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. / - /t 






IN 1835; 




Author of Literary Policy of the Church of Rome, Ijife of Pius V., Memoirs of 
the Council of Trent, Index Sixti V., Spiritual Venality of Home, 3f. 


Pulchra Layerna, 

Da mihi fallere, da justum sancttitnque videri ; 
Noctem peccatis, et fraudibus objice niibem. 

HOR. Ep. 16. 









WHO IN 1835 











~i C 


THE prospects of Protestant Christianity are im- 
proving. Light and vitality are beginning to in- 
fuse themselves into a mass, to which they had too 
much and too long been strangers. The genuine 
friends of true religion are rousing to something like 
preparation for a contest which they see to be un- 
avoidable and at no great distance ; and the doubt- 
ful or treacherous are doing them the favour and 
benefit of going over, more or less openly, to the 
ranks to which they really belong. Too long had 
Protestants been deceived and cajoled by the 
original enemy. They believed professions and 
demonstrations, because they trusted in the low 
honour which yet remains, and is one of the last 
good things to be handoned, in simple human 
nature, corrupt as it is. They became the dupes of 
impostors, because they could not believe it to be 
in that nature, that individuals, professing what is 
called Christianity, could practise gross and de- 
liberate deception, and could cherish a heart of 
settled and destructive hostility, while lips and pens 


exhausted the powers of language to express the 
fervour of their good will and gratitude. The bitter 
and the sweet came from the same fountain, and 
continued most harmoniously to flow in a collateral 
course: but the one was sincere, the other hypo- 
criticalthe one meant to be seen, the other to be 
concealed.* This is now no longer a secret. The 
faction has gained its end ; and there is now hardly 
an interest in keeping up the imposition. The dis- 
ciplina arcani has had its run and its reward, and 
is now abandoned. 

But the victors will find, that they have purchased 
their success full dear. A reckoning will come ; and 
the very arms by which they prevailed shall come 
to be the most effectual for their destruction. 

What they believe, because they have seen, will 
not be lost upon British Christians. They will have 
learned a lesson at last by which they will profit. 
They now perceive how they are to be guarded 
against, and treat, a foe of the worst will, the most 
intense and most fraudulent, that this world of sin 
and malice ever produced. Their natural protec- 
tors having betrayed them, and let in the Romish 
wolf among them, they are taught, if any thing 
can teach them, that it will not do to go on sleep- 

* See the Speech of Mr. COI.QUHOUN at Exeter Hall, 
March 11, 1836, where this concurrent flow of professed 
loyalty and secret rebellion is irresistibly demonstrated and 
detailed. Standard (Newspaper) and Publications of the Pro. 
testant Association, Vol. I. 


insr, and flatter themselves that the wolf will do so 

O * 

too. The time is come that they must bestir them- 
selves in some appropriate and effectual way ; and, 
having found, that when the iron chains of civil 
restraint were so lovingly replaced by the chains of 
cherry-stones, which the dealers in securities had 
provided, the case was not much mended, they will 
feel it necessary to gird themselves to a new kind of 
warfare more within their own power ; and by at- 
tacking the very citadel of Popery, and exposing 
its essential iniquity, in principle and practice, they 
may confidently hope to cover it with an infamy, 
which, with all its impudence, it shall be able to 
face no longer. 

The means are furnished by the Impostor her- 
self, much of it indeed very involuntarily. The 
volumes of PETER DENS no longer enjoy the con- 
cealment of exclusive sacerdotal circulation. Their 
pages, with their sanction, are thrown open to the 
profane eyes of heretics ; and those heretics can 
read, and understand, and publish. The public is 
acquainted with the disclosure, the denial, and, 
when interest dictated, the re-acknowledgment, of 
these books. Their authority, their destined use, 
has been divulged. They are a mine, which has 
yielded much, but which is yet unexhausted. The 
rolls have been opened, and must still continue so. 
They will afford text for abundant future comment. 
It will not serve to put off their contents, as the 


opinions of a private doctor, or, according to the 
suggestion of some weak or designing advocate, a 
kind of Paley's Philosophy : the main contents 
are, the most approved doctrines of the most ap- 
proved doctors of the Roman Church. The main 
contents are, the solemn, ex cathedra Constitu- 
tions of the heads of the Italian Church. Nor can 
they be set aside, or neutralised by being called 
foreign : they are naturalised and made of force in 
Ireland and England by non-reclamation, as well as 
by more formal recognition.* I can barely glance, 
additionally, at the CONFERENCES, to be regulated 
by Dens, at the MAYNOOTEI CLASS-BOOKS,-]- at 

* See M'GHEE in all bis Speeches and Works. 

t The Account of the Maynooth System, by Mr.O'BEiRNE, just 
published, has left its vindication only to the most profligate 
of advocates. The voice of truth will at last be heard and 
prevail even in the Lower House (and it is low enough) of the 
British Legislature. Were any portion to be selected for par- 
ticular attention, I should fix upon that under the head of " the 
Seal of Confession," pp. 124, &c. Let any honest man read 
the following, pp. 123-131 : 

" Were a conspiracy to murder the Queen revealed to the 
priest in confession, it is an established principle of the 
Popish Church, as laid down in the Maynooth Class-book, 
that the horrible intention is not to be disclosed. 

" In Prussia, the inviolability of the Seal of Confession is 
not allowed. Whenever it is necessary to prevent treason or 
to punish murder, the State requires the Romish priest, under 
severe penalties, to declare to the magistrate whatever he may 
have learned in confession relative to those crimes. 

" What a system of instruction ! What a course of educa- 


AND DOUAY, with their Annotations, and all the 
mendacious knavery connected with them. But 
the subject is before the public, and I trust it will 
unceasingly be so, till the proper effect is produced. 
I am not so much concerned with these engines 

tion for the Roman Catholic priesthood of Ireland ! How can 
that unhappy country be expected to break its adamantine 
fetters, while Maynooth College continues to be supported by 
the Government and the country for the propagation of treason, 
perjury, sedition, immorality, and vice ! How long will the 
people of England tamely look on, and passively behold the 
application of the funds of the country to the support of a sys- 
tem of education which openly inculcates perjury and murder 
for the purpose of supporting the diabolical Confessional an 
institution to which may be ascribed the greater part of the 
outrages and crimes, the murders and massacres, which have 
stained and are daily staining unhappy Ireland 1 Owing to the 
ease of mind necessarily experienced by the murderer in com- 
municating his horrid deed to the priest at confession, and also 
the facility of obtaining absolution for his awful crime, murders 
have lost the greater part of their enormity in the eyes of the 
demoralised peasantry of Ireland. I am thoroughly convinced 
that the frequent occurrence of murder in Ireland is principally 
to be attributed to the pain of mind attendant on being the con- 
fidant of a guilty secret being removed, by communicating the 
secret to the priest in confession, and receiving absolution. 
Every one of common understanding must know what a heavy 
burden it is to bear the consciousness of crime how distress- 
ing it is to he the confidant of a guilty secret; but in Ireland, 
owing to the Confessional, that pain is not felt. If there was 
no such institution as the Confessional to interpose its au- 
thority and give the troubled mind an opportunity of obtaining 
all the comforts of a superstitious religion, not only would 
murder and other heinous crimes become of less frequent oc- 



of imposture, about to turn upon their employers, 
as with those of the INDEXES OF PROHIBITED BOOKS, 
which are capable of the same retro-action. These, 
in the first instance, and as long as they could be 
continued so, were a work of darkness. But the 
unwelcome light broke in, and made them manifest, 

currence, but such crimes would very often (as in this country) 
be openly acknowledged, and thus the ends of justice obtained. 
Have there not been numerous instances, in this kingdom, of 
murderers voluntarily surrendering themselves and confessing 
their guilt, owing to the dreadful weight with which the con- 
sciousness of their crime naturally oppressed them? Instances 
of this kind are unknown in Ireland, owing to the SAFETY- 
VALVE of the Confessional, by which the instinctive pangs of 
conscience are completely removed. The priest, according to 
the Maynooth Class-book, acts as God in the Confessional, 
(sacerdos peccata confessa excipiens Christi vices ac personam 
gerit,) and can therefore absolve from all sin, no matter how 
great ; nor can he ever disclose any communication made to 
him in confession. Nay more, were he summoned before any 
tribunal of the country, for example, before a judge of assize, 
to give evidence relative to r.ny of the prisoners at the bar, 
although he knew them, by confession, to be robbers or even 
murderers, he is bound to swear as in ignorance of the fact 
tout they are good and honest men, because their guilt he 
became acquainted with as God ; but the judge can examine 
turn only as man, ' judex confessarium interrogare non potest 
'"si quatenus hominem.' Admirable system of education, and 
well worthy of being supported by annual Parliamentary grants 
of the public money !" 

I could wish the reader to peruse with some attention 

pp. 197-208, where he will find a brilliant detection of the 

artifice, perhaps originally brought into complete practice by 

Preach encyclopedists, of opposing by weak argument 

what is maintained by stronger, for a politic demonstration and 


and in some respects harmless. In fact, the tide 
is now turning ; and the damnatory and prescrip- 
tive provisions of Rome, for the security of her own 
heterodox and immoral literature, is one of the best 
weapons put in the hands of her opponents for its 
exposure and ultimate demolition. For these 

deception. The subject is, the delicate one, of the power 
claimed by the Popes of deposing temporal sovereigns. The 
bishops of Rome have never ceased meddling with kingdoms, 
from the reign of the infamous Hildebrand ; at one time 
plaving off sovereigns against their subjects by persecution, 
at another subjects against their sovereigns by rebellion, 
insurrection, or secret assassination, as circumstances or interest 
required. The Earl of Shrewsbury knows that the power of 
deposing monarchs, particularly heretical, is in as full claim 
under Gregory XVI. as under Gregory VII. ; and his present 
holiness relies upon his beloved son, John, that by means of 
the pious Institute, and by every other pious and practicable 
means, he will do his best to bring the necks of Britons under 
the servile yoke, both civil and religious, which was gloriously 
shaken off by some of our monarchs; and when one apostate 
monarch attempted to reimpose it, was again dashed to the 
ground by the honourable and British efforts of a TALBOT and 
others more noble by their actions than their birth, and 
throwing forward a shade of infamy upon any degenerate 
descendant who should thereafter betray so righteous a cause. 
His infallibility, in a letter which deserves to be perpetuated, 
should have been better advised than to tnlk of his first name- 
sake's enlightening Britain. His more enlightened sons huve 
taken care to confine the enlightening to the Saxons, or Anglo- 
Saxons ; because they knew well enough what answer can be 
given a fortiori to the larger claim, and indeed to the smaller 
likewise. See SOAMES. The Pontiff might, perhaps, be 
thinking of the pretty story in the beginning of the second 
book of Beda's History, of the British youths exposed for sale 


documents teach, and infallibly teach, not only 
what the Church of Rome condemns, but, by her 
omissions, where knowledge was unavoidable, what 
she approves. And then, setting aside as unworthy 
of notice her insolent and brute condemnation of 
what by its light condemns her darkness, think of 

in the Roman market, whose unhappy rendition moved the pun- 
ning commiseration of his predecessor. His holiness likewise 
was a little overseen in gratuitously suggesting to the imagi- 
nation of Englishmen, who mav not have forgotten the fires of 
Smithfidd, " the TORCH of the Catholic faith." The Catholic, 
the $anctitrima (as Sanders calls her), Mary, gave her subjects a 
fair specimen of the TORCH with which she meant to enlighten 
them. James attempted to give another. And the Italian 
priest, Gregory, with the aid of his beloved sons, hopes yet to 
apply the Catholic torch more effectually in these lands. But 
it is, indeed, miserable, that in this sanctuary of freedom there 
should be found noblemen of education taking their part in a 
conspiracy to renew spiritual slavery a slavery worse than 
Egyptian or West Indian in emancipated Britain, and to 
force or swindle upon it a creed, which it would be pure and 
ungracious irrny to suppose that, in its peculiarity, they believe 
therr selves. 

T'-e word swindle I use deliberately. Xone but such or an 
equh-ilent would adequately express the conduct of Papal 
individuals and bodies respecting the circulation of small 
books, particularly that unprincipled one of substituting a 
Popithfor a Protestant tract, leaving the caver of the latter. And 
yet an editor of a Popish periodical had the characteristic 
impudence of his Church to glory in the act. See the 
Birmingham Catholicon, for January 1836, p. 20. I transcribe 
the following from the Protestant Magazine, for January 1839. 
" MODE op PROSELYTING (To the Editor nf the Wolverhampton 
CJuvmic/e.) -Sir, I beg your insertion of the following facts ; 
they need no comment, and I shall therefore add none: I 


the wagon-load of Papal trumpery, as well as 
profligacy both in morals and theology, which 
this foreign monopolist of orthodoxy, virtually, 
that is, really, approves and recommends. An 
enumeration of a few only of the books which she 

have, connected with my church at Bilston, a society for the 
distribution of religious tracts in my district of the parish; 
these tracts are enclosed in a cover, bearing the name of the 
minuter of the district, and containing a few words of admoni- 
tion to the readers. Last week, Mr. John Hutton, one of 
those who kindly perform the office of distribution, brought 
to my curate, the Rev. J. E. Troughton, four Romish tracts 
under my covers, which had been circulated as if under my 
direction. The St.. Mary tracts had been torn out, and these 
Romish tnicts substituted in their place. I shall send the 
tracts in question to your office, in the humble hope that 
my brethren in the neighbourhood who may chance to read 
this paragraph may be upon their guard against a similar 

" I am, Sir, yours faithfully, 

" J. B. OWEN, 

" Incumbent of St. Mary, Bilston." 

I add another testimony to the same, and to a similar, 
' ingenious device," from the same periodical, for May 1840, 
]>. 160. " POPISH FRAUDS. Under the covers of the tracts 
of Religious Societies, other tracts containing Romish doctrines 
and superstition are now circulated. The cover of the Family 
Library is in like manner imitated. An engraving similar, 
at first view, to that on the tracts of the Society for Promoting 
Christ inn Knowledge is placed on the title-page of the CATIIOI.K 
INSTITUTE OF (JRKAT BRITAIN. Here, then, is a society espe- 
cially sanctioned by all the Vicars Apostolic of Great Britain, 
of which the KARI. OF SHREWSBURY is President, and several 
of tin- Romanist noblemen and gentlemen Vice-Presidents, and 
of which all the Romish M.s/io/is and clergy are ex-officio 
members, putting forth on the face of every copy of its stereo- 

x i v PREFACE. 

condemns, and of a few only of the books which 
she thus approves, is sufficient to convince a child, 
that the self-nominated mistress of all churches is 
unworthy of being a scholar of the meanest. Her 
worst enemies need not desire more effectual ex- 
typed tracts what looks very much like a deliberate attempt to 
impose on the poor uneducated persons among whom they are 
circulated." See, too, Record, April 6, 1840, from the Morning 
Herald, where it appears, that the word Catholic above Family 
Library is printed in small German letters with what effect 
among the illiterate is plain : the intention may be fairly 
inferred. The fallacious, arid palpably dishonest, as well as 
nugatory, declaration of the Papal prelates, &c. in 1826, founded 
on the celebrated Eiposition (or rather Imposition) of Bossuet, is 
pushed into fresh circulation. Every informed Romanist 
knows that this work does not contain the honest doctrine of 
his Chuch, and thart it never had the approbation of the head 
of his Church. A thing was issued meaning to cheat the 
author and the world with the notion that it was given : but 
it was plainly eluded. BAVSSET, who wrote the Life of the 
bishop, is utterly unable, with all his efforts, to stand against 
palpable fact See Hist. i. pp. 172, &c. or Liv. iii. xiii.-xv. 
He may satisfy persons, who, like "J. R." in the Gentleman's 
Magazine, are, or appear to be, satisfied with any thing on their 
own side. 

The specimens of dishonesty and artifice united which I 
have adduced are nothing irregular or abhorrent from the 
Papal system. In fact they are a natural and almost an essential 
part. Noble lords are not indeed to be accused of knowing 
or sanctioning them, till they are so notorious that they 
cannot be unknown or denied. To treat of BRIBERY and 
INTIMIDATION of all forms, as the subject deserves, would 
exceed my bounds. Let Lulworth Castle, or Stoke Alton 
Towers, Tavistock, and numberless other places, speak. 

A copy of the entire epistle of Gregory finds an appropriate 
place in the present work, as emanating from the person who 


posures of her disgraceful nakedness than are 
afforded by the pages of her own Catalogues of 
condemned books in redundant quantity. 

Were not an infatuation operating in the case, 
we might wonder that the more honest and better 
educated, even of her own communion, are not 

published the Index which is its subject, and as exhibiting a 
congenial character in its direct aspect. 

" To our Beloved Son, John Earl of Shrewsbury, President 

of the Catholic Institute of Great Britain. 
"Beloved son, health and apostolical benediction. Whilst 
rilled with sorrow, on account of the ever-increasing calamities 
of the Church of Christ, we have received such abundant cause 
of gladness, as has not only relieved us in the bitterness 
wherewith we were afflicted, but has excited in us more than 
ordinary joy ; for we have been informed that, by the care of 
yourself, and other noble and pious men, the Catholic Institute 
was, two 3 r ears ago, established in Great Britain, with the 
design especially of protecting the followers of our Divine 
faith in freedom and security, and, by the publication of works, 
of vindicating the spouse of the immaculate Lamb from the 
calumnies of the heterodox. Since, therefore, these purposes 
tend in the highest degree to the advantage of the English 
nation, you can easily understand, beloved son, the reason 
why such joy should have been felt by us, who have been, by 
Divine appointment, constituted the heirs of the name and 
chair of that Gregory the. Great, who, by the torch of the 
Catholic fctitb, first enlightened Britain, involved in the dark- 
ness of idolatry. We are encouraged to entertain the cheering 
hope that the light of Divine faith will again shine with the 
same brightness as of old upon the minds of the British 
people. We desire nothing with greater earnestness than 
to embrace once more with paternal exultation the English 
nation. Wherefore, beloved son, we cannot refrain from 


shocked and alienated by the injustice, the varia- 
tion, the trickery, and dishonesty discoverable in 
almost every literary sentence of their supreme 
head, when he assumes to sit as judge upon moral 
and religious doctrine and learning ; and that they 
do not at once give him up as the sovereign arbiter 
of their faith, who, in order to keep good his title 
to philosophic orthodoxy, is obliged to expunge 
a solemn decision of his own of two centuries' 

There is plainly an infatuation in the case ; 

strenuously exhorting you, and all the members of the pious 
Association over which you preside, to offer up fervent prayers 
with us to the Father of Mercies,* that he would propitiously 
remove the lamentable darkness which still covers the minds 
of so many dwelling unh-.ippily in error, and in his clemency 
bring the children of the Church.t who have wandered from 
her, back to the bosom of the mother whom they have left. 

" Meanwhile, to you and to all your countrymen, who 
belong in any way to the Catholic Institute, we most affection- 
ately impart our Apostolical benediction. 

" Given at Rome, at St. Peter's, on the 19th day of 
February, 1840, the tenth of our Pontificate. 


" P. P. XVI." 

* His holiness, it appears, has most unaccountably forgotten 
his " Patroness and Protectress," "his greatest hope, yea the 
entire ground of his Lope" the most blessed Virgin Mary. 
Perhaps eight years have improved his divinity. 

t "The children of the Church,' 1 enlisted by baptism, of 
any kind, into the Pope's church militant, and punishable as 
deserters if they leave it. 


and they who imagine that the infatuation is weak, 
or little formidable, have much to learn of human 
nature. Well adorned and well managed, Popery 
has something in the more plausible faculties and 
tendencies of the soul of man exactly adapted, 
and responsive, to its main attractions and solicit- 
ations. When, indeed, surveyed in its true de- 
formity, it has every thing to repel a sound under- 
standing and really holy feeling. But it has cover- 
ings and ornaments which its native sagacity 
prompts, and enables it to throw over its repulsive 
features ; and nothing more is necessary than a 
due calculation of human folly and human corrup- 
tion to account at once for the progress of such 
a mockery of Christianity as is the Papal system ; 
and really to wonder, that its progress is not tenfold 
greater than it is. But though falsehood is mighty, 
truth and holiness are oftentimes mightier, even in 
their effects on such intractable matter as the human 
soul. But falsehood still, with that intractability 
to good which is all in its favour, is deplorably 
mighty. To advert only to the more specious, and, 
distinctly from their application, innocent propen- 
sities of humanity what costly and energetic 
appeals are made to the various senses, particularly 
to the vague but mighty instinct of natural devo- 
tion ! what gorgeous and imposing apparel in the 
ministering priesthood !- what profusion of superb 
ceremonies! what splendour of precious stones 


and metals in the sacred vessels! what spiritual 
intoxication of melody and harmony, both vocal 
and instrumental ! what scientific and successful 
management of light and position ! in short, what 
a masterly performance of the whole external, 
sensual, and sensualising exhibition, where eye and 
ear have every imaginable gratification allotted to 
them ! So that the simple victims of the enchant- 
ment, instead of a saving religion, which will bring 
them to heaven, and fit them for it, find, to their 
endless disappointment, unless escaped from, that 
they have embraced, and mocked themselves with, 
a brilliant but noxious phantasm an inflated 
inanity a religion of sound and sentimentality 
made up of chants and anthems ; of copes, tunicles, 
albes, chasibles, and stoles; of the diversified 
luxuries of masonry and sculpture, arches, vaulted 
roofs, picturesque windows, carved and embossed; 
not to add, grotesque and satirical ornaments of 
all sorts, with shrines, monuments, tapers, and 
every ornament devisable by human ingenuity 
and last, not least, of the " dim religious light," 
so apt and expressive an emblem of the supersti- 
tion which it is meant to recommend, even in its 
most favourable form. This is the real material, 
though the formal may, and must, vary a cir- 
cumstance which presents the only admissible miti- 
gation in the affair; and it is admitted, as far as 
it extends, with joy. 


Either simply and officiously, or insidiously, some 
individuals are fond of pushing forward this sen- 
timent, as if it were a discovery, or denied. It 
is far from either. With every charity to such 
names as the familiar ones of Pascal, Fenelon, 
Flechier, and others, be it known, that they were 
all distinguished, not only by bigoted intolerance 
against presumed heretics, but by mutual condem- 
nations, and by the condemnation of what was 
good in them by their own Church, which is thus 
quit of all the benefit which she might derive, and 
is perversely made to derive, from their Christian 
excellence, for which they were indebted, not to 
their Church, but to that unextinguished Christ- 
ianity, which their Church denounced and perse- 
cuted, and does so still. All the three who are 
named were respective persecutors, bigots, and 
enemies to the free circulation of the Scriptures : 
and they were all material idolaters. We believe, 
however, that a God of mercy regards circum- 
stances ; and that offences in the midst of dark- 
ness, and offences in the midst of light, will be 
visited by him in a very different manner. 

Every sincere and feeling Christian catches with 
eagerness at the supposition of so happy an incon- 
sistency as that presented in the instances just pro- 
duced. He cannot but detest fundamental error 
and corruption introduced into, and, as far as it 
prevails, poisoning, the religion which is all his hope, 


all his honour all the hope, and honour, and 
happiness of his fellow-sinners, if, and when, con- 
verted. He considers Popery as none the better for 
being the corruption of the best. He would rather 
see a noisome reptile on a dunghill than in a room 
of state ; and poison is not the more acceptable for 
being presented in a golden chalice. But the 
subjects of Papal antichrist are yet fellow-creatures; 
they are yet spiritual, immortal, and accountable 
creatures ; they may yet escape from their spiritual 
delusion and thraldom. For suck, no Protestant 
Christian exists, who does not entertain the sin- 
cerest and most fervent charity. He feels for them 
precisely as St. Paul did for his countrymen, 
similarly circumstanced, though they were no 
idolaters, not even materially, much \essformally. 
Our hearts' desire for every subject of erring Rome 
is, that he may be converted and be saved. 

There is a class I fear a large one of which 
we must think and speak in a far different strain. 
They are not the deluded, but those who silently 
and basely acquiesce in the delusion, knowing it 
to be such ; or, not simply acquiescing in it, but 
promoting it with the same knowledge. I will not 
say, but 1 believe, this to be the case with many of 
the clergy, nobility, and higher orders.* It is, 

* In the examination by the Committee of the Lords on the 
State of Ireland, of the Rev. JOHN BURNET, then of Cork, 
March 16, 1825, occurs the answer " Some gentlemen of the 


indeed, impossible that some of the men of educa- 
tion among them must not be sensible of the utter 
nullity of so palpable a fable as Popery. Exclu- 
sion of all other objects may go a great way to 
bend the mind to an acceptanoe of such a system 
as true ; but common sense will find, or make, 
chinks to enter, whatever pains may be taken to 
exclude it. Acid what does all this exclusion, and 
the effort to produce it, mean ? What mean pro- 
hibitory and expurgatory Indexes ? Why may 
not the accused at least be heard ? Is there fear, 
that if they are heard, by the might of truth they 
must prevail ? I believe this to be both the fact 
and the motive ; and I believe every tolerably 
enlightened Papal priest to believe the same. But 
in what an awful predicament does this place them ! 
May they reflect and repent in time ! 

In opposition to the view here, and generally 
given, it is alleged, that many individual Romanists 
have in past time borne, and in the present bear, 
a high reputation, not only for piety, but likewise, 
and particularly, for humanity ; and that it is emi- 
nent injustice to deny them this praise. Nor is it 

Catholic community, men of information, have distinctly told 
me so themselves " that their profession was a point of 
honour. " They said, that they do not believe in the Catholic 
system of religion, nor in any other system of religion; but 
as their parents have been Catholics, they profess the religion 
of their parents, and adhere to that profession, because they 
believe the Catholics to be an oppressed people." The fact, 
however, is notorious, and could not be otherwise. 


denied. We have neither desire nor temptation to 
do it. Wherever, from circumstances, their peculiar 
faith fails, or is feeble, in its operation upon them, 
the principles of simple and independent Christianity 
are at liberty to act and produce their genuine effects 
in proportion to their force and purity. But it is 
past denial, that wherever the Church, that is, of 
Rome, commands, every true son of that Church 
must and will obey, whatever repugnance his natu- 
ral conscience, or natural humanity, may feel and 
oppose ; and there is not a nation where Christianity 
has been exposed to the superior power of Popery, 
whose history in such times has not been written in 
letters of blood ; and in this nation, in particular, 
the Italian usurper and his instruments will have an 
awful account to settle for the barbarities perpetrated 
by them under the name and pretence of religion. 
That these agents of religious cruelty may, aloof 
from their intolerant creed, have possessed every 
valuable and even amiable qualification, only serves 
to aggravate the charge against a misnamed religion, 
which no human virtue has power to arrest in her 
inhuman course, and which, in that course, can even 
convert the benevolent into savages. The concluding 
reflection of Bishop Mant in his valuable His tory of 
the Church of Ireland, on the character of Mary I. 
of England, is just and important. Having sug- 
gested the sincerity of her zeal as the cause of her 
cruelty, he adds, " But the more her evil deeds are 
extenuated, by the supposition of the sincerity of her 


zeal, the more deep and dark is the brand of igno- 
miny stamped upon that form of Christianity which 
actuated her in so nefarious a career."* 

* NICCOLA ORLANDINO was of noble family and author of the 
first part of the Historia Societatis Jesit. The work was published 
after his death by his Continuator, Francesco Sacchino, who, in a 
prefatory account of the deceased, says that he was Moribus 
suavibus, ingenio candido, &c. See how he speaks of Luther's 
death, lib. vi. 59 : Deus * * * portentum illud orbis ter- 
rarum, seminatorem malorum omnium, & hujus temporis Anti- 
christum de medio sustulit. Piget infernum hoc monstrum suo 
nomine nominare. Ille, inquam, Catholicse Religionis trans- 
fuga, desertorque Coenobii, instaurator hajresium omnium, 
illud Dei & hominum odium, duodetrigesimo suae defectionis 
anno, cum laute et spleudide cotnatus esset, facetiisque de 
more lusisset, ea ipsa nocte, repentino morbo correptus, jugu- 
latusque, sceleratissimam animam vomuit, gratissimam Satanre 
hostiam, qui se talibus oblectat escis, unde ejus saturetur in- 
gluvies. Such and more is the language of this sweet and 
candid man ; and it only shews into what brutes even such 
men may be transformed by being nursed with the milk of the 
Roman Tigress. For the lying calumny itself, it is the familiar 
language of the faithful children of the original liar. Corn- 
template Cardinal Pole in some of his candid moods, and then 
read his Pro Ecclesiastics Unitatis Defensione Lib. IV. The mite 
ingeninm of Cardinal Allen is likewise beautifully illustrated in 
the Catholic effusion of the Admonition to the Nobility, &c. 
"This tyrant," (Queen Elizabeth) " the infinite quantity and 
enormous quality of her most execrable wickedness" ''her 
horrible sacrifices," &c. " Luciferian pride" "Incestuous 
bastard ! born in sin, of an infamous courtesan, Anne Bullen," 
&c. &c. Pretty language to be addressed to the Nobility of 
the time! Even Mr. Tierney dares not to give the whole ori- 
ginal. On whosesoever's personal back it is to fall, whether 
Allen's, who gives his name to it, or the foul Parsons's, it 
falls ultimately upon the Papal Church. 


It may seem almost superfluous to observe, but 
it is important to consider, that the charge against 
Rome for her literary proscriptions does not attach 
to the simple act of censure or condemnation, but 
to the objects, quality, and character, of the cen- 
sure or condemnation. For there is not a determi- 
nation on the subject more just or applicable than 
that of the poet, 

Si mala condiderit in quern quis carmina, jus est 
Judiciumque. H. Esto, si quis mala; sed bona si quis, &c. 

HOR. Sat. II. 1. 

And to one affecting Academic sagacity, who should 
insist or insinuate, that the determination is indeci- 
sive, it may be enough to say, that there are many 
points on which suspense is allowable and even un- 
avoidable, and there are likewise others, not a few, 
which are about as certain, as that darkness is not 
light. Apart from books of impiety, obscenity, 
magic, &c. which, for form's sake, and for policy's 
sake, are condemned, and which are readily given 
up by all, let any one call to mind the other objects 
of reprobation, which are almost exclusively books 
of evangelical piety, and emphatically translations 
of the Scriptures, most hypocritically denounced as 
unfaithful ; and which, where particular passages are 
specified (as in the single Expurgatory of Rome, or the 
numerous ones of Catholic Spain,) are for the most 
part the main and saving truths of the Gospel, particu- 
larly justification by faith in Christ alone and then 


let him say, whether these are not decisive and 
burning proofs of guilt. 

Although the present work may be justly and 
advantageously considered as a sequel to the Liter- 
ary Policy, it is perfectly distinct and independent ; 
and, without troubling himself with any thing which 
has preceded on the subject, the reader may here 
learn, what may be regarded as the present Pope's 
Profession of his own and his Church's Literary 
Faith, particularly as embracing what he considers 
as his proper and exclusive province, Theology. His 
Holiness has furnished facts, which it will remain 
for time to discover, with what prudence they have 
been made public. He has certainly, whether in- 
errably or not, calculated pretty freely upon the 
indifference or stolidity of Protestants. 

The very scarce Roman Catalogue of Prohibited 
Books printed at Venice in 1554, and here reprinted, 
will be valued, I doubt not, by students of the 
higher class. I am happy in this labour, contracted 
as it is, to follow the example of my estimable friend, 
the Rev. RICHARD GIBBINGS, of Trinity College, 
Dublin, to whom the public and myself are in- 
debted, not only for an elaborately exact reprint 
and facsimile of the rare Expurgatory of Brasi- 
chellen, but also for a Preface highly creditable to 
his learning, research, and judgment, and from which 
I have derived more important information than I 
was aware was extant. I may be allowed here to 



allude likewise to my own rescue of the Index of 
a vigorous pontiff, Sixtus V., from intended and 
well-provided-for destruction and oblivion. It is 
seldom, indeed, that guilt of any kind, and particu- 
larly fraud, gains so much by its primary success, 
as not to be wofully overbalanced and punished 
by the effects of its subsequent detection, when 
that takes place, which may generally be reckoned 

As a striking and instructing illustration of the 
familiar confidence with which the disciples of 
Rome put forward their most extravagant and base- 
less pretensions, as well as of the cool insensibility 
with which they receive the most palpable exposure 
of their literary dishonesty, I will present the reader 
with a quotation from a work not in every hand, 
and one of considerable ability and importance 
" Roman Forgeries, or a true account of False 
Records, discovering the Impostures and Counter- 
feit Antiquities of the Church of Rome. By a 
Faithful Son of the Church of England [THOMAS 
TRAHERNE], London, 1673." 

At the end of his Advertisement to the Reader, 
this author introduces, as an incident which befell 
him while in pursuit of his favourite studies, that 
which follows : these are his words " One evening, 
as I came out of the Bodleian Library, which is the 
glory of Oxford and this nation, at the stairs' foot 
I was saluted by a person that has deserved well 


both of scholars and learning, who, being an intimate 
friend of mine, told me there was a gentleman, his 
cousin, pointing to a grave person in the Quadrangle, 
a man that had spent many thousand pounds in pro- 
moting Popery ; and that he had a desire to speak 
with me. The gentleman came up to us of his own 
accord. We agreed for the greater liberty and 
privacy to walk abroad into the New Parks. He 
was a notable man, of an eloquent tongue, and 
competent reading ; bold, forward, talkative enough. 
He told me, that the Church of Rome had Eleven 
Millions of Martyrs, Seventeen (Ecumenical Coun- 
cils, above a Hundred Provincial Councils, all the 
Doctors, all the Fathers, Unity, Antiquity, Consent, 
&c. I desired him to name me One of his Eleven 
Million of Martyrs, excepting those who died for 
treason in Queen Elizabeth's and King James's 
days. For the martyrs of the primitive times were 
martyrs of the Catholic, but not of the Roman 
Church, they only being martyrs of the Roman 
Church that die for Transubstantiation, the Popes 
Supremacy, the doctrine of Merits, Purgatory, 
and the like. So many he told me they had, but 
I could not get him to name one. As for his Coun- 
cils, Antiquities, and Fathers, I asked him what he 
would say, if I could clearly prove that the Church 
of Rome was guilty of forging them, so far, that 
they had published Canons in the Apostles' names, 
and invented Councils that never were; forged 


Letters of Fathers, and Decretal Epistles, in the 
name of the first bishops and martyrs of Rome, 
made five, six, seven hundred years after they were 
dead, to the utter disguising and defacing of An- 
tiquity for the first four hundred years after our 
Saviour ? ' Tush ! these are nothing but lies,' quoth 
he, ' whereby the Protestants endeavour to disgrace 
the Papists' ' Sir,' answered I, ' you are a scholar, 
and have heard of Isidore Mercator, James Merlin, 
Peter Crabbe, Laurentius Surius, Severinus Binius, 
Labbe and Cossart, and the Collectio Regia, books 
of vast bulk and price, as well as of great majesty 
and magnificence. You met me this evening at the 
library door : if you please to meet me there to- 
morrow morning at eight of the clock, I will take 
you in ; and we will go from class to class, from 
book to book ; and there I will shew you in your 
own authors, that you publish such instruments for 
good records ; and then prove, that those instru- 
ments are downright frauds and forgeries, though 
cited by you upon all occasions.' He would not 
come ; but made this strange reply : ' What if 
they be forgeries ? what hurt is that to the 
Church of Rome?' ' No !' (cried I, amazed.) 'Is it 
no hurt to the Church of Rome to be found guilty 
of forging Canons in the Apostles' names, and 
Epistles in the Fathers' names, which they never 
made ? Is it nothing in Rome to be guilty of coun- 
terfeiting Decrees, and Councils, and Records of 


Antiquity ? I have done with you.' Whereupon I 
turned from him as an obdurate person." 

I cannot forbear an observation upon the 
correct distinction of Traherne, that they only 
can be claimed as Rome's martyrs, who suffered 
for Transubstantiation, the Pope's Supremacy, 
Merits, Purgatory, and the like. These only, 
and most truly, are Rome's, or her Sovereign's 

On the subject of such martyrs, there is a fine 
apostrophe in the highly interesting and strangely 
overlooked work of the celebrated Dr. DONNE, the 
Pseudo-martyr, in defence of James the First's Oath 
of Allegiance, but embracing allied topics of much 
originality and moment. In the " Preface to the 
Priests and Jesuits, and to their Disciples in this 
kingdom," towards the close, he breaks out " I 
call to witness against you those whose testimony 
God himself hath accepted. Speak then and testify, 
O you glorious and triumphant Army of Martyrs, 
who enjoy now a permanent triumph in heaven, 
which knew the voice of your Shepherd, and stayed 
still he called, and went then with all alacrity Is 
there any man received into your blessed legion, 
by title of such a death, as Sedition, Scandal, or 
any human respect occasioned ? O no ; for they 
which are in possession of that Laurel are such as 
have washed their garments, not in their own blood 
only, (for so they might still remain red and 
b 2 


stained,) but in the blood of the Lamb which 
changes them to white"* 

The martyrs here most justly dis-canonized are 
so truly his Holiness's martyrs, that he is entitled to 
the full and sole credit of their murder himself 

* As concerns James's Oath of Allegiance it may be worth 
while to consult the account given by CHARLES DODD, author 
of the Ecclesiastical History in his Secret Policy of the Society 
of Jesus, &c., letter xiv. pp. 190-5, of the way in which 
those gems of purest Catholicity could play fast and loose 
with oaths and obligations, either of allegiance or rebellion ; 
and how, by their own conduct in defiance of Papal fulmina- 
tions, they justified the secular clergy, who took James's oath 
with the same heretical contempt of the head of the Church. 
The whole of Dodd's work is replete with exposures of Jesuitic 
immorality and knavery, as pungent and indignant as any which 
might be expected to flow from a Protestant pen : and it is a 
matter of some surprise, that the author should appear almost 
wholly unconscious, that no small measure of the castigation, 
which he deals out to individuals certainly very deserving of 
it, recoils upon the communion of the casti gator himself. 
True, as is done in many similar cases, he endeavours to atone 
for his apparently traitorous severity by occasional sallies of 
superfluous bitterness against presumed heretics: but the spon. 
taneous advantage which he has given those heretics, while he 
only thought of avenging a personal quarrel, is neither affected 
nor diminished by this circumstance. Campion, it appears, made 
no scruple of professing obedience to be due to Elizabeth as 
a lawful sovereign. The work is uncommon, and, at the pre- 
sent, and apparently approaching, crisis, peculiarly valuable. 
That this, as well as the History of the College of Douay, which 
gave occasion to it, as exciting the intemperate attack of a son 
of Ignatiusis, a production of C. Dodd, though both are anony. 
mous, is considered as not admitting a doubt by a very com- 
petent witness in the Catholicon for 1816, Vol. IV. pp. 120, 
&c, signing himself K, and who, I presume, is the Rev. Mr. 
KIRK of Lichfield. 


being the real murderer. For this just and unan- 
swerable view of the affair I refer to Dr. C. O'CONOR'S 
Columbanus, No. VI. pp. 108 and following, under 
the head " VI. Historical narrative of eleven 
Priests confined in Newgate for not renouncing the 
Pope's pretended Deposing Power" They were 
all but two executed. The whole is amply worthy 
of every Romanist's serious consideration. The 
charge against the head of his Church at the 
time, and every other head in similar circum- 
stances, is awful and irresistible. It is as plain 
as any demonstrable proposition can be, that the 
objection against James's oath of allegiance was 
not this or that alleged scruple, but the fact, that 
the oath compassed its intention, and obliged the 
taker to a real allegiance to his true and natural 
sovereign, independently of his pretended spiritual, 
who could easily draw any thing, however temporal, 
under his spirituality, by means of indirecte, and 
in ordine ad spiritualia. After enumerating the 
eleven sufferers with the cause of their suffering, 
Dr. O'CoNoa observes, " Let us now consider 
who, in the eye of unprejudiced reason, was the 
persecutor and executioner of those unfortunate 
men, James or the Pope? The evidence of facts is 
irresistible. The question bears not one moment's 
examination, Qui facit per alium facit per se" 

On precisely the same principle, and with the 
same demonstration, the blood of those who suffered 


for their Papal treason and rebellion in the reign of 
our Queen Elizabeth, in consequence of the dam- 
natory bull of Pius V., repeated or unrepealed by 
Gregory XIII., Sixtus V., Urban VII., Gregory 
XIV., Innocent IX., and Clement VIII., will be re- 
quired at the hands of those sovereign lords, their 
real murderers, at the day of just retribution, when 
neither bribery, nor force, nor fraud, will be of any 

Sutton Coldfield, 

September 15, 1840. 

* As a signal specimen of the literary knavery of Rome, 
and of the hard game it has to play, I will give in a final note, 
the result of a rather minute examination which I have made 
in the instance to be brought forward. In my Memoirs of 
the Council of Trent, pp. 277-9, I had occasion to notice, after 
James and others, a notorious and interested corruption of a 
passage in Cyprian, de Unitate Ecclesite. This is not the spe- 
cimen I now propose to introduce, but another, relative to an 
edition of CHRYSOSTOM'S Epistle to Ctesarius, first brought to 
notice in the Latin translation by Peter Martyr, who found it 
in a library of Florence, and presented it to Archbishop Cran- 
mer ; with the dispersion of whose library it was lost : Cardinal 
Perron thence obtained the opportunity, which he did not suf- 
fer to escape, of questioning its existence. It was, however, 
discovered in the Florence Library, and printed by EMERIC 
BIGOT, with PALLADIUS'S Life of Chrysostom, which formed the 
first and main article, in 1680, at Paris. The doctors of the 
Sorbonne were not pleased with it ; and before the publication, 
obtained the suppression and abstraction of the leaves both of 
the Epistle, and of the part of the preface referring to it ; and 
indeed of some others, as we shall see. Archbishop WAKE 
fortunately got possession of those very leaves, and pub- 
lished them in his Defence of his Exposition, &c. in 1686, Ap- 


pendii, pp. 142, &c. They had been published in the 
preceding year by LE MOYNE. See JENKYNS'S Remains of 
Cranmer, ii. 325, note. The genuineness of the Epistle 
is now, though reluctantly, admitted by the Benedictine 
editors of Chrysostom. I propose, however, to be a little 
more minute upon the subject, and lay before the reader some 
corroborating phenomena in the copy which I possess. The 
first leaf, then, containing the title-page, must have been sub- 
stituted ; for the contents of the volume are there enumerated, 
and the Epistle does not appear. The leaf after the Dedicatory 
Epistle must likewise be a substitution for the same reason. 
And here a new and positive deception commences ; for the 
article, following the Epistle in question, has the page 225 
assigned to it, though 229 is assigned to that immediately 
preceding. It was en regie to begin the mystification at due 
distance from the point of main imposition; and a mistaken 
number might most hopefully be thrown upon the carelessness of 
the printer, as has been profitably done in other cases. We 
now get to the Prefatio, Signat. I (2). This is a substituted 
leaf, in the place of two leaves, or four pages from Signat. 
i(2) recto to I (3) verso. But the curious and elucidating 
circumstance in my copy is this. The substituted leaves 
would, of course, be fresher than the rest, and would, in tech- 
nical phrase, be set off on the opposite page, if, as appears to 
be the fact in my copy, the two were placed in contact too 
early. This has been the case in my copy, and must have 
taken place while the work lay in sheets, or before binding. 
Now both the sides, or pages, of the substituted leaf of the 
Prefatio are found set off one upon a leaf (likewise substi- 
tuted) immediately preceding the Epistle under view, for a 
reason which will appear; the other on the fly-leaf at the end. 
We now proceed to the main article, the Epistle itself. It was 
necessary to dismiss the immediately preceding leaf, because 
the Epistle began on the verso of that leaf. The Epistle oc- 
cupied that verso, or page, and four leaves, or eight pages 
besides. They are numbered, as in the Preface, in Wake's 
restoration, in the margin. But here was something of a 
difficulty : the sudden advance of the pages would betray the 


abstraction. A true son of Rome is seldom at a loss for 
resources. The page preceding the substitution is 234 ; the 
next would be 235; but the careless printer might naturally 
mistake the middle number and make it 245. Here is a new 
confusion in an unsuspicious place. Then, next to this sub- 
stituted leaf is another quite new, and blank, with only a ge- 
neral title of what follows, with no page, and with the sig- 
nature (to get on) Hh, when it should in order be Gg iii. 
Then we land on the next article with its due and original page 
245, which was provokingly anticipated by the careless printer, 
and the signature Hh iii another advance. The second of the 
two substitutes here mentioned is set off on p. 234, and we 
shall find the first likewise performing the same act. For, let 
the reader know, another substituted leaf was necessary, which 
is the last, being the last of the Index ; and that Index being 
a particular one of the first and main article, the Life by Pal- 
ladius, there followed another, at the end of which was the 
Privilegium. That last Index would let out all. It was there- 
fore dismissed, and with it the last leaf of the former Index, in 
order, with a new leaf, to get in the Privilegium at the end. 
This is done ; the substituted page is found set off on the recto 
of the substituted leaf immediately following p. 234, while, at 
the same time, it receives the impression, of which we were in 
quest, of the very page, falsely numbered 245. 

It is seldom that fraud presents us with so many subsidiary 
points of detection, so minute, so accidental, and yet so de- 

This instance of disgraceful exposure, it might have been 
expected, would have taught Roman editors a little caution. 
But the instance exactly similar in the case of Baluzius's 
edition of Cyprian, and in which nearly the same phenomena are 
visible, proves that the Church of Rome, on even a moderate 
temptation, does not know how to act honestly. 

At pp. 106, 7, where Ferrari is referred to as declaring, that 
the reading of prohibited books, even where the prohibition is 
not enforced, is yet, and nevertheless, a violation of a precept 
of the Church, it should perhaps have been added, that such 
violation is in the Papal code a mortal sin, subjecting to eternal 


death. So Dr. JAMES BUTLER, in his popular Catechism, 
approved by Dr. DOYLE, Dublin, 1827, p. 52, " Q. Do the 
precepts of the Church oblige under pain of mortal sin'! A. 
Yes; He that will not hear the Church," &c. So likewise in H. 
T[UBERVILLE]'S Abridgement of Christian Doctrine, Permissu 
Snperiorum, p. 66, " Q. What sin is it to break any of these 
Church commandments? A. A mortal sin of disobedience," 
&c. It is the same in Dr. DOYLE'S edition of this work, p. 70. 
Dublin, Coyne, 1828. 

C A T H A L 0- 



* * 


colligi potuerut a uiris Catholicis, fup- 

plendus in dies, fi qui alii ad noti- 

tiam deuenerint, de commif- 

fione Tribuna- 


Sanctiflimae inquifitionis Ve- 




N O M I N A 



quorum scripta a Catholicis 

Legi prohiben- 



ACT A colloquii Ratisponce. 
Acta Comitiorum Augusta. 
Acta Concilii Tridentini an- 
no M.D.XLVI. celebrati, una cum 
annotationibus piis lectuq; dignissimis. 
Acta AdelpM Clarenbach. 
Achilles P. Gassarus medicus Augu. 
Adam Rysser. 
Admonitio ministrorum uerbi Argenti- 


Aenecp Sylvii sen Papce pii ii commen- 
taria de actis fy gestis Cone. Basilece. 
Aetius Anomocus. 

Alexander Alexius {Lamb. Gallam. 

Alchoranus Franciscanorum. per Franc. 
A Ich o ra nus Mali u metis. 
AlpJionsus Aemilius. 
Alphonsus de Valdes. Hispanus. 

A 2 Alpha- 

Alphabetum Christianum. 


Alnordus. (Illyrici. 

Arnica fy humilis fy devoid admonitio. 

Ambrosius Blaurerus. 

Andreas Carolostadius. 

Andreas Althameri. 

Andreas Hosiander. 

Andreas Hipperius. 

Andreas Knopen. 

Andreas Bondestein carolost. 

Assertio ortodoxa utriusq; in Christo na- 

tur<B) contra varias hcereses. 
Antonius Anglus. 
Antonius Coruinus. 
Antonii Bruccioli commentaries Italica. 
Antonius Halieus. 

Antonius Syrri. (Jiar. 

Anathomia excussa Marpurgii per Oc- 
Annotationes in Gulielmum Postellu. 
Annotationes in chronicd Abbatis ursperg. 
Alchirnia Purgatorii. 
Apologia confessionis. 
Apotegmata Vadegii. 
Aricus confessor. 
Arsatius Scqfer torn. pri. gl. 


Articuli a Facilitate Theolog. Parixi- 

nun Antidoto. 
Arnaldus de Monte Auerni. 
A mold us de Villa noua in operibus, qucp 

sequuntur. Videlicet. 
Libellus cuius est titulus de humilitate 4* 

patientialesuChristi, fy incipit. Filia 

amor naturalis. 
Libellus cuius est titulus de finemundi, <$ 

incipit. Entes per uostres lettres. 
Libellus cuius est titulus. Informatio Be- 

guinorum sen lectio Narbon. fy inci- 
pit Toes aquelles. 
Libellus cuius est Titulus ad Priors 

san deCharitate <^r incipit. Beneit sia 

fy loaf lesu Christ. 
Libellus cuius est Titulus. Apologia $ 

incipit, Adeaquceperuestras: seu lite- 

raquce incipit. Domino suo cJiarissimo. 
Libellus cuius est Titulus, Denunciatio. 

factacordm Domino Episcopo Gerun- 

den. Sf incipit, Coram nobis. 
Libellus cuius est Titulus, de Eleemosina 

fy Sacrificio, fy incipit, A I catholic I i 

Libellus qui incipit, Perco molts desigen 


A 3 Libel! us 

Libellus cuius est titulus, Alia informatio 

Beguinoru, et incipit, Alculciuadoris. 
Libellus qui incipit. Davant nos senyer en 

iac per la gratia deDeu Rex d'Arago. 
Libellus qui incipit, Quant fuu- 

Libellus cuius est Titulus. Responsio 

contra Bernardum Riccardi. 
Augustinus de Roma Episcopus Naza- 

Augustini Mediolanen. apostatcp Sermo- 



^T%Artholomeus Vuestemeri. 

^^ Bartliolomeus lanoues, dircot. 

Bartholomeus Codes. 

Bartliolomeus Conformi. Germ, in missam 
cum pr&fatione Mart. Luth. 

Balthasar Hiebmaier. 

Balthasar Pacimonthanus epistolte Tuc. 

Baptista Lasdemius. 

Basiliensis Ecclesice ministrorum, cur mis- 
sam abol. 

Beatus Renanus. 

Beneficium Christi. 

Bernadinus echinus. Senensis. 

Berengarius de Monte Falcone. 



Bernensis disputatio Helvetica. 

Bertholdus Alerus. 

Bibliotheca uniuersalis. Gasneri. 

Biblia Sebastiani Castallionis. 

Biblia Roberti Stepliani cum duplici 

translatione, Sf annotationibus. 
Biblia Tigurina. 
Brevis tractatus ad omnes in Christia- 

nam libertatem maleuolos. 
Brevis disputatio Heluetica. 
Brevis fy compendiosa instructio de Re- 

ligione Christiana. 
Fratris Baptistce de Crema opera. 


f^Aprici del Bottaio. 
^^^ Caspar Cruciger. 
Capita religionis antiquce. 
Caricus Cogelius. 
Caronte Dialogi, versi ex hispano. 
Catalogus Papce fy Mosis. 
Catechismus cui Titulus. Qual maniera. 
Catechismus Ecclesice Argentoratensis. 
Catechismus major fy minor. 
Catechismus minor. 

Catectiismus pro Ecclesia Vuirterber- 

A 4 Catech- 


Catechismus Tubingensis. 

Catechismus super Euangelium Marci. 

Catechismus sive Symboli expositio. 

Catechismus sive explicatio Symboli A- 
postolorum. (tar. 

Catechismus quo Geneuesis Ecclesia uti- 

Catechismus puerorum in fide, litteris $ 

Cellarius Christophorus Tronuerus. 

Centum gravamina. 

Christophorus Hegendorphinus. 

Christophorus Hoffman. 

Christophorus Melchofier Zuinglianus. 

Chrisostomus cum Scholiis Oecolampadii. 

Christiana institutio. 

Christiance Scholce epigrammatum lihri 

Christiana responsio ministrorum Eunn- 
gelii Basilece. Cur missam. 

Civitatis Magdeburgen. publicatio lit- 
ter arum ad omnes Christi fideles an- 
no. 1550. 

Claudius Taurinensis. 

Clemens Maroth. Gallas. 

Ccelius Hedus. 

Ccelius Secundus. 



Congregatio sive collectio insignium con- 
cordantiarum Biblice. 

Collectanea demonstrationum ex Propke- 
tis, Apostolis, Sf Doctoribus Ecclesice 
Christi, quod Spiritus sanctus d solo 
Poire procedit. 

Commentaria Germanics in Cornelium 

Comitia Spirce celebrata. 

Comitia Vuormatientia. 

Consiglio d'alcuni Episcopi congregati 
in Bologna. Verg. 

ConcordanticB grcecce noui Testament i. 

Concilium Pisanum. 

Condones de decent prceceptis dominicis. 

Confessio Ecclesice Tigurince de cena Do- 

Confessio exhibita in Comitiis Augustce. 

Confitendi modus. 

Confutatio unius fy propositionum de dif- 
ferentia legis fy Evangelii. 

Confutatio determinations doctoru Pa- 
risiensium contra Martinum. 

Conciliabulum Theologicorum adversus 
bonarum litterarum studiosos. 

Conradus Tremice de Fridesleven. 

Conradus Gesnerus. 

A 5 Conradus 


Conrad us Pellicanus. 

Conradus lagus. 

Conradus Hoffman. 

Conradus Clauserus. 

Copia d'una letter a scritta alia quattro 

di Genaio. 1550. Verg. 
Coptis Cliristianus. 
CordigercB nauis conftagratio. 
Conventus Augustensis. 
Conhardus Semius. 
Crato Mylius in Cronica Vrspergen. 


ntis Monarchia. 
Desiderius Longobardus. 
Dialogus doctrines ChristiancB. 
Dialogus multis interrogationibus fy re- 

Dialogus obscurorum uirorum, in quo col- 

loquuntur tres TheologL 
Dialogi adversus loannem Ecchium. 
Dialogi Murnarus Leviathan. 
Dialogus Carstans fy Kegellians. 
Dialogi duo quorum prior de costio alter 

Eccius monacus. 
De gemina uerborum Domini interpreta- 

tione. Hoc est corpus meum. 
Declaratione del Giubileo. Verg. 



Di sordine della Chiesa. Verg. 

Disputatio Bernensis. 

Disputatio Groningensis. 

Dyctelmus Cellarius. 

Didymus Fauentinus vel Melanthon. 

Dionysius Meleander. 

Discorsi sopra li Fioretti di San Fran- 
cesco. Verg. 

Dottrina vecchia $ nova. Vrb. Regii. 

Due lettere d'un Cortigiano nelle quali si 
dimostra die la Fede. Verg. 

Durianus Nouariensis. 

Duce disputationes Heffordiance Langi, 
fy Meclerii. 


I ^Rasmus Ritter. 

^^ Erasmus Sarcerius. 

Erasmus Alberus. 

Erasmus Scaphurius. 

Erasmus Benedictus Silesius. 

Erasmi Rotho. annotationes in nouum Te- 


Paraphrasis in eundem. 
Annotationes super Hieronimum. 
De Sarcienda Ecclesice concordia. 



Enchiridion militis Christiani. 


Modus orandi Deum. 

Modus confitendi sine exomeloges. 

Prcefatio in diuum Hilarium. 

Christiani matrimonii institutio. 

Eccius dedolatus libellus. 

Elementa Christiana ad instituendos pu- 


Enchiridion Christianismi. 
Eobanus Hessus. 

Erhardus Hegenuald. (Bruc. 

Epistolce pice et Christiance di Gratia dio. 
Epitome belli Papistarum contra Ger- 

Epitome decem prceceptorum prout queq; 

Christianum cognoscere decet. 
Epistola apologetica ad sinceriores chri- 

stianismi sectatores. 
Expositione dell 1 Oratione del Signore 

inuolgare, compostaperun Padre non 

Espositione sopra il salmo, Beati immacu- 

lati, di Giovan Battista Vergerio. 

Vescovo di Pola. 
Euuagrius Ponticus. 
Euangelicce condones Dominicarum to- 

tius anni. 



Euangelium ceternum directorium. 

britius Capito. 

Ferrago concordantiarum. 
Fasciculus rerum expetendarum fy fugi- 

Federicus Cardinalis Fregosius de modo 


Firmanus Clhorus. 
Franciscus Lambertus. 
Sancti Francisci nocturna apparitio. 
Franciscus Card. Zabarellus de Schismate, 

cum pr&fatione impress. Argentine?. 
Franciscus Gutterus. 
Franciscus Enzinas. Hispanus. 
Franciscus Stancarus Mantuanus. 
Fridericus lacob de Antruyl. 
Frisias Orientalis. 
Faustus Regiensis Galliarum Episco- 


Franciscus Grisonius lustinopolitanus. 

Alasius cuius est defensio Zuingl. 

Gaspar Cruciger. 
Gaspar Megander Liguriensis. 
Gaspar Hedio. 
Gaspar Bruschius. 



Gaspar Scuenkfeldius. Anabaptista. 

Gaspar Huberinus. 

Gaudenti Epistolce. 

Georgius Spalatinus. 

Georgius Vogler. 

Georgius Maior vita Patrum, cum prcefa- 
tione Lutheri. 

Georgius Batten. 

Georgius Aemilius. 

Geographia universalis, Basilece per Hen- 
ri rum Petri Munsteri. 

Geomantice opera. 

Gerardus Listrius in moriam Erasnri. 

Gerardus Sorichius de missa eroganda. 

Gerardus Nouiomagus. 

Gerardus Neomagus. 

Gilbertus Cognatus. 

Guilelmus Occham. 

Guilehmu de Sant. Ainore. 

Guilelmus Postellus. 

Guilelmus Pharellus. 


De Gratia Dei fy liber o eius velociq; 

Guilelmus Aurifex in rifex. 

G ulielm us Sartius. 



T^fElias Pandocheus. 

Henricns Cornelius Agrippa. 

de occulta philosophia fy 

de uanitate scientiarum. 
Henricus Bomius. 
Henricus Senen. ordinis Minorum. 
Henricus V -ther. 


Henricus Lupulus. 

Henricus Tolosanus. 

Henricus Bullingerus. 

Hermanus Bonus. 

Hermanns Bodius. 

Hermanus Buschus. 

Hermanus Hessus. 

Hermanus Italus. 

Hermanus Aberingus. 

Hermanus Hiszuuich. 

Hermani Episcopi Colon, deliberatio. 

Heinr. Montprot. 

Hiob Gast. 

Hieronymus Schurpff de S. Gallo. 

Hieronymus de Praga. 

Hieronimus Bassanus. 

Hieronymus Sauonen. 

Hieronymo Cato di Pesaro. 



Hidromantite opera omnia. 

Historic/, uera de morte Sancti loannis 

Didiaci Hispani dfratre interfecti. 
Hippophili Melangei compendiu Theolo- 

Hortensius Tranquillus. 
Hugo Latimerus Anglus. 
Huldricus Echkstem. 
Huldricus Zuinglius. 
Huldricus Huttenus. 
TAnus Cornarius Medicus. 

lacobus lustus Durandus. 
lacobus Zeglerius. 
lacobus Rueff. 
lacobus Prcepositi. 
lacobus Bedrotus. 
lacobus Dachser. 
lacobus Schenck. 
lacobus Strauiz. 
lacobus Vitundus. 
lacobus Scheueh. 
lacobus Strant. 
lacobus Icolerius. 
lacobus Dedeotus. 

lacobus Faber in euangelia $ in episto- 



Institutio In this deficient leaf the preceding 
catchword proves that the first word must have been 
Institutio. There is no article, indeed, beginning 
with that word in the next Index of Paul IV., nor 
in the following Tridentine of Pius IV. ; but in the 
very next, the suppressed one of Sixtus V., there are 
two Institutio Principis, and Institutio Religionis 
Christianee impressa Vuirtenbergee, anno 1536. 
Both these entries are likewise found in the next, 
Clement VHIth's, Index, and one or other, or both, 
were probably in the present Catalogue. In con- 
jecturing what may have been the names or titles 
besides in the leaf in question, we can have no bet- 
ter guide than the immediately succeeding Index, 
that of Paul IV. already adverted to ; and there, al- 
though demonstrably more extended, we find but 
the names of Janus, Gasparus, and five loachimus's, 
between lacobus and loannes, which last begins with 
the sirname, Aepinus. After this we might, not 
unreasonably, expect to find, of those in. the latter 
Index, the names in alphabetic order, of ^Brentius, 
Calvinus perhaps it was too early for Foxus 
Frith, Hoperus, a Lasko, Oecolampadius, Sleidanus, 
Staupitius. The first name in the next leaf, Stigelius, 
comes next. The whole number of names in Paul 
IVth's Index is too extended to be brought within 
the space of this single leaf. 

Institutio Religionis Christiana. 

Introductio Puerorum. 

loannes Aventinus. 

Joannes Aepinus. 

loannes Agricola. 

loannes Brentius. 

loannes Baptista Piscatorius. 

loannes Bugenhagius Pomeranus. 

loannes Bomelius. 

loannes Botzein. 

loannes Briesmannus. 

loannes Balistarius. 

loannes Caluinus. 

loannes Chrisostomus cum Scholiis Oeco- 


loannes Cassianus de libero arbitrio. 
loannes Daczer. 
loannes Drachoniles. 
loannes Muchkius. 
loannes Eudlich. 
loannes Frederus. 
loannes Filonius. 
loannes Forsius Heluetius. 
loannes Froschius. 
loannes Gastius. 
loannes Gigans Nortus amoy. 
loannes Gochiii&. 

B loannes 

loannes Cboin b u rgius. 

loannes Huss. 

loannes Hartungus. 

loannes Herolt, acropolita. 

loannes Ireneus. 

loannes a Lasco Baro Polonice. 

loannes Lonicerus. 

loannes Lathman. 

loannes May re. 

loannes Meyer Ber. 

loannes Matter super Apocalyp. 

loannes Oecolampadius. 

loannes ordinis Minorum direct. 

loannes Piscatorius. 

loannes Posselius. 

loannes Pottius. 

loannes Postellus. 

loannes Postellusius. 

loannes de Praga. 

loannes Pomeranus. 

loannes de Poliaco. 

loannes Pupperus. 

loannes Rhellicanus. 

loannes Riuius. 

loannes RodolpJiat. 

loannes de Roecksesana. 


Joannes Stigelius. 

loannes Sapidus. 

loannes Spangenbergius. 

loannes Stumpff. 

loannes Sturmius. 

loannes Sartorius. 

loannes Sleydanus. 

loannes Sazo. 

loannes Scunemitzo. 

loannes de Strunw. 

loannes Scenius. 

loannes de Vuessalia. Doct. 

loannes Vuideff. 

loannes Veltkirch sine Velcurio. 

loannes Vualdesius, Hispanus. 

loannes Vurden. 

loannes Xilotectus. 

loannes Zuiccius. 

loannes Camarius. 

loannes Camerarius. 

loachimus Vadianus. 

lodocus Vuillichius. 

lodocus Vuidschemus. 

lodocus Vbilichius. 

lodocus Vuillhelmus Resselinnus. 

lodocus Vuillichelmus. 

loannes Philologus. 

*) 2 losephus 

losephus Grumpech. 

Justus lonas contra Fabrum. (stimuli. 

lulius de Mediolano Apostata. Augu- 

lulius Dialogus. 

lustus Meuius. 

loannes Buschini de Eucharistia. 

loannis Damasceni Sermo $ eius uita, 

per Oecolampadium versa, 
loannes li caula. 
loannes Montholon. 
loannes Reuclin. 

loannes Eluiso cu Scoliis Oecolampadii. 
loannes Genesius. 

loannes Rodophante contra Papistas. 
loannes Homburgius. 
loannes Antonius Panther a Parentl- 


loannes Alarco. 
loannes Cuspinian cum Annotationibus. 


T Aurentius Valla de libero Arbitrio 
*~* Sf de falsa Donatione Constanti- 

ni. Romanus. 
Lazarus Spengler. 
Leo ludas. 

Leonardus Culmanus. 
Leopoldus Dikius paraphrast. meditat. 


Leonardus Beier. 


Litania Germanorum. 

Libretto consolatorio a i persueguitati. 

Libellus Militantes. 

Libellus aureus quod idola. 

Libellus consolatorius pro Labor antibus . 

Liber de omnibus actibus Adolphi Cla- 

Loca insignia. 
Loci insigniores. 
Loci utriusq; testamenti complectens prce- 

cipua capita. 

Ludus Piramidum de fide Papistica. 
Lucianus Samosatensis. Asianus. 
Ludouicus Hetzer. 
Ludouicus Olearius. 
Ludouicus Carbaianus. 
Lucas Scrotheistenll. Licentiatus. 
De laude Parochorum fy ministrorum ne- 


1V/1 Artinus Luther. 

Martinus Bucerus. 
Martinus Borrhaus alias Cellar ius. 
Martinus Hog. ber. (Stutgardianus. 
B 3 Martinus 


Martinus Frectitus Pseudoepiscopus 

epistolce Zui. 
Marcus Tullius de officiis cum commen- 

to Xisti Betulei. 

Matthceus Alberus Epistolce Zuingl 
Matthceus cellius. 
Matthceus Greiter. 
Matthceus Concionator Reuthlingen. 

Qui fy Assartius Schoffer. 
Matthceus Zelor. 
Matthceus Schiner formular. 
Matthceus Zifer. 
Matthias Kessler. 
Matthias Boemus. 
Matthias Flaccius Illyricus Istrius. 
Macrobius Carborus. 
Marsilius de Padua. 
Matrimonio delli Preti fy delle Mo- 

nace. Verg. 
Maniera di tenere a insegnare II Jigliuo- 

li Christiani. 
Medicina animce. 

Melchior Kling. (norum. 

Michael de Cesena generalis ordinis Mi- 
Michael Servetus Hispanus. 
Michael Stifelius. 
Michael Rothingius. 



Michael Vueisz. 

Ministrorum verbi Argentinensium ad- 

monitio ad ministros Helueticos. 
Miconius Osualdus Lucernanus. 
Modo di tenere a insegnara di Predicare. 
Maturinus Corderius. 
Munsteri opera. 


Perazonus de arte notoria, 
Nicolaus Borbonius Vandoperanus. 
Nicolaus Cellaring. 
Nicolaus Cabasilas. Grcecus. 
Nicolaus Aemstorpius. 
Nicolaus Amsdorjius. 
Nicolaus de Vuile. 
Nicolaus Galasius. 
Nicolaus Galecus. 
Nicolaus Gerbellius. 
Nigromantice opera omnia. 
Notorice artis opera omnia. 
Nicomediana Calvini. 

f\Sualdus Miconius. 

^^ Ottho Brunselius Maguntinus. 

Oltho Vuerdmullerus Tigurinus. 

B 4 Ottho 

Ottho Binderus Epistolce Oecolamp. 

Onus Ecclesice. 

In Orationem Dominicam saluberrimce ac 

sanctissimce medit. ex libris Cath. P. 
In Orationem Dominicam Comentarius. 
Orandi Modus. 
Oratio Ccelii secundi. 
Orationes Dominicales Griffii. 
Oratio ad Christum Opt. Maximum. 


JT^Aralipomenon rerum memorabilium. 
* Paschasius de Sacram. cum Scholiis 

loan. Gast. 

Pasquillorum tomi duo. 
Pasquillus Ecstaticus. 
Pasquillus prcescriptus a Tridentino 


Pasquillus Semipoeta. Castal. 
Pandectce sacrce Scripturce. 
Passio Martini Lutheri secundu Mar- 


Paulus Fagius. 
Paulus Olearius dejide Concubinarum in 


Paulus Comodus Britanus. 
Paulus SperatuS' 


Paulus Conxtantinus Phrygius. 

Petrus Artopeus. 

Pet r us de Aragonia. 

Pet r us de Anglia. 

Pet r us Gyroneus Oecolamp. 

Petrus Olerius. 

Pc.fnis de Luna. (mis. 

Petrus Martyr Verunglius Florenti- 

Petrus de Ferrariis qui scripsit practi- 

cam Papiensem. 

Petrus loannis Viramensis Buronensius. 
Petrus Dresensis. 
Petrus Mosellanus. 

Petrus Ligneus grave Ligan. Parabol. 
Petrus Viretas. 
Petrus Artopliagus. 
P/tilofefus Ireneus. 
Philippus Melanchton. 
Philaletis ciuis Vtopiensis de facultati- 

bus Romanensibus. 
Philippus Melopher. 
Phrases sacrce Script urce. 

Pifp 4- Christiana Epistolcp. 
Pontificii Oratoris Legatio in Conventu 


Pomponius Mela cum loachimo Vadiano. 
B 5 Pogii 

Pogii Florentini $ Henrici Bebelii fa- 

Prcecationes Christiance ad imitationem 

Prcecationes Biblica*. 
Prcpcationum aliquot, fy piarum medi- 


Processus concistorialis loannis Sluss. 
Piromanticp opera omnia. 
Photinus de Gallogrecia. 


Quamobrem Papce, fy discipulorum eius a 
Martina combusti sunt. 

3 Aplmel Museus. 

Raymundi Lulii opera. 

Infra scripta. 

Liber de Philosophia amoris. 
Liber de centum Dei notninibus. 
Liber contemplationum. 
Liber de septem arboribus. 
Liber de trecentis Proverbiis. 
Liber de confessione, contritions, satisfa- 
ctions, fy oratione. 
Liber de Orationibus. 
Liber a matt fy amid. 
Liber de Benedicta tu. 



Liber de beata Maria. 

Liber de benedicta Trinitate. 

Liber de articulis fidei. 

Liber de doctrina pueriU. 

Liber de planctu Raymundi. 

Liber de intentionibus. 

Liber de arte Amativa. 

Liber de contewplatione, fy est alius a 

Liber de anima. 

Liber Sententiarum. 

Liber apostolicon. 

Receptatio omnium figurarum sacrce scri- 

Reformatio Ecclesice coronen. 

Reinaldus Lorichius. 

Rodolphus Gualtherus Tigurinus. 

Rodolphus Baus. 

Ricardus Anglicus Vuiclefita. 

Ratio cur qui confessionem Augustaiwin 
profiteritur, non esse assentiendum in i- 
y///x concilii Tridentini sententiis. 

Responsio de missa, matrimonio, de iure 
magistratus in Religionem. 

^Ca/petus Vrspergen. 

Sebastianus Castalion. 



Sebastianus Meyer. 

Sebastianus Colditz. 

Sebastianus Munsterus. 

Severus con const. 

Sermones conuiuales. 

Seruetus Hispanus Oecolampa. Epi- 


Simon Hessus. 
Simon Grineus. 
Simon Zultzerus. 
Simon Falterus. 
Sigiberlus monacus Gdllus contra Papam 

Gregorium et contra Epistolas Pas- 

chalis Papcp. 
Simulachri Historic, f figure della 

StepJiani Doleti Cato Christianus <^r 


Stephanus Vintonus Anglus Episcopus. 
Suermenica doctrina. Anabapt. 
Summario della scrittura. 
Summarium in Smaragdum super Euan- 

Supplicatio quorundam apud Helvetios 

e uangelista rum. 
Symphorianus Pollius. 
Synodus Marpugen. ab Vsper. 



Spongia iudicum. 

Speculum ccecorum ad cognitionem euan- 
gelicce ueritatis. 

Themata 114. prope Basileam disputahi- 

ta. 1523. 

Theobaldus Niger ber. 
Theobahhis Billicanus. 
Theobaldus Gerlachius. 
Theodorus Bibliander. 
Tliomas Naogeorgus. 
Thomas Blaurerus. 

Thomas Montzer Tigurinus. (tJiei. 

Thomas Venatorius in primam Thimo- 
Tltomas Muncerus. 
Thomitanus Italus super Mathceum. 
Tragmdia de liber o arbitrio. Francisi'i 

Nigri Bassianatis. 
Troporum Theologicornm. 
Triloquium pro Catliechistis. 
Trigaitius contra quern Cocleus. 
Theodorus Beza. 

Aldentius direct. 

Vuaremondus Luitoldus. 



Vergerius Episcopus de Capo d'histria. 

Vdele Cymber Cusanus Vrsperg. 

Vincentius Obsopceius. 

Viridarii somnium de potestate Papce. 

VitcB P tificum Vuitemberg. impresses. 

Victor de Bordella. 

Vitus Theodorus. 

Vlricus de Hutten. 

Vlricus de Morana. 

Vlricus Delenus. 

Vrbanus Rhegius. 

Vesseli to. primo. 

Vuolffangm F. Capita. 

Vuolffangus Dachstein. 

Vuolffangm Mcesel. 

Vuoljfangus Musculus. 

Vuoljfangus Ruesz. 

Vuolffangus Vuissenburgius. 

Vmnceslaus Linck. 

Vida Doc. lustinopolitanus. 


"V" Istus Betuleius Augustanus. 




liris uitandos du.rit, hi sunt sicut ha- 
betur D. XV. Santa Ro- 
ma na Ecclesia. 

\ Riminensis Sy nodus a Con- 

^^ stantino Cesar e Constant ini 
filio congregata mediant c 
Tauro prcefecto. 

Itinerarium nomine Petri apostoli quod 
appellatur S. dementis lib. VIII. 

Act us nomine Andrece apostoli, Apo- 

Act us nomine PJnlippi apostoli, Apo- 

Actus nomine Petri Apocrifas. (crifus. 

Actus nomine Thomce apostoli, Apo- 

Euangelia Thadei nomine Apocrifa. 

Euangelia TliomcK apostoli nomine (/nl- 
bus Manicliei utuntur. (Apocrifa. 

Euangelia nomine Barnabce tipostoli 

Euangelia nomine Petri apostoli. 

Euangelia quce falsauit Lucianus, Apo- 

Euangelia quce falsauit Yrtius, Apo- 


Liber de infantia Saluatoris vel sanctce 
Maria, de obstetrice Saluatoris Apo- 

Euangelia qucefalsauit Ysitius. 

Liber qui appellatur Pastoris. 

Libri omnes quos fecit Leutius Discipulus 

Liber qui appellatur fundamentum. 

Liber qui appellatur Thesaurus. 

Liber qui appellatur defiliabus Adce. 

Liber qui appellatur actus Thadece fy 

Penthametrum de Christo Virginalis co- 
paginatum uersibus apocrifum. 

Liber qui appellatur Nepotius. 

Liber proverbiorum ab h(preticistranscrip- 
tus, fy sancti Sixti signatus apocrifiis. 

Reuelatio qucp appellatur Pauli apocrifa. 

Reuelatio quce appellatur Thomas apo- 

Reuelatio quce appellatur Stephani apo- 

Liber qui transitus sanctce Marice ap- 
pellatur apocrifiis. 

Liber qui appellatur de pcenitentia 
Adce apocrifas. 

Liber Diogice nomine Gigantis qui post 


diluuium cum dracone ab heretic is 
pugnasse perhibetur, apocrifus. 
Liber qui appellatwr testimonium lob, a- 

Liber qui appellatur pcenitentia origi- 

nis, apocrifus. 

Liber qui appellatur de pcenitentia Ci- 

Liber qui appellatur lance fy Mambrce. 
Liber qui appellatur pcenitentia originis, 


Liber qui appellatur sors apostolorum. 
Liber qui appellatur Lusani. 
Liber qui appellatur Canonumapostoloru. 
Liber Phisiologus ab hcereticis conscrip- 
tus fy beati Ambrosii nomine prcesig- 
natus, apocrifus. 

Historia Eusebii Pamphili, apocrifa. 
Opuscula Tertuliani sine Aphricani. 
Opuscula louiniani Gal//. 
Opuscula Montani fy Pristillce ma.ri- 


Omnia Opuscula Facundi $ Manichfi. 
Opuscula alterius dementis Alexan- 


Opuscula Cassiani presbyteri Gallearu. 
c Opuscula 

Opuscula Victoris Pictaven. 

Opuscula Fausti Regien. Gallia- 


Opuscula Feumentii. 
Opuscula lesu ad Abagarum. 
Passio Quirici fy lulitce. 
So'iptura quce appellatur Salomonis 

Philateria omnia quce non ab Angela 

ut illi confingunt, sed magis d demo- 

ne conscripta sunt. 

Libri damnati per Ecclesiam, qui 

habentur in Decreta- 


Liber loachim quern edidit contra Pe- 
trum Lombardumdeunitate sen essen- 
tia Trinitatis. 

Libri damnati in ex Vag. lo. 
Papce xxii. 

Libelli fratris Michaelis de Cesena 


Generalis minister or dims Mi/to- 


Libri damnati per D. lo. 
Pa pee. xxii. 

Postilla super Apocalypsim. 

Post ilia super Matthceum. 

Postilla super Canonicas. 

Euangelium (sternum edidlt f rater Pe- 
trus loannis ord. min. Rat/. lulu tibri 
damnati per D. Gregorium. 

Liber de Philosophia amoris. 

Liber de centum Dei nominibus. 

Liber Contemplationuin. 

Liber de septem arboribus. 

Liber de trecentis Prouerbiix. 

Liber de confessione, contritione, satisfu- 
ctione, fy oratione. 

Liber de orationibus. 

Liber amati fy amid. 

Liber de Benedicta tu. 

Liber de beata Maria. 

Liber de articulis fidei. 

Liber de doctrina puerili. 

c 2 Liber 

Liber de planctu Raymundi. 

Liber de intentionibus. 

Liber de arte Amatiua. 

Liber de tentatione. 

Liber de oratione i^ es t alms a prccdl- 


Liber de anima. 
Liber Sententiarum. 
Liber apostolicon. 

Libri damnati tempore Innocentii 
PapcB VI. 

Liber uirginale appellatus ceditas Agon- 

dissaluo cochen. 
Liber Salomonis appellatus de Sacrijiciis 

Demonib usfaciendis. 

Tempore Vrbani Pa- 
pee. VI. 

Bartliolomceus de adventu Ckristi. 

Tempore Nicolai Papce. IIIL 


Epistolce Duliani Nauariensis. 

Item in partibus Gallics de mag no 

consilio Magistrorum. 
Libri Nigromantice. 
Libri Geomantice. 
Libri Piromantice. 
Libri Idromantice. 
Libri Ch 'romantice. 
Libri decem Annulonun. 
Libri quatuor Speculorum. 
Libri imaginum Thobice. 
Libri Imaginum Ptolomei. 
Libri Hermetis Magi ad Aristotelem. 
Clavicula Salomonis. 


V EN E Til 8 EX- 




THE policy of the Church of Rome is pre- 
dominant in all her actions. And that policy 
is nearly omnipotent. It is restrained by no 
such checks as are felt and obeyed by all other 
agents, in their degree, whether persons or 
communities. To the policy of the latter both 
real religion and true morality oppose many 
obstructions and restrictions which are insur- 
mountable. But Rome is free and uncon- 
trolled : she has no such fetters : she here 
enjoys, exercises, and riots in, the " liberties of 
her Church" to her extreme content. And this 
freedom naturally arises from her constitution 
and principles. Her supreme and ostentatiously 
professed object is, in her phraseology, the 
glory, or, to adopt the almost appropriated 
motto of her choicest sons, the GREATER glory 


of God; and this, in equivalent terms for 
it must be translated is, her own interest; 
not, as she would bear the world in hand, a 
spiritual interest, but a secular, sublunary 
interest throughout, and from first to last. 
This is the circumstance which releases her 
policy from all the usual restraints, and leaves 
her at liberty to pursue her onward march, 
not only independently of all impediments, 
but in perfect defiance of them. I speak of 
voluntary impediments ; for there are others, 
which, happily for the most valuable interests, 
in all instances, but eminently in that of Rome, 
restrain, counterwork, and defeat, the most 
determined and well-contrived devices of man. 
But distinctly from these, the Church of Rome 
laughs to scorn every chain, which either 
divine or human law has forged to limit human 
iniquity : and, in the way to her aggrandise- 
ment in wealth or any other kind of power, 
tramples upon every claim of truth, fidelity, 
honour, reverence towards God, or humanity 
towards man, with the same freedom and 
indifference as a secular and unprincipled 
individual would hasten to the acquisition of 
a large estate, without suffering himself to be 
diverted from his course, or putting his good 

fortune to any jeopardy, by the payment of a 
visit of ceremony to a simple acquaintance. 

In whatever province Roman policy may be 
employed, this is its character, and such is its 

I am at present concerned with it only as it 
has respect to Literature Literature in par- 
ticular, as embracing Theology and Science. It 
will appear why I instance the last. And in 
this province it will be seen, that the Church, 
impudently claiming inerrancy and supremacy, 
and the more regardless of religious and moral 
restraint, in consequence of that very claim, 
vindicates to her policy the entire of her self- 
chartered liberty. The province to which my 
view is now confined is still mure limited. 
Papal policy takes its unimpeded range over 
the whole territory of letters, and plays its 
game in effects and proofs, which are scattered 
over its whole surface. But it is in the public 
and authorised condemnations of books, either 
as altogether proscribed, or as sentenced to 
various emendation or alteration, issuing: from 

7 O 

the highest authority which the Italian Church 
possesses, that I am now to shew, in the last 
signal, and very modern, instance, (as I have 
hitherto done in a detail from the beginning, 

the most complete in existence,) how little the 
literary policy of that corrupt ecclesiastical co- 
operation can be accused of having slumbered ; 
and how amply the continued and unabated 
heresy, bigotry, falsehood, knavery, and hypo- 
crisy, which shine forth in the production to 
be examined, bear testimony, that the foreign 
Church over which the author of the last Pro- 
hibitory Index presides, is, in this respect, as 
in others where she can, be semper eadem. 

These Papal documents have, from the time 
of their appearance, or rather discovery, ex- 
cited intense interest in the true friends, and 
competent appretiators, of learning, in all its 
branches, especially the more valuable portions 
of it. In a paper on this subject, which the 
editor of the British Magazine did me the 
favour to insert in the volume for 1839, or 
Vol. XV. pp. 162, and following, I adduced 
names to this purpose Avhich would honour 
any cause ; and much honour does not redound 
to those who do not resemble them. Need I 
mention the first librarian of one of the noblest 
libraries in the world, Dr. James ; William 
Crashaw, father of an apostate son, of more 
popular fame, but far inferior worth ; Sir 
Humphrey Lynde ; Alexander Cooke ; Sir 

Edwin Sandys ; Birckbeck ; the last Bishop 
Barlow ; Bishop Taylor ; and the eminently 
learned author of the Historia Literaria ? 

But let us proceed to the main object. My 
intention is, to make the British public ac- 
quainted with a Prohibitory Index of Rome of 
the most recent date, and of which I am happy 
to have become a possessor. Its title is 
INDEX Librorum Prohibitorum Sanctissimi 
Domini JVostri Gregorii XVI. Pontificis 
MaximijusKu editus. Romas, MDCCCXXXV. Ex 
Typographia Reverendae Cameras Apostolicae, 
Cum Summi Pontificis Privilegio. After the 
old Preface of Benedict XIV., follows what 
alone of prefatory matter is peculiar to this 
edition Catholico Lectori Fr. Thomas An- 
toninus Degola Ordinis Pradicatorum Sac. 
Congregationis Indicis Secretarius. After one 
paragraph of not the most elegant Latin,. the 
secretary satisfies himself with repeating what 
a former secretary, Ricchinius, had prefixed to 
an edition of the Index in 1758 ; and he closes 
with announcing a Mandate of Leo XII. in 
1828, and a Monitum of the S. Congregation 
in 1825. The Index, however, is not without 
an interest beyond what it would possess, were 
it merely a new edition of the usual biblical 


censures which the Vatican assumes to itself 
the authority of fulminating. There are some 
entries, which, besides being new, are rather 
remarkable. The reader will observe, under 
the early letter B BLUNT, Vestiges of Ant lent 
Manners and Customs discoverable in Modern 
Italy and Sicily. The sensitive and cautious 
author took some pains not to give offence ; 
but his efforts, it seems, have proved unavail- 
ing. Rome knows no favour where she is 
either hurt or alarmed; and the wounds, which 
such disclosures as those made by our meri- 
torious countryman, open afresh, are peculiarly 
tender. As the reader, that is, the English, 
proceeds, he encounters, at no great distance, 
another countryman, under the title, BUR- 
GESS, LECTURES on the Insufficiency of Unreveal- 
ed Religion, and on the succeeding Influence of 
Christianity, delivered in Rome, if I am not 
mistaken. It will not be amiss to notice the 
Spanish DISSERTACION Historica, Legal, y Po- 
ly tica sobre el Celibato Clerical, par D L. ; 

and, to transgress alphabetic order, on account 
of unity of subject, MATRIMONIO (il) degli 
Antichi Preti, e il Celibato dei Moderni, &c. 
(the two next articles are on the same subject,) 
the subject is the Celibacy, enforced, of the 

Latin clergy. Then appears, HALLAM ARIGO, 
Middle Ages in Italian, and Constitutional 
History of England from , &c. Then, MORGAN, 
LADY, L'ltalie. Not to busy ourselves with 
culling such flowers too diligently, we meet 
with de POTTER, who, for his Vie de Scipion 
de Ricci Eveque de Pistole, et Prato, richly 
deserved a niche among the condemned. 


to which the natural fears of Rome cannot fail 
to give importance, particularly as it would be 
read and studied by all the English visitors of 
the holy city, (more so. perhaps, than the 
books there provided so kindly and disinter- 
estedly for them,) could not be expected to 
escape equal honour. Then there is STORIA 
CHETTO, E DEL suo LATORE, well-known Eng- 
lish tales, the latter by Mrs. Sherwood. These, 
being naturalised, were formidable to Italian 
superstition. So much for the added articles. 
It is of some importance to inquire into 
those which have been omitted. Omissions are 
sometimes very significant, and, in their effect, 
very positive, things. In the Index imme- 
diately preceding that now under examina- 
tion, Pius Vllth's INDEX of 1819, and in its 


Appendix of 1821, we observe standing in its 
proper alphabetic place, TAXES DBS PARTIES 


the present Index it is thrown into the less 
obvious place of ACHEUL JULIAN. No one 
who was not acquainted with the subject, and 
felt some curiosity respecting it, would look 
for the thing under such a name. The subject, 
indeed, is, and ought to be, a sore one to all 
interested in the exculpation and support of 
the Romish religion and Church ; for that 
Church is terribly implicated, not only in the 
proper baseness of the matter, but in the ad- 
ventitious disgrace of the means made use of 
to shelter it from view and reprobation. Added 
to which, the concern to which it refers is far 
less lucrative than it was in days of yore, when 
the gainer, whatever the people might do, 
would applaud and bless himself. The market 
for sacerdotal absolution, dispensation, indul- 
gences, with totquots, in articulo mortis, and 
with purgatorial efficacy, is fairly dead and 
buried, except in Italy, Spain, and Ireland. 
Formerly, the wicked editions of the Taxa, 
particularly those of the Penitentiary, by the 
heretics, were pretty freely adverted to ; but 
even then Rome herself could not muster 

impudence to acknowledge her own genuine 
indisputable productions of this infamous class. 
The reader who wishes to know what is fact 
on this subject need only cast his eye on what 
I have endeavoured to exempt from oblivion, 
in a work entitled Spiritual Venality of Rome. 
And he may go farther to the kindred subject 
of Venal Indulgences in another work of mine, 
if he love, and would improve, truth. The 
present Index forbears to offend the delicate 
eye of the reader with any recognition of the 
Roman Taxes under the letter T, where, of 
course, Taxes should be sought ; and he must 
ferret out the information, which it is most 
desirable to the culprits that he should not 
obtain, under the entries BANCK and PRAXIS. 
And these are heretical editions. Of the 
abundance of her own editions at the close 
of the fifteenth and beginning of the sixteenth 
centuries, beaming forth in full lustre, and 
in imposing array, in every Bibliotheca em- 
bracing the time, and extant at full length in 
the Pontifically accredited Oceanus Juris, in 
more than one edition, the organ of Apostolic 
censorship is as still as death.* 

* The omissions, suppressions, curtailments (one class only 
of Roman fraud), by the highest authorities in the pontifical 

B 2 


There is, however, another omission, or 
rather collection of omissions, which is more 
complete, and far more important, in all re- 
spects ; and upon this it is my purpose to tres- 
pass at much greater length upon my reader's 
patience than I should otherwise feel justified in 
doing. It is the omission, for the first time after 
about two centuries, of the proscribed names of 
CARINI. The pontifical sponge has been applied 
to the triple blot which remained for so long a 
period on the pages of Rome's damnatory Index; 
and her sons are now, for the first time, free 
to think and write what all the world has long 

Church all of them interested are without number. But I 
should like the reader just to recollect the withdrawment of 
the last article of the Creed and Oath of Pius IV., which binds 
the professor and taker by the most solemn obligation to do ail 
in his power for the advancement of his exclusively salvific 
church. The act of knavery was perpetrated, perhaps first, and 
in this country, where it was needed, or was politically neces- 
sary, by Dr. Challoner, a vicar apostolic, and with such de- 
lusive success, that C. Butler, Esq., a learned counsellor, was 
carried away with the device, and brought to the humiliation of 
confessing himself ignorant of the Creed of his own Church. 
The omitted and final clause of that Creed renders practicable 
proselytism to Popery, by whatever means, not only allowable 
but imperative upon all who profess it ; and those are all who 
have cure of souls, together with those who have charge of 

education, and others. See BUTLER'S Vindication, pp. xxvii 

xxix. ; and B. WHITE'S Letter, pp. xvi.-xxxi. 


known to be true philosophy, without disobey- 
ing the solemn and published law of the 
Church, or without having to resort to a fiction 
to evade such disobedience. 

It is well known that the Roman Church 
has, of late, for no inconsiderable time, smarted 
under both the inconvenience and disgrace of 
putting the most exalted of human sciences in 
chains, when in every other territory it had 
long been at liberty. Presumed and exclusive 
orthodoxy in divine science might compensate 
for much deficiency and backwardness in such 
as is simply natural. But even so spiritual a 
community could not easily brook the ridicule, 
if not contempt or rebuke, of being anticipated 
by nations of heretics in what she well enough 
knew to be demonstrable truth ; but was with- 
held, by the shame of reversing past sentences 
and decrees, promulgated in the most solemn 
manner, from joining in its adoption. But the 
time was come for relaxing the rigour of this 
imaginary dignity ; and in the thirty-fifth 
year of the nineteenth century, the dishonour 
became too heavy a burthen to be borne any 
longer ! 

The Sacred Congregation of the Index is a 
body of great importance in the constitution 


of Papal Rome. It has its Prefect, with his 
associated Cardinals, its Secretary, and Con- 
suitors, to a considerable number. The cele- 
brated Dr. Nicholas Wiseman is one of the 
last. The state of heretical countries, and 
particularly the British, more especially when 
his holiness honoured the meeting with his 
presence, would come under very deliberate, 
anxious, and minute examination. All the 
circumstances of this kingdom are as familiarly 
and accurately known to the political rulers of 
the Church of Rome as if those rulers were 
resident in London. Agents, whether official 
or voluntary, are watchfully and actively em- 
ployed in obtaining and transmitting all such 
intelligence as may be essential or useful for 
furthering the advancement and aggrandise- 
ment of the faith and power of Rome ; or for 
crippling, as she cannot yet hope to destroy, 
the faith and power of a heretical community.* 
It must have been peculiarly annoying to 
Rome and her friends, to know how much her 
scientific reputation suffered, particularly in 
England ; and no wonder that some expedient 
should be thought of, as indeed had incipiently 

* Read the solemn information and warning of Dr. C. 
R to the same effect, Columbanus, No. VII. pp. 58, &c. 


been done, to remove the occasion of scandal. 
I do not affirm that the new Index solely or 
principally originated in such a view ; but 
certainly no measure could be better adapted 
to attain a plain object of desire, than the 
publication of a fresh Index with the omission 
which has been stated. 

True it is, that the public heard very little 
about the occasional and frequent lists of con- 
demned books issuing from the highest author- 
ity in the Latin Church, and declaring most 
formally and solemnly her judgments respect- 
ing the various points brought under criticism. 
The public, even the reading and apparently 
informed public, were almost completely igno- 
rant, as they are now, upon that subject ; and 
there was not much disposition in the parties 
most concerned to rouse or enlighten them ; 
they were, with very good will, left to sleep. 
However, Rome knew well enough how things 
stood ; and although, in consequence of popular 
ignorance and indifference, the charge of 
hostility to science against the Roman Church 
was made to rest almost exclusively upon the 
actual persecution of Galileo, for his anti- 
orthodox doctrine respecting the solar system ; 
and this charge was almost exclusively re- 


butted by certain ingenious devices in logic 
relative to the personal treatment of the phi- 
losopher, the better judges abroad saw at once, 
that this charge and defence were of a com- 
paratively transitory description ; but that the 
condemnation, not of the man only, but of his 
doctrine yes, absolutely of HIS DOCTRINE 
was in a record under the hand and seal of 
the Head of the Roman Church, published 
repeatedly for two hundred years, and had 
therefore a permanency of character, which 
rendered it abundantly more important and 
more fatal than the other. By the authority 
of this juster view, we are encouraged to pro- 
ceed with the evidence afforded by the Prohi- 
bitory Indexes of Rome. We shall not, how- 
ever, neglect an investigation of the evidence 
in the other field. For there is something 
important to be said there. In order of time 
the prosecution of Galileo, by the Roman In- 
quisition, his sentence, his abjuration, and con- 
finement, precede the Indicial condemnation, 
which was its natural sequel : but, as it is im- 
portant to establish the fact in view by the most 
decisive and irrefragable evidence in the first 
place, particularly because such an order will 
preclude a good deal of argument rendered 


unnecessary by anticipation, we will examine 
the evidence afforded by the Roman Index. 

We now, then, come to the Index. On the 
5th day of March, 1616, was passed a decree 
of the Sacred Congregation, condemning all 
such books as taught the Copernican doctrine 
respecting the solar system, or that, in that 
system, the sun is the centre, and immovable. 
I have, of course, in a general way, stated the 
main facts of this very observable case, in the 
proper place, in my Literary Policy of the 
Church of Rome; but the circumstances which 
have of late transpired on the subject render 
it expedient to be more diffuse and precise. 
The terms of the condemnation are very de- 
cisive and detailed ; and the whole being 
exceedingly unknown, it will be desirable to 
exhibit them at length. The decree itself, for 
we are not speaking of the entry made, in con- 
sequence, in the body of the subsequent In- 
dexes, is found in three places in the two 
separate Collections of Decrees of the date of 
1624, appended to two different editions of 
Capiferreus's Elenchus, and in the Collection 
which closes Alexander Vllth's Index of 
1664. No. XIV. pp. 307, 8. 


Et quia etiam ad notitiam prsefatee Sacrge 
Congregationis pervenit, falsam illam doctrinara 
Pythagoricam, divineeque Scripturce omnino adver- 
santem de mobilitate Terrse, et immobilitate Soils, 
quam Nicolaus Copernicus de revolutionibus orbium 
ccelestium, et Didacus Astunica in Job etiam do- 
cent, jam* divulgari, et &. multis recipi ; sicuti 
videre est ex quadam epistola impressa cujusdam 
Patris Carmelitae cui titulus Lettera del Reu. Padre 
Maestro Paolo Antonio Foscarini Carmelitano 
sopra 1' opinione de' Pittagorici, e del Copernico, 
della mobilita della Terra, e stabilita del Sole, e il 
nuovo Pittagorico sistema del Hondo, in Napoli per 
Lazzaro Scoriggio 1615, in qua dictus Pater osten- 
dere conatur, prsefatam doctrinam de immobilitate 
solis in centro Mundi, et mobilitate Terrse, conso- 
nam esse veritati, et non adversari Sacrse Scripturee : 
Ideo ne ulterius hujusmodi opinio in perniciem 
Catholicse veritatis serpat, censuit dictos, Nicolaum 
Copernicum de revolutionibus orbium, et Didacum 
Astunica in Job suspendendos esse donee corrigan- 
tur. Librum vero Patris Pauli Antonii Foscarini 
Carmelitse omnino prohibendum, atque damnandum, 
aliosque omnes Libros pariter idem docentes, prohi- 
bendos, prout preesenti Decreto omnes respective 
prohibet, damnat, atque suspendit. In quorum 

* So I venture to correct quam. 

fidera prsesens Decretum manu, et sigillo Illustris- 
simi, et Reverendissimi D. CardinalisSanctseCsecilise 
Episcopi Albanen. signatum et munitum fuit, die 
5 Martii, 1616. 

P. Epis. Albanen. Card. Sanctae Cseciliae, 
Locus f sigilli. 

Regist. fol. 90. 

F. Franciscus Magdalenus Capiferreus Ord. 
Praedicat. Secretarius. 

It will be observed here, that the Coperni- 
can doctrine is condemned, in the first place, as 
false, and then as contrary to Scripture; and 
likewise, that, although other teachers of the 
doctrine are named and condemned, neither 
Galileo nor any book of his is specified ; they 
are, however, both virtually condemned in 
the clause, which includes " all books teach- 
ing the same doctrine." It seems as if the 
terms were selected for the very purpose of 
precluding, or putting to shame, the attempt 
which would be made in a future age to save 
the credit of Rome's philosophic orthodoxy at 
the expense of what was then sincerely deemed 
her theological, and certainly at the expense 
of truth. The Dialoao of the Florentine ap- 
peared in 1632; and, in 1634, he and his book 
were both expressly condemned, together with 


other books, by the Sacred Congregation, in a 
decree of August 13, in the following words : 
Dialogo di Galileo Galilei dove ne i congressi 
di quattro giornate si discorre sopra i due 
Massimi Sistemi del Hondo, Tolemaico, e 
Copernicano. In the Roman Index of 1704, 
we read the general condemnation : Libri 
omnes docentes mobilitatem Terrce et immobili- 
tatem Solis. Not a vestige of any of these 
decisive proscriptions is now to be found in any 
Roman Index. The name of the persecuted 
and condemned reviver of a doctrine now uni- 
versally received, with that of his Dialogo, 
kept their place the last, and were only silently 
and furtively withdrawn in the year 1835. In 
all the preceding Indexes the condemnation, 
not of the man only, but of the DOCTRINE, 
stands an imperishable monument of the igno- 
rance, bigotry, and intolerance of the Roman 

But the reader was to expect associates in 
this disgraceful procedure of the mother and 
mistress of all churches. They were named ; 
and we will notice COPERNICUS, the founder 
of the obnoxious doctrine first. His book, De 
Mundi Revolutionibus, was formally and singly 
condemned by a Decree of the Sacred Congre- 


gation in 1620; neither the month nor day is 
given ; but it is No. XXI in Alexander Vllth's 
Collection. There the Congregation declares, 
that although it was its intention to have alto- 
gether prohibited the work, on account of 
some principles occurring in it repugnant to 
Scripture, and to the Catholic interpretation 
thereof, which the author, non per hypothesim 
tractare, sed ut verissima adstruere non dubitat 
a remarkable hint, which we shall find 
afterwards improved it yet satisfied itself 
with indicating passages to be amended or ex- 
punged, which are specified for about a quarto 
page of small print; rather an indulgence to 
the author, and a risk to itself, as this speci- 
fication, amounting to something like definite 
expurgation, might, as it had before done, 
in the instance of Brasichellen's Expurgatory, 
expose it to difficulties. However, Copernicus 
found his place in the coming Index in this 
wise Nicolaus Copernicus de revolutioni- 
bus orbium, nisi corrigatur, juxta Deer. 1620. 
He kept his place to, and in, the penultimate 
Index of 1819, where the entry is a little 
enlarged ; and, under the name Copernicus, 
giving the date of the day of the Decree by 
which he was confixed, Maii 15, 1620. In 


the last Index he may be sought under either 
Christian or Sirname, but will not be found. 

The same is the fact with the third person 
named as in the same predicament FOSCARINI. 
His name is found up to the Index of Pius VII. 
There he stands Foscarini Paolo Antonio. 
Lettera supra Vopinione de Pittagorici, e del 
Copernico della mobilitd della Terra, e stabilita 
del Sole. Deer. 5 Martii, 1616. This item 
has likewise taken its unceremonious flight.* 

Thus, have the three prisoners in the pope's 
literary gaol, the career ecclesia, very analogous 
to the purgatory which his Church created, 
most unexpectedly and quietly, obtained from 
the consideration or policy of the reigning 
pontiff, Gregory XVI., a happy release from 
their protracted incarceration. His holiness 
at last found that he detained them only to 
plague himself; and, like Pharaoh, he thrust 
them out in haste ; and certainly, with as little 
noise and parade as possible. 

These three illustrious prisoners, had they 
returned to life in 1835, the year of their 

* If the Dublin Reviewer bad any acquaintance with the 
proscribing Indexes of his own Church, one might admire the 
dovelike simplicity which dictated the sentence "Why, 
then, it may be asked, was Galileo, and Galileo alone, 
silenced?" P. 97. 

liberation, with no great violence of applica- 
tion, might have adopted the language of the 
chief Apostle and his companion, when, after 
having been unjustly imprisoned as well as 
punished, the attempt was dishonourably made 
by the magistrates secretly to dismiss them, 
"They have beaten us openly uncondemned, 
being Romans, arid have cast us into prison ; 
and now do they thrust us out privily ; nay 
verily, but let them come themselves and fetch 
us out." The effect was, that the magistrates 
became suppliants.* His holiness has made 
an equally intelligible confession of guilt. 

This, and the other attempts of the friends 
of Rome, to wipe away the Vandalic blot, which 
her own ignorance and tyranny fixed upon 
herself, are little likely to succeed, when the 
self-interest of the procedure, and therefore 
its motive, may so plainly be discovered. If 
from a simple sense of justice and truth, 
and not from the pain of continued disgrace, 
she had thought fit to dismiss from her black 
book the names of men of science, the severity 
of censure in the intelligent observer would be 
disarmed. But when no other consideration 
seems to have stimulated the act, than that of 

* Acts, xvi. 37-39. 


recovering lost or declining reputation, in order 
that an impenitent and incorrigible deceiver 
may continue her spiritual impositions with 
less impediment, we hardly know whether 
it is to the feeling of grief or to that of indig- 
nation that we should give way. 

If any hope of repelling the charge of 
enmity to science, by any of the means made 
use of, were for a moment entertained, it would 
at once be laid prostrate by the necessity under 
which certain Romish editors of Newton felt 
themselves, to use the mask suggested in the 
censure of Copernicus, and hold out the ap- 
pearance of disbelieving a doctrine which it 
was their business and their manifest design 
to teach and recommend : and that, let the 
reader well observe, not because the fate of 
Galileo, as respects the proceedings of the In- 
quisition, deterred them, (although that would 
be a reasonable apprehension, and the conse- 
quent caution natural,) but because they had 
before their eyes the terror of the sentence still 
in force in the Index, with its rules and 
penalties against all who taught, at least pub- 
licly, the condemned doctrine of Copernicus 
respecting the solar system. They were ex- 
pressly the Decrees of the high pontiffs in the 


Index which they dreaded violating, and 
therefore betook themselves to an intelligible 


fiction or evasion. 1 quote the words of the 
extraordinary apology of these editors, from 
the justly celebrated SPEECH OF SIR ROBERT 
HARRY INGLIS, BART, on the Roman Catholic 
Question, May 10th, 1825, a speech emi- 
nently harmonising with the subject of the 
present humble pages, and which, had it suc- 
ceeded, as its merit and cogency entitled it to 
do, perjury would not have obtained legislative 
power, and the purified Christian Church 
established in these realms would not have suf- 
fered the actual damage which she has sus- 
tained, nor have to dread the future increas- 
ing assaults for which she must now prepare. 
We do, indeed, looking above the things in 
our little orb, wrap up all in submission to 
His will, who cannot be otherwise than just, 
and to those who humble themselves under 
His hand will be merciful. The quotation 
which is to be laid before the reader is the 
following: P. P. Le Seur et Jacquier De- 
claratio. Newtonus in hoc tertio Libro telluris 
motse hypothesim assumit. Autoris proposi- 
tiones aliter explicari non poterant, nisi eadem 
quoque facta hypothesi. Hinc alienam coacti 


sumus gerere personam. Cceterura latis a sum- 
mis Pontificibus contra telluris motum Decretis 
nos obsequi profitemur. Tom. iii. Genev. 
1742. Speech, pp. 18, 19, note. No one 
can be so hoodwinked as not to perceive that, 
in the view of these learned men, science was 
under a restraint which could not be resisted, 
and a restraint so disgraceful as to render 
hypocrisy necessary ; and none but such can 
avoid seeing, that the restraint is, and was 
created, by the existing force and operation of 
the Decree of the Index. But the fact speaks 
for itself.* How is it possible to conceive, that 
the pope and his cardinal council, should put 
such importance upon the erasure of three 
names from his Prohibitory Index, which had 
stood there, firm as rocks, for three centuries, 
as to run the high hazard of exposure of the 
clandestine proceeding, and the disgrace of 
publicly repealing his own decree without any 
new or honest reason, unless he were inwardly 
and sufficiently conscious that the main 
strength of the existing evidence against him 
lay in that Index ? This is plainly one of the 

* The example of Galileo put some apprehension into Des- 
cartes. See HALLAM'S Introduction to the Literature of Europe, 
vol. iv. pp. 30, 31. 


reasons, if not the principal, why so strong an 
effort is now made by Papal advocates to shift 
the trial to a new around, where an inferior 


tribunal is concerned ; where the facts are dis- 
tant and may be supposed to be comparatively 
obsolete ; and w r here the case is confined to 
the person of one mart, instead of embracing, not 
only two other persons equally and by name im- 
plicated, but the vast, unlimited mass of those 
who are included in the general and sweeping 
condemnation of all who teach the obnoxious 
philosophy. As the Index of Rome stood, up 
to the present time, or 1835, every baptized 
individual who dared to believe and teach that 
the earth and other planets revolve round the 
sun, and that the sun does not make all sorts 
of eccentric revolutions round them, was sub- 
ject to the literary ban of the Roman Church, 
and, what was an infinitely more important 
concern to him, to all the specified penalties 
which she could inflict. This would be no 
enviable predicament, where that church had 
power, and inducement to use it. 

It will be useful, though not necessary, to 
visit the new ground chosen by the adversary, 
and to remain some time upon it, if for no 
other reason, to expose and put for good to 



shame the sophistication which has been prac- 
tised upon it. 

The defence set up for the Roman Church 
in her treatment of Galileo, is, that it was in- 
flicted, not for his adopted system of Coperni- 
cus, but for his insisting that the system was re- 
concilable with Scripture. It was to be expected 
no other expectation is admissible that he 
would frame his defence so as most directly to 
meet the charge brought against him, which 
was, that his hypothesis was repugnant to 
Scripture. If able, he certainly would feel in- 
clined to justify himself, by at least attempting 
to prove that this was not the fact. And it 
was natural, though of no importance as to the 
substantial charge, that he should repel the 
imputation with some warmth, particularly if he 
were a man of sanguine temperature, which 
appears to have been the case. The mode just 
mentioned of defending the apostolic character 
and proceeding in the present instance has 
been made popular of late by BERGIER, in 
his Encyclopedic Methodique, article, Sciences 

To understand its value it is necessary to 
examine the life of Galileo, in the portion con- 
cerned, with some minuteness. Perhaps, the 


best biography which we possess of this eminent 
man in our own language is that which forms 
a part of the Library of Useful Knowledge, sup- 
posed, and I believe generally admitted, to 
have been written by the late Mr. DRINK- 
WATER BETHUNE. His account, where it con- 
cerns the subject of the present inquiry, has 
been criticised with the asperity, petulance, 
and flippancy, which might be expected from 
a writer in the Dublin Review. The critic 
alluded to is reported to be the Rev. PETER 
COOPER, curate to the Papal usurper of the title 
of Archbishop of Dublin, and the volume in 
which the criticism appears is that for 1838, 
No. IX. 

Galileo, whatever might be the circum- 
stances, was condemned by the Inquisition for 
his Copernicism ; and his condemnation, and 
consequent abjuration, are given at length, and, 
I believe, with perfect accuracy, by Mr. D. B., 
in the thirteenth chapter of his biography, pp. 
55-64. The original documents, as I have 
been informed by a very competent friend, not 
having the work in my own possession, are 
to be seen in VENTURI'S Memoric e Lettere 
di Galileo Galilei, Modena, torn. ii. pp. 


A Life and Letters of Galileo were pub- 
lished in Italian, in a series, at Venice in 1826. 
The Life occupies the first place, and is sup- 
plied by a friend of his, Vincenzio Viviani, in 
the form of a letter to the Duke of Tuscany. 
The letter, of course, is a long one, and about 
the middle of it the writer introduces the ob- 
noxious tenet of his friend, which he himself 
affects to condemn. The narrative then pro- 
ceeds to Galileo's summons to Rome in 1632, 
and the gentle treatment which he received 
from the pontiff, Urban VIII. He, however, 
was obliged to retract his error ; and his 
Dialogue, which contained it, was prohibited. 
He was likewise put in easy confinement in dif- 
ferent places, the last of which was Arcetri 
on many accounts acceptable to him. His 
biographer proceeds to write, that the Dialogue 
had been translated into various European lan- 
guages, and that therefore it was impossible to 
suppress the error, a circumstance very mor- 
tifying to Galileo. So much for the Life. 

The Letters are more promising. The first, 
which immediately concerns the objection to the 
offensive doctrine, is to P. B. Castelli, dated 
Firenze, 21 Dicemb. 1613. Galileo there 
mentions the inquiry of the Grand Duchess of 


Tuscany on the subject, and the answers of his 
Paternity to them ; suggesting, with respect to 
the Scriptures, that he might have represented 
them as not always to be interpreted literally ; 
as, for instance, when human members and 
human affections are ascribed to the Deity. 
He adds, that the Bible was intended to in- 
struct mankind in the way of salvation, and not 
philosophy, otherwise it would have been more 
copious on that subject. He afterwards adverts 
to the miracle of Joshua, and contends, that it 
is as consistent with his hypothesis as the 

Some other topics of defence are added. 

The biographer of Galileo (ch. xi. pp. 46, 47) 
gives an extract from a letter of his to the 
Grand Duchess, where he recommends his op- 
ponents to examine themselves the arguments 
on the subject of his philosophy, and leave the 
condemning them as erroneous and heretical to 
whom it belongs ; but he trusts that the caution 
of the holy fathers, and the absolute wisdom of 
Him who cannot err, will preserve them from 
such temerity. In such positions, which are 
not articles of faith, no man, he says, " doubts 
but his Holiness hath always an absolute power 
of admitting or condemning them, but it is not 


in the power of any creature to make them to 
be true or false, otherwise than of their own 
nature, and in fact they are." The author, 
Mr. D. B., immediately subjoins : " We have 
been more particular in extracting these pass- 
ages, because it has been advanced by a writer 
of high reputation, that the treatment which 
Galileo subsequently experienced was solely in 
consequence of his persisting in the endeavour 
to prove that the Scriptures were reconcilable 
with the Copernican theory, whereas we see 
here distinctly that, for the reasons we have 
briefly stated, he regarded this as a matter 
altogether indifferent, and beside the question." 
Bergier is referred to, and the passage quoted 
in a note. It will be seen in the sequel why I 
have introduced this extract. I wish Mr. 
D. B. had shewn himself better acquainted 
with the Roman Indexes than the note, p. 59, 
discovers him to have been. It would, as the 
reader will have seen, have strengthened his 
argument abundantly and even conclusively. 

The next letter, February 16, 1614, ob- 
serves, with respect to the preceding, that it was 
written currente calamo ; and the writer adds, 
that he had shewn more zeal for the Church 
and for the dignity of the Scriptures than his 


adversaries had done, since they desired the 
prohibition of a book [meaning Copernicus's], 
permitted so many years by the Church without 
having seen it, much less read and understood 
it. And concerning Copernicus, he continues, 
that he was a Catholic and canon of the Church, 
called to the last Lateran Council under Leo X., 
to assist in a reform of the Calendar, and that 
he settled every thing upon the new system, 
and dedicating the book in which it appeared 
to Paul III., without exciting any scruples; 
and now the good monks reward his labours 
by getting him declared a heretic. But 
the jest of the charge was, that he (Gali- 
leo) had the credit of a doctrine which be- 
longed, not to a living Florentine, but to a 
dead German, who published it seventy years 
ago, dedicating the work to the chief pontiff. 
The writer, before he closes, expresses his 
supreme submission to his superiors. 

Galileo had the odium philosophicum, as 
well as the odium theologicum, to contend with, 
of both of which he complains with some 
warmth in letters written in 1616.* 

* Dr. PRIESTLEV, in the Preface to the first volume of his 
Disquisitions relating to Matter and Spirit, writes, " The most 


In one of the 12th of March in the same 
year, from Rome, writing' to the secretary of 
the Grand Duke, he says, that the Congrega- 
tion of the Index had determined, that the 
opinion of Copernicus was not in unison with 
the Scriptures, and that the work should be 
suspended donee corrigatur ; but that, the cor- 
rection made, nothing more would be objected 
to, except the intimation in the preface, that 
his opinion was not at variance with Scripture, 
and the end of the tenth chapter of the first 
book, where he says of his system, such is the 
Divine fabric of the Most High. Galileo 
waited upon his holiness, who received him 
most graciously, and declared that he and 
his Congregation would admit no charge of 
his enemies against him lightly. 

In the following letter to the Grand Duke, 
dated Firenze, May 23, 1618, keeping to the 
same subject, he professes (with obvious irony) 
the profound submission of his weakness to 
the superior intelligence of his censors, and 
talks of his theory as a poem or a dream : but, 
adds he, as poets value their own fancies, so he 

rancorous opposition, and the most unprovoked abuse that I 
have met with, has been from persons who never knew any 
thing of me but in the character of a philosopher." 


has some esteem for his trifle or chimera. He 
thought that, as Copernicus had been left un- 
touched for about eighty years, he might hope 
to escape : but a celestial voice dissipated the 
whole vision. 

A subsequent letter, dated Bellosguardo, 
March 7, 1631, to the Secretary of the Grand 
Duke, states that the writer had submitted 
his work, containing the Copernican doctrine, 
to the Master of the Sacred Palace, previously 
to publication at Rome, and that the latter had 
given his license with his own hand. He was, 
however, prevented from printing there by the 
death of his friend, Cesi, head of the Academy 
de' Lincei, and determined to print it where 
he was. Upon that the Master of the Sacred 
Palace wished to have another sight of the 
work, which was rather inconvenient ; and a 
consultor of the Inquisition was appointed to 
revise it on the spot, which he did with ex- 
treme scrupulosity, and earnestly advised the 
publication. There were, however, delays 
from Rome, where fresh authority was wanted, 
and this discomposed the writer. 

The work, nevertheless, was published [at 
Florence in 1632, 4to.] ; for in a letter in De- 
cember of 1633, Galileo writes to V. Renieri 

some account of what followed, particularly his 
audience before the officials 'of the Inquisition. 
He was lodged in a delicious palace near the 
Tuscan Ambassador's, and thence by the Com- 
missary of the Inquisition was conveyed to the 
palace of the Holy Office, with many efforts on 
the way to convince him of the scandal given 
by his opinion. Here others beset him, and 
particularly with Scripture, which he answered 
in the usual way; but puzzled his examiners with 
an unexpected passage from Job, at which they 
shrugged up their shoulders (solito refugi o di 
chi e persuaso per prejudizio e per anticipata 
opinione). " Finally," lie says, " I was obliged, 
as a true Catholic, to retract my opinion, and 
for a punishment my Dialogue was pro- 
hibited,"* &c. After five months he left 
Rome, and came to Florence ; thence he pro- 
ceeded to Bellosguardo, and lastly to Arcetri, 
whence the letter is dated. 

Omitting some following letters of just com- 
plaint, I will conclude with one from Arcetri, 
where he still was, of the year 1637, to the 

* Finalmente, fni obbligato di ritrattare come vero Catolico 
mia opinione, e in pena mi fu proibito il Dialogo, &c. The 
latter clnuse has been falsely, and apparently with design, 
translated " as a punishment T have been deprived of the 


King of Poland. It concerns a philosophical 
commission, which, the writer says, he had 
executed as well as he could, considering he 
was still in the prison where he had continued 
for three years, by order of the Holy Office, for 
having printed the Dialogue concerning the 
two systems, although with the license of the 
same Office, that is, of the Master of the Sacred 
Palace in Rome. This, and other similar 
books, he knew were seen by his Majesty and 
his savans, who could therefore judge, whether 
there were in them doctrine more scandalous, 
more detestable, and more pernicious to Christ- 
ianity, than is contained in the books of Cal- 
vin and Luther, and all the other heresiarchs 
put together. This opinion, however, was so 
impressed upon the mind of the pope, that the 
book remained prohibited, and himself was af- 
flicted with ignominy, and condemned to prison 
at the will of his holiness; "which," he adds 
"will be for ever. But whither is passion 
transporting me? I return to the lenses," &c.* 

* restando in tuttavia nella carcere, dove da tre 

anni * * * * sebbeue con la licenza del medesimo S. 
Officio, doe del maestro. * * * * eppure questo concetto 
e stato talmente impressionato nella mente del papa, che il libro 
resta proibito, ed io con ignominia afflitto e condannato alia 
carcere ad arbitrio di sua Santita, che sara in perpetuo. Ma 


It may, perhaps, appear to the reader of 
these few extracts, that the punishment in- 
flicted upon the philosopher was, in his esti- 
mation, not quite so gentle as is sometimes 
represented. It will appear, likewise, that 
they recognise two different, but harmonious, 
proceedings, by two principal organs of author- 
ity in his own Church the Congregation of 
the Index, and the Congregation, or Tribunal, 
of the Inquisition, at the head of both of which 
is his holiness himself, of the latter as sole 
prefect.* It is with the latter we are now 
concerned ; and the extracts which have been 
given plainly enough prove, that the real 
charge against Galileo was, his assertion and 
publication of the Copernican system, and that 

dove mi trasporta la passione ? Torno ai cristalli, &c. The 
author has availed himself of former inquiries on this subject, 
in an article which may be read in the Protestant Journal for 
1834, pp. 65 and following a periodical which, with a few 
exceptions, contains more well-founded discussion of matters 
in controversy between the Churches of England and Rome 
than is to be found iu any other periodical devoted to that 

* Michele Ghislieri, before he ascended the Papal throne, 
under the name of Pius V., " was appointed and named 
Supreme Inquisitor ; a title and prerogative he was both the 
first and the last to bear, the popes having ever after reserved 
that distinction to themselves." Lije and Pontificate of St. 
Pius V. p. 16. 


all other charges connected with it, were of a 
merely circumstantial and secondary character. 
It was a natural, almost necessary consequence, 
that he should attempt to defend himself; and 
this could be done in no manner more imagin- 
able, and indeed unexceptionable, than by en- 
deavouring to prove the consistency of his phi- 
losophy with the Scriptures; and all the circum- 
stances of the case were such as to make a man, 
even not very choleric, shew temper. But all 
this has no more to do with the sentence than, in 
our country and times, it would constitute the 
crime of a Socialist or Chartist who might 
have committed some obvious breach of the 
peace, that he attempted to justify his offence 
by the principles of his society, or by Magna 
Charta itself, if he could. Galileo might add 
to the original and substantial offence by un- 
suitable self-justification, and by provoking 
those who had the law in their hands. Both 
the vexatious enforcement of law, and com- 
plete evasion of it, are frequently, in imper- 
fect governments, civil or ecclesiastical, or 
mixed, more the consequence of personal and 
very unworthy motives than of the nature or 
gravity of the offence legally visited more 
the result of private resentment than of zeal 


for truth and justice : and by opportune sub- 
mission Galileo might have passed smoothly 
through all. But this is a very distinct thing 
from the real and declared ground of the con- 
demnation, as we shall soon see more fully. 
I am not disposed to deny neither, that the 
new doctrine would be likely to be ill received, 
when it was, or those, who knew better, affected 
to believe it to be, new, and strange, and anti- 
scriptural. The Church of Rome was com- 
mitted to an external, exoteric defence of her 
own most reverenced writers, who were all 
Ptolemaics. We may even sympathise with 
her hard necessity, when we recollect the in- 
genious hesitation with which a man, who had 
no great fear or love of Rome, and no ex- 
travagant respect for any other opinion than 
his own, expresses himself in a poem which is 
rewarded with a just immortality. Read the 
beginning of the eighth book of MILTON'S 
Paradise Lost.* But temptation to an act 

* Milton evidently inclines to the Copernican system, and 
as evidently strives to appear to prefer the Ptolemaic. The 
whole, which discovers the versatility and vigour of his 
powers in ornamenting a subject generally contenta doceri, 
closes with the moral, good, where better applied, of not dis- 
turbing ourselves with speculations beyond the sphere of our 
capacities, and not directly or vitally connected with our actual 
duty and happiness. 


does not at all alter the nature of the act. To 
that we are to keep. The terms and evident 
meaning of the document or sentence in ques- 
tion are the simple and single point to be re- 

Now, then, we come to the pages of the 
English biographer of Galileo, and to the 
chapter, already pointed out, where he gives 
the condemuaton by the Inquisition in English 
at length, though not for the first time, as he 
erroneously supposed.* This document begins 
with stating, that the offence for which Galileo 
was denounced to the Holy Office was the 
" holding as true a false doctrine, taught by 
many ; namely, that the sun is immovable in 
the centre of the world, and that the earth 
moves, and also, with a diurnal motion ;" also, 
for instructing pupils, &c. ; also, for corre- 
spondence with some Germans ; also, for pub- 
lishing certain letters, &c. ; " also, for answer- 
ing the objections which were continually pro- 
duced from the Holy Scriptures, by glozing 
the said Scriptures according to his own mean- 

* In DA COSTA 's interesting and instruct! ve Narrative of hit 
own Persecution, pp. 107-114, is contained both the condemnation 
and abjuration of Galileo. I do not know of an English trans- 
lation of them elsewhere ; and I made reference to this in the 
Literary Policy. 


ing ; and whereas," &c. The Inquisitors pro- 
ceed to say, that by desire of his holiness and 
the Cardinals of the Inquisition, "the two 
propositions of the stability of the sun and 
motion of the earth were gualified by the 
Theological Qualificators, as follows: 

" 1st. The proposition that the sun is in the 
centre of the world, and immovable from its 
place, is absurd, philosophically false, and 
formally heretical; because it is expressly con- 
trary to the Holy Scripture. 

" 2ndly. The proposition, that the earth is 
not the centre of the world, nor immovable, but 
that it moves, and also with a diurnal motion, 
is also absurd, philosophically false, and theo- 
logically considered, at least erroneous in 

The prohibition by the Congregation of the 
Index is referred to. The certificate which 
the accused produced in his own behalf is 
represented as aggravating his offence, because 
it is there declared, that his " opinion is con- 
trary to the Holy Scripture, and yet he had 
dared to treat of it." Something is said of a 
rigorous examination (rigoroso esame) which 
it was necessary to use with him ; and in the 
close his judges pronounce him to "have 

rendered himself vehemently suspected by the 
Holy Office of heresy : that is to say, that he 
believes and holds the false doctrine, and 
contrary to the Holy and Divine Scriptures, 
namely, that the sun is the centre of the 
world, and that it does not move from east 
to west, and that the earth does move, and is 
not the centre of the world." They conclude 
by enjoining abjuration, and by decreeing that 
the Dialogue be prohibited by a public edict, 
and Galileo be imprisoned in the Holy Office 
at the pleasure of the Inquisitors, and for 
penance to recite the seven penitential psalms. 
Seven cardinals subscribe. Of the tremen- 
dously disgraceful Abjuration we say nothing. 
The date of the vile transaction was June 20, 

Now, nothing from this document can be 
plainer than, that the pope, at the head of the 
Holy Office, condemned the Copernican doc- 
trine of the solar system per se ; that they con- 
demned it as formally heretical, or, at least, 
erroneous in faith at the least, such because 
contrary to Scripture ; and that the publisher 
of the doctrine was therefore vehemently sus- 
pected of heresy, and, of course, liable to the 
legal penalties, from which the guilty could 


not be absolved but by abjuration of the said 
errors and heresies. 

Several ways have been resorted to to save 
the Church of Roms from the barbaric dis- 
grace, not only of ignorance in the matter of 
science, but of formal sentence against it. An 
Italian, Tiraboschi, has drawn a subtle distinc- 
tion between bulls of the pope and Inquisitorial 
decrees sanctioned by him ; and Englishmen 
have bethought themselves of solving the diffi- 
culty by the intervention of technicality 
every offence cognisable by the Holy Office 
being, as they affirm, in technical language, 
called heresy. True, the Office derived its 
origin and designation from the character of 
being conservators of the faith against here- 
tical pravity. But is nothing heresy in this 
jurisdiction ? and was there nothing in that 
jurisdiction but heresy? To be sure, the 
reading and keeping of prohibited books 
savoured of heresy ; the polygamist might in 
a sense be suspected of heresy ; usurpers of 
the sacerdotal function might be esteemed 
heretical; so likewise blasphemers, sooth- 
sayers, astrologers, sorcerers, and Jews. But 
what are we to say of confessors soliciting 
their female penitents to incontinence, against 


which, with such inefficient success, so many 
Papal provisions were found necessary to be 
issued, and found so important a part of the 
business of the Inquisition, that many, if not 
most, Directories on the subject, either dis- 
tinctly refer to, or place at full length, the 
constitutions, or the last constitution, of one 
or more popes, as it may happen, against so 
foul, so probable, and so frequent an offence; 
and the reader of the Rev. Mr. TOWNSEND'S 
Travels in Spain will remember the defence 
set up by some Spanish prelates for the Office, 
namely, that it was the only effectual means of 
restraining such profligacy ? It will be difficult 
to qualify this as heresy. But in the case of 
Galileo all is plain and above board. His new 
system, that the earth and planets revolved 
round the sun in our system, was deemed re- 
pugnant to Scripture, and was therefore formal 
heresy, and therefore condemned. The Inqui- 
sitors were sufficiently learned in the laws of 
the Holy Office, as well as of the Holy Church 
in general ; and properly, and literally, with- 
out artificial phraseology, or legal fiction of any 
kind, they qualified the doctrine of their 
victim as heresy. If satisfaction on this point 
be wanted, it may be had to thejull in the 


Directorium Inquisitorum of NICOLAS EY- 
MERIC.* Nothing more is necessary for the 
matter of science, and Rome's condemnation 
of it in the present case ; and any demur or 
quibbling on the point is only not childish, 
because it wants the simplicity of childhood, 
confining ourselves even to the doings of the 
Inquisition which is the least part. Quite 
enough seems to have been said on this part 
of the subject. If, then, to the sentence of the 
Inquisition, during the lifetime of Galileo, we 
add the explicit condemnations of the Index, 
as they have been stated, from that time to the 
year 1835, it is not too much to say, that 
if the Church of Rome has the power, by any 
acts of her own, to make herself responsible, 
then assuredly, by what she has done through 
these two great organs of her authority, she has 
made herself responsible for a solemn, explicit, and 
self-binding condemnation of the doctrine, now, 
and for a long time universally received, that 

* See, in the Roman edition of 1587, part ii., Quasi, de Her. 
Pravit. Qutsst. ii. p. 233, where the fourth definition of an 
heretical proposition is, that it is contrary to Scripture contra 
Sacram Scripturam. What is found in Qua?st. iv. pp. 376, seqq. 
will teach the reader the three degrees of comparison in sus- 
picion of heresy. That de vehementi occupies the middle place, 
and answers to magna. 


in the solar system the sun is the immovable 
centre, and the earth, and all the other planets 
in it, revoke round it. This doctrine was 
originally by her qualified as heresy, and it 
has been condemned in her most formal judi- 
cial document on such subjects to the year 
1835, at which time the condemnation was 
surreptitiously, and to her own evident in- 
terest, withdrawn by herself.* 

* See HALLAM, Introduction to the Literature of Europe, vol. 
iv. pp. 2831. I regret that a writer of such extensive learning 
and research as Mr. Hallam should have so little instructed 
himself on this subject as to write that some works of Galileo 
and others were put " into the Index Eipurgatorius, where," 
he continues, " I believe, they still remain." They never were 
in the Index Expurgatorius, of which Rome acknowledges none 
as her own, though, as appears in these pages, they were in the 
Prohibitory Index, from which they were all carefully, though 
silently, dismissed in the last Index. In a note, too, he has said 
of Mr. Drinkvvater Bethune, that he " seems to be mistaken in 
supposing that Galileo did not endeavour to prove his system 
compatible with Scripture ;" and refers to the letter to the 
Grand Duchess of Tuscany for proof. The biographer had, as. 
we have seen, referred to the very letter, and pointed to the 
very fact, proving its irrelevance. And in speaking of the 
Dublin Reviewer with respect, he seems to have allowed his 
complaisance to outrun his discrimination. 

I may here likewise notice, how favourable an opportunity 
Mr. II. lost of throwing decisive light upon so novel and in- 
teresting a subject as the Papal restrictions upon literature in 
vol. ii. pp. 507-510, " Index Expurgatorius of prohibited 
books" is a self-contradiction : it is much the same as to talk 
of administering an emetic or a cathartic to a man who is dead. 


The necessity, at this time in particular, of 
exposing the disingenuous artifices and astute 
policy of the Church of Rome, must be the 
apology of this protracted investigation. I will, 

That, in her prescriptive exploits, Rome " aimed a more deadly 
blow at literature than perhaps she intended " is very doubtful. 
The blows, indeed, which recoiled upon herself she did not, as 
to that effect, at all intend. The Index of Paul IV. was not the 
first of the papacy, even if we exclude the French and Belgic 
efforts, as may be seen in accessible works, and such as contain 
more and better information than should be expected in a writer, 
however able, who was a century behind hand in the light which 
has been since shed on the subject, I mean SCHELHORN, in the 
eighth volume of his Amten. Lit. What relaxation took place in 
the pontifical censures after PiusV. is not made clear, or whether 
any. The search for restrictions in any degree equal, or simi- 
lar, to the Papal, in the regulation of the Star Chamber under 
Elizabeth in 1585, as they are given in HERBERT'S Ames, iii. 
1 668, which were accompanied with no penalties worth a thought 
in comparison with the Papal, and, at the same time, altogether 
pretermitting those of Henry VIII., and particularly those of 
Philip and Mary, which were eminently precise, extended, and 
savage can hardly be designated by any terms which I should 
wish to use. The writer has a right to his own views in 
theology, and I have a right to say, that I think them 
sometimes more distinguished by what is called philosophy than 
accuracy. His assertion respecting Bossuet's Exposition, vol. 
iv. p. 130, that it was " approved in the most formal manner 
by Innocent XI.," is, indeed, what Bossuet himself asserts ; but 
if Mr. H. means to say, that it was approved at all by that or 
any pope, it certainly was not the fact ; and I invite him, or a 
certain J. R. in the Gentleman's Magazine, to confute my 
proof on the entire subject in the Literary Policy, &c. 
pp. 218-232. 


however, yet farther trespass upon the reader's 
patience to observe, that cunning men without 
a conscience are never secure. Into what a 
dilemma has the attempt to exculpate the 
Church of Rome in this affair driven her 
apologists ! That Church does not condemn the 
philosophic doctrine, but on the contrary believes 
it to be true ; by asserting, however, or barely 
admitting, that, although true, it is repugnant 
to Scripture, is it not a fair a necessary in- 
ference, that in the view of the Church of 
Rome Scripture is false? This, I fear, is not 
an inference very alarming to some Romanists 
they have still tradition, and then, without a 
rival. I may be allowed to remark yet far- 
ther, into what a forest of embarrassment the 
present ominous erasure has cast the unfor- 
tunate Church. For, if the doctrine, which by 
one of her principal courts of judicature in mat- 
ters of faith she has condemned as heresy, so 
that the person vehemently suspected of that 
doctrine is therefore vehemently suspected of 
heresy, will it not follow, either that what was 
heresy in the seventeenth century is not heresy 
in the nineteenth ; or, that the Church has been 
at one time or the other in error on a matter of 
faith ; or, that an inerrable and unchangeable 


church can tolerate at any given time the 
heresy which it reprobated two centuries 

But to leave this part of the discussion, I 
must be indulged yet shortly and finally to say, 
that when the jealousy of Rome was so alive to 
her scientific reputation, as it appears to have 
been in 1835, pity it was that Monsignor 
Niccola Wiseman, or whoever might be of his 

* FERRARI, a writer of good and deserved repute, in his 
Prompta Bi'iliotheca, under HEHETICUS, torn. iv. pp. 196-8, last 
edition, is right orthodox in contending for the simple and for- 
mal heresy of Galileo's doctrine in the judgment of the Roman 
Church ; and he defends himself effectually by authorities of the 
same Church. He has likewise the fairness to insert in a note 
the objections of a ROMAN THEOLOGIAN, who infers from the 
expression, " vehemently suspected of heresy," in Galileo's abju- 
ration, that the philosopher was denounced, not as a heretic, 
but on it/ as suspected of heresy, not sufficiently considering good, 
easy, apologist that the main matter concerned, not the person, 
but the thing not the heretic, whether more or less so, but the 
heresy, the Copernican system. To do the objector, however, jus- 
tice, he does not, like some moderns, shift the question from 
the main one, to a simple accidental and subordinate the phi- 
losopher's insisting upon the agreement of the denounced 
opinion with Scripture, much less his passion or obstinacy in 
justifying that opinion. We have no quibbling about techni- 
calities. And it must likewise be added, he is perfectly silent 
about the Index and its decrees. Ferrari was not at all con- 
vinced by the logic of his corrector, but fortified his view of the 
offence of Galileo being formal heresy, according to his Church, 
with additional testimonies ; and he thus plainly established his 


holiness's Council at the time, did not suggest 
the adoption of the whole of Sir R. H. Inglis's 
advice, and erase from the damnatory columns 
of the Index, not only Galileo, with his work 
and his doctrine, but the name and principal 
work of the most celebrated father of British 
science and philosophy ; and no longer suffer, 
as in the last Index is the fact, the disgrace- 
ful article to stand BACONUS (FRANCISCUS) 
DE VERULAMIO. De dignitate, & augmentis 
Scientiarum. Donee corrigatur. Deer. SAprilis 
1669. Perhaps, it was an oversight. 

We now proceed with the Gregorian Index. 
A Mandate and a Monitum have been an- 
nounced ; and they are both rather remarkable. 
The Mandate is that of the pontiff, Leo XII., in 
1825; and he there rouses the principal rulers 
of the Roman Church to use their authority in 
wresting from the hands of the faithful every 
thing in literature which that Church deems 
noxious and deadly ; evellere e manibus quod 
noxium ac mortiferum. In the Monitum, the 
Sacred Congregation reminds the same rulers, 
specifying them according to their respective 
rank as before, of the obligation of the Second 
Rule of the Tridentine Index, concerning here- 
tical books, and the universal condemnation by 



the Apostolic See of all versions of the condemned 
books in all places, and under the same penal- 
ties as the originals. The place referred to is 
the Instruct of Clement VIII., prefixed to his 
edition of the Index, vi., concerning pro- 
hibited books. lidem [libri prohib.] quoque, in 
quamcunque vertantur linguam, censeantur ab 
eadem Sede, ubique gentium, sub eisdem pcenis 
interdicti, et damnati. 

Together with the Index of Gregory, I have 
obtained possession of additional separate De- 
crees, or Condemnations the word is Damna- 
tio at length, to the number of nine. They 
have all more or less interest. The second is 
remarkably interesting. It is headed Damna- 
tio ; and is a bull or breve of Gregory XVI., 
condemning the works of the then late George 
Hermes, professor of theology in the university 
of Bonn, in Prussia. The date is September 26, 
1835. This was followed up by a suitable De- 
cree, dated January 7, 1836. The attention of 
the British public has been particularly drawn 
to this case, by a splendid, seasonable, and, 
what is more, right-minded article, in the 
12oth number of the Quarterly Review, en- 
titled, " Papal Conspiracy Archbishop of 
Cologne, &c." It there is made evident, that 


the condemnation of the Professor was, and 
may still continue, a part of the regular con- 
spiracy of the Church of Rome in these times, 
to recover the dominion which she formerly 
enjoyed under another Gregory, in modern 
Europe, and particularly in Prussia, by the 
agency of the newly elected, Jesuitic, perjured, 
and traitorous Archbishop of Cologne, Clement 
Augustus, Baron Droste. The character and 
acts of this imitator of the ecclesiastical ambi- 
tion and insolence of Saint Thomas Becket 
of our country, is luminously exposed in the 
fourteenth volume of the British Magazine.* 
The condemnation of the Professor at Bonn 
was procured from Rome before his elevation 
to the archiepiscopate, ostensibly for works not 
sufficiently favourable to Italian views of religi- 
ous liberty that is, liberty to the Roman Church 

* This great exemplar was not wanting in a specimen of 
perjury. Matthew Paris, who was no enemy to him and his 
cause in this instance, relates, that to the Sixteen Constitutions 
of Clarendon, the archbishops, bishops, &c. juraverunt ; &c 
firmiter in verbo veritatis promiserunt viva voce tenendas, & 
observandas domino Regi, & haeredibus suis bona fide fy absque 
malo ingenio in perpetuum. The archbishop himselt'in particu- 
lar, it is said, eas observare/urame;ifo firmasset. He, however, 
repented of his oath the next thing to violating it. And so 
he did. The hypocrisy and perfidy began with penitence and 
ostentatious demonstrations of it all in order suspendens se 


to invade and destroy the liberty of all others. 
This scheme has been eagerly pushed by 
the whole Papal power of late. Besides eulo- 
gistic lives of Gregory VII. and Innocent III., 
from the German and French press, (both, stars 
of the first magnitude in the celestial sphere of 
pontifical usurpation and arrogance,) we have 
witnessed a French translation of Professor 
RANKE'S History of the Popes of Rome, distin- 
guished for its infidelity, and the insidious 
attempt to make it subservient to present hopes 
and acts entertained by the subjects and sol- 
diers of the Pope. Simultaneously appeared an 
article in the Dublin Review of the same ten- 
dency, evidently aiming, from the character of 
the former part of RANKE'S History, which 
represents the reaction in favour of the Roman 
power immediately succeeding the Reformation, 

ab altaris officio, donee per confessionem & condignos poeniten- 
tiae fructus, a summo Pontifice meruitdevotus absolvi. He ob- 
tained his wishes, as soon as the boon was applied for, and his 
lord, the pope, granted him at once, and in due form, the ab- 
solution from his oath which was desired, giving as a reason 
and justification, that the act was not voluntary a very intelli- 
gible bonus to any hypocrisy for the good of the Papal Church. 
It is ludicrous to wonder at any instance of perjury under simi- 
lar circumstances in any true, especially ecclesiastical, son of 
that Church. See MATTH. PARIS, Hist. Ang. Maj. under the 
year 1164, or Watts's edition, 1640, pp. 101-2. 


to revive the hopes and stimulate the efforts to 
obtain a similar recovery in the present age ; 
for, unfortunately, the course of prosperity was 
not progressive, and therefore an attention to 
the latter part of the history would not suit the 
reviewer's purpose, and, of course, was neg- 
lected. At the beginning of the year 1839, 
hopes were so ardent on the subject, that the 
two Papal Annuals in this country had, both, 
given prepossessing likenesses of the Prussian 
Becket, the second hope of the Romish world ; 
and one of them gave a biography very cheer- 
ing ; the other, either prudently or fortunately, 
kept back its biography to another year : and 
in the beginning of the year 1840, the editors 
of the two annuals, supposing it more conso- 
nant to the appearance of Catholic unity, to 
compose their former apparent rivalry, joined 
hands, and the circumstance afforded an 
honourable pretence for neglected perform- 
ance of a promise. Late events explain all. 
There is subjoined to the second Decretum con- 
demnatory of Hermes, and the works of other 
authors, a Monition which will engage parti- 
cular notice. But we will first despatch an 
article or two, that we may have uninterrupted 
freedom to attend to it. In a Decree of Sep- 

tember 1836, the Italian version of M'CRIE'S 
Progress and Suppression of the Reformation 
in Italy takes its place with other criminals. 
Another of the 4th of July, 1837, proscribes the 
Biografia di Fra Paolo Sarpi di A. BIANCHI- 
GIOVINI ; and likewise his Scelte lettere inedite. 
A Decree, dated May 2, 1838, claims parti- 
cular notice, and the reader has already been 
prepared for it Consider -azioni imparziali 
sopra la legge del Celibato Ecclesiastico e sul 
voto solenne di castitd proposte segretamente ai 
consigJieri, e Legislatori degli stati Cattolici dal 
prof'essore. C. A. P. This notice attests the 
compulsory celibacy of the Romish Clergy, and 
the remonstrances against it. Of the policy of 
the law there can be no secret or doubt. To 
have a body, with no local or family attachment, 
with no diversion of effort or property, devoted 
to the service of their spiritual sovereign, though 
at the tremendous expense of morally certain 
profligacy of the most detestable description, is 
just the same policy as is pursued by the Turk 
in the institution of the military order of Janiza- 
ries men taken into the service at an agre, 

O * 

when all attachments may be easily overcome, 
denied marriage except at the will of their offi- 
cer, which is equivalent to absolute prohibition, 


or compulsory celibacy, and with all the fearful 
liabilities, if not certainties, incident to such 
unnatural restraint. Religion and morality 
join in demanding its instant and eternal aboli- 
tion : but policy in the Roman Church insists 
upon its continuance. Never was the spiritual 
prostitute more consistent Qualis ab incepto. 

I will now give the Monitnm which has 
already been noticed. 


Cum ad S. Congregationem certe relatum fuerit, 
Sacratissimos Bibliorum Libros Vulgar! sermone 
nonnullis in locis typis edi, quin saluberrimee de ea 
re leges serventur, cumque hide pertimescendum sit, 
ne, quae hominum nequam hisce prsesertim tempori- 
bus conspiratio est, errores sanction divini Eloquii 
apparatu obvoluti perperam insinuentur ; censuit 
eadem S. Congregatio, revocanda iterum esse in 
omnium memoriam, quse alias decreta sunt, vernacu- 
las nimirum Bibliorum versiones non esse permitten- 
das, nisi qua fuerint ab Apostolica Sede adprobatce, 
aut cum adnotationibus editce desumptis ex Sanctis 
Ecclesiae Patribus vel ex doctis Catholicisque viris 
(ex deer. S. Congr. Ind. 15. Jun. 1757. in addit. 
ad Reg. Ind.) : iis praeterea omnino insistendum, 
quse per Reguiam quartam Indicis, et deinceps ex 


mandate S. M. dementis VIII. in earn causam 
prsestituta fuerunt. 

I give a translation in English of the above, 
that the English reader may have an accurate 
notion of the simple and unqualified love of 
the present head of the Roman Church for the 
Scriptures, and for their most extensive and 
unfettered diffusion. 


" Since the Sacred Congregation has been cer- 
tainly informed, that the most sacred books of the 
Scriptures have in some places been printed in the 
Vulgar tongue, because the most salutary laws on that 
subject are not observed, and since it may thence be 
apprehended, such is the conspiracy of wicked men, 
particularly in these times, that errors, clothed in the 
sanctified garb of the Divine oracles, may be mis- 
chievously insinuated ; the same Sacred Congrega- 
tion has determined again to recall to the memory of 
all, what has been elsewhere decreed, namely, that 
no vernacular versions of the Scriptures are to be 
permitted, but such as have been approved by the 
Apostolic see, or are accompanied with annotations 
taken out of the Holy Fathers of the Church or 
learned and Catholic men, (from the Decree of the 
Sacred Congregation of the Index, June 15, 1757,) 
[in the addition to the Rules of the Index :] besides, 


those regulations are especially to be insisted on, 
which were set forth in the Fourth Rule of the In- 
dex, and afterwards by command of Clement VIII., 
of holy memory "* 

Here we have the cloven foot of Rome, 
which is so essential to her being, and yet so 
important for her to conceal. The Sacred Con- 
gregation was visibly and not moderately 
alarmed by the vernacular versions of the Scrip- 
tures, made by a " conspiracy" of what have 
the honour to be called by her, " wicked men ;" 
and, in consequence, it urgently calls the at- 
tention of " all," to a former Decree of June 
15, 1757, which declares, that no vernacular 
versions of the Holy Scriptures are permitted 
but such as are approved by the Holy See, or 
accompanied with annotations from the Fathers 
and learned doctors of the Roman Church, in- 
sisting particularly upon the observation of the 
Fourth Rule of the Tridentine Index. This, with 
the various outstanding condemnations of all 
vernacular translations of the Scriptures by the 

At the anniversary of the Bath Protestant Association, 
May 1, 1840, the Rev. Mr. M'GHEE introduced a notice of the 
whole Index of Gregory, and this Motritum in particular, with 
so much effect, that I should have felt gratified to transcribe 
that portion of his triumphant speech entire. 



Indexes of every pontificate, the breves of 1816 
to the prelates of Mohilow and Gnezn, denied, 
till they were recognised by subsequent Papal 
authority,* together with the authorised Bible- 
burnings and Bible-buryings-f- of Ireland, may 
serve to illustrate, in a manner which would 
charm Dr. Wiseman, " the Catholic's love for 
the Bible." In spite of all that Protestants 
hear on this side the sea, in Italy, the seat of 
orthodoxy, the centre of catholicity, the Rules 
of the Index, (sanctioned, by anticipation and 

* The facts bere mentioned are stated in full and substan- 
tiated in an article of the Church.of-England Quarterly Review, 
vol. i. pp. 53-67, entitled, Treatment of the Sacred Scriptures by 
the Modern Church of Rome. See, particularly, pp. 64-66. I 
acknowledge myself the writer of that article. The Fourth 
Rule of the Index against the Bible has been more repeatedly 
and vigorously backed, by Bulls and Encyclical Epistles, &c., 
than almost any other law of the Roman Church. It is puerile, 
though it may be politic, to deny this. 

f See, for a signal instance, not only of the hurying, hut of 
an episcopal sanction of the loathsome act, J. K. L., or the late 
Dr. DOYLE'S Letters on the State of Ireland, 1825, the " not-a- 
Protest<mt-alive " year, pp. 179-182. The burnings I have 
been weary, from the multitude, of noting down. But I will 
give a few references: Record, 1836, Nov. 24; Protestant 
Journal for 1834 and 1835, see Indexes; for 1836, p. 128; 
for 1837, pp. 279, &c. ; O'SULLIVAN'S Speeches, 201 ; and just 
now in the Report of the Bible Society for 1840, Appendii, 
pp. 63, 70. But any references are superfluous : it is the plain 
duty of a thorough-paced Papist, as such , to treat the Bible, par- 


responsibility, by the Council of Trent, the 
most binding of all the Roman Councils, as 
being the last esteemed ecumenical,) and 
the fourth anti-biblical one in particular, are 
esteemed as of universal force throughout the 


whole extent of Papal Christendom. But the 
truth is, here, in England, the advocates of 
Rome may talk as largely and boldly as lan- 
guage will permit them, of the free allowance 
of the perusal of the Scriptures to the members 
of her Church. The liberty she gives them is 
that of doing whatever she pleases. She has the 

ticularly a Protestant translation, in this hostile and brutal manner. 
God forgive and convert ! As respects the burning part of the Pa- 
pal Catholic's love for the Scriptures, the reader may be referred 
to a valuable tract or epistle of J. R. KIESI.INO, entitled, DePcena 
ignis in Tabularum Sacrarum Versiones a Romanensibus constitute, 
insigni Scriptures Sacrce Contemptus Teste. [Lipsiae] 1749. In all 
persecutions of seceders from Popery by Papists, the rage of the 
latter against the Bible is critically and pre-eminently conspicu- 
ous. I bavebeen lookingthrough the two accounts of the persecu- 
tion and exile of the Protestants in the archbishopric of Saltzburg, 
about a century ago, and of which a signal repetition has just row- 
been given in nearly the same place, and under the same circum- 
stances, particularly the asylum afforded by the same prince, as 
the English reader can hardly fail to have learned from the in- 
teresting translation of the Exiles of Zillerthal: and there, par- 
ticularly in the second part, it appears, how faithfully the 
executioners of the commands of the main persecutor, the 
archiepiscopal sovereign, took care to discover and destroy all 
prohibited books, but especially as the root of the evil the 
Sacred Scriptures ! 


reins sufficiently in her own hands. It is hers 
to determine, who are the persons fit to be in- 
trusted with the liberty in question ; and she 
needs no more. Confessors manage the business 
ultimately ; and it is their office to make author- 
itative inquiries. Real liberty in this respect 
requires no provisions at all. And such is the 
condition of things in simply Christian Britain. 
What, then, mean the multiplied, the minute, 
the rigid, the jealous, the varying regulations 
in the Church of Rome ? In connexion with the 
profession, that she imposes no restraint upon 
the reading of the Scriptures, they are vile 
hypocrisy, and nothing other or less. But 
while the cloven foot is an essential member of 
Rome, we are thankful to her for occasionally 
shewing it. No : she does not enforce her Bibli- 
cal restrictions. We do not accuse her of doing 
what she cannot. And as little do we accuse 
her of publishing the wish, when by the same 
act she would publish her impotence as well as 
excite alarm and counteraction.* 

* There is a Papal document, which Roman apologists are 
much accustomed to appeal to, and use, as the most triumphant 
confutation of the alleged calumny of Protestants in the charge 
of the latter, that the Church of Rome discourages and restricts 
the free perusal of the Scriptures. 

This document is the letter of Pope Pius VI. to Martini, 


It will be proper here in a few words to 
notice the reprint of the edition of the Index, 
which is the subject of the present publication, 
at Mechlin, in the year 1838. The title is, 
Index Librorum Prohibitorum juxta Exemplar 

subsequently Archbishop of Florence, on the presentation of an 
Italian translation of the Scriptures, by the translator, to the 
head of the Church. And I give it entire, making a division 
into two parts, for a purpose which will appear. It is given 
in an English translation, and 1 copy it from the Cathoiicon, 
for 1817, vol. iir. pp. 71-73. 


" Beloved Son, Health and Apostolical Benediction. 

" At a time that a vast number of bad books, which most 
grossly attack the Catholic religion, are circulated even among 
the unlearned, to the great destruction of souls, you judge ex- 
ceedingly well, that the faithful should be excited to the read- 
ing of the Holy Scriptures, for these are the most abundant 
sources, which ought to be left open to every one, to draw 
from them purity of morals and of doctrine, to eradicate the 
errors which are so widely disseminated in these corrupt times. 

" This you have seasonably effected, as you declare, by 
publishing the sacred writings in the language of your coun- 
try, suitable to every one's capacity ; especially when you 
shew and set forth, that you have added explanatory notes, 
which, being extracted from the holy Fathers, preclude every 
possible danger of abuse. Thus you have not swerved from 
the laws of the Congregation of the Index, or from the Con- 
stitution published on this subject by Benedict XIV., that im- 
mortal Pope, our predecessor in the Pontificate, and formerlv, 
when we held a place near his person, our excellent master, in 
ecclesiastical learning ; circumstances which we mention as 
honourable to us. We, therefore, applaud your eminent learn- 
ing, joined with your extraordinary piety, and we return you 


Romanum Jussu Sanctissimi Domini nostri, 
editum Anno MDCCCX. Accesserunt suis locis 
nomina eorum qui usque ad lianc diem damnati 
fuere. Mechlinise, P. J. Hanicq. Typogr. 
Archiep. Mechl. 1838. The date of MDCCCX. 

our due acknowledgments for the books which you have 
transmitted to us, and which, when convenient, we will read 
over. In the meantime, as a token of our Pontifical bene- 
volence, receive our Apostolical benediction, which to you, 
beloved son, we very affectionately impart. Given at Rome, 
on the Calends of April, 1778, the fourth of our Pontificate. 

" Latin Secretary. 
"To our Beloved Son, Antony Martini, at Turin." 

The correspondent of the Catholicon is quite elevated with 
this document, and calls it " a Goliah ; a practical and unan- 
swerable argument, which speaks of itself volumes" true, in 
another sense than that intended ; for Martini's translation, 
meant doubtless for every cottage in Italy, extended to twenty- 
three quarto volumes. He asserts, and there is no question of 
his accuracy, that to some editions of the English Papal Scrip- 
tures this letter was prefixed entire. This, however, was not 
the case in later times, succeeding those of the writer ; for in 
some Irish editions, the first half only was used, and for very 
obvious reasons. It was seen plainly enough, that the second 
part quite undid the first, considered as a proof of the com- 
plete unrestricted allowance of the Scriptures by the Roman 
authorities. A very late convert to Popery, Sir Charles 
Wolseley, was allowed by his new superiors, into whose 
clutches he no sooner got than he fled out of them, to make 
the assertion, that this, meaning the first half of Martini's letter, 
was prefixed to every copy of the Roman Catholic Scriptures. 
This was proved to be false by inquiry made in Bath par- 
ticularly, by the Rev. Mr. Bedford ; an account of which 


for MDCCCXXXV. is a strange and very dis- 
creditable oversight, (for I impute no worse) ; 
when it is perfectly plain, that the edition 
reprinted is the last Roman one. The address 
to the reader by Fr. Thomas Antoninus Des- 

appeared in the British Magazine, for 1839, and was copied in 
the Record. 

But let the reader observe how this mutilation and impo- 
sition was taken by some of those, and not of the lowest au- 
thority, whom it was meant to serve. First, we have the Ursa 
Major of the Midland District, Dr. Milner, who, in his Inquiry 
into the Vulgar Opinions concerning the Irish Catholics, p. 441, 
writes, " Among other pious frauds of the Bible Societies in 
Ireland, in order to trick the Catholic inhabitants out of their 
religion," &c. " For this purpose they have published and 
circulated among the Catholic poor a garbled and corrupt 
translation of a letter from Pope Pius VI. to MARTINI, of 
Florence, in commendation of bis translation of the Scriptures 
into Italian. But they have taken care to suppress the passages 
in which his holiness enforces the rules of the Index, and 
praises the work for having notes to explain difficult passages 
conformably to the doctrines of the holy Fathers : in fact, it 
consists of twenty-three quarto volumes." Whether the Bible 
Society did any thing of this kind I know not : but it is noto- 
rious that it was done by Popish editors, who thought it " an 
ingenious device,'' and deserving, not of rebuke, but commenda- 
tion, from their superiors. It will be observed how reverently 
the learned Dr. Milner speaks of the Rules of the Inde.r, which 
the common run of Papal controvertists now agree to treat as 
of no authority. Not so those who know something of their 
Church, and speak honestly. This is not all. The supreme 
authority of the Roman Church in the person of her Pontiff, 
Pius VII., has confirmed the censure of the English Vicar 
Apostolic ; and in his breve to the Archbishop of Mohilow, 

gola is in both editions precisely the same. 
The only difference in the body of the last 
Index is, that it has, as it professes, incor- 
porated the books condemned in the subse- 
quent Decrees ; and, at page 87, under the 

1816, accuses bim of Laving used the artifice above exhibited 
of truncating the Pontiff, Pius the Sixth's letter to Martini ; 
" For when," he proceeds, " that wisest of pontiifs commended 
the version of Martini for this very circumstance, that, strictly 
observing the rules of the Congregation of the Index, he had 
abundantly enriched his work with expressions drawn from 
tradition, you have suppressed that part, and not only excited 
suspicion respecting yourself, but given occasion of serious 
errors to others. Quid enim aliud mutilutiones illce signifi- 
cant, &c." 

Those who know any thing of Popery and its arts, know 
well enough that the permission in the Pope's letter was a per- 
fect mockery. All the restraint upon the perusal of Scripture 
which was desired was completely secured under phrases and 
references, which could easily be drawn upon when their 
assistance was required. Was it for nothing lhat the rules of 
the Index, and the Constitution of Benedict XIV., and the ex- 
planatory notes, and extracts from the holy Fathers, were in- 
troduced to check any abuse of the apparent and fallacious 
license at the beginning 1. And is it for nothing, that so late as 
the year 1838 those restrictions were enforced, as we have just 
seen, with fresh energy ? Any one who wishes may see these 
statements in a more detailed form, and supported by additional 
and irresistible, by my acute and learned friend, the Rev. JOHN 
EVANS, then of Whitchurch, now of Hadnet, in his Letters of 
Observatm, and the Rev. Eugene Egan, in 1835, 6, On the 
Free Circulation of the Scriptures. Whitchurch, 1837. See 
particularly pp. 82-4. It is, perhaps, unnecessary to add, 
that his opponent left him in undisputed possession of the 


article, Considerazioni imparziali, Sec., ap- 
pears one of the date of May 2, 1838. We 
find likewise in it the remarkable omissions 
upon which some attention has been bestowed 
in considering the original Index. So that, 
hardly any evidence of identity is wanting. 

field, with hearty repentance, I doubt not, at least of others 
for him, for his temerity. Romanists think they hare a 
triumph in the number of early vernacular versions of the 
Scriptures by their community. The work was principally done 
before the Reformation had shewn its danger to the Papal 
edifice. It was likewise a private voluntary work, not a work 
of the Roman Church. We never denied that there were som 
righteous in Rome, even in her worst times : it was from such 
that the Reformation sprang. And we may add, that the pro- 
scribing Indexes of the unreformed and unreformable Church, 
as well as the preface to the reluctant translation of Rhemes, 
give little encouragement even to the versions of their own 
community, except as defending their people from Protestant 
and purer translations ; they view it plainly as an evil, and 
only to be tolerated as a less, rebus sic stantibus. The laborious 
and valuable LF. LONG, in his Bibliotheca Sacra, led the way in 
this unsuccessful, indeed to his Church, treacherous argument, 
i. ix. x. Praif. Paris, 1723 ; and a large class of minor heroes 
has followed to partake in the supposed triumph. But the im- 
practicable condition of understanding the Scriptures according 
to the unanimous consent of the Fathers is quite enough, 
and was known to be so ; for what priest or pope will venture 
to say what that non-existent consent is 1 And then, how are 
the commonalty to know it ? The pretence that Protestant 
versions are condemned for their infidelity or corruptions, is 
the most unprincipled subterfuge and falsehood that can be 
conceived ; since there does not exist a Romanist of the 
humblest pretensions to general information, who does not 


The reprint, however, in its execution, does 
credit to the press which gave it birth : it 
proves, moreover, the indefatigable zeal of the 
agents of Popery to promote its revived efforts 
for its own advancement, and the confidence 

know, that there is not one of the great bodj of such versions 
which is not preferable, as a fair representation of the original, 
to the Latin version called the Vulgate and that, allowing to 
that venerable version its due honour. 

It is a fact worth knowing, that, from the revival of letters, 
or the era of printing to the present time, all the presses of the 
principal countries and cities of civilised Europe issued a great 
abundance of the original, the Greek Testament the great re- 
ligious charter of real Christendom ; while, from the Eternal 
City the City of the great Pontiff the source and centre of 
Catholicity, has issued for the same extended space of nearly 
three centuries, not one no, wot one! All this is easily ex- 
plained. The Vulgate is the grand original ; and its preroga- 
tive must not be invaded. In a fit of unconscious rectitude or 
shame, Bellarmine proposed an edition to Pius V. This we 
learn from the biographer of Bellarmine, BARTOH, Rom. 1678, 
p. 388, who is referred to for this fact in the Literary Policy, 
p. 77. Did such an edition ever appear ? No. Rome could 
edit from her authorised press a Greek translation of the Old 
Testament. There was no rival. But of the Greek New Testa- 
ment, and of the Hebrew Old, the Sacred Latin of the Vulgate 
kept her in continual dread. Four years ago, Dr. Wiseman 
announced a facsimile of the celebrated Vatican MS., then in 
considerable forwardness. Better late than never. Rome may 
at last turn Protestant or Christian. But our facsimile still 
hangs fire. The report had some policy in it. The Consultor 
of the Congregation of the Index held out some hopes of a 
private critical edition of his own of course with all the light 
of Trent, and the uniform consent of the Fathers. 


with which they reckon, particularly in Papal 
countries, upon the reverence and submission, 
with which the formal and authentic announce- 
ment of pontifical judgment and decree, on 
subjects of literature, must be received by 
every faithful and obedient member of the 
Roman Church. The whole speculation, in- 
deed, appears to have originated in the organ- 
ised conspiracy in favour of Papal against all 
fecular power , in which the Archbishop of Co- 
logne was to have taken a conspicuous part 
indeed, taken the lead. 

I shall make the present publication inter- 
esting to readers whose approbation is of any 
value, by appending to it an infant Index of 
extreme rarity, and of importance as well as 
curiosity. It is a Venetian production of the 
year 1554. 

By referring to my Literary Policy of the 
Church of Rome, pages 37 to 40, it will be 
seen, that Peter Paul Vergerio has attested 
and described four early Papal and Italian Ca- 
talogues of prohibited books, issued respect- 
ively from Venice, Florence, and Milan. The 
call for such attempted antidotes in the north 
of Italy seems to have arisen from its nearer 


vicinity to the countries infected with heresy, 
and particularly with the pabulum of all opi- 
nion books. The first of these appeared at 
Venice : it was short ; and I have given from 
a work of Vergerio the list copied by him, 
and which should seem to embrace nearly the 
whole. The second came from Florence in 
1552, and of that no account is extant, to my 
knowledge at least. The third is issued from 
Milan, the title of which was CATALOGO del 
Arcimboldo Arcivesco di Milano. 1554. I 
owe this information to SCHOETTGEN, who yet 
had not seen it, and supposes, on insufficient 
grounds, that it was reprinted by Vergerio.* 
The next, which is our present subject, was a 
production of Venice, in the same year. 

Pietro Paolo Vergerio, whose life may be 

* De Indd. Comment. I. pp. 9, 10. What is to be under- 
stood by an Index pointed out by VERGERIO, in his dedication 
to the work, De Jdolo Lauretano, dated 1556, as published in the 
same year, I cannot well conjecture. Certum est hoc ipso anno 
evulgatum fuisse ab ipso Papatu Mediolani Catalogum, in quo 
trecenti ejus hostes numeramur, quanquam non omnes adhuc, 
qui aut Latine, aut Italice scripsimus, numeramur, qui vero 
tantum Gennanice, aut Gallice scripserunt, fuerunt omissi. 
Opp. Tubing. 1563, fol. 309 rect The date may originate in 
a mistake of IV. for V I., although IV. was at the time generally 
written in Roman figures IIII. There is a reference to 
Arcimboldo's Catalogue, quern nuper adornavit, fol. 542. 


found in any biography, from MELCHIOR 
ADAMS,* and FiscnLiN's,f to any modern's, 
had performed good service for the See of 
Rome against the Reformers, for which he was 
rewarded with the bishopric of Capo d'Istria. 
He did not, however, escape suspicion of 
heretical leaning ; and for the purpose of vin- 
dicating his Papal orthodoxy, he undertook to 
write a refutation of the existing reputed he- 
resies. His success was that of many well- 
meaning persons : he became a convert to the 
principles which he had undertaken to demo- 
lish ; and, the discovery being made, the usual 
methods were resorted to to make him harmless. 
The notorious Giovanni della Casa, Archbishop 
of Benevento and Apostolic Nuncio at Venice, 
was, with the Patriarch of the place, commis- 
sioned to institute a process against him in 
1546. He was summoned to Rome; and, 
knowing what he might expect, he took care 
to remove to a place of safety. Casa was not 
idle ; but in 1549 published a list of proscribed 

Vita Theolvg. Eiteror. ed. Franc. 1705, pp. 59-61. 

t Memoria Theolog. Wirtemberg. Ulmse, 1710, Supplement. 
pp. 113, seqq. This Lutheran, like many others, indulges an 
illiberal and unwor.thy prejudice against the Reformed. In 
the present instance he has somewhat gratified the enemies of 
religious truth. 


books, which is the first Italian effort of the 
kind with which we are acquainted. Neither 
was Vergerio idle in repelling the attack, and in 
exposing the character of the infamous censor. 
That the character of infamous properly 
belongs to the Archbishop of Benevento, is, in 
effect, freely acknowledged by his friends. It 
is plainly admitted by his latest biographer, 
CASOTTI ; and though there should remain any 
doubt as to the most formidable charge against 
his morals, in an infamous poem which he 
could not disown, the very ambiguity and the 
shuffling defence which he has made of him- 
self, are sufficient to convict him of quite guilt 
enough.* The scurrilous Dissertatio levelled 
against his main accuser carries with it its 
own confutation, if it had not been completely 
repelled by the learned SCHELHORN, in a par- 
ticular treatise to that effect, Ulmae, 1754.f 
It is not at all unlikely that Casa had some- 
thing to do with both the Catalogues of 1554, 
at least the Venetian, as well as with the first. 

* See MARCHAND, Diet. Hist. art. CASA. 

t Apologia pro PP. Vergerio adv. J. Casam. It is remarkable 
that it should come from Ulm, where the Reformer was so 
lately treated neither as a friend nor a brother. The most 
triumphant part is, perhaps, the testimony from UGHEI.LI'S 
Italia Sacra, pp. 5456. 


He understood parental relation, if not affec- 
tion, and would not renounce it when his in- 
tellectual progeny was concerned. 

It is by no means affirmed that Vergerio 
was without his infirmities : far from it. He 
was precipitate and rather intemperate. But 
with all his failings, and their effects, he has 
done far more essential service to the cause 
of religious truth, and appears to have been 
generally and prevailingly actuated by a more 
sincere and zealous anxiety for the interests of 
pure religion, and the salvation of human souls, 
than perhaps many, if not all, of those who 
assume to sit in judgment upon him, and 
condemn him. At all events, there are few 
writings among the multitudinous remains of 
his time and cause, which have conveyed to 
our distant age more singular and important 
information. Except for him we had known 
little of the knavery and imposition of Rome, 
in the province of religious literature, as it is 
exhibited in the early Italian Indexes. Many 
of his small works, of which GESNER'S ar- 
ticle will shew what was their number, were 
ephemeral : but many, though small, were, 
and are, of permanent interest ; and I heartily 
wish he had been allowed by the bigotry of his 


age to continue his own collection of the most 
important, beyond the first and last volume. 
He meditated two additional. He had so 
much to do with the incipient Indexes of his 
country, as historian and annotator, that I 
have been tempted to make these observations, 
preliminary to the presentment of the Index 
which I am now publishing. 

The volume is small octavo, as will appear ; 
but as I shall give it as nearly as possible, 
paginatim, liueatim, and for letter, in facsimile, 
it is superfluous to add any thing more in the 
way of description. I regret, that my copy is 
deficient in one leaf: but from circumstances 
which will be stated at the deficient part, the 
reader will, perhaps, join with me in the opinion, 
that only articles of inferior importance have 
been lost. 


THE leaf in the Venetian Catalogue of 1554, sig- 
nature B, which was defective in my copy, and for 
which a leaf of explanation was substituted, has 
been most kindly and unexpectedly supplied by an 
individual, with whom I am thus happy to become 
acquainted, Friederick Lorenz Hoffman, Doctor of 
Laws and Censor, in Hamburg, who possesses a 
perfect copy of the Catalogue, and has had the good- 
ness to send me enclosed in a very friendly and 
flattering letter, a transcript of the leaf absent from 
mine, and which is now printed. The letter is dated 
April 21, 1842, just a fortnight before the com- 
mencement of the calamitous conflagration at Ham- 
burg; from which, I trust to hear my friend and 
his books have escaped. 

The name Daczer, which disappears in the Cata- 
logue of 1559, and in all subsequent, is, I have no 
doubt, agreeably to the conjecture of Mr. Bohn, 
who has rendered me important assistance relative 
to the above communication, Decanus Pataviensis 
(Passau), who does appear in the next and later 
Catalogues ; and Gigas Norlus amoy (so printed) 
should, as evidently, according to the correction of 


Dr. Hoffmann, be Gigas Northusanus (Northaitsen), 
as it stands in the subsequent Catalogues. 

This leaf may be either left in its place to follow 
the supplied leaf, or inserted after p. 72, or at the 
end of the volume. 

IT will be proper to make a few observations 
on the preceding Catalogue. It will be recol- 
lected, that Vergerio had made some free, or 
indeed caustic, animadversions on the first 
Catalogue, and on the personal character of 
della Casa, the professed author, as he was 
possibly of the succeeding, and even of the 
last, that which has just been given. For, 
although in 1554 he was generally resident in 
Rome, yet he remembered his residence and 
occupations in Venice, and doubtless kept up 
his old interest in the supervision of the press, 
particularly the censorship of heretical books. 
It is plain, from a careful inspection of the 
Catalogue under view, that, if his, he had not 
forgotten his old friend and instructor, the 

O ' 

ex-bishop of Capo d'Istria. He takes politic 
care, however, to make his castigator as little 
conspicuous as possible. The notice is dis- 
covered by no sign but the addition of the con- 
traction Verg. at the end of the article ; a 
mark which would be overlooked by all who 
were not a little in the secret of the rancour 
felt by the compiler towards his reprover. 

The instances are as follow: Consiglio, &.C., 
of which we shall have something to say 
Copia duna lettera scritta alii quattro di 
Genaio. 1550 Declaratione de Giubileo 
Disordine della Chiesa Discorsi sopra H 
Fioretti di San Francesco Due letter e d'un 
Cortigiano nelle quali si dimostra che la Fede 
Matrimonio delli Preti Sf delle Itfonache. 
This article has already been alluded to, as 
standing in the last Roman Index ; but, let the 
reader notice, without the Verg. It would 
have been going too far to omit the name of 
Vergerio as a separate article. And it is not 
omitted. But how is it inserted? Not in the 
way usual in most, if not all, alphabetic cata- 
logues of the time, by placing it under the 
initial letter of the Christian name, but under 
V Vergerius, Episcopusde Capo cCldstria. It 
may just be observed farther, that the top of 
recto (signature B. 8) D. XV. is a reference 
to the first portion of the Jus Canonicum, the 
Decretum, and the place intended is Dist. 
XV. iii., Sancta Romana Ecclesia, the list of 
books condemned by Pope Gelasius, A.D. 493. 
The Decretalibus, Sig. C. 1 , verso, signifies the 
Libri Decretales which follow the Decretum. 
But ex Vag. lo. Papa xxii., on the same page, 


might puzzle some readers ; it is meant for 
JExtravafjtantes,$ic., another, and the last, portion 
of the pontifical code. I can hardly think that 
the colophon implies a reprint. If it does, it 
was almost certainly a reprint by Vergerio, 
synchronous, and of nearly, if not quite, equal 
value with the original. 

Let us now examine the first of the fore- 
going articles, reserved for after consideration 
Consifflio d'alcuni Episcopi congregation Bo- 
logna. Verg. This entry, for substance, stands 
in all the ensuing Papal Indexes to the last ; 
but with this signal difference the name Verg. 
or any allusion to the writer or editor, is 
altogether omitted. This is not accidental. 
Rome has a great objection, that any of her 
sons, especially her bis/tops, should appear as 
deserters and heretics. Vergerio has, in his 
Annotations to the Index of Paul IV., made 
and established this remark. In order to 
make the inquiry upon which we are entering, 
and which has embarrassed some good scho- 
lars, clear, the piece before us is carefully to 
be distinguished from another of the same 
character, and somewhat the same title, as we 
shall see, the Consilium de Emendanda Ecclesia, 
of the date of 1537, and which is likewise 


inserted in the Pauline and Tridentiue Indexes.* 
This latter produced a lively controversy, as 
it well might ; for, the Advice which was given, 
with others, by Carafa, as Cardinal, he him- 
self afterwards condemned as Pope Paul IV 7 . 
It stands in his Index under Lib. inscript., and 
so in the Tridentine ; afterwards, under Con- 
silium. Cardinal Quirini was beaten out of 
the solution, that only an edition by heretics 
was condemned, in his controversy with Schel- 
horn in 1748. And now, mark the impudent 
knavery of the Church of Rome on the sub- 
ject. Not in the Index immediately following, 
1750 that was too soon but in the next to 
that, 1758, the article appears thus: Con- 
silium deemendanda Ecclesia. Cum Notts vei 
Prfefationibas Hareticorum, Ind. Trid. The 
Italics are a pure addition, and the thing im- 
plied necessarily by the Ind. Trid. is abso- 
lute, interested falsehood, and such as could 
not be unknown or unintended. f This excur- 
sion is worth being made. 

We now rejoin our proper subject. The 
Consiglio is evidently Italian, and implies that 

* Dr. M'CmE, in his very valuable Hist, of the Reforma- 
tion in Italy, pp. 113-5, has confounded the two, supposing 
that the De Emendanda was signifi"d by the Consiglia. 

t See Lit. P,>1. pp. 48, 49. 


the treatise was written in that language, t 
do not know that the work is any where ex- 
tant or accessible. But no one can doubt, 
particularly considering that it must .precede 
1554, that it is the same as is known under 
the following title, which, as the book itself, is 
in Latin : Consilium quorundam Episcopo- 
rvm Bononice congregatorum, quod de ratione 
stabiliendce Romance Ecclesice Julio III. 
Ponb. Max. datum est. This document ap- 
pears in BROWN'S Fasciculus Rerum Exped. fy 
Fug., which I adduce first, though out of 
chronological order, for reasons which will 
appear. It is in the second volume, pp. 641, 
and following, and is copied from the edition 
of William Crashaw in 1609, who derived it 
from different originals, not very distinctly 
described. There is, however, no reason to 
doubt their genuineness. It is dated and 
subscribed thus: Bononice, 20 Octob. Anno 

1. Vincentius de Durantibus Episc. 

Thermularum Brixiensis. 

2. Egidius Falceta Episc. Caprulanus. 

3. Gerhardus Busdragus Episc. 

Th essa lo n icensis . 
VERGERIO, in the first and only volume of 


his collected works, 1563, includes the Con- 
silium, with the same date, but without the 
signatures. WOLFIUS has the work, with the 
signatures, in his Lectiones Mem., but under 
the year 1549, and with that date; and con- 
sistently therewith it is addressed to Paul III., 
instead of Julius III., and wants the allusion 
in the end to Mary I. of England, who was 
not then reigning. If the Italian original had 
this date, this may have been a translation 
from it. But this supposition involves conse- 
quences ; and Wolfius gives no information. 
Dr. WILLIAM CLAGETT gave a translation in 
English of this and the preceding Consilium, 
in 1688, under the title, Slate of the Church 
of Rome when the Reformation began, &c. ; 
and in his preface rather wonders at the varia- 
tion of Wolfius, as if he transcribed from "a 
false copy." It deserves here to be mentioned, 
that there is another piece very similar to that 
under consideration, and, I have no doubt, 
proceeding from the pen of Vergerio, the first 
edition of which, as it plainly is, being, in the 
copy which I have, bound up with other 
acknowledged productions of the same author, 
Actiones DUCK, Address to the Dominican 
fathers about il Roaario, and others. It is 


entitled, Exemplum Liter arum R. D. Gerardi 
Dusdragi in Episcopatu Patavino Suffraganei. 
Ad Illustrissimum et Reverendissimum D..D. 
Franciscum Pisanum, In quibus agitur. Qita- 
r/arn ratione prceservari possit Italia, ne Lu- 
theranismo inficiatur. It is subscribed, Datum 
Padua die xv Decembris, Anno M.D.LVIIT. 
Gerardus Busdragus, Episcopvs Argolicensis. 
It may be seen likewise in GERDESII Miscell. 
Groning. I. 319, &c. He was not aware of 
the original edition. 

Now here a question of some importance 
arises. Most writers, all indeed, whom I have 
named, consider the Bolognese Consilium as a 
serious and real thing, and not as the fiction of 
Vergerio, like his Actiones and some other 
works. Clagett, in the preface to his transla- 
tion, ingeniously enough observes, that the dif- 
ference between the two Consilia seems to be 
this, that the Advisers in the first seemed to be 
serious, and were not ; those in the latter were 
serious, and seemed not to be so. It must be 
acknowledged, that in the piece with which 
we are now concerned, there is every appear- 
ance of a highly finished parody or satire, such as 
would naturally flow from the pen of Erasmus 
or Vergerio. But it may be said with justice, 


that men of such views and necessities as be- 
long to every Papal corporation, when they 
talk freely and confidentially among them- 
selves, often, without being sensible of it. use 
language which appears very like the ridicule 
of their opponents. And it must be admitted 
that, in trying matters of fact, mere internal 
evidence is frequently very insufficient and de- 
lusive. A clever speculator in this way might 
easily prove to his own satisfaction, that every 
action in the life of Julius Caesar, or any other 
well-known individual, was highly improbable; 
and perhaps bring himself, and others like 
himself, to the conclusion, that no such person 
ever existed. But there is reason in things ; 
and we have in the present case some data of 
facts, which may serve as a guide and test. 

Vergerio himself might have settled the 
business ; and in the preface to his collected 
works he has done something. After correct- 
ing the mistake of some, who thought his 
Actiones a real transaction, he says of the 
other contents, one of which is the Bolo;nese 

* O 

Consilium Quid inaliis Tractatibus aaatur,non 
opus est dicer e, cum apertissime <Sf sine ullo fuco 
impetatur \scil. Papa~\, dianissimus qui impete- 
retur cum omnibus suis creaturis, ego hie quan- 


dam impeto. I confess I do not quite under- 
stand this, and if I did, I think that Vergerio 
overlooked the piece in question, and referred 
to the remaining. But we have some other 
criteria of the description of facts. The two dif- 
ferent dates of 1553 and 1549, with agreeing dif- 
ference of facts, the two popes addressed, and a 
princess, reigning, or not reigning, agreeably 
to the differing dates. Then, in Vergerio's 
own reprint, of his own recital at least, the 
names of the very persons who give the charac- 
ter and authority are wanting. And when we 
make use of those persons, or their names and 
designations, the matter does not much im- 
prove. I have availed myself of the assistance 
of a well-qualified friend, with facilities which 
1 want ; and he informs me, that of the prin- 
cipal person, Busdragns, and of his episcopate, 
whether Thessalonica or Argolis, he can find 
no trace in UGHELLI'S Italia Sacra, or SAVONA- 
ROLO, or RICHARD'S Bibliotheque Sacree. He 
is not to be found in any list, Greek or Latin, 
of the bishops of Thessalonica ; and such a see 
as epixcopalus Argolicensis does not appear to 
exist. From the Index Geographic/is Episco- 
patuum, however, of J. ALB. FABRICIUS, sub- 
joined to his Sal. Lux Evangel. &c. Hamb. 


1731, I transcribe Argolicen&is (Argos) in 
Peloponneso : * Thessalonicensis, GsffgaXovixiK, 
Kdffris &srraMa,$, Thessalonicse, in Macedonia 
(Saloniki) Metropolita. Phillppi Peciputi S. J. 
Illyricum Sacrum, & promissum opus Urban i 
Godfrid. Sibbern, Ecclesiastse & Professoris 
Lips, de Thessalonicse Antiquitatibus. Etiam 
Ancyrani locum tenebat tempore Andronici 
Palaeologi. The asterisk signifies episcopates 
existing in 1731. Vincentius Durantes, or de 
Durantibus, appears in UGHELLI as Episcopus 
Thermulensis from 1539 to 1565; and Aegidius 
Falzetta, or Falcetta, as Episcopus Caprulensis, 
from 1542 to 1563, and therefore stand good 
as solid entities; both, indeed, attended the 
Council of Trent; but Busdrao-us seems to be 

* O 

an ens rationis. 

I fear, therefore, the conclusion to which we 
nuist come is, that the production in question 
was one of those ingenious effusions for which 
Vergerio was eminently fitted, and to which he 
was highly provoked. It is, however, impossible 
to withstand the conviction, that, as a picture, 
the Consilium, and its later partner, have done 
no injustice whatever to the religion, the 
morality, the wisdom, and the honesty of 
Rome, in the times of Vergerio, or, since, to 


our own times certainly with circumstantial 
variations of things and degrees, but with sub- 
stantial identity. Such literary composition, 
to borrow a term from the school of painting, 
is intelligible and harmless enough, besides 
its real truth and use. But when it is re- 
flected, how often and almost irresistibly it is 
misrepresented by unprincipled persons as 
forgery and intentional imposition a mis- 
representation, of which, while the authors are 
conscious, they avail themselves of the benefit, 
and repeat the slander as long as they feel 
that it is believed and works ; it might be ad- 
visable, either to discontinue the practice alto- 
gether, or to be very cautious in the use of it. 

It has been pretended, that the damnatory 
Indexes of Rome have no force " no force 
whatever," according to Dr. Murray's solemn 
declaration before the Parliamentary Commis- 
sioners in this united empire. From pages 
38 and onwards of the Literary Policy, it 
will appear, that the very first Index invested 
with direct Papal authority and responsi- 
bility, that of Paul IV. was expressly founded 
on the Bull Ccena Domini, which is said to 
have been first published by Urban V. in his 
first Constitution. This Constitution, how- 

ever, has nothing, as I can discover, relative 
to doctrine, but is simply an excommunication 
and anathema emitted against certain invadersof 
secular property, and to be denounced annually. 
But I can speak with certainty as to the bull 
in its present form (having the documents), 
that one, in substance the same, was issued by 
Sixtus IV. 1476, 3. Id. April. One by Julius 
II. followed ; another by Leo X. ; another by 
Adrian VI. (the two latter of which I have). 
Perhaps no succeeding pontiff failed in sending 
forth one of his own. Repetitions, for sub- 
stance, that is, with alterations of no great 
extent, suited to times and circumstances, are 
publicly extant to the sixth year of the ponti- 
ficate of Clemens XIII., who published one A.D. 
1764, May 20. He had done the same before 
in 1759. In fact, BARBERI, in the JBullarium, 
now in course of publication in Rome, has given 
the bull at length only in the first instance.* 
For prudential, or other reasons (it is of no im- 
portance what, but in all probability the same 
as induced the suppression of the Jesuits), Cle- 
ment XIV. discontinued the annual publication 

* See Bull. Rom. torn. II. 461, and I. 116. In the Appendix 
ad Synod Tusc, of the Card. DUKE or YORK, Rome, 1764, the 
bull is transcribed at length in its last form. 


in Rome of a form justly offensive to the Euro- 
pean powers. But this was no repeal; much 
less was it any command or permission to the 
bishops to discontinue their enjoined publica- 
tions in their respective cathedrals. In fact, the 
bull is in as full and strong validity and opera- 
tion as ever ; and it cannot be otherwise with- 
out breaking down the whole edifice of Papal 
discipline. That its primitive force continues, 
notwithstanding partial, or rather simply ap- 
parent, relaxation, is proved by the admission 
of Romanists : Count FERDINAND DAL Pozzo, 
Catholicism in Austria, pp. 182, 3; Card. 
ERSKINE, in Parliamentary Report concerning 
Roman Catholics in Foreign Countries, 1816, 
p. 341 ; Dr. SLEVEN, in the Eighth Report on 
Irish Education, p. 256.* 

But in order to put the reader in a position 
to judge for himself on a point where every 
artifice is used to mislead, I will set before him 
the clause in the anathematising bull, which 
concerns literature, and which stands first and 
foremost in the black list; putting within 
brackets a clause which has been added in 
later times. 

See the testimonies at length in Lit. Pol. pp. 260, 1. DE 
POTTER is added. 


Excommunicamus, et anathematizamus ex 
parte Dei Omnipotentis * * * ac omnes, 
et singulos alios Haereticos * * * ac 
eorumdem libros [hseresim continentes, vel 
de Religione tractantes,] sine auctoritate Nos- 
tra, et Sedis Apostolicse scienter legentes, aut 
retinentes, imprimentes, seu quomodolibet 
defendentes, ex quavis causa, publice, vel 
occulte, quovis ingenio, vel colore : nee non 
Schismaticos, et eos, qui se a Nostra, et Ro- 
mani Pontificis pro tempore existentis obedi- 
entia pertinaciter subtrahunt, vel recedunt. 

This, in plain English (and it ought to be 
known and well considered by every English- 
man), is to the following effect : 

"We (the pontiff) excommunicate and 
anathematise after certain heretics named 
all others, and those who, without Our autho- 
rity, and that of the Apostolic See, knowingly 
read, or keep, or print, or in any way defend, 
for any cause, publicly or privately, with 
whatever intention or pretence, the books of 
such heretics, [containing heresy, or treating 
of Religion :] as well as all Schismatics, and 
those who persist in disobedience to the 
Roman See." 

The addition within brackets will appear 


to have been made with some policy, particu- 
larly as Britain, and other heretical states, are 
concerned ; for in them the attempt to restrain 
the Papal residents from the perusal of all 
the works of the country would only serve to 
make disappointment more certain, and put to 
hazard even a partial obedience. A discreet 
relaxation of claim is often the best game 
which ambition can play. Thus, when a 
Popish government cannot get the control of 
National Education directly, it will attempt the 
thing by appointment of schoolmasters. If that 
scheme fail, then inspection will be tried for ; 
and so on, till defeated, if defeated at last. 

Still further to shew the application and 
importance of the bull in question, or the par- 
ticular section with which we are concerned, 
to the subject immediately in view, it is to be 
recollected, that its provisions, or decisions, 
are made the groundwork of all the popular 
books instructing and directing Confessors, in 
what way they should perform their peculiar 
duty. This, at least, is the character of the 
Spanish manuals which I have consulted. The 
bull Ccence Domini is expressly referred to as 
the rule. And I believe it is so in all other 
manuals for the same purpose, circulated by 


authority in Papal countries.* In non-Papal 
countries it is to be expected that such things 
will be kept out of public sight, or neutralised, 
or disguised. However, that even in the 
United Kingdom, and in the present age, this 
bull supplies the authorised rule and matter of 
the inquiries in the Confessional, is established 
past a doubt, by the volumes of PETER DENS, 
republished in 1832 by the express and pro- 
claimed authority of the Supreme Ecclesiastic 
Ruler in the Papal Church of Ireland, as " the 
surest guide of his clergy " and the text-book for 
their conferences. The repudiation of these 
portentous volumes, on their first discovery 
and exposure, succeeded, as it has been, by a 
shuffling, but very intelligible and real re-ein- 
bracement, has done all that could be wished 
by the friends of truth for settling their cha- 
racter, as the absolute and authorised standard 

* The intimate, or rather necessary, connexion of the bull 
in question with the duty of confession is decisively and 
strikingly established by the fact, with which FEIIRARI, in hia 
Prompta Bibliotheca, acquaints us, under VISITARE, &c. ix. 272, 
that, among the articles for inquiry by the visitors of churches, 
besides others of very significant importance, under the sub- 
division, Pceidtentia, stands the following An in Sede Con- 
fessionali sit affixa tabella Casuum Reservatorum, Sc SUM- 
MARIUM BULLS IN CCENJE DOMINI? This Summarium is found 
in Dens, as will be immediately seen. 


of Italian theology in Ireland.* If the reader 
will take up the sixth volume, which is oc- 
cupied by the subject of the Sacrament of 
Penance, and, of course, its integral parts, of 
which Confession is one, he will find, under the 
general head of Reserved Cases, a No., that 
of 219, pages 298 and following, entitled De 
Bulla Coence Domini, and specifying the sub- 
stance of each of the twenty objects of male- 
diction in order. Each of these are sins, 

* See Dr. MURRAY'S Letter of Oct. 5, 1836, in all the 
Dublin papers, on his return from his visit to Rome. I feel 
impelled to notice one particular passage in this wonderful 
letter, because it contains a sentiment very vulgarly repeated 
by the lower class of Popish writers. Its object is to vindicate 
the Romanist's regard for his oath. " Our inviolable regard 
for the sanctity of an oath was the only fence that shut us out 
for centuries from every office of honour and emolument in the 
State, and left us as despised and degraded aliens in our native 
land. Our adversaries know this." Could Dr. Murray be so 
stolid, or imagine that others vere, as not to know, that there 
may be perfect indifference to the sanctity of oath, and at the 
same time an insuperable dread of the infamy attached to its 
infraction, or to perjury 1 This, indeed, since 1836, has suffered 
some abatement. But it is so clear, that the infamy attendant 
upon perjury in the view of the uncontaminated portion of the 
British Protestant public would be an important fence against 
the intrusion of Romanists into Parliament, that, allowing all 
the force claimed for their regard to the sanctity of an oath, 
that regard could not be the only fence. And yet Dr. Murray, 
relying upon bold assertion, or the deceivability of the mass of 
mankind, ventured to repeat the untruth. Dr. Murray is H 
finished Jesuit, and seems to hold the opinion in common with 


whether from circumstance, mortal or venial, 
into which the confessor is in duty bound to 
inquire. And that he is not likely to overlook 
the first article, relative to heretical books, is 
plain enough from the No. quickly ensuing, 
that of 222, which is headed, " Faculties usually 
granted to the Bishops of Belgium, to allow the 
reading of prohibited boohs to those who apply 
for the license for the purpose of impugning 
them."* These faculties were not confined to 

professors of the magical art, that it is a point of honour to be 
relied upon from the company, for whose amusement the per- 
formance is given, to appear to be completely deceived, and an 
egregious breach of the same to appear to perceive the decep- 
tion absolutely shocking to expose and publish the discovery. 
The Doctor's letter to the approaching meeting of the Papal 
Institute, dated May 22, 1840, is an admirable instance of the 
familiar art of contriving to say some truths with the effect of 
falsehood an effect so obvious, as by no possibility to be con- 
idered as unknown or unintended. Mr. M'Ghee quickly tore 
away the deceptions veil. 

* For every thing, however, relative to the infamous bull 
in question, see the beginning of the most seasonable, im- 
portant, and unanswerable " Nullity of the Government of Q. 
Victoria in Ireland," &i.c. by the llev. R. J. M'GiiEE. At p. 13, 
he has referred to the Vlllth, the Supplemental, volume of 
Dens, pp. 73, 74, 82-84, 98, 99, 101, 164, 165, as decisive 
proofs of the recognition of the bull in Ireland, as of standing 
authority. Some I had before noticed to that effect : but I have 
since examined the whole number. It is of some importance 
likewise to observe, that in the elaborate and celebrated work f 
the Prompta Bibliotheca of FERRARI, under the word Excom- 
municatio, iii. 487 492, the bull in question, as issued by 


Belgium: Pius VII. granted an Indult to the 
prelates of France, February 27, 1809, autho- 
rising them to permit the having and reading 
prohibited, heretical, and infidel books 
d 'avoir et de lire les livres dtfendus, mime ceux 
des heretiques et des incredules, d ^exception 
neanmoins des livres d'astrologiejudiciaire, des 
livres superstitieux, et des livres obsccnes ; et de 
communiquer a d'autres la mime faculte, ay ant 
egard a la science et la probite des supplians.* 

Let the reader now revert to the Bull 
Ccence Domini, particularly as relates to litera- 
ture. Let him reflect upon the circumstances 
by which it is illustrated and confirmed. Let 
him recollect that the kind of books pro- 
scribed is not left to random conjecture, but, 
in catalogues solemnly compiled, and from 
time to time enlarged and altered by the 
highest authority in the Roman Church, is 

Clement XL in 1701, is recited at length as the most authentic, 
and, till repealed by lawful authority, universally binding rule, 
for the emission of that formidable thunderbolt. If any thing 
were wanting to preclude the pretence of the bull not being in 
force in any part of the Papal dominions, it would be supplied 
by the assurance to be found in Dens, ii. p. 129, that tacit con- 
sent is sufficient. All other formalities are unessential. 

* Complement de la Corresp. de la Cour de Rome avec Buona- 
parte, $c. par MUZARELLI, Paris, 1814, pp. 508-512. I seek 
the document in vain in the London Relation, &c. 


minutely and precisely defined and published. 
Let him, moreover, consider how intimately 
the subject is connected with the ordinary and 
daily occupations of every individual of Papal 
society, and particularly with the duties of 
Papal confessors. Let him then weigh well 
the awful authority, as it must be to every 
sincere Romanist, of the maledictory judgment 
of the Great Head of his religious communion, 
the successor of Apostles, the Vicar of Christ, 
the Vicegerent of God, his Sovereign Lord on 
earth. And then then let him say, whether 
he believes it possible, that a sincere member 
of the Church of Rome, whether laic or cleric, 
can set at nought the published judgment of 
such authority, without either gross irreli- 
gion, or gross hypocrisy? That the hypo- 
crisy may have considerable advantage, both 
negative and positive, to recommend it, I 
am very far from denying. But hypocrisy 
must not be allowed to escape under such a 

But that the authority of Papal restrictions 
in literature is felt and respected, we need not 
the simple, though irresistible, deductions of 
reason. It is proved by facts. 

We might naturally expect that it would 


openly and honestly appear in countries, which, 
having neither Protestant opposition, nor Pro- 
testant scrutiny, to encounter, would want 
temptation to hypocrisy. And therefore the 
first instance to be produced is the less ex- 

I. It is that of the most respectable con- 
vert, ANDREW SALL, with whom the public, 
for its benefit, is likely to become better ac- 
quainted.* In the Preface to his True Catho- 
lic and Apostolic Faith maintained in the 
Church of England, he produces a License of 
the Bishop of Palencia, for three successive 
years, to keep and read prohibited books. The 
date is, Madrid, June 15, 1652. At page 128 
he refers to it, with some of its untoward 
effects. f 

* His principal work, with copious illustrative notes, has 
just appeared. 

f The reader will find a good deal that is interesting re- 
specting Dr. Sail, in the Preface of PETEU WALSH, Franciscan, 
to his Four Letters, 1686. He honourably vindicated the se- 
ceder from the Roman Church, against the rhodomontade attack 
of that episcopal weathercock, Nicholas French, of Ferns, in a 
piece, of rather rare occurrence, the Doleful Fall of Andrew Sutl. 
It goes over all the trite topics of the argument for itself and 
against Christianity which Popery can muster : witli a com- 
petent quantity of punning abuse. Walsh, in the view of this 
particular case, in his second Letter, which is to the odd, clever 
pseudo-bishop just mentioned, after claiming in favour of Sail's 


II. My next instance is that of an English- 
man and priest, THOMAS FITZ-HERBERT, who, 
in a treatise published at Rome, Superiorutii 
Permissu, 1610, An sit Utilitas in Scelere, and 
evidently, though covertly, a studied and 

conduct the sovereignty of conscience, adds " All which being 
true, it were worth the while to consider, what is it hurries on 
our Catholic writers generally to such exorbitant passions and 
barbarous language (besides many downright lies, and mere 
calumnies often) against all those that leave our Church." This 
MBteace wffl soCciently explain the similar style in which it 
has of late been common to assail the reputation of Walsh by 
individuals, laic, priestly, or noble, who, in no respect, would 
bear comparison with the calumniated Franciscan. Walsh has 
frequently referred to a prior piece of French, not very ob- 
vious, I believe, though something was promised of a reprint, 
some years ago, The Bleeding Iphigcnia. This performance 
originated in the news of Sail's abjuration ; and it is worth 
while to see, how the author speaks of his former friend, and 
with what infatuated simplicity be draws the teeth with which 
he would bite. The paper containing the news, he writes," gave 
me a great heaviness of hart ; for I loved the man dearly for 
his amiable nature and excellent parts, and esteemed him both 
a picas person and Learned, and soe did all that knew him ; but 
I see we were all deceiv'd in him.'' Then, after making him 
east by the infernal beast " out of a little heaven : ( The State 
of Religia*) wherin," he adds, " for a tyme hee shined like a 
small stair in vertue and learning," be proceeds thus" After 
desalting the Soeie? ey of Jesus, and naming away with infamy 
and shane, oat of the whole [holy ?] House of Cod, I could 
not endure him, and therfore resolved to give him a sharp re- 
prehension : at which, if hee shall repine, and fall into c holler 
for my endeavouring to doe him good, I shall houlde that for an 
ill Syraptome," &c. 


bitter, I might say, blood-thirsty, attack upon 
James I., to whom he attributes Machiavel- 
lian principles of government, professes, in the 
Dedicatory Epistle, that he obtained a license 
to read Mackiavelli from the Inquisition im- 
petrata prius ab Illustrissimis Sanctae In- 
quisitionis Cardinalibus legendi Machiavelli 
facultate, ut ex eoruin diplomate, quod penes 
ine est, satis liquet. This work is bound up 
with a vile Jesuitic lampoon against James I. 
by BARTHOLUS PACENIUS, I. C., E^raois Epi- 
stolae nomine Regis, M. B. &c. I. C. Monti- 
bus, Impressore Adamo Gallo. Anno 1610; 
forty unpaged leaves, remarkable for a pro- 
fligate profession of contempt for the obliga- 
tion of an oath, and noticed by Richard 
Thompson,* Ussher, Henry Mason, and others. 

* As this work of Pacenius is exceedingly unknown, and 
that of Richard Thompson throws more light upon it than I 
have any where else been able to find, the reader must tolerate 
a few words upon a not unimportant subject. The full title of the 
first is ~E^.Ta.tii Epistola; nomine Regis Magns Brittanias, ad Christianos Monarchas, Principes Sc Ordines, scriptze ; 
qua: Prsefationis monitoris loco, ipsius Apologias pro jura- 
mento fidelitatis, pra?fixaest. Eisdem Monarchis, Principibus, 
& Ordinibus dedicata, a Eartholo Pacenio, I. C. Claudianus 
de Inst. Priu. Qui terret plus ille timet, Sors ilia Tyranno 
convenit, Montibus, Impressore Adamo Gallo. Anno 1610. 
It extends to forty folia, and is small 8vo. From the absolute 
non-appearance of author or book in any of the regular books of 


I was confirmed in my interpretation of Fitz- 
herbert's book, which in language is confined 
to generals, from this association. 

III. The Rev. JOHN HAWKINS, a Romish 
priest in Worcester, renounced Popery, and in 

reference in my own possession, or accessible by means of 
friends, I was early convinced, that the usual marks of appro- 
priation were fictitious ; and my conviction was confirmed by 
the first and only minute notice of the work by the afore- 
mentioned Richard Thompson. His little work is far from com- 
mon. It is an answer to a Jesuitic attack upon the Oatli of 
James, entitled Elenchus Refutationis Torturae Torti. Pro 
Reverendissimo in Christo Patre Domino Episcopo Eliense, 
Adversus Martinum Becanum Jesuitam. Authore Richardo 
Thompsonio Cantabrigiensi. Londini. Excudebat Robertus 
Barkerus, Sereniss? Regiae Majestatis Typographus. Anno 
Dom. 1611. Small 8vo. pp. 104. At page 5, adverting to 
the King's assailants, he says, that they all wrote irreverently. 
He proceeds 'Quidam etiam furiose, ut impurissimi oris 
Pacenius, with whom he joins Coefeteau, who yet, he adds, 
observed some moderation. Then, giving a reason of the dif- 
ference, he says, that the Frenchman was under the restraint of 
his sovereign, Henri IV., who detested brutal writers. But his 
language with respect to the former is Alter ille sycophanta 
Romse scripsit, ubi, ut alios taceam, qui ilium in hoc scelus 
armarunt, invenit ipsum P. P. qui dirum hoc, & horribile 
carmen sibi prseiret, & fere cocceptis verbis dictaret. Vera 
historia est. For a few lines more the writer goes on to castigate 
the libeller for sneering at James's preference of letters to 
wars, and dismisses him with the words Sed hanc belluam 
sinamus. He then turns to Becan. Perhaps the name Pace- 
nius was adopted as a jeering allusion; and Montibus may 
require only Septem to be added. Here, however, is a direct 
assertion, that the book was got up at Rome, and the work, 


his defence wrote An Appeal to Scripture, 
Reason, and Tradition, &c. Worcester [1786]. 
He likewise published A General Defence of 
the Principles of the Reformation in a Letter 
to the Rev. Joseph Berington. Worcester, 

or dictation, of Paul V. There is no reason to discredit the 
assertion. The Papal court was well attended by English 
traitors at the time. Parsons had just died, but there were 
Fitz-herbeit, and others of his scholars to continue his services ; 
and in truth, some parts of the work savour of English manu- 
facture : the unctura sutoriu shoe-blacking is a notion and 
expression which would naturally flow from an Englishman. 
In fact, the drift of this book and that of Fitz-herbert (both of 
which in my copy are bound together, with an unmeaning one 
between, and they belonged to the Jesuits' College at Antwerp 
before the volume came into Mr. Heber's possession,) are so 
alike, or rather identical, that they may appear to be two 
different weapons made by the same hand, and for the same 
purpose : the one perhaps to succeed where the other might fail; 
or, better, both to unite their effect. It can escape no one, 
with what prudent dexterity both writers (supposing them two) 
unite in a significant suggestion of the judgments which may 
be expected to visit a heretical and Machiavellian tyrant, 
whether by divine or human means. Hints of this kind are 
intelligible enough to prepared minds, and they are often as 
effectual as they are safe to the authors. Ireland can attest 
the use and efficacy of this method ; and who knows but that, 
in that favoured land, in which the religion of Rome expands in 
unrestrained freedom, the lives of the whole Protestant popu- 
lation may come to be at the mercy of a heartless and venal 
ruffian, who, by means, and at the sole risk, of others, may 
be able, with perfect security to himself, to effect atrocities, 
which, with no want of will to commit himself, he may feel 
much want of will to be responsible for ? 


1788. In the last, page 23, answering an 
opponent, the unconverted Dr. Carroll, he in- 
troduces him as asserting, " that Roman 
Catholics read, without censure or hesitation, 
whatever controversial books they please. 
This," he adds, " is notoriously untrue, as 
Mr. Pilling has confessed." And he refers 
immediately to a full and decisive passage in 
the Conferences d' Angers, a work of great re- 
pute, published about the time of the author. 
We shall hear more of this from another con- 
vert. But before we come to that, we observe, 
that Mr. Hawkins in his first work, the Appeal, 
and in connexion with the Bull Coencs Domini, 
mentioned in the text, writes in a note, page 
29, " The reading or keeping of books written 
by Protestants, or even published by them, is 
prohibited under pain of excommunication in- 
curred by the very fact. The severity of dis- 
cipline which prevails in this regard, if we give 
any credit to your best modern divines, is 
scarce to be conceived by any who are unac- 
quainted with their writings." At page 130 
and onwards, he expresses his indignation at 
the Index of prohibited books, especially ihe 
Spanish, which was new to him. And at 300 
and the two following, he again dwells upon 


the barbarous exploits of this restrictive engine. 
He mistakes, however, in supposing the in- 
famous bull, which is at the bottom of it, to 
have been repealed. The confessional would 
be terribly crippled by its withdrawal. 

IV. We proceed to another valuable de- 
sertion of Popery from the same city, the Rev. 
tled in America. In A Reply to an Address to 
the Roman Catholics of the United States of 
America [by Dr. Carroll], and published at 
New York, 1817, pp. 8-10: after observing 
that the notorious bull is received and observed 
in some countries and not in others, which 
makes that which is a grievous crime in one 
country to be not even a venial offence in 
another, he adds, " This must be the senti- 
ment of every Roman Catholic ; and yet its 
consistency can hardly be admitted. For, if 
the Pope be a Doctor of the Church, by way 
of eminence, as he is frequently styled, if he be 
entitled to the pompous appellations of Master 
of the world, of Universal leather, which were 
frequently bestowed on him in the eleventh 
century ;* if he be a Divine Majesty, the hus- 
band of the Churc/t, the Prince of the Apostles, 

* MOSHEIM'S Church History. 


the Prince and King of all the Universe ; if he 
be the Pastor ; the Physician, and a God, to 
use the language of the Council of Lateran 
speaking to Leo X.,* who will dare question 
his right to proscribe such sources of informa- 
tion, as in his wisdom he shall deem pernicious 
to his subjects? Inconsistency apart, he must 
have a daring soul who shall venture upon a 
pasture, which the Universal Shepherd pro- 
nounces to be poisono'us, and forbids his flock 
to taste at the hazard of their salvation. The 
rev. gentleman will not deny that these lofty 
pretensions have their effect to this day. Else 
why are Roman Catholics constantly advised to 
obtain permission to read heretical books for 
the security of their consciences ? Among the 
faculties, as they are called, or parochial powers 
conferred on R. C. missionaries even in Eng- 
land, is not a special license granted for keep- 
ing and reading heretical books? The Chap- 
lain's warrant on this head is expressed in these 
words : Conceditur facultus tenendi et legendi 
libros hcereticorum de eorum religione tract antes 
ad effectum eos expugnandi. ' Leave is granted 
to keep and read the books of heretics, which 

BASNAGE, vol. iii. p. 556. [The work referred to is, 
Hist, de la Rel. des Egli$es Reformees : but the volume should be 
the Second.] 


treat of their religion, in order to refute them' 
These lines place this whole matter in its pro- 
per point of view. They evidently evince to 
what purpose Roman Catholics are indulged in 
the reading of Protestant authors. Not, it is 
presumed, for the sake of impartial investiga- 
tion, but solely to combat and refute them. The 
rev. gentleman may say, then, with as much 
confidence as he pleases, that rational investiga- 
tion is as open to Catholics as to any other set 
of men on the face of the earth* But persons 
of real candour will stillf give the chaplain 
credit for the same valuable quality, until it be 
proved that religious information also is equally 
open to Roman Catholics as to others ; or, that 
the Protestant churches forbid the reading of 
P,oman Catholic writers, unless it be with a 
view to confute them." 

V. Another testimony to the same effect is 
extant in a pamphlet written in defence of the 
Rev. ANDREW MEAGHER, a well-known and 
learned convert from Popery to Protestanism. 
He published, in vindication of the step which 
he had taken, a volume entitled, " The Popish 
Mass" &c. or a Sermon, &c. It is intended 

* Address, p. 11. 

t [Should not refuse to or some equivalent, be here in. 
serted ?] 


to shew the conformity of Popery with Pagan- 
ism. Limerick: printed by T. Welsh, 1771. 
Every one is acquainted with the eminent merit 
of the work, which roused an antagonist, to 
whom a Reply was given in a well-written 
pamphlet in 1772, without name of place or 
printer, Truth Triumphant, a refutation of the 
Word to the Wise, and other pretended Answers 
to Dr. Meaghers Popish Mass. By EUSEBES 
MISOPSEUDES. It appears from page 11, that 
the author of The Word to the Wise was W Ish, 
so written, but hardly, I should suppose, though 
so near the mark, the printer of Meagher's 
work. This, indeed, is immaterial. The de- 
fender of the convert, however, at the page 
cited, speaks of a remonstrance made to the 
assailant by " some well-bred sensible men of 
his [the assailant's] own religion," the purport 
of which he gives in four succeeding pages ; 
and in page 14 they say, " We can look into 
Dr Meagher's book only by stealth, for you 
have forbidden the reading of it under pain of 
excommunication. Nay, some of yourselves 
say, you would not for a thousand pounds look 
into it." Eusebes adds in a note, " This is a 
fact ; for a priest in my neighbourhood made 
this declaration not long ago in public company 


Thus have they closed their eyes, lest at any 
time," &c. There is a passage of so much point 
and accuracy in Meagher's own work, that 
although I have seen it quoted in some place 
before, I am tempted to repeat it. It refers to 
Purgatory. " Upon the whole, then, it is evi- 
dent, that the doctrine of Purgatory is of 
heathen original ; that the fire of it is, like the 
thunder of the Vatican, a harmless thing which 
no wise man would be afraid of, were it not too 
often attended with Church- thunderbolts, perse- 
cutions, and massacres; and that it only serves 
to cheat the simple and ignorant out of their 
money, by giving them bills of exchange upon 
the other world, for cash paid in this, without 
any danger of the bills returning protested." 
P. 90. 

VI. The honest and acute O'CoNou, D.D. 
(we might perhaps call him another convert), 
in his Historical Address, &c. Part I., 1810, 
p. 128, has strikingly corroborated the fact of 
the submission to Papal literary proscriptions 
in Ireland. " Can we wonder at it," (the dis- 
appearance of fugitive pamphlets at a particular 
period), " when we find the learned Lynch 
expressing scruples, whether he can read Sir 
Richard Belting's excellent defence of the 


supreme Catholic Council against the censures 
of the Roman Court, because that work was 
condemned at Rome ! ! " 

VII. Another proof how little credit is due 
to the pretended disregard of pontifical book- 
censures by Romanists is furnished by the Rev. 
BLANCO WHITE, in his Evidence against [Ro- 
man] Catholicism, in a note, p. 157, second 
edition " The inveterate enmity of the sincere 
Roman Catholic against books, which directly 
or indirectly dissent from his Church, is uncon- 
querable. There is a family in England, who, 
having inherited a copious library under cir- 
cumstances which made it a kind of heir-loom, 
have torn out every leaf of the Protestant 
works, leaving nothing in the shelves but the 
covers. This fact I know from the most un- 
questionable authority." Should it be said, 
that there is here no reference to the condemna- 
tions by the Roman censors, it will only prove 
that well-instructed subjects of the Papacy, in 
consequence of the second nature thus im- 
parted to them, think and act spontaneously 
just as their mother does.* 

All above is remarkably and decisively confirmed by what 
we read in the valuable Prompta Bibliotheca of FERRARI, under 
LIBRI PROHIBITI, near the end, torn. v. p. 398. 


And so much for the liberty which the 
members of the Roman Church derive from her 
to read what books they choose. The liberty 
which they enjoy in that respect, they owe, not 
to their Church which only allows it because she 
must, but to the true Christianity and liberality 
of a country, which protects them against the 
barbarous tyranny of the government to which 

Quasi. IV. Utrum decreta, quibus Romse prohibentur 
libri, obligent omnes omnino fideles 1 

Resp. Affirmative. Primum, id liquet ex verbis supraci- 
tatis regulae Clem. PP. VIII. ubi dicitur libros prohibitos a 
Sede Apost. in quamcumque vertantur linguam, " censeri ab 
eadem Sede ubique gentium sub eisdem pcenis interdictos & 
damnatos." Deinde, hujusmodi Decreta approbari solent a 
Summis Pontificibus, ac de re sunt, quae ad omnes fideles 
pertinet, cujusmodi est fidei, & morum doctrina. Quis vero 
dicat, Decreta edita a summis viris, quales sunt Cardinales, 
& approbata a Summo Pontifice, qui fatentibus omnibus Catho- 
licis, auctoritatem & jurisdictionem babet in universam Eccle- 
siam, vim non habere obligandi omnes fideles ? Ab eo enim 
approbata vulgantur, qui potestatem & animum obligandi 
babet. Ne dicas, recepta non esse, vel non esse satis vulgata. 
Quis enim dicat, ex ovium acceptatione vim pendere legum, 
quas pro communi bono supremus Ecclesiae Pastor constituat, 
quibus velit omnes omnino obligare ? Vel satis vulgata non 
esse Decreta, qua? ita publicantur, ut facile ad omnium noti- 
tiam pervenire possint ? Nam praeterquam quod decreta 
hujusmodi typis consignatur, ut facile per manus Episcoporum 
ad omnium notitiam pervenire possint, libri proscripti Indici 
librorum probibitorum inseruntur, ex quo fideles omnes facile 
intelligere possunt, quinam sint libri, Apost. Sedis decreto 


they yield their principal allegiance. And let 
British Protestants well assure themselves, that 
if Popery should again spread its dark and 
pestilent wings over this country, no greater 
delay would take place than was expedient, 
before the Index of Rome and all its penalties 
would be established in full force in our land. 

A decree of the Sacred Congregation was made Dec. 4, 
1674, determining that their Decrees oblige in the Spanish 
Dominions abroad, and indeed oblige all Christians (universes 

And the reader is to note, that where, through the tolerance 
of the Apostolic See, the Rules of the Index and the Bull 
Caena are not received, it only follows, that the readers of 
books do not incur the censures therein expressed. At certum 
est (proceeds the author), graviter peccare contra Ecclesiae 
praeceptum quae semper vetuit horum librorum lectionem, 
quaeque eandem [idem ?] per Rom. Pontificem inculcat &c reno- 
vat. Hinc boni probique Catholic! ex omnibus partibus recurrere 
solent ad Apost. Sedem, vel ad habentes ab ea facultatem, ut 
legendi vetitos libros licentiam obtineant. 

It is rather instructive to observe, how irresistibly this 
uncompromising writer knocks to pieces all the ingenious pre- 
tences of certain softeners or dissemblers of his communion, 
who would persuade the world, that the sacred proscriptions, 
and appendent penalties, of Rome, are not of universal obliga- 
tion. The faithful are well, and somewhat sarcastically, 
guarded against so mischievous an error. What ! the will and 
law of the Supreme Pontiff and his cardinals to be set light 
by ! the law of him, whose will is law, to depend upon the 
reception of the sheep ! the pretence of (w-publication, or 
not sufficient publication, to afford a subterfuge, when the de- 
crees in question are attended with every notoriety, are printed, 


That this is a consummation which Popery has 
always devoutly panted after and anticipated 
as not unattainable, is put past a doubt by the 
Memorial of the Reformation of the Church of 
England, &c. by ROBERT PARSONS, written in 
1596, and first published by the Rev. E. Gee, 
in 1690. See particularly Part I. chap. ix. 

are inserted in an Index promulgated for the very purpose, that 
all the faithful every where may easily know what books are 
condemned at the fountain of infallibility ! And if the subjects 
of Rome, residing in happy Protestant England, should think 
that they are out of the reach of the tyrant over sea, and that 
his restrictions upon their reading are null and void, be it 
known, as this honest fellow-religionist will tell them, that 
although, by the toleration of his holiness, the Build Coena and 
the Index with its Rules are not enforced in this country, yet 
those who read books condemned by the Vicegerent of Deity 
without license from him, or others deputed by him, are guilty 
of a grave offence against a precept of the Church. And now, 
humble, devoted servant of your Church in Italy, fly, like the 
busy bee, from flower to flower, in the garden of literature, 
and read at your pleasure, or rather, if a terrified conscience 
will suffer you, the various works, (particularly in Latin, or 
Italian, or French, or translated into any of those languages,) 
contributed by the pens of such Reformers, Historians, Poets, 
and even Philosophers, whose names appear in an Index of pro- 
hibited books published with the sanction of the reigning pontiff', 
particularly the last ! His holiness, indeed, cannot legislate, or 
rather execute here as he likes : but you will not be able to 
commit a grave offence against a precept of his and your 
Church, without some compunctious visiting. I am not speak- 
ing of those who profess your faith, but believe no more of it 
than a Protestant does. 


pp. 94, 95, where the reader will find direc- 
tions given for searching after offensive books, 
wherever they existed, committing them to the 
flames, and appointing severe order and punish- 
ment for such as shall conceal writings of that 
description. This was part of the scheme to 
restore in full authority all the old laws of 
Papal England. I consider myself happy in 
having an early MS. copy of Parsons's work, 
of the genuineness of which I believe no doubt 
can be entertained. The preceding statement 
may be seen more at length in the Preface to 
the Literary Policy, pp. xviii.-xxii. 

Drs. Douglass, Milner, and others, shewed 
some good inclination to apply the wholesome 
severities of the Index to the Reverends, Geddes, 
Berington, O'Conor, and more, if they had felt 
less of Protestant awe. See the caustic Letter 
to the Bishop of Centuries ; the Preface to 
BERINGTON'S Memoirs of Panzani ; the Letters 


may here subjoin an earlier proof than has 
already been given of the deference which true 
subjects of the Church of Rome are expected 
to pay to her authorised biblical proscriptions. 
ROGER WIDDRINGTON, whose. real name was 
Thomas Preston, was fairly persecuted by his 


Church for his loyalty to his sovereign, James I. 
He defended the Oath of Allegiance to that 
prince against the pontiff and his party, who 
justly feared, that if England were peaceable 
and happy, even the sons of Roman darkness 
would gradually and imperceptibly enter the 
light of reformed Christianity. A considerable 
portion of the works of Widdrington was 
upon this important subject. That which has 
the last date of any is, his Last Rejoynder 
to Fitz-herbert, Permissu Superiorum, 1633, 
without place or printer, in 4to. Most of 
his works were condemned by a decree (in- 
deed, by several decrees) of the Congregation 
of the Index ; and in the Preface to the work 
just mentioned, he writes of his adversaries 
" They have caused his holiness to condemn 
our books, which, in our judgment, do plainly 
discover their forgeries, and to forbid all Catho- 
lics, as well learned as unlearned, to read them, 
without signifying unto us any one thing in 
particular which we have written amiss," &c. 
The particular Decree and the Purgation of the 
author by himself are to be found pp. 625 to 
the conclusion. The enemies of this honest 
man at least so far knew they had an engine 
in their hand not perfectly powerless. 


I will add a more modern instance of 
the literary influence which Rome has and 
exercises over her subjects. The person con- 
cerned is the celebrated, and in some sense 
meritorious, Dodd, author of the Romish 
Church History of England, now being re- 
edited by the Rev. M. A. Tierney. The 
papal historian, who must be acknowledged to 
be a very competent judge, being, of course, in 
the secrets of his own communion, has described 
the mcthode of the Jesuits (and Jesuitism is no 
more than Popery highly rectified) in disposing 
of works which they disapprove in the follow- 
ing manner. Those who are influenced by 
them, and under their direction, he observes, 
" are commonly forbidden either to read or pur- 
chase such books, as might contribute towards 
setting them right in several matters where false 
notions had taken possession of them to the 
prejudice of truth. To carry on this contri- 
vance, their way is to buy up, commit to the 
flames, and use several other uncommendable 
methods, to hinder the spreading of such books 
as would give proper intelligence, in order to 
establish the reputation of their own writers. 
This, I apprehend, may be the fate of my Re- 
ply : there being no other way left to support 


the credit of your Specimen." Apology for the 
Church Hist. &c., being a Reply to***, a Spe- 
cimen of Amendments, &c., under the fictitious 
name of Clerophilus Alethes. [Constable] 
1742, p. 204. 

I conclude this exposure of the policy the 
unlimited and all-penetrating policy of Rome, 
as respects religious and even other literature, 
wherever her interest is concerned, with the 
moral, of no trifling importance, that it becomes 
every Christian individual to be well aware of 
the subtilty of his most inveterate and very 
powerful foe ; and that it eminently behoves 
every Christian government to understand, and 
guard against, the necessary hostility and ma- 
chinations of the same foe, and, as its only 
security, to break through and cripple its OR- 
GANISATION ; insisting that its operations shall 
be subject to legal inspection and effectual 
regulation. For it is intolerable, that, in a 
simply Christian state, there should be fostered, 
enjoying its best blessings, a corporation or fac- 
tion, necessarily and illimitably of hostile in- 
terests and feelings, and of sworn enmity to its 
religion, and that, to the same corporation or 
faction should be allowed, as a divine claim, 
the unshackled liberty of communicating 


with a sovereign power in all the schemes 
which that power cannot fail to meditate, as 
well for its own advancement as for the subver- 
sion of the object of its most intense antipathy. 
That power well understands its own preten- 
sions : it knows that, of Britons, as far as Papal, 
the souls are its own ; and it can afford the car- 
cass, or a part of it, to the temporal sovereign. 
This necessarily divided allegiance, and so un- 
equally divided, was for a long time denied 
and ridiculed by the hired and deceived. 
NICHOLAS FRENCH, in his Bleeding Iphigenia, 
before referred to, has expressed this doctrine 
of his Church in a very happy way, with a 
mixture, somewhat Hibernian, of simplicity and 
cunning, " It is true the Luminare Majus, (the 
Pope,) Catholicks venerate more, then Lumi- 
nare Minus, (the King), because Luminare Majus 
hath the greater light and influence ; yet they 
doe not therfore omitt to pay due veneration to 
the King." Observe the word due. You may 
pay a person due respect by treating him with in- 
dignity. In fact, the word due will shelter any 
thing, and is sometimes made to insinuate and 
introduce more than the truth. French was a 
resolute promoter and apologist of rebellion. 
And here we may observe, that the whole secret 


of the grand quibble, by which Papists would 
make it appear that their priests in Elizabeth's 
reign suffered for their religion, is explained, 
by observing, that religion and rebellion in 
their case were, by the general principles of 
Popery and the particular bull of anathema by 
Pius V., so perfectly amalgamated, that from 
the religion might legitimately and necessarily 
be inferred the rebellion. It is so undeniable, 
that it would be childish to deny, that Eliza- 
beth and her government used the most intense 
pains to avoid punishing for religion simply ; 
so much so, that Rishton, the continuator of 
SANDERS'S libel de Schismate Angl., with per- 
verse ingratitude, and an infatuation apparently 
judicial, writes, Et hanc in omnes Ordines cru- 
delitatern dicunt se non exercere propter reli- 
gionem, (sicut certe putamus putantque etiam 
prudentes omnes, qui jam a multis annis adver- 
terunt, iis qui reruin potiuntur in Anglia, de 
fide, utcunque id praetendant, nullam curam ha- 
beri, sed de statu suo solum esse solicitos,) &c. 
Fol. 196, edit. Colon. 1585. The imposition is 
now no longer necessary. And we may now 
comfort ourselves with one advantage at least, 
and no mean one, that Popery now exhibits her- 
self as she is, and does not put us to the diffi- 


culty any longer of grappling with denials and 
sophistications of all sorts, but is, in open ap- 
pearance, and even ostentation, the unprin- 
cipled and perjured creature, which it was be- 
fore thought illiberal to charge as her character. 

A government of Christianity and conscience 
might have had the honour of preserving the 
country from its present disgrace and calamity. 
But it seems to have been the just, though par- 
tially mysterious, design of the Most High, 
after due chastisement and consequent purifi- 
cation of the British Church, to bestow upon 
her the honour, of which her natural protector 
adjudged itself unworthy, independently and 
single-handed, to vanquish and put to rout her 
insolent assailant, and to shew the world, that 
the arm on which she relies can give her the 
desired triumph, not only in the absence of all 
human help, but in spite of it, and to its per- 
manent infamy. 

Rome will find, that she has to descend 
into a new field. In the secular one she met 
with a resistance paralysed by treachery and 
heartlessness to a truly alarming degree, 
and gained an easy triumph. She will now, 
as she has begun to feel, have to fight the 
battle on a SPIRITUAL ground, and with men 


of real power and courage, who understand 
their religion, and will defend it with a loyal 
heart to the utmost. A little more than a 
century ago she had to sustain a contest much 
of this character, and was driven from the 
field with utter rout and disgrace ; when a 
noble band of sound Protestant warriors were 
roused to the defence of their purified Christ- 
ian faith, then assailed by the combined powers 
of Popery, headed by the reigning sovereign, 
James II. It must, indeed, and with grief, 
be acknowledged, that a large mixture of 
what was merely secular, though valuable, 
and of what was merely intellectual, though 
valuable likewise, with the spiritual object 
and means, rendered the victory less pure 
and decisive that it would otherwise have 
been. But with no disposition to boast, of 
which the cause is far enough from us, it may 
yet be confidently asserted, to the honour of 
those who are now unfurling the banner of the 
true cross against the bearers of the false, 
that they are prevalently faithful, intelligent, 
and devoted soldiers of their Divine Sovereign 
and Captain, and both understand and adorn 
the cause in which they have enlisted them- 
selves. Few, indeed, are now the cases in 


which the champion of the Protestant faith 
differs but little, in his fundamental belief 
from the subject of Rome. The points of 
difference are at this time well perceived and 
justly appreciated. They are felt to be funda- 
mental and important, and as they are prac- 
tically embraced, are cordially defended. With 
exceptions, which hardly deserve to be taken 
into the account, those who remain faithful 
to the Christian cause see where its distinctive 
nature and value lie, and are ready to sacrifice 
their worldly fortunes, and their lives too, in 
the service in which they abide. They do 
not disdain the secular assistance which is 
their due, and which they rate at its proper 
value, but disdaining an undue reliance upon 
it, their ultimate and supreme hope is reposed 
in Him, who has all means and all events 
at his command ; and they trust that He will 
not the less own and vindicate his own cause, 
because it is prosecuted in simple dependence 
upon Him, but will, for that very reason, above 
any other, crown them with a signal, final, 
and everlasting victory. As in all human 
events and revolutions, He will pay so much 
respect to his own exquisitely beautiful machi- 
nery of united cause and effect, as to put in 


action for his own purposes human agents 
and agencies ; and, by a combination the least 
to be expected, and the least capable of being 
compassed by the policy or power of man, we 
may live to see the day, and no distant one, 
when that mighty engine, which other bad 
causes in conjunction with Popery labour to 
create and wield, turned against them, and 
a simultaneous union of Protestant will and 
effort issue in a GREAT MOVEMENT, which shall 
bear down all before it, and leave the Grand 
Deluder of ages to the vain refuge of his own 
lies, his own folly, his own iniquity. 


I MAKE no apology for subjoining the spe- 
cimen of politic misrepresentation and obvious 
falsehood, in the literary dealings of Romanists 
with Protestants, exhibited in the following 
letter, although I am the subject, because, in- 
dependently of that accident, it goes directly 
and emphatically to illustrate the precise sub- 
ject of the present work, and is an instar plu- 
rimorum, if not omnium. 

British Magazine, Vol. XV. for 1839, pp. 

" On the Literary Treatment of English Catholics 
by Roman Catholics. 

" Sir, The case which I am about to set 
before you and your readers is, in part, per- 
sonal to myself, as it concerns a work of mine, 
Memoirs of the Council of Trent, &c. It is 
likewise personal to yourself, as you were 
pleased to pronounce an encomium upon the 
work, of which I have gratefully availed rny- 
self in every advertisement of it which has 
appeared. But neither of these facts, or both 
together, are the chief reason by which I 
should feel inclined, or perhaps justified, in 
troubling either myself or the public on such 


a subject. It is because the case which I 
shall produce is of a public character, as illus- 
trating the kind of honesty and honour which 
Protestant writers have to expect from authors, 
particularly professed critics, of the Roman 
Church, more especially if anonymous, that I 
venture to occupy a portion of your pages with 
a discussion which might otherwise need an 

" In a Dublin Review for last year, No. 
IX. p. 43, at the close of the note, occur the 
following words : ' M. Ranke refrains from 
quoting Mr. Mendham's Memoirs of the Coun- 
cil of Trent, because, as he justly observes 
(Vol. iii. p. 289), the author of them has not 
displayed the learning and study necessary 
for working out his materials.' The article is 
a review of RANKE'S History of the Popes. 

" I apprehend that any competent reader 
will interpret this passage as an assertion, in 
the first place, that Professor Ranke has re- 
frained from quoting the Memoirs ; secondly, 
that he has given as the reason of the alleged 
omission, that the author failed in certain 
necessary qualifications ; and thirdly, that the 
necessary qualifications in which he was de- 
ficient were, both learning and study. 


" The reviewer expressly refers to the place 
of Ranke's history, which he professes to re- 
present. It is as follows : 

" ' In Mendhams Memoirs of the Council of 
Trident, findet sich inanches neue und gute ; 
z. B., finden wir p. 181, einen Auszug aus den 
Acten des Paleotto, sogar dessen Einleitungen, 
selbst zu einzelnen Sessionen, wie zur 20 sten ; 
aber es ist nicht das gehb'rige Studium dahin- 

" I will now give an English translation of 
the passage, with which a friend familiar with 
the German language furnished me ; as indeed 
with the original passage, before I possessed 
the book. 

" * A great deal that is new and good is to 
be found in Mendham's Memoirs of the Council 
of Trent; for example, p. 181, we find an 
extract of the Acts of Paleotto, particularly his 
Introductions, even to separate Sessions, as to 
the 20th ; but it has not been backed by the 
requisite study.' 

" It may just be observed, that the French 
translation by A. de S. Cheron* agrees as 
closely as need be with this version, tome ii. p. 
penult. And now I freely profess, that I feel 

* [Should hare beeu J. B. Haiber.] 


no dissatisfaction with the judgment of Pro- 
fessor Ranke. He is certainly mistaken in 
representing a particular passage as an extract 
from Paleotto ; for the whole account of the 
concluding sessions of the Council have for 
their continued basis the Acts of Paleotto, 
which are a regular and continued history of 
the final assembly of the Council. The letters 
of the principal agents of the time form the 
other principal source. I am convinced, how- 
ever, that this inadequate representation arose, 
not from any design, but from the hasty man- 
ner in which the author turned over the pages 
of the Memoirs. It is as well not to hazard a 
judgment on such examination ; but in par- 
ticular cases it may be excused. To the cen- 
sure contained in the last sentence, I might 
reply, that the professor is a gentleman not 
easily to be pleased. He has treated my bet- 
ters, Sarpi, Pallavicino, Raynaldus, Le Plat, 
with a hypercritical severity which might well 
render me contented under my own lash. But 
the censure is exceedingly indefinite; and I 
must say, that I feel no particular mortifica- 
tion in not coinciding in taste with Professor 
Leopold Ranke. If he had written his history 
after more experience, he would, I doubt not, 


have thought and written in a style very dif- 
ferent from that which characterises his pre- 
sent work. He and his sovereign, like honest 
men, were full of charity and confidence 
towards the subjects of the Pope. But the 
Archbishop of Cologne has taught them both, 
as the events of the last ten years have taught 
us, that the only natural reward of kindness 
and favour towards true sons of the Italian 
See, is the gratitude of the cherished viper. 
As to the defects of the Memoirs, of which I 
am sufficiently sensible, and only wish that the 
task had fallen into abler, and as willing , hands, 
I can only say, that my real object was, not to 
display study or learning, but to give the 
public information in a simple, straightforward 
way, which, it is no affectation to add, would 
not be otherwise within their reach. And upon 
this point I am not at all anxious to dwell. 
Fact, which is plainly fact, must be known. 

"And now, to come nearer to the main 
point, it is assumed, and really asserted, by 
the Dublin Reviewer, that Ranke has refrained 
from quoting the Memoirs. He clenches the 
assertion by the following statement, that 
Ranke's opinion of the work was the reason of 
the omission. It should be understood, that 


the Memoirs and the first volume (first edi- 
tion) of Ranke's work, were published in the 
same year, 1834 the Memoirs at the begin- 
ning of the year, as far as> my recollection 
serves Ranke's Popes, of course, as the fact 
will prove, at a later part of the year. Now 
it would be nothing very extraordinary, in this 
case, since the only portion of his history in 
which he had any concern with Tridentine 
matters was confined to the first volume, if he 
had omitted all reference to certain English 
memoirs of the Council : unless, indeed, this 
view were contradicted by an express assertion 
of his own, that he had purposely neglected 
those English memoirs for certain alleged 
reasons. It is well known by those who have 
any acquaintance with the Berlin professor's 
able, but far from faultless, work, that his 
views of the transactions which he records are 
very summary and sketchy ; and that in rather 
an arbitrary manner, as well as degree. It is 
likewise to be observed, that the author has 
pretty exclusively confined himself to the MSS. 
documents to which he had access, generally 
pretermitting printed and common sources. 
And it is the fact, that in his brief outline of 
the two first assemblies of the Council of 


Trent, there is no reference to the English 
memoirs published in the same year, and, in 
all probability, not till after the part of Ranke's 
first volume was in the press and printed. In 
the account, however, of the third, last, and 
most important convention of the Council, of 
which the account occurs pp. 329-351 of the 
first volume, second edition in 1838, there are 
three distinct references to the Memoirs, as 
authority, pp. 334, 344, 345. In the third 
volume likewise among the documents, in 
that, the subject of which is Sarpi, p. 276, 
speaking of a MS. history of Milledonne, which 
he possessed, he adds, * welche auch Fos- 
carini und Mendham kennen.' These, added 
to the reference first adduced, are really more 
notice than a foreigner, with so little notoriety 
and introduction as the present writer can 
pretend to, could well expect from a distant 
university. The only wonder with me is, that 
the work was known at Berlin at all, par- 
ticularly so early. 

" But now, what becomes of the Dublin Re- 
viewer's assertion, that Ranke has refrained 
from quoting Mr. Mendham s Memoirs, with 
the reason given by the author for the same 't 
and what becomes of his veracity ? 


" The reason for a false assertion falls, to- 
gether with the falsehood of the assertion, and 
only serves to render the falsehood double. 

" It will be remembered, that the Dublin 
Reviewer perhaps throughout he will claim 
the benefit of an Irish bull has thought fit, 
under shelter of the Prussian professor, to im- 
pugn the ' learning,' as well as ' study' of the 
author of the Memoirs. I am not at all con- 
cerned to vindicate the learning of that author : 
but I am concerned to expose to the public the 
sheer invention, the palpable, interested, 
calumnious, and, I fear, I must add, inten- 
tional falsehood, of the gratuitous addition. 

" The reader who examines well the extract 
from the Dublin Reviewer, will probably ad- 
mire the dexterous construction of the whole, 
and the art displayed in it of intertwining so 
much neutral truth with so much substantial, 
though similar, untruth, as either to recom- 
mend the fabrication in a lump, or provide a 
point of defence on detection, as the case may 

" I cannot, however, conclude without offer- 
ing the critic my best thanks, for the real, 
though involuntary, compliment which he has 
paid my work. If there were not something 


in it calculated to make him and his Church 
feel, I believe he would as gladly have omitted 
all reference to it, as he feigns the professor of 
Berlin to have done. I do not take to my 
learning, or study, or any other quality, the 
credit of being formidable to the members of 
the Roman communion : but I well know, that 
nothing is more closely concealed, and more 
dreaded when exposed, than some of the vital 
documents of their own Church. Nothing 
which her enemies can say, carries so much 
terror to her heart as the echo of her own 
words. In the case of a work, then, which is 
hardly more than such an echo, the point with 
them (since compulsion as yet is out of the 
question) is, to obviate the curiosity, especially 
of their own people, as effectually as possible. 
And this is be done, not by violent or elaborate 
censure, which would disclose the feeling ex- 
cited, but by an apparently dispassionate and 
passing remark, which shall impress upon the 
reader, that the work in question is entitled to 
no particular attention, and may be neglected 
without any loss of valuable information. The 
obnoxious author is not to be set upon with 
sword or pistol, but he is to be quietly 
smothered with a wet blanket. To do them 


justice, Romanists have treated their own 
brethren, on necessity, in the same way. A 
Watson and a Widdrington, a Berington and a 
Geddes, have been silently entombed with the 
observation, as the sub-jesuitic C. Butler 
would phrase it, ' they are not much esteemed 
by Catholics.' Even their great historian, C. 
Dodd, fell within the gripe of a Catholic con- 
stable, who compelled him to say, that ' there 
is little mercy to be expected from those who 
attack the Jesuits.' He adds, 'The cry is, 
Lord, have mercy upon him : take him, gaoler.' 
Dodd well understood his own Church.* 

"Whether the reported be the real con- 
ductors of the Dublin Review, I know not, 
though I believe it. I certainly had it to 
learn, that it was so important an object to 
them to put an extinguisher upon their own 
most authentic conciliar records, as exhibited 
in the Memoirs, that, for the sake of attaining 
it, they were content to deliver up their own 
veracity, or, what may be dearer to them, their 
reputation for veracity, to irretrievable con- 
tempt. One effect of their inconsiderate liber- 

An Apology for the Church History, &c. 1742, p. 202. 
This, with the " Specimen of Amendments" will doubtless be 
reprinted by Mr. Tierney. 


ality is certain and entitled to gratitude for 
the future, their world, as well as our own, will 
understand the exact value, not only of their 
judgment, but of their assertion. 

" Sutton CoUfield" 

P.S. The appearance of Mrs. S. AUSTIN'S 
long-expected English translation of Professor 
RANKE'S History of the Popes affords me the 
opportunity of observing, that her translation of 
the passage, with which I am particularly con- 
cerned, iii. Appendix, 81, perfectly in substance 
agrees with my own. In a communication of the 
Professor with Mrs. Austin, he complains heavily 
and justly of the bad faith of the French transla- 
tor, M. J. B. Haiber, and hopes that amends will 
be made by the English translator. It will still 
farther illustrate the subject of the preceding pages 
to adduce a signal specimen of infidelity in that 
translator out of a good number, some of which 
he has been compelled to acknowledge and correct. 
It concerns Fra Paolo Sarpi, and the differences 
between the republic of Venice and the Papacy. 
Ranke has certainly no prejudice in favour of the 
Venetian. His translator, however, could not 
digest the following passage, and has accordingly 


altogether omitted it. " Justly is Paolo Sarpi's 
memory held in reverence in all Catholic states. 
He was the able and victorious champion of those 
principles determining the bounds of ecclesiastical 
authority, which are their guides and safeguards to 
this day," ii. 369. Here was no very violent temp- 
tation ; ard the falling by it, united with my own 
experience of Papal dishonesty as far as the Dublin 
Review is concerned, painfully impresses the iron 
necessity, under which every committed son of the 
Italian Church finds himself bound to violate truth 
and sincerity, when and wherever the felt interests 
of his Church require the sacrifice. To the very 
ambiguous censure of my Memoirs by the Prussian 
Professor, I have only to reply, that it would have 
been simply the employment of longer labour to 
have increased the matter considerably, and perhaps 
profitably. Whether systematic and theoretic views 
of the facts, just or unjust, but by courtesy of the 
age esteemed philosophic, would have materially 
edified, or even gratified, the reader, may be classed 
with doubtful matters. Perhaps many, and not the 
worst qualified, readers, may be as well pleased to 
have inferences and conclusions left to themselves. 
These may be sentimental, visionary, acute, or pro- 
found, as best suits their humour. My object was, 
to select, from materials not open to all, funda- 
mental and apparently most important points, and 


present them with their best evidence and better, 
I may be allowed to say, than has yet been produced 
on the subject. Had the task been accomplished by 
another, I could not have denied that he had done 
some good service ; and it is not too much to add, 
that I expect and believe I have found more equity, 
as well as favour, from the competent part of the 
British public, than has been awarded by the criti- 
cism of Professor Ranke ; for the main body of which 
I have proved myself not ungrateful. 
August^, 1840. 







Nihil est quod absque argento Romana curia dedat. Nam et ips-a- manus 
impoaitiones, et Spiritus Sancti dona venduntur. Nee pecoatorum venia 
nisi nummatis impenditur. JEs. SYLVH Bp. LXVI. p. 549. Opp. Basil. J571. 

IN this Letter Mr. Green has honoured me with a notice, for 
which he is entitled to my best thanks ; and not the less for the op- 
portunity which he has afforded me, p. 22, of correcting an over- 
sight into which I had fallen in my Venal Indulgences, <%c. p. 105, 
where, in a note, meaning to refer to Bellarmine de Indul. 1 , ix. I had 
cited the cardinal as adjoining the remission of culpa, at least venlalis, 
to the Plenissima Indulgentia. He disclaims the opinion himself; 
while he attests it as that quorundam. My monitor therefore has 
given me plural for singular. I have accordingly in the first line of 
the note, after plenissima, added in MS. for any future edition, the 
words " according to the opinion of some, in his church necessarily, 
and possibly quite as good as his own, although rejected by himself, 
as not solid." Lines 5 and 6 I alter thus " They will probably 
kick away any of their advocates for the turn." 

My obligation does not end here. Mr. G. has attracted the 
attention of the public to a subject of mighty importance, particu- 
larly at the present crisis ; and he may be assured, that the reading 
and better judging part of that public will not rest satisfied with 
interested, superficial and partial views of it. If the effect be such 
as I anticipate from his criticism of my own small works, and his 
intention were in accordance, I ought to express my gratitude to 
him for much good will. 

For my own subordinate concern in the burthen of two years' 
gestation, of which Mr. G. has just been happily delivered, I should 
be perfectly contented to throw myself on the re-perusal by any can- 
did and competent reader of the works which Mr. G. would appear 
to have shaken. Those works, the Spiritual Venality of Home, giving 

a particular account of the Spiritual Taxes of the Papal church, and 
the Venal Indulgences and Pardons of the same church, I presume, 
from the skill and pains discoverable in his pretermissions, he has 
perhaps read through. Although he must be acquainted with, he 
has failed to notice, another publication, which originally appeared 
in a Quarterly periodical, Home's Traffic in Pardons substantiated. 
This I the rather regret, because it contains information respecting 
his own church of some importance, especially on one of the subjects 
handled by him, and from his own church's authors, principally from 
Amort, which to all appearance he has yet to acquire. If the omis- 
sion were intentional it cannot be denied to be prudent. Had he 
ventured to give its established conclusions with any fidelity he 
would have had a very different tale to produce to the public. It is 
a right pleasant thing for a smooth, plausible priest of Rome to 
select from the variations of his own church a line, or col- 
lection of eminent doctors, who all teach a doctrine perfectly 
uniform, without a single interference of dissent or opposition, and 
make his humble and trustful flock believe, that this, and no other, is 
the doctrine of u the catholic church" while at the very time he 
knows, or shame to him if he does not, that upon almost every doc- 
trine which he esteems vital, and particularly on that of Indulgences, 
his great doctors are all to pieces, some differing pretty diametrically, 
others by shades and conundrums, but all of them in their degrees 
much ahout as harmonious as the tongues of the builders at the dis- 
persion of Babel. These differences indeed did not proceed to blows ; 
for while the fundamental point, the income from Indulgences was 
satisfactorily forthcoming in its season, mere words and opinions were 
tolerated. When the opinion of Luther touched this, matters were 

The first part of Mr. G.'s letter is no concern of mine, and is 
evidently intended, or, at least, is only fit, for his own particular 
adherents, who are bound to trust him for a fraction of his church's 
vagrant infallibility. 

At p. 35 the engineer opens his battery upon the Centum Gra- 
fimina, of which any one who knows any thing will at once perceive 
that the assailant knows next to nothing. However, with his little 
lie does his best. He finds it too late in the day to repeat the 
bouncing experiment of instantaneous denial of facts which fair his- 
tory well attests ; but he flees to the convenient refuge of abuses 
a name, which will throw a plausible mantle over any crime. And 
further, they were condemned !>>/ the Church. Just as if it were a 
rare thing for his church to commit and condemn the same thing ; 
or, like a living ornament of the papal Church i:i Ireland, abjure with 

one side ofher mouth to one audience, what she sanctions and pro- 
motes with the other side to another audience. Tacitus somewhere 
says, fact urn esse scelus loquunturfaciuntque. This church has not been 
set upon her hills so short a time as to be unseen and unknown. 
This flexible and accommodating entity has prudence if she has not 
shame ; and it is not for her most valued interests that she should 
herself appear in all her transactions, and bear the occasional infamy 
of instruments, which her inclination prompts, and her conscience 
does not forbid, her to employ. 

It is rather amusing to find Mr. G. p. 37, resorting to the con- 
dition expressed pro forma in the billets of Indulgences, and in 
other documents, " truly contrite and confessed," or to the same 
effect, as proof that the condition was literally enforced or required ; 
when by the application of his technical explanations, and his annexa- 
tion of the terms " not properly," at pleasure, he has completely 
emasculated his own argument. I am quite satisfied, that his 
" ingenious device" is far more applicable to these conditions than 
to the spiritual graces granted by the author or authors of the In- 
dulgences. These Indulgences, by those who issued them, were 
well enough known to be base coin ; they were nevertheless put 
into circulation as true and legal. The church, from whose mint 
they came, did mean to deceive; but she did not mean to be de- 
tected in the attempt, and exposed. Such abuses do not now exist 
why ? because they cannot. The trade of the Great Impostor is 
up ; " for no man buyeth her merchandise any more." Rev. 
xviii. 2. 

At p. 46, in order to gain some advantage to his cause, the pre- 
sent champion makes a scape-goat of poor Tetzel. This is, indeed, 
only the way in which his brethren treat their own most sacred 
Breviary, and its stupendous miracles one grand mark of the true 
church. But poor Tetzel ! what a return, as he himself feelingly 
complained, for all his honest and laborious efforts for the catholic 
church, and even for her tenderest part, her purse ! His " Puffs" in 
the virtuous indignation of the rather ungrateful censor so called, 
were good orthodox pleadings at the time, and would never have 
been esteemed otherwise by the rulers of Rome had not their effec- 
tual exposure thrown back disgrace upon the zealous official, which 
threatened to go on and terminate in the disgrace of the church and 
its head which employed him, unless prompt measures were used to 
avert it. Tetzel is no favourite with protestants of course; but to 
be abandoned by those, who pretend to be true sons of that church, 
which he devoted his great, approved, and for a time, rewarded la- 

hours, even to the sacrifice of conscience, to serve, is hard indeed; 
and shews that Rome has little pity for those of her servants whose 
zeal and labour are not rewarded with success. Had he succeeded 
always, as at first, all would have been well the Dominican (and 
noticed with real respect in the Bibliotlieca of the Fraternity by 
Quetif and Echard, ii. 40, 1 ;) Inquisitor General ; Sub-commis- 
sary ; and for his merits promoted by Albert, Archbp. of Magde- 
burgh, to the honour of Commissary and Special Inquisitor ; and 
loaded with no moral vice but such as he shared in abundance with 
popes, cardinals, and father confessors ; and this man, for his final 
failure, is so furiously rated by another, and no better servant of his 
master, Miltitz, that he sank under it, and in his last hours had 
none to pity him but Luther ! 

I perceive by the same note, that the Summary which I have 
given in the original at length of the Indulgences for the repair of the 
Cathedral of Saintes in Saintogne, somewhat discomposes Mr. G.'s sere- 
nity; and I do not wonder; for it contains a faithful and graphic 
description of his church and her doings. In puerile imprudence he 
lets out his wrath against the Commissary, Raymond Peraudi, who, 
let him remember, was a purpled ornament of his church, and as 
pains-taking a gentleman as Mr. G. himself. Yet of him he says 
" he was, in all probability, as accomplished a questor as the cele- 
brated Tetzel himself. And the Summary is worthy of its author." 
He was, in all probability, as worthy a man as the priest who 
should solemnly deny " that he knows of his own personal knowledge" 
or," so that Jte may tell" (according to Tresham's Treatise of Equinjca- 
tion, or Soto's instruction, see Mason's New Art of Lying, p. 27,) 
what in all Ireland and the Breviary is as obtrusive on the view 
as the light of the sun at mid-day. 

Mr. G. might have spared the second edition of his imaginary 
wit about " six folio volumes," had he foreseen that he himself 
would designate the places in Labbe's Councils by folia. He should 
have written columns ; and any of the young gentlemen of Oscott 
would tell him, that in one folium there are four columns. I may 
here suitably enough introduce another specimen of the habits in 
which Romish controvertists familiarly allow themselves. Arch- 
deacon Hodson quoted from Bp. Stillingfleet an Indulgence which 
contained a remission of all sins to those who in the article of death 
should devoutly commend their souls to God,&c. without referring 
to the authority. This made Mr. G. particularly urgent to obtain 
the reference. The call, however, suddenly dropped. Why? Be- 
cause Mr. G., in exploring Ferrari's Prompta BiUioiheca under Indul- 

ytntia, found three distinct copies of Indulgences containing pre- 
cisely the same form one by Benedict XIII. the other two by Be- 
nedict XIV. See iv. 525-8, and Addenda p. 35, ed. Venet. 1782. 
And if the Letter-writer had not determined to spoil some sheets 
of clean paper, he might have eased himself of the labour of collec- 
tions from various councils condemnatory of the abuses of the Quaes- 
tors all very right, with a good meaning of many individuals, and 
to save appearances by the rest. We ever admit, that there have 
been conscientious and even good men at all times in the Roman 
apostacy, or we should never have had the reformation. The fact 
contended for is denied by none, and the proof superfluous. Even 
Trent made bold demonstrations amounting to nothing. The thitnj 
was still secured, and the control was all in the hands of the Pope. 
He and his certainly wished the affair to be managed decently ; but 
fhe rule was 


Si possis, recte, &c. 

To close the first part of the subject, Venal Indulgences, I will 
simply observe, that Mr. G. has done what is done by most in 
the same predicament he has mixed some truth with his fiction, 
as much as would do him no harm, and would save or assist his 
credit, and the credit of the prevailing fiction. He has pretty 
adroitly selected what accorded with this plan. He has performed 
various contortions to extricate himself from the net in which he felt 
himself caught. But his main contrivance and refuge has been^w- 
UnMlM*. Of the plain grammatical meaning of the indulgences in 
question of the necessarily popular interpretation of the expres- 
sion of that popular interpretation in the jingling, proverbial 
phrase, tantum donant quantam sonant of the naturally conse- 
quent disputes among the doctors of the church herself respect- 
ing the honesty or knarery of that church ; and lastly and eminently, 
of those interesting and little known forms, the Confess\s,nals, of 
which 1 have given both a fac-sitnile specimen and so extended an 
account, with the priced varieties of spiritual graces contained in 
them, particularly the optional confessors he has preserved a pro- 
found and very prudent silence. In fact, I fear that Mr. G. has 
throughout been fighting against his own convictions ; and that he 
inwardly feels, because he knows, that he is incapable of facing, much 
less of confuting, a single substantial statement in what 1 have 
written on the subject of his Church's Veual Indulgences. 

At p. (i6 and onwards Mr. G., with his two years' preparation, 
"boldly" enters upon the subject of the Penitentiary Taxes uf.l'mf. 
as presented in my fyirituol Venality. He will readily agree with 



me, if he has any experience in such cases, that works and children 
of darkness do not ordinarily court the light. From the offenders 
and their friends, as is evident in the proceedings of every court of 
justice, it is with the utmost difficulty, that any thing in the shape 
of criminating evidence can be wrung. So that the friends of truth 
and equity are often under the necesssity of satisfying themselves 
with evidence of a broken and deficient character accidental and 
apparently involuntary both admission and disclosures the light 
mutually reflected by different and distant admitted facts upon each 
other, and various other proofs weaker or stronger seldom suffi- 
cient for conviction absolutely fajal, and yet quite sufficient for per- 
sonal and moral assurance of the truth of the particular charge quite 
sufficient to exclude all reasonable doubt. 

This is precisely the case of the Church of Rome as respects the 
iniquities charged upon her, particularly that under consideration. 

I have done my best to collect and present all the evidence, 
weighing its value as I could, extant upon the subject. Kven an ad- 
vocate of Rome would riot expect me to invent evidence; this at least 
is not the practice with protestants. Had I allowed myself such 
liberty I might have made out a much clearer, indeed a perfectly 
clear case 

totus teres atque rotundus, 

Externi ne quid valeat per leve morari. 

1 have given my materials as I found them in their natural order : 
some of them new, others improved or enlarged, all pertinent, 
many important. It is needless to say what I have done, as any 
reader who chuses may have recourse to my volume. 

It is more to my purpose to shew what my opponent has done, 
and likewise what he has not done. 

He has done as follows: He has given a long detail of ex- 
extracts from the Venality, with the effect, whatever were the in- 
tention, of appearing to present an extended and fair statement of 
the argument oppugned. But with this he has intermingled passages 
selected to favour his purpose from different parts, and some of 
them rather obtusely perverted : and assuming, that my cause is 
answerable for all the imperfections and variations in the docu- 
ments facts, not denied but openly and carefully stated with no- 
thing but a protestant though valuable re-print, and another, in his 
own possession, he feels himself warranted to come to the bold 
conclusion, " Now, Sir, whether I can reasonably be called upon 
to defend or reply to any of the individual charges in documents so 
strangely discordant with each other, and so totally destitute of 
valid authentication, I may fearlessly leave to the judgment of the 

reader." To this piece of flippancy it would be sufficient to answer, 
that particulars in the documents concerned may rar>j with times, 
places, and persons, and not be discordant ; and if they were, there 
may be good reasons for preferring one to another. And as for 
valid authentication, I believe I have displayed more than the 
priest resident in Tixall quite relishes, and more than is usually 
found in such dark cases as those in which papal iniquity abounds. 
Let me add, that I apprehend the fearless writer will on reflexion 
feel that he has committed somewhat of an oversight in bringing, 
as he has done, to the acquaintance of his own people, so large a por- 
tion of the contents of mv volume thinking rather fondly, that he 
is doing no more than helping forward his own object, forgetting, at 
the same time, their wry suspicious character, and exciting the almost 
irrepressible inquiry what can all this mean ? can such things have 
originated in nothing ? in what point do the converging lines unite ? 

But I must tell the reader what Mr. G. has not done. I do 
not say that he has altogether omitted, but he has done what 
perhaps is quite the same thing for effect, he has deprived of 
their prominence, he has thrown into the back ground, the 
main supports of the charge against his church the copy of 
the Penitentiary Taxes which I have reprinted the most au- 
thentic recognition which they have received by their being re- 
printed repeatedly in the body of law, the Oceanus Juxis, published in 
Venice, the volume in which it is found being dedicated to the reign- 
ing pope and the celebrated passage in Claude d'Esjiense, fixing upon 
the document the awful and indelible character, which not all the 
ingenious processes of the most expert of Rome's artizans can 
erase or expunge. No, no : whatever postern doors may have been 
provided as an escape from detection, Rome is openly convicted of 
having carried on a profligate trade in the souls of men, their crimes 
and their pardons, for many long centuries. The respectable 
Richer, Historian of the General Councils, knew what he said, 
when he charged her with " making the sins of men her golden harrest;" 
and Pius II. before he was Pope, and saw belter, than when at the 
last year of his life he was made to recant, felt himsL j lf secure against 
contradiction when he wrote, that at Rome " not eren the pardon of 
fin conld be obtained without being paid for in solid cash. 

Mr. G., however, Is disposed to nibble and qu'bble a little, and 
complains, pp. 88, &c. of the words " of sinning" being added to 
the word Ucfntia in d'Espense. They were added, because they ap- 
peared necessary ; and so, from the current of thought and aru- 
ment in the author, and the following context, I still think un- 


moved by either the philological or logical finesse of Mr. G. His 
assertion, p. 89, that protestants industriously circulate a book, in 
which more wickedness may be learned than in all the Tax-tables, 
has no doubt reference to the Whole Duty of Man. The writer, in- 
dulgently, I suppose, adds, that he " need not specify it." This 
is the very matter which led the Hon. and Rev. Mr. Spencer into a 
labyrinth of puerile blunders. The Rector of Sutton Coldfield put 
him to complete rout and shame on the subject ; and the publication 
of his own Letters on Auricular Confession, together with those of his 
opponent, who, characteristically enough, had published his own sepa- 
rately by tltemsdves, has demonstrated not only the vile iniquity of 
the Confessional, but the utter impotence of the new comparative 
argument set up in its defence If Mr. G. could have pointed to a 
popular manual among us, containing the filthy pages which dis- 
grace a popular manual well-known by himself, the " Garden oft/ui 
SW" pages, of which the intrinsic uncleanness is the slightest part of 
their guilt ; for they acquire a satanic virulence by the practical con- 
sequences which can hardly fail to follow the atrocious instructions 
of such " sure guides" as Dens and others, pages, so revolting as 
to render it expedient that another book should be provided as 
a substitute for decent Romanists, females especially could he have 
done this, he would have done something; but he knows he cannot. 

It may be my defect of sagacity, but I can discern no other 
quality than that of quibbling in the note p. 92, on the phrase in 
foro conscientice ; and apprehend, that in the presence of leading ar- 
guments it is worth little, and may be left to its own insignifi- 
cance ; at least so I am content to leave it. 

What I read in p. 88, referring the reader to the Taxos in the 
BuUarium as " the genuine Taxae," might have occasioned sur- 
prise, if any thing in modern Papal tactics could. The things 
themselves are the most innocuous in all directions that can be 
imagined. I had expressly guarded against them as a common 
fallacy in my Venality, p. u, and hardly expected that any champion 
of Rome had forehead enough to attempt to palm them upon the 
public as the genuine, and only, or principal Taxae of the Roman 
see. They are, except for the cupidity which characterises them, per- 
fectly innocent matters, and have no appearance of being intended 
for deception, presenting, however, strong temptation in such times as 
the present to those who have an interest in so employing them. It is 
rather unfortunate that, when I had done my best to warn the pub- 
lic, particularly Romanists, of the danger, Mr. G. should span, 
taneously step into the not very honourable niche which 1 had 

unconsciously cut out for such indiscreet and not very high prin- 
cipled adventurers. But as long as Popery exists, her impostors 

I now travel back to pp. 76-9 in order to notice an argument 
which should not escape. It belongs to an approved canon of so- 
phistry, to wit, that of breaking the force of, or evading, a charge 
by a parallel, or similarity, meant to be complete as far as the argu- 
ment is concerned. Mr. G. has found a parallel, and therefore 
a justification to his church, in the pecuniary provisions of the An- 
glican. This line the author has adapted from Dr. Milner, C. 
Butler, Esq. and Dr. Doyle, without naming either, and rather 
disguising his obligations. He has acted prudently. At least he 
might know, that in my Venality, pp. 80 G, I had given that fallacy 
due consideration, and I believe, a death's blow. And it is curious 
to observe how, of two mutually destructive defences of the Church of 
Rome, that of Fees of Office is exchanged in Mr. G.'s epistle for the 
more general and evasive term " compensation for services" services, 
not likely to be extravagantly taxed, if rated at the valuation of 
Mr G., or according to the real worth of the trumpery published in 
the Romish annuals ; but calling for very high esteem, and verv 
costly remuneration, when understood in the good orthodox sense, 
as a release from sin, and a passport to the joys of paradise. 

The class of Taxse to which I have confined myself is that of 
the Penitentiary. In a catalogue, as authentic as authentic can be, 
to be discovered and published against the will and efforts of its au- 
thors, absolutions for various sins are included, and a price annexed 
to them. It is notorious, that such absolutions, and indulgences 
containing them, were put to sale, and vast sums collected in conse- 
quence. Those individuals who had, value received,- in spiritual 
graces, doubtless thought them worth something, as, if they were 
not deceived, they must do; and it is historically certain, that 
armies, (" truly penitent and contrite," as most armies, particularly 
Crusaders, must be !) went to the field of battle with the gay assur 
ance, that, if they fell, their church's indulgences would blot out all 
their sin?, and carry them clean and straight to heaven. 

But it seems they reckoned without their host ; for their host 
had a salro, which, were he called to account, he would be sure to 
produce. He had contrived certain reservations to save his credit. 
Just as if a banking company, with no capital, should issue ficti- 
tious notes to an enormous amount, thinking it quite enough to 
provide secret technical forms invented and used by themselves, such 
as would enable them to prove in a court of law, if called upon, 


that the said notes were worth just so much waste paper. The 
whole indeed of Rome's defence is that of the Jew, whose razors 
were not made to shave but to sell. 

It is plainly to be perceived, that the present popular method 
with Romish apologists is, to approach as near as possible to heretical 
protestancy. They can put a good face upon their religion, either 
wholly, or in its parts, only by assuming this mask. Their gene- 
rally rigid, but occasionally most elastic principles allow them 
in this hypocrisy, for a season, and for a purpose. To attain that 
purpose they will virtually renounce, perhaps verbally abjure, all 
that constitutes their existence as a church, their supreme sove- 
reignty ; their intolerant exclusiveness ; their duty of persecution ; 
their transubstantiation ; their paramount tradition ; their splen- 
did adolatries ; the canonized heroes of their breviary ; and, as Mr. 
G. here does, the richest treasures of this rich church, her Indul- 
gences and Remissions, total, of all sins, full, fuller, and fullest, from 
guilt as well as from punishment,* made sure against accidents by 
being ready for use in the article of death, or as often as that danger 
occurs, the whole secured on the inexhaustible fund of merits, 
human and divine, in the hands of the vicegerent of heaven on 
earth, whether Alexander VI. or Gregory XVI they will thus, 
for justification, or advancement, renounce or abjure the absolute 
substance and vitality of their Popery. O! if this transformation 
which truth and conscience as well as policy extort if this hypo- 
crisy were converted into sincerity and reality, idolaters and here- 
tics would become Christians and our real brethren. But the fa- 
ther and mother of lies forbid the union : they cannot part with 
their children at least as yet ; and we must wait till " the spirit 
be poured out from on high," and all will be united to one another 
by being united in the abandonment of religious error, and the 
reception of divine truth. 

Here then I close, regretting that I have been engaged in an 
occupation which may be considered as auperfluous ; and promising, 
as far as I can, that 1 shall not easily be led to repeat the apparent 
indiscretion. Mr. G. has not shaken one material position in my 
books ; he has not, he cannot, and he knows it. I have anticipated 
his dialectic manoeuvres, and have provided antecedently for the 

* In the palmy days of Rome they were not at all coy on this subject. In 
the 12th book of Gio. Villani's Cronica, the author mentions the founder of the 
Jubilee, Boniface VIII., as pardoning colpa e pena ; and Matteo, who 
continued his Chronicle, in book i. cap. Hi., writes, that Clement VI., in a time 
of pestilence gave grandi indulgenzie di colpa e di penadi tutti i peccatl, &c 


dispersion of his mystifications, and those ingenious tortuosities 
which have retired from every other profession than that of Roman 
controvertists. He will please to bear in mind, that the charge 
ag\inst his church is, not that she herself declares trust her for 
that but that from doings of her own proved upon her, it may 
legitimately be inferred, that in every single item of the spiritual 
articles in which she deals, she is saleable when her price is bid. 
Mr. G. therefore will excuse me if to his ineffective exculpation, I 
prefer the opinion of two of his betters in his church that of the 
Pope, who affirms Nee peccatorum renia nisi nummatls impenditur, 
and the tuneful Carmelite, a second Mantuan, who, with much 
more to the same purpose, sings Sacra sunt xenalia Romce. 

Should Mr. G. be inclined again to try his skill in the art, fami- 
liar to the defenders of his church, of confuting an opponent by omit- 
ting his main strength, he may become the unintentional occasion of 
exposing to the English public, more fully than has hitherto been 
done, the kind of u services" for which the Roman Penitentiary 
and her Tax-tables prescribe the pecuniary " compensation." 

Sulton Colctfield, Oct. 14, 1840. 

P.S. The reader may consult with advantage a review of my 
Venal Indulgences in the Church of England Quarterly Renew for 1840, 
pp. 138152, where he will see the old doctrines of Home on the 
subject made the present by Dr. Murray's sanction of Dens's Moral 
and Dogmatic Theology. I take this opportunity to observe, 
that the Confessionals, as bills of pardon, &c. are distinctly mentioned 
in the Card. Poli Mandatum de Confessionalibus, &c. 1557, as facul- 
ties or licenses, called Confessionals, obtained from the Pope, or the 
Penitentiary office, by letter, or breve, or otherwise. See Wilkins's 
< '<>iiril. M<t>j. Brit, iv., 14. See likewise Catal. Lib. MSS. M. Parker 
a Nasmith, No. cxi. 1610, p. 132. 

In my Index of Gregory XVI., at the end of the note p. 68, add 
The mistaken date is rectified by the fact, that Vergerio's Latin 
translation of the de Idolo Lauretano was first published in 1554 ; 
and the Epistle is addressed Othoni Henrico Palatine Rheni, dated 
Kal. Septembris, 1534, while in the 2d edition the Dedication, which 
is nearly the same, is Wolfgango Palatino Rheni, pridie Kal. Oc- 
tobris, 1">5G. The Rev. Mr. Gibbings, who gave me this informa- 
tion, has mentioned the earlier edition in his Index of Brasichellen, 
I'ri'f'iC'' ]). xvii. 

By the same friend I am admonished, that before I treated 
Gcrardus Busdragus as an ens ratwn'a, p. 82, I should have con- 


suited POSSEVIN, who, I find in his App. Sac. thus notices him, 
Lucensis, et Episcopus Argolicensis Lecturam super Canone, de 
Consecrations Dist 3 De aqua benedicta. An edition was published 
of this book Wiliorbani 1594, 8vo. A copy is in the British Mu- 
seum. The Dedication, dated Padua, 1554, at the beginning has 
the words, sed cordialissime sum gavisus, cum nuper vidissem 
catcdogum et libros vestros. The place, Padua, connects with the 
date of the Exemplum Literanim and the Bishop addressed. 

I can make the present trifle useful, by adding, at the suggestion 
of another friend, to the purport of the note ending p. 107, a pas- 
sage of the brere of Benedict XIV. prefixed to his Index, and con- 
stantly repeated to the last atque ab omnibus, et singulis personis, 
iMcunque locorum existentibus, inviolabiliter, et inconcusse observari 
pracipimus, et mandamus sub pcenis, 8[C. 

In fugam vacui, I add the valuable and pertinent lines of Cowper 
in his Expostulation, suppressed by amiable feelings, but honestly 
restored by Southey. The British nation is addressed : 

Hast thou admitted with a blind fond trust, 
The lie that burn'd thy fathers' bones to dust, 
That first adjudged them heretics, then sent 
Their souls to heaven, and cursed them as they went? 
The lie that scripture strips of its disguise, 
And execrates above all other lies ; 
The lie that claps a lock on mercy's plan, 
And gives the key to yon infirm old man, 
Who once ensconced in Apostolic Chair, 
is deified, and sits omniscient there ; 
The lie that knows no kindred, owns no friend 
But him that makes its progress his chief end, 
That having spilt much blood makes that a boast, 
And canonizes him that sheds the most. 
Away with charity that soothes a lie 
And thrusts the truth with scorn and anger by ! 
Shame on the candour and the gracious smile 
Bestowed on them that light the martyr's pile, 
"While insolent disdain in frowns expressed, 
Attends the tenets that endured the test! 
Grant them the rights of men, and while they cease 
To vex the peace of others grant them peace ; 
nut trusting bigots, whose false zealhas made 
Treachery their duty, thou art self-betrayed. 

We might almost imagine Cowper were now living, and had 
written the a./ove in these bright days of liberal bigotry. 

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