Erovince. Given command of Philadelphia ; took offence at slights put upon 
im by Congress, and attempted to betray West Point to Clinton. Afterwards 
commanded a corps of American refugees on the British side ; settled for a 
time in the West Indies ; died in London. Index : Dr Captures and abandons 
Fort St. Johns, 83 ; his early life, 104 ; assigned command of expedition 
against Quebec, 105; constitution of his force, 106; his march through the 
wilderness, 107-109; assisted by the habitants, 110; crosses St. Lawrence and 
lands at Wolfe's Cove, 110; sends summons for surrender of Quebec, 111; 
retires toPointe aux Trembles, 111 ; repulsed and wounded in attack on Quebec' 
128; surrender of his men, 131; is transferred to Montreal, 132-135; advances 
to meet Poster, 142 ; burns ch&teau of Senneville, 143 ; his narrow escape, 147 ; 
in command of American ships on Lake Champlain, 155 ; defeated near Crown 
Point, 156. S Applies for grant of land in Upper Canada, 104. Hd His repulse 


at Quebec, 112; the Invasion, 127 ; his " Address to the People of America/' 
227 ; commissioners sent to Montreal to confer with, 276 ; furnishes list of rebels 
to Clinton, 281. See also Montgomery; Ethan Allen; American Invasion. 
Bib. : Arnold, Life of Benedict Arnold; Todd, The Real Benedict Arnold; 
Sparks, American Biography; Codman, Arnold's Expedition to Quebec; Henry, 
Arnold's Campaign against Quebec; Smith, Arnold's March from Cambridge to 
Quebec; Jones, The Campaign for the Conquest of Canada in 1776; Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Arnoux. WM. King's surgeon, Montcalm carried into house of, 218. 

Aroostook War, 1839. WT Arose out of unsettled boundary question be- 
tween Maine and New Brunswick, 135. Bib.: Sprague, The North-Eastern 
Boundary Controversy and the Aroostook War. 

Arrangement of 1830. Provided that United States vessels should have access 
to ports in the British West Indies, in return for a similar privilege granted to 
British vessels in the ports of the United States. 

Arthur. Clergyman. Index : S Teaches school at Niagara, 167-168. 

Arthur, Sir George (1784-1854). The last lieutenant-governor of Upper 
Canada, 1838-1841. The chief event of his tenure of office was the suppression 
of the Upper Canadian Rebellion. Had been successively governor of Hon- 
duras and Van Diemen's Land previous to his Canadian appointment; and 
on leaving Canada appointed to the governorship of Bombay. Index: Me 
Governor of Upper Canada, 435 ; disregards clemency petitions, 435 ; learns 
of intended attack on Canada, 441 ; renews reward for Mackenzie's capture, 
445; proposes exchange of prisoners and refugees, 463; United States 
refuses, 463. Bk Organizes military gathering at Queenston Heights, 313. Sy 
Succeeds Sir F. B. Head, 109; reactionary in his views, 109-110; his attitude 
towards responsible government, 125-126 ; cautioned by colonial secretary, 127 ; 
Instructed to act In harmony with new governor-general, 144 ; meets him at 
Montreal, 153; explains his position and views, 156-161; receives governor- 
general at Toronto, and hands over seal of province, 197. R His efforts to repel 
American attacks, 117; Eyerson disappointed in, 118; proposes division of 
Clergy Reserves, 119. &$ Rebellion of 1837 (Upper Canada). Bib.: Kings- 
ford, History of Canada; Dent, Upper Canadian Rebellion; Bradshaw, Self- 
Government in Canada; Read, Lieutenant-Governors of Upper Canada. 

Asgill, Sir Charles (1762-1823). A lieutenant in Cornwall's army, 1780. 
Taken prisoner at Yorktown, condemned to death by the Americans, to avenge 
death of a Revolutionary officer. Marie Antoinette having been interested in 
his fate, interceded, and Asgill was released. Afterwards served in the Low 
Countries and in Ireland. Index : Dr Chosen by lot for retaliatory hanging, 
198. Bib,: Cyc. Am, Biog. 

Ashburton, Alexander Baring, Baron (1774-1848). Entered Parliament In 
1806. Opposed measures against American commerce. President of board of 
trade and master of mint, 1834. Raised to peerage, 1835. Commissioner at 
Washington for settlement of boundary dispute, 1842. Index ; BL Settles diffi- 
culties between Great Britain and the United States, 118. Bib.: Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Ashburton, John Dunning, first Baron (1731-1783). Index: Dr Opposes 
Quebec Act in House of Commons, 65. Bib. : Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Ashburton Treaty. Negotiated between Great Britain and the United States, 
1842, Lord Ashburton acting for the former and Daniel Webster on behalf of 
the latter. Provided for the settlement of the international boundary between 
Maine and Canada. Of the territory in dispute, the United States got about 
seven-twelfths and Canada five-twelfths. Also provided for the determination 


of the boundary in the St. Mary River and thence to the Lake of the Woods ; 
for the free navigation of the St. John River ; for the suppression of the slave 
trade, and for the extradition of criminals. Index : Sy Sydenham takes part in 
negotiations leading to, 336. WT Boundary question settled by, 135 ; settle- 
ment of, checks projected railway from St. Andrews to Quebec, 195. BL Set- 
tlement of, 118. Bib. : Dent, Last Forty Years; Winsor, Narrative and Critical 
History, Vol. vii; White, The Ashburton Treaty, in Univ. Mag., October, 1907; 
The Ashburton Treaty: an Afterword, in Univ. Mag., December, 1908 ; Houston, 
Canadian Constitutional Documents; Eertslet, Treaties and Conventions. 

Assembly. See House of Assembly. 

Assiniboia. One of the provisional districts carved out of the North- West 
Territories, in 1882. Now included in the provinces of Alberta and Saskatche- 
wan, principally in the latter. 

Assiniboine Indians. A tribe of the Siouan family ; first mentioned in the 
Jesuit Relation of 1640. They separated from the parent stock early in the 
seventeenth century, and moved north and north-west to the region about 
Lake Winnipeg. Later they spread over the country west of Lake 
Winnipeg, to the foot-hills of the Rocky Mountains. Their population was 
estimated at 8000 in 1829. One-half this number perished in the smallpox 
epidemic of 1836. They are now settled on reservations in Alberta, and in 
Montana. Bib.: Hodge, Handbook of American Indians. 

Assinibolne River. Discovered by La V^rendrye in 1736. Fort Rouge was 
built at the mouth of the river in that year, as well as Fort La Reine, near the 
present city of Portage la Prairie. From the latter fort, two years later, La 
V6rendrye set forth on his memorable journey to the Mandan Indians on the 
Missouri. Before the close of the century, both the Hudson's Bay Company 
and the North West Company had trading establishments at various points on 
the river. First named Riviere St, Charles ; afterwards Riviere des Assiliboilles, 
and Stone Indian River; finally settling in present form. Bib. : Bryce, Assini- 
boine River and its Forts (R. S. C., 1892) ; Dawson, Canada^ and Newfoundland; 
Burpee, Search for the Western Sea; Hind, Canadian Red River and Assiniboine 
and Saskatchewan Expeditions. 

Association of Canadian Refugees. Me Formed in 1839,448; object of, 
independence of Canada, 449 ; ended further expeditions against Canada, 449. 

Astor, John Jacob (1763-1848). Founder of Astor Fur Company. Index: 
Bk Sends news of declaration of war in 1812, 204. Bib. : Biyce, Hudson's Bay 
Company; Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Astor Fur Company. Index : D Founds Astoria, 64. See also Pacific Fur 

Astoria. Established by Pacific Fur Company, 1811. Turned over to the 
North West Company, 1813, and renamed Fort George. The scene of Wash- 
ington Irving's delightful narrative Astoria. The fort stood on the banks of 
the Columbia River, near its mouth. Index: B Acquired by North West 
Company 71, 149 ; in possession of United States after War of 1812, 133-134 : 
claimed by United States, 150; American flag raised over, 150. Bib.: 
.branch&re, Voyage to the North-West Coast of America; Cox, Adventures on the 
Columbia River; Ross, Adventures of First Settlers on Columbia River; Henry- 
Thompson Journals, ed. by Coues; Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company; Bradbury, 
Travels in the Interior of America in M Fears 1809, 1810, and 181 L 

Astorians. Name applied to members of the two expeditions fitted out by 
John Jacob Astor, to found trading establishment at the mouth of the Columbia. 


One party sailed around the Horn in the Tonquin; the other went overland by 
way of the Missouri and the Columbia. Index: D Their influence upon 
development of Pacific coast, 4 ; their first vessel, the Tonquin, captured by 
natives and the crew murdered, 1811, 37; the overland expedition, 71. See 
also Pacific Fur Company; Tonquin. 

Atahualpa. D Vessel, attacked by Milbank Sound savages, 1805, 37. 

Atalanta. Hd Vessel in which Haldimand embarked for England, 309. 

Atalante. WM French frigate, loads stores at Sorel, 243. 

Athabaska. One of the provisional districts formed out of the North-West 
Territories in 1882 ; area about 122,000 square miles. Now divided between the 
provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta, forming the northern half of each. 

Athabaska Lake. First discovered by Peter Pond, about 1778. Ten years 
later the first trading post on the lake was built by Roderick McKenzie of the 
North West Company, and named Fort Chipewyan. It was afterwards moved 
to the north side of the lake. Index : Frobisher's men penetrate to, 5 ; impor- 
tance of in fur trade, 21, 24; called Lake of the Hills, 24. 

Athafeaska Pass. Discovered by David Thompson of the North West Com- 
pany, in January, 1811. The pass was used thereafter by the traders as a route 
from the Athabaska to the Columbia. Index: D Discovered by David 
Thompson, 58. 

Atnabaska River. Rises in the watershed range of the Rocky Mountains, 
close to the head waters of the north branch of the North Saskatchewan, and after 
a course of 765 miles empties into Athabaska Lake. Discovered by Peter Pond 
in 1778. Index : MS Pond builds post on, 21 ; named also Elk River and Riviere 
a la Biche, 21. 

Atkins, D. A. S Opens school at Napanee, 167. 

Attignaouantans. Ch Huron tribe (the Bears), 88, 91. 

Attigninonghacs. Ch Huron tribe devoted to the French, 92. 

Aufoe-Riviere, Francois Louis de Pourroy de I 3 . Appointed bishop of Quebec, 
Aug. 16, 1739. Arrived at Quebec, Aug. 12, 1740, and died of fever on the 
20th of the same month. Index : L Bishop of Quebec, 12. 

Aufoert, Joseph. Ch Director of the Company of New France, 170. 

Aubere, Father Joseph. Ch Jesuit missionary, his labours in Acadia, 236. 

Aubert de Gaspe, Philippe (1786-1871). French-Canadian writer. Index: 
L His description of Canadians, 118. Bib. : Works : Les Anciens Canadians, 
translated into English by Mrs. Pennie, and by C. G. D. Roberts ; M&moires. 
Forbiog., see Casgrain, Biographies Canadiennes; Roy, 6tude sur " Les Anciens 
Canadiens" (R. S. C., 1906). 

Aufoert de la Chesnaye, Charles (1630-1702). Bom at Amiens. Came to 
Canada, 1655. Chief clerk of the Compagnie des Indes Occidentales, 1665. 
Engaged in the fur-trade at Cataraqui, 1674. In 1677 obtained a grant of 
He Dupas. In 1679 made a visit to Paris, and in 1683 back again at Catara- 
qui. In 1696 prepared an important memoir on the commerce of the colony. 
Index: L His description of Canadians, 117-118; his liberality on occasion of 
Quebec fire, 186. Bib.: Parkman, Old Regime. 

Aubert de la Chesnaye, Jacques. F Trader, La Barre's dealings with, 175. 

Attbry, WM Force gathered by, and Ligneris, dispersed, 146. 

Aubry. Ch Priest of De Monts's expedition, at Ste. Croix, 25. 

Auckland, George Eden, Earl of (1784-1849). Index : Sy President of board 
of trade, when Poulett Thomson was vice-president, 26. 

Auguste. Hd Transport ship wrecked in St. Lawrence, 40. 


Awlaeau, Jean-Pierre. Jesuit missionary, with La Verendrye in Ms western 
explorations. Hindered by Sioux on an island in the Lake of the W oods, May, 

"8 ^7*2fi, 

Aliment, Marechal d j . Ch Champlain serves under, 1. 

Aiisterlitz. Bk Battle of, its significance, 72-73. 

AutetilL Denis Joseph Ruette d 7 . Bee Ruette d'Auteuil. 

Avatigoiir, Pierre Dubois, Baron d j . Governor of New France, 1661-1663, 
succeeding D'Argenson. Index : F Governor, 45 ; disagrees with clergy on 
liquor question, 46; describes earthquake, 46. L His attitude on liquor ques- 
tion 10 38 recalled. 39 ; his report on Canada, 40. Bib. : Parkman, Old Regime. 

Aylesworth, AUen Bristol ( 854r- ). Born in Newburg, Ontario. Educated 
at Newburgh High School and at the University of Toronto; studied law and 
called to the bar of Ontario, 1878; practised his profession in Toronto; appointed 
one of the British commissioners in connection with the settlement of the 
Alaska boundary, 1903; elected to the House of Commons, 1905; postmaster- 
general, 1905; minister of justice, 1906; British agent in connection with the 
Fisheries case before the Hague Tribunal, 1910. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men. 

Ayimer, Matthew WMtworth, Baron (1775-1850). Entered the army, 1787; 
served in the West Indies, in Holland, and in the Peninsula under Wellington. 
Reached the full rank of general, 1825, and in 1830 became the governor- 
general of Canada; returned to England, 1835. Index: Bk Present with 
Brock at battle of Egmont-op-Zee, 17. EL Pays official salaries from the war 
chest, 21. P His influence did not extend beyond Quebec hostility towards 
French-Canadians, 39-40 ; his conciliatory attitude, 75-76 ; at open war with 
the Assembly, 77-78 ; remonstrates with Assembly, 86 ; refuses to interfere in 
factional strife in Montreal, 87 ; held responsible by Papineau and his friends 
for cholera epidemic, 88-89 ; bitterly attacked in the Ninety-Two Resolutions, 
95 ; attacked by Papineau, 100, 105 ; criticizes the Ninety-Two Resolutions, 106. 
Bib. : Morgan, Cel. Can.; Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Aylwin, Thomas CusJaing (1806-1871). Born in Quebec city. Studied law 
and called to the bar, 1828. First entered public life, 1841, as member for 
Portneuf. After filling the office of solicitor-general in two administrations, 
raised to the bench, 1848. Index: Sy Opposed to union of provinces, 235. 
BL Member for Portneuf, his relations with Reform party in Upper Canada, 
79; ^supports Cuvillier for speakership, 1841, 87; his attitude as to debt for 
public works, 99; denounces government, 130; becomes solicitor-general for 
Lower Canada, 134 ; elected for Quebec, 1844, 252 ; his bitter attack on Metcalfe 
on his elevation to peerage, 257 ; solicitor-general, 284. E One of opposition 
leaders in 1847, 45 ; ^ returned in 1847 elections, 50 ; solicitor-general for Lower 
Canada in La Fontaine-Baldwin ministry, 53 ; member of Seigniorial Court, 187. 
Bib. : Dent, Can. For. arid Last Forty Years. 

Babbitt, Samuel. WT Master of Madras School, Gagetown, New Brunswick, 
147; also clerk of the parish, 147. 

Baby, James (1762-1833). Born at Detroit. Educated at Quebec Seminary, 
and in 1784 travelled hi Europe. On his return the following year engaged 
in the fur trade at Detroit. On the formation of the province of Upper Can- 
ada in 1791, appointed a member of the Executive and Legislative Councils. 
Simcoe made him lieutenant for the county of Kent and Judge of the Court of 
Common Pleas. Commanded the 1st Regiment of Kent militia in the War 
of 1812, In 1815 succeeded McGill as inspector-general of accounts for Upper 


Canada. Index : Bk His house occupied by General Hull, 209, 229. S Member 
of Legislative and Executive Councils, 79. Bib. : Daniel, Nos Gloires Nationaks; 
Morgan, CeL Can. 

Baby, Louis Francois Georges (1834-1906). Born in Montreal. Studied 
law and called to the bar of Lower Canada, 1857 ; made a Q. C., 1873. Repre- 
sented Joiiette in Dominion House, 1872-1880; minister of inland revenue, 
1878-1880. Appointed puisne judge of Superior Court of Quebec, 1880; trans- 
ferred to Queen's Bench, 1881. Bib.: Dent, Can. For.; Morgan, Can. Men. 

Back, Sir George (1796-1878). Entered the navy as midshipman in 1808; 
accompanied Franklin on his Arctic expeditions of 1818, 1819-1822, and 
1824-1827. Promoted lieutenant, 1822, and commander, 1827. In 1833- 
1835, led an expedition through what is now northern Canada, to the shores 
of the Arctic, to ascertain the fate of Captain Ross. The expedition resulted 
in the exploration of Great Fish River, which was renamed Back River 
in honour of the explorer. In 1836 explored the Arctic coast, between Regent 
Inlet and Cape Turnagain. Twice granted the gold medal of the Royal 
Geographical Society; knighted, 1839; promoted admiral, 1857. Bib.: Works: 
Narrative of the Arctic Land Expedition; Narrative of Expedition in H. M. S, 
Terror. For biog., see Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Badeaux. Dr His account of American invasion, 89. 

Badgley, William (1801-1888) . Born in Montreal. Studied law and called to 
the bar, 1823. Member of the Legislative Assembly, 1847-1855 ; member of the 
Executive Council for Lower Canada, 1847-1848 ; appointed attorney-general. 
Judge of the Superior Court of Lower Canada, 1855-1863 ; assistant judge of 
the Court of Queen's Bench for Quebec, 1863-1864; puisne judge of the same 
Court, 1866-1874. Index: E Made a judge of the Seigniorial Court, 187. S 
Member of Constitutional Association, 112. Bib. : Morgan, Gel. Can. 

Badin, Father. L Companion of Father Marquette, 62. 

Bagot, Sir Charles (1781-1843). Born in England. Educated at Rugby and 
Oxford ; entered Parliament, 1807, becoming under-seeretary for foreign affairs. 
Minister plenipotentiary to France, 1814 ; and to the United States, 1815-1820. 
Privy councillor, 1815 ; ambassador to St. Petersburg, 1820 ; and to the Hague, 
1824. Governor-general of Canada, 1841-1843. Died in Kingston soon 
after retiring from office. Index : Sy Follows Canadian line of policy, 351 ; 
finds country tranquil, 355. BL His letter to Lord Stanley on La Fontaine's 
arrest, 49; succeeds Sydenham, 113; a Tory of the old school, 113; previous 
career, 113 ; his policy, 113-114 ; studies political conditions, 114-115 ; his popu- 
larity in Lower Canada, 115; plans a coalition government, 117; his speech 
from the throne, 122 ; anxious to bring Baldwin and La Fontaine into Cabinet, 
121; his letter to La Fontaine, 122-124; denounced by Tory press, 140-142; 
difficulties of his position, 141 ; his illness, 149 ; subjected to bitter attacks and 
censure, 149-152 ; asks for and obtains his recall, 152; his death, May 19, 1843, 
152; denounced even in death, 153; on responsible government, 162, 163, 164; 
Kaye on, 171 ; lays corner-stone of King's College, 193. E His political atti- 
tude as governor, 30; friendly towards French-Canadians, 30-31. R Supported 
by Ryerson, 122 ; favourable attitude towards popular government, 126 ; ques- 
tion of popular education, 163. B Relations of Peel government with, xii ; 
friendly attitude towards French-Canadians, 16 ; attacked by Tories for bring- 
ing La Fontaine and Baldwin into Cabinet, 16 ; his action denounced by Peel 
and Duke of Wellington, 17, 18; recalled at his own request, 18 ; his death, 18. 
C Concedes responsible government, 17. Md Succeeds Sydenham, 17 ; brings 


Reform leaders Into Cabinet, 18; resigns government, 18. Bib.: Richardson, 
Eight Years in Canada; Kingsford, History of Canada; Dent, Last Forty Years 
and Can. For.; Did. Nat. Biog. 

Bagot, Father. L Director of Jesuit college of La Flecne, 20. 

Bale de Cfcaletir. In west coast of Gulf of St. Lawrence, on boundary between 
Quebec and New Brunswick. Discovered by Jacques Cartier in 1534, described 
in Ms. narrative, and so named because he found it as warm there as in sunny 

Bale St. Paul. A village in Charlevoix County, sixty miles below Quebec. 
Index : WM Settlements near burnt by Wolfe's orders, 150. 

Bailiffs. Dr Accused of instigating litigation, 53. 

Baillie, Thomas. WT Commissioner of crown lands for New Brunswick, 
1824-1851, 21 ; his income exceeded that of the lieutenant-governor, 21 ; his 
enormous pension, 22 ; protests against reduction of his salary, 62 ; surveyor- 
general, retires, 69 ; elected to Assembly for York, 103 ; retires from govern- 
ment and pensioned, 116. 

Bailly, Mgr. Dr Coadjutor bishop of Quebec, on education in Canada, 229. 

Bailly, Francois. L Master mason of Montreal church, 88. 

Bain, James (1842-1908). Born in London, England. Came to Canada with 
his parents at early age; educated at the Toronto Academy and the Toronto 
Grammar School. Spent some years in London engaged in the publishing busi- 
ness. Returned to Canada, 1882; appointed chief librarian of Toronto Public 
Library, 1883, Index : Bk Discovers list of Brock's books, 135. Bib. : Morgan, 
Can. Men. 

Baldoon. A settlement near Lake St. Glair in Upper Canada, made by Lord 
Selkirk, 1803, and named after one of his own estates. Index : MS Highland 
colonists in Prince Edward Island settled at, 133; Alexander Macdonell in 
charge of, 133. 

Baldoon Street. Built by Selkirk settlers, from Baldoon to Chatham on the 
River Thames. Index : MS Connected Baldoon and Chatham, 33. 

Baldwin, C. T. Born in Ireland. Entered the army; served throughout the 
Peninsular War; afterwards in the West Indies; for a time in the service of the 
emperor of Brazil. Emigrated to Canada. Served during the Rebellion of 1837- 
1838, in command of a regiment of militia. A magistrate, and in political life a 
follower of Robert Baldwin. Died, 1861. Index : B Presents address to Elgin, 
36. Bib. : Morgan, Cel. Can. 

Baldwin, Robert (1804-1858). Index: BL Name associated with responsible 
government, ix ; a " man of j one idea/ 7 ix ; his ancestry, 23 ; born, May 12, 1804, 
at York, 25 ; early years, 25 ; studies law, 25 ; called to the bar, 1825, 26 ; politi- 
cal vi$ws, 27 ; in public life, 28 ; drafts Willis petition, 29 ; enters the Legisla- 
ture, 31 ; defeated in next election, 31 ; his marriage, 32 ; appointed to Coun- 
cil by Head, 38 ; recommended by Colborne for a seat in Legislative Council, 
38-39 ; death of his wife, 39 ; his letter to Peter Perry, 39 ; disapproves of an 
elective Legislative Council, 40 ; resigns from Council, 41 ; sails for England, 42 ; 
his connection with Rebellion of 1837, 44-45 ; enters into correspondence with 
La Fontaine and other Lower Canada leaders, 63; offered by Sydenham 
solicitor-generalship of Upper Canada, and accepts, 63; made an executive 
councillor, 64 ; resigns office, 64 ; his action condemned, 64 ; his motives, 64- 
67; elected in two constituencies; 69; solicitor-general for Upper Canada, 76; 
his views, 76-77 ; his letter to Sydenham on personnel of new Cabinet, 78-79 ; 
calls meeting of Reform party, 79 ; commends reconstruction of ministry, 79- 


80 ; Ms resignation, 80 ; censured by Poulett Scrope, 80 ; his "uncompromising 
attitude in matter of responsible government, 81 ; his attitude in the Legislature, 
85 ; his speech on responsible government, 1841 , 92-94 ; supports Neilson's motion 
a gainst Union Act, 96 ; sides with French-Canadians on question of public works, 99 ; 
opposes Municipal Government Bill, 102; his relations with Hincks, 103; his 
resolutions on responsible government, 108-110; proposes candidature of La 
Fontaine in York County, 116 ; Bagot anxious to bring him into the Cabinet, 121 ; 
referred to in Draper's speech, 127 ; replies to Draper, 128-130 ; withdraws amend- 
ment, 132; becomes attorney-general for Upper Canada, 134; his defeat in 
Hastings account of the election, 134-136 ; beaten in York, 136; elected for 
Rlrnouski, 137 ; attitude of Tories, 139 ; significance of his alliance with La Fon- 
taine, 142-143 ; personal appearance, 148 ; references to in petition to governor, 
166, 167 ; Kaye's description of, 169, 170-171 ; Davies on, 172 ; his part in the 
Assembly, 178-179 ; moves resolution to remove capital to Montreal, 182 ; his 
speech, 183 ; his bill for the discouragement of secret societies, 185-188 ; burnt 
in effigy at Toronto, 187 ; his University of Toronto Bill, 190-197 ; resigns 
office, 199; his interview with Metcalfe, 201 ; the official statements of La Fon- 
taine and Metcalfe, giving their respective versions of the causes of the ministers' 
resignation, 201-209 ; presents to Assembly the reasons for his resignation, 213- 
214 ; returns to practise law in Toronto, 217 ; Wakefidd on, 219 ; heads the agita- 
tion against Metcalfe in Upper Canada, 220 ; guest of honour at Toronto ban- 
quet, 220-221 ; his speech, 221 ; address before Reform Association, 221-223 ; 
speaks at public meetings, 225 ; address from his constituents of Rimouski, 225 ; 
tours Lower Canada, 226 ; his political views, 229-230 ; Viger's criticism of, 236 ; 
Draper on, 236 ; Ms speech in Toronto, May, 1844, 238 ; attacked by Buchanan, 
239-240 ; criticized by Ryerson, 242, 243, 245-246 ; resigns as Queen's Counsel, 
250 ; elected in York, 252 ; his University Bill, 256 ; moves vote of censure 
against the governor-general, 256 ; attacks Metcalfe in the Assembly, 257 ; 
referred to in Caron's letter, 260 ; * correspondence with La Fontaine as to 
Draper's proposals, 261, 262, 263-265 ; his speech at public dinner given him 
in November, 1846, 268-269 ; his tour of Western Canada, 269 ; on responsible 
government, 273 ; moves amendment to address, 277 ; aids in foundation of 
Emigration Association, 278 ; elected in York, 279 ; in second La Fontaine-Bald- 
win administration, 281-284 ; proposes Morin for Speaker, 283 ; interview with 
Elgin, 285; re-elected, 286; his Municipal Corporations Act and University 
Act, 292-300; revision of judicial system in Upper Canada, 300-301; his part 
in Rebellion Losses Bill, 310, 311-312; burned in effigy in Toronto, 318-319; 
his boarding house in Montreal attacked by the mob, 324 ; petitions for removal 
of Navigation Act, 337 ; his political views, 339-340 ; his relations with George 
Brown, 342 ; his attitude on secularization of Clergy Reserves, 348-349 ; his 
resignation, 352-353; MacNab's tribute, 353; defeated in York and retires 
finally from public life, 357 ; lives in retirement at " Spadina," 357 ; made a C. B., 
357 ; offered chief-justiceship of Common Pleas, 357 ; and nomination for seat 
in Legislative Council, 358 ; failing health compels him to decline both offers, 
358; his death, Dec. 9, 1858, 358; value of his public work, 359-360. Sy 
His premature demand for strict party government, 187 ; consulted by Syden- 
ham in regard to Clergy Reserves question, 247 ; made solicitor-general, 252 ; 
appointed to same office under Union, 283 ; advises Sydenham as to choice of 
returning officers and polling places, 290 ; his defection from Sydenham's govern- 
ment, 294, 296 ; opposes some of the most beneficial measures of government, 296 ; 
loses for a time sympathy of Reformers, 299, 307 ; Sydenham's remarks upon his 


manoeuvres, 305-307; opposes Sydenhgm's Bill for local self-government in 
Upper Canada, 323. R Resigns, 122; forms party with Hincks, La Fontaine, 
and others, 122; moves resolutions on responsible government, 122-123; in 
the Metcalfe controversy, 126, 128; his scheme for a provincial university, 149- 
15*- Ms resignation, 152; his University Bill of 1849, 157-159, 160; secures 
disallowance of School Bill of 1849, 182. E On responsible government, 28 ; his 
political attitude, 30 ; forms ministry with La Fontaine in 1842, 31 ; his greatest 
desire the success of responsible government, 32; his conflict with ^ Metcalfe, 
34- in opposition, 45; returned in elections of 1847, 50; on parliamentary 
government, 51; sent for by Elgin, 52; attorney-general for Upper Canada, 
53 ; remains in office until 1851, 85 ; sound views on parliamentary practice, 90 ; 
Ms capacity for discreet, practical statesmanship, 93; carries measure for 
creation of University of Toronto, 93, 94; views on Clergy Reserves, 102-103, 
160, 162-163, 164; his resignation and its causes, 103-104, 112; his retirement 
from politics, 104, 107 ; and death, 1858, 104, 220 ; his strong views on Imperial 
connection, 229-230 ; his value as a statesman, 236. P Alliance with La Fontaine, 
168. C Forms alliance with La Fontaine, 16; called to Council by Bagot, 16; 
resigns, 17; called to power again, 1846, 18; " great reformer and good man/' 
97 ; Ms influence with La Fontaine's against racial antagonisms, 97 ; with La 
Fontaine, 99 ; wins constitutional battle, 100 ; circumstances which led to his 
retirement from politics, 132. B Called to Cabinet by Bagot, 16 ; dispute with 
Metcalfe, 19; " father of responsible government," 21 ; criticized by Ryerson, 
22-23 ; his views obnoxious to Metcalfe, 23 ; his wise leadership of Reformers, 
24 ; forms administration with La Fontaine, 33 ; burnt in effigy at Toronto, 36 ; 
legislation of his ministry, 39 ; government defended by George Brown, 42 ; 
his retirement, 44, 47, 48 ; approves of MacNab-Morin coalition, 78 ; leader of 
movement for responsible government, 261 ; disintegration of old Reform party 
hastened by his retirement, 262. Md Brought into Cabinet by Sir Charles Bagot, 
18 ; resigns, 1843, 18 ; criticized by extremists in his own party, 22 ; resigns from 
La Fontaine-Baldwin ministry, 46; approves coalition of 1854, 64; cause of 
his resignation, 78-79. Me Defends Judge Willis, 133; supported by Mac- 
kenzie, 159 ; elected to the Assembly, 159 ; on banks in politics, 170 ; appointed 
executive councillor, 294 ; resigns, 294 ; goes to England, 305 ; opposed by Head, 
305 ; accompanies flag of truce, 368 ; retires from Executive Council, 408 ; Mac- 
kenzie defeats government of, 492. Bib. : Dent, Can. For. and Last Forty Years; 
Taylor, Brit. Am.; Davin, The Irishman in Canada; Baldwin, Correspondence 
(Toronto Public Library Mss.)- 

Baldwin, William Warren. Born in Ireland. Came to Canada 1798, and 
finally settled in York, now known as Toronto. Represented Norfolk in the 
Legislature of Upper Canada. Died 1844. Index: BL Comes to Canada 
1798, 23 ; practises medicine at York, 24 ; opens a classical school, 24, 106 ; 
practises law, 25 ; his marriage, 25 ; father of Robert Baldwin, 25 ; purchases 
"Spadina," 26; political views, 26-27; chairman of public meeting in Willis 
affair, 28 ; president of Constitutional Reform Society, 42 ; member of Legisla- 
tive Council, 177. Me Upholds Judge Willis, 132 ; protests against his re- 
moval, 133. Bib. : Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog.; Dent, Can. For. and Last Forty 
Years; Scadding, Toronto of Old. 

Baldwin Reformer. B Origin of the name, 78. 

Ball. Dr The maiden name of Dorchester's mother, 29. 

Ball. F First given in Canada, 59. See also Amusements. 

Ballot, Sy Sydenham an early advocate of, 18. 


Bancroft, George (1800-1891). Educated at Harvard University, Cambridge^ 
and in Germany. Secretary of the navy, 1845 ; ambassador to Great Britain, 
1846-1849 ; and in 1867-1874 minister at the court of Berlin. Index : L On 
La Salle, 153. Ch On the difficulties encountered by missionaries, 87. Bib. : 
History of the United States. For biog., see Howe, Life and Letters of George 
Bancroft; Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Bank of Upper Canada. Established 1823 with a capital of 41,364, which 
had increased in 1859 to $3,126,250. Its headquarters were in Toronto. After 
a long, prosperous career the bank stopped payment in 1866, the chief cause being 
the collapse in real estate in Canada West in 1857-1858. Index : Me Increase 
of capital vetoed, 215 ; run on, 340. Bib. : See Banking. 

Banking. The first bank established in Canada was the Bank of Montreal, 
which dates from the year 1817. The Bank of Quebec was established in 1818 ; 
and the Bank of Canada the same year. All three were chartered in 1822. A 
Banking Act was passed in 1841, providing a uniform system of banking. The 
Act" of 1850 prohibited banks other than those incorporated by Parliament or 
royal charter from issuing notes. It also provided for a deposit with the 
government to be held as a guarantee ; also for bank statistics. Further pro- 
visions designed to place banking on a more secure footing were incorporated 
in the Act of 1871. Further banking legislation was passed in 1881 and in 1890. 
Index: Sy Sydenham's plans for establishment of bank of issue, 327-329; 
idea partially adopted by Sir F. Hincks, as finance minister of Dominion, 330. 
Me Report of House on system of, 161. Bib. : Johnson, First Things in 
Canada; Shortt, Early History of Canadian Banking; Breckenridge, Canadian 
Banking System; Hague, Banking and Commerce; Historical Sketch of Canadian 
Banking in Canada: An Ency., vol. 1; History of the Bank of Nova Scotia; 
McLachlan, TJie Nova Scotia Treasury Notes; Walker, History of Banking in 

Banner. Newspaper, published at Toronto. Index: B Founded in 1843 by 
Peter and George Brown, 3, 5 ; champions government by the people, 5 ; on 
disruption of Scottish Church, 6 ; controversy with the Church, 6-7 ; defines its 
political principles, 9 ; becomes the Globe, 10 ; Peter Brown writes for, 243. 

Baptist Church. Like several other religious denominations in Canada, it had 
its origin in Nova Scotia. Some Baptists were living in Lunenburg as early as 
1753. In 1800 the first Baptist Association was formed at Granville, Nova Scotia, 
and by 1850 there were Baptist Associations in many parts of the province. In 
1828 the Nova Scotia Baptist Educational Society was established. The first 
church was built in Montreal, 1830 ; and in 1834 the Baptist Seminary of New 
Brunswick was founded at Fredericton. In 1852 the Baptist Missionary 
Society of Canada was established. Since then the Baptists have grown rapidly 
in all the provinces, and several Baptist colleges and institutions have been 
established, notably Acadia and McMaster Universities (#.#.) The Baptist 
Church was organized in British Columbia in 1877. Index : WT First founded 
in Fredericton, 1813, 10 ; represented by one member in Legislative Council, 69. 
Bib.: Weils, History of the Baptist Denomination in Canada in Canada: An 
Ency., vol. 3; Hill, Forty Years with the Baptist Ministers and Churches of the 
Maritime Provinces of Canada. 

Baranof, Alexander Andrevitch (1747-1819). Governor of Russian America. 
Had been manager of a glass factory at Irkutsk, Siberia ; grew tired of the 
monotonous though profitable business, and engaged in the fur trade of eastern 
Siberia. Appointed governor of the principal Russian trading company in 


America, 1790. Nine years later, the different companies were ' united, and 
Baranof moved his headquarters from Kadiak to New Archangel (Sitka), where 
he built a strong fort, with a shipyard, foundry churches and hospitals. Even 
a library and picture-gallery were afterwards added to this little outpost of 
Russian civilization. In 1818 sailed for home, and died at sea on the voyage. 
Index: D His rule at Sitka, 44; his character, 44; his death, 1819, 45. Bib. : 

La Bbarie^l WT Referred to in Wilmot's speech, 104; represents Resti- 
gouche in New Brunswick Assembly, 160. , . , , , , , T - m - , 

Barclay Robert H. Born in Scotland. Took part in the battle of Trafalgar. 
S^nt to Canada, and commander of British naval force on Lake Erie m 1813. 
On Sept. 10, 1813, defeated by the American fleet under Perry Subsequently 
court-martialled, but acquitted. Died, 1837. Bib. : Morgan, Cel Can.; Cyc. 
Am. Biog. See also War of 1812. 

Barclay, Thomas (1753-1830). Bora m New York. In 1775 served in the 
British army during the American Revolution, and in 1777 became major. At 
the end of the war moved to Nova Scotia ; entered the House of Assembly, and 
for some time Speaker. Appointed adjutant-general of militia; served as a 
commissioner under Jay's Treaty ; appointed consul-general at New York for 
the Northern and Eastern states. Index: Bk Declares war to be inevitable, 
202, Bib. : Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Barker, T. B. WT Founder of business firm of St. John, 150. 

Barkley, Charles William (1759-1832). Served in the East India Company; 
sailed on a trading voyage for sea-otter skins to the North- West Coast, 1787. 
Brought his bride with him, the first white woman on the North- West ^Coast. 
Discovered and named Juan de Fuca Strait the same year, and carried his 
cargo of furs to China. In 1792 made another voyage ^ to the North-West 
Coast, again accompanied by his wife, who kept interesting journals of both 
voyages. Died at North Crescent, Hartford. Barkley Sound, Vancouver Is- 
land, discovered and named by him. Index : D His two voyages to North- 
West Coast, 23 ; his wife first woman to visit North-West Coast, 23. Bib. : 
Walbran, British Columbia Coast Names. 

Barnsfare, Captain. Dr Commands battery at Pro's de Ville, 12 7 . 

Baronets of Nova Scotia. An order created by James I, in 1625, for the pur- 
pose of " advancing the plantation of Nova Scotia." The scheme, which King 
James had deeply at heart, was designed to assist Sir William Alexander in his 
ambitious plans of colonization in the New World, by offering a special induce- 
ment to men of position in Scotland to take tracts of land in Nova Scotia, and 
to bring out numbers of colonists to settle upon them. See also Stirling. Bib.: 
Duncan, Royal Province of New Scotland and her- Baronets; Bourinot, Builders 
of Nova Scotia; Patterson, Sir William Alexander (R. S. C., 1892) ; Mackenzie, 
Baronets of Nova Scotia^ (R, S. C., 1901) ; Royal Letters, Charters, and Tracts 
Relating to the Colonisation of Nova Scotia and the Institution of the Order of 
Knights Baronet of Nova Scotia ; Kirke, The First English Conquest of Canada, 

Barr, Isaac (1726-1802). Born in Ireland. Served under Wolfe against 
Rochefort in 1757, and at Quebec in 1759, being at Wolfe's side when he 
fell Entered Parliament, 1761, and a member until 1790. In 1763-1764 ad- 
jutant-general and governor of Stirling; in 1764-1768, vice-treasurer of Ireland 
and a privy councillor ; in 1782, treasurer of the navy. Index : Dr On Quebec 
Act, 67. Bib. : Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Barren Grounds. The region of northern Canada, lying between the Mac- 


kenzie River and Hudson Bay, and from the northern timber-line to the Arctic. 
First visited by Samuel Hearne in 1770-1772. Late explorers who traversed 
portions of the country are Franklin, in 1821 ; Back, in 1S33 ; Dease and Simpson, 
in 1839 ; Richardson in 1848 ; and Anderson in 1855. Within more recent 
years, Warburton Pike, J. B. Tyrrell, J. W. Tyrrell, D. T. Hanbury and Caspar 
Whitney have explored parts of the Barren Grounds. Bib. : Hearne, Journey 
to the Northern Ocean; Franklin, Narrative; Back, Arctic Land Expedition; 
Simpson, North Coasts of America; Richardson, Arctic Searching Expedition; 
Anderson, Descent of Great Fish River, in Royal Geog. Soc. Journal, 1856 and 1857 ; 
Pike, Barren Grounds; Tyrrell, Across the Sub-Arctics; Hanbury, Northland 
of Canada; Whitney, On Snowshoes to the Barren Grounds. 

Harrington, William Wildman, second Viscount (1717-1793). Entered Parlia- 
ment, 1740. Lord commissioner of Admiralty, 1746 ; a privy councillor, 1755 ; 
chancellor of the exchequer, 1761 ; treasurer of the navy, 1762 ; secretary of 
war, 1765-1768; joint postmaster-general, 1782. Index: Hd Informs Haldi- 
mand he owes promotion to the king, 83 ; summary sent him of Haldimand's 
expenses, 107; compliments Haldimand, 113; promises Haldimand pay as 
inspector-general, 329. Bib. : Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Barron, Commodore (17691851). Born in Virginia. In command of the 
Chesapeake j on board which were some British deserters, 1807. On the refusal 
of Barron to give them up, the British frigate Leopard attacked and compelled 
Ms surrender. Court-martiaHed and suspended from rank and pay for five 
years. Fought and killed Commodore Decatur in a duel, 1820. Became senior 
officer of the navy, 1839. Index: Bk Enlists deserters from British ships on 
board Chesapeake, S3, 85. Bib. : Cyc. Am. Biog.; Correspondence between the 
late Commodore Stephen Decatur and Commodore James Barron. 

Barter. L Practised in colony in early days, 122. 

Barthe, J. G. Member for Yamaska in Canadian Assembly, 1841-1844. 
Index : BL Takes part in Rebellion of 1837 ; afterwards edits L'Avenir du 
Canada; member for Yamaska; offered and refuses seat in Cabinet, 236. 

Basques. A pre- Aryan race, occupying the border-land between France and 
Spain. Assertions have repeatedly been made that they made voyages to 
America, and discovered the Gulf of St. Lawrence, before Cartier, and even 
before Cabot, but these have never been substantiated. All the evidence goes 
to show that they frequented the Newfoundland fisheries in the sixteenth century, 
but not earlier. Index : Ch Contraband traders, 140 ; threaten French on St. 
Pierre Island, 174. Bib. : Dawson, The St. Lawrence Basin; Reade, The 
Basques in North America (R. S. C., 1888) ; Howley, Old Basque Tombstones at 

Bathurst, Henry, third Ear! (1762-1834). Succeeded to the title, 1794. 
Entered Parliament, 1793 ; president of the board of trade, 1807 ; foreign 
secretary, 1809 ; and secretary for war and the colonies, 1812. Directed Britain's 
colonial policy during the important administrations of Prevost, Sherbrooke, 
and Dalhousie, in Lower Canada, and of Gore and Maitland, in Upper Canada. 
Lord president of the Council, 1828-1830 ; one of the original members of the 
Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, 1833. Index : Sy Colonial secretary, 
his despatch on Clergy Reserves question, 240. Bk His despatch praising 
Brock and his officers and announcing bestowal of K. C. B. on Brock, 296. 
Bib. : Diet. Nat. Biog.; Courts and Cabinets of George IV. 

Batiscan. Ch Montagnais chief, 68. 

Batoche. Md Storming of rebel camps at, 242. See also Riel Rebellion, 1885. 


Battle of the Plains. See Quebec, Siege of, 1759. 

Battieford. A town on the North Saskatchewan, at the mouth of the Battle 
Eiver. In the Rebellion of 1885, it was threatened by Poundmaker's warriors, 
and relieved by Otter's column. The battle of Cut Knife Creek was fought 
about thirty-five miles from Battleford. See also Bid Rebellion, 1885. 

Bay of Quinte, See Quinte, Bay of. 

Bayfield, Henry Wolsey (1795-1885). Born in Hull, England. Entered 
the navy, 1806. Had a distinguished career in the navy, and served in Canadian 
waters, 1814. Subsequently assisted in the survey of the upper St. Lawrence, 
and appointed Admiralty surveyor, 1817. During his tenure of office surveyed 
Lakes Erie, Huron, and Superior, with their connecting waters, and almost the 
whole eastern coast of Canada, including Labrador. Made vice-admiral, 1856, 
and admiral, 1867. Resided for fourteen years in Quebec, when he removed to 
Charlottetown. Received the thanks of the Parliament of Canada for his 
services, 1854. Died in Charlottetown. 

Bayiies, Edward. Born in England. Served in the West Indies, at the Cape, 
in the East Indies, and in Malta. From 1794 to 1806 aide-de-camp to Sir 
James Craig, and in 1807 adjutant-general of the forces in Canada. In 
the War of 1812 served on the Niagara frontier. Died, 1829. Index: Bk 
Adjutant-general, writes Brock from Quebec, 134, 136, 137, 138, 145; his 
opinion of the Lower Canada Assembly, 145 ; notifies Brock that he may have 
service in Spain, 180; letter to Brock in immediate expectation of war, 205; 
letter on declaration of war, 208; on improvement in militia, 284. Bib.: 
Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Beaconsfield, Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of (1805-1881). f British statesman. 
Index: BL On Rebellion Losses Bill, 327, 328, 330. Bib, : Speeches and Letters/ 
O'Connor, Life of Beaconsfield; Monypenny, The Life of Benjamin Disraeli, 
Earl of Beaconsfield; Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Bayning, Charles Townshend, first Baron (1728-1810). Dr His criticism of 
Quebec Act, 66, 67. Bib. : Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Bayonne Decree. Bk Made by Napoleon ; sequestered all American vessels 
arriving in France as British property or under British protection, 122. 

Beam Regiment. Established 1595, and served with distinction in a number 
of European campaigns. Landed at Quebec, June, 1755, with the regiment of 
Guienne and a portion of the Languedoc battalion, and added to its laurels at 
Fort Frontenac, Niagara, Oswego, Carillon, Fort William Henry, andTiconderoga. 
In 1759, on the Plains of Abraham, it occupied the place of honour, having been 
placed by Montcalm in the centre of his line. Index : WM Regular French 
troops, 29 ; in battle of the Plains, 192 ; in battle of Ste. Foy, 258. Bib. : 
Doughty, Siege of Quebec; Wood, The Fight for Canada. 

Beauchesne. Ch Clerk, received gifts from Indians, 115. 

Beaucour, de. F Brave conduct of, in command of party against Iroquois, 
319 ; superintends improvements in fortifications of Quebec, 326. 

Beaudoncourt, Jacques de. L On the brandy question, 39 ; his account of 
escape of Gannentaha mission, 66. 

Beauharnois, Charles, Marquis de (1670-1749). Entered French navy, 1686, 
and rose to the rank of admiral in 1748. In 1726 appointed governor of New 
France, which position he held until 1747. Took a deep interest in Western 
exploration, and was a firm friend of La V6rendrye. Bib. : Parkman, Half 
Century of Conflict; Roy, Intendants de la Nouvelle-France (R. S. C., 1903). 

Beaufcarnois, Francois de (1665-1746). Bom in France. Became intendant 


of New France in 1702 and held the position until 1705, In 1707 granted 
the barony of Beauville. Appointed intendant de I'arme'e navale, 1706; in- 
tendant of marines, 1710 ; intendant gen^rale des armees navales, 1739. Bib. : 
Roy, Intendants dela Nmivette-France (R. S. C., 1903). 

Beaumont. A Ullage in Bellechasse County, on the St. Lawrence, Index: 
WM Troops landed at, 100 ; proclamation affixed to church door, 101. 

Beauport. A village two miles below Quebec. Index: WM Defended by 
entrenched camp, 80 ; headquarters of intendant and commissary of stores, 88 ; 
hasty abandonment of camp at, with all its stores, 228. 

Beaupre, Seigniory of. L Acquired for Seminary of Quebec, 58 ; chapels and 
churches erected to Ste. Anne at, 101, 102 ; pilgrimages to, 102, 103. 

Beausejour. ^ A fort built by the French in 1750-1751, on Chignecto Bay, three 
miles from theTBritish Fort Lawrence. A little tidal stream, the Missaguash, 
ran between nominally marking the dividing line between British and French 
territory. The fort was captured by the British under Monckton, in 1755, and 
renamed Fort Cumberland. Bib. : Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe; Bradley, 
Fight with France; Hannay, History of Acadia; Murdoch, History of Nova 
Scotia; Campbell, History of Nova Scotia; Selections from the Public Documents 
of Nova Scotia, ed. by Aldns. 

Beaver. D First steamship on the Pacific, 1835, 47; carries party to build 
Fort Camosun (Victoria), 178 ; north to Forts Taku and McLoughlin, 178 ; 
returns to Victoria, 179 ; to Fort Vancouver, 180 ; history of ship, 180-181. 
Bib. : McCain, History of the S.S. Beaver. 

Beaver Club. Founded in Montreal in 1775 by the partners of the North 
West Company. It opened with nineteen members, and at one time the registry 
showed ninety-three members, with eleven honorary members. Among them 
were such famous fur traders and explorers as Alexander Mackenzie and his 
cousin Roderick, the three Frobishers, Alexander Henry and his nephew of the 
same name, Simon McTavish, James Finlay, Simon Fraser, John Stuart, and 
David Thompson. The motto of the club was " Fortitude in Difficulties," 
No one was admitted who had not made a journey to the North- West and wintered 
there. The club entertained many distinguished guests, including Sir John 
Franklin, Lord Selkirk, Washington Irving, and the Earl of Dalhousie. The 
club was disbanded in 1824 after the union of the North West and Hudson's 
Bay Companies. An effort to revive it in 1827 proved unsuccessful. Index : 
MS Founded by the partners of the North West Company, 139 ; lavish hospi- 
tality and boisterous banquets, 139. Bk Famous social club at Montreal, 99. 
Bib. : Hetherington, Canada's First Social Club, in Univ. Mag., April, 1910. 

Beaver Dam, Battle of. In War of 1812. FitzGibbon commanded a detach- 
ment of the 49th Regiment, with several hundred Indians. Boerstler, with a party 
of 600 men, advanced from Fort George by way of Queenston to surprise him, but 
was ambushed by a body of Indians. FitzGibbon, who had been warned of the 
approach of Boerstler by Laura Secord, advanced with his men of the 49th and 
demanded the surrender of the Americans, who, believing themselves surrounded 
by a superior force, capitulated. The engagement took place June 24, 1813. 
See also War of 1812. Bib. : Lucas, Canadian War of 1812; Hannay, War of 
1812; FitzGibbon, A Veteran of 1812; Curzon, Laura Secord, the Heroine of 1812; 
Cruikshank, The Fight in the Beechwoods; Thompson, Jubilee History of Thorold. 

Beckwith, W. T. Confederate candidate in York, 250. 

Becqtiet, Romain. L Clerk of Ecclesiastical Court, arrested, 163. 

Bedard, Elzear. For some years a member of the Assembly of Lower Canada. 


Gloved the celebrated Ninety-Two Resolutions, 1837. Puisne judge of the Court 
of Queen's Bench, 1837; suspended, but afterwards reinstated. Died, 1849. 
Index: P Moves the Ninety-Two Resolutions, 117; deserts Papineau, 117; 
appointed judge by Gosford, 117. Bib. : Morgan, Gel Can.; Christie, History 
of Lo wer Ca nada . 

Bedard, Pierre Stanislas (1762-1829). Educated at the Seminary of Quebec; 
studied law, and appointed advocate, 1790. Elected for Northumberland 
to the first Legislature of Lower Canada, 1792 V In 1806, with a number of other 
French-Canadians in the Assembly, founded Le Canadien, to represent the views 
of the popular party. In 1810 the paper seized, and Bedard and his associates 
arrested on a charge of treasonable practices. Released the following year. 
In 1812 appointed judge of the District Court of Three Rivers. Retired 
In 1S29 on account of ill health. Index: P Leader of French-Canadians in 
Lower Canada Assembly, 27 ; opposes property tax, 27 ; establishes Le Canadien, 
28 ; considered by Sir James Craig a dangerous revolutionist, 28 ; sent to jail, 
29; released and "charges withdrawn, 29; moves resolution as to ministerial re- 
sponsibility, 98. C Claims liberty of the press, 95 ; sent to jail, 95 ; released, 
96; asks for ministerial responsibility, 96. Bk Arrested, 127; demands trial, 
128 ; released, 145. Bib. : Parent, Pierre Bedard et Ses Deux Fils in Journal 
^Instruction Publique, 1859; Christie, History of Lower Canada; De Gaspe, 
Memoires; Dionne, Pierre Bedard et Ses Fils; Dionne, Pierre Bedard et Son 
Temps (R. S. C., 1898). 
" Bedard, Dr. William. WT Life-long friend of Sir Leonard Tilley, 287. 

Beer, Henry (1835-1886). Born in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island. 
Elected to the Assembly, 1870 ; a member of the ministry, 1872 ; Speaker of the 
Assembly, 1877; mayor of Charlottetown, 1885-1886. 

Begbie, Sir Matthew Baillie (1819-1894) . Educated at Cambridge ; and called 
to the English bar in 1844. Judge of the colony of British Columbia and judge 
of the Vice-admiralty Court, 1858-1870. Chief justice of British Columbia, 
1870-1894, and also judge of the Admiralty district of British Columbia, 1891- 
1894. Knighted, 1875. Index: D First judge in British Columbia arrives 
November, 1858, 239 ; born in Edinburgh, 1819, 239 ; succeeds to chief-justiceship 
of British Columbia and Vancouver Island, 239 ; his services to the colony, 239 ; 
his notable journey, 1859, to Upper Fraser, 254 ; his character, 255. Bib. : 
Begg, History of British Columbia; Nicolls, Sir Matthew Baillie Begbie. 

Begon, Michel, Sietir de la Picardiere (1674-1740). Filled the office of in- 
spector-general of marines, in France, 1707-1710. In the latter year appointed 
intendant of Canada, but did not arrive in Quebec until 1712. Returned to 
France, 1726, and for some years acted as intendant of justice in Normandy. 
Bib. : Roy, Intendants de la Nouvelle-France (R. S. C., 1903). 

Belcher, Jonathan (1711-1776). Second son of Governor Belcher of Massachu- 
setts. Educated at Harvard University, Cambridge, and in England ; called 
to the English bar. Appointed chief justice of Nova Scotia, 1754. President 
of the Council of Nova Scotia and administrator of the government, 1760. 
Chiefly instrumental in securing for Nova Scotia a representative Assembly. 
Bib. : Campbell, History of Nova Scotia. 

Belcour, De. WM Brings promise of supplies to Ramezay\ 227. 

Belette. Dr Captain of armed boat, assists Carleton's escape at Sorel, 113. 

Bell, Dr. WT Conducts Madras system of schools in New Brunswick, 86. 

Bell, Alexander Graham (1847- ). Born in Edinburgh, Scotland. Edu- 
cated at Edinburgh University and London University; came to Canada in 


1870. Professor of physiology in Boston University, 1872. Patented his inven- 
tion of the telephone, 1876 ; and has also invented the photophone, iiiduction 
balance, telephone probe, and graphophone. In 1898 appointed regent of the 
Smithsonian Institution. In 1909-1910 engaged in aeroplane experiments. 
Bib. : Morgan, Can. Men; Who's Who, 1910; Addresses before Canadian Club 
of Ottawa, 1910. 

Bell, Hugh. H Member of Urdacke administration, Nova Scotia, 1848, 110. 

Bell-Smith, Frederic Marlett (1846- ). Born in London, England. 
Educated there, and came to Canada, 1866. Founder and first president 
of the Canadian Society of Artists, Montreal, 1867 ; director of Alma College 
1881 ; member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts, 1888 ; director of the 
Toronto Art School, 1889-189L President of the Ontario Society of Artists. 
Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who. 

Belleau, Sir Karcisse (1808-1894). Born in the city of Quebec and educated 
there. In 1852 a member of the Legislative Council, and in 1857-1862 
Speaker. Mayor of Quebec, 1860, when King Edward VII, as Prince of Wales, 
visited Canada, and knighted on the occasion. In 1862 appointed minister of 
agriculture in the Cartier-Macdonald ministry; and in 1865 premier and re- 
ceiver-general in a coalition government. Appointed lieutenant-governor of the 
province of Quebec, 1867; resigned in 1873. Index: B Succeeds Sir E, P. 
Tach as titular head of coalition government proposed by J. A. Macdonald, 
and accepted by George Brown, 191 ; Macdonald the virtual leader of gov- 
ernment, 191. C His connection with British North America Act, 102-103. 
Md Nominal head of government, 1865, 123. Bib. : Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog.; 
Taylor, Brit. Am.; Dent, Last Forty Years. 

Belleville. Town of Ontario on the Bay of Quinte. Founded by Captain 
Myers in 1790. Index : BL Early municipal government of, 298 ; riot over Rebel- 
lion Losses Bill, 318. 

Bellomont, Richard Coote, Earl of (1636-1701). Member of Parliament, 
1688-1695 ; and served in Ireland, 1689. In 1695 appointed governor of New 
York, and afterwards of Massachusetts. Index : F Corresponds with Frontenac, 
355. Bib. : Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Belmont, Francois Vachon de. Came to Canada from France in 1680, and 
joined the Seminary of St. Sulpice at Montreal, of which he was superior, 1698- 
1732. Died the latter year. Left a History of Canada, which was published 
in the first series of Historical Documents of the Literary and Historical So- 
ciety of Quebec, index : F On number of captives taken at Lachine, 226 ; 
on excessive use of brandy, 312; and footnote. L His large donations to 
religious objects, 135; preaches funeral sermon on Laval at Montreal, 265. 

Benediction. Ch English vessel seized by French, 221. 

Bennett, George. B An employee of the Globe, 256 ; shoots George Brown, 
257 ; on Brown's death, is tried and found guilty of murder, 258 ; his mind dis- 
ordered by misfortunes and intemperance, 258. 

Benthaxn, Jeremy (1748-1832). English writer on jurisprudence and ethics. 
Index : Sy An associate of Sydenham's, 13. Bib. : Works, ed. by Bowring and 
Burton, 1843. For biog., see Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Bentivoglis. Papal Nuncio. Index: Ch Authorizes establishment of church 
in Canada, 84. 

Bering, Vitus (1681-1741). Born at Horsens, Denmark. Joined the Russian 
navy in 1704 ; and in 1725 sent by Peter the Great to explore the waters east 
of Kamchatka, and examine the American coast. After a three-years' journey 


overland, reached the eastern coast of Siberia, built vessels there, and in 1728 
Mowed the coast north to the Arctic, proving that Asia and America were not 
united. In 1733 set out again on the long overland journey, hampered with 
a huge retinue, and it was not until 1741 that his ships were^ready at Petropau- 
lovsk. Sailed to the east, reached and explored the American coast, and was 
wrecked on what was afterwards known as Bering Island, where he died, Dec. 8, 
1741, Index: D His explorations, 39, 40; his death, 1741, 40 ; Bib. : Lauridsen, 
Vitus Bering; Muller, Voyages from Asia to America; Laut, Vikings of the Pacific. 

Bering Sea Question. Arose out of a dispute as to the seal-fisheries of Bering 
Sea. Several Canadian sealers were seized by the United States in 1886, on the 
plea that these waters constituted a mare dausum, or closed sea. Similar seizures 
were made in 1887 and 1SS9. Finally the British and United States govern- 
ments agreed to submit the question to arbitration. The commission met at 
Paris in 1893. Lord Hannen and Sir John Thompson represented British inter- 
ests ; the United States was represented by Judge Harlan and Senator Morgan. 
The other arbitrators were Marquis Visconti Venosta of Italy, Gregora W. 
Gram of Sweden, and Baron de Courcel of Belgium, who presided. The decision 
was in favour of Great Britain, and contrary to the claim of the United States 
to jurisdiction over the waters of Bering Sea and the seals visiting the coasts and 
islands of Alaska. Regulations were provided for the better protection of the 
fisheries; and the United States was required to compensate the Canadian 
sealers for the unlawful seizure of their vessels. Index : D Influenced by Russian 
occupation, 38 ; settled under Paris award, 1897, 283 ; history of dispute 340-341. 

Berkeley, George Cranfield (1753-1818). Entered the navy, 1766; accom- 
panied Cook in survey of coast of Newfoundland and Gulf of St. Lawrence, 
1766-1769 ; and was on the Victory at Ushant, 1778. In 1786 surveyor-general 
of ordnance, 1786 ; and vice-admiral on the Halifax station, 1805-1807, during 
which time occurred the affair between the Chesapeake and the Leopard. Index : 
BL Gave instructions in matter of deserters enlisted in Chesapeake, 83 ; recalled, 
85. Bib. : Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Berlin Decrees. Issued by Napoleon, November, 1806, to the following 
effect: The British Isles were in a state of blockade; intercourse with them 
was prohibited ; all British subjects within French authority were to be held as 
prisoners of war ; all British property, private and public, was declared to be 
prize of war ; also merchandise from Britain ; merchants whose property had been 
captured by British cruisers were to be indemnified from the product of such 
seizures ; no British ships were to be admitted into any port of France, or her 
allies; every vessel eluding this rule was to be confiscated. The object of the 
decrees was to close the continent against British commerce. The British 
government retaliated by issuing an order-in-council, refusing to neutrals the 
right of trading from one hostile port to another. Index: Bk Directed by 
Napoleon against commerce of Great Britain, 81, 82, 105, 171, 172. Bib. : Diet. 
Eng. Hist.; Green, Short History of the English People; Kingsford, History of 

Bernard, Hewitt (1825-1893). Entered the Canadian public service, 1858; 
deputy minister of justice, 1867; resigned, 1876. In 1872 created I. C.; and 
the same year made C. M. G. In 1878 appointed assistant commissioner to 
France and Spain to negotiate commercial treaties. Aide-de-camp to Lord 
Monck, 1868, and to Lord Stanley, 1888. Index: WT Confidential secretary 
to the Quebec Conference, 219 ; acts as secretary to Confederation delegates 
in London, 263. Bib. : Pope, Memoirs of Sir John A. Macdonald. 


Bemardin, of Siena, Saint. L On the guidance of Providence, 35^-36. 

Beraetz, Chevalier de. WM Commands battalion of Eoyal Eoussfflon Regi- 
ment, 12 ; second in command of the town (Quebec), 86. 

Bernieres, Henri de (1635-1700). Born in France. Came to Canada with 
Laval in 1659. Cur6 of Quebec, 1660-1687 ; and grand-vicar of the bishop of 
Quebec. First superior of the Seminary of Quebec, 1663, holding that position 
till 1688 and from 1693 to 1697. Index : F Grand-vicar of bishop of Quebec, 
111. LHead of retreat at Caen, 24; first superior of Quebec Seminary, 55; 
transfers his personal income to seminary, 56 ; administers diocese in LavaPs 
absence, 134 ; claims ecclesiastical rights, 163 ; made dean of Chapter, 197 ; his 
death, 239. Bib. : Jesuit Relations, ed. by Thwaites; Gosselin, Henri de Bernieres. 

Bernieres, Jean de. L His " Hermitage," 24, 25. 

Berry Brigade. WM In battle of Ste. Foy, 257, 258, 

Berthelot, Francois. L Laval's relations with, 138. E His seigniory of St. 
Laurent made an earldom in 1676, 181. 

Berthier, Alexandra (1638-1709). Born in France. Came to Canada in 1665; 
and in 1666 commandant at Fort St. Jean, and led expeditions against the 
Iroquois. In 1672 granted the seigniory of Berthier in Bellechasse County, 
Quebec. Index : F Commands militia in campaign against Iroquois, 209. Bib. : 
Charlevoix, History of New France. 

Betkune, Alexander Neil (1800-1879). Born in Glengarry, Ontario. In 
1823 ordained deacon, and in 1824, priest. In 1847 archdeacon of York 
(Toronto), and in 1867 consecrated coadjutor bishop of Toronto; succeeded to 
the bishopric on the death of Bishop Strachan. Bib. : Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog.; 
Cyc. Am. Biog; Mockridge, The Bishops of the Church of England in Canada 
and Newfoundland. 

Betlrime, John. Born in Scotland, 1751. Emigrated in his early years to 
South Carolina, and was chaplain of the loyal militia. In 1786 resided in 
Montreal ; minister of the Presbyterian church there ; afterwards appointed to 
a mission in Glengarry. Index: S Presbyterian minister, reputed author of 
petition for repeal of Marriage Act, 161, 162; the first Presbyterian minister 
to arrive in Upper Canada, 164; received stipend from the government, 164. 
Bib.: Taylor, Brit. Am.; Macdonell, Sketches Illustrating the Early Settlement 
and History of Glengarry in Canada^ 

"Beits. WT Proposes construction of European and North American Rail- 
way, 168, 169. 

Beveridge. WT Seconds the address in New Brunswick Assembly, 257. 

Biard, Pierre (1565-1622). Came to Port Royal in 1611, with Masse the 
first of their order in New France. The relations of the Jesuits with Poutrin- 
court and his son Biencourt were far from cordial; little or no progress was 
made with the conversion of the Micmacs; and in 1613 Biard sailed with 
Masse for Mount Desert, with an expedition sent out by Madame de Guerche- 
ville. They had hardly begun the new settlement, when Argall swooped 
down, seized their ship, plundered their property, and carried Biard and some 
of his companions prisoners to Virginia. Argall brought the Jesuit back with 
him to Acadia the same year ; the vessel in which he sailed was carried out to 
sea, and after a series of adventures Biard finally reached France and remained 
there. Bib. : Biard, Relation; Carayon, Premiere Mission des Jesuites an Can- 
ada; Parkman, Pioneers of France. 

Blbaud, Michel (1782-1857) . Educated at the College of St. Raphael. Index : 
L Historian, his praise of Talon, 113. P On Papineau, 56. Hd On Haldimand, 


291. Bib.: Works: Epttres, Satires, Chansons Epigrammes, et autre Pieces de 
Vers; Histoire du Canada et des Canadians sous la Domination Anglaise. For 
blog. 3 see Morgan, Cel. Can. 

Bidwell, Barnabas. R Election contests, 63. 

Bidwell, Marshall Spring (1799-1872). Born in New England. Came to 
Canada with his father, 1812, and practised law. In 1824-1835 a member 
of the Upper Canada Assembly; in 1829 elected Speaker of the House, and re- 
elected, 1835, One of the leaders of the popular party of Upper Canada, 
and his outspoken sympathy with the Rebellion of 1837-1838 resulted in his 
banishment. Index: Me Elected Speaker of the House, 151; defends Mac- 
kenzie, 181, 182; moves committee of inquiry, 184; moves Mackenzie's eligibil- 
ity, 243 ; discountenances royal veto, 251 ; again elected Speaker of the House, 
261 ; Head declines to make him judge, 377 ; defeated for the House, 380 ; re- 
fuses nomination to Convention, 343 ; gives legal advice to rebels, 343 ; his part 
in the Rebellion, 357 ; accepts voluntary exile, 358. R One of the leaders of the 
popular party in Upper Canada Assembly, 66, 67. Bib. : Dent, Can. Por. and 
Upper Canadian Rebellion; Morgan, CeL Can.; Cyc. Am. Biog.; Davin, The 
Irishman in Canada. 

Bienconrt de Poutrincourt, Charles (1583-1638 ?) Son of Jean de Biencourt. 
Accompanied his father to Port Royal in 1605. Returned to France in 1610 ; 
made vice-admiral in the seas of New France, and, somewhat unwillingly, 
brought with him to Acadia in 1611 the Jesuits Biard and Masse. While 
absent from Port Royal, the fort was attacked and burnt by Argall in 1613. 
Biencourt partially rebuilt Port Royal, and was still there in 1618. Returned 
to France some time before 1621, and appointed director of the Royal 
Academy of Paris, which position he held tip to the time of his death. Bib.: 
Parkman, Pioneers of France; Patterson, Last Days of Charles de Biencourt 
(R.S.C., 1896). 

Biencourt de Poutrincotirt, Jean de, Baron de Saint Just (1557-1615). Had 
won distinction as a soldier in the service of France ; and in 1604 sailed with De 
Monts and Champlain to Acadia. Was so charmed with Port Royal that 
he determined to make it his home. De Monts made him a grant of the lands 
about Annapolis Basin, which the king confirmed. Went back to France and 
brought out his family to the new settlement. Accompanied Champlain in his 
exploration of the Bay of Fundy. Jesuit missionaries were sent out to Port 
Royal, whom Poutrincourt, although a good Roman Catholic, found far from con- 
genial. Their relations became more and more strained, and when Poutrincourt 
sailed to France in 1613, the Jesuits succeeded in having him thrown into prison. 
Regained his liberty and returned to Acadia, but found Port Royal in ashes. 
Returned to France and fell in the attack on Mery. Index : Ch Goes with De 
Monts to Acadia, 19 ; lieutenant of De Monts at Port Royal, 34 ; joins Cham- 
plain in exploration and erects crosses on coast (Massachusetts), 35; returns to 
France, 37. Bib.: Parkman, Old Regime. See also Lescarbot; Champlain; De 

Bienville, Jean Baptiste Le Moyne, sieur de (1680-1768). Son of Charles Le 
Moyne, and brother of Iberville. Accompanied Iberville to Hudson Bay in 
1697, and took part in the capture of Fort Nelson and the defeat of the English 
fleet. The following year sailed with his brother to the mouth of the Missis- 
sippi, where they laid the foundations of the colony of Louisiana. After the 
death of Iberville, became governor of the colony, and remained there for thirty- 
five years. Founded the city of New Orleans, and laboured unceasingly to 


advance the interests of Louisiana. Index : F Joins war party against Schenec- 
tady, 235. Bib.: King, Jean Baptists Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville; Reed, 
The First Great Canadian; Margry, Decouvertes des Franqais. See also Iberville. 

Bierce. Me Plans attack on Windsor, 446 ; lands at Windsor, 447 ; retreats, 

Big Mouth. (Grande Giieule). F Onondaga orator, 184, 221. 

Biggar, James L. R Graduate of Victoria College, 144. 

Bignon. Ch. Crown lawyer in proceedings re Champlain's wiH, 265. 

Bigot, Francois. Born at Bordeaux, Jan. 30, 1703 ; son of Louis-Amable 
Bigot. Through his influence at court, obtained several lucrative offices in 
New France, which he turned to his own personal advantage. Arrived at 
Louisbourg in 1739. After the capture of Louisbourg in 1745, returned to 
France, where serious charges of misappropriating public funds had been brought 
against him, but his influence at court was still powerful enough to extricate 
him from this scrape, and to secure him the office of intendant of New France, 
1748. Sailed for Quebec and arrived the same year. There elaborated a sys- 
tem of peculation, by which every branch of the public service was laid under 
tribute to enrich himself and his creatures, helping thereby to bring about the 
final loss of the colony. Returned to France after the conquest of Canada; 
thrown into the Bastille, and released only to be banished from France. Index : 
WM Intendant, appearance and character, 32; made profit of famine, 53; 
gambling habits, 54 ; reprimanded by minister, 88 ; hostility to Bougainville, 
88 ; makes his headquarters at Beauport, 88 ; letter to Bougainville, 165. Hd 
Disliked, 52. Bib.: Roy, Intendants de la Nouvelle-France (R. S. C., 1903); 
Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe. 

Billings, Elkanah (1820-1876). Born in township of Gloucester, Ontario. 
Studied law, called to the bar, 1845, and practised in Ottawa. Appointed 
paleontologist of the Geological Survey of Canada, 1856, and in the same year 
established the Canadian Naturalist. Bib. : Morgan, Cel. Can.; Cyc. Am. Biog.; 
Ami, Brief Biographical Sketch of Elkanah Billings. 

Billings, Joseph. Born in England, 1758. Accompanied Captain Cook on 
his last voyage on the Discovery; and afterwards entered the Russian navy. 
Commanded an expedition to the north-west boundaries of Asia in 1785, and in 
1786-1794 explored the coasts of Siberia and Alaska. Index : D Visits Unalaska, 
Nodiak, and Prince William Sound, 1790, 26. Bib. : Diet. Nat Biog. 

Bindon. Dr Montreal merchant, treasonable proceedings of, 84. 

Bizard. F Officer of Frontenac, arrested by Perrot, 91. 

Blachford, Frederic Rogers, Baron (1811-1889). Born in England. Educated 
at Eton and Oxford. In 1844 registrar of joint-stock companies and commis- 
sioner of lands and emigration; from 1860 to 1871 permanent undersecretary 
of state for the colonies ; and in 1871 made a privy councillor. Index : Md On 
Macdonald's part in Westminster Conference, 126-127. Bib. : Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Black, John (1817-1879). Bom in Scotland. Went to the Red River 
Settlement as legal adviser to Adam Thorn, recorder of Rupert's Land, 1839. 
Subsequently entered the service of the Hudson's Bay Company and rose to the 
position of chief trader. Went back to Scotland, 1852. Spent some time in 
Australia, and returned to the Red River Settlement as recorder of Rupert's 
Land, 1862. Appointed a delegate to Ottawa to present the views of the settlers 
on the taking over of the country by the Dominion government, 1870. Pro- 
ceeded to Scotland, where he died. Bib.: Bryce, Manitoba. 

Black, John (1818-1882). Bom in Scotland. Emigrated to America with 


Ms parents and studied for a time at Delaware Academy at Delhi, New York. 
Came to Canada and completed his theological course at Knox College, Toronto. 
Ordained to the ministry of the Presbyterian Church and proceeded to the Red 
River Settlement. 1851. Remained in charge of the church at Kildonan until 
his death Bib. : Bryce, John Black: The Apostle of the Red River. 

Black William (1760-1834). Born in England. In 1775 came to Canada 
and became a Wesleyan Methodist preacher. Founded the Wesleyan Church in 
Nova Scotia, and became general superintendent of British American Wesleyan 
missions. Index : WT The apostle of Wesleyan Methodism in Maritime Prov- 
inces, 137. Bib. : Cijc. Am. Biog. 

Black William. WT President of New Brunswick Assembly, 1831 ; refuses 
to furnish information, 19; member of New Brunswick Legislative Council, 


Black, William. WT Of Halifax, father-in-law of Judge Wilmot, 137. 

Blackader, Hugh W. (1808-1863). Descended from Loyalist stock. Began 
to learn the trade of printer at the age of twelve. Acquired an interest in the 
Acadian Recorder, 1837, and continued to publish the paper until his death. 
Closely identified with the Reform movement and a strong supporter of Joseph 
Howe. Index : H Called upon to prove publication of libel in the Nova Scotian, 
24. Bib. : Campbell, History of Nova Scotia. 

Black Rock. Bk Opposite Fort Erie, fortified, 197. 

Blackfoot Indians. A Western confederacy, of Siksika stock. First described 
in the journal of Anthony Hendry, 1754-1755, and again by Matthew Cocking, 
1772-1773. They were then known to the Crees as the Archithinue. Cock- 
ing also gives the following for the five tribes in the confederacy: Powestic- 
Athinuewuck or Water-fall Indians ; Mithco-Athinuwuck or Bloody Indians ; 
Koskitow-Wathesitock or Black-footed Indians ; Pegonow or ^Muddy-water 
Indians ; and Sassewuck or Woody-country Indians. Their habitat was then, 
and until comparatively recent times, in the foot-hills of the Rocky Mountains, 
on the upper waters of the Saskatchewan. They are now for the most part on 
reservations in Alberta. Bib. : Petitot, Traditions Indiennes du Canada Nord- 
Ouest; Grinnell, Blackfoot Lodge Tales; Hendry Journal (R. S.C., 1908); Cocking 
Journal (R.S.C., 1909); Franklin, Polar Sea; Catlin, North American Indians. 

Blair, Andrew George (1844-1907). Born in Fredericton, New Brunswick. 
Educated there, and called to the bar, 1866. In 1878 member of the New 
Brunswick Assembly for York ; in 1879 leader of the opposition ; and in 1883 
premier of the province. In 1896 resigned and became minister of railways and 
canals in the Dominion government, under Laurier, retiring in 1903. In Feb- 
ruary, 1904, chairman of the Railway Commission of Canada, resigning in October 
of the same year. Index : WT Premier of New Brunswick during Tilley 's govern- 
orship, 280. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog.; Who's Who, 

Blair, Adam Johnston Fergusson (1815-1867). Member of the Legislative 
Assembly of Canada, 1848-1857; appointed to the Legislative Council, 1860; 
receiver-general, 1863 ; member of the Executive Council and provincial secre- 
tary, 1863-1864 ; president of the Executive Council, 1866. Appointed presi- 
dent of the Privy Council and a member of the first Dominion Cabinet, 1867. 
Index : Md President of Privy Council in first Dominion Cabinet, 134 ; agrees 
to support coalition, 137 ; his death, 138. B Called upon to form ministry, but 
fails, 149. WT Member first Confederation ministry, 271. Bib. : Dent, Last 
Forty Years. 


Blake, Edward (1833- ). Born in Adelaide, Ontario. Educated at Upper 
Canada College and University of Toronto. Called to the bar of Ontario, 1859. 
From 1867 to 1872 a member of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario ; and 
premier, 1871-1872. From 1867 to 1891 member of the Dominion House of 
Commons. In 1873 a member of Alexander Mackenzie's Dominion ministry; 
in 1875-1877 minister of justice and attorney-general ; and 1877-1878 president 
of the Council. From 1878 to 1887 leader of the Liberal opposition in the 
House of Commons. In 1892 went to Ireland and elected member for South Long- 
ford in the British House of Commons; retired, 1907. Index: Md Favours 
National Policy, 224; replaces Mackenzie as leader of Liberals, 1880, 235; 
attacks Canadian Pacific Railway scheme, 235 : resigns leadership of Ontario 
Liberals, 1872, 152 ; attacks government on Redistribution Bill, 274 ; supports 
Costigan's Home Rule resolution, 277; contrasted with Macdonald, 277-279; 
mutual antagonism, 277-279; supports Landry's motion that Kiel's ^ sentence 
should have been commuted, 280 ; not favourable to commercial union, 296 ; 
refuses to run in election of 1891, 315; denounces policy of unrestricted reci- 
procity, 315-316. B His speech at Aurora advocating Imperial federation, 235, 
240. Me On when rebellion is justified, 26, 27. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; 
Who's Who, 1910; Dent, Can. For. and Last Forty Years; Ewan, Hon. Edward 
Blake; Tach6, Men. . . 

Blake, William Hume (1809-1870). Born in Ireland. Educated at Trinity 
College, Dublin, and emigrated to Canada in his youth. During the Rebellion 
of 1837, paymaster of the Royal Foresters. Called to the bar of Upper Canada, 
1838. A member of the Legislative Assembly for East York, 1847, and solicitor- 
general in the La Fontaine-Baldwin administration, 1848-1849. In 1850 chan- 
cellor of Upper Canada, retiring March, 1862. Index: BL Speaks before 
Reform Association, Toronto, 223 ; elected for York, 279 ; solicitor-general, 
1848 284; absent in Europe, 284; on Rebellion Losses Bill, 314-315; quarrel 
with MacNab, 315; burnt in effigy in Toronto, 318; raised to the bench, 337. 
E Returned in elections, 1847, 50 ; solicitor-general for Upper Canadian first 
La Fontaine-Baldwin Cabinet, 53 ; father of Edward Blake; attacks Family 
Compact; bitter conflict with Sir Allan MacNab, 69. B Speaks before 
Toronto Reform Association, 1844, 21 ; burnt in effigy, 36 ; in the fight for 
responsible government, 261. Md Challenged by John A. Macdonald, 36. 
Me Solicitor-general, debate on Rebellion Losses Bill, 489. Bib. : _Dent, Can. 
Par., and Last Forty Years; Read, Lives of the Judges; Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Blanchard, Hiram. H Supports Confederation, 186 ; member of Nova Scotia 
government, 1867, 198 ; elected to Legislature, but unseated, 202. 

Blanchard, Jotham. H Associated with Joseph Howe in The Club, 10 ; in 
House of Assembly, 18. 

Blanchet, F. Bk Arrested, 127 ; discharged, 128. 

Blanshard, Richard. Appointed governor of Vancouver Island by Earl urey ; 
left England, 1849, and reached Victoria in March of the following year by way 
of Panama. Resigned office in 1850, and in 1851 returned to England. Index : 
D First governor of Vancouver Island, 1849, 203 ; relations with the Hudson's 
Bay Company, 203-204; nominates provincial government and leaves for Eng- 
land, 204. Bib. : Begg, History of British Columbia. 

Bleury. P Joins Papineau party, 78. 

Bliss, Daniel (1740-1806). Born in Concord, Mass. Educated at Harvard 
University, Cambridge, graduating in 1774. In 1778 proscribed as a Loyalist, 
and served with the British army as commissary. At the end of the war, 


moved to New Brunswick; appointed a member of the provincial Council, and 
later chief justice of the Court of Common Pleas. Index : WT Becomes member 
of New Brunswick Council, 4. Bib. : Hannay, History of New Brunswick. 

Bliss, Jolm Murray (1771-1834), Born in Massachusetts. Came to New 
Brunswick in 1786; called to the bar; and elected to the House of Assembly 
for the county of York. Appointed to the bench in 1816; became a member 
of the king's Council; and in 1824 administrator of the province for one year. 
Subsequently a judge of the Supreme Court of New Brunswick. Index. WT 
Judge of New Brunswick Supreme Court, 4. Bib. : Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Bliss, Jonathan (1742-1822). Born in Springfield, Mass. Educated ab 
Harvard University, Cambridge. Emigrated to New Brunswick in 17S3. In 
1785 elected a member of the provincial Legislature and appointed attorney- 
general. From 1809 to 1822 chief-justice. Bib. : Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Blue, Archibald (1840- ). Bom in Orford, Ontario. From 1867 to 
1S81 engaged in journalism. In 1882 appointed secretary of the Ontario Bureau 
of Industries, which he organized. Deputy minister of agriculture, 1884, and 
director of the Bureau of Mines, 1891. Appointed Dominion census commis- 
sioner, 1900. Index: B Witnesses shooting of George Brown by Bennett, 255- 
256. Bib. : Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who. 

Bodega Bay. On the coast of California, lat. 38 18' 20" N., long. 123 2' 28". 
Index : D Russian colony there in 1812, 45. 

Boiieau, Maitre. Ch Lawyer, employed to contest Champlain's will, 265. 

Bolduc, Father. D Jesuit missionary supposed to be first priest on Van- 
couver Island, 178 ; at Whidby Island, 179. 

Bolton, Colonel. Hd Commander at Niagara, lost in foundering of Ontario, 

Bompas, William Carpenter (1853-1906). Born in London, England. Or- 
dained deacon, 1859; priest, 1865; came to Canada latter year and assigned to 
the Mackenzie River district. In 1874 consecrated bishop of Athabaska. In 
1884 transferred to see of Mackenzie River, and in 1891 to that of Selkirk. 
Author of a number of primers in the Athabaskan and Algonquian languages, 
as well as in Eskimo. Bib. : Diocese of Mackenzie River; Cody, An Apostle 
of the North; Machray, Archbishop Machray; Mockridge, Bishops of the Church 
of _ England in Canada and Newfoundland. For his native primers, see Pilling, 
Bibliography of Athabaskan Languages. 

Bond, William Bennett (1815-1906). Bom in Truro, England. At an early 
age went to Newfoundland. 'Removed to Quebec, 1840; the same [year ad- 
mitted deacon, and ordained priest, 1841. For some time engaged as a travelling 
missionary; assistant to the rector of St. George's Church, Montreal, 1848; rector 
1862; archdeacon of Hochelaga, 1871; dean of Montreal, 1874. In 1879 con- 
secrated bishop of Montreal ; in 1901 archbishop, and in 1904 primate of all 
Canada. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Dent, Can. For.; Who's Who, 1905; 
Mockridge, Bishops of the Church of England in Canada and Newfoundland. 

Bonne, Captain de. Born in France, and before coming to Canada served in 
the regiment of Cond& At the siege of Quebec, 1759, in command of the 
Quebec and Three Rivers militia, and took part in the battle of the Plains and 
the battle of Ste. Foy. Index: WM Commands Quebec and Three Rivers 
militia, 105. Bib. : Doughty, Siege of Quebec. 

Bonnecamps, Joseph. Pierre de (1707-1790). Born in France. Entered the 
Jesuit order, and came to Canada in 1741, when he was appointed instructor of 
hydrography at the Seminary of Quebec. Held that position until the fall of 


Quebec in 1759. In 1765^-1766 laboured among the French refugees on the 
islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon. 

Bonnerme. Ch Physician, accompanied Champlain to Quebec, 41 ; death of, 4f>. 

Bonnycastle, Sir Richard Henry (1791-1848). Born in England. Served in 
Canada in 1812, and engaged in the capture of Fort Castine. During the 
Rebellion of 1837-1838 commanded the engineers in Canada West, and defended 
Kingston in 1838; knighted for distinguished service, 1837. Afterwards com- 
mander of engineers in Newfoundland. Bib.: The Canadas in 1S4L For 
biog., see Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Bonsecours, Chapel of. L United to parish of Montreal, 176 ; commenced by 
Sister Bourgeois, 177; held in high honour, 178. 

Bontemps, Captain. Ch Brings out settlers, 252. 

Books. S Scarcity of, in Upper Canada, 175. See also Libraries. 

Borden, Robert Laird (1854- ). Born in Grand Pr6, Nova Scotia. 
Called to the bar, 1878, and practised at Kentville and Halifax ; appointed Q.C., 
1890. In 1896 elected for the city and county of Halifax to the Dominion Parlia- 
ment, and for Carleton County, Ontario, 1905. In 1901 succeeded Sir Charles 
Tupper as leader of the Conservative party. Bib. : Morgan, Can. Men; 
Canadian Who's Who. 

Borgia's House. WM Wolfe occupies, 189 ; set on fire by Canadians, 193. 

Boscawen, Edward (1711-1761). Born in England. Served at Porto Bello, 
173&-1740; at Cartagena, 1741; and in the West Indies, 1747. Commanded on 
the North American station between 1755 and 1757, and in 1758 commander- 
in-chief of the fleet at the siege of Louisbourg. In 1759 defeated the French 
in Lagos Bay, and in 1760 commanded the fleet in Quiberon Bay. Index: 
WM In command of naval forces at Louisbourg, 73. Bib. : Wood, Logs of the 
Conquest of Canada; Doughty, Siege of Quebec; Diet. Nat, Biog. See also 

Bossuet, Jacques Benigne (1627-1704). Churchman and orator; bishop of 
Meaux ; took a leading part in the Gallican controversy. Index : L On poverty 
and liberty, 123. Bib. : Works : Histoire Universelle; Oraisons Funebres. For 
biog., see Chambers, Biog. Diet. 

Boston. Bk Flags hung there at half-mast on declaration of war against 
Great Britain, 208. Hd Rebellious sentiment comes to head at, 84 ; Haldimand 
doubts wisdom of closing the port, 85 ; dangerous condition of affairs at, 95-96, 
97-98 ; reception to General Gage, 96 ; Haldimand's removal to, 103 ; people 
of, revile Haldimand, 105 ; Haldimand's house at, 107 ; loss at Bunker Hill, 
108 ; Louis Haldimand at, 109 ; Loyalists leave, 110 ; Haldimand's rank at, 121. 
L Americans of, their designs against priests and missionaries, 11. 

Boston. D Attacked by natives of Nootka, 1803, and crew murdered, 37. 

Botsford, Bliss (1813-1890). Born at Sackville, New Brunswick. Educated 
at King's College, Fredericton ; called to the bar, 1838, and practised at Monc- 
ton until 1870. A member of the New Brunswick Assembly, with brief intervals, 
from 1851 to 1870. In 1865 surveyor-general in the Smith ministry, and a 
member of the Executive Council, of which he was Speaker from 1867 to 1870. 
From 1870 to 1890 judge of the County Court. Index: WT Surveyor-general 
in Smith government, 233 ; adds no strength to the government, 234 ; repre- 
sents Westmoreland, 257. Bib. ; Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog. 

Bouchard. L Founder of the Montmorency family, 16. 

Boucher de Grosbois et de Boucherville, Pierre (1622-1717). Came to Canada 
in 1634 with his father ; served as a soldier of the little garrison of Quebec in 


1641. Four years later settled at Three Rivers, and having made himself 
familiar with several Indian languages, employed as interpreter. For nearly a 
quarter of a century served the town of his adoption in various capacities, civil 
and military. Filled the office of governor of Three Rivers, with short intervals, 
from 1652 to 1687. Visited France in 1661-1662, received by Louis XIV, and 
given a patent of nobility, and on his return to Canada brought out a number 
of colonists. In 1667 retired to his seigniory of Boucherville. Left a brief but 
interesting history of New France, written in 1663, while he was still governor 
of Three Rivers, and published the following year. Index : L His opinion of 
Laval 29. Bib. : Histoire Veritable et Naturelle des Mceurs et Productions du 
Pays de la Nowelle France. Paris, 1664. Reprinted, 1849, 1882, 1883, 1896. 
The last is in the Trans, of the Royal Society for^that year, and is edited 
by Benjamin Suite, with biographical and bibliographical notes. 

Bouchette, Captain. Br Conducts Carleton safely to Three Rivers, 113. 

Bouchette, Joseph (1774-1841). Entered the naval service, 1791; in com- 
mand of the forces on Lake Ontario; and served in the Royal Canadian 
volunteers. In 1813 on active service ; and in 1814-1816 in England, where he 
published his topographical and geographical description of Canada. Employed 
as surveyor-general in delimiting the boundary line between Canada and the 
United States, 1817-1818. Bib. : Topographical Description of the Province of 
Lower Canada ; British Dominions in North America. 

Bouchette, Robert Shore Millies. P Exiled to Bermuda for his participation 
in Rebellion of 1837, 138; commissioner of customs, Ottawa, 149; sides with 
Papineau, 149 ; arrested as a rebel, 149 ; his letter to Colonel Dundas, 150-153. 

Boudon, Abbe Henri-Marie." L Succeeds Laval as archdeacon of Evreux, 23. 

Bones, Charles de. Ch Vicar-general of Pontoise, contributes to building of 
Re'collet convent, 117; syndic of Canadian missions, 148. 

Bougainville, Louis Antoine, Comte de (1729-1811). Born in Paris. Educated 
for his father's profession of notary ; and soon obtained recognition as an advo- 
cate in the Parliament of Paris. As a student displayed a remarkable talent 
for mathematics, and at the age of twenty-two wrote the first volume of a 
treatise on the Integral Calculus. His mathematical work recognized by the 
Royal Society in electing him to a fellowship. Joined the army in 1755, and 
the next year came to Canada as MontealnVs aide-de-camp. Played an im- 
portant part in the siege of Quebec, and wrote an elaborate journal of the cam- 
paign, much of which appears to have been incorporated in Montcalm's Journal, 
published by Abbe' Casgrain. Returned to France in 1760, and after serving 
in Germany, joined the navy. From 1766 to 1769 made a voyage around the 
world; served in the West Indies during the Revolutionary War, and com- 
manded the van of the French fleet in the action off Chesapeake Bay. Re- 
tired from active service, 1790; nominated by Napoleon to the Senate, 
and raised to the nobility. Index : WM Aide-de-camp to Montcalm, 1 ; de- 
spatched to France to represent desperate state of colony, 62; commands 
Grenadiers along Beauport shore, 85 ; incurs Bigot's hostility, 88 ; ordered to 
protect country west of Quebec, 151, 158 ; interview with Montcalm at Beau- 
port, 160 ; Vaudreuil writes that safety of colony is in his hands, 161 ; duped 
by Wolfe's strategy, 177 ; criticized by Chevalier Johnstone, 177 ; his promotion 
due to court favour, 177 ; disregards instructions of governor by changing com- 
mander at Le Foulon, 178 ; great reliance placed on him, 178 ; his failure to rein- 
force post at the Foulon, 178, 184 ; his failure to follow British fleet down from 
Cap Rouge, 184; held responsible for disaster, 210; his delay at Sillery, 211; 


arrives after battle, 222 ; Ms letter to Ramezay, regarding provisions, 226 ; holds 
his position at Cap Rouge while rest of army retreats, 229 ; on march to Que- 
bec, hears of capitulation, 234; replaces Lusignan at Ile-aux-Noix, 245; con- 
gratulates L<vis on victory of Ste. Foy, 267. Bib. : Works: Traite du Calcul 
Integral; Voyage autour du Monde; Essai Historique sur Ics Navigations 
Anciennes et Modernes (Acad. des Sciences Morales et Pol, Vol. I) ; Notice 
Historique sur les Sausages de VAmmgue Septentrionde (ibid., Vol. III). His 
letters are printed in Doughty, Siege of Quebec; and his manuscript journals 
are in the Canadian Archives. See also De Kerallain, La Jeunesse de Bougain- 
ville; Michaud, Biog. Univ.; Larousse, Grande Diet. Univ.; Casgrain, Montcdm 
et Lens; Parkman, Montcdm and Wolfe; Wood, The Fight for Canada; Hart, 
The Fall of New France, 1755-1760. 

Boulay, Angelique Louise Talon du. WML Wife of Montcalm, 5 ; her grief at 
his departure for Canada, 8. 

Boulduc. F Prosecutor of Pr<5vot, dismissed, 138. 

Boulle, Eustache. Ch Brother-in-law of Champlain, 134, 145 ; appointed by 
Champlain as his lieutenant, 155 ; returns to France, 209; converted to Roman 
Catholicism, receives bequest from his sister, 267. 

Boulle, Heiene. Ch Marries Champlain, 66 ; spends four years in Quebec, 
141 ; returns to France, 141 ; studies Algonquian language, 263 ; her life at 
Quebec, 263-264 ; enters Ursuline convent, 266 ; dies, 1654, 266. 

Boulle, Nicholas. Ch Champlain's father-in-law, secretary of ,the king s 
chamber, 66; pays his daughter's inheritance to Champlain, 67. 

Boulton, D'Arcy. Born in England. Came to Canada, 1797, and settled at 
York, 1803. Called to the bar of Upper Canada by special Act of the Legislature, 
1803 ; solicitor-general, 1805. While on Ms way to England, 1810, captured by 
a French privateer, and remained a prisoner in France until 1814. Appointed 
judge of Assize, 1818. Died in York about 1830. Bib. : Read, Lives of the 
Judges; Scadding, Toronto of Old. . 

Boulton, Henry John. Son of B'Arcy Boulton; born in England, 1790. 
Studied law and called to- the English bar. Emigrated to Canada, 1816, and 
practised in Upper Canada. In 1818 appointed solicitor-general; attorney- 
general, 1829; elected to the Assembly for Niagara; removed from attorney- 
generalship by colonial secretary on account of his independent votes m 
Assembly 1833: proceeded to England to vindicate his actions; appointed chief 
justice of Newfoundland, 1833; removed from office, 1838, and returned to 
Canada. Represented town of Niagara in Assembly, 1841-1844, and Norfolk 
County, 1848-1851. Index: Me Solicitor-general, reprimanded, 152-153; dis- 
missed from office of attorney-general, 232; threatens rebellion, 233; chief 
justice of Newfoundland, 235. E Responsible for amendment of Union Act, 
123. BL Removed from office of attorney-general, 16; in Clergy Reserves 
debate, 349. Bib.: Short Sketch of Upper Canada. For biog., see Morgan, 
Cel. Can, 

Boundaries of Canada. Dr Not defined by Constitutional Act, 260. 

Bouquet, Henry (1719-1765). Bom in Switzerland. Served in Holland, 
Sardinia and with the Prince of Orange. Was Captain-commandant of the 
Swiss Guards at the Hague, 1748. Entered the British army; came to America in 
1754; with Haldimand and the " Royal Americans " ; and held a leading com- 
mand for several years in the French and Indian wars. Died at Pensacola, 
Florida. Index: Dr His services in Pontiac's War, 6; death of, 6; Bouquet 
papers in British Museum, 7. Hd Life-long friend of Haldimand, 5; his 


early military service, 6 ; his studious habits, 8 ; member of Swiss Guards 
the Hague, 8 ; recommended for command in Royal American Regiment, 
experiences ill-feeling between American colonists and British troops, 12 ; 
Carolina, 13 ; his letters throw side-lights on the affairs in the colonies, 14-1 
popular in military profession, 16 ; Indian warfare, 16 ; at Fort Pitt, 16 ; Bte 
dimand advises him not to leave the service, 40 ; defeats Indians at Bushy Ru 
58 ; thanked by the king and promoted, 58 ; death of, 58, 63 ; Haldinaai 
laments Ms loss, 62 ; his tomb, 63 ; his papers preserved in Canadian Archive 
319 ; some of his letters missing, 338. Bib. : Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe ar 
Conspiracy of Pontiac; Canadian Archives Report, 1889. 

Bourdages, P Assists Papineau in defeating motion for adoption of LOJ 
Goderich's offer, 77. Bk Made colonel of militia by Sir George Prevost, 158. 

Bourdon. L Brings out a number of girls as colonists, 79. Ch Industrioi 
settler, 252, 253. 

Bourdon, Sister Anne. F On divine protection of Quebec, 301. 

Bourdon, Jean (1602-1668). Born in Normandy. Came to Canada, 163- 
Engaged for some years as a civil engineer and land surveyor ; sent on seven 
embassies to the Iroquois ; and in 1657 made a voyage towards Hudson Bay, bt 
prevented by ice from entering the Strait. Mentioned as being at Quebec i 

Bourgard. L On the zeal of the missionaries, 61. 

Bourgeoys, Marguerite (1620-1700). Born at Troyes, in Champagne. Er 
tered the convent of the Congregation of Notre Dame at the age of twenty 
and while there decided to devote her life to the colony of New Franc! 
Arrived hi Quebec in September, 1653, and went on immediately to the ne 1 
settlement of Montreal. In 1657 opened the first school, in a stable grante 
her by Maisonneuve. In the same year built a wooden chapel in Mpntrea 
Founded the Congregation de Notre Dame de Montreal in 1659, and in 168 
built the convent. In 1675, with funds obtained from France built the churc 
of Bpnsecours. Index: L Establishes school at Ville Marie (Montreal), 9 ; he 
services to the sick on board the St. Andre, 32 ; her labours in instruction o 
the young, 91 ; her educational work, 126 ; Abb6 Verreau on influence exerte< 
by, 127; founds Bonsecours Chapel, 177. F Establishes Congregation d 
Notre Dame, 29, 39; impressed on arrival by poverty of country, 39. Bib. 
Ransonet, Vie de la Sceur Bourgeoys; Faillon, Vie de la Sceur Bourgeoys; Park 
man, Jesuits in North America and Old Regime; Colby, Canadian ' Types o 
the Old Regime. 

Bourget, Ignace (1799-1885). Bom at Point LeVis, Quebec. Ordained ii 
1822; vicar-general of Montreal, 1836; coadjutor bishop of the diocese, 1837 
bishop of Montreal^ 1840, and created the first cathedral chapter of that city 
Founded several religious orders, colleges, and asylums, among others, in 1864 
the institution for the deaf and dumb, Montreal In 1862 created a Romai 
count and assistant at the Pontifical Throne. In 1876 archbishop of Martia 
nopolis, in partibus. Index: C His character, 80 ; dispute with Carticr, 80-83 
calls on Cartier, 84. Bib. : Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Bourinot, Sir John George (1837-1902). Born in Sydney, Nova Scotia. Ed- 
ucated at Trinity University, Toronto. Chief official reporter to the Novs 
Scotia Assembly, 1861-1867, and in 1880 appointed chief clerk of the Dorninioi 
House of Commons. For many years honorary secretary of the Royal Society 
of Canada. Index: BL On Baldwin's University Bill, 293 ; on Tory oppositior 
to Rebellion Losses Bill, 313. Bib. : Works ; Canada under British Rule 


Federal Government in Canada; How Canada is Governed; Manual of Constitu- 
tional History of Canada; Parliamentary Procedure and Government in Canada; 
Canada; Builders of Nova Scotia. For biog., see Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog. 

Botirlamaqtie, de. Born in France. Governor of Guadaioupe ; sent in 1756 
with Montcalm to Canada as third in command and colonel of engineers. 
In command at Ticonderoga in 1759 ; promoted brigadier-general, and took 
part in the defence of Quebec. Died, 1764. Index : WM. Third in command, 
12 ; holds Aniherst in check, 131 ; evacuates Forts Carillon and Frederic and 
falls back on Ile-aux-Noix, 146; which he reports himself able to hold till 
fall, 158; joins army of LeVis on march against Quebec, 245; repairs bridges 
over Cap Rouge River, 248 ; occupies position at Lorette and Ste. Foy, 249 ; 
in battle of Ste. Foy, 256 ; wounded, 260. Bib. : Doughty, Siege of Quebec; 
Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe; Wood, The Fight for Canada. 

Bouteroue, Claude de. Born in France. Came to Canada to act as in- 
tendant during the absence of Talon from 1668 to 1670. Returned to France, 
1671, and died there, 1680. Index : L Acts as intendant during Talon's absence, 
116. Bib. : Charlevoix, History of New France. 

Bouthillier. Ch Negotiates restoration of Quebec, 220. 

Bow River Pass. Through the Bow Range of the Rocky Mountains, head 
waters of Bow River. Index : D Entered by David Thompson, 1805, 58. 

Bowell, Sir Mackenzie (1823- ). Born in England. Came to Canada with 
his parents, 1833, and engaged in journalistic work. In 1867 elected to the 
Dominion House of Commons for North Hastings. In 1878 appointed minister 
of customs, holding that office until 1891; minister of militia, 1892 ; and minister 
of trade and commerce, 1892-1894. In 1894 succeeded Sir John Thompson 
as premier, and resigned office in 1896. Created a K. C. M. G., 1895. Bib. : 
Dent, Can. Por. ; Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who. 

Bowen, Edward (1780-1866). Born in Ireland. Came to Canada in 1797; 
studied law and called to the bar in 1803. From 1809 to 1812 represented Sorel 
in the Assembly ; and in the latter year appointed to the Court of King's Bench. 
In 1821 appointed a member of the Legislative Council, and in 1835 elected 
Speaker. In 1849 chief justice of the Superior Court for Lower Canada. 
Index : E Made a judge of the Seigniorial Court, 187. Bib. : Taylor, Brit. Am. 

Bowes, Colonel. Bk Of the 6th Regiment, assumes command on death of 
General Hunter, 69 ; leaves Canada, 73. 

Bowring, Dr. Sy An associate of Sydenham's, 13 ; commissioner to 
France, 29. 

Boyd. WT Represents Charlotte County in New Brunswick Assembly, 

Boyd, John (1828-1893) . Born in Ireland. Emigrated to New Brunswick, and 
engaged in business at St. John. In 1880 called to the Senate, and on Sept. 22, 
1893, succeeded Sir S. L. Tilley as lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick, 
Index : WT Succeeds Tilley as lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick, 280. 
Bib. : Hannay, History of New Brunswick. 

Braddock, Edward (1695-1755). Bom in Scotland. Entered the army, 1710, 
and in 1743 major of the Coldstreams. Served in the expedition to L'Orient, 
1746 ; and under the Prince of Orange in Holland, 1746-1748. Colonel of the 
14th Foot at Gibraltar, 1753. In 1755 general and commander-in-chief in 
British North America ; and on July 9, 1755, commanded the British expedi- 
tion against Fort Duquesne, where he was defeated and mortally wounded. 
Index : WM Death of, at Fort Duquesne, 22. Hd His defeat rouses Pennsyl- 


vania Assembly to vote military supplies, 13. Bib. : Did. Nat. Biog.; Parkman, 
Montcalm and Wolfe; Bradley, The Fight with France. 

Bradstreet, Simon (1603-1697). Bom in England. Educated at Cam- 
bridge ; and emigrated to Massachusetts, where he became assistant judge of the 
Court in 1630. In 1631 one of the founders of Cambridge, Mass. ; from 1630 
to 1679 assistant governor of Massachusetts; from 1679 to 1686 governor; 
and from 1689 to 1692 president of the administration pf the colony. Index: 
F Made governor of Massachusetts, 266; on failure of expedition against 
Quebec, 301. Bib. : Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Bragg' s Regiment. WM On British right, 189; in battle of Ste. Foy 
259, 261. 

Brandon House. Built by the Hudson's Bay Company, in 1794, on the head 
waters of the Assiniboine River, about seventeen miles below the present city 
of Brandon. The buildings were burnt about 1814, and the post abandoned. 
Index : MS Built by Hudson's Bay Company, 6. Bib. : Bryce, Hudson's Bay 

Brandy ^ Question. ^ F Condemned by Champlain, 25 ; subject "of dispute be- 
tween civil and religious authorities, 46, 115 ; king's instructions regarding, 116, 
118, 120; question referred to a meeting of the principal inhabitants, 121; 
opinions expressed, 122, 123 ; king's decision thereon, 125 ; evils depicted, 335. 
L Sale of liquor to Indians, 7, 36-39, 113; Frontenac's opinion and Colbert's 
instructions, 170, 171 ; conference on the subject, 172 ; Laval's attitude, 173- 
175 ; Dollier de Casson's testimony, 175. See also Liquor question. Bib. : Park- 
man, Frontenac and Old Regime. 

Brant, Isaac. S Son of Joseph Brant, commits murder, 191; attacks his 
father and is killed by him in self-defence, 192. 

Brant, Joseph. (1742-1807). A Mohawk Indian chief, whose native name 
was Thayendanegea. Educated at an Indian school in Connecticut. Visited 
England in 1775. In the Revolutionary War sided with the British and ren- 
dered valuable service. Revisited England after the war. Translated the 
Book of Common Prayer and St. Mark's Gospel into the Mohawk tongue (Lon- 
don, 1787). Index: S Mohawk Indian, distrusted by Simcoe, 75, 125; visits 
Philadelphia and received by Washington as Indian emissary, 121 ; part taken 
by, in subsequent negotiations, 124, 125 ; loss of influence with his own people 
125; his motives and policy, 126, 128, 129; kills his son Isaac in self-defence, 
192. Hd Commands scouting parties, 153 ; made a colonel of Indians on Hal- 
dimand's recommendation, 154; did not harm women or children, 154, 170; 
Ms success against rebel force under Lockerby, 169 ; advises reserve for Six 
Nation Indians, 258 ; highly esteemed by Haldimand, 300 ; Allan MacLean's 
opinion of, 308 ; visits Haldimand in London, 327. Bib. : Stone, Life of Brant; 
Cruikshank, Joseph Brant in the American Revolution; Eggleston, Brant and Red 
Jacket; Ke-che-ah-gah-me-qua, Life of Brant; Dent, Can. For. 

Brant, Molly. Hd Sister of Joseph Brant, her influence with Indians, 154 
pensioned, 155. 

Brantf ord. City of Ontario, on the Grand River. Named after Joseph Brant, 
the Mohawk chieftain. Founded about 1820. 

Brassy. WT Offers to build European and North American Railway, 167, 169. 

Breadalbane, John Campbell, second Marquis of (1796-1862). Represented 
Okehampton in Parliament, 1820-1826, and Perthshire, 1832. Index : Sy Offers 
to go to Canada as governor-general, 58. Bib. : Diet. Nat Biog. 

Brebeuf, Jean de (1593-1649). Bom of a noble family of Normandy. Came 


to Canada, 1625 ; spent the winter of 1625-1626 among the Algonquins. In 
the latter year, after a long and difficult journey by way of the Ottawa and 
Lake Nipissing, reached the villages of the Hurons, on Georgian Bay, where 
he established the first mission. Returned to Quebec in 1629, and in 1634 re- 
established the Huron mission. In 1640 made an unsuccessful attempt to 
establish a mission among the intractable Neutral Nation, north of Lake Erie. 
Returned to the Huron mission, where, in 1649, he was captured by the 
Iroquois, and burned at the stake with unmentionable cruelties. His skull is 
preserved in the Hotel-Dieu at Quebec. Index : Ch Sails for New France on 
De Caen's vessel, 152 ; returns to College of Rouen, 207 ; returns to Canada, 
228 ; goes to Huron country, 249. L Sufferings and death of, 5, 62. Bib. : 
Parkman, Jesuits in North America; Ragueneau, Relation des Hurons, 1649 ; 
Colby, Canadian Types of the Old Regime. 

Breda, Treaty of. Signed between England and France, 1667. Brought to a 
close the disastrous war with the Dutch. By its terms Nova Scotia was handed 
over to France. Bib.: Hertslet, Treaties and Conventions. 

Bresolles, Sister de, L Her labours in the hospital at Montreal, 91. 

Bretonvilliers, De. L Sulpician, makes liberal contribution towards erection 
of church at Montreal, 88 ; foundation stone laid on his behalf by M. Dollier de 
Casson, 89 ; devotes his fortune to religious work at Montreal, 135 ; succeeds 
M. Olier as superior of seminary in France, 162. 

Briand, Jean Olivier (1715-1794). Bom in France. Ordained priest, 1739; 
came to Canada, 1741; canon of Quebec Cathedral until 1760. In 1766 
appointed bishop of Quebec, and resigned, 1784. Rebuilt the cathedral and 
palace, destroyed during the siege of Quebec, 1759. Index : L Bishop of Quebec, 
12. Dr Appointed Roman Catholic bishop of Quebec, 23. 

Bride. Ch English vessel seized by French, 221. 

Bright, John (1811-1889). British statesman and orator. Index : WT Friendly 
to Anti-Confederation party, 265. Bib, : Diet. Nat. Biog. 

British American League. Md Formed in 1849 in Montreal as a reply to the 
Annexation Manifesto branches followed throughout the country, 40; its 
objects, 40-41 ; largely due to John A. Macdonald's inspiration, 95; Confedera- 
tion one of its main objects, 95; commercial national policy another, 219. H 
Howe's correspondence with the president, George Moffatt, 113-115. B Formed 
in Upper Canada convention held at Kingston, 1849, 37 ; its policy, 38 ; part 
of Conservative case for Confederation, 38. Bib. : Pope, Memoirs of Sir John A. 

British Chronicle. Newspaper published in New York. Index : B Estab- 
lished by Peter and George Brown, 4 ; its objects, 4. 

British Columbia. Area 372,630 square miles. Vancouver Island became a 
crown colony in 1849 ; ten years later the mainland was organized as a separate 
colony; in 1866 island and mainland became one; and in 1871 the colony 
became a province of the Dominion of Canada. Index : D Organic existence 
since 1859, or including Vancouver Island, since 1849, 1 ; origin of name, 57 ; 
gold-fields, 22 ; created separate colony, 1858, 229 ; early government of, 231- 
235; revenue, 232; roads, etc., 232, 237-238, 249-253 ^ relations with the 
Hudson's Bay Company, 233 ; character of early population, 241-243 ; formal 
establishment of colony at Fort Langley, 1858, 245-246 ; Hill's Bar affair, 
248-249 ; plans for transcontinental road, 253-254 ; population in 1859, 256 ; 
agriculture, 256-257; financial problems, 258-262; dissatisfaction with dual 
governorship, 289 ; popular grievances, 290-291 ; views of Douglas, 291-293 ; 


Legislative Council, 294-297; union of British Columbia and Vancouver 
Island, 297-300, 308 ; British Columbia Legislature meets for first time in Vic- 
toria, Dec. 17, 1867, 311;. entry into Dominion, 311-316; terms of union, SIS- 
SIS ; first Legislative Assembly after the union, 315 ; transcontinental railway, 
317-328; population, 1900,328; agriculture, 329-330 ; fisheries, 330-331; lum- 
ber, 332-333; minerals, 333-334; industrial problems, 335; oriental labour, 
336-337 ; education, 338-340. Md Opposition to entry into Confederation, 149 ; 
difficulties removed, 149 ; terms of union, 149-150 ; union completed, July 20, 
1871, 150; difficulties over building of Canadian Pacific Railway drive prov- 
ince to verge of secession, 215, 233-234. Bib. : Begg, History of British Co- 
lumbia; Bancroft, History of British Columbia; Macdonald, British Columbia 
and Vancouver's Island; Macfie, Vancouver Island and British Columbia; 
Morice, The History of the Northern Interior of British Columbia; Herring, 
Among the People of British Columbia; Fitzgerald, The Hudson's Bay Company 
and Vancouver Island; Mayne, Four Years in British Columbia; Baillie-Grohman, 
Sport and Life in Western America and British Columbia; Mtin, La Colombie 
Britannique; Indians of British Columbia (R. S. C., 1888); Langevin, Report 
on British Columbia. 

British Law. Sy Attempts to introduce after passage of Quebec Act, 65. 
S Introduced into Upper Canada, 85. 

British Legion. Dr Loyalists commanded by Tarleton, 202. 

British Newspapers. Hd Sympathy with rebels expressed in, 190. See also 

British Horth America Act. The constitution of the Dominion ; the Act by 
which the scattered colonies of British North America were united in one Con- 
federation. Drafted at the Quebec Conference, 1864; discussed and passed 
in the form of resolutions, in the Legislature of Canada, 1865 ; put in final shape 
at the Westminster Conference, 1866 ; passed by the Imperial Parliament, and 
proclaimed, 1867. The essential feature of this Act, and that which distinguishes 
it most clearly from the Constitution of the United States, is the provision that 
all matters not specifically assigned to the provinces belong to the Dominion, 
the reverse being the case under the United States Constitution. Broadly speak- 
ing, the Act gives the Dominion exclusive jurisdiction over the regulation of 
trade and commerce, the postal service, customs and inland revenue, military 
and naval service, navigation and shipping, currency and coinage, banking, 
weights and measures, patents and copyrights, naturalization, Indians. To the 
provinces it gives exclusive jurisdiction over direct taxation, management and sale 
of public lands, timber, provincial prisons, hospitals, asylums, etc., municipal in- 
stitutions, administration of justice, education. Index : Md Conference in Lon- 
don MacdonakTs letter to Tilley, 125-126 ; the sixty-nine resolutions passed, 
126 ; draft bill drawn up completed bill submitted to House, and received 
royal assent^ March 29, 1867, 127; royal proclamation fixes July 1 as date 
upon which it should come into force, 127; opposition develops in Maritime 
Provinces,^ ; provides for Intercolonial Railway, 151 ; and acquisition of North- 
West Territories, 156 ; question of legislative union, 245 ; federal system intro- 
duced by, 250 ; provincial rights under, 253 ; the franchise, 258. C Delegation 
sent to London to see it through Parliament, 67 ; proposal to amend it in the 
interests of the New Brunswick Roman Catholics, 77, 82 ; strained relations of 
Macdonald and Cartier over terms of, 102-103. H Passed by Imperial Parlia- 
ment, 192 ; opposed by Joseph Howe, 192 ; its repeal sought by Nova Scotia Anti- 
Confederates, 204. WT Quietly received in New Brunswick, 269. Bib. : 


Bourinot, Constitution of Canada; Houston, Constitutional Documents; Doutre, 
Constitution of Canada; Munro, Constitution of Canada; Ashley, Constitutional 
History of Canada; Gooch, Manual of the Constitution of Canada; Howland, 
The New Empire; Confederation Debates *I8Q5', Pope, Confederation Documents. 

Brock, Daniel De Lisle. Bk Brother of Sir Isaac, becomes chief magistrate of 
Guernsey, 70. 

Brock, Elizabeth. Bk Sister of Sir Isaac, 71. 

Brock, Ferdinand. Bk Brother of Sir Isaac, served in Royal Americans, 6 ; 
death of, 7, 70. 

Brock, Harriet. Bk Married to Sir Thomas Saumarez, 124. 

Brock, Sir Hugh. Bk Supposed ancestor of General Brock, 5. 

Brock, Irving. Bk Brother of Sir Isaac, 102 ; an able pamphleteer, 132, 140 ; 
estrangement between, and his brother William in connection with latter's failure, 
163 ; reconciliation, 297. 

Brock, Sir Isaac (1769-1812). Bk Birth and descent, 6; enters army at age 
of fifteen, 7 ; joins 49th Regiment with rank of captain, and is sent to West 
Indies, 8 ; returns to England on sick leave, 9 ; senior lieutenant-colonel of Ms 
regiment, 10 ; takes part in expedition to Holland under Sir Ralph Abercromby, 
13 ; his account of battle of Egmont-op-Zee, 17 ; quartered in Jersey and visits 
home in Guernsey, 22; joins expedition to the Baltic, 24; his regiment ordered 
to Canada, 31 ; arrives at Quebec, 34 ; his regiment ordered to Upper Province, 
48 ; his vigorous pursuit of deserters, 60 ; quells mutiny at Fort George, 61-63; 
assumes command at the fort, * 64 ; recommends establishment of corps of 
veterans who on discharge might receive grants of land, 64 ; impressed by com- 
fortable condition of loyalist settlers, 65 ; contrasts their character with that 
of settlers of the later (1793) immigration, 66 ; takes special interest in Sergeant- 
Major (afterwards Colonel) James EitzGibbon, 66; quartered in Quebec, 69; 
made a full colonel and goes to England on leave, 70 ; returns to Canada, 73 ; 
assumes chief military command at Quebec, 73 ; recommends strengthening of 
the fortifications of Quebec, 75, 94 ; differences with President Dunn, 77 ; leaves 
control of Indian affairs in Upper Canada to lieutenant-governor, 78 ; examines 
accounts of the deputy commissary-general, 78, 79 ; effects improvements in 
marine department, 80; tries to make Quebec impregnable, 86; dissatisfied 
with measures of defence adopted by the civil government, 94 ; letters to James 
Cuthbert of Berthier, 95, 98 ; confident that Canadians would vigorously resist 
American invasion, 97; leaves Quebec to take command in Montreal, 99; 
appointed acting brigadier-general 99 ; Ms social qualities, 101 ; returns to 
Quebec, 115 ; anxious for service in Europe, 123, 124 ; considers war with United 
States (1809) imminent, 124 ; his opinion of the Lower Canada Assembly, 126 ; 
ordered to Upper Canada, 133 ; his books, 135 ; literary tastes, 136 ; application 
for leave not entertained, 136-138, 155; correspondence with Lieutenant- 
Governor Gore respecting grant of land to Colonel Vesey, 138; high opinion 
entertained of, at headquarters, 141; pleasantly entertained by Lieutenant- 
Governor Gore, 143 ; anxiety as to management of Indians, 149-152 ; made 
major-general, 157; made president and administrator of Upper Canada in 
absence of Lieutenant-Governor Gore, 159 ; financial misfortune, 161 ; letter to 
his brother Irving, 163-165; his strong family affection, 163; his energy as 
administrator, 168 ; his opinion of the Little Belt affair, 173 ; his endeavours to 
avert Indian warfare, 176 ; sends plan of campaign to General Pr6vost, 177-179 ; 
recommends increase of naval force on lakes, 178 ; offered service in Spain, but 
does not accept it, 180 ; his plan for formation of flank companies adopted, 181 ; 


speech on opening of Legislature of Upper Canada, 183 ; measures proposed by, 
to Legislature, 184 ; recognizes presence of many persons of doubtful loyalty in 
the province, 185, 214 ; disappointed with action of Legislature, 185 ; urges im- 
portance of prompt seizure of Detroit and Michilimackinac, 195 ; selects Major- 
General Shaw to protect line between Kingston and Cornwall, 195 ; his Indian 
policy, 197 ; receives news of declaration of war, 203 ; establishes headquarters 
at Fort George, 204; instructs Captain Roberts to ^ capture Michilimackinac, 
210 ; commends militia in general order, 212 ; recognizes the great odds against 
Canada, 215 ; sends Colonel Procter to Amherstburg, 215 ; his proclamation in 
answer to Hull's, 217; proclamation as president of ^ province, 219, 221; opens 
the Legislature, 222 ; hears of capture of Michilimackinac, 223 ; prorogues Legis- 
lature, 229 ; proceeds to western frontier, 231 ; meets Tecumseh for the first 
time, 245 ; describes him. to Lord Liverpool, 247 ; forms three brigades, 247 ; 
decides on attacking Detroit, 248 ; summons Hull to surrender, 250 ; attacks, 
251-254; Ms daring in battle, 253; takes Detroit and makes Hull's army 
prisoners of war, 255, 256 ; praises his army, 258 ; his message to his brothers, 
260; his proclamation to inhabitants of Michigan territory, 261; armistice 
concluded by Provost deranges his plans, 261 ; arrives at York, and is warmly 
welcomed, 262; letter to his brothers, 266-268; arrives at Kingston, 268; 

Eroposes to attack Sackett's Harbour, but is overruled by Provost, 270, 271 ; 
itter to Pr6vost asking for reinforcements, 272, 273 ; replies to objections made 
by Pr6vost to Fort Wayne expedition, 275^-277 ; instructed to evacuate Detroit, 
277 ; extreme anxiety not to alienate Indians, 277, 278, 280 ; health, discipline, 
and morals of his army, 279 ; letter to his brother Savery, 280, 281 ; his force on 
Niagara frontier, 287 ; his account of capture of brigs Detroit and Caledonia by 
Americans, 290-293; rejoicing in England over the victory at Detroit, 295; 
Brock made K. C. B., 296 ; Prince Rupert's high opinion of, 297 ; last despatch 
to Prevost, 298 ; in battle at Queenston Heights, 298-304 ; his death, 304 ; a 
national loss, 312 ; his burial and monument, 312, 313. BL Sydenham ranked 
with, 112. Bib. : Tupper, Life and Correspondence of Sir Isaac Brock; Read, 
Life of Brock; Nursey, Isaac Brock; Lucas, Canadian War of 1812; Dent, 
Can. POT. See also War of 1812. 

Brock, John. Bk Brother of Sir Isaac Brock, 15 ; killed in a duel, 70. 

Brock, John. Bk Father of Sir Isaac Brock, 6. 

Brock, Mary. Bk Sister of Sir Isaac Brock, 71. 

Brock, Savery. Bk Younger brother of Brock, 15; gallant conduct of at 
Egmont-op-Zee, 17-19 ; his resemblance to his brother Isaac, 18 ; with Sir John 
Moore in Spain, 123 ; affected by his brother William's failure, 161, 166. 

Brock, William. Bk Brother of Sir Isaac, a London merchant, 70 ; disastrous 
failure of, 161164 ; his letter to his brother Isaac, 165. 

Brock, William. Bk Grandfather of Sir Isaac Brock, 5. 

Brock's Battery. Bk Name at first given to king's battery in Quebec citadel, 

Brockville. Chief town of Leeds County, Ontario, on left bank of St. Law- 
rence. Formerly known as Elizabethtown. Raided by a detachment of troops 
from Ogdensburg in 1813. The town assumed its present name shortly after 
the death of Brock. Index : BL Early municipal government of, 298. 

Broglie, Achille Charles L6once Victor, Due de (1785-1870). Foreign sec- 
retary under Louis-Philippe, 1832-1834, and prime minister, 1835-1836. Lived 
in retirement after, 1851. Index: Sy Poulett Thomson (Sydenham) meets in 
Paris, 20. Bib.: Ecrits et Discours; Souvenirs. 


Brooke, Frances. Hd Her novel of Canadian life, 222. Bib,: History of 
Emily Montague, London, 1777. 

Brouage. Ch In Saintonge, birthplace of Champlain, 1. 

Brougham, Henry Peter, Baron (1778-1868). Born in Scotland. Educated 
at Edinburgh University. Secretary to Lord Rosslyn and Lord St. Vincent on 
a mission to Portugal. In 1810 entered Parliament ; in 1830 received the great 
seal and elevated to the peerage. In 1828 founded London University, and 
in 1860 elected chancellor of Edinburgh University. Index : S Secretary to the 
Portugal Commission, 220. WT His sarcastic reference to Gienelg, 42. Bib. : 
Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Broughton, William Robert (1762-1821). ^Born in England. Entered the 
navy, 1774, and served on the American station until 1778. In 1790 explored 
and surveyed the Columbia River ; and in 1794 surveyed the north-west coast 
of America. Served in Lord Gambier's expedition, 1809 ; at Mauritius, 1810, 
and at Java, 1811. Index : D Sails a hundred miles up the Columbia, 24 ; surveys 
coast northwards of Cape Mendocino, 34. Bib. : Did. Nat. Biog. 

Brouillan, De. Born in France. Governor of Piacentia, Newfoundland, 1690. 
Made a chevalier of St. Louis, 1698. In 1701 commandant in Acadia, and gov- 
ernor of that colony, 1702-1705. Died the latter year. Index: F French 
governor of Piacentia, Newfoundland, 346. Bib. : Charlevoix, History of New 

Brottse, W. H. R Graduate of Victoria College, 144. 

Brown, George (1818-1880). B His place as a Maker of Canada, ix; com- 
plains that Upper Canada is inadequately represented and dominated by Lower 
Canada, ix ; an ardent advocate of Confederation, x ; relations with John A. 
Macdonald, x ; and with Roman Catholic Church, x ; Ms birth and parentage, 
1 ; character, 1 ; lifelong opposition to slavery, xi, 1-2 ; views on Presbyterian 
Church government, 2; emigrates to America, 2; establishes the British 
Chronicle at New York, with his father, 4 ; comes to Canada, 1843, 4, 5 ; de- 
scribed by Samuel Thompson, 4r-5 ; establishes the Banner at Toronto with his 
father, 5-6 ; character of the Banner, 5-7 ; begins fight for responsible govern- 
ment, 9-10 ; establishes the Globe, 1844, 20 ; its objects^ 20-21 ; speech before 
Toronto Reform Association, 1844, 21-22 ; refuses to drink toast to Metcalfe, 
27-28; presents address to Elgin, 36; his quarrel with the Clear Grits, 40; 
defeated in Haldimand by W. L. Mackenzie, 40 ; defines political situation in 
1850, 42-43 ; his reply to Cardinal Wiseman's pastoral letter, 44-45 ; his political 
principles, 46-47; takes issue with Hincks's government, 48-49; advocates 
secularization of Clergy Reserves, 55-57; runs for Kent his platform, 61; 
advocates free schools, 62 ; views on higher education, 62-64 ; his election for 
Kent, 64 ; arouses French-Canadian hostility, 65 ; attacks Hincks-Morin gov- 
ernment, 66-67 ; increasing power in the Legislature, 69 ; prodigious industry 
and capacity for work, 69 ; attitude towards Lower Canada and Roman Catholic 
institutions, 70 ; advocates representation by population, 71 ; becomes the mouth- 
piece of Nonconformist sentiment in Upper Canada, 71 ; tribute of the Cobourg 
Star, 72-73; pen-picture by James Young, 73-74; growth of the Globe its 
declaration of principles, 74-75 ; in favour of prohibition, 75, 76 ; defeats Mal- 
colm Cameron in Lambton, 77 ; the alliance with the Rouges, 78-79 ; his friend- 
ship with Dorion, 80-81 ; presses for representation by population, 84 ; attacked 
by Macdonald, 87-91 ; his interest in prison reform, 91-93 ; personal charges 
disproved, 93-97 ; elected for Toronto, 1857, 99 ; carries a motion disapproving 
of selection of Ottawa as capital, 100 ; government defeated and he forms ad- 


ministration, 101-102; relations with Sir Edmund Head, 103-104; defeated 
on question of dissolution, 106; the " Double Shuffle," 106-108; his fight 
against negro slavery, 112-119; relations with Roman Catholics, 121-128; 
opposes denominational schools, 121-123 ; and clerical control, 123-128 ; views 
on Confederation, 130-132 ; 137-138 ; his temporary retirement from public life, 
139, 141; defeated in East Toronto, 141; opposes "double majority/ 7 143; 
sails for England, 1862; interview with Duke of Newcastle, 143; marries Anne 
Nelson, 144 ; reception in Toronto on his return, 144 ; assails Separate School 
Bui in the Globe, 145 ; accepts Act of 1863 as a final settlement, 145, 146 ; his 
letters on the political crisis, -1864, 150 ; proposes a federation system of govern- 
ment either for Canada alone, or for all the British North American provinces, 
150; the negotiations looking towards Confederation, 151-161; opposes an 
elective Senate, 164-165 ; well satisfied with the results of the Quebec Conference, 
165-166 ; convert to Intercolonial Railway scheme, 166 ; explains the new con- 
stitution in Toronto, 166-167 ; writes Macdonald from England on favourable 
reception of the Confederation scheme, and deplores almost universal sentiment 
in England in favour of Canadian independence, 167 ; his speech in Parliament 
on Confederation, 171-175 ; writes of need of haste in putting through Confedera- 
tion, 182; opposes submission of Confederation scheme to the ^ people, 185; 
Macdonald J s negotiations with, as to formation of new administration, 189-191 ; 
accepts Belleau as premier, 191 ; his interest in reciprocity, 192 ; differences 
with his colleagues on reciprocity terms lead to his resignation from Cabinet, 
193-197 ; his connection with Confederation, 199-209 ; Helton's appeal to, 201 ; 
his interest in the North- West Territories and their acquisition by Canada, 211- 
221 ; his connection with the Reciprocity Treaty of 1874, 223-233 ; attacks 
protectionist budget, 233; hostile to Canada First party, 237-238, 239, 241; 
his family relations, 243-244 ; death of his wife, May 6, 1906, 244 ; his children, 
244 ; writes Holton as to his retirement from public life, 245-246 ; defines his 
attitude as a journalist, 246-247 ; relations with Liberal leaders after his retire- 
ment, 247-248 ; fanning on his Bow Park estate near Brantford, 248 ; appoint- 
ment to the Senate, December, 1873, 248; the Simpson libel suit, 249-250; 
attacks Judge Wilson in the Globe, 250-252 ; sued for contempt of court, 252 ; 
his defence, 253; shot by George Bennett, 255-256; his death, May 10, 1880, 
258 ; estimate of his character and public life, 258-265 ; as a journalist, 265. 
C Cauchon's antagonism, 24 ; relations with Quebec Liberals, 28 ; his policy of 
representation by population, 28 ; fights for Protestant and English supremacy, 
28 ; Cartier takes strong stand against his aggressiveness, 68 ; comes into power 
with the Reformers, 99. E Arrives in Canada and enters journalism, 111 ; 
attacks French-Canadians, 112, 113-114, 137, 225; becomes leader of the Clear 
Grits, 112; enters Parliament, 113; his influence there, 114; urges representa- 
tion by population, 117-118; attacks Hincks, 125, 140; distrusted by Liberals, 
138 ; his warm support of Confederation, 225. It Opposes Sir Charles Metcalfe, 
126 ; opposes separate schools, 224, 225-226 ; conflict with Ryerson over separate 
schools, 233. BL His speech before Reform Association, Toronto, 1844, 223- 
224, 225; -establishes Globe, March 5, 1844, 223-224; his relations to the Re- 
formers and the Clear Grits, 224, 342 ; attacks Roman Catholicism, 343. WT 
Makes overtures to government, looking towards Confederation, 211; at Char- 
lottetown Conference, 216, 217 ; delegate to Quebec Conference, 218 ; opposes 
coalition government, 270. Me Defeated by W. L. Mackenzie, 486 ; relations 
with Mackenzie, 487; Haldimand election, 488; Alexander Mackenzie's good 
offices, 496. Md Macdonald's great antagonist in Canadian public life, 51; 


pre-eminent as a reformer, 52 ; conies to Canada from Scotland in 1844, 52 ; 
founds the Globe, 52 ; Ms character, 52-53 ; contrasted with Macdonald, 53-54 ; 
first opposes Clear -Grits, then becomes their leader, 54 ; attacks racial and 
feligious ideals of Quebec, 54-55 ; question of Clergy Reserves, 55 ; Ms solution 
of representation by population, 71-72 ; opposes proposal for elective Legislative 
Council, 75 ; his quarrel with Macdonald, 80-81 ; opposes separate school system, 
82; forms ministry with Dorion the " Short administration," 85; its defeat, 
86 ; Ms influence declining, 89 ; opposes Sandfield-Macdonald-Sicotte ministry, 
89; they join forces, 89; proposes coalition to further Confederation, 92-93; 
enters Tache* ministry, 102 ; quarrel with Macdonald patched up, for the time, 
102 ; delegate to England in regard to Confederation, defence, reciprocity, etc., 
120-121; his entrance into coalition ministry largely due to Lord Monck, 121; 
resigns from Cabinet, 123; supports Confederation, but resumes old hostility 
to Macdonald, 123 ; attempts to break up coalition, 136-137 ; appointed to 
Senate by Mackenzie, 138. Bib. : Taylor, Brit. Am.; Dent, Can. For. and 
Last Forty Years; Mackenzie, Life and Speeches of the Hon. George Brown. 

Brown, George Mackenzie (1869- ). Son of George BrowiL Born in 
Canada. Educated at Upper Canada College, Toronto, MercMston Castle 
School, Edinburgh, and at Cambridge. Moved to Edinburgh, Scotland, and 
in 1900 elected to the British House of Commons for Central Edinburgh. Man- 
aging trustee of Thomas Nelson & Sons, Edinburgh. Index. : B Only son of 
George Brown, a member of the publishing firm of Thomas Nelson & Sons, 244. 
Bib. : Who's Who, 1910. 

Brown, Henry. WM Lieutenant of Grenadiers, helps to carry Wolfe off the 
field, 200. Bib. : Doughty, Siege of Quebec. 

Brown, James. WT Represents Charlotte County in New Brunswick As- 
sembly, brings in bill for teachers 7 training school, 88 ; surveyor-general in 
Fisher ministry, 174, 175, 185. Bib.: Hannay, History of New Brunswick. 

Brown, Jokn Gordon (1827-1896). Brother of George Brown. Born in Scot- 
land. Educated in Edinburgh and New York. In 1844 engaged on the Toronto 
Globe; in 1851 editor, and in 1880 managing director. In 1882 retired from the 
Globe; appointed registrar of the Surrogate Court of Toronto, 1883. Index: B 
Consulted by George Brown on political situation, 143 ; George Brown's brother, 
243 ; enters Globe office his connection with the newspaper, 244, 245 ; E. W. 
Thomson's estimate of, 245 ; his death, June 9, 1896, 245. Bib. : Rose, Cyc. 
Can. Biog. 

Brown, John Storrow. P With Papineau at St. Charles meeting, 1837, 125 ; 
preaches rebellion, 126 ; heads the Patriotes at St. Charles, 128, 133 ; charged 
with cowardice, 133; his letter to Dr. Nelson, 133. Bib.: Christie, History of 
Lower Canada. 

Brown, Peter (1784-1863). Born in Scotland. Emigrated to New York 
in 1838; was owner and editor of the British Chronicle. Removed to Toronto, 
1843, and founded the Banner, a Free-Church Presbyterian organ. In 1844 
with his son, George Brown, established the Toronto Globe, and contributed to 
it for some years. Index : B Father of George Brown, 1 ; his hatred of slavery, 
1 ; emigration to America, 1838, 2 ; contributes to Albion, 2 ; publishes The 
Fame and Glory of England Vindicated, 2 ; establishes the British Chronicle, New 
York, 4 ; removes to Toronto, and with his son establishes the Banner, 5 ; on 
committee of Anti-Slavery Society, 113; his work on the Globe, 243-244; his 
death, 1863, 244. Bib. : Diet Nat. Biog.; Dent, Can. For. 

Brown's Point. Bk On Niagara River, battery at, 299, 301. 


Brttey, F Agent of Governor Perrot at Montreal, 97. 
Brule, Etienne. A famous coureur de bois who accompanied Champlain on 
his exploration of the Ottawa, in 1615, and subsequently made extensive 
explorations in the country of the Hurons and the Iroquois (1615-1618). 
Treacherously murdered near the present town of Penetanguishene by a party 
of Hurons in 1632. Index : Ch Interpreter, accompanies Champlain to Quebec, 
41 ; accompanies Champlain to the Ottawa River, 88 ; at Cap de la Victoire, 
139 ; learns Huron language, 144 ; sent on mission to Three Rivers, 163 ; sides 
with the Kirkes, 194 ; conduct in the Huron country, 202 ; his death, 203, 246. 
Bib. : Champlain, Voyages; Sagard, Voyage du Pays des Hurons; Parkman, 
Pioneers of France; Butterfield, History of Brtile's Discoveries and Explorations; 
Suite, fitienw BrtiU (R. S. C., 1907). 

Brulon, Jean Gauthier de. L Canon and confessor of chapter of Quebec, 197. 

Brtiyeres, Lieutenant-Colonel R. E. Bk Reports on condition of forts in 
Upper Canada, 157. 

Bryce, George (1844- ). Bom at Mount Pleasant near Brantford, Onta- 
rio. Educated at Toronto University and Knox College. Took part in the 
skirmish at Ridgeway during the Fenian Raids. In 1871 removed to Manitoba 
and organized Manitoba College. Professor of English literature in Manitoba 
College, 1871-1909 ; and head of the faculty of science and lecturer in biology 
in Manitoba University, 1891-1904. Moderator of the General Assembly of 
the Presbyterian Church in Canada, 1902-1903. President of the Royal Society 
of Canada, 1909-1910. Index : Md On causes of Riel Rebellion, 158. Bib. : 
Works: Manitoba; Short History of the Canadian People ; Apostle of Red River; 
Hudson's Bay Company ; Romantic Settlement of Lord Selkirk's Colonists. For 
biog., see Morgan, Can. Men.; Canadian Who's Who. 

Bryce, James (1838- ). Born hi Belfast. Educated at the universities 
of Glasgow and Cambridge. Entered Parliament in 1880. In 1886 under- 
secretary of state for foreign affairs ; in 1892 chancellor of the Duchy of Lan- 
caster, and in 1894 president of the board of trade. Chief secretary for Ireland, 
1905-1906, and in 1907 appointed British ambassador at Washington. Index : 
E On the disadvantages of congressional government, 255-257. Bib. : Works: 
Holy Roman Empire; American Commonwealth. For biog., see Who's Who, 1910. 

Brymner, Douglas (1823-1902). Born in Scotland. Came to Canada, 1857. 
For some time editor of the Presbyterian, and associate editor of the Montreal 
Daily Herald. In 1872 appointed Dominion Archivist, and held the position up 
to the time of his death, laying the foundations of the present splendid collection 
of manuscript material bearing on the history of Canada. Index : Hd His ser- 
vices as Dominion Archivist, 319 ; his opinion of Haldimand, 320 ; his transla- 
tion of Haldimand's diary, 321. Bib. : Morgan, Can. Men; Rose, Cyc. Can. 

Btiade, Antoine de. F Grandfather of Frontenac, 61. 

Buade, Henri de. F Father of Frontenac, 61. 

Buade, Louis de. See Frontenac. 

Buchanan, Isaac (1810-1883). Born in Scotland. In 1833 emigrated to 
Canada and entered into business life. Strongly opposed the Rebellion of 
1837. Elected for York to the first Parliament of Canada. In 1864 appointed 
president of the Council in the Tach<-Macdonald ministry, retiring the same 
year. From 1878 to 1883 a Dominion arbitrator. Index : H Joseph Howe's 
letter to, 1866, 190. BL On responsible government, 90 ; in political contro- 
versy, 1844, 238; his " Five Letters against the Baldwin Faction/ 7 239-240. 


B Retires from government with Foley and Simpson, to make room for George 
Brown, Mowat, and Macdougall, 159. Me Urges Mackenzie's amnesty, 474 ; 
generosity of, 504. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.; Taylor, Brit Am.; Dent, Lad 
Forty Years. 

Buchanan, James (1791-1868). Fifteenth President of the United States. 
Index : E His tribute to Lord Elgin, 123-124. Bib. : Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Buckingham, Richard Piantagenet Grenville, third Duke of (1823-1889). 
Born in England. Entered Parliament, 1846 ; lord of the treasury, 1852 ; and 
privy councillor, 1866 ; president of the Council, 1866-1S67, and colonial secre- 
tary, 1867-1868. Governor of Madras, ^1875-1880. Index : Md Referred to by 
Sir John A. Macdonald in connection with Confederation negotiations, 128-129. 
Bib. : Did. Nat. Biog. 

Bude, Genera! de. Hd Haldimand's letters to, 116, 117, 119, 191, 222; 
Haldimand gives Carleton letter of introduction to, 191 ; consulted on house- 
keeping matters by Haldimand, 328 ; his interest in Mathews, 331 ; Grenville's 
plan for placing him in Duke of York's family, 333 ; mentioned in Haldimand's 
will, 342. 

Bulkeley, Richard. Came to Nova Scotia with Governor Cornwallis, 1749. 
Appointed secretary of the province, 1759, and continued to hold office under 
thirteen successive governors, until 1793. Member of the Council of Nova 
Scotia, 1759. Administrator of Nova Scotia, 1791 ; judge of the Admiralty 
Court ; brigadier-general of militia. Died, 1800. Bib. : Campbell, History of 
Nova Scotia. 

Buller, Charles (1806-1848). Born in Calcutta. Entered Parliament in 
1830; and called to the bar, 1831. In 1838 secretary to Lord Durham and 
accompanied him on his momentous mission to Canada. In 1846 judge advo- 
cate-general, and in 1847 chief poor law commissioner. Index : BL His con- 
nection with Durham's Report, 235; on colonial self-government, 235. Sy 
Lord Durham's chief secretary, 98 ; object of great dislike to Upper Canada 
Tories, 98 ; his speech in House of Commons on union resolutions, 122 ; advo- 
cates responsible government for Canada, 123. Me Credited with authorship 
of Lord Durham's Report, 82, 83. Bib.: Diet. Nat. Biog.; Strachey, Charles 
Buller; Bradshaw, Self-Government in Canada. 

Bullion. Ch Negotiates restoration of Quebec, 220. 

Bullion, Mme. de. F Benefactress of H6tel Dieu at Montreal, 29. 

Bulyea, George Headley Vickers. Born in Gage-town, New Brunswick. 
Educated at University of New Brunswick. For a time principal of the Sunbury 
County Grammar School. Removed to Qu'Appelle, North-West Territories, 
1883. Elected to the North-West Council, 1894 ; special representative to the 
Yukon, 1896; commissioner of agriculture and public works in the Territorial 
government ; appointed first lieutenant-governor of Alberta, 1905. Bib. : 
Canadian Who's Who. 

Bunker Hill. Hd Battle of, 108. 

Burel, Brother Gilbert. Ch Jesuit, 152 ; returns to France, 208. 

Burgoyne, John (1723-1792). Born in England. Educated at Westminster, 
and entered the army in 1740. In 1775 served in New England ; second in 
command, 1776, and lieutenant-general, 1777. In the latter year succeeded 
General Carleton as commander-in-chief of the forces in Canada. After several 
successful engagements with the Americans, defeated at Saratoga in October, 
1777. In 1782 Commander-in-chief in Ireland. Index : Dr Arrives with rein- 
forcements, 144 ; marches up Richelieu, 146 ; returns to England, 163 ; returns 


to Canada, having been promoted over head of Carleton, 171 ; his personal 
charm, 174; his previous career, 175, 176; occupies Ticonderoga, 178; injudi- 
cious speech of, 178; his surrender at Saratoga, 180 ; his defence of himself, 
182. Hd A court favourite, supersedes Carleton, 112 ; his disastrous campaign, 
113J 126 ; Hamilton's expedition compared to his, 168. Bib. : Did. Nat. Biog. 

Burk, Rev. J. S Censured by Simcoe, 190. m 

Burke Edmund (1729-1797). Born in Ireland. Educated at Trinity College, 
Dublin; and entered Parliament in 1765. In 1771 agent for New York prov- 
ince- and in 1774-1775 strongly opposed war with America. In 1782 pay- 
master of the forces. One of the leaders in the impeachment of Warren 
Hastings, 1788-1795. Index : Br Wants more information on Quebec Act, 67 ; 
discusses Constitutional Act in House of Commons, 265. S Supports division 
of province, 7 ; his quarrel with Fox, 8, 9. Bib. : Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Burlamacne. Ch Commissioner in dispute between Kirke and De Caen, 217, 
218 ; sent to France in connection with restoration of French possessions, 220. 
Bib.: Kirke, The First English Conquest of Canada. 

Burlington Bay Canal. An open cut across a sand-bar at the entrance of 
Burlington Bay, designed to enable vessels to reach the city of Hamilton from 
the lake. It was authorized by the Legislature, 1823, and completed, 1832. 
Enlarged, 1841. Index : BL Provision made for by government in 1841, 98. 

Burns. S Presbyterian minister, establishes school at Niagara, 167. 

Burns, Edward. S Clerk of Crown and Pleas, 178. 

Burns, Robert Easton (1805-1863). Born in Niagara. Called to the bar of 
Upper Canada, 1827. Practised at Niagara, St. Catharines, and Hamilton. Ap- 
pointed judge of the Niagara District, 1836 ; judge of the Home District, 1844 ; 
judge of the Court of Queen's Bench, 1850. Bib. : Read, Lives of the Judges. 

Burpee, Isaac (1825-1885). Born at Sheffield, New Brunswick. Represented 
city of St. John in Dominion Parliament, 1872-1885; minister of customs, 
1873187S. Died in New York. Bib. : Dent, Can. For. 

Burr, Aaron (1756-1836). Born in New Jersey. In 1775 served in the 
Revolutionary army, and accompanied Arnold on his expedition to Quebec. 
In 1791 elected to the Senate, and in 1801 vice-president of the United States. 
In 1804 killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel. Index : Dr Aide-de-camp to 
Montgomery, 122. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.; Jenkinson, Aaron Burr; Todd, 
The True Aaron Burr. 

Burton, Sir Francis. P Lieutenant-governor of Lower Canada meets views 
of Assembly as to the budget, 60; his action repudiated by Dalhousie, 61; 
acting governor during absence of Dalhousie in 1825, 70. 

Burton, Ralph. Served in the siege of Quebec. On July 29, 1759, in com- 
mand of thirteen companies of Grenadiers, and on September 2 wounded at the 
battle of Montmorency. Appointed lieutenant-governor of Quebec after the 
capture of the city. Index : WM Of the 48th, in action at Montmorency, 142 ; 
holds troops in readiness on south shore opposite Wolfe's Cove, 172, 183 ; com- 
mands reserve in battle of Plains, 189 ; Wolfe's last orders to, 200 ; in battle 
of Ste. Foy, 258. Hd Governor of Three Rivers, 41 ; ordered to West Indies, 
42 ; leaves his family in charge of Haldimand, 51 ; returns to Three Rivers, 53 ; 
replaces Gage at Montreal, 53. Bib.: Doughty, Siege of Quebec; Wood, The 
Fight for Canada. 

Buteux, Jacques (1600-1652). Born in France. In 1634 sent as a mission- 
ary to Canada, and arrived at the new settlement of Three Rivers in September. 
Worked among the Indians there for several years. Superior of the missions 


from 1639 to 1642, and from 1647 to 1652. Index: Ch Stationed at Three 
Rivers, 256. Bib. : Charlevoix, History of New Prance. 

Butler, John, Born in Connecticut. In 1759 served under Sir WiEiam 
Johnson in the Niagara campaign, and in 1760 in the Montreal expedition. 
During the Revolution served on the British side in New York and in Canada. 
Appointed superintendent of Indian affairs. Died in Niagara, 1794. Index : 
Hd Of Rangers, lays waste Wyoming district, 151 ; value of his services, 154 ; 
acts for Guy Johnson, 155 ; conduct of Indians commanded by, disapproved, 170 ; 
cruelties practised upon his Rangers, 172 ; disbands Rangers and takes up land 
on Niagara frontier, 256 ; entertained by Haldimand, 327. Bib. : Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Butterfield, Major. Dr Surrenders post at Cedars to British force, 142. 

Buttes-a-Neveu. WM Name given to rising ground extending to city walls, 
Quebec, 186, 256. 

By, John (1781-1836). Born in England. ^ Entered the army in 1799. In 
1802 came to Canada; returned to England in 1811 ; and served in the Penin- 
sular War. In 1826 again came to Canada, and engaged on important military 
and engineering works until 1832. Constructed the Rideau Canal from Bytown 
(Ottawa) to Kingston, the first steamer passing through in the spring of 1832. 
Bib. : Morgan, Gel. Can.; Did. Nat. Biog.; Women's Can. Hist. Soc. of Ottawa, 
Trans., vol. 1. 

Byng, John (1704-1757). Born in England. Entered the navy in 1718. 
In 1727-1736 stationed at Mahon, Minorca ; and in 1747-1748 commanded in 
the Mediterranean. In 1756 engaged the French at Minorca and after an inde- 
cisive battle retreated to Gibraltar, leaving Minorca to its fate. Recalled to 
England, cpurt-martiafled, and shot on March 14, 1757. Index : WM His re- 
serve at Minorca, 33. Bib. : Did. Nat. Biog. 

Bytown. Former name of the city of Ottawa. Index : Md Chosen by the 
queen as capital, 85 ; suggestion came from Sir Edmund Head, 85 ; opposition 
to decision in Parliament, 85. BL An all-water route between Montreal and 
Kingston, 75; favoured by some persons as capital, 1843, 181. E Water com- 
munication established with Montreal, 98. See also Ottawa. Bib. : Women's 
Can. Hist. Soc. of Ottawa, Trans., vol. 1. 

Cabir-Coubat. Cli Indian name of St. Charles River, 148. 

Cables. The first submarine cables in America were those laid between New 
Brunswick and Prince Edward Island, 1851; and between Cape Breton and 
Newfoundland, 1856. Newfoundland was connected with Ireland by cable in 
1858. In 1902 the Pacific Cable was laid, between Canada and New Zealand 
and Australia. See also Gisborne ; Fleming. Bib. : Bright, Submarine Tele- 
graphs; Johnson, The All Red Line. 

Cabot, John. Probably a native of Genoa. Became a citizen of Venice, 
March 28, 1476, and at that time had been a resident of the city for fifteen years. 
Went to England, and in 1497, under the direct authority of Henry VII, sailed 
to the westward on a voyage of discovery. Landed on the shores of America, 
but his exact landfall has been a moot point. It is now generally believed that 
it was the easternmost cape of Cape Breton. The following year sailed again, 
but there is no record that he ever returned from this second voyage. Bib. : 
Beazley, John and Sebastian Cabot; Dawson, The Voyages of the Cabots (R. S. C., 
1894, 1896, 1897); Deane, Voyages of the Cabots, in Winsor, Nar. & Cr. Hist, of 
America, vol. 3; Harrisse, John Cabot, the Discoverer of North America; Weare, 
Cabot's Discovery of North America; Ober, John and Sebastian Cabot. 


Cabot, Sebastian ( 1477 ?-l 557?). Son of John Cabot. His share in the 
discovery of North America has been the subject of ^much controversy. From 
having once been regarded as the sole discoverer, it is now considered doubtful 
that he had anything to do with the voyages of 1497 and 1498. He was in the 
service of Spain, and also of England, receiving from Edward VI the title of 
Grand Pilot of England. Bib. : Biddle, Memoir of Sebastian Cabot; Nicholls, 
Life of Sebastian Cabot; Tarducci, John and Sebastian Cabot. These are fa- 
vourable to Sebastian's claims. See references under preceding entry for the 
other side of the controversy. 

Cadboro. B First sea-going vessel on Fraser River, 116; arrives at Victoria 
from Fort Vancouver, ISO; leaves for the Columbia, 180; built 1824, destroyed 
1862, 180. 

Cadet, Joseph Michel. Began life as a butcher; won the confidence of the 
intendant Bigot, and as commissary-general seconded him in his infamous 
schemes for plundering the colony. Index : WM Cornmissary of stores, 88 ; 
makes his headquarters at Beauport, 88 ; feeds his poultry with grain, while 
the people starve, 88. See Bigot. 

Cadieux. A French coureur de bois, whose tragic death forms the subject of 
one of the popular chansons of Quebec. His reputed grave is at the foot of Grand 
Calumet Island, on the Ottawa. Bib. : Le Moine, Legends of the St. Lawrence; 
Bourinot, The Ottawa Valley in the Canadian Monthly, January, 1875 ; Gagnon, 
Chansons Populaires. 

Cadillac, Antoine de la Motte. Came to Canada as an officer of the Carignan 
Regiment. In 1694 appointed to the command of the post at Michilunackinac. 
In 1701 built a fort at Detroit, and remained in command there until 1710. 
From 1712-1717 governor of Louisiana. Subsequently appointed governor of 
Castel Sarassin, in Gaseony, his native province. Died there Oct. 16, 1730. 
Bib. : Parkman, Old Regime; Cadillac Papers (Michigan Pion. & Hist. Coll., 
vol. 33). 

Cadot, Jean-Baptiste. Pioneer fur trader in the West. When the French 
abandoned their fort at Sault Ste. Marie, Cadot remained behind with his native 
wife and family, Alexander Henry found him there in 1762 ; in charge of the 
fort when Carver visited the place five years later. Is said to have been still 
alive in 1812. Bib. : Henry, Travels and Adventures in Canada; Carver, Travels 
through the Interior Parts of North America; Morice, Did. 

Caen, Emery de. Ch Nephew of Guillaume, 137 ; left in command of colony, 
141 ; prohibits psalm-singing by Huguenots on his ships, 156 ; his character, 182 ; 
actively defends colony, 183 ; captured by Thomas Kirke ; returns to France, 
185 ;_ his ship the Helene restored to him, 221. F Takes over Quebec from the 
English, 23. Bib.: Douglas, Quebec in Seventeenth Century; Biggar, Early 
Trading Companies of New France; Kirke, The First English Conquest of Canada. 

Caen, EzecMel de. Ch Brother of Guillaume, 137. 

Caen, Guiliaume de. Ch Head of Company formed by Montmorency, 131, 
132; difficulties with the old Company, 133 et seq.; returns to France 136; 
comes out to Canada, and returns to France, 138 ; arrives with supplies, June, 
1624 140; sails for France, 141 ; brings out Jesuit fathers, 152; appoints Ray- 
mond de la Ralde as admiral of Company's fleet, 155; disposed to overlook 
murder of a Frenchman by an Indian, 161 ; his character as given by Theodat- 
Sagard, 182 ; Cardinal Richelieu suspicious of, 183 ; his merchandise seized by 
Kirke, 183 ; disagreement with Kirke as to goods seized at Quebec, 217-222. 
F Head of trading Company, 23. Bib. : Douglas, Quebec in Seventeenth Gen- 


tury; Biggar, Early Trading Companies of Neio Prance; Kirke, The First Eng- 
lish Conquest of Canada. 

Caesar, Sir Julius (1558-1636). Sat in Parliament, 1589-1622; chancellor 
of the exchequer, 1606 ; master of the Rolls, 1614-1636. Index : Ch English 
commissioner in matter of Canada, 214. Bib. : Diet. Nat. Biog* 

Cahaigue. Ch Largest of the Huron villages, 89. 

Cake, M. de. WM Engineer, constructs defences on river St. Charles, 86. 

Caldwell, Henry. Dr His house occupied by Arnold, 111 ; commands British 
militia in siege of Quebec, 115 ; his house burnt by Arnold, 121. Bib.: Lemoine, 
The Hon. Henry Caldwell, L.C., at Quebec. 

Caldwell, Sir John. Eldest son of Sir James Caldwell, the third baronet. 
Succeeded his father, 1784. Appointed receiver-general of Lower Canada, and 
found to have misappropriated the public funds. Made restoration afterwards 
of the greater part of the amount. Died in England, 1830. Index: P Receiver- 
general, Lower Canada, misappropriates public funds, 56 ; government fails 
to prosecute him, 57. Bib. : Christie, History of Lower Canada ; Morgan, Gel. Can. 

Caledonia. Bk Brig belonging to North West Company, 210 ; captured by 
Americans at Fort Erie, 289. 

Callicum. Indian chief. D His relations with Meares at Nootka, 27. 

Callieres, Lotus-Hector de (1646?-1703). Born at Cherbourg, son of Jacques 
de Callieres, governor of Cherbourg. Entered the army, and became captain 
of the regiment of Navarre. In 1684 came to Canada as governor of Montreal ; 
and in 1699 appointed governor-general of the colony. Died at Quebec. 
Index : F Memorandum by, on French claims in Hudson Bay, 204 ; commands 
regular troops in attack on Iroquois, 209; sent to France to represent 
situation of colony, 230 ; leads eight hundred men from Montreal to defence of 
Quebec, 292; commands vanguard in attack on Onondagas, 351 ; commended 
in despatches, 353 ; succeeds Frontenac as governor, 362. L Placed in charge 
of Fort Frontenac (Cataraqui), 214; proceeds to France, 218; succeeds Fron- 
tenac as governor, 235 ; death of, 235. Bib. : Suite, La Famille de Callieres 
(R. S. C., 1890); Parkman, Half Century of Conflict. 

Calvinistic Agents. Ch Fanaticism of, 86. 

Camaret, Marie (Mme. Hersault). Ch Cousin of Champlain, contests Ms will, 

Cameron, David. Brought up as a draper ; drifted to the West Indies, where 
he had charge of an estate ; and thence to New Caledonia. In 1852 superintend- 
ent of the coal mines at Nanaimo. Nominated by Douglas as chief justice of 
Vancouver Island, 1853, and the appointment confirmed by the colonial office 
the same year. Succeeded by Needham in 1858. Retired from the bench, 
1864. Died at Belmont, Vancouver Island, 1872. Index : D First chief justice 
of Vancouver Island, 200 ; charges preferred against, 200. Bib. : Bancroft, 
History of British Columbia. 

Cameron, Duncan. Son of a United Empire Loyalist; born at Schenec- 
tady, on the Mohawk. His father brought the family to Canada, and settled 
in Glengarry. The son entered the service of the North West Company, in 
1786, and was for many years in charge of the Nipigon district. In 1814 sent 
to Red River, to oppose Selkirk's plans. In 1816, before the Seven ^ Oaks 
affair, seized by Colin Robertson, of the Hudson's Bay Company, carried to 
York Factory, and sent to England, where he was promptly released. Re- 
turned to Canada, settled at Williamstown, and represented Glengarry from 
1820 to 1824 in the Assembly of "Upper Canada. Index: MS Sent by North 


West Company to Bed River to break up Red River Colony, 173 ; wins ten 
colonists from their allegiance to Selkirk, 173 ; takes them to Upper Canada, 
174 ; captured by Semple and sent to York Factory, and finally to England, 
178. Bib. : Biyce, Manitoba and Hudson's Bay Company; Laut, Conquest of the 
Great North-West; Masson, Bourgeois de la Compagnie du Nord-Ouest. Cam- 
eron's Sketch of the Customs, fc., of the Natives in the Nipigon Country, and 
Nipigon Journal, 1804-1 80S, are in Masson, vol. 2. 

Cameron, James. Me Attempts to kidnap Mackenzie, 464. 

Cameron, John Hillyard (1817-1876). Solicitor-general, Upper Canada, 
1846-1848 ; represented Cornwall In Legislative Assembly, 1846-1847 and 1848- 
1851 ; Toronto, 1S54 ; Peel, 1861-1866. Represented Peel in first Dominion 
Parliament, 1867-1872; Cornwall, 1872-1874; and 1874-1876. Index: E 
Elected 1848, 50. B Opposes Confederation scheme, his motion for an appeal 
to the people defeated, 185. BL Defeated In elections of 1848, 279. Bib. : Dent, 
Last Forty Years. 

Cameron, Malcolm (1808-1876). Elected to Assembly of Upper Canada for 
Lanark, 1836. A persistent opponent of the Family Compact. Appointed 
inspector of revenue, under Bagot. Held various offices in the La Fontaine- 
Baldwin and HIneks administrations. In 1863 resigned his seat, to accept 
appointment as Queen's Printer. Represented South Lanark in Dominion 
House, 1874-1876. Index : B Opposes George Brown in Kent and Lambton, 
1851, 40, 41 ; a Clear Grit, who had joined Hincks-Morin government, 40-41 ; 
defeated by Brown, 77. BL Opens discussion on responsible government, 1841, 
90 ; assistant commissioner of public works, 1848, 284; a bitter opponent of Sir 
F. B. Head held minor office under Bagot, radical in his sympathies, 284 ; 
his resignation, 337; a leader of the Radicals, 341. E Elected 1847, 50: be- 
comes assistant commissioner of public works, in La Fontaine-Baldwin ministry, 
53; a leading member of Clear Grits, 110; joins Hincks-Morin government, 
112; president of the Executive Council, 113; becomes minister of new depart- 
ment of agriculture, 117; postmaster-general, 1853, 126; defeated in Lambton, 
134; advocates complete secularization of Clergy Reserves, 163. R Opposes 
separate schools, 224. Bib. : Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog.; Dent, Can, Por. and jLast 
Forty Years; Morgan, Cel Can. 

Cameron, Sir Matthew Crooks (1822-1887). Born in Dundas, Ontario. Edu- 
cated at the Home District Grammar School, Toronto, and at Upper Canada 
College ; studied law and called to the bar of Upper Canada, 1849. Sat in the 
Assembly for North Ontario, 1861-1863 and 1864-1867. Defeated in North 
Ontario for election to the House of Commons, 1867. Elected to the Ontario 
Assembly for East Toronto; provincial secretary, 1867-1871; commissioner 
of crown lands, 1871-1872 ; leader of the opposition in the Assembly, 1872-1876. 
Appointed judge of the Court of Queen's Bench, 1878 ; chief-justice of the Com- 
mon Pleas Division of the High Court of Justice, 1884. Index : B Seconds mo- 
tion to submit Confederation scheme to the people, 185. Bib. : Dent, Can. Por. ; 
Rattray, The Scot in British North America; Read, Lives of the Judges. 

Cameronians. Bk 26th Regiment, stationed at Fort Niagara, 57. 

Camosua. D Indian village on site of Victoria, B.C., 175 ; meaning of name, 

Campbell, Captain. Dr Accused in connection with Walker affair, 36 ; tried 
and acquitted, 38. 

Campbell, General. Dr Commissioner for exchange of prisoners, 207. 

Campbell, Sir Alexander (1821-1892) . Studied law under John A. Macdonald, 


with whom he later formed a partnership ; and called to the bar of Upper Canada, 
1S43. Elected to the Legislative Council, 1858 ; and Speaker, 1863. Com- 
missioner of crown lands, 1864-1366; postmaster-general in first Dominion 
ministry, 1867-1873 ; minister of the interior, 1873; receiver-general, 1878-1879; 
postmaster-general, 1879-1880; 1SSO-1SS1; ISS5-1SS7; minister of militia and 
defence, 1880 ; minister of justice, 1881-1885. In 1887 appointed lieutenant- 
governor of Ontario, an office which he retained up to the time of his death. 
Index : Md Enters J. A. Macdonald's law office as a student, 6 ; forms part- 
nership with Macdonald, 10 ; his letter to Macdonald on the political situation, 
31; postmaster-general in first Dominion Cabinet, 134; consults Imperial gov- 
ernment as to proposed withdrawal of troops from Canada, Fenian Raids, etc., 
168; his attempt to merge the two Canadian Pacific Railway syndicates, 200. 
WT Delegate to Charlottetown Conference, 216 ; to Quebec Conference, 218 ; 
postmaster-general in first Dominion Cabinet, 271. Bib. : Dent, Can. POT.; 
Taylor, BriL Am. ; Read, Lieutenant-Governors of Upper Canada. 

Campbell, Sir Archibald (1769-1843). Bom in Scotland Entered the army, 
1787. Served throughout the Peninsular War, 1808-1814 ; in 1821 commanded 
a regiment in India ; conducted the Burmese War ; and 1826-1829, governor of 
British Burmah. From 1831 to 1837 lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick. 
Index: WT Lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick, correspondence with 
Goderich on crown lands, 23; with Stanley on same subject, 25; addressed by- 
Assembly on question of revenues, 27; refuses to lay before Assembly his 
correspondence with colonial secretary, 28; dissolves the Assembly, 29, 31-32; 
opposed to popular reform, 35 ; refuses to assent to Civil List Bill, 44-45, 46 ; 
resigns, 47. Bib. : Did. Nat. Eiog.; Hannay, History of New Brunswick. 

Campbell, Sir Colin (1776-1847). Served in India, 1801-1804, and afterwards 
in Denmark and the Peninsula; attached to Wellington's staff at the battle of 
Waterloo; promoted major-general, 1825; lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia, 
1834-1840; governor of Ceylon, 1839-1847. Index : H Lieutenant-governor of 
Nova Scotia, 45, 58; antagonizes popular party, 62; his removal asked for at 
the instance of Joseph Howe, 65-67; defended by James W. Johnstqne, 67; 
succeeded by Lord Falkland, 69. Bib.: Howe, Letters and Speeches; Diet. Nat. 
Biog.; Chisholm, Speeches and Public Letters of Joseph Howe; Campbell, History 
of Nova Scotia; Saunders, Three Premiers of Nova Scotia. See also Joseph 

Campbell, Robert (1808-1894). Entered service of Hudson's Bay Company, 
1832, and sent to the Mackenzie River district, 1834. For the next eighteen, 
years, engaged in exploring the upper waters of the Liard and Yukon Rivers, 
and establishing the fur trade in this region. In 1852 made a remarkable 
journey on snow-shoes, from Fort Simpson to Crow-wing, Minnesota, about 
three thousand miles. Made a chief factor, 1867, and retired from the service 
of the Company, 1871. Index: D Builds Fort Dease, 1838, 123-124; ordered 
to Mackenzie Eiver department, 1834, 124 ; crosses to Pacific by StiMne, 124 ; 
Fort Dease burned, 124 ; ascends Liard River to Lake Francis, crosses to Lake 
Finlayson, and reaches Pelly River, 124; builds post on Lake Francis, and at 
Pelly Banks, 124; descends PeHy to junction with Lewes, 124; builds Fort 
Selkirk at mouth of Lewes, 124 ; descends Yukon to mouth of Porcupine, and 
returns to Fort Simpson by Porcupine and Mackenzie, 125. MS Ascends Liard 
River and discovers the Upper Yukon, 111 ; a Perthshire Highlander, 228 ; dis- 
coverer of Upper Yukon, 228. Bib. : Discovery and Exploration of the Youcon 
River. For biog., see Bryce, Sketch of the Life and Discoveries of Robert Campbell 


and Hudson's Ban Company; Laud, Conquest of tJie Great North-West; Burpee, 
Search for the Western Sea. 

Campbell, Stewart. H Chosen leader of Anti-Confederation party in Nova 
Scotia, 187; chairman of Halifax meeting on behalf of Joseph Howe, 194; 
elected to House of Commons for Guysborough, 1867; supports Confederation, 
203. Bib.: Saunders, Three Premiers of Nova Scotia. 

Campbell, Major William. Dr His correspondence with General Wayne, 
286. S Placed in command of fort at rapids of Miami, 136 ; refuses to evacuate 
fort at summons of Genera! Wayne, 139; Ms conduct highly approved by 
Simcoe, 140. 

Campbell, Sir William (175S-4S34). Born in Scotland. Enlisted as a pri- 
vate in a Highland regiment ; came to America during the Revolutionary War ; 
took part in "the battle of Yorktown, 1781 ; after his release determined to re- 
main in America. Studied law and called to the bar of Nova Scotia; practised 
Ms profession for nineteen years; elected to the Assembly of Cape Breton; 
attorney-general. Appointed to a puisne judgeship in Upper Canada, 1811 ; 
chief-justice, 1825; retired, 1829; knighted, 1829. Bib.: Morgan, Cel Can,; 
Read, Lives of the Judges. 

Camperdown. Bk Naval victory of, 12. 

Canada. Discovered by John Cabot in 1497. First settlement made by 
Jacques Cartier, in 1535, on the banks of the St. Charles. In 1608 Champlain 
founded the city of Quebec, almost on the spot where Jacques Cartier had win- 
tered ; the country ceded to Great Britain by France, by the treaty of Paris, 
1763 ; civil government provided by Quebec Act, 1774 ; and a measure of 
responsible government by the Constitutional Act, 1791 ; invasion by Ameri- 
cans, 1775-1776 ; War of 1812 ; Rebellions of 1837-1838, in Upper and Lower 
Canada ; union of Upper and Lower Canada, 1841 ; Confederation of Canada, 
New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia, 1867 ; Manitoba added to the Dominion, 
1870;' British Columbia, 1871; Prince Edward Island, 1873; provinces of 
Saskatchewan and Alberta created, 1905. Index : Dr Surrender of, 2 ; under 
military rule till conclusion of peace, 2; acquisition of, by Britain, hastened 
American Revolution, 3 ; ceded by treaty of Paris to Great Britain, 7 ; its wide 
extent at that time, 8 ; French population of, at cession, 9 ; English-speaking 
population, 9 ; petition for restoration of its ancient limits, 61 ; division of, 
into two provinces proposed, 248 ; political possibilities after conquest, 253-257 ; 
boundaries of, not defined by Constitutional Act, 260. B Party government 
origin of the double ministries, 81-82 ; election frauds in 1857, 99-100 ; process 
of expansion Confederation and after, 264. E First railway in, 99; early 
political conditions in,, 17-40; difficulties connected with responsible govern- 
ment in, 26; principles of responsible government, 228; her political sys- 
tem contrasted with that of United States, 241 et seq. WM Interests French 
commanders and their men but little, 11; its vulnerable points, 17; its strong 
social and political organization gave it an advantage in war, 24 ; but was un- 
favourable to internal development, 24. Sy Rapid progress made in Angli- 
cizing previous to passing of Quebec Act, 63 ; unfortunate change of policy 
regarding, 64. F Population of, 36, 55, 58, 131, 147, 148; poverty of im- 
presses Sister Bourgeoys, 39; morals of the people, 58, 59; overgoverned, 
131 ; trade, 148 ; affected by all the vicissitudes of mother country, 150, 151 ; 
"farmers" of revenue appointed for, 154; Bishop St. Vallier's first descrip- 
tion of country and inhabitants, 192; Governor Denonville's description, 192; 
St. Vallier's revised opinion, 193; real character of the people, 193-195; 


state of depression throughout the country, 219, 240 ; drinking habits of people, 
223 ; described by Laval as the country of miracles, 301 ; exhaustion of, after 
departure of New England fleet, 305, 317. See also New France; Cartier, 
Jacques ; Cabot , John ; Champlain ; Quebec Act ; Constitutional Act ; Union 
Act ; Upper Canada ; Lower Canada ; Confederation. 

Canada Act. See Constitutional Act. ; 

Canada Company. Founded in London, 1824, by John Gait, as a coloniz- 
ing scheme. A large tract of land was purchased in what is now western 
Ontario. Dunlop, Talbot, Strickland, and other pioneers of Upper Canada 
were associated with Gait in the enterprise. The company is still in existence. 
Index : E An agency in settlement of Upper Canada, 145 ; its unpopularity, 
145. R Offers to buy Clergy Reserves, 50. B Recommends whiskey to intend- 
ing immigrants, 75. See also Gait, John ; Duniop, William ,* Talbot, Thomas. 
Bib. : Lizars, In the Days of the Canada Company; Strickland, Twenty-seven 
Fears in Canada West; Gait, Autobiography; Jameson, Winter Sketches; 
Talbot, Six Years in the Canadas; McTaggart, Three Years in Upper Canada; 
Duniop, The Backwoodsman. 

Canada Corn Act, 1843. C Builds up flour industry in Canada, 43. 

Canada First Associationi. B Platform, 235; criticized by the Globe, 236; 
suspected of aiming at national independence, 237 ; Goldwin Smith, leader of 
party, attacked by Globe, 237; his reply, 238; spirit of the movement, 239; 
its effect, 240-241 ; Liberal party injured by hostility to movement, 240-242. 
Md Formed in Toronto, 1870, 226 ; its policy, 226. Bib. : Dent, Last Forty 
Years; Canada First: A Memorial of the Late William A. Foster; Denison, The 
Struggle for Imperial Unity. 

Canada Trade Act. Passed by Imperial Parliament in 1822, with the object 
of correcting the injustice to Upper Canada in the apportionment of duties col- 
lected. The Quebec Legislature had refused to re-enact the old Acts apportion- 
ing a share of duties to Upper Canada, and these Acts were now made permanent. 
Lower Canada was debarred from imposing new duties on imports by sea with- 
out the consent of Upper Canada and the approval of the Imperial Parliament* 
Bib.: Kingsford, History of Canada. 

Canadian Alliance Society. Me Founded, December, 1834, 258 ; its objects, 
258. BL Founded at York, 16 ; its political programme, 16. 

Canadian Contingents in the Boer War (1899-1902). Consisted of the Royal 
Canadian Infantry, Canadian Mounted Rifles, Royal Canadian Artillery, and 
Strathcona's Horse. The first contingent, which sailed for South Africa from 
Quebec, Oct. 30, 1899, numbered 1141. The second contingent, which sailed 
from Halifax in January and February, 1900, mustered 1320. These two con- 
tingents comprised the official Canadian contribution to the British forces in 
the war, but Lord Strathcona also raised a contingent at his own expense. This 
contingent, known as Strathcona's Horse, sailed from Halifax in March, 1900, 
the force numbering 540 officers and men, and 599 horses. Over 3000 Canadians 
therefore took part in the war against the Boers. Throughout the operations 
in South Africa, the Canadians signally distinguished themselves, particularly 
at the battle of Paardeberg on Feb. 27, 1900, when with the Gordon Highlanders 
and the Shropshires they led the final attack on Cronje's position. Bib : Evans, 
The Canadian Contingents; Marquis, Canada's Sons on Kopje and Veldt; Doyle, 
The Great Boer War. 

Canadian Freeman. Me Newspaper, published by Collins, in 1825, 111. 

Canadian Institute. Founded at Toronto, June 20, 1849, by Sandford Flem- 


ing, and Kivas Tully, with several other surveyors, civil engineers, and arcMtects 
practising in and about Toronto. A royal charter was granted Nov. 4, 1851, 
in which the objects of the society are declared to be " the encouragement and 
general advancement of the physical sciences, the arts and the manufactures/' 
etc. Among the early presidents were Sir W. E. Logan, Sir Henry Lefroy, Sir 
John Beverley Robinson, George W. Allan, W. H. Draper, Sir Daniel Wilson, 
and Sir Oliver Mowat. The publications of the Institute began with the Can- 
Journal, 1852, and have been continued, as Proceedings, Transactions, 
etc., to the present time. Bib.: The Canadian Journal, 1852-1878; Pro- 
ceedings, 1879-1890; Transactions, 1890- . A semi-centennial memorial 
volume, published 1S99, contains Early Days of the Canadian Institute by Sir 
Sandford Fleming. 

Canadian Magazines. Among the earliest magazines published in what is 
now Canada were the Nova Scotia Magazine, Halifax, 1789 ; the Quebec Maga- 
zine, Quebec, 1791-1793; L'Abeille Canadienne, Quebec, 1818-1819; the 
Canadian Review, 1824r-1826; the Bibliotheqm Canadienne, Montreal, 1825; 
Literary Garland, Montreal, 1838 ; Acadian Magazine, Halifax, 1826 ; and the 
Revue Canadienne^ 1845. There have been several periodicals bearing the name 
of Canadian Magazine, the earliest published at Montreal in 1823; a second 
published at Toronto in 1833; another at Toronto, 1871; and the present 
periodical of the same name, which dates from 1893. Of the earlier magazines, 
the Literary Garland and the Revue Canadienne alone lived for any considerable 
time, the former having been published for over thirteen years, and the latter 
still survives. Bib. : Hopkins, Canada : An Ency., vol. 5. 

Canadian Northern Railway. The first link in this transcontinental railway 
dates back to 1896, when construction was commenced on the line from Glad- 
stone towards Lake Winnipegosis. Since then the system has been extended east 
and west, and within a few years will reach from the Atlantic to the Pacific, 
with numerous branches. Bib.: Historical Sketch of the Canadian Northern 
Railway in Canadian Annual Renew, 1906. 

Canadian Pacific Railway. The contract for construction of the railway 
was signed Oct. 21, 1880, the surveys having already been carried out under the 
direction of Sandford Fleming. Work was begun on the railway hi May, 1881, 
and the last spike driven by Sir Donald A. Smith (now Lord Strathcona), Nov. 7, 
1885. A summary of the evolution of the project will be found in Johnson's 
First Things in Canada. Index: Md Compact with British Columbia for its 
construction, 150; the Pacific Scandal, 200-211; difficulties of construction, 
232; terms of agreement, 233; Mackenzie government adopts policy of gov- 
ernment ownership, 233; Macdonald, on his return to power, reverts to 
original scheme, 234 ; contract signed September, 1880, and railway completed 
in five years, 234 ; Mackenzie's views as to time needed for completion, 234-235 ; 
Blake attacks railway policy, 235 ; Globe criticizes, and British financiers pessi- 
mistic, 235 ; directors of the syndicate, 236 ; terms of contract, 236 ; Howland 
syndicate, 237; financial difficulties, 237; last spike driven at Craigellachie, 
Nov. 7, 1885, 238; problems of operation, 238; what the great enterprise 
means to Canada, 238-239 ; its military value, 239 ; conflict with Manitoba 
as to its monopoly of transportation, 284-285 ; its effect on Macdonald gov- 
ernment, 301. C First charter engineered by Cartier, 51; the railway the 
crowning work of Confederation, 51 ; its eastern terminus, 52 ; the Allan Com- 
pany and the MacPherson Syndicate, 53; the Pacific Scandal, 53-54; bill in 
Parliament, 131. B Its building approved by country as a measure of national 


growth and expansion, 241, D Revolutionizes old conditions of trade in 
British Columbia, 265 ; Imperial government asked to guarantee its completion, 
315; delays in building, 317, 323; movement for a transcontinental railway, 
317-318; negotiations, 318-320 ; Pacific Scandal, 321 ; Carnarvon Terms, 320- 
322; building operations, 324r~326; completion, 1885, 326; terminus, 327. 
Bib.: Hopkins, Canada: An Ency., voL 2; Parkin, The Great Dominion; 
Begg History of the North-West; Fleming, Reports on Canadian Pacific Rail- 
my, 1874, 1877, 1878 } 1879, 1880. 

Canadian Sharpshooters. WM In battle of Ste. Foy, 259, 263. 

Canadian. Bk Newspaper founded in 1806, appealed to race prejudices, 92 ; 
claimed unconstitutional power for Legislative Assembly, 92, 93 ; on the rights 
of Parliament, 116 ; seized and temporarily suppressed by Governor Craig, 127 ; 
seizure not approved by British authorities, 147. Bib. : Dionne, Pierre Bedard 
et Son Temps (R. S. C., 1898). 

Canals. The earliest canal in Canada and in North America was that at 
Lachine, which dates back to the beginning of the eighteenth century. Between 
1779 and 1783, lock canals were built by the Royal Engineers, at the Coteau and 
the Cascades, on the St. Lawrence. In 1798 a boat canal was built at Sault 
Ste. Marie by the North West Company. A canal to connect the St. Lawrence 
and Lake Champlain was advocated as early as 1775, by Silas Deane of Con- 
necticut, but was not actually undertaken until 1831. The Welland Canal was 
commenced in 1824 ; and the Rideau Canal two years later. These artificial 
waterways of Canada are controlled by the Department of Railways and Canals, 
of the Dominion government. Index : Bk First in American continent made 
in Canada, 48. BL Construction and improvement of, provided for by gov- 
ernment in 1841, 98; completion of St. Lawrence canals, 286-287. B Im- 
provement of, advocated by George Brown, 61 ; extension of, approved by 
Quebec Conference, 166; enlargement of, suggested by Fish, United States 
secretary of state, in 1874, 227. S Four made at different points on St. 
Lawrence, 112. P Opposed by Papineau, 172. See also Waterways; and 
under names of individual canals, as Lachine ; Rideau ; Welland, etc. Bib. : 
Keefer, Canals of Canada (R. S. C., 1893) ; Waterways of Canada (Women's 
Can. Hist. Soe. of Ottawa, Trans.,, vol. 2) ; Kingsford, Canadian Canals; Report 
of Royal Commission on Canals, 1871 ; Annual Reports on Railways and Canals, 

Cinan6e. Ch Famous French seaman, joins Champlain at Gaspe*, 141 ; the 
Turks capture his ship, the Ste. Madeleine, on the coast of Bretagne, and put 
him to death, 141. 

Canard River. A small stream in Essex County, Ontario, falling into the 
Detroit River. Index: Bk Americans repulsed at, in War of 1812, 237. 

Candiac, Chateau of. WM Birthplace of Montcalm, 3; position of, still 
remains, 5. 

Canning, Charles John, Viscount (1812-1862). Postmaster-general, under 
Aberdeen and Palmerston. Governor-general of India, 1855, and through the 
period of the Indian Mutiny. Index: E His record in India, 217, Bib.: Diet. 
Nat. Biog. 

Canning, George (1770-1827). Entered British Parliament, 1793; foreign 
secretary, 1807 ; ambassador to Portugal, 1814; president of Board^ of 
Control, 1816; succeeded Londonderry as foreign secretary, 1822. prime 
minister, 1827. A consistent advocate of constitutional principles. Index: 
Sy Foreign secretary and afterwards prune minister, 16 ; death of, 16. 


Bk Secretary of war, 81 ; deals with matter of Leopard and Chesapeake, 
83, 85 ; disapproves of Walclieren expedition, 118 ; foreign secretary, 120. Bib. : 
Canning, Speeches; Staplcton, Political Life of George Canning; Stapieton, 
George Canning and His Times; Did. Not. Biog. 

Cannon, Captain. WM Repulses landing of English, 107. 

Canterbury, John Henry Thomas Manners- Button, Viscount (1814r-1877). 
Bora In England. Entered Parliament, 1841 ; home secretary from 1841 to 
1S46 in Peel's ministry. From 1S54 to 1861, lieutenant-governor of New 
Brunswick; in 1864-1866 governor of Trinidad; and in 18G6-1S73 governor 
of Victoria. Index : WT Dissolves New Brunswick Assembly, 180-181. Bib. : 
Diet Xat. Bioff.; Hannay, History of New Brunswick. 

" Canvas House." S Purchased by Simcoe from Captain Cook, and used as 
winter residence at York, 204. 

Cap de la Victolre. On St. Lawrence, near mouth of Richelieu. Index : Ch 
Fur trade carried on at, 119, 139. 

Cap du Ciel. Ch French vessel seized by English, 222. 

Cap Rouge. On the St. Lawrence, above Quebec. ^ Index : WM Vaudreuil 
orders posting of two hundred men at, 162; Bougainville's headquarters at, 
163 ; difficulty of crossing the river, 248. 

Cape Breton. An island at the eastern extremity of Nova Scotia, now form- 
ing part of that province. Discovered by John Cabot in 1497. First settle- 
ment made by the French in 1712. Town of Louisbourg built and strongly 
fortified. It was captured by Pepperreil and Warren in 1745 ; restored to France 
by the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, 1748 ; again captured by the British, under 
Amherst and Boscawen, 1758, Cape Breton was a separate colony of Great 
Britain, 1784-1320, with Sydney (founded 1785) as its capital In 1820 it was 
incorporated with Nova Scotia. Index : Ch Named St. Lawrence Island by 
Ghaniplain, 236 ; Jesuit mission at, for benefit of Micmacs, 236 ; maintained 
until 1659, 237. See also Louisbourg; Sydney; Nova Scotia. Bib:: Brown, 
History of Cape Breton; Bourinot, Cape Breton and Us Memorials; Grant, Cape 
Breton, Past and Present. 

Cape Diamond, Quebec. Ch Fortified, 157. 

Cape St. Vincent. Bk British naval victory of, 10. 

Car Brigade. Bk Formed, 196. 

Garden, Major. Br Killed in dispersing Ethan Allen's force, 99. 

Cardinal Joseph. P At meeting of Constitutional Committee, 1834, 88* 

Carey. Sy Made deputy inspector-general, 333. 

Carheil, Etienne de. A Breton, of noble birth. Came to Canada as a Jesuit 
missionary in 1666. After two years spent at Quebec, left in 1668 for his 
mission among the Cayugas. Spent a number of years there in a zealous but 
largely fruitless effort to convert the Indians to Christianity. In 1683 sent to 
the Hurons at Michilimackinac, and laboured among that tribe for many years. 
Finally returned to Quebec, where he died. Bib. : Campbell, Pioneer Priests 
of North America; Jesuit Relations, ed. by Thwaites. 

Cariboo Gold-fields. D History of, 284-289. 

Carignan-Salieres. The first regiment of regular troops sent to America from 
France. Raised in Savoy by the Prince of Carignan in 1644 ; employed for some 
years in the service of the king of France, and after the peace of the Pyrenees, 
was regularly incorporated in the French army. Fought against the Turks in 
1664, and ordered to America the following year. With the original regiment 
was incorporated the fragment of a regiment of Germans, the whole under the 


command of Colonel de Sali&res. The regiment served with distinction in 
Canada until 1668, when it was ordered home; a large number of officers and 
men, however, remained in the colony, where they were given generous grants of 
land. The regiment was reconstructed in France, and under the name of the 
Regiment of Lorraine existed until 1794. Index ; L Gives strength to the 
colony, 53; discharged soldiers of, become settlers, 77; further detachment 
of, arrives, 79. E Officers settle on lands along the Richelieu, 178-179, 181. 
F Sent out, 51 ; some of the officers settle in Canada and become seigneurs, 
57. Bib. : Parkman, Old Regime; Susane, Andenne Infanterie Frangaise, vol. 5, 

Carillon, Fort. Hd Repulse of British forces at, 18-21. WM The fort de- 
fended by Montcalm with De Lvis and Bouriamaque, 54-55 ; attacked by the 
British under Abercromby, 55-60 ; failure of the attack, 60-61 ; Bourlamaque 
evacuates the fort and destroys it, 146. See also Ticonderoga. Bib.: Park- 
man, Montcalm and Wolfe. 

Carion, Philippe de. L Lays second foundation stone of church at Montreal, 
88. F Officer at Montreal, refuses to recognize Frontenac's order for arrest of 
coureurs de bois, 91. 

Carleton, Christopher. Dr Father of Guy Carleton, 29 ; Ms widow marries 
Rev. Thomas Skelton, 29. 

Carleton, Sir Guy. See Dorchester. 

Carleton, Lady Maria. Dr Gains social popularity at Quebec, 162 ; lives to 
great age, 308 ; her extreme hauteur, 309. 

Carleton, Thomas (1736-1817). Served with Wolf e in 1755; quartermaster- 
general of the army in Canada, 1775; wounded in the naval battle on Lake 
Champlain, 1776. Appointed first lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick, 1784. 
Returned to England in 1803; the colony was governed by administrators 
until 1817, when General Smyth was appointed governor. Index : Dr Nephew 
of Lord Dorchester, 249; lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick, 249. WT 
First governor of New Brunswick, 5; his Council, 5; opposes reforms in 
government, 13 ; grants charter to Fredericton Academy, 86. Hd Devastates 
country bordering on Lake Champlain, 149; his expedient for obtaining rebel 
letters, 194; his connection with the Du Calvet case, 280, 281. Bib.: Cyc. 
Am. Biog.; Bradley, The Making of Canada. 

Carleton Island. Hd Indians of, 148; projects of Americans against, 150; 
reinforcements sent to, 153 ; depot for stores established at, great cost of trans- 
porting provisions to, 184. 

Carling, Sir John (1828- ). Represented town of London in Legislative 
Assembly, 1857-1867 ; and continued to sit for the same constituency in the 
Dominion Parliament. Appointed receiver-general in Cartier-Macdonald 
ministry, 1862; and commissioner of agriculture and public works in Ontario 
government, 1867. Entered federal government as postmaster-general, 1882; 
minister of agriculture, 1885-1892. Called to the Senate, 1891 ; resigned, 1892 ; 
again called, 1896. Bib. : Morgan, Can. Men; Dent, Can. POT. 

Carlton House. Two forts of this name were founded by the Hudson's Bay 
Company. One stood on the banks of the Saskatchewan, above the forks ; the 
other on the upper waters of the Assiniboine. Both were established about the 
end of the eighteenth century. Index : MS Built by Hudson's Bay Company, 6. 

Carnarvon, Henry Howard Molyneux Herbert, fourth Earl of (1831-1890). 
Colonial secretary, 1866-1867, and as such introduced the British North America 
Act ; colonial secretary again, 1874^-1878 ; chairman of Colonial Defence Com- 
mission, 1879-1882. Joined Imperial Federation League, 1884. Index: Md 


President of Westminster Conference in London, 126 ; effect of his resignation 
on Confederation, 128 ; Macdonald's letter to, on the franchise, 259. WT Con- 
ference with, on Conf ederation scheme, 264. Bib. : Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Caroline. Me Steamboat, goes over Niagara Falls, 419 ; cutting out of, 420 ; 
merits of act, 421; international complications, 423. Bib.: Drew and Wood, 
The Burning of the Caroline; Dent, Upper Canadian Rebellion. 

Caroline Almanac. Me Mackenzie publishes, 459. 

Caron, Sir Joseph Philippe Rene Adolphe (1843-1908). Born in Quebec. 
Studied law ; entered public life in 1873 as member of Dominion House for 
Quebec County; elected for Rimouski, 1891. Minister of militia and defence, 
1880-1892 ; postmaster-general, 1892. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Dent, Can. For. 

Caron, Rene Edouard (1800-1876). Born in the parish of Ste. Anne, Lower 
Canada. Educated at the Seminary of Quebec and at St. Pierre College; 
studied law and called to the bar of Lower Canada, 1826. Mayor of Quebec, 
1833-1837 ; sat in Assembly, 1834-1836 ; appointed a member of the Legisla- 
tive Council of Lower Canada by Lord Gosford, but did not take his seat. 
Member of the Legislative Council of Canada, 1841 ; Speaker, 1843-1847 and 
1848-1853 ; member of the La Fontaine-Baldwin government and of the Hincks- 
Morin government ; judge of the Superior Court of Quebec, 1853 ; afterwards 
judge of the Court of Queen's Bench and judge of the Seigniorial Court. Index : 
BL Mayor of Quebec, and member of Legislative Council, 1841, 83 ; a man of 
liberal views, 83 ; member of La Fontaine's ministry, 83 ; Speaker of Legislative 
Council acts as go-between for Draper and La Fontaine, 259-263; president 
of Legislative Council, 284. E Refuses to enter Draper ministry, 43; becomes 
president of Council in first La Fontaine-Baldwin Cabinet, 53 ; leading member 
of Liberal party in Lower Canada, 109 ; president of Council in Hincks-Morin 
government, 113 ; raised to Bench, 126 ; judge of Seigniorial Court, 187. Bib. : 
Turcotte, R. E. Caron; Morgan, Cel Can.; Taylor, Brit. Am.; Dent, Last Forty 
Years and Can. For. 

Carondelet. S Spanish governor of Louisiana, his proposition to Simcoe to 
assist in repelling expected French invasion, 134-136. 

Carroll Charles (1737-1832). Represented Maryland in the Congress 
at Philadelphia, 1776, and signed the Declaration of Independence. After- 
wards elected to the Senate of Maryland, and the federal Senate. Index : Dr 
Accompanies Franklin to Canada, 135. Bib. : Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Carter, Sir Frederic Bowker Terrington (1819-1900). Born at St. John's, 
Newfoundland. Studied law and called to the bar of Newfoundland, 1842 ; 
appointed Q. C., 1859. Member of the Legislative Assembly, 1855-1878 ; 
Speaker, 1861-1865; premier, 1865-1870 and 1874-1878; knighted, 1878; 
chief-justice of Newfoundland, 1880. Represented Newfoundland at the Quebec 
Conference, 1864. Index : WT Speaker of Newfoundland Assembly, delegate 
to Quebec Conference, 219. Bib.: Taylor, Brit. Am.; Morgan, Can. Men. 

Carter, Sir James (1805-1878). Born in England. Educated at Cambridge: 
called to the bar, 1832. In 1834 a puisne judge of the Supreme Court of New 
Bmnswick, and in 1851 chief-justice of the province, retiring on a pension in 1865. 
In 1859 knighted. Spent the latter part of his Me in England. Index* WT 
Appointed to New Brunswick Bench and afterwards chief-justice 74 130 159 
173; releases Doak and Hill, 75; resigns as chief-justice, 1865, 235. Bib.: 
Hannay, History of New^ Brunswick. 

*? ti ??'t?S G 1 eor & es Etienne, (1814-1873). Md Associated with Macdonald 
in MacNab-Tach6 ministry, 75; forms administration, 86-88; member of mis- 


sion to England to confer with British government on Confederation, defence, 
reciprocity, etc., 120 ; acquisition of North-West Territories, 156-157 ; supports 
demand of Red River for self-government, 160 ; takes advantage of Macdonald's 
illness to attempt to forestall the Wolseley expedition, 161-162 ; leads the House 
during Macdonald's absence in Washington, 173; defeated in Montreal, Ms 
influence weakened in Quebec, 195 ; his early life and alliance with Macdonald. 
266 ; his splendid work for Confederation and its inadequate recognition^ 267 ; 
the C. B. replaced by a baronetcy, 267; his defeat in Montreal East, 1872, 
268 ; his death in England in 1873, 268 ; Macdonald's tribute to, on unveiling 
of his statue, 268. WT Delegate to England in union negotiations, 205 ; at 
Charlottetown Conference, 216 ; at Quebec Conference, 218 ; presented to the 
queen, 266 ; in first Confederation ministry, 271. P A man of action, 1 ; lack- 
ing in personal magnetism, 2 ; compared with Papineau, 2 ; blames Papraeau 
and his friends for expelling Mondelet from Assembly, 72. E On Papineau's 
responsibility for amendment to Union Act, 122 ; first elected to Legislature 
in 1849 government candidate for speakership in 1854, defeated, 135, 136 ; his 
statue, 226. C Follows Papineau, 1 ; subsequent loyalty to British constitution, 
1 ; born at St. Antoine , on the Richelieu, 3 ; a descendant of Jacques Cartier, 
3 r ; parentage, 3; education, 3-5; Papineau's influence, 5; studies law with 
Edouard Rpdier, 7 ; Rodier's influence, 7 ; the poet of Les Fils de la Liberte, 7 ; 
takes part in the Rebellion, 7,8; his escape and exile, 8-9 ; returns to Mon- 
treal, 9 ; statesmanlike attitude towards Union Act, 16 ; takes the field against 
D. B. Viger, 17 ; his maiden speech, 17, 19 ; bitterness against Papineau, 18 ; 
enters the Assembly, 1849, for Verchres, 21 ; a born leader, 21 ; offered seat 
in Hincks-Morin ministry, 1851, and again in 1853, 22 ; enters Cabinet, 1855, 
22 ; his law practice, 22-23 ; causes of his success as a political leader, 23-24 ; 
and clerical influence, 28 ; helped by Radicalism of Liberals, 29 ; defeated at 
general election, 1872, by Le Parti National, 30 ; member of Executive Council, 
1855, 31 ; alliance with Sir Allan MacNab and John A. Macdonald, 31, 33 ; 
urges settlement of Seigniorial Tenure, 32; his political principles, 32-33; 
defends alliance with Upper Canada Conservatives, 33-34; bitterly attacked 
in Verche'res election, 34 ; breadth of his political activities, 35 ; reorganizes 
system of public instruction, 37-38 ; protects interests of Protestant minority, 
38; establishes judicial districts, 38; codifies the laws, 39; gives civil status 
to parishes, 39-40 ; his independence, 40-41 ; his interest in railways and other 
means of transportation, 45-50 ; his connection with Pacific Scandal, 53-54 ; 
works for Confederation, 55-56; insists on the federal principle, 57-58; and 
Confederation, 59-65 ; delegate to London to see British North America Act 
through Parliament, 67 ; guest of the queen, 67 ; elected practically without op- 
position, 67 ; premier of Canada, 1858, 62, 67 ; advises Lord Monck to intrust 
Taehe" with duty of forming Cabinet, 68 ; purchase of Hudson's Bay Company's 
territories, 68 ; his definition of the position of French-Canadians, 69 ; ignores 
Bishop Tactics warning as to trouble in North- West, 70; introduces Mani- 
toba Bill, 71; safeguards interests of Roman Catholics in Manitoba as to 
their schools, 71-73 ; separate schools in New Brunswick, 73 ; defends federal 
policy of non-interference, 74r-76; loses support of the Ultramontanes, 79^-84; 
defeated in Montreal East, 84 ; his illness, 85 ; resigns upon defeat of Militia 
Bill, 1862, 87 ; reorganizes the militia, 1868, 87-88 ; his speeches on British 
connection, 92 ; protests against withdrawal of British troops, 92 ; his political 
wisdom, 98 ; establishes political union of the country, 99-100 ; secret of his 
power, 101 ; relations towards Macdonald, 101-103 ; his character and policy, 


105-108; Ms personal appearance, 108; Ms optimism and humour, 109-110; 
his conservatism, 111 ; advice to Ms fellow-countrymen, 112 ; views on property, 
113-114; Ms economic creed, 115-116; Sir Wilfrid Laurier on, 116-117; re- 
ligious views, 117 ; early home influences, 118-122 ; his social qualities, 122-124; 
difficulty over his refusal of the honour of C. B., 124^129 ; made a baronet, 
128; quarrel with Wolseley, 130; his last appearance in Parliament, 131; his 
health breaks down, 131-132; Ms death in London, May 23, 1873, 132. 
B And the " Double Shuffle," 107 ; called on in 1864 to form ministry, but fails, 
149 ; Brown's motion for constitutional changes, 1864, 150 ; meeting with Brown, 
152; Brown's alliance with, for Confederation, 153; suggested by John A. 
Macdonald as premier of coalition ministry, 191 ; asks Brown to reconsider Ms 
resignation, 196; his prejudice against the Rouges, 200; compared with Joseph 
Howe, 204. H Accompanies Sir John Macdonald to Halifax in 1868, 210. 
Bib. : Author of Speeches on the Militia Bill, and^ of the^ popular song, 
Canada! Mon Pays, Mes Amours! For biog., see David, Esquisse Biographique; 
Morgan, Cel Can.; Taylor, Brit. Am.; Dent. Can. For. and Last Forty Years; 
Turcotte, Sir 0. E, Cartier. 

Cartier, Jacques (1491-1557). In 1534, sailing out of St. Malo, made Ms 
first voyage to the New World, entering the Gulf of St. Lawrence by way of the 
Straits of Belle Isle, landing on the Gasp6 shore, and coasting around the 
eastern end of Anticosti. Returned to France. The following year again 
sailed to the gulf, and entered the river St, Lawrence. Continuing his voyage, 
passed the mouth of the Saguenay, and landed on the Island of Orleans, 
which he named lie Bacchus. Brought Ms little ships into the St. Charles 
River, upon whose banks stood the Indian village of Stadacon6. After exploring 
the St. Lawrence as far as the Indian town of Hochelaga (Montreal), returned 
to Stadacpn, where he wintered. In the spring of 1536 sailed back to France, 
taking with him the Iroquois chief, Donnacona. In 1541, made a third 
voyage to Canada. Roberval was to have followed with a number of colonists, 
but did not actually sail until the spring of 1542. When he reached New- 
foundland, he met Cartier on M way home. RobervaFs colony proved dis- 
astrous, and Cartier undertook a fourth voyage to the New World to rescue 
the survivors. Index : Ch Names Hare Island, 13 ; ravages of scurvy among 
his men, 23 ; finds a remedy in the plant aneda, 29 ; Membertou pretends to 
have met him in 1534, 36 ; his winter quarters identified by Champlain, 44-45 ; his 
Riviere de Fouez identified as the St. Maurice, 52. F His voyages, 1 ; attempt 
at colonization, 2. L Witbt his men, receives commumon from bishop of St. 
Malo, 7. C Sir Georges E. Cartier a descendant of the explorer's family, 3. 
Bib.: For a complete list of the original editions of Cartier 's voyages, see 
Harrisse, Notes pour Servir, etc. Trpss, Paris, reprinted them as follows: 
D'Avezac, Bref Recit^et Succinte Narration de la Navigation Faite par le Capitaine 
Jacques Cartier aux lies de Canada, etc. (1863) ; Michelant et Ram<, Voyage de 
Jacques Cartier au Canada en 15$4 (1865) ; Michelant et Ram, Relation Ori- 
ginate du Voyage de Jacques Cartier au Canada en 1534 (1867). The first English 
version is that ^ of Florio (1580). In 1600 Hakluyt included a more accurate 
translation in his Principal Navigations. H. B. Stephen's essay, Jacques Cartier 
and his Voyages to Canada, is accompanied by a new translation of the voyages. 
The Cartier voyages are discussed in the Trans. R.S. C., by W. F. Ganong 
(1887), (1889); Paul de Cazes (1884), (1890); Abb6 Verreau (1890), (1891), 
(1897) ; Archbishop Howley (1894) ; and in the Quebec Lit. and Hist. Soc. 
Trans., Voyages de Decouvertes au Canada (1843) ; Demazieres, Notes sur Jacques 


Cartier (1862). See also Pope, Jacques Cartier; Winsor, Cartwr to Frontenac; 
Parkman, Pioneers of France; Des Longrais, Jacques Cartier; Dionne, la Noiir 
vclle France de Cartier a Champlain; Dent, Can, For. 

Cartwright, J. S. Sy Opposes union of provinces in Upper Canada Assembly. 
207, 211. 

Cartwright, Rev. Richard. Sy Assists in funeral service of Lord Svdenham, 

Cartwright, Richard (1759-1815). Born at Albany, New York. On the 
outbreak of hostilities with the mother country came with his parents to Upper 
Canada. For a time served as secretary to Colonel Butler of the Queen's Rangers, 
and later engaged in business at Kingston in partnership with Robert Hamilton. 
Made judge of the Court of Common Pleas for the district, and on the forma- 
tion of Upper Canada into a separate province appointed to the Legislative 
Council. Urged to accept a seat in the Executive Council, but repeatedly re- 
fused. Created lieutenant of the county of Frontenac by Simcoe, and during the 
War of 1812 served as colonel of the militia. Occupied a position of great 
prominence hi the "political and business life of the province. Index: BL Of- 
fered and refuses solicitor-generalship of Upper Canada, 120 ; his letter of ex- 
planation, 121. R His influence on Straehan, 37. Bk Brock's high opinion 
of, 179. S On later emigration from United States, 57 ; member of Legislative 
Council, 79 ; his report on marriage question, in Upper Canada, 86; accused by 
Simcoe of republicanism, 97, 98; asserts his loyalty, 98; advises Simcoe in 
regard to land regulations, 103 ; describes methods of business in early times, 109. 
Bib. : Cartwright, Life and Letters of Hon. Richard Cartwright. 

Cartwright, Sir Richard John (1835- ). Grandson of the preceding. 
Born at Kingston. Educated at Trinity College, Dublin. Entered public life, 
1863, as member for Lennox and Addington. Minister of finance in Mac- 
kenzie Cabinet, 1873-1878. On the return of the Liberals to power, in 1896, 
became minister of trade and commerce. Index : Md Favours commercial union, 
297 ; introduces unrestricted reciprocity resolution, 1888, 298-299 ; his modi- 
fied resolution of 1889, 299. B His account of pre-confederation scenes in the 
house, 153-154. C Discussion with Cartier in 1872, on the militia, 110. Bib. : 
Works: Remarks on the Militia of Canada; Memories of Confederation, For 
biog., see Dent, Can. For. and Last Forty Years; Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian 
Who's Who. 

Carver, Jonathan (1732-1780). Born at Stillwater, New York. Joined the 
company of rangers raised by John Burk of Northfield, 1756-1757. After the 
treaty of Paris, 1763, conceived the idea of exploring the Western territory 
acquired by England. Between 1766 and 1768, travelled from MicMlimackinac 
to the Mississippi, ascended the Minnesota River, and returned by way of 
Grand Portage, Lake Superior. Went to England, 1769, to secure government 
support for Ms plans of Western exploration, but failed. Died there, Jan. 31, 
1780. Index: D His River of Oregon, 19; reference to Oregon, 56-57. Bib.: 
Travels through the Interior Parts of North America, in the Years 1766, 1767 : and 
1768. The best edition is the third, published at London, 1781. For a bib. of 
the various editions, and translations, see Lee, Bibliography of Carver's Travels 
(Wisconsin State Hist. Soc. Proc., 1909). See also Durrie, Jonathan Carver and 
u Carver 1 s Grant" (Wisconsin Hist. Soc. Coll, vol. 6) ; Gregory, Jonathan Carver: 
His Travels in the North-West (Parkman Club Pub., No. 5) ; Bourne, Travels of 
Jonathan Carver in Amer. Hist. Review, 1906 ; Parkman, Conspiracy of Pontiac. 

Cas Reserve. L In connection with sale of liquor to Indians, 171, 174. 


Cascades. On the St. Lawrence River. Hd Improvements in navigation at 

Case, William. R Visits England, 1831, 90; Ms connection with split in 
Methodist body, 105. 

Casgraim, Henri Raymond (1831-1904). After studying medicine, decided 
to enter the church, and ordained a priest in 1856. In 1872, owing to an 
affection of the eyes, compelled to abandon the ministry, and thereafter 
devoted himself entirely to literature. His first work, Legendes Canadiennes, 
appeared in 1S61 ; and this was followed by many other publications, in history' 
biography, and belles-lettres. One of the principal contributors to the Soirees 
Canadiennes, the Foyer Canadien, and other French-Canadian periodicals. A 
charter member of the Royal Society of Canada ; elected president of that body 
in 1889. Index : L His pen-portrait of Mme. de la Peltrie, 153-154. Ch On the 
question of Champlain's tomb, 261-262. Bib. : Among his principal works are: 
Histoire de la Mere Marie de I' Incarnation; Biographies Canadiennes; Un Pele- 
rinage au Pays d } 'Evang&ine ; Montcalm et Levis. For bib., see R. S. C., 1894, 
21. For biog., see Eouthier, Eloge historique de H. R. Casgrain (R. S, C., 1904) ; 
Morgan, Can. Men. 

Cass, Lewis (1782-1866). Served under General Hull in War of 1812. Drew 
up Hull's flamboyant proclamation to the people of Canada. Opposed surrender 
of Detroit. Governor of territory of Michigan. Index : Bk On surrender of 
Detroit, 257. Bib. : Contributed to Historical Sketches of Michigan, 1834. For 
biog., see McLaughlin, Lewis Cass; Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Castillon, Jacques de. Ch Assisted in forming Company of New France, 168 ; 
presents pictures to church of Notre Dame de la Recouvrance, 240. 

Castle Frank. S Country chalet built for Simcoe near York, 215. 

Castle of St. Louis. See CMteau St. Louis. 

Catalogue, Gedeon de. Employed for some years on military and other 
engineering ^works Jn Canada. In 1701 commenced a canal from Lachine to 
the Little River, with the object of providing a boat channel around the rapids. 
The work was abandoned, and resumed in 1717, but was again abandoned, 
owing to the cost of the rock cutting. Accompanied Denonville on Ms expe^ 
dition against the Iroquois, in 1687. 

Cataraqui. A fort, built by the engineer Raudin in 1673, under Frontenac J s 
orders, the site having been selected by La Salle. The fort stood at the mouth 
of the Cataraqui, on the site of the present city of Kingston. Here Frontenac 
held a great Council with representatives of the five Iroquois nations, 1673. On 
Frontenac s recommendation, Cataraqui was granted to La Salle as a seigniory, 
upon his repaying the amount the fort had cost the king. Fort Frontenac, as 
La balle named it, became the base of his ambitious scheme of western explora- 
tions. Index: F Expedition of Courcelles to, 59; of Frontenac, 76-84: fort, 
afterwards known as Fort Frontenac, erected at, 83. Hd Lands allotted to 
Loyalists in neighbourhood of, 236, 255; settlers at, 258, 265. S Barracks of, 
on site of old Fort Frontenac, 51 ; Loyalist settlements in surrounding country, 
58 ; detail of, 59 See also Kingston ; Fort Frontenac ; La Salle. Bib. : Machar, 

iL ?* ?/ Sulte > Le Fort de FTOnt <M (R. S. C., 1901) ; Girouard, L' Ex- 
pedition du Marquis de Denonville (R. S. C., 1899). 

Cathcart, Charles Murray, Earl (1783-1859). ' Served in Holland, 1799; 
saw service through Peninsular War; fought at Waterloo ; assumed title, 1843 : 
succeeded General Jackson as commander-in-chief of the forces in British 
JNorth America, 1845; administrator the same year, on the departure of Sir 


Charles Metcalfe ; governor-general, 1S46 ; succeeded by Lord E!gln y 1847. 
Index: Md Succeeds Metcalfe as governor-general, 25; "correspondence with 
Draper over Maedonald's appointment to Cabinet, 26. BL Becomes aclniinis- 
tratof, and afterwards governor-general, 265-288; his character and attitude 
towards political questions in Canada, 266. E Succeeds Metcalfe as governor- 
general, more interested in problems of defence than in politics, 38 ; replaced by 
Elgin, 40 ; Ms instructions to Rebellion Losses Commission, 65. B His appoint- 
ment and character, 28 ; warns British government of disaffection in Canada, 
31. Bib. : Dent., Can. Par. and Last Forty Years; Morgan, Cel Can. 

Catherine. Ch Champlain sails for France in (1626), 155. 

Cauchon, Joseph Edouard (1816-1885). Educated at the S^minaire de 
Quebec ; studied law and called to the bar, but turned immediately to journal- 
ism. Edited Le Canadien for a time; and in 1842 established "the Journal 
de Quebec. Entered public life, 1844, as member for Montmoreney, which 
county he represented continuously until 1872. Entered MacNab government, 
1855, as commissioner of crown lands. Became commissioner of public works 
in Cartier-Macdonald ministry, 1861-1862. Speaker of the Senate, 1868-1872. 
Accepted presidency of the Council in Mackenzie administration, 1875-1877; 
minister of inland revenue, 1877. Resigned the same year to accept the 
lieutenant-governorship* of Manitoba, 1877-1882. Index : C As journalist and 
politician, 24 ; attitude towards Cartier, 24 ; his writings, 24 ; praises Cartier 
in the Journal de Quebec, 88. E Brings up question of Seigniorial Tenure in 
Parliament, 126 ; votes against secularization of the Clergy Reserves, 164. Bib. : 
Works : Remarks on the North-West Territories; Etude mr F Union Projectee des 
Provinces Britanniques ; L' Union des Provinces de VAmerique du Nord. For 
biog., see Revue Canadienne, 1884; Dent, Can. Por.; Taylor, Brit. Am. 

Caughnawaga Indians. A community of Iroquois, chiefly drawn from the 
Oneida and Mohawk, and speaking a modification of the Mohawk tongue. 
Having been converted by the Jesuit missionaries, they were induced to settle 
in 1668 at La Prairie, near Montreal. In 1676 they removed to Sault St. Louis, 
and the majority have remained in that vicinity ever since. About 1755 a new 
settlement was formed at St. Regis, farther up the St. Lawrence. Many ac- 
companied the fur traders to the west as hunters. In the narratives of the fur 
trade they are referred to as Iroquois. Index : Hd Their sympathies secured 
for Congress by Jesuits, 130 ; village of, burned by Sir John Johnson, 156 ; their 
disloyalty, 189. Bib. : Colden, Five Nations; Hodge, Handbook of American 

Caumont. Ch Pont-Grave*'s clerk, 121 ; chief clerk of De Monts's (Rouen) 
company at Quebec, 133. 

Cayahoga. Bk United States schooner carrying Hull's stores and baggage, 
captured, 218. 

Cayet, Victor Palma. Ch His work on French navigation, 15. 

Cayley, William. Inspector-general, 1845^1848, and again, 1854-1858. 
By the Act of 1859, the office was changed to minister of finance. Index : E In- 
spector-general, 1854, 140 ; favours division of Clergy Reserves among various 
denominations, 163. B Gait takes his place hi government, 107. Bib. : Finances 
and Trade of Canada. For biog., see Dent, Last Forty Years. 

Cayugas. One of the tribes of the Iroquois confederacy. Parkman gives 
four forms of the name: Cayugas, Caiyoquos, Goiogoens, Gweugwehonoh, 
Their fighting strength is given in the Relation of 1660 as 300. At this time, 
however, they had been weakened by continual warfare. The Cayuga villages 


stood on the shore of Cayuga Lake^ and their territory extended from that lake 
to the Owasco, both included. The tribe lay between the Senecas on the west 
and the Onondagas on the east. By the beginning of the nineteenth century 
they had been crowded off their ancestral lands, and scattered abroad. Some 
seven hundred are now on the Six Nation reserve, in the Niagara peninsula. The 
remainder are for the most part in the western United States. Index: Ch 
Iroquois tribe, 50. See also Iroquois; Senecas; Onondagas; Mohawks; Tus- 
caroras. Bib. : Pilling, Iroquoian Languages. See also Iroquois. 

Cazeau, Francois. Hd Arrested on charge of treason, 279. 

Census. The first census in Canada seems to have been taken in 1640, when 
the inhabitants numbered 375, distributed as follows : married men, 64 ; married 
women (three born in Canada), 64; widower, 1; widows, 4; unmarried men, 
35; boys (30 born in Canada), 58; girls (24 born in Canada), 48; nuns, 6; 
Jesuits, 29 ; others, 66. Benjamin Suite finds the population in 1650 to have 
been 705 ; and in 1663 about 2500. The census of 1665 gives the total popula- 
tion as 3251. The first census of the Dominion was taken in 1871, when the 
population was 3,635,024 ; the census of 1881 gave a total of 4,324,810 ; of 1891, 
4,833,239; of 1901, 5,371,315. See also Acadians. Index: E Provided for by 
La Fontaine-Baldwin government, 86 ; placed under Department of Agriculture 
by Hincks-Morin government, 117. F Of 1666, 55. Bib. : Census of Canada, 
1851, 1861, 1871, 1881, 1891, 1901. See also Johnson, First Things in Canada; 
and General Index, Trans. R. S. C., under Census. 

Centurion. WM Admiral Saunders's ship, in action off Beauport shore, 136. 

Chabanel, Noel. Jesuit missionary in the Huron country, 1643. Had been 
a professor of rhetoric in France, before coming to Canada. When the Hurons 
were driven from their country by the Iroquois, in 1649, he and Gamier led their 
demoralized flock to the Island of St. Joseph, in Matchadash Bay, an inlet of 
Georgian Bay. Even here the Iroquois followed them, and attacked the mission 
of St. Jean, Dec. 7, 1649. Chabanel had left the place a short time before, and 
so escaped the general massacre. He, however, fell a victim to one of his own 
Hurons, who confessed that he had murdered the missionary and thrown his 
body into a river. Index : L Died a martyr, 62. Bib. : Parkman, Jesuits in 
North America. 

Chabot, J. (1807-1860). Born at St. Charles,. Bellechasse, Lower Canada. 
Studied law and practised in Quebec. Sat in the Assembly for Quebec, 1843- 
1850 ^ for Bellechasse, 1851-1854; and for Quebec, 1854-1856. Became chief 
commissioner of public works, 1849, and again in 1852 ; government director 
of the Grand Trunk, 1854 ; and Seigniorial Tenure commissioner the same year. 
Appointed judge of the Superior Court of Lower Canada, 1856. Index : E Com- 
missioner of public works, 1853, 126 ; and again in coalition ministry, 1854, 141 ; 
votes against secularization of the Clergy Reserves, 164; commissioner under 
Seigniorial Tenure law, 186. Bib. : Morgan, Gel Can.; Dent, Last Forty Years. 

Chalmers, Thomas. R Offered, but declines, charge of educational policv in 
Upper Canada, 37. 

Chamberlain, Joseph (1836- ). British statesman. Me Justifies Upper 
Canada Rebellion, 29, 30. Bib. : Who's Who. 

^ Chambers, Captain. Bk Sent to Moraviantown to oppose enemy, 219, 235 : 
in command of 2d Brigade, 247. 

Chambly, Jacques de. An officer of the Carignan Regiment ; built Fort St. 

r ' ?t e Rlcnelleu > 16 65, and given its command. In 1672 the seigniory 

of Chambly granted to him. Succeeded De Grandfontaine as governor of 


Acadia; transferred to Grenada; and later to Martinique, where he died. 
Index: F Appointed governor of Aeadla, 90, 269; taken prisoner to Boston 
and there set at liberty , 269 ; again governor, 270 ; governor of Grenada (W. L), 
270, Bib.: Suite, Regiment de Carignan (R. S. C., 1902). 

Chambly. Fort, otherwise known as St. Louis, on the Richelieu. Built by 
Jacques de Chambly, 1665. Index : F Fort erected at, 51. Dr Captured by Mont- 
gomery, 99 ; abandoned, 146. L Fort erected at, 53. Hd Weak defences of, 134. 

Champdore. Ch Carpenter to De Monts's expedition, 22. 

Champiain, Antoine. Ch Father of Samuel Chainplain ? 1. 

Champlain, Samuel (1567 7-1635) . WM His elevated sentiments, 20. Ch 
Birth and education, 1 ; sails to West Indies, Mexico, and Panama in command 
of Spanish vessel, 3, 4 ; suggests channel through isthmus, 5 ; captures English 
vessels and returns to France, 6 ; publishes account of travels, 7 ; obtains pension 
and made hydrographer to king of France, 8 ; accepts offer of Aymar de Chastes 
of Dieppe to go to Canada, 9 ; arrives at Tadoussac, 10 ; explores Saguenay, 12 ; 
ascends St. Lawrence to Sault St. Louis, anchors at Quebec, and explores Gaspesia, 
13; sails for France, 14; submits narrative of his voyages to the king, 14; 
accompanies De Monts to Acadia, 19 ; explores country and gives names to 
places, 19 ; describes river St. John, 20 ; discovers a copper mine, 22 ; makes 
plan of Ste. Croix Island, 24 ; explores coast of Nprembega, 25 ; describes Penta- 
gouet (Penobscot) River, 27; further explorations, 30; describes settlement 
at Port Royal, 32 ; returns to France, 37 ; sails for Quebec, 40 ; resists Basque 
traders, 40 ; arrives at Quebec, 41 ; conspiracy formed against, 42 ; execution 
of chief conspirator, 43 ; explores vicinity of Quebec, 44 ; illness, 46 ; fits out 
expedition against Iroquois, 47 ; conference with Huron chiefs, 48 ; his Indian 
policy, 49-52 ; encounter with Iroquois on Lake Champlain, 53 ; sails for France, 
54 ; has audience with the king, 55 ; consults with De Monts, 56 ; returns to 
Canada, 59; arrives at Quebec, 61; proceeds again to attack Iroquois, 61; 
wounded in encounter near mouth of Richelieu River, 62 ; returns to Quebec, 
63 ; hears of the assassination of Henry IV, and sails for France, 64 ; marries 
H<lne Boulle*, 65-67 ; returns to Canada, 67 ; arrives at Quebec, 68 ; makes a 
clearing at Montreal, 69 ; names St. Helen's Island after his wife, 69 ; sails for 
France, 70 ; final interview with De Monts, 71 ; motives for pursuing his work 
in Canada, 72, 82 ; becomes lieutenant in Canada of Charles de Bourbon, Comte 
de Soissons, 73 ; on death of Soissons, becomes lieutenant of the Prince de Cond6 
and returns to Canada, 73 ; arrives at Quebec and proceeds to Falls of St. Louis, 
74; goes up the Ottawa River, 75; his astrolabe, 76; p sails for France, 79; 
engages the services of missionaries for Canada, 83; brings to Canada three 
R6collet fathers and one friar, 85 ; arriving at Quebec, proceeds to Falls of St. 
Louis, 85 ; ascends Ottawa River, passes through Lake Nlpissing into Georgian 
Bay and reaches territory of Hurons, 88; proceeds^with Hurpns on another 
campaign against Iroquois, 101 ; wounded in fight with Iroquois, 103 ; desires 
to return to Quebec, but is detained by Hurons, 103,; settles quarrel between 
Algonquians and Hurons, 105 ; returns to Quebec, 106 ; convokes meeting to 
consider question of missions, 108; sails for France, 111; returns to Canada 
(1617), 112; sails for France (1618), 116; returns to Canada (1620), 121; his 
projects for the advancement of Canada, 124, 125; obtains letter from the king 
in his favour, 126 ; his commission renewed by Due de Montmorency, 129 ; 
takes his wife to Canada, 129; receives letters from Montmorency and the 
king, 130, 131 ; his difficulties with rival Companies, 132, 136 ; confirmed as 
lieutenant of viceroy, 137; salary and trading privileges, 138; publishes or- 


finances, 139 ; returns to France with Ms wife (1624), 141 ; meets Montmoreney, 
150 appointed by the Due de Ventadour as his lieutenant, 152 ; sails for 
Canada (1626), 155; arrives at Quebec, 156; fortifies Cape Diamond, 157; re- 
constructs Fort St. Louis, 158; his treatment of the Indians, 159; tries to 
make an alliance with Iroquois, 160; his policy towards the Montagnais, 162; 
imprisons Montagnais suspected of murder, 165; receives three young Mon- 
tacnais girls to be educated, 165 ; one of the Hundred Associates (Company 
of New France), 170; forms establishment at Cap Tourmente, 171; criticizes 
conduct of Roquemont, 175; summoned by David Kirke to surrender Quebec, 
176 his answer, 178; builds mill for grinding pease, 180; sends part of popula- 
tion of Quebec to Gasp, 1S1 ; asserts superiority of his commission over Pont- 
Grave's 182: summoned by Kirke to surrender Quebec, 188; capitulates, 190; 
his action criticized, 192, 193 ; signs articles of capitulation on board Kirke's 
ship 195 : delayed several weeks at Tadoussac, 204; his two Indian girls, Espe- 
rance and Charit6, taken back by the Indians, 205; embarks for France, 206; 
goes to London and sees French ambassador, 207; shows him map of the 
country, 211 ; names given by, to harbours and rivers of New England, 212 ; 
crosses over to France, and has interview with the king, 212 ; returns to Quebec 
(1633), 228; takes active part in civilization of Micmacs, 237; erects chapel 
of Notre Dame de la Recouvrance, 238; his bequest to it, 239; appointed 
governor, by Company of New France (Hundred Associates), 244; his last 
letter to Cardinal Richelieu, 246 ; defrays expenses of some families corning to 
Canada, 250; approves of exclusion of Protestants as settlers, 255; his piety, 
258 ; death, 261 ; question of his tomb, 261 ; his will, 265 ; will set aside, 266 ; 
character and fame, 267 ; monument to, 268, 275; the Father of New France, 
269 ; crossed the Atlantic twenty times, 270 ; his conduct towards and influ- 
ence over Indian tribes, 271 ; his Indian alliances, 272 ; his writings, 274, 275 ; 
eulogies pronounced on, 276-279. F Early career of, 3 ; sails for St. Lawrence 
and explores river to Lachine Rapids, 4 ; explores Baie des Chaleurs, returns to 
France, 5 ; accompanies De Monte to Acadia, 7 ; founder of Quebec, 8 ; plot 
against his life, 8 ; expedition against Iroquois, 9 ; returns to France and sails 
again for Canada, 10 ; returns to France, marries, and sails again for Canada, 
11; prospects island of Montreal, 12; returns to France (1611), sails for 
Canada (1613), again to France, again to Canada (1615), 13; brings out 
R&collet missionaries, 13 ; heads another expedition against Iroquois, 14 ; begins 
construction of CMteau St. Louis, 15; surrenders Quebec to English under 
Kirke, 20 ; lands in England, 21 ; urges restitution of Canada, 22 ; sails for 
Quebec (1633), 24; death of, 26. L His anxiety for the propagation of the 
faith, 4; his pious administration, 8. Bib.: Works: (Euvres de Champlain 
(Laverdi&re), 1870; Voyages (Laverdi^re), 1870; Voyages (trans, by Otis, with 
memoir by Slafter), 1878-1882; Grant, Voyages of Samuel de Champlain; 
Bourne, Champlain j s Voyages; Biggar, Works of Samuel de Champlain (Cham- 
plain Society, in prep.). t For bib. of the original editions, see Harrisse, Notes 
pour Servir, etc. For biog,, see Gravier, Vie de Samuel Champlain; Sedgwick, 
Samuel de Champlain; Dix, Champlain: the Founder of New France; Verreau, 
Samuel de Champlain (R. S. C., 1899) ; Parkman, Pioneers of France; Dent, 
Can. For. 

Champlain Lake. Discovered by Samuel Champlain, July, 1609. Here took 
place the first hostile encounter between the French and the Iroquois. The 
French were the aggressors, and had bitter enough cause to remember the fact 
throughout the century. In 1666 the Sieur de la Motte built a fort orx lie La 


Motte, which was afterwards abandoned. Fort St. Frederic was built at Crown 
Point, 1731. It was enlarged and strengthened in 1734, and again in 1742. 
Lake Champlain became the war thoroughfare, not merely between the Iroquois 
and French, but between New France and New England. Fort Carillon was 
built, 1755-1756. With this lake are associated the names of Dieskau and Sir 
William Johnson, Montcalm and Abercrombie, Ethan Alien and Montgomery. 
Index: F Champlain reaches, in Ms expedition against the Iroquois f 9, 10. 
Hd Canada to be attacked by way of, 34 ; trouble among the settlers on, S9 5 
197; guarding against invasion from, 125, 133, 134; Major Carleton on, 149; 
messengers intercepted on, 129; forts captured by Ethan Allen, 198; Vermont 
negotiations held upon, 204 ; fear of rebel approach by, 208, 216 ; Ethan Allen 
offers to meet Haldimand upon, 214 ; Loyalists on shores of, 250. WM Mont- 
calm at, 32, 34 ; 54-61 ; forts on, evacuated by Bourlamaque, 146. Dr Armed 
craft on, captured, 82 ; Americans evacuate Canada by way of, 146 ; route of 
attack on New England, 147 ; Carleton builds a fleet on, 149 ; description of 
the lake, 153 ; Carleton defeats Arnold on, 164-157. Ch Encounter with Iro- 
quois at southern extremity of, 53. Bib. : Parkman, Montcaim and Wolfe; 
Crockett, History of Lake Champlain; Smith, Our Struggle for the Fourteenth 
Colony; Reid, Lake George and Lake Champlain; Palmer, History of Lake 
Champlain. See bib. note in Crockett. 

Chandler, Edward Barren (1800-1880). Elected to New Brunswick Assembly, 
1827, for Westmoreland, which he represented until 1836, when called to Legis- 
lative Council. Became executive councillor, 1844. Engaged in negotiations for 
Intercolonial Railway, 1850-1852 ; reciprocity, 1854 ; and Confederation, 1865. 
Succeeded Tilley as lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick, 1878. Index : WT 
Sent by New Brunswick Assembly to lay grievances before colonial secre- 
tary, 24 ; becomes member of government, 72 ; resigns, 76 ; goes to London 
to secure support for Intercolonial, 168-169 ; 196 ; member of Executive Coun- 
cil, 1856, 183 ; delegate to Charlottetown Conference, 215 ; to Quebec Confer- 
ence, 219 ; Confederation delegate to England, 262. H Joins Joseph Howe in 
mission to Toronto on behalf of Intercolonial Railway project, 137 ; secures 
support of New Brunswick government, 139 ; his speech at Amherst on behalf 
of Howe, 140 ; accompanies Hincks to England on Intercolonial Railway mission, 
142. B Complains at Quebec Conference, that proposed union legislative, not 
federal, 163. Bib. : Hannay, History of Neio Brunswick; Dent, Can. For, 

Chandler, Samuel. Me Aids Mackenzie's escape, 397. 

Chansons of French Canada. Most of the inimitable folk-songs of Quebec 
came in their original form from France, and have undergone more or less of a 
transformation in their new environment. A few originated in French Canada. 
Index: C Chansons de ronde among the habitants, 119-120 ; at Cartier's house, 
123. Bib. : Gagnon, Chansons populaire; McLennan, Songs of old Canada; 
Burpee, Songs of French Canada; Wood, Footnotes to Canadian Folk-Songs 
(R. S. C., 1896) ; Bourinot, Songs of Forest and River in Rose-Belford Monthly, 
1877 ; French Songs of Old Canada, pictured by W. Graham Robertson ; Tiersot, 
French Folk-Songs. 

Chapals, Jean Charles (1812-1885). Bom in Riviere Ouelle, Quebec. Mem- 
ber of the Executive Council and commissioner of public works, 1864r-1867, In 
1867 privy councillor and minister of agriculture; and 1869-1873 receiver- 
general. In 1868 called to the Senate. Index : WT Delegate to Quebec Con- 
ference, 218; minister of agriculture in first Dominion Cabinet, 271. Bib.; 
Dent 7 Last Forty Years, 


Chapais, Joseph Amable Thomas (1858- ) . Educated at Laval University. 
Called to the bar, 1879. Edited Le Gourrier du Canada since 1884. Appointed 
member of Legislative Council of Quebec, 1892, and elected Speaker, 1895; 
president of the Executive Council, 1896, and minister of colonization, 1897. 
Index : F His work on Talon referred to, 57. Bib. : Works : Jean Talon, Intendant 
de la NouveUe France; Discours et Conferences. For biog., see Morgan, Can. 
Men; Canadian Who's Who. 

Chaplean, Sir Joseph Adolphe (1840-1898). Studied law and called to the 
bar, 1861. Elected to Quebec Legislature, 1867, and successively solicitor- 
general, and provincial secretary, of the province. Premier of Quebec, 1879. 
Entered Dominion Cabinet, 1882, as secretary of state. Appointed lieutenant- 
governor of Quebec, 1892; knighted, 1896. Bib.: Works: Leon XIII, Homme 
d 3 EM; Question des Chemins de Fer. For biog., see J. A. Chapleau: Sa Bio- 
graphie et Ses Discours; Morgan, Can. Men; Dent, Can. For. 

Chapman, Henry Samuel (1803-1881). Born in England. Came to Canada, 
1823, and established at Montreal the Daily Advertiser, the first daily news- 
paper published in British America, 1833. Connected with several other news- 
papers. A strong supporter of the Reform party. Removed to England and 
called to the bar, 1840. Went to New Zealand, where he became a judge. 
Died in Dunedin, New Zealand. Index : H Attempts to secure Joseph Howe's 
support for agitation in Lower Canada, 50 ; Howe's reply, 50. 

Charbonnel, Armand Francois Marie de. Roman Catholic bishop of 
Toronto, 1850-1860. Died, 1860. Index: R Opposes public schools, 219, 
225; Ryerson's letter to, 22^-225; referred to in Globe, 226; his letter to 
Ryerson, 226; his policy, 228; his complaints, 229; drafts Separate School 
Bill, 230 ; his pastoral letter, 234 ; resigns charge of Toronto diocese, 235. 

Charest, Bufils. WM Commands party sent to heights of Lvis, 103. 

Charles I (1600-1649). King of England; succeeded to the throne, 1625. 
Index : Ch His instructions to English ambassador at Paris, 215 ; restores New 
France and Acadia to France, 221. Bib.: Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Charles II (1630-1685). King of England; succeeded to the throne, 1660. 
Index: WT Annuls charter of London and other towns, 54. Bib.: Diet. Nat. 

Charles Emmanuel III (1701-1773). King of Sardinia. Succeeded to the 
throne, 1730. Index: Hd His foreign policy, 5. 

Charlesbourg. WM De Pontbriand retires to, 153. 

Charlevoix, Pierre-Francois- Xavier de (1682-1761). First came to Canada 
in 1705, as an instructor in the Jesuits' College at Quebec. Returned to France 
in 1709. It was at this time that he gathered the material for his Histoire et 
Description Generate de la Nouvelle-France. Again visited Canada in 1720 by 
order of the French government to report as to the best route for an overland 
expedition in search of the Western Sea. In the course of this journey visited 
the mission and posts of what was then the extreme western frontier of New 
France, returning to France in 1723, by way of Mobile. Index : L On the char- 
acter of the Canadian population, 117 ; on the character of Frontenac, 144, 145. 
F On bravery of Canadians and indifferent conduct of French troops, 212 ; on 
Lachine massacre, 224, 227 ; on old age of Francois Hertel, 235 ; his account of 
"flag" incident in siege of Quebec, 295; on character and conduct of Frontenac, 
333-336. Ch His opinion of Lescarbot, 37 ; his description of the French settle- 
ments in Canada, 243 ; his eulogy of Champlain, 276, 277. Bib. : Besides his 
Histoire du Paraguay and Histoire de Vide fispagnole ou de S, Dominique, 


Charlevoix was the author of La Vie de la Mere Marie de V 'Incarnation 
of the first general history of Canada, Histoire et Description Generak de to 
X olivette-France. His Voyage dans I'Amerique Septentrionale was translated 
into English in 1756. Dr. J. G. Shea's translation of the History was published 
at Xew York in 6 vols., 1866-1872; and reprinted by F. P. Harper, New York, 
in 6 vols. An abridged translation of Charlevoix 7 s Journal is found in vol. 3 
of French, Hist. Coll of Louisiana. For biog., see J. E. Roy, Essai sur Charlevoix 
(R. S. C., 1907). 

Charlottetown. Capital of Prince Edward Island. Originally founded by 
the French, about 1750, and then known as Port la Joie. In 1713 it was a forti- 
fied post, with a garrison of sixty soldiers. The population numbered 1354 in 
1752 ; and in 1758 it had been increased to over 4000 by the arrival of a large 
number of Acadians from the mainland. It came under British rule in 1763, 
and received its present name about 1768. Bib. : Campbell, History of Prince 
Edward Island. 

Charlottetown Conference, 1864. Md Arranged by Tupper, 104 ; the Cana- 
dian proposals, 104 ; terms of union, 107. H Joseph Howe invited to attend 
as delegate, but declines, 176-177 ; Sir Charles Tapper's connection with, 176- 
177 ; Nova Scotia delegates, 177 ; maritime union found impracticable, 178 ; 
Sir John Macdonald proposes Confederation, 178. "B History of, 161. WT Dele- 
gates to, 215 ; history of, 215-217. See Quebec Conference ; Macdonald ; Tup- 
per. Bib. : Whelan, Union of the British Provinces; Saunders, Three Premiers 
of Nova Scotia. 

Chamy-Lauzon. See Lauzon-Charny. 

Charron, Jean-Francois. L Charitable work of, and of Ms brother, 125; 
house of charity established by, 245 ; death of, 246. 

Chattier de Lotbiniere, Eustache Gaspard Michel. Dr Advised in connection 
with question of Canadian laws, 63, 68 ; elected Speaker of the Assembly, 277. 

Chartier de Lotbiniere, Rene Louis. L Appointed to Sovereign Council, 166. 
F Member of the Sovereign Council, 106. 

Charton, Francois. Ch Jesuit, 152 ; returns to France, 208. 

Chaste s, Ay mar de. Ch Governor of Dieppe, obtains charter for colonization 
of Canada, 8 ; suggests that Champlain should visit Canada, 9 ; death of, 9. 
F Trading patent granted to, 3 ; his death, 5. 

Chateau de Ramezay. At Montreal: Index: Hd Purchased for government 
house, 186; belonged to William Grant, 186. BL Government offices in, 
during Elgin's governorship, 325. 

Chateau Haldimand. At Quebec. Index: Hd Foundation stone kid by Haldi- 
mand, 344; used as school in connection with Laval University until 1892, then 
pulled down, 344. 

ChAteau St. Louis. At Quebec. Commenced by Governor de Montmagny, 
1647, and completed by his successor, D'Ailleboust. Demolished, 1694, and 
rebuilt with new wing. Enlarged, 1723; and in 1808 renovated and again 
enlarged, by government of Lower Canada. Up to the close of French regime, 
it was the official residence of the governors of Canada ; and after the cession, 
their British successors continued to occupy the building. It was destroyed by 
fire, 1834. The Chateau Frontenac hotel now stands immediately back of the 
site of the t Chateau St. Louis, which occupied part of what is now Dufferin 
Terrace. See Habitation de Quebec. Index : F Construction begun, 15. Bk 
Description of, 90 ; occupied by Sir James Craig, 90. Hd Governor's residence 
at Quebec, 169, 222, 304, 314; balls at, 223; wing added by Haldimand named 


in Ms honour, 344. Bib. : Gagnon, Le Fort et la Chdteau St. Louis; Doughty, 
Fortress of Quebec; Douglas, Old France in the New World. 

Ch&teaufort, Marc Antoine Bras-de-fer de. F Interim governor after death 
of Champlaiiij 27, 

CMteauguay. Battle in War of 1812, Oct. 26, 1813. The stream from which 
the battle took its name, rises in Franklin County, New York, and falls into the 
St. Lawrence a few miles above Caughnawaga. The scene of the battle was 
about six miles above the confluence of the English with CMteauguay River. 
Hampton was in command of the Americans, and De Salaberry commanded the 
Canadian troops, with Colonel Macdoaell in charge of the reserves. Although 
the former had an overwhelmingly superior force, the result of the battle was 
in favour of the Canadians; and the contemplated attack on Montreal was 
abandoned. The battle was won by French-Canadian militia under a French- 
Canadian commander. See also War of 1812 ; Salaberry. Bib. : Lucas, Canadian 
War of 1812; Lighthall, An Account of the Battle of Chateauguay ; Macdonell, The 
Early Settlement and History of Glengarry in Canada; Kingsford, History 
of Canada. 

Chateauneuf, Pierre Antoine de Castaguere, Marquis de (1644-1728). Ch 
French ambassador in London, instructions to, 214. 

Chat el, Aiinee. L Member of the Congregation de Notre Dame, 91. 

Chatham, William Pitt, first Earl of (1708-1778). The " Great Commoner," 
who brought England " to a height of prosperity and glory unknown to any 
former age." He urged continually a conciliatory policy towards America, until 
it became apparent that the colonists would be satisfied with nothing less than 
independence. His broad outlook and unerring instinct in the choice of men 
were chiefly responsible for the triumphs of British policy at home and abroad. 
Sent Boscawen and Amherst to the capture of Louisbourg, and Wolfe and 
Saunders to victory at Quebec. Index : Dr Opposes Quebec Act, 65. Bib. : 
Almon, Anecdotes and Speeches of Chatham ; Rosebery, William Pitt; Green, 
William Pitt, Earl of Chatham; Correspondence of William Pitt with Colonial 
Governors, ed. by Kimball. See his letters and instructions to Wolfe, Saunders, 
and Amherst, in Doughty, Siege of Quebec, and Wood, Logs of Conquest of Canada. 

Chaumonot, Joseph. Came to Canada, 1639, with Madame de la Peltrie, 
Marie de FIncarnation, and Fathers Vimont and Poncet. Accompanied Br6- 
beuf as missionary to the Neutral Nation, whose country was along the north 
shore of Lake Erie, 1640. Sent to the Onondagas, 1655. Missionary in charge 
of the Hurons at Old Lorette, where, in 1674, he built the chapel in honour of 
Our Lady of Loretto. Died, Feb. 21, 1693. Index: L Accompanies mission 
to Gannentaha, 65 ; chief promoter of cult of Holy Family, 86. Bib. : Shea, 
Vie de Chaumonot; Parkman, Jesuits in North America; Campbell, Pioneer 
Priests of North America. 

Chaussegros de Lery, Gaspard (1682-1756). Sent to Canada in 1716 to 
superintend the fortifications of Quebec, Montreal, and other places in the colony. 
Prepared a plan of the cathedral at Quebec in 1725 ; and of the fortifications 
at Quebec in 1730. Mentioned as having been at Fort St. Frederic in 1742 ; made 
a plan of Detroit in 1750. Index : L Makes plans for entrance to Montreal 
church, 90. WM Criticized by Montcalm, 79. Bib.: Traite de Fortification. 

Chaussegros de Llry, Gaspard- Joseph. Son of preceding. Engineer; made 
a legislative councillor, in 1774. 

Chauveau, Pierre Joseph Olivier (1820-1890). Born at Quebec. Educated 
at Quebec ; studied law and called to the bar of Lower Canada. First entered 


public life, 1844, defeating John Neilson in Quebec County. Represented the 
same constituency in the Assembly until 1855. Solicitor-general, in Hincks- 
Morin ministry, 1851 ; and provincial secretary, 1853. In 1S55 succeeded Dr. 
Meilleur as chief superintendent of education of Lower Canada. In 1S67 
elected to the Dominion Parliament, as well as to the Quebec House, and the 
same year formed a provincial ministry. Resigned, 1873, and the same year 
Speaker of the Senate, retiring in 1874. Three years later sheriff of Montreal. 
Index: Md Leader of Quebec government, 141; the appointment revealed 
MacdonakTs judgment, 141-142. C Conservative leader in Quebec, 24 ; super- 
intendent of public instruction, 24, 37 ; premier of Quebec, 68 ; his character, 
68. E One of leaders of the opposition in 1847, 45 ; returned in elections of 
1848, 50 ; Solicitor-general for Lower Canada, 113 ; provincial secretary in Hincks 
ministry, 126 ; and in MacNab-Morin government, 141 ; votes against seculari- 
zation of the Clergy Reserves, 164. Bib. : Works : Charles Guerin, Roman de 
Moeurs Canadiennes ; Frangois-Xavier Garneau, Sa Vie et Ses (Euvres; L* In- 
struction Publique au Canada; Souvenirs et Legendes. For biog. ? see Dent, 
Can. For.; Taylor, Brit. Am.; Morgan, Gel. Can. 

Ckauvin, Pierre, Sieur de Tonnetuit. A Huguenot, born at Dieppe. Ap- 
pointed captain of the garrison at Honfleur, 1589. Obtained trading monopoly 
for ten years in Canada. Made a trading voyage to Canada, 1600, bringing 
put a few colonists, whom he landed at Tadoussac. Sailed again the follow- 
ing year, with a larger fleet, but no colonists ; and again in 1602. Died, 1603. 
Index : Ch Attempts to form settlement at Tadoussac, 8 ; left in charge of 
Quebec colony, 54. F Obtains patent for exclusive trade in Canada, 2; sails 
for the St. Lawrence, 3. Bib. ; Biggar, Early Trading Companies of New France. 

Chedabucto. Now known as Guysborough, Nova Scotia. Index: F Frontenac 
arrives at, 232. 

Cheffault. Ch Agent of Company of New France, 244. 

Cherououng. Ch Montagnais chief, sent on embassy to Iroquois, 163. 

Chesapeake. Bk Affair of, 82-86. 

Childers, Hugh Culling Eardley (1827-1896). Entered the House of Com- 
mons, 1860 ; financial secretary, 1865^-1866 ; first lord of the Admiralty and privy 
councillor, 1868. In 1875 came to Canada on Lord Buffering invitation as 
a commissioner under the Prince Edward Island Land Purchase Act. Secre- 
tary of state for war, 1880-1882 ; chancellor of the exchequer, 1882-1885 ; and 
home secretary, 1886. Index: WT Commissioner under Land Purchase Act, 
136. Bib. : Diet. Nat. Biog, 

CMmeourimou. Ch Montagnais chief, sent on embassy to Iroquois, 163. 

CMpman. WT Judge of Supreme Court, New Brunswick, 8; one of Maine 
Boundary commissioners, 8. 

CMpman, Ward. WT Judge of Supreme Court, New Brunswick, 8; succeeds 
Saunders as chief justice, 74 ; resigns in 1850, 129, 159. 

CMppewa Indians. A large tribe, of Algonquian stock, formerly ranging 
along both shores of Lakes Huron and Superior, and westward as far as North 
Dakota. First mentioned in the Jesuit Relation of 1640, as living around Sault 
Ste. Marie. During the eighteenth century, they fought successfully against the 
Sioux, Foxes, and Iroquois. They numbered in 1764 about 25,000 ; and at the 
present time count over 30,000, of whom about one-half are on reservations in 
Canada. Index : Hd Sioux offer to attack, 148. Bib. : Hodge, Handbook of 
American Indians; Schoolcraft, Indian Tribes; Grant, Sauteux Indians in 
Masson, Bourgeois de la Compagnie du Nord-Ouest. 


CMsholm, O. C. Sy Sergeant-at-anns of Legislative Assembly, 334. 

CMttenden, Thomas (1730-1797). First governor of Vermont, 1778-1797. 

Index : Hd Claims separation of Vermont from New York, 201 ; negotiates 

with Haldimand, 202 ; General Washington's letter to, 212-213 ; Ira Alien's 

roposed treaty with, 214-215. Bib. : Chipman, Thomas Chittenden; Cyc. Am. 


Cholseui, tienne-Fran$ois, Due de (1719-1785). Minister of foreign affairs; 
signed the treaty of 1759 with Austria; minister of war, 1761. Index: WM 
French minister, glad to get rid of Canada, 11. 

Cholera Epidemic, 1832 and 1834. P Imported by immigrants, 87 ; govern- 
ment blamed for neglect to provide quarantine, 88; committee formed to 
inquire into causes, etc., 88-89 ; one of the grievances in the Ninety-Two 
Resolutions, 89. See also Epidemics. 

Chouageun* See Oswega. 

Chouart dit des Groseilliers, Medard. Born in France about 1621. Came 
to Canada, 1642. After serving the Jesuits for some years as a donne, or lay 
helper, engaged in the fur trade, and with his brother-in-law Radisson (q.v.) 
made extensive explorations in the West and North, 1659-1663. With Radisson 
afterwards went to England and was instrumental in establishing the Hudson's 
Bay Company, and laying the foundations of its gigantic fur trading monopoly 
on the shores of Hudson Bay. Bib. : Dionne, Chouart et Radisson (R. S. C., 
1893) ; Suite, Radisson in the North-West (R. S. C., 1904) ; Suite, Dtcouverte 
du Mississippi (R. S. C., 1903); Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company; Laut, Path- 
finders of the West and Conquest of the Great North-West. 

Christian Doctrine, Brothers of the. L Arrival of, in Canada, 125. 

Christian Guardian. R Founded at York (Toronto), 1829, 82; Egerton 
Ryerson, first editor, 82 ; exponent of Methodist views on religious, educational, 
and political questions, 82-83 ; its policy, 94-95 ; Ryerson's articles in, 96, 97, 
98, 100, 109, 110, 134, 137. 

Christie, Alexander. MS Chief factor, Hudson's Bay Company, and later 
governor of Assiniboia, 222. Bib. : Ryerson, Story of my Life. 

Christie, David (1818-1880). Born in Edinburgh, Scotland. Educated at 
Edinburgh High School. Came to Canada, 1833, and devoted himself to farming. 
Took a prominent part in politics as a leader of the Reformers. Sat for Went- 
worth in the Legislative Assembly, 1851-1854, and for East Brant, 1855-1858. 
Elected to the Legislative Council, 1858, and held his seat until Confederation. 
Appointed to the Dominion Senate, 1867 ; secretary of state, 1873 ; Speaker of 
the Senate, 1874-1878. Administrator of Ontario during the illness of the 
lieutenant-governor, 1875. Died in Paris, Ontario. Index : B A leader of the 
Clear Grits, 39. E Well-known agriculturist, and a leader of the Clear Grits, 
110. Bib. : Dent, Last Forty Years. 

Christie, Robert (1788-1856). Born in Nova Scotia. Repeatedly expelled 
from the Assembly of Lower Canada ; re-elected after the union, and held his 
seat until 1854. Contributed to Quebec Gazette and Mercury. Index: F 
Papineau causes his expulsion on four occasions from Assembly, 80 ; his recon- 
ciliation with Papineau, 180; Papineau's letters to, 144, 181-182, 191-193. Me 
On Union Act, 405. Bib. : History of the Late Province of Lower Canada, from 
the Commencement to the Close of its Existence as a Separate Province. For biog. 
see Morgan, CeL Can. 

Chronicle. Newspaper, published at Halifax. Index : H Published by Wm. 
Annand, 75 ; Joseph Howe contributes to, 90-93 ; letters of Howe in, on Irish 


question, 75 ; Jonathan McCully editor, 186 ; Howe's "Botheration Scheme" 
articles, 1S6 ; action for libel, 188 ; opposes Confederation, 189 ; attacks Howe. 
209 ; Howe's letter to editor of, 210-212. 

Chronicle and Gazette. Newspaper published at Kingston. Index: Sj 
Praises Sydenham's policy, 351. BL On the debate on responsible government 
in the Legislature, 1841, 95; on Draper's speech, 27. Me Question of govern- 
ment printing, 103. 

Chrystler's Farm. Battle in War of 1812-1814, fought Nov. llth, 1813. 
The scene of the fight was near the head of the Long Sault Rapids, on the St. 
Lawrence. Morrison commanded the British troops, about 800 men, and Boyd 
the Americans, numbering 1800, increased during the fight to 2400. The 
Americans were driven off the field. Morrison captured 100 men and a gun. 
The American loss was 300 men; and the British, 200 men. See also War 
of 1812. Bib. : Lucas, Canadian War of 1812; Kingsford, History of Canada. 

Chubb. F Commandant of Fort Pemaquid, fires on Indians while under flag 
of truce, 331 ; killed, 332. 

Church. Newspaper published at Toronto. Index : BL Quoted on debate 
on responsible government in 1841, 90 ; on Bagot's letter to La Fontaine, 125 ; 
opposes Baldwin's University Bill, 197 ; on Rebellion Losses Bill, 319-320. B 
Controversy with the Banner opposes responsible government, 6. 

Church of En gland . The first Anglican church in what is now Canada was built 
at Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1750, when Cornwallis was governor of the province. 
The first see was established in 1787. Dr. Charles Inglis as bishop of Nova 
Scotia had charge of the whole of British North America. The first service held 
in Quebec was in the Ursuline Convent, September, 1759. The first Anglican 
bishop of the diocese of Quebec was Dr. Mountain, appointed in 1793 ; and 
in 1839 Dr. John Strachan became first bishop of Toronto. As population 
grew, the eastern dioceses were subdivided into nine. The see of Rupert's 
Land, founded 1849, was subsequently divided into Rupert's Land, Moosonee, 
Saskatchewan, Calgary, Mackenzie River, Qu'Appelle, Athabaska, Keewatin, 
and Selkirk. In 1859 was established the see of British Columbia, divided 
later into New Westminster and Caledonia. In 1857 the Church of England 
Synod was legally constituted; and after that year bishops were elected by 
the votes of clergy and laity in Canada. The first Church Congress was held, 
1883. The General Synod of the Church in the Dominion was established, 1893, 
and the metropolitans of Canada and Rupert's Land were made archbishops, 
the first of whom were Dr. J. T. Lewis and Dr. R. Machray. Index : B And 
the Family Compact, 11 ; and the Clergy Reserves, 48-49 ; privileges granted 
under Act of 1791, 51-52 ; Durham's estimate of numerical strength, 52-53 ; 
recognition of its exclusive claims said by Durham to have been chief cause of Re- 
bellion, 53 ; E Its claims to the Clergy Reserves under the Constitutional Act, 
1791, 145, 150 et seq. R Its relations with mother church in England, 39; 
advantages in Canada, 39 ; statistics in Upper Canada, 51. Dr Allowed use of 
R&ollet church at Montreal, 241 ; Jesuit church transferred to them, 242 ; first 
Anglican conference and confirmation held in R^collet church at Quebec, 242, 
272. WT In New Brunswick, 7 ; controls King's College, 163. Bib. : Hopkins, 
Canada: An Ency., vol. 2; Cross, The Anglican Episcopate and the American 
Colonies; Anderson, History of Church of England in the Colonies; Akins, Church 
of England in North American Colonies ; Taylor, The Last Three Bishops Ap- 
pointed by the Crown; Lowndes, Bishops of the Day; Machray, Life of Archbishop 
Machray; Mockridge, Bishops of the Church of England in Canada and New- 


foundland; Champion, The Anglican Church in Canada; Wynne, The Church in 
Greater Britain. 

Churchill, Fort. See Prince of Wales, Fort. 

Churchill River. Rises in La Loche Lake, lat. 56 10' N., long. 109 40' W. ? 
and after a course of 1000 miles, empties into Hudson Bay. The mouth of the 
river was discovered by Munk, a Danish navigator, in 1619, but it was not until 
1774 that its upper waters were discovered by Joseph Frobisher (q.v.), and ex- 
plored by Thomas Frobisher and Alexander Henry, the Elder (q.v.),m 1775. 
The Churchill was formerly known under various names : Danish River, in honour 
of Munk' English River, so called by Frobisher; and Missinipi, the native 
name. Bib.; Laut, Conquest of the Great North-West; Bryce, Hudson's Bay 

^Citizen. Newspaper published at Ottawa. Established, 1844. Index: Me 
Newspaper. Mackenzie's obituary in, 517 ; urges monument to, 518. 

Civil Law. Br Importance of the question to the French population, after 
1760,10-11; British authorities at Quebec find difficulty hi defining, 11; attempt 
to enforce English law abandoned, 13 ; Murray establishes courts, 13 ; criticisms 
of the grand jury, 15 ; confusion of English and French codes, 40-41 ; dissatis- 
faction of the French-speaking inhabitants, 41 ; Masses suggests four plans to 
Carleton, 41-42; Maurice Morgan sent out to study legal situation, 43; Carle- 
ton favours the French civil code, 43; dishonest magistrates and tyrannical 
bailiffs, 51-54 ; report of Committee on Administration of Justice, 1769, 54 ; Or- 
dinance of 1770, 54 ; French-Canadians petition for their own laws, 61 ; French 
law established by Quebec Act, 64; discussed in British Parliament, 65-68; 
confusion of civil procedure, 225-227. Bib. : Bourinot, Constitutional History 
of Canada and How Canada is Governed^ Ashley, Earlier Constitutional History 
of Canada; Houston, Canadian Conditional Documents. 

Civil List. Sy Permanent provision for, considered necessary, 120 ; Syden- 
ham asks for, 204; possible opposition to, 308. S In Upper Canada, under 
Simcoe, 177. 

Civil Secretary. Sy Of the governor, large range of duties undertaken by, in 
pre-union times, 331. 

Clarendon, George William Frederick Villiers, fourth Earl of (1800-1870). 
Ambassador at Madrid, 1833-1839; lord privy seal, 1839-1841 ; foreign minister, 
1853-1858, 1865-1866, and 1868-1870. Index: Sy Governor-generalship of 
Canada tendered to, 58. Bib. : Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Clark, George Rogers (1752-1818). American frontier leader. Index: Hd 
Rebel leader, his cruel treatment of garrison of Vincennes, 168. Bib. : Cam- 
paign in the Illinois; English, Conquest of the Country North-West of the Ohio. 

Clark, Peter. S Commands boat sent to meet Prince Edward, 183. 

Clark, Samuel. WT Rector of Gagetown, 147. 

Clark, Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas. Bk Command assigned to, on Niagara 
frontier, 206. Hd Death of his wife, 237. 

Clark, Sir William Mortimer (1836- ). Born in Aberdeen, Scotland. 
Educated at Marischal College, Aberdeen; studied law at the University of 
Edinburgh, and admitted a writer to the signet, 1859. Came to Toronto, 1859 ; 
called to the bar of Ontario, 1869. Engaged largely in financial affairs. Lieu- 
tenant-governor of Ontario, 1903-1908. Bib. : Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian 
Who's Who, 

Clarke, Captain. F Killed at Fort Loyal, two daughters taken to Quebec, 303. 

Clarke, Sir Alured (1745-1832). Lieutenant-governor of Lower Canada, 


1790-1795. Had been governor of Jamaica before coming to Canada; u:J 
after leaving the country, filled several high offices In India, finally becoming 
governor-general. Returned to England, 1802, and made field-marshal 
Index: Dr Appointed lieutenant-governor, 249; administers government in 
Carleton's absence, 269 ; gives names to counties, 269. S Appointed lieutenant- 
governor of Lower Canada in absence of Dorchester, 47 ; Simcoe's harmonious 
relations with, 130. Bib. : Morgan, Gel. Can. 

Clarke, Jonathan. S Teaches school at Fredericksburg and Matilda, 167. 

Clans, Colonel. Bk Command assigned to, on Niagara frontier, 206. 

Clay, Henry (1777-1852). American statesman and orator. Index: BkHiti 
confident prediction of conquest of Canada, 215. Bib. : Works, ed. by Colton 
1857; new ed., 1898; Schurz, Life of Henri/ Clay; Cyc. Am, Biog. 

Clayoquet Sound. West coast of Vancouver Island, Index : B Natives of, 
attack Tonquin, 1S11, and massacre crew, 37. 

Clear Grits. B Leaders of the party, 39; origin of name, 40; denounced by 
the Globe, 40 ; platform, 41 ; significance of movement, 235. C Clamouring 
against institutions of Quebec, 25. E Leading members of party, 110 ; its plat- 
form, 111; George Brown becomes recognized leader, 112; influence of party 
defection of Rolph and Cameron, 112; attack government on account of Ga~ 
vazzi riots, 125 ; unite with Conservatives and Rouges to defeat Hincks govern- 
ment, 127 ; their strength in 1S54, 134 ; fight for the speakership, 135 ; obnoxious 
to French-Canadians, 137; advocate secularization of Clergy Reserves, 161, 
163. BL Beginnings of, 335; their programme, 341; Brown's connection 
with, 342. Md Struggle against religious and racial influence, 46; George 
Brown first opposes and later becomes leader of, 54. Bib. : Dent, Last Forty 
Years; Mackenzie, George Brown. 

Clement, Pierre. Dr On causes of failure of West India Company, 149 ; on 
galley service, 215. Bib. : Histoire de Colbert ; Madame de Montespan et Louis 
3L1. V . 

Clergy, French-Canadian. Dr Faithful to the British government, 72, 80. 
Hd Illiterate but highly respected, 42; receive donations for fire sufferers, 
44 ; refuse to believe that Canada would ever be ceded to Britain, 128 ; Quebec 
Act and, 174; Haldimand's attitude towards, 180, 181, 182; attempt to get 
French priests into Seminary, 187 ; then: interest in establishment of public 
library, 191 ; alarmed at large numbers of Protestant settlers, 264. 

Clergy Reserves. Md Question embitters public life of Upper Canada, 13, 28 ; 
nature and history of the dispute, 55-62; secularization of, carried out by 
MacNab-Morin coalition ministry, 63; Macdonald introduces bill, Oct % 17, 
1854, 65 ; bill passed by Assembly, November 23, and by Legislative Council, Dec. 
10, 65 ; provisions of the biU, 65-66. S Created by Constitutional Act, 12, 
156. Dr Created by Constitutional Act, 267. Sy Designed for support of 
state church, 77 ; treatment of, in Durham's report, 93 ; conflict over, 238- 
244 ; Sydenham's plan for settlement of questions, 245-246 ; attitude of Reform 
party respecting, 246 ; bill recommended by governor passed and sent home for 
approval, 248 ; question settled by Imperial Parliament, 249. BL Set apart by 
Constitutional Act, 1791, 42 ; William Morris's connection with, 83 ; and Upper 
Canada College, 192 ; and Ryerson, 240 ; pressing for settlement, 339 ; seculariza- 
tion of, advocated by Clear Grits, 342 ; history of question, 343-349. B Tach6 
advises French-Canadians to oppose secularization of, 48 ; history of question, 
51-60. R Ryerson enters the controversy, 19, 26^-27 ; endowment of established 
church provided for, in Act of 1791, 34r-35; influence of John Strachan, 36-37; 



dominance of Church of England party, 38-40; extent and value of the Reserves, 
47 ; question comes up in Legislature, 47 ; claims of Church of Scotland, 48-49 ; 
petition and claims referred to select committee of British House of Commons, 
1827, 50; Ryerson proposes sale and appropriation of proceeds to general edu- 
cational purposes, 115 ; Sir George Arthur proposes division among various reli- 
gious bodies, 119 ; Ryerson's attitude towards division, 119-120. E Granted to 
Protestant clergy by Constitutional Act, 1791, 102 ; Baldwin's attitude towards, 
102-103; La Fontaine's attitude towards, 102-103; Canadian Legislature receives 
power to settle question, 119; settlement delayed, 126, 132; secularization 
proposed by Sicotte, 126-127; secularization a condition of MacNab-Morin 
coalitions, 140; history of the question, 145-169; report of select committee, 
147 ; Imperial Act passes, 158-159 ; its repeal proposed by Price, 161 ; value of 
the Reserves, 161-162; provincial Legislature given power to vary or repeal 
Union Act, and to settle Clergy Reserves, on certain conditions, 167 ; bill intro- 
duced by John A, Macdonald, finally settling question, 168; terms of bill, 
168. Me Created by Constitutional Act, 70 ; details of, 70 ; Durham on, 71 ; 
Mackenzie's views on, 94r-95; grievance report on, 72; Glenelg's position, 283. 
Bib.: Lindsey, The Clergy Reserves; Hincks's Letters in Montreal Herald, 
December, 1882; Dent, Last Forty Years; Bradshaw, Self-Government in Canada; 
Ryerson, Story of my Life; Bethune, Memoir of Bishop Strachan. 

Clennont, Chevalier de. F Killed in skirmish on Beauport flats, 294. 

Clermont, College of. L Laval studies at, 21. 

Clinton, Sir Henry (1738-1795). Sent to America, 1775 ; served in the South, 
and with Howe at Philadelphia ; succeeded him as commander-in-chief , 1778 ; 
Captured Charleston, 17SO ; succeeded by Sir Guy Carleton, and returned to 
England, 1782. Index : S Replaced as Commander-in-chief by Sir Guy Carleton, 
39 ; secures promotion for Queen's Rangers, 39. Dr Returns to England, 192. 
Hd In command at New York, 131 ; succeeded by Dorchester, 188 ; his efforts 
to bring Vermont back to allegiance to Britain, 199-200 ; Haldimand's report 
to, on Ira Allen's diplomacy, 207 ; Haldimand's letter to, on the policy of Ver- 
mont, 208; and his proposed proclamation to the people of, 211 ; Haldimand's 
letter ^ on crisis in spring of 1782, 212; his list of rebels, 280; his emoluments in 
America, 330. Bib. : Works: Narrative of the Campaign in North America, Re- 
joinder to Comwallis's Observations; Observations on Stedman } s American War. 
For biog. see Diet. Am. Biog .; Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Ciitherow, John (1782-1852). Entered army, 1799; lieutenant-colonel, 1812; 
served in the Egyptian campaign, 1801; the Hanover campaign, 1805; the 
Walcheren expedition, 1809, and throughout the Peninsular War. Appointed 
major-general, 1830; lieutenant-general, 1841. Adminished the government of 
Canada after the death of Sydenham, 1841. Index: Sy Closes session of 1841, 
342 ; senior military officer at Kingston, 342. Bib, : Morgan, Cel Can. 

Closse, Major. L His piety, 8. 

Cloutier, Zacharie. Ch Joiner, accompanies Robert Giffard to Canada, 252. 

Club Democratique. C Their appeal to the public, 26-27. 

Cobb, Sylvanus (1709-1762). A native of Plymouth, Mass. Served in the 
expedition against Louisbourg, 1745. For some years engaged in the coast de- 
fence of Nova Scotia. Served at the second siege of Louisbourg under Amherst 
and Boscawen. Removed to Liverpool, Nova Scotia. Died of the plague at 
the siege of Havana, 1762. Bib. : Murdoch, History of Nova Scotia; Selections 
from the Public Documents of Nova Scotia, ed. by Akins. 

Cobden, Richard (1804-1865). British statesman. Index: Sy A more ad- 


vanced radical than Sydenhara, 20. Bib. ; Morley, Life of 

Diet. Nat. Biog. ' 

Cochrane, Thomas (1777-1804). Bom in Nova Scotia. A member of the 
English bar. Chief-justice of the Supreme Court of Prince Edward Island ISO! 
judge of the King's Bench of Upper Canada, 1804. Drowned in meek' of the 
Speedij, while on his way to hold court. Index : Bk Drowned in foundering of 
the Speedy, 69. Bib. : Morgan, Cd. Can.; Read, Lives of the Judges. 

Cockburn, James (1819-1883). Born in Berwick-on-Tweed, England 
Came to Canada, and called to the bar of Upper Canada, 1846. Practised his 
profession at Cpbourg. Represented West Northumberland in the Assembly 
1861-1867; solicitor-general for Upper Canada, 1864-1867. A delegate to the 
Quebec-Conference. After Confederation sat in the House of Commons for West 
Northumberland, 1867-1874, and during that time was Speaker of the House. 
Again elected to the House of Commons, 1878, and retained his seat until 1881, 
when he retired to accept the chairmanship of the commission on the consolida- 
tion of the statutes of Canada. Index : WT Solicitor-general, West, delegate to 
Quebec Conference, 218. E Last Speaker of the House of Commons to exercise 
privilege of addressing the governor-general on measures of the session, 1869, 
130. Bib. : Taylor, Brit. Am.; Rattray, The Scot in British North America; 
Dent, Last Forty Years. 

Cockrel. S Establishes school at Niagara and afterwards at Ancaster 167 

Coffin, William Foster (1808-1878). Born in Bath, England. Came to Que- 
bec with his father, an army officer, 1813. Returned to England, 1815, and until 
1824 was a student at Eton. Came back to Canada, 1830. Called to the bar, 
1835. Took part in the suppression of the Rebellion of 1837. Joint sheriff 
of Montreal, 1840-1851. Appointed commissioner of ordnance lands, 1856, and 
one of the Intercolonial Railway commissioners, 1868. Held many important 
offices under the government of Canada and in the militia. Bib. : Works: His- 
tory of the War of 1812 ; Three Chapters on a Triple Project; Thoughts on De- 
fence from a Canadian Point of View; Quirks of Diplomacy. For faiog., see 
Morgan, Annual Register, 1878. 

Coke, Sir John (1563-1644). Sat in Parliament, 1621-1629; secretary of 
state, ^1625; a commissioner of the treasury, 1635-1636. Index: Ch English 
commissioner in matter of Canada, 214. Bib. : Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Colbert, Jean Baptist* (1619-1683). First minister to Louis XIV. Index : F 
Creates West India Company, 49 ; disapproves Frontenac's action in summon- 
ing "three estates,^ 67 ; anti-clerical tendencies, 73; Madame Maintenor/s 
opinion of, 74; advice to Courcelles in relation to ecclesiastical power, 115; 
asks for particulars as regards effect of liquor traffic, 118; speaks of bishop as 
aiming at too much power, 119; overthrow of his commercial policy, 151. L 
Minister of marine and colonies, not favourable to emigration, 80; enjoins 
Frontenac to act with more moderation, 165 ; prejudiced against clergy, 170 ; 
his despatch on subject of liquor traffic, 170. Bib. : Colby, Canadian Types 
of the Old Regime; Chambers, Biog. Diet. 

Coiebrooke, Sir William Macbean George (1787-1870). After serving in 
the army, and as political agent in the East, became lieutenant-governor of the 
Bahamas, 1834-1837 ; governor of the Leeward Islands, 1837 ; and in 1841 suc- 
ceeded Sir John Harvey as lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick. Afterwards 
governor of Barbados and the Windward Islands, 1848-1856. Index: WT 
Appoints son-in-law as provincial secretary, New Brunswick, 76 ; action resented 
by members of government, 76-80 ; his unpopularity, 100-101. Bib. : Hannay, 


History of New Brunswick; Rattray, The Scot in British North America; Diet. 
Nat. Biog. 

Coles, George (1810-1875). WT Delegate to Quebec Conference, 219. 

Collins, Francis. Me Reports legislative debates, 106; publishes Canadian 
Freeman in 1825, 111; convicted of libel, 134; fined and imprisoned, 134. 
Bib.: Dent, Upper Canadian Rebellion. 

Collver, Jabez. S Presbyterian minister, the first to come to Upper Canada, 


Colonial Advocate. Newspaper published by William Lyon McKenzie. 
Index: Me Newspaper, published at Queenston, May 18, 1824, 85; reviews 
condition of provinces, 86, 87 ; topics discussed in, 94-97 ; reports debates, 102, 
103 ; granted a subsidy for printing, 103 ; moved to York, January, 1825, 106 ; 
House refuses publication of reports in, 108; destruction of, 113; W. J. Rat- 
tray on, 116 ; defendants made to pay 625 damages, 129 ; criminal prosecution 
of, 130 ; second destruction of, 221 ; last issue, November, 1834, 259. BL Its 
extravagant language, 12 ; established by Mackenzie, 13 ; aids in consolidating 
Reform party, 13 ; its office attacked by Tories, 14-15. & Edited by W. L. 
Mackenzie, 64, 66 ; attacks Egerton Ryerson, 98. 

Colonial Conference, 1894. Opened at Ottawa, June 28, with Mackenzie 
Bowell in the chair. Delegates present from the Imperial government, New 
South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, 
Cape Colony, and Canada. Resolutions were passed in favour of an Imperial 
Customs Union and a Pacific Cable. Conference adjourned, July 11. See also 
Imperial Conference. Bib. : Proceedings of the Colonial Conference, 1894; 
Ewart, Kingdom of Canada. 

Colonial Empire. Newspaper published at St. John. Index : WT Brings 
charge against government, 193. 

Colonial Gazette. Newspaper published in London. Index : Sy Publishes 
article on Poulett Thomson's mission to Canada, 135-141 ; not entirely confident 
of his success, 140. 

Colonist. Newspaper published in Toronto. Index: B Edited by Samuel 
Thompson, 4; George Sheppard, editorial writer on, 135. 

Colonization. L Laval's interest in, 77 ; arrival of colonists from La Rochelle, 
1663-1664, 77 ; system of apprenticeship, 7778 ; Sovereign Council asks for men 
from north of France, 78 ; Bourdon brings oat a ship-load of girls, 79 ; soldiers 
of Carignan Regiment come out as colonists, 79 ; Talon's immigration policy, 
80 ; Colbert's opposition, 80. F Cartier's attempts at, 2 ; settlement at Port 
Royal, 6-7 ; at Quebec, 7-8 ; and the trading Companies, 19, 28 ; of Montreal, 
33-34 ; marriageable girls sent out, 57. Ch Character of, in New France, 143- 
147 ; by Company of New France, 168-169, D Impetus to, from western side, 2. 

Coltman, W. B. A merchant of Quebec, and lieutenant-colonel in the militia. 
Sent by Governor Sherbrooke, 1816, to Red River, to investigate dispute be- 
tween the Hudson's Bay and the North West Companies. Index : MS Sent to 
Red River to investigate troubles, 195; his report, 196. 

Columbia. B Hudson's Bay Company vessel, 183. 

Columbia Fur Company. D Organized, 1822, by recruits from the North 
West Company, 134. See also Astor ; Astor Fur Company. 

Columbia River. Rises in Upper Columbia Lake, lat. 50 10', long. 115 50', 
and flows into Pacific Ocean. Total length about 1150 miles. Its mouth was 
discovered by Robert Gray, of Boston, May, 1792, and named by him after his 
vessel. It was first reached overland by Lewis and Clark, in 1805 ; and first 


explored throughout its entire length by David Thompson, of the North West 
Company, 1807-181 1. Its principal branch is the Kootenay. Index: B Car- 
ver's "River of Oregon," 19; Russian colony projected at, 44; named by 
Gray, 57 ; Frascr raised mistaken for, 59 ; Lewis and Clark on, 67. 

Comfort, Thomas. Me Aids Mackenzie's escape, 3S4. 

Commerce. Bk In Upper Canada^ 50. See also Trade. 

Commercial Union. Complete and entire free trade with the United State?, 
first proposed by Ira Gould, before Montreal Board of Trade, February, 1852, 
(See Montreal Gazette, Feb. 18-22, 1852.) The question was repeatedly dis~ 
cussed in succeeding years, down to 1890, in and out of Parliament, and for a 
time was adopted by the Liberal party as a trade policy, but abandoned before 
they came into power in 1896. Index: Md Brought forward by Liberals as 
an alternative to protection, 261-262 ; history of the movement, 291-292 ; the 
Commercial Union League, 293-298. See also Unrestricted reciprocity; Reci- 
procity ; Zollvrein. Bib. : Canadian Emancipation and Commercial Union; 
Adam, Handbook of Commercial Union; Willison, Sir Wilfrid Laurier and the 
Liberal Party; Pope, Memoirs of Sir John A. Macdonald. 

Commissariat Department. S Abuses in, 212. 

Company of Canada (Merchant Adventurers of Canada). Organized by 
David Kirke, and chartered by Charles I, to exploit the fur trade of the St. 
Lawrence. The restoration of Canada to France in 1632 brought the opera- 
tions of Kirke, Sir William Alexander, and their associates to an untimely end. 
Index : Ch Letters patent granted to, 176. Bib. : Douglas, Old France in the 
New World; Kirke, The First English Conquest of Canada. 

Company of De Caen. Organized by William de Caen and his nephew Emery, 
merchants of Rouen. Monopoly granted the company on usual terms as to 
settlement, missionaries, etc., 1621. Absorbed Champlain's Company, 1622, 
and the united Companies carried on trade until 1633. Index : Ch Organized, 
130-132 ; rivalry with Company of Rouen, 133-137 ; amalgamation of two com- 
panies, 136-137. Bib. : Biggar, Early Trading Companies of New France; Park- 
man, Pioneers of France. 

Company of New France (Compagnie des Cent-Associes). Established, 1627, 
by Cardinal Richelieu, on the advice of Isaac de Razilly. A monopoly of 
fifteen years was granted, with full ownership of the entire valley of the St. 
Lawrence, in return for which the Company was to take out three hundred 
colonists every year up to 1643, No serious effort was made to carry out 
this obligation, although the Company continued to enjoy its monopoly until 
1663. Index : L Resigns its charter, 41 ; renders assistance to missions, 50 ; 
succeeded by the West India Company, 145. Ch Established, 169; list of 
directors, 170 ; documents relating to, 171 ; sends out four vessels, 172 ; equips 
ships to retake Quebec, 213 ; terms of grant to, 222 ; bears expense of Jesuit 
mission stations, 228 ; sincerely interested in conversion of savages and progress 
of colonization, 244 ; special committee for its financial affairs, 244 ; appoints 
Champlain governor, 244. F Created by Cardinal Richelieu, 19 ; colonists sent 
out by, 28 ; cedes some of its rights to colonists, 36 ; new arrangement works 
badly, 37 ; surrenders aU its powers to the king, 1663, 49 ; its failure to fulfil 
its engagements, 55. E Creates seigniories, 175. Bib. : Biggar, Early Trading 
Companies of New France; Parkman, Pioneers of France. 

Company of Notre Dame de Montreal. L Consecrates the island of Montreal 
to the Virgin, 85 ; makes over its rights to the Seminary of St. Sulpice, in 1663, 
108, 135; its debts discharged by De Belmont, 135. 


Company of Rouen and St. Malo (Cliamplain's Company). Established at 
the instance of Champlain, in 1614. The shares were divided among the mer- 
chants of Rouen and St. Malo. The terms of their charter required the Com- 
pany to bring out colonists, but as usual they did not take this obligation very 
seriously. They did, however, make one notable addition to the population 
of New France, for in the spring of 1617 they brought out Louis Hebert and his 
family. Hubert's experience as a colonist was not such as to encourage others 
to follow his example. The Company's monopoly was cancelled in 1620. 
Index: Ch Formed by Champlain, 122 ; its chief members, 122 ; terms of its 
charter 122 ; pays large salary to the Prince de Conde", 122 ; Champlain has 
trouble' with 123, 125; the king intervenes on his behalf, 126; colonists to be 
brought out, 127-129; absorbed by Company of De Caen, 130, 137; conflict 
with new Company, 133-137, Bib. : Biggar, Early Trading Companies of New 
France; Parkman, Pioneers of France. 

Company of the West Indies (Compagnie des Indes Occidentales). Chartered 
by Louis XIV, 1664, following the cancellation of the charter of the Company 
of New France. Its field of operations was enormous, covering the west coast 
of Africa, the east coast of South America from the Amazon to the Orinoco, 
Canada, Acadia, and Newfoundland. The Christianization of the native tribes 
was given as the principal object of the Company, commerce being of only 
secondary importance. Despite its many privileges, and the readiness with 
which its stock was subscribed, it did not prosper, and by 1672 was hopelessly 
in debt. Three years later its charter was revoked, so far as Canada was con- 
cerned. Index : L Resigns its charter, 145. E Creates seigniories, 175. Bib. : 
Douglas, Old France in the New World; Parkman, Old Regime. 

Conde, Prince Henri de (1588-1646). Ch Licenses three vessels to trade in 
St. Lawrence, 78 ; letter to, in Champlain's Quatrieme Voyage, 79 ; contributes 
to building of R6collet Convent, 117; source of trouble ^ to the colony, 122; 
incarcerated for conspiracy, 122 ; released, and transfers his commission to the 
Duke of Montmorency, 127. F Lieutenant-general of New France, 12. Bib.: 
Parkman, Pioneers of France. 

Confederation. The first definite step in the movement looking towards 
the union of the British North American colonies, was the Charlottetown Con- 
ference, 1864. Delegates from the three Maritime Provinces met to consider 
the union of those provinces. At the Conference, delegates from Canada 
(constituting what are now the provinces of Ontario and Quebec) appeared, and 
urged the broadening of the discussion to cover all the provinces. Out of this 
meeting grew the Quebec Conference,, of the same year, attended by delegates 
from Canada, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and New- 
foundland; the two latter subsequently withdrew from the movement. The 
Quebec Conference drew up a series of resolutions, which were made the basis of 
the final legislation. In 1866 delegates from the provinces met at the West- 
minster Hotel in London, and framed the British North America Act. The 
Act was passed by the Imperial Parliament, and received the queen's assent, 
March, 1867. It was proclaimed throughout the new Dominion of Canada, 
July 1, 1867. Manitoba was created a province, July 15, 1870. British Colum- 
bia joined the union, July 20, 1871 ; and Prince Edward Island, July 1, 1873. 
The provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan were created Sept. 1, 1905. Index : 
Me Mackenzie advocates, 104-105 ; Robinson reports on, 105. WT History of, 
201-213, 215-229 ; defeated in New Brunswick, 231-252 ; accepted by New 
Brunswick, 253-267 ; completion of, 269-274. Md History of the movement, 


93; outlined by Durham, 93-95; principle adopted by British American 
League, 95 ; and by Legislature of Nova Scotia, 95 ; advocated by Howe and 
Haliburton, 96 ; in speech, from throne, 1858, 96 ; Gait's speech, 96 : Cartier ? 
Gait, and Rose copier with Imperial government, 96-97 ; growth of the move^ 
mentj, 97-100; attitude of Macdonald and George Brown, 100-103; the Char- 
lottetown Conference; 104; Quebec Conference, 101-114; legislative versus 
federal union, 106-110; resolution of Quebec Conference debated in Parliament, 
118-119; passed by Assembly, 120; mission sent to England to confer with 
home government on this and other questions, 12&-121 ; Imperial government 
strongly in favour of, 121 ; supported by Brown in Globe, 123 ; Monck's im- 
patience over delays, 123-124; MacclonakTs reply, 124; Westminster Confer- 
ence, 125-127; British North America Act passed and receives royal assent, 
127 ; Macdonald's letter to Lord Knutsford, 128-129 ; opposition to Confedera- 
tion, 129 ; negotiations with Newfoundland, 146-147 ; and Prince Edward Island, 
147-149 ; and British Columbia, 149-150. Sy Favoured at first by Lord Dur- 
ham, afterwards deemed impracticable, 120. H J. W. Johnstone's speech in 
favour of, 174 ; Joseph Howe's attitude towards, 180-182, 185, 186 ; opposition 
to, 186-192; abandons opposition, 214-216; advocated by Sir Charles Tupper, 
186-189 ; opposed by Halifax Chronicle, 189. C Cartier's connection with, 55- 
65 ; Cartier insists on federal principle, 57-58 ; Macdonald favours legislative 
union, 57 ; Canadian constitution compared with that of the United States, 
58-61 ; weak points of the former, 61-62 ; its advantages, 62-63 ; opposed in 
Quebec, 63-64. E Only feasible solution of difficulties arising out of "Union Act, 
118. B Ardently championed by George Brown, x, xi; indirectly promoted by 
United States Civil War, xi ; the British American League advocates, 38 ; Mc- 
Gee on, 129-130 ; founders of movement, 129 ; George Brown and, 130-132, 
137-138, 139; Reform Conventions of 1857 and 1859 discuss question, 131, 
135-138, 208, 217 ; Gait advocates federal union, 132-133 ; step towards, 133 ; 
question of defence one of forces tending towards, 142 ; events leading up to, 
147-161; the Quebec Conference, 163-166; approval of British government, 
167 ; the debate in Parliament, 169-179, 181-185 ; Quebec Resolutions passed, 
185 ; the mission to England, 186 ; the question in the Maritime Provinces, 
187-188 ; attitude of Brown and the Reform party, 199-210 ; first and greatest 
step in process of expansion, 264. BL The Toronto Church proposes federal 
union of all British North American provinces, 125. P Papineau's opposition 
to, 199, See also Charlottetown Conference ; Quebec Conference ; Westminster 
Conference; Macdonald; Tupper; Brown; Howe; Cartier. Bib.: Whelan, 
Union of the British Provinces; Cauchon, Union of British North American 
Provinces; Howe, Organization of the Empire; McGee, Two Speeches on Union 
of the Provinces; Hamilton, Union of the Colonies of British North America; 
Pope, Confederation Documents; Rawlings, Confederation of the British North 
American Provinces; Parliamentary Debates on Confederation, 1865; Bourinot, 
Constitutional History of Canada. References to pamphlet and other material 
on this subject will be found in Johnson, First Things in Canada. 

Congregation de Notre Dame. F Montreal, established, 29. 

Congress, United States. Dr Address of, to French-Canadians, 71, 77 ; action 
of, at Philadelphia, 77 ; sends commission to inquire into military situation of 
Canada, 135 ; its action in the Asgill case, 199. Hd Meets at Concord, 102 ; 
rumour of French and Spanish treaty with, 124; its designs against Canada, 
129, 130, 132, 319; its attitude towards Vermont, 198, 199, 201-209, 211, 214- 
216 ; defeat of its troops celebrated in Quebec, 223 ; its interests, and that of 


army opposed, 225 ; passes laws against Loyalists, 252 ; sends ambassador to 
Canada, 259 ; slow to fulfil treaty, 260 ; addresses Canadians, 276. 

Conkllng, Senator Roscoe (1820-1888). American statesman. Index: B 
Favourable to proposed Reciprocity Treaty of 1864, 230-231. 

Connecticut. F Takes part in expedition against Montreal, 279. 

Conneli, Charles. WT Resigns as postmaster-general, New Brunswick, 
191-193 ; runs for Carieton County in Confederation interest, 231 ; member of 
Mitchell government, 247 ; elected for Carieton County, 249. 

Connolly, William. MS Chief factor, Hudson's Bay Company, 1825, 224; 
his family, 224. D Succeeds Stuart in New Caledonia, 1824, 99 ; his native wife, 
and family, 99. 

Conolly, William. Dr Of Stratton Hall, Staffordshire; member of Parlia- 
ment and privy councillor, 30 ; his powerful influence exerted on behalf of Guy 
Carieton and his brother, 30; Wolfe alludes to his death, 1754, as " a deadly 
blow to the Carletons," 30. 

Connor, George Skeffington. Born in Ireland. Educated at Trinity College, 
Dublin, Came to Canada, 1832, with William Hume Blake. Settled on a farm 
near Lake Simcoe. Called to the bar of Upper Canada, 1842. Sat in the 
Assembly as a Reformer, 1859-1862 ; judge of the Court of Queen's Bench, 1863. 
Died in Toronto, 1863. Bib.: Read, Lives of the Judges. 

Conseil Souverain. See Sovereign Council. 

Conservative Party. B Organized by Sir John A. Macdonald, out of old 
Tory party, 69; its debt to Canada First Association, 241. Bib.: Pope, 
Memoirs of Sir John A. Macdonald; Dent, Last Forty Years. 

Constitution. Me Newspaper, Mackenzie starts, 320; destroyed by mob, 
321 ; draft constitution of provisional government published in, 356. 

Constitutional Act, 1791. The Act was designed to harmonize the conflicting 
interests of French and English by dividing Quebec into two provinces, 
Upper and Lower Canada, thereby giving to each a larger control of its own 
local affairs. It established in each province a Legislative Council, appointed 
by the crown for life, and a Legislative Assembly, elected by the people. See 
other constitutional acts : Quebec Act, 1774 ; Union Act, 1840 ; British North 
America Act, 1867. Index : E Racial and political difficulties arising out of, 
17, 18; Clergy Reserves granted by, 102, 119, 145, 150, 151, 158. C Its weak 
points, 6; constitution suspended after Rebellion of 1837, 11 ; its faults exposed 
by Durham, 12-13. B Clergy Reserves originate in, 51, 52. Sy A fatal com- 
promise, 68 ; meant to confer privileges of British constitution, 73 ; its actual 
operation, 74-84 ; greatly increases power of French majority in Lower Canada, 
72, 80. S Introduction of, 1 ; discussion of, 5-9 ; passed, 10 ; provisions of, 
10-12; its far-reaching effects, 13; put in force by proclamation, 48. R Its 
terms and how they were applied, 29-35 ; Clergy Reserves, 46-47 ; Ryerson's 
interpretation of, on question of established church, 78 ; its effect on religious 
questions, 103. BL Its terms, 6-7; Pitt and Burke on, 6; Grenville on, 7; 
Simcoe on, 7 ; its results, 8 ; intended to obviate racial conflict, 8 ; makes 
landed provision for Church of England, 42, 343-344. P Divides Canada into 
two provinces, 21 ; its shortcomings, 21-23 ; abuse of personal power under, 24 ; 
constitution suspended, 25 ; suspension recommended by Sir James Craig, 29 ; 
Papineau's eulogy of, in 1820, 34-38. Me Its objects, 48, 49 ; debate on the 
bill, 49, 50 ; handiwork of Pitt, 51 ; germ of the federal system, 51 ; divided 
Canada into two provinces, 52 ; created Legislative Assembly, 52 ; created Legis- 
lative Council, 52 ; created Executive Council, 53 ; General Simcoe on, 54 ; Gold- 


win Smith on, 54 ; Durham's commentary on, 53, 56 ; recommends revision of, 
57; provisions creating Clergy Reserves, 70; effect on parliamentary rule 
summarized, 71, 72 ; Mackenzie declares war against, 72 ; silent on question 
ol executive responsibility, 80; evils of system of government summarized, 
73-75 ; Durham on evils of, 76, 77. Bib. : Bourinot, Parliamentary Procedure 
and Government and Manual of the Constitutional History of Canada; Houston, 
Canadian Constitutional Documents; Dominion Archives Report^ 1890; Watson, 
Constitutional History of Canada; Durham, Report; Bradstiaw, Self-Government 
in Canada; Egerton and Grant, Selected Speeches and Despatches relating to 
Canadian Constitutional History; Kingsford, History of Canada; Sfaortt and 
Doughty, Constitutional Documents of Canada. 

Constitutional Associations. Sy Of Quebec and Montreal, their aims, 112; 
send delegations to Upper Canada and to England to urge union of the prov- 
inces, 112. 

Constitutional Reform Society. BL Organized in Upper Canada, July 16, 
1836. Dr William Baldwin, president, Francis Hincks, secretary, 42 ; its pro- 
gramme, 42. 

Cook, Dr. Henry. WT Tilley in his service, 149. 

Cook, Captain James (1728-1779). Served in Canada during siege of Quebec, 
1759. Discovered New Zealand, 1769, and New South Wales, 1770. In his 
famous voyage of 1776-1778, explored the north-west coast of America. Re- 
turning the following year, murdered by the natives of Owhyhee or Hawaii, in 
the Sandwich Islands. Index : B At Nootka, 14 ; motive of his voyage to North- 
West Coast, 17 ; his skill, courage, and endurance, 19 ; search for North- West 
passage, 19 ; his voyage of 1778, 20 ; refits his ship at Nootka, 20 ; names the 
Sound, 20 ; denies existence of Fonte's and De Fuca's channels, 21 ; discovers 
and names Prince William's Sound and Cook's Inlet, 21 ; visits Unalaska, 21 ; 
sails through and names Bering Strait, 21 ; reaches the Arctic, 21 ; killed by 
natives, at Sandwich Islands, Feb. 14, 1779, 21 ; his narrative published, 1784, 
21. Bib. : Voyage to the Pacific Ocean. For biog., see Besant, Captain Cook; 
Laut, Vikings of the Pacific; Diet. Nat Biog. 

Cook River. D Named by Captain Cook, 21; Captain Douglas there in 
1788, 27, 28. 

Coote's Paradise. Bk Early name of Hamilton, 52. See also Hamilton. 

Copenhagen, Battle of (1801). Bk Description of, 25-31; bombardment of, 
and capture of Danish fleet, 106. 

Coppermine River. Rises in a small lake, a little west of long. 110, and south 
of lat. 66, and after a course of 525 miles flows into Coronation Gulf, on the 
Axctic coast of Canada. It was discovered by Samuel Hearne, 1771 ; and sub- 
sequently visited by Sir John Franklin, 1821 ; Sir John Richardson, 1848; and 
later travellers, tadex: D Discovered by Hearne, 51. MS Discovered by 
Samuel Hearne, 3, 31. See Hearne. Bib. : Hearne, Journey from Prince of 
Wales Fort to the Frozen Ocean; Franklin, Journey to the Polar Sea ; Richard- 
son, Arctic Searching Expedition. 

Coquart, Claude-Godefroy. Jesuit missionary. Accompanied La V6rendrye 
on his Western explorations, 1741, but got no farther than Michilimackinac. 
His letter, quoted by Margry, throws an interesting light on La V6rendrye's 

Coram, Joseph. WT Runs for St. John County as Anti-Confederate, 227 ; 
a leading Orangeman, 228 ; defeated in St. John County, 251. 

CorbieTe, Captain. WM Killed in battle of Ste. Foy, 264. 


Corlaer. See Schenectady. Index: F Indian name for governors of New 
York, 253. 

Com Laws. Sy Their repeal advocated by Poulett Thomson, 37, 40, 52. 
B Their effect on Canadian industries, 15, 31, 32. 

Cornwall Canal. BL Construction of, provided for by government in 1841, 98. 
Bib. : Keefer, Canals of Canada (R. S. C., 1893) ; Mme. L. N. Rh6aume, Origin 
of Cornwall and Williamsburg Canal (Women's Can. Hist. Soc. of Ottawa, Trans.). 

Cornwallis, Charles, first Marquis (1738-1805). Served in American Revo- 
lutionary War ; won victory at Camden over Gates, 1780, and in 1781 defeated 
Greene at Guildford. In 1781 hemmed in at Yorktown between the American 
army and the French fleet, and forced to surrender. Governor-general and 
commander-in-chief of Bengal, 1786-1793. Lord-lieutenant of Ireland, 1798; 
British plenipotentiary to negotiate peace of Amiens, 1801. Five years later 
again returned to India as governor-general, and died at Ghazeepore. Index; 
Bk British plenipotentiary in negotiating peace of Amiens, 30. Dr Surrender at 
Yorktown, 191. Hd His capitulation, 211-212, 297. Bib.: Cornwallis, De- 
spatches; Kaye, Lives of Indian Officers; Diet. Nat. Biog.; Johnston, Yorktown 
Campaign; Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Cornwallis, Edward. Born, 1812. Member of the British House of Com- 
mons for Eyre, 1749. Appointed governor of Nova Scotia, 1749. Sailed from 
England with 2576 emigrants and on July 2, 1749, reached the harbour of Chebuctp, 
the site of the present pity of Halifax. His administration marked by energetic 
measures against the' discontented Acadians. Returned to England, 1752. 
Elected to the House of Commons for Westminster, 1753 ; major-general, 1759 ; 
subsequently governor of Gibraltar. Bib. : Campbell, History of Nova Scotia; 
Murdoch, History of Nova Scotia; Selections from the Public Documents of Nova 
Scotia, ed. by Akins. 

Corpo, Father. L Dies a martyr, 62. 

Correspondent and Advocate. Newspaper. Index : Me Newspaper, published 
by Dr. O'Grady, 259. 

Corrupt Practices. BL Bill in reference to, introduced, 99 ; excites great public 
attention, 99 ; passed by Assembly, but rejected by Legislative Council, 100. 

Corvee. Hd Ancient French custom, 122; used in transporting provisions 
to upper posts, 140 ; complaint against Haldimand's use of, 182, 291 ; MacLean 
asks for decrease of, 306. 

Cosmos, Amor de. D Editor of British Colonist, 271; bitter opponent of 
Sir James Douglas, 306-307 ; his character, 306 ; his tribute to Douglas, 307- 
308 ; advocates union of colonies, 308. Bib. : Begg, History of British Columbia. 

Costa, Francis. S Naval officer, Upper Canada, 178. 

Costigan, John, (1835- ). Represented Victoria in New Brunswick Legis- 
lature, 1861-1866; elected to Dominion House of Commons, 1867; interested 
himself in questions of Roman Catholic schools of New Brunswick, and. Irish 
home-rule. Minister of inland revenue, 1882; secretary of state, 1892; minister 
of marine and fisheries, 1894. Index : C. Demands disallowance of New Bruns- 
wick Act abolishing separate schools, 73, 77 ; demands amendment of consti- 
tution to secure separate schools for New Brunswick Roman Catholics, 77. 
Bib. : Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who. 

Cdte Ste. Genevieve. WM Slope to the north of Plains of Abraham, 186, 252. 

Cateau du Lac. Hd Canal at, 185. 

Coton, Father. Ch Jesuit provincial, accepts proposals of Rcollets, 151. 

Couillard, Guillauxne. Ch Early settler, 145. 


Couillard, Henry. Ch Captain of the Don de Dim, 39. 

Couiilard, Jacques. Ch An Interpreter, 144. 

Council. See Legislative Council ; Executive Council ; Sovereign Council. 

Council of Assiniboia. Appointed by the Hudson's Bay Company, for the 
government of the colonists in their territory. The first meeting was*held Feb. 
12, 1835, with Sir George Simpson as president. Bishop Tacht, Alexander 
Christie, Alexander Boss, Cuthbert Ross, and ten others formed the Council. 
The Council, among other useful work, organized a volunteer corps for defensive 
and police purposes ; divided the settlements into four districts with a magis- 
trate for each ; and made provision for a public building. Index : MS Es- 
tablished by Hudson's Bay Company, 223 ; its character, 223 ; Simpson head 
of, 244. Bib. : Begg, History of the North-West; Bryce, Manitoba; Hargrave, 
Red River; Ross, Red River Settlement. 

County Courts. Sy Act passed establishing, 339. 

Courcelles, Daniel de Remy, Sieur de. Governor of Canada, 1665-1672. His 
tenure of office marked by an unsuccessful expedition against the Iroquois, and 
a long and acrimonious dispute with Laval and the Jesuits. The Marquis de 
Tracy was viceroy over all the French possessions in America during a portion 
of the governorship of De Cpurcelles ; and Talon was twice intendant of New 
France during the same period. Index : P Governor of Canada, 50 ; arrives 
at Quebec, 51 ; moves against Iroquois, 52 ; character, 54 ; expedition to 
Cataraqui, 59; recalled, 60. L Appointed governor, 51; stands godfather 
to converted Iroquois chief, 65 ; arrival of, 79 ; Ms high character, 81 ; exe- 
cutes justice on certain murderers, 82, 83 ; leads expedition as far as Cataraqui, 
83 ; plans erection of a fort at that point, 84 ; returns to France, 143. Bib. : 
Douglas, Old France in the New World; Parkman, Old Regime; Suite, Regiment 
de Carignan (R. S. C., 1902). 

Coureurs de bois. WM Described, 17, 18 ; furnished recruits to militia, 31 ; 
summoned to defend the homwork, 206. Hd Stir up Indians against British, 55. 
F Created by policy of trading companies, 37; two classes of, 88; Frontenac 
instructed to repress, 89 ; twelve captured, 99 ; one hanged, 100 ; king's decision 
respecting, 125 ; difficulty in enforcing the law, 127 ; amnesty granted on cer- 
tain conditions, 127 ; punishments prescribed for offenders, 128. L Mentioned, 
158 ; decree against, 159. D Their character, 52. Bib. : See General Index, 
R. S. C. ; Bancroft, History of the Northr-West Coast; Parkman, Old Regime. 

Courier. Newspaper published at Brantford. Established, 1834. Index: Me 
Newspaper, Mackenzie's obituary in, 515. 

Courier, Upper Canada. Me Publishes doggerel abuse of Assembly, 165. 

Courtemanche, De. F Sent to Michilimackinac, 310. WM Goes to island 
of Orleans to prepare ambuscade, 90 ; slight success of, 92. 

Courts of Justice. Dr Established, 13 ; not satisfactory to Canadians, 41 ; 
reform of, 54. 

Courval, De. WM Directs movements of fire rafts, 130. 

Couture, Guiliaume. Born in Normandy, 1608. Came to Canada, 1640. 
Two years later, on his way to the Huron country with Father Jogues (g.v.), they 
were captured by the Iroquois, and carried off to their villages, where they 
were tortured. Couture escaped a worse fate by being adopted into an Iroquois 
family. In 1661 accompanied Fathers Dablon and Drouillette (q.v.) on an 
expedition towards Hudson Bay. Threatened by an Iroquois war-party, how- 
ever, they got no farther than Lake Necquba, and retreated down the Saguenay 
to Tadoussac. Bib : Parkman, Old Regime. 


Cowlitz. D Hudson's Bay Company vessel, 183. 

Cox Ross. Went to Astoria on the Beaver in 1811-1812 as an employee 
of the Pacific Fur Company. When Astoria was transferred to the North West 
Company, joined that Company. Spent five years on the Columbia, and re- 
turned to the East overland. His narrative formed one of the principal sources 
of living's Astoria, and is a valuable account of the fur trade on the Pacific coast. 
Bib. : Adventures on the Columbia River. For biog., see Bryce, Hudson's Bay 

Craig, *Sir James (1748-1812). Distinguished himself at Lexington and 
Bunker Hill, in American Revolutionary War. Appointed governor of Jersey, 
1793 ; and governor of the Cape, 1795. Sent to India two years later ; and in 
1807 governor-general of Canada, retiring in 1811. Index: P Governor- 
general of Canada, 27 ; his prejudice against French-Canadians, 28; suppresses 
Le Canadian, and sends its contributors to j ail, ^ 28-29; advises that bishop of 
Quebec be deprived of appointment of parish priests, suspension of constitution 
of 1791 union of Upper and Lower Canada, and confiscation of Sulpicians' 
estates, 29, 159; his administration, 30-31. Bk Governor-general and com- 
mander-in-chief, 90, 91 ; distrusts French-Canadians, 91 ; changes name "Brock's 
battery 7 ' to "King's battery," 94; his hesitation as to issuing arms to French- 
Canadian militia, 102, 103; gives his reasons,, 103; his speech at opening of 
Legislature conciliatory, 104 ; cancels commissions of Lieutenant-Colonel J. A. 
Panet and others, 105 ; dissolves Assembly, 116 ; popular with the Anti-Canadian 
party, 116 ; calls for reinforcements, 118; uses military labour in road making, 
125 ; dissolves the Assembly, 127 ; seizes Canadien newspaper and arrests jts 
proprietors, 127 ; makes other arrests in Montreal district, 128 ; his proclamation 
defending British government, 128; sends Ryland to London, 129; expresses 
very unfavourable opinion of French-Canadians, 129 ; praises Legislative Council, 
130 ; releases Bedard, 145 ; breakdown of his health, 147, 155 ; gives his favour- 
ite horse " Alfred " to Brock, 156 ; leaves Canada, 156 ; appearance and character, 
156. E His shortcomings as a colonial governor, 1, 19. BL His "blundering 
patriotism " as governor, 17. Bib. : Rattray, The Scot in British North America; 
Dict.Eng. Hist.; Diet. Nat. Biog.; Morgan, Cel. Can.; Christie, History of 
Lower Canada. 

Cramahe, Hector Theophilus. Dr Member of Council, sent by Murray on 
mission to England, 16; replaces Carleton during his absence from Canada, 
59 ; declines to decide question of an Assembly, 61 ; lieutenant-governor under 
Carleton, and member of Council, 90 ; refuses to receive Arnold's summons for 
surrender of Quebec, 111; his fear of traitors within the walls, 114; improves 
fortifications, 117; his careful administration during Carleton' s absence, 159. 
Hd Haldimand solicits good offices of, 111; entertainment given by, 224; per- 
sonal relations with Haldimand, 313. Bib. : Kingsford, History of Canada. 

Cramoisy, Sebastien. Ch One of the Hundred Associates (Company of New 
France), 171. 

Crane, William. WT Delegate to England to represent New Brunswick 
grievances, 41, 45 ; again sent to England by Assembly, 46 ; appointed to Coun- 
cil, 69 ; resigns, 72. 

Crawford, Isabella Valancy (1851-1887). Born in Ireland. Came to Canada 
at age of five. Lived at Peterborough, Ontario. Collected volume of her 
Poems published, 1905, with biographical and critical introduction by Ethelwyn 

Crawford, John Willoughby (1817-1875). Born in Ireland. Came to Canada, 


1824 ; studied law and called to the bar, 1824. Sat in the Legislative Assembly 
for East Toronto, 1861-1863 ; represented South Leeds in the House of Com- 
mons, 1867-1873 ; lieutenant-governor of Ontario, 1873-1875. Died at Govern- 
ment House, Toronto. Index : B Defeats George Brown in East Toronto, 1861, 
141. Bib.: Read, Lieutenant-Governors of Upper Canada. 

Crawford, Colonel. Hd Leader in attack on Moravian Indians, 171. 

Crawley, Edmund Albem (1799-1880). Graduated from King's College, 
Windsor ; studied law under James W. Johnstone, and called to the bar, 1882. 
One of the leaders of the Baptist Church in Nova Scotia; entered the 
ministry; and became the principal founder of Acadia College. Index; H 
Halifax lawyer becomes a Baptist and enters ministry, 77 ; Dalhousie College 
refuses to appoint him to professorship, 81. Bib, : Dent, Can. For.; Hill, Forty 
Years with the Baptist Ministers and Churches of the Maritime Provinces of 

Credit River. Rises in Caledon Mountains, and enters Lake Ontario, fourteen 
miles west of Toronto. Index : Bk Tract of land on, purchased by Lieutenant- 
Governor Hunter from Indians, 65. See also Ryerson. 

Cree Indians. An important Algonquian tribe, formerly ranging throughout 
what are now the provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan, and north-eastwards 
to Hudson Bay. First mentioned in Jesuit Relations, 1640, 1661, and 1667, and 
in the early journals of the Hudson's Bay Company. They formed an alliance 
with the Assiniboines, formerly of Siouan stock, and carried their raids against 
hostile tribes westwards to the Rocky Mountains, and north to the Mackenzie 
River. In 1776 they numbered about 15,000 7 but were reduced by smallpox 
in 1786, and again in 1838. By the end of the nineteenth century they had 
again regained their former numbers. Bib. : Hodge, Handbook of American 
Indians ; Harmon, Journal; Mackenzie, Voyages. 

Creek Indians. A confederacy of the Muskhogean family. Known to the 
English as occupying what are now the states of Alabama and Florida. First 
visited by the Spaniards, under De Soto, in 1540. As a result of the Creek War, 
in 1813-1814, they were removed by the American government to Indian Terri- 
tory, between 1835 and 1840. Index : Hd War with, 69 ; character of, 70 ; 
their raids in Georgia, 91 ; Gage's opinion of, 98. Bib. : Hodge, Handbook of 
American Indians. 

Creighton, John (1794-1878). Born in Nova Scotia. Called to the bar, 
1816, and created Q. C. by royal warrant, 1845. Sat in the Legislative 
Assembly of Nova Scotia, 1830-1850. Called to the Legislative Council, 1859, 
and elected Speaker, 1875. 

Cremazie, Octave (1827-1879). His life a peculiarly sad one. Having 
made a failure of his business as a bookseller in Quebec, went to France, and 
died there in poverty. One of the founders of the Institut Canadien of Quebec ; 
and contributed for some years to the Soirees Canadiennes and other periodi- 
cals. His poetical works published, 1882, under the patronage of the Institut 
Canadien, with an introduction by Abbe* Casgrain. Bib. : (Euvres Completes, 
Montreal, 1882. For biog., see Casgrain, Biog.; Gagnon, Quelques Notes sur 
0. Crtmazie in Revue Canadienne, vol. 49; also articles in same review by 
Abb6 Casgrain (vol. 31) ; and by Abbe* Degagn6 (vol. 30). 

Crillon, Count Edward de. Bk His connection with the John Henry letters, 
186, 187 ; discovered to be an impostor, 188. 

Criminal Law of England. Dr Established by Quebec Act, 64. BL Amend- 
ments of 1841 to reduce its severity, 99. 


Crisacy, Marquis Antoine de. F Conducts expedition for restoration of Fort 
Frontenac, 341. 

Crooks, Adam (1827-1885). Son of James Crooks ; born at West Flainboro, 
Ontario. Educated at Upper Canada College and the University of Toronto. 
Called to the bar of Upper Canada, 1851. Contested West Toronto for the As- 
sembly, 1867, but defeated ; elected, 1871 ; defeated in East Toronto, 1875, 
but shortly afterwards elected for South Oxford. Attorney-general, 1871-1872 ; 
provincial treasurer, 1872-1877, to which was added in 1876 the portfolio of 
education ; minister of education, 1877-1883. Retired on account of ill-health. 
Died in Hartford, Conn. Bib.: Dent, Can. For.; Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog. 

Crooks, James (1778-1860). Born in Scotland. Came to Canada, 1794, 
and settled at Niagara. Engaged in mercantile life. Commanded a company of 
militia during the War of 1812-1814. Shortly after the close of the war re- 
moved to West Flamboro. Helped in the suppression of the Rebellion of 1837. 
For twenty-five years a member of the Legislative Councils of Upper Canada and 
Canada. Died in West Flamboro. Bib.: Dent, Can. For. and Last Forty 

Crosby, Thomas. D Methodist missionary arrives, 1862, 270 ; opens school 
at Nanaimo, 1863, 270 ; removes to Port Simpson, 1876, 270. 

Crown Point. West side of Lake Champlain. Fort Frdric was built here 
in 1731 ; rebuilt, 1734 ; and strengthened, 1742. It was blown up by Bourla- 
maque, 1759, to prevent its falling into the hands of the British ; and the same 
year Amherst built a fort about two hundred yards west of the site of Fort 
Fr6dric. This fort was captured, 1775, by Ethan Allen's men ; recaptured by 
Carleton the following year. Under the terms of the treaty of Paris, 1783, Crown 
Point became American territory. See Arnold ; Allen ; Abercrombie ; Mont- 
gomery. Index : Dr Seized by Americans, 82 ; Arnold in his retreat burns 
houses at, 156. Hd Haldimand commands battalion of Abercrombie's expedi- 
tion by way of, 17 ; fort built by Amherst at, 28 ; Haldimand asks that pay be 
allowed for, 90 ; vessels cruise up the lake to, 125 ; settlements near, to be de- 
stroyed, 137 ; St. Leger sent to occupy, 211. Bib. : Crockett, History of Lake 
Champlain; Smith, Our Struggle for the Fourteenth Colony; Parkman, Montcalm 
and Wolfe. 

Crow's Nest Pass. Discovered in the latter sixties by a trapper, Michael 
Phillips, formerly in the employ of the Hudson's Bay Company. The pass took 
its name from Crow's Nest Mountain, which is named Loge des Corbeaux on one 
of the maps accompanying Palliser's Report, 1859. The original Cree name, of 
which these are translations, is Kah-ka-ioo-wut-tshis-tun. Bib. : Dawson, Crow' 's 
Nest Pass (Geol. Survey, 1885) ; McTavish, The Climb of Crow's Nest Mountain, 
in Canadian Alpine Journal } 1907. 

Cudlip, John W. WT Anti-Confederate candidate in St. John County, 227 ; 
defeated in St. John County, 251. 

Cumberland, Richard (1732-1811). English dramatist. Index: Hd Asked to 
select books for the Quebec library, 191. Bib. : Diet Nat Biog. 

Cumberland, William Augustus, Duke of (1721-1765) . Second son of George 
II. Commanded British armies in Flanders and Hanover. Index : Hd Inter- 
ested in raising Swiss and German regiment in America, 9. 

Cumberland House. Hudson's Bay Company post. Index: MS Built by 
Samuel Hearne, on Pine Island Lake, or Sturgeon Lake, in 1774, 4; rival 
establishment of Montreal traders, 4. 

Cunard, Sir Samuel (1787-1865). Born in Halifax. His practical training 


fitted Mm for the important role lie was to fill In the evolution of 
Watched closely tiie early attempts to cross the Atlantic by steam, and 
in 1838 the British government invited tenders for carry Ing" the mails 
Liverpool, Halifax, and Boston, immediately sailed for England 
before the Admiralty his carefully-matured plans for a line of steamships. Suc- 
ceeded in enlisting the support of several big shipping firms in England^ and had 
no difficulty in securing the contract. So originated the Cunard company, which 
from an initial fleet of four vessels of 1200 tons each and 440 horse-power has 
grown to its present gigantic proportions. Was one of the owners of the 
Royal William (q.v.). Made a baronet, 1859. Index: H Establishes steam- 
ship line between Halifax and Great Britain, 234 ; makes New York western 
terminal of his line, 234. Bib. : Dent, Can. POT.; Johnson, First Thing in 
Canada, under Steam Communication. 

Cuoq, Jean- Andre (1821-1901) . Entered the Sdpician order in 1843, and came 
to Canada two years later. Devoted Ms life to a minute study of the lan- 
guages of the Algonquian and Iroquois tribes, and became one of the leading 
authorities on the subject. Bib. : Works; Jugement Errand de If. Ernest Benan 
sur Quelques Langues Saumges de VAmerique; Limre des Sept Nations; Etudes 
Philologiques sur Quelques Langues Sawages de I'Am&rique; Lexiqm de la Langue 
Iroquoise; Lexique de la Langue Algonquine, Anotc- Kekon. For biog., see Trans. 
R. S. C., 1902, 1, 127-128 ; Morgan, Can. Men. 

Curacies, permanent (cure's fixes). F Question of, 165, 190, 

Currency. The British authorities passed an ordinance in 1764 by which the 
French Louis d'or and crown were kept in circulation. First step for a revision 
of the currency was taken, 1795, when an Act was passed fixing standard of values. 
So-called "army bills" were issued and used between 1812 and 1820. In 1871 
an Act was passed by the Dominion Parliament establishing a uniform currency. 
Index: E Decimal system introduced by La Fontaine-Baldwin government, 
86. L In New France, 123. S Act respecting, in Upper Canada, 94-95; in- 
sufficient supply of, a great drawback, 111. Bib. : Johnson, First Things in 
Canada; Weir, Sixty Years in Canada. 

Curry, Thomas. One of the first fur traders from Montreal to reach the 
Saskatchewan, about 1771. Preceded by James Finlay (q.v.). Index: MS 
Leaves Montreal for western fur country, 3. Bib. : Mackenzie, General History 
of the Fur Trade, in his Voyages to the Frozen and Pacific Oceans; Burpee, Hmdry's 
Journal (R. S. C., 1907) ; Cocking' s Journal (R. S. C., 1908). 

Customs. S Arrangement with Lower Canada respecting revenue of, 93. 
WT Maintained in New Brunswick by British government, 16 ; changes in sys- 
tem, 16-18. 

Cuthbert, James Ross. Bk Of Berthier, forms a volunteer company, from 
inhabitants of his seigniory, 95 ; an intimate friend of Brock, 95 ; his zeal appre- 
ciated by Sir James Craig, 96. Sy Member of Special Council, opposes union, 
of the Canadas 193. BL Supports Papineau and popular party, 20. P Seignior 
of Berthier supports Papineau in his opposition to proposed union of the 
Canadas in 1822, 46. Bib.: Christie, History of Lower Canada, 

Cuvillier, Augustm. Entered public life in 1815 as member for Huntington, 
which he represented almost continuously up to 1844. Speaker of Assembly, 
1841-1844. Died, 1849. Index : BL Nominated by Reformers as Speaker of 
Legislature, 1841, 86; member for Huntingdon, 86 ; his political views, 86 ; car- 
ries petition to Imperial government, 86 ; votes against " Ninety-Two Resolu- 
tions," 86 ; government inclined to accept his nomination, but tactics of Reform- 


era make this impossible, 87 ; elected Speaker, 88. P Delegate to England to 
present grievances of French-Canadians, 63 ; withdraws Ms support of Papineau 
86 ; loses Ms seat in Assembly, 102. Bib. : Morgan, Gel Can. * 

Bablon, Claude (1619-1697). Born at Dieppe. Educated at Paris and La 
Fl&che; joined Canadian mission, 1655 ; accompanied Chaumonot to Onondaga 
territory, where he remained for three years ; then returned to Quebec and re- 
mained till 1661, when sent on a mission to Cree tribes in district of Hudson 
Bay. In 1668 went with Marquette to Algonquian tribes of Lake Superior. 
In 1770 named superior of Canadian missions and rector of College at Quebec' 
but did not reacb the St. Lawrence till following year ; held these positions until 
August, 1680, and from October, 1686, to 1693. Edited the Relations of 1671 
and 1672 and compiled others relating to 1673-1679. Died at Quebec. Index : 
L One of the founders of the mission at Sault Ste. Marie, 11 ; dies of plague* 
62 ; accompanies mission to Gannentaba, 65 ; describes Laval's visit to Prairie 
de la Madeleine, 74; quoted as to extent of Jesuit missions, 103; laments 
absence of Laval, 140. Bib: Jesuit Relations, ed. by Thwaites; Campbell, 
Pioneer Priests of North America. 

Dablon, Simon. Ch Assisted in forming Company of New France, 168. 

Bacre, Lieutenant. Dr Sailing-master on Carleton's sMp, 154. 

Daine. WM Lieutenant-general of police and mayor of Quebec. Signs 
petition to De Ramezay for capitulation, 224. 

Daliiotisie, George Ramsay, ninth Earl of (1770-1838). A Scottish peer. 
Entered the army at an early age and saw service in various parts of the world." 
From 1812 to 1814 commanded the 7th division of the British army in France 
and Spain. Received the thanks of Parliament for his services at Waterloo. 
Raised to the peerage of the United Kingdom as Baron Ramsay. Appointed 
lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia in 1816. In 1819 appointed governor-general 
and commander-in-chief of British North America. Served in this capacity 
for nine years. From 1829 to 1832 commander-in-chief in the East Indies. 
Index : P Influence did not extend beyond Quebec, 1 ; his arrival as governor* 
1820, 33 ; conflict with Papineau, 34, 61 ; his harsh policy towards French- 
Canadians, 39 ; his character, 41 ; founds Literary and Historical Society of 
Quebec, 41 ; erects monument to Wolfe and Montcalm, 41 ; sides with Council 
against Assembly, 42 ; promises remedy for abuses, 43 ; interview with Papineau, 
58 ; refuses to confirm election of Papineau as Speaker and dissolves Parliament 
61; his speech to Assembly, 61-62; recalled, 64, 70. BL Governor-general. 
1820, 19; a "disciplinarian devoid of diplomacy/' 19; leaves Canada. 20 
Bib. : Kingsford, History of Canada; Rattray, The Scot in British North America; 
DwL Eng. ffist.; Campbell, History of Nova Scotia. 

Dalhousie College. Located at Halifax. Founded by George Ramsay 
ninth Earl of Dalhousie, 1818. Original endowment derived from funds col- 
lected at the port of Castine, Maine, during its occupation, 1814, by Sir John 
Sherbrooke, then lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia. Act of Incorporation 
passed, 1821. First president elected and classes opened, 1838. University 
powers conferred, 184L College closed for some years, owing to lack of funds 
for its support. Reorganized, 1863. Index: H Founded by the "Castine 
Fund, 81 ; taken possession of by Presbyterians. 81. Bib. : Hopkins, Canada: 
An Ency., vol. 3. 

Dallas, A. J. Bom in Scotland. Engaged for some years in the China trade. 
Entered service of Hudson's Bay Company; chief factor at Fort Victoria, 
Vancouver Island ; succeeded Sir George Simpson as governor of Rupert's Land, 


1S62. Index: D Marries daughter of Sir James Douglas, 103; governor 1 Tail- 
son's Bay Company, at Winnipeg, 103 ; president of Victoria board of matittge- 
ment, 265 ; moved to Rupert's Land, 265. Bib.; Bryce, Hudson's Company. 

Ballet. L Sulpician, arrival of, 105. 

Balling and Bulwer, William Henry Lytton Earle ? Baron (1S01-1ST2>. 
British diplomatist. Index : Me On the power of agitation^ 16. Bib. : Diet 
Nat. Biog. 

Balling's Light Infantry. WM In battle of Ste. Foy, 257, 259. 

Dalquier, Colonel. WM Of B6arn regiment, 209 ; in battle of Ste. Foy, 259, 
261, 262. 

Daly, Sir Bominick (1798-1868). Bom in Ireland. Caxne to Canada, 1825; 
provincial secretary for Lower Canada, 1827-1840; provincial secretary of 
Canada, 1841-1848. Left Canada, and appointed by the Imperial govern- 
ment lieutenant-governor of Tobago, 1851-1854. Afterwards lieutenant- 
governor of Prince Edward Island, 1854-1859 ; and governor of South Australa, 
1861-1868. Index : Sy Provincial secretary for Lower Canada, 283. BL Pro- 
vincial secretary for Lower Canada, 1841, 76; his character, 78; Baldwin's 
confidence in, 79 ; retains office under La Fontaine-Baldwin government, 134 ; 
remains in office when'rest of Cabinet resign, 213 ; defends Metcalfe, 214 ; sole 
adviser, 216 ; provincial secretary, 247 ; proposal to throw him overboard, 263. 
E Remains sole adviser of Lord Metcalfe, 35. Md Constitutes an administration 
of one, 19. Bib. : Dent, Can. For. and Last Forty Years; Taylor, Brit. Am,; 
Morgan, Cel. Can.; Bavin, The Irishman in Canada. 

Daly, John Corry Wilson (1796-1878). Born in Liverpool, England. For 
some time an assistant surgeon in the navy. Emigrated to the United States, 
and removed to Hamilton, 1826. Appointed surgeon to the Canada Company, 
1827, and settled at Stratford, 1829. Succeeded John Gait as agent of the 
Canada Company, 1831, and took up Ms residence at Guelph. In the next year 
returned to Stratford, where he resided until his death. For many years agent of 
the Bank of Upper Canada at Stratford. 

Daly, Malachy Bowes (1836- ). Son of Sir Dominick Daly; born in 
Quebec. Educated at St. Mary's College, Oscott, England ; studied law and 
called to the bar of Nova Scotia, 1864. Private secretary to various governors of 
Nova Scotia. Sat in House of Commons for Halifax, 1878-1887 ; lieutenant- 
governor of Nova Scotia, 1890-1900. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men. 

Damours, Mathieu. F Member of Sovereign Council, 106; arrested by 
Frontenac, 139. L Member of Sovereign Council, 158, 166 ; imprisoned, 167. 

Daniel, Andre. Eldest son of Antoine Daniel, of Dieppe, and brother of 
Charles. Died in 1637. Index : Ch Sent to London (1629) to demand restora- 
tion of*New France, 212-213. 

Daniel, Antoine (1600-1648). Son of Antoine Daniel, of Dieppe. Entered 
the Society of Jesus; came to Canada in 1633 ; and in 1634 accompanied Br$beuf 
to the Huron country, where they laid the beginnings of that ill-fated mission. 
In 1636 came to Quebec to open the Seminary, which, from very modest begin- 
nings, has since developed into Laval University. Returned to the Huron, 
mission, and in 1648 murdered by the Iroquois. Index : L Wounded while min- 
istering to the dying, 5. Ch Murdered by the Iroquois, 92 ; missionary in Cape 
Breton, 1633, 237. Bib. : Parkman, Jesuits in North America. 

Daniel, Charles. Son of Antoine Daniel, of Dieppe. Made a notable voyage 
to New France in 1629, of which he left a graphic narrative. Arriving at 
Cape Breton that year, with two armed vessels, found Lord Ochiltree, who had 
- H 


joined Sir William Alexander in Ms colonization schemes, building a fort near 
Louisbourg. Seized the colonists and carried them off to France. Index : Ch 
Captured by the Kirkes, 200. Bib. : Voyage a la Nouvelle-France du Capitaine 
Charles Daniel For biog., see Biggar, Early Trading Companies of New France; 
Parkman, Pioneer 8 of France; Kike, The First English Conquest of Canada. 

Daotist, J. B. C One of the Liberal leaders in Lower Canada, 25. 

Darache, Captain. Cn A Basque, disregards monopoly granted to De Monts 

DarontaL Cli Huron chief, 103. 

Dartmouth, William Legge, second Earl of (1731-1801). Dr Succeeded as secre- 
tary of state by Germain, 148. 

Daubressy, Captain. WM Carries articles of capitulation of Quebec to 
Vaudreuil, 234. 

Daulac. See Bollard des Ormeaux. 

David, Laurent Olivier (1840- ). Educated at St. Therese College; 
studied law and called to the bar of Lower Canada, 1864. One of founders, 
and editor, of UOpinion Publique, 1870. Represented Montreal East in Quebec 
Legislature, 1886-1890, Called to the Senate, 1903. Index: C One of the 
founders of Le Parti National, and its organ, Le National, 30. Bib. : Works : 
Biographies et Portraits; Les Hews de Chateauguay; Les Patriotes de 1837- 
1838; Mes Contemporains; Les Deux Papineau; L' Union des Deux Canadas; Le 
Drapeaude Carillon; Laurier et Son Temps; Le Clerge Canadien: Sa Mission et 
Son (Euvre. For biog., see Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who. 

Davidson, John. Sy Made commissioner of crown lands, 333. BL Com- 
missioner of crown lands, proposed to retire him with pension, 125 ; opposition 
to, 126; collector of customs, 133. 

Davin, Nicholas Flood (1843-1901). Born in Ireland. Studied law and called 
to the English bar, 1868. Served as war correspondent during Franco-Prussian 
War. Came to Canada, 1872 ; joined staff of the Globe, and later, the Mail 
Called to the Ontario bar, 1874. Established the Regina Leader, 1883. Rep- 
resented West Assiniboia in Dominion Parliament, 1887-1900. Index: BL 
Quoted on Hincks, 121, 131 ; on Baldwin, 172. Bib. : Works : The Irishman 
in Canada; Eos, an Epic of the Dawn; Culture and Practical Power; Ireland 
and the Empire. For biog., see Morgan, Can. Men. 

Davies, Sir Louis Henry (1845- ). Born in Prince Edward Island. 
Educated at Prince of Wales College; studied law and called to the bar of 
Prince Edward Island, 1866. Sat in the Assembly, 1872-1879 ; premier and 
attorney-general, 1876. Elected to the House of Commons for Queen's, 1882 ; 
minister of marine and fisheries in the Laurier administration, 1896; counsel 
for Great Britain before the International Fisheries Commission at Halifax, 
1877 ; one of the joint high commissioners on behalf of Great Britain to settle 
differences between, the United States and Canada, 1898; knighted, 1897; 
appointed a judge of the Supreme Court of Canada, 1902. Bib. : Morgan, 
Can. Men; Canadian Who 3 s Who. 

Davis, Captain Sylvanus. F Captured at Fort Loyal, 252; a prisoner in 
Quebec, during siege by Phipps, 294. 

Davost, Father. Ch Jesuit missionary in Cape Breton, 237. 

Dawson, George Mercer (1849-1901). Son of Sir J. W. Dawson (q.v.). 
Studied geology and palaeontology under Huxley, Ramsay and Etheridge at the 
Royal School of Mines, London. Geologist and botanist to North American 
Boundary Commission, 1873-1875. Appointed to staff of Geological Survey, 


1875 ; assistant director, 1883 ; director, 1895. One of British in 

Bering Sea Arbitration, 1892. Bib. : For Ms numerous reports and on 

geological and allied subjects, see General Indexes to Geological 
1863-1884, and 1885-1906 ; and Bibliography of the Royal (R. S. C.) 

1894). For biog., see Morgan, Can. Men. 

Dawson, Sir John William (1820-1899). Born at Pictou, Xova Scotia. Ed- 
ucated at Edinburgh University. Accompanied Sir Charles Lyell on Ms geolog- 
ical explorations in Nova Scotia. Appointed superintendent*" of education for 
Nova Scotia, 1850. Principal of McGill University, 1855-1893, and mainly in- 
strumental in building up the institution from a small college to one of the"first 
rank. Elected F. G. S., 1854, and F. R. S., 1862; knighted, 1884. First presi- 
dent of Royal Society of Canada. Author of many works on geology and 
palaeontology. Index : WT Commissioner to investigate King's College, 190. 
Bib. : Works : Acadian Geology; Story of the Earth and Man; Science and the 
Bible; Dawn of Life; Origin of the World; Fossil Men; Change of Life in Geo- 
logical Times; Chain of Life; Egypt and Syria. For biog., see Diet. Nat. Biog.; 
Dent, Can. For.; Taylor, Brit. Am.; Morgan, Can. Men; Cyc. Am. Biog.; 
Dawson, Fifty Years 1 Work in Canada. 

Day, Charles Dewey (1806-1884). Born in Bennington, Vermont. Came 
with his parents to Canada, 1812. Called to the bar of Lower Canada, 1827 ; 
created Q. C., 1837. Assisted in the prosecution of the insurgents who had 
been arrested during the Rebellion of 1837-1838. Appointed solicitor-general 
and called to the Special Council, 1839. Summoned by Sydenham to the Exec- 
utive Council, 1840, and subsequently elected to the Assembly for the county 
of Ottawa. Appointed judge of the Court of Queen's Bench, 1842 ; transferred 
to the Superior Court, 1849; resigned, 1862. Acted as commissioner for the 
codification of the civil laws of Quebec; as representative of Quebec on the 
Arbitration Commission appointed under the British North America Act to 
settle the claims of the provinces ; and as chairman of the Royal Commission 
to investigate the charges against the Macdonald government in connection 
with the granting of the charter to build the Canadian Pacific Railway. Held 
the office of chancellor of McGill University from 1857 until his death. Died 
in England. Index : BL Solicitor-general for Lower Canada, 1841, 76 ; represents 
British interests, 78 ; Baldwin's attitude to, 80 ; introduces School Bill, 107 ; 
elevated to bench, 122. Sy Solicitor-general for Lower Canada, 283. E Judge 
of seigniorial court, 187. Bib. : Taylor, Brit. Am.; Dent, Last Forty^ Years. 

Dean. Bk Private of the 41st, gallant conduct of at Canard bridge, 236 ; 
praised by Brock on parade, 258. 

Deane, Silas (1737-1789). Delegate from Connecticut to Continental Con- 
gress, 1774. Sent to France as secret political agent, 1776. Instrumental 
in negotiating treaties with France, and bringing Lafayette to America, Index : 
Dr Advocates canal to complete navigation between Lake Champlam and the 
St. Lawrence, 230, 231. Bib. : Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Dearborn, Henry (1751-1829). Served through War of the Revolution; 
accompanied Arnold's expedition to Canada. Secretary of war, 1801-1809; 
appointed major-general, 1812, and assigned to command of northern depart- 
ment in War of 1812; captured York, 1813, and Fort George, same year. 
Minister to Portugal, 1822-1824. Index : Bk Commanded United States troops 
in War of 1812, 192; at Plattsburg, 285. Bib. : Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Dease, Peter Warren. D In charge of New Caledonia for Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany, 285. MS Succeeds William Connolly, 224; chief factor, 1828, 224; his 


explorations of Arctic coast, 224-225. Bib. : Narrative of Discoveries on the 
North Coast of America; Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company. 

Debartzch, P. D. Engaged in journalism. First elected to the Assembly of 
Lower Canada, 1810; member of the Legislative Council, 1815. Index: P Ac- 
cepts Papineau's leadership, 34 ; urges him to accept mission to England to 
oppose union of the Canadas, 46 ; his daughters, 46 ; withdraws his support of 
Papineau, 86 ; interview with O'Callaghan, 146 ; attacked by Papineau, 169. 
Bib. : Morgan, Cel. Can. 

De Bonne, Judge. Bk Resolution of Assembly excluding, 126. 

Debt, Public. Sy Arrangements for, under Union, 115, 193, 204, 205, 206, 207 ; 
estimated amount of, 319. 

Declaration of Independence. In Upper Canada. Me July 1837. its history 
330; work of Rolph and O'Grady, 330. 

De Grey. See Walsingham. 

De Grey and Ripon. See Ripon. 

Delagrave, C. E Commissioner under Seigniorial Tenure law, 187. 

De Lancy's Brigade of Loyalists. Dr Mentioned, 202. 

Delaune, Captain. WM Commanded the volunteers who first climbed hill at 
Le Foulon, 181. 

Delaware Indians. A confederacy, of Algonquian stock, occupying the basin 
of the Delaware River. They were known to the British as Dela wares; to 
the French as Loups ; and they called themselves, Lenape. Early in the eigh- 
teenth century, the Iroquois brought them into subjection. They crossed the 
mountains, and formed settlements in eastern Ohio, about the middle of the 
century. The remnant of the Delawares are now on reservations in Oklahoma, 
with a few hundred in Canada. Index : Hd Bring prisoners from Wyoming, 
149. Bib. : Hodge, Handbook o/ American Indians. 

Delessert, B. Sy Philanthropist and naturalist, 20. 

De Lisle, Elizabeth. Bk Mother of Sir Isaac Brock, 6. 

Demers, Jerome. P Criticizes Papineau for accepting mission to England, 

Demers, Joseph. P Urges Papineau to accept mission to England to oppose 
union of the Canadas, 45. 

Demers, Modeste. First Roman Catholic bishop of Vancouver Island, 
1847-1871. Index: B Missionary on Vancouver Island prior to 1846, 269; 
visits upper Fraser, 269 ; made bishop, 269. 

De Mnie, James (1833-1880). Born in New Brunswick. Educated at 
Horton Academy and at Brown University, Rhode Island. Subsequently 
professor of classics at Acadia College and at Dalhousie College. Bib. : Works : 
Elements of Rhetoric; Helena's Household : A Tale of Rome in the First Century; 
Young Dodge Club Series. 

Dene Indians. A group of tribes, of Athapaskan stock. The name means 
men. Morice includes four tribes in the Western D&I& : Sekanais, on the west 
slope of the Rocky Mountains ; Babines, who occupy the shores of the lakes of 
the same name, and the neighbouring country ; Carriers, whose villages extend 
from Stuart Lake to Alexandria on the Fraser ; and Chilcotins, who occupy the 
valley of the river of the same name. Index : D In New Caledonia, 97. Bib. : 
Morice, The Western Dents; D6n6 Sociology; Notes on the Western Dn6s. 

Denison, George Taylor (1839- ). Police magistrate at Toronto since 
1877. Commanded Governor-General's Bodyguard in Fenian Raid, 1866; 
and in Riel Rebellion, 1885; in 1877 won the first prize offered by the Czar of 


Russia for the best History of Caralnj; president of the British Empire 
in Canada since 1896. One of the founders of Canada FIr>t Party. Index : 
Md Opposes commercial union, 295. Bib. : Works: Ftnmi Raid on" Fort Erie; 
Modern Cavalry; History of Cavalry; Soldiering in Canada; Struggle for 
Unity. For biog., see Morgan, Can. Men. 

Dennis, John Stoughton (1820-1885). Born near Toronto. Educated at 
Victoria College; commissioned as surveyor of public lands, 1842. Assisted 
in the organization of the Canadian militia, 1855 ; raised and appointed to the 
command of the Toronto Field Battery, 1856 ; brigade-major of the 5th Military 
District, 1861-1869; saw active service during the Fenian Raid, 1868. Sent 
to Red River Settlement to organize system of surveys, 1869, but was forced 
to withdraw. Surveyor-general of Dominion Lands, 1871; deputy-minister 
of the interior, 1878; retired, 1881; created C. M. G., 1882. Index: C His 
surveys held responsible for first Riel Rebellion, 69-70. R Surveyor-general, 
graduate of Victoria College, 144. Bib. : Denison, The Fenian Raid on Fort 
Erie and Soldiering in Canada. See also Riel Rebellion, 1S69-1S70. 

Denonville, Jacques-Rene de Brisay, Marquis de. Eleventh governor of 
New France. Colonel of Dragoons in French army; spent thirty years in 
military service before coming to Canada, in 1685, as successor to La Barre. 
Although a capable officer, found himself in a difficult situation owing to the 
condition to which the country had been brought by the failure of La Barre and 
the intrigues of the English governor of New York. Adopted a severe policy 
with the Indians, and was condemned for his treacherous seizure of Iroquois 
at Fort Frontenac in 1687. The horrible massacre of LacMne was one of the 
consequences of his maladministration. Succeeded in the government of the 
colony by Frontenac in 1689. Died in 1710. Index : F Succeeds La Barre 
as governor, 189 ; comes out in same ship with Saint Vallier, 191 ; gives un- 
favourable account of Canadian people, 192 ; his piety, 197 ; asks for more 
troops, 198; corresponds with Dongan, governor of New York, 198; desirous 
of constructing a fort at Niagara, 199 ; proposes to French king to buy colony 
of New York, 202; instructed to cultivate peaceful relations with English 
neighbours, 203; sends expedition to Hudson Bay, 205; receives reinforce- 
ments, 206; determines to march against Iroquois, 207; crafty policy, 208; 
complains of French troops, 212 ; erects fort at Niagara, 213 ; asks for more 
troops, 217 ; receives visit from Big Mouth, 221 ; in attack by Iroquois on 
Lachine, orders troops to remain on defensive, 225 ; recalled, 228 ; orders Fort 
Frontenac to be blown up, 228 ; stimulates Abenaquis to attack New England 
settlements, 249. L On liquor question, 175 ; succeeds La Barre as governor, 
193; his measures for defence of Canada, 213; seizes certain Indian chiefs, 
214 ; builds fort at Niagara, 216 ; recalled, 218 ; conduct in Lachine massacre, 
226, 227. Bib. : Girouard, L' Expedition de Marquis de Denonville (R. S. C., 
1899) ; Parkman, Old Regime and Frontenac. 

Dent, John Charles (1841-1888). Born in England. Came to Canada at an 
early age ; studied law and called to the bar of Upper Canada. Went back to 
England and for a time engaged in newspaper work in London. Returned to 
America, 1847, and spent three years in Boston ; came to Canada again, 1870, 
and became one of the editors of the Globe. Index : B On the " Double Shuffle/' 
108. Bib.: Works; Last Forty Years; Upper Canadian Rebellion; Canadian 
Portrait Gallery. For biog., see MacMurchy, Canadian Literature. 

Denys, Charles, Sietir de Fronsac. Ch Settles in Miramichi, 237. 

Denys, Nicolas (1598-1688). Born at Tours. Early took to sea and in 1633 


became interested in the fisheries of Nova Scotia. A short time after made one 
of the lieutenants of Acadia under the Company of New France, and settled 
at Miscou. In 1647 his fort seized by D'Aulnay, who had just been made 
lieutenant-general of the colony. In 1650 his establishment in Cape Breton 
captured and he himself taken prisoner. A second attempt to settle in 
Cape Breton frustrated by Le Borgne. Returned to France in 1653, and 
received a grant of the islands of the St. Lawrence, including a monopoly of the 
fur trade, and shortly after became governor of that territory, together with 
Newfoundland. In 1667 obtained a confirmation of his rights, but in the 
winter of 1668-1669 his establishment at St. Peters completely destroyed by 
fire. In 1671 returned to France and engaged in the preparation of his work 
on Acadia. About 1685 returned to Acadia, but his closing years darkened 
by the scattering of his vast estates. Died three years later, at the age of 
90 years. Index : Ch Abandons Chedabuctp and goes to Cape Breton, thence 
to Miscou and Gasp6, 236. Bib. : Description and Natural History of Acadia, 
ed. by Ganong. For biog., see Parkman, Old Regime. 

De Peyster, Arent Schuyler (1736-1832). Joined the 8th Regiment, 1755, 
and served with distinction upon the British side in the Revolutionary War. 
In command at Detroit, and also at Michilimackinac. Retired to Dumfries, 
Scotland, where he enjoyed the friendship of Robert Burns, and died there. 
Index: Hd Commander at Detroit, 146; Haldimand's letter to, 158; on the 
freemasonry of Indians, 161 ; Haldimand's letter to, on defence of frontier posts, 
260 ; thought Du Calvet should have been hanged, 314. Bib. : Morgan, Cel. 

Deqtten, Jean. L Jesuit, devotion of, 32 ; his death, 33. 

Derby, Edward George Geoffrey Smith Stanley, fourteenth Earl (1799-1869). 
Entered Parliament, 1820 ; Irish secretary, 1830-1833 ; colonial secretary, 1833- 
1834 and 1841-1844, Prime minister, 1852, 1858-1859, and 1866-1868. Index : 
E Induces Elgin to accept governorship of Jamaica, 9; endorses Met- 
calfe's policy, 37 ; on an elective Upper House, 121-122. WT Receives New 
Brunswick delegates, 24 ; on casual and territorial revenue, 25, 27, 29; on King's 
College Bill, 53, 54; increases New Brunswick Council, 69; cancels Reade's 
appointment, 80-81 ; on initiation of money grants, 92 ; crown lands case, 101 ; 
his government defeated, 205. B Offers governorship to Metcalfe, 18 ; justifies 
his policy, 23. BL Restores Hagerman to office, 16 ; threatens to curtail exist- 
ing privileges of people of Lower Canada, 21 ; petition and correspondence as 
to public affairs in Upper Canada, 30; condemns Bagot's policy, 151; corre- 
spondence with Metcalfe, 160-166, 167, 168-169, 176, 186-187, 209-211 ; de- 
fends Metcalfe in House of Commons, and expresses his views on colonial 
government, ^ 230-234; his confidential letters to Metcalfe, 230; Sullivan's 
criticism of his views on responsible government, 244 ; on Metcalfe's resignation, 
265. Me Restores Hagerman to office, 234 ; colonial secretary, 236 ; discusses 
post office, 236. Bib. : Kebbel, Earl of Derby; Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Derby. D Formerly Fort Langley proposed as capital of British Columbia, 


De Salaberry. WM Seigniorial manor of, headquarters of Montcalm, 94; 
council of war meets at, 147. 

Desandrouins, Captain. "WM His account of massacre at Fort William 
Henry, 47-50. 

Des Barres, William Frederick (1800-1885). Born in Nova Scotia. Edu- 
cated at Halifax Grammar School; called to the bar of Nova Scotia, 1821. 


Represented Guysborough In the Assembly, 1836-184S ; in 

Unlaeke government, 1848; appointed judge of the Supreme Court, 1S4S; 
resigned, 1S81. Index: H Member of Uniacke government, Xova Scotia[ 
1848, 110; solicitor-general, 111; commissioner for Halifax-Windsor Railway, 
118. Bib.: Campbell, History of Norn Scotia. 

Des Brisay, Alexander C. WT Confederate candidate in New Brunswick, 
elected, 231 ; attacks government in Assembly, 244. 

Deschamps. Ch. Surgeon, with the expedition at Port Royal, autopsy per- 
formed by, 33. 

DeschampSj Isaac (1722-1801). A native of Switzerland; came to Xova 
Scotia in early life. Elected to the Assembly, 1761 ; judge of the Court of 
Common Pleas for King's County, 1761 ; judge of the Island of St. John, 1768 ; 
assistant judge of the Supreme Court of Nova Scotia, 1770 ; chief -justice, 1785. 
Appointed a member of the Council, 1783. Bib.: Campbell, History of Nova 

Desdames. Ch Clerk sent to Gaspe*, returns with news of English depre- 
dations, 181 ; returns to France, 209. 

Deseille, Father. L Companion of Father Marquette, 62. 

Desertions. S Very prevalent, 72 ; punishments for, 72 ; causes of, 73. "WM 
From ranks of Canadian militia frequent, 152. Bk Followed by capture, 60 ; 
three shot, 63 ; two shot, 134 ; from United States regiments of the line to the 
Canadian side, 281. 

Des Groseilliers. See Chouart. 

Des Marets, Claude Godet, Sietir de. Ch Son-in-law of Pont-Grav6, arrives 
at Quebec, 47 ; accompanies Champlain in expedition against Iroquois, 52 ; at 
Cap de la Victoire, 139. 

De Soyres, Rev. John, WT Conducts funeral service of Sir Leonard Tifley, 

Desportes, Pierre. Ch An early settler in Quebec, 145, 146 ; goes to Gasp, 
181 ; remains in Quebec during English occupation, 196, 208. 

Desquerat, Captain. F Killed at Laprairie, 313. 

Des Rivieres, Captain. WM Accompanies captured British officers to Que- 
bec, 90. 

Dessaules, Louis A. Born 1819. Member of Legislative Council, 1856-1863. 
Edited Le Pays at Montreal. Index : E Member of Parti Rouge, 108. C One 
of Liberal leaders in Quebec, 25; protests against Dorion entering Caxtier's 
ministry, 106^107. Bib.: Works: Rouge et Noir; Lectures sur I'Annexion du 
Canada aim Etats- Unis; Galilee, Ses Travaux Sdentifiques et sa Condamnation; 
La Guerre AmSricaine. For biog., see Morgan, Bib. Can. 

Destouches. Ch Clerk, appointed by Champlain as his second lieutenant, 
155; returns to France, 209. 

Detroit. Founded by Antoine de la Motte Cadillac (q.v.) in 1701. The 
fort remained under Cadillac's command until 1710. A census taken that year 
shows six settlers cultivating the land, and twenty-nine soldiers, traders, etc., 
occupying houses within the fort. De la Forest succeeded Cadillac at the fort, 
1710. Fort surrendered to the British, 1760. Pontiac laid siege to the fort, 
1763, but failed to capture it. Transferred to United States, 1796. Captured 
by Brock, in War of 1812; restored by treaty of Ghent. Index: S The 
most important of western fortified posts, 51 ; Great Britain retains possession 
of, pending settlement of certain questions, 55, 119 ; threatened by army under 
Wayne, 133; handed over to United States, 142; River aux Raisins the 


boundary of territory dependent on during British occupation, 145. Dr De- 
fence of by Major Gladwin, 5 ; retained with other western posts as security 
for proper treatment of loyalists, 231 ; handed over to United States, 291. 
Bk Founded by La Motte Cadillac, its exciting history, 54 ; Brock determines 
to attack, 248 ; its strength and garrison, 249, 250 ; attacked, 251, 254 ; Hull 
surrenders with his whole army, 255 ; important results of capture, 256. MS 
Under French regime, 11 ; in days of North West Company, 12. Hd Company 
of 8th Regiment sent to, 137 ; a source of anxiety, 145 ; De Peyster in command 
at, 146, 158 ; reinforcements sent to, 153 ; Jehu Hay, lieutenant-governor of, in 
1784, 158 ; doubtful subjects settle round, 161 ; difficulty of navigation to, 163 ; 
Haldimand's letter to Henry Hamilton, lieutenant-governor at, on means for 
recovery of Illinois country, 167; unfortunate expedition from, 168; Haldi- 
mand's letter to De Peyster on importance of, 260 ; boat built at by North West 
Company, 262 ; Major Mathews, lieutenant-governor at in 1787, 332. Bib. : 
Cadillac Papers, (Mich. Pion. & Hist. Coll, vol. 33 et seq.); Parkman, Conspir- 
acy of Pontiac; Lucas, Canadian War of 1812. 

Detroit Brig. See Adams. 

Devil's Hole. Bk Near Fort Niagara, massacre of British troops at, 55. 

Devos, Frederick. Hd Great-nephew of Haldimand, 312, 

Dewart, Edward Hartley (1828-1903). Bom in Ireland. Came to Canada 
with his parents at age of six. Educated at local schools and at the Toronto 
Normal School. Taught school for a time ; entered the ministry of the Metho- 
dist Church, 1851 ; editor of The Christian Guardian, 1869-1894. Bib. : Works: 
Sekdions from Canadian Poets; Songs of Life: A Collection of Poems; Essays for 
the Times. For biog., see Morgan, Can. Men. 

Dewdney, Edgar (1835- ). Born in Devonshire, England. Came to 
British Columbia, 1859. Had charge of survey of site of New Westminster, and 
other engineering works. First elected to provincial Legislature, 1869 ; returned 
to Dominion House, 1872. Appointed Indian commissioner for North-West 
Territories, 1879; and lieutenant-governor of North- West Territories, 1881. 
Member of Dominion Cabinet as minister of interior, 1888-1892. Appointed 
lieutenant-governor of British Columbia, 1892. Index : D Builds Dewdney trail, 
from Hope to Similkameen, 252-253. Bib. : Morgan, Can. Men. 

Dickey, Robert Barry (1811-1903). Born in Amherst, Nova Scotia. Studied 
law, and called to the bar of Nova Scotia, and of New Brunswick, 1834. Sat in 
Legislative Council, Nova Scotia, 1858-1867. Appointed to the Senate, 1867. 
Took an active part in the negotiations leading up to the building of the Inter- 
colonial Railway, and the Confederation of the provinces. Index : H Dele- 
gate from Nova Scotia to Charlottetown Conference, 177. WT Delegate to 
Charlottetown Conference, 215 ; and to Quebec Conference, 219. Bib. : Morgan, 
Can. Men; Campbell, History of Nova Scotia. 

Dickson, Walter Hamilton (1806-1884). Born in Niagara. Called to the 
bar of Upper Canada, 1830. Served during the Rebellion of 1837 as a cavalry 
officer. Represented Niagara in the Assembly, 1841-1851 ; sat in the Legisla- 
tive Council of Canada, 1855-1867 ; appointed to the Dominion Senate, 1867. 

Dieskau, Jean Armand, Baron de (1701-1777). Of German descent; served 
with distinction under Marshal Saxe. When it was made known to the court 
at Versailles that the British had sent two regiments to America under Braddock, 
the French decided to fit out an expedition on a larger scale, and six regiments 
embarked for Canada under Dieskau, who was given the rank of general. Im- 
mediately after assuming command, prepared to attack the British and marched 


at the head of a body of men against Johnson. Although Ms to 

have been well laid, Ms position was betrayed through the action of the Indians. 
Severely wounded, made prisoner and well cared for by tiie British. Taken 
to England, ruined in health and fortune. Liberated at the conclusion of the 
war in 1763 ; and returned to France. Index * WM. Defeated and taken pris- 
oner at Lake George, 22. Bib. : Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe; Bradley, Fight 
with France. 

Digby, Robert (1732-1815). Commanded the Dunkirk at Quiberon Bay, 
1759 ; second in command in Rodney's expedition for relief of Gibraltar, 1779 ; 
commander-in-chief in North America, 1781. Index: Dr Appointed to chief 
naval command in America, 194. Bib. : Diet. Nat, Biog. 

Disney, Captain. Dr Accused in connection with Walker affair, 36 ; tried and 
acquitted, 38. 

Dissenters. S Preponderance of , in Upper Canada, 159, 160. See also Pres- 
byterian; Methodist. 

District Courts. Sy Establishment of in Lower Canada f 255. 

Doak. WT Proprietor of Loyalist, newspaper, arrested and released, 75. 

Dobson. Bk Brock's faithful servant, 11. 

Dodd, E. M. H Solicitor-general and member of Executive and Legislative 
Councils, Nova Scotia makes statement as to ministerial responsibility, 76 ; 
attempts to reconcile Joseph Howe and his colleagues to the appointment of 
W, B. Almon to the Executive Council, 87. Bib. : Campbell, History of Nova Scotia. 

Dollard des Ormeaux, Adam. A young officer of the garrison at Montreal, 
who saved Montreal and the colony from probable destruction by the Iroquois, 
in 1660. With sixteen companions and a few Indian allies, he intercepted the 
Iroquois at the Long Sault Rapids, on the Ottawa, and with a heroism seldom 
equalled in the world's history, this little band gave their lives for their country's 
sake. The Iroquois, discouraged by such unexpected resistance, abandoned 
the projected raid on the colony. Index: L His heroic resistance to Iroquois 
at the Long Sault, 39, 69-72. Bib. : Parkman, Old Regime; Jesuit Relations, 
1660 ; Faillon, Histoire de la Colonie Frangaise; Dollier de Casson, Histoire de 
Montreal. The exploit has inspired several Canadian poems. See Martin, Mar- 
guerite; Frechette, Legende d'un Peuple. 

Dollebeau, Father. Ch In charge of mission at Miscou, 235 ; death of, 235. 

Dollier de Casson, Francis (1636-1701). Born in Basse Bretagne. Served with 
distinction as a cavalry officer under Turenne. Came to Montreal and joined 
the Sulpicians in 1666. In 1669-1670 carried out with Gaiine"e an important 
exploration of the Great Lakes. Became superior of the Seminary of Montreal, 
and later vicar-general of the diocese. Index : L Labours with Galin^e on the 
shores of Lake Erie, 11 ; gives account of Bollard's exploit, 75 ; lays foundation 
stone of Montreal church, 89 ; on evil effects of sale of liquor to the Indians, 
175 ; at Quebec, 190. F His history of Montreal, 34 ; depicts evils of liquor 
traffic, 335. Bib. : Histoire de Montreal. For biog., see Parkman, Old RSgime; 
Exploration of the Great Lakes by Dollier de Casson and de Br&iant de Gdlin6e, 
ed. by Coyne. 

Dolu, Ch Grand almoner of France, intendant, 129; his instructions to 
Champlain, 132. Bib. : Biggar, Early Trading Companies of New France; Doug- 
las, Old France in the New World. 

Domergue, Lieutenant. F Killed at Laprairie, 313. 

Don de Dieu. Ch Name of vessel in which Champlain sailed for Quebec in 
1608, 39 ; also one of vessels of Company of New France, 245. 


Dongan, Thomas, Earl of Limerick (1634-1715). Colonial governor of New 
York. Sent to America as governor, 1682. Resigned, 1688. Became Earl of 
Limerick, 1698. Index: F Governor of New York, correspondence with La 
Barre, 182 ; policy with Iroquois, 183 ; correspondence with Denonville, 199- 
200 ; claims right to trade with Lake tribes, 203 ; demands destruction of Fort 
Niagara, 218 ; advice to Indians, 219. L Governor of New York, stirs up Iro- 
quois, 185, 191. Bib. : Cyc. Am. Biog.; Did. Nat. Biog. 

Dorchester, Guy Carleton, first Baron (1724^1808). Dr Birth and parentage, 
29 ; enters army, 29 ; lieutenant-colonel, 30 ; Wolfe's friendship for, 30 ; military 
preceptor to Duke of Richmond, 30 ; Wolfe secures him for quartermaster of 
Quebec expedition, 31 ; entrusted with important tasks, 32 ; wounded at Battle 
of the Plains, 32 ; served under Albemarle at siege of Havana, 32 ; appointed 
to succeed Murray at Quebec, 32 ; finds divisions in the country, 33 ; has diffi- 
culty with his Council, 34 ; forwards petition of Jesuits, 35 ; issues proclamation 
relinquishing all fees, 35 ; his despatch on the subject, 36 ; has the Walker case 
on his hands, 37 ; dismisses Irving and Mabane from the Council, 39 ; his views 
in regard to English and French laws, 41, 43; on state of the colony, 44-47; 
anticipates revolt of- American colonies, 50 ; endeavours to check legal abuses, 
51 ; orders release of small debtors, 52 ; issues new ordinance respecting ad- 
ministration of justice, 54, 55 ; opposed to creation of House of Assembly, 55 ; 
his return to England, 57 ; becomes governor-general on Murray's resignation, 
1768, 57 ; absent in England four years, 59 ; replaced by CramahS, 59 ; his 
report on manufactures of Canada, 59 ; took important part in framing Quebec 
Act, 63 ; his evidence before House of Commons, 67 ; sails for Canada, 75 ; his 
marriage, 75; sends troops to Boston on requisition of General Gage, 78; 
receives news of Benedict Arnold's attack on St. John's, 83 ; forwards troops 
and proceeds to Montreal, 85; calls out militia, 86; returns to Quebec, 89; 
gives guinea to Canadian soldier, 89 ; hurries back to Montreal, 91 ; applies to 
Gage for two regiments, 92; his despatch explaining fall of St. John's and 
impossibility of defending Montreal, 103; reaches Quebec, 112; orders all to 
leave the city who would not help in its defence, 114 ; his courage and watch- 
fulness, 124 ; his estimate of the killed in the attack on Quebec, 131 ; great 
source of strength to his followers, 133 ; moves out to attack enemy, who took 
to flight, 138 ; makes search in surrounding country for fugitives in distress, 
139 ; makes arrangements to pursue the retreating American army, 144 ; meets 
Burgoyne at Quebec, 144-145; his operations successful, 147; Lord George 
Germain's enmity to, 149 ; plans to improve the defences of the country, 150- 
151 ; re-establishes the Courts of Quebec, 151 ; defeats the Americans in naval 
engagement on Lake Champlain, 153-157 ; refuses to attack Ticonderoga his 
reasons, 157-158 ; retires with army in winter quarters, 159 ; superseded in charge 
of next year's campaign by General Burgoyne, 163 ; his authority limited to 
Canada, 163 ; his bitter replies to Germain's despatches, 164^-166 ; indignant 
at transfer of command to Burgoyne, he resigns, 169 ; no friction between him 
and Burgoyne, 174 ; Burgoyne's testimony, 174 ; makes forced levy of militia 
to recruit Burgoyne's army, 178 ; his correspondence with Hamilton in the West, 
179; his appointments to judgeships, 183; objects to appointment of Livius 
and Owen as judges, 184; his protests against improper appointments, 185; 
calls out one- third of militia, 187 ; constitutes committee of Council, 187 ; his 
last despatch to Germain, 188; returns to England, 189; sent to America ^as 
commander-in-chief and commissioner, 193; arrives at New York, 195; in- 
structed to make pacific representations to Congress, 200 ; applies for recall on 


tearing that complete independence is to be granted to the colonies, 203 ; Ms 
anxiety to protect the Loyalists, 206 ; appoints commissioners for exchange of 
prisoners, 207 ; the force under his command, 208 ; anxious to return home but 
urged to remain at New York, 212 ; writes to governor of Xova Scotia on hohalf 
of the Loyalists, 214 ; Ms correspondence largely occupied with Loyalist affairs, 
218 ; his last despatch from New York, 219 ; supports petition of Loyalist widows 
for pensions, 219 ; created Baron Dorchester, and accepts governorship of 
Canada, 221 ; difficulties of his position, 221 ; his acquaintance with Haldimand, 
222 ; Shelburne's opinion of value of Ms influence, 222 ; Ms reception at Quebec 
very cordial, 223 ; extent of Ms commission; 224 ; brings out William Smith 
as chief- justice, 224 ; Ms correspondence with Lord Sydney, 225 ; appoints com- 
mittee to consider state of the law, 225, 227; also committees on com- 
merce, police, and education, 226-230; negotiations with Silas Deane on 
subject of Chambly Canal, 230; anxiety in regard to Indian question in the 
west, 231 ; announces intention of visiting Nova Scotia, 235 ; recognizes 
necessity for a more popular form of government, 237; visits Loyalists in 
western Canada, 238; transfers Jesuit church at Montreal to Anglicans, 
241 ; Ms efforts to increase efficiency of militia, 243, 246 ; receives proposi- 
tions from Vermont and Kentucky looking to separation from other Ameri- 
can states, 244-247 ; declines to allow French minister to United States to 
visit Canada, 248 ; receives draft of bill for better government of province, 
248 ; thought introduction of parliamentary institutions premature, 258, 259 ; 
sends home lists of proposed legislative councillors, 258; not pleased with 
Simcoe' s appointment, 259 ; urges claims of Sir John Johnson, 259 ; sails for 
England, 269 ; returns to Canada, 271 ; opens second session of Lower Canada 
Legislature, 276 ; calls out militia, 277 ; fully expects war with United States, 
282 ; Ms speech to the Miami Indians, 282 ; speech not approved by home 
government, 283 ; expresses desire to resign, 284 ; gets Alien Act passed, 288 ; 
reports improved condition of affairs, 291 ; wages war on fees and perquisites, 
291 ; surrenders his own fees, 292 ; opposes holding of appointments by ab- 
sentees, 292 ; Ms relations with Simcoe, 293-296 ; a believer in centralized power, 
294 ; not being sustained by home government, resigns, 297 ; points of difference 
with Simcoe, 302 ; meets Ms last Parliament, 303 ; returns to England, 303 ; 
receives addresses of regret, 303 ; his character, 304 ; Ms sympathy with French- 
Canadians, 305 ; saves Canada to the Empire, 306 ; wreck of the frigate in 
which he sailed, 306 ; lands at Perc6, proceeds to Halifax, and sails from there 
to England, 306 ; Ms death, 307 ; Ms descendants, 307. S His connection with 
the Constitutional Act, 2 ; not favourable to creation of separate province of 
Upper Canada, 3 ; goes to England, 5 ; orders names of Loyalists who declared 
themselves before treaty of 1783 to be registered, 70 ; does not support Simcoe's 
views in regard to Indian department, 127 ; controls military operations in 
Upper Canada, 131 ; his bold speech to deputation of Indians, 133, 146 ; rec- 
ommends Simcoe to fortify post on the Miami, 134 ; proceedings not approved 
by home government, 142 ; Ms resignation, 142 ; disapproves of Simcoe's plans 
for defence of Upper Canada, 206 ; supersedes purchasing agent appointed by 
Simcoe, 212 ; Ms relations with Simcoe, 228. WM Chief of staff to Wolf 6,^75 ; 
as governor of Canada, wins affection of Canadians, 75; establishes fortified 
camp on island of Orleans, 108 ; lands near Pointe-aux-Trembles and takes a 
number of prisoners, 125; wounded in battle of the Plains, 199. Sy His 
Canadian policy, 67, 82. Bk His defence of Quebec and liberal policy towards 
French-Canadians, 36. E His character as governor, 1. Hd Leases St. Maurice 


forges, 62 ; his failure to enlist Canadian militia, 111 ; governor of Canada, his 
defence of Quebec, 112,- 121 ; succeeded in military command by Burgoyne, 
112 ; resignation of, 113 ; Haldnnand's opinion of, 119 ; Captain Schank writes 
to, 159 ; pulls down houses during siege, 187 ; proposal to have him supersede 
Haldimand at Quebec, 188 ; Haldimand writes to, 189 ; raises Loyalist corps, 
253 ; returns to Quebec as governor, with title of Lord Dorchester, 314 ; his 
opinion of Dr. Mabane, 315; his relations with Haldimand, 330-332. WT 
Thomas Carleton, a brother of, 5. Bib. : Kingsford, History of Canada; Lucas, 
History of Canada; Bradley, The Making of Canada; Egerton and Grant, 
Canadian Constitutional Development; Shortt and Doughty, Documents Relating 
to Constitutional History of Canada. 

Doreil. WM Commissioner of war, goes to France, 62. 

Dorion, Sir Antolne Aime (1818-1891). Educated at Nicolet College. 
Studded law, and called to the bar of Lower Canada, 1842. Represented Mon- 
treal hi Legislature, 1854^-1861. Formed administration with George Brown, 
1858. Defeated by Cartier in Montreal, 1861. Provincial secretary in Sand- 
field Macdonald-Sicotte government, 1862. Succeeded Sicotte as attorney- 
general, 1863. Minister of justice in Mackenzie government, 1873-1874. 
Chief-justice of Quebec, 1874-1891. Index: Md Opposes political domination 
of the priesthood, 45-46 ; leader of the Rouge party in Quebec, 64, 102 ; opposes 
Confederation, 115, 118, 142; moves amendment on Intercolonial route, 152; 
refuses to act upon Pacific Scandal Commission, 205. C Liberal leader, and 
disciple of Papineau, 25 ; his followers, and their revolutionary programme, 26 ; 
accepts policy of representation by population, 28 ; his radicalism keeps him in 
opposition, 29 ; offered seat in administration of 1858 by Cartier, and declines, 
106-107. E Signs Annexation Manifesto, 81 ; member of the Parti Rougej 108 ; 
becomes less radical in his views, 134. B Leader of the Rouges his character 
friendly relations with George Brown, 80-81; consulted by Brown as to 
forming ministry, 101 ; enters Ms government, 102, 105, 106 ; his part in con- 
verting George Brown to Confederation, 132 ; moves resolution favouring union 
of the Canadas in 1856, 132 ; pledged to settlement of question, 132 ; opposed to 
coalition, 160 ; his speech against Confederation, 175-178, 207 ; his motion for 
adjournment defeated, 185 ; opposed to Brown entering coalition ministry, 199. 
Bib.: Taylor, Brit. Am.; Dent, Can. Por. and Last Forty Years; Willison, Sir 
Wilfrid Laurier and the Liberal Party. * 

Dorion, Jean Baptiste Eric (1826-1866). Brother of preceding. One of 
founders of L'Avenir, 1848. Sat in the Legislature, 1854-1857, and again in 
1861. Index: E Member of Parti Rouge, 108. C A Liberal leader in Lower 
Canada, 25 ; nicknamed L J enfant terrible, 25. Bib. : Morgan, Bib. Can. 

Borland, Philip. S Quaker, elected to Assembly, but unable to take oath, 
resigns, 81. 

Dosquet, Pierre-Herman (1691-1777). Native of Lille, France; came to 
Canada, 1721; on his return to France, 1725, consecrated bishop of Samos 
and appointed coadjutor to Bishop Mornay. Later made bishop of Quebec. 
While in Canada lived in the style of a seignior, much in contrast to the simple 
life of Laval and of St. Vallier. Died jn Paris. Index : L Succeeds Mornay as 
bishop of Quebec, 12. Bib.: Tetu, Evdques de Quebec; Casgrain, L' Habitation 
de Samos (R. S. C., 1906). 

Double Majority. Md Meaning of the term attitude of public men to- 
wards, 78-79 ; leading plank in platform of the Macdonald-Sicotte government, 
89. B Origin and meaning of the principle, 82 ; advocated by John Sandfield 


Macdonald, 142; opposed by George Brown, 143; Duke of Newcastle on, 143; 
and separate school question, 145. BL Beginnings of the system, 25S ; Hinrks's 
views on, 259 ; Baldwin opposed to, 352 ; Turcotte and Hineka on, 352. Bib. : 
Dent, Last Forty Years; Pope, Memoirs of Sir John A. Macdonald; Mackenzie, 
George Brown. 

Double Ministries. Brown-Dorion ; Hincks-Morin ; La Fontaine-Baldwin ; 
Macdonald-Cartier ; Macdonald-Dorion ; Macdonald-Sieotte ; MacXab-Morin ; 
MacNab-Tach6 ; Sherwood-Daly; Tach^-Macdonald. See under of 

individual ministers. 

" Double Shuffle," 1858. B History of, 107-108. Md An ingenious device 
resorted to by Macdonald, Cartier, and their colleagues, to avoid the necessity 
of re-election, 85-87. Bib. : Pope, Memoirs of Sir John A. Macdonald; Dent ? 
Last Forty Years; Mackenzie, George Brown; Biggar, Sir Oliver Mawat. 

Doucett, Joseph. Lieutenant-governor of the Fort of Annapolis, 1717-1726. 
Member of the governor's Council 

Dougall, John (1808-1886). Bom in Paisley, Scotland. Came to Canada, 
1826, and took up mercantile pursuits. For a time editor of the Canada Tem- 
perance Advocate; founded the Montreal Witness, 1826. Died in Flushing, 
New York. 

Douglas, David (1798-1834). Made extensive botanical collections on the 
Pacific coast of North America, for the Horticultural Society of London, 1824- 
1826. Crossed the continent from Fort Vancouver, on the Columbia, to Hudson 
Bay; met Sir John Franklin there and returned with him to England. Came 
out again to the Columbia River on a similar mission, 1829, and went from 
there to the Hawaiian Islands, where he was killed. The gigantic Douglas fir 
named after him. 

Douglas, Sir Howard (1776-1861). Entered the army, 1794; commanded 
a regiment at Quebec, 1797; served at Corunna and Flushing, 1809. After 
discharging various military missions, appointed governor of New Brunswick, 
1823, holding the position until 1828. Lord high commissioner of the Ionian 
Islands, 1835-1840. Index : WT His efforts on behalf of King's College, New 
Brunswick, 50-51 ; his appearance described, 148. Bib. : Did. Nat. Biog. 

Douglas, Sir James (1803-1877). MS A man of Imperial mind, 225 ; highest 
qualities as administrator, 225 ; with Dr. McLoughlin, 225 ; marries daughter of 
William Connolly, 225 ; chief factor, 1840, 226 ; governor of Vancouver Island, 
1851, 225; knighted, 225; receives Simpson at Fort St. James, 238. D Visits 
Etoline, Russian governor, 1842, 45-46 ; in New Caledonia, 59-60 ; character, 
84-91 ; dearth of documentary material for Ms life, 90 ; born Demerara, Aug. 15, 
1803, 91 ; parentage, 92 ; educated in Scotland, 92-93 ; sails for Canada, 1820, 
and enters service of North West Company, 93 ; meets John McLoughlin at Fort 
William, 93; McLoughlin persuades him to join Hudson's Bay Company, 94; 
accompanies McLoughlin to Columbia department, 94 ; MeLoughlin's friend- 
ship for Douglas, 94 ; his training under McLoughlin, 96 ; sent to New Cale- 
donia. 96 ; accompanies William Connolly over mountains, 99 ; with Connolly 
at Fort St. James, 100; with John Tod at McLeod Lake, 100; his activities 
there, 100-102 ; marries Amelia Connolly, 103 ; transferred to Fort Vancouver, 
1830, 103-110; family life there, 103; eldest daughter marries Dallas, after- 
wards governor of Hudson's Bay Company at Winnipeg, 103 ; his work in New 
Caledonia, 104; his connection with Fort George massacre, 105-109; receives 
Sir George Simpson at Fort St. James, 109; at Fort Vancouver, 110; revises 
system of accounting at Fort Vancouver, 121 ; in charge of York Factory express, 


1835, 121 ; in charge of party that raised British flag above Fort Stikine, 1840, 
121-122; builds Fort Durham, 122; sent to dismantle Fort Durham, 122 ; moves 
Fort McLoughlin to head of Vancouver Island, 122 ; sent to treat with Mexi- 
can governor, 1840, 126-127 ; succeeds McLoughlin as manager of Puget Sound 
Agricultural Company, 132 ; severs his connection, 1859, on accepting governor- 
ship of Vancouver Island and British Columbia, 132 ; becomes chief trader, 1852, 
135 ; chief factor, 1840, 133 ; founds Victoria, 1843, 146 ; examines site for 
fort on Vancouver Island, 176 ; commands expedition charged with the build- 
ing of the fort, 177 ; selects site, 178 ; proceeds next to dismantle Forts Taku 
and McLoughlin, 178; brings Bplduc, first missionary, to Vancouver Island, 
178 ; completes Fort Camosun (Victoria), 179 ; returns to Fort Vancouver, 180 ; 
associated with McLoughlin and Ogden on board of management of western 
department, 187; succeeds McLoughlin in charge of western department, 
1846, 187 ; succeeds Blanshard as governor of Vancouver Island, 205 ; dual posi- 
tion of Hudson's Bay Company officer and representative of crown, 207 ; estab- 
lishes representative government, 1856, 208-210; his inaugural speech, 211- 
215 ; reports gold on Queen Charlotte Island, 220 ; issues gold-mining licenses, 
221 ; reports gold discoveries on Upper Columbia, etc., 223 ; difficulties with 
the miners, 227; visits the camps, 227-228; appointed governor of British 
Columbia, 229 ; retires from Hudson's Bay Company, 229-230 ; full powers of 
government given him under instructions of colonial secretary, 1858, 231 ; 
Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton's opinion of him., 234-235; his administration of 
the government, 236; appoints provincial officers, 240-241; second visit to 
the mining camps, 243-245 ; proposes Queensborough as name of capital of 
British Columbia, 247; settles Hill's Bar affair, 248; builds roads, 249-253; 
257 ; his resourcefulness, 249-250 ; plans for a transcontinental road, 253-254 ; 
financial problems, 258-262 ; charged with extravagance, 261 ; his prejudice 
in favour of Hudson's Bay Company, 263; defends their policy, 264-265; 
justice to the natives, 267 ; recommends church endowments, 270-271 ; conflict 
with Assembly over site of public buildings, 272-273 ; governorship of Vancouver 
Island ends, 1863, knighthood, succeeded by Arthur Kennedy , retires 
from governorship of mainland of British Columbia, 1864, 289 ; advocates union 
of British Columbia and Vancouver Island, 295 ; public appreciation of his rule 
as governor, 304 ; leaves British Columbia and sails for Europe, 308-309 ; his 
personal side, 309; death, Aug. 1, 1877, 310; wife dies, 1891, 310; his char- 
acter and achievements as man, fur trader, and statesman, 342-354 ; compared 
with McLoughlin, 351-353 ; personal appearance, 350-351. Bib. : Morgan, 
Cel. Can.; Dent, Can. For.; Cyc. Am. Biog.; Bancroft, History of British 
Columbia; Begg, History of British Columbia. 

Douglas, Captain W. M. D With Meares on North-West Coast, 1788, 27; 
at Cook River, 27 ; arrives at Nootka from Cook River with cargo of sea-otter, 
28 ; sails for Sandwich Islands, 28 ; returns to Nootka, 28 ; sails from Nootka 
to Queen Charlotte Islands, 29. 

Doutre, Joseph (1825-1886). Born in Beauharnois, Quebec. Called to the 
bar, 1847. Early became a leader of the Liberal party. One of the founders 
of Le Pays, besides contributing to other newspapers. As a result of one of 
his articles, fought a duel with Georges E. Cartier, but without serious conse- 
quences. Joined the Institut Canadien at Montreal, and became the president, 
1852. Took a leading part in opposition to the Roman Catholic Church in the 
" Joseph Guibprd Case." Counsel for the Dominion government before the 
Halifax Fisheries Commission. Index : C Liberal leader in Quebec, 25 ; pro- 


tests against Dorion entering Cartier's administration, 106-107, Bib. : Works: 
Les Fiances ck 1812; Le Frere et la Soeur; Les du The Ccn- 

stituiion of Canada. For biog., see Willison, Sir Wilfrid Lmri&r and the 

Doutre, R. E Member of the Parti Rouge, 108. 

Douville, d'Agneau. Hd Abandons French post at Toronto, 26. 

Bow, Dr. WT Candidate in York, New Brunswick, 250. 

DownsMre, "Wills Hfll, first Marquis of (1718-1793). Secretary of state for 
colonies, 1768-1772. Index: Dr Approves Carleton ? s recommendations. 51. 
Bib. : Diet Nat. Biog. 

Doyle, Sir Charles Hastings (1805-1883). Served in the army. Commander 
of the forces in Nova Scotia, 1861-1868 ; lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick^ 
1866-1867 ; lieutenant-governer of Nova Scotia, 1867-1870 ; commander of the 
forces in British North America, 1870-1874. Index : H Lieutenant-governor of 
Nova Scotia; Sir John Macdonald his guest in 1868,213. Bib.: Diet. Not. 
Biog.; Campbell, History of Nova Scotia. 

Doyle, Lawrence O'Connor. H Contributed to TJie Club in Howe's Neva 
Scotian, 9; his wit, 35; offered seat in government, 103-104; elected for 
Halifax, 106 ; member of Uniacke government,, 110. Bib. : Bourinot, Builders 
of Nova Scotia, 

Drake, Sir Francis (15407-1596). Sailed from Plymouth for the River Plate, 
1577; passed through the Straits of Magellan, 1578; plundered Valparaiso, 
1579, and explored the western coast of North America the same year ; returned 
to England, 1580, by way of the Cape of Good Hope. Vice-admiral of the fleet 
in the defeat of the Spanish Armada off Gravelines, 1588. Died on board Ms 
own ship off Porto Bello and buried at sea. Index: D On Pacific coast, 
7, 8; lays foundation of British naval supremacy, 16; takes possession of 
Pacific coast for Queen Elizabeth, 62 ; and the Spaniards, 147. Bib. : Southey, 
Lives of the Admirals; Corbett, Drake and the Tudor Navy; Payne, Voyages 
of the Elizabethan Seamen to America; Froude, English Seamen in the Seven- 
teenth Century; Laut, Vikings of the Pacific; Did. Nat. Biog. 

Draper, William Henry (1801-1877). Born in London, England. In his youth 
ran away to sea and served on an East Indiaman. Came to Canada in 1821 
and taught school at Port Hope ; subsequently studied law and began practice 
at York. Elected to Assembly of Upper Canada for city of Toronto in 1836, 
and made a member of the Executive Council. During the Rebellion of 1837 
acted as aide-de-camp to the lieutenant-governor. In March, 1837, became 
solicitor-general, and in 1840 promoted to office of attorney-general. After 
the union of the provinces retained in the Executive Council as attorney- 
general of "Upper Canada. It fell to his lot to pilot the ministry through the 
stormy debates of the first session, and to resist the attacks of Baldwin, Hincks, 
and their fellow-Reformers. In September, 1842, saw the necessity of resigning 
and gave way in order that the La Fontaine-Baldwin ministry might be formed. 
In 1843 appointed to the Legislative Council, where he led the opposition. 
On the resignation of the La Fontaine-Baldwin ministry in ^ December, 1843, 
accepted office with Viger, and in the exciting election held in the autumn of 
1844 obtained a bare majority for the new ministry. In January, 1845, re- 
signed his seat in the Legislative Council and elected to the Assembly for 
London. An unsuccessful attempt to secure the support of the French-Canadian 
Reform section discredited him with the Tories of Upper Canada, and in May, 
1847, withdrew from the Cabinet, and shortly afterwards resigned his seat in 


the Assembly. Appointed puisne judge of the Court of Queen's Bench for 
Upper Canada, and in 1856 made chief justice of the Court of Common Pleas, 
In July, 1863, succeeded Archibald McLean as chief justice of Upper Canada, 
and in 1869 appointed president of the Court of Error and Appeal. Con- 
tinued to act in this position until his death. Index : Md Joins Metealfe's 
administration, 19; seeks seat in Assembly, ^ 23-24 ; his administration, 24; 
recommends Macdonaid for office of commissioner of crown lands, 26 ; accepts 
judgeship and withdraws from public life, 27-28 ; commissioner to represent 
Canada before Hudson's Bay Committee, 1857, 83. BL Appointed attorney- 
general, Upper Canada, 1841, 76 ; his previous career, 77 ; his character, 77 ; 
Baldwin's attitude to, 80 ; pledged to support the administration, 81 ; succeeds 
in carrying on government, 85 ; in discussion as to speakership, 88 ; his public 
policy, 90 ; defines his position on question of responsible government, 91-92, 
94 ; his nickname of " Sweet William," 92 ; his successful policy, 95 ; difficulties 
with French-Canadians, 96-97; realizes need for reconstruction of ministry, 
115, 122; resigns office, 123; reads Bagot's letter to La Fontaine in the 
Assembly, 124; his speech in the Assembly, Sept. 13, 1842, 127; resigns, 132; 
appointed to Legislative Council, 177 ; opposes transfer of capital to Montreal, 
183 ; opposes Baldwin's University Bill, 197 ; supports Metcalfe, 212 ; execu- 
tive councillor, 216 ; referred to in George Brown's speech, 224 ; visits Lower 
Canada, and reports to Metcalfe on political situation, 236-263 ; forms ministry, 
246; attorney-general for Upper Canada, 247; secures narrow majority in 
elections, 1844, 250-251 ; his political dexterity, 253-255 ; his University Bill, 
256 ; his scheme for obtaining French-Canadian support, 258-235 ; his policy, 
266-267; his government dying, 276; resigns and becomes puisne judge of 
Court of Queen's Bench, 276 ; his University Bill, 293 ; his municipal legislation, 
299 ; his Indemnification BiU of 1845, 307-308. Sy Solicitor-general, introduces 
Union resolution in Upper Canada Legislative Assembly, 206, 213 ; brings in 
bill for settlement of Clergy Reserves question, 245; made attorney-general, 
252 ; appointed to same office under Union, 283. B Becomes MetcahVs chief 
adviser, 20; Globe criticizes his attempt to form a coalition, 27. C Forms 
ministry, 17. E Acknowledges necessity of bringing French-Canadians into 
Cabinet, 31 ; forms ministry under Lord Metcalfe, 35 ; his retirement, 43. 
R Ryerson's public letters to, 100, 120 ; in the Metcalfe controversy, 126 ; pre- 
sents case for Bang's College before Legislature, 149 ; his Provincial University 
Bill, 153 ; bill defeated, 155. Bib. : Dent, Can. For. and Last Forty Years; 
Pope, Memoirs of Sir John A. Macdonaid; Read, Lives of the Judges. For his 
own writings, see Morgan, Bib. Can. 

Dreuilletes, Gabriel (1610-1681). Studied at Jesuit College, Toulouse. In 
1643 came to Canada and spent a year in study of Algonquian language. Soon 
became proficient in that tongue and accompanied wandering bands on their 
hunting trips. In 1646 went on an expedition to the Abnaki tribes of Maine, 
who had become interested in Christianity through converts of the Sillery 
mission. Remained with the Abnaki one year and then removed to district 
of Tadoussac, where he spent three years among the Montagnais. In 1651 
again sent to the Abnaki to form an alliance with the New England colonies 
against the Iroquois, but in this was unsuccessful. Laboured for twenty years 
in missions of Sillery, Three Rivers, and other posts. In 1661 had charge of 
the mission to the Cree tribes, and in 1672 spent some time in the mission of 
Sault Ste. Marie, Died at Quebec. Index : L One of the founders of the Sault 
Ste. Marie mission, 11. Bib. : Parkman, Jesuits in North America and La Salk. 


Drew, Andrew (1792-IS7S). Entered the navy, 1806, Took part in many 
of the most important engagements during the war with France, including the 
Wulcheren expedition. Promoted to lieutenant for gallantry (luring the' fight 
between the Eurotas and the French frigate Clorijide, 1814. Promoted to com- 
mander for Ms brilliant defence of Cape Coast Castle against the Ashantt^, 
1S24. Retired and settled in Canada. During Rebellion of LSi7 offered Ms 
services to the government. Conducted the capture of the Caroline, for which 
he received the thanks of the Upper Canada Parliament and was 'appointed 
commander of the provincial marine. A grant by the Assembly to provide 
seventy-five guineas for the purchase of a sword of honour was not approved 
by the Legislative Council. Remained in active service in Canada until 1839. 
Appointed to the command of the Wasp on the West India Station, where lie 
discovered and surveyed a dangerous rock which still bears his name, 1S42. 
Appointed naval storekeeper at the Cape of Good Hope, 1850. Raised to the 
rank of admiral, 1862. Retired from active service and resided in England until 
his death. Index : Me In charge of the expedition which cut out the Carolina, 
420-421 ; thanked by the Upper Canadian Assembly, 423. Bib. : Drew and 
Woods, The Burning of the Caroline; Dent, Upper Canadian Rebellion; Lizars, 
Humours of } 37; Read, Rebellion of 1837. See also Caroline. 

Drewe, Rev. Edward. S Accompanies Simcoe as chaplain, 47. 

Driscoll, Captain. Bk Letter of, relating to death of Brock, 307. 

Drammond, Sir Gordon (17711854). Son of Colin Druminond, at one time 
deputy paymaster-general of the forces in Canada. Born at Quebec. Entered 
the army, 1789, and rapidly promoted until in 1794 became lieutenant-colonel 
of the 8th Liverpool Regiment. Saw distinguished service in the Netherlands 
and in the West Indies ; became colonel, 1798, and commanded Ms regiment 
during the campaign in Egypt, assisting in capture of Cairo and Alexandria. 
In 1S05 given rank of major-general and took command of a division in 
Jamaica. In December, 1808, transferred to the staff in Canada, untE 1811. 
Served for a time in Ireland; returned to Canada as second in command to Sir 
George Provost, 1813. Took a most prominent part in the War of 1812. 
From December, 1813, to April, 1815, president and administrator of Upper 
Canada, and during this period succeeded in turning the tide of victory to the 
British forces. Defeated the Americans at Niagara, July 28, 1814, and followed 
this up by occupying Fort Erie in November. In recognition of his splendid 
services during the war, gazetted a K. C. B. On the departure of Sir George 
Pr6vost appointed administrator of Lower Canada, and assumed office Apr. 
4, 1815. Had expressed a strong desire to return to England, as it was 
understood that the appointment was to be only temporary. Accordingly 
relieved by Major-General Wilson, and departed from Quebec, May 20, 1816. 
Obtained the rank of lieutenant-general in 1825. In 1827 made a G. C. B. 
Died in London. Index: Bk Takes command of troops at Montreal, 115; 
commander of forces in Canada, 157. Bib. : Morgan, Cel. Can.; Read, Lieutenant- 
Governors of Upper Canada; Lucas, Canadian War of 1812; Rattray, The Scot 
in British North America. 

Drummond, Lewis Thomas (1813-1882). Born in Londonderry, Ireland. 
Came to Canada with his mother, 1825. Educated at Nicolet College ; studied 
law, and called to the bar, 1836. Elected to the Assembly for Montreal, 1843, 
but prevented from taking his seat by the dissolution of the Assembly. 
Defeated in the general election that followed, but in the same year elected for 
Portneuf. Held office in the La Fontaine-Baldwin ministry as solicitor-general 


for Lower Canada, 1848-1851, and became attorney-general for Lower Canada 
in the Hineks-Morin government, 1851. Held office under various administra- 
tions until 1856, when he resigned, owing to a dispute over the leadership of 
the Assembly. Again took office as attorney-general in the short-lived Brown- 
Dorion administration, 1861, and as commissioner of public works in the Mac- 
donald-Dorion government, 1863. In the same year defeated for re-election and 
retired from political life. Appointed a judge of the Superior Court for Lower 
Canada, 1864. Retired, 1873. Died in Montreal. Index : E One of the leaders 
of the Liberals in Lower Canada in 1851, 109 ; becomes attorney-general for 
Lower Canada in Hincks-Morin government, 113; retains same portfolio in 
reconstructed ministry, 126 ; and in MacNab-Morin ministry, 141 ; takes a 
leading part in settlement of the Seigniorial Tenure, 186. B Enters George 
Brown's ministry, 102. Bib. : Dent, Last Forty Years. 

Dti Bois d'Egriseilles, Abbe J. B. L Devotes his fortune to religious work 
at Montreal, 135. 

Du Calvet, Pierre. Under the French regime engaged in the fur trade, 
and, having acquired considerable wealth, remained in the colony after the con- 
quest. In 1764 made a magistrate and justice of the peace. Vigorously opposed 
an ordinance of 1770 regulating the administration of justice, and on several 
subsequent occasions clashed with the executive authority. Suspected by 
Haldimand of having been in secret correspondence with the United States, 
and arrested in September, 1780 ; from November, 1780, to May, 1783, kept in 
confinement without the opportunity of a legal trial. In 1784 went to Eng- 
land, where he denounced Haldimand and sought redress before the British 
ministry. In this connection published an " Appel a la Justice de I'Etat" 
setting forth his personal grievances, but concluding with a carefully prepared 
plan of government, which was considered as the basis for that adopted in the 
Constitutional Act of 1791, Complaints were not favourably received, and 
returned to Canada. In March, 1786, left New York for London on board the 
Shelburne, which is supposed to have been lost with all on board. Index : 
Hd Arrested on suspicion of treason, 279-280; evidence against, 281; his 
resentment against Haldimand, 282 ; being released, enters action against him, 
283 ; his memorial to Lord Sydney, 284-288 ; his misstatements, 288 ; supported 
in his action against Haldimand by Maslres, 290; demands a Legislative 
Assembly and the Habeas Corpus Act, 291 ; drowned at sea, 292 ; praised by 
Frechette, 292 ; blames Mabane for ill will of Haldimand, 305 ; serves writ 
against Haldimand, 310. Bib. : Morgan, Gel. Can.; Cyc. Am. Biog.; Shortt 
and Doughty, Constitutional Documents of Canada. For full titles of his Appel 
d la Justice de I'Etat, and The Case of Pierre Du Calvet, see Morgan, Bib. Can. 
See also Haldimand, Sir Frederick. 

Duchesne, Adrlen. Ch Surgeon, early settler, 145. 

Duckesne, David. Ch Assisted in forming Company of New France, 168. 

Duchesneau, Jacques. Intendant of New France, 1675-1682. His com- 
mission invested him with the title of president of the Sovereign Council, an 
office which had hitherto been filled by the governor. As Frontenac, a man of 
dominant spirit, was then governor, interminable disputes arose between him 
and the intendant touching questions of precedence. Frontenac lost no op- 
portunity of showing his resentment ; and the intendant sided with the bishop in 
the vexed question^of selling brandy to the Indians. Finally the quarrel came 
to the ears of the king, and both governor and intendant were recalled. Index : 
L Appointed intendant, 166; disagrees with Frontenac, 167; recalled, 168. 


F Intendant, 108; his instructions, 109; claims to rank above bishop, 115; 
causes king's prohibition of trading licenses to be registered in Frontor,arV 
absence, 117 ; asked to furnish particulars as to ill effects of liquor traffic, 11> ; 
censured for interfering in matters beyond his sphere, 120 ; Ms recommenda- 
tions on the coureurs de bois question, 127 ; dispute with Frontenac a& to presi- 
dency of the Sovereign Council, 133-140 ; severely censured in despatch from 
minister j 134; accuses Frontenac of manufacturing the news he sends to the 
minister, 142 ; his son imprisoned for disrespect to Frontenac, 143 ; recall of, 
143 ; makes report on Aeadia, 271. Bib. : Douglas, Old France in Xcw World; 
Parkman, Frontenac; Roy, Inte?idant& de la Nouvelle-France (R. S. C., 1903). 

Duclos, Captain. WM Constructs and commands floating batterv Le Diabk. 
82, 87, 104. 

Dudley, Joseph (1647-1720). F Provisional governor of Massachusetts, 264. 
Bib. : Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Diidouyt, Jean. F Grand-vicar to bishop of Quebec, 111 ; sent to France 
by bishop in connection with liquor questions 118; advice to bishop, 171. 
L Director of seminary, 55 ; transfers his personal income to seminary, 56 ; to 
administer diocese in case of necessity, 134 ; Ms mission to France, 171 ; grand 
cantor of chapter of Quebec, 197; death of, 219. Bib.: Parknian, Frontenac. 

Dttfferin and Ava, Frederick Temple Hamilton Blackwood ? Marquess of 
(1826-1902). British commissioner to Syria, I860 ; under-secretary for 
India, 1864-1866, and for war, 1865-1867; governor-general of Canada, "1872- 
1878 ; ambassador to Russia, 1879 ; transferred to Constantinople, 1SS1 ; viceroy 
of India, 1884 ; ambassador to Italy, 1888 ; ambassador to France, 1891 ; Lord 
Warden of the Cinque Ports, 1891. Index : D Visits British Columbia in con- 
nection with Confederation negotiations, 323. Bib. : Works : Journey from 
Oxford to Skibbereen; Letters from High Latitudes; Inquiry into State of Ireland; 
Irish Emigration; Speeches and Addresses, ed. by Milton. For biog., see 
Leggo, History of the Administration of Lord Dufferin in Canada; Stewart, 
Canada under Lord Dufferin; Black, The Marquess of Dufferin and Am; Lyall, 
The Life of the Marquis of Dufferin and Ava; Dent, Can. For. ; Cyc. Am. Biog. 

pufort, Thomas. Me Agent of Papineau to Upper Canada, 345 ; sets out for 
Michigan, 345; secures assistance in Michigan, 427. 

Dugas, Du Gua, or Du Guast, Sleur de Monts. See Monts. 

Duggam, Jeremiah. Dr Citizen of Quebec, assists Americans, 120. 

Du Lhut, Daniel Greysolon (1640?-1710). Took part in the campaign in 
Flanders, and present at the battle of Seneffe, 1664. Came to Canada 
latter year. Left Montreal for the West, 1678, and the following year took 
possession of the country of the Sioux for France ; explored the country about 
Lake Superior, and gained unusual influence over some of the western tribes ; 
commanded at Fort Frontenac, 1696, and later at Detroit ; the ^city of Duluth 
named after him. Index: F Explorer, discoveries of, 162; imprisoned on 
return to Quebec, 163 ; appointed post commander among north-western tribes, 
164 ; diverts trade from English posts on Hudson Bay to Montreal, 164 ; under 
orders from La Barre confiscates goods in La Salle's fort of St. Louis, 179 ; in- 
structed to rendezvous at Niagara, 181, 186, 187 ;, fortifies post at outlet of 
Lake Huron, 202. Bib. : Margry, Decouvertes et Etablissements des Francis; 
Sieur Du Lhut (Minn. Hist. Coll., vol. 1); McLennan, Death of Duluth (R. S. C., 
1903) ; Jesuit Relations, ed. by Thwaites; vol. 62; Roy, DuLhut (Catholic Ency- 
clopedia, vol. 4) ; Colby, Canadian Types of the Old Regime. 

Du Marche. Ch Priest at Miscou, 234. 


Dumas, N. E Commissioner under Seigniorial Tenure law, 186. 

Dumas, Major. WM Commands night expedition to destroy British bat- 
teries at Pointe L<vis, 113-115; commands Canadians in battle of the Plains, 
192, 195. . , oo 

Dumay, Captain. Ch Champlain consults with, 133. 

Dumont's House. "WM Occupied in turn by British and French, 256, 258. 

Dumoulin. Ch Murdered by Montagnais Indians, 164. 

Duncan, Adam (1731-1804). Entered the navy 1755; commanded the 
Royal Exchange, 1759-1760 ; commander-in-chief in the North Sea, 1759-1801 ; 
defeated the Dutch off Camperdown, 1797. Raised to the peerage as Viscount 
Camperdown. Indes: Bk Gains victory off Camperdown, 12. Bib.: Diet. 

Duncan, Alexander. D Sails for North-West Coast with Colnett, 22 ; con- 
firms discovery of Portlock and Dixon that Queen Charlotte Islands are not 
part of mainland, 22. 

Duncan, Richard. S Member of Legislative Council, 79. 

Duncan, William. D Sent out from England, 1856, by Church of England 

Bib. : Walbran, 

the Story of William Duncan. f 

Duncombe, Charles. Medical doctor. Resided at Burford Plains, near 
Brantford. Elected to the Legislature, 1824, and re-elected, 1836. After the 
failure of the Rebellion, escaped to the United States. In 1843 returned to 
Canada, but remained only for a short time. Me Complains to Glenelg of Head, 
315 ; deals with York election, 316 ; his letter referred to a committee, 321 ; 
report of the committee, 322 ; assembles his forces at Brantford, 425 ; retreats 
to Scotland village, 425 ; increased by one thousand, 425 ; men disperse, 426 ; 
amnestied, 474. Bib.: Dent, Upper Canadian Rebellion. 

Dundas, George (1819-1880). Lieutenant-governor of Prince Edward Island, 
1859-1869. Afterwards lieutenant-governor of St. Vincent, West India Islands, 
where he died. 

Dundas, Henry. See Melville. 

Dundas Street. Also known as the Governor's Road. Built by Governor 
Simcoe ; connected London with the village of Dundas. Place and road 
were named after the then secretary for the colonies. Index : S Name given by 
Simcoe to his military road from Burlington Bay to site of present city of Lon- 
don, 201. BL Its extent, 8. 

Dunfermline, James Abercromby, first Baron (1776-1858). Sat in British 
Parliament, 1807, 1812-1830 and 1832; Speaker of House of Commons, 1835- 
1839. Index: Sy Governor-generalship of Canada tendered to, 58. Bib.: Diet. 
Nat. Biog. 

Dunkin, Christopher (1811-1881). Born in London, England. ( Educated 
at the Universities of London and Glasgow. Emigrated to America ; studied 
at Harvard University, and for a time tutor of Greek in that institution. Came 
to Canada about 1836, and engaged in newspaper work. Appointed secretary 
to the Education Commission, 1838, and subsequently secretary to the Post- 
office Commission. Assistant-secretary for Lower Canada, 1841-1847; called 
to the bar, 1846. Unsuccessfully contested the county of Drummond for a 
seat in the Legislative Assembly, 1844, but elected to represent Drummond 
and Arthabaska, 1857. Defeated, 1861, but elected for the county of Brome, 


1862. Retained his seat until Confederation, when elected by the 
county to the House of Commons. At first an opponent of Conft-Mloration, 
but afterwards a strong supporter. Provincial treasurer of Quebec, 1S>7; 
entered the Dominion Cabinet as minister of agriculture, I860. Appointr-d a 
judge of the Superior Court of Quebec, 1S71; held office until Ms death. 
Name associated with the Canada Temperance Act, better known as the 
'* Dunkin Act." Bib. : Dent's Can. For, and Last Forty Years. 

Dunlop, William (1795?-184S). Born in Scotland, Served as a regimental 
surgeon in War of 1812 and in India. Came to Canada in 1S26, with John 
Gait (#.P.) ; and took part in the establishment of the Canada Company (g,i\). 
In Scotland, had been the intimate of John Wilson (" Christopher North," 
of Blackwood's), Maginn, and Hogg, and had done some literary work, which 
he continued in Canada. Founded the Toronto Literary Club, 1S36. Rep- 
resented Huron in the Legislature, 1841-1846. Index : BL Attacks proposed 
reconstruction of ministry, 1S42, 132 ; significance of his nickname of " Tiger/' 
132. See also Canada Company ; Gait ; Talbot. Bib. : 
of Upper Canada. For biog., see Lizars, Days of the Canada Company and 
Humours of '87; Dent, Last Forty Years; Rattray, The Scot in British North 
America; Morgan, Bib. Can. 

Dunmore, John Murray, Earl of (1732-1809). Royal governor of Virginia, 
appointed 1771. Returned to England after the Revolutionary War, and in 
1786 appointed governor of the Bermudas. Index: Hd His letter to Hal- 
dimand, 92. Bib. : Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Dunn, John Henry. Came to Canada in 1820, from England. Receiver- 
general and member of Executive and Legislative Councils of Upper Canada. 
Died in London, 1854. Index : BL Receiver-general, appointed to Council by 
Head, 38-39 ; receiver-general, 1841, 76 ; a moderate Reformer, 78 ; Baldwin's 
confidence in, 78; retains office under La Fontaine-Baldwin government, 134; 
beaten in Toronto, 1844, 253. Sy Made receiver-general of united province, 
283, 332, Me Appointed executive councillor, 294; resigns, 294. Bib.: Dent, 
Last Forty Years. 

Dunn, Oscar (1844-1885). Journalist. Index: C His statements as to Car- 
tier's quarrel with Macdonald over terms of British North America Act, 103. 
Bib. : Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Dunn, Robert. S Presbyterian clergyman, performed marriage services in 
contravention of the law, 164 ; second clergyman to settle in Niagara district, 
165 ; drowned in wreck of the Speedy, 165. 

Dunn, Thomas (1731-1818). Engaged in mercantile life; came to Canada 
shortly after the conquest. In 1764 appointed a member of the first Legis- 
lative Council of Quebec. A member of the new Council formed under Quebec 
Act, and one of the five selected by Carleton for the Special Privy Council. 
On the passing of the Constitutional Act, appointed one of the first executive 
and legislative councillors of the Lower Province, and during five different 
periods acted as president of the Legislative Council. On departure of Sir Eobert 
Millies, in 1805, assumed the administration of the province and continue^ to 
act until the arrival of Sir James Craig in October, 1807. Again in 1811, during 
the interval between the departure of Sir James Craig and the arrival of Sir 
George Pre*vost, entrusted with the administration. Index: Br Appointed 
judge, 183. Bk Becomes civil administrator with title of president on departure 
of Sir R. S. Milnes, 69, 73 ; differences with Brock, 77 ; confident of loyalty of 
French-Canadians, 86 ; calls out one-fifth of militia, 94, 96 ; becomes adminis- 


trator again on departure of Craig, 157. Bib.: Morgan, Cel Can.; Christie 
History of Lower Canada. ' 

Dunning, John. See Ashburton. 

Dunvegan. A trading-post on the left bank of the Peace River, about iat 
56, and long. 118 40'. Built by A. R. McLeod for the North West Company 
about the beginning of the nineteenth century. It was named after the " cold 
bleak, rock-built castle of the McLeods of Skye." Daniel Williams Harmon 
stationed there, 1808-1810, and Simon Fraser visited him there on his way east 
from exploring the river that bears his name. Bib.: Burpee, Search for the 
Western Sea. 

Du Pare, Jean Godet, Sietir. Ch Comes to Canada, 47 : left in charge of 
colony (1610), 60. 

Dupleix, General. WM Abandonment of, by French government, 53. 

Duplessis-Bocliart, Guillaume Guillemot. Sent to Canada, 1632, by the 
Company of New France. Led a trading expedition up the Ottawa River 
1636. Killed by the Iroquois at Three Rivers, 1651. Index : Ch Presents pic- 
tures to church of Notre-Dame de la Recouvrance, 240 ; brings out settlers, 252. 

Du Plessis Bonneati, Thomas, Sieur. Ch Director of Company of New France, 

Duplessis de Ste. Helene, Mere Andre. L Her piety, 92. 

Duplessis-Mornay. See Mornay. 

Duplessis, Pacifique. Came to Canada with Champlain, 1615. Returned 
to France, 1618. Came again, 1619, and died the same year. Index: Ch 
R^collet missionary, 85; death of, 117. Bib. : Douglas, Old France in the New 
World; Parkman, Pioneers of France. 

Dupont, Nicolas. F Member of Sovereign Council, 106. L Member of 
Sovereign Council, 158, 166. 

Dupont. Ch Name given by Champlain to the Nicolet River, 52. 

Dupont-Grave. See Pont-Grav6. 

Duprat, Captain. WM Brings word of impending attack on left of I rench 
position, 138. 

Dupuis, Captain. L Heads mission established at Gannentaha, 65, "7. 

Dupuy, Claude Thomas. Intendant of New France, 1726-1728. Although 
a man of some ability, was extremely preter ious and self-opinionated, and 
became involved in constant quarrels with the .overnor and the bishop. Bib. : 
Roy, Intendants de la Nouvelle-France (R. S. C.* 1903). 

Duquesne de Menneville, Michel Ange, Marquis de. Appointed governor 
of New France 1752, in succession to La Jonqui&re. His policy was to intercept 
communication between New England and the western Indians and thus to 
restore the Indians to dependence on France. In the spring of 1753 sent a 
force of a thousand men under Morin to the Ohio district ; a fort was built at 
Presque Isle and another, Fort Le Bceuf, inland on River Le Boeuf. Dis- 
ease made ravages among the troops, and while 300 were left to garrison 
the forts, the remainder were compelled to return to Montreal, and Duquesne's 
plans for a further advance were frustrated. Nevertheless the Indians were 
brought into submission to the French. Improved the organization of the 
government of the colony, and through thorough discipline raised the efficiency 
of the colonial troops. Succeeded in 1755 by the Marquis de Vaudreuil. 
Bib. : Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe; Bradley, The Fight for Canada; Fiske, 
New France and New England. 

Dureil, Philip. Second-in-command, under Admiral Saunders, before Quebec, 


1759. Index; WM Instructed to cruise of! St. Lawrence, 75; some 

captures, 78; arrives at lie-aux-Coudres, and establishes camp, SS; hi* er:*nl- 
son captured, 90, Bib.: Wood, Logs of the Conquest of Canada and ThP^k 
/or Canada; Doughty, Siege of Quebec. " "* 

Durham, John George Lambton, Earl of (1792-4840). Entered 
Parliament, 1S14, for county of Durham, and won recognition as an advanced 
Reformer. Brought forward plan of parliamentary reform in 182 L Raised 
to peerage, 1S2S. Member of Grey's ministry, 1S30. Sent to St. Petersburg 
on special^ mission, 1833. Ambassador to Russia, 1836. Sent to Canada in 
1838 to bring order ^ out of the chaos of the Rebellion. His famous Report 'fol- 
lowed. His policy in Canada excited much opposition both in Great Britain 
and Canada, The House of Lords voted disapproval of some of his acts, and 
he took the extraordinary step of returning to England without either being re- 
called or obtaining the royal consent. Nevertheless the wisdom of his recommen- 
dations has since been abundantly justified. Died at Cowes T in the Isle of \V5ght, 
soon after his return. Index : Me "A man ahead of Ms time; T 6, 7 ; 'speech on 
the Reform Bill, 14, 15 ; Ms report on the Constitutional Act, 55 ; on the position 
of lieutenant-governor, 56; on the Legislative Council, 57; on the Executive 
Council, 58, 63, 64 ; says Reformers are justified in demanding responsible execu- 
tive, 59, 67, 68, 69 ; points out powerlessness of Assembly, 60 ; on the Family 
Compact, 62, 65 ; Clergy Reserves one of the chief causes of Rebellion, 71, 72 ; on 
evils arising from Constitutional Act, 75, 76 ; says representative government was 
guaranteed by Constitutional Act, 76 ; Ms report justifies Reformers, 77 ; Stuart 
J. Reid on the Report, 78 ? 79; analogy between Report and " Seventh Report 
on Grievances," 79, 80; Union Act of 1840 based on Report, SO; recommends 
responsible government, 81 ; authorship of Report, 82, 83 ; on Head's inter- 
ference in election, 309 ; on the causes of disaffection, 402 ; the remedy, 403. 
Md On representation by population, 71 ; on federal union, 93-95. WT His 
views on union, 203. C His inquiry and report, 11-12 ; Poulett Thomson sent 
out to Canada to give effect to his recommendations, 12 ; would merge French- 
Canadians in the Anglo-Saxon race, 12; exposes frauds of Constitution of 1791, 
13 ; ^ in favour of ministerial responsibility, 96. H His report before Nova Scotia 
Legislature, 53; advocates Intercolonial Railway, 99. P On Papineau's re- 
fusal to accept Lord Goderxch's offer of control of the revenue, 77 ; exiles leaders 
of Rebellion^ to Bermuda, 138 ; his action vetoed by Imperial government, 139 ; 
vindicates his action in a parting proclamation, 139 ; on the system of- govern- 
ment in Lower Canada, 157 ; denied access to Canadian documents in Paris 
archives, 165 ; his scheme for union of the Canadas arouses opposition of French- 
Canadians, 170. R Ryerson on, 115; Ryerson supports his recommendations, 
117; his Report, 120-122. MS Comes to Canada, 243; his Report, 243; ap- 
points Adam Thorn to his staff, 245. Sy His lack of discretion, 57, 89 ; his 
Report, 85, 89-97, 345 ; his Report welcomed by British party in Lower Canada, 
95 ; and Reformers of Upper Canada, 96 ; criticized in report of the Upper Canada 
Assembly, 97-100 ; also in report of committee of Legislative Council, 100-103 ; 
quoted against his own Report, 162. B On causes of Rebellion in Lower Canada, 
11, 53 ; his remedy for political discontent, 12, 13 ; estimates numerical strength 
of Church of England in Upper Canada, 52-53 ; his Report quoted, on land 
grants, 53-54 ; on representation, 82-83 ; and Confederation, 129 ; his plan of 
legislative union, 263. BL On political situation in Upper Canada, 17 ; and 
Lower Canada, 17; t in period of reconstruction, 50; sent to Canada, 53; pre- 
vious career, 53 ; his arbitrary methods in Canada, 54 ; attacked in House of 


Lords, and his ordinance granting amnesty disallowed, 55; his proclamation, 
55 ; his recall, 55 ; his Report, 55-58 ; Imperial government acts upon his ad- 
vice, 59 ; his recommendations, 66 ; recommends responsible government, 137 ; 
273 ; John Stuart Mill on, 149 ; on the duties of the governor, 161, 163 ; Ms 
Report quoted by Baldwin, 222; and Elgin, 274; eulogized by Draper, 277. 
E His characteristics as a statesman, 2 ; his daughter marries Lord Elgin, 14 ; 
sound principles laid down in his Report indicated by Lord Elgin, 15 ; com- 
pared with Elgin, 15; sums up nature of conflict in Lower Canada, 18; ad- 
vocates ultimate domination of English element, 23, 55; his views on repre- 
sentative government, 25-26 ; on land grants to United Empire Loyalists, 144- 
145; on Clergy Reserves, 148, 154-155; on American misconstruction of 
conditions in Canada, 190-191 ; on economic conditions in Canada in 1838- 
1839, 191 ; suggests remedies, 192-193, 194, 195. Bib. : Report on the Affairs 
of British North America; Haliburton, Reply to the Report of the Earl of 
Durham; Bradshaw, Self-Government in Canada; Egerton and Grant, Canadian 
Constitutional Development ; Garnett, The Authorship of Lord Durham's Report; 
Christie,- History of Lower Canada; Diet. Nat. Biog.; Diet. Eng. Hist.; Morgan, 
Cel. Can.; Dent, Can. For.; Reid, Life and Letters of Lord Durham. 

"Dutch Colonists. Ch Their relations with the Irpquois, 52. Dr Admixture 
of, among United Empire Loyalists, 240. Bk Emigration of, from Pennsyl- 
vania to Upper Canada, 49, 

Duval, Jean. F Executed for conspiracy against Champlain, 8. Ch Lock- 
smith, accompanies Champlain to Quebec, 41 ; leads conspiracy to assassinate 
him, 42; executed, 43. Bib.: Parkman, Pioneers of France. 

Duval, Jean Francois Joseph (1801-1881). Born in Quebec. Studied law 
and called to the bar of Lower Canada, 1823. Represented Quebec in the 
Assembly, 1830-1834. Appointed to the bench, 1839; judge of the Superior 
Court, 1852; judge of the Queen's Bench, 1855; chief justice of the Queen's 
Bench, 1864 ; retired, 1874. Died in Quebec. Index : E Member of Seigniorial 
Court, 187. Bib. : Dent, Last Forty Years. 

Du Verger, Father. Ch Promotes R6collet mission to Canada, 83. 

Du Vernet. Ch Interpreter, 144. 

Du Vignau, Nicolas. Ch His alleged discoveries, 74-77, interpreter, 144. 
Bib. : Champlain, Voyages; Parkman, Pioneers of France. 

Earthquake of 1663. Known in Canadian history as the " Great Earth- 
quake. ' ' The most extravagant accounts have come down as to the cir cumstan ces 
attending this earthquake, but it was undoubtedly the most serious disturbance 
of the earth's crust, in Canadian territory, of which we have any record. It 
affected chiefly the valley of the St. Lawrence from Montreal to the gulf, a re- 
gion more susceptible to seismic disturbance than any other in Eastern Canada. 
Kingsford cites contemporary reports of similar phenomena in 1638 and 1766. 
Index: F Described by Avaugour, 46-47. L Lalernant's account of, 42-45; 
Marie de 1'Incarnation on, 45; conversions resulting from, 45-46. Bib.: 
Charlevpix, Histoire de la Nouvelle France; Lalemant, Relation, 1663; Rague- 
neau, Vie de Catherine de St. Augustin; Marie de 1'Incarnation, Lettres; Parkman, 
Old Regime; Kingsford, History of Canada. 

Eastern Townships. Hd Proposition to settle with disbanded Loyalists, 264. 
Dr Settled by British Americans, 289 ; mixed population of, 288. Bib. : Day, 
Pioneers of the Eastern Townships; Day, History of the Eastern Townships; 
Thomas, History of the Eastern Townships. 


Easton, James, Dr American officer, demands surrender of Carleton at Sore! 
113. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog, 

Eau, Chevalier d f . F Goes on embassy to Iroquois, 262. 

Echemin Indians. A tribe closely resembling the Micmacs of Nova Scotia. 
and inhabiting in the seventeenth century what is now eastern Myine imd 
New Brunswick. They lived by hunting and fishing. Index : WM Enemies 
of the English, 16. 

Edgar, Sir James David (1841-1899). Studied law, and called to the bar of 
Upper Canada, 1864. Elected to House of Commons, 1872. Sent OE politiru] 
mission to British Columbia, in connection with Canadian Pacific Bail way. 
Returned to Parliament, 1884 ; elected Speaker of the House of Commons, 1$%. 
Index : Md Sent to British Columbia by Mackenzie government, 234. B Sent 
to Victoria, 1874, as special agent of Dominion government, in connection with 
Canadian Pacific Railway, 320. Bib, : This Canada of Ours and Other Poems; 
The White Stone Canoe; Canada and its Capital For biog., see Morgan, Can. 

Edmonton. Capital of province of Alberta. Situated on the North Sas- 
katchewan. Occupies site of Edmonton House, of the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany, and, at a still earlier date, Fort Augustus, of the North West Company. 
Later was built by, and known at one time as Fort des Prairies. Bib.: 
Cameron, The City on the Saskatchewan. 

Edmonton House. MS Built by Hudson's Bay Company, 6. 

Education. Md University endowment in Upper Canada, 28-30; Mao- 
donald's connection with separate school question, 82, 84 ; compulsory educa- 
tion established, 116. WT State of, in New Brunswick, S3; Wihnot's interest 
in, 83; grammar schools, 85-86; college of New Brunswick, 86; Madras 
system, 80-87 ; lack of public interest in schools, 88-90 ; Wilmot's views on 
education, 90-91 ; improvement in school system, 162 ; King's College, 162-164. 
WM Limited to a few, but excellent, 23. R In Upper Canada, 51-59 ; petitions, 
54-55 ; Common School Bill, 1816, its provisions, 56-57 ; Board of Education, 
58 ; provisions of amending Act, 1824, 58 ; the university question, 133-162 ; 
the common school system, 163-213; separate school question, 215-245; 
grammar or high schools, 247-268. E Gradual improvements in common school 
system after 1841, 87-89 ; Mrs. Jamieson on the Upper Canadian schoolmaster, 
87 ; Lord Elgin's interest in educational problems, 88. BL System of common 
schools provided for in government programme, 1841, 89; Act passed, 105; 
previous legislation for higher education, 105-106; for elementary schools, 
106-107; terms of new Act of 1841, 107-108; school laws of 1843, 189^190; 
Baldwin's University Act, 190 ; history of the university movement in Upper 
Canada, 191-197; under second La Fontaine-Baldwin ministry, 281, 286, 292, 
338-339. Sy Demand that Clergy Reserves should be applied to purposes of, 
240-242. S Simcoe's efforts in cause of, 166. C In the clerical colleges of 
Quebec, 3-5 ; Lord Elgin on, 5; Cartier's work for, in Lower Canada, 114; in 
Quebec, 37-38. Dr Committee on, appointed, 226 ; conflicting views on, 227- 
229. H In Nova Scotia, Joseph Howe advocates compulsory education, 79; 
and an undenominational provincial university, 82 ; again introduces his measure 
for public schools, 115. B George Brown's views on, 47, 59, 61 , 62-64, 75, 
121-123, 145 ; separate school question, 121-123, 144-145, Hd In the early 
days of British rule, 233-236. See Ryerson, Egerton ; Strachan, John ; ^Simcoe, 
John Graves; Grammar Schools; Universities; Public Schools; Libraries; 
Manitoba School Question; Separate Schools. Bib. : Canada: An Ency., vote. 


2, 3, and 4 ; Chauveau, Ulnstrudion Publique; Dawspn, Fifty Years' Work in 
Canada; Hodgins, Documentary History of Education in Upper Canada; Ryer- 
spn, Story of my Life; Meilleur, It Education du Bas-Canada; Millar, Educa- 
tional System of Ontario; Ross, Universities of Canada; Education in the Canadas 
(Archives Report, 1899). 

Edward VII (1841-1910). Succeeded to throne, 1901. Index: E His visit 
to Canada in I860, 7. Md Visits Canada in 1860, and opens Victoria bridge, 87. 
Bib. : Diet. Eng. Hist.; Morgan, Tour of Prince of Wales through Canada'; 
Gough, The King's Visit to Canada. 

Edward and Annie. MS The vessel which brought the Red River settlers 
from Stornoway to Hudson Bay, 150-151. 

Effiat, Due d'. Ch Second in list of Hundred Associates (Company of New 
France), 170. 

Eldon, John Scott, first Earl (1751-1838). British statesman. Index: Sy Re- 
signs from. Cabinet, 16. Bib. : Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Election Frauds. B In Russell County and Quebec City in 1857, 99-100, 106. 

Election Laws. BL Bill introduced, 99; rejected by Council, 100; La 'Fon- 
taine-Baldwin government brings in a broader measure, 144 ; its terms, 144-145 
opposition of Conservative press, 145-146; electoral reform measures, 286. ' 

Elgin, James Bruce, eighth Eari of (1811-1863). E His qualities as a states- 
man, 3-4 ; his success in Canada, 4 ; his lineage, 5-6 ; his personal character, 
6-8; education, 6; his contemporaries at college, 7; enters Parliament, 8; 
accepts governorship of Jamaica, 9 ; death of his first wife, 9 ; his successful ad- 
ministration in Jamaica, 10-12 ; returns to England, 1846, 13 ; accepts governor- 
generalship of Canada, 13 ; his second marriage, 14 ; influence of Durham, 15 
contrasted with Durham, 15 ; his arrival in Montreal, 1847, 16, 26, 40, 41; views 
on the political situation, 41-43 ; obtains from Imperial government reimburse- 
ment of plague expenses, 48 ; his tour through Upper Canada, 49 ; on agricultu- 
ral associations, 50; dissolves Parliament, 50; calls upon La Fontaine and 
Baldwin to form administration, 52 ; comments on character of new govern- 
ment, 52-53 ; his letters to Lord Grey, 54-56 ; views on the French question, 
55-56; his antipathy to Papineau, 56; on economic conditions, 57-58; on 
annexation sentiment, 58 ; on inter-imperial trade, 58-59 ; his course in con- 
nection with Rebellion Losses Bill, 71-78; attacked by mob, 74; Imperial 
government approves his action in signing bill, 78 ; second visit to Upper Canada, 
79 ; raised to peerage, 80 ; condemns Annexation Manifesto, 81 ; on causes of 
commercial depression, 82 ; urges reciprocity with United States, 82, 101 107 
vindication of his policy on Rebellion Losses Bill, 83-84; views on education,' 
88-89; his admiration for Baldwin, 104; on parliamentary representation, 
118-119: on an elective Upper House, 120-121; visits England in 1853, 123; 
tribute from United States minister in London, 123-124; visits Washington 
and negotiates Reciprocity Treaty, 124; resents John Sandfield Macdonald's 
rebuke, 129 ; on the appeal to the country in 1854, 132, 133 ; opens fifth Parlia- 
PT*' 1 3 ; vlses repeal of Im ? erial A ct of 1840, 164-165, 167; on the atti- 
tude of the Church of England in Canada, 169 ; his efforts to kill annexation 
sentiment, 189-190, 194, 195; his efforts to secure reciprocity, 196; visits 
United btates and negotiates treaty, 197; signs treaty June 8, 1854, 198 201 
succeeded as governor-general by Sir Edmund Head, Dec. 19, 1854, 203 ; part- 
on! OAQ f l m Le S is Jature, 203 ; his reply, 204-205 ; his last speech in Quebec, 
205-208; returns to England, 209; views on colonial self-defence, 209-212; 
accepts mission to China, 212; his part in suppressing Indian Mutiny 213- 


negotiates treaty of Tientsin, 214 ; official visit to Japan, 214 ; ne^tintr? trratv 
of Yeddo, 214; returns to England, 215: British apathy as to colonies 2L5; 

suppresses Nahabu outbreak, 218; illness and death, Nov. 20, iSt>3, 21^-219 
his views on Imperial honours, 222 ; his principles of 'self-government, 227 ; on 
British connection, 229, 231 ; on the status of a constitutional governor, 231- 
232 ; beneficial results of his policy, 233, 235 ; on colonial self-government, 
239-240 ; on the American political* system, 257-258. B On causes of depres- 
sion in Canada, 32 ; his far-sighted statesmanship, views on imperial unity, 
33 ; introduces self-government in Canada, 33 ; and the Rebellion Losses Bill, 
34-38. Md Succeeds Cathcart as governor-general, 26; upholds responsible 
government, 32-33 ; gives assent to Rebellion Losses Bill, 36-38 ; mobbed in 
Montreal, 38 ; sober second judgment of the people justifies his action in ap- 
proving the bill, 41 ; his action approved by British government, 42 ; effects 
Reciprocity Treaty with United States, 45, 98, 216. WT Brings about Reciproc- 
ity Treaty, 171. BL Mentioned, 75; attitude to responsible government, 133; 
chosen by Liberal government as governor-general, 272; Ms character, 272; 
his grasp of the colonial situation, and attitude towards responsible government, 
273; first to apply successfully the principle, 273; liberally interprets his 
instructions, 274 ; marries Durham's daughter, 274 ; a thorough believer in Dur- 
ham's doctrines, 274 ; his statesmanlike grasp of the true attitude of the gov- 
ernor, 274-275; enters Montreal, January, 1847, 275; Hincks OB, 275-276; 
Draper on, 277 ; dissolves Parliament, Dec. 6, 1847, 278 ; Ms solution of the 
Canadian question, 282-283 ; calls Parliament at Montreal, Feb. 25, 1848, 283 ; 
sends for La Fontaine^ to form ministry, 284 ; his high opinion of second La 
Fontaine-Baldwin ministry, 285; interview with Baldwin and La Fontaine ? 
285-286 ; brings session to a close, 286 ; on commercial depression in Canada, 
301 ; consents to Rebellion Losses Bill, 321 ; mobbed in Montreal, 305, 322, 324 ; 
his attitude towards the bill, 332-334 ; loyal reception to in Toronto, 338. R 
Concedes full measure of responsible government, 126. C On education in 
Quebec, 5 ; urges Cartier to enter Cabinet, 22 ; and the Rebellion Losses Bill, 
32 ; his letter to Lord Grey on the state of the country in 1849, 44 ; most en- 
lightened and most popular governor before Confederation, 98 ; aids cause of 
responsible government, 98. H Attends public dinner to Joseph Howe at To- 
ronto, 1851, 138; represents British North America at Boston railway celebra- 
tion, 1851, 250. Me Assents to Amnesty Act, 480. Bib. : Morgan, Cel. Can,; 
Dent, Can. Par. and Last Forty Years; Diet. Nat. Biog.; Walrond, Letters of 
Lord Elgin; Wrong, The Earl of Elgin; LeMoine, Le Comte d' Elgin (R. S. C., 

Eliott, G. A. See Heathfield. 

Elisa, Francisco. Commanded Spanish expedition to Nootka, 1790. Carried 
on extensive explorations in 1791, returning to Monterey the following year. 
Index : D His attempt to explore Juan de Fuca Strait in 1790, 26 j, sends Fidalgo 
to examine northern coast same year, 26. Bib. : Bancroft, North-West Coast. 

Ellice, Edward (1781-1863). P Seignior of Beauharnois, suggests to colonial 
secretary union of Upper and Lower Canada, 47 ; his design revealed, 49 ; meets 
Papineau, 53. MS Opposes sale of Red River land to Selkirk by Hudson's 
Bay Company, 210-212 ; quoted on Dr. John McLoughlin, 220 ; before Hudson's 
Bay Company Committee, 272. Bib, : Diet. Nat. Biog. 


Elliott, Colonel. Bk Indian superintendent at Amherstburg, 151 ; in charge 
of Indians in western district, 230. 

Elliott. Dr Commissioner for exchange of prisoners, 207. 

Elmsley, John (1762-1805). Born in England. Succeeded William Osgoode as 
chief- justice of Upper Canada, 1796, and again as chief -justice of Lower Canada, 
1802. At the same time became a member of the Executive Council. In 
February, 1803, appointed president of the Legislative Council a position 
he held until his death. Index: S Becomes chief -justice, 178. Bk His death, 
69. Bib : Morgan, Gel. Can.; Read, Lives of the Judges. 

Embargo. Bk On United States ships, 83, 108; benefits Canadian trade, 
109, 115; disastrous effects of, both in United States and in England, 110, 111 ; 
withdrawn, 114. 

Emigration. Sy Sydenham's views on, 321 ; grant by British government 
in aid of, 322. 

Emulous. Bk British ship, prizes taken by, 224. 

End, William. WT Votes against address of New Brunswick Assembly, 46 ; 
referred to by Wilmot, 95 ; moves amendment in regard to money grants, 97 ; 
interrupts Wilmot's speech, 108, 109. 

Endemare, Father. Ch Jesuit, goes to Fort Ste. Anne in Cape Breton, 237. 

England. Bk At war with republican France, 8 ; its invasion threatened, 10 ; 
mutiny in the fleet and insubordination in the army, 11 ; isolation of, 23 ; makes 
peace of Amiens, 30 ; declares war with France, 44 ; threatened by Napoleon, 
71 ; the Berlin Decrees directed against, 81 ; without an ally in Europe, 82 ; 
prders-in-council in reply to Berlin Decrees, 93, 106, 111, 120 ; intense anxiety 
in as to war in Peninsula (1811), 140; prostration of trade, 167; neglect of 
military protection of Canada (1812), 184; its main force necessarily concen- 
trated on struggle in Europe, 269. 

English Colonies. F Goods cheap in, 154; pay better price for furs, 154, 
175, 201 ; political confusion prevailing in, after downfall of James II, 263. WM 
Colonists sell goods to Indians on more advantageous terms than the French, 21. 

English Colonization. WM Egoism the principle of, 17 ; Parkman on, 20 ; 
demoralizing effect of, 20. Bib.: Fiske, New France and New England. 

English Law. Hd Introduction of, by the royal proclamation, 59. Dr Some- 
times inconsistently invoked by those who in general objected thereto, 40. 

English Settlers in Canada. Dr Position taken by, 9 ; find French laws 
irksome, 12 ; Murray's description of, 14, 24, 26 ; send delegate to England, 16 ; 
petition for Murray's recall, 17 ; described by Carleton, 47 ; object to Carleton's 
ordinance of 1770, with respect to administration of justice, 55. 

Enos, General Roger' (1729-1808). Hd In command of Vermont troops, 211 ; 
proposes to settle two Canadian townships, 266. Bib. : Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Epidemics. L Ravages of, 239. See Smallpox. 

Equal Rights Association. Formed in Toronto, in 1889, to secure the dis- 
allowance of the Jesuits' Estates Act, and generally to oppose what was de- 
scribed as the " political encroachments of ultramontanism." Among the 
principal founders were D'Alton McCarthy, William E. O'Brien, and Clarke 
Wallace. Index : Md Grew out of agitation over Jesuits' Estates question, 289. 

Erie Indians. A large tribe, of Irpquois stock, inhabiting in the seventeenth 
century the country between Lake Erie and the Ohio. After long war, the Eries 
were practically wiped out by the Iroquois, in 1656, the few survivors being adopted 
into the Iroquois confederacy. Bib. : Hodge, Handbook of American Indians. 
Erie, Lake. Area 10,000 square miles. Discovered by Br6beuf and Chau- 


rnonot, 1640. It js possible that the lake may have been first scon by whito 
men at a still earlier date, when the Franciscan friar, La Roche Dal! ion," visited 
the Neutral nation, 1626 ; but there is no direct evidence. The ; tf men- 
tioned under its present name in Lalemant's Relation of 1641, as well as In that 
of Ragueneau, 1648. La Sale's Griffon was the first ship to sail its water*, Ifj?,}. 
First clearly shown on Sanson map of 1650. Bib. ; Chaumonot, Vie; Harris, 
Early Missions; Parknaan, Jesuits in North America. 

Ermatinger, Francis. D His expedition to Sacramento in 1841, 132, Bib, : 
Simpson, Journey round the World; Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company. 

Erskine, David Montagu, second Baroa (1776-1855). Bk British minister 
at Washington, premature announcement of, with respect to orders-in-council, 
120. Bib. : Diet Nat. Biog. 

Eskimos. American aborigines, formerly occupying practically the entire 
coast of North America from Newfoundland around to the Aleutian Islands ; 
now confined to the northern coast of the continent, and the Arctic Inlands. 
They call themselves Inuit, meaning " people/ 7 the name *' Eskimo " having been 
given them by some of their Indian neighbours. Bib. : Hodge, Handbook of 
American Indians; Reclus, Primitive Folk. See also United States Bureau of 
Ethnology Reports. 

Esquimau. Naval station, four miles from Victoria, Vancouver Island. 
Index : D Suggested as site for city, 175 ; Douglas's spelling of name, 175 ; 
H. M. S. Constance arrives there, 184. 

Essex. Bk United States frigate, captures British transport, 225. 

Estaing, Charles Hector Tkeodat, Count d' (1729-1794). Hd His proclama- 
tion to French-Canadians, 123. Bib. : Cyc, Am. Biog. 

Esten, James C. Palmer (1806-1864). Born in Bermuda. Educated at the 
Charter House, London; called to the English bar. Came to Canada, 1836, 
and called to the bar of Upper Canada, 1838. Served as a volunteer during 
Rebellion of 1837. Practised his profession at Toronto. Appointed vice- 
chancellor, 1849. Bib. : Read, Lives of the Judges. 

Etoline, Adolphus Karlovicli. Director of the Russian-American colonies, 
1841-1845. Index: D Succeeds Kuprianoff as governor of Russian America, 
1840, 45 ; splendour of his establishment, 45 ; visited by James Douglas, 45. 

European and North American Railway. WT Wilmot's attitude towards, 
127 ; Peto, Brassy, and Betts propose to construct, 168 ; subsidies offered by 
province, 168; progress of, 186. 

Eustache, Sir J. R. Born, 1795. Educated at St. Peter's College, Cambridge. 
Entered the army; served in Upper Canada in command of the 19th Light 
Dragoons ; present at the battle of Lundy's Lane and at the storming of Fort 
Erie ; knighted for distinguished services. Took part In the suppression of the 
Rebellion of 1837-1838 in Lower Canada ; high-sheriff of Kildare, 1848; lieu- 
tenant-general, 1859; Bib.:- Morgan, Gel. Can. 

Eustis, William (1753-1825). Bk United States secretary of war, his con- 
fident prediction of conquest of Canada, 215. Bib. : Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Evans, Lieutenant. Dr Case against, in connection with Walker affair, dis- 
missed by grand jury, 38. 

Evans, James (1801-1846). Born in Kingstpn-upon-Hull, England. Emi- 
grated to Canada; opened a school near I/Original, and about 1828 moved to 
Rice Lake, where he entered the Methodist ministry, and began his life-long 
work among the Indians. In 1840 given charge of missionary work in the 
North-West, with headquarters at Norway House. Had already devoted 


much, time to the study of the native languages, and while at Norway House 
invented the Cree syllabic characters, a simple, phonetic system, by means 
of which the Indian was taught to read with surprising facility. At first cast 
Ms own type, built his own press, and printed on birchbark. Later obtained 
more effective materials, and set up catechisms, hyrnn-books, and portions 
of the Bible in syllabic. Bib. : Young, The Apostle of the North; McLean, James 
Evans, Inventor of the Syllabic System; Carroll, James Evans in the Methodist 
Magazine, October, 1882 ; Pilling, Bibliography of the Algonquian Languages. 

Ewan, John Alexander (1854-1910). Born in Aberdeen, Scotland. Educated 
in Scotland and in Canada. Assistant editor of the Toronto Globe for many 
years ; war correspondent for that paper during Boer War, 1899-1902. Index : 
B Witnesses shooting of George Brown by Bennett, 255-256 ; seizes Bennett, 256. 

Examiner. Newspaper published at New York. Index: Me Published by 
William Lyon Mackenzie, 470. 

Examiner. Newspaper published at Toronto. Index : Sy Advocates respon- 
sible government, 107 ; supports union of provinces as leading thereto, 212 ; on 
Clergy Reserves question, 247. E Chief organ of the Clear Grits, owned by 
James Lessiie, 110. BL Established by Hincks, July 3, 1838, 58; in the interests 
of responsible government, 58 ; excites interest in Oxford County, 69 ; Hincks 
explains his political position in, 104; on Hincks, 179-180; Macdougall con- 
tributes to, 341. Me Of Toronto, newspaper, published by Sir Francis 
Hincks, 483 ; on the riots, 483 ; its estimate of Mackenzie, - 484, 485. 

Executive Council. Me In Upper Canada ; created under Constitutional Act, 
53 ; irritating relations with Assembly, 55, 58 ; Durham on, 61 ; real advisers 
of the governor, 63 ; responsibility of, demanded by Upper Canada Reformers, 
64, 69 ; Durham's view of effect of irresponsibility of, 65, 66 ; Sir John Col- 
borne's view of, 279 ; Lord Glenelg's view of, 286, Dr In Lower Canada, how 
composed, 269. Sy Its powers and influence, 74-76, 78 ; practically controlled 
the governor, 175 ; necessity for change in, 177 ; its defects described by Syden- 
ham, 220, 221 ; changes made in, 334, 335 ; salaries of, 334. WT In New 
Brunswick, its irresponsibility, 5, 6. 

Executive Office. Sy Tenure of, in Canada, 175 ; Lord John RusselPs despatch 
on, 180-182 ; press comments on new regulations respecting, 183, 184. 

Exhibitions. The first industrial exhibition held in Canada, and probably 
the first in the world, was that of 1737, promoted by the Intendant Hocquart. 
It included fruits and grains, woods and furs, and the products of the mines and 
the fisheries. The exhibition was afterwards sent to France. A provincial 
exhibition was held in Toronto in 1846 ; Ottawa had an exhibition in 1878 ; 
Montreal in 1880 ; Halifax in 1881 ; ^and St. John in 1883. Since then many 
other cities and towns have used this means of illustrating the industrial re- 
sources of the locality and the country. Bib. : Johnson, First Things in Canada. 

Expulsion of Acadians. See Acadians, Expulsion of the. 

Extradition with United States. Sy Sydenham takes part in negotiations for, 

Eyre, Eustache R. S Fort major, 47. 

Faiilon, Abbe Michel ttienne (1799-1870). Historian. Index: F Quoted, 
4, 9 ; his description of conduct of Perrot, governor of Montreal, 96, 97. Ch 
Error in history of, 207. Bib.: Works: Vie de Mme d'Youville; Vie de Mile. 
Nance; Vie de Mile. Le Ber; Histoire de la Colonie Frangaise en Canada. For 
biog., see Desmazures, L'Abbe Faillon: Sa Vie et ses (Euvres. 


Fairchild, Mrs. Hd HalcilmancFs housekeeper, 314. 32$. 329. 

Pairfield, John (1797-1847). Sat in Congress, 1835-1839 : governor of M:r.r.t\ 
1S39-1S40, and 1S42. Member of the United States Senate,' 1&4&-1S47. : 

WT His connection with the Aroostook War, 135. Bib. : Cyc. Aw. B ;*.-;, 

Falconbtidge, Sir Glenholme (1846- ). Born at Drummondville. Ontario. 
Educated at the University of Toronto, graduating 1S66. Called to the h;ir, 
1S7L Appointed judge of the Queen's Bench, Ontario, 1SS7; chief justice 
1900. Knighted, 1909. Bib. : Morgan, Can, Men; Canadian Who's Who. 

Falkland, Lucius Bentinck, Viscount. Governor of Nova Scotia, 1S40-1S46. 
Index: H Lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia ? 69; his character and policy,, 
69; invites Howe to join the Council, 69; his administration, 7! ; calls 
Howe, Uniacke and MacXab to give reasons for their resignation from Executive 
Council, 87 ; Howe upsets Ms theories of government, 89-92 ; lampooned by 
Howe, 92-93 ; conflict for supremacy, 94, 97 ; Howe makes insulting reference 
to, in Legislature, 100-101 ; returns to England, 1846 t 102. Bib.: Campbell, 
History of Nova Scotia; Saunders, Three Premiers of Nova Scotia. 

Family Compact* A group of Tory leaders in Upper Canada, so nicknamed 
by their political opponents because they held power as a distinct group, allied 
by bonds of political, social, and religious sympathy. Term also used in other 
provinces, in connection with somewhat similar conditions. Index : Me Their 
loyalty tested, 10 ; Durham's view of, 62, 65, 66 ; great influence of, 66 ; lasting 
and extensive monopoly of power, 66 ; decides on Gourlay's destruction, 89 ; 
destroys Colonial Advocate, 115; incensed at Lord Goderieh's concessions, "230; 
secures Head's sympathy, 302. Md Its character and aims fiercely debated, 
13 ; opposition to, of Macdonald, Draper, and Morris, 27. Sy Its beginning, 
77 ; its foundations laid by Governor Simcpe, 78 ; attempt to identify Reform 
party with Mackenzie's rebellious proceedings, 85 ; condemned by Durham in 
his Report, 96 ; criticisms of Report, 97-104 ; Sir George Arthur allies himself 
with, 110 ; opposed to union of provinces, 130 ; Sydenham's opinion of, as given 
by Colonial Gazette, 138 ; its controlling influence, 177 ; not a political party, 
179 ; not specially connected by family relationship, 180. B Rebellion in Upper 
Canada attributed by Durham to ascendancy of, 11. E Fight against, 21 ; 
attacked by Hume Blake, 69 ; Mackenzie ill-used by, 91 ; selfishness of its mem- 
bers, 92; Bishop Strachan and, 150. BL Its character, 11-12; denounced by 
W. L. Mackenzie, 13 ; opposed to union of the Canadas, 61 ; its restoration 
hoped for, 113. MS Responsible for Rebellion of 1837, 242. See also Strachan, 
John ; Mackenzie, W. L. ; MacNab, Sir Allan Napier ; Robinson, Sir John 
Beverley. Bib. : Kingsford, History of Canada; Durham, Report; Mackenzie, 
Sketches of Canada; Bradshaw, Self-Government in Canada; Dent, Upper 
Canadian Rebellion; Robinson, Life of Sir John Beverley Robinson. 

Famine Creek. L La Bane's expedition halts at, 193. 

Fancamp, Baron de. L Presents shrine to Bonsecours chapel, 177. 

Fanning, Edmund (1737-1818). Held various offices in the American colonies 
before the Revolution. Removed to Nova Scotia, and in 1786 governor of 
Prince Edward Island. Rose to the rank of general in the army, 1808. Index : 
Br Commands King's American regiment, 202 ; succeeds Patterson as governor 
of Prince Edward Island, 235. Bib. : Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Farnborough, Sir Thomas Erskine May, first Baron (1815-1886). Born in 
London. Assistant librarian of the House of Commons, 1831 ; examiner of 
petitions for Parliament, 1847-1856 ; clerk of the House of Commons, 1871- 
1886 ; and president of the Statute Law Revision Committee 1866-1884. Ap- 


pointed privy councillor, 1885, and created Baron Farnborough, 1886. Index : 
Me On difficulties of granting responsible government, 21 ; responsible govern- 
ment granted in Upper Canada in 1847, 25 ; principle of adopted in other colonies 
about the same time, 25 ; on effect of responsible government, 490. Bib. : Con- 
stitutional History of England since the Accession of George III. 

Farrer, Edward (1850- ). Canadian journalist. Index: Md Chief editorial 
writer of the Globe, 312; his pamphlet on annexation its terms, 312-313* 
assumes sole responsibility for, 314. Bib. : Canadian Who's Who. 

Fay, Jonas (1737-1818). Hd Vermont emissary, 209. Bib. : Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Fenelon, Francois de Salignac. L Sulpician, sent on mission to Lake Ontario" 
105; Ms reserve as to his own labours and sacrifices, 109; school for young 
Indians established by, 125 ; attacks Frontenac from the pulpit, 160 ; refuses 
to furnish copy of his sermon and is cited before the Council, 162 ; his conduct 
not approved by his ecclesiastical superiors, 162; nor by the king, 164. F 
Intermediary between Frontenac and Perrot, 92 ; indignant at Perrot's arrest, 
93; preaches sermon against Frontenac, 93; circulates memorial in Perrot's 
favour, 96 ; summoned to Quebec, 98 ; his conduct before the Council, 101 ; sent 
to France, censured, and not allowed to return to Canada, 102, 103. See also 
Frontenac ; Perrot. Bib. : Parkman, Frontenac; Garneau, History of Canada 

Fenety, George E. WT^On Wiknot, 131. 

Fenian Raids. The Fenian Brotherhood is said to have been formed about 
1858 in Ireland and the United States, the object being to liberate Ireland from 
its connection with England, and establish a republic. A history of the move- 
ment in Ireland will be found in McCarthy's History of our Own Times, and in 
O'Leary's Recollections of Fenianism. Early in 1866 the American branch of the 
Brotherhood planned an invasion of Canada. The Canadian militia was called 
out, but the invasion was postponed. In April, the New Brunswick border was 
threatened, and troops marched to the defence of St. Andrews and St. Stephen. 
The Fenians thought better of it. Late in May another party, under one 
O'Neil, crossed from Buffalo to Fort Erie and advanced to Ridgeway, where they 
were driven back. In 1870 the same O'Neil led his followers into Quebec, but 
was again repulsed. In 1871 he made a similar attempt in the West, but a de- 
tachment of United States troops from Fort Pembina followed, arrested him, 
and dispersed his followers. An aftermath of the earlier Fenian Raids was 
the murder of Thomas D'Arcy McGee (q.v.) in Ottawa, 1868. Index : Md 
Claims for damages, 166-167 ; claims withdrawn, 175-177 ; irritation in Canada, 
176; Imperial government assumes responsibility for their settlement, 177; 
gives Imperial guarantee of loan for public works and defence in Canada, 178, 
196. WT Influence on Confederation, 240; history of, 241, 247-249; referred 
to in address in Assembly, 244. BL Feared by Metcalfe in 1843, 186. B 
Threatened in 1866 influences New Brunswick electorate towards Confedera- 
tion, 188. C As an argument for retaining British troops in Canada, 92; 
Carrier's speech on, in House, 1872, 110. Bib. : Somerville, Narrative of the 
Fenian Invasion of Canada; Campbell, The Fenian Invasions of Canada of 1866 
and 1870; Dent, Last Forty Years; Correspondence relating to the Fenian Inva- 
sion, Ottawa, 1869; Trials of the Fenian Prisoners at Toronto Who Were 
Captured at Fort Erie, C. TF., in June, 1866, ed. by George R. Gregg, and 
E. P. Roden ; McMicken, Fenian Raid on Manitoba (Manitoba Hist, and Sc. 
Society, 1888) ; Hannay, History of New Brunswick; Macdonald, Troublous 
Times in Canada; Denison, Soldiering in Canada and The Fenian Raid on 
Fort Erie. 


Fer, Jtdes de. Br His report on loyalty of French-Canadians, SOL 

Feret. Ch Of Dieppe, discovers manuscript of Champlain's Britf Zham% 7, 

Ferguson, Adam. R Opposes Sir Charles Metcalfe, 126. 

Ferlaiad, John Antony Baptist (1805-1865). M ember of faculty of Lavnl 
University, 1855-1865. Index: L Quoted as to difficulty of educating young 
Indians, 63 ; passage quoted from on Mdre do I'lncarnation, 93-95 ; on "enter- 
prise of Talon, 114; on creation of bishopric of Quebec, 133 ; on advantage of 
connection of seminary with Foreign Missions, 140 ; on La Salle, 149 ; on educa- 
tional labours of the nuns, 155 ; praises stand taken by Laval in regard to liquor 
traffic, 173 ; on return of Lava! in 1688, 220. Bib. : Works: Cours tT Histoire du 
Canada; Opuscules; La Gaspesie; Joseph-Octave Ple$si; Voyage au Labrador* 
For biog., see Cyc. Am. Biog.; Bibaud, Pan. Can.; Morgan, Cel. Can. 

Ferrier, James. B His account of the negotiations between Brown and the 
government prior to Confederation, 152. 

Fidalgo, Salvador. Accompanied Elisa to North-West Coast, 1790 ; founded 
a Spanish settlement in Puca Strait, 1792, and removed the post the same year 
to Nootka. Still there in 1793 when Vancouver visited the place. Index: 
D Sent by Elisa to examine northern coast, 1790, 26. Bib. ; Bancroft, 
of the North-West Coast. 

Fidler, Peter (1769-1822). Entered service of Hudson's Bay Company, 
about 1791. Carried on extensive explorations and surveys in the North-West. 
Left a series of manuscript journals, covering the records of Ms explorations 
for over a quarter of a century. These are said to be in the archives of the 
Hudson's Bay Company in London. Also left an eccentric will, of which Bryce 
gives a synopsis. Bib. : Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company; Burpee, Search for 
the Western Sea. 

Fiedmont, Jacquot de. WM Engineer, fortifies bridges over River St. 
Charles, 85-86 ; opposes capitulation, 225 ; directs artillery fire against British 
camp, 230. 

Finances of Canada. Sy Sydenham j s efforts to rehabilitate, 315-320. 

Finlay, Hugh.. Dr Deputy postmaster-general, 243; expresses views of the 
English-speaking people of Quebec in letter to home government, 248. Hd On 
political situation, 174. 

Finlay, James. MS Leaves Montreal for western fur country, 3. Bib.: 
Mackenzie, History of the Fur-Trade in Ms Voyages; Hendry's Journal (R. S. 
C., 1907) ; Cocking' r s Journal (R. S. C., 1908). 

Finlay, James, Jr. MS Joins XY Company, 14; on Peace River, 1792, 62. 

Finlayson, Duncan. MS Chief factor Hudson's Bay Company, 1832, and 
governor of Assiniboia, 225 ; Alexander Ross on, 225. 

Finlayson, Roderick (1818-1892). D Second in command at Victoria, 1843, 
180 ; chief officer on death of Charles Ross, 1844, 181 ; his birth, 181 ; joins 
Hudson's Bay Company, 1837, 181 ; his service and character, 181 ; his nar- 
rative, 181 ; responsible for story of Captain Gordon and the salmon that would 
not rise to a fly, 183-184 ; becomes chief accountant of Western department, 
188 ; holds position up to 1862, 188. Bib. : Bancroft, History of British 
Columbia; Walbran, British Columbia Coast Names. 

Fire Rafts. WM Unsuccessful employment of by French at Quebec, 131. 

Fireships. WM Ineffectual employment of by French, 98; described by 
Captain Knox, 99 ; Montcalm on the cause of their failure, 99. 

Fisher, Charles (1808-1880). Born in Fredericton. Educated at King's 
College and called to the bar, 1833. Contested York for the New Brunswick 


Assembly, 1834, but defeated. Elected for York, 1837, and continued to 
hold the seat with slight intervals until after Confederation. Entered the 
New Brunswick government, 1848, but resigned, 1850, owing to a difference 
with the lieutenant-governor. Appointed a delegate to the Portland Railway 
Convention, 1850. Became premier and attorney-general in the first purely 
Liberal government formed in New Brunswick, 1851. Resigned, 1856 ; in the 
following year resumed office and remained at the head of affairs until 1861. 
Appointed a delegate to the Trade Convention at Detroit, 1865. Again entered 
the government as attorney-general, 1866. Represented New Brunswick as 
one of the delegates to the Quebec and Westminster Conferences. Represented 
York in the first Dominion House of Commons. Appointed a judge of the 
Supreme Court of his native province, 1868. Died in Fredericton. Index: WT 
Elected for York, 47; defeated in York, 66; opposes address to Metcalfe, 74; 
his efforts on behalf of responsible government, 91 ; elected for York, in 1846, 
102; moves want of confidence resolution, 103, 105 ; defeated, 111; supports 
responsible government, 116; Ms influence, 117; defeated in 1850, 128; 
opposes reduction of number of judges, 130; his character, 154; resigns, 160- 
161 ; attacks the government, 172-173 ; attorney-general in Fisher government, 
185; retires from government, 193; re-elected for York, 194; delegate to 
Quebec Conference, 219 ; elected as Confederation candidate in York, 237-238 ; 
moves amendment to address, 244 ; attorney-general, 247 ; defeats Pickard, 250 ; 
moves Confederation resolution, 257-258 ; sent as delegate to England, 262 ; 
elected for York to first Dominion Parliament, and moves the address, 273. 
Bib.: Hannay, History of New Brunswick. 

Fisheries Question. Md Rights of American fishermen expire with denuncia- 
tion of Reciprocity Treaty, 166 ; the fishermen reluctant to abandon former 
rights, 167 ; Canada's exclusive right to the inshore fisheries recognized by 
Britain, 173 ; reciprocal trade proposed by Canada as equivalent for the fishing 
rights, but rejected by Americans, 174; latter propose $1,000,000 for rights in 
perpetuity, 174; Macdonald objects to any such arrangements, 174-175; 
Americans offer limited reciprocity, 181 ; acceptable to British commissioners 
except Macdonald, 181-182; arbitration proposed by United States commis- 
sioners, 182 ; Macdonald's dilemma, 183-185 ; opposition to treaty in Canada, 
185 ; Halifax Award, 190. E Under the Treaty of 1854, 198-200. Bib. : Isham, 
Fishery Question, its Origin, History and Present Situation; Bourinot, Fishery 
Questionj its Imperial Importance; Elliott, United States and the North-Eastern 
Fisheries; Ricci, Fisheries Dispute and Annexation to Canada. 

Fitzgerald, Edward. B On agricultural possibilities of North-West Territories, 

FitzGibbon, James (1780-1863). Born in Ireland. Joined the Tarbert 
Fencibles, 1798; served in Holland the following year, and in 1801 present at 
the battle of Copenhagen. The same year came to Canada with the 49th 
Regiment, and served under Brock with distinction in the War of 1812. In 
command of the British at Beaver Dam. In 1822 appointed assistant adjutant- 
general ; and in 1827 clerk of the House of Assembly. Commissioned as colonel 
of the second West York Regiment 1831, and took an active part in the sup- 
pression of the Rebellion of 1837. Returned to England, where in 1850 made 
a military knight of Windsor. Index : Bk Describes gallant conduct of Savery 
Brock at Egmont-op-Zee, 18-20 ; his reminiscences of Brock, 66-67. Sy Made 
clerk of Legislative Council, 334. Me Defeats rebels at Montgomery's farm, 
379. Bib. : FitzGibbon, A Veteran of 1812; Lucas, Canadian War of 1812; 


Dent, Upper Canadian Read, of 1557; 

of '37; Morgan, Cel Can. 

Fitzherbert, Mrs. Hd Haldimand's opinion of, 335. 

Fitzmaurice, Lord Edward. Dr On Germain, 170. 

Fitzpatrick, Sir Charles (1853- ). Born in Quebec. Educated at Lara! 
University; studied law, and called to bar, 1876; chief counsel for Louis Kiel, 
18S5, and took part in several other famous trials; represented Quebec County 
in provincial Assembly, 1890-1896 ; and in House of Commons, 1896-1906*; 
solicitor-general, 1901; minister of justice, 1901-1906; chief justice of the 
Supreme Court of Canada, 1906. Bib. : Morgan, Can. Men; Who's 


Five Hations. Hd Post at Oswego to be established for, 142; allies of the 
British, 148; their rights respected, 166. See Iroquois. 

Flag Incident. L In siege of Quebec, 230. F In siege of Quebec, 295-298. 

Fleet, British, before Quebec. WM Placed under general command of 
Admiral Charles Saunders, 75; ascends the river, 78; anchors at lle-aux- 
Coudres, 83 ; anchors in Baie St. Paul, 90 ; at the entrance to the harbour ? 111 ; 
a few of its vessels pass the town, 123 ; several vessels attempt the passage by 
Quebec, 152; sails for England, 238; reappears in the harbour, 267. Bib.": 
Wood, Logs of Naval Conquest of Canada and The Fight for Canada; Doughty, 
Siege of Qu&bec; Bradley, The Fight with France. 

Fleet, French, at Quebec. WH Protection afforded by to Bourlamaque's 
army, 167. 

Fleming, Sir Sandford (1827- ). Born at Kirkaldy, Scotland. Came to 
Canada, 1845. Chief engineer of the Intercolonial Railway ; and of the Cana- 
dian Pacific Railway ; chancellor of Queen's University since 1880 ; president 
of the t Royal Society of Canada, 1888-1889. To his initiation and persistent 
enthusiasm are due the establishment of a system of universal or cosmic time ; 
the laying of the Pacific cable, as part of an inter-imperial telegraph service; 
and the building of the memorial tower at Halifax to commemorate the opening 
of the first colonial Legislature. Bib. : Works: The Intercolonial; England and 
Canada; and numerous historical and scientific papers. See Bibliog. of Royal 
Society (R. S. C., 1894). For biog., see Morgan, Can. Men; Dent, Can. POT.; 
Who's Who; Grant, Ocean to Ocean. 

Flibot. Ch Kirke's vessel before Quebec, 188, 196. 

Florida. Hd Under British rule, 64r-81 ; Haldimand comes north from, 83, 
87 ; Haldimand's interest in, 90 ; suggests closing of ports of, 104 ; his career 
there, 121 ; proposed disposition of, 124 ; Haldimand's property in, 316. 

Florida, West. Bk Occupation of, by United States, 139. 

Flour-milling. B Stimulated by British preference of, 1843, 32 ; advantage 
swept away by free trade measure of 1846, 32 ; in 1834, 54, 

Foley, M. H. B In Tach6 ministry, 1864, 149 ; retires with Buchanan and 
Simpson to make room for Brown, Mowat, and Macdougall, in Coalition ministry, 
159. Bib. : Pope, Memoirs of Sir John A. Macdonald; Dent, Last Forty Years. 

Foligne, Captain de. WM On rapid construction of Beauport defences, 88 ; 
his report of fighting at L6vis, 103 ; on pitiable condition of Quebec, 160 ; quoted 
as to rout of French army, 206 ; on distress following capture of Quebec, 236. 

Fontbonne, Colonel. WM His disposition of the Guienne Regiment, 192; 
mortally wounded, 199. 

Fonte, Bartholomew de. His fictitious voyage of 1640 to the North-West 
Coast was described in a letter published in the Monthly Miscellany , London, 


1708. Index: D His reputed strait, 19; Ms voyage again credited, 23. Bib.: 
Bancroft, History of ike North-West Coast 

Fontenay, Maretiil. Ch French ambassador in London, instructions to, 214. 

Forget, Amedee Emmanuel (1847- ). Born in Ste. Marie de Monnoir, 
Quebec. Studied law and called to the bar of Quebec, 1871. Secretary to the 
Manitoba Half-Breed Commission, 1875 ; clerk of the North- West Council, 
1876-1888 ; Indian commissioner, 1895-1898 ; lieutenant-governor of the North- 
West Territories, 1898-1905 ; first lieutenant-governor of Saskatchewan, 1905. 
Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who. 

Fornel, Abb6. L His funeral sermon on Bishop Saint-Vallier quoted, 238. 

Forsythe, J. Sy Member of Constitutional Association, 112. 

Forsyth, Richardson and Co. Fur trading firm, of Montreal. Index : Bk 
Send Pr6vost news of declaration of war, 203. 

Fort Albany. Hudson's Bay Company post at mouth of Albany River, west 
coast of James Bay. Established about 1683; captured by Iberville, 1686, 
and held by the French for seven years. Finally restored to the Company. 
Index: F Captured by Troyes, 206; captured alternately by French and 
English, 343, 345. Bib. : Dawson, The Saint Lawrence Basin; Laut, Conquest 
of the Great North-West and Pathfinders of the West. 

Fort Albert. See Victoria. 

Fort Alexandria. D Hudson's Bay Company post, built on Fraser River in 
1821, 98. 

Fort Anne. Hd Captured by Major Carleton, 149. 

Fort Babine. In Northern British Columbia. Index : D Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany post, on Babine Lake, built in 1822, 98-99. 

Fort Bourbon. On Hudson Bay. Index: L Captured by Iberville, 233. See 
Fort Nelson. 

Fort Camosun. D Hudson's Bay Company post, afterwards city of Victoria, 

Fort CMicotin. B Built by Hudson's Bay Company, outpost of Fort Alex- 
andria, 99. 

Fort CMpewyan. Built by North West Company, 1788, on southern shore of 
Lake Athabaska, near mouth of Athabaska River. Removed, 1820, by Hudson's 
Bay Company to north shore, where it still stands. Index: MS Built by 
Roderick Mackenzie, on Lake Athabaska, 24 ; its situation, 25 ; its famous 
library, 26 ; route to, from Grand Portage, 27 ; life at the fort, 28 ; Mackenzie 
sets forth from, on his journey to Arctic, 32 ; returns to, 50 ; McLeod builds 
new house, 50 ; Mackenzie winters there, 53 ; Turner winters there, and de- 
termines astronomical position, 57 ; Governor Simpson at, 1828, 236 ; William 
McGillivray in charge of, 236. B Mackenzie at, 53 ; his point of departure for 
Arctic journey, 53; and Pacific expedition, 53. Bib.: Mackenzie, History of 
Fur Trade in his Voyages; Masson, Bourgeois de la Compagnie du Nord-Ouest; 
Burpee, Search for the Western Sea; Bryce, Hudson's Bay * Company; Willson, 
TTw Great Company; Laut, Conquest of the Great North-West. 

Fort Chippawa. Bk On Niagara River, a mile and a half above the falls, 58; 
end of carrying-place, and a transport post, 58-59 ; had a blockhouse enclosed 
with palisades, 59. Bib.: Lucas, Canadian War of 1812. 

Fort Churchill. See ^Prince of Wales Fort. 

Fort Colville. B Distributing point for Upper Columbia and Kootenay, 
Hudson's Bay Company post, 77; centre of Columbia trade, 77: founded, 


Fort Conolly. In nort hern British Columbia, Index: B Hudson's Com- 
pany post, built on Bear Lake, 104. 

Fort Crdvecceur. L Established by La Salle in Illinois country, 148 ; attack* d 
by Iroquois, 149. F Built by La Salle, 160. Bib. : Parknian/Ia Sailc; Suite, 
Les Tonty (R. S. C., 1893). 

Fort Dearborn (Chicago). Bk Captured by Indians, 266. 

Fort Dease. On Dease Lake. Index: B Built by Robert Campbell in 1S3S, 
123-124; burned by natives, 124. 

Fort de Chartres. WM On the Mississippi, 22. 

Fort Douglas. On Red River, about two miles below mouth of Assini- 
boine. Index; MS Built by John McLeod, 176, 177; seized by Cuthbert 
Grant, 182; retaken by the De Meurons, 191. Bib.: Bryce, Fire Forts of 

Fort Duqtiesne. WM At junction of Alleghany and Monongahela Rivers, 22 ; 
battle at, 22. Hd Name changed to Fort Pitt by Bouquet* 16; plans for 
recapture of, 25-26. Bib.: Parkinan, Montcalm and Wolfe. 

Fort Edward. WM General Webb in command at, 45. 

Fort Erie. On Niagara River, opposite Buffalo. Index : S Military post in 
1782 ; 51. Bk New fort planned by General Hunter, 59. Bib. : Lucas, Canadian 
War of 1812. 

Fort Essington. On the British Columbia coast. Used by the Hudson's Bay 
Company as an intermediate post between Fort McLoughlin and Fort Simpson. 
Index: D Built by Hudson's Bay Company in 1835, 118. Bib.: Bancroft, 
History of British Columbia. 

Fort Fraser. In northern British Columbia. Index: D North "West Com- 
pany post, built on Fraser Lake, 98. 

Fort Frontenac. F Erected at Cataraqui, 83; conceded to La Salle, 156; 
seized by La Barre, 178 ; restored to La Salle, 179 ; Dongan demands its de- 
struction, 218 ; Denonyille gives orders for blowing it up, 288 ; order partially 
carried out, 234 ; repaired, 234 ; rebuilt, 341. WM Protected outlet of Great 
Lakes, 17. L Rcollet mission at, 111. BL Name altered to Kingston by the 
British, 73. See also Cataraqui; Kingston. Bib.: Parkman, Frontenac and 
La Salle; Suite, Le Fort de Frontenac (R. S. C., 1901). 

Fort Garry. At junction of Eed and Assinibome Rivers, where the city of 
Winnipeg now stands. Md Wolseley and the expeditionary force arrive there 
Aug. 24, 1870, 162 ; murder of Scott, 242. See Winnipeg. 

Fort George. Bk Flag of Fort Niagara transferred to, 56 ; its situation, 56; 
planned by Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe, 58 ; mutiny at, 61 ; silences Fort 
Niagara, 309. Hd Captured by Major Carleton, 149. Bib. : Lucas, Canadian 
War of 1812. 

Fort George. On Fraser River. Index: p Simon Fraser sets out from, to 
descend Fraser River, 61 ; returns to, 61 ; built on Fraser River, by the North 
West Company, 98 ; massacre of Hudson's Bay Company men at, by Indians, 
1823, 105-107. Bib. : Bancroft, History of British Columbia. 

Fort George. At mouth of Columbia. Index: D Astoria renamed, 149. 

Fort Gibraltar. MS Built by North West Company, on site of Winnipeg, 
99 ; begun in 1804, 158 ; captured by Colin Robertson, 178, and dismantled, 
179. Bib. : Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company and Five Forts of Winnipeg. 

Fort Glenora. D Hudson's Bay Company post, built on Upper Stikine River, 

Fort Grey. Bk American fort opposite Queenston, 300, 305. 


Fort Halkett. D Hudson's Bay Company post, built on branch of Liard 
River, 123. 

Fort Hope. On Eraser River. Index: D Hudson's Bay Company post, 
founded shortly after Fort Yale, 186. 

Fort Kamloops (Fort Thompson). D Hudson's Bay Company post, built in 
1813, 98. 

Fort Kootenay. On Kootenay River, built 1807. Otherwise known as 
Kootenay House. Index : D Built by David Thompson, 58. Bib. : Burpee, 
Search for the Western Sea. 

Fort Langley. D Hudson's Bay Company post, built on Lower Fraser River, 
1827, 116. Bib. : Bancroft, History of British Columbia. 

Fort Lawrence. Built in 1750, on Chignectq Bay, three miles south of Beause*- 
jour, where the French shortly after built a rival fort. Fort Lawrence became 
headquarters of the expedition sent in 1755, under Monckton, to capture Fort 
Beaus6jour. Bib. : Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe; Hannay, History of Acadia. 

Fort Le Boeuf. WM Established communication with Lake Erie, 22. 

Fort Liard. D Hudson's Bay Company post, built on Liard River, 123 ; pil- 
laged by Indians, and traders murdered, 123. 

Fort Loyal (Casco Bay). F Captured by Canadians, 252. L Taken by Cana- 
dians, 229. 

Fort Madaauit WM Established communication with Lake Erie, 22, 122. 

Fort McLeod. On McLeod Lake, British Columbia. Index: D North West 
Company post, first permanent trading-post built in British Columbia, west of 
the mountains, 97-98. Bib. : Morice, Northern Interior of British Columbia. 

Fort McLoughlin. On Milbank Sound, British Columbia. Index : D Hud- 
son's Bay Company post, built by Finlayson, Manson, and Anderson, 1833, 
117; moved to head of Vancouver Island and renamed Fort Rupert, 122; 
abandoned, 1843, 178-179. Bib. : Bancroft, History of British Columbia. 

Fort Miami. WM On Miami River, 22. Bk Reconstruction of, by order of 
Lord Dorchester, 53. S Erected by Simcoe at rapids of Miami River, 136; 
measure strongly objected to by Americans, 137; General Wayne demands 
evacuation of, which Major Campbell, officer in command, refuses, 139 ; occupa- 
tion of not approved by home government, 142. 

Fort Mtimf ord. D Hudson's Bay Company post, built on Upper Stikine River, 

Fort Nanaimo. East coast Vancouver Island. Index : D Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany post, built in 1852, 191. Bib. : Walbran, British Columbia Coast Names. 

Fort Necessity. WM Battle at, 22. 

Fort Nelson. D Hudson's Bay Company post, built on eastern branch of 
Liard River, 123. 

Fort Nelson. See York Factory. 

Fort Niagara. WM At mouth of Niagara River, 22 ; taken by British, 62 ; 
capitulates, 146. Hd In command of Captain Pouchot, 25, 36; taken by 
British, 26; garrison at, 31, 32; shipment of goods to, 124, 136, 150, 163; 
position of, 145 ; Indians at, 148, 171, 256 ; expeditions in its defence, 151, 153 ; 
number of refugees at, 152, 250 ; MacLean in command at, 162, 307, 308 ; fraud 
discovered at, 166 ; Haldimand's refusal to relinquish, 260. Bib. : Parkman, 
Frontenac and Montcalm and Wolfe; Lucas, Canadian War of 1812. 

Fort Nisqually. At head of Puget Sound. Index : D Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany post, built in 1833, between Langley and Fort Vancouver, 118. 

Fort Ontario (Oswego). Hd Haldimand in command of, 29. 


Fort Pemaquid. F Destroyed, rebuilt, 1892, 32S ; by 


Fort Pitt. Hd Formerly known as Fort Buquesne, Bouquet's victorious 
march to, 16 ; Pouchot's designs on, 26 ; Bouquet stationed at, 40 ; 
interest in, 90. See Fort Duquesne, 

Fort Presqu'ile. WM Establishes communication with Lake Erie T 22. 

Fort Prud'homme. L At junction of Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, 150, 

Fort Rupert (Fort Charles). Built by Gillam, at mouth of Rupert River, 
foot of James Bay, 1667. Index: : F Captured by Troyes, 206. L Captured 
from English, 204. Bib.: Burpee, Search for the Western Sea; Laut, 
and Conquest of the Great North- West 

Fort Rupert. North end of Vancouver Island. See Fort McLoughlin. 
Index : D Hudson's Bay Company post, coal mining at, 190. Bib. : WaJbran, 
British Columbia Coast Names. 

Fort St. Frederic. See Crown Point. Index ; WM At head of Lake Cham- 
plain, 17 ; evacuated by Bourlamaque, 146. Bib. : Garaeau, History of 

Fort St. James. On Stuart Lake, northern British Columbia. Index : MS 
Governor Simpson there in 1828, 237-238. D North West Company post, built 
on Stuart Lake, 98. " Bib. : Morice, Northern Interior of British Columbia. 

Fort St. Joseph. Bk Stores despatched to, 202. 

Fort St. Louis. On Illinois River, near site of present town of La Saile. 
Index: F Built by La Salle, 160; seized by La Barre, 179. 

Fort St. Louis. Quebec. See Chateau St. Louis, Index: Ch A school of 
religion and virtue, 258 ; erected on Cape Diamond, 157. Bib. : Douglas, Old 
France in the New World; Gagnon, Fort et CMteau St. Louis. 

Fort St. Pierre. Ch Founded by Nicolas Denys, in Cape Breton, 236. Bib. ; 
Denys, History of Acadia. 

Fort Selkirk. D Hudson's Bay Company post, built by Robert Campbell on 
the Yukon River, 124. Bib. : Campbell, Discovery of the Youcm, 

Fort Simpson. At mouth of Liard River. Index: "D Built by Hudson's 
Bay Company, at mouth of Liard River, 125. Bib. : Richardson, Arctic Search* 
ing Expedition. 

Fort Simpson. On coast of British Columbia, near Alaskan boundary. 
Index: D Built by Hudson's Bay Company, at mouth of Naas River, 1831, 
116; moved forty miles south, 1834, 120. Bib.: Walbran, British Columbia 
Coast Names (under Port Simpson). 

Fort Stanwix. On Mohawk River, near Lake Oneida. Index : Dr Unsuccess- 
ful attack on, 173. Hd Abandonment of by rebels, 151. 

Fort Stikine. On Stikine River. Index : D Hudson's Bay Company post, 
handed over by Russians, 121-122 ; Rae left in charge of, 122. 

Fort Taku. D Built by Hudson's Bay Company, on Taku River, 121 ; known 
as Fort Durham erected 1840, 122; abandoned, 1843, 178-179. 

Fort Ticonderoga. See Ticonderoga. Index: Dr Fort seized by American 
rebels, 82. Hd Carleton's raiders penetrate beyond, 149. 

Fort Umpqua. D Founded in 1832 by Hudson's Bay Company, on route 
from Fort Vancouver to San Francisco Bay, 132. 

Fort Vancouver. On Columbia River. Index : D Established by Hudson's 
Bay Company, in 1824, 47 ; depot of western department, 72 ; described, 72, 
110; built by John McLoughlin, 111, 113; its importance, 111; range of its 
operations, 111-112; agriculture at, 128; abandoned, 1849, 145. Bib.: Ban- 
croft, History of the North-West Coast; Laut, Conquest of the Great North-West. 


Fort Vincennes. WM On Wabash River, 22. 

Fort Walla Walla. Hudson's Bay Company post, on Columbia River. In- 
dex : D Distributing point for Snake River country, 7. 

Fort Wayne. Bk Expedition to, under Captain Muir, 274, 275. 

Fort William. At mouth of Kaministiquia River, Lake Superior. Index: 
D Headquarters of North West Company, 59. MS Replaces Grand Portage, 
13 ; named after William MacGillivray, 100 ; Selkirk at, with the De Meuron 
soldiers, 189. Bib. : Burpee, Search for the Western Sea; Bryce, Hudson's Bay 

Fort William Henry. On Lake George. Index : WM Siege and destruction 
of, 37, 42-46; ensuing massacre, 47-52. Bib.: Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe. 

Fort Yale. D Founded in 1848, by the Hudson's Bay Company, on Fraser 
River, 186. 

Fort Yukon. Built by Alexander Hunter Murray of the Hudson's Bay 
Company, at the mouth of Porcupine River in 1847. John Bell had descended 
the Porcupine to its mouth in 1844. Although Fort Yukon was on Russian 
territory, the Company maintained it until the sale of Alaska to the United 
States, when they were summarily ejected, 1869. The Company thereupon 
moved up the Porcupine to the Ramparts, where they built Rampart House, 
then supposed to be on British territory, but proved to be west of the boundary. 
The fort was moved twelve miles up the river, and in 1890 was again moved to 
the eastward. Index : D Built by Murray (not Bell) near mouth of Porcupine 
River, 125. Bib. : Murray, Journal (Canadian Archives, 1910). 

Forts. See also Carillon, Chambly, Crown Point, Front enac, Kaministiquia, 
Miami, Michilimackinac, Niagara, St. Johns, Sorel, Three Rivers, Ticonderoga, 
Western Forts. 

Foster, Captain. Dr Captures American post at Cedars, 142; gives up his 
prisoners under agreement with Arnold, 143. 

Foster, George Eulas (1847- ). Born in Carleton County, New Bruns- 
wick. Entered political life as member for King's County, New Brunswick, 
in the Dominion House of Commons, 1882 ; minister of marine and fisheries, 
1885; minister of finance, 1888-1896. Elected for York, New Brunswick, 
1896 ; and for Toronto North, 1904. Index : Md Minister of finance in Mac- 
donald administration moves amendment to Sir Richard Cartwright's resolu- 
tion on unrestricted reciprocity, 299. Bib. : Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian 
Who's Who. 

Foster, S. K. WT Candidate for St. John, New Brunswick, defeated, 167. 

Fothergill, Charles. Me Attacks Mackenzie in Upper Canada Gazette, 38; 
accuses Mackenzie of disloyalty, 99 ; moves to pay Mackenzie for report of 
debates, 102, 103; dismissed from position of king's printer, 110. Bib.: Dent, 
Upper Canadian Rebellion. 

Foucher, Jean. Ch Chief farmer at Cap Tourmente, informs Champlain of 
destruction of establishment at Tadoussac, 176. 

Fouez. See St. Maurice River. 

Fournier, Telesphore (1824-1896). Studied law, and called to the bar, 1846 ; 
one of principal editorial writers on Le National; elected to the House of Com- 
mons for Bellechasse, 1870 ; minister of inland revenue, in Mackenzie govern- 
ment, 1873; minister of justice, 1874; postmaster-general, 1875. Appointed 
judge of Supreme Court the latter year ; resigned, 1895. Index : C One of the 
leaders of the Quebec Liberals, 24 ; a popular speaker, 25 ; kept in opposition by 
radical programme, 29. Bib. : Dent, Can. For. 


Fox t Charles James (1740-1806). British statesman. Index: Dr Thvucht 
Quebec Act should have been Introduced in Commons, 66; discus? Consti- 
tutional Act in House of Commons, 265. S Discusses Constitutional Bill in 
House of Commons, 9. Bk Death of, SO, Bib.: Did. XaL Bpg.; Rusfsoll, 
Life of Fox; Trevelyan, Early Life of Fox; Egerton and Grant, Canadian Cm- 
slit utional Development* 

France. F Condition of, in 1675-1676, 150 ? 151. Dr Declares war 
Britain, 271 ; anger in, on conclusion of Jay Treaty, 2S7 ; refugees from, per- 
mitted to enter Canada, 289; some dangerous characters arrive from, 280; 
takes revenge on Britain in American Revolution, 269. 

Francliere, Gabriel (1786-1856). Bora at Montreal Joined the Pacific 
Fur Company, organized by John Jacob Astor 3 and sailed from New York for 
the mouth of the Columbia, 1810. Returned overland, reaching Montreal ia 
September, 1814. Continuing in the fur trade, established at Sault Ste. Marie 
in 1834 ; and later in New York. Bib. : Relation d'un Voyage a la Cote du 
Nord-Ouest de I'Amcrique Septentrionale, trans, by J. V. Huntington. For biog. ? 
see Morice, Did.; Bibaud, Pan. Can. 

Franchise Act, 18S5. Md Its terms, 258-^259; fiercely" opposed by Liberals, 
259-260; repealed by Laurier administration, 260. Bib.: Pope ? Memoirs of 
Sir John A. Macdondd; Willison, Sir Wilfrid Laurier and the Liberal Parti/. 

Francois Xavier, Saint. L Patron saint of Canada, 87. 

Franklin, Benjamin (1706-1790). American statesman and philosopher. In- 
dex : Dr Heads commission to enquire into affairs in Canada, 135 ; his report , 
136. "WM Did not believe British colonies would revolt, 269. Bib. ; Autobiog- 
raphy; Complete Works, ed. by Bigelow. For biog., see Cyc. Anier. Biog,; also 
Lamed, Lit. Am. Hist. 

Franklin, Sir John (1786-1847). Served at Trafalgar, in the Bellerophon. 
Headed overland expedition of 1819-1822, from York Factory by way of Great 
Slave Lake, to the mouth of the Coppermine, and the Arctic coast ; and second 
expedition, 1825^1827, in which he continued his explorations of the northern 
coast of the continent. Started on third expedition, by sea, 1845, to make North- 
West Passage. The ships had to be abandoned, and Franklin and all his men 
perished in the attempt to reach one of the remote northern posts of the Hud- 
son's Bay Company. Bib. : Works : Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea, 1823; 
Second Expedition to the Shores of the Polar Sea. For biog., see Richardson, Arctic 
Searching Expedition; Rae, Narrative; McClintock, Narrative of the Fate of Sir 
John Franklin; Osborn, Career, Last Voyage, and Fate of Sir John Franklin; 
Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Franklin, Michael. Born in England. Came to Halifax, 1752. Elected to 
the Assembly, 1759 ; appointed to the Council, 1762 ; lieutenant-governor, 1766. 
Organized the militia of the province, 1776-1777; largely instrumental in. 
securing the peace of Nova Scotia during the Revolutionary War. Appointed 
commissioner of Indian affairs. Died, 1782. Bib.: Campbell, History of 
Nova Scotia. 

Fraser. Dr Appointed judge, 183. 

Fraser, Captain. Dr His connection with the Walker case, 19, 36, 38. 

Fraser, Duncan Cameron (1845-1910). Bom in New Glasgow, Nova Scotia. 
Educated at Dalhousie University ; studied law and called to the bar of Nova 
Scotia, 1873. Appointed to the Legislative Council, 1878, but resigned same 
year to run for the Assembly. Again called to the Legislative and Executive 
Councils, 1888. Sat in the House of Commons for Guysborough, 1891-1904 ; ap- 


pointed a judge of the Supreme Court of Nova Scotia, 1904 ; lieutenant-governor 
of Nova Scotia, 1906-1910. Bib. : Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who. 

Eraser, Jolm James. WT Opposition candidate in York County, 228 ; opposes 
Confederation, 229 ; afterwards governor of New Brunswick, 229 ; defeated in 
York, 250. Bib.: Hannay, History of New Brunswick. 

Fraser, Captain Malcolm. Dr Of Royal Emigrants, 112, 124; with Laws on 
rear attack on Arnold, 130 ; in charge at Three Rivers, 144 ; repulses Thompson's 
attack, 145. D Grandfather of Dr. John McLoughlin, 94; brings Highland 
Regiment to Canada, 94 ; settles on St. Lawrence seigniory, 95. Bib. : Wrong, 
A Canadian Manor and its Seigneurs. 

Fraser, Simon (1776?-1862). Brought to Canada as a child from New York 
state, his widowed mother settling near Cornwall. Joined the North West Com- 
pany in 1792, and ten years later became a bourgeois or partner. Served for a 
time at Grand Portage, and sent to the Athabaska district; in 1805, when the 
Company decided to carry its operations beyond the Rocky Mountains, put in 
charge of the new field. After establishing trading-posts in New Caledonia, now 
northern British Columbia, set out from Fort St. James on Stuart Lake, with 
Jules Maurice Quesnel, and a party of voyageurs and Indians, upon the explora- 
tion of the great river that bears his name. In 1811 promoted to the charge of 
the Red River department, and offered knighthood as a recognition of his services 
in the cause of exploration, but declined the honour. Was present at the Seven 
Oaks affair, when Governor Semple of the Hudson's Bay Company lost his life. 
Retired from the fur trade about the time of the coalition of the Hudson's Bay 
Company and the North West Company. Index : D In service of North West 
Company, 57; ordered to extend operations of Company west of Rocky 
Mountains, 59 ; reaches Eraser River, 1806, 59 ; builds forts on Stuart Lake and 
Eraser River, 59 ; ordered to explore river to the sea, 60 ; his journey down the 
Eraser, 60-61 ; proves Tacouche Tesse not the Columbia, 61 ; builds Rocky 
Mountain House and other posts, 97-98 ; given command of Red River depart- 
ment, 1811, 98; offered and declines knighthood, 98; dies, 1862, at age of 86, 
98. MS Sent to explore New Caledonia, 108 ; crosses Rocky Mountains, 1806, 
and builds fort on Stuart River, 108; his journey down the Eraser, 108-110; 
arrested by Selkirk at Fort William, 189. Bib. : Bancroft, History of the North- 
West Coast; Masson, Bourgeois de la Compagnie du Nord-Ouest; Morice, Northern 
Interior of British Columbia; Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company; Laut, Conquest of 
the Great North-West; Burpee, Search for the Western Sea. 

Fraser River, Rises in Rocky Mountains, and flows into Strait of Georgia, 
Its upper waters discovered by Alexander Mackenzie, 1793; and first ex- 
plored down to its mouth by Simon Eraser, 1808. The total length of the river 
is 695 miles. Index: D Mackenzie on, 54; supposed to be the Oregon, 54; 
native name Tacouche Tesse, 54; mistaken for the Columbia, 59; Simon 
Eraser on, 60-61 ; described, 60-61 ; route of fur-brigades changed to, from 
the Columbia, 186. MS Mackenzie on, 77-79; Fraser on, 108-109. Bib.; 
Fraser Journal in Masson, Bourgeois de la Compagnie du Nord-Ouest. 

Fraser' s Highlanders. WM Captain of, replies to French sentries in French, 
180. Bib.: Kelly, The Fighting Frasers of the Forty-Five and Quebec. 

Frechette, Louis (1839-1908). Practised law, and then journalism. Repre- 
sented L6vis in the House of Commons, 1874-1878, Chiefly known as a poet. 
Two of his poems were crowned by the French Academy, 1880, and he was 
granted the first Monty on prize. Index : Hd His poem on Du Calvet, 292. Bib. : 
Works : Mes Loisirs; La Voix d'un Exile; P$le Mele; Les Fleurs Boreales; 


LfyendefunPeuple; Le$ Feuilks Vdmtes; liffres Baxik; Oritfrrwjr d D* f tr<*- 

qucs; Lettres sur V Education. For biog. ? sec Dent, Can. Por.; Mo r 121, Can. 
Men; Taek6, Men of the Day; Chapman^ Le Liurmi; Sauvalie, Le Laurud 

Fredericton. ^ Capital of New Brunswick, Situated on the west bank of 
the St. John River. Founded by Sir Guy Carleton In 1785, and named by 
after^the Duke of York. Index : WT Popular demonstration at, 46 ; education 
in, S5-S6 ; abandonment of government house, 2&0-281. Bib. : Hannay, History 
of New Brunswick, 

Fredln, Jean. L House of charity established by, 245. 

Free Trade. B Its effect on Canadian invasion, 15, 31-32 ; recommended by 
Reform convention of 1857, 217; advocated by George Brown, 47, 233. C 
Peel's measure (1846) kills Canadian industries, 43-44 ; Carticr's views on, 115- 
116. E Protest from Canadian Assembly, 20 ; discussed in Legislature, 45 ; 
effects of, on Canada, 57-5$. WT Unpopular in New Brunswick, 151. 

Freeman. Newspaper published at St. John. New Brunswick. Index : WT 
Edited by T. W. Anglin, 227. 

Freemason's Hall, Niagara. S First session of Upper Canada Legislature 
held in, 83, 96 ; church services held in, 159. 

Fremin, Father Jacques. Ch Jesuit, put in charge of KieMbucto mission, 285. 

French-Canadians. L Aubert's description of, 118, 119 ; habits and customs, 
120-124. Sy Tenacious of their legal institutions, 89 ; become disaffected, 70 ; 
inconsistency of British policy regarding, 71 ; Constitutional Act increases their 
power of resistance, 72, 80 ; Lord Durham on their aspirations for independent 
nationality, 94 ; favour responsible government, but oppose union of the prov- 
inces, 117; opposed to improving navigation of St. Lawrence and development 
of the upper province, 206 ; regard Sydenham as enemy of their race, 233 ; 
Sydenham's estimate of, politically considered, 305. E Resent terms of Union 
Act, 23-24 ; resent Durham's views on British domination in Canada, 23 ; in- 
crease of their influence, 31. Dr Murray's description of, 25 ; Carleton on their 
military strength, 45, 46 ; on their rapid increase, 47 ; his anxiety to win their 
allegiance, 50 ; indifferent to representative government, 55, 61 ; their petition 
to the king, 61 ; disappointing conduct of, 78 ; address king expressing satis- 
faction with Quebec Act, 78; unwilling to enlist against Americans, 87, 150; 
British government relies fully on their loyalty, 92 ; some insult their leaders 
and insist on being disbanded, 99 ; tired of American occupation, 150 ; Carle- 
ton's summing up of their attitude, 161 ; delusion of British government on the 
subject, 178 ; petition against any further change in their laws, 246 ; object to 
a House of Assembly, 246 ; Dorchester's consideration for, 260 ; attempt to 
enroll them for militia service causes riot, 278 ; more or less affected by revo- 
lutionary principles, 278; their attitude serious, 289; report on their state 
of feeling by Jules de Fer, 301. B Durham and, 12 ; dissatisfied with terms of 
union, 15; Peel's distrust of , 16,17; George Brown's relations with, 43, 48-49, 
70, 71, 78-81, 101-102, 105, 123-127 ; restive about Confederation, 166. Bk Pros- 
perity of, under British rule, 35 ; their loyalty recognized by Brock and President 
Dunn, 1807, 86, 87 ; distrusted by Sir James Craig, 91, 104 ; Craig hesitates to 
issue arms to, 102, 103. Hd Characterized, 42, 220-222; Haldimand's ex- 
perience of, 51, 52 ; satisfied with change of sovereignty, 53, 79 ; corps of, formed, 
55-57, 139; object to introduction of English civil law, 59, 60; favoured by 
Quebec Act, 101 ; their aversion to military service, 111 ; costume of, 114, 115, 
240; fear of communication with rebels, 119, 134, 136, 140, 174, 297 ; Estaing's 


proclamation to, 123 ; affected by alliance of France with revolted colonies, 126, 
127, 128, 140 ; prisoners in Albany take up arms for Congress, 130 ; averse to 
taxation, 173 ; restricted as to disposal of produce, 177 ; Haldimand's policy 
towards, 180 ; his use of conges disliked by, 182 ; gratified by news of British de- 
feats, 189 ; Baroness de BiedeseFs description of, 219-220 ; their attitude towards 
Loyalists, 264, 271 ; continued attempts to undermine their loyalty, 273-282, 
283; addressed by Congress, 276; Maclean pleads for, 306; Dorchester's 
policy with, 314-315. Md Ignorance of national affairs, 347; Macdonald's 
influence with, 347-348. WM Their unfortunate position, 131 ; two thousand 
desert the camp to protect their families, 152 ; placed on right of Montcahn's 
battle-line, 192 ; dislodge British detachment from Borgia's ^hpuse, 193, 195 ; 
in general defeat make brave rally, 201-203 ; only those in vicinity of Quebec 
submit to the British, 237. L Pere Charlevoix on, 117; Aubert on, 118; Mre 
de FIncarnation on, 119 ; habits, dress, etc., of, 120 et seq. Bib. : Suite, Histoire 
des Canadiens-Frangais; Garneau, Histoire du Canada; Bibaud, Histoire du 
Canada; Christie, History of Lower Canada; Davidson, Growth of French- 
Canadian Race; Aubert de Gasp6, Les Anciens Canadiens; Salone, La Colonisa- 
tion de la Nouvelk France: ittude sur les Origines de la Nation Canadienne Fran- 
$aise; Greenough, Canadian Folk-Life; Tanguay, Dictionnaire Genealogique; 
Suite, Origin of the French-Canadians (R. S. C., 1905); Nicholson, The French 
Canadian; Fiske, New France and New England; Lambert, Travels in Canada. 

French Colonization. WM Principle of, 17 ; Parkman on, 19. 

French Language. BL Imperial Parliament repeals clause of Union Act 
making English the sole official language, 287 ; Elgin reads speech from the 
throne in French as well as English, 287. 

French Priests. Hd Attempts to introduce, 181, 187. 

French Revolution. Dr Its effect in the United States, 272, 273 ; principles 
of, disseminated in Lower Canada, 279. Sy Effects of, in Britain, 11. 

Frobisher, Benjamin. A partner of the North West Company. Index: Hd 
Petition to Haldimand, 261. Bib. : See the memorials of Benjamin Frobisher and 
Joseph Frobisher, his brother, on the western fur trade, in Archives Report, 1890, 
and particularly that of Oct. 4, 1784, giving the early history of the North West 
Company; also correspondence in Archives Report, 1888. 

Frobisher, Benjamin, Probably, according to Masson, a son of Joseph 
Frobisher. Entered service of North West Company, about 1798. Mentioned 
as clerk of that Company, in 1804 and 1805, and took a violent part in the 
troubles between the North West and Hudson's Bay Companies. Captured 
by Hudson's Bay men in 1819, carried to York Factory and imprisoned ; es- 
caped, and in a desperate attempt to make his way back to one of the North 
West Company posts, died of exhaustion at Cedar Lake. Bib. : Wilcocke, 
Death of Frobisher in Masson, Bourgeois de la Compagnie du Nord-Ouest. 

Frobisher, Joseph. A partner of the North West Company. Member of 
the fur-trading firm of McTavish, Frobisher and Company. Built a fort on 
Red River, and penetrated to the Churchill River, 1774, where, at Frog Portage, 
he built a post. Gave the name of English River to the Churchill. Accom- 
panied Alexander Henry up the Saskatchewan in 1775. Returned to Montreal, 
but retained a large interest in the fur trade until 1798, when he retired. Index : 
Hd His petition to Haldimand, 261. MS Builds trading-post on Sturgeon Lake 
in 1772, 4. Bib. : Henry, Travels and Adventures, ed. by Bain ; Mackenzie, 
History of the Fur Trade in his Voyages. 

Frobisher, Sir Martin (1535?~1594). Navigator. Made three voyages to 


America in search of the Xortli-We^t Passage, 157f>, 1577 ? and 1578. 
adrniral in Drake's expedition to West Indies, 1586; led one of the squadrons 
against the Spanish Armada ; took part in Hawkins's expedition. 1590. Bib. : 
Diet Xat Biog. 

Froblsher, Thomas (1744-1788). Partner of the Xorth West Company. 
With Joseph Frobisher, Alexander Henry, and Peter Pond, in the Xorfh-WeJt, 
1775. In that year, explored the Churchill River as far as Isle la Crossc 
Lake. Index: MS Builds trading-post at Sturgeon Lake, 1772, 4. Bib.: 
Henry, Travels and Adventures; Mackenzie, History of the Pnr Trade in Ms 

Frog Portage. Or Portage de Traite, leading from the Saskatchewan River, 
by way of Cumberland Lake, the Sturgeon- Weir River, Heron, Pelican, and 
Woody Lakes, to the Churchill. It was discovered by Joseph Frobisher, who 
built a temporary trading-post there in 1774. Two years later Thomas Fro- 
bisher built a more substantial fort at the same place. He was joined there in 
that year by Alexander Henry, and plans were matured for intercepting the 
western Indians on their way down the Churchill to trade at Prince of Wales 
Fort. Alexander Mackenzie says that the Indians called the portage Athi~ 
quisipichigan Ouinigam, or the Portage of the Stretched Frog Skin. Bib. : Bryee, 
Hudson's Bay Company; Burpee, Search for the Western Sea. 

Frontenac, Louis de Buade, Cpmte de Palluau et de (1620-1698). F Par- 
ticulars respecting his early life scanty, 61 ; enters army under Prince 
of Orange at age of fifteen, 62 ; promoted to rank of marechal de camp, 62 ; 
peace of Westphalia, 1648, releases him from military life, 6$; marriage, and 
birth of son, 63 ; his wife separates from him, 63 ; extravagant* habits of, 64 ; 
commands Venetian troops in defence of Crete against Turks, 64; leaves 
France for Canada, midsummer of 1762, 65; endeavours to constitute "three 
estates " and summons an Assembly, 67 ; action disapproved by king, 67 ; his 
instructions regarding the ecclesiastical power, 69 ; friendly to Sulpicians and 
R6collets, 74 ; plans a visit to Cataraqui, 74 ; conducts an expedition to Ca- 
taraqui, 76-84; invites Indians to conference at that place, 79; harangues 
them and distributes presents, 81, 82 ; erects fort, 83 ; expedition not approved 
by minister, 84 ; Frontenac defends it, 85 ; difficulties with Perrot, governor of 
Montreal, and the Abb< Fnelon, 90-104 ; captures twelve coureurs de bois, 99 ; 
sends Perrot and F6nelon to France with report on case, 102 ; the king's reply, 
103 ; enemies at court, 110 ; honour paid to him in church curtailed by Laval, 
112; attitude towards ecclesiastical powers, 113; difficulty with bishop over 
issue of trading permits, involving carrying of liquor to Indians, 116; king 
prohibits permits, 116; visits Cataraqui (Fort Frontenac), 117; appeals against 
king's decision, 117; instructed not to meddle with questions of finance, etc., 
120 ; authorized to grant hunting permits, 125 ; number to be issued restricted, 
128 ; dispute with Intendant Duchesneau as to presidency of Sovereign Council, 
133-140 ; censured by minister for his contentious spirit, 135 ; again cautioned 
by king and minister, 136 ; recalled, 143, 144 ; asks home government for soldiers, 
145; summons conference on Indian question, 146; arranges peace between 
Senecas and Ottawas, 146; orders strengthening of fortifications of Montreal, 
147 ; relations with Du Lhut, 162 ; has E6collet confessor, Father Maupassant, 
165; alleged disorders in his household, 165; commends Sulpicians, 168 ;^ his 
recall a triumph for clerical opponents, 171 ; on return to France makes light 
of La Barrels demand for troops, 173 ; reappointed governor of Canada, 229 ; 
arrives at Chedabucto, 232 ; arrives at Quebec, 232 ; goes to Montreal, 233 ; 


of in 227 ; tries to^arrcst destruc- 

tion of Furl 2#tt; orstnizt^ railing partita against English colonies, 

234~23f>; out with him Vroni Fnmoe survivors of Indians^ captured for 

the 237; #vn<Ls deputation to IrtquoLs 2tf7; .sends reinforcements to 

IA Durantayc, 241; lib adihv.^ to the Like tribt^, 242; result of his raids on 

2">;i; improves fortifieutioiirf of Quebec, 254; ^his relations 

the &ovorei($n <'ouu*'il, 'J5-t-2o7 ; got\< to Montreal where anxiety prevails, 

257 ; Ilk to kike Indiana >um\ssfui, 2/VS ; dances a war dance, 260 ; 

to Mit^iditi^tus authorities a^jiia-st a tuck on Pentagouet, 270 j gets 

news at Montreal of ;r>pro;ic!i of expedition a^aim-t Quebec, 2S2; replies to 

Phippg's demiui:! for aiinvau<T, 2S.\ 2M); wommtiids attack ^ pa Boston by 

sea, .116; I?^*nbe5 mv;i#\s <>f ik* AVaki, 317; estimate of military losses in 
Canada, 3lS; rxprns^, himself arf opposed to large expeciitions, 320 ; orders 
l)c Louvij^ny at Mk'hiliniackhun. 1 to s?ond down Indians with their furs, 323; 

firm in iit^otktioM with Iroquols, :V2.">, 3iJS ; complaints made against, 333-336 ; 
gives theatrical rcpre^ntatioiw at (Juobec, 336 j ^ question of^ Tartuffe, 337; 

restores Fort Frontenac a^aiiijst instructions of minister, 341 ; directs campaign 
Iroquois, 3>tK]>l ; reports lib victory to the king and asks for recogni- 
tion, S53; receives cro58 of St. Louis, 354; receives news ^of peace of Ryswiek, 

354 ; c orresponds on question of sovereignty over Iroquois with Earl of Bello- 
mont, governor of New York, 355 ; his last despatch to home government, 357 ; 
and death, 357-359 ; his will, 358 ; no known portrait, 360 ; funeral ser- 
mon and critical annotations thereon, 361. L Governor, erects fort at Catara- 
qui T 84 ? 145; RScollets under his protection, 112; arrival of, 143; his 

servicew and character, 144; supports La Salie, 149; prejudiced against the 
Jesuits, 157; triea to arrest courcurx dc bins, ICO; imprisons Perrot, governor of 
Montreal 160 ; takes offence at sermon preached by Abb Fenelon, 161 ; pre- 
viously annoyed by sermon of Jesuit Father, 161 ; demands copy of F^aelon's 
sranoii, lf>2 f difficulty 1 with Do Bcrnieres, 162, 163 ; censured by the king, 
164, if>5; quarrels with intent lant, 167; recalled, 168; sends unfavourable 
reports regarding clorgy, 170; summons conference on liquor traffic, 172; re- 
appointed governor, 2 IS ; arrival of, 228 ; organizes three detachments to operate 
against English colonies, 220 ; Ms answer to Phipps, 229 ; attacks the Iroquois, 
233; death of, 234. Bib.: Parkman, Frontenac; Myrand, Frontenac et ses 
Amis; Lorin, Le Comte de Frontenac; Legendre, Frontenac; Brady, Frontenac, 
the Saviour of Canada. 

Fuiford, Francis (1S03-186S). Educated at Oxford; ordained, 1828. Con- 
secrated first Anglican bishop of Montreal, 1850, and sailed for Canada the 
same year. In I860 metropolitan of the ecclesiastical province of Canada. Bib. : 
Taylor, Brit. Am. and La&t Three Bishops; Moekridge, The BisJwps of the Church 
of England in Canada and Newfoundland. 

Fuller, Thomas Brock (1810-1884). Born in Kingston. Educated at the 
Grammar Schools at Hamilton and York and at Chambly Theological Semi- 
nary. Ordained priest, 1835; laboured in various parts of Canada; archdeacon 
of Niagara^ 1869; bishop of Niagara, 1875. Bib. : Dent, Can. For.; Moekridge, 
The Bishops of the Church of England in Canada, and Newfoundland. 

Fundy, Bay of. Explored by De Monts and Champlain in 1604. Probably 
visited a hundred years earlier by Basque and Breton fishermen, and possibly 
by the Northmen several centuries before. Know to the Portuguese as Baia 
Fimdo (Deep Bay). Named by De Monts, La Baie Fra^aise. The year 1604 
witnessed not only the first exploration of which any narrative survives, 


but also the first European on the shores of the bay. See also 

Bib. : Champiain, Voyages. 

Fur Trade. F Burdensome restrictions on, 38, 154. Ch Short history of. 
119 ct Mq, 3E Under the French regime, 183, Dr Complicated questions la 
connection with, 57. Hd Importance attached by Haldimand to, 2^0-281. 
S In Upper Canada, 105-107. D Maintained supremacy of British In far 
West, 37 ; of the Russians, stimulates adventure and exploration, 3S ; forerunner 
of civilization, 49, MS Growth of, under North West Company, 7 ; 
de, bi)u and mangeurs de lcrd ? 14, 168 ; traders were men of intelligence and intel- 
lectual tastes, 27 ; boiis-br&lcs, 167 ; predominance of Scottish element, 219 ; 
manage dn pays } 263 ; Canada's debt to, 281-290 ; names of famous fur-traders 
given to Canadian rivers, lakes, and towns, 282 ; fur-trader as pioneer of settle- 
ment, 283-284 ; character of the traders, 288-289 ; stood for law and order, 
289, See also Hudson's Bay Company ; North West Company ; X Y Com- 
pany ; Pacific Fur Company ; Company of New France, etc. Bib. : Mackenzie, 
History of the Pur Trade In Ms Voyages; Masson, Bourgeois de la Com- 
pagnie du Nord-Ouest; Biggar, Early Trading Companies of AVzr France; 
Parkman, Works; Henry, Travels Adventures; Henry-Th&mpson Journals, 
ed. by Coues; Harmon, Journal; Francliere, Narrative; Larpenteur, Forty 
Years a Fur Trader; Chittenden, History of the American Fur-Trade; Laut, 
Conquest of the Great North-West; Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company; Willson, 
The Great Company; Burpee, Search for the Western Sea; Begg, History of the 

Gabriel. Ch French vessel seized by English, 222. 

Gage, Thomas (1721-1787). Fought under Braddock at Monongahela, 
1755, and under Abercrombie at Ticonderoga, 1758. Took part in the cam- 
paign for the conquest of Canada, 1759; made military governor of Montreal 
after its capitulation, 1760. Succeeded Amherst, 1763, as Commander-in- 
chief ^ with headquarters at New York. Sailed for England, 1773, leaving 
Haldimand in command. Returned the following year, as governor of Massa- 
chusetts. After the battle of Bunker Hill, 1775, recalled. Index : Dr Bequests 
Carleton to send him two regiments, 78. S In command at Boston, 19. Hd At 
Ticonderoga, 19 ; his letters to Haldimand, 22, 23 ; in command at Oswego, 28, 
29 ; at Albany, 31, 33 ; governor of Montreal after surrender, 40, 41 ; his opinion 
of Croix de St. Louis wearers, 52 ; replaces Amherst at New York, 53, 57, 58, 
60, 61, 66, 68, 70, 72, 73, 77, 79-81; visits England on leave of absence, 83; 
correspondence with Haldimand, 89, 94, 95 ; resumes chief command in America, 
96-98, 121 ; his position in Boston, 101 ; intended retirement of, 105 ; his lack 
of energy, 108 ; recall of, 110 ; Indian policy of, 147 ; his reply to Washington's 
complaint as to treatment of prisoners, 249 ; death of, 335. Bib. : Letters of the 
Two Commander s~in-Chief, Generals Gage and Washington ; Detail and Conduct 
of the American War, under General Gage. See also Mass. Hist. Soc. Colls., 
vols. 12, 14, and 34; and Haldimand Papers (Canadian Archives). For biog., 
see Did. Nat. Biog.; Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Gaillardin, Claud J. C. (1810-1880). F French historian, referred to, 152. 
Bib.: Histoire de Louis XIV. 

Gaillon, Michel. Ch Member of RobervaFs expedition, executed, 44. 

Galiano, Dionisio. Accompanied Maurelle in 1792 to North-West Coast. 
Carried out considerable surveys for the Spanish government, partly in con- 
junction with Vancouver. Index : D Explores North-West Coast with Valdez, 


33 ; Vancouver, 35 ; journal publwhod at Madrid in 1802, 36. Bib. : 

Bancroft, lL'4ory of ftw AWA-HVwJ (,W< 

Galiaie da dc. A inv'iuKT of :i noble family of Brittany; 

to Canada in Mils, With his Mlovv-Sulpi/ian, Dollar do Casson (.r.), 

out an important ^xpltindbn p UiiV,V-l*>70, from Montreal up the 

8t Lawrence, and around the N/ufh s<hnre of Lake Ontario to Burlington Bay; 

to the Cirauii Kivor. whsi'h tnoy dtwezulod to Lake Erie, whore they 

winteml. In Man* h, 1670, thry ronthwed their Journey alons; the north shore, 

through Lake i>t, (Hair, and roasting the south side of Manitoulin Island, 

Sault, !>t<*. Marir, \v!uTe lliey found Marquotte and Dablon. They 

returned to Montreal by way of Luke Niptasing and the Ottawa. Gallnee's 

narrative of tlu* Journey warf ssnit home to the tine;. He himself returned to 

France in M7L ladex: L With Dottier, plants the cross on shores of Lake 

Erie, II ; urrivvs from France us missionary, 105; on Lake Erie, 10S; La Sale 

awompanit'rt him to Niagara, 148. Bib. : "Exploration of Ike Great Lakes, 1889- 

1U7Q; GalinMs and Map, cd. by James H. Coyne (Ont. Hist. Soc. ? 

(1761-1849). American statesman. Bk United States 
secretary of the treasury, 81, 108, Bib. : Cyc. Am. Bwg.; Adams, Writings 
o/ Albert GoUatin; Adams, Lift: of Gattatin* 

Galleran, Guillaume. Ch IWoUot priest^ 149, 

Gallicanism. L Cause of difficulty between the court of France and the 
popc% 184, 201. 

Gait, Sir Alexander Tilloch (1817-1893). Son of John Gait (q : v.). Elected 
to the Legislature, 1B49> for Sherbrooke. Dropped out of public life for several 
years f but in 1853 again elected for Shcrbrooke. Took an active part in 
the movement leading; up to Confederation ; a member of several adminis- 
trations before and after Confederation ; high commissioner in Great Britain, 
1S80-1883. Index: Md Declines task of forming a ministry, 86; becomes 
luinister of finance in Carticr-Macdonald administration, 86 ; speaks in favour 
of Confederation, 96; goes to England with Cartier and Eose to secure 
approval of British government to proposed union, 97; one of commissioners 
sent to England in 1865 to confer with Imperial government on Confederation, 
defence, reciprocity, etc., 120-121 ; minister of finance in first Dominion ministry, 
134; resigns, 1867, and' succeeded by Rose, 136; introduces high tariff (1859), 
218; his protection policy supported by Maedonald, 219; appointed high 
commissioner, 227. WT Makes Confederation a Cabinet question, 205 ; dele- 
gate to Charlottetown Conference, 216-217 ; to Quebec Conference, 218 ; pre- 
sented to the queen, 266 ; minister of finance in first Dominion ministry, 271, 272. 
B Asked by Sir Edmund Head to form government, declines, 106, 133 ; favours 
federal union, 106; takes Cayley's place in Macdonald-Cartier government, 
107 ; advocates in 1858 federal union of all British North American provinces, 
132-133 ; pledges Cartier government to federal union policy, 133 ; mission to 
England, 133 ; his connection with reciprocity negotiations in 1865, 193-196 ; 
Ms connection with negotiations with George Brown as to Confederation, 152, 
154-155, 160 ; goes^ to England on Confederation mission, 186. C Goes to 
England with Cartier and Rose in connection with Confederation, 56-57; 
refuses decoration of C. B., 126-127. Bib. : Works: Canada from 1849 to 1859; 
Union of the British North American Provinces. For biog., see Taylor, Brit. 
Am.; Dent, Can, For. and Last Forty Years; Pope, Memoirs of Sir John A. 
Maedonald; Egerton and Grant, Canadian Constitutional Devekpment. 


John flTTlMsSO). Came to Canada, 1S24; returnM to Er^iai.u; 

fTiiae out a^:iin in lN2t>, remaining until iK2!i A&oi'iut'd, hi tlii* Canada 
Company, with William Dunlop, Thomas T;ubot, and ^aniur-1 Strickland. 

founded towns of Guelph anil Goderieh. Town of Gait narr^l after liim. Stic 
Canada Company; Dunlop; Talbot ; Strickland. Bib.: Work.**: J>r4n% 
L'ijatffx; Aniifilft of the Parish; Sir Andrew Wylie; The Entail; &r$!c Ch:bd; 
fiinnfcy Buxton; Ekcn Erskinc; The Lost Child; The Member; Th? Radical; 
Laurie Todd; Life of Byron; Lives of the Players; Autobiography; Literary Lift 
and Miscellanies. For Hog., see Morgan, Cd. Can,; Did. Nai Biog.; LIzars, 
Days of ike Canada Company. 

Gait. A town in Ontario founded by the Canada Company, about 1S27. 
Named after John Gait. Situated on the Grand River. Bib. : Lizars^ Days 
of the Canada Company. 

Gamache, Rene de Rohault, Marquis de. Ch Endows Jesuit College at Quebec, 

Gannentalia. L Mission at, miraculously escapes massacre, 65. Bib. : Park- 
man, Jesuits in North America. 

Garakontie. L Iroquois chief, conversion of, 65 ; edifying death of, 73. 

Garfietd, James Abram (1831-1881). Twentieth president of the United 
States. Index : B Favourable to proposed Reciprocity Treaty of 1864, 230-231. 
Bib.: Hinsdale, Works of Garjield; Gilmore, Life of Gar field; Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Gameati, Frangois-Xavler (1809-4866). Studied law and practised as a 
notary ; afterwards clerk of the Legislative Assembly and city clerk of Quebec ; 
member of the Council of Public Instruction; pretMent of the Institut Canadian,. 
Index : P Condemns Papineau's conduct in rejecting Lord Goderich's offer, 77, 
E Attacks Hincks for suggesting amendment to Union Act, 123; Hineks's 
denial, 123. Hd On the evils of English law, 59 ; on Murray, 60 ; on Haldi- 
niand, 291, 292. Bib. : Hisioire du Canada, trans, by Andrew Bell. For biog, ? 
see Casgrain, F.-X. Garneau; Morgan, Cel. Can. and Bib. Can, 

Gamier, Charles. Accompanied Jogues and Chatelain to the Huron mis- 
sion, 1636 ; and, with the former, to the Tobacco Nation, near Nottawassaga 
Bay, 1639-1640. Returned to the Huron mission, where, in 1649, died a 
martyr to his faith, slain by an Iroquois hatchet. Index: L Death of, 5. 
Bib. : Parkman, Jesuits in North America; Lalemant, Relation des HuronSj 1640. 

Gamier de Chapotiin. Ch Provincial of R^collets, appoints ^ our missionaries 
for Canada, 85. 

Garreau, Leonard. Jesuit father. Index: L Death of, 11. 

Garry, Nicholas. The Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Com- 
pany having been amalgamated in 1821, Garry, then a director of the ^former 
Company, was sent out to the North-West with Simon McGillivray, in that 
year, to make the necessary arrangements. Garry's diary of this journey is 
published in the Royal Society Trans., 1900. Subsequently deputy governor of 
the Hudson's Bay Company, 1822-1835. Fort Garry was named after him. 
Bib. : Bryce, Manitoba and Hudson's Bay Company. 

Gaspe. See Aubert de Gasp6. 

Gaspereau River. A small tidal stream, flowing into the Basin of Minas. 
Grand Pr6, once a principal settlement of the Acadians, stands upon its banks. 

Gates, Sir Thomas (1596-1621). Governor of Virginia. Index: Ch Grant 
to, by James I of England, 223. Bib. : Diet. Nat. Biog.; Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Gaudais-Dupont, Louis. L Comes out as royal commissioner to take over 
Canada from Company of New France, 41. 


Ganfestre, Jean. Ch Rdcollet, returns to France, 209. 

Mots, E Father Gavazzi's lectures, 124 ; cause riots in Quebec and 

124-123; Clear Gritrf attack Hincks and the government for failure 

to riots, 125. Bib.: Gavazzi, and Life; Dent, Last Forty Years; 

Gazette (Halifax). Established, 1752. First newspaper published in what 
is the Dominica of Canada. Bib. : Waills, Hist. Sketch of Can. Journalism^ 
ia An Enaj*, vol. 5. 

Gazette (Montreal). Established 1778. Index: C Denounces ministerial 

responsibility, 97. Hd Establishment of, 276. BL Denounces La Fontaine- 

government, 140. Bk Editor of, arrested by order of the Legislative 

Assembly! 93. Me Mackenzie's obituary in, 514. Bib. : Waflis, Hist. Sketch 

of Can, 'Journalism^ in Canada: An Ency., vol. 5. 

Gazette (Quebec). Established, 1764, Index; Hd First newspaper printed 
IB Quebec, 11)0 ; ltd news columns censored, 191 ; publishes letters contained 
in an intercepted rebel mail, 225 ; advertisements in, 231-242 ; articles on moral 
themes, 246. Sy Its opposition to union of the provinces, 194, 211, 212. Bk 
Falls under displeasure of Legislative Assembly, 93. Bib. : Wallis, Hist. Sketch 
of Can. in Canada: An Ency., vol. 5. 

Gazette (Toronto). Me Mackenzie's newspaper, first published May 12, 
1S3B 7 438; last issue, 461. Bib.; Dent, Upper Canadian Rebellion. 

0eaertl Election, 1841. Sy Rioting in connection with, 290, 291 ; result of, 

Geaest, Edmond Charles (1765-1834). Dr Minister of France to the United 
272 ; Ms intrigues in Canada, 273, 274. Bib. : Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Gettevay f Jean Francois Louis. Hd Preach secretary to Haldimand, 305; 
receives bequest from Haldimand, 342 ; Ms tomb, 348. 

Geological Survey, First suggested by Dr. Rae, in 1832. W. E. (afterwards 
Sir) Logan was appointed provincial geologist, 1842, and, the government hav- 
ing decided to carry out a geological survey of the province, he took charge of 
the work the following year. The establishment of the survey was largely 
the result of petitions presented by the Natural History Society of Montreal, 
and the Quebec Literary and Historical Society. The first report was for the 
year 1843. Twenty years later, the reports 1843-1863 were summarized in 
a volume of 983 pages, Geology of Canada. The periods 1863-1866 and 1866- 
1869 were each covered in a single report. Thereafter, annual volumes were 
published. Two general indexes have been issued, one for the reports 1863- 
1884, and the second for 1885-1906. 

George IV (1762-1830). King of England, son of George III and the Princess 
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. In 1795 married the Princess Caroline of 
Brunswick. In 1811 regent, and in 1820 succeeded George III. Index: WT 
Grants charter to King's College, Fredericton, 49. Bib. : Diet. Nat. Biog. 

George, Sir Rupert D. H Provincial secretary of Nova Scotia, 57; dis- 
missed from office, 111 ; challenges Joseph Howe to a duel, 244. Bib.: Camp- 
bell, History of Nova Scotia. 

Georgian Bay. An arm of Lake Huron. Discovered by Joseph Le Caron, 
a Franciscan, 1615. Champlain reached the shores of the bay the same year. 
Index: Ch Champlain crosses, 88. 

Germain^ Charles. Appointed missionary to the Abnaki Indians on the 
St. John Eiver, 1845. Authorized agent of the government at Quebec for the 
purpose of destroying British supremacy in Acadia. Assisted De Ramezay in 

AXD 147 

his for the attack on Mines, 1747. Removed to Miramjchi. 1757. 

the fall of Quebec, took up the cau^e of the British. Received a pension of 50 
a Year the government at Halifax, 1761. Retired^ to Quebec, taking 
him a number of Indian families. Died, 1779. Bib. : ScUdi*)n$ fr&M tic Public 
of Nora Scoiia^ ed. by Akins. 

Geraain f Lord George. Sec Sackville. 

German and Swiss Colonists. Hd In America, scheme to carol, 9, 

German Troops. Hd Commanded by Riedesel, 114; not adapted to woik 
required of them, 126, 136; reorganization of, 141; Haldimand not 
with, 141 ; some settle near Cataraqui, 2155 ; leave Canada, 203, 296. 

Germans and Dutch. Br Large admixture of, among "United Empire Loyal- 
ists, 240. . 

Gerris, Sarah. F Captured at Fort Loyal, exchanged for one of Phipps s 
prisoners, 303. 

Gerry , Elbrldge (1744-1814). American statesman. Index: Bk Governor of 
Massachusetts, 172. Bib % : Cyc.^Am^Bwg. 

Gerrymander. See Redistribution Bill. 

Gibault, Pere. Hd Absolves French of the west from their allegiance to 
Britain, 167. 

Gibbs, Thomas Nicholson (1821-1883). Born in Terrebonne, Quebec. En- 
gaged in business pursuits at Oshawa. Defeated for election to the Assembly 
for South Ontario, 1854, but successful, 1S65. Elected to represent South 
Ontario in the House of Commons, 1867, the defeated candidate being George 
Brown. Secretary of state and minister of inland revenue in the government 
of Sir John A. Macdonald, 1873. Appointed to the senate, 1880. 

Gibson, David. Me Organizes shooting matches, 342 ; rebels meet at his 
house, 360 ; opposes advance on Toronto, 362 ; his house burned, 375 ; objects 
to Mackenzie's plans, 376; escapes, 380. Bib.: Dent, Upper Canadian 
Rebellion. . . p _ 

Gibson John Morrison (1342- ). Educated at the University of Toronto ; 
studied law and called to the bar of Ontario, 1867. Elected to the Ontario 
Assembly for Hamilton, 1379; provincial secretary, 1889; commissioner of 
crown lands, 1896; attorney-general, 1889-1905; lieutenant-governor of On- 
tario, 1908. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who. 

Giffard, Robert. First seigneur in New France. Mentioned at Quebec in 
1627 ; returned to France, 1629 ; established at his Beauport scigneuiy, 1634 ; a 
member of the Council, 1646; syndic of Quebec, 1648; gave his St. Gabriel 
property to the Jesuits, 1667. Index: Ch Landed with his family by Kirke OB 
St. Pierre Island, 174 ; comes to Canada with forty colonists, 250 ; receives 
grant of land near Beauport, 251. Bib. : Douglas, Old France in the New World, 

Gilbert, Thomas. WT Member for Queens, New Brunswick, an advocate 
of old-time Toryism, 96 ; proposes to convert King's College into agricultural 
school, 162, 163 ; his bill defeated, 233. 

Gillam, Benjamin. Son of following. Commanded a trading expedition from 
Boston to Hudson Bay in 1683, and built a fort some miles up the Nelson 
River. Pierre Radisson captured the fort, and carried Gillam a prisoner to 
Quebec, where he was promptly released by the governor. Sailed for Boston, 
and arrested on behalf of the" Hudson's Bay Company for poaching in their 
territory. Seems to have turned pirate a year or two later; captured at Boston, 
carried to England with Captain Kidd, who had been arrested at the same time, 
and hanged with Ms fellow pirate. Bib. : Laut, Conguest of the Great North-West. 


A in by Prince 

attd Ma to in "command of the^ Amtticft, on a 

of rhoiurt ;'f,?.} >mtk\! with him, 

(iff.) IE IfMlfl, in the Wawno. Gillam's journal 

w in RobsonV //WwwV Bay. Made several 

to tht> bay, on behalf of the Hudson's Bay Company. 
la his in the ice at the of Xelson River, and he and 

of ttie flww Bib,: Robson, Account of Six Yc.ars 1 in 

of ttie flww 

of Ik 6/47;! Norlk-Wcst; Burpee, for the 

Sftf ; Bryeo, Hudwn'* Bay Company. 

A. EL WT Provincial secretary in Smith ministry, New Brunswick, 
233; a 233. 

Hd School teacher at St. Johns, 235. 

Hd Gathered by Jesuits, for shipment to China, 148; brought 
$5 a pound, 148; engaged in trade, 148. 

Sir (1701-LS47). Bora at Ringwould, England. Educated 

at School, Canterbury, and at the Military Academy, Woolwich. 

Entered 'the army, 1S09; served throughout the Peninsular War; employed in 

the West Indies/ 1824-1829; private secretary to the first lord of 

the 1834; to Canada as commissioner, together with Lord 

and Sir Charles Grey, to to allay prevailing discontent, 1835; 

governor of New South Wales, 183^1846. Index : P Royal 

to Canada with Lord Gosford and Sir Charles Grey ? in 1835, 

111. Bib. : Cel Can.; Did Nat. Biog,; Lang, New Smith Wales, 

Gir0rd, (1836; ). Bom at St. TimothSe, Quebec. Educated 

At Montreal College; studied law and called to the bar of Lower Canada. For 

years at in the House of Commons. Appointed judge of Supreme Court 

of Canada, 1895. Index : F On loss of life in massacre of Lachine, 224 ; at 

La Chesnaye and other places, 226. Bib. : Lake St. Louis and Gaudier de la 

For bi0g. ? see Morgan, Can. Mm; Cyc. Am. Biog.; Canadian Who's 

O!roaard ? John Joseph (1795-1855). Born in Quebec. Studied law, and 
to the bar of Lower^ Canada, 1816. Elected to the Assembly^ 1830; 
a strong supporter of Papmeau; took an active part in the Rebellion of 
1837-1838; imprisoned at Montreal for six months. Resumed the practice of 
law. Offered a portfolio on the La Fountaine-Baldwin administration, but 
refused to accept office; took no further part in public life. Index: BL Asso- 
ciated with La Fontaine in constitutional agitation in Lower Canada,49 ; com- 
missionership of crown lands promised to, 124; declines appointment, 134; 
referred to as a rebel^ in Transcript, 141 ; attacked by Tory press, 150. Bib. : 
Cyc. Am. Biog. ; Christie, History of Lower Canada. 

Gisborne, Frederick Hewton (1S24-4892). Came to Canada from England 
in 1845. Joined the staff of the British North American Electric Telegraph 
Association, 1847 T and became general manager. In 1852, laid the first sub- 
marine cable in America, joining New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island ; 
and in 1856. laid another to Newfoundland. Conceived the idea of connecting 
Europe ana America by a submarine cable, and succeeded in enlisting the 
interest of Cyras W. Field.^ The cable finally completed, 1858. Appointed 
superintendent of the Dominion government telegraph and signal service, 1879. 
Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Giscome Portage, Leading from the Parsnip River to the Fraser, in northern 


Columbia. Xamai by an independent trador, Peter l>;mlrr>% after 

* f-nokj sttnwt tho year 1S73. Both Mackonzio ami Smi<m Fni^Viv^fil 
from the Parsnip to th* Eraser, the former in 171)3, and tho Litter iii IM)|). ':;i 
neither wont by way of < income Portage, which was not discovered until ftWiie 
years later Bib.: Burpee, Search for ilw Western Sea. 

Givins t James. Bk Appointed aido-cie-Ciimp, 247, 

Gladstone, William Ewart(liS()D-18t)S). British statesman. Index: Sy Elated 
to Parliament for Newark, 22; defeated at Manchester. 48. E Hid opinion 
of Lord Elgin, 7 T 78 ; sympathy for Confederate States, 202. B free 

trade policy, 31 ; not in favour of Intercolonial Railway, 143 ; on to 

didniss Confederation and defences of Canada, 186. BL His speech on 
lion Losses Bill, 326-327, 32S ; Ms interview with Hincks, 328, Md 
Rebellion Losses Bill, 4! ; withdraws claim against United States on 
of Fenian Raids, 176-177. WT Insists on sinking fund for 
190. Bib, : Works: The Stale in its the Chunk; 

Past Years; For blog* see Morley, The Life of William 
Diet Nat. Biog. 

Glad win , Henry. Joined the army, 1753; took part in the expedition 
Braddock; promoted to rank of major, 1759; in command at Detroit 
siege by Pontiac; served throughout the American Revolutionary War; major- 
general, 1782. Died in England, 1791. Index: Dr Defence of "Detroit by, in 
Pontiac's War, 5. Bib. : Parkinan, Conspiracy of Pontiac; Moor, The 
Manuscripts; Cyc. Am. Biag. 

Glandeletj Abb6 Charles. L Accompanies Lava! to Canada, 141 ; theologlst 
of chapter of Quebec, 197. F Preaches against theatre, 336. 

Glassion, de. Dr Superior of Jesuits, sends petition to the king ? through 
Carlcton, 35. 

Glegg, Captain J. B. Aide-de-camp to General Brock. Index: Bfc Carries 
summons for surrender of Detroit, 251, 255; carries despatches to Quebec, 
announcing victory, 259. Bib.: Biehardson, War of 1312, ed. by Casselman; 
Lucas, Canadian War of 1812. 

Glen, John Sanders. F Magistrate of Schenectady, life spared, 247. 

Glenelg, Charles Grant, Baron (1778-1866). Born in Kidderpore, India. 
Educated at Magdalen College, Cambridge, England, and called to the bar at 
Lincoln's Inn, 1807. Member of the British House of Commons, 1811-1835, 
Appointed lord of the treasury, 1813 ; chief secretary for Ireland and a member 
of the Privy Council, 1819 ; vice-president of the Board of Trade and treasurer 
of the navy, 1823; president of the Board of Control, 1830-1834, and colonial 
secretary, 1835. Created Baron Glenelg, 1835. Resigned the secretaryship, 
1839, and made land tax commissioner. Died in Cannes. Index: WT His 
incompetence and procrastination, 42; on casual and territorial revenues 
of New Brunswick, 61-62. Sy President of Board of Trade, 16; resigns, 16; 
unequal to duties of colonial office, 57. BL Appointment of Head as governor, 
36; Head's letter to, 41. H Instructs Sir Colin Campbell to grant a measure 
of responsible government to Nova Scotia, 44-45 ; Joseph Howe's letter to, on 
ocean steamship service, 232. Me Opposes responsible government, 20; on 
colonial self-government, 73 ; refers report of the Committee on Grievances to 
the king, 263 ; his reply to report, 280 ; on Executive Councils, 302 ; schooled 
by Head, 304; Head disobeys his orders, 307; on non-elective Legislative 
Council, 324. Bib. : Did. Nat. Biog. 

Glengarry. A county in Ontario, on the St. Lawrence. Named after the 

150 THE OF 

in left their 

the of in 1740, and to America. 

They all the out many moved 

0a the frontier, the bay of Quint, the 

of the St. the latter settlement sprang the 

In 18M-IH05 Bishop McDonell obtained several grants 
of ia the for of Scottish Glengarry 

aid lor the interests of the colonists. 

He in 1812, the Feneibles regiment, which rendered valuable 

the Bib. : the Early 

#/ w 

Bk Canadian corps, 180. 

WT for Sunbuiy, in New Brunswick Assembly, 

13 ; a reformer, 13. 

Glebe,, at Toronto; established, 1844. Index: 

B government, ix; its establishment, 9, 10; on 

in Upper Canada in 1844, 25 ; criticism of Draper, 27 ; on Toryism, 
32; the Rebellion Losses Bill, 36; attacks 

the Clear Grits/'40, 41; upholds British system of responsible government, 
as to the 42 ; gives credit to French-Canadians 

for 43 ; attitude towards Roman Catholic ques- 

44-48, 48; advocates secularization of Clergy Reserves, 55; on free 
62; issued as a daily, Oct. 1, 1853; Its earlier history, 

North 1855, 74; its policy, 75; on the 

78-79; on behalf of fugitive slaves, 112; 

and the " no popery n agitation, 121, 123; advocates uniform legislation for 
Upper aad Lower Canada, 130; Separate School Bill, 145; Brown's 

IB, 150, 247; of Brown's position in Macdonald ministry, 209; 

R. B. Sullivan's on North-West Territories, 211; Brown's 

oa North-West, 1852, 213 ; letters of " Huron " on North-West, 215-216 ; 
union of North- West with Canada, 217, 218 ; attacks Canada First 
party, 236, 237, 238, 239, 241 ; Peter Brown writes for, 243 ; edited by Gordon 
Brown, 244, 245 ; reveals George Brown's views, 248, 249 ; its support of Wilson, 
250; Mr, Justice Wilson, 250, 252, 253; the office of publication, 255; 

shooting of George Brown, 255-258. E Hostile at first to Clear Grits, 
111; edited by George Brown, 111. BL Established by George Brown, Mar. 
5, 1844, 223-224 ; Its fighting policy, 224 ; attacks Metcalfe, 225 ; denounces the 
Grits, 342 ; outcry against Roman Catholicism, 343. Me Justifies the Rebellion 
of 1837 ? 13 ; on Mackenzie's expulsions, 254 ; on Mackenzie's retirement from 
public life, 498; Mackenzie's obituary, 511; on Mackenzie's personality, 523. 
Md Founded by George Brown with his father, 52 ; on the Redistribution Bill, 
275 ; on the elections of 1887, 282-283 : supports commercial union, 295. Bib. : 
Wallis, Historical Sketch of Canadian /awnmfem, in Canada: An Ency., vol. 5 ; 
Buckingham, George Brown and the Globe, in Canada: An Ency., vol. 5; Mac- 
kenzie, Hon. George Brown. 

Godard, Charles. S Agent for government of Upper Canada, 178. 
Goddard, John. WT Elected for St. John, New Brunswick, 167. 
Gode, Kicolas. L Land bought from, for church at Montreal, 88. 
Godefroy, Jean-Paul. Ch Interpreter, 144. 
Godefroy, Thomas. Ch Interpreter, 144. 
Goderich, Viscount. See Ripon. 

AND 151 

Godericli. Town In Ontario, at of River 

County, Ontario, Founded by John Gait Wm, 1827. : 

of tte 

Gomart, Lopez de, Ch a of 14* 

Gondola, Nicolas, Ch Jesuit missionary at Miscou, 234. 

Gordon, Brigadier-General, 3Dr Murder of, 152. 

Gordon, Arthur Hamilton, See Stanmore. 

Gordon, Robert, WT Member for Gloucester in New 
Liberals, 160. 

Gore, Sir Charles S. Bom In Scotland, 1793 ; the son of the 

Earl of Arran. Entered the army, 1808; served the 

War; ordered to Canada, 1814; returned to Europe at the 

of Waterloo, 1815. Again to Canada; In of the in 

Lower Canada during the Rebellion of 1837-1838; and 

advanced to the rank of lieutenant-general. Index: C At St. Deais f 7. P la 
command of troops in Rebellion of 1837 in Lower Canada, 128-129 ; 
on St. Denis, 130 ; second expedition against St. Denis* 134. Bib, : 
Cd. Can.; Christie, History of Lower Canada. 

Gore, Sir Francis (1760-1852). Served in the army; lieutenant-governor 
of Bermuda, 1804; lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada, 1806-1817, Index: 
Bk Lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada, 8, 78 ; Ms civil and military service, 
78 ; arms supplied to, 97 ; arrives at Quebec from the west^ 132 ; Brock's high 
opinion of, 143; goes to England on leave, 159. E Postpones secularization 
of Clergy Reserves by proroguing Legislature, 146. Bib. : Read, 
Gm&mors of Upper Canada; Kingsford, History of Canada. 

Gore District In Upper Canada; named after Governor Gore. Index: Sy 
Resolutions in favour of responsible government adopted at meeting of inhab- 
itants, 125, 126. 

Gorhasn, John. A native of Massachusetts. Stationed at Annapolis in com- 
mand of a body of provincial troops, 1845 ; sent to Boston to procure aid against 
a threatened attack ; induced to proceed to the siege of Louisbourg under Pep- 
perell; appointed colonel. Returned to Annapolis and placed in command of 
the Boston troops sent to Mines with Colonel Noble. Afterwards commanded 
a body of Rangers raised in New England for service in Acadia. A member of 
the Council of Nova Scotia. Returned to Massachusetts, 1752. Bib.: Se- 
lections from the Public Documents of Nova Scotia, ed. by Akms; Marshal, Life 
of PepperelL 

Gosford, Archibald Acheson, second Earl of ( 1775 ?-l 849). Governor-general 
of Canada, 1835-1838. Index : P His mission of conciliation to French-Cana- 
dians, 110; hostility of Papineau, 110; replaces Aylmer in 1835, 111; his 
character, 111-112; entertains Papineau, 112-113; his appeal for reconciliation, 
in opening Parliament, 113; his secret instructions published in Toronto, 113; 
their terms, 114; session of 1836, 115-116; dismisses Parliament, 116; eve 
of the Rebellion, 116-117; appoints B6dard judge, 117; proclaims martial law 
in the district of Montreal, 137 ; returns to England, 138 ; on the official class in 
Lower Canada, 158. BL His attempts to placate popular leaders in Lower 
Canada, 45; compared to Bagot, 151. C His amnesty proclamation, 9. WT 
Conversation with William IV, 22. Bib. : Morgan, Cd,. Can.; Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Gosselin, AbbS Atiguste (1843- ). Bom at St. Charles de Bellechasse, 
Quebec. Educated at Quebec Seminary and at Laval University. Ordained 
priest, 1866 ; subsequently chancellor of the Quebec Diocese, and vicar of the 

152 OF 

the to to literary work, 1893. 

L Oa STt ; on Seminary, 49 ; on 

0! lit ; 011 of in Laval's time, 195. F His 

of 54 ; oft 0! La Barrc, 172 ; on Laval's choice of 

de ifil ; on religion, 359. Bib. : 

Vie dc dfi Le Doctcw Labric; en 1730; 

de d MH 7Vm/w; D'lbervilk; Bourdon. For biog., 

sm Who" 9 Who. 

Sir (i%l- ). in Groiidincs, Quebec. Educated at 

Halve reity, Montreal ; law and called to the bar 

of 1884. to the Assembly for the St. James division of 

181)7 ; of works in the Parent administration, 1900 ; 

Bib*: Who's Who. 

(1778-1863). Born ia the parish of Ceres, File- 

Attended St. Andrews University. Took part In an inquiry 

the of the in Britain, and carried on an aggressive 

for a of the poor laws. Game to Canada, 1317, and settled at 

of the need of radical changes in the land 

01 Upper Canada, the administration with so much energy 

tie finally, a grossly unfair trial, expelled from the province, 

to Scotland, devotal himself to the preparation of Ms work on 
; of his property as the result of lawsuits; and 

for a on Lord Brougham in the lobby of the 

of On Ms visited the United States about 1836, and 

ia Ohio sympathizers from joining the movement under 

William Lyon Mackenzie. In 1842 his brought before the Legislature 

of Upper Canada, and the House decided that Ms arrest had been "illegal, 
unconstitutional and without possibility of excuse and palliation, and the 
null and void." Did not, however, return to Canada until 
1856, when he was granted ^a pension of fifty pounds ; this he refused because 
he considered that his "vindication had not been complete. Contested Oxford 
County in I860, but defeated; returned to Edinburgh, where he died. Index: 
Me Comes to Canada, 1817, 89 ; arouses public 'feeling, 89 ; tried for libel 
at Kingston and again at Brockville, and acquitted at both places, 89; 
tried under Alien Act, and ordered to leave province, 90; refuses and is 
committed to jail, 90; corpus proceedings fail, 90; treatment in 

prison, 1 ; Chief-Justice Powell orders him to leave province, 92 ; banished, 
93. BL Exaggerated language of his petition, 12. E Collects information on best 
means of developing resources of Upper Canada, 147. R His statistics of educa- 
tion in Upper Canada, 55 ; his imprisonment and banishment, 63, 67. Bib. : 
Account of Upp&r Canada. For biog., see Dent, Can. For. and Last 
Forty Years; Rattray, The Scot in British North America; Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Governors. Sy Their powers and functions, and relations to the home 
government on the one side and the colonial Legislatures on the other, 74-76. 
Gown, Ogle R. (1796-1876). Born in Ireland. Edited for some years the 
Antidote, published in Dublin, Came to Canada, 1829, and settled in the 
county of Leeds. At once took a leading place in the politics of Canada. 
First elected to the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada, 1834, and 
continued as representative, with brief intervals, until 1861. Served in the 
militia during the troubles of 1837-1838; commanded the right wing at 
the battle of the "Windmill" and severely wounded. For twenty years 


of the Orange Order, Index: BL His 

and Ms 187; Hincks, 218; his in A*ss?embly, 2711 

E Insults Lord Elgin at Brockville, 79. Bib. : or 

For biog.j see Cp. 1m, J5%.; Morgan, Cti. Can.; 
Forty Fears. 

Goyer, Olivier. F Rlcollet, preaches funeral oa Frontcnac^ 361, 

Goyogoisitts. See Cayugas. 

Graiam, Sir James. Sy His views on com duties and Irish Church, 40. 

Grammar Schools. S Simcoe's to establish, 169. See 

Grand Jury. Dr Presentment of, 14 ; protested by Murray, 15, 

Grand Portage. Near western end of Lake Superior, 
south of Fort William. As in the of so many other 
places, it is impossible to say who was the white man to 
this famous centre of the for trade. Badisson this way in ; 3Du 

Lhut in 1678 ; Noyon in 1688 ; La Note in 1717 ; but there is no 
that any of the four were actually at Grand Portage. It is in 

a memoir by Pachot, 1722; and the earliest authenticated visit to the 
is that of La V&endrye, 1731. From that time it grew IB impor- 

tance until finally abandoned, 1801, in favour of Fort William. The 
was applied both to the trading-post on the shore of Lake Superior, and 
to the portage thence to the Pigeon River. Index : MS Described, IS ; the 
portage, 13; as it is to-day, 13; in Mackenzie's day, 14; Mackenzie at, 54, 
Bib, : Mackenzie, History of Fur Trade in Ms Voyages; Henry-Thompson Jour- 
nals, ed. by Cones ; Henry, Travels and Adventures; Carver, Tramls; Masson, 
Bourgeois de h Compagnie du Nardr&uest; Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company; 
Burpee, Search for the Western Sea. 

Grand Pre", A village on the shores of the Basin of Minas. Stands upon or 
near the site ol the old village of the same name, one of the principal settlements 
of the Acadians. The scene of many conflicts between the French and English ; 
and of the final expulsion of the Acadians. See Acadians. Bib. : Parkman, 
Half Century of Conflict and Montcalm and Wolfe. 

Grand Trunk Railway. C Entrusts Cartier with its legal business, 22; 
Cartier's deep interest in its development, 48 : line extended from Quebec to 
Riviere du Loup, 49, 114. BL Construction of. up to 1848, 301. B Owners of 
said by Dorion to be the real authors of Confederation, 176 ; Tach^-Macdonald 
government condemned for subsidizing, 176. E Early history of, 99, 100, 101, 
115-116; Hincks's connection with, 100, 115. H Hincks makes airangements 
in England for construction of, 143 ; terms and conditions not altogether sat- 
isfactory, 143. Md Early history, 45 ; financial difficulties, 90. Bib. : Brown, 
History of Grand Trunk Railway; Lanning, Historical Sketch of ffie Grand Trunk 
Railway in Canada: An Ency., vol. 2. 

Grant, Alexander (1734-1813). Administered the government of Upper 
Canada as senior member of the Executive Council, on death of General 
Hunter, 1805. Index: Bk Administers government of Upper Canada, 69. S 
Member of Legislative Council, 49, 79 ; member of the Executive Council, 80. 
Bib. : Read, Liewi&nantrGovemors of Upper Canada. 

Grant, Cuthbert One of the leading traders of the North West Company 
in the West, in the early days. With Peter Pond on the Athabaska, and sent 
by him, 1786, to establish a post near mouth of Slave River ; at" Fort Chipewyan, 
1789 ; at Fort Qu'Appelle, 1793 ; with David Thompson on the Assiniboine, 
1797. Died, 1798 or 1799. Index: MS Partner of the North West Company, 

154 OP 

88 ; in of the tad country, 58. Bib. : 

cd. by ; BryctN 

Son of in fur 

at and of North West Company. Led 

tie in the years later 

on the ami Warden of the Plains 

by of a of the Council. Index : 

MS of the at River- notice on the colonists to 

the 174 ; a of down from Qu'Appelle to 

the 180; and the Seven affair, 180-182. Bib. : Bryee, 

aad Bay Laut, Conquest of the Great North-West 

(1S33-1902). Born at Albion Mines, ^ Nova Scotia. 

at University of Gtegow. Entered Presbyterian ministry in Nova 

"Sandforxl Fleming overland to British Columbia, 1872. 

of Queen's University, 1877, ami built it up to the first rank among 

Index: Md Principal of Queen's University on 

in Provinces as to the West, 155 ; % opposes commercial union, 

2HIS ; on of Sir John A. Macdonald as man and statesman, 32&-33G ; 

of ardent supporters, 340 ; but would not 

Mm he felt he was in the wrong, 341. Bib. : Works : Ocean, to 

of Our National Objects and Aims; 

of the World in to Christianity; Picturesque Canada. For 

biog, f 0ee Morgan, Can. Men; Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog.; Dent, Can. For.; Grant 


Grant, Sir Wiliam (1752-1832). Commanded volunteers at siege of Quebec, 

1775 ; attorney-general of Canada, 1776 ; chief-justice of Chester, 1798 ; soHci- 

1799-1801 ; master of the Rolls, 1801-1817. Index: Dr Removed 

from judgeshipy returns to England and becomes master of the Rolls, 184. 

Bib. : Did. NaL Bi&g. 

Gv6, Jeanne. Ch Daughter of Dupont-Grav6, 47. 
Grav6, Robert. Ch Son of Dupont-Grav6, accompanies Champlain on 
voyage of discovery, 34. 

Graves, Samuel (1713-1787). British admiral. Index: S Godfather of 
Simeoe, 15 ; commands naval force at Boston, 19. Dr Refuses to send trans- 
ports to Quebec, 92. Bib. : Diet. Nat, Bwg. 

Gray, John Hamilton (1814-1889). Bom in Bermuda. Entered political 
life in New Brunswick in 1850, and became a leading member of the provincial 
government. Took part in the negotiations leading up to Confederation, and 
sat in the first Dominion Parliament as member for the city of St. John. In 
1872 appointed to the Supreme Court of British Columbia. Index: WT Elected 
for St. John County, 1850, 152 ; his character and appearance, 155 ; deserts the 
Liberals, 155 ; joins the government, 160, 165 ; his course condemned, 166 ; 
member for St. John County, 172; becomes attorney-general, 183; delegate 
to Charlottetown Conference, 215 ; and to Quebec Conference, 219 ; Confed- 
eration candidate in St. John County, 227, 251 ; becomes Speaker of Assembly, 
256; elected to House of Commons, 1867, 273. Bib.; Hannay, History of New 

Gray, Jofcn Hamilton (1811-1887). Born in Prince Edward Island. Entered 
the army. 1831, and served for twenty-one years, retiring 1852. Returning to 
Prince Edward Island, elected to the provincial Legislature, and became premier in 
1863. The following year presided at the Charlottetown Conference, and also 


the Conference. a C. M. G., 1871, : WT 

of Charlottotown Conference, 218 ; premier of 219 ; 

Prince to Conference, 219. Bib. : 

o/ Prince 

Gray, Robert (1755-1806). American and Index: D 

to North-West Coast in 1787, 23 ; at Nootka f 17SS-1789, 24 ; voyage 

enters mouth of Columbia River, May 11, 1792, 24 ; the river, 24. Bib. : 

Bancroft, of the North-We#t Laut, o/ Ife 

Great Bear Lake. In Northern Canada. Area 11,821 
covered by men ol the North West Company, and a oa or 

near the about 1800. Fort Franklin built OB south-west 1825, 

where Franklin wintered with Richardson and Back. Fort Confidence 
by Dease and Simpson, 1873, at eastern emd of Bay,, on the 

Index : MS Area of, 39. Bib. : Franklin, 

tiue of Bell, Great Bear (GeoL Survey, 1899) ; Bwpee, 

/or &e fFesfem $ea. 

Great Lakes. WM The domain of France, 13. See a&o under of the 

individual lakes. Bib. : Curwood, The Greal Lakes; Channing, of Urn 

Great Mohawk (Grand Agnte). F Christian Mohawk leader, 246. 

Great Portage. Hd Trade route to the interior, 163. See Grand Portage, 

Great Slave Lake. In Northern Canada. Area 10,719 square miles. Dis- 
covered by Samuel Hearne (#..) in 1771. A post built there, 1786, by Leronx 
and Grant, of the North West Company. Three years later Alexander Mac- 
kenzie passed through the lake on his way to the mouth of the Mackenzie 
River. Visited later by many other explorers and fur traders, this being on the 
route to the far North and North-West. Index : MS Discovered by Samuel 
Heame, 3, 31 ; Leroux builds post on, 18 ; Mackenzie on, 35, 36, 48, 49 ; forte 
on, 54r-55. Bib. : Hearne, Journey to Coppermine; Mackenzie, Voyages; Bur- 
pee, Search for the Western Sea. 

Great Western Railway. Charter granted 1834, and renewed 1845. Absorbed 
by the Grand Trunk in 1882. Ran from Hamilton to the international boundary 
opposite Detroit. Index : E Construction stimulated by provincial guarantee, 
1849, 99. Bib. : Trout, History of Canadian Railways in Canada: An Ency., 
vol. 2. 

Greeley, Horace (1811-1872). American journalist. Index: Me Editor of New 
York Tribune, 472; Mackenzie's friend, 473; his influence with Mackenzie, 
474. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Green, Benjamin (1713-1772). Accompanied the expedition against Louis- 
bourg as secretary, 1745 ; remained there as government secretary until 1749 ; 
removed to Halifax, and appointed a member of the Council of Nova Scotia. 
Treasurer of the province for many years. Administrator of the government, 
1776. Bib. : Selections from the Public Documents of Nova Scotia, ed by Akins, 

Greene, Hathanael (1742-1786). Dr American general, watches Leslie's 
army in South Carolina, 197; destitute condition of Ms force, 204. Bib.: 
Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Greenway, Thomas (1838-1909). Born in Cornwall, England. Came to 
Canada with his parents, 1844. Educated at the public schools of Huron 
County, Ontario. Engaged in business for ten years at Centralia. Defeated 
on two occasions for election to the House of Commons, but elected, 1875 ; did 
not offer for re-election. Removed to Manitoba, 1878, and engaged in farm- 


lag, 1870; 0! the opposition, 1SS7; 

IS09. to the Hoiuc of Com- 

n iif the Railway Coimni&ion, 

Awfife-lff4; f r ft, MM. 

John. in Oanw to Montreal, and engaged in the 

fur A. N. MeLwl, Alexander Mackenzie, Peter 

aad in opposition to the North West Company. Index: 

In to North Company, 10, 11 ; Ms as partner of 

58. Bib.: Bryee, Bay Company. 

chief-justice of the province of Quebec. His 
24, 1764; succeeded by William Hey, Septem- 
ber 25, 

Lereson-Gower, second Earl (1815-1391). Entered Parlia- 

for 1861-1852, 1870-1874, 1880-4885; 

secretary, 1808-1 870 and 1886. Index : Md Colonial secretary, his part 

in the of North- West Territories to Canada, 157. Bib. : Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Baron (1750-1834). Entered Parliament, 1782; 

1783; Speaker of the House of Commons, 1789; created 

Graiville, 1790; for foreign affairs, 1791; first lord of the 

1808. Index: Dr Succeeds Sydney in colonial office, 248; sends out 

bill for better ^ovemnient of the province, 248. S Sends draft of Con- 

Act to Lord Dorchester, 2. Bib. : Did. Nat. Biog. 
Grearilta, Thomas (1755-1848). Dr Accompanies Oswald to Paris to discuss 

of 192. Bib. : Did. Nat, Biog. 

Grey f Charles, second Barl (1764-1845). Distinguished British statesman, 

imrtieul&rly for his connection with the first Reform Bill. Sy Becomes 

prime minister, 25; resigns, 45. Me W. L. Mackenzie's opinion of, 221; 

for Mackenzie, 478 ; Mackenzie's letter to, 479. Bib. : Diet. 

Nat. Biog,; Grey, Life of Lard Grey. 

Grey, Henry George, third Earl (1802-1894). Secretary for the colonies, 
1830-1833; secretary for war, 1835-1841; succeeded to the earldom, 1845; 
secretary for the colonies, 1846-1852. Index: E Colonial secretary, 13 ; on 
itetcalfc's mistaken policy, 36 ; Elgin's letters to, 54-55 ; persuades Elgin to 
retain governor-generalship, 77 ; and the Clergy Reserves, 164-165. BL Colonial 
secretary his attitude towards Canada, 267-272; Baldwin's reference to, 
268^269 ; sanctions representative government, but with a reservation, 273 ; 
his Instructions to Elgin, 274 ; Elgin's letter to, 285. Md Friendly attitude to- 
wards responsible government, 33 ; Ms despatch to Sir John Harvey on respon- 
sible government, 33; text of the despatch, 47-50. WT His despatch 
on money grants, 1847, 96; on colonial administration, 113: disallows Hemp 
Bounties Bill, 118. Bib.: Did. Nat. Biog. 

Grey, Albert Henry George Grey, fourth Earl (1851- ). Born Howick, 
England. Educated at Harrow School and Trinity College, Cambridge. Member 
of British House of Commons, 1880-1886; administrator of Rhodesia, 1896- 
1897 ; director of British South Africa Company, 1898-1904. Succeeded Lord 
Minto as governor-general of Canada, 1904. Bib. : Hi^b&rt Herm/: a Memoir. 
For biog., set Who's Who. 

Grey, Sir Charles Edward (1785-1865). Educated at Oxford University; 
called to the bar, 1811; commissioner in bankruptcy, 1817; judge of the 
Supreme Court of Madras, 1820; knighted, 1820; sent to Canada as one of 
three commissioners to investigate causes of prevailing discontent, 1835; elected 


to the of Commons, 1838; of the 

of 1S4 7-1853. Index: P Royal to 

Lord Goaford and Sir in 1835, III. Bib, : 

Cei Can.; Did. Nat 

Grey well Hill. Br Hampshire of Lord 31)7. 

Grisier, Charles. S Shot for desertion^ 73. 

Griffon. F Vessel built by La Salie and lost in Michigan, 159. 

Grignan, de. F Son-in-law of Mme. de Svign, a for 

of Canada, 65. 

Gronciines. WM French to, 152, 

GroseMIers* See Chouart. 

Guelph. A city of Western Ontario, on the River, in the 

county of Wellington. Founded by John Gait (g.r.), 1827. Bib.: 
Days of the Canada Company. 

Guernsey. Bk Island of, birthplace of Brock, 1-6. 

GtieiTiSre, Bk British ship taken by the 284. 

Gners, Jean-Baptiste. Ch Accompanies Champlain to Qiekjc, 1620, 121. 

Gugy, Conrad (1730-1786). Bom at the Hague; son of a in the 

Dutch service. Educated for the engineers; disposed of his 
settled in Quebec. Subsequently secretary to Sir Frederick Haldimand a 
member of the Legislative and Executive Councils. Index: Hd Swiss, Haldi- 
maiKFs secretary, 62 ; his tomb, 345. Bib. r Morgan, Cel Can. 

Gugy, Conrad Augustus. Educated at Cornwall under John Straehaa. 
Served for a time in the army; afterwards studied kw and called to the bar of 
Lower Canada* Elected a member of the Assembly. Led the troops at the 
assault of St. Eustaehe Subsequently adjutant-general and commissioner of 
police. Index: P Defends the government in the Assembly, 1835, 101-102 ; 
on French-Canadian grievances, 103 ; a major in the militia, 103 ; serves with 
Colborne at St. Eustache in 1837, 103; advocates native-bom ministry, 196. 
Bib.: Morgan, CeL Can.; Christie, History of Lower Canada. 

Guienne Regiment. WM Soldier of saves Captain Ochterlony, mortaUy 
wounded, from being scalped, 142: Wolfe wishes to reward him, but reward 
declined by Vaudreuil, 145 ; ordered to Heights of Abraham, 160 ; unwise with- 
drawal of, from Plains of Abraham, 184; in battle of Ste. Foy, 257. Bib.: 
Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe; Wood, The FigM for Canada; Bradley, Fight 
with France. 

Guilbauit Ch Merchant, assists in taking Fort St. Pierre, 236. 

Guilford, Frederick North, second Earl of (1732-1792). Entered Parliament, 
1754; chancellor of the exchequer 1767; premier, 1770; resigned in 1783. 
Index: Br On Quebec Act, 66; defeat of his government, 191. Hd His diffi- 
culty with settlers at Vincennes, 92 ; burnt in effigy, 97 ; Haidimand's letters to, 
259, 265 ; his idea of a military settlement in the Eastern Townships, 264. Bib. : 
Did. Nat. Biog. 

Guines, Modiste. Ch RScollet, 115. 

Guise, Captain. D His voyage to North-West Coast for sea-otter, 22. 

Gunn, Donald (1797-1878). Born in Falkirk, Scotland. Entered the service 
of the Hudson's Bay Company, 1813. Left the service, 1823, but continued 
to reside in the Red River Settlement. Appointed one of the judges of the 
Court of Petty Sessions, and for a time president of the Court. Appointed 
a member of the Legislative Council of Manitoba, 1870. Bib.: Begg, Hutory 
of the NorihrWesL 

158 OF 

Chinitt, Gtorg*. Me to the bur, 152 ; of the Conner, 165 ; 

of, 165. 
Guytrdt S cb 

GiiyoOj Jean* Ck Giffard to Canada, 252. 

Guyoa, I* to France* 199 ; 

of, 21ft 

Gwittist, S to Simeoe, 40 ; descent and char- 


Corpus Act. Hd Not In la Haldimand's time, 275 ; de- 

manded by Dn Calvet, 21)1. Bib.: Shprtt and Doughty, Constitutional Docw- 

to Diet Eng. 

The of Index : Dr More independent than 

of France, 12 ; to dignity of jurymen, 40 ; their objection to 

68. WH Superior to of France, 23. C Home life and hospi- 

118-119. Bib.: Greenough, Folk-Life^ Fr6chette, Christmas 

in Burpee, Life in Town and Country; 

owl New Lambert, Travels in Canada. 

Habitation do Quebec, The building in Quebec. Erected by Cham- 

1608. ,f the church of Notre Dame des Victoires stands 

to-day. Aa iiustratioa of the is in Champlain's Voyages. See also 

St. Louis. Index : Chi Constructed by Champlain, 41 ; description of, 

44. Bib. : Old France in the New World. 

Hmftrty T Sir John Hawkins (1816-1900). Born in Dublin. Educated at 
Trinity there. Came to Canada, 1834. Studied law, and called to the 

bar of Upper "Canada, 1840, Appointed puisne judge of the Court of Common 
; transferred to the Court of Queen's Bench, 1862 ; appointed 
chief- justice of the Court of Common Pleas, 1868 ; chief-justice of the Court 
of Queen's Bench, 1878 ; chief-justice of Ontario, 1884. Served as adminis- 
trator of the province, 1882. Retired from the bench, 1897, Bib. : Dent, Can. 
For.; Morgan, Can. Men. 

BagemwDL Christ optier Alexander (1792-1847). Born in Adolphustown, 
Ontario. Educated at Kingston; studied law and called to the bar of Upper 
Canada, 1815. Served during the War of 1812-1814 with the militia, being for 
a time aide-de-camp to the governor-general. Collector of customs at Kingston, 
and member of the Executive Council, 1815. Elected a member of the Assembly, 
1819. Appointed temporarily judge of the King's Bench, 1828 ; solicitor-general, 
1829. Removed from office by the colonial secretary on the representations of 
William Lyon Mackenzie ; mibsequently restored. Appointed attorney-general, 
1837 ; puisne judge of the Court of Queen's Bench, 1840. Index : Me Solicitor- 
genera!, accuses Mackenzie of libel, 208 ; dismissed from office, 232 ; goes to 
England, 233; restored to office, 234; threatens House with vengeance of 
troops, 298. Sy Attorney-general, opposes union of provinces, 207, 208 ; made 
judge, 252. BL Brands Mackenzie as "a reptile unworthy of the notice of 
any gentleman," 15; removed from office of solicitor-general, 15; restored, 
16 ; succeeded in 1840 by Draper, 77. Bib. : Kingsford, History of Canada; 
Dent, Upper Canadian Rebellion and Last Forty Years; Read, Lives of the Judges. 
Halard, Jacques. Cli Brings out stores for De Caen, 136. 
Haidemans of Pennsylvania. Hd Cousins of Sir Frederick Haldimand, 87, 343. 
Haldimand, Antoine Francois. Hd Nephew of Sir Frederick Haldimand, 
settled in England, 72, 88, 105 ; goes bail for his uncle, 311 ; very successful 


in 311; Ms Ms 312, 


Hd Uncle of Sir 2 ; a 

Calvinist, 2, 

Haldimand, Bertraad. Hd Nephew of Sir 311, 340. 

Haldimand, Frangois-Lois. Hd Father of Sir 2, 

Haldixnand, Francois-Lotus, Hd Brother of Sir Frederick 2, 312, 


Haldlmand, Sir Frederick (1 7 18-1791). Hd and birth, 1-3; 

to French nation, 3 ; joins army, 3 ; 

5 ; present at of Moflwitz, 6 ; Ms for the of ; 

recommended to command of battalion. Royal i; 

stationed at Philadelphia, 11; to Albany and to 

colonies to recruit f 13; but slightly acquainted with the IS; 

popular in the military profession, 15; resemblance to George Washington^ 15; 
exchanges to fourth battalion of Royal Americans, 17 ; joins expedition 
Canada, 17; wounded at Ticonderoga (Carillon), 21; in. 
General Gage, 22 ? 23 ; in command at Fort Edward, 22 ; to Oswego> 

25 ; repulses attack of French under La Come de St. Luc, 26 ; yields 
at Niagara to Sir W. Johnson, 27 ; returns to Oswego, 27 ; builds block-houses, 
32 ; makes vegetable gardens for benefit of his troops, 33 ; joins in on 

Fort de Lvis, 36 ; ordered to take possession of one of the gates of Montreal, 
38 ; demands the French flags, 39 ; remains two years at Montreal under Gage, 
40 ; succeeds Burton at Three Rivers, 42 ; promoted to rank of colonel in British 
army, 42; becomes British subject, 42; divides government of Three Bivers 
into four districts, 43 ; Ms proclamations, 45 ; Ms relations with Murray, 49 ; 
with his nephew, 50 ; his land purchases, 60, 51 ; on Burton's return to Montreal, 
53 ; again at Three Rivers, 53 ; suppresses irregular trading with Indians, 54; 
difficulties of his position, 60 ; obtains leave of absence and visits England, 61 ; 
transferred to Florida, 63 ; unpleasant relations with Governor Johnstone, 65, 
73 ; improves conditions for the troops, 66-69 ; lays out gardens, 71 ; tries to 
promote agriculture among Indian tribes, 72 ; surveys Mobile River and Bay, 
77, 78 ; transferred to St. Augustine, 78 ; his farm of Mm Plaisir, 78 ; sent 
back to Pensacola, 80; his position pecuniarily burdensome, 82, 87; made 
major and placed in command at New York, 83; his attitude in relation to 
colonial trouble, 84, 85 ; visits relatives in Pennsylvania, 87 ; relations with 
Governor Tryon, 89 ; Ms views on employment of troops in Indian and civil 
disturbances, 89, 90, 92 ; foresees civil war, 98 ; summoned by Gage to Boston, 
102 ; his property in New York stolen or destroyed, 103 ; recalled to England, 
105 ; Ms reception there, 106 ; made inspector-general of forces in West Indies, 
and raised to rank of general in America and lieutenant-general in the army, 107 ; 
receives 3000 to cover past outlays, 107 ; appointed governor of Canada, in 
succession to Carleton, 113; visits Yverdun, 113, 116; his reception at Quebec, 
and at Montreal, 117, 119; receives news of a treaty between France, Spain, 
and the revolted colonies, 124 ; fortifies post on Carleton Island, 124 ; his dis- 
trust of French-Canadians, 127, 128 ; issues letters of marque, 130 ; improves 
mail service with England, 131 ; his report to Lord George Germaine, 132-143 ; 
his policy with the Indians, 147, 259 ; opens letter addressed by Guy Johnson 
to Germaine, 155; reprimanded, 156; his efforts to keep peace between rival 
officers, 157-159 ; proMbited trading by officials, 162 ; on the value of Indian 
allies, 164; negotiates with Washington for Henry Hamilton's release from 


169 ; Ms of in 170 ; the 

of 17(1 ; of Council, for sedition, 175 ; 

by 175; with Council, 176-178; prohibits 

177 j 170; his rules ^of conduct, 

17ft : two 181 ; strengthens fortifications of 

183; tci be at Coteau ciu Lac and Cascades, 185; 

to and to its institutions* 180; greatly mortified 

bj IE of dangei^ Carleton might be sent to 

188'; to his 189 ; concerned at sympathy of 

the French in the war, 190 ; takes census, 190 ; 
at 190; a certain censorship of press, 191; 

Ms 192 ; consents to remain in Canada till conclusion of peace, 

194 ; Ms attitude ia connection with the Vermont question, 200, 208, 

211, 212; off 217; his instructions regarding vaccination, 

230; fatherly 'care over his officers, 236; his opinion of Canadian 

245 ; his in to Washington, 250 ; receives Baron 

at 259; to surrender western forts, 260; assists the 

West Company, 261; his advice to home government respecting 
202 ; to of military settlement In eastern town- 

204 ; on of Loyalists, 265 ; the founder of Ontario, 271 ; 

lik unpopularity, 273; has to with treasonable intrigues, 273-282; 

IE his favour by French-Canadian authorities, 291, 292 ; the kindness 
of his disposition, 293-290 ; godfather to two of Baron Riedesel's children, 296, 
299 : his 299 ; his garden at Quebec, 299 ; Ms regard for the 

; Ms departure from Canada, 309 ; arrested at suit of Du 
310 ; bailed by Ms nephew, 311 ; receives Order of the Bath, 313, 322 ; 
to be general in America, 313 : his papers in the Archives in Ottawa, 
19 ; Dr. Brymner's opinion of, 320 ; his diary, 321 ; the king's high regard 
for Mm, 321, 322; the queen's, 322, 336; characteristics, 323-329; Ms opinion 
of Lord Amherst, 326 ; on friendly terms with Lord Sydney, 326 ; his hospitality 
to Canadians, 327 ; meets Sir Guy Carleton, in London, 330 ; his opinions of 
various persons, 332, 333 ; notes from his diary, 333-340 ; poor opinion of the 
French, 335 ; goes to Switzerland, 336 ; returns to London, 337; Ms death, 340 ; 
his will, 340-343 ; memorial tablet to, in Westminster Abbey, 346 ; his devotion 
to British interests, 347, Bk His able administration of the government of 
Canada, 37 ; first canals made under Ms orders, 48. Dr His valuable papers, 
7; news received of his appointment as governor, 183; Ms unwillingness to 
accept post, 183 ; arrival of, 189 ; exchange of prisoners made by, 207. E Con- 
structs St. Lawrence canals, 97. Bib. : Kingsford, History of Canada; Lucas, 
History of Canada; Bradley, The MaMng of Canada; Diet. Nat. Biog.; Haldi- 
mand Papers (Canadian Archives). 

Haldimand, Frederick. Hd Nephew of Sir Frederick Haldimand, 17 ; serves 
in Ms uncle's battalion, 49 ; runs into debt, 50 ; drowned, 61, 294 ; Haldimand's 
affection for, 62. 

Haldimand, Henry. Hd Nephew of Sir Frederick Haldimand, 311 ; Ms 
death, 312. 

Haldimand, Honnite Gaspard. Hd Grandfather of Sir Frederick Haldimand, 
2, 17, 72, 311. 

Haldimand, Jean Abra&am. Hd Younger brother of Sir Frederick Haldi- 
mand, 2, 17, 72, 88, 311. 
Haldimand, Jean-Lois. Hd Uncle of Sir Frederick Haldimand, 2, 4. 


Justine, Hb Sister of Sir Frederick Haldimand. 3 ; of, 33$. 

Louis. Hd Nephew of Sir Frederick Haldiimnd, KS; 
and reception in Boston, 109; promoted, 110, 294; hit debts, 312, 

Haldimand, Pierre, Hd Nephew of Sir Frederick in 

72 ; placed in of seigniory of Pabos, 73, 111 ; ranger 

of the wood*, 2111; of, 294. 

Htidimand, William. Hd Grand-nephew of Sir and 

of Bank of 343. 

Haldlmand Papers. Hd In Canadian Archives, 31, 320. 

Htlibnrtoa, Thomas Chandler (1796-1865). at Windsor, Nova 

Educated at the Grammar School mid at King's to the bar 

and practised for a time at Annapolis. the of 

in the Nova Scotia Legislature, and in 1829 appointed of the 

Court of Common Pleas. In 1841 to the Court. Re- 

signed in 1856, and removed to England, later^ 

Parliament as member for Launceston. Died at his home, Gordon on 

the Thames. Index : H Contributes to Nova Scotiam, 9 ; his of 

Scotia published by Joseph Howe, a financial failure, 10 ; friendship for Howe, 
10 ; sails for England with Howe, 267 ; Howe's poetical toast to, 267-288. Md 
Advocates Confederation, 06. Bib.: Works; An Historical 
Account of Nova Scotia; The Clockmaker, or The Sayings of 

Slick ofSlickvilk; Bubble of Canada; Reply to the Report of ike Earl of Durham; 
Letter-bag of the Greed Western, or Life in a Steamer; Attache', or Slick in 

England; Old Judge, or Life in a Colony; English in America; Trails of 
American Humour; Wise Saws and Modern Instances; Americans at Home; 
Nature and Human Nature; Address on the Present Condition, Resources, 
and Prospects of British North America; Season Ticket. Brief biographies are 
found in Diet. Nat. Biog*; Morgan, Bib. Can.; Allibone, Did. $ng. Lit; 
Calnek and Savery, History of the County of Annapolis; Chasles, mr 

LiUSrature des Anglo- Americains; Crofton, Haliburton: a Centenary Chaplet. 
See also last-mentioned volume for a bibliography of the various editions of 
his works and a list of articles, in books and magazines, on the man and his 
works ; also A. H. O'Brien's exhaustive bibliography, in R. S. C., Tram. f 1909. 

Halifax. A seaport, and the capital of Nova Scotia; founded in 1749 and 
named after the Earl of Halifax, then president of the Board of Trade. 
The first settlers were brought out from England in that year by Governor 
Comwaliis, in thirteen transports; following year made the capital of the 
province (then including New Brunswick), instead of Annapolis; in 1842 
incorporated as a city; became, with its fortifications, observatory stations, 
harbour mines, etc., one of the fortresses of the Empire and the chief British 
naval station in North America; garrisoned by Imperial troops until 1905, when 
they were withdrawn and replaced by a Canadian garrison. Index : H Birth- 
place of Joseph Howe, 1 ; the North- West Arm, 1 ; Melville Island, 5 ; news- 
papers (see Chronicle; Acadian; Nova Scotian); municipal government in, in 
1835, 20 ; Howe's trial for libelling magistrates of the city, 21, 29 ; represented 
by Howe and Annand, 1836, 29 ; bill for incorporation of, 69 ; Howe re-elected 
for, 73 ; James MacNab elected for, 106 ; railway communication with Wind- 
sor, 118. Bib.: MacMechan, Halifax^ in Books, a collection of pen-pictures 
of Halifax and its people by many writers from Edmund Burke to Rudyard 
Kipling, and including Marsden, Narrative; Tom Moore, Letters; McGregor, 
Maritime Colonies of British America; Moorsom, Letters from Nova Scotia; 

162 THE OF 

AV/ir*; 0n AteA America; 

On the Off; A'om 

B. #/ (Nova Soc, Tram, vol. 3) ; Mackay, 

D/ cjf in CatMtfa: An Ency., vol. 5; Regan, 

o/ Ilk .VortA'-BYtff JTO; the uf 

1 by 

The of provided for a commission, 

to the due by the United States for the use of her 

in 1S77 the United E, II. Kellogg, Canada appointed 

Sir Gait, two M. Delfosse, Belgian minister 

to as a third. The commission met at Halifax, and after long 

Canada should be paid $5,500,000, the Ameri- 
can The award was paid, after some delay. See 
Treaty of. Bib, : of the Proceedings of the Halifax Fisheries 

HtlL George D. Sy Appointed military secretary and aide-de-camp. 


Sir Breaton (1773-1860). H Chief-justice, of Nova Scotia, pre- 

at of Howe for libel, 24 ; contest for his office, 168 ; Ms son 

of insulting references to the father, 236. 

Bib,: Hill, of Sir HaRiburton; Campbell, History of Nma 

HaUiborton, John Croke (1806-1884). Eldest son of Sir Brenton Halliburton, 

of Hova Scotia. Called to the bar^ 1829 ; appointed deputy-clerk 
of the Council, 1830, and clerk, 1838. In early life challenged Joseph 

to ft duel, but neither of the duelists injured. Index: H Challenges 
Howe, 236; the duel, 236-244. 

Haly, Sir William O T Grady (1811-1878). Entered the army, 1828. Served 
with distinction in the Crimea and In India. Created K. C. B., 1855. Appointed 
commander-ia-chlcf of the forces in British North America, 1873. Acted as 
administrator of the government of Canada during the absence of Lord Duff erin, 
1875. Attained the rank of general, 1877. Died in Halifax. 

Hamilton. City of Ontario, on Burlington Bay, west end of Lake Ontario. 
Laid out and settled, 1813, by George Hamilton, from whom it takes its name, 
Index : BL Early municipal government of, 298, 300. Bib. : Lovell, Gazetteer. 

Hamilton, Alexander (1757-1804). American statesman. Index: Dr Anx- 
ious to keep on good terms with Britain, 286 ; Talleyrand's opinion of, 287. 
Bib. : Hamilton, Life of Alexander Hamilton. For further biog., and bibliog. 
of works by ana of him, see Cyc. Am. Biog. and Lit. Am. Hist. 

Hamilton, John (1801-1882). Born in Queenston, Ontario. Removed to 
Kingston, 1840, Throughout Ms life largely interested in inland navigation, 
and the first to introduce iron vessels on Canadian waters. Sat in the 
legislative Council of Upper Canada, 1831-1841 ; in the Legislative Council of 
Canada, 1841-1867; and in the Senate from 1867 until his death. On the com- 
pletion of his fiftieth year of continuous service in the Upper Chamber, presented 
with an address of congratulation by his fellow-senators. 

Hamilton, Henry. Lieutenant-governor of Detroit during Revolutionary 
War; captured at Vincenaes, 1779, and imprisoned. Retired from the army, 
1783; lieutenant-governor of Quebec, 1784-1785; governor of Bermuda, 1790- 
1794. Died in Antigua, 1796. Index: Hd Governor of Detroit, occupies 


on 167; and by 

of 314. Died, 1796. Bib.: C J p 

Bi0f.; Shortt Doughty, o/ 

Paul (1782-1816), Bk United of the 173. 

Bib,: Cye. 1m. Biog. 

Hamilton, Pierce SteYeas (1826*1893). Studied law, and to the 

bar, 1851. Entered journalism, Mid 1S53-186L 

of for Nova An 

of Confederation. Index: B Advocates Confederation, 129. WT His 
on of the colonies, 207-208. Bib.: Works: cf the &f 

North of Ste. 

Hamilton, Robert. S Member of Council, 79 ; by 

of " republicanism/* 97 ; visits England advice 

matters in Upper Canada, 103 ; his house at Quee&stpn, 179 ; Prince 

Edward, 184 ; appointed lieutenant of county of Lincoln, 198. 

Hammoncli George (1763-1853). S British minister at con- 

sulted by Simcoe on the situation, 134, 144. Bib, : Did. Nat. Biog* 

Hampton, Sir John Somerset Pakington, first Baron (1799-1880). Sal for 
Droitwieh in British Parliament, 1837-1874 ; secretary for war and colonies^ 
1352 ; first lord of Admiralty, 1858 and 1866 ; secretary for war, 1867-1868, 
Index : E Opposes the secularization of Clergy Reserves, 165, 166, 167. B And 
the Clergy Reserves, 59. Bib, ; Did. Nat. Biog. 

Hancock. Bk Private of 41st, first man killed in War of 1812, 236. 

Hancock's House. S Skirmish at, 24. 

Handy, Henry S. Me Commander of " patriot " army, 427 ; quarrels with 
"General " Sutherland, 427; occupies Sugar Island, 428; put to flight, 428; 
forms new plot to revolutionize Canada, 437 ; its extent, 438 ; failure of, 439. 
Bib.: Dent, Upper Canadian Rebellion. 

Hanlngton, Daniel (1804-1889). Sat for over half a century in one or otber 
of the branches of the New Brunswick Legislature, Elected to Assembly ? 1834, 
for Westmoreland, which he represented up to 1862. A member of the Execu- 
tive Council under Sir Edmund Head ; Speaker of the Assembly for eeveml 
years; appointed to the Legislative Council, 1867, and president of that 
body, 1883-1886. Bib.: Morgan, Can. MOT; Hannay, History of New Brunswick. 

Hanington, Daniel Lionel (1835-1909). Bom at Shediae, New Brunswick. 
Called to the bar, 1861; in 1870 entered the New Brunswick Assembly, 
representing Westmoreland until 1874; and reflected, 1878; member of the 
Executive Council, 1878; premier of the province, 1882; resigned, 1883. ^ In 
1892 appointed a puisne judge of the Supreme Court of New Brunswick. 
Index : WT Elected Speaker of New Brunswick Assembly, 172. Bib.: Hannay, 
History of New Brunswick. 

Hanks, Captain. Bk Surrenders Michilimackinao, 211 ; killed at Detroit, 255. 

Hanna, James. D Voyage of 1785, 22 ; on enormous profits % of sea-otter 
trade, 22. 

Hanna, Michael (1821-1882). Born in Ireland. Came to Canada, 1839, and 
completed his studies at St. Mary's College. Ordained to the priesthood, 1845. 
Held various charges in Nova Scotia. Subsequently became vicar-general of 
the diocese of Halifax and archbishop, 1877. Died in Halifax. 

Harding, James A. WT Returned for St. John, 167, 172, 185. 

Hardy, Arthur Sttirgis (1837-1899). Born at Mount Pleasant, Ontario. 
Studied law, and called to the bar of Upper Canada, 1865 ; practised Ms profes- 

lf>4 THE OF 

son at ; Q, C., 1876. to the 1S73 ; pro- 

vincial 1,877 ; of 1889 ; premier, 1808. Bib. ; 

Men; KirOlmr 

0! the Bay Company. Index: MS 

In of 226 ; with Rev. Wm. Cochraae, 227 ; 

ami 1844, 227 ; Simpson's letters to, 261- 

282. Bib. : /fa?/ 

Start*;, it. L of ecclesiastical jurisdiction over 

133 ; to the gee of Paris, 134 ; to bring diocese of Quebec 

his 184. 

Stannoay in Vermont. Entered service of North 

Company, 1800, at Montreal, and left immediately for the western fur 
to the east in LS10, bringing with him his Journals, cover- 
ing this edited by Daniel llaskel, of Burlington, Vt., and 
at that place in 1820; reprinted in New York, with a brief Intro- 
1903. Returned to the West, and remained there several years, finally 
his native wife and family era the shores of Lake Champlain. One 
of hk conducted a private school in Ottawa for many years. Index : 
D Stuart's lieutenant in New Caledonia, 98. Bib. : Journal of Voyages and 
in the of North For biog., see Bryce, Hudson's Bay 
liut, of Oe Qreat NorthrWest; Burpee, Search for the Westr 


Har0 f Gonzalez Lopez de. D Finds Russian establishments, 38. Bib.: 

Harrison, Robert Alexander (1833-1878). Studied law, and appointed to 
crown kw department of Upper Canada, 1854. Retired, 1859, and practised 
In Toronto. Member for Toronto in first Dominion Parliament, 1867-1872. 
Chief-justice of the Court of Queen's Bench, Ontario, 1875-1878. One of the 
arbitrators in Ontario boundary dispute, 1878. Author of many legal works ; 
and edited Poker, a humorous paper, 1859-1860. Index: B His connection 
with the contempt of court suit against George Brown, 249-254. Md Chief- 
justice, serves on Ontario Boundary Commission, 255. Bib. : Dent, Can. For.; 
Read, of the Judges. 

Harrison, Samuel Bealey. Sy Provincial secretary for Upper Canada, 283 ; 
hk resolutions on responsible government, 310, 311. BL Provincial secretary 
for Upper Canada, 1841, 76 ; a moderate Liberal, 78 1 Baldwin's confidence in, 
78 ; retains office under La Fontaines-Baldwin administration, 134 ; Constitu- 
tional Society of Orillia recommends his dismissal, 167 ; member for Kingston 
opposes transfer of capital to Montreal, and resigns as provincial secretary, 182; 
Gowan predicts his dismissal from office, 187. Me Moves resolution for re- 
sponsible government, which carries, 408. Bib. : Dent, Last Forty Years. 

Harrison, T. T. J. Me His account of the HaJdimand election, 487. 

Harrison, William Henry (1773-1841). Ninth president of the United States. 
Index: Bk United States general, Ms Tippecanoe exploit, 174r-176. Bib.: 
Cyc, Am. Bwg. 

Harvey, Sir John (1778-1852). Entered the British army, and saw active 
service in Holland, France, at the Cape of Good Hope, Ceylon, India, and 
Egypt. In 1812 deputy adjutant-general of the army in Canada, and defeated 
the American generals Chandler and Winder at Stoney Creek. Took part in 
the battles of Lundy's Lane, Fort Erie, and Chrystler's Farm, In 1815 aide- 
de-camp to the Duke of Wellington, and fought at Waterloo. In 1837-1841 

AND 1C5 

governor of New Bnuirfwick ; of 

1841-1846; and governor of Nova Sootia, 1<S4(MS52. at 

ladex: Mi Governor of Nova Scotia, Grey's dispatch on mponjibk gov- 
ernment, 33; text of the despatch, 47-50. *BL Grey's* d^pateh tt\ on 
government^ la Nova Scotia, 261K272. H Apj>ointwl lieutenant- 
governor of ^Nova Scotia, 103; his broad views on responsible s^rwnmieiit, 
112-113; his correspondence with Earl Grey as to Intercolonial 
Railway, 124 ; Ms 143. WT Sir &? 
tenant-governor, 47 ; to Civil List Bill, 47 ; on of 
57, 113; hia connection with the War, 135. Bib.: Cd. 
Can.; Lucas, War of ISIS; Hannay, of JVer 
Campbell, Hwiory of iot Scotia; of 

Hatfaeway ? George L. WT Chief commissioner of the of Works, 

Brunswick, 228; deserts the government and as in 

York, 228; deserts Anti-Confederates, in 250. 

Haultain, Frederick William Gordon (1857- }. In Woolwich, 

land. Educated at Montreal High School, Peterborough Collegiate 
and the University of Toronto, Called to the bar of Ontario, 1882 ; to 

the North-West Territories and settled at Fort McLcod, 1884. to the 

North-West Council, 1SS7, and to the first Territorial Assembly, 18S8. 
of the Advisory Council, 1888 ; Territorial premier, 1897 ; held the 

formation of the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, 1905. Bib. : Begg, 
History of the North-Wcxt; Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who. 

HavIIand, T. H. (1822-1895). Born at Charlottctown, Prince Edward 
Studied law and called to the bar of Prince Edward Island, 1846 ; elected to the 
Assembly for Georgetown the same year; member of the Legislative Council, 
1870 ; colonial secretary in the provincial government, 1859-1862, 1866-1867, 
1870-1872 ; solicitor-general, 1865 ; Speaker of the Assembly, 1863-1864 ; pro- 
vincial secretary, 1878-1876 ; called to the Senate, 1873 ; lieutenant-governor of 
Prince Edward Island, 1879, Index : WT Delegate from Prince Edward Island 
to Quebec Conference, 219. Bib.: Dent, Can. For. 

Hawke, B His evidence on land grants in Upper Canada, 53-54. 

Hay, Charles. Ed Imprisoned on charge of treason, 279. 

Hay, Jehu. Hd Lieutenant-governor of Detroit, 15&, 

Hay, Robert. Me Generosity of, 505. 

Hayes Route. The main route of the fur traders, from Hudson Bay to Lake 
Winnipeg and the interior. It was adopted at a very early date, the more 
obvious route by way of Nelson Eiver having proved impracticable. The Hayes 
route runs up Hayes River to Oxford Lake, and thence by a series of small lakes 
and rivers over the height of land and down the Eehmmmish River to Little 
Playgreen Lake, and Lake Winnipeg, York Factory stands at the Hudson 
Bay end of the route, and Norway House at the entrance to Lake Winnipeg. 

Hazen. John Douglas (I860- ), Born in Orpmocto, New Brunswick. 
Educated at the University of New Brunswick ; studied law and called to the 
bar of New Brunswick, 1883. Alderman of Fredericton and mayor for two 
years. Elected to the House of Commons for St. John City and County, 1891 ; 
but defeated, 1896. Elected to the New Brunswick Assembly for Sunbury, 1899 ; 
chosen leader of the opposition in the Assembly; premier and attorney-general, 
1908, Bib. : Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who. 

Hazen, Moses. Dr Brings news of Arnold's attack on St. Johns, 34. Hd 
A rebel spy, 130; mentioned by Haldkaand in despatch, 132-133. 

166 OP 

in St. New 

law and to the bar, IS12 ; Rtt fur St. In New 

la LS4S-I8II7; of Executive 

and 183&-1857 ; called^ to the Sea- 

ale, 1867; of of New Brunswick, 1846-1874. la- 

da* ; WT 0a government, ; appointed to Executive Council, 

72; 76; referred to in vVilmot's ^peedi. 104, 105, 106, 

lft t 100, 1 if ; of ministry, 183. Bib. : Pad. Cmtp. y 1873 ; 


In of the Plains, 257. 

Sir (1805-lSfiS). Fellow of Merton College, Oxford, 

; of New Brunswick, 1847 ; governor-general of 

a civil service commissioner and 

of the Hudson's Bay Company. Index: Md Calls upon 
to ministry, 80; Bytown (Ottawa) as capital, 85* B 

as governor-general, Dec, 19, 1854, 203 ; Elgin's opinion of, 
230. B Sends for George Brown to form ministry rela- 
tions 101-105, 108. R report on separate school question from 
234. WT Oa of judges in New Brunswick, 129, 
130; and Wilmot, 131; judicial appointments, 173; and Confederation ques- 
tion, 205. Bib.: Morgan, Cd. Can.; Dent, Con. For. and Last Forty m Years; 
JVot Biog.; Pope, o/ Sir JoM 4. Mackenzie, Hon. 

. __ Y 

Head, Sir Francis Bond (1793-1875). Served in Royal engineers, at Waterloo ; 
in South America, 1825-1828 ; appointed lieutenant-governor of Upper 
1835-1837; privy councillor, 1867, Index: Me Governor of 

Upper Canada, his position on responsible government^ 22; Durham 

he purposely invited rebellion, 23 ; his instructions on taking office, 263 ; 
public a confidential despatch, 280; arrives in Canada, 291 ; Ms appoint- 
ment, 201 ; his position, 293 ; appoints three executive councillors, 294 ; 
Council resigns, 294; Ms views of responsibility, 295; censured by committee 
of the House, 296 ; House adopts the report, 297 ; refuses supplies, 297 ; he re- 
plies to address of deputation, 298; deputation's reply, 300 ; appoints four new 
councillors, 300 ; schooled by Lord Glenelg, 301 ; joins Family Compact, 302 ; 
dissolves the House, 303 ; refuses assent to money bills, 303 ; interferes in elec- 
tions, 304 ; insults Glenelg, 304 ; denounces Robert Baldwin, 305 ; quarrels 
with imperial commission of inquiry, 305 ; refuses to obey Lord Glenelg, 307 ; 
W. J. Rattray on, 307; Ms success in the elections, 308; unscrupulous influ- 
ence in, 309 ; Lord Durham on, 309 ; some of his addresses, 313 ; charged with 
undue influence in, 313 ; sustained by partisan House, 314 ; refuses offer of 
troops, 353 ; invites revolt, 354, 355 ; prepares to escape, 364 ; sends flag of 
trace, 368; offers reward for Mackenzie's apprehension, 380; orders burning 
of property, 381 ; seeks Mackenzie's extradition, 415. Sy Recall of, 109. ^BL 
Comes as governor, 16, 32 ; his appointment, 35 ; Ms character, 36 ; Ms arrival 
in Toronto, 37 : relations with the Reformers, 37 ; appoints Baldwin, Rolph, 
and Dunn to the Council, 38: their resignation, 41; quarrels with Reform 
party, 41-42 ; dissolves Assembly and throws his influence on Tory side in the 
elections, 41-42; wins the election, 42; his Tory Parliament, 62; attitude 
towards colonial self-government, 64; Draper a member of Ms Council, 77; 
compared to Bagot, 151. R His instructions, 112; Ms conciliatory promises 
not fulfilled, 113; end of Ms administration, 114; advances funds to Upper 

AND 167 

142-143. E An as 1 ; ami the 

Upper Canada Rebellion, 22. Bib,: Works: Narrative; The 

in the and Life of ike of 

For blog.j see Morgan, Cel. Can.; Diet Nat. Bwg.; 
of and of 1837; Per. 

W; Fitz Gibbon, 1 of IS! 3; 

Sir John Ryerson, Story of my Life; and Grant, 

Durham, to 

Sfr F. 5. London, 1839. 

Heame, Samuel (1745-1702), Came to Fort Prince of 

Bay Company's Prince Under the 

pany, and two attempts, set forth in 1770, on his 

memorable journey to the mouth of the Coppemiffie RiYer, he 

in July of the following year. Returning by of Great 

arrived at Fort Prince of Wales in June, 1772. Two to tie 

Saskatchewan, where he built Cumberland House, On his return in I775 ? 
appointed governor of Fort Prince of Wales, and still in the 

fort was captured by La Perouse in 1782. Brief accounts of his journey pub- 
lished after his return from the Coppermine,, aad of Ms 
severely criticized by Alexander Dalrymple. The complete account of the 
expedition did not appear until three years after his death. Index: MS 
Sent inland by Hudson's Bay Company, 3 ; discovers Coppermine River and 
Great Slave Lake, 3, 31 ; builds Cumberland House, 4 ; magnitude of his ex- 
plorations. 31 ; Ms guide Matonabee, 32. B His expedition to Coppermine 
Eiver made on behalf of Hudson's Bay Company, 51 ; Ms discoveries known to 
Alexander Mackenzie, 53. Bib.: Works: Journey from Prince of Wales Fort in 
Hudson's Bay to the Northern Ocean, etc., 1769-1772 (Loud, 1795). New 
ed. ? edited by J. B. Tyrrell, Champlain Soc., 1910 ; French trans, by M, Lalle- 
mant in 2 vols. (Paris, 1799). Also, abridged in Mayor's collection of Voyages, 
xxiv, 1-46. Brief accounts of Heame and Ms explorations will be found in Bryce, 
Hudson's Bay Company; Wilton, Great Company; Laut, Pothjindm of ffm 
West and Conquest of the Great North-Wetat; Burpee, Search for the Western Sea. 

Heath, General William (1737-1814). Dr Commissioner on American side 
for exchange of prisoners, 208. Bib. : Cyc, Am. Biog. 

HeatMeld 7 George Augustus Eliott, first Baron (1717-1790). Defender of 
Gibraltar. Index: Hd His marriage, 316. Bib.: Diet Nat. Bwg. 

Heavysege, Charles (1816-1876). Bom in Liverpool, England Came to 
Canada, 1853. Settled in Montreal, and engaged in Ms trade of cabinet-making. 
Afterwards connected with the staff of the Witness. Author of a number of 
dramas, the most remarkable of which was Said. Bib. : For his works, see 
James, Bibliography of Canadian Poetry. For biog., see Burpee, Charles Hecmy- 
sege (E. S. C., 1901); Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog.; MacMurchy, Canadian Literatwre. 

Hibert, Anne. Eldest daughter of Louis H6bert, Quebec ; ^married to Stephen 
Jonquest in the autumn of 1617, Father Le Caron officiating. This was the 
first marriage in New France. Index : Ch Her marriage, 113 ; her death, 117. 

Hubert, Guillaume. Ch Son of Louis, 146. 

Hubert, Louis. Came from Paris to Acadia, 1604 ; mentioned there in 1610, 
and again in 1613-1614. Returned to France, and in 1617 came to Quebec, 
becoming the first permanent settler in New France. Died 1627. Index : F 
First re^ilar settler at Quebec, 16. Ch Consents to accompany Champlain to 
Canada, 111, 112; a valuable member of the colony y 112; signs complaint of 

168 OF 

the 136; his 146; life, 147; of, 148; a 

of 250; fief of au Matelot, 251. Bib.: Colby, 

Ofii OW in the New World, 

H6bert f Cb Wife of Guiibum? Couillard, 146. 

H6bert, Ci in her on restoration of Quebec* 


Hecct*, Bruno. expedition to North-West Coast, 1775. 

Index: B of Columbia, 14, 15, Bib.: Bancroft, History of 


J0ta In England, 1832. Studied medicine and 

a of the Royal ( of Surgeons, London, 1S4S. Appointed 

at Vancouver Inland "by Hudson's Bay Company; first magistrate ap- 
pointed in the colony. As magistrate stationed at Fort Rupert, where the 
very unruly. In 1856 elected for Esquimalt district to the first 
of the colony ; took a very active part in its deliberations ; and be- 
Mwnbor of Executive Council, 1864-1871. Opposed 'Confedera- 
tion In 1870. Bent to Ottawa the same year as one of the delegates to negotiate 
0! union- Index : D Speaker of first Legislature of Vancouver Island, 210, 
Bib.: Can. Men; History of British Columbia, 

Headers0a f Captain. Dr With crews of two war vessels assists In defence of 


Henderson. WM Private of grenadiers, helps to cany Wolfe off the field, 200. 
Hennefia, Louis. Bora la Ath, Belpum, about 1640. Entered order of 
for Quebec, 1675. Stationed at Fort Fronteaae, 1676. Ac- 
La Salle to the West. 1678. From Fort Cr&vecceur (Peoria, 111.), 
i& 1680, the Illinois and explored the upper waters of the Mississippi. 

Captured by the Sioux aad carried to their country. After eight months, 
by Du Lhut (#.0.), passed the winter at Michillmackinac, and returned 
to Quebec, Ift82. Apparently satisfied with his adventures in the wilderness, 
returned to Europe, and settled in Holland, where devoted himself to the 
preparation of a scries of narratives of his explorations, real and imaginary. 
'Died there about 1706. Bib. ; Works: Description de la Louisiane, etc.; Nouvdle 
Dfcpwerte, etc.; Nouveau Voyage, etc. For biog,, and bibliog. details of Hen- 
nepin's works, see Thwaites's edition of the New Discovery, 1903. See also Park- 
man, La Satte. 

Henri Ch Servant of Madame Hubert, murdered by Montagnais Indian, 164. 
Henrietta of France, Queen of England. Cfc Dowry of, 216. 
Henry IV, King of France (1553-1610). Succeeded Henry III in 1589. 
Index; F Assassination of, IL Ch Assassinated, 64. Bib.: Chambers, Biog. 

Henry, Alexander, the Elder (1739-1824). One of the pioneer fur traders 
in north-western America. Born in New Jersey. Entered the fur trade as a 
young man, 1760, or perhaps earlier. His Travels and Adventures open in that 
year and describe his experiences in the West for the following sixteen years. 
Sailed for Europe in 1776, where he made the acquaintance of Sir Joseph 
Banks, president of the Royal Society, and had an opportunity of describing 
Ms adventures to Marie Antoinette. Afterwards settled in Montreal as a 
merchant. Index : MS Leaves Montreal for western fur country, 3. Bib. : 
TrweU and Adventures in Canada and the Indian Territories, New York. 1809 ; 
new ed. y with biog. and other notes, by James Bain, Toronto, 1901. oee also 
Burpee, Search for the Western Sea. 

AND 169 

Henry, Alexander, the Younger, Nqjhcw of 
of North West Company about 1792, Iiis Journal, tlu* of 

is ia the Library of Parliament, at Ottawa, and which was piihliAcil la 
1S97, with introduction and notes, by Elliott Coues, an 

of Ms western travels aad experiences, 1701) to 1814. Drowned 

Fort George, at the of the Columbia, 22, 1S14. : Works ; .Ycif 

o lie Early of the NvrthrWe&t; The of 

Thompson, ed. by Elliott Coues, New York, 1807. 

See aim Burpee, the &a ; Bryce, 

Henry, John. Bfc His to the New 121) ; ua*e 

of Ms letters, 120 ; referred to in of to 186, 1S7 ; 

Ms letters to United government, 187. Bib. : Cf/c, Am. 

Henry, Patrick (1736-1790). American Index; Dr His 

eal exaggerations, 197. Bib. : Cyc. Am,. Biog. 

Henry, William Alexander (1316-1888). H Solicitor-general, Nova Scotia 
becomes provincial secretary, 1856, 157 ; from government, 164 ; 

gate to Charlottetown Conference, 177. WT Delegate' from Nova to 

Charlottetown Conference, 215; and to Quebec Conference, 218. Bib.: Camp- 
bell, History of Nova Scotia, 

Herald. Newspaper published at Montreal. Established, 1808, Index : BL 
On debate on responsible government in Legislature, 1841, 94-95. 

Herald. Newspaper published at Toronto. Index ; BL Account of ia 

Parliament, 1842, 126-127. 

Herbin. WM Commands the Montreal militia with Prad'homme, 105. 

Heriot, George (1766-1844). Born in Isknd of Jersey. Came to Canada,, 
and appointed a clerk in the ordinance department at Quebec, 1790 ; deputy 
postmaster-general of British North America, 1800 ; and afterwards postmaster- 
general. Served in the War of 1812; second in command under Be Salaberry 
at Chateauguay ; major-general, 1841. Bib. ; Works : History of Canada; 
thrmigh the Canada. For biog., see Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Hermione. Bk British war vessel, mutiny of crew> 11. 

Hermitage, at Cain. L Laval passes three years at, 25. 

Hersault, Mme. See Camaret f Marie. 

Hertel T Francois. *F Commands Three Rivers war party, 235 ; his old age* 
235 ; leader in massacre of Salmon Falls, 251 ; joins De Portneuf in attack oa 
Fort Loyal, 251. Bib. : Parkman, Frontmac. 

Hertel, Jacques. Ch Interpreter, 144 ; arrives from France in 1613, 144 

Hertel de IRouviUe. Dr Appointed judge, 183. 

Hervey William (1732-1815). British soldier. Spent the eight years 1755- 
1763 in North America. Bib.: Journals of the Hon. William H^ney in North 
America and Europe from 1765 to 1814, with Order Books at Montreal, 1780-1763. 

Hessians. Hd Established near Cataraqui, 265. Dr Applications from, for 
land grants, 218. 

Hey, William. An English lawyer ; succeeded William Gregory as chief justice 
of Quebec, 1766. Went to England, 1773, in connection with the Quebec Act, 
and did not return to Canada until 1775. Left Canada finally the same year, 
having been elected to the British House of Commons for Sandwich, in 1774. 
Vacated his seat in 1776, and appointed a commissioner of customs. Died, 
1797. Index: Dr Chief- justice, not favourable to Walker, 37, 39; called as 
witness in connection with the Quebec Act, 63 ; evidence of, before House of 
Commons, 68 ; makes strong appeal to British at Montreal, 88. Bib. : Morgan, 

170 THE Of 

CU. Con; and 


i?| , , 

Sit at Otterburn, After 

oa railways, to Canada f 1802 ? 

as of the Trunk, Subsequently promoted to the office 

of of the ; 1874. Between that year and 

he in the Grand Trunk to the first rank 

^ r 

to Sir Charles Metcalfe. Index : BL 
Ills La Fontaine discusses constitutional government, 172- 

173, 174, 175, 176. 

WM In of Ste. Foy, 259, 260. 

G. S. WT Member for Charlotte, in New Brunswick Assembly, nomi- 
nates Wilmot for 66, 

P. C, H Member of first Nova Scotia government after Confederation, 


Sir Fraacis (1307-1885), E Appointed inspector-general by Sir 

31 ; oft Metcalfe, 38 ; returned in elections of 1848, 50 ; becomes 

in La Fontaine-Baldwin ministry, 53 ; Ryerson's letter to, 90 ; 

his for discreet, practical statesmanship, 93 ; Ms influence on railway 

construction, 99, 100 ; controversy with Howe, 101 ; Ms character and in- 

107 : ministry, 107-108 ; makes concessions to leaders of Clear 

Grits, 112; inspector-general in Hincks-Morin ministry, 113; Brown's attitude 
to, 114; and the Grand Trunk, 115; and the Clergy Reserves, 119; attacked 
byGorncau, 123; bitterly attacked by Brown, 125; reorganizes government, 
125-126; Ms government defeated, 127; relations with John Sandfield Mac- 

I2S ; on the appeal to the country in 1854, 133 ; result of the elections, 
13&-134 ; elected in two constituencies! 134 ; and the speakership in 1854, 135- 
130; resignation of ministry, 136; leader of the Liberals, 138; supports Mac- 
Nat>-Morin Liberal-Conservative government 140 y 141; visits London, 1852, 
156; his views on Clergy Reserves, 163, 165, 166, 196; appointed governor of 
Barbados, 220 ; becomes governor of British Guiana, 220, 222 ; made Com- 
mander of the Bath, 222; his retirement from Imperial service, 1869, 222; 
receives knighthood, 222 ; returns to Canada, and becomes finance minister 
in Sir John Maedonald's ministry, 223 ; his final retirement from public life, 223 ; 
his character and his closing years, 223-224 ; writes his Reminiscences, 224 ; 
his death at Montreal, 1885, 224, Sy Publisher of Examiner, advocate of re- 
sponsible government, 107 ; supports union of provinces as leading thereto, 212 ; 
his attitude on Clergy Reserves question, 247 ; supports useful legislation in- 
troduced by Sydenham, 296 ; finds Lower Canada Conservatives much more 
liberal than the " Liberals/* 297; disapproves Baldwin's action, 298; a man of 
more political wisdom than Baldwin, 299 ; supports Local Government Bill, 323 ; 
partially adopts, as finance minister of the Dominion, Sydenham's idea of bank 
of issue, 330 ; Sydenham's high opinion of his financial abilities, 333 ; made 
inspector-general by Sir Charles Bagot, 333. B On Metcalfe's policy, 18-49 ; 
opposed by George Brown Brown's letters to, 48-49, 54r-55; protests against 
attitude of Derby government in England on Clergy Reserves, 59 ; his action in 
legislature, 59 ; and the University of Toronto Bill, 63 ; Brown acknowledges 
his services for responsible government, 67; warns George Brown that the 
logical conclusion, of his course in Parliament was dissolution of the union, 70 ; 

AND 171 

his in 77 ; Ms 

77 ; Ma by M ; 

and the for gpveniment, 261 ; Ms and 262. 

BL Baldwin, 32 ; in Cork, Dec. 14, to 

1830,32; early years, 32 ; Ms 34 ; 

34; for Baldwin, 34; 34-35; on Head's ap- 

pointment, 36; secret ary of Constitutional Society, 42; EG 

in of 1837, 44; the 5S; 58; 

La Fontaine and Morin in Lower Canada, 63 ; ana 

with them, 63 ; for Oxford* 89 ; his to the 

69 ; ^his attitude in the of 1841, 85; for 

Cavillier for speakersfaip government to a vote, 87 ; 

meat for a statement of policy on question of 91 ; 

ports Neilson's motion Union Act, 96: his -7; 

government 7 s policy as to public works, 98-99 ; 

Bill, 102-103; with desertion of Ms party, 102; 103; 

explains Ms position in the Examiner, 104; votes for Municipal Bill, 105 ; 

him inspector-general, 118-119; to Ms 119-120; 

his appointment criticized, 120, 121, 130; moves of 131- 

132; ^ remains m office in La Fontaine-Baldwin government^ 133, 134; Coa- 
stitutional Society of Oriilia recommends Ms dismissal, 167 ; "on La Fontaine, 
170 ; takes charge of fiscal and commercial legislation in the Assembly, 178-179 ; 
contemporary account of him, 178-180; Gowan predicts Ms 187; 

burnt in effigy at Toronto, 187 ; Ma measure for protection of agriculture 
competition of United States, 189 ; supports Baldwin, 214 ; severe Ms connection 
with Examiner , 1842 returns to newspaper work edits Times, Montreal 
establishes Pilot, 217-218; challenged to duel, 218; Ms letters to London 
Morning Chrmick, 218, 219, 220; exposes Wakefidd's falkcies, 219-220; re- 
ferred to by George Brown, 224; on Metcalfe, 230; in political controversy, 
1844, 238 ; beaten in Oxford, 253 ; remains out of Parliament until 1848, 253 ; 
protests against election of Ms opponent, 263; on "double majority," 269; 
Draper's plan discussed, 261, 262 ; on Elgin, 275-276 ; elected for Oxford during 
his absence in Ireland, 279 ; inspector-general, 1848, 284 ; charged with com- 
mercial and economic measures in the Legislature, 301 ; Ms transportation policy, 
301-302 ; advocates reciprocity, 302 ; Customs Act, 302 ; defends Rebellion Losses 
Bin, 317-318; requests Elgin to assent to Tariff Bill, 321 ; Ms house attacked 
by mob, 324 ; Ms letter to the Times, 327-330 ; strengthens Canada's credit in 
London market, 331 ; his letters to Daily Mail, 332 ; reconstructs the Reform 
government, 335 ; on the Reform party, 336 ; his letters and views on the Clergy 
Reserves, 347-348 ; Ms later career in Canada, Barbados, and Guiana, 35S-359 ; 
Ms death, Aug. 18, 1885, 359 ; his Reminiscences, 359. H Confers with New 
Brunswick and Nova Scotia representatives on Intercolonial Railway, 142 ; goes 
to England to consult Imperial government, 142 ; quarrels with Sir John Paek- 
in^ton, 143 ; arranges for construction of Grand Trunk Railway, 143 ; represents 
British North America at railway celebration, Boston, 1851, 250. R Forms op- 
position party with Baldwin, La Fontaine, and others, 122 ; his University Bill, 
159-161 ; Ms opinion of the Roman Catholic School Bill, 222 ; and separate 
schools, 224. C Urges Carder to enter Cabinet, 22. Me On Welland canal, 
265 ; befriends Mackenzie, 481 ; publishes Examiner, 483 ; his Reminiscences, 
483; Ms estimate of Mackenzie, 484; becomes prime minister, 487. Md 
Forms ministry with Morin, 1851, 47; finance minister succeeds Rose, 136; 

172 THE OP 

MB In 1872, 17; on Ontario 

255. WT Ce,i to on Intercolonial mission, 16S f 

W6 ; of 272 ; 275. Bib. : Works : Can- 

of Cwifi 

; of 

Ms Life. For v Davin, The Irixhtntm in Canada; Dent, Ca. 

JP<w. and Liwl Fear*; Taylor, Jlnl ,-lw.; Ho*s Cyc. Can. Biag.; Did. 

(f Sir A. 

Youla. in Nottingham, England, 1823. Travelled in 

to 1847, and appointed lecturer in chemistry and 

at the Toronto Normal School, Toronto. Five years later 

of and in Trinity College. Geologist to the 

Red River expedition, 1857; and had charge of the expedition of 

to the country Red River and the Saskatchewan. In 

out aa of a portion of Labrador peninsula. In 1854 

his at Trinity, and undertook a preliminary geological survey 

of New ; and in subsequent years carried out similar work for the 

of Nova Scotia. In 1876 engaged by the Newfoundland gov- 

ernment to report on northern cod banks, but abandoned this work to assist 

tie in preparing their case for the Halifax Fisheries 

: R On staff of Toronto Normal School, 174. Bib. : Works : 

of ihe Red Exploring Expedition of 1857, and the 

and of 1858; Sketch of the Overland ^ Route 

fa in the Interior of the Labrador Peninsula; 

Feanf of North America (by Hind and others). For 

biog., me Mox^an, Crf. Can. and Can. Men; Rose, Cyc. Can, Biog. 

HochelagA. An Iroquoian town situated, in 1535, on Montreal Island. The 
site is covered by the city of Montreal. Cartier visited the town in the year 
mentioned, and describes it aa encircled by a triple row of palisades, with 
for the defenders. Within stood some fifty large oblong lodges, each 
housing several families. In 1603, when Champlain visited the place, nothing 
remained of the town, and Indians of a different stock occupied the island. Bib. : 
Cartier, Bref rticit, etc. ; Parkman, Pioneers of France; Fiske, New France and 
New England. 

Hocquart, Gilles. Intendant of New France. Son of Jean-Hyacinthe Hoc- 
quart, chevalier, and seigneur d'Bssenlis et de Muscourt. Held for a time the 
office of commissary of marine, and in 1729 obtained from the king a com- 
mission as commissary-general of New France. Arrived at Quebec in 1729; 
aad in 1731 succeeded Dupuy as intendant. After nearly twenty years of 
service in New France, during which he devoted his energies unselfishly to the 
welfare of the colony, returned to France in 1748, and for some years filled 
the office of intendant at Brest. Appointed a councillor of state, 1753. Index : 
WH Receives Montcalm at Brest, 2. Bib. : Boy, Int&ndants de la Nouveile 
France (R. S. C., 1903) ; Parkman, Half Century of Conflict. 

Hodgins, John George (1821- ). Born in Dublin. Came to Canada, 
1833. Educated at Upper Canada Academy, Victoria College, and Toronto Uni- 
versity. Appointed to department of education of Upper Canada, 1844 ^secretary 
of provincial board of education, 1846 ; deputy superintendent of education, 1855 ; 
deputy minister of education, 1876-1889 ; librarian and historiographer of the 
education department since 1889. Index: R Graduate of Victoria College, 
144 ; Ryerson's right-hand man, 179, 202 ; his estimate of children attending 
school in 1845, 189; objections noted to School Act of 1870-1871, 205; his 

AND 173 

of la Upper 234; on Ryersarfs last 

295-296. Bib*: Works; of in Upper 

and of in Ufrpw Canada. For biog., xe 

Morgan, Can. Men; Who's Who. 

Hodgson, Sir Robert (1798-1880). Born in 

Island, Educated at Windsor, Nova Scotia, and to the !>ar of Nova 

Scotia and of Prince Edward 1819. Appointed of and 

attorney-general for Prince Island, 182S ; of the 

Council, 1840. Appointed chief-justice, 1352, and of the Court of Vice- 

Admiralty, 1853: both offices to the of 

Prince Edward Maud, 1874. Held 1870. in 

Bib. : Campbell, of Prince 

Holdemesse, Robert D'Arcy, fourth Ear! of (1718-1778), WM 
letter to s 166. Bib. : Did. Nat. 

Holland. S Surveyor-jgeneral, Upper Canada, 178. 

Holland. Hd Revolution in places William of Orange at of 7. 

Bk British expedition to, under Duke of York, 13-22. 

Holland House. Br Occupied by Montgomery, 123. 

Holmes, B. E. One of leaders of the Liberal party in Lower SO. 

Index.: BL At farewell banquet to La Fontaine, 1851, 3a4, 

Holmes, Charles (1711-1761). Third in command under Sir Charles 
ders (q.v.) before Quebec, 1759 ; Commander-in-chief in West Indies, 1760-1761. 
Index : WM In command of second British fleet, 75 ; commands above 

Quebec, 152 ; movements of Ms fleet up and down the river, ISO, 163, 171. Bib. : 
Did. Nat. Biog.; Woods, Logs of the Conquest of Canada and The Fight /or 
ada; Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe. 

Helton, Luther Hamilton (1817-1880). Entered public life, 1884, as one of 
the members for Montreal ; elected to Legislative Council, 1862 ; resigned, 1863. 
and returned to the Assembly as member for Chateauguay, which he represented 
to the time of his death ; accepted portfolio of commissioner of public works 
in the short-lived Brown-Dorion government, 1858 ; minister of finance in the 
Macdonald-Dorion administration, 1863-1864. Index: E Signs Annexation 
Manifesto, 81 ; associated with Parti Rouffe* 108; adopts less radical views, 134. 
B Enters George Brown's ministry, 102 * Brown's letter to, on Gonf ederatioa, 
131; on English views of Canadian politics, 143; opposed to coalition, 160; 
opposes Confederation scheme, 185; George Brown takes up question of reci- 
procity with, 192 ; Brown urges that he be sent to Washington on reciprocity 
mission, 192; opposed to Brown entering coalition ministry, 199, 260~~2Q3; 
George Brown writes of his determination to leave public life, 245-246, C Coun- 
tenances annexation movement in 1849, 44-45. Bib. : Dent, Can, For. and Last 
Forty Years; Mackenzie, Hon. George Brown; Pope, Memoirs of Sir John A. 
MacdonoM; Willison, Sir Wilfrid Laurier and the Liberal Party; Confederation 

Holy Family. L Devotion to, encouraged by Laval, 86 ; commended by Leo 
XIII, 86. 

Holy Scaptilary. L Chapel dedicated to, in church at Quebec, 84. 

Home Rule in Ireland. Md Resolutions on, in Canadian Parliament, 1882, 277. 

Hope, Henry. Lieutenant-governor of Quebec, 1785-1789. Index : Dr Lieu- 
tenant-governor and administrator, receives Carleton on his arrival at Quebec, 
222; death of, 249. Bib.: Shortt and Doughty, Constitutional Documents of 


B A of the Grits, 30. 1 One of the of 

the 110. 

the army and advanced rapidly, 

of the was restored to the French, 

to and a member of the Council. Governor of 

1752; weal to 1753. to the rank of major 

1757. aa expedition the French West India 

1758; dial 1759. Bib.: Campbell, JKatory of 

from ike of Norn Scotia, ed. by AMns. 

A on left bank of St. Charles River f 207 ; 

into, 207. 

WM Take refuge in the General Hospital, 115. 
d'. F Killed at Laprairie, 312. 
H6tel-Dieu Mans. WM Take refuge In General Hospital, and render assists 

there, 153 ; return to their convent, 237. ^ 

Hotel, Louis, Sieur du Petit~Pii. Ch Consulted by Champlain as to obtain- 
ing for Canada, 83 ; in forming Company of New France, 
168; director, 170. 

Horns of Assembly. Hd British government prepared to grant, 174 ; Haldi- 
not to, as stood, 195. Br Of Lower Canada, agitation 

for by residents, 55 ? 60; opposition to by seigniors, 55 ; indifference of 

55 ; Carleton's views on, 56 ; not provided for in Quebec Act, 64 ; 
of, 269. WT la New Brunswick, early character of, 6. 
Houwurt L Devoted servant of Bishop Laval, 251 ; details furnished by, 

How, Edward. Member of the Council of Nova Scotia, 1744, Took part 
in the at Mines under Colonel Noble. 1747 ; severely wounded and taken 

prisoner, but afterwards exchanged. Confidential agent of the government in 
dealing with the Indians. Treacherously murdered by Indians, it is said, at the 
instigation of Le Loutre. Bib. : Selections from the Public Documents of Nova 

ed. by Akins. 

Howard, Joseph. Dr Accused in connection with Walker affair, 36 ; tried 
and acquitted, 33. 

Howard^ Lady Maria. Br Carleton marries, 75 ; characteristics of, 77. 
Howe, George Augustus, third Viscount (1724-1758). Came to Halifax, 
1757, in command of 60th Regiment. Transferred to command of 55th same 
year, and promoted brigadier-general Accompanied Abercromby to Lake 
George, 1758, and fell July 8, while leading his men in a skirmish at Fort Ticon- 
deroga. See Abercromby: Ticonderoga. Index: Hd Killed at Ticonderoga, 
18, 21. Bib. : Smith, Our Struggle for the Fourteenth Colony; Parkman, Montcalm 
and Wolfe: Bradley,. Fight for North America; Cyc. Am. Biog.; Diet. Nat. Biog. 
Howe, John, H Father of Joseph Howe ; a United Empire Loyalist, 1 ; his 
son's tribute to his memory, 1-2, 4 ; his marriages, 2 ; becomes king's printer and 
postmaster-general, 3 ; educates his son, 3 ; his character, 4 ; religious views, 279. 
Howe, Joseph (1804-1873). H Bom at Halifax, 1804, 1 ; his father, John 
Howe, a United Empire Loyalist, 1, 2; Ms Southampton speech, 1851, 1, 2; 
his character, 3 ; his education, 3 ; a voracious reader, 3 ; tributes to his 
father, 2, 4; learns trade of printer, 4; early poems, 5; establishes the 
Acadian , 6 ; buys Nova Scotian, 6 ; extends its influence, 7 ; his Rambles, 8 ; 
Ms marriage, 8; The Club, 9; friendship for Haliburton, 10; political 
writings, 10, 11 ; develops Liberal principles, 19, 20 ; attacks Halifax magistrates 


In his 20 ; for Mbel^ 1835, 21 ; Ms 22-25 ; hi 

to jury, 25^28; 28; to in 

21); his of government, 29-31 ; and 

31-33; his 33; in 1837^ ; en thf 

41 ; moves to crown, for jtov^mme-nt, 

45; Ms in Legislature, 1838, 47; advocates constitutiord r^forn*, bu 

to rebellion, 50, 51 ; Ms patriotic in 

52, 53 ; letters to Lord 54, 55 ; his 50 ; 

of confidence IE Executive Council, 62 ; to 

for recall of Sir Colin Campbell, 66 ; Poulett 68 ; to 

a in the Council, 09 ; his in 72-73 ; re- 

elected for Halifax, 73 ; of the 74 ; 

of customs at Halifax, 74; 75; of 

responsibility, 75-76; Ms quarrel with the 77-7S; 

pulsoiy education, 79-80; and a central, 82; the 

election of 1843, 84-85; from the Cabinet, 

land through the newspapers, ; editorial of the 

and Morning Chronicle, 90 ; his first editorial, 91 ; by 

92 ; he lampoons Falkland in verse, 93 ; political tour of the province, 4 ; his 
speech at Cornwallis, 95-96 ; complimentary 96-97 ; In the 

Legislature, 1845, 97-98 ; attacks Falkland in Legislature, 100-401 ; 
his action in letter to his constituents, 101-102 ; again offered in the Council, 
103 ; declines the offer, 104 ; moves his family from Halifax to Musquodoboit, 
104-105; wins the election of 1847, 106-107; his character, 109; 
provincial secretary in Uniacke government, 111; secures responsible govern- 
ment for Nova Scotia, 113 ; his reply to the manifesto of the British American 
League, 114-115; advocates railway from Halifax to Windsor, in 1835, 117; 
120-121 ; favourable to government ownership of railways, 120, 123 ; for 

England to explain Intercolonial Railway project to the government, 125 ; his 
letters on the subject to Earl Grey, 125-128 ; Ms Southampton speech, 1851, 
127-128; obtains Imperial guarantee of railway, 130-132; secures co-operation 
of New Brunswick and Canada, 134-138; predicts transcontinental railway, 
135 ; given public dinners at Toronto and Montreal, 138 ; elected for Cumber- 
land County, 1851, 139-141 ; brings down railway measures, 141 ; Intercolonial 
scheme blocked, 141-143; reverts to Ms original policy of building^ railways in 
Nova Scotia as a government work, 143 ; raises a provincial loan in England, 
144; railway measures passed by Legislature, 145; becomes chief commis- 
sioner of railways, 146 ; visits United States to secure recruits for British army, 
151-155 ; defeated by Tupper in Cumberland, 1855, 156 : returned by acclama- 
tion for Hants County, 1856, 157-158 ; his open letter to Gladstone, 150 ; attacks 
Irish Roman Catholics, 160-462; results in defeat of government, 163-167; 
Liberals returned to power in 1859, 168; and Howe becomes^ premier, 169; 
appointed fishery commissioner for carrying out provisions of Reciprocity Treaty 
of 1854, 170 ; defeated, with his party, in election of 1863, 171 ; opposes Con- 
federation, 173 ; an Imperial f ederationist, 174 ; declines to take part in Char- 
lottetown Conference, 1864, 177 ; offered editorship of New York Albion, 182-483 ; 
Ms articles against Confederation, 186, 189 ; outlines grounds of his opposition, 
190-191 ; continues the fight in London, 192 ; correspondence with W. J. Stairs, 
192-197; works up Anti-Confederation sentiment in Nova Scotia, 199; his 
Bridgetown meeting, 200-202; sweeps the province in both Dominion and 
Provincial elections, 202 ; fight for repeal of the union, 203 ; meets Tupper in 


as for 207-210; 

for to Sir John Macdonald, 210-212; 

at 213; with Macdonald, 215-216; 

217-218; overtures of repealers, 219-223; 

at A. W. McLdUan, and Sir John Hose, 223-224 ; 

( 1868, 225 ; re-elected in Hants, 226 ; visits Winnipeg, 

227 ; r tirrc^fXHiilf nee in relation to Reel River Rebellion, 227 ; his character 
as a of Sir John Macdonald, 228-229 ; becomes 

of Nova 1873, 229 ; visits England and the continent,, 

1838, 231; service, 232-235; challenged by Dr. 

236; by John C. Halihurton, 238; justifies acceptance of the 

in to his sister, 237-241 ; the duel, 241-242; letters to Ms wife 

to the of X T ova Scotia, 242-244 ; Sir Rupert D. George 7 s challenge, 

244; Ma interest in the Micmacs, 245; opposes prohibition, 248-250; 

his at 1861, 250; his tribute to Edward Everett in 1857, 251; 

his Detroit of 1865 on 'trade relations, 252-254; acts as member of 

Edward Land Grants Commission, 254r~255 ; as a man of letters, 

257-270; his 260-268; oration at Shakespeare tercentenary, 264; 

his for Haliburton, 267 ; his social qualities, 271 ; secret of his popu- 

larity, 272-274; Ms influence upon public men and public life, 277-278; his 
views, 279-230 ; his family, 282 ; as governor of Nova Scotia, 283-284 ; 
his 2S4 ; funeral, 2S5-2S0 ; estimate of his public work, 287-290 ; op- 

to Pacific Railway policy in 1872, 299-300. E A consistent advocate of 
^connection, 22 ;^ on parliamentary government, 51, 90; the father of 
government in the Maritime Provinces, 92 ; a constitutional agitator, 
92 ; Hineks of breach of faith in Intercolonial Railway scheme, 101 ; 

oa Imperial honours and offices for distinguished colonials, 221 ; becomes lieu- 
tenant-govemor of Nova Scotia, 221 ; a constructive statesman, 236. B In 
Dominion government relations with Sir John Macdonald, 203. Sy Ad- 
vocates responsible government, 107, 257 ; approves of Sydenham's propositions, 
261 ; editor of Nova Scotian, 1 10. WT Goes to England in Intercolonial matter, 
197; second mission to England, 199; advocates Confederation, 204, 205; 
tariff with Tiiley, 212, 213 ; quoted for and against Confederation, 259. 
Bib.: Works: Speeches and Public Letters of Joseph Howe, ed. by Chisholm; 
Poems and Mssays. For biog. see Fenety, Life and Times of Joseph Howe; 
Bourinot, Builders of Nova Scotia; Saunders, Three Premiers of Nova Scotia; 
Dent, Can Por.; Taylor, Brit. Am.; Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog. 

Howe, William, Viscount (1729-1814). Brother of George Augustus, Viscount 
Howe (g..), and Admiral Lord Howe. Commanded light infantry under Wolfe 
at Quebec, 1759. Succeeded Gage as commander-in-chief in America, 1775. 
Commanded forces at Bunker Hill Defeated Washington at White Plains, 
1776, and at Brandywlne, 1777. Recalled, 1778. Became governor of Berwick, 
and later of Plymouth. Index : Hd Replaces Gage as commander-in-chief, 110 ; 
his estimate of Loyalists, 268. Dr Orders reinforcements to Quebec, 92 ; aban- 
dons Boston and occupies New York, 160 ; his weak conduct of campaign, 160 ; 
Germain's neglect to inform him of his plan of campaign, 172. WM Calls 
for volunteers for first landing at Wolfe's Cove, 176; captures posts at 
Samoa and Sillery, 183. Bib. : Cyc. Am. Biog.; Rhodes, History of the United 

Howe's Pass. See Howse Pass. 
Howland, Sk William Pearce (1811-1907). Born at Paulings, New York. 


to in 1S30. Represented W>0t York In the* 1S57- 

isflS. of ministry, 1882, m minister of 

receiver-general, l&f-18f>4 ; lS64^i8f4i; niinifct^rof 

1SM-1867. Minister of inland revenue In Dominion Cabinet, 1H7. Ap- 
pointed lieutenantrgovernor of Ontario, 1808; retired, 1873 ; 1871 

Index : Minister of inland revenue in Dominion Cabinet, 134 ; 
his political attitude, 137 ; lieutenant-governor of Ontario^ 138 ; 

syndicate offering to build Pacific Railway, 237. B 

to Elgin, 36; his with reciprocity in 193-190; 

defends Ms action in in ministry 

20!) ; becomes lieutenant-governor of Ontario, 202. WT to 

Dominion ministry, 270; minister of revenue, 271. BIB.: Dent s 

For.; Morgan, Can. Read, qf 

Howse Pass. In Rocky Mountains ; source of North Elver. 

Discovered by Duncan McGillivray, 1800. Named of tte 

North West Company. Index : D Its discovery t 58. 

Hubert, Jean Francois. Bishop of Quebec, 1788-1797. Index : Dr of 

Quebec, his views on education, 227, 228 ; recognizes of not per- 

mitting priests to be brought from France, 257. 

Hnbou, GuiHaume. Ch Early settler, remains m Quebec during 
occupation, 106, 208. 

Huddy, Captain Joshua. Br Hanging of, 198. 

Hudson, Henry. Made four notable voyages : the first, in 1 607, for tie 
Muscovy Company, in search of a north-eastern passage to China ; the second, 
in 1608, for the same Company, and in search of the same ; the third, 

in 1609, at the expense of the Dutch East India Company, begun, like the 
two former, in search of a north-eastern passage, but changed to a quest of & 
north-western passage; the fourth, in 1610, in search of a north-western 
passage, the expense borne by three English gentlemen. In his first voyage,, 
explored the coast of Spitsbergen ; in the second, part of Nova Zembla ; in 
the third, the Hudson River ; and in the last, Hudson Strait and part of the 
bay. Wintered, 1610-1611, at the foot of James Bay, and on the return voyage 
was set adrift with eight companions in a small boat, and never ajgain heard of. 
Bib. : Asher, Henry Httdson, the Navigator; Read, Hutoncal Enquiry 
Henry Hudson; Laut, Conquest of the Great Nwih-West* Sm also bibliog. list in 

Hudson Bay. Explored by Henry Hudson, 1610, and named after him. 
Explored by Sir Thomas Button, 1612; Jens Munk, 1619; Foxe and James, 
1631. In 1668 the first trading-ship of the Hudson's Bay Company entered 
the bay, and their first fort was built, at the mouth of Rupert River. Bid ex ; 
F English claim to, disputed by France, 204; La Barre instructed to- check 
English encroachments in, 205 ; expedition under De Troyes captures English 
forte, 205 ; Iberville's exploits in, 342-350 ; English possessions in, restored by 
peace of Ryswiek, 349. L Expedition against English forts in, 204 ; later ex- 
ploits of Iberville in, 233. Bib. : Asher, Henry Hudson, the Navigator; Gosoh, 
Expedition of Jens Munk; Christy, Voyages of Foxe and James; Coats, Geog- 
raphy of Hudson's Bay; Robson, Account of Six Yean' Residence in Hudson's 
Bay; Dobbs, Account of Countries Adjoining Hudson's Bay; Gordon, Report 
on Hudson's Bay Expedition; Wakehain, Second Hudson Bay Expedition; 
Low, Expedition to Hudson Bay; Berrier, Report on Expedition to Arctic Islands; 
Laut, Conquest of the Great North-West; Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company. See 


to of ; Henry Hudson; Hudson's 

Bay by a of gentlemen, 

oat a to Bay, In the Nonsuch, in 1668. 

so two other were sent out in 

1670 ; and the Charles a charter incorporating them as 

" The and Company of Adventurers of England trading into Hudson's 

Bay." For the of the Company were confined to the 

of HudsonTBav, but the of competition eventually forced them 

at the of their power they had established trading-posts from 

to the and from California almost to the Arctic. In 1821 t 

tie North West Company (g..) was absorbed; and in 1869 the company 

to Canada its territorial rights in British North America, Index; 

F 203; and posts established by, 204; redress claimed by, for 

by the French, 843, Dr Its territory not included in Canada, 7. 

B Deputation of Red River settlers seat to England to complain of misgovern- 

by, 212 ; Gladstone charter of Company not valid, 212 ; Globe on 

company's misgovenunent of North- West Territories, 213-214; attacked in 

of letters in the C?Me, signed " Huron," 215-216 ; Toronto Board of Trade 

on, 210; Brown on, 219 ; Canada takes over North-West Territories, and 

Company therefor, 220-221. MS Early policy of, 1 ; attitude of 

to, 2 ; opposition of Montreal traders (afterwards North West Company), 

2 ? 3 ; inland, 3 ; averse to conflict with North West Company, 5; 

builds in, Assiasboine and Red River country, 5, 6 ; absorbs North West 

Company , 8 ; policy towards natives, 51 ; sends George Clarke to explore, 56 ; 

his incompetence, 56; then sends Philip Turner, 1791, 56; legal basis of its 

title, 143-145 ; Selkirk purchases tract of land hi Red River valley, 146 ; Par- 

liamentary Report of 1857, 212; union of the Companies, 213-214; takes over 

management of Selkirk colony, 222; estabEshes Council of Assiniboia, 223; 

notable leaders after the union of the Companies, 220-223 ; its influence on side 

of government, in Rebellion of 1837, 242 ; its license to trade renewed, 271 ; the 

Report of 1857, 271 ; opposition to further renewal, 271 ; evidence taken by 

committee, 272-278 ; committee's report, 279 ; defended by Sir George Simpson 

before Parliamentary committee, 272-278. D Influence upon development of 

Pacific coast, 4; operations typical of British colonial policy, 11; established 

in the interior, 12; conserves British interests in Western America, 17, 18; 

charged with neglecting to search for route to Pacific, 51 ; absorbs North 

West Company, 1821, 73 r 93 ; birth of, 73 ; provisions of its charter, 73-74 ; 

its trade and explorations, 74 ; its organization, 75-76 ; its Western department, 

76-77; trade routes, 77-78; its farms on Puget Sound, etc., 78; grist mills and 

jUUUWiUkW V* .*..*.,Vivu-Uki, < v v^*, j gjJL/WMWM, W*rf , Ik/A, AgjWJVlV/W CUA4.VA J, \J A JO. (LTWCUUW, *-** , 

famous officers of, 83-86; ambitious designs on Pacific coast .and beyond, 114; 
attempt to establish post on Stikine River, 119-120; permission obtained from 
Russians to build post on Taku River, 121 ; operations on Liard and Yukon, 
123-125 ; invades California before 1830, 126 ; builds post at junction of Sacra- 
mento and Jesus Maria rivers, 126 ; establishes post on San Francisco Bay, 
127; sells post and retires from San Francisco Bay, 127; meets competition of 
American traders and companies, 134-136 ; attitude towards Oregon settlers, 
143-144; license to trade of 1821 renewed in 1838, 191; its provisions, 192; 

AKD 17 

Vancouver 104; 

19S-109; of 1S57, 201-202; 15r*nH* 

to in British 1858, 229 ; 

1858, 233-234 ; 2*53 ; 

its 264-265; of Company at Victoria, 265; 

266-267; at Victoria, 1853, 260. C 

Cartier and MacDougall to by in 

to purchase "of Company's in North-West, US; 

exorbitant price, 68; by Grey to 88. 

Bk Its voyageurs in of Michilimaekiziac, 210. Md Its in- 

S3 ; ttpoo it to to the it 

to North- West Territories, 156; In 

River Settlement, 157, See North-West Company; X Y Company*/ Fur 
Trade ; Selkirk. Bib. : Bryce f 

Laut, of the North-West; 

Sea; Eiyee* of Ross, /fed 

mint; Hargrave, Jfecf JJirer; of the 

Hnet, Paul, Clt Rcollet missionary, 87 ; for Canada as 

missary, 112 ; accompanies Champlain to France, 116 ; returns to 116 ; 

to Three Rivers, 149. 

Huguenots. Cfa Had larger share of trade, 110; to 110; 

disagreements with. Re* collet missionaries, 150; their on 

ship objected to, 156; fanaticism of, 224; their doubtful loyalty, 254; not 
permitted to settle in Canada ? 255. 

Hugues. L Priest, comes to Canada, 4L 

Hull, William (1753-1825). Bora in Derby, Conn. Educated at Yale Uni- 
versity, and called to the bar, 1775. Served with distinction during the Revolu- 
tionary War; major-general of militia in Massachusetts and a member of the 
federal Senate; appointed governor of Michigan, 1805; commander of the 
north-western army of the United States, 1812. Surrendered Detroit to General 
Brock, 1812; tried by court-martial, and sentenced to be shot; sentence com- 
muted. Resided at Newton ? Mass,, until his death. Index : Bk Marches north, 
203 ; crosses Detroit River and occupies Sandwich, 208 ? 213 ; his proclamation 
to the people of Canada, 213, 217, 235; Ms baggage and stores captured, 218; 
his supplies under Major Van Home captured, 237 ; re-crosses riyer to Detroit, 
238 ; summoned to surrender, and refuses, 251; surrenders with Ms whole army f 
255; sent to Montreal as prisoner of war, 261, 265; released on parole, 283; 
makes bad impression on English officers, 283 ; court-martialed, sentenced to 
death, but sentence remitted, 283, 284. Bib. : Cyc. Am. Biog*; Campbell, 
Life and Services of General William Hutt; Craikshank, Gemral Hull 7 
of Canada in 1812 (R. S. C., 1907-1908) . 

Humbert. WT Candidate in St. John County, opposes responsible govern- 
ment, 64. 

Hume, Joseph (1777-1855). Born at Montrose, Scotland. Studied medicine; 
entered the service of the East India Company, 1797; returned to England, 
1808. Entered Parliament, 1812, but on account of his independent principles 
compelled to resign his seat. Again elected, 1818, and continued a member of 
the House of Commons until his death. A strong Radical in his opinions and 
effected many useful reforms. Index: BL Correspondence with Mackenzie 
and Papineau, 229. Me Lays Mackenzie's petition before the House, 222; 
presents case against Upper Canadian officials, 231; suggests independence 


of 250 ; his " " letter, 262-283 ; thanked by Mae- 

289 ; civil 32i ; to Mackenzie, on the Rebellion, and 

of 475-479; for Mackenzie, 480. Sy An 

of 13 ; reduction of corn duties, 39 ; his speech 

on union in of CommonSj 122. B Attacks Metcalfe's policy, 

23. Bib.: Did. Nat. Biog.; Dentj Upper Canadian Rebellion. 

Humphreys, Captain. Bk Captain of Leopard, fires on Chesapeake, 83. 

Hundred Associates. See Company of New France. 

Hundredth Regiment Bk Quartered In Quebec and Montreal, 74; disaster 
to, by shipwreck, 74. 

" Hungry Year." S Year 1787, so called from failure of harvest, 65, 69. 

Hunt, Thomas Sterry (1826-1892). Born in Norwich, Conn. Came to Can- 
ada, 1847, at the imitation of Sir William E. Logan, to accept the position of 
chemist and mineralogist to the Geological Survey, which he held until 1872. 
Also occupied the chair of chemistry in Laval University, 1856-1862; and 
in McGill University, 1862-1868. In 1872 professor of geology in the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology. Author of several scientific^ works, and a 
number of papers contributed to learned societies and scientific periodicals. 
Died in New York. Bib. : Cyc. -Am. Biog. 

Hunter, Peter (1746-1805). Bk Lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada and 
commander of forces in British North America, 45 ; calls attention of home gov- 
ernment to lack of proper accommodation for provincial government and Legis- 
lature, SO ; a Scotsman, previously governor of Barbados, 51 ; death of, 69. 
Bib. : Read, Lmttman^(mrnor$ of Upp*er Canada; Rattray, The Scot in British 
North Anwnca. 

Hunter. Bk British sloop, her boats capture United States schooner Cayar 
ogUy with stores of General Hull, 218. 

Hunter, Captain of. WM Obtains information as to movements of French 
provision boats, 172. 

Hunters 7 Lodges. Me Convention of, 440 ; attack on Prescott, 442. 

Hunting Permits. F Issue of, sanctioned, 125 ; number to be issued annually 
limited, 128 ; issue of, becomes a form of patronage, 129. 

Huntington, Herbert. H Appointed to Executive Council, Nova Scotia, 47 ; 
seat as delegate to England, to urge concession of responsible government, 51, 
56 ; candidate for speakership, 1843, 75 ; advocates non-sectarian education, 82 ; 
member of Uniacke government, 110; finance minister, 112; acts as Joseph 
Howe's second in duel, 236. Bib.: Saunders, Three Premiers of Nova Scotia. 
* f Huntington, Lucius Seth (1827-1886). Born at Compton, Quebec. Studied 
law, and engaged in journalism, in the Eastern Townships. Elected to the 
Legislature for Shefford, 1861 ; solicitor-general, 1863-1864. Advocated inde- 
pendence of Canada. Became president of the Council, in the Mackenzie 
Government, 1874-1875; and postmaster-general, 1875-1878. Defeated for 
heffprd, 1882, and retired from public life. Died in New York. Index: 
C Brings charges against government in connection with Pacific Scandal, 53. 
Md Prefers his charges in the House of Commons, 201-203. Bib. : Dent, Can. 
For, and Last Forty Years; Buckingham and Ross, Alexander Mackenzie; Pope, 
Memoirs of Sir John A. MacdonoM; Willison, Sir Wilfrid Lavrier and the 
Liberal Parti/. 

Huot, P. G. C One of the leaders of the Quebec Liberals, 24. 

Huron Indians. Name applied by the French to a confederacy of four Iro- 
quoian tribes. When French missionaries and explorers first went among them, 


the country and Georgian Ray, Ttoy ha*! 

at with the for yc-are, rf'p*vtf,ui5y 

country. Finally the Iroquols to an *jf thV 

They invaded thrir country in force in 164H, in ilo>troy<>i all 

villages, killed of the inhabitants, driven the fur to the wi^S 

warcl A few of the Huron* to at thfi >f 

Ix>rette. la the seventeenth century WM at 

to In 1905 a of 832, la mi tho 

United Index : F Destruction of, by 26, 35; 

expedition to Cfttaraqui, 79; 10 222. 1* 

Extermination of, by the Iroquois, 39 ; by a of, 4 ; 

Dolkrd at Long Saidt, 70 ; by 72* & 

visits country of, SS; their of the S0; 

widely spokea, 90 ; their of life, 94 ; and ; 

Hodge* o/ 

Huron, Lake. Ares 23,200 by Le 1615 t 

and first by Champlain the year. The of 

plorcrs, and fur traders* lay along the north shore of the or the 
of Manitoulin Island, to Michilimaekinac and Sault Ste. at the 


Htiskissoa, William (1770-1830). British statesman. Index: Sy 
British" commercial policy , 12; president of Board of Trade, 15; 
tary, 16; resigns, 16; commends Poulett Thomson's 0a 

Acts, 17 ; his proposals in regard to silk industry s 18 ; of, 25. Bib. : 

Diet Nat. Biog. 

Hutcheson, Major. Hd Haldimand y s secretary, 108, 110, 112; in 
of Louis Haldimand T at Boston, 294. 

HutcMnson, Richard. WT Of Mirainichi, member of Smith 
New Brunswick, represents lumber interests, 233 ? 234. 

Hutchinson, Thomas (1711*1780). Hd Governor of 
84. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Ibcrvillc, Pierre Le Moyne, Sieur d j (1661-1706). Third sop of Le 

Moyne, Sieur de Longueuil. Entered the lYench wvy, returning to in 

1683. Three years later accompanied De Troyes in the expedition the 

English on Hudson Bay, and took part in the capture of Moose Factory, Fort 
Rupert, and Albany. Returned to Quebec in 1687 ; and the following 
was again on the bay. In 1689 captured the Hampshire, and brought her 
to Quebec with her cargo of furs. In 1690 took part in the raid on Sche- 
nectady ; and the same year captured Fort Severn on Hudson Bay. In 1604 
sailed to the bay with a French fleet, and captured Fort Nelson. Two years 
later captured Pemaquid ; and, sailing to Newfoundland, captured St John's 
and raided the villages along the coast. In 1697 again sailed to Hudson Bay ? 
defeated a superior fleet, and recaptured Fort Nelson. The following year 
sailed from Brest in command of an expedition to discover the mouth of the 
Mississippi and plant a colony there, in both of which he was successful. ^The 
remaining years of his life spent in building up the colony of Louisiana. 
Index : F Accompanies expedition to Hudson Bay, 206 ; joins war party against 
Schenectady, 235 ; arrives from Hudson Bay with two captured vessels, 325 ; 
takes Fort Pemaquid, 331 ; exploits in Hudson Bay, 342-350 ; sails for France, 
and returns with two French ships, 343 ; captures Fort Nelson, 345 ; sails for 


France^ 346; in Newfoundland, 346; St. 

John's, 347; ia his three English vessels, 349; 

for France, 349. I* expedition against English In Hudson 

Bay ? 204 ; Ms in Newfoundland and Hudson Bay, 232 ; subsequent 

and of, 233. Bib. ; Reed, First Great Canadian; Parkman, Half 

of Laut, of the Great North-West; Colby, Canadian 

of the Old Desmazures, Hutom du Chemlier d'lberiille; 

Gayarre, of Margry, Decouvcrtes dcs Franqais; Wallace, 

IJk French; Martin, History of Louisiana; Bacqueville de k 
de FAmirique Jer&nie, Relation du Detroit et 

A la (Bernard, de Voiages au Nord). See also bibliog- 

raphy at the end of Reed's work. 

Hionatiria, Ch Jesuit mission to Hurons founded at, 228. 

lie ft la Cross e. Lake and trading-post. The lake is on the upper waters of 
the Churchill River, in about long. 108. Its name is derived from the Indian 
of lacrosse, which was very popular there. The first trading-post was 
built on a peninsula on the western side of the lake by Thomas Frobisher in 
1776. Other forts were built there later by the North West Company and the 
Hudson *s Bay Company, the lake being a strategic point in the western fur 

ile-aux-Coudres. On north shore of the St. Lawrence, above Murray Bay. 
Indez : WM Arrival of British advance squadron at, 83 ; camp established on, 
39 ; capture by Canadians of two British officers on, 89. 

lle-aux-N olx. WM Fortified post on Lake Champlain frontier, 146, 158, 233, 

lie J6sus. At the junction of the Ottawa and the St. Lawrence. Index: L 
Seigniory of Beaupr^ exchanged by Laval for, 58 ; obtained by Laval in exchange 
for Island of Orleans, 138, 

lie PercS. L R6coliet mission at, 111. 

lie Royale. A large island in Lake Superior, United States territory. Men- 
tioned in Carver's Travels and other early narratives. 

Illinois Indians. Of Algonquian stock. First mentioned in the Jesuit Re- 
lation of 1600 as living south-west of Green Bay. They ranged throughout 
the country between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi, and down the west 
bank of that river as far as the D0s Moines; and have been described by 
Allouez, Marquette, Hennepin, Rasies, and other early French explorers. 
Harassed on one side by the Sioux and Foxes, and on the other by the Iroquois, 
their numbers were reduced from six or eigK thousand, at the end of the seven- 
teenth century, to less than two thousand about 1750. The murder of Pontiac 
by one of their warriors brought upon th n m a war of extermination. To-day 
only a handful remain, in Oklahoma. Index : F Allies of the French against 
the Iroquois, 144. L La Safle forms alliance with, 148. Bib. : Hodge, Handbook 
of American Indians. 

Immaculate Conception. L Church at Quebec placed under patronage of, 85. 
Ch Church of Notre Dame de la Recouvrance consecrated under name of, 240 ; 
feast of, observed by people of Quebec, 240. 

Immigration. Me To colonies in 1820, state of, 88. See also Irish Immigrants. 
^ Imperial Conference. Held in London, 1887. Canada was represented by 
Sir Alexander Campbell and Sandford Fleming. Among the questions dis- 
cussed were those of inter-Imperial defence and trade, the Pacific cable, etc. 
Another conference was held in Ottawa in 1894 (see Colonial Conference, 1894) ; 
and another in London in June, 1896, Canada being represented by Sir Mac- 


and At an in 

Sir and Hon. A* G. ih*> rv^niiu^n, Mr, 

IE aa On the e<v:jM^ri cf 

Victoria's 1897, was hdti in Lc4ui0ii t 

and the rpf, re- 

sented by their in 1002, the met in Uniaoa, 

the of The C 'ouforeniv of 

over by but was 

chiefly of the to 

years, and to provide a at 

of the Empire. 

Imperial Federation. by of 

Bay, in 1764. He a by *' be to 

more considered as the of Isle of 

provinces^ colonies, and but an a 

marine dominion. of our in the ia 

united into one Empire." Subsequently by ia 

and again in 1863 ; also by Thomas ("handler and 

statesmen and writers, Index: B Elgin's conception of, 33; by 

Edward Blake, 240. H Joseph Howe a in the 174, 

Bib. : Denison, Struggle for Imperial Unity; Macphail, in 

Brassey, Imperial and Colonization; Ewart, G/ 

Imperial Fedm-aiwn, etc. ; Parkin, Imperial Younp;, A 0//ro- 

in Canada; Milner, in The aid Ow 

Century; Argyll, Imperial Federation. 

Imperial Federation League. Formed in Canada at a in 

in May, 1885. A conference to the same end had held in in 

1884, The league in Canada changed its name, in 1896, to the 
League in Canada, at the suggestion of Sir Charles Tupper. Sec 

Incaraation ? Marie de V, See Marie de Linearisation. 

Inches, Dr. WT Attends Sir Leonard Tillcy in Ms last 287. 

Independence. B George Brown writes M acdonald of 
in England in 1864 in favour of British American colonies 
autonomy, 167; and the Canada First party, 230, 237, 238 t 239; 
by Goldwin Smith, 238, 239, P Advocated by Pfcpineau, 167. Me 
tion of, My, 1837, its history, 330; work of and O'Grady, 330; 

of Association of Canadian Refugees, 449. 

Indians. Ch Superstitions of, 10, 12; council held to consider best 
to adopt in dealing with them, 108-111; murders committed by, 115; 
great esteem for Champlain, 159 ; difficulty of educating their children, 233. 
S Their general friendliness to Upper Canada settlers, 62 ; their good conduct 
rewarded, 62; lands allotted to on Grand River, 74; schools and churches 
provided for, 74 ; Simcoe's estimate of, 75 ; engagements made with, faithfully 
kept, 76: their knds encroached upon by Americans, 119; their defeat of 
expedition under St. Clair, 121 ; great council of, 122, 124 ; Mure of negotia- 
tions with American commissioners, 123-125. WM Generally friendly to 
France, 17 ; appearance of on field of battle, 31 ; swell army of Montcalm at 
Fort Carillon, 38; their habits in camp, 39; Christian Indians different from 
the pagans, 39; attack British boats, 40; general meeting of called by Mont- 
calm, 40-42 ; repulse British force on left bank of Montniorency, 129 ; scalp 
the wounded after battle, 142; paid weU for prisoners, but less amount for 


150 ; fly 202 ; form part of Mvis's army, 245 ; in battle 

of Ste. Foy, 265. Hd Their by treaty, 12 ; allies of the French, 

13. 16, 21 ; help Pouckot at 25 ; Sir William Johnson's following of, 

28 ? 20 ; with, prohibited, 32, 54 ; fears of an uprising among, 55; 

by of French-Canadians under British flag, 57 ; in Florida, 

00, 71, 73: of, 91-93, 131, 145, 146, 147, 150, 153, 157, 

208, 347; uncertain 126, 137, 170, 260; rebels try to gain for 

127-128, 134, 136, 279 ; indignant at terms of peace between Britain 

and 2S-257 ; American cruelty towards, 307. F Menacing attitude of, 

17; by traders, 18, 154 ; not readily receptive of Christian doctrine, 

167. Dr Thorn with Burgoyne worse than useless, 178 ^ignored in treaty of 

between Britain and American colonies, 231 ; their lands invaded by 

frontiersmen, 253; attacked by American troops, 234; trouble with western 

249 f 262, 276. L Violent effects of intoxicating liquor upon, 36, 37 ; three 

of the nations sue for peace, 53 ; conversion of, very precarious, 62 ; difficult 

to civilize them, 63, 126 ; sincere devotion of many, 64, See Abnaki ; Algon- 

quian; Cree; Creek; Delaware; D<n6; Etchemin; Huron; Illinois; Iroqupis; 

Micmac; Ottawa; T6te de Boule. Bib.: Hodge, Handbook of American 

Brinton, The American Race; Bancroft, Native Races of the Pacific 

Caflin, Manners, Customs, and Condition of the North American Indians; 

Drake, Aboriginal Races of North America; Lafitau, Mceurs des Sawages Amlri- 

Maclean, Canadian Savage Folk; Morgan, Houses and House-Life of 

the Ajmrwan Aborigines; Schoolcraft, Indian Tribes of ike United States. 

Indian Department. S In Upper Canada, independent of the governor, 126- 

Indian Posts In West. Dr Temporary retention of, by Great Britain, 231. 

Inflexible, Dr Largest vessel of flotilla on Lake Champlain, 154. 

IngKs, Charles (1734-1816). Born in Ireland. Emigrated to America; 
taught school in Pennsylvania for a time, and then took holy orders. In 
1764 became assistant to Dr. Auchmuty, rector of Trinity Church, New York, 
and in 1777 succeeded him as rector. His sympathies being with the mother 
country, removed to Nova Scotia after the Revolution, and thence to England. 
First bishop of Nova Scotia, with jurisdiction over practically all British North 
America, 1787. One of the notable events of his episcopate was his establish- 
ment of King's College, Windsor. In 1793 his huge diocese divided by the 
creation of the diocese of Quebec, of which Jacob Mountain (<p.) became first 
bishop. Index : Dr Appointed bishop of Nova Scotia with jurisdiction over 
Quebec, 241, Bib.: Mockridge, The Bishops of the Church of England in Canada 
and Newfoundland. 

Inglis, John. MS Opposes sale by Hudson's Bay Company of land in Red 
River valley to Selkirk, 146. 

Ingraham, Captain. D Explores coast of Queen Charlotte Islands in 1791, 25 ; 
describes geography and natural history of the islands and language, manners, 
and customs of the natives, 25. 

Innocent XI, Pope (1611-1689). Benedetto Odescalchi; elected pope, 1676. 
Index : L Misunderstanding with Louis XIV, 20. 

Institut Canadien. A literary and scientific society, founded at Montreal in 
1844, and incorporated in 1852. It included among its early members most 
of the leaders of the more progressive and independent element in Quebec 
political life, among them A. A. Dorion, Eric Dorion, Joseph Doutre, Rodolphe 
Laflamme, and Wilfrid Laurier. The success of the parent society led to the 


of the Althmiffh 

the laity t the ftppeKtif*n cl th* 1 * 

Church, led by of Montreal. Th*' 

to but the atom up^r* it# 

rights^ The fight , went on for but of t!.^ 

out, and the we* re tru;fcrmi to 

the Eraser Institute. Bib.: WiUison, Sir ike Lih.rd 

An by in and trail*- 

to New France. The first of 

in two by the of tar 

Talon. The was the 01 

all the civil of the colony, the of "but Ms 

important function, from the of of the to tel &* a 

\irtual spy upon the of the was 

between two officials, &nd the of New is 

their perpetual quarrels. Index : F Talon as, 51 ; 

105; Jacques Dnchesneau appointed, 108; de 171; 

Bochart de Champigny, 207, See of 

Bib.: Roy, de Za (R* S. C, f DM 

Munro, TAe OJice of in JVetu in Tfe 

October, 1906. 

Jntendant's Palace. Bk In Quebec, completely destroyed IE of 1775, 90. 

Intemperance. S A prevailing vice in Upper 71, 72. Set? 

question; Brandy question. 

Intercolonial Railway. Surveys proposed by the government of in 

1863. Three engineers were to be appointed, one by the Imperial 
one by Canada, and one by the Maritime Provinces. They all the 

same man, Sanoford Meming, by whom the surveys were accordingly 
The railway was made a condition of the union of the Maritime Provinces 
Canada, and the work of construction was pushed forward, the for- 

mally opened My 1, 1876. In 1871 the Prince Edward Island was 

begun, and in 1873 it became a portion of the Intercolonial system. Other 
extensions and branches were built or acquired, the finally runxd&g from 
Sydney and Halifax to Montreal. Index : lid Negotiations for, begun, 45, 117 ; 
arranged for, by British North America Act, 151; difficulty in route* 

152, 153 ; northern route finally adopled, 153. E rroject to combine with Growl 
Trunk, 100 ; history of negotiations after failure of larger scheme,, 100-101. 
H Recommended in Durham's Report^ 118; company formed in London, 118- 
119; "Robinson Line" surveyed, 119; Joseph Howe's collection with (we 
under Howe) ; new route proposed, 141-143 ; Imperial guarantee refused, 143. 
BL Brought under consideration, 1849, 287 ; Hincks on ? 332. B Members of 
British government in 1862 favourable to, except Gladstone, 143; George 
Brown a convert to the scheme, 166; opposed by Dorion, 175. C Cartier 
advocates roundabout route, for military and political reasons, 49-50 ; Major 
Robinson's report, 49. WT Proposal to build through St. John Valley, 168 ; 
delegates consult British government, 168 ; arrangements made "with Jackson, 
169 ; British government refuses to guarantee interest, 187 ; St. John to Shediac 
line, 188-189 ; history of, 195-200, 232, 253-264, 258, 261, 264. Bib. : Fleming, 
The Intercolonial ; Fleming, Historical Sketch of the In^rcolonicd Railway in 
Canada: An JEncy n vol. 2. 

Interpreters. Ch Brule, Marsolet, et oZ., 144. 


Irish Imndgraats. 1 for their relief, 1847-1843* 46-47; bring 

to 47-48; victims, 48; Elgin persuades British 

to for incurred in relief work, 48-49. 

Iroqttet chief. Index: Ch Urges Champkin to attack the Iro- 

48 ; Ma son Champkin, 51 ; a leader of the Hurons, 69 ; chief of 

the Petite Nation captures party of Iroqupis, 102; adopts an Iroquois 

as his son, 104. Bib.: Parkman^ Old 

Iroqisois. A confederation of tribes, at first five, the Cayuga, Mohawk, 
Onondaga, and Seneca, to which the Tuscarora was added after 1726, 
as well as the remnants of many other tribes. They were known to the English 
as the Five Nations, and later as the Six Nations. They called them- 
"we are of the extended lodge." When they first came 
into contact with Europeans, they occupied the country between Lake Cham- 
plain and the Genesee River, and this remained their home territory, but they 
ranged far and wide, carrying their conquering raids eastwards to the Kennebec, 
westwards to Lake Michigan, north to the Hudson Bay watershed, and south 
to the Tennessee. They numbered about 16,000 in 1677, and after dropping 
to 10,000 in the next century, they returned to their original strength^at the 
opening of the twentieth century. About two-thirds are on. reservations in 
Canada; the remainder in New York. Index: F Champkin joins Hurons 
Algonquians in attacking, 9, 10, 14; nearly exterminate Hurons, 26, 
35 ; demand establishment of French colony in their country, 40 ; their con- 
federacy, of what tribes composed, 41 ; attack remnant of Hurons on Island 
of Orleans, 41 ; checked at Long Sauit on the Ottawa by heroism of Bollard 
and his companions, 44; Governor Courcelles marches against, 52; similar 
expedition led by Tracy, 53 ; invited by Frontenac to conference, 79 ; consent 
to make a peace including Indian allies of French, 82 ; under La Barrels ad- 
ministration, seize canoes of French traders, 181 ; La Barrels expedition against, 
183; Denonville's, 207-214; capture of a number of peaceful Iroquois for 
king's galleys, 215; reprisals, 218, 219; massacre of Lachine, 224; send en- 
voys to meet Frontenac, 238 ; native eloquence, 239 ; worsted in skirmish on 
Ottawa River, 243 ; Mohawk opinion of Schenectady massacre, 248 ; ill-treat 
embassy from Frontenac, 262 ; renew their attacks, 307 ; party of, destroyed 
at Repentigny, 308 ; three prisoners burnt alive, 309 ; another party surprised 
and destroyed, 319; expedition against (Mohawks). 321; peace negotiations, 
337; Onondaga orator, Teganissorens (Decanisora), 338; Frontenac's cam- 
paign against, 350. Cii Champlain assists his Indian allies against, 49 ; orig- 
inally settled on the St. Lawrence, 50; form great confederation of five 
tribes, 50 ; attacked by Montaignais, assisted by Champlain, near mouth of 
Richelieu River, 62 ; again, by Hurons, assisted by Champlain, on the Oswego 
River, 102 ; make an attack near Quebec, 139 ; embassy sent to, 163. Hd 
Destroy mission at Three Rivers, 43; in general alliance with British, 148; 
country of, pillaged by Butler's Rangers, 151. WM Traditional foes of the 
French, 16. L Destroy Huron mission, 5 ; converted settlements of, 9 ; their 
extermination of the Hurons, 39 ; heroic resistance offered to, at the Long Sault, 
72; depredations committed by, 191; La Barrels expedition against, 193; 
threatening attitude of, 213; Denonville's expedition against, 215; negotia- 
tions with, 216; descend on Lachine, 225; ravage surrounding country, 227; 
Frontenac inarches against, 233. Bk Their lands encroached upon by Ameri- 
cans, 149 ; attacked by United States troops at Tippecanoe, 174r-176 ; their 
bitter sense of wrong, 177 ; obtain grant of land on the Grand River, 189 ; 


on, of Hull's into 214 ; by tic* 

of Detroit, 263. Stc Seneeas; Mohawka; Cayitgaa; 

Bit),; o/ IVifk-?; 

Oolclon, o/ ll*; Fin? .V^Jj/rtw; McK^nzw, 

fix; Six Nations Indian* in Hale, of fito ; 

O&i in 

Ffeke, JVetf AYio 

Irving, Jacob (1797-1856). at 

Entered the at an age ; at ; 

of for the 

to Canada, 1834 ; the of 1837; first 

for the district of ; to the of 

1843. Index: BL Appointed to 177* Bib. : 

Morgan, CW. Can. 

Irving, Paulas JBmilia* (1714-1796). at ad- 

ministered government of Canada, 1765; of 

Guernsey, 1771 ; governor of Upnor Dr 

Becomes administrator, 23 ; protests, as of Council, 

taken by Carleton, 34 ; dismissed from Council, 39. Bib. ; CW. 

Isbister, Alexander K, (1820-1883). Born in the of the 

Bay Company; employed by the Company, 1838-1840, In the 
River district. Went to England, about 1841 ; and 

law in London, A half-breed himself , he ably the of the 

and half-breeds upon the attention of the British 
evidence before the parliamentary Committee of 1857, For 
of the Stationers* School in England and Dean of the of 

Left a large sum of money to found scholarships in connection the Uni- 
versity of Manitoba. Index: B A native of the North- West Territories- Ms 
good work on behalf of the Red River Settlement, 212; Brown's high 
of, 212; suggests annexation by Canada of western territory, 213. Bib.: 
Report on Hudson' Bay Company 2 1857; Bryee, Bay 

Isis. Br British war vessel, arrival of, 137. 

IsieauxNoix. On the Richelieu Biver. Index: HdFortificatioiis 0^125,183; 
Sherwood and Ira Allen in conf erenoe at, 204 ; transported to, 260. 

Jack, William Brydone (1819-1886). Bom in Scotland. Educated at St. 
Andrew's University. Came to New Brunswick as professor of 
at King's College, 1840. When King's College received its as Uni- 

versity of New Brunswick in 1861, appointed president. Retired from 

Jackson. WT British Member of Parliament,, and capitalist, his company 
offers to build railways in New Brunswick, 168 ; visits the province, 160 ; agree- 
ment with government, 169. 

Jackson, Francis James (1770-1814). British diplomatist. Index: Bfe 
Succeeds W. ErsHne as British minister at Washington, 122. Bib. : Did. Nat. 

Jackson, Sir Richard Downes. Served in Peninsular campaign ; commander- 
m-cMef of forces hi Canada, Administrator, 1841-1842. Died at Montreal 
Index : BL Carries on government after SydenhanVs death, 113. Sy Commander 
of forces, appointed administrator for Lower Canada, 194. Bib. : Morgan, Cel. 


Jacob, Dr., of Sy of Sydenham, 4. 

Jacques, Ch by French, 221. 

Jacques Cartfer River. A of the St. Lawrence, north shore, above 

Index; of French army to, 212, 216, 217; retreat 

as flight, 217. 

James Bay. extension of Hudson Bay, discovered in 1610, by 

Henry who wintered there, 1610-1611, with the Discovery. The bay 

was Captain Thomas of Bristol, who explored the west coast 

in 1631. 

Jameson, Aama Brownell (1794-4860). Author. Married Robert Jameson, 

vice-chancellor of the Court of Equity of Upper Canada. Index : B 

On Upper Canadian schoolmasters, $7 ; compares conditions on both sides of 

boundary, to the detriment of Canada, 191-192. Bib. : Works: Diary of an 

of Women; Visits and Sketches; Essays; Sacred and 

Art; of the Madonna; History of Our Lord; Early Italian 

in Canada; WiMer and Summer Rambles in Canada. 

For biog. y see Dent, Can. POT.; Did. Nat. Biog.; Read, Lives of the Judges, 

Jameson, Robert Simpson, A member of the English bar. Reporter in 
Lori Eldon's Court, 1824. Married Anna Brownell Murphy, 1826. Judge* in 
the Island of Dominica, 1829 ; retired, 1833, and returned to England. Ap- 
pointed attorney-general of Upper Canada by the Imperial government, 1833, and 
took up Ms residence at York. Called to the bar of Upper Canada, 1833* 
Member of the Assembly, 1835-1837. Appointed vice-chancellor of the Court 
of Equity. Died in Toronto, 1854. Bib. : Read, Lives of the Judges. 

Jamet, Father Denis. Ch R^eollet missionary and commissary of the order 
in Canada, 85 ; returns to France, where he remains, 111, 112. 

Jams, F. S. Sy Gentleman usher of black rod, 334. 

Jams, William. S Recommended by Simcoe as clerk of Council, 46 ; pro- 
vincial secretary* 79, 178. 

Jarvis, W. B. Me Loyalists retreat under, 373. 

Jay, John (1745-1829). American statesman and jurist. Index: Dr Nego- 
tiates treaty with Great Britain, 283, 286. Bib. : Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Jay's Treaty. Between Great Britain and the United States; negotiated Nov. 
19, 1794. Provided for the evacuation by Great Britain of the western posts ; 
the settlement by commission of pecuniary claims between the two countries ; 
the appointment of a joint commission to determine the identity of the St. 
Croix River; and closer commercial relations. Negotiated by John Jay on 
behalf of the United States, and Lord GrenviUe representing Great Britain. 
Index : S Between Britain and the United States, 142. Dr Copies of, circulated 
in Canada, 290; ratified, 291. Bib. : Hertalet, Treaties and Conventions. 

Jefferson, Thomas (1743-1826) . Third president of the United States. Index : 
Dr His hostility to Great Britain, 273, 274, 281 ; his defeat for the presidency, 
in 1797, 298. Bk Purchases Louisiana from France, 41, 42; Ms embargo on 
United States ships trading to British ports, 85, 108; withdraws embargo, 114; 
confident of easy conquest of Canada, 259, 285. D His influence in determin- 
ing policy of United States as to the Pacific coast, 64-66 ; sends Lewis and 
Clark overland to Pacific, 66. Bib. : His Works, ed. by Henry A. Washington, 
were published by order of Congress, in 9 vols., 1853. See also Randolph, 
Memoirs, Correspondence and Miscellanies of Jefferson. For biog., see Randall, 
Life of Jefferson; Tucker, Life of Thomas Jefferson; Parton, Life of Thomas 
Jefferson; Cyc. Am. Biog. 


On Creek, County ? : F For 

a in Acadia, 270, 

Jenkins, William. WT in N>w 

147; in Quebec, 14S; by Sir 

IE 148 ; dies la 1863, 148. 

Jersey 0!miteers. Dr 202. 

JerviSj John. See St. Vincent. 

Jesmts ? Estates Act by the in 

the of the of by the in 1773, tlie 

property of the order in in the set 

lor of in the province of By tie 

America Act, it was in the The Aet 

authorized payment of as to the for the 

confiscated py the crown. An in Ontario for of the Act t 

followed by a formal motion in the Dominion House s by O'Brien, 

but only thirteen voted for Index: Md 

claimed by Society of Jeans, 286 ; Act by 

payment for lands Jesuits held before the conquest, 286, 287 ; 
federal disallowance, proposed, 288, 289; motion 289; 

ends by formation of Equal Rights Association and by the Pro- 

tective Association, 289. Br Proposal to apply revenues of, to 
purposes, 230 ; General Amherst's claim to, 230, BL Revenue from, 18. Bk 
Appropriation of property a grievance with French-Canadians, 77. Bib* : Wi- 
Eson, Sir Wilfrid Lawrier and the Liberal Party; Grant Hamilton* 
Grand; Pope, of Sir John A. MotcdonaU. 

Jesuit Missions, L Zeal of the missionaries compared with that of the 
Apostles,, 61 ; among the Iroquois, 64-67 ; wide extension of, 103 ; to the Algon- 
quians, destroyed by dranienness, 175. F Pure lives of 
good effect, 168. See under names of individual missionaries. Bib. : Park- 
man, Jem%t in North America* See (dm Jesuits. 

Jesuit Relations. The RehKon were published in Paris^ by the provincial 
of the order, in small annual volumes. The original narratives were written 
in Canada, or in one or other of the remote mission fields, by the devoted mis- 
sionaries, and are invaluable as a record of the condition and character of the 
various Indian tribes in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, fodex : Ck 
Promoted immigration to Canada, 250; describe religious condition of the 
colony, 256-;258; also last days of Champlain, 262, 268. F Parkmua cm, 80; 
Rochemonteix on, 30 ; Marie de 1'Incarnation on ? 30' ; their influence ia seemriag 
support for the missions, 30-31. Bib,: Jesuit Relation and 
1810-1791, ed. by Thwaites, Cleveland, 1896-1901, 73 vote,; cfes 

Jesuites, Quebec, 1858, 3 yols. 

Jesuits. The first missionaries of the order, Lalemant ? Masse, and Br&beuf , 
arrived in Canada in 1625. Work among the Aigonquians began that year ; and 
among the Hurons in 1626. The mission to the Iroquois dates from 1642. With 
the Iroquois mission are particularly associated the names of Jogues r Le Moyne, 
Ragueneau, Fr^min, and De Carheil : and with the mission to the Hurons, those 
of Br4beuf, Lalemant, Chabanel, Gamier, and Chaumonot. See also under 
names of individual missionaries. Index : Hd Their mission at Three Rivers, 
43; an unworthy member of the order, 48-49; suspected of sympathy with 
rebels. 130, 181 ; engage in the ginseng trade, 148 ; vestibule of their church 
turned into theatre, 30&-307. F Arrival of, 17; return after restoration of 


to France* 25 ; Frontenac's attitude towards, 113 ; their missions, 166. 
L Their devotion to the of missions, 4, 5; recommend Laval as vicar 

apostolic, 26; in Iroquois country, 73; place church at 

under of Immaculate Conception, and St. Louis, 85 ; works 

of piety instituted by, 86. Br Expelled from France, controversy respecting 
their property in Canada, 23 ; petition the king for restoration of their property, 
35. Ch Rtollets decide to ask assistance of, 150 ; not favoured by the traders, 
152 ; of, at Quebec, 153 ; their convent robbed by English, 196 ; embark 

for Tadonsac on board Kirke's ship, 196 ; sail for France, 206 ; take charge of 
on restoration of the country to France, 225; establish their 
convent of Notre Dame des Anges, 227 ; their convent at Quebec, 228, 229 ; 
give banquet to Emery de Caen, temporary governor, 228 ; found missions at 
Three Rivers and In Huron country, 228 ; also at Miscou and Cape Breton, 229. 
D As factors In spread of civilization In America, 2-3. Bib. : Jesuit Relation 
Allied Documents, ed. by Thwaites ; Parkman, Jesuits in North America; 
Rochemonteix, Les Jemites et la Noumlk^France; Kip, Early Jesuit Missions; 
Campbellj Pioneer Priests of North America. 

Jett, Sir Louis (1836- ). Studied law, and called to the bar, 1857. 
Practised In Montreal. Entered public life in 1872 as member for Montreal 
East, defeating Sir Georges E. Cartier. Appointed puisne judge of Supreme 
Court of Quebec, 1878 ; and the same year became professor of civil law in Laval 
University ; later dean of the faculty. Member of the commission for revision 
of the civil code of Quebec, 1887 ; and of the Alaskan Boundary Commission, 
Appointed lieutenant-governor of Quebec, 1898, and for a second term in 1903. 
Chief -justice of the Superior Court of Quebec, 1909. Index: C One of the 
founders of Le Parti National, and its organ Le National, 29-30 ; defeats Cartier 
in Montreal East, 84. Bib. : Morgan, Can. Men; Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog. 

Jews. Bk Resolution of Lower Canada Assembly excluding, 104; further 
discussion of question, 116. 

Joannes. ^ WM Town mayor of Quebec, strikes insubordinate officers, 230 ; 
proteats against order to propose capitulation, 230, 231 ; goes to British camp 
with articles of capitulation, 231, 232. 

Jogues, Isaac (1607-1646). Born at Orleans, France. Entered the Society 
of Jesus, and sailed for Canada in 1636. Set out almost immediately for the 
Huron mission. From there sent to the Tobacco nation ; and in 1641 visited 
the Chippewas at Sault Ste. Mane, and stood upon the shores of Lake Supe- 
rior. Went to Quebec the following year, and on the return journey captured 
by a party of Mohawks and carried off to the Iroquois country. After being 
repeatedly tortured, escaped at Fort Orange, with the help of the Dutch 
governor, and sailed for France, arriving at Rennes In 1643. After an inter- 
view with the queen regent, Anne of Austria, returned to Canada the follow- 
ing year, and sent as an ambassador to the Mohawks, 1646. Concluded a 
treaty of peace, and returned to Quebec. Sept. 27 of the same year, again 
set put for the Iroquois country, this time as a missionary. The attitude of the 
Indians had changed, and on Oct. 18 he was tomahawked as he entered one of 
the lodges at Tionnontoguen. Index : Ch Professor in college of Rouen, 207. 
L Sufferings and death of, 5, 62. Bib. : Campbell, Pioneer Priests of North 
America; Parkman, Jesuits in North America; Martin, Isaac Jogues; Withrow, 
Adventures of Isaac Jogues (R. S. C., 1885). 

John, and Thomas. F Vice-admiraFs ship in Phipps's squadron, 281. 

Johnson, Guy (1740-1788). Deputy to Sir William Johnson, as superin- 


of Indian and In Ms 

Amherst the French, in 1759. At the of the 

War, abandoned "Ms home in Amsterdam, New York, and his 

to Montreal, and later went to England. IE 1778, and i:i 

New York. Also with Brant ia the Mohawk Valley, I! in 

confiscated by the New York Assembly, 1779. Index: Hd Ilk letter 
to Lord George Germaine, 155; removed from Ma of 

156. Bib, : Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Johnson, John. WT Returned for St. John, 167. 

Jolmson, John M. (1818-1868). WT Solicitor-general, New 174- 

175; member of Fisher ministry , 185; 

delegate to Quebec Conference, 219; elected for as 

eration candidate. 249 ; to England as Confederation ; his 

yiews on County Courts, 267. Bib.: Hanaay, 

Johnson, Sir John (1742-1830). Son of Sir William (f.?.). Ap- 

pointed major-general of militia, 1774. Fled to Canada, 1776, 
St. Leger against Arnold the following year. After the of the 
War, became superintendents-general of Indian in British North 

Index: Br Commissioned to raise regiment, 151 ; IB 

to Upper Canada, 258 ; Ms claims to be first governor of province, 258 ; 
Indian agent in Upper Canada, 302. S Disappointed at not 
ernor of Upper Canada, 99 ; head of Indian department* 127. Hd 
agent, 156; raises Bang's Royal Regiment of New York, 156; 
instructions to, in regard to smallpox, 231 ; Ms consent to 

237 ; Haldimand stands sponsor to child of, 296 ; MacLean/8 opinion of, 308. 
Bib, : Morgan, CeL Can.; Cyc. Am. Biog.; Myers ? Tim or in 


Johnson, Sir William (1715-1774), Bom IB Ireland. Came to America, 
in 1738, to take charge of the estates of Ms uncle, Sir Peter Warren. Ap- 
pointed Indian agent in 1744, and obtained unrivalled influence over tie Sk 
Nations. In 1755 became superintendent of the affairs of the Sk Nations. 
The same year made major-general and commajider-m-cMef of the exj>edi- % 
tion against the French. Defeated Dieskau at Lake George, and received* 
the thanks of Parliament, a baronetcy, and a vote of 5000. Served 
Abercrombie in 1758, and in 1759 captured Niaf& from the French. Ac- 
companied Amherst to Montreal in 1760, Mainly instrumental in set- 
tling and developing the Mohawk Valley. Index : Dr Quiets discontent of 
Six Nations, 5, 6. Hd Takes possession of Fort Niagara, 26 ; precedence 

of Haldimand, 27 ; Ms influence with Six Nations Indians, 27 ; his ladians not 
allowed to attack La Gaiette, 28 ; retires for the winter, 29 : leaves O&wego for 
Montreal, under Amherst ; 35 ; his opinion on enlistment of Canadian corps, 57 ; 
takes Niagara, 121 ; his Indian widow, 154 ; death of, 155 ; Indians" opinion of, 
157 ; leave granted to, to hold western posts for England, 257. WM Captures 
Fort Niagara, 146. Bib. : Language, Customs, and Manners of the Six 
(Phil. Soc. of Phfla. Trans., 1772); Correspondence (Doc. ffist N.Y.); Reid, 
Story of Old Fort Johnson. For biog., see Morgan, CeL Can.; Stone, Life of Sir 
William Johnson; Buell, Sir William Johnson; Bradley, Ths FigM with France; 
Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe, and Conspiracy of Pontiac; Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Johnson-Clarendon Treaty, Md Attempt to settle Alabama question by, 167 : 
United States Senate refuses to ratify treaty, 167. Bib.: Hertstet, TrwMes ma 
Commons. 4 t t . t l 


Jolmston, Hugh. WT to Executive Council, New Brunswick, 

72; 1846, 76; iS4S f 116. 

Johnston, Sir W* C CMel-justlce of Quebec, 119; his views on French- 
Canadian cooking, 119. n ^ 

Jolmstoae, Chevalier. WH Aide-de-camp to L4vis, 139 ; his redoubt evaeu- 

140; with Montcafca on night preceding battle, 175; Ms opinion of 

Bougainville, 177; on brave rally of Canadians, 203; ^on demoralization of 

French 207 : on Vaudreuil and proposed capitulation, 209 ; on the flight 

to Cartier, 217 ; on of Ste. Foy, 261, 263, 264. Bib. : Doughty, 

of . 

John&to&e, James William (1793-1873). Bom in Jamaica. Came to Nova 
Scotia, studied law in Annapolis, and practised in Kentville and^ Halifax. Ap- 
pointed solicitor-general and a member of the governor's Council, and became 
the recognized leader of the Conservative party in Nova Scotia, Eesigned 
his seat in the Council in 1843 to contest Annapolis for the Assembly, and 
represented the county until 1864, when appointed judge in Equity. On 
the death of Howe in 1873 made lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia. Died 
in England the year. Index: H Appointed solicitor-general, 1834, 57 ; be- 
comes member of Executive and Legislative Councils, 1838, 57 ; leader of party 
opposed to responsible government, 58 ; his birth, ancestry, and character, 58 ; 
Sir Colin Campbell's chief adviser, 71 ; obnoxious to the Liberals, 71 ; opposes 
Howe's views as to responsibility of ministers to the Assembly, 75 ; makes public 
declaration as to dual responsibility of ministers, to the governor and the Legis- 
lature, 76; joins the Baptists, 77-78; defends denominational schools, 83; 
the election of 1843, 85-86 ; W. B. Almon called to Executive and Legislative 
Councils, 86-87; secures majority in new Legislature, 87; contest with Howe, 
80-90; makes speech against Howe, 98; carries measure for simultaneous 
polling, 104 ; resigns with his government, 1848, 107 ; member of Railway Con- 
vention at Portland. 1850, 121 ; opposes government railways, 144 ; moves 
vote of want of confidence, 165, 167 ; forms new government, 167 ; his party 
defeated in elections of 1859, 168; the chief-justiceship, 168; leader of the 
opposition, 171 ; becomes attorney-general in 1863, and judge in Equity, 1864, 
172 ; favours Confederation, 174 ; introduces bill prohibiting sale of intoxicants 
to Indians, 247-248. WT Advocates Confederation in Nova Scotia Assembly, 
in 1854, 204. Bib. : Saunders, Three Premiers of Nova Scotia; Campbell, 
History of Norn Scotia; Bourinot, Builders of Norn Scotia; Rattray, The Scot 
in British North America; Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog. 

Johastone's Redoubt WM French position on Beauport shore, 133, 136, 140. 

Joint High Commission, British-American, 1898-1899. Met in Quebec, Aug. 
23, 1898, and again in Washington, Nov. 10. The meetings continued until 
Feb. 20, 1899, ending in a disagreement. Canada was represented by Sir 
Wilfrid Laurier, Sir Richard Cartwright, Sir Louis Davies, and John Charlton; 
the United States by Gen. J. W. Foster e Hon. George Gray, Hon. C. W. Fair- 
banks, Hon. John A. Kasson, Hon. N. Dingley, and T. Jefferson Coolidge ; and 
Newfoundland by Sir J. S. Winter and Hon. A. B. Morine. Lord Herschell 
acted as chairman. Among the questions discussed were reciprocity, the 
Atlantic fisheries, the Alaskan boundary, the seal fisheries, war vessels on the 
Great Lakes, the bonding privilege, alien labour laws, and mining rights. Bib. : 
Willison, Sir Wilfrid Laurier and the Liberal Party. 

Joiliet, Louis (1645-1700). Born at Quebec; son of a wagon-maker in 
the employ of the Company of New France. Educated by the Jesuits, and took 

orders, but his clerical vocation to in lh<* fur 

by Talon to discover copper-mines on Superior, I A ^allf on 

his journey, ItiOO, near the site of the city of Hamilton. In 1073 ^f, 

with Jacques Marquette (q.$.) to discover the Mis^i^ipps. 

oa May 17, they the shore of MHus&E. 

to the of Green ^ Bay, Fox River to Whnehflgo, and 

the Wisconsin to the a 

the tic of 

the Illinois, Missouri, Ohio, a of 

the on July 17; to by of the 

Illinois, Joiliet to the of hi? at 

the foot of the rapids, of a 

ney to Hudson Bay in 1079 ; and the a of the 

Island of Antico&i* where he Ms In the 

coast of Labrador. On Ms return royal for the St. 

and hydrographer of the colony. Index: F of 

WH Descends Mississippi, 19. L Follows of 11 ; 

priestly career and becomes explorer, 59; his exploration of 
Ms burial, 147. Bib. : P^rkman, La Satte; Faiikm, en 

Margry, el cto Frar^ais; Sm 

also Marquette. 

Jolliet, Zachary. F His December journey from to 


Joly de Lotbuufere, Sir Henri Gustave (1829-1908). law and 

to the bar, 1855. Elected to Assembly for Lotbini&re, 1861. Took a 
part in opposition to Confederation. In 1867 elected for and 

Quebec Houses^ and sat in both up to 1874. Led opposition in 
1878, when he was called upon to form a ministry* His government 
in 1879, Mid in 1885' dropped out of public life for & time. for 

Portneuf in 1896, and became controller of inland revenue; the following 
called to the Cabinet as minister of inland revenue. Appointed 
governor of British Columbia, 1900. Index :- Hd Liberal In 

sustained in provincial election by majority of one s 249 ; his with the 

Leteilier case, 249. Bib. : Morgan, Can. M en; Dent* Can. For.; Rose, Cfc* 
Can. Biog. 

Jones, Alfred Gilpin (1824-1906). Bom at Weymoutli, Nova of 

United Empire Loyalist stock. Built up great shipping industry at 
Entered public life as an opponent of Confederation. Represented in 

Dominion House 1867-1872, 1874-1878. Became minister of 1878. 

Defeated in general election of that year, and again in 1881; elected in 1887 ? 
but defeated in 1891. Lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia 1900-1906. Index: 
BE Asked by Howe to attend conference with Sir John Rose, on financial situa- 
tion, 223 ; Ms reasons for declining, 224 ; leader of Anti-Confederate party in 
Nova Scotia, 224. Bib.: Dent, Caw. For.; Morgan, Can. Men; Roee, Cyc. 
Can. Biog. 

Jones, John Paul (1747-1792). Born in Scotland; son of John Paul, of 
Arbigland ; assumed name of Jones, Entered American navy ? 1775. Captured 
the Serapfe, 1779. Entered Russian naval service, 1788, with rank of rear- 
admiral. Died in Paris. Index : Hd Mentioned in Haldimand ? s correspond- 
ence, 245. Bib. : Sherbourne, Life of Paul Jones; Mackenzie, Li/6 of Paul 
Jones; Hamilton, Life of Paul Jones; Cyc. Am. Biog, 


Jones, Jonas (1791-1848), at Cornwall under John Straehan. 

m an 0! during the War of 1812-1814, attaining the rank of 

coIoneL Called to the bar of Upper Canada* 1815. Elected to the Assembly 
for Leeds and Greaville, 1821, 1825, and in 1832. A strong supporter 

of the union of Upper and Lower Canada. Appointed a puisne judge of the Court 
of Queen's' Bench, 1837. Bib. : Read, Lives of the Judges. 

Jones, Peter. R His visit to England in 1831, 90. 

Jonquest, Jltienne. Ch Marries Anne Hubert, 113; death of, 117. 

Jordan t John. WT Member for St. John in New Brunswick Assembly, 105; 
referred to in Wilmot's speech, 105 ; defeated in St. John County in 1850, 153. 

Joseph, Saint. L Chapel dedicated to, in church at Quebec, 84 ; patron saint 
of Canada, 87. Ch Jesuit mission in Huron country, 93 ; French colony placed 
under patronage of, 150. 

Jotard. Hd Editor of Mesplet's publications, 277. 

Journal de Quebec. C Cauchon writes for, 24 ; praises Cartier in, 88. 

Journal Teat* & l'Arme. WM Quoted, 169; severe criticism of Montealm, 
205 ; Canadians praised, 196 ; quoted as to loss on French side, 205. 

Juan de Fuca. D His real name Apostolos Velerianos, 9 ; expedition to North- 
West Coast, 9 ; authenticity of his Voyage^ 9, 19 ; his name rescued from ob~ 
Ivion ? 23. Bib: Waibran, British Columbia Coast Names. 

Juan de Fuca Strait Between Vancouver Island and United States main- 
land. Index : D Its discovery, 9, 14, 19 ; rediscovered by Kendrick, 25. Bib. : 
Walbran, British Columbia Coast Names. 

Jubilee. Ch Granted by pope, celebrated in Quebec, 1618, 114. 

Jttchereau, Jean." Qh A settler from La Fert6 Vidame, in Thimerais, 252. 

Jtichereatt, Mdre. F Reports repulse of some of Phipps's men at Rivi- 
&re Ouelle, 291 ; on flag incident, 296 ; on divine protection of Quebec, 801. 
L On Laval's patience in trial, 240. 

Juc&ereau de St. Denis. F Wounded in skirmish on Beauport flats, 294. 

Jttdah, Henry Hague (1808-1883). Born in London, England. Came to 
Canada, and called to the bar, 1829. Represented Champlain in the Assembly, 
1843-1844. Appointed one of the Commissioners under the Act abolishing the 
Seigniorial Tenure, 1854. Index : E Commissioner under Federal Tenure Law 

Judges. Bk Bill for exclusion of, passed by Lower Canada Assembly, but 
thrown out by Council, 104; further discussion of question, 116; instructions 
from Great Britain regarding, 117, 126; Act of Exclusion passed, 145. 

Judicature. E Measures relating to, passed by second La Fontaine-Baldwin 
government, 86-87 ; S Act for establishing Superior Court for Tipper Canada 
passed, 92 ; amended, 94. Sy Bill passed by Special Council, 255. BL Revisions 
of system, 286, 300-301 ; terms of the Act, 292, 302-303, 339. 

Jurisdiction, Question of. L In New France, 163. 

Justices of the Peace. See Magistrates. 

Karoinistiquia, or Kaministikwia, Fort. At mouth of river of same name, 
north-west shore of Lake Superior. Built by Zacharie Robutel de La Nolle, in 
1717. La V4rendrye wintered there in 1731, while making preparations for his 
western explorations. The site abandoned in favour of Grand Portage, which 
became for many years, under both French and British rule, the jumping-off 
place for the western fur country. Fort William was afterwards built on or 
near the site of the old French fort. 


(1SKMS71). In Toronto. RWVYI| his firwt 

prnry, thf ilra\uug-nia,>n'r at Upper C'an;iS;i <'oll*-$<\ jSprnt *L % 

yira 1S&MS40 in the Unltcti States; aul Kiilai for Europe;' 

art in Itaily and throughout tho continent, RHunifd to T*in:r,to in 
and set out on a tour of th of th 

Bay Company. Vbheci many of the to the 

and brought ^back with him in 1848 sketches, from he 

a of oil of life and 

a of this bis own 

Bib. : of an Ilk / For 

see Morgan, CW. fan.; Ctye. Am. 

W. BL on 166, 158 ; on La and 

169-171 ; OE 176, 186, 236, 237. B 

attitude in 24. Bib. ; : (fe and Cfff- 

of Mttcalfc; of 

o/ Life of Kir John 

Reefer, Thomas Coltrin (1821- ). at Ea- 

in the enlargement of the Wetland 1841-IS45, sad 

ierred to the^ Ottawa River works, 1845-1849. a of tie St. 

Lawrence rapids, 1850 ; and prepared the report and ia 

the building of the Victoria bridge at Montreal in the 

deepening of the St. Lawrence channel and the of the 

on Canadian railways. Served as Canadian commissioner at the 
lions of 1851 and 1862, and the Paris exhibition of 1878 ? and also on the 
national Deep Waterways Commission. Author of a of and 

papers on engineering and public questions. Bifc. : Works: of 

Railways; of Canada; cm Victoria 

See ah in Bourinot's bibliography (K. S. C., 18W). For biqg,, we 
Can. Men; Dent, Can, For. 

Kempt, Sir James (1764-1854). Commanded in 1812; 

and division at Waterloo, 1815; governor of Nova Bootia, 1820-1828; Mid gov- 
ernor of Canada, 1828-1830. Made a privy-oncilor, 1830 ; 
of ordnance, 1834-1838; general, 1841. Index: BL His at 

tion ? 20. P Succeeds Lord Dalhousie as governor, 70 ; his attitude 
Canadians, 70 ; his report, 1829, on the political situation in Lower 71. 

Bib. : Morgan, Cel Can.; Did. Nat, Bi&.; Christie, o/ 

Kendrick, Captain John. American seaman. Trading on North-West 
1787-1793. Killed in Sandwich Islands, 1793. Index: B to North- 

West Coast in 1787, 23; at Nootka, 24; credited with rediscovery of 
of Juan de Fuca, 25. 

Kennebec River. A river of the state of Maine, rising in Moosettead ; 
about 200 miles long. Index : Dr Arnold's march up, 107. 

Kennedy, Captain. B Agitates through newspapers and Toronto Board of 
Trade importance of acquiring and settling North- west Territories, 216 ; writes 
Lord Elgin on same subject, 216. 

Kennedy, Sir Arthtir Edward (1810-1883). Governor of Vancouver Island, 
1863-1867. Subsequently governor of Queensland. Died in Brisbane. 

Kennedy, William ^assail (183&-1885). Born at Darlington, Ontario. 
Served as a lieutenant in the Ontario Rifles with the Bed River Expedition, 
1870, Settled in Winnipeg, and appointed registrar of deeds, 1872. A member 
of the North-West Council, 1873; mayor of Winnipeg, 1875-1876. Organized 


the Winnipeg Field Battery and subsequently colonel of the 90th Rifles. Ac- 
companied the Canadian to Egypt, as paymaster of the contingent, 
1885. Served through the campaign, but died at London on Ms way home to 

Kennedy's Regiment. WM On British right, 189. 

Kenny, Sir Edward (1800-1801). Born in Kerry County, Ireland. Emi- 
grated to Nova Scotia. Summoned to the Senate at Confederation. Became 
receiver-general in, federal ministry, 1867-1869 ; president of the Privy Council, 
1869-1870. For a time acting lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia. Vacated 
his in the Senate, 1876. Index : Md Receiver-general in first Dominion 

Cabinet, 134 ; represents Irish Roman Catholics, 135. WT receiver-general in 
first Dominion Cabinet, 271. H Member of first Dominion Cabinet, 198. 

Kent and Strathem, Edward Augustus, Duke of (1767-1820). Fourth son 
of George III and father of Queen Victoria. Sent to Canada, 1791 ; served in 
West Indies, 1794 ; returned to Canada, 1796 ; commander-in-chief of forces 
in British North America, 1799-1800; governor of Gibraltar, 1802-1803; field- 
marshal, 1805. Index : S Commands 7th Fusiliers in garrison at Quebec, 47 ; 
visits Simcoe at Navy Hall, 183 ; visits Niagara Falls, 183 ; is entertained by 
Robert Hamilton at Queenston, 184. Br Arrival of, 270 ; popularity of, 275 ; 
service at Halifax, 276. MS Stationed in Canada, 98 ; his friendship for Alex- 
ander Mackenzie, 98. Bib. : Did. Nat. Biog. 

Kent Lodge. Near Quebec. Index: Hd Formerly Montmorency House, 
Haldiomnd's summer residence, 345. 

Kentucky. Dr Movements on foot in, for separation from other American 
states, 247, 249. 

Kerr. WT Elected as Confederation candidate for Northumberland, N. B., 
249 ; moves the address in New Brunswick Assembly, 257. 

Ken:, D. S. WT Council for Doak and Hill in libel case, 75. 

Kerr, W. J. Me Attempts Mackenzie's assassination, 218; tried and con- 
victed, 220. 

Ketchum, Jesse. Me Elected to the Assembly, 150; delivers rejoinder to 
governor, 300. 

Kicking Horse Pass. Through Rocky Mountains, north of lat. 51, length 
104 miles, and elevation at watershed 5300 feet. This pass is followed by the 
main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway. It was explored and named by 
Dr. Hector, of the Palliser expedition, in 1858. 

Killaly, H. H. Represented town of London in first Parliament after the 
union of 1841 ; chairman of the board of public works, 1841-1844, and 1844- 
1846. Index : Sy Made president of board of works for united province, 333. 
BL Commissioner of public works, 1841, 76 ; a moderate Liberal, 78 ; remains 
in office under La Fontaine-Baldwin government, 133, 134. Bib.: Dent, Last 
Forty Years. 

Killlan, Doran. WT Recruits Fenian army in New York, 247; his force 
arrives at Eastport, 247. 

King, Dr. Me Aids Mackenzie's escape, 389. 

King, Rev. Win. B Moving spirit in negro settlement in Upper Canada, 113. 

King's American Regiment. Dr Commanded by Fanning, 202. 

King's College (New Brunswick). WT Charter granted by George IV, 1828, 
49 ; endowed by New Brunswick Legislature, 49 ; controlled by Church of 
England, 49-50, 51 ; proposed amendments to charter, 51-56 ; amendment bill 
finally passed, 58 ; becomes University of New Brunswick, 86 ; originated in 


of New Brunswick oluirtoml, ISOO, 86; to fr-rj%? v rt SrjtA 

school, Iti2 ; cause of its* unpopularity, ii!3 ? 11*0 ; ti nn* of tiv A?!, f 

1&T>9 T 100-101. jSYe New Colit gtf of f NVw BraiMA ii, *k, D^iv* rs^y d, 

King's College (Nova Scotia). An at \Viiui.-or, Nova >iCtli ( 

1788. The year an Art pikwcl for ** the pt-rniai'^ ut i^aHl-Lir^r^ ar**J 

of a at Winder," anil pirr 

Its Under King's C la ITtMX 

royal charter, 1802. Index : H by of SI, E 

under control of Church of 3, Bib. : ef 

in An Ency., vol. 4 ; Akim, o/ fJk 

Hind, c>/ 

King's College (Upper Canada), G 15, 1827. 

Md Proposed in 29; 

college Its property secularized, University of 30; ft- 

placed as Church of College by Vnivraityof Trinity 30. BL 

Conceived by Simcoc, land made T royal 

dent of, 191-192 ; opposition to tcrnw of charter, 
teaching begins, 1843, 102-193 ; Its land 104 ; 

of its property to University of Toronto, 195, 2!I3 ; 
195, 196. E Its history connection with the university 
R Straehan secures royal charter, 72 ; and becomes first 73 ; 

of eharter ? 73^-74 ; inauguration^ 1843, 147 ; its financial position, 147 ; 
of, charged with control of grammar schools, 248-240, See Toronto UmviTsity. 
Bib.: Hopkins, Canada: An Enq/., vol. 4; Bethune, of 

Slrachan; Robinson, Sir John 

KJng ? s Printer, Upper Canada. S Louis Roy ? first of 172 ; 

Roy succeeded by G. Tiffany, 173. 

King's Royal Regiment of New York. Hd by Sir 156 ; 

Beverley Robinson, Colonel of, 201 ; disbanded and receive of 255. 

Kingsford, William (1819-1898). Came to from in 1837. 

Qualified as a civil engineer in Montreal, and for 

some years. The author of many pamphlets, in addition to his 
history, the preparation of which he took up late in life, &d 
before his death. Index : L On Bollard^ exploit, 75. Bib. : Works: 
mm of the West avid South during a Six Holiday; 

Canadian Archaeology; Early Bibliography of Ontario; qf 10 

vols. For list of Dr. KingsiorcPs contributions to periodicals, m E. 8. C. 
Trans., 1894, 47-48. For biog. see Morgan, Can. Mm; HacMurehy, 

Kingston. City of Ontario, founded by United Empire Loyalists, 1783. 
Index: Md Sir John A. MacdonakTs early life In, 2; practises law there, 5; 
elected alderman of, 10 ; asked to be Conservative candidate for, 11 ; elected 
for, 12 ; constituency represented by Macdonald, with one short break, through- 
out his whole public career, 12, 16, 31, 211 ; its rivalry for seat of government, 
39; meeting at, protests against Rebellion Losses Bill, 42; dissatisfied with 
selection of Ottawa as capital, 85 ; difficulty over visit of Prince of Wales, I860, 
88; Macdonald defeated in, 1878, 228. S Government of Upper Canada 
organized at, 79 ; rejected by Skncoe in favour of York as arsenal for Lake 
Ontario, 204 ; Simcoe spends winter of 1794-1795 at, 211 ; growth of the town, 
211. BL Selected by Sydenhani as capital, reasons for the choice, 73; rts 
history, 73-75; the legislative building, 86-86; Assembly passes resolution 


declaring city not suitable as of government, 147 ; reception to Metcalfe, 
155 ; not satisfactory as capital, 180 ; Harrison member for, 182 ; serious trou- 
ble between Orangemen and Roman Catholics, 187; severe fire of 1812, 298; 
speck! powers granted to magistrates of, 298, 300. Sy Chosen as seat of gov- 
ernment, 282j 292 ; accommodation at, for Legislature and government offices, 
23. Bk An important military post, 56; differing views of Dorchester and 
Siincoe respecting, 56; Broek stations deputy quartermaster-general at, 80. 
See Frontenac; Cataraqui. Bib.: Machar, Old ^Kingston. 

Kinnear. WT Solicitor-general, New Brunswick, 1846, 116; joins the gov- 
ernment, 116; proposed for judgeship, 130. 

Kirby, William (1817-1906) . Born in Kingston-upon-Hull, England. Came to 
Canada, 1832, but educated at Cincinnati, Ohio. Settled at Niagara, Ontario, 
1839, where edited and published the Mail for twenty years. Collector of 
customs at Niagara, 1871-1895. Bib. : Works : The United Empire; Le Chwn 
d'Or; Pontiac; Canadian Idylls; Annals of Niagara. For biog., see MacMurehy, 
Canadian LUerature. 

Kirke, Sir David (1596-1655?). Born in Dieppe, son of a Scottish merchant. 
Went to England, and, with his two brothers, given command of an ex- 
pedition against the French in Canada, 1627. Appeared before Quebec, but 
Champlain, who was then in charge, refused to surrender. Returned down 
the river, met and defeated the French squadron under De Roquemont, in 
July, 1628, and reappeared before Quebec the following year, when the garrison, 
reduced to starvation, was forced to surrender. Knighted by Charles I, 1633, 
and obtained a grant of lands in Newfoundland. Appointed governor of the 
island; removed by Cromwell; and returned in 1652. Index: Ch Commands 
expedition against Quebec, 173 ; acts under authority of Sir William Alexander, 
176; his letter to Champlain, 176; sails for Europe, 179; spends several days 
in Quebec, 204 ; accused by Champlain of intolerance, 205, 206 ; learns of treaty 
of peace between England and France, 207. F Captures Quebec, 21. Bib. : 
Kirke, The First English Conquest of Canada; Parkman, Pioneers of France; 
Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Kirke, Sir Lewis. Born 1599. Accompanied his brother Sir David Kirke 
on his expeditions to Canada and Newfoundland. Fought on the side of 
Charles during the Civil War. Commanded a troop of horse at the battle of 
Edgehill; took part in the siege of Gloucester and in the battle of Newbury; 
knighted by the king, 1643; made governor of Bridgenorth Castle; heavily 
fined under Cromwell for his loyalty to Charles. After the Restoration ap- 
pointed captain and paymaster of the corps of gentleman-at-arms. Index: 
F Left in charge of Quebec, surrenders it to French on conclusion of peace, 23. 
Ch Resides in Fort St. Louis after capitulation, 158; demands surrender of 
Quebec, 188-190 ; grants articles of capitulation, 191, 192 ; receives keys of 
the fort, 195 ; hoists English flag, 196 ; his courteous treatment of Champlain, 
199; shows religious intolerance, 206. ' Bib.: Kirke, The First English Conquest 
of Canada; Parkman, Pioneers of France. 

Kirke, Thomas. Born 1603. Brother of Sir David and Sir Lewis Kirke. 
Accompanied them on their expeditions in Canada and Newfoundland. Killed 
during the Civil War, fighting on the side of Charles. Index : Ch Demands 
surrender of Quebec, 188-190 ; signs articles of capitulation, 192 ; takes Emery 
de Caen prisoner, 220. Bib. : Kirke, The First English Conquest of Canada. 

Kirkpatrick, Sir George Airey (1841-1899). Born in Kingston. Educated at 
Trinity College, Dublin; studied law, and called to the bar, 1865. Sat for 

Dominion House, !87tV-2; Speaker. ItysVlfcST: 

Council 1801 ; liniteiiant-^owrnor of l&nM&tf ; K, C. M. G., 

Bib.: Lkutctmd-frwernm of Uppw C*i?x 

Fish). F for uf baaitj, 

Knox, Henry (1750-1SQ6). Amuriran in War. ; 

J>r Commissioner on for 0! 2u$. ; 

Drake, Life of 

Knox, Captain. Wolfe at an ol the 

la Xorth 1757 to 1760. WM llis r>f 

of and 1 ; hi* of ffcf ; 

as to and of 163, Ifrt ; on 

cixilians the city, 250. Bib* : /In a/ ll^ 

in North 1757~$0. Sec 

Knox College. Presbyterian 

R Established by Free Church a at Io5, 

Bib.: Caveo 7 of Kmx Cdkgf^ in Jit vol. 4, 

Knutsfordy Henry Thurston (1&25- ). 

Midhurst in Parliament, 1874r-l&S5, and 

tary of state for the colonies, 1887-1892, : to ea 

Confederation, 158. 

Kondlaronk. F Huron chief, 222. 

L Treachery of, 216 ; becomes friend of the French^ 235. Bib. : 

Kootenay District. In British. Columbia. Index : D First by 

Thompson, 58. 

Kuprianoff , iTan Andreevicli. I) Succeeds in 

1836, 45. 

L'Alonette. Chi One of De Cagn j s 166. 

I/ Ange, Captain. Ch Meets Champlain on Ms retum from tie Upper 

I/AnticotoiL Ch Pamphlet against Jesuits, 153. 

I/Avenir. Newspaper, of Montreal. C of 26, 27. 

E Organ of the Parti Rouge^ 108. BL Organ of the of Lower < 

demands universal suffrage, etc., 343. 

Laas, Captain de. WM In battle of Stc. Foy, 263. 

La Barre, Joseph Antoine LefebTre de. Governor of La ia 

and in 1682 arrived in Quebec as governor of Canada. His 
marked by hopeless incompetence ; recalled, 1685. Indej: : L 
nac as governor, 168 ; a feeble administrator, 185 ; prejudiced at ttie 

bishop, 188 ; convokes a special assembly, 190 ; asks for more 191 ; Ms 

expedition against Iroquois, 193; makes terms of peace, 193; 193. 

F Governor, arrival of, 171; summons conference on Indian question, 172; 
applies for troops, 172 ; criticized in despatches by intendantj 173 y 174 ; 
to illegitimate trading, 175 ; disparages discoveries of La Sale, 170 ; Fori 

Frontenac and Fort St. Louis, 177, 179 ; instructed to restore to La Salle all 
his property, 180 ; his unwise instruction to Iroquois, 180 ; decides to make war 
on Senecas, 181 ; corresponds with Colonel Dongan, governor of New York, 
182 ; leads expedition, 183 ; arranges ignominioiis terms of peace, 186 ; recaled, 
188 ; unfitness for his position, 189 ; results of his weak policy, 198, 209. Bib, ; 
Parkman, Frontemc and 


Laberge, C. J. C A Liberal leader in Quebec, 25; on Dorion, 28; kepi In 
opposition by Radical programme, 29. 

Labrador. The has been popularly applied to the whole territory 

bounded by the Atlantic, Hudson Strait, and Hudson Bay, which includes not 
only the Labrador coast-strip, but also a portion of the North-West Territories, 
Also known at one time as New Britain. The name is properly applied to the 
strip of coast from Cape Chidley to Blanc Sablon, forming a dependency of the 
colony of Newfoundland. On various theories as to origin of name, see Ganong, 
of Gulf of SL (R. S. C., 1889). The boundaries have 

long been in dispute between Newfoundland and Canada, and the territory has 
several times changed hands. The Labrador coast was first discovered by 
the Northmen, in the tenth century. Cabot sailed along the coast in 1498, 
and Corte-Real in 1500. The interior remained practically unexplored till 
traversed by officers of the Hudson's Bay Company about 1840. There are 
a few posts of the Hudson's Bay Company on the coast. The southern portion 
is inhabited by a primitive race of fishermen ; in the north are several missions 
of the Moravian Brethren, first established there in 1764. Index : Dr Canadians 
petition for its restoration to Canada. Bib. : Cartwright, Sixteen Years on the 
Comt of Labrador; Hind, Explorations in Interior of Labrador; Packard, The 
Labrador Coast; Stearns, Labrador; Dawson, anada and Newfoundland; Gren- 
feii, Labrador; Hubbard, 1 Woman's Way through Unknown Labrador; Gosling, 
Labrador, Its Discovery and Development. 

Labrdclte, L. E Member of the Parti Rouge, 108L 

La Caffimdre, De. F Commander of squadron sent against New York, 234. 

La Canardiere. F Former name of Beauport flats, 293. WM French position 
on Beauport shore, 94, 105, 134. 

Lac aux Claies. S Renamed Lake Simcoe in honour of Governor Simcoe's 
father, 207. See Simcoe. 

Lac de Soissons. Gh Name given by Champlain to Lake of Two Mountains, 

La Chaise, Francois d'Aix (1624-1709). Born at the castle of Aix in Forez. 
Entered Society of Jesus, and provincial of his order when selected by Louis 
XIV as his confessor in 1675. Retained that difficult position up to the time 
of his death. Index: L His report on the liquor question, 174; his letter to 
Laval, 238. 

La Chesnaye. See Aubert de la Chesnaye, k 

La Chesnaye Settlement. F Iroquois raid on, 226. L Ravaged by Iroquois, 

Lachine. Said to have been named by La Salle's men, in derision of his 
dream of a westward passage to China. The land was granted by the Sulpicians 
to La Salle as a seigniory in 1666 ; and from here he set forth on his memorable 
explorations, in 1669. Twenty years later, this was the scene of a terrible 
massacre by the Iroquois. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Lachine 
became of importance as the starting-point of the brigades of the fur traders, 
bound for the far West. Index : L Origin of the name, 148 ; massacre of, 225. 
F Description of massacre at, 10, 224, 225. Bib. : Parkman, La Salle and Fronte- 
nac; Girouard, Lake St. Louis and Cavelier de la Salle. 

Lachine Canal. BL Construction of, provided for by government in 1841, 
98. Bib. : Rheaume, Lachine and Origin of its Canal (Women's Can, Hist. Soc. 
Trans., voL 2). See also Canals. 

Ladiiae Railway. E Commenced in 1846 ; 99, 


La Coloiibifer*, Be. L On of Laval, 23? pr/,K.*r> LnajTs: 

40, 265 ; hid of 23t, 257. 

Lacombe, 1 1827- ). at 8t. bulpuv, Qiwhv. Or.b rail 

1$49, left for the Labour* <1 am i;^ t'ie Cw& 

for to the 

of el of St. Albert. 

el de la dfa* C'ri*. Sec 


La Come d St. Luc, Louis Luc. at St. 

Point), 1741-1747; at La in 1752; aid the 

to of the of In 17fi& at 

Quebec; the at La In 

1761, one of the of the of in 

the and In 1775 a of to act 

the Americans. Index : Br In 

36 ; tried and 38 ; of Council 

91. WH Unable to Sir 146. Hd 

by at Fort Ontario, 20; one of the few in of 

L'Avguste, 40. Bib.: Paikman, aii and 

La Come, Pierre. Accompanied Joncaire oa an to the 01 

Niagara, 1720. Sent to Acadia with De 1747. in the 

action at Grand Pr6, Returned to Quebec, but to Nova to 

induce the Aeadians to remove from the province* After the of the 

attempt, returned to Quebec, and took an active in 
of the next ten years. Distinguished at the 0! Qwlw, 1750, 

he had command of a body of local troop, Bib, : of 

Sc0tw; to the of ed. by 

Lacoste, Sir Alexandra (1842^- ). Bom at 
eated at Laval University; studied kw and to the t>ar erf 

1863. A member of the legislative Council of Qtteb ? 1882 ; aad in 
to the Senate ; appointed Speaker, 1891. CMef-ipfeiee of tie of 

of Quebec, 1891-1907. Sworn of the Privy Council, and 
Administrator of Quebec, 1898. Bib.: 

Lacoste, Louis (1798-1878). Bom at Bonchervile. at 

St. Suipice College, Montreal, and called to the bar of I^wer Sal ia 

the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada, 1834-1838, and in the 
A^embly of Canada, 1843-1861. Elected a member of the 
1861. Appointed to the Dominion Senate, 1867. 

La DauversBre, Roger de. F One of the founders of Montreal 32. 

La Durantaye. See Morel de la Durantaye. 

Lady Maria. Dr British vessel on Lake ChampMn, 154. 

La Famine, F La Barrels army encamps at, 184. 

Lafayette, Marie Jean Paul Joseph Roche Yves Gilbert dn Motley Ifwipis 
de (1757-1834). Sailed for America in 1777, with a number of other French 
officers, and appointed by Congress a major-general. Met Washington at 
Philadelphia, and a close friendship sprang up between the two. Wounded 
at Brandywine. Given command of a division of Washington's araiy. In 1778 
appointed to the command of an expedition against Canada, which ended in a 
fiasco. Served with distinction at Monmouth, and later in Virginia. Secured 
from Rmce an Auxiliary force of 6000 men to assist the Americans. After 


the of the a division of the French army in the war 

Austria^ 1792, but by the Jacobins, and fled to Belgium. 

Captured, and by the Austrian**, and not set free until 1797. After 

Waterloo, sat in the of Deputies, 181&-1S24 ; visited the United States 

in the year ; and in instrumental In placing Louis Philippe on the 

throne. Index: Hd His letter to Canadians, 128; Pillon's treasonable corre- 
spondence with, 278. Bib. : etc., de Lafayette; "La B&iolli&re, ie 
du Cioquetj Souvenirs de la Vie Prwee du Lafayette. See 
Cyc. Am. Bi&g. y with further biblipg. 

Lafitmii, Joseph-Francois. Jesuit missionary in Canada for many years. 

Afterwards returned to France, KJhere he became a professor of belles-lettres. 

CMefly remembered because of his invaluable work on the manners and customs 

of the Indian tribes of Canada in the early years of the eighteenth century. Bib. : 

de$ Am&riquainft. 

Laflamme ? Rodolphe (1827-1893). Born in Montreal. Entered public life as 
member for Jaeques-Cartter in Dominion House, 1872; minister of inland 
revenue, 1876; resigned with the government, 1878. Index: E Member of 
Parti Range, 108. C Liberal leader In Quebec, 25, 29 ; protests against Dorion 
entering Cartier's administration, 106-107. Bib. : Dent, Can. For. and Lasi 
Forty Years, 

La Fldche, College of. L Laval studies at, 19, 20. 

La Fldque. Ch One of De Cain's vessels, 156. 

La Fontaine, Sir Louis-Hippplyte, Bart. (1807-1864). BL His name associated 
with responsible government, ix ; espouses cause of Reformers in Lower Canada, 
46 ; no sympathy with Rebellion, 47 ; his birth and parentage, 47 ; education 
practises law In Montreal Ms marriage, 47 ; in politics, 47-48 ; arrested for 
complicity In Rebellion, but released, 49 ; on the union, 57 ; opposes union of the 
provinces, 61 ; offered and refuses solicitor-generalship, 61 ; meets Hincks, 63 ; 
defeated In Terrebonne, 70; favours ministerial responsibility, 70-71; recon- 
ciled to the union, 71 ; his refusal to accept office leaves French-Canadians with- 
out representation in executive, 1841, 78, 79 ; elected for York, 116-117 ; Bagot's 
letter to, offering attorney-generalship of Lower Canada, 123-124; declines 
appointment, 125 ; referred to In Draper's speech, 127 ; his speech hi reply to 
Draper, 128 ; takes office, 132 ; attorney-general for Lower Canada, 133 ; re- 
elected In York, 134 ; attitude of Tories, 139 ; significance of his alliance with 
Baldwin, 142-143 ; personal appearance, 147-148 ; attacked by London Times, 
150 ; relations with Metcalfe, 164-176 ; Kaye's description of, 169 ; Hincks' com- 
ments on Kaye, 170 ; interview with Higginson, 172-173 ; his published memo- 
randum, 173-176 ; his work in the Assembly, 178-179 ; seconds resolution to re- 
move capital to Montreal, 182 ; his act for securing independence of Legislative 
Assembly, 184 ; reorganization of judicial system of Lower Canada, 184-185 ; 
resigns office, 1843, 199 ; interview with Metcalfe, 201 ; draws up official state- 
ment of reasons for resignation of ministers, 201-205; Metealfe's statement, 
205-209 ; announces resignation in Assembly, 213 ; returns to practise law in 
Montreal, 217 ; Wakefield on, 219 ; his health proposed at Toronto banquet, 
221 ; Viger's criticism of, 236 ; Draper on, 236 ; resigns as Queen's Counsel, 250; 
elected in Terrebonne, 251 ; his proposed resolution on use of French in the 
Legislature, 255 ; Draper's overtures to, 258-263 ; his contention for responsible 
government, 273; seconds Baldwin's amendment to address on responsible 
government, 277; his speech, 277; elected, 1848, for both Montreal and Terre- 
bonne, 279 ; forms with Baldwin the second La Fontaine-Baldwin administra- 


interview with El^n f 2S5-286; swurw a *trlan 

for 288; Ly 280; hw r*>jly, &* V'*'l 

Louw amiic^tv 3J>- 

303 ; Ins Dill for seats in the Is 303 the 

lion Bill, 303, ; his views, 330, 340 ; with 

342; of and tttf 342, 343 ; ant in 

of of 348 ; liis on Tenure, 33>- 

35 1 , 353 ; for the of 


m his at 1851 ? 354 ; km ; his 

tion, 357 ; of aad a 

3o8 ; Ms 358 ; his at Feb. 26, 1864, 358 ; 

of B into by 16 : 

with 10; his wise 24 ; 0a 

35; of old by hia re- 

tirement, 262, E Denounces Union Act, 24; the it 

to the of his compatriots, 32; with as 

opposition leader, 44-45 ; returned la 1848, 50 ; his by 

51, 108 ; forms administration with Baldwin, 52, S3 ; his on 

Losses Bill .67-68 ; takes part la the ; mob attacks Ms and 

burns Jits library, 74; second by mob, 7f>~77; Ms 

and dissolution of government, 85 ; Ms part in the of the 

mentary system, 90 ; Ms attitude towards Clergy Reserves question, 102 t 103, 
162-164; Ms resignation, 104, 107; practises law, 105; of 

Court of Appeals of Lower Canada, 105 ; baronetcy, 105 ; Ms as 

and jurist, 105 ; his death, 105, 220 ; his conservative 138; 

Ms views on Seigniorial Tenure question, 185, 187 ; as a constructive 
236. C Sides against the government, 6 ; attitude 

of 1841, 16 ; forms alEaaee with Baldwin, 16, 97 ; forms ininistry, 16 ; 17 ; 

called to power in 1846, IS ; as a 23; Ms 

in two, 25^26 ; protests Union Act of 1840 7 96 ; Ms for 

responsibility, 97; long of power, 99; wks battle, 100; 

Ms retirement from polities, 132, P Refuses in Draper ministry, 72 ; joins 
Papineau's party, 78 ; supports Mm in Ms violent attitude towards government 
86; at meeting of Constitutional Committee, 88; Ms character, 109; 
by the Mercury, 123; relations with Papineau in 1847 and after, 167-180; 
split in Liberal party causes retirement, 179-180; Ms farewell speech, 179, 1 
Forms opposition party with Baldwin, Hincks, and others, 122. Me 
revolutionary meetings, 328. Md Given seat In administration by Bagpt* IS; 
resigns, 1843, 18 ; attacked by extreme Reformers, 22 ; forms acmkistration 
with Baldwin, 30 ; elevated to the bench, 46-47. Bib. : Dent, Con. POT. wad 
Last Forty Years; Morgan, Cel Can ; Taylor, Brit. Am,; Davld 3 
Portraits; Hincks, Reminiscences. 

La Forest. F Left in charge of Port Nelson, 346. 

La Franchise, Sieur de. Ch Letter from in Champlain's first narraiiTe, 

La GaHssonni&re, RoUand-If ichel Barron, Comte de. Came to New France 
as administrator of the government until the arrival of the governor, Marquis de 
la Jonqui&re. Returned to France, 1749 ; the same year appointed one of the 
commisaoners on behalf of the French government, to settle the boundaries of 
Acadia, Head of the department of nautical charts at Paris. Commanded the 


French at 1756 ? and the British under Admiral Byng. 

Died in Nemours* France, 17511 Is to have furnished money and supplier 
to the Abt>e de la to him to carry on his work In Acadla. Index : 

WM colonies, 21. Bib. : Mfmoire sur lea Colonies 

de k r For biog., sc<? Parkman, Ifonf- 

Wolfe; from the Public Documents of Norn Scotia, ed. by 

AMDS; Tyrroll* hi A'ora tfcotia Documents, 

JM Grange-Trianon, Mile, de. F Becomes wife of Frontenae, 63. 

Ijtgmdej Madeleine. F Niece of Talon, wile of Francois Ferret, 97. 

La Hontaii 7 Louis Armand de Lorn d'Arce, Baron de (1666-1715). Arrived 

in in 1083 ; spent some time at Quebec, and also travelled extensively 

in the West. Embodied the result of Ills Canadian experiences in a volume of 

travels, which, especially his extraordinary story of the Riviere Longue, has 

the subject of much controversy. Visited Newfoundland in 1692 and 

1093 ; and afterwards travelled in Portugal, Spain, and Holland. Index : F On 

treatment of captured Indians at Fort Frontenac, 216 ; on interview between 

Frottteimc and Denonville, 233 ; declines to go on embassy to Iroquois, 261 ; 

his account of attack on Quebec by Phipps, 285. Bib. : Nouveaux Voyages 

VAm&rique La Haye, 1703. Published in English, London, 

1735. For other editions, see Thwaites's edition of the Voyages, Chicago, 

See aho Roy, Le Barm de Lahmtan (R. S. C., 1894). 

Laird, David (1833- ). Born at New Glasgow, Prince Edward Island. 
Represented Queens County, in House of Commons, 1873-1876; became 
minister of the interior, 1873 ; and in 1876 appointed lieutenant-governor of the 
North- West Territories. Succeeded by Edgar Dcwdney in 1881. Appointed 
Indian commissioner for the western provinces and territories, 1898. Bib.: 
Dent, Cm. For.; Morgan, Can.' Mm; Canadian Who's Who; Rattray, The 
Scot in British North America. 

Lajoie, Antoine Gerin (1824-1882). Born in Yamachiche, Quebec. Edu- 
cated at Nicolet College, and while there wrote the song Le Canadien Errant. 
Studied law and called to the bar, 1848. One of the founders of the Institut 
Canadien, 1849. Took up journalism and was editor of La Minerve, 1845-1852. 
Appointed a French translator to the Canadian Assembly, and later made as- 
sistant to the librarian of Parliament. Retired from the public service, 1880. 
Bib. : Works : Cathechisme Politique, ou Elements du Droit Public et Constititr- 
tionne du Canada; Jean Renard. 

La Jonqulere, Jacques-Pierre de Taffanel, Marquis de. Rear-admiral under 
d'Anville in the disastrous expedition against Acadia, 1746. Commanded an- 
other expedition with a similar purpose, 1747, which was defeated by Anson 
and Warren. Captured and held for a time in England as prisoner of war. 
Governor of Canada, 1749-1752. His administration marked by nothing that 
would further the welfare of the colony ; but rather by a determined effort to 
enrich himself at the expense of the country. Bib.: Parkman, Half-Century of 
Conflict and Montcalm and Wolfe. 

Lake Champlain. See Champlain, Lake. 

Lake George. South of Lake Champlain. This beautiful lake was known 
to the Indians as Horicon, and to the French as Lac St. Sacrament. The outlet 
of the lake, after circling through the forest and passing over a series of leaps 
in the falls of Ticonderoga, flows nearly two miles and enters Lake Champlain 
just above Fort George. Lying on the recognized thoroughfare, north and 
south, this lake has been the scene of many memorable conflicts, in the Indian 


: Ch Champlain's 

at, 63. WM at, 22 ; by Fort Ht'ry, 43. Bib, : 

Lfi&s Smith, Our far ih 


of the Woods, On the of Lake 

by l>e Noyon, the 1088. Frwt St. 

built by La V^rendryc, on the of the in 17&2. 

His son the a of 

by the on an ia the in 17311. In to 

Its is a of the it by the 

Lac des Bois, it has dcs cb 

Isles, of the etc, 

Lalexxumt, Charles. First of in * at 

Quebec from in 1625, de 

were the of the for until on the 

of the St. Charles built. of 1025 a 

picture of the life of the little settlement at Quebec, early 

of the Jesuit missions. Index; Ch Jesuit, director of 152; las 

letter to Provincial of IMeoliets, 154; wrecked o Island, 200; 

in College of Rouen, 207 ; conducts seminary for 229 ; 

parish priest, 233 ; administers last rites to Champiain, 261, 63. Bib. : 

Centura; Relation, 1625; Le 
Parkman, J emits in North America. 

Laiemantj Gabriel (1610-1649). Jesuit missionary; laboured with 
at the mission of St. Ignace, among the Hurons, where he by the 

Iroquois in 1649. A Parisian by birth, and his family to the 

01 de rode. Index : L Sufferings and death of, 5, 62 ; 16. 

Bib. : Kagueneau, de% Harms, 1649 ; Parkman, in 

Lalemant, Jirdme (1593-1673). Superior of Jesuit missions in Canada, 
1645-1650, and 1669-1666. A missionary to the Hprons until 1645, 
called to Quebec to assume the office of superior. for France in 1650, 

and returned in 1659 to resume the office of superior. Appointed^ graad^vicar, 
and his name suggested for bishop of Quebec. Index : L His opinion of 
Laval, 35 ; his exaggerated account of the earthquake, 42-45. Bib. ; 
de Jexuites; Parkman, Jesuits in North America; Douglas, OW Frame in tk 
New World. 

La Loutre, Louis Joseph de. Sent to Canada by the Society of Foreign M- 
sions at Paris, 1737. Missionary to the Micmac Indians, 17 A. Vicar-general 
of Acadia under the bishop of Quebec. A determined enemy of British suprem- 
acy in Acadia. After the fall of Fort Beause*jour, escaped and fled to Quebec, 
The following year embarked for France, but on the voyage was taken prisoner 
by a British vessel and kept in confinement for eight years. Returned to France 
when peace concluded in 1663. Died in obscurity. Bib. : Packman, M mi- 
calm and Wolfe; Richard, Acadia; Selections from the Public Document of Nova 
Scotia, ed. by Akins. See also Acadians, Expulsion of the. 

Lambert, Captain. Bfc Commander of Iphig&nie, and subsequently of Jcroa, 
123; Ms death, 123. 

Lamberville, John de (1633-1714). Jesuit missionary to the Onondagas; 
forced to leave his mission in 1687, because of DenonvinVs expedition against 
the Iroquois, Remained at Gataraqui as chaplain for a tirae, and at Denon- 

206 THE OF 

In the to a of 

In tlili sivrl hi at In 

to a wi,w rf"ricurvy. The re- 

to iw of the in Piiin^. Index: F 

t*> tiw 141, i%\ 2fR L Drite< the 

01 73, 71 ; hw imptTillfti, by of governor in- 

t.UrnphHi, I'^Wiffir Pr iwto of Nttflh America; 

JVxUiN '/ ,*YcX f 4 *1war;'>r>;., 

I* de IVnAt^ hi# on 98. 

I* M^ntri-tJ ntnv^pajwr, t*iablwht>l !S2ll. Index; P Morin's 

in, 101 ; wtTy one to Pupineau, 122-123. BL 

nf la Fii!it,iifi ; ;vl!:iilwlii government, 142; discusses debate in 
on ffinvniment, 232 ; La Fontaine's speech in 

to priiitnl in, 2 S J2, C Cartier, 88. 

CM Interpreter, 144 

L A Index: L Settlement of Chris- 

at, 0, 74. 

of the 41. 

Lit de St de, to Canada with the Carigtiaa 

Sttx at the extreimty of Lake Cirnm- 

Two the of Dupuis as commandant 

at to 1670. ladex : L Foundation stone of the 

of laid oa his by Philippe de Canon, 88. 

Li 4 8 of Jean de La Motte, Sieur de Cadillac, 

dc et ite for a la the ararf f and about 16S3 

to in of 0r adventure. Married Marie-Th6se 

at in 11187 ; for years at Port Royal ; re- 

to and by in 1604 to command the post at 

In 1701 built a at Detroit, went to Quebec in 1709, 

for in 1713 oat to Louisiana as governor. Index: F 

at Michilimapkinae, 340. Bib. : Cadillac Papers (Michigan 

Hist. ; Suite, Lett (R. S. C. t 181W) ; Roy, Le 5aron de Lahmtan 

(R. S, C., 1H04) ; Verreau t sur AnMne de Lamothe de Cadillac; 

It L of Hmroa chief, to the Iroquois at Long Sault, 

LcmpmoD, (186M899). Educated at Trinity University, Toronto, 

in 1882; appoi&ted 10 a clerkship in the post-office department at 
the following year, there up to the time of his death. 

Put the test of into his poems, in which he interpreted with rare dis- 

cernment and charm the of the woods aad fields of Ms native country. 

BI!>, : Works : Among the of Poeww, ed. by Duncan Camp- 

bell Scott, with biog. For biog., me Morgan, Can, Mm; MacMurchy, 


Lancaster, Joseph (1778-1888). Founded the Lancasterian system of edu- 
cation. IE 1798 began teaching poor children OB the Madras system; and 
gradually introduced improvements. In 1318 came to America, and at one 
time conducted a school in Montreal. Published several books on Ms system 
of education^ Index : WT Founder of Madras system of national schools, 86. 
See Madras schools. Bib. : Did. Nat. Biog. 

Ltndry, Pierre Armand (1846- ). Bom in Dorchester, New Brunswick. 

AND 20 

at St. ; ^uiiiktS Iw act! to tt-* 

Kir of Now of the Asrt*mbly, ; to 

the of WS3; appointed of tfie 

of the of New : Mi His 

of that of Riel not 

281. Bib.; Can. Jfe. ' ' '' 

Me of of 74 ; list 0! is first 

74 Bk to 

M. WT of, in usd 

to 38, 48; of 

S 10 102 ; i(M ; 

of, by of 

ill% 104 ; of, to of the 215 

LtEgelier, ). Bom at Ste. 

at Uiiivo ; law and to the bar, 

1881. the of and of the law amct 

of the council public life In 1871 ; for 

1873, and for Portncuf, 1878, in sat for 

Centre, 1887, in Dominion House, the of 

of crown lands, and provincial treasurer, In the 
Index : C One of the founders of Le and its Le 

30. Bib.: Morgan, Can. J/n. f 

t Ltngevin, Sir Hector Louis Born at Pur- 

in 1867, as member for Dorchester ; subsequently 
aiyoly, Charlevoix, and Three Rivers. Appointed of 1867; 

of works, 1869; postmastei>general, 1878; and 

of public works, 1S7; 1891. Index: Md of In first 

Dominion Cabinet, 134; his organizing ability and 140; 

of Sir John A. Macdonald, 325-326. WT to 

lottetown Conference, 21 $-217; to Quebec Conference, 218; of fest 

Dominion ministry, 271. Bib. ; Dent, Cm. For, and Last Taylor, 

Brit. Am.; Rose, Cyc. Can. 

Langliom, John. S Second Chnreh of England clergyman to arrive in Up- 
per Canada, 158. 

Langtade, See Monet de Moras de Langlade. 

Langlois, Fran^olse. CIi Wife of Pierre Desportes, 146. 

Langlois, Marguerite. Ch Wife of Abraham Martin, 146, 

Langlois, Noel Cfe Settler from Normandy, 252. 

Langoissieux, Pierre* Ch BScollet, a^umes monastic habit, 149: xettuns to 
France, 209. 

Languedoc. WW Battalion of regular troops, 29, 105, 118, 192. 

La Nolie. See Robtitel. 

Laajudre, de. L Life of Qli&* by, 135. 

Lansdowne ? Henry Charles Keith Petty-FItzmaiirice, fifth Marquis of. Bom in 
1845. Educated at Eton and Balliol College, Oxford ; succeeded to marqtiisate s 
1866. After holding minor offices in the government, became under-secretary 
for war in 1872, and in 1880 undersecretary for India. In 1883 appointed 
governor-general of Canada ; and at the end of his term, 1888, went to India as 
viceroy. On his return, became secretary for war in 1895, and in 1900 foreign 
secretary. Since the death of the Duke of Devonshire, has been the leader of 
the Conservatives in the House of Lords. Bib.: WMs Who. 

208 Till OP 

De. to at 112; 

L*vU t*> f hi* 147 ; in of rittf, Foy, 237, 2llL 

* i {n& d ) . of the 

cie in in lifc\ arwi still was 

Ml & ii*th a witk zeal, 

ami her torKnt* to tlw of tin* rwiline convent in Canada. In 

fur t|tMnf\ her the 

ill u> th<* biek ami With energy, 

on the vh>rk for living in November, 1671, a few montks 

her and Sl:trie de i'lncamation (<?..) Index: 

Ji-^ttli in JVortfi Imefft/i and OM 

1 de Comte de (1741-1783). French ad- 

D North-West in 1788 f 25. Bib, : Voyage du 

; Marcel, Fw ife La 
L* to JohnBtone*s redoubtj 140. 

X4i id, Ch at Miscou, 234. 

Lt *% 

Oa of St. above Montreal, Index : F Attack 

0n ? by Selinylcr, 28! ; encounter at, between Cana- 

and Schuyler, 312. 

La Be, L put to by Iroquois, 227. 

Lt it, Ch De to Quebec, IBS ; returns to 

141 ; of Company's 154. 

Lt Rttwrcle, Gabriel de. ; arrived from France in 1670 ? 

to as to the garrison. Was in the West with 

La and in 1679-1680. Index: L With Tonti and Membr6 at 

Cwlveeoeur, 149 ; murdered by the Illinois, 150. Bib.: Pax3bnan ? La Salle* 

"La Rotiebeauc0tir ? De. WM aide-de-camp to Montcalm, 2 ; forms 

87; Bougainville^s cavalry, 222; brin^ provisions 


La Rocbefaucttild-Liuicotirt, Frtaffols Alexandra Fr6d6ric, ( Due de (1747-1827). 

CMeiy of Ms valuable and entertaining Travels, " full of 

fair-minded every variety of detail of life in America 

as this French nobleman found it, told in a readable style, not without 

an occasional touch of humour/' Exiled from France in 176S; returned, for 

years, and went into retirement until alter Waterloo. Made a peer of 

France at the Restoration. Index; Dr Not allowed to visit Lower Canada, 

290. S Visitor to Upper Canada, 66; Ms observations, 71, 73, 74; describes 

opening of Legislature, 92, 03; high opinion of Simcoe's secretary, 178; de- 

Colonel Smith's house, 179 ; on scarcity of servants, 182 ; entertained 

by Simeoe at Navy Hall, 187, 230 ; on Skneoe's household,, 187 ; Simcoe objects 

to some of his remarks, 188 ; on Siracoe's military talent, 225. Bib. : Works : 

fe EMs-Unis d'Am&iqm fait m 179 f- $7; Btot des Pamres m 

; Le Bonheur du Peuple. 

La RocheEe. French seaport, on the Atlantic, long a stronghold of the Hugue- 
nots. Index : CIi Merchants of, contraband traders, 140, 

La Ronette. di Pilot, accompanies Chaniplain in his expedition against the 
Iroquoi% 52. 


La de f 1051 -1 7 it*'. AM^; ffcium of Rk4m#, : L 

Foumitr (IfW< of th' onlrr of 4 iirH ; :;n i$r<th'iN, 125. 

La de 1, 1 114*1- UW;. S*M!<H! for Car*> ? !& 

in the* tsf ; by the* tht* rtf Laf hir.t\ fjrsn 

in !IH), fee srt Dollar dh Cation Cialli*i% upon t,h# f;M, 

of the wc^t for he to iciw^* 

nt the end of DoHwr fl^ CV^^n 

to to the La 

the His thi* 

of tho la hf 

the or anil In any h 

the to its Ms for 

set out to a at the 

of the This la the 0f 

Izi i>y Ills : F &.nt to to 7 ; 

of 811; 

to 0*2; his on of to 133; 

of Fort Front from the king, 156; 

of In Mississippi region, 15H; difficulties by, lol ; 

Frontenac, ltV2 ; discoveries by La fey 

the king, 176; financial affairs, 178; MB by 

La Barre, restored to him, 17!); king; takes him under his 
180. 1* Sells liquor to Indians, 116; letters of nobility, 

at Fort Frontenac (Cataraqui), 145; birth character, 1*47; 
148-153 ; to France, 151 ; niislortunes and death of, 152 ; 

of Fnelo% 160. WM Discovers mouth 4 of Mift&egippi, 19. Bib, : 
IE French, Coll. of 2d Ser., vol. 2 ; letters other 

in Margry, Shea, Fo^a^es tip 

LQ WiB0or r JVar. Cnl. Hitd.; Falconer, of 

Griffin, Sparks,, LaSalle in Life, of Am. Biog.; Gravier, 

Joute! 7 Chesnel y 

de de la Salfe; Gu6niR ? de la Salte; Suite, La de 

la Salfe ; Girouard, Si. Louia and & /a 5afie. 

La Sarre Regiment WM One battalion of, sent to 12, 29 ; in 

of the Plains, 192 ; in battle of Ste. Foy, 25, 261. 

Lascelles 9 Regiment WM In centre under Murray^ 189; in of Ste. 

Poy, 259. 

La Taille. Ch Accompanies Champlain to Quebec^ 41. 
La Terri&re ? Pierre de Sales. Came to Canada from France^ 1766 ; 

at Quebec for the St. Maurice forges, 1771 ; his place of in front 

of the lower town market, facing the church of Notre Dame ; in 1775 appointed 
inspector of works, and removed to the forges, on the banks of the St. Maurice, 
a few mies above Three Rivers. Left an interesting account of the works, in 
his de Laterri&re* Implicated in the American invasion of 1776, and 

arrested. Index : Hd Inspector of St. Maurice forges, 48 ; arrest of, 277 ; dis- 
like of Haldimand, 277 ; suspected of supplying Americans with petards and 
cannon-balls from St. Maurice forges, 277-278 ; his defence of Du Caivet f 284- 
287 ; his description of Haldimand, 293. Bib. : Christie, History of Lower Cavmda. 
La Tenrifere de Sales. Represented Saguenay in Assembly, 1844-1854^; ap- 
pointed to Legislative Council, 1856. Index : E Votes against secularization of 
Clergy Reserves, 164. 

210 THE OF 

I** Dt. I* 01 tli 168. 

Lateto^ d*. L On the of 33 ; OH the 

aale 0! to the 36; on of 

cm the of 187* Bib. : aw fo 

Fit ds 

La Tsr ? de. Sim of cfe la Tour. Came to 

k tits out of Port by the ; a 

on is as Latour. In 1632, 

wts to out with to 

the in and a bitter between Chami- 

say La Tour, of to the king in Aeadia. Charai- 

iay had and f A Tour occupied a fort at the mouth of the St. 

0i the was an order for the of La Tour. 

La Tour' fort, but driven off. When he blockaded the 

La Tour to Boston t returned with English ships, and drove 

to the of Port Royal. The latter 's opportunity came, how- 

He the fort La Tour's absence. La Tour^s wife 

a and in the end only by resorting 

to He La Tour to Port Royal, where she died in 

the of Chamisay, La Tour brought this 

to a by the widow ol his rival. He had 

the who Mm governor of Acadia ; 

&ttd his of by obtaining a generous 

of in 1054, possession of the colony. 

Bib. : OW Haramy, History of Acedia; 

The of 

La Tour, Claude de. A came to Port Royal in 1610 

Poutrinconrt ; in 11514 had a trading-post on the Penobscot. Sailed for 
in 1627, and on his return the following year, with supplies for the 
of Acatlia ? captured by tQrke and carried to England. There married 
of the queen's French nxaids of honour, and was persuaded to throw in his 
lot the English. Promised to win over his son Charles (QM?.), but the latter 
Bcorafuily refused to change his allegiance. Afterwards built a fort at the mouth 
of the St. John, for the French, to whom lie had once more transferred Ms serv- 
ices. Index: Ch Captured by Kirke, 177. Bib. : Parkman, Old Regime; Han- 
may, of EIrke, The First English Conmesi of Canada. 

Lmttaignant, Gabriel de Ch Assists in forming Company of New France, 
168; made a director, 170. 

L'Auberividre, Francois Louis de Pmirroy de Roman Catholic bishop of 
Quebec, 173~174Q, succeeding Dosquet. Died at Quebec, 1740. Index: L 
bishop of Quebec, 12. 

Latsrier, Sir Wilfrid (1841- ). Bom at St. Lin, Quebec. Studied law at 
MoGill University, and called to the bar, 1864, Entered public life in 1871 as 
member for Drummond and Artliabaska in the Quebec Assembly ; three years 
later returned to the House of Commons lor the same constituency. Entered 
the Mackenzie Cabinet, 1877, as minister of inland revenue. In 1887 leader of 
the opposition ; and in^lS'96, upon the defeat of the Tupper government, called 
upon to form an adminigtration, himself taking the office of president of the 
Council Received the honour of G. C. M. G. in 1897, and the same year called 
to the Imperial Privy Council. Index : Me Justifies Upper Canada Rebellion, 
30, 81. lid Bis administration repeals Franchise Act of 1885, 260; succeeds 

AND 2!! 

as cf p'vrty, 1*$7, 26 L 2fTI; Ink* -warm ef 

2!Fn Li.* reply to M;ifkra!4V, ii'jjwai to th^ * irrt^rair, S>'fL 

311; tiaaliy (ii^p0m*a >f u:ir*>*ri{'ti?ii reciprocity, 317; hU speech in P&riijjj^ r^ 

oa of Ma^*iona!iJ, 32fKI2!'t C On the Quebec &*, 27-*> , ci,^ u *b 

of JU A"0,fi:md! and i*n t XatzwMl, 3o; on C^rtkr, 11&* 

117, Bib,: DiwMinbw If J%T^:J^ tfV; J^ivrw, 

f ^77 fi /a$9. For #*:0 Willison, Xir WilfrM thf Liiwil 


cl *m Can, Men; Can. 

Hi The of 3,' 

de. 1>H2 8 of 

the of tie by of hfo 

a** of the of New France, his to 

the of and Ilia 

a* not by a of fell 

by his too of the to Mi 

to la I tilti; and in as 

1660. Index: Ch Intc*mlant of Company of New 170; 

to of 225. F Governor, 38; to 42, 

Old in the New World; Old 

Lmnzoa-Ciitmy, de. Son of Joan de of 

the departure of his father in Ms 

invortto<l with the but of 

<fas few: i;l Fortll^ & In ' to 

in ; the church ; aacl in him 

a of the Council. Index ; L of 55 ; 

vicar, to 134. Bib. : Oil 

wi fie tf w 

Laal ? Anne Cliarlotta. L Only of 10. 

Laval ? Charles Fraagois Guy (Fanclion}. L 0! by 

him at Quebec, 140. 

LmTal-Moiitmorettcyv Francois de (1623-1708). I* 

vicar with title of bishop of in 7 ; 10 ; 

founds Seminary at Queoec, 10 ; of 12 ; not 

elated in his lifetime, 15; Ms birth, 17; Ms to St. 

Xavier and St. Francois d'Assisi, 18 ; a at of La 19 ; 

inherits patrimony of Montigny, and called for & de 19; 

yields patrimony to his younger brother, Jean-Loiiis T 19, 21 ; 
gregation of the Holy Virgin, 20 ; receives tonsure at of ga and 

ciaioa of Evrcux at fifteen, 20 ; leaves La FBche at and to the 

College of Clerniont at Paris^ 21 ; death of Ms two elder brothers, 21 ; his 

Mm to marry, 21 ; appointed archdeacon of of Evreux, 22 ; 

his imlous performance of his duties, 23 ; goes to Rome in expectation of an 
appointment as one of three bishops for Asia* 23 ; resigns his archdeaconry 23 ; 
becomes inmate of Hermitage of de B6rni&res at Caen, 24, 25 ; recommended 
by Jesuits as vicar apostolic for Canada, 26; consecrated as such B by papal 
nuncio, 28 ; arrives at Quebec, June 16, 1659, 26 ; his authority questioned, 27 ; 
demands written recognition of his authority, 28 ; suspends the Ab W de Queylus, 
28; manner and pereond appearance, 28 f 29; attention to the sick, 33; his 
different pkces of residence in Quebec, 33 ; friction with Governor D*Ai ea- 
son, 34 ; Ms efforts to prevmt s^e of brandy to the Indians, 36-39 ; for 

212 THE OP 

of and for colony, 

SI ; Ms in thit of the C H, 40 ; to 

4! ; 47, 4H; hi* therefor by the 

80; to 30; fvivivM the 

aad gill of 52 ; rowi** at frtoninary, 55 ; to 

for 55: hw income to the Seminary, 

Si; MI f>f>; Seminary with^For- 

of 57 ; of and it for 

fie 58 ; f>o ; vwits various settlements of Christian 

74 ; to the character of DC Tracy, 81 ; describes 

at in to 84 ; approve of works of piety insti- 

tuted by 86; devotion to the Holy Family, $6; his visits 

to 87 ; Ilia vfcw*, 98 ; watches over instruction of youth, 99 ; 

at St. Joachim, 100; encourages Brotherhood of 

Ste, 101 ; first of Stn. Anne at Beauprf, 101 ; makes 

to Mil ; his lEstnietions to missionaries, 105^107 ; receives 

111; his zeal for primary education, 124; ap- 
pointed 129, 136; Ms to the 131 ; has manager ap- 
pointed for his of 138 ; it to Berthelot, 138 ; exchanges 
of for lie 138 ; his family in France* 139 ; family 
139 ; of Seminary with Foreign Missions of Paris, 
to 141, 100; sails for France in connection with liquor 
173 ; of Notre Dame de Montreal, 175 ; joins it 
10 of St. Sulpico, 175 ; his in ehapel of Bonsecours, 178 ; bows 
to 0a question, 181 ; returns to Canada, 184 ; resists 
to his with archbishopric of Paris, 184 ; bestows all 
Ms on the of 185 ; letter to the king, 187 ; visits 
and 189, III) ; illness, 190 ; letter to king as to need for rein- 
192; chapter of diocese, 197; sails for France, 198; 
as ' iii favour of Saint- Vallier, 200 ; returns to Canada, 202, 
220; suffering, 205; letter to Saint- Vallier, 206; disagreement with 
Saint- Vailier on the subject of the Seminary, 208 ; Ms return to Canada delayed, 
211 ; 219, 220 ; receives Ms successor, 221 ; his conduct during siege of 
Quebec, 231 ; Ma grief over the policy adopted in regard to the Seminary, 235 ; 
Ms from burning building, 240 ; his labours in extreme age, 244 ; his 
admiration of the CharroE brothers, 247 ; Ms habits and practices described by 
Brother Houssart, 251-256 ; by De la Coipmbidre, 256, 257 ; his death, 263 ; 
miraculous cures attributed to, 264 ; burial in cathedral and subsequent transfer 
of remains to Seminary, 265, 266. F Arrival of, as vicar apostolic and bishop of 
Petrsea in partibns, 43 ; sends De Queylus back to France, 43 ; disagrees with 
Governor D*Argenson t 45 ; alao with D^Avaugpur, 46 ; sails for France, 1662, 
46; procures recall of D*Avaugour and appointment of Me*zy> 48; returns 
to Quebec, September, 1663, 48 ; establishes Quebec Seminary, 48 ; and Lesser 
Seminary, 49 ; quarrels with Mezy, 50 ; for Rranee to settle question of 
bishopric, May, 1672, 70 ; made bishop of Quebec, and returns to Canada, 1675, 
71 ; establishes Ecclesiastical Court, 111 ; curtails honours paid to governor hi 
church, 112 j king's instructions on the subject,, 113 ; Frontenac's estimate of 
bishop's revenue, 114; objects to trading permits issued by governor, as in- 
volving selling of liquor to Indians, 116 ; gains the king over to his views, 116 ; 
sends grand-vicar to France to uphold his policy, 118; goes to France to press 
his views, 1678, 125 ; effect of his elevation to rank of bishop, 164 ; not favour- 

ftf to 

jurishj'.* 't*i5 h'.,i t ;s;*y bwl pivu4tfi f?r th*, ir H;r,p*r. 3*v; *. 
>ig;n, IW; e^.*, to "Fr^r/hiM, iHl ; dv^ < Si-n^AViSIitT , * 
jhl : fh'jwribt** T;ir:adA aa ** t,h^ ivjiintr}/ uf wirarl^." *ML BJr 

dc M 
F;n4ff w;?. l^f? AV?r If ;P rW; r, Bir, 

de. L of 17. 

ic, L Ilk to hia lite 139 ; 


de* L of 17* 

L of 19: ted of, ISt, 

as the a 

charter in 1852. at the of Elgin, th* % u 

L Its to (Jur!w?(; Sc'minn.ry, ()9. ^>Vi? 

Hiimel, $kftvh c/ Lciiwl l f /ur<r^/^/ in Cuntida; An Ency.^ vol. 4; Roy, L*T&ticf- 
$t les Fit** tin aiiqittiHUwniM, 

Ch A Basqiu\ on Acaclijin as a 59 

La de CE (todfather of Hurons, 2;i:i 

L* Valtrie, de ( Ittl-lflflCli. A of St. 

de Paris, Obtainect a lieutenancy in the LIfpiidivs Rt-jrinie-nt ; 

DC Tracy, IfifM, came to the year. tie 

of in 1672; sent to the as 

by La Durantaye ? 1GS3; Dononyillo oo hia 

the 1687. Kllleci, 1693. ladex : F 

tia; in 1687 in oa 209 ; by in 

Ltveniilrc, Honori (1826-1873). at 

for the church tlie of 

URiversity librarian. Ch On of 2S1-282, 

Bib. : Edited the Work* of ; 

Cours d'Histoire dm Canada; author of tfw & 

plain; edited, with AbW C&sgrain, the des 1645-1668. 

La Virendrye, Pierre GanMer de Varenats, Slear 5e J1^^I749). SOB of 
Gaultier, Sieur de VarenneSy governor of Three Rivera. in tie 

New England campaign of 1704, and the followiBg In 

In 1707 with the army in Flanders, and wounded at in 

Returning to Canada, engaged in the fur trade, for on tic Si. 

Maurice, and 1727-1728 on Lake Nipigon. There coneelyea the of ex- 
ploring the unknown country beyond Lake Superior, to discover the 
Sea y a project to which he devoted the remainder of his life. Left 
for the West in 1731 ; built forts on Rainy Lake and Lake of the Woods, and in 
the succeeding years penetrated to Lake Winnipeg, Red River, and the Assini- 
boine. In 1738 made a journey to the Mandan Tillages on the Missouri; 
and the following year one of his sons penetrated to the Saskatchewan. In 1742 S 
unable to go himself , sent two of Ms sons far to the south-west. They hoped, 
as he had always hoped, to reach at last the Western Sea f but were baffled by 
hostile tribes and the barrier of the Rocky Mountains. In 1743 returned 
finaly to Montreal, broken in health and heavily in debt. Six years later died 
there. His sons begged to be 1 allowed to continue Ms western exploration but 

214 THE OP 

th** itnpiK^i!; . Dworaw of the 

If, I* t t^'orat^x*;* a> *Vr ,in ti * R*u?ky 11. MS 

the *t httfvai3% % t Li^ ^ urri* for \\Vatorn 40 ; Ms 

to of F*wwy n* f <*r * r*u t 2M Btb : Pnurhoaune, Pierre 

A rij Iks IYf%5 lit, 8. C M 1905); kmt, o/ tta 

Cmtwry ttf Conflict; Bryeo, Hutfam'x Bay Company; 

for IfM *SVc hw Journals in 

(Can. Arch., ItHM); anJMargry, 

iff* UK are for the Cimai- 

L* de. Cfa Aiila for Champlain, 141. 

Hd Three by, in 1634, 43-44. 

Br Confusion in of, 51-55. 

S ut of the Upper Canada Assembly, 

85 ; a of the 85. 

R of Gore School, Upper Canada, 

4 ; 5. 

the as 1727; captain, 1742; and 

1747, Warburton's Infantry to Nova Scotia, and engaged 

IB the at Cobequid, 1740-1750 ; brigadier-general under Amherst 

At the of 1758. Niae years earlier tad been appointed 

ft of the Council of Nova Scotia; administered the government on 

the 01 Governor 1753 ; lieutenant-governor, 1754 ; and gov- 

1756. The his governorship, 1758. Respon- 

for the of the Died at MalifaXj Oct. 19, 1700. Bib. : 


0/ ; Richard^ ^icoa^a. 5ee ol*o Acadlans y Expulsion of the. 

Joseph W WT Supports TUley in 1850, 152. 
Captain. ^ Dr Sent with seventy men to attack Arnold in rear, 129 ; 

discomfiture of enemy, 131. Hd Effects arrest of Du Calvet, 285. 
Lt BaiUif . Ch Under clerk at Tadoussac ? 133 ; placed in charge of storehouse 
by Kirke, 105; a bad character, 202-204, 
Le George. Ch R^coilet missionary, 87 ; goes to France, as delegate 

colony^ 130. 

Lebel, J, G. B Commissioner under Seigniorial Tenure law, 187. 
Le Ber* Jeamie f daughter of Jacques Le Ber, of Montreal. Index : L Birth, 
baptism, and virtues of, 91; mortifications practised by, 92. 
JL@ Ber ? Pierre. L House of charity established by, 245. 
I Bar de Senneville, Jacques (1633*1706). One of the principal merchants 
of Montreal; married in 1658 Jeanne, sister of Ciwules Le Moyne. In 1673 
with Aubert de la Chesaaye in the fur trade at Cataraqui, and aroused 
the hostility of Governor Parrot of Montreal, who was also interested in the fur 
trade. la 1675 sold out Ms rights at Cataraqui to La Salle ; and four years 
later acquired the seigniory of Seirnerille, Mentioned in 1691 as in a fur- 
trading partnership with Frontmac. Index : F Imprisoned by Perrot, 92 - La 
Euro's dealings with, 175. Bib,: Parkman, Frmtmac. 
L Borfae de Bell Isle, EmmairaeL Ch Takes Fort St. Pierre, 236. 
L Bran de Dnplessis, Jean-Baptiste. Born at Corbie, in Rcardy, about 1730, 
Came to Canada about 1755 and joined the Bfern Eegiment ; practised as a 
notary in Quebec for many years. Died there some time after 1796. See 
R. S. C., Tram., 1900, 1, 129-130, Index ; Dr Carletofs account of, 68. 

AND 215 

I* N>W,*F:IJW, at Qut*b-'<\ BL On tht* p*;<litioy 

in 1512, iiti C ili>t iic%^|^p4T isi l^hsv. ^5; *;jppr*#**rit 

by Governor Crai$ t 93. P E^tabiyiwt in iWi-ii ay BAi&ni, I'ta't, fattier 

2S ; by Sir Ja;m\*< Cral^ t 2t,i 

He Ch It* ; f i )! let :;iry , No ; si r d to t v 1 1 a a t ry i , f ike I fer^i* , 

88; vkiti the or IVtuaeix, itCi; nu v rtn Father 

at Three 107; for til ; eoramlr&iry ri 

the in 112; in Caa^k* 

113; to 149; to 208; of, 

L of, 3. Bib. ; o/ 

He F to 130. 

L , in of hitf 

Idx; F On for in Camilla, 72; 

247 ; oa ** " in of ,Cfe 

112, ill; of 2">H, 

cfe la Fof In Ntnrdlv Frawv, trann. by Shra f tho titlo FI>A! 

tjf ttu Nonrclk dc In (f<s#jwit\ for the 

by Ganong t untitT the titio A" ?r of 

In the introductions of the M far m 

Lecompte-Bttprl, J. B. Br Colonel of Quebec 

Le Biable. WM Name given to floating battery, 87, 104. 

Le Du. S French priest, deported, 190. 

Lee, WT Receiver-general, New Brunswiek, 69. 

L Fauclieiir. Ch One of the landed by Kirke on St. Pierre 174. 

Le FoidoiL Now as Wolfe's Cove. Index : WM of 100 

at T 160; Wolfe from the river, 168; It Is 

171 ; at, 181. 

Le Gardcur de Repeatlgny^ Jean Baptiste (1632-170). of Lc 

Gardeur (^.p.). His father brought him to Canada at the age of 

in Montreal, 1642-1643 ; and in 1656 of 

Jean Nicolct, the explorer* la 1663 mayor of 

resigned under official the policy of the to 

anything approaching popular government a of 

at "Quebec in 1665, and accompanied the to Three Rivers, 

were just in time to save from an Iroquois attack. In 1687 De- 

nonville on his expedition against the Iroquois. Index : F Goes to on 

behalf of Montreal colonists, 36. Ch Acts as to young Hurens r 233. 

Bib.: Parkman 7 Frontenac. 

Le Gardeur de Repent! guy, Pierre. Arrived at Quebec from Nommndj with 
Ms wife and family, 1636. Obtained a grant of land from the Company of New 
France, and engaged in the fur trade. In 1644 went to France to con- 

cessions for the Company of Habitants, which he had been instrumental in 
organizing. In 1647 granted the seigniories of Cournoyer and Repentigny, but 
did not live long to enjoy them, as he died the following year on his way to 
Praaee, Bib. : Parkman, Frontmac. 

Le Gardeor de Tffly, Charles (1611-1695). Brother of Pierre Le Gardemr de 
Repentigny; a native of Normandy; came to Canada in 1636; and in 1648 
made governor of Three Rivers. Married the same year Genevieve Juchereau. 
In 1660 granted the fief of St. Michel by the Company of New Prance ; and 
transferred it to the Seminary in 1668, In 1673 acted for the governor, Fron- 

216 TIB OP 

Ms at but fell into Ms bad 

L of I5S, 

167. F 0! 106. Bib.; 

Cfe for De to 


Me of, Constitutional Act, 53; 

on, 54 ; and Executive Council, 54, 55 : Lord 

on, 511, 5tf, 59, 60; of government, 61, 63. S First of 

Mat of 80 ; opening of, at Niagara, 82. 

Me by Constitutional Act, 52; Lord Durham 

and 57 ; of Lower Canada Reformers to, 69 ; 

twenty-five* la years, 73 ; Sir John Colborne 

0n f 28$ ; Aat>mbly, 271! ; be elective, 277 ; Glenelg 

it fe 324, Sj It* constitution, 77, 175 ; its activity under 

Art, SO ; in English-speaking element dominant in t 

81 ; it be elective, 84 ; Sydenham's description of, 220 ; 

by Sir Arthur results, 220 ; members opposed to union 

231 ; S of later Loyalist emigration, 57. Dr 

Act, of, 90; how composed, 269; its 

of 277 ; its governor and against people, 277. Hd 

its to 117-118; composition of, 175; statement made 

of, 188 ; seel 309 ; changes in membership 

of, at of 314. 

Union. Md by Macdonald ; opposed by Mari- 

and 107-109, 245. 

Ch of Company of New France, 170. 

Jacob* F of New York, 266, 

Lt Jetuae, Paul. Superior of in Canada. Came to Canada in 1632, 

0ft a to the AlgOEcpiaEs the following year ; succeeded by 

as superior, 1639; to the governor's Council, 1040; re- 

to France the year; proposed for bishop of Quebec. Index: L 

of to, 25. F Preaches funeral sermon on Champlain, 

27 Ch in 0! Mine. Hubert. 148 ; Ms letter on education 

of 23% 231: first service in church, 239; preaches 

over Champiaiii, 261 ; advises Mme. Champlain, 264. Bib. : 

; Piirioman, in N&rffi America; Douglas, Old France 

in ike World* 

Laliftm, S. B Commissioner under Seigniorial Tenure law, 136, 
Lemaire. L Servant In the Seminary , Laval's account of, 250'. 
Lemaistrej Siraoa. Cfe Director of Company of New France, 170. 
Lemaltre. L Sulpickn, out in Si. Ancbrt, 31 ; Ms attentions to those 

suffering from the plague, 32; dies a martyr, $1. 

Le Marchant, Sir John Gasptrd (1803-1874). H Becomes governor of Nova 

Scotia, 1852, 143 ; his connection with the Foreign Enlistment Act. 149-152. 

Bib.: Did, Nat. Biog.; Campbell, y of Norn Seotia. 

Lemoyne, Mme. Jacques. L Land bought from* for church at Montreal, 88. 

^ I* Moyme, Paul, Sieur de MaricO'iirt (16^-1704). Son of Charles Le Mo3me, 

Sieur de Langueuil. Bom in Montreal. Aecompimied De Troyes and Iberville 

on the expedition against the Hudson Bay forts, Moose Factory, Rupert, and 

Albany, in 1086 ; and left in charge of the captured posts when the leaders 

returned to Quebec, Again served with Iberville on the bay in 1689, in the 


of thf Ilampfihirt, Thr f< 11 wing war brcnshr a party ! 
to in the Wrruv of QueU-cr! Phipp*. thv;v !ik 

011 lIikkcHi Bay, in lt94. and took part in *h*r ^pfiav #f 

of ills remarkable owr th* 

an the cf tb^ 

: F to Bay, 2tV ; 

at by 21)2; hi* !bmiU?,\ in 

Bay, 343. L tut to Bryw\ 

frW> f/ lie & cto 

Siaom. 1 In of 3)7, 

Le de Ste. {163&-1600).' Son of Le 

0! of 

like for the ; to mud in 

De on the in the 00 

la and tin* of by 

Phipps. Index : F to 2fi ; in 

Schfcnectady, 235 ; in ou 

299. L Takes in to 204 ; in of 


Le de Serigny, Joseph (! 668-1 7*14). fc5on of ic sd 

brother of If>f rvil!e t Bienvillc^ St. IMIiNie, A<*c Ib^rvillo to 

son Bay, 1690, and left in of Fort Albany after Its in 

the bay with Ibcrville in 1694 in 1607. Given of 

the latter year. Joined Ibisrville in in 1700 

in the of the colony. in the navy, and was 

of at the of his Index : F to on 

of Bay, 345. Bib,: &e Ibcrville. ^ 

Le Hoyne. See Bienvilte ; Iberville ; LongueuiL 
Le Watiomai published at Montreal. Index ; C as 

of Le in 1872, 30, 

Leonard, Samuel. WT 147. 

Leopard aad Chesapeake. Bk Affair of, 82-86. 
Lerotix, Latireat (1758-1855). Western fur trader. Index: MS 
Great Slave lake, 18 ; and the " Chief " to 

tribes, 18 ; with Mackenzie at CMpewyan, S3 ; retura ? 48 ^ on 

Great Slave Lake, 49 ; sent to Beaver Indians y 40. Bib. : I^Iorice, Did. 
dm de VOuest; Burpee, Smrck for the 

Le Roy, Marguerite. Ch Mother of Champlala, L 
Le Sage, Captain. WM Repulses landing of English, 107, 
Lesage, Marguerite. Ch Wife of Nicolas Rivert, 146. 
Lescarbot. Marc. Born at Vervins, aear Laon, France, about 1570. 
law aiid called to the bar in 1599. The previous year delivered two Latin 
omtloUB before the papal legate sent by Clement VIII to arrange the 
of the treaty of Vervins. Through Poutrincourt ((JM?.), who one 

of his clients, induced to sail for Port Eoyal, 1606; and spent twelve months in. 
the New World, returning to France in 1607. While at Port Royal, took an 
active part in the work of building, gardening, etc., spent much of Ms time 
hunting and fishing; and in the evening read and composed many of the 
poems afterwards included in Ms Mum de la NoimUe France, OB his return, 
set to work to prepare his account of Acadia. Spent the years 1612 to 1614 
in Switzerland ; married in 1619. Beyond this year, notMng is known of Ms 

218 THE OP 

lift, : Gh of, at Port 35 ; in tie 37 ; 

to 37* life. ; & In ; 2nd ed. f 

of In 1907 

tta a new an 

and by \V. L and an by H. P. 

See alto IMF o/ 

fl/ /t0iflfW 

I* Ck Clerk in I>e KiS. 

(1740?-i7tM). Index: Dr In 

at I iff; Ms with of 


given seat 

r _, ___.._ A . ~ Bib.: 

Fbrfy/ Ytarx. 

de (1805*1894). French engineer. Index; Ch 

ft. Bib. : Biog. Diet 

(1802-1885). in Dundee, Scotland. Came to Canada^ 

and at Toronto. A member^of the 

city ft! aad la connection with the 

of 1837. the 1844 S and conducted it for ten 

of the of the Grit party. Index : E Proprietor of 

the and a 0! the Grits, 110-111. Me President 

of 258 ; rejoinder to governor, 300 ; refuses 

to rign 01 331. B Leader oi the Clear Grits, 39. 

Bib, : and oaf Forty Fear*. 

Abbey of, 1 by on ol Quebec, 136. 

X* STOUT, Jetn de St. Ch to Quebec, 252 ; Godfather to 


It Tirdif, Olivier, Born In Normandy, 1601. Came to Canada, 1620, and 

as an interpreter at Quebec. Married Louise Couillard, 1637, Index ; 

Ch 144 ; in Quebec during English occupation, 208. 

Letellier de St. Just, Lac (182CM8S1). Bom at Riviere OueHe, Q r Jbec. 

to the lor the di^islpn of Graadville, 1867 ; a inembei j the 

1873 ; and in 1876 appointed lieutenant-governor of Quebe^^ dis- 

1879. Index: Md Appointed lieutenant-governor of 

Quebec* 247 ; with and the provincial ministryj 247-248 ; 

Macdoimld the matter before Parliament. 248-249 ; Ms dismissal on the 

advice of the Dominion Cabinet, 249-250 ; his aeath, 2<50 ; political reasons for 

his dismissal, 251. Bib.; Dent, Caw. For.; Wilison, Sir Wilfrid Lauri&r and 

ike Party; Pope* of Sir John A. MacdmaM. 

Le Testa, Captain, Ch Member of court to try Daval for conspiracy, 43, 

Le Valois, Fattier, L Recommends Saint- Vallier to succeed Laval, 199. 

Uitej Gaston-Fran^pis, dxevclier de (1720-1787). Entered French army in 

1735; named second in command to Montcaha, 1766; sailed for Canada the 

year. On the death of Montcalxn at Quebec, succeeded to the command 

of the French forces, and won the buttle of Ste. Foy, 1760. After the capitula- 

tion, returned to France, and served under Cond6 against Prince Ferdinand. 

Created a marshal, 1783, and the following year a dpke and peer of France. 

Index : WH Second in command to Montcahn, 2 ; Ms birth and descent, 8 ; 

military wrvioe 9, 10; character, 11 ; at battle of Carillon, 56, 60; confidence 


of in, 5: to line of to 

Hirer, 105; hi*;ri\it;iftivity, 110, iW, ItSi; hwbrav^rj\ 1H7; 

of troops, 143; cor^raNiI;ttni ( by Va-5- 

on viHory at Montmor'nc t y, 144; to fr*mtu N rs, 147; 

his from of has r ! Ki!f^ i47;^ca*!^ 

157; Ills anil muoh 

bv Itw; liw on evo of frit by 

hw to t 21!) ; at and 

to of lib 242; Ste. ff>J t 

of of fleet him to 

207 ; at 268 ; hw 288, L 

of his flags by, 12, Hi 34 ; hb imtl 

3^-37 ; 38 ; of 39 ; 

not 122. Bib,: ami u/ 

Wood, The for wft 

As flu dc tV?X eci, by 

of. Opposite Quebec. Index: on, 102 % 

Joha. WT Confederation in 

231 T 249. 
Lewis, (1774-1809), and 

Sent by the United Govetpment, in to lad an 

to the by way of the Missouri. They the in 

to the villagod ; ; continued their in 

the Mountains, aad the River to its 

They the there, and their in to the 

and St Louis. Their of 

Kentucky, two an interpreter, a hunter, and a 0! 

Clark, Index: B At Clatsop. 44; on the 5; their ex- 

pedition, 60, 64, 66 ; mouth of the the 66; of tfte 

enterprise, 66 ; personnel of the expedition, 67 ; route by, 67 ; 

tion collected, 67 ; winter at Fort 67. Bib. : of ih^ 

to the Ocean, Philadelphia, 1814 ; new ed., New York, 1MB. In 

to other reprints, three recent editions are : the Chicago of 1902, 

introd. by Dr. J. K. Hosmer ; the edition of 1893, in 4 vote., with 
and other critical equipment by Dr. Elliott Couus ; and the even 
rate edition prepared by Dr. E. G. Thwaites, New York, 1905, 8 vote. For 
biog. of Lewis aad Clark, see Jefferson's Life of in Old no. 

44, and in the Hosmer edition ; Cyc. Am. Biog. 

I^xington. Hd Skirmish at, 103. ,. . . ^ 

Hard River. A tributary of the Mackenzie ; rises in the Yukon district, south- 
west of Frances Lake, about iat. 61, long. 131. Its length is about 550 
Explored by McLeod in 1834, and by Campbell in 1840. The Upper Liard is 
known only by Indian report. Fort Simpson, of the Hudson's Bay Company, is 
at the mouth of the main river ; and Fort Liard at the confluence of Black River 
and the Hard, not far from the point where British Columbia^ the Yukon, and 
the North-West Territories meet. Index : D Operations of Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany on t 123. 
libel. Me Mackenzie's biH on, 163* 

220 THE OF 

*t B 
of 235. 

1 of. Sir A. 

ami iSY Party. 

Thfl first in wa* th<* library, 

ia tha of AfttT vicissitudes, the 

by the aiul Society of The 

it was that f th at Quobre, 1668 ; Montreal 

wag in 1767; miA in 1790. 

in of the at an early date. ^ In 1841 the 

of Mid and from this year 

tit* of the of The first circulating library 

in was at in ISO). Similar libraries existed in 

as 1824, ami at in 1830 ; the Eeil River library was 

at ia 1847. Hd Firat in Canada established by 

190 ; in 1811) into and Historical Society of Quebec, 

190; and coat of, 191 ; of, 191. R Public school libraries 

88. S For government to establish, 46 ; 

pkn not 176. &* eita> Bib. : Bain, Public Libraries of Canada 

& 'An voL 5. 

ia at Brest, 12. 

Me of, Durham^ view of power of, 56, 57; 

of, In 81 ; in both Upper and Lower Canada, 62. 

S to be to lorfs-lieutenant in England, 

by Governor for the counties in Upper Canada, 197; 

not by of 197 ; appointments not continued 

by 198. 

ligneiii. WM Force by, and Aubry, dispersed, 146. 

Uttcoin, Abraham (1809-1865), Fourteenth president of the United States. 
; B by George Brown to be favourable to renewal of Reciprocity 

Treaty, 192. Bib, : For biog. and bibliog. of Eves, see Cyc. Am. Biog.; 

Lit. Hut 

(1733-1810). American general Index: S United States 
commissioner, entertained by Simooe at Navy Hal, 184, 229. Bib.: Cyc. Am, 

Lindsay, W, B. Sy Made elerk of Legislative Assembly, 334. 

Liadsty, William, WT Elected for the county of Carleton, New Brunswick, 
231, 249. 

LiEschot. Ch His definition of the territory of New France, 21 L 

Lippincott, Captain. Dr H&ngs JoAiia Huddy, 198. 

Liquor Question, B Agitated by B-rown and the <?2b5@, 75; the Canada 
Company and cheap whiskey, 75; the movement in and out of Parliament, 
75-76, See ofoo Brandy question ; Stills ; Cas reserv& 

lisgvr, Jolm Young, Baron (1807-1876). Bom at Bombay. Entered Par- 
liament ia 1831; became lord of treasury in 1841, and secretary of the treasury, 
1844*1846: chief secretary for Ireland, 1852-1855; and lord high commis- 
sioner of the Ionian Islands, 1855-1859. In 1861 sent to New South Wales 
as goyemor-general* Seven years later came to Canada as administrator; 


anil the* % 

in'i&ftZ. "C Hw in HO; views* of IMA? 

to her SO, Bib. ; A a**. 

rn. /V. 

mud of F by 

41. Bib, : *SV? list of 1829 ? in III jtro. fe/> 

tW o/ A,, 

Bk on by 


1. S as of 17 - 

of 79 ; to 177 ; tie rte of tie 

city of 200, 201. % , ^ t . 

at 132. 

(I71ft-1778). Dr of 

20L Bib.: Cj/fl. Am. 

Litta*, Peter (1727?~1705), at A 

of the Council the the 

and to to lay his the 

but chief- justice of New At 

to as chief -justice; held 1777 to 1786; and to 

he died. Index: Dr Appointed 184 ; Ms 

and 185 ; with 188 ; to Privy 

188. Bib.: <7d. Can, 

Logtn, Sir William Bdmomd (1798-1875), Bom at of 

at the University of 

in in Eng Imd. and in the 

of the of to and in 1842 

the firat of the Survey. In 

of the work by the Sarvey up to Re- 

tired in 1870. Bib.: qf For bkjg., a CWL Con.; 

Harrington, L(fo D/ Sir E. 

London. City of Ontario ; f o^ad^ by Peter McGregor, in 1826. Index : S Site 
of present city, selected by Simcoe as best for of Upper 

200, 205. 

London Conference. See Westminster Conference, 

Loag Point. Lake Erie, north shore. Index: S by as 

for Lake Erie, 204. 

Loaguenil, Charles Colmer Grant, Baron de. Sy Owner of " Alwmgbin, f 

Longnemll, Charles Le Mojne, Sleur de (1625T-1685). Son of an 
of Dieppe. Came to Canada in 1641. In 1657 granted the seigniory of 
Longoeiul. In De Tracy's expedition against the Iroquois, in 1666, com- 
mmadecl the Montreal militia, and was with Frontenac at Cataraqui in 1673. 
La Barr sent him to the Iroquois, 1682, to persuade them to meet him in 
cotmci at Montreal. When, two years later, La Barre led an abortive expedi- 
tion against the Irocpois, he was again compelled to depend upon Le Moyne^s 
influence with the Iroqnois to patch up a peace. Index : F Sent to invite 
Qmond&gas to a conference, 183, 184. BIh. : Parkman, Frontmac. 

Longnenii, Charles LeMoyne, Baron de( 1656-1729). Son of Charles LeMoyne, 
Sieur de Longueuil (g? .). Wounded, in 1687, in the Iroquois raid on LacMne, 


Governor of Montreal. Administered the colony in 1725, before the arrival 
of BeauhaiBois. Index ; F Commands militia in attack on Iroquois, 1687, 209. 
1 Barony conferred on, in 1700, 181. 

Longueuil, Charles Le Moyne, Baron de (1687-1755). Son of preceding. Ad- 
ministered the colony in 1752, after the departure of La Jonqui&re. Index : 
Dr In command of militia, in 1777, 187. 

Loqoin. Ch Company's clerk at Quebec, 139. 

Longworth, John (1814-1885). Born at Charlottetown. Called to the bar of 
Prince Edward Island, 1838. Elected to the Assembly, 1846. Occupied offices 
in several successive administrations. Drafted the " No Terms Resolution " 
of the Assembly in connection with Confederation. Appointed prothono- 
tary of the Supreme Court of Prince Edward Island, 1883. Bib.: Campbell, 
History of Prince Edward Island. 

Loraager, Thomas Jean Jacques (1823-1885). Bom in Ste Anne d'Yama- 
chiche, Quebec. Educated at Nicolet College; called to the bar, 1844. Sat 
in the Assembly, 1854-1863 ; held office in the Macdonald-Cartier ministry, 
1857-1858. Appointed a judge of the Superior Court, 1863; retired, 1879. 
Subsequently engaged in the consolidation of the statutes of Quebec. Created 
by the pope a commander of the Order of Pius IX. Index: C Conservative 
leader in Quebec, his character, 25. Bib.: Dent, Last Forty Years. 

Lorette. L Settlement of Christian Indians at, 74. WM British abandon 
their position at, 249. 

Lorimer, Dr. Hd Consulted by Haldimand as to sanitary measures, 66, 70, 

Lorin, Henri. F Author of Le Comte de Frontenac, referred to, 109, 126, 128, 
142, 165, 174, 216, 231, 250. 

Lonnel, Captain de. Ch Brings out settlers, 252. 

Lome. See Argyll. 

Lotbini&e. See Joly de Lotbini&re ; Chartier de Lotbini&re, 

Louche, de. WM Takes direction of fireships, 98. 

London, James (1841- ). Born in Toronto. Educated at Upper Canada 
College and Toronto University, graduating 1862. Appointed to the staff of 
the university; professor of mathematics, 1875 ; and president of the university, 
1892, succeeding Sir Daniel Wilson. One of the original fellows of the Royal 
Society of Canada. Retired from presidency of university, 1906. Index : BL 
Quoted on Baldwin's University Bill, 293. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; The 
University of Toronto and its Colleges, 187~1906. 

London, John Campbell, fourth Earl of (1705-1782). General. Index: WM 
Made commander-in-chief of British forces in America, 33 . Hd Commands Royal 
Americans, 11; his opinion of Pennsylvanians, 11. Bib,: Diet. Nat. Biog.; 
Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe; Bradley, Fight with France. 

Louis XIII, King of France (1601-1643). Succeeded his father, Henry IV, in 
1610. Index: F Close relations of Frontenac family with, 62. Ch Demands 
restitution of Acadia, 212 ; plot against, 215, L Dedicated France to the Virgin 
Mary, 87. Bib.: Larousse, Dictwnnaire UniverseL 

Louis XIV, King of France (1638-1715). Succeeded his father, Louis XIII, 
in 1643. Index : F His war with Holland, 148 ; absolutism of his rule 151-153; 
desires to have permanent curacies (cures fixes) established in Canada, 164 ; 
private life of, 166 ; pronounces La Salle's discoveries useless, 176 ; later takes 
him under his special protection, 180. L Recommends creation of bishopric 
for New France and appointment of Laval thereto, 131 ; stipulates that arch- 
bishop of Rouen shall be metropolitan, 133; yields the point, 134; bestows 


abbey of Lestr6es on new diocese, 136; Ms decision on liquor 114; 

grants 8000 francs annually to Canadian clergy ? 182 ; later reduces 183 ; 

his disagreement with Pope Innocent XI, 201. Bib, : Voltaire, cfe 

XIV; Saint-Simon, Memoires. 

Louis XVI, King of Prance (1754-1793). Succeeded to the throne in 1774. 
Index: S Public mourning ordered in Upper Canada for death of, 193. Bib* : 
Larousse, Dictionnaire Unwersel 

I/ouisbourg. A seaport on the south-east coast of Cape Breton. Formerly 
the chief stronghold of France in America. The fortress, named after Louis 
XIV, was begun in 1790; twenty-five years were spent in fortifying it ; 
the cost was estimated at thirty million livres. Captured by the British under 
PeppereU and Warren in 1745 ; ceded back to France by the treaty of Aix-lar 
Chapelle ; and again captured by the British under Amherst and Boscawen, in 
1758, Index : WM Guards Gulf of St. Lawrence, 17 ; composition of garrison, 
SO ; capture of, 71 ; expedition against Quebec, sails to, 85. Ch Ccmononly 
known as Port aux Anglais, 236. See also Cape Breton; Boscawea; Wolfe; 
Amherst. Bib. : Parkman, Half-Century of Conflict and Montcalm and Wol/e; 
Lettre d'un Habitant, ed. by Wrong; Archibald, First Siege of ImMtmrg 
(R. S. C., 1887) ; Bourinot, Cape Breton and its Memorials; Wood, Logs of &e 
Conquest of Canada. 

Lonisbourg Grenadiers. WM On British right, at Quebec, 189 ; re-embark 
after fall of Quebec, 236. 

Louise, Princess. Daughter of Queen Victoria ; born 1848. Index : IE Comes 
to Canada with her husband, the Marquis of Lome, 122. 

Louisiana. Hd Secretly transferred to Spain by France, 64 ; Spanish rule 
unpopular, 77 ; revolution in, 79 ; counter-revolution, 81 ; contemplated in- 
vasion of, 81. L Colony sent to, 152. Bk Cession of by France to Spain, 38; 
re-ceded to France, 38; purchased by United States, 42; acquisition of, 
changes attitude of United States towards Great Britain, 43. Bib. : Le Page 
du Pratz, Histoire de la Louisiana. For further material, see IM. Am. Hid. \ 

Lonnt, Samuel (1791-1838). Me Member for Simcoe, 316; election corrup- 
tion, 317 ; given command of rebels, 360 ; arrives at Montgomery's tavern. 
362 ; his account of the flag of truce, 369 ; his first engagement, 373 ; his second 
engagement, 379 ; leaves country, 380; executed, 435; his fidelity , 435 ; peti- 
tions for commutation, 435 ; effect of his execution, 436 ; monument^ta 436. 
BL Hanged for his share in the Rebellion of 1837, 44-45. Bib,: Dent, Upp&r 
Canadian Rebellion; Kingsford, History of Canada. 

U Ouverture, Toussaint. Bk Establishes independent republic in St. Domingo, 
39,40; death of, 40. 

Louvigny, Louis de la Porte, Sieur de (1652-1730). Accompanied Denonville 
on his expedition against the Iroquois, 1687 ; sent by Frontenac to relieve La 
Durantaye in 1690; in command at Three Rivers in 1701; two years late 
commanded an expedition to Detroit ; major of Quebec, 1706; sent to Michlli- 
mackinac m 1713; four years later at Detroit, and led an expedition against 
the Fox Indians; at Quebec in 1724 as lieutenant du roi. Index: $ Sent with 
reinforcements to Michilimackinac, 241. Bib. : Cadillac Papers (Michigan Hist. 
Coll., vol. 33) ; Parkman, Frontenac. 

Lovett, John. Bk Secretary to General Van Rensselaer, letters of, 263-265, 

Low, Albert Peter (1861- ). Born in Montreal. Educated at McGill 
University, graduating in 1882 with honours. Appointed to Geological Survey 


1881, and promoted to geologist, 1891. Spent many years in exploring the 
Labrador peninsula, and is the chief authority on its geography and geology. 
Appointed director of the Survey, and deputy minister of mines, 1907. Bik: 
Morgan, Can. Mm; Canadian Wktfs Who. 

Lowell. S White settler among Grand River Indians, murdered by Isaac 
Brant, 191. 

Lower Canada. Me Crisis approaching in, 287 ; Imperial commissioners* re- 
port, 323 ; against responsible government, 325 ; events leading to Rebellion, 
327 ; asks other provinces for support, 329 ; crisis arrives, August, 1837, 344 ; 
arrest of editors, 344 ; condition of, in 1837, 347 ; rebellion in, 358. BL Popu- 
lation of, at time of conquest, 1 ; its character, 1 ; British immigration, 8 ; 
racial conflict, 8 ; political situation after 1815, 9, 16-21 ; reorganization of its 
judicial system, 184-185. Bk Population of, 45. Sy Desire of majority to have 
the province wholly French, 68 ; Pitt's expectations regarding, 68 ; governors 
of, ally themselves with English-speaking element, 69 ; rupture between the two 
races inevitable, 86, 87 ; Rebellion, 87. Bib. : Kingsford, History of Canada; 
Christie, History of Lower Canada; Garneau, History of Canada; McMullen, 
History of Canada; Bibaud, Histoire du Canada SOILS la Domination Anglaise; 
Political and Historical Account of Lower Canada, by a Canadian, London, 

Lowther, Catherine. WM Wolfe's attachment to, 70, 72; Wolfe entrusts 
her portrait to Captain Jervis, 175. Bib.: Doughty, Siege of Quebec; Willson, 
Life and Letters of James Wolfe; Wood, The Fight for Canada. 

Loyal American Regiment. Dr Commanded by Beverley Robinson, 202. 
WT Commanded by Beverley Robinson, 3 ; Lemuel Wilmot a captain in, 3. 

Loyalist. Newspaper published at St. John, New Brunswick. WT Attacks 
Wilmot and Fisher, 74-75; libel case arising out of, 75. 

Loyalist Corps. Hd Formed, 253. Dr Practice of purchase of commissions 
prevented in, 217 ; six disbanded and settled in Nova Scotia, 218. 

Loyalists, United Empire. Name applied to the inhabitants of the Thirteen 
Colonies who remained loyal to Great Britain, and rather than submit to the 
new republic, migrated to Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince 
Edward Island. No adequate provision having been made for them by the 
mother country, in the treaty of Paris (1783), the Loyalists were compelled 
in most cases to abandon all their worldly possessions, and start life anew in 
the pioneer settlements of the north. May 18, 1783, one great section of the 
refugees landed at the mouth of the St. John River, and built a town, first 
named Parrtpwn, later St. John. Other settlements were made, about the same 
time, at various points on the coasts of Nova Scotia, as well as on St. John's 
Island (Prince Edward Island). The bulk of the migration to what was then 
Quebec (now Ontario and Quebec) took place in 1784, the eastern Loyalists going 
north byway of Lake Champlain and the Richelieu, and settling in the Eastern 
Townships; those of the West crossing the boundary at Niagara and other 
points, and spreading throughout the backbone of the future province of Upper 
Canada. Index : B Land grants to their children fall into hands of speculators, 
53. S Settlement of Upper Canada by, 1 ; Carleton's interest in, 51 ; their 
sufferings, 52, 54 ; claims for losses paid to, 55 ; settlements of, during and after 
war, 56 ; pretenders among, 57 ; those from England not generally good set- 
tlers, 58 ; assisted by government, 60 ; their hardships, 61 ; their mode of life, 
62-69 ; names of those who had joined British side before treaty of 1783, regis- 
tered, 70 ; clauses of treaty of Paris respecting, not carried out by United States, 


118 ; consequently further emigration of to Canada, 1 19. Sy 
an attempt to placate, 63. Bk Rations Issued to, from Fort Niagara, 58 ; 
(1804) observes and reports on comfortable condition of many of 65. Dr 

Emigration of, 64 ; commended to Carleton's special care, 104 ; 
condition, 196 ; twenty regiments of, In Carleton's command, 202 ; their con- 
sternation on learning of proposed terms of peace, 206 ; left unprotected by 
treaty of peace, 213 ; large number of, embark for Nova Scotia, 214 ; Carte-ton 
continues occupation of New York till all have left the country, 215, 216 ; their 
emigration to different British provinces, 218 ; widows of, apply for pensions, 
218, 219 ; effect of their settlement In Canada, 221, 244, 248 ; increase of their 
numbers In western Canada, 224 ; two distinct waves of emigration, 236 ; set- 
tlements of at Niagara, and Sorel, 236, 237 ; claim representative institutions, 
237 ; those in Kingston district petition for church establishments, 238 ; their 
destitute condition, 238 ; their political weight underestimated by Dorchester^ 
248 ; the Seigniorial Tenure system unsuited to, 256 ; Dorchester's suggestion, 
for conferring distinction on, 260. E Extravagant land grants to, 144 ; Durham. 
on, 144-145; settled along Niagara River, 194. MS In the wilderness, 11. 
R Methodist preachers In Upper Canada of Loyalist stock, 38 ; included many 
of the influential families, 62 ; Ryerson's history of, 270, 274^279. H Emigrate 
to the loyal western colonies, 13, 17. BL Come to Maritime Provinces and 
Canada, 4-5 ; their numbers and character, 5 ; in Lower Canada, 17 ; support 
Common School Bill, 105; Md Dread possibility of revolution, 20. WT 
Severe treatment of, 145 ; they settle in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, 145- 
146, 177. Hd Come to Canada, 125 ; houses built for, 138, 182 ; military ser- 
vice of, 136, 137 ; at Niagara, 152 ; employed on fortifications of Quebec, 183 ; 
In Vermont negotiations, 200, 202, 206 ; at Cataraqtd, 236, 265 ; Washington's 
severity towards, 249, 250 ; arrangements for their reception in Canada, 250, 
254 ; not less patriotic than the opposite party, 251 ; brutal treatment of, 252 ; 
compared with Jacobites, 253 ; Haldimand's care of, 254 ; lands allotted to, 
255 ; surveys made for, 263 ; flock into Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, 263 ; 
their advent viewed with alarm by French Canadians, 264; fed and clothed 
by government for three years, 265 ; not fully appreciative of assistance given, 
266; difficulty of dealing with, 267-271, 348; some impostors among, 268, 306. 
Me Hardships suffered by, on account of naturalization laws, 140-141 ; bills 
for their relief, 142-143. Bib. : Sabine, Loyalists of the American Revolution; 
Ryerson, Loyalists of America; Campbell, Travels in North America; Canniff, 
The Settlement of Upper Canada; Casselman, United Empire Loyalists of the 
County of Dundas, Ontario; Haight, Country Life in Canada Fifty Years Ago; 
Bourinot, Builders of Nova Scotia; Frousac, Rise of the ^Loyalists; Loyalists 
of New York in the American Revolution in Columbia University Studies; Curwen, 
Journal and Letters; Myers, The Tories or Loyalists in America; Eardley- 
Wilmot, Loyalists' Centennial Souvenir; St. John, The Centennial of the Settlement 
of Upper Canada by 'the United Empire Loyalists; Denison, United Empire 
Loyalists (R. S. C., 1904.); Van Tyne, Loyalists in the American Revolution; 
Shortt and Doughty, Constitutional Documents of Canada. 

Ludovica. Ch Name proposed by Champlain for Quebec, 124. 

Lttmagne. Ch Merchant, compensation awarded to, for goods seized, 221. 

Lumber Trade. Bk Canadian, great increase of, 125. 

Lundy's Lane, Battle of (1814). British troops, including Canadian militia, 
numbered 1600 at the beginning of the battle, later increased to 2800, under 
the command of Sir Gordon Drummond ; United States troops about 4000, 


under General Jacob Brown. The engagement opened in the evening, and 
continued late into- the night ; the Americans finally withdrew from the field. 
Bib. ; Lucas, Cmadmn War of 181&. See also War of 1812. 

Luslgnaa, Paul Louis Bazemard de. Commanded Fort St. Frederic (Crown 
Point) in 1749, when the Swedish naturalist, Peter Kalm, visited the place ; 
and remained there for several years. Served under Montcalm at the siege 
of Quebec. Index : WM Relieves Montcalm, 120. 

LrtLfb, De. L Royal engineer, directs erection of fortifications, 214. 

Lymbtimer, Adam (1746-1836). Born in Kilmarnock, Scotland. Came to 
Canada about 1776, and settled at Quebec, where he succeeded to the business 
of his brother John, who had been lost at sea in 1775. For many years a 
member of the Executive Council, and took an active part in public affairs. 
Died in London at the age of ninety. Index : Dr Proceeds to England with 
petition for political changes, 243 ; arrives in England, 251 ; opposes division 
of province, 257. S Recommends system of representation adapted to strengthen 
English-speaking minority, 2 ; heard at bar of House of Commons, 6. Bk Sent 
to England to oppose division of Canada into two provinces, 49. Bib.: Lucas, 
History of Canada; Bradley, Making of Canada; Shortt and Doughty, Con- 
^ittdio-nal Documents of Canada. 

Lynch, Jolan Joseph (1816-1888). Bom near Clones, Ireland. Studied in 
Dublin, and entered the Lazarist order* Came to America in 1847 ; laboured 
as a missionary in Texas, 1847-1848 ; became president of the Lazarist College 
of St. Mary, Missouri, 1848 ; coadjutor to the bishop of Toronto, 1859 ; and 
bishop, 1860. In 1870, consecrated archbishop of Toronto and metropolitan 
of Ontario. His jubilee celebrated in 1884. Index : R His policy as to separate 
schools, 235-236 ; proposed as member of Council of Public Instruction of 
Upper Canada, 236. Bib. : Dent, Can. For.; Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Lyndlrarst, John Singleton Copley, Baron (1772-1863). British statesman. 
Index: Hd Denounces Rebellion Losses Bill, 241. Bib. : Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Lyonne, Be. Cli Jesuit, founder of missions at Nipisiguit and Chedabueto, 

Lyons, Richard Bickerton Pemell, Earl (1817-1887). British diplomatist. 
Index: B British ambassador at Washington suggested that he confer with 
Canadian agent on reciprocity, 192. Bib. : Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Lyons. S Teaches school at Hay Bay, 167. 

Lytton, Edward George Earle Lytton Buiwer, Baron (1803-1873). Novelist 
and statesman. Index : E Colonial secretary, his views on the duties of 
colonial governors, 4. D His series of despatches, 1858, on government of 
British Columbia, 231-235. "WT On the Confederation question, 205. Bib. : 
Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Escott, Edward Btdwer, First Baron Lytton of Knebworth. 

Lyveden, Robert Vemon, Baron (1800-1873). British statesman. Index: 
B Dwells upon defencelessness of Canada, 184. Bib. : Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Mabane, Adam (1734-1792). Born in Scotland. Studied medicine at Edin- 
burgh University; came to Canada, and practised his profession in Quebec. 
In 1764 appointed a judge, and presided over the first civil court held in 
Quebec. Member of the provincial Council; and in 1766 surgeon of the 
garrison of Quebec. Index: Dr Member of Council, protests against posi- 
tion taken by Carleton, 34; dismissed from Council, 39; appointed judge, 
183. Hd Head of military hospital, 178 ; intimate friend of Haldimand, 300, 
304 ; made judge and member of Legislative Council, 305 ; not in favour under 


Dorchester regime, 314, 315 ; Ms headstrong temper, 332 ; his to HsJdi- 

mand, 340; receives bequest from Haldimand, 342. Bib.: Bradley, qf 

.Shortt and Doughty, Constitutional of 

M J Aee, Samuel. Me Aids Mackenzie's escape, 400. 

MacaUum, A. R In charge of union school at Hamilton, 195. 

McBride, Richard (1870- ). Born in New Westminster, British Colum- 
bia. Educated at the public and Mgh schools. New Westminster. Elected 
to the British Columbia Assembly, 1898; minister of mines in Dunsmuir ad- 
ministration ; premier of British Columbia, 1903. Bib. : Canadian Who's Who. 

McCarthy, Charles Justin. R Martyr of early Canadian Methodism, 41. 

McCarthy, D'Altoa (1836-1898). Born in Dublin, Ireland. Came to Canada 
with his parents, 1847. In 1853 called to the bar ; in 1871 a bencher of the 
Law society; and in 1872 made a Q. C. In 1876 elected to Parliament for 
Cardwell, as a Conservative, but in 1889 severed Ms connection with the party 
on the question of the Jesuits' Estates Act. IE 18% member of Parliament 
for North Simcoe. Index: Md Opposes commercial union, 295. Bib.: Morgan, 
Can. If en; Hopkins, D' Alton McCarthy in Men of the Day. 

Macartney, Captain. "WM Rescues French soldiers from floating ice, 251. 

Hacaulay, Sir James Buchan (1793-1859). Bom at Niagara, Ontario'. 
Served in the Glengarry Fencibles during the War of 1812. In 1822 called to 
the bar and rose rapidly in his profession. A strong opponent of William 
Lyon Mackenzie, and in 1826 appeared as counsel against him. In 1829 be- 
came judge of the King's Bench ; chief justice of the Court of Common Pleas, 
1849-1856 ; and subsequently of the Court of Error and Appeal Chairman of 
the commission to revise and consolidate the statutes of Canada and Upper 
Canada. Knighted, 1859. Index; Me Defends destroyers of Colonial Ad- 
vocate, 115; offers compensation, 117; Mackenzie's opinion of, 118; violates 
secrecy of private letters, 121 ; taunts Mackenzie, 123 ; Mackenzie retaliates, 
124; writes venomous pamphlet, 125; Mackenzie's reply, 126. Bib.: Read* 
Lives of the Jwlges; DenL Upper Canadian Rebellion. 

Macauley, John. BL inspector-general, retires and succeeded by Hincks, 119. 

McClelan, Abner Reid (1831- ). Born in Hopewell, New Brunswick. 
Educated at Mount Allison Academy. Engaged in mercantile life. Represented 
Albert County in the Assembly, 1854-1867 ; chief commissioner of public works, 
1866-1867 ; appointed to the Senate, 1867 ; lieutenant-governor of New Brans- 
wick, 1896-1902. Index : WT Elected as Confederation candidate in Albert, New- 
Brunswick, 231 ; chief commissioner of public works in Mitchell government, 
247 ; elected for Albert, 249. Bib. : Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who. 

McCulloch, Dr. BL Defeats La Fontaine in Terrebonne ; affiliated with 
Draper, 82. 

McCulloch, J. R. Sy Political economist, 13. 

McCully, Jonathan (1809^1877). Born in Halifax, Nova Scotia. In 1837 
called to the bar, and practised in Halifax, 1849. In 1860 appointed solicitor- 
general; from 1847 to 1867 member of the Legislative Council; and served as 
chairman of the Board of Railways; delegate to the Charlottetown and Quebec 
Conferences, 1864; appointed to the Dominion Senate, 1867 ; and in 1870 judge 
of the Supreme Court of Nova Scotia. Index: H Leader of Liberal party 
in Nova Scotia, 1864, 177 ; delegate to Charlottetown Conference, 177 ; edits 
Morning Chronicle, 186; firm advocate of Confederation, 186. Bib.: Campbell, 
History of Nova Scotia; Saunders, Three Premiers of Norn Scotia. 

Macdoaald, Andrew Archibald (1829- ). Born in Brudenell, Prince 


Edward Island. Engaged in business as a general merchant. Sat in Prince 
Edward Island Assembly, 1853-1860; represented Kings South in Legislative 
Council, 1863-1873; member of Executive Council, 1867-1871 and 1872-1873; 
lieutenant-governor of Prince Edward Island, 1884-1889. Called to the 
Senate, 1891. Index : WT Delegate to Quebec Conference, 219. Bib. : Morgan, 
Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who. 

Macdonald, Ardubald. MS His account of the voyage of the third party of 
Red River settlers In 1813, 162-163; in charge at Red River, 173; colonists 
demand that he hand over field pieces, 173-174. Bib.: Bryce, The Romantic 
Sd&em&n of Lord Selkirk's Colonists. 

Macdonald, Donald Alexander (1816-1896). Born in St. Raphael's, Quebec. 
Engaged in business as railway contractor. Represented Glengarry in the 
Assembly of Canada, 1857-1867, and after Confederation in the House of Com- 
mons, 1867-1875. Postmaster-general in the Mackenzie administration, 1873- 
1878 ; lieutenant-governor of Ontario, 1875-1880. After Ms retirement lived at 
Montreal. Bib. : Read, LieutenanfrGpvernors of Upper Canada. 

MacDonald, Hugh. Born in Antigonish, Nova Scotia, 1827. Studied law 
and called to the bar, 1855; made a Q. C., 1872. In 1859 elected member for 
Inverness to the provincial Legislature. Member of a delegation, including 
Joseph Howe, that visited England in 1861 to represent the views of those 
opposing the Confederation of the British North American provinces. In 
1867-1873 a member of the Dominion Parliament, and in 1873 president of 
the Privy Council. On Nov. 5, 1873, appointed judge of the Supreme Court of 
Nova Scotia; retired 1893. Index: H Delegate of Anti-Confederation party, 
goes to England with Howe and Annand to oppose Confederation, 192 ; expenses 
paid by subscription, 219. Bib.: Campbell, History of Nova Scotia; Saunders, 
Three Premiers of Nova Scotia. 

Macdonald, Hugh. Md Father of Sir John A. Macdonald, native of Suther- 
landshire, removes to Glasgow, and in 1820 emigrates to Canada, 1 ; settles at 
Kingston, 2 ; moves to Hay Bay, thence to Stone Mills, on Bay of Quinte, 
2; unsuccessful in business, he returns to Kingston, 1836, and secures posi- 
tion in Commercial Bank, 2; his death, 1841, 2; his character, 2. 

Macdonald, Hugh Jonn (1850- ). Born in Kingston, Ontario; second 
son of Sir John A. Macdonald. Educated at Queen's and Toronto Uni- 
versities; called to the bar, 1872; and practised for some years with his 
father and James Patton. In 1882 removed to Winnipeg, and entered into 
partnership with J. S. Tupper. In 1890-1891 represented Winnipeg in the 
House of^ Commons ; in 1896 minister of the interior in the Tupper adminis- 
tration; in 1897 leader of the Conservatives in Manitoba; and from Jan. 8 to 
Oct. 29, 1900, premier of the province. Index : Md Second son of Sir John A. 
Maedonald represents Winnipeg in Dominion Parliament, 10; premier of 
Manitoba, 10. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who } s Who. 

Macdonald, John Alexander. Md Eldest son of Sir John A. Macdonald 
accidentally killed when quite young, 10. 

Macdonald, Sir John Alexander (1815-1891) . H Attends Charlottetown Con- 
ference, 1864, and proposes union of all the provinces, 178 ; premier of first Do- 
minion Cabinet, 198 ; Tupper writes him as to Howe's political plans, 207 ; Tilley 
and Tupper urge him to visit Nova Scotia, 209 ; visits Halifax with Sir Georges 
Cartier, Peter Mitchell, and William Macdougall, 210 ; Acadian Recorder suggests 
violence, 210; Howe denounces the suggestion, 210-212; arrives in Halifax, 
and guest of Sir Hastings Doyle, 213 ; meets Howe, 213 ; appears before com- 


mittce of Legislature, 213-214 ; urges Howe to put an end to the for 

repeal of the union, 215-218 ; persuades Howe to enter Dominion Cabinet, 225 ; 
his public letters, 257 ; contrasted with Howe, 287 ; correspondence with 
on Pacific Railway policy, 299-300. R His University Bill, 1847 its 
155-157; withdrawn, 166; referred to, 161 ; amends Separate School Bill, 231 ; 
supports Ryerson's stand as to separate schools, 233. D And the Pacific 
321. C His alliance with Cartier, 31, 33; his first appearance in Parliament 
as an imeompromising Tory, 31; opposed to La Fontaine, 32; votes 
settlement of Seigniorial Tenure, 32; oppose Indemnity BUI, 32; and the 
Pacific Scandal, 53; his resignation, 53; at Quebec Conference favours 
legislative union of provinces, 57 ; defends proposed constitution, 5~6> ; forms 
first Dominion administration, 67 ; resists demand for disallowance of New Bruns- 
wick Act abolishing separate schools, 74 ; sympathizes with Roman Catholic 
minority, 76 ; presents Militia Bill, 1862, 87 ; helps Cartier to establish political 
union, 100 ; freedom from racial or religious prejudice, 100 ; his qualities, lt)l- 
102 ; strained relations with Cartier, 102-103 ; Cartier's knowledge of service 
to, 111 ; receives knighthood, 124, 129 ; explains Wolseley's quarrel with Cartier, 
130. E Becomes receiver-general in Sherwood ministry, 43 ; his statesmanlike 
qualities, 43-44; re-elected, 1848, 50; his political sagacity, 110; rivalry with 
George Brown, 114; on provincial representation, 118; on the dissolution of 
Parliament in 1853, 127 ; on the Representation Bill, 132, 133 ; Liberal-Con- 
servative party owed its birth to his inspiration, 137 ; persuades Sir Allan Mac- 
Nab to agree to coalition government, 139, 141 ; attorney-general in MacNab- 
Morin ministry, 140 ; his views on Clergy Reserves, 163 ; takes charge of bill for 
secularization of the Clergy Reserves, 168 ; Hincks enters his ministry, 223 ; one of 
the builders of the British Empire honours conferred upon him, 225 ; monu- 
ments erected to his memory, 226. B Relations with George Brown, x ; leads 
his party, 42 ; frames bill for settlement of Clergy Reserves, 60 ; reveals political 
sagacity, 69 ; on the character of the union, 82 ; bitter relations with George 
Brown, 87-91 ; offers seat in Cabinet to John Sandfield MacdonaJd, 100 ; the 
" Double Shuffle," 107-108 ; moves want of confidence in Sandfield Macdonald 
government, 1863, 146; Brown's motion for constitutional changes, 1864, 
takes him by surprise, 150; his account of negotiations between George Brown 
and government as to Confederation, 151, 154-156 ; his connection with, 152, 
154-155; announces agreement, 153, 160; favours nominative Senate, 164; 
describes new constitution, in Confederation debate, 170-171 ; announces in 
Parliament decision of government to carry Confederation at once and send 
mission to England, 182 ; explains intentions of government, 183 ; on defence 
of Canada, 183, 184-185 ; goes to England, 186 ; relations with George Brown, 
189-192 ; asked to form government, 1865, 189 ; interview with Brown, 189- 
191 ; his proposal that Belleau be premier accepted by Brown, 191 ; virtual 
leader of government, 191 ; charged with using Brown as a stepping-stone to 
his own political ambition, 199 ; benefits by Brown's entry into ministry, 199, 
200; Holton describes his path as "studded all along by the gravestones of his 
slaughtered colleagues," 201 ; on friendly terms with Holton, 202 ; his essential 
conservatism, 202 ; relations with Macdougall and Howland, 202, 209 ; with 
Joseph Howe, 203-206, 210 ; his ideal of a legislative union, 207 ; anomalous 
position of his Liberal colleagues, 209-210; his government overthrown, 210, 
235. BL Co-operates in founding United Empire Association, 228 ; elected in 
1844, 252 ; enters ministry as receiver-general, 276 ; re-elected, 279 ; offers 
Baldwin chief-justiceship of Common Pleas, 357 ; Hincks in his Cabinet, 359. 


Md Assigned foremost place among Canadian statesmen, I ; national recogni- 
tion of his services after Ms- death by creation of peerage for his widow, i ; me- 
morial tablet in St. Paul's Cathedral, and statues in Canadian cities, i; his 
personal popularity, Hi; his personality made Confederation possible, ii; 
Canada's debt to him, iii-iv ; his birth and ancestry, 1 ; brought to Canada in 
1820, 1 ; boyhood days at Kingston and on the Bay of Quints, 2 ; his debt to 
his mother, her strong personality, 2 ; educated at Kingston Grammar School, 
3; Mowat's tribute, 3; studies law, 4-5; called to the bar, 1836, 5; begins 
practice at age of twenty-one, 5 ; Oliver Mowat and Alexander Campbell students 
in his office, 6 ; called out as a volunteer in Rebellion of 1837, 7 ; defends Schoultz 
and Ashley, 8-9 ; Ms first visit to England, 1842, ; takes Alexander Campbell 
into partnership, 9; elected alderman for Kingston, 10; marries his cousin, 
Miss Isabella Clark, Sept. 1, 1843, 10; their children, 10; enters public life, 
1854, as member for Kingston, 11-12; his fi m belief from the beginning that 
Canada's prosperity depended on permanent connection with the mother country, 
12 ; Impelling motives of his long public career, 13 ; unsettled problems in 1844, 
13-14; Confederation movement, 14; difficulties of his position, 15-16; his 
election address, 23 ; takes little p^art in discussions during his first session, 25 ; 
Draper recommends him for position of commissioner of crown lands, 26 ; had 
no sympathy with political creed of Family Compact, 27 ; becomes receiver- 
general, 27 ; his views on university endowment, 28-29 ; Alexander Campbell's 
letter to, 31; opposes Rebellion Losses Bill, 36 ; refuses to join the annexation 
movement, 40; strong supporter of British American League, 40; acts as 
moderating force in conflict over Rebellion Losses Bill, 42, 43 ; his character 
contrasted with George Brown's, 53, 54; conceives idea of Liberal-Conservative 
party, 62, 63; appointed attorney-general for Upper Canada, 63 ; introduces bill 
for secularization of Clergy Reserves, 65 ; Pope's pen-portrait of his Appearance 
and character, 73 ; supports measure proposing to make Legislative Council 
elective, 75 ; has no desire and makes no effort to hasten Sir Allan MacNab's 
resignation, though circumstances force him into leadership, 76-77; resigns 
from the MacNab-Tach6 ministry, 78 ; reasons for resignation, 79, 80 ; forms 
an administration with Tach6, May 24, 1856, 80 ; his quarrel with George Brown, 
80-81 ; challenged by Colonel Rankin, 81-82 ; Ms views on the separate school 
system, 82 ; on the resignation of Taeh6, forms an administration with Cartier, 
83 ; becomes premier of the province of Canada on Nov. 26, 1857, 83 ; dissolves 
House and appeals to people on questions of separate schools and representation 
by population, 84 ; makes proposition to Sandfield Macdonald, which is rejected, 
84, 85 ; forms administration with Cartier as premier, 86 ; the " Double Shuffle," 
86, 87 ; becomes less opposed to representation by population, 89 ; forms ad- 
ministration with Sir E. P. Tach, which lasts only a few weeks, 90 ; buries the 
hatchet and forms coalition with Brown to work for Confederation, 93, 100-102 ; 
anticipates results of Confederation, 103; attends Charlottetown and Quebec 
Conferences, 104-114; though strongly in favour of legislative union, modifies 
his views after discussion at Quebec Conference, and accepts scheme of a federal 
union, 107-108, 245; introduces in Parliament the resolutions adopted at 
Quebec Conference, 118, 119; one of commissioners to British government in 
regard to Confederation, 120 ; upon death of TacM, is called upon to form a 
ministry, but Brown refusing to act with him, or with Cartier, they sit together 
under the nominal presidency of Sir Narcisse Belleau, 122, 123 ; his answer 
to Lord Monck on delay in Confederation, 124 ; his wariness and skill in present- 
ing Confederation resolutions, 126, 127; made a K C. B. in recognition of his 

AND 251 

in Confederation negotiations; 128, 267, 344 ; of 

Dominion of Canada , 131 ; Ms second marriage, 131 ; granted a 
by the queen, 132 ; returns to Canada, 132 ; difficulties in formation of 
Dominion Cabinet, 133 ; list of members, 134-135 ; his party of 

Liberal-Conservative, 138; seeks able colleagues, 139, 140; of 

Dominion election, 141 ; sends Tapper to oppose Howe and his movement for 
repea! y 143 ; visits Halifax for purpose of winning Howe over to Confederation, 
144 ; Howe persuaded to enter Dominion Cabinet, 145 ; acts by 

Dominion Parliament, 151 ; on verge of ministerial crisis over Intercolonial 
Baiiway, 153, 154 ; his desire to annex North-West Territories, 156; 
in accomplishing it, 157-163 ; introduces bill for establishment and government 
of province of Manitoba, 161 ; token seriously ill, 161 ; returns to Ottawa, 163; 
goes to Washington as member of commission, 163, 165, 169 ; Ms reluctance to 
become a member of the commission, 171-173 ; objects to any permanent 
of the fisheries* 174-175 ; Ms connection with, and reasons for wlthdtwal of 
Fenian Raid claims, 175-178; on decision in San Juan boundary dispute, 179- 
181 ; on the fisheries question, 182-184 ; signs Washington Treaty, 185 ; mores 
ratification of certain clauses of Washington Treaty, 186-190 ; general election 
of 1872, 193 et seq.; the " Pacific Scandal/' 200 et seq.; Ms defence, 208, 2D; 
sends in Ms resignation, 210 ; leads opposition, 211 ; his resolution in favour of 
a national policy, 217, 225; puts the new policy before the country, 220-223; 
urges preferential trade with mother country, 227 ; again in power, 1878, 228 ; 
inaugurates the national policy and reverts to transcontinental railway scheme, 
234 ; crosses continent on Canadian Pacific Railway, 233 ; firm in his conviction 
that Bid should be hanged, 243, 244, 280; brings Letellier difficulty before 
Parliament, 248-250 ; Ontario boundary dispute, 254-258 ; introduces Fran- 
chise Act of 1885, 258-260; country's devotion to, 262, 263; qualities which 
maintained loyalty and devotion of Ms followers, 263-265; ^Confederation 
honours cause a break in his friendship with Gartier, 267, 268; introduces bill 
to adjust representation in House of Commons, 273 ; election of 1882, 273-276; 
resolutions on home rule in Ireland, 277; contrasted with Blake, 277-279; 
election of 1887, 279-283 ; adoption of jubilee address to queen, 283 ; compro- 
mises with Canadian Pacific Railway over their monopoly of transportation, 
285; takes a constitutional stand on Jesuits 7 Estates Act, 289; commercial 
union policy, 291 et seq.; contemplates a general election, 300-302; takes steps 
to renew commercial intercourse with United States, 303 ; his last appeal to 
electors of Dominion, 304-311 ; makes the most of contents of Farrer pamphlet, 
313-314; throws himself with energy into election campaign of 1891, 314; 
for fourth time his government is sustained, 315 ; receives a chill while attend- 
ing demonstration at Napanee, 319 ; attends opening of the session, 320 ; suffers 
a slight stroke of paralysis, 320 ; his last appearance in the House, 320 ; suffers 
a final stroke on May 29, 1891, 321 ; and dies on June 6, 1891, 321 ; funeral, 321 ; 
322 ; tribute from Queen Victoria, 322 ; memorial service in Westminster Abbey, 
and tablet to his memory in St. Paul's Cathedral, 322-323 ; a summing up of Ms 
work and influence, 333-353; a practical politician, 333-336; his political 
methods, 335-338 ; his personal magnetism, 339 ; anecdotes of, 340-341 ; not 
an orator, but an effective debater, 341-342 ; proposed preferential trade in 
1879, 342; in favour of Imperial federation, 343; letter to, from Cecil Khodes, 
349 ; kept in touch with Imperial affairs, 344 ; Imperial honours bestowed on, 
344-345 j a self-made man, 345; tributes to his statesmanship, 346; Ms sym- 
pathy with French-Canadians, 347-348 ; a peacemaker, 348 ; Lord Dufferin on, 


348-349 ; a poor man, 349-350 ; sum raised for, in 1870, 351 ; statues to, in many 
Canadian cities, 351 ; his greatness and shortcomings, 351-353. WT At Char- 
lottetown Conference, 216, 217 ; at Quebec Conference, 218, 220 ; at Westminster 
Conference, 263 ; presented to the Queen, 266 ; forms first Dominion ministry, 
269-270, 271 ; forms second ministry, 278 ; his national policy, 279. Bib. ; 
Pope, Memoirs of Sir John Alexander Macdonald; Macpherson, Life of Mac- 
donald; Collins, Life and Times of Macdonald; Adam, Life and Career of 
Maedwudd; Hopkins, Life of Macdonald; Biggar, Anecdotal Life of Macdonald; 
Dent, Can, For. and Last Forty Years; Taylor, Brit. Am.; Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Macdonald, John Sandfieid (1812-4872). Born in St. Raphaels, Glengarry. 
In 1840 called to the bar, and practised in Cornwall. In 1841 elected to the 
Parliament of the recently united provinces of Upper and Lower Canada ; and 
in 1849 solicitor-general in the La Fontaine-Baldwin government. In 1852- 
1854 Speaker; and attorney-general in the brief Brown-Dorion ministry; 
premier in 1862, and resigned, 1864. Formed the first government of the 
Province of Ontario, 1867 ; defeated in the House and resigned, 1871. Index: 
E Returned in elections of 1848, 50; his discourtesy to Lord Elgin, 127- 
131 ; Hincks succeeds in humiliating him, 135-136. B Offered seat in Cabinet 
by John A. Macdonald, 100 ; enters George Brown's ministry, 102 ; called on 
to form government, 1861, 142; an enthusiastic advocate of the "double 
majority," 142 ; in Confederation debate, 182-183 ; asks Brown to go on mission 
to Washington to discuss reciprocity, 192, 196. Md Upholds principle of 
" double majority," but later throws it overboard, 79 ; separate schools estab- 
lished by his administration, 1862-1863, 82; refuses John A. Macdonald's 
offer of a seat in the Cabinet, 1858, 84, 85; leads the moderate " Reformers," 
84-89 ; forms ministry with Sicotte, 1862, 88-89 ; government defeated same 
year on vote of want of confidence, 89 ; refuses to resign, and reconstructs govern- 
ment by joining forces with Brown, Dorion, and the Rouges, 89 ; resigns, March, 
1864, 90 ; objects to passing of resolutions adopted at Quebec Conference with- 
out submitting them to the people, 119; becomes leader of provincial govern- 
ment in Ontario at Confederation, 141 ; his character, 141-142. WT Resigns in 
1864, 210. Bib. : Dent, Can. For. and Last Forty Years; Taylor, Brit. Am. 

Macdoneil, Alexander. Represented Lord Selkirk's interests as governor 
of the Red River Settlement. Had been for some years in the employment 
of the Hudson's Bay Company. Left the Red River Settlement, 1821, when 
it was discovered that he had been lining his own pockets at the expense of 
Selkirk and the settlers. Popularly known as Gouverneur Sauterelle, or the 
Grasshopper Governor. Bib. : Bryce, Manitoba and The Romantic Settlement of 
Lord Selkirk's Colonists ; Ross, Red Rwer Settlement. 

Macdoneil, Alexander. MS Sheriff of the home district, Upper Canada, 133 ; 
Selkirk puts him in charge of the Baldoon Settlement, near Lake St. Clair, Upper 
Canada, 133. 

Macdoneil, Alexander. MS Sent by North West Company, with Duncan 
Cameron, to Red River, to break up the Red River Settlement, 172-173 ; leads 
attack on the colonists, 175. Bib.: Bryce, The Romantic Settlement of Lord 
Selkirk's Colonists. 

Macdoneil, Alexander (1769-1840). Born at Glen Urquhart, Scotland. 
Raised a Roman Catholic regiment of which he was appointed chaplain and saw 
service in Ireland ; after the regiment had been disbanded, succeeded in bringing 
the men to Canada in 1803-1804, and obtained for them an extensive tract of 
land on the St. Lawrence, in what is now Glengarry County. When the War of 


1812 was threatened, assisted in raising the Glengarry Fencibles and 
them into action. In 1826 consecrated bishop of Kingston, In 1839 returned 
to England to promote a scheme of emigration from the Highlands, and 
at Dumfries the following year. Index : Bk Recommended as chaplain of Glen- 
garry corps, 97. Bib. : Morgan, Cel. Can. ; Macdonell, the 
Early Settlement and History of Gkngarri/ in Canada. 

Macdonell, George (1770-1870). Member of the well-known Glengarry 
family of that name. Served for several years in the King's Regiment; in- 
strumental in organizing the Glengarry Feneibles in 1811 , of which he was given 
command. Served with distinction in the War of 1812, particularly in the 
capture of Ogdensburg and the battle of Chateauguay. Index : Bk Becomes 
colonel of Glengarry Fencibles, 180. Bib. ; Lucas, Canadian War of 181$ ; 
Macdonell, Sketches Illustrating die Early Settlement and History of Glengarry in 
Canada. See also War of 1812. 

Macdonell, Jotrn. S Speaker of first Assembly of Upper Canada, 80, 85. 

Macdonell, Lieutenant-Colonel John. Bom in Glengarry; son of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Alexander Macdonell, of the 1st Glengarry militia. Present at the cap- 
ture of Detroit and mentioned in despatches. In 1812 aide-de-camp to Sir Isaac 
Brock, and took an important part in the battle of Queenston Heights, where 
he was killed. At the time of his appointment to General Brock's staff was 
acting attorney-general of Upper Canada. Index : Bk Proposes to raise corps 
from among Scottish settlers in Glengarry, 97; his report on American fort 
at Detroit, 190 ; Brock makes him his aide-de-camp, 230 ; carries summons for 
surrender of Detroit, 251, 255; death of, at Queenston Heights, 306. Bib.: 
Lucas, Canadian War of 1812 ; Edgar, Ten Years of Upper Canada ; Macdonell, 
Sketches Illustrating the Early Settlement and History of Glengarry in Canada. 
See oho War of 1812. 

Macdonell, Miles (1767-1828). Governor of Assiniboia. Born in Scotland. 
Came to America with his father, Colonel John Macdonell, in 177S; and entered 
the army. In 1794 lieutenant in the Royal Canadian Volunteers, and cap- 
tain in 1796. Appointed by Lord Selkirk governor of his projected colony 
on Red River, and arrived there with a party of colonists in 1812. Opposition 
on the part of the North West Company culminated in an attack, June 11, 
1815, by the Company's agents, on the colonists, and Macdonell, to avoid 
bloodshed, surrendered. A threatened trial at Montreal fell through, and 
returned to Red River Settlement, where for nearly twelve years was one of 
its leading pioneers. Index: MS Quoted on Selkirk's Red River scheme, 100; 
a United Empire Loyalist, settled in Glengarry, Upper Canada, 150 ; sent for 
by Selkirk to take charge of the Red River Colony, 150; sails for Scotland, 
150; at Stornoway in the Hebrides, 151; at York Factory, 163-156; at the 
Red River, 157; winters at Pembina, 158; returns to the Forks, 158-159; 
difficulties in feeding the colonists, 161 ; beginning of troubles with the North 
West Company, 161-164; goes to meet new settlers, 163; summoned to 
Montreal to answer charges, 164 ; his proclamation, 169 ; and its effect, 170- 
171 ; sends John Spencer to seize North West Company's provisions at Souris 
River, 171-172; is arrested and taken to Montreal, 174. Bib.: Bryce, Hud- 
son's Bay Company and The Romantic Settlement of Lord Selkirk's Colonists; 
Ross, Red River Settlement ; Laut, Conquest of the Great North-West. 

MacDonnell, Alan. B Addresses Toronto Board of Trade on importance of 
acquiring North-West Territories, 216. 

Macdougall, William (1822-1905). Born in Toronto. Educated at Victoria 


College, Cpbourg; admitted as a solicitor in 1847, and as barrister, 1862. En- 
gaged in journalism ; founded the Canada Farmer in 1848, and the North 
American in 1850. A member of the Assembly from 1858 to 1867; of the 
Dominion Parliament, 1867-1882 ; and of the Ontario Legislature, 1875-1878. 
In 1862-1864 commissioner of crown lands ; and provincial secretary, 1864 ; 
minister of public works in first Dominion government, 1867 ; attended the 
Westminster Conference, 1866-1867 ; commissioner to London for the acquisi- 
tion of North- West Territories, 1868 ; lieutenant-governor of Rupert's Land, 
1869; and member of the Ontario Boundary Commission. Index: BL One 
of the leaders of the new Radicalism, editor of the North American, 341. 
E A leader of the Clear Grits, 110. B A leader of the Clear Grits, 39; a 
young lawyer and journalist, 40; edits the North American, 40; denounces 
George Brown, 40; secretary of Reform Convention, 1859, 137; suggests 
joint authority for federal purposes, in Confederation debate, 137; enters 
coalition ministry, 159; defeated in North Ontario, 160; elected in North 
Lanark, 160; favours elective Senate, 164; relations with Macdonald, 202-203; 
defends his action in remaining in coalition ministry after Confederation, 202, 
209; Ms work on the Globej 245. H Accompanies Macdonald to Halifax' 
1868, 210 ; meets Joseph Howe, on his way to Fort Garry to assume duties of 
governor, 227 ; blames Howe for fomenting trouble, 227. C On mission for 
purchase of Hudson's Bay Company's territories, 68 ; attempts to enter North- 
West as lieutenant-governor, 69, R Graduate of Victoria College, 144. Md 
Minister of public works, 134 ; agrees to maintenance of coalition, 137; lieuten- 
ant-governor of Rupert's Land, 1869, 138 ; accompanies Macdonald to Halifax, 
144 ; quarrels with Howe, 153, 154 ; introduces series of resolutions on acquisi- 
tion of North-West Territories, 156 ; sent to London to negotiate annexation of 
territories, 156-157; appointed lieutenant-governor of Rupert's Land, 158; 
refused admittance to the territory, 159. WT Enters coalition government, 
211; at Charlottetown Conference, 216, 217; at Quebec Conference, 218; 
enters first Dominion government, 270, 271. Bib. : Dent, Can. For. and Last 
Forty Years; Morgan, Can. Men. 

Mac6, Sister de. L Her labours in the hospital at Montreal, 91. 

McEvoy, J. M. S His pamphlet on The Ontario Township quoted, 89. 

McGee, Thomas D'Arcy (1825-1868). Emigrated from Ireland to the 
United States, 1842, and became editor of the Boston Pilot; returned to 
Ireland and edited The Nation , the Young Ireland's party organ ; fled to 
New ^ York; came to Canada in 1857. Established and edited the New 
Era in Montreal; elected to Parliament for the same city; president of 
Executive Council, 1862-1863; minister of agriculture, 1864r-1867. Took 
a leading part in the movement for the Confederation of the provinces. 
Shot by a Fenian, P. J. Whdan, in Ottawa, April 9, 1868. Index : B On 
Confederation movement, xi; his speech on Confederation names founders 
of movement, 129, 130, 147; in TacM's government, 1864, 149. Md Takes 
part in debates on resolutions adopted at Quebec Conference, 118. WT His 
work for Confederation, 207, 209 ; at Charlottetown Conference, 216, 217 ; at 
Quebec Conference, 218. Bib. : Works : Canadian Ballads; Popular History 
of Ireland; Notes on Federal Governments; Speeches and Addresses Chiefly on 
Subject of British American Union; Poems, with biog. sketch by Mrs. J. Sadlier. 
For his minor publications in Canada, and works published before coming to 
Canada, see Morgan, Bib. Can. For biog., see Taylor, Brit. Am., and Thomas 
D'Arcy McGee: Sketch of his Life andDeath; Dent, Can. For. and Last Forty Years. 


McGill, James (1744-1813). Bora in Glasgow, Scotland. to 

Canada. For some years engaged in the western fur trade; in 
nership with Ms brother, Andrew McGill, acquired a fortune. Sat in 

Lower Canada Parliament for several years, and in the Legislative Execu- 
tive Councils. An officer of the Montreal militia, and in 1812 brigadier-general. 
Devoted a large part of his wealth to various institutions in Montreal, 
the founder of the university that bears his name. Index : Bk Founder of 
MeGill University, 100. Bib. : Morgan, Cd. Can. See also McGill University. 

McGffl, John (1752-1834). Born in Scotland, to Virginia in 

1773. Espoused the royal cause in the Revolution ; in 1777 a in 

the Loyal Virginians, and in 1782 a captain in the Queen's Rangers. In 1783 
came to St. John, New Brunswick, and in 1792 to "Upper Canada. a 

member of the Executive Council, 1796, and of the Legislative Council, 1797, 
In 1801 appointed inspector-general of accounts. Index; S Accompanies 
Simeoe as commissary of stores, 47 ; appointed by Simeoe purchasing for 

military supplies, 212; temporarily superseded, but later confirmed in ap- 
pointment, 213. 

McGill, Peter (1789-1860). Bom in Scotland. Emigrated to in 

1809; became a wealthy merchant of Montreal. President of the Bank of 
Montreal, 1834 to I860. In 1841 appointed to the Legislative Council; 
Speaker, 1847 ; a member of the Executive Council. In 1834-1838 chairman 
of the St. Lawrence and Champlain, Railway Company ; in 1 840-1842 mayor 
of Montreal. A governor of McGill University; and of Montreal general 
hospital. Index: Sy Member of Constitutional Association, 112. E President 
of Legislative Council and member of Sherwood administration, 45 ; Ms vote 
helps to keep government in power, 45. BL Member of Legislative Council, 
1841, 83. Bib. : Taylor, Brit. Am.; Dent, Last Forty Years. 

McGill University. Founded through the far-sighted Mberaiity of James 
McGill, a merchant of Montreal, who hi his will left his property of Bumside 
and 10,000 to found the college. It was granted a royal charter in 1820, and 
opened in 1829. The original bequest proving insufficient to complete the college 
buildings, a further sum was given by William Molson for that purpose. A new 
charter was obtained in 1852. The period of greatest development of the uni- 
versity dates from 1855, when J. W. Dawson was appointed principal. The 
university has been fortunate in receiving generous bequests from wealthy 
citizens of Montreal, notably from Peter Redpath, Sir W. C, Macdonald, and 
Lord Strathcona. Bib. : Dawson, Historical Sketch of McGill University in Cm- 
ada: An Ency., vol. 4; Ency. Brit.; Ency. Amer. 

McGillivray, Simon. One of the leadbg partners of the North West Com- 
pany. Signed the agreement of 1821 under which the Hudson's Bay and 
North West Companies were amalgamated. Index : MS His declaration that 
" Lord Selkirk must be driven to abandon his project, for his success would 
strike at the very existence of our trade," 172 ; arrested by Selkirk at Fort 
William, 189. Bib.: Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company. 

MacGillivray, William. Born in Scotland, Came to Canada, and entered 
the service of the North West Company. In 1786-1787 had charge of the 
North West Company post at Lac des Serpents, in opposition to Roderick 
McKenzie of the rival Company. In the spring, the two traders with their men 
set out together for their respective headquarters at Grand Portage, and arrived 
there side by side, the crews singing in chorus, to the no small amazement of 
the Grand Portage people, MacGillivray and McKenzie were ever after firm 


friends. The former became a partner of the North West Company in 1790; 
signed the agreement of 1804 ; and was one of the most influential of the bour- 
geois. Fort William was named after him in 1807. Made a legislative council- 
lor of Lower Canada in 1814, in recognition of his services to the government 
during the War of 1812. Returned to Scotland before the fusion of the Hud- 
son's Bay Company and North West Company; bought an estate in Argyll- 
shire, and died there about 1825. Index ; MS Friendly rivalry with Roderick 
Mackenzie, of the X Y Company, 15 ; buys Pond's share in North West 
Company, 58; Fort William named after, 100. Bib.: Bryce, Hudson's Bay 
Company i Masson, Bourgeois de la Compaffnie Nord-Ouest. 

M'Govoch. Dr Discharged soldier, offers testimony in Walker case, 35 ; tried 
for perjury and sent to prison, 38. 

Mackray, Robert (1831-1904). Bom in Scotland. Educated at Aberdeen 
and Cambridge ; ordained deacon, 1855 ; and priest, 1856 ; in 1858 elected dean 
of Ms college ; vicar of Madingley till 1865, when appointed bishop of 
Rupert's Land ; in 1893, on the union of the Anglican churches hi Canada, 
became archbishop of Rupert's Land and primate of all Canada. Professor of 
ecclesiastical history and liturgiology in St. John's College, Winnipeg, and 
chancellor of the University of Manitoba. Bib. : Morgan, Can. Men; Dent, 
Can. POT.; Machray, Life of Archbishop Machray; Mockridge, Bishops of the 
Church of England in Canada and^ Newfoundland. 

Mclnto&h, John. Me Mackenzie's brother-in-law, 482 ; house attacked by 
mob, 482. 

Maclntyre, Duncan. Md Director of the Canadian Pacific Railway, 236. 

Mack, Karl Freiherr von (1752-1322). Bk Austrian general, surrender of, 72. 

Mackay, Alexander. Accompanied Alexander Mackenzie on his memorable 
journey of 1793 to the shores of the Pacific. In charge of lie & la Crosse House, 
1797-1799 ; signed the Montreal agreement of 1804, as one of the partners of the 
North West Company; joined the Pacific Fur Company, 1810, and sailed to 
Astoria with Franchdre that year. Murdered on the Tonquin, near Nootka, 
in 1811. Index: MS With Mackenzie on expedition to Pacific, 67 ; at Astoria, 
67 ; killed on the Tonguin, 67. D Engaged by Astor for the Pacific, 95 ; slain 
by Indians on the Tonquin, 95 ; his widow marries Dr. John McLoughlin, 95 ; 
succeeds Douglas in command of northern posts, 187. Bib. : Bryce, Hudson's 
Bay Company. See also Douglas; Mackenzie; Tonguin. 

McKay, James. Born in Edmonton, Alberta. Educated at the Red River 
Settlement. For a time in the service of the Hudson's Bay Company. A 
member of the Council of Assiniboia and of the North-West Council. 
Appointed to the Legislative Council of Manitoba, 1870. Minister of agri- 
culture, 1875-1878. Died, 1879. 

McKay, Joseph William (1829-1900). Born at Rupert House, Hudson Bay. 
Crossed the mountains to Fort Vancouver in 18M; had charge of various trading 
posts west of the mountains, and rose to the rank of chief trader; also made 
important explorations in what is now the province of British Columbia. Became 
one of the first members of the Legislative Assembly of Vancouver Island, 1855. 
Retired from the Company's service, 1879. Appointed to the Department of 
Indian Affairs of Canada in 1883. Bib. : Walbran, British Columbia Coast Names. 

McKee, Colonel. S Indian superintendent in the west, 126, 141, 210. Bk 
His influence over the Indians, 280. 

Mackellar. WM Chief engineer, accompanies Wolfe in reconnaissance of 
Island of Orleans, 93. 


Mackenzie, Alexander (1822-1892). Bom in ^ Scotland. to 

Kingston, Canada, In 1842 ; in 1848 started in business at Sarnia as 
and contractor ; in 1852 editor of the Lambton Shield , a reform ; 

member for Lambton in the provincial Parliament 1861-1867 ; and from 1887 to 
1892 a member of the Dominion Parliament. In 1873 became premier 
minister of pubic works, the first liberal premier of the Dominion. In 1878 
his government defeated by the Conservative party. Leader of the opposition 
until 1880, when he resigned on account of iU-health, but remained in Parlia- 
ment for some years, being elected for East York in 1882 and 1887. Declined 
knighthood three times. JJndex ; Me His letter in reference to George Brown, 496. 
Md Leader of opposition in succession to George Brown, 150; Supreme Court- 
organized under his administration, 1875, 151 ; moves an amendment to the 
address, 208; called upon to form a ministry, 1873, 211 ; pessimistic over the 
Canadian Pacific Railway scheme, 234, 235 ; replaced in leadership by Edward 
Blake, 235, 261. E Premier of Liberal government under which simultaneous 
voting was required by law, 133. B Signs requisition to George Brown to stand 
for Kent, 61 ; votes against proposal that three members of opposition should 
enter the government, 157 ; opposes Reformers taking seats in coalition ministry, 
but holds that they should give Confederation an outside support, 199, 204 ; on 
George Brown's character, 243 ; on Brown's relations with the parliamentary 
leaders after retirement, 247-248 ; on Brown's last days, 257 ; character of Ms 
speeches, 259. D His connection with the Canadian Pacific Railway negotia- 
tions, 321. WT His Cabinet, 232; opposes coalition idea, 270; his ministry 
resigns, 278. Bib. : Works: Speeches in Scotland and Canada; Life and 
Speeches of George Brown. For biog., see Buckingham and Ross, Life of 
Alexander Mackenzie; Dent, Can. Por. and Last Forty Years; Leggo, History of 
the Administration of the Earl of Dufferin in Canada; Stewart, Canada under the 
Administration of the Earl of Dufferin. 

Mackenzie, Sir Alexander (1755-1820). S Visits Simcoe, 188; recom- 
mends establishment of two trading-posts on Pacific coast, 189. MS Joins 
North West Company, 7; opposes Selkirk's plans, 7, 146, 151, 159, 167; Ms 
death, 8 ; born 1763 at Stornoway, Island of Lewis, Scotland, 10 ; parentage, 
10 ; education, 10 ; emigrates to Canada, 1779, 10 ; enters fur trade and joins 
opposition to McTavish, 10, 11; his keenness and daring, 11; leads trading 
expedition to Detroit, 11 ; at Grand Portage, 1785, 12 ; becomes a bourgeois, 12; 
assigned to English River department, 14; friendly relations with officers of 
rival North West Company, 15; goes to Athabaska, 17; Ms administrative 
ability, 17, 18 ; plans for expansion, 18 ; sends Leroux to build post on Great 
Slave Lake, 18 ; and Boyer to build one on Peace River, 19 ; describes life of 
fur trader, 22 ; Ms ambitious designs for discovery, 22 ; unpopular with McTavish, 
23 ; hears of a great river in the north, 31; preparation for Ms journey, 32; Ms 
narrative, 32 ; his party, 33 ; sets out June 3, 1789, from Fort Chipewyan, 33 ; 
reaches Great Slave Lake, 35; meets Yellow Knife Indians, 36; enters 
Mackenzie River, 37 ; meets Slave and Dog-Rib Indians, 28 ; their account of 
the river, 38 ; passes mouth of Great Bear River, 28, 47 ; meets Hare Indians, 
39; and Quarrellers, 39; enters the delta, 39; lands on Whale Island, at mouth 
of the river, 40 ; erects post with inscription, 40 ; uncertainty as to his having 
reached the sea, 43, 61 ; the return journey, 43 ; coal seam on fire, 47 ; difficulties 
with "English Chief," 45, 46, 48; returns to Great Slave Lake, 48; meets 
Leroux, 48-49 ; reaches Chipewyan, Sept. 12, 1789, 50 ; results of the journey, 
50-51; establishes existence and course of Yukon, 50-51; his treatment of 


natives, 51 ; Ms account of fauna, 51 ; Ms character, 51-52, 59 ; winters at 
Chipewyan, 53 ; unfriendliness of partners of Company, 53 ; Ms project for a 
journey to the West, 53 ; goes down to Grand Portage, 53 ; cool reception there, 
54 ; returns to Chipewyan, 54 ; his letters, 54 ; meets Philip Turner, 57 ; Ms 
share in North West Company, 58 ; goes to England to acquire instruction 
and instruments for his second journey, 59 ; returns to Athabaska, 61 ; prepara- 
tions for journey to the Pacific, 61 ; sends men to Peace River to cut timber for 
a post, 61 ; leaves Chipewyan, Oct. 10, 1792, 61 ; ascends Peace River, passes 
the falls and Boyer's " Old Establishment," and reaches Finlay's fort, 62 ; his 
method of dealing with the Indians, 62-63 ; winters at the forks, 63-65 ; Chinook 
winds, 65 ; sets out for the mountains and beyond, 66 ; members of his party, 
67 ; a man of heroic mould, 68 ; leaves Finlay's fort, May 9, 1793, 69 ; describes 
Peace River, 69 ; difficulties in crossing the mountains, 70, 72 ; meets strange 
Indians, 74 ; ascends the Parsnip River, 75 ; reaches its source, 75 ; descends the 
Fraser, 77 ; retraces his steps, and travels overland to the sea, 79-85 ; describes 
visit to the Coast Indians, 83 ; natives refer to Vancouver's party, 85 ; reaches 
coast and paints record of his journey on a rock, 86; the return journey, 86; 
trouble with the natives, 87 ; reaches Peace River, 88 ; reaches Finlay's fort, 
89 ; and Chipewyan, 89 ; leaves the West, 89 ; increased reputation among part- 
ners of North West Company, 92; withdraws from Company and sails for 
England, 93 ; publishes Ms book, 94 ; King Bernadotte of Sweden's tribute to 
explorer, 95 ; Napoleon has his Voyages translated into French, 96, 97 ; friend- 
sMp of duke of Kent, 98 ; receives kmghthood, 98 ; becomes head of X Y 
Company, 99 ; elected to Legislature of Lower Canada, 100 ; returns to Scot- 
land, 1808, 100 ; opposes Selkirk's scheme, 100 ; Ms marriage, 101 ; his family, 
101 ; his death, March 12, 1820, 102 ; compared with Selkirk, 209. D His 
expeditions to the Arctic and Pacific, 51 ; Ms personality, 52 ; parentage, 52 ; 
arrival in Canada, 53 ; enters fur trade, 53 ; in command of Fort CMpewyan, 
53 ; Ms desire to rival Samuel Hearne, 53 ; sets out from Chipewyan in 1789 
to explore Mackenzie River, 53 ; river named after Mm, 53 ; proves futility of 
search for North-West Passage, 53 ; visits England and prepares himself for 
further discoveries, 53 ; returns to the West, and leaves Chipewyan, Oct. 10, 
1792, for the Pacific, 53 ; ascends Peace River and ' crosses the mountains, 54 ; 
reaches Tacouche Tesse (Fraser), which he supposes to be the Oregon (Columbia), 
54 ; difficulties and dangers of the journey, 54r-55 ; his printed narrative trans- 
lated into French for Napoleon, 55 ; Ms burial-place, 55 ; his wife, 55 ; the 
legend he printed on a rock on the shores of the Pacific, 56 ; results of his journey, 
56. Bib. : Voyages from Montreal through the Continent of North America, 
1789 and 1793, London, 1801 ; trans, into French, Paris, 1802. See also Ms let- 
ters, in Roderick McKenzie's Reminiscences (Masson, Bourgeois du Nord-Ouest). 
For biog., see Willson, The Great Company; Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company; 
Burpee, Search for the Western Sea; Laut, Conquest of the Great North-West. 

Mackenzie, Donald (1783-1851). Born in Scotland. Emigrated to Canada 
in 1800, and engaged in the service of the North West Company for several years. 
In 1809 associated with John Jacob Astor in fur-trading on the Columbia. Re- 
turned to the service of the North West Company; and in 1821, on its ab- 
sorption by the Hudson's Bay Company, became a chief factor in the united 
Company. In 1825 appointed governor of the Red River Settlement, and held 
the position till 1832, when he retired to the United States. Died at Mayville, 
New York. Index : MS Chief factor, and afterwards governor, of Assiniboia. 
222. Bib. : Bryce, The Romantic Settlement of Lord Selkirk's Colonists, 


Mackenzie^ Geddes. MS Marries Sir Alexander Mackenzie, 101 ; her 
entage, 101. 

Mackenzie, George. Hd Macdonald studies law in Ms office, 4 ; of, 9, 

Mackenziej Hope. B Moves approval of George Brown's course in Con- 
federation negotiations, 156-157. 

Mackenzie, Isabel. Me Wife of William Lyon Mackenzie, granted by 

Parliament, 240; at Navy Island, 424; death of, 508. 

HcKeazie, Roderick. Cousin of Sir Alexander Mackenzie. Came to Canada 
from Scotland In 1784, and entered the service of the fur-trading firm of Gregory, 
McTavish & Co., of Montreal. The following year reached Grand Portage, 
where employed as a clerk. Accompanied Ms cousin to the far West In 1786 ; 
built the original Fort Chlpewyan, on the south shore of Lake Atfaabaska ? in 
1788 ; and in charge of the post during Alexander Mackenzie's expeditions of 
1789 and 1792 to the Arctic and Pacific. In 1797, on Ms way to Montreal, 
after a long absence, rediscovered the old KamiMstiquk route, first discovered 
by the French many years before, but afterwards abandoned , Became a part- 
ner of the North West Company, 1799 ; and signed the Montreal agreement 
of 1804 by which the X Y Company was absorbed by the North West Com- 
pany. A year or two later retired from the fur trade, and began gathering 
material for a history of the North West Company. The work was never pub- 
lished, nor even completed, but many of the original journals which were to have 
formed its basis are included in Masson's Bourgeois de la Compagnie du Nord- 
OuesL Settled at Terrebonne, in Lower Canada, and became a member of 
the Legislative Council of the province. Index : MS Joins X Y Company, 14 ; 
friendly rivalry with McGillivray (North West Company) IE English River 
department, 15 ; at lie a la Crosse, 16 ; brings news of death of Ross to Grand 
Portage, 16; joins his cousin Alexander Mackenzie in Athabaska department, 
23 ; their friendship, 23 ; his Reminiscences, 24 ; builds Fort Cfaipewyan, 24 ; 
pkns library there, 26 ; winters there, 1788-1789, 27 ; at Chipewyan, 53 ; goes 
down to Grand Portage, 53 ; sent to Great Slave Lake, 54. Bib. : Reminiscences 
in Masson, Bourgeois de la Compagnie du Nord-Ouest; Bryce, Hudson's Bay 
Company; Burpee, Search for the Western Sea, 

Mackenzie, William Lyon (1795-1861). Me His personality, Goldwin Smith 
on, 3 ; Dr. Harrison on, 4 ; W. J. Rattray on, 5, 6 ; first to enunciate principle of 
responsible government, 5 ; ' ( a man ahead of his time/ 7 6 ; his loyalty, 10 ; not 
an annexationist, 11 ; constitutional reformer, 12; parentage and ancestry, 34- 
36 ; defends himself from charges of disloyalty, 36-38 ; books read by him from 
1806 to 1809, 40, 41 ; enters commerce, 41, 42; goes to Canada, 43; physical 
description of, 43 ; joins survey of Lachine Canal, 44 ; enters business with John 
Lesslie, 44 ; moves to Queenston, 44 ; marries, 45 ; declares war on Constitu- 
tional Act, 72 ; starts Colonial Advocate, 85 ; describes Upper Canada in 1820, 
85-87 ; warns Canadians against union with United States, 87, 97 ; attitude on 
Clergy Reserves, 94 ; advocates provincial university, 95 ; reforms advocated by, 
which have come into effect, 97, 98 ; defends himself against disloyalty charge, 
98-101 ; advocates federation of all North American colonies, 104, 105; moves 
to York, 106; pictures life of editors, 111; assists to bring about a party 
revolution, 112 ; mob destroys Colonial Advocate, 113 ; Macaulay offers damages, 
115; personal attacks, 117-120; Macaulay's treatment of, 121-123; retaliates, 
124, 125; answers Macaulay's pamphlet, 126; gets 625 damages, 129; refuses 
to prosecute criminally, 129 ; indicted for libel, 130 ; prosecution abandoned, 
135 ; friendship of Robert Randal, 138 ; secures Randal's mission to England, 


139 ; advocates responsible government, 146, 148 ; elected for York, 150 ; moves 
committal of Allan MacNab, 152 ; chairman of committee on post-office, 153 
chairman of committee on privileges of House, 154 ; carries many motions and 
addresses, 154 ; introduces Thirty-two Resolutions, 155 ; opinions stated, 156 * 
visits New York, 157 ; letter in National Gazette, 158 ; supports Robert Baldwin' 
159; chairman of committee on banking, 161, 162; moves Libel Bill, 162, 163- 
letters to Sir John Colborne, 164 ; advocates responsible government, 166, 167 
appeal to the people of Upper Canada, 168; re-elected for York, 169; banks 
oppose, 170 ; gets committee on state of representation, 171 ; committee reports 
175 ; he prints journals of House, 172 ; accused of printing libel on House, 175 
arouses Upper Canada, 176, 177 ; visits Quebec, 178 ; first expulsion from As^ 
sembly, 181-201 ; libel complained of, 182, 183 ; his speech in his defence, 185 
House refuses committee of inquiry, 201 ; petitions to the governor, 203 / gov- 
ernor's answer, 203 ; backed up by the people, 204 ; again elected, 205 ; presented 
by constituents with gold medal, 205 ; second expulsion moved, 207 ; defends 
himself, 209 ; expelled a second time, 209 ; appeals to electors, 210-213 ; again 
elected, 215 ; attempt to assassinate, 219 ; Colonial Advocate office again attacked 
221 ; his mission to England, 221 ; estimate of Earl Grey, 221 ; his friendship 
with Joseph Hume, 222 ; introduces George Ryerson to Lord Goderich, 223 ; 
offered management of post-office department, 225; prepares statement for 
minister, 226; reply to Lord Goderich, 227; concessions obtained, 227-230- 
third expulsion, 232, 242; secures dismissal of Boulton and Hagerman, 232; 
scheme of post-office reform, 236; asks control of post-office revenue for 
Canadians, 236 ; obtains veto of Bank Charter Acts, 237 ; introduces Egerton 
Ryerson to colonial office, 238 ; publishes Sketches of Canada and the United 
States, 238; visits Scotland, 239; pays old creditors, 239; refuses banquets in 
Montreal and Quebec, 240 ; left to pay his own expenses, 240 ; unanimously 
re-elected for the third time, 242; not permitted to take oath, 242 ; new election 
ordered, 244 ; unanimously re-elected for the fourth time, 244 ; ejected from the 
House, 245; governor orders that he be allowed to take oath, 248; takes the 
oath, 251; again ejected from the House, 252; first mayor of Toronto 255* 
designs city arms, 256; helps cholera patients, 256; takes cholera, 257; de- 
feated for second mayoralty term, 257 ; forms Canadian Alliance Society, 258 
retires from journalism, 259 ; estimate of, as a journalist, 260 ; again elected for 
York, 261: obtains select " Committee on Grievances/' 263; obtains committee 
on Welland canal, 264; appointed director, 264; anticipates official report of 
canal committee, 265 ; sued for libel, 265 ; report of "Committee on Grievances," 
270; urges responsible government, 279 ; visits Quebec, 287 ; meets Papineau, 
OAO ; p oses Bntlsh restraint on trade, 292; anticipates Reciprocity Treaty, 
292; defeated for the House, 308; claims the election was unfair, 309-314* 
insulted by Tory press, 317; his replies, 318; visits New York, 320; begins the 
Constitution, 320 ; Declaration of Independence " of Upper Canada, 329, 330 ; 
meetings at Doel's brewery, 330-332 ; becomes agent of convention committee, 
332; addresses nearly two hundred public meetings, 333-338; advises run on 
Bank of Upper Canada, 340; second meeting at Doel's brewery, 346; urges 
seizing arms and proclaiming provisional government, 349; drafts constitution, 
355; organizes Rebellion, 359; warrant issued for his arrest, 360; tries to cor- 
rect Rolph's mistake, 361 ; his advice disregarded, 362; sets out for the city, 
tt>3 ; again proposes to march on the city, 366 ; meets Head's flag of trace, 367, 
368; urges Lount to march into the city, 371; skirmish at Montgomery's 
tavern, 379; ransom offered for, 380; account of his escape, 381 etseq.; ad- 


Buffalo audience, 411; meets Van Renssolaer, 412; his 

extradition, 414; occupies Navy Island, 415; president of provisional 
meat, 416 ; arrested at Buffalo, 424 ; threats of assassination, 428 ; 
Van Rensselaer, 430 ; visits New York and Philadelphia, 433 ; Mac- 

T 433 ; no connection with later frontier movements, 439, 444 3 446 ; 
moves to Rochester, 448; forms association of Canadian refugees, 448; tried 
for breach of neutrality laws, 452 ; found guilty, 454 ; his sentence, 454 ; rigorous 
treatment in gaol, 455-458; released, 459; publishes Caroline Almanac, 459; 
his exchange attempted, 463 ; attempts to kidnap him, 464 ; publishes Volunteer, 
* 467 ; moves to New York, 468 ; appointed to Mechanics 7 Institute, 468 ; pub- 
lishes Lives of one Thousand Remarkabk Irishmen, 469 ; publishes the Examiner, 
470 ; appointed to New York customs house, 470 ; publishes Lives of 
and Hoyt, in 1845, 471 ; and Life and Tims of Van Bnrm, 1846, 472; 

goes on Tribune} 472; Hume's letter to, 475; writes to Ear! Grey. 479; am- 
nestied, 480 ; visits Toronto, 481 ; brings family back, 486 ; elected for Haldi- 
mand, 486; his relations with George Brown, 487; his work in Parliament, 
492 ; again elected for Haldimand, 497 ; resigns, 498 ; later parliamentary life, 
500 ; love of his children, 504 ; Buchanan's proffered friendship, 504 ; Robert 
Hay's generosity, 505 ; offered office, 505 ; publishes Mackenzie's Message, 505 ; 
friends purchase homestead for, 505 ; financial difficulties, 506 ; declining health; 
506 ; death of, Aug. 28, 1861, 507 ; funeral, 507, 508 ; one of the founders 
of St. Andrew's Church, 507 ; tributes of the press, 509-523. Md Leads Rebellion 
of 1837 in Upper Canada, 7 ; supports Brown in his quarrel with Macdonald, 81. 
R. Views on relation of church and state in 1824, 45; his work for popular 
government, 66; his policy, 111; his "Seventh Report on Grievances, " 112; 
opposes separate schools, 224. B His return to Canada, 36 ; burnt in effigy at 
Toronto, 36 ; defeats George Brown in Haldimand, 40, 44, 46 ; his resolution 
for abolition of Court of Chancery, 47. BL His parentage, 12 ; early days in 
Canada, 12, 13 ; in politics, 13-16, 26, 27, 33 ; aids Baldwin to secure seat in 
Legislature, 31 ; organizes revolutionary clubs, etc., 43 ; his proposed constitu- 
tion for Upper Canada, 43 ; plans attack on Toronto by rebels, 43 ; described 
as a " mountebank/' 120 ; Ms correspondence with Hume and Roebuck, 229; 
founds Canadian Alliance Association, 1834, 229 ; returns to Canada, 312, 318, 
319; one of the leaders of the new Radicalism, 340-341; brings in motion 
to abolish Court of Chancery, 352. Sy Reform party falsely identified with 
his proceedings, 85, 138. And the RebeUion of 1837, 17 ; leads Radical 
wing of Liberal party, in Upper Canada, 21, 22 ; and parliamentary govern- 
ment, 51 ; and MacNab, 75, 76 ; returns from his exile, 91 ; causes of his failure 
as a political leader, 91-93 ; proposes abolition of Court of Chancery, 103, 112; 
defeats George Brown, 113; attacks the government, 127; aftermath of the 
Rebellion, 190. P His correspondence with Papineau, 189. H Effect of his 
action in tipper Canada, upon popular party, in Nova Scotia, 49. Bib. : Works : 
Life and Times of Martin Van Buren; Life and f Opinions of B. F. Butkr; 
Sketches of Canada and the United States. For biog., see Morgan, Cel. Can.; 
Lindsey, Life and Times of W. L. McKenzie; Dent, Can. For., Upper 
Canadian Rebellion, and Last Forty Years; King, Other Side of the Story; Read, 
Rebellion of 1837. See aho Rebellion of 1837 (Upper Canada.) 

Mackenzie River. Named after Sir Alexander Mackenzie, who explored it 
from Great Slave Lake to the Arctic in 1789. It was known at one time as 
Disappointment River. Its ultimate source is in Thutage Lake, the headwaters 
of the Finlay in northern British Columbia. Its total length from Thutage 


Lake to the sea is 2525 miles. The Hudson's Bay Company has the following 
trading-posts on the main stream: Fort Providence, near entrance of Great 
SiaveLake; Fort Simpson, at the mouth of the Liard; Fort Wrigley, in lat. 
63 ; Fort Norman, at the mouth of Great Bear River ; Fort Good Hope near the 
Ramparts; and Fort MacPherson on Peel River. The Company now operates 
a steamer from Fort Smith, on Slave River, to the Arctic Ocean. Index : 
MS Alexander Mackenzie discovers and explores, 37-48; " Great River/' 53; 
Mackenzie refers to as " River Disappointment," ^ 55. Bib. : Mackenzie, 
Voyages; Franklin, Narrative of Second Expedition; Richardson, Arctic Search- 
ing Expedition; Cameron, The New North. 

Mackenzie's Message. Published at Toronto. Index : Me Newspaper, 
published 1853, 505. 

McKim, R. P. WT Assists at funeral service of Sir Leonard Tilley, 288. 

McLacMan, Alexander (1818-1896). Born in Scotland. Came to Canada, 
1S40 ; engaged in fanning. Government emigration agent for Scotland, 1862. 
Collected edition of his Poems published, 1900. Bib. : MacMurchy, Canadian 

McLane, David. Dr Hanged for treason, 301. 

McLaren, Dr. Murray. WT Attends Sir Leonard Tilley, 287. 

MacLean, Judge. B Proposes Metcalf e ? s health at St. Andrew's Society ban- 
quet, 27. 

MacLean, Colonel Allan (1725-1784) . Bom in Scotland. Served in Holland, 
1747. In 1757 served with Montgomery's Highlanders in America, and in 1761 
major-commandant of the 114th Royal Highlanders. In 1775 lieutenant-colonel 
of the Royal Highland Emigrants. Served under Carleton in the defence 
of Quebec, 1775-1776. Index: Hd Raises regiment of Royal Highland Emi- 
grants, 111; takes part in repulse of Arnold and Montgomery, 112; on 
methods of trade, 162 ; speech of Indians to, 171 ; his precipitancy in arresting 
Pillon, 279, 280, 285 ; departure of, 294 ; his correspondence with Haldimand, 
306; his opinion of the Americans, 307; letter to Haldimand regarding Du 
Calvet's movements, 209, 310; visits Haldimand in London, 311, 327. Bib.: 
Bradley, The Making of Canada; Lucas, History of Canada. 

McLean, Archibald (1791-1865). Bom in Scotland. Emigrated to Canada 
with his father ; educated at Cornwall Grammar School. In 1812 served in 
the war with the United States. After the war, called to the bar, and built up 
an extensive practice. For several years member for Stormont and Cornwall in 
the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada, of which he was twice elected 
Speaker. In 1837 judge of the Court of King's Bench, and held the position till 
1856. In 1862-1863 chief justice of Upper Canada, and in 1864-1865 judge 
of the Court of Error and Appeal.- Index: Me Ebcted Speaker, 1831, 170. 
Bib. : Read, Lives of the Judges. 

McLean, John (1828-1886). Bom in Scotland. Educated at the Univer- 
sity of Aberdeen ; ordained priest, 1858, and became curate of St. Paul's, Lon- 
don, Ontario. Removed to the Red River Settlement as archdeacon of Assini- 
boia, and professor in St. John's College, 1866. Made bishop of Saskatchewan, 
1874. Died at Prince Albert as the result of an accident. Bib. : Mockridge, 
The Bishops of the Church of England in Canada and Newfoundland; Machray, 
Life of Archbishop Machray. 

McLeod, Alexander. Me Charged with murder of Amos Durfee, 423 ; trial 
and acquittal, 424. 

McLeod, Alexander Norman. Of the North West Company. Index: MS 

AND 243 

with Gregory and others in opposition to North West 10, 

11; visits Mackenzie at Detroit, 12; Ms character, 14; at 

Chipewyan, 50 ; brings North West men from Fort William, 182 ; 
days after the Seven Oaks affair, 183. 

McLeodj Archibald Norman. Entered the service of the North West Company 
time before 1790. IE charge of Fort Dauphin, 1799, and liver, 

1800. Three years later moved to the Athabaska department, and 
there until 1809, when he took charge of New Caledonia. Had already be- 
come a partner of the Company, signing the of 1804 as such. 

McLeod, Donald (1779-1879). Bom in Scotland. at 

University for the church, but entered the navy, 1803, and the army, 18%. 
Served in the Peninsula under Sir John Moore, and in War of 

1812-1814; wounded at the battles of Chrystler's Farm and Lundy's Lane. 
Returned to Europe and fought at the battle of Waterloo. ^ Came to C&t&dft, 
1816 ; opened a classical school at Prescott ; began publication of the 
Gazette. Took part in the Rebellion of 1837, as a major-general in the insur- 
gent army. Fled to the United States; arrested aad tried at Detroit, but 
acquitted. Settled at Cleveland, Ohio, where he died. Index: Me Occupies 
Point Pelee Island, 430. Bib. : History of the Canadian Insurrection. For 
biog., see Dent, Upper Canadian Rebellion. 

McLeod, John (1788-1849). Born in Scotland. Entered the service of 
the Hudson's Bay Company; conducted Selkirk's colonists from York Fac- 
tory to the Red River, 1811 ; from that date to the union of the two fur 
companies in 1821, engaged in building trading-posts and extending the 
operations of the Hudson's Bay Company towards the Rocky Mountains. 
Had taken a leading part in the long conflict between the Hudson's Bay Company 
and the North West Company, some account of which is given in his diary, 
1814-1815, reproduced in part in Bryce's Hudson' Bay^ Company, On the 
union of the Companies, given charge of the New Caledonia department, west 
of the mountains, where he remained for many years, finally retiring from the 
service, and spending the remainder of his days on the m banks of the Ottawa. 
Index MS Leads the Selkirk colonists in their opposition to Cuthbert Grant 
and the half-breeds, 175; his journal, 175, 176; builds house for governor, 
176. D Ascends upper Liard to its southern source in Dease Lake, 1834, 123. 
Bib. : Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company; Burpee, Search for the Western Sea. 

Mclaughlin, John (1784-1857) . Born at Rividre dti Loup. Studied medicine 
in Edinburgh ; joined the North West Company ; engaged for several years 
in the Rainy Lake country ; in charge of Fort William in 1821, when the 
North West and Hudson's Bay Companies were amalgamated, and ap- 
pointed to take charge of the Columbia River department, 1823. Built Fort 
Vancouver, 1824, and made it the headquarters for the whole territory west 
of the mountains. Did more than any other man to strengthen the hold of 
the Company on the fur trade of the Pacific coast. Through misunderatandings 
over his attitude towards the American settlers on the Columbia, retired from 
the Company's service, 1846, and spent the rest of his life in Oregon City, Index : 
MS Edward Ellice on, 220 ; impresses Sir George Simpson, 220 ; travels in state, 
, 22L D First great Hudson's Bay Company leader in Oregon, 84 ; his character, 
84, 86 ; takes Douglas under his charge, in North West Company, at Fort William, 
93 ; persuades Douglas to join Hudson's Bay Company, 94 ; his friendship for 
Douglas, 94 ; born, 1784, at Rivi&re du Loup, 94 ; grandson of Malcolm Fraser, 
94; his early home and training, 94-95; studies medicine in Edinburgh, 95; 


returns to Canada and enters North West Company, 95 ; sent to Sault Ste. 
Marie, 95; there when post burned in War of 1812, 95; marries widow of 
Alexander Mackay, 95 ; goes to Fort William, 95-96 ; at Fort Vancouver, Ms 
practically absolute rule, 111 ; ambitious plans for development of western 
department, 114; sends expedition to Fraser River by sea, 115; builds Fort 
Colvffle, 1825-1826, 116; builds Fort Langley, 1827, 116; builds Fort Simpson, 
1831, 116; sends Findlayson, Hanson, and Anderson, 1833, to build Fort 
McLoughlirij 117; sends Douglas to receive Fort Stikine from Russians, 1840, 
122; expedition to Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys, 126; recognizes 
agricultural possibilities of Oregon, 128; organizes Puget Sound Agricultural 
Company, 130 ; Ms attitude towards Oregon settlers, 144 ; forced out of Hudson's 
Bay Company, 145 ; Douglas and Ogden associated with him, in management of 
western department, 187 ; resigns from Hudson's ^ Bay Company, 1846, 187 ; 
removes to Oregon City, 187 ; treatment of, by American settlers, 187 ; Ms death, 
187 ; his character contrasted with that of Douglas, 351-353. Bib. : Holman, 
Dr. John McLoughlin: the Father of Oregon; Laut, Conquest of the Great 
North-West; Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company; Bancroft, History of the North- 
West Coast. 

McLotighliE, John. D Son of Dr. John McLougMin, accompanies Douglas 
to Sitka, 122; succeeds Rae at Fort Stikine, 122; shot by Indians, 1842, 122- 

McMaster University. Located at Toronto. Formed in 1887 from the union 
of Toronto Baptist College and Woodstock College. Mainly indebted for en- 
dowment to William McMaster. Woodstock College, Woodstock, and Moulton 
Ladies' College, Toronto, are maintained in close connection. 

McMillan, John (1816-1886). Born in Scotland. Came to New Bruns- 
wick, 1832. Represented Restigouche in the Assembly, 1857-1867; surveyor- 
general, 1861-1865; postmaster-general, 1867-1868; inspector of post offices 
for New Brunswick, 1868-1886. A strong advocate of Confederation. In- 
dex : WT Elected for Restigouche, 231 ; postmaster-general in Mitchell ministry, 

MacNab, Sir Allan Fapier (1798-1862). Born at Newark (now Niagara), 
Ontario. On the American invasion of Canada joined the army in 1813 and 
served throughout the war. In 1826 called to the bar of Upper Canada and 
practised in Hamilton. In 1829 first elected for Wentworth County in the 
Assembly, and during 1837-1841 Speaker of the House. Took an active part 
in the Rebellion of 1837-1838 and knighted for his services. After the union 
of Upper and Lower Canada became Conservative leader and elected Speaker 
of the House, 1844HL848, and again in 1862. Premier, 1854, and resigned, 
1856. Index: H Entertains Joseph Howe at Hamilton, 138. BL Brings 
loyal troops from Hamilton, to disperse rebels under Mackenzie, 44 ; taunts 
Baldwin with his share in the Rebellion, 45 ; his exploits in 1837 win him 
knighthood, 82; leader of Tories in Legislature, 1841, 82; proposed for 
speakership, 87 ; withdraws his name, 88 ; Ms faction welcomes Bagot's ap- 
pointment as governor, 113; raises racial question, 178; opposes transfer 
of capital to Montreal, 183 ; Baldwin on, 183 ; attacks La Fontaine-Bald- 
win ministry, 214; referred to by George Brown, 224; elected in 1844, 252; 
elected Speaker, 279; his opposition to Rebellion Losses Bill, 314; his 
quarrel with Blake, 315 ; warns ministry of riot, 322 ; rescues portrait of the 
queen, 324; proposed for Speaker, Baldwin's tribute to his qualifications^ 
Morin elected in his stead, 283 ; and Papineau, 343 ; and Baldwin, 353. E His 


part In suppressing Rebellion of 1837-1838, 31 ; returned in 1S48 ? 50 ; 
for spcakershij), 51 ; takes part In stormy debate on Rebellion Losses Bill, ; 

Ms responsibility for the disturbances of 1849, 75 ; nominal of Conserv- 

ative party 1 119 ; called upon by Lord Elgin for advice, 137 ; agrees to 
ministry, 139-140 ; forms government with Morin, 140 ; Ms last resting-place,, 
224. B And the old Tory party, 69; Ms farcical amendment to prohibition 
motion, 76 ; forms coalition ministry with Morin, 77 ; on the charges 
George Brown, 89. C His alliance with Quebec liberals, 33. Me Committed 
to gaol by Speaker, 152 ; moves Mackenzie's expulsion, 241 ; admits error, 242 ; 
leads forces against Navy Island, 417; orders cutting out of Caroline^ 420; 
knighted, 423; goes to Brentford, 425; seizes Dr. Buncombe's papers^ 426* 
goes to Sandwich, 427; in debate on Rebellion Losses Bill, 489. Hd Called 
upon to form an administration, 61 ; forms government with A. N. Morin, 63 ; 
Morin resigns and he forms a new administration with Colonel Tach^ 74 ; Ms 
ideal of government, 76; problem of superseding him, 76, 77; resigns, 80; 
supports Brown in Ms quarrel with Macdonald, 81. Bib. : Did. Nat. Btog.; 
Taylor, Brit. Am.; Dent, Can. For. and Last Forty Years; Pope, 
of Sir John A. Macdonald. 

HacTfab, James. H Member of Lord Falkland's Council, 69; declaration 
as to ministerial responsibility, 75 ; retires from government, 87 ; offered seat 
in Executive Council, 1846, 103 ; declines offer, 104 ; elected for Halifax, 106 ; 
member of TJniacke government, 110; becomes receiver-general, 112. Bib,: 
Campbell, History of Nova 8cotia. 

McPhelim, Francis. WT Deserts Liberals in New Brunswick, 160; post- 
master-general in Gray ministry, 183. 

McPherson, Charles. WT Member of Executive Council, New Brunswick, 183. 

Macpherson, Sir David Lewis (1818-1896). Born in Scotland. Came to 
Canada, 1835. In 1842 entered business In Montreal ; in 1851 he, with others, 
obtained a charter for a railway from Montreal to Kingston, and associated 
with the construction of other lines ; formed the Inter-Oceanic Railway Company 
for the purpose of constructing the projected Canadian Pacific Railway, but the 
contract given to the syndicate headed by Sir Hugh Allan. In 1864-1867 
a member of the Legislative Council of Canada; in 1867 appointed to the 
Senate ; Speaker, 1880 ; member of the Cabinet without portfolio; minister of 
the interior, 18S3-18cS5; knighted, 1884. Index: Md Heads the Inter-Oceanic 
Company which received charter from government, 200. E Signs Annexation 
Manifesto, 81. Bib. : Dent, Can, POT. and Last Forty Years.; Pope, Memoirs 
of Sir John A. Macdonald. 

McTavish, Dugald. D Member of Victoria board of management, 265; 
becomes president of board, 265 ; transferred to Montreal, in 1870, 265. 

McTavish, Simon (1750-1804), Born in the Highlands of Scotland. A man 
of " enormous energy and decision of character." Settled at Montreal. 
Engaged in the fur trade soon after the cession of Canada to England, and 
chiefly instrumental in organizing the North West Company, 1784. Purchased 
the seigniory of Terrebonne; entertained in princely style at his home in 
Montreal ; and at the time of his death was engaged in building a huge mansion 
at the foot of Mount Royal. Index : MS A leader in the fur trade, 10 ; known 
as le Marquis and le Premier, 23, 91 ; his dislike for Alexander Mackenzie, 23 ; 
his haughty temper and domineering spirit make him unpopular, 54, 91, 93 ; 
compared with Mackenzie, 92; puts new life into North West Company, 99: 
his death, 1804, 99. Bk And McGillivray of North West Company, send 


news of declaration of war, 203. Bib. : Masson, Bourgeois de h Compagnie du 
Nord~Qw$t; Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company. 

IfcTavish, Wiffiam. MS Chief factor, 1851, 228 ; last governor of Assbiboia 
under Hudson j s Bay Company, 228. 

Hadiscm, James (1751-1836). Fourth president of the United States. Index : 
Br His hatred of Great Britain, 274, 281. Bk Maintains non-intercourse 
with Britain and France, 120 ; Ms warlike messages to Congress, 173, 185 ; 
places temporary embargo on United States ships, 192; informs Congress of 
Hull's advance into Canada, 213. Bib, : Cyc, Am. Biog. 

Madocawando. F Abenaquis chief, 329. 

Madras Schools. WT Founded by Joseph Lancaster, 86; the system de- 
scribed, $6-87 ; established in New Brunswick, 87 ; at Gagetown, 147 ; system 
popular, 147. 

Magdalen Islands. In Gulf of St. Lawrence. Uncertain who first discov- 
ered the group. They were known for many years as the Isles Ram6es, or 
Ramea. This name first appears in narratives of voyages to the Gulf in 1590- 
1597, in Hakluyt. Champlain applied the present name to what is now known 
as Ainherst Island, in the 1632 ed. of his Voyages. It was afterwards applied 
to the whole group. Bib. : Ganong, Cartography of Gulf of St. Lawrence (R. S. C.. 

Magistrates. Dr Poor character and scandalous methods of many of them, 52 ; 
some of them most worthy men, 55. 

Magnan, Pierre. Ch Goes on embassy to Irpquois, 163 ; is murdered, 164. 

Magiiaga. Bk Americans successful in skirmish at, 238-243. 

MaMcanaticouclie. Ch Montagnais chief, 139, 163; found to have been 
guilty of murder, 165. 

Mail. Newspaper published at Niagara. Index : B Ridicules Globe's proposal 
for annexation of North-West Territories, 217-218. 

Maillard, Antoine Simon. Missionary to the Indians and French of Acadia 
and Cape Breton, 1734. Vicar-general at Louisbourg for several years. In- 
vited by the governor of Nova Scotia to settle at Halifax, 1759. At first op- 
posed British supremacy, but afterwards a strong supporter of the government. 
Died in Halifax, 1768. Bib. : Selections from the Public Documents of Nova 
Scotia, ed. by Akins. 

Mair, Charles (1840- ). Born in Lanark, Ontario. Educated at Queen's 
University, Kingston. Paymaster for the Dominion government at Fort Garry, 
1868 ; captured by the rebels in KieFs first rising, 1869 ; condemned to death, 
but escaped. In the second rising, 1885, served as quartermaster of the 
Governor-General's Body Guard. In 1893, appointed Canadian government 
immigration agent in charge of the Lethbridge district, Southern Alberta. 
Index : Md Comes to Ottawa from Prince Albert to impress on authorities the 
serious situation in the West, 241. Bib. : Works : Dreamland and other Poems; 
Tecumseh: a Drama. For biog,, see Morgan, Can. Men; MacMurchy, Canadian 

Maisonneuve, Paul de Chomedy, Sietir de. In this "devout and valiant 
gentleman," as Parkman says, lived again the spirit of Godfrey de Bouillon, 
leader of the first Crusade. He had seen much service in European wars, before 
the opportunity came to consecrate his sword to the church in Canada. A 
group of enthusiasts in France had obtained a grant of the Island of Montreal 
from Lauson and the Company of New France, and purposed to establish there 
a religious colony, of which Maisonneuve was appointed governor. Sailed from 


Bochelle, in 1641, witti a company of and ; at ; 

on the eighteenth of May, 1642, landed on the 

had stood thirty-one years before. Here he and Ms set to to 
a chapel^ fort, and their simple habitations, thereby laying the of 

the future city of Montreal. Was for 22 years governor of Montreal, but 
through the jealousy of De ]VKsy, governor-general of Canada, was to 

France by De Tracy in 1664. Though no charges were made he 

found no possibility of reinstatement in office and resigned in 1669; in 

1676. Index : F Conducts mission colony to Montreal, 29, 35 ; bravery of, 
34 ; goes back to France for reinforcements, 38 ; to with one 

hundred soldiers, 39 ; removed from governorship by de Tracy, 54, 

I/ Governor of Montreal, Ms piety, 8 ; carries on his to 

of Mount Royal, 91 ; removed from his position, 176 ; a cannon 

which to make a bell, to Bonseeours chapel. 177. Ch Comes out in 11B 
three vessels licensed to trade, 78 ; Champlain returns to France 'in Ms ship, 
79* Bk Founder of Montreal, 99. Bib. : Parkman, in North 

and Old RSgirm; Faillon, La Colonie Frangaim; Dollier de Casson, 
de Montreal* 

Maitiaad, Sir Peregrine (1777-1854). Bom in Hampshire, England. En- 
tered the army, 1792. Served in Flanders, 1794r-179S; in Spain, 1S09 and 
1812; promoted major-general, 1814; took part in the battle of Waterloo 
and made K.C.B for his services. Lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada, 181&- 
1828; and lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia, 1828-1834. Commander-in- 
chief of the Madras army, 1836-1838; and governor and Commander-in-chief 
at the Cape of Good Hope, 1844r-1847. Knighted, 1852. Index: E Grants 
charter to King's College, 93. BL Dismisses Willis from office, 28. R Favours 
encouragement to British Methodists in Canada, 87-88. Bib. : Did. Nat. Biog.; 
Read, The Limtmar^omjwrs of Upper Canada; Campbell, History of Nova 

Maizerets, Louis Ange de. L Comes to Canada, 41 ; director of the Seminary, 
55 ; transfers Ms personal income to Seminary, 56 ; made archdeacon of chapter 
of Quebec, 197 ; administers diocese, with Glandelet, in absence of Laval, 243. 

Malartic, Anne Joseph Hyppolite, Count de (1730-1800). Bom in France. 
In 1745 entered the army; and in 1749 came to Quebec as assistant major. 
In 1756 served under Montcalm, and took part in all Ms campaigns; bore 
a conspicuous part in the siege of Quebec, 1759-1760, and severely wounded 
at the battle of Ste. Foy; served on the American side in the War of Inde- 
pendence. Index : WM Anxious as to line of defence above the city, 15% 162 ; 
in battle of Ste. Foy, 261 ; wounded, 264 ; Murray's conversation with, 269. 
Bib.: Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe; Doughty, Siege of Qmbec* 

Malaspina. Br In search for Strait of Ardan, 26. 

Malot, Louis. Ch Jesuit, drowned, 200. 

Mance, Jeanne (1606-1673). Born at Nogent-le-Roi. Infected with the 
prevailing enthusiasm for missionary work in Canada, and in 1640 journeyed 
to Rochelle, intending to embark for the New World. At Rochelle met 
Dauversifere and others interested in the project of a missionary settlement at 
Montreal, and determined to throw in her lot with them. Sailed to Quebec 
with Maisonneuve, and spent the winter there with the Ursulines. In May, 
1642, the colonists ascended the river, having gained another convert at Quebec 
in the person of Madame de la Peltrie. The following year a hospital was 
built at Montreal, with money supplied by Madame de Bullion. Jeanne Mance 


was put in charge, and devoted the remainder of her life to ministering to the 
sick, native as well as white. Index : F Establishes H6tel Dieu at Montreal, 29 ; 
death of, 78. L Founder of hospital at Montreal, 8 ; smitten by plague on board 
the SL Andr4, 31 ; laid one of the foundation stones of Montreal church, 89 ; 
her labours in the hospital at Montreal, 91. Bib. : Parkman, Jesuits in North 
Am&rim; Faillon, Vie de Mile. Nance. 

Manchester, In England. Index : Sy Poulett Thomson elected for, 31 ; his 
free trade views find support in, 36 ; great dinner to Thomson in, 37. 

Manet, Jean. Ch Interpreter, 144. 

Manitoba. Area, 73,956 square miles. The province was created in 1870, 
the old Red River Settlement, founded by Lord Selkirk, forming the nucleus. 
The name is a contraction of the Cree word Manitowaban. La V6rendrye and 
his sons were the first white men to set foot within what now forms the province. 
They built Fort Maurepas, at the mouth of Winnipeg River, in 1734 ; Fort 
Rouge, at the mouth of the Assiniboine, in 1733 ; and Fort La Reine, near pres- 
ent Portage la Prairie, in 1738. They afterwards built Fort Dauphin, on or 
near Lake Dauphin. See also Red River Colony; Winnipeg. Index: C Bill 
creating province introduced by Cartier, 71 ; meaning of name, The God That 
Speaks, 71. Md Bill passed for establishment of, as province, 161 ; restrictions 
against rival lines to Canadian Pacific Railway removed, 236, 284; boundary 
dispute, 256 ; its connection with commercial union, 298. Bib. : Bryce, Mani- 
toba; Gunnand Tuttle, History of Manitoba; Begg, History of the North-West; 
Bryce, Romantic Settlement of Lord Selkirk's Colonists; Hargrave, Red River; 
Ross, Red Rwer Settlement. 

Manson, Donald. Engaged in the service of the Hudson's Bay Company, 
west of the Rocky Mountains. Led three brigades from the Columbia to Langley 
on the Fraser, 1848. Appointed a justice of the peace. Index : D At Fort 
McLoughlin, 117; establishes first circulating library on Pacific slope, 117-118. 

Mantet, Nicholas d'Ailleboust, Sieur de (1663-1709). Id 1689 defeated 
the Iroquois at the Lake of the Two Mountains ; and in 1690 led an expedition 
against Schenectady. Killed during an attack on Fort St. Anne, Hudson Bay. 
Index: F One of the leaders of war party again? i Schenectady, 235. Bib.: 
Parkman, Old Regime. 

Maquinna. D His relations with Captain Meares at Nootka, 27; keeps 
armourer and sailmaker of the Boston in slavery four years, 37. 

Marcel, Captain. WM Third aide-de-camp to Montcahn, 2 ; accompanies 
Montcalm on visit of inspection, 173 ; with Montcalm in his last hours, 219 ; 
informs L6vis of Montcalm's death, 220 ; departure for France, 238. 

Marcet, Mrs. Hd Grand-niece of Haldimand, 343. 

Marchand, fitienne (1755-1793), Engaged in the trade between the West 
Indies and North and South America. In 1790 sailed from Marseilles on a 
voyage of trade and exploration, J,n which he made careful surveys of the coast 
of Tierra del Fuego and Patagonia, visited the islands of Polynesia, sailed up 
the west coast of America, visited China and Siberia, and finally returned to 
Europe, 1792. Index : D Explores North-West Coast, 1791, 25 ; his narrative, 
25. Bib. : Voyage autour du Monde, ed. by Fleurien. For biog., see Cyc. Am. 

Marchand, Felix Gabriel (1832-1900). Born in St. Johns, Quebec. Edu- 
cated at St. Hyacinthe College. Elected to the Legislative Assembly of Que- 
bec, 1867 ; provincial Secretary, 1878-1879 ; commissioner of crown lands, 1879 ; 
Speaker of the Assembly, 1887-1892 ; premier of Quebec, 1897. For many 


years proprietor and editor of ]Le Franco-Camadwn. Bib. : Works : el 

du Notarial; Fatmmlk; Erreur n'est pm C&mpte; Un m 

un Auire; Les Faus Bnttants. For biog. ? see Morgan, Can. Jim. 

March, Charles dc. Ch Jesuit missionary at Miscou, 234. 

Marcy, William Learned (1786-1857). Me Governor of New York, 
to surrender Mackenzie, 414. Bib. : Cyc. Am, Bi&g. 

Mariana. Ch. Jesuit, book written by, ordered to be burnt, 153. 

Marie. WM A storesMp launched at Montreal, 244. 

Marie Antoinette (1755-1793). Queen of France. Index: S Public mourn- 
ing in Upper Canada for death of, 193. 

Marie de I'lncarnation (Marie Martin, nee Gtiyart) (1599-1672). Bom al 
Tours, France. Married early, and was left a widow after two years, with an 
only child. For twelve years devoted herself to Ms education ; and then entered 
the Ursuline convent at Tours; in 1639 accompanied Madame de la Peitrie 
to Canada, and became the first superior of the Ursuline convent at Quebec, 
Her Lettres Hi&tcnque$, written for the edification of her son Claude Martin, 
form one of the most valuable sources of information on the history of the period. 
Composed a catechism in Huron, three in Algonquian and a dictionary of French 
and Algonquian. Index : F Arrival of, at Quebec, 28 ; on Jesuit Relations^ 30 ; 
on influence of convent teaching, 89 ; on rapid decline of Indian population, 168. 
L On the devotion of Laval to the sick, 33; on his saintliness, 34, 254; 
on conversions wrought by the earthquake, 45; mentions Bollard's exploit, 
75 ; on piety of the soldiery, 79 ; her piety, 92 ; called the Theresa of New 
France, 93; Abb6 Ferland's account of, 93; on the zeal of F6nelon and 
Trouv6, 109; on the sale of bra-ndy to the Indians, 113; praises Talon, 114; 
on Canadians, 119; on education of Indian girls, 125; death of, 153, 154; 
character and influence, 155. Ch Praises virtues of early settlers, 258. Bib. : 
Lettres de la V&nerabh Mere Marie de 1 J Incarnation; Martin, La Vie de la 
Venerable Mere Marie de I 1 Incarnation; Charlevoix, Vie de Mire Marie de 
1 J Incarnation ; Casgrain, Vie; Life, by a Religious of the Ursuline Community. 

Marion, Nicholas. CIi Captain of lie Levrier, one of the two vessels of Cham- 
plain's first expedition to Quebec, 40. 

Maritime Provinces. B Movement for union of, 161, 186 ; Tache* argues ad- 
vantages of union with, 169-170; coal mines of, 170; shipping of, 170, 174; 
inclusion of, in Confederation, opposed by Dorion, 176; British government 
brings pressure upon, in interests of Confederation, 186-487 ; involved in reci- 
procity negotiations, 194. Md Their determined opposition to Confederation, 
116-118. WT History of union movement in, 211-213 : Charlottetown Con- 
ference, 215-217. See also New Brunswick ; Nova Scotia ; Prince Edward Island ; 
Cape Breton. Bib. : See under foregoing titles. 

MarMand, George H. R Member of Legislative Council, Upper Canada, and 
of Board of Education, 58. 

Marquette, Jacques (1637-1675). Born at Laon, in the north of France. 
Joined the Society of Jesus about 1654, and sailed for Canada, 1666. Sent 
to the Upper Lakes, 1668, and stationed at La Pointe, near the western end 
of Lake Superior, 1670. Here he heard from the Illinois of a great river 
flowing far to the south, and was filled with an ardent desire to explore it. 
His opportunity came two years later, when he was chosen by the Intendant 
Talon to accompany Louis Jolliet on his memorable exploration of the Mis- 
sissippi, 1673. Descending the river to the mouth of the Arkansas, and 
satisfying themselves that it flowed neither into the Atlantic nor the Gulf of 


California, but into the Gulf of Mexico, they returned to Green Bay, arriving 

in Sept. 1673. Marquette remained at the mission of De P&re until 1675, when 
he established a mission at Kaskaskia, on the Illinois. His strength had been 
broken by the difficult journey of 1673, and on his return from Kaskaskia to 
, died on the shore of Lake Michigan, May 18, 1675. In 

the winter of 1676 his bones were brought to Michilimackinac and buried there. 
Index: F Accompanies Jolliet in Ms explorations, 155. L One of the founders 
of mission at Sault Ste. Marie, 11; follows course of Mississippi, 11, 146; 
accompanies Jolliet in his explorations, 59; his death, 146. WM Descends 
the Mississippi with Jolliet, 19. Bib. : Shea, Discovery and Exploration of the 
Mississippi Valley; Griffin, Discovery of the Mississippi; Parkman, La Sdle; 
Breese, Early History of Illinois; Sparks, American Biography, ser. 1, vol. 10. 

Marriages. WT Dissenting ministers forbidden to perform ceremony in 
New Brunswick, 14, 15 ; the Dissenters 7 Marriage Bill, 14, 15 ; question settled 
in 1834, 16. F Stimulated by civil authorities, 57. S Question of, in Upper 
Canada, 85-88, 161. 

Marriott, Sir James (1730?-1803). Advocate general, 1764; vice-chancellor, 
1767 ; sat in Parliament for Sudbury, 1781-1784, and 179&-1SG2. Index : His 
views on question of Canadian laws, 62 ; examined in connection with the Quebec 
Act, 63, 69. Bib. : Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Marshall, John George (1786-1880). Born in Nova Scotia. Educated at 
Halifax, and called to the bar, 1808. Represented Sydney in the Nova Scotia 
Assembly, 1811-1823. Subsequently appointed chief-justice of the Court of 
Common Pleas. Died in Halifax. Bib.: Brief History of Events in Nova 
ScoUa during the Earliest Years of the Present Century. 

Marsolet, Nicolas (1587-1677). Came to Canada from France about 1608, 
and for many years an interpreter for the Montagnais and Algonquian tribes. 
In 1629, when Kirke took Quebec, deserted to the English. Index : Ch Accom- 
panies Champlain to Quebec, 41 ; joins Algonquians to learn their language, 63 ; 
interpreter of Algonquian language, 144 ; sides with the Kirkes, 194 ; subsequent 
career, 203. Bib. : Parkman, Pioneers of France. 

Marteilhe. Dr Appointed judge, 183. 

Martial Law. Bk Question respecting, 226. Hd Canada under, for four years 
after conquest, 41, 43 ; abolished, 59 ; Haldimand's opinion of, for Florida, 65 ; 
at Vincennes, 93 ; not strictly enforced by Haldimand, 275. 

Martin, Abraham (1589-1664). Born in Scotland. Came to Canada in 1614, 
having married Marguerite Langlois the previous year. Engaged as a pilot at 
Quebec. In 1635 granted lands on the heights of Quebec by the Hundred As- 
sociates, and in 1648 and 1652 received further gifts of land from Adrien 
Duchesne. Index : WM First proprietor of Plains of Abraham, 186. Ch Early 
settler, 145, 146 ; his property, 147. Bib. : Doughty, Siege of Qiwbec; Wood, 
Fight for Canada. 

Martin, Anne. Ch Daughter of Abraham Martin, 146. 

Martin, Charles Amador. Ch Priest, 146. 

Martin (or Marten), Sir Henry (1562-1641). Born in London. Educated 
at Oxford. Sent to the Palatinate, 1613 ; chancellor of London diocese, 1616 ; 
judge of the Admiralty Court, 1617-1641. A member of the Court of High 
Commission, 1620-1641. One of the commissioners appointed to negotiate a 
settlement in Canadian affairs between England and France, 1629-1630. 
Index : Ch English commissioner in matter of Canada, 214. Bib. : Diet. 
Nat. Biog. 


Martin, Joseph (1852- }. Bom in Milton, Ontario. at the 

public schools and at the Toronto Normal School. Tauglit for a ; 

studied law at Ottawa; removed to Portage la Prairie, Manitoba, 1882, 
the same year called to the bar of Manitoba, Member of the Manitoba 
bly, 1883-1892 ; attorney-general, 1888-1891 ; carried through the Act 
ing separate schools in Manitoba, 1890, In 1891 contested Selkirk for the 
House of Commons, but defeated ; elected for Winnipeg, 1893, but 
1896. Removed to British Columbia, 1897 ; elected to "the British Columbia 
Assembly for Vancouver; subsequently attorney-general and premier of the 
province. Removed to England, 1909, and in same year contested Stratford- 
on-Avon for the British House of Common^ but defeated ; elected to 
East St. Pancras, London, 1910. Bib. : Morgan, Caw. Men; Wkd 

Who; Ewart, The Manitoba School Qumtion* 

Martin, Marguerite. Ch Daughter of Abraham Martin, 146. 

Martinez, Estvan Josi. Accompanied Peres; to North-West Coast in 
1773 as pilot. In 1788 sent again to the North-West Coast as joint com- 
mander with De Haro of an expedition to watch the operations of the Rus- 
sians; the following year again sent north from Mexico in command of the 
Princessa. Seized the Ipkigenia at Nootka, but afterwards released it ; fortified 
Hog Island near Friendly Cove, and took formal possession of Nootka ; also 
seized several other vessels at Noptka, and imprisoned Captain Colnett. After 
carrying out some local explorations returned to Mexico. Index: D Asserts 
Spanish sovereignty over Pacific, 28; at Npotka, 28; seizes Iphigenw and 
North-West America, and claims Nootka by right of conquest, 28 ; claims dis- 
proved by Douglas, 28 ; Iphigenia released, but North-West America retained, 
29 ; seizes Princess Royal and Argonaut, 29. Bib. : Bancroft, History of OK 
North-West Coast. 

Harylanders. Dr Loyalists, commanded by Chalmers, 202. 

Mascarene, Paul (1684-1760). Born in Castras, in the south of France. 
Educated at Geneva, and afterwards went to England; naturalized, 1706. 
Entered the army, 1708 ; accompanied his regiment to America, 1710 ; took 
part in the capture of Port Royal. Became lieutenant-colonel of PMIpps's 
regiment, and a member of the Council of Nova Scotia. Lieutenant-governor 
of Annapolis, 1740, and administrator of the government of the province until 
the arrival of Governor ComwaHis, 1749. Defended Annapolis against Du 
Vivier, 1744. Retired from active service on account of advancing age ; ga&etted 
major-general. Lived in Boston until his death. Bib. : SetecMom from th@ 
Public Documents of Nova Scotia, ed. by Akins; Campbell, History of Nma 
Scotia. See also Acadians, Expulsion of the. 

Mascouten Indians. An Algonquian tribe. The name means " Little 
prairie people." They were known to the French as Nation du feu. First 
mentioned by Champlain in 1616; Perrot visited their village, near Fox 
River, Wis., some time before 1669. They were also seen by Allouez in 1670, 
and by Marquette in 1673. Always a small tribe, they disappeared entirely 
before the end of the eighteenth century. Bib. : Hodge, Handbook of American 

Masfcres, Francis (1731-1824). Born in London. Educated at Cam- 
bridge. In 1766 appointed attorney-general of Quebec, holding the position 
until 1769. Returned to England and was cursitor baron of the Exchequer, 
1773-1824, and in 1780 became senior judge of the Sheriff's Court, London. 
Index: Dr Attorney-general, of Huguenot descent, conducts prosecution in 


Walker Case, 37 ; called upon to report on a system of law for the country, 
41 ; goes to England, 56 ; opposed to Carleton and others on question of Cana- 
dian laws, 62 ; called as witness in connection with Quebec Act, 63 ; evidence 
before House of Commons, 68. Hd Supports Du Calvet, 290, 291, 305; men- 
tioned by MacLean, 310 ; Ms opinion of Mabane, 315. Bib. : Works : Account 
of the Proceedings of the British and other Protestant Inhabitants of the Province 
of Quebec, in Order to Obtain an House of Assembly; Additional Papers Con- 
cerning the Province of Quebec; Canadian Freeholder; Collection of Commissions, 
etc., Relating to the Province of Quebec; Occasional Essays. For biog., see 
Diet. Nat. Biog.; Bradley, The Making of Canada. 

Massachusetts. F Charter of, declared null and void, 264 ; takes lead in 
expedition against Quebec, 277. Bk War of 1812 unpopular in, 208. 

Mass!, Enemond (1574-1646). Born in France. Entered the Society of 
Jesus, 1596. In 1611 went to Port Royal (Annapolis) ; and later to Mount 
Desert Island, where he established a mission and built a fort. In 1613 Captain 
Samuel Argail (g.t?.) ? attacked the fort, and Mass6 and most of the colonists 
were taken prisoners. In 1614 went to France; returned in 1625, and spent 
the remainder of Ms life hi mission work among the Algonquians and 
Montagnais. Taken prisoner at Quebec in 1629, but afterwards released. 
Index: Ch Jesuit, 152; returns to college of La Fl&che, 207; returns to 
Canada, 228. Bib. : Charlevoix, History of New France; Parkman, Old Regime; 
Murdoch, History of Nova Scotia. 

Masson, I/otiis Francois Rodrigtie (1833-1903). Born at Terrebonne. En- 
tered Parliament in 1867 as member for Terrebonne; minister of militia and 
defence, 1878 ; president of the Council, 1880 ; called to the Senate, 1882 ; 
lieutenant-governor of Quebec, 1884 ; again called to the Senate, 1890. Bib. : 
Bourgeois de la Compagnie du NordrOuest. For biog., see Morgan, Can. 

Mather, Cotton (1663-1728). F On^ failure of Phipps's expedition, 302; on 
rescue of some men cast ashore on Anticosti, 304. Bib. : Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Matheron. L Steward of abbey of Maubec, 137. 

Mathews, Peter. Me Executed, 435 ; monument to, 436. 

Mathews, Robert. Hd English secretary to Haldimand, 245, 305 ; signs order 
for arrest of Du Calvet, 286 ; sails for England with Haldimand, 309 ; on Mrs. 
Fairchild, 314 ; Haldimand's interest in, 331 ; returns to Canada as aide-de- 
camp to Lord Dorchester, 332 ; sent to Detroit as lieutenant-governor, 332 ; 
receives bequest from Haldimand, 342. 

Maubec, Abbey of. L Revenues of, assigned to bishopric of Quebec, 131, 132, 
136, 137. 

Maupassant. F R^collet father, Frontenac's confessor, 165. 

Maureile, Francisco Antonio. Sailed to the North-West Coast with Quadra 
in 1775, and again in 1779. Embodied the results of the explorations in several 
charts of the coast with explanatory text, wMch were published in Mexico and 
also in London. His journal of the 1775 expedition published in Barrington's 
Miscellany, 1781. Commanded the Prineessa, 1781-1782, on a voyage from 
Manilla to San Bias. Index: D On North-West Coast, 15. Bib.: Walbran, 
British Columbia Coast Names; Bancroft, History of the North-West Coast. 

Maxwell, Colonel. WT Sent to frontier with troops in 1839, 135. 

May, Sir Humphrey (1573-1630). Born in England. Educated at Oxford. 
In 1604 groom of the King's privy chamber ; in 1618 surveyor of the Court of 
Wards, and chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster; and in 1625 privy coun- 


cillor ; in 181 one of the commissioners appointed to negotiate a in 

North American affairs between England and France. Index: Ch 
commissioner in matter of Canada, 214. Bib. : Diet. Nat. Biog* 

May, Sir Thomas Erskine. See Farnborough. 

Meade, George Gordon (1815-1872). In 1865-1866 commanded the 
division of the Atlantic, during which period prevented the Fenians from 
Eastport, Maine, the base of operations against New Brunswick. Index : WT 
Sent to check Fenians, 249. Bib. : Cyc. Am. Bwg. 

Meares, John (1766-1809). Bom in England, Entered the navy, 1776, and 
served against the French until 1783. Entered Hie merchant service, 1783, and 
explored the coast of Alaska, 1786. Explored and surveyed the north-west 
coast of America, 1789. Index : D Winters 1786-1787 in Prince William Sound, 
22 ; half Ms crew die of scurvy, 22 ; voyage of 1788, and his connection with 
"Nootka Affair/ 7 26; at Canton, 1788, 27; expedition to North-West Coast, 
27 ; at Nootka, 27 ; purchases land from Maquiima for fur-trading post, 27 ; 
builds North-West America, at Nootka, first ship launched in what is now 
British Columbia, 28 ; explores coast southwards, 28 ; enters and examines Strait 
of Juan de Fuca, and takes possession for Great Britain, 28 ; sails for CMna, 
28. Bib. : Did. Nat. Biog. 

Medley, John (1804-1892). Bom in London, England, Graduated at Ox- 
ford, 1826 ; ordained priest, 1829 ; vicar of St. John's, Traro, 1831 ; of St. 
Thomas, Exeter, 1838, and prebendary of Exeter cathedral, 1842. Elected first 
bishop of Fredericton, New Brunswick, 1845; metropolitan of Canada, 1879. 
Bib.: Mockridge, The Bishops of the Church of England in Canada and New- 
founMand; Dent, Can. POT. 

Meech, Lieutenant. WM Makes reconnaissance of Island of Orleans, 92. 

Meilleur, Jean Baptiste (1795-1878). Bom in St. Laurent, near Montreal. 
Educated at the College of St. Sulpice, Montreal; studied law, and, later, 
medicine. Elected to the Assembly, 1834, and appointed superintendent of 
public instruction by Sir Charles Bagot, 1842. Held this position for fifteen 
years, during which time forty-five educational institutions were established, 
In 1862 appointed postmaster of Montreal. One of the founders of the College 
of I/Assomption. Index: BL Appointed superintendent of public instruction 
by Bagot, 115. Bib.: Bibaud, Diet. Hist.; Bibaud, Pan. Can. 

Melbourne, William Lamb, second Viscount (1779-1848). Bom in London, 
England. Educated at Eton, Cambridge, and Glasgow. Entered Parliament, 
1805 ; Irish secretary under Canning, 1827, and under Wellington, 1828 ; and in 
1830-1834 home secretary under Grey ; for a few months in 1834, prime minister. 
In 1835 again became prime minister and retained office for six years ; from 1837 
to 1841 acted as adviser to the young Queen Victoria. Index : Sy Becomes 
prime minister, 45 ; dismissed by the king, 45 ; recalled to power, 46 ; weakness 
of his government, 47; his estimate of Poulett Thomson, 6; resigns, 56; re- 
turns to office, 57 ; Cabinet reorganized, 57. WT Negotiations re New Brans- 
wick crown lands, 37. Bib. : Diet. Nat. Biog.; Letters of Queen Victoria. 

Melville, Henry Dimdas, first Viscount (1742-1811). Sat for Midlothian, 
1774r-1790, and for Edinburgh, 1790-1802 ; home secretary, 1791-1794 ; sec- 
retary of war, 1794-1801 ; first lord of admiralty, 1804-1805. Index : S Secre- 
tary of state, thought Simcoe's educational schemes premature, 169. Dr 
Colonial secretary, disapproves of Dorchester's speech to Miami Indians, 283. 
Bib. : Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Melville, Henry Dundas, third Viscount (1801-1876). Served through Re- 


belion of 1837. General, 1868. Index: Me Defends Windmill Point, 443; 
accepts Van Sekraite's surrender, 444. Bib. : Diet Nat Biog. 

Membertou, Henry (15107-1611). Micmac sagamore; became a convert to 
Christianity in extreme old age. In 1604 De Monts and Ms band of colonists 
landed in, Acadia, aad the chief received them hospitably. Assisted the French 
against hostile Indians, and in 1607 with a force of Micmacs defeated the Ar- 
mcmchiquois Indians. In 1610 baptized, with his family and other Indians ; and 
was counted a zealous son of the church. Is reputed to have been over a hun- 
dred years of age at Ms death. Index : Ch Aged Indian who claimed to have 
known Jacques Cartier, 36. Bib. : Parkman, Pioneers of France. 

Membr6, Zenobius (1645-1687). Born in France. The first novice in the 
E6collet province of St. Anthony. In 1675 came to Canada ; in 1679 a member 
of La Sailed expedition to the West ; and in 1682 accompanied La Salle on his 
voyage down the Mississippi. In 1684 again associated with La Salle on his 
second expedition to the mouth of the Mississippi. Killed at Fort St. Louis, 
in an Indian attack. Index: JL Bdcoliet missionary, 149, 150. Bib. : Parkman, 
La Salle. 

Menneval, Robmeau de. Governor of Acadia in 1689, with headquarters 
at Port Royal. In 1690 Port Royal was attacked by the English, and after vainly 
attempting to defend it, captured and sent as prisoner to England. Index: 
F Governor of Acadia, 272 ; surrenders to Phipps, 274 ; carried prisoner to Bos- 
ton, 276 ; released, 277. Bib. : Charlevoix, History of New France; Murdoch, 
Bwtory of Nowa Scotia. 

Mercier, HonorS (1840-1894). Bom at Ste. Athanase, Quebec. Educated 
at the Jesuit College, Montreal. In 1865 called to the Quebec bar; and in 
1872 elected to the Dominion Parliament for Rouville. In 1879 appointed so- 
Mcitor-general in the Quebec provincial Assembly ; and in 1883 elected member 
for St. Hyacinthe, and liberal leader in the House. In 1887 premier of Quebec 
aad held office until Dec. 15, 1891, when the ministry was dismissed because of 
the Baie de Chaleur Railway scandal. Introduced the Jesuits' Estates Act 
in the Quebec Legislature. Index : C One of the founders of Le Parti National 
and its organ Le National, 30 ; eulogizes the clergy, 30. Md Heads an agitation 
in favour of Riel, 243 ; incorporates the Society of Jesus, 286 ; introduces and 
passes the Jesuits' Estates Act in Quebec Legislature, 186, 287. Bib.: Legendre, 
Honori Mercier in Men of the Day; WilHson, Sir Wilfrid Laurier and the Liberal 

Mercury. Newspaper of Quebec, established, 1805. Index: BL Voices sen- 
timents of dominant faction in Lower Canada, 20. P Antagonistic attitude 
to French-Canadians, 28 ; makes merry at expense of Papineau's followers, 122- 
123. Bk Editor of, forced to apologize to Legislative Assembly, 93 ; opinions 
expressed in, 93, 116. 

Meredith, Sir WHIiam ColEs (1812-1894). Born in Dublin, Ireland. Emigrated 
to Canada ; in 1836 called to the bar of Montreal, and in 1844 appointed Q. C. 
From 1849 to 1859 a judge of the Superior Court for the province of Quebec; 
in 1859-1866 judge of the Queen's Bench; in 1866 chief justice of the Superior 
Court; retired in 1884. During Lord Elgin's administration as governor-general 
of Canada (1847-1854), one of the judges of the Seigniorial Court. In 1886 
knighted. Index : E Member of Seigniorial Court, 187. 

Meredith, Sir William Ralph (1840- ). Born in the county of Middlesex, 
Ontario. Educated at the London District Grammar School, and at the Uni- 
versity of Toronto. Studied law, and called to the bar, 1861. Sat in the On- 


Assembly, 1872-1894; leader of c the opposition, 1873-1394. 
cMef justice of the Common Pleas Division of the High Court of 1804* 

Kmghted, 1896. Chancellor of the University of Toronto. Bib. : 
Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who. 

Merritt, William Hamilton (1793-1862). Bom in Westchester County, 
York. Came to Canada with his parents, 1796, Served during the war of 
1812-1814; took part in the capture of Detroit and the battles of 
Heights, Stony Creek, and Lundy 7 s Lane. The principal promoter of the 
Wetland Canal, opened in 1830. In 1832 elected to the Legislative ; 

and in 1845 projected the Niagara Falls suspension bridge. IB 1848 
of the Council in the La Fontaine-Baldwin adniinistmtioii ; in 1850 
of public works ; and in 1860 member of the Legislative Council. Index : Bk 
Commands troop of cavalry at Queenston Heights, 310. B Elected in 1848, 50 ; 
Welland Canal due to Ms enterprise, 97 ; a member of the La Fontaine-Balawk 
ministry, 97. Me President of Welland Canal, 265 ; for libel, 

265. Bib. : Bent, Can. POT. and Lmt Forty Yean; Menitt, Hm. W. H. 

Hesaard, Father. L Death of, 11. 

Mesnu, Peuvret de. L Clerk of the Sovereign Council, 158, 167. 

Mesplet, Plenty. Hd Publisher of first books printed in Canada, 276 ; founder 
of Montreal Gazette, 276 ; publishes scurrilous sheet in French, and is arrested, 
277. S Prints Simcoe's first proclamation, 80, 173. 

Metaberoutin. See St. Maurice River. 

Metcalfe, Charles Theophilus, Baron (1785-1846). Bom in Calcutta, India. 
Educated at Eton. Resident of Delhi, 1811-1820; in 1820-1827 resident of 
Hyderabad ; and member of the Supreme Council of India, 1827. Provisional 
governor-general, 1835-1836; and lieutenant-governor of the North-West 
Provinces, 1836-1838 ; governor of Jamaica, 1839-1M2. In 1843 appointed 
governor-general of Canada, and held the position until 1845. Index : Sy Did 
not beBeve that Sydenham was really in favour of responsible government, 
312; his reactionary policy, 313, C On the union of 1841, 14-15; his high- 
handedness, 17; his political schemes, 18; constitutional battle with La Fon- 
taine as to meaning of ministerial responsibility, 97. E Eyerson's defence of, 
126, 129-130, 163 ; opposition to, 126-181 ; confers with Eyerson OB popular 
education, 163. B Reasons for his selection as governor^ 18-19; Hindi on, 
18-19 ; rupture with his advisers, 19 ; his character and attitude towards respon- 
sible government, 19-20, 23, 24; defended by Eyerson, 22; wins elections, 26; 
leaves Canada, 27 ; his death, 27 ; Brown refuses to drink Ma health, 27-28. 
H His narrow views and arbitrary conduct, delays full development of respon- 
sible government, 55. BL The great political controversy during his administra- 
tion, x ; on responsible government, 138 ; his arrival in Kingston, reception, and 
appearance, 155 ; his character and views on representative government, 156- 
166 ; his birth, 158 ; difficulties of his position, 166-168 ; relations with Baldwin 
and La Fontaine, 169-176 ; 199-214 ; defended by Daly and MacNab, 214-215 ; 
forms provisional government, 216 ; defended by Wakefield, 219, 220; agitation 
of the Reform Association, 221-223; attacked by the Globe, 224, 225; public 
addresses, 226-228 ; supported by Stanley, the colonial secretary, in his quarrel 
with the Reformers, 230-234; and by Lord John Russell, Peel, and Buller, 
234-235 ; attempts to form a Cabinet, 235^36 ; defended by Eyerson, 240-242 ; 
Sullivan's reply, 243-244; Ryerson's rejoinder, 245-246; forms Cabinet, 24$- 
247; uses personal influence in elections, 1844, 249-250; wins the election, 
250; elevation to peerage, 256-257; his recall, 263, 265; Ms illness and death, 


265 ; succeeded by Cathcart, 265 ; Ms mistaken policy, 272, 274, 285 ; refuses 
La Fontaine's request for amnesty, 288, 291 ; and Baldwin's University Bill, 293 ; 
and the Indemnification Bill, 308 ; La Fontaine's reference to, in his farewell 
speech, 356. E Succeeds Bagot as governor-general, 32 ; his defects as governor, 
32, 33, 39 ; comes into conflict with La Fontaine and Baldwin, 33-34 ; his views 
on patronage, 34-35 ; attempts to form a ministry, 35-36, 66, 119 ; and Byerson, 
36, 90 ; Kaye's views on, 36 ; raised to peerage, 37 ; his death, 37 ; Macaulay 
on, 37-38 ; Hincks on, 38 ; succeeded by Cathcart, 38 ; and the Rebellion Losses 
question, 64 ; rebels allowed to return from exile, 91. Md Succeeds Sir Charles 
Bagot as governor-general of Canada, 18 ; previous appointments, 18 ; disagrees 
with Baldwin and La Fontaine on question of patronage, 18, 19 ; difficulty in 
forming administration, 19 ; his high-handed policy, 20 ; carries on government 
with three ministers, 20 ; his administration sustained in general election, 21 ; 
resigns, 24 ; leaves Canada, 24, 25. WT New Brunswick House of Assembly 

E resents address to, 74 ; attacked by Wilmot and Fisher, 74 ; addresses from 
t. John and county of York, 74-75; Ms unconstitutional attitude, 75, 76. 
Bib. : Did. Nat. Biog.; Dent, Can. For, and Last Forty Years ; Kaye, Life and 
Correspondence of Lord Metcalfe; Ryerson, Story of my Life ; Pope, Memoirs of 
Sir John A. MacDonald. 

Methodist Church, in Canada. Can be traced back to 1772, when a party of 
Yorkshire Methodists settled in Nova Scotia. The first provincial Methodist 
Conference was held at Halifax in 1786. In 1814 the British Conference appointed 
missionaries to Quebec and Montreal ; and in 1807 the first Methodist Con- 
ference was held at Elizabethtown (Brockville). In 1828 the Canada Con- 
ference became independent of the Methodist Episcopal Church of the United 
States ; and in 1833 the Canada Methodist Episcopal Church united with the 
British Wesleyans. In 1874 the Wesleyan Methodist Conference of Canada, 
the Canadian Wesleyan New Connexion Conference, and the Wesleyan Con- 
ference of Eastern British America became one as the Methodist Church of 
Canada. The first session of the General Conference was held the same year. 
In 1883 the Primitive Methodist Church and the Methodist Episcopal Church 
also became part of the Methodist Church in Canada. Index : R History of 
church in Canada, 38 ; without civil rights, 40 ; independent Canadian church 
established, 81: English Methodism in Canada, 87; Wesleyan missionaries, 
89 ; Canadian bodies united, 287-288. S Bishop Mountain's low opinion of ' 
Methodist preachers in Upper Canada, 159 ; their earnest labours, 162-164. 
Bib. : Sanderson, The First Century of Methodism in Canada ; Ryerson, Canadian 
Methodism; Carman, Historical Sketch of Canadian Methodism in Canada: An 
Ency., vol. 2. 

Methye Portage. Also known as Portage La Loche. Named after the methye 
or loche (Lota macidosa) , which has always been abundant in neighbouring waters. 
This portage was an important point in the palmy days of the fur trade. It 
leads from the Churchill to the Clearwater, and so to the Athabaska and the 
immense systems of northern and western waterways that lie beyond. It was 
noted for its beautiful scenery, which has been described or mentioned by Mac- 
kenzie, Franklin, Back, and other northern travellers. It was first crossed by 
Peter Pond in 1778. The route has now been abandoned for some years, supplies 
for the northern posts of the Hudson's Bay Company being transported over- 
land from Edmonton to Athabaska Landing, and thence down the Athabaska. 
,Bib. : Burpee, Search for the Western Sea; Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company. 

Metiomegne. L Algonquian chief, joins Bollard at Long Sault, 69. 


Mtis. Md Or Half-breeds, view with alarm the prospect of of 

territories to Canada, 157 ; their complaints as to division of ; 

sympathy with Rial, 243, 

MetiHes, Chevalier Jacques de. Intendant of New France, 1682-1686. 
The son of Fmngois Meulles, seignior of the forest of Montpensier, in Poitott ; 
held the office of grand bailiff, or magistrate, of Orleans, before to 

Canada. Married a sister of Michel B%>n, intendant of Rochefort, and 
of Michel B%on, afterwards intendant of New France. Index : F Intendant, 
opposed to popular representation, 69; arrival of, 171; criticizes La Bane in 
despatches, 173, 174 ; on La Barre's expedition against Senecas, 188 ; recalled, 
207 ; visits Acadia, and makes census, 271. L Succeeds Dtiehesneau as in- 
tendant, 68; incapable and conceited, 186; the Mng*s instructions to y 186, 
Bib. : Roy, Intendanto de la Nowdb-Franee (R. S. C., 1903} ; Parkman, 

Mexico. Ch VMted and described by Champkin, 4. 

Mezy, Augtistia de Safinty, CfaevaMer de. Governor of New France from 
1663 until Ms death in 1665. Index : F Appointed governor on Laval's reo- 
ommendation, 48 ; quarrels with Laval, 50 ; death of, 50. L Governor, 
with traders on the liquor question, 10 ; succeeds D'Avaugour, 41 ; supports the 
bishop at first, and then quarrels with Mm, 51 ; death of, 51. Bib.: Farimfin, 
Frontmac and Old R&gime. 

Miami Indians. A tribe of the Algonquian family, belonging chiefly to what 
is now Wisconsin, where the French first came in contact with them in 1690. 
After 1700 many removed to Illinois. Indiana, Ohio, and adjoining territory. 
In the colonial wars they fought mdifferently on both sides. In 1812 they 
served under Tecumseh with the British against the Americans. Index: Br 
Dorchester's speech to, 282. Bib.: Hodge, Handbook of American Indians. 

Miami River. Rises in Hardin County, Ohio, and flowing south and south- 
west for about 150 miles, enters the Ohio Elver, twenty miles west of Cincinnati. 
Index : S General Wayne defeats Indians on, 139. 

Michel, Jacques. Ch Huguenot, violent conduct of, towards Father Jean de 
BrSbeuf, 201 ; his fate, 202. 

Michigan Territory. Bk Ceded to Britain with surrender of Detroit, 255, 260. 

MicMlimackinac. A missionary station and fur-trading post, which stood 
on the straits between Lakes Huron and Michigan. ^The name was derived 
from an Algonquian tribe, the Mishinimaki, and in its original form meant 
" Place of the big wounded person." The name is now shortened to MacHnac. 
It was an important place throughout the period of French rule in Canada: and 
was the scene of the famous massacre of 1763, described by Alexander Henry, 
and by Parkman in Ms Conspiracy of Pontiac. Index : Bk Resort of fur traders, 
53 ; United States fort, captured by Captain Roberts, 211. S Handed over to 
United States, 142. MS Migration of French to, from Detroit, 12. Hd Situation 
of, 145, 153 ; Sinclair in charge at, 158 ; an expensive fort to maintain, 161, 163 ; 
plan for settling Loyalists near, 259; Haldimand 7 s determination regarding 
defence of, 260 ; surrender of, in 1796, 262. Bib. : Kelton, Annals of Fort 
MacMnac; Parkman, Conspiracy of Pontiac; Lucas, Canadian War of 181%. 

Micmac Indians. An Algonquian tribe, called by the French, Souriquois, 
Their habitat was in Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and northern New 
Brunswick. Visited by Cabot in 1497; and by Corte-Real in 1501. They 
were for a long tune bitterly hostile to the British. In 1611 they numbered 
about 3000 ; and their population in 1884 was given as 4000. Index : WM 


Indian tribe, enemies of the English, 16 ; H Howe interests himself in their wel- 
fare, 245; his report on their condition, 246. Bib.: Biard, Relation, 1616; 
Rand, Micmac Didionary; Hodge, Handbook of American Indians. 

Middleton, Sir Frederick Dobson (1825-1898). Born in Belfast, Ireland. 
Educated at Sandhurst, aad entered the army, 1842. Served in India during 
the mutiny, 1857-1858. In 1868 stationed in Canada ; and in 1884 general in 
command of the militia of Canada. In 1885 commanded the Canadian troops 
during the Biel Rebellion, and, for Ms services in suppressing it, knighted 
and received a grant of $20,000. Appointed, 1896, keeper of the crown jewels 
in the Tower of London, See Riel Rebellion, 1885. Index : Md Commands 
troops sent to quell Riel Rebellion, 242. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Denison, 
Soldiering in Canada. 

Milan Decree. Bk Issued by Napoleon in 1808, 110 ; disastrous effects of, 
110-111; 171, 172. Bib.: Diet, Eng. Hist. 

Milbank Sound. West coast of British Columbia, north of Queen Charlotte 
Sound, and south of Princess Royal Island. Named in 1788 by Captain Charles 
Duncan, of the Princess Royal, after Vice-admiral Mark Milbanke. Index: 
D Natives of, attack the Atahualpa, 1805, and kill the captain, mate, and six 
seamen, 37. Bib. : Walbran, British Columbia Coast Names. 

Militia and Defence. WM Militia in Canada raised by conscription and 
receive no pay, 30; composition of military forces, 29-^30; desertions, 119. 
Dr French-Canadian militia called out, 86 ; their unwillingness to serve, 87 ; 
their good behaviour at Quebec, 111, 124, 144 ; lose confidence in British regulars 
as result of American war, 242; strongly object to being enrolled, 278, 290; 
Militia Bill of 1777 disliked by habitants, 186. Bk Military roads in Upper Canada, 
52 ; military posts in Upper Canada, 53-59 ; militia organization in Upper and 
Lower Canada, 190; Brock's commendation of militia in general order, 212. 
S Passage of Militia Act of Upper Canada, 91. C Militia reorganized after Trent 
affair, and again after Confederation, 87; Cartier's interest in, 87-88, 110. 
E Under French regime, 177-178 ; Elgin's views on colonial defence, 209-210. 
B Government defeated on Militia Bill of 1862, 142; its terms, 142; disap- 
pointment in England over, 142; question of defence one of forces leading 
towards Confederation, 142, 147, 181, 182 ; debate in House of Lords on 
Canadian defence, 181, 183-184 ; scheme of defence, 184r-185, 186 ; improved 
militia system advocated by Canada First Association, 236. Md Bill defeated 
for better organization of, 88 ; militia organized, 151. 

Mill, John Stuart (1806-1873). English philosopher. Index: SySydenham's 
acquaintance with, 13. Bib. : Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Miller, James Andrew (1839-1886). Born in Gait, Ontario. Called to the 
bar, 1863; judge of the Court of Queen's Bench for Manitoba, 1880-4882; 
attorney-general of Manitoba, 1882-1885 ; prepared, along with Oliver Mowat, 
the special case on the boundaries of Ontario and Manitoba for submission to 
the Privy Council ; registrar-general of titles of Manitoba, 1885. 

Miller, William. H Anti-Confederationist, changes his views, and moves 
resolution authorizing Nova Scotia delegates to frame Confederation scheme in 
London, 179 ; brings action against Annand for libel, 188. 

Millet, Pierre (1635-1708). Born at Bourges, France. Came to Canada, 
1667 ; sent to the Onondaga mission the following year ; and in 1672 to Oneida, 
where he remained until 1686, labouring with characteristic devotion among his 
savage flock. Met Denonville at Cataraqui in 1686, and, as a result of the 
governor's expedition against the Iroquois, unjustly suspected by the Oneidas 


of being implicated. t Captured by a war-party at la and 

carried back to Oneida as a prisoner. The Oneidas to Ml! 

but he was finally released, and adopted into the tribe. at 

Oneida until 1694, when he returned to Quebec^ where lie his 

years. Index: F Tortured by Oneida Indians, 216. I* On the 
character of Garakonti6, 73. Bib.: Campbell* Pioneer of 


Mills, David (1831-1903). Bom in the township of Orford, County, 

Ontario. Educated at the University of Michigan. Taught school for 
years ; afterwards inspector of schools for Kent County until 1865. In 1867 
entered the Dominion Parliament ; and in 1876-I87S minister of the interior 
in Mackenzie administration. In 1883 called to the b&r of Ontario ; practised 
in London ; and created Q. C., 1890, Appointed to the Senate, 1896; minister 
of justice in the Laurier adnmristration^ 1897: justice of the Supreme Court 
of J Canada, 1901-1903. Index: Md On national policy, 224. Kb.: Ro ? 
Cyc. Can. Biag.; Morgan, Can. Men. 

Manes, Sir Robert Shore (1746-1836). Bom in England. Entered the 
army. In 1795 governor of the island of Martinique; in 1799 appointed 
lieutenant-governor of Lower Canada ; and during the absence of Gen. Robert 
Prescptt acting governor; retired, 1803. Index: p His governorship marked 
by bitter relations between French and English in Lower Canada, 27* 
Bk lieutenant-governor of Lower Canada, 34, 45; distrusted French- 
Canadians, 47. Bib.: Christie, History of Lower Canada. 

Minchin, George. WT Appointed to New Brunswick Council, 69. 

Minto, Gilbert Jolin Murray Kynynmond ElHot, Ear! (1847- ), Educated 
at Eton and Cambridge, and entered the army, 1867. Served with the Turkish 
army, 1877 ; in the Afghan War, 1879 ; private secretary to Lord Roberts 
at the Cape, 1881; took part in the Egyptian campaign, 1882. Military 
secretary to the Marquis of Lansdowne when governor-general of Canada, 
1883-1885 ; and in 1885 served through the Kiel Rebellion as chief of staff to 
General Middleton. Governor-general of Canada, 1898-1904; viceroy of 
India, 1905-1910. Index: Md On Louis Bid, 240. Bib. : Morgan, Can. Mm. 

Miristou. Ch Montagnais chief, 159, 

Miscou. An island on the southern side of the entrance to the Baie de Chaleur. 
Name probably of Indian origin. First appears in ChampMn^s narrative. It 
was the reputed home of the Gougou, a very remarkable monster, described by 
Champlain. Cartier sighted the island in 1534, when sailing into the Baie de 
Chaleur. He named Miscou Point, Cap d'Esp6rance. A Basque establishment 
is mentioned here as early as 1623 ; and in 1645 Nicolas Denys built a fort 
about the same place, having secured a concession from the Company of Miscou. 
Index : Ch French habitation at, seized by Eorke, 177 ; Jesuit mission at, 284, 
235. Bib.: Ganong, Place- Nomenclature of New Brunswick (R.S.C., 1896); 
Denys, Acadia, ed. by Ganong; Dawson, St. Lawrence Basin. 

Mississagua Indians. A tribe of Algonquian stock. They are named on Gali- 
n6e's map of 1670 as occupying the north shore of Lake Huron, about the 
mouth of Thessalon River. Some were at the mission of Sault Ste. Marie, 
1670-1673. After the great Iroquois raid of 1650, they scattered to the north 
country. A hundred years later, some of the tribe were found on the borders of 
Lake Ontario. They had been absorbed by the Iroquois in 1746. About seven 
hundred are now living on reservations in Ontario. Index : Hd Engage in gin- 
seng trade, 148; lands purchased from, 265. Bib.: Chamberlain, Notes on 


the History, Custom and Beliefs of Hie Mississaguas; Pilling, Bibliography of 
the Algongumn Languages; Jesuit Relations, ed. by Thwaites. 

Mississagua Point. Bk At entrance to Niagara River, lighthouse, dockyard, 
and a fort at, 58. 

Mississippi River. Rises in northern Minnesota, its chief source being Itasca 
Lake, and enters the Gulf of Mexico, after a course of 2550 miles. It was dis- 
covered by the Spaniards, early in the sixteenth^ century. De Soto explored 
the lower part of the river, and died on its banks in 1541. Radisson was prob- 
ably the first white man to see its upper waters, in 1659. Jean Nicolet reached 
Wisconsin River in 1634, but did not descend it to the Mississippi. Jolliet and 
Marquette in 1673 reached the Mississippi, and descended as far as the mouth 
of the Arkansas. In 1682 La Salle descended the river from the mouth of 
the Illinois to the Gulf of Mexico. Its headwaters were discovered by David 
Thompson, of the North West Company, in 1798. Index : WM Exploration 
of, 19. L Exploration of, 145 ; La Salle reaches mouth of, 150 ; taken posses- 
sion of, in name of king of France, 151. Hd Proposed canal route to, 77. Bib. : 
Lippincptt's Gazetteer of the World; Parkman, La Salle; Chambers, The 
Mississippi River and its Wonderful Valley. 

Mitchell, Peter (1824-1899). Born in Newcastle, New Brunswick. Edu- 
cated at the Newcastle Grammar School ; called to the bar, 1848. Engaged in 
the lumbering and shipbuilding trades. Elected to the Assembly, 1856 ; ap- 
pointed to the Legislative Council, 1860. Became a member of the government, 
1858. A strong advocate of Confederation. Delegate to the Charlottetown, 
Quebec, and Westminster Conferences. Premier of New Brunswick, 1865. 
Called to the Senate, 1867. Entered the government of Sir John A. Macdonald 
as minister of marine and fisheries, 1867. Resigned from the Senate, 1874, and 
"elected to the House of Commons, Defeated, 1878, but again elected, 1882; 
defeated at general election of 1896. Appointed inspector of fisheries for 
Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia, 1897. For some years after 1885, 
proprietor and editor of the Montreal Herald. Index : B Forms government in 
New Brunswick favourable to Confederation, 188. H Accompanies Sir John 
Macdonald to Halifax in 1868, 210, Md Minister of marine and fisheries in 
first Dominion Cabinet, 135, 138 ; supports route along Gulf of St. Lawrence 
for Intercolonial Railway, 152-153. WT Delegate to Quebec in Intercolonial 
Railway Conference, 198 ; attends Quebec Conference, 219 ; forms ministry in 
New Brunswick, 246^247; delegate to England re Confederation, 262-263; in 
first Dominion ministry, 270, 271. Bib. : Works: Notes of a Holiday Trip; 
Review of President Grant's Message Relative to Canadian Fisheries. For biog., 
see Morgan, Can. Mm; Dent, Last Forty Years. 

Moberley, Walter. D Associated with Edgar Dewdney in building road from 
Hope to Similkameen, British Columbia, 252-253. 

Moffatt, George (1787-1865). Born in England. Emigrated to Canada; 
and engaged in business in Montreal. Served during the War of 1812. In 
1831 appointed to the Legislative Council of Lower Canada, being leader of 
the British party in that house and a member of the Constitutional Association. 
In 1841 elected for Montreal to the House of Assembly, and in 1844 
re-elected, retiring 1847. President of the British American League, formed to 
oppose the annexation movement of 1849. Index; Sy Member of Con- 
stitutional Association, 112; delegated to promote union of provinces in 
Upper Canada, 112, Bib.: Taylor, Brit. Am.; Christie, History of Lower 


Mohawk Indians. A tribe of the Iroquois confederacy. Their in 

the valley of the Mohawk River. From their position as the of the 

Iroquois tribes, they came first in contact with both the Dutch and to 

the south and the French on the north. They took a leading part in of 
the wars between the Iroquois and the French, as well as with other la 

the Revolutionary War, they sided with the British ; and afterwards removed 
to Canada, settling principally on Grand River, in the Niagara peninsula. See 
dso Iroquois. Index; L Tracy marches against, 53. Ch (Agniers), Iroquois 
tribe or nation. 50. Dr Join British forces, 88 ; easily depressed by reverses, 9 ; 
Cauffhnawagas desert at St. Johns, 100. Hd Loath at first to fight the 

English colonists, 148; lands allotted to, on Grand River, 258; payment made 
to for land. 259 ; 'education of, 265. F Attack Hurons on Mand of Orleans, 41 ; 
Coureelles leads expedition agianst, 52; Ttacy leads a second, 53; e^p^iton 
against, 331. Bib.; Hodge, Handbook of Amenmm Indwm; JjutGoaon, 2 he 
Historic Mohawk 

Hohier, Gervais, Ch R&iollet, returns to France, 208. 

Molson, John (1787-1860). Born in Montreal In 1837 a member of the 
Special Council of Lower Canada ; served during the Rebellion; in^ 1849 as a 
protest against the passing of the Rebellion Losses Bill, signed, with others, 
the Annexation Manifesto, and was in consequence relieved of his couonHsaon 
as colonel of militia and justice of the peace. In partnership with Ms brother 
William founded, in 1853, the Molsons Bank. Index : E Signs Annexation Mani- 
festo, 81. Bib. : Morgan, Gel Can.; Weir, Sixty Years in Canada. m 

Monck^Sir Charles Stanley, fourth Viscount (1319-1894). Bom in Ireland. 
Educated at Trinity College, Dublin ; and called to the Irish bar, 1841. Entered 
Parliament, 1852: lord of the treasury, 1855-1858. In 1861 appointed gov- 
ernor-general of Canada and British North America; in 1867 governor-general 
of the Dominion of Canada; in 1868 resigned office, after successfully inaugu- 
rating Confederation. In 1869 appointed a member of the Imperial Pnvy 
Council. Index : B Attempts to secure a mnusfcry, 149 ; proposes coalition gov- 
ernment, 151 : Ms keen interest in the negotiations prior to Confederation, 157 ; 
writes George Brown urging him to join Cabinet, 157-158. C Enlists TacM m 
task of forming a Cabinet, on advice of Cartier, 68 ; correspondence in regard to 
Cartier's refusal of the C. B. decoration, 125-128. Md Governor-general of Can- 
ada 90 : induces Brown to enter coalition ministry, 121 j calls on Macdonald 
to form a ministry, 122 ; impatient at delay in Confederation, 123, 124 ; charges 
Macdonald with formation of a government, 131 ; letter to, from Macdonald, 
in reference to election of 1872, 197. WT Renders valuable assistance in Con- 
federation scheme, 265; entrusts Macdonald with formation of minu^, 270. 
Bib. : Diet. Nat. Biog.; Dent, Can. POT. and Last Forty Yean; Pope, Memcm of 
Sir John A. Macdonald. . ^ 

Monckton, Robert (1726-1782). Bornln England. Served in Flanders, 1742 ; 
sent to Nova Scotia, 1752, and appointed lieutenant-governor of Annapolis 
Royal, 1754. In 1755 captured several French forts ; in 1759 brigadier-general, 
and served under Wolfe at the siege of Quebec, where he was wounded. In 
1761 promoted major-general, and made governor of New York. In 1762 co- 
operated with Rodney in the expedition which resulted in the capture of Mar- 
tinique, Grenada, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent. Index: WM Brigadier under 
Wolfe character of, 74; occupies village of Beaumont, 100; commands British 
left in battle of Montmorency, 134, 140, 142; moves up the river with his 
command to join fleet, 161; at St. Nicholas, 165; Wolfe's bequest to, 175; 


commands British right in battle of Plains, 189 ; wounded, 189. Bib. : Doughty, 
Siege of Quebec; Campbell, History of Quebec; Wood, The Fight for Canada. 

Mondelet, Charles Joseph Elzear (1801-1877). Born in St. Charles, Quebec, 
Educated at Nicolet and Montreal. In 1822 called to the bar of Lower Can- 
ada ; practised at Three Rivers and Montreal Arrested in 1828 and 1838 for 
political offences, but never brought to trial. In 1842 district judge for Terre- 
bonne L'Assomption, and Berthier ; in 1844 circuit judge at Montreal ; and judge 
of the Superior Court, 1849 ; appointed judge of the Seigniorial Court, 1855, 
and in 1858 assistant judge in Appeals, Court of Queen's Bench. Index: E 
Member of Seigniorial Court, 187. Bib. : Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Mondelet, Dominique. P Called to the Council, 72; expelled from Lower 
Canada Assembly, 72. 

Monk, James. Dr Attorney-general, his account of state of feeling among 
French Canadians, 278. 

Momnouth. S Battle of, Simcoe at, 26 ; description of, 26^-29. 

Monro, Lieutenant-Colonel. WM In command of Fort William Henry, 45 ; 
despatch to, from Webb, intercepted by French, 46. Bib.: Bradley, The Fight 
with France. 

Monroe, James (175&-1831). Fifth president of the United States. Index: 
Bk United States representative in England, presents claims on account of 
Chesapeake matter, 84 ; United States secretary of state, purchases the John 
Henry letters, 187. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog. 

Monsabri, Father. L On Laval University, 99. 

Monseignat. F Frontenac's secretary, 260, 297. 

Montagnais Indians. A tribe of Algonquian stock. Occupied the Sague- 
nay country in 1608, when Champlain visited Tadoussac, and acted as inter- 
mediaries between the French and the tribes of the far north. They defeated 
a party of Iroquois in 1610, with Champlain's assistance; but paid bitterly 
for their success in later years, when the warriors of the Five Nations hunted 
them relentlessly throughout all the region of their northern fastnesses. In 
1633 the Jesuits first established missions among them, and laboured diligently 
for many years among this most degraded of the Algonquian tribes. They are 
described in modern narratives of exploration and travel in northern Quebec and 
Labrador. Index : Ch Induced to cultivate land near Quebec, 159 ; allies of the 
French, 162, 163; murders committed by, 164; give Champlain three young 
girls to be educated, 165. Bib. : Parkman, Pioneers of France and Jesuits in 
North America; Pilling, Bibliography of Algonquian Languages; Comeau, Life 
and Sport on the North Shore of the Lower St. Lawrence and Gulf; Low, Report on 
Labrador (Geol. Survey, 1895). 

Montague, Perche, France. Ch Colonists from, 252. 

Montagu, Lady Mary Wortiey (1689-1762). WM On death of Wolfe, 239. 
Bib. : Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Montbeillard. WM Receives note from Bougainville, 162 ; his letter to Bou- 
gainville, 178. 

Montcalm, Louis Joseph, Marquis de (1712-1759). WM Seigneur de Saint 
V6ran, his appointment as connnander-in-chief in New France, 1 ; his friendship 
with Chevalier de L&vis, 3 ; birth and descent of, 3 ; education, 4 ; enters the 
army, 4; returns to Candiac, his birthplace, 5 ; his marriage, 5 ; colonel of Auxer- 
rois Regiment, 6 ; promoted to be brigadier, 7 ; major-general with command 
of troops in North America, 7 ; character of, 11 ; his expedition sails from Brest, 
12; lands at Cap Tourmente, 12; greatly interested in Quebec, 15; goes to 


Montreal to meet Vaudreuil, 27 ; king's instructions made Mm to 

Vaudreuil, 28 ; places troops of Fort Carillon under charge of Mvis, 32 ; 
Fort Frontenac, 34 ; captures Oswego, 34 ; erects a cross in of 

the event, 35; calls a general assembly of the Indian warriors, 40-42; vainly 
endeavours to arrest massacre at Fort William Henry, 50 ; destroys the fort, 51 ; 
reports to home government destitute condition of country and anny, 53 ; his 
victory at Fort Carillon, 54-61 ; erects cross with Latin inscription, 61 ; in- 
veterate hatred between him and VaudreuH, 62 ; returning to Quebec, 
nothing in readiness, 79 ; summons meeting of naval men, 80 ; speaks of Vau- 
dreuil as playing the general, 83 ; promoted to rank of lieutenant-generalj 84: 
sarcastic entries in his journal, 87 ; makes manor of De Sakberry at BeaujM>ri 
his headquarters, 94; Ms military prudence, 96; little confidence in fireships, 
98 ; prepares for an attack on Beauport side, 104 ; consults Mvis as to concen- 
tration of their forces, 106 ; not anxious to dislodge British from left of 
Montmorency, 119 ; gains battle at the Monianorency River, 138-141 ; accuses 
English of scalping, 150; despondent, 151; letter to Botufemaque, 157; ^re- 
arranges Ms forces, 159; thought cliff above Quebec inaccessible* 160; writes 
to LeVis expressing desire to have him near, 165 ; despondent but detemmei 
to hold out, 173 ; completely deceived by feint made by British at Beatiport y 
174; Ms anxiety respecting boats bringing provisions, 175; learns that the 
British have gained the heights, 187, 188 ; sends forward troop and immediately 
follows, 188; orders all remaining troops forward, 190; disregards VaudredTs 
request not to precipitate engagement, 193 ; his action severely criticized^ 193, 
194 ; encourages his troops, 196 ; mortally wounded, 201 ; consulted by \ au- 
dreuil as to best course to pursue, 212 ; carried into house of Dr. Arnoux, 218 ; 
Ms message to Townshend, 219; death and burial, 220, 221 ; forgotten in France, 
remembered and honoured in Canada, 239. P Causes of Ms defeat at Quebec, 
143. Hd At Carillon, 18; unable to take advantage of victory there, 22; 
destroys fort at Oswego, 25: a forged letter of, 49; Ms memory green with 
Canadians, 122; referred to in D'Estaing's appeal, 123. Bib. : Doughty, fcwe 
of Quebec; Wood, The Fight for Canada; Farkman, Mordcalm and Wolfe; Bradley, 
The Fight with France; Bonnechose, Mmtcalm et le Canada Frcmgau; Casgram, 
Montcalm et Ms; Martin, Le Marquis de Montcalm; Gu&in, Montcalm; 
Manuscrits de Ltris, ed. by Casgraln, vok 6 and 7. 

Monteagle, Thomas Spring-Rice, Baron (1790-1866). British statesman. In- 
dex : Sy Chancellor of the Exchequer, 55, 56 ; elevated to the peerage as Lord 
Monteagle, 57. Bib. : Diet. Nat. Biog. . 

Montgomery, John. WT Becomes member of New Brunswick government, 
72 ; surveyor-general, 183. . , 

Montgomery, John (1783-1879). Born in Gagetown, New Brunswick. 
Accompanied Ms father to York about 1799, where he settled. Served with 
the York Volunteers during the War of 1812-1814. An active supporter of the 
Reform party in Upper Canada. At outbreak of Rebellion of 1837 was a 
boarder at the tavern, of wMch he was owner, on Yonge Street, Toronto. 
Charged with treason and arrested; imprisoned at Fort Henry, but escaped 
to the United States. After the passing of the Amnesty Act, returned to Canada 
and appointed postmaster at Davidtown. Index: Me Banished, 437; escapes 
from Fort Henry, 437; president of Association of Canadian Refugees, 448. 
Bib. : Dent, Upper Canadian Rebellion. 

Montgomery, Richard (1736-1775). Born in Ireland. Entered the British 
army, 1754, and in 1757 stationed at Halifax, Nova Scotia ; served under Wolfe 


at the siege of Louisbourg, and in 1759 in command of the force that captured 
the French forte on Lake Champlain ; in 1760 took part in the campaign against 
Montreal ; in 1775 joined the American revolutionists ; made brigadier-general, 
and in command of expedition to Canada; after reducing the fortresses of 
St. Johns and Chambly, and capturing Montreal, laid siege to Quebec, and 
on a final and unsuccessful attack on Dec. 31, 1775, mortally wounded. In- 
dex: Dr Commands American force on Lake Champlain, 96; Ms previous 
service in British army, 97 ; captures fort at St. Johns, 102 ; greatly assisted 
by boats captured from Carleton, 114 ; describes difficulty of taking Quebec, 115 ; 
joins Arnold at Pointe-aux-Trembles, 116 ; his summons and warning to Carle- 
ton, 118; despondent, 123; attacks Quebec, 125; his death, 126; his body 
recovered from snow and buried, 132. Hd Captures Montreal, 111 ; death of, 
112 ; inhabitants neutral during attack of, 127. Bib, : Cyc. Am. Biog.; Bradley, 
The Making of Canada; Lucas, History of Canada; Smith, Our Struggle for the 
Fourteenth Colony; Jones, The Campaign for the Conquest of Canada in 1776. 

Montigny, Abbe de. L Title borne by Laval in his youth, 7, 19. 

Montigny-sur-Avre. L Birthplace of Laval, 17. 

Montmagny, Charles Jacques Hualt de. Came to Canada as governor, 1636. 
Strongly opposed the settlement at Montreal, 1641-1642, but finding Maison- 
zxeuve determined, accompanied him from Quebec, and gave his official counte- 
nance to the founding of the new town ; in 1642 built a fort at the mouth of 
the Richelieu, where Sorel now stands, to check the inroads of the Iroquois ; 
three years later arranged a treaty of peace with these troublesome neighbours; 
returned to France in 1648 ; and died there shortly afterwards. Index : Ch Re- 
stored Fort St. Louis, and named it Ch&teau St. Louis, 158. P Second governor 
of Canada, 27 ; retirement of, 35. L His pious administration, 8. Bib. : Jesuit 
Relations, ed. by Thwaites; Parkman, Jesuits in North America; Charlevoix, 
History of New France. 

Montmorency. Seven miles below Quebec. Index : WM British establish 
themselves on left bank of river, 112; unsuccessful attack by British on 
French position, 135-141 ; British loss in battle at, 142 ; French loss, 143 ; 
victory raises morale of French army, 145 ; the British evacuate their position, 

Montmorency Family. L Great distinction of, 16 ; motto of, 18. See also 

Montmorency, Henri, Due de (1595-1632). In 1620 purchased the vice- 
royalty of New France from the Comte de Soissons, his brother-in-law, and re- 
tained Champlain as his lieutenant; in 1624 conveyed his rights as viceroy to 
Henri de Leyi, Due de Ventadour ; served at the sieges of Montaubon and Mont- 
pellier, and in 1625 captured the isknds of R6 and Oleron. Having taken part 
in the rebellion of Gaston of Orleans against Louis XIII in 1632, was arrested 
and executed. Index : Ch Becomes viceroy of New France, 129 ; his adminis- 
tration causes dissatisfaction, 130 ; his letter to Champlain, 130 ; resigns posi- 
tion of viceroy, 151; executed for treason, 215. F Becomes lieutenant for 
Canada, 17; executed for revolt, 22. L Executed, 18. Bib.: Charlevoix, 
History of New France; Parkman, Pioneers of France. 

Montmorency, Mathieu, L Ancestor of Laval, 17. 

Montmorency House. Below Quebec. Index: Hd Residence of Haldimand, 
301 ; occupied later by Prince William Henry and the Duke of Kent, 345. 

Montpensier, Mile. de. F Mme. Frontenac's relations with, 63. 

Montreal. Founded May 17, 1642, by Chomedy de Maisonneuve. Cham- 


plain had^ selected the site tMrty-pne years before* as to a 

With Maisonneuve, at the historic ceremony which gave birth to the 
city of Canada, were Montmagny, governor of Quebec, Virnont, of 

the Jesuits, Madame de la Peltrie, and Mademoiselle Mance. 
later another heroic woman, Marguerite Bourgeoys, joined the builders of the 
infant town. In 1653 colonisation began In earnest, and in 1667 Montreal 
counted a population of 766. Its later history has been largely one of ma- 
terial progress. Index : Hd L6vis at, 34 ; Amherst prepares to capture, 36 f 
37 ; surrender of, 38 ; H&dimaad takes possession of, 39 ; Gageat, 40 ; under 
martial law, 41 ; Haldimand improves roads to, 45 y 46 ; change of command 
at, 53 ; enlistment of FrencIi-CMmdians in, 55-66 ; difficulties of government^ 
60; Tryon at, 91; surrenders to rebels, 111; trade with upper lakes, 124, 
140; rebel spies in, 130, 274, 278; Sulpiciaa priests deported from, 181; 
Haldimand visits, 186; rebel prisoners at, 187, 260; census taken, 190; 
postal service in, 193; its people present loyal addresses, 225; schools of, 
233, 235, 236; North West Company formed at, 261; Indians in, 260; first 
printing press in, 276; the RIedesels at, 300; MacLean at, BIB; old biirying- 
ground in, 345. WT Transaction connected with its bonds causes defeat of 
Tache* government, 211. L Church erected at, 84; foundation stone laid by 
De Courcelles, 88 ; completion of edifice, 89 ; description of, 89. F Hdtel Dieu 
established by Mile. Mance, 29; beginnings of, 33; settlement in danger of 
extinction, 38 ; population in 1666, 56 ; Frontenac's arrival at, on Ms way to 
Cataraqui, 76 ; description of, 77 ; expedition from Albany against, 268 ; great 
rejoicings at, on arrival of trading canoes from the lakes, 324. E Public recep- 
tion to Elgin, 41 ; riots at, in opposition to Rebellion Losses Bill, 73^74, 77, 
78, 79 : ceases to be seat of government, 78 ; Elgin's reference to, in Ms fare- 
well address, 204. B Election methods in 1844, 25. Br British residents of, 
dissatisfied with Quebec Act, 79 ; king's bust at, disfigured, 82 ; British at, with 
few exceptions, refuse to serve against Americans, 88 ; gaiety in, during winter 
of 1776-1777, 162, BL Sir Charles Bagot's public reception there, 118 ; Syden- 
ham's gerrymander, 146; original boundaries restored, 146; aspires to be 
chosen as capital, 181 ; its population, etc., in 1843, 181 ; Dr. Tache* on, 181 ; 
opposition in Upper Canada to its selection as capital, 182-183 ; resolution car- 
ried recommending it for capital, 182-183 ; MacNab's and Draper's opposition, 
183 ; gerrymandered by government, 1844, and elects two supporters of govern- 
ment, 252 ; becomes capital, 254 ; address of welcome to Elgin, 275 ; returns La 
Fontaine in elections of 1848, 279 ; riots in, over Rebellion Losses Bill, 305, 322- 
325. Sy Charter of, reestablished, 255; change in electoral limits of, 285: 
two members assigned to, 285. Bk Description and early history of, 99, 100 ; 
centre of fur trade, 100. Md Ceases to be seat of government after the riots, 
28, 29 ; issues Annexation Manifesto in 1849, 39, 40. S The entrepot between 
Britain and Upper Canada, 109. C Carder warns people of the importance 
to city's welfare of means of transportation, 47 ; urged as terminus of Canadian 
Pacific Railway, 52. See also Ville Marie; Mount Royal. Bib.: Dollier de 
Casson, Histoiredu Montreal, 1640-167$; Morin, Le views Montreal; McLennan, 
Antiens Montrealais ("Canada Fra^ais," vol. 3); Bosworth, Hochelaga 
Depicta; Sandham, Ville-Marie; Warburton, Hochelaga; Leblond de Brumath, 
Histoire Populaire de Montreal; LighthaU, Montreal after Two Hundred and 
Fifty Years; McLennan, Montreal, 164&-184, and Dawson, Montreal, 184$- 
1892 in the Semi-centennial Report of the Montreal Board of Trade. See^ aho 
under Maisonneuve ; Jean-Jacques Oiler ; Marguerite Bourgeoys ; Mademoiselle 


Mance ; Jeanne Le Ber ; Madame d'Youville ; and in publications of the Sac. 
Hist, de Montreal, Quebec Literary and Historical Society, and Royal Society 
of Canada. Contemporary descriptions are found in narratives of Kalm, Lam- 
bertj and Landnaann. 

Montreal, Island of. Br Limit of French settlement, 8; governorship of, 
abolished, 21. L Consecrated to the Virgin Mary, 8, 85 ; granted to the Sul- 
picians, 108. 

Montreal Company. Founded at Montreal, 1784, in opposition to the North 
West Company. Two Montreal merchants, John Gregory and Alexander 
Norman McLeod, formed a partnership with Peter Pond and Peter Pangman, 
western fur traders. Alexander Mackenzie joined the Company, and much of 
its success was due to Ms energy and resourcefulness. His cousin, Roderick 
Mackenzie, was also in its service. Keen rivalry resulted between the two com- 
panies, finally culminating in a tragedy ; in the Athabaska department, Pond, 
who had deserted to the North West Company, quarrelled with his rival, Ross, 
and in the scuffle Ross was fatally shot. This serious news being brought down 
to the headquarters at Grand Portage, a conference was held, resulting in the 
union of the Companies in 1788. Bib.: Bryce, Hidson's Bay Company; Will- 
son, The Great Company. See also North West Company; X Y Company. 

Montresor. Dr His survey of route through Maine, 106. 

Momtreml, Chevalier de. Served during the French campaigns in America 
from 1754 to 1758 as adjutant-general, and during the siege of Quebec in 1759 
took part in the battle of the Plains and the battle of Ste. Foy, with the rank 
of major-general. Index : WM Advances Guienne regiment to meet British, 
188 ; his views in council of war, 195. Bib. : Doughty, Siege of Quebec. 

Moats, Herre du Gtiast, Comte de (1560-1611). In 1603 became head of 
the Company formed by Champlain to pknt colonies in New France, and to 
which a monopoly of the fur trade had been granted by the king. Had 
made the ^ voyage to Tadoussac with Font-Grave* in 1603, and had conceived 
no very high opinion of the St. Lawrence as a field for colonization ; it was 
therefore decided to direct the operations of the Company to Acadia. In 
1604, with Champlain, sailed to Acadia, explored the Bay of Fundy, and dis- 
covered Annapolis Basin and the St. John River ; settlements were established 
at Ste. Croix Island and Port Royal; in 1606 returned to France; and 
the following year sent Champlain and Font-Grave* on an expedition to the 
.St. Lawrence. Index : F Ten years trading patent, with position of lieutenant- 
general granted to, 5 ; conducts expedition to Acadia, 6 ; patent cancelled but 
renewed for one year, 7 ; sails for Quebec, 8 ; resigns lieutenancy, 12. Ch. Com- 
missioned as lieutenant-general in Aeadia, 17 ; forms Company and obtains ten 
years' privilege of exclusive trading, 18 ; is joined by Champlain, 19 ; occupies 
Ste. Croix Island, 21 ; decides to abandon it, 25 ; transfers post to Port Royal, 
31 ; returns to France, 32 ; obtains monopoly of fur trade for one year and sends 
Champlain to Quebec as^his lieutenant, 39 ; encouraged by Champlain's report, 
decides to extend operations, 56 ; his commission not renewed, 56 ; serious loss 
incurred by, 64 ; present at Champlain's marriage, 66 ; Ms Company dissolved, 
71 ; applies to the king (Louis XIII) for assistance, but without success, 71 ; 
signs agreement on behalf of Company, 127 ; his Company abolished, 132. Bib. : 
Parkman, Pioneers of France. See also Champlain. 

Moodie, Colonel. Me Shot at Montgomery's hotel, 365, Bib.: Dent, Upper 
-Canadian Rebellion; Read, Rebellion of 1837. 

Moodie, Susanna (1803-1885). Born in England. Daughter of Thomas 


Strickland, and sister of Agnes Strickland and Katherine Parr Trail. In 
emigrated to Canada with her husband, John Wedderbar Dunbar and 

settled in the forest near the present city of Peterborough. In 1839 her 
was in Belleville, and later in Toronto. Published numerous works of 
and poetry. Bib. : Works : Roughing it in the Bush; Life in the For 

full list of her writings, see Morgan, Bib. Can. For biog., see McMurchy, Can- 

Moody, Ricliard Clement (1813-1887). Bora in the Barbados, West 
Entered Woolwich Military Academy, 1827 ; first lieutenant, 1835 ; and professor 
of fortifications, 1838. In 1841 governor of the Falkland Mauds; promoted 
lieutenant-colonel, 1858; appointed chief commissioner of lands and woiks ia 
British Columbia, 1858. Founded New Westminster, the former capital, Mid 
built a number of roads and other pubic works. In 1863 returned to Eng- 
land. Promote! major-general, 1866. Index : D In charge of lands and- worts 
in British Columbia, 1858, 235-237 ; arrives, 246-247 ; reports is favour of ate 
of New Westminster as capital of British Columbia, 247; proposes 
borough as name of capital, 247 ; returns to England, 186% 254. Bib. : JDwk 
Nat. Bwg. ; Begg, History of British Columbia. 

Moravian Indians. Hd Massacre of, by Americans after conclusion of peace, 

Moreau, M. Ch On the settlement at Ste. Crok, 25. Bib.: Histoire de 
I'Acadie Frangaise, 1598-1755. 

Morel. Ch Captain of vessel hi which Champlain returned to Canada in 
1617, 112. 

Morel, Thomas. Arrived at Quebec in August, 1661 ; appointed first cur6 
of Chiteau Richer and attached as mission priest to the Seminary at Quebec; 
spent several years in missionary work among the Indian tribes. Index: L 
Director of Seminary, 55; chaplain of Beaupr?, 101 ; arrested, 163; released, 
164; death of, 219. 

Morel de k Dnrantaye, Olivier (1641-1717). Born at NotreJDame de Gaure, 
in the diocese of Nantes. Entered the army, and obtained a lieutenancy in 
the regiment of Chambelte, afterwards being promoted to the rank of captain 
in the regiment of Carignan; came to Canada, 1665, and was with La Motte 
the following year at Fort Ste. Anne; sailed for France, and returned iix 
1670 ; granted the seigniory of Bellechasse, and that of La Durantaye; served 
as an officer of the garrison at Quebec; and took part in the expeditions 
against the Iroquois in 1684 and 1687, and again in 1696; named a member 
of the Superior Council in 1701, and granted a pension of six hundred francs. 
Index : F Post commander, ordered to rendezvous at Niagara, 181 ; captures 
English canoes on the way, 210 ; reports critical situation among lake tribes, 
240; reinforced, 241. Bib.: Parkman, Old Regime. 

Morgan, Daniel (1736 ?-1802) . Served in the Indian and French wars. Took 
the colonial side in the Revolution; marched with Arnold to Quebec; cap- 
tured in an assault on one of the batteries, 1776, and released on parole. Sub- 
sequently served under Washington against Burgoyne, and defeated Tarleton 
at Cowpens. Index : Dr Leader of Virginia Mountaineers in attack on Quebec, 
128. Bib. : Graham, Life of Daniel Morgan; Cyc. Am. Bwg. 

Morgan, Maurice. Dr Sent to Canada to study legal situation, 43, 51 ; 
returns to England, 56 ; Carleton's private secretary, 203. 

Morin. L Describes church at Montreal, 89. 

Morin, Augustin Norbert (1803-1865). Born in St. Michel, Quebec. Edu- 


cated at the Seminary of Quebec, and called to the bar of Lower Canada, 1828. 
Elected to the Assembly, 1830; commissioner of crown lands in the La 
Fontaine-Baldwin administration, 1842-1843; Speaker of the House, 1848. 
In 1851 joined Francis Hincks in forming an administration, Hincks being 
premier, and Morin provincial secretary until 1853; commissioner of crown 
lands, 1853. Appointed judge of the Superior Court of Lower Canada, 
1855; a commissioner for codifying the laws of Lower Canada, 1859. Index: 
BL On the union, 57 ; meets Hincks, 63 ; his letters to Hincks, 79 ; member 
for Nicoletj relations with Reform party in Upper Canada, 79; supports 
CaviHier for Speaker, 1841, 87; commissioner of crown lands, 134; elected for 
two constituencies, 1844, 252; Draper attempts to secure his support, 259; 
elected Speaker, 1848, 283 ; occupies the chair at farewell banquet to La Fon- 
taine, 354; joint premiership with Hincks, 359, B Brown acknowledges his 
services in cause of responsible government, 67. C Sides against the govern- 
ment, 7 ; his standing as a statesman, 23 ; forms alliance with Upper Canadian 
Conservatives, 99-100. E Member of first La Fontaine-Baldwin ministry, 32 ; 
Ms character, 32; refuses seat in Draper government, 43; elected in 1848, 50; 
opposed by Papineau, 51 ; forms ministry with Hincks, 113 ; commissioner of 
crown lands in reconstructed ministry, 126, 127 ; defeated in Terrebpnne, 1854, 
133 ; his conservative influence in Lower Canada, 138 ; forms coalition govern- 
ment with MacNab, 140, 141 ; favours secularization of Clergy Reserves, 166- 
167 ; member of Seigniorial Cburt, 187 ; his services as a statesman, 236. Sy 
BQs letter to Hincks, 294. P Joins Papineau's party, 78; drafts "Ninety- 
Two Resolutions," 85; supports Papineau in his violent attitude towards 
government, 86 ; at meeting of Constitutional Committee, 1834, 88 ; in the As- 
sembly, 100-109; his articles in La Minerve, 101. Md Forms administration 
with Hincks, 47 ; their administration defeated on a technicality, 47 ; accepts, 
in 1855, a seat on the bench, 74. Bib.: Morgan, Gel Can.; Dent, Last Forty 
Years; Hincks, Reminiscences. 

Mornay, Louis-Francois Duplessis de. Bishop of Quebec, 1727-1733. Con- 
secrated at Paris, 1714, as coadjutor to the bishop of Quebec, but never came 
to America. Index : L Appointed bishop of Quebec, 12. 

Morris, Colonel. Dr Presided over department of Loyalist claims, 202. 

Morris, Alexander (1826-1889). Born at Perth, Upper Canada. Educated 
at the University of Glasgow and McGill University; studied law and called 
to the bar of both Upper and Lower Canada, 1851. Entered public life in 
1861 as member for South Lanark; minister of inland revenue, 1869-1872; 
appointed chief justice of the Court of Queen's Bench of Manitoba, 1872 ; and 
the same year lieutenant-governor of Manitoba and the North-West Terri- 
tories; returned to Ontario, 1877, and sat in the Ontario Legislature for East 
Toronto from 1878 to 1886. Index : B Member for South Lanark, advocates 
Confederation in a pamphlet, Nova Britannia, 129; conference with George 
Brown on Confederation, 152, 154, Bib. : Works: Nova Britannia; Canada 
and Her Resources; Treaties of Canada. For biog., see Dent, Can. For. and 
Last Forty Years. 

Morris, Charles. Born in England. Under the direction of Governor 
Shirley of Massachusetts made a survey of the whole of Nova Scotia. In 
command of a company during the action at Grand Pr6. Assisted in laying 
out the city of Halifax. Member of the Council of Nova Scotia, 1775 ; surveyor- 
general ; acting judge of the Supreme Court. Died, 1781. Bib. : Selections 
from the Public Documents of Nova Scotia, ed. by Akins. 


Morns, James (1798-1865). Bom in Scotland. Came to as a 

with Ms parents; in business at Brockvffie with his brother and 

Alexander. Member for Leeds County in the Upper Canada ; 

a commissioner for the improvement of navigation of the St. Lawrence, ; 
and member of the United Canada Parliament, 1841. In 1844 to 

the Legislative Council; in 1851 to the Executive Council, and 
general; in 1853-1854 Speaker of the Legislative Assembly ; in 1858 of 

the Executive Council and Speaker of the Legislative Council; in 1862-1863 
receiver-general. Index: E Postmaster-general in BSncks-Morin ministry, 
113 ; president of Legislative Council in reconstructed government, 1853, 126. 
Bib. : Morgan, CeL Can.; Taylor, Bnt. Am,; Dent, Forty Feors. 

Morris, William (1786-1858) . Bom in Scotland. Emigrated with Ms 
to Canada in 1801, and engaged in business In Montreal; served in the militia 
in the War of 1812, and in 1816 settled in Perth. M ember for Lanark in the 
Upper Canada Assembly, 1820-1836, when he was appointed to the Lepsktiye 
Council; in 1837-1838 served as colonel of the militia during the Rebellion; in 
1844 appointed receiver-general ; and in 1846-1848 president of the Executive 
Council. Index : Sy Claims share of Clergy Reserves for Church of Scotland, 
239. BL Member of Legislative Council, 1841, 83; previous career, 83; pro- 
tests against removal of capital to Montreal, 183-184 ; receiver-general, 247. 
Bib. : Morgan, CeL Can.; Dent, Can. POT. and Lasi Forty Years. 

Morrison, Joseph Curran (1816-1885). Born in Ireland. Came to Canada 
with his father. In 1839 called to the bar of Upper Canada; in 1843-1847 
deputy clerk of the Executive Council of Canada ; in 1847 elected for West 
York to the Assembly; solicitor-general in the Hincks-Morin ministry , 1853- 
1854; a member of the Executive Council, 1856; and the same year receiver- 
general in the Tach6-Macdpnald administration. Registrar of Toronto, 1869; 
solicitor-general in the Cartier-Macdonald ministry, 1860. Puisne judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas, 1862; judge in the Court of Queen's Bench, 1863; 
judge of the Court of Appeal, 1877, which position he filled until Ms death. 
Index : E Solicitor-general, West, in Hincks-Morin ministry, 1853, 126. B BQs 
connection with the contempt of court case against George Brown, 249-254; 
solicitor-general under Hincks, and a colleague of John A. Macdonald, 250. 
Bib.: Dent, Can. For. and Last Forty Years; Read, Lives of the Judges. 

Morrison, Thomas David. Me Defends Joseph Hume, 263 ; aids Mackenzie's 
petition, 310 ; aids Lower Canada, 330 ; refuses to sign " Declaration of Inde- 
pendence," 331 ; at DoePs brewery, 346 ; Ms conduct explained, 350 ; joins 
Rebellion movement, 357, Bib.: Dent, Upper Canadian Re^>eUwn. 

Morse, Colonel. S Recommends union of British North American provinces, 4. 

Moss, Sir Charles (1840- ). Born in Cobourg, Ontario. Studied law and 
called to the bar of Ontario, 1869. Lecturer and examiner to the Law 
Society, 1872-1879; bencher, 1880; Q. C., 1881; vice-chancellor of the Uni- 
versity of Toronto, 1900-1906; judge of the Court of Appeal, 1897; chief 
justice of Ontario, 1902. Bib. : Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who. 

Moss, Thomas (1836-1881). Born in Cobourg, Ontario. Educated at 
Gale's Institute, Upper Canada 'College, 5 Toronto, and at the University^ of 
Toronto ; graduated with triple first-class honours and gold medals in classics, 
mathematics, and modern languages. Studied law and called to the bar of 
Upper Canada, 1861. For a time lecturer in equity at Osgoode Hall, and 
registrar of the University of Toronto. Bencher of the Law Society, 1871; 
Q. C., 1872; member of the Law Reform Commission, 1875. Sat in the 


House of Commons for West Toronto, 1873-1875. Appointed judge of the 
Court of Appeal, 1875 ; chief justice of Ontario, 1877. Vice-chancellor of 
the University of Toronto, 1874. Died in Nice, France. Bib. : Dent, Can. 
For.; Head, Lives of the Judges. 

M otin. Ch Author of an ode to Champlain, 72. 

Monet de Moras de Langlade, Charles de (1729-1800). WM With band of 
Indians crosses Montmorency, and attacks English, 112, 113. Bib. : Morice, 
Did. dm Canaduns de Wuest. 

Mourner. Dr One of protesting members of Council under Carleton, 34. 

Mount Allison College. Located at Sackville, New Brunswick. In 1858 an 
Act of the New Brunswick Legislature authorized the trustees of the Mount 
AlMson Wesleyan College to establish a degree-conferring institution at Sack- 
ville, under the name of the Mount Allison Wesleyan College. Work regularly 
organized, 1862. Corporate name changed to University of Mount Allison 
College, 1886. 

Mount Royal. L Cross planted on summit, by Maisonneuve, 91. 

Mount-Stephen, George Stephen, first Baron (1829- ). Born in Duff- 
town, Banffshire, Scotland. In 1850 came to Canada; built up a successful 
business in Montreal ; in 1873 vice-president of the Bank of Montreal, and in 
1876 president. In 1881 elected president of the Canadian Pacific Railway, 
and for his valuable services hi promoting its construction created a baronet, 
1886, Joined Lord Strathcona in 1886 in donating $1,000,000 for the erection 
of the Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal. In 1888 retired from the presidency 
of the Canadian Pacific Railway. In 1891 created a baron; and in 1905 
G.C.V.O. Index: Md Director of the Canadian Pacific Railway, 236. Bib. : 
Morgan, Can. Men; Who's Who. 

Mountain, George Jehoshaphat (1789-1863). Born in England. Educated 
at Cambridge; ordained deacon, 1812, and priest, 1816. In 1814-1817 rector of 
Fredericton, New Brunswick; in 1817 rector of Quebec; and in 1821 arch- 
deacon of Lower Canada. Appointed suffragan bishop of Montreal, 1836, as 
coadjutor to Dr. C. J. Stewart, bishop of Quebec; and in 1850 bishop of 
Quebec. Established Bishop's College, Lennoxville, which was incorporated 
as a college, 1843, and as a university, 1853. Index : R Secures incorporation 
of Church of England in Canada, 48. Bib. : Morgan, Cel. Can.; Taylor, Brit. 
Am, and Last Three Bishops; Mockridge, Bishops of the Church of England 
in Canada and Ne?utfoundkmd, 

Mountain, Jacob (1750-1825). Born in Norfolk, England. Graduated at 
Cambridge, 1774, and became fellow, 1779. After holding several livings, 
appointed castor prebendary of Lincoln cathedral, 1788. Through the friend- 
ship of William Pitt, appointed in 1793 first Anglican bishop of Quebec. During 
Ms administration the number of clergy increased from nine to sixty-one. The 
cathedral of Quebec erected under Ms auspices. Index : Dr First bishop of 
Quebec, 271. S Appointed bishop of Quebec, 158; visits Upper Canada, 158; 
made legislative and executive councillor, 160. Bib.: Diet. Nat Biog.; Mock- 
ridge, Bishops of the Church of England in Canada and Newfoundland. 

Mounted Police. See Royal North-West Mounted Police. 

Moustier, Count. Dr French minister to United States, proposes to visit 
Canada, 247-248. 

Mowat, Sir Oliver (1820-1903). Born in Kingston, Ontario. Educated 
there ; called to the bar of Upper Canada, 1841, and practised in Kingston 
and Toronto. In 1857-1864 represented South Ontario in the Canada As- 


sembiy; in 1858 provincial secretary in the Brown-Dorion ministry; 
master-general in the Macdonald-Dorion administration^ 1863-1864^ sad IB 
the TacM coalition government, 1864. From 1864 to 1872 vice-chancellor of 
Ontario. In 1872 premier and attorney-general of Ontario, 
until 1896. In 1896 minister of justice in the Dominion Cabinet, with 
ship in the Senate ; and in 1897 lieutenant-governor of Ontario, a he 

held until Ms death. Index: B Member of brief Brown ministry ? 102; on 
committee of Anti-Slavery Society, 112; speech on Confederation, 1859, 135; 
George Brown's letter to, on Ms contemplated retirement from the leadersMp, 
141 ; opposes proposal that opposition members should enter government, to 
further Confederation movement, 157; enters coalition government^ 158; 
reflected, 160; favours elective Senate, 164; Ms successful fight for pro- 
vincial rights, 207, Md Enters M aedonald's office as a student, ; succeeds 
Edward Blake as premier of Ontario, and leader of Literal party, 252 ; Ms char- 
acteristics, 252; takes prominent part in Ontario boimdaiy dispute, 252-258. 
WT Eaters coalition ministry, 211; attends Quebec Conference, 218. Bib,; 
Dent, Can. Par. and Lad Forty Years; Morgan, Can. Men; Big$ar, Sw 
Mowat; Clarke, Sixty Years in Upp&r Canada. 

Muir, Major. Bk Commands detachment of 41st Regiment at Browns- 
town and Maguaga, 237, 238-241. 

Mulock, Sir William (1843- ). Bom in Bond Head, Simeoe County, 
Ontario. Educated at the University of Toronto. In 1868 called to the bar 
of Ontario, and appointed an examiner and a lecturer on equity of the Law 
Society. In 1882 entered the Dominion Parliament ; 189&-1905, postmaster- 
general of Canada, and through his initiative the Inter-Imperial Postal Con- 
ference adopted penny postage "within the empire. Created K.C.M.G., 1902. 
In 1905 appointed chief justice of the Exchequer Division of the High Court of 
Justice for the province of Ontario. Bib. : Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian 
Who's Who. 

Municipal Government. BL Legislation under Sydenham, 100-105; bill 
passed, 105 ; Baldwin Act of 1849, 105 ; regulation of, 287, 292 ; Law Jmmd 
on the bill, 296 ; Shortt on, 296 ; municipal history, 297-298 ; terms of Baldwin 
Act, 299-300. Sy Lade of, noted in Lord Durham's Report, 92 ; provided for in 
first draft of Union Bui, 273 ; Sydenham's deep interest in the subject, 273-275; 
municipal clauses struck out of Union Bill, 275 ; ordinance respecting, passed by- 
Special Council of Lower Canada, 276 ; and later (for Upper Canada) by Legis- 
lature, 277 ; Sydenham's bill providing for, in Upper Canada, 323 ; provisions 
of bill, 324; bill passed, 325. S Beginnings of, in Upper Canada, 89. Bib.; 
Wickett, City Government in Canada and Municipal Government in North-West 
Territories; Shortt, Municipal Government in Ontario; Ewart, Municipal His- 
tory of Manitoba; Weir, Municipal Institutims in Quebec (Toronto Univ. 
Studies in Hist, and Econ.). 

Munro, John. S Member of Legislative Council, 79. 

Murders. Ch Committed by Indians near Quebec, 115 ; in colony, 209. 

Murdoch, Beamish, Historian. Index: H Contributes to The^Chib edited 
by Joseph Howe in the Nova Scotian, 10 ; Ms independent stand in the Nova 
Scotia Assembly, 18. Bib. : History of Nova Scotia. 

Murdoch, T. W. C. Sy Appointed civil secretary, 152. 

Murray. R Appointed to take charge of improvement of popular education 
in Upper Canada, 163. 

Murray. Dr One of the protesting members of Council under Carleton, 34. 


Mtirray, Sir George (1772-1846) . Bom in Scotland. Educated at Edinburgh 
University, and entered the army, 1789. Served in Flanders, 1794; in the 
West Indies, 1795-1796; in Egypt, 1801; in the Baltic expedition, and in 
Portugal, 1808; quartermaster-general in the Peninsular War, and for his 
services promoted major-general, and made K.C.B., 1813. In 1814 ap- 
pointed governor of Canada. Entered Parliament, 1823; commander-in- 
chief in Ireland, 1825-1828; colonial secretary, 1828-1830. Index: Sy 
Colonial secretary, 16. Bk Disapproves employment of German troops, 136. 
Bib. : Did. Nat. Biog. 

Murray. Mrs. George. Bk Wife of Colonel (afterwards Sir George) Murray, 

Mtirray, George Henry (1861- ). Born in Grand Narrows, Nova Scotia. 
Educated at the public schook and at Boston University; studied law and 
called to the bar of Nova Scotia, 1883. Appointed to the Nova Scotia Legis- " 
lative Council, 1899 ; took office in the Fielding administration, 1891 ; premier, 
1896; sustained at general elections of 1897, 1901, and 1906. Bib. : Morgan, 
Can. Mm; Canadian Who's Who. 

Murray, James (1719-1794). Entered the army, 1740, and served in the 
West Indies, Flanders, and Brittany. In 1758 commanded a brigade at 
Louisbourg; and the left wing of the army at the battle of the Plains, 1759. 
After the surrender of Quebec, left in command, and defended the city 
against the French, 1760. On Oct. 27, 1760, appointed governor of Quebec, 
and from 1763 to 1766 governor of Canada. In 1772 lieutenant-general; 
in 1774 governor of Minorca; and 1783 promoted general. Index: WM 
Under Wolfe, character of, 74; governor of Canada, and highly esteemed 
by Canadians, 74 ; joins Holmes's fleet with four battalions, 161 ; commands 
British centre in battle of Plains, 189 ; takes command at Quebec, 235 ; issues 
proclamation, 236 ; maintains strict discipline, 237 ; learns of intended attack 
on Quebec, 250, 251 ; his proclamation ordering civilians to leave the city, 250 ; 
goes out to meet L6vis and occupies Ste. Foy, 252 ; returns to city, 253 ; his 
character described by Bernier, 254 ; leads army out to give battle to Lvis, 256 ; 
orders attack, 258; loses battle, 263; foresees coming trouble with British 
colonies, 269. Dr Administrator of Canada, 2 ; character of his government, 4 ; 
quells mutiny, 4; after cession (1763) appointed governor of Canada, 9 : his 
troubles with English settlers, 9, 10, 14 ; wins confidence of French-Canadians, 
10 ; appoints Council, 13 ; sends Cramah to London to represent condition of 
affairs, 16 ; his recall petitioned for by certain of the English settlers, 17 ; de- 
fended by Canadian seigniors, 18 ; goes to Montreal in connection with Walker 
case, 21 ; summoned home, 23 ; presents report on colony, 24-28 ; somewhat 
offended at Carleton's proclamation relinquishing fees, 35 ; resigns governorship, 
57. B Instructed to provide for support of Protestant clergy and schools, 
51-52. Bk His heroic defence of Quebec, 35. P His iron rule relaxed, 8. Hd 
Marches on Montreal, 34, 36, 37 ; governor of Quebec, 41 ; his feelings towards 
French-Canadians, 42; his precautionary measures, 43; threatened friction 
with Haldimand, 49; his friendship for Haldimand's nephew, 49-50; made 
governor-general, 53 ; petitions against and in favour of, 60 ; his high regard 
for Haldimand, 94. Bib.: Diet Nat. Biog.; Morgan, Cel Can.; Doughty, 
Siege of Quebec; Wood, The Fight for Canada; Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe; 
Bradley, The Fight with France and The Making of Canada; Lucas, History of 

Mtirray, Colonel John. WT Massachusetts Loyalist, 4. 

MD1X AND 273 

Mtisgrave, Sir Anthony (1828-1888). Bom in England, the 

Temple, London, 1851 ; governor of the colony of Neiro, 1860 ; of 

the island of St. Vincent, 1861 ; governor of Newfoundland^ ; gov- 

ernor of British Columbia, 1869 ; governor of Natal, 1872 ; governor of 
Australia, 1873 ; governor of Jamaica, 1877 ; governor of Queensland^ 
Index : Md Governor of British Columbia, succeeding Seymour, 149. B His 
work for Confederation, 312, 313, Bib.: Did. Nat. Bwg.; Begg, of 

British Columbia. 

Myers, Lieutenant-Colonel. Bk In command at Fort George, 225. 

Myrand, Ernest F Author of Fromtmac d Ses Amis, 229 ; Ms work, Sir 
William Phipps decani Quebec, quoted, 293 ; on losses incurred in of Quebec^ 
by PMpps, 302 ; discuss question of Frontenac's portrait, 361. 

Nairne, Captain John. Hd Haldimand ipves him rant of major,, 294. 

NapagaMscou. Cn Indian, brings news to ChampMn of IQrke's 176. 

Napoleon I (1769-1821). Bom at Ajaceio, Corsica. First consul, 1799. 
Crowned Emperor, 1804. Abdicated, 1814, and retired to Elba. Escaped, 
raised another army, and finally defeated at Waterloo, 1815. Banished to Si 
Helena, where he died. Index : Bk Crowned as emperor, 71 ; threatens Britain, 
71 ; battle of Austerlitz, 72 ; Jena and the Berlin Decrees, 81 ; endeavours to force 
on war between Britain and the United States, 98, 111 ; enforces Berlin Decrees, 
105 ; dominates Europe, 106-108 ; his Milan Decree, 110 ; Ms reverses in Spain, 
112, 113; triumphs over Austria at Wagram, 117. Bib.; Larousse, Mdim- 
naire Unwersel; Chambers, Biog. Diet., and lives mentioned in article. 

Natel, Antoine. Ch Accompanies Champlam to Quebec, 41; reveals con- 
spiracy against Champlain, 43 ; death of, 46. 

Nation. Newspaper published at Toronto. Index : B Radical journal, founded 
after Liberal victory of 1874. 235 ; its programme, 236. 

National Club. Social cluo at Toronto. Index : B Founded during Canada 
First movement, 235. 

National Policy. B Secret of its success in 1878, 241. lid Description and 
history of, 217-219 ; political picnics used as means of placing its advantages 
before the country, 220-223; Macdonald on its advantages, 221-223; Blake 
in favour of , 224 ; Mills on, 224; comes into effect, 228-230 ; adopted by Liberal 
party in 1896, 262 ; comments on, after its operation for three years, 273. See 
cdso Macdonald, Sir John A. ; Conservative Party. 

Navigation, Art of. Ch Highly praised by Champlain, 7. 

Navigation Acts. Sy Poulett Thomson's speech on, 17. E Their disastrous 
effect on Canadian development, 38-39 ; Legislature passes address praying for 
repeal of, 45 ; repealed in 1849, 83. 

Navy Hall. S Simcoe's residence at Niagara, 99, 180 ; guests entertained at, 
183-188, 229, 230 ; erected by Haldimand for accommodation of naval officers, 
195 ; description of, 195, 196. Bk Residence of Governor Simcoe at Niagara, 57. 

Naxouat. F Governor Villebon of Acadia establishes himself at, 327. 

Needham, William H. WT Elected for St. John, 152, 160; character, 154, 
228-229; refuses to resign his seat, 166; candidate hi York County, New 
Brunswick, 228; elected for York, 237; defeated in York, 250. 

Negroes. Dr Disputed property in, at close of war, 216. See also Slavery. 

Neilson, John (1776-1848). Born in Scotland. In 1790 came to Canada, and 
in 1797 edited the Quebec Gazette. Member of the provincial Assembly for 
Quebec County, 1818. In 1822 one of the delegates, with Papineau, sent to 


England to oppose the union of Upper and Lower Canada ; and in 1830 went 
on a similar mission. Member of the Canadian Parliament, 1840 ; and Speaker 
of the Legislative Council, 1844, Index : Sy Proprietor of Quebec Gazette, and 
member of Special Council of Lower Canada, his opposition to union, 193, 
194, 211, 234, 309; opposed also to responsible government, 211; continued 
opposition to Union Act. 287 ; the real leader of the French-Canadians in 1841, 
295. P Proprietor of Quebec Gazette supports Papineau in his opposition 
to proposed union of Upper and Lower Canada in 1822, 46-47 ; sent as delegate 
to London, 46; persecuted by Dalhousie, 55; again sent to England with 
French-Canadian petition, 63; Papineau's friendship for, 67; Papineau's 
letters to, 67-68; deserts Papineau because of his violent attitude towards 
government, 86 ; loses Ms seat in Assembly, 102 ; attacked by Papineau, 169. 
BL Supports Papineau and popular party, 20; moves amendment against 
Act^of 1840, 96 ; his amendment voted down, 97. Bib. : Morgan, Cel. Can. ; 
Christie, History of Lower Canada; Dent, Last Forty Years. 

Melles, S. S. R Graduate of Victoria College, 143. 

Kelson, Horatio, Viscount (1758-1805). Born at Burnham Thorpe, England. 
In 1770 entered the n&vy ; in 1794 served under Lord Hood in the capture 
of Corsica ; under Sir John Jervis at the battle of Cape St. Vincent, 1797 ; 
and in 1798 defeated the French fleet in AbouMr Bay ; in 1801 destroyed 
the Danish sMps and batteries at Copenhagen ; at the battle of Trafalgar 
Bay, 1805, overwhelmed the French and Spanish fleets, but his own life was 
sacrificed. Index: Bk His victory at Copenhagen, 24-31; ignores signal 
to cease firing, 28, Hd Captain of Albemark, enamoured of Miss Mary 
Simpson of Quebec, 244. Bib.: Diet. Nat. Bwg.; Southey, Life of Nelson; 
Mahart, Life of Nelson; Dispatches andlLetters, ed. by Nicolas. See also lives 
by Clarke and McArthur, Pettigrew, Browne, Laughton. 

Nelson, Robert (1794-1873). Born in Montreal. Practised as a surveyor; 
and in 1812 served during the War. In 1827 elected with Louis J. Papineau to 
the Assembly as member for Montreal. In 1838, while residing in the United 
States, organized a force of 600 filibusters, and invaded Canada, making his 
headquarters at NapierviHe, and as president of a provisional government pro- 
claimed a Canadian republic. The insurgents were defeated at Lacolle and 
Odelltown, and Nelson fled to the United States. In 1862-1873 practised as 
a surgeon in New York. Index: P Leads outbreak at Lacolle and Odelltown 
in 1838, 139-140. Bib. : Morgan, Cel. Can. ; Christie, History of Lower Canada. 

Nelson, Wolfred (1792-1863). Born in Montreal. Practised medicine and 
served as a surgeon in the War of 1812. One of the leaders of the Rebellion of 
1837; captured and banished to the Bermudas, but released in October, 
1838. In 1842 returned to Montreal and resumed the practice of his pro- 
fession. In 1844 elected to Parliament for Richelieu County ; inspector of 
prisons, 1851, and chairman of the Board of Prison Inspectors, 1859. Index: 
P With Papineau at St. Charles meeting, 1837, 125; preaches rebellion, 126; 
leads Patriotes at St. Denis, 128 ; said to have advised Papineau to leave the 
field, 132 ; a price put on his head, 137 ; captured, 137 ; exiled to Bermuda, 138 ; 
extent of his responsibility for the Rebellion, 143 ; throws blame on Papineau, 
145. E His misguided attitude, 22 ; elected to Parliament after his return from 
exile, 50; his actions compared with disturbances of 1849, 76; permitted to 
return from exile, 91. BL Arrested after Rebellion in Lower Canada, 49 ; defeats 
Viger in election of 1844, 252; his house in Montreal attacked by mob, 324; 
at farewell banquet to La Fontaine, 354. C Defeated by Colonel Wetherall, 7 ; 


Cartier with a mission, 8. Me Addresses 3SS ; 

the field, 358. Bib.: Dent, Can. Par.; CW. 

of Lower Canada. 

Nelson River. Rises in the Rocky Mountains, at the of 

Kiver, a branch of the South Saskatchewan. Length to Lake Winnipeg, 390 
miles ; to headwaters of the Bow, 1660 miles. The mouth of the river was dis- 
covered, and named, by Sir Thomas Button in 1612, He wintered 1612- 
1613. Captain Luke Foxe spent eleven days at Port Nelson in 1631. The 
river itself was explored by David Thompson in 1792. Pierre Radisson 
the mouth of the river in 1669, and built the first trading-fcort there. In 
years the post was repeatedly captured by the Rmch y and remptoecl fey or 
restored to the Hudson's Bay Company, in whose hands it fiaaly reouuntid, 
under the name of York Factory (#.*.). Bib.: Bryee ? Hvdaon** 
Laut, Pathfinders of Om Wai and Congpmt of Urn 

Heptane. WM SMp in which Wolfe galled for Quebec, 75. 

Nesbitt, WHHam. Accompanied Governor Comwaffis to Halifax. as 

Secretary of Nora Scotia for several years. Afterwards practised the 
of law at Halifax. Attorney-general for twenty-five years. Elected to tie Assem- 
bly, 1758 ; Speaker of the House, 1759-1783 ; retired on a peiwion, 1783. Died, 
1784. Bib. : Selections from ifae Public Documents of Nm<a Sa>tm 3 ed. by Akms. 

Nesle, Captain de. Ch Brings out settlers, 252. 

NeticMtel, Canton of. Hd Haldipaand born in, 3. 

Neutral Nation. An Iroquoian tribe, occupying the north shore of Lake Erie. 
First visited by the Jesuit Fathers, Br^beuf and Chaumonot, in 1640, who de- 
scribed them as ferocious and extremely superstitious. Despite all efforts, the 
attempted mission had to be abandoned. The tribe was exterminated by the 
Iroquois in 1650. Bib. : Parkman, Jesuits in North America; Lalemant, jfefo- 
tions, 1641, 1643; Ragueneau, Relations, 1648, 1661. 

New Brunswick. The gulf coast of the province was discovered by Cartier 
in 1534 ; first settlement made by De Monts and Champlarn, on St. Croix 
Island, near the entrance to the Bay of Fundy, in 1604. The same year they 
discovered and named the St. John River, at the mouth of which La Tour built 
a fort in 1635. The territory embraced in this province formed part of Acadie 
under French rule. It was included in Nova Scotia from the date of the cession 
to England up to 1784, when it became a separate province. Index : Dr Creation 
of province, 224. Sy Satisfactory political condition of, 265. B Confederation 
an issue in, and government defeated, 182183; BritMi government brings 
pressure on, in interests of Confederation, 186-187, 206. Md Its attitude towards 
Confederation, 123 ; appoints delegates to confer on question of, 125; suUen on 
completion of, 129 : result of first general election in, 141 ; selection of routes 
for Intercolonial through, 152; boundary dispute, 152; low tariff in, before 
Confederation, 218 ; supports Mackenzie in election of 1878, 228 ; assents to 
resolution in favour of unrestricted reciprocity, 298. See oho Acadia; Nova 
Scotia ; St. John ; De Monts ; Champlain. Bib. : Hannay, History of Acadia 
and History of New Brunswick. 

New Brunswick, College of. WT Early history of, 10. See also New Bruns- 
wick, University of ; King's College (New Brunswick). 

New Brunswick, University of. WT Established as provincial university, 1859, 
51 ; formerly King's College, previous history, 86 ; part of Madras school prop- 
erty handed over to, 88 ; history of, 190-191. See also New Brunswick, College 
of ; King's College (New Brunswick). . . 


New Brunswick Land Company. WT Involved in crown lands dispute, 26, 
29, 36, 

New Caledonia. D Traversed by Mackenzie, 56 ; origin of name, 56 ; extent 
of district, 56 ; so named about 1806, 59 ; described, 97 ; furs and other products 
of the district, 99, Bib. : Bancroft, History of the North-West Coast; Morice, 
Northern Inferior of British Columbia. , , . , i . 

New Company. F Name given to trading Company formed by inhabitants of 
Canada in 1645, 36. . XT T A 

New Erance. Name given to the French possessions in North America, other- 
wise known as Canada and Acadia. First discovered by Jacques Cartier in 
1534. First settlement made in Acadia by De Monts, in 1604 ; and in Canada, 
by Champlain, in 1608. Index; E Government of, 171-172; feudal tenure, 
etc., in, 171-185. Ch Population of colony in 1629, 208 ; births, deaths, and 
marriages, 209 ; restoration of, demanded by French king, 212 ; ceded back to 
France, 213 ; limits of, not clearly defined, 222 ; colony based on religion, 255. 
See oho Canada ; Acadia; Quebec; Port Royal; Montreal; Cartier; Cham- 
plain ; Monts ; Fronteaac ; La SaUe. Bib, : Charlevoix, Histoire de U Nouvelle 
France; Lescarbot, Histoire de la NoweUe France; Cartier, Voyages; Cham- 
plain, Voyages; Parkman, Works. 

Newfoundland. Discovered by Cabot in 1497. Sir Humphrey Gilbert estab- 
lished a short-lived colony on the island in 1583. Another attempt was made 
in 1610, by the Company of London. A more successful effort at colonization 
was that of Lord Baltimore in 1621. For a time the colony was governed by 
the so-called " Fishing Admirals/* the most famous of whom was Richard Whit- 
bourne, author of A Discourse and Discovene of Newfcmndland. French in- 
fluence on the island dated from the founding of Placentia in 1660. In 1696 
Iberville captured St. John's, and laid waste the coast settlements. St. John's 
was again captured by a French squadron, in 1760. A Legislative Assembly- 
was granted to the colony in 1832 as a result of popular agitation ; and responsi- 
ble government established in 1855. Efforts to bring about the union of the 
island with Canada were made in 1864, and again in 1895, but without success. 
Index: B Withdraws from Confederation scheme, 185-186. F English settle- 
ments in, attacked, 46. L French successful in, 232. Md Withdraws from 
Confederation negotiations, 117 ; further negotiations unsuccessful, 146 ; fishery 
question, 303. Bib. : Kirke, The First English Conquest of Canada; Prowse, 
History of Newfoundland; Reeves, Governors of Newfoundland; Dawson, Can- 
ada and Newfoundland; Hatton and Harvey, Newfoundland; Willson, The Tenth 

New Langley. D Or Derby, proposed as capital of British Columbia, 246. 

New Ontario. Includes that part of the province known as northern and 
north-western Ontario, lying west of the Upper Ottawa River and its tributary 
lakes north of Lake Huron and Lake Superior, and extending to the eastern 
boundary of the province of Manitoba on the west, and to the Albany River and 
James Bay on the north. Bib. : North-Western Ontario , its Boundaries, Resources, 
and Communications. 

New Orleans. Hd Haldimand's enquiries regarding, 64; embassy to, 73; 
dissatisfaction at, 77 ; Haldimand's visit to, 78 ; Spaniards send troops to, 80, 81. 

New Westminster. A city of British Columbia, founded by Colonel R. C. 
Moody in 1859, and first named Queensborough. The present name was given 
by Queen Victoria the same year, when the new town was selected as the capital 
of British Columbia. It was incorporated in 1860 ; and in 1868 the seat of govern- 


meat was removed to Victoria. Index : D Chosen as of of 

Columbia, 247 ; local dispute as to name, 247 ; present by 

Victoria, 247; sale of town lote, 247. Bib. : Walbran, 
Begg, History of British Columbia. 

New York City. Hd Haldimand In command &t, 1, 87 S 90 ? 91 , 96, 12! ; 
Amherst in command at, 41 ; Gage in command at, 53 ; influenced by 
of violence at Boston, 86 ; rioting in, 91, 95 ; Lord North burnt in at, 97 ; 
Ealdimand's departure from, 102 ; Ms property in, 103, 107 ; difficulties of com- 
munication with, 129 ; animosity against British in, 252. 

New York State. Hd Propel to build Florida barracks there, 79 ; 
in joining revolt, 98, 101; Vemwmt's dispute with, 198, 208, 209, 215, 217; 
Indians migrate from, 258. F British colony, plan for conquest of, 231. 

Newark. See Niagara. 

Newcastle, Henry PeUiam Tiennes PeHiam Clinton, $>nke of (1811-1861). 
Entered Parliament, 1832; chief secretary for Ireland, 1846; and 
for war and the colonies, 1852-1854 ; secretary for war in 1854-1855; cotaoiat 
secretary, 1859-1864; visited Canada in 1860, with the Prince of Wales, after* 
wards Edward VII. Index : E Secretary of state for colonies, 167. Md ColonM 
secretary, accompanies Prince of Wales on Ms visit to Canada in 1860, 88; Ms 
difficulty at Kingston with Orange Order, 88 ; threatens to disalow bigh tariff 
measure, 218, WT And Intercolonial Railway question, 197, 198; on Con- 
federation question, 206. Bib. : Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Hews. Newspaper published at Toronto. Established, 1880. Index : Me 
Urges monument to Mackenzie, 521. 

Newspapers. Me Postage on, 93, 103, 106; their tributes to Mackeaae f 
509-523. See oZsa under names of individual newspapers. 

Niagara (Newark). Settled by Loyalists about 1782. Selected by Simcoe 
ten years later as lie capital of Upper Canada, and named by Mm Newark. 
The first Legislature of the province met there in 1792. The first public library 
in the province established in 1800. Index: Bk First seat of government of 
Upper Canada, 57. S First seat of government of Upper Canada, 50; Loyal- 
ists settled at, 58; social life at, 181. L Fort built at, 216. Bib.: Erby, 
Annals of Niagara; Reminiscences of Niagara (Niagara Hist. Soc,, jDudJ ; 
Carnochan, Niagara Library, 1800 to 18&0. 

Niagara Falls. First described from actual observation by Fattier Hennepin, 
in the narrative of Ms journey of 1078. The falls are indicated on Champlain's 
map of 1632, and are briefly mentioned in Ragueneau's Relation des Hurons, 
1648. The name is of Iroquois origin. Bib. : Hulbert, Niagara Mm*; Spencer, 
FaUs of Niagara. 

Niagara, Fort. S Guards entrance to Niagara River, 51 ; held by the British 
pending settlement of Loyalist affairs, 55 ; cannon mounted on, 129 ; handed 
over to United States, 142. Hd Surrendered to British, 26 ; number of refugees 
at, 152. Bk Its history, 54-56 ; its transfer to United States, 56 ; rations issued 
from, to Loyalists, 58 ; silenced by Fort George, 309. 

Nichol, Lieutenant-Colonel. Bk Quartermaster-general of militia, Upper 
Canada. 206; Ms statistical account j)f Upper Canada, 207; supports Brock's 
proposal to attack Detroit, 248. ^ 

Nicholson, Sir Francis (1660-1728). Born in England. Entered the army, 
1678 ; lieutenant-governor of the colonies north of Chesapeake Bay, 1686-1689 ; 
and lieutenant-governor of Virginia, 1690-1694. Governor of Maryland, 1694; 
and of Virginia, 1698-1705. From 1705 to 1713 engaged in military operations 


against the French in Canada, and, by capturing Port Royal, made Acadia 
British territory. In 1712 appointed governor of Nova Scotia ; and in 1719 of 
South Carolina. Subsequently appointed commander-in-chief of the forces in 
North America, and a lieutenant-general. Index : F Lieutenant-governor of 
New York, 263; uprising against, 266. Bib.: Diet. Nat Biog.; Campbell, 
History of Nam Scotia; Parkman, Half Century of Conflict. 

Mcolet, Jean (1598-1642). Born at Cherbourg, Normandy. Came to 
Canada, 1618, and the same year sent to the Algpnquians of Allumette 
Maud, on the Ottawa, to learn their language. Remained^ with the tribe two 
years ; and afterwards spent eight or nine years with the Nipissings, gaining so 
much of their confidence that he was made a member of the tribe and took part 
in their councils. EQs memoirs on this tribe, furnished to Father Le Jeune, were 
embodied in.^the Jesuit Relations. Returned to Quebec, 1633, after an 
absence of fifteen years. There met Champlain, who sent him west once 
more, in 1634, Reached Green Bay the same year, and ascended Fox River 
to the Wisconsin portage. The following year returned to Quebec, and em- 
ployed as commissary of the fur trade, and interpreter at Three Rivers, till his 
death. Index : Ch Arrives in Canada, 144. Bib. : Butterfield, Discovery of the 
NorttrWest % Jean Nicotet; Parkman, Pioneers of Frame. 
> Ninety-Two Resolutions. P Drafted by Morin embodied the grievances 
of Papineau and Ms followers, 85 ; inspired by Papineau, 85-86 ; their intem- 
perate language, 89-93; real grievances set forth, 94-96; voiced complaints 
and indignation of the people, 99 ; criticized by Lord Aylmer, 106. BL Denounce 
Upper House, 21 ; Cuvfflier votes against, 86. Bib. : Christie, History of Lower 

Nippon Lake. Discovered by Charles de Greysolon, Sieur de La Tourette, 
brother of Du Lhut, about 1678. Built several trading-posts on or near the 
lake, between 1678 and 1686. La V&rendrye had charge of these forts in 1727- 
1728, and acquired there much of the information which induced him to under- 
take Ms long search for the Western Sea. In 1784 Edouard Umfreville was 
sent by the North West Company to discover a canoe route from the lake west 
to the Winnipeg River. The narrative of his successful expedition is in the 
archives of McGill University. 

Mpisiguit Ch Jesuit mission at, 235. 

Mpissing Indians, A tribe of the widespread Algonquian family, occupying 
the upper waters of the Ottawa River, and the country about Lake Nipissing. 
First mentioned and described by Champlain, who calls them the Nebecerini. 
The name also appears, hi ever-varying form, in the narratives of other early 
French explorers and missionaries. Parkman mentions that they were also 
known as Borders, from their ill repute as magicians. Index : Ch Indian tribe 
alleged to be sorcerers, 77. Bib.: Hodge, Handbook of North American Indians; 
Parkman, Pioneers of France. 

Mpissing Lake. Named after the Algonquian tribe of the same name. Dis- 
covered by the R6collet missionary Le Caron in 1615, on his way to the country 
of the Hurons. Traversed by Champlaui the same year. Constant references 
are made to the lake in the early journals of explorers, missionaries, and fur 
traders. It formed part of the western route of the fur traders under both 
French and British rule. Index : Ch Visited by Champlain, 88. 

Nipissirini. See Nipissing. 

Noble, Colonel Arthur. A Massachusetts officer, sent by Governor Shirley 
in 1746 to oppose Ramesay in Acadia. Occupied Grand Pr6 without opposi- 


tion, Ramesay having retreated to Chignecto. In February of the 
year a party of Canadians and Indians under Coulon de Tillers the 

British garrison at Grand Pre" ? and in the fight Noble and Ms a 

large number of men, were kiHed, and the rest forced to Bib. : 

man, Half Cmlury of Conflict; Hannay, Hutory of Acodm. 

Nomenclature. D Of Pacific coast, largely due to Vancouver^ 34, 36 ; 
36. Bib. : Walbran, British CdnmMa Coast Names. 

Mon-importetion Act. Bk Passed by Congress, 84. 

Nootka Affair. D Origin of the dilute, 26 ; history of, 26-^ ; 
claims Nootka by right of discovery, 28; Martinez sad 

West Am&nca, 28; held by Spaniards until 1705, 29: to British, 31 ; 

terms of treaty, 31-33, 36 ; act of restitution complete^ 35 ; no actual occupation 
by Britain at end of eighteenth century, 62. Bar Dorchester's connection with 
the Nootka incident, 250, 259. Bik : Bancroft, < 

Nootka Sound. On west coast of V^coiiveir Island, Ksrovered MM! 
by Captain James Cook in 1778. Prior discovery in 1774 claimed by SpMoarffi,, 
but not established. They built a fort there in 1789, and remained 
until 1795, when the district was taken over on behalf of Britain. Here Van- 
couver and Quadra carried on the negotiations of 1792 for the restoration of the 
territory. Index : D Supposed to have been visited by Perez. 14 ; by 

Cook, 14 ; Captain Cook refits his ships at, 20 ; Gray and Kendrick at, in 1788- 
1789, 24 ; visited by Metcalfe in 1789, 25 ; Spanish estabMshment at Friendly 
Cove in 1790, 26 ; Douglas arrives from Sandwich Islands, 28 ; Spaniards' name 
the place Port San Lorenzo, 28; Meares at, in 1788, 27; builds North^West 
America there, 28; natives destroy American ship Boston and murder crew, 
1803, 37. Bib. : Bancroft, History of the North-West Coast; Walbran, British 
Columbia Goad Names. 

Normanby, Constantino Henry Phipps, Marquis of (1797-1863). Entered 
Parliament, 1818; appointed governor of Jamaica, 1832; entered the Cabinet 
as lord of the privy seal, 1834; lord lieutenant of Ireland, 1835; secretary of 
war and the colonies, 1839 ; home secretary, 183&-1841 ; ambassador at Paris, 
1846-1852 ; minister at Florence, 1854-1858. Index : Sy Succeeds Lord Glenelg 
in the colonial office, 57 ; offers to go to Canada as governor-general^ 58. Bib. ; 
Diet. Nat. Bwg. 

Normandy. L Many of colonists natives of, 116. 

Torquay, John (1841-1889). Born in St. Andrews, Manitoba. After the 
suppression of the Riel Rebellion, elected to the Assembly of Manitoba, and 
entered the ministry as minister of public works. Defeated for election to the 
House of Commons, 1872. Resigned from the ministry, 1874,but became 
provincial secretary, 1875; and again minister of public works, 1876; premier, 
1878. Held office continuously until 1887, when he resigned. Bib.: Begg, 
History of the North-West ; Rose, Cyc. Can. Bwg. 

North, Lord Frederick. See Guilford. 

North American. Newspaper published at Toronto. Index.: B Hie organ 
of the Clear Grits, edited by Macdougall, 40; absorbed by the Globe, 74: 
publishes personal attack on George Brown, editor apologizes, 93, BL Radical 
publication, edited by Macdougall, 341. 

North American Colonial Association. Sy On appointment of Poulett Thom- 
son (Sydenham), 132. 

North American Fur Company. D Succeeds Pacific Fur Company, 134; 
Astor at head of, 134. See cdso Astor; Pacific Fur Company* 


North- West America. D Built by Meares at Nootka first ship launched 
in what is now British Columbia, 28; seized by Martinez, 28; crew sent to 
China, 29. 

North-West Coast D Spanish influence delays colonization, 4 ; history of, 
affected by Russian occupation of Alaska, 4; by British trade interests by sea, 
4 ; by North West Company, 4 ; by Hudson's Bay Company, 4 ; by Astorians, 
4 ; unvisited by European navigators during whole of seventeenth and three- 
quarters of eighteenth century, 11, 12 ; final era of exploration of, 18 ; American 
voyages to, 23, 24, 25 ; La P&ouse explores in 1788, 25 ; Etienne Marchand 
explores in 1791, 25 ; Malaspina's voyage to, in 1791, 25 ; Elisa's and Quimper's 
visit to, 26. Bib.: Bancroft, History of the NorthrWest Coast. 

North West Company. Organized in 1795, by a number of merchants chiefly 
of Montreal, engaged in the fur trade. The first "partners/ 7 or bourgeois, of the 
Company were Simon McTavish, Joseph Frobisher, John Gregory, William 
McGHlivray, Angus Shaw, Roderick McKenzie, Cuthbert Grant, Alexander 
McLeod, and William Thorburn. Most of them had previously been in the 
North-West as independent fur traders. A new agreement was entered into 
by the then partners in 1802 ; in 1804 the Company absorbed its vigorous rival, 
the X Y Company, and in 1821 was itself absorbed by the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany. Index: MS Early beginnings Montreal traders enter the North- 
West, 2; oppose the Hudson's Bay Company, 3; the Frobishers build a 
post on Sturgeon Lake, 4; penetrate to Lake Athabasca, 5; their aggressive- 
ness, 5; more than a match for the Hudson's Bay Company, 6; Company 
organised, 178&-1784, 6; opposition (X Y) Company formed, 6; absorbs rival 
interests, 1787, 6, 16; growth of fur trade, 7 ; amalgamates with Hudson's Bay 
Company, 8 ; rearrangements of partners and stock, 58 ; operations extended 
to Hudson Bay, 99 ; absorbs X Y Company, 1804, 99 ; opposes Red River 
settlers, 161-164; resents Miles MacdonelTs proclamation, 170-171; sends 
Duncan Cameron and Alexander Macdonell to Red River, 172-173 ; breaks up 
the colony, 174-176. D Influence upon development of Pacific slope, 4 ; con- 
serves British interests in western America, 17, 18. Hd Establishment of, 261- 
263. Bk Its headquarters at Montreal, 99. See also Hudson's Bay Company ; 
X Y Company ; Montreal Company. Bib. : Mackenzie, Voyages; Henry, 
Travels and Adventures; Henry-Thompson, Journals, ed. by Coues ; Harmon, 
Journal ; Narrative of Occurrences in the Indian Country ; Sketch of the British 
Fur Trade; Bancroft, History of the North-West Coast; Bryce, Hudson } s Bay 
Company; Begg, History of the North-West; Masson, Bourgeois de la Compagnie 
du Nord-Ouest ; Tass6, Canadiens de V Quest; Laut, Conquest of the Great North- 
West; Burpee, Search for the Western Sea. 

Worth- West Passage, D Tenacity of belief in its existence, 50 ; Mackenzie's 
journey to Pacific is additional blow to belief in, 55. 

North- West Rebellion. See Riel Rebellion. 

North- West Territories. Comprised all the western portions of Canada, except 
Manitoba and British Columbia. Its early history is the history of the western 
fur trade, whose forts became in time centres of settlement. In 1870, the 
territories were transferred to Canada by the Hudson's Bay Company. In 
1882, four provisional districts were formed Assiniboia, Saskatchewan, Alberta, 
and Athabaska. In 1905 these were made into the two provinces of Alberta and 
Saskatchewan. Index : B Annexation of, advocated by George Brown, 137 ; 
communication to be opened with, 166; value of, 174; acquisition of, 186; 
Brown's interest in, 211-213, 217, 218-221 ; R. B. Sullivan's address on, 1847, 


211 ; warns Canadians of danger of American occupation, 

to settle and develop the country, 211 ; Isbister's on of, 212 

213; Globe article on, 213-215; value ol the country, 214; 
on agricultural possibilities of, 214 ; u Huron* s " letters in the OB, 216 ; 

Toronto Board of Trade urges acquisition and settlement of, 216 ; 
on vigorous campaign, 216-217 ; William Macdougall an enthusiastic 
217; incorporation of, adopted as part of Reform Convention of 1857, 217; 
project ridiculed by Niagara Mail, 217-218; and Montreal 218; 

matter 1^ken up by Canadian government, and aomogeoients made for 
the territories, 220-22! ; bin for government of, provision for 
opposed by George Brown, 249. Md Terms upon which Hudson's Bay Company 
transfers territory to the crown, 166-157; of discontent and 

involved in annexation of, 157-163. See do AssMboia ; Alberta ; ; 

Saskatchewan. Bib.: Adam, Canadmn Nor^-We^; de 

FOtml;;;- Ehigas, Lfyendes du Nord-Qimk; B^ F of the 

Hind, Norfk-West Temtmj; MacBeth, of the 

Northern Railway. Chartered in 1849 as the Toronto, SwrniSj and lake Huron 
Railway. The line ran north from Toronto to Lake Simcoe s thence to Georgian 
Bay. IB 1879 the Northern acquired the Hamilton and North- Western ; and 
in 1888 was itself absorbed by the Grand Trunk. Index: E Construction of, 
stimulated by provincial guarantee, 1849, 99. 

Norton, John. Born in Scotland, Came to America and settled among the 
Mohawks, who made Mm a chief. After the close of the War of 1812, went to 
Georgia. Died in Scotland. Index : Bk la battle of Queenston Heights^ 310. 
Bib. : Richardson, War of 181, ed. by Casselman. 

Norway House. Also known at one time as Jack River House. A post of the 
Hudson's Bay Company, on Little Pkygreen Lake, at the northern end of Lake 
Winnipeg. The post formerly stood on Mossy Point, where the Nelson "Rives 
flows out of Lake Winnipeg, but was burnt to the ground about 1826. The 
present fort was completed in 1828. It is described in McLeod's Peace Rwer, 
pp. 49-50. In Sir George Simpson's day, Norway House was the headquarters 
of the Company, where the governor and Council met annually to discuss 
and arrange its affairs. The name originated in the fact that a party of 
Scandinavians had been employed in building the old fort. Index : MS Sel- 
kirk colonists at Jack River, 163-164, 175 ; becomes headquarters of Hudson's 
Bay Company, 216; Governor Simpson at, 1828, 233-236. Bib*: Bryoe, 
Hudson's Bay Company; Laut, Conquest of the Great Nortk-Wesi* 

Notre Dame de la Recouvrance. First parish church of Quebec ; built by 
Champlain, 1633, and enlarged, 1635. Totally destroyed by fire, June 14. 1640. 
Replaced in 1645 by the Church of Notre Dame de la Paix, now the Basilica of 
Quebec, Index : Ch First service in, 239 ; ChampMn's bequest to, 239 ; gifts 
to, 240; consecrated under name of Immaculate Conception, 240; burnt, 241* 
Bib. : Doughty, Cradle of New France. 

Notre Dame de Montreal. L Parish erected, 175 ; united to Seminary, 175* 

Notre Dame des Anges. Ch Jesuit convent, 45, 227 ; views of Jesuits in 
connection with, 229 ; instruction of Indian children, 232, 233; Re* collet convent 
dedicated to, 148. 

Notre Dame des Victoires. Church in Quebec. The corner-stone was laid 
May 1, 1688, Bishop Laval officiating. The building was completed the follow- 
ing year. In 1690 the name was changed to Notre Dame de la Victoire, to com- 


memorate the repulse of PMpps. In 1711 the name was again changed, to its 
present form, to mark the second deliverance of the city from the English fleet 
under Walker. The church was destroyed in the siege of 1759 ; restored in 
1765; and the interior completed in 1817, Index: L Church of, 185. Bib.: 
Doughty, Cradk of New France. 

Note, Anne de (1587-1646). Born in France. Entered the Jesuit novitiate 
in 1612; and came to Canada in 1626. For several years laboured among 
the Hurons and Montagnais, and from 1632 spent the remainder of his life in 
mission work in the French settlements along the St. Lawrence. Index : Cli 
Jesuit, goes to Bourges, 207. L Death of, 5. Bib. ; Charlevoix, History of 
New France. _ 

Houveau Monde. C Edited by Canon Lamarche, 81 ; bitterly attacks Carter, 


Hova Scotia. Acadia of the French regime. The present name dates from 
1621, when Sir William Alexander (#..) obtained from King James I a grant of 
all the territory now constituting the provinces of Nova Scotia and New Bruns- 
wick. After many vicissitudes the territory was finally ceded to England. 
Halifax was founded in 1749, as the capital of the young colony; and in 1784 
New Brunswick was made a separate colony. Index: Ch Grant of, to Sir 
William Alexander, 223. Dr Carleton arranges to visit, 235; population of, 
236 ; crammmication with Inland and Quebec, 236. B Strong feeling against 
Confederation in, 186, 206. Md Its agitation for " better terms " in Confedera- 
tion scheme, 110 ; opposes Confederation, 116-117; though discarding Quebec 
Resolutions, compromises by appointing delegates to arrange question with Im- 
perial government, 122; dissatisfied with terms offered, demands and receives 
" better terms " before entering Dominion, 145. See also Acadia ; New Bruns- 
wick; Halifax. Bib.: Murdoch, History of Nova Scotia; Haliburton, His- 
torical and Statistical Account of Nova Scotia; Campbell, History of Nova 
Scotia; Bourinot, Builders of Nova Scotia; Kirke, The First English Conquest 
of Canada; Moorson, Letters from Nova Scotia; Cozzens, Acadia. 

Nova Scotian. Newspaper puplished at Halifax. Index: H Joseph Howe be- 
comes editor and proprietor of, 1828, 6; extends its influence throughout the 
province, 7; Haliburton contributes to, 9; also Lawrence O'Connor, Doyle, 
and others, 9 ; published