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AN 



INDEX 




TO THE 



ISLANDS OF THE PACIFIC OCEAN: 



A HANDBOOK TO THE CHART ON THE WALLS OF 

THE BERNICE PAUAHI BISHOP MUSEUM OF 

POLYNESIAN ETHNOLOGY AND 

NATURAL HISTORY. 



BY 



WILLIAM X. BRIQHAM, A.M. 



HONOLULU, H. I.: 

BISHOP MUSE U M P R K S S. 

1900. 



issuKi) AT THE instancp: ok the trustees 

OF THE MUSEUM. 




PREFACE. 

In arranging the Ethnological collecftions in the Bishop Museum the difficulty presented 
itself at the outset of a very extensive synonomy of the islands comprised in the region of the Pacific 
from which these colledtions are drawn. The orthography was largely undetermined, native names 
of islands had generally given place to the names of saints or of the vessels which carried their sup- 
posed discoverers, and as determinations of longitude are, even at the present day, very uncertain in 
this ocean, islands were discovered, lost and rediscovered, — as the Solomon Islands were lost for 
two centuries — and the rediscoverer renamed the bit of land or rock that he found seemingly adrift 
in the mighty waste of waters. 

To show the true relation of the various groups and solitary islands in the Pacific the Diredlor 
constructed with great care upon the wall of the Polynesian Hall of the Museum a chart extending 
from 130° East to 110° West longitude, and from the Tropic of Cancer to 45" South in latitude, occu- 
pying a wall space eleven feet by twenty. The names given to the islands there represented were in 
all cases the native names where such were known to exist; where there were no aboriginal inhabi- 
tants (as at Wake Island), or where the aborigines had disappeared (as at Pitcairn Island), the 
name impo.sed by the first di.scoverer was preferred. This led to some difficulty as names familiar to 
some were replaced by less familiar terms: Penrhyn became again the original Tongareva; one Pes- 
cadores became Bikini, anotlier Rongelab; Sandwich Island returned to its aboriginal Vate. As it 
was impradlicable to cover the chart with synonyms the be.st way seemed to be to print a li.st of all 
the names generally applied in charts or voyages in the form of an index, that not only the .student 
might understand the labels attached to the ethnological specimens and groups, but the general visitor 
to the Museum be able to find an island appearing on the chart under an unfamiliar name. 

This course appeared convenient, if not necessary, for tho.se who had the arrangement of the 
Museum in charge that there should be no confusion or variation in the nomenclature of localities; 
that consistency, at lea.st, if not absolute accuracy might prevail. 

In the present state of our knowledge of the geography of the Pacific Ocean, it is not possible 
to place accurately the position of the known islands of this ocean, .still less is it possible to go beyond 
conjeclure in the identification of many of the discoveries of the earlier voyagers. It has not been 
possible to obtain the true native name in all cases, and indeed in some of the larger islands, as 
New Guinea, there seems to have been no collective name for the numerous districts comprising the 
island, and doubtless in a few cases the name of a portion lias been applied to the whole. Especiall\- 
is this the case in the "ring-atolls" where the name of a prominent islet sometimes stands for the whole 
group. As to the orthography, even the missionaries who have acquired more or le.ss knowledge of the 
vernacular, do not always agree as in the case of Jaluit which some spell Jaluij. But if one were to 
wait for perfect knowledge before coming to the public there would be little enough printed, and it 
has seemed best to print the following pages with all their imperfections, trusting that the better 

[87] 



ix- Preface. 

knowletltce of others to wljose notice they may come will assist in corredling the existing mistakes. 
Those in charg«? of this Museum will welcome any addition to their information in these matters. 

.MthouKh the mo<lern war vessel is sadly unfit for the jniriwses of scientific exploration, it is 
hoped that l-'ngland, America, (iernmny or France may ere long find national ships to survey the 
Pacific anew and accurately. The life that Magellan, Mendana, Cook, \'ancouver, and even Wilkes 
found has almost disappeared: a new and far less intere.sting order has replaced it. Even the out- 
lines of the coral islets have changed, and in the volcanic region the very bottom of the bays in 
which the great explorers anchored has sunk or risen as the submarine forces have a(5led. Europe 
and America have divided the islands among them, let them now, like wise proprietors, carefully 
survey and study their new posse.ssions. Here in the midst of the Pacific Ocean we would store for 
common use all that we may gather from the va.st extent of the "Great Ocean". 

WILLIAM T. BRIGHAM. 

DireHor of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum. 
[88] 



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THE ISLANDS OF THE PACIFIC OCEAN. 



FOR the purpose of this Index the Pacific Ocean will no longer extend from 
Bering's Strait to the Antarcftic circle and from Kamchatka, Japan, China, the 

Philippines, Moluccas and Australia to the American coast : the Aleutian and 
continental islands, the Galapagos and Juan Fernandez on the East with Kurile, 
Philippine and the archipelago north-west of Australia belong ethnologically if not 
geographically to another region, and hence the bounds of the Pacific which shall in- 
clude all Oceanica (except Malaysia) will be on the North the Hawaiian and Bonin 
Islands, 30°N.; on the East Rapanui or Easter Island, 105° W.; on the South New 
Zealand and its islets, 55° S.; and on the West New Guinea and the larger portion of 
Australia, 130° E. Thus defined all minor divisions of this vast expanse of water are 
eliminated, except the Coral Sea. Shorn of its fringe of seas, gulfs and bays it is still an 
immense area extending through eighty-five degrees of latitude from north to south and 
through one hundred and twenty-five degrees of longitude from east to west. We may 
glance at its historj^ both natural and political, beginning with the latter as best known. 

Although the Portuguese followed Vasco de Gama by the Cape of Good Hope 
and far bej'ond the Moluccas into what is now known as the Pacific Ocean, it was left 
to their neighbors and only rivals in discovery, the Spaniards, in the person of the 
brilliant and ill-fated Vasco Nunez de Balboa, to reach its eastern shores. September 
29, 15 1 3, the brave conquistador, after a terrible journey through Darien, saw the new 
ocean, and as it was the Michaelmas season, in the custom of those days named it 
Golfo de San Miguel; then marching into its clear and placid waters took possession 
in the name of His Majesty of Spain. Balboa died .soon after (15 17), murdered by 
his father-in-law Pedro Arias d'Avila, and his great discovery profited him little if 
indeed it was not indiredlly the cause of his untimely death. 

Another grand man, in many ways not unlike Balboa, Fernao de Magalhaes, 
possessed with the convidlion that the continent of America did not, as it seemed to all 
others, absolutely bar the path to far Cathay, but that there must be a way around if 
only one could sail far enough to the southward, pushed on with the spirit of Columbus 
against storms and storm-like men, sailed through the strait which still bears his 
name, and on November 28, 1520, passed into the wide ocean which in contrast to the 
rough Atlantic he named Mer Padfico. We know now that storms on this ocean are 

as formidable as on the Atlantic, but his experience was all the other way and for 

[89] - " (5) 



6 JNDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

three months and twenty days he sailed with favoring winds north, then north-west, 
and finally west, suffering bitterly from scurvy and privation until on March 6, 1521, 
the green shores of the islands which his sailors called from the misconduct of the 
natives "Ladrones" were seen, but not until ten days later were the sufferings of the 
company relieved when they came to the important group since called the Philippines. 
Then persuaded to aid the petty chief of Zebu in his wars Magalhaes fell miserably on 
the island Ma<?lan, and his comrades had not even the melancholly privilege of burying 
his remains. The survivors completed the first circumnavigation of the globe but 
strangely missed all the islands of the central Pacific and added only the islands of the 
Marianas to the map of Balboa's ocean. 

Next from the west came the Portuguese Jorge Menezes and discovei-ed New 
Guinea, which only a few months later was rediscovered by the Spaniard Alvaro de 
Saavedra sent by Hernan Cortez from Mexico to the Moluccas. Saavedra on his re- 
turn saw islands of the Caroline Group, and in 1542 Ruiz Lopez de Villalobos on a 
voyage from Me.xico to colonize the Philippines saw others of the same group but 
neither could sufficiently determine the position for identification. 

In 1567 Alvaro Mendaiia de Neyra discovered the important group which he 
called Islas de Salomon and in 1594 Philip II. gave him a commission as Adelantado. 
In April, 1595, Mendaiia sailed from Callao ^'' para ir a pacifica y pohlar las islas occi- 
dentales del mar del sur^ Although he never again saw the Solomon Islands, he dis- 
covered and named the Marquesas Group and came at last to the island of Nitendi or 
Santa Cruz where he attempted to colonize but died and his survivors quarrelled with 
the natives until his widow sailed with his remains and what was left of the colony to 
Manila, where she married the Governor. Not long after the ship of the expedition 
which carried the corpse of the Adelantado, and which had been driven from the 
squadron by a storm, followed her to the island of Luzon where it ran ashore, sails all 
set and rotten, and all hands dead on board, another tragical ending for a discoverer in 
the Pacific! One of the ships of this expedition disappeared mysteriously in a slight 
squall one evening and it was supposed that tired of the infelicities of the ill-fated 
colony her company had deserted and taken the northern route back to Callao. If they 
tried this long and perilous way, in a ship insufficiently provisioned, they never reached 
their goal, and as the Hawaiian Group was not far from their probable track, it may 
have been from this ship that the survivors were thrown on the shore of Hawaii, as 
told in the native legends. 

Francis Drake had in the meantime crossed the Pacific in the '''Golden Hmd^'' 
the first English warship to circumnavigate the globe. He left England December 
'3. I577i entering the Pacific in September of the following year, and early in Novem- 
ber, 1580, arrived at Plymouth; but his mission was not to discover new lands but 
rather to vex the Spaniard. 

[90J 



EARLY DISCOVERIES. 7 

In 1606 Luis Vaez de Torres, a companion of Quiros, coasted the southeastern 
part of New Guinea and discovered the strait separating that island from Australia 
which still bears his name. At the same time the more distinguished Pedro Fernandez 
de Quiros, who had been pilot with Mendaiia, discovered the New Hebrides and other 
islands, among them Sagittaria which Espinosa and others identify with Tahiti. Abel 
Janszen Tasman sailed by order of the Governor Van Diemen from Batavia in August, 
1642, to explore Australia, and in November discovered Tasmania (which he named 
Van Diemen's Land), in December New Zealand, and in 1643 a part of the Tongan 
Group. Other Dutch vessels from Batavia made various discoveries along the coast of 
Australia, and in 1699 the English freebooter Captain William Dampier explored the 
coast of Australia and New Guinea, leaving memorials of his voyaging in Dampier 
Archipelago, Dampier Island and Dampier Strait. Jacob Lemaire and Jan Schouten 
had in 16 15 discovered the Strait of Lemaire and Cape Horn (which Schouten named 
in honor of his native town, Horn). March i, 161 6, they sighted Juan Fernandez and 
then crossed the ocean to the northern coast of New Guinea. 

The eighteenth century was destined to reveal more accurately the secrets of 
the "Great Ocean". In 1721 Jacob Roggewein was sent across the Pacific by the 
Dutch East India Company and he discovered Rapanui or Easter Island. Lord 
Anson's voyage (i 740-1 744) was of a war-like nature, but in capturing the Spanish 
galleon he captured also the Spanish chart on which were "Las Mesas", a group 
of islands which Cook searched for on his way north from Tahiti and found in the 
designated latitude the group which he called Sandwich in honor of his patron, a 
Lord of the Admiralty. Anson's voyage had a far greater effect than Drake's in turn- 
ing the attention of the English to the Pacific, and in 1764 Commodore Byron, the grand- 
father of the poet, crossed it on his voyage around the world, and on his return in 1766 
a more formal exploring expedition was fitted out with Captain Wallis in the Dolphin 
and Captain Philip Carteret in the Sivalloiv. Wallis first determined longitudes in this 
ocean by lunar distances and thus corrected the charts, which hitherto had but little im- 
proved on the early Spanish in that measurement. He rediscovered Tahiti June 19, 
1767, and discovered Sir Charles Saunders Island (Tapamanu) in the same group. His 
colleague Carteret discovered Pitcairn's Island July 2, 1767, and a number of islands of 
the Low Archipelago. About the same time the French sent Louis Antone de Bou- 
gainville on his memorable voyage around the world. He passed the Strait of Magel- 
lan and touched at Tahiti eight months after Wallis. He was a distinguished navi- 
gator and mathematician, a Fellow of the Royal Society, and had the honor of first 
carrying the French flag around the world, but his surveys and charts were sadly 
inaccurate. 

All these advance scouts had prepared the wa}' for a series of voyages unsur- 
passed in the histor\- of maritime discovery : voj-ages whose record translated into all 

[9.] 



8 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

the principal languages of Europe were the most popular reading of the period, and to 
this day they are a mine of information concerning the people then dwelling in the 
islands of the great Pacific Ocean. The transit of Venus excited the greatest interest 
among the astronomers of that day and the Royal Society prevailed upon the Govern- 
ment to send an expedition to the "South Sea" to make suitable observations. Tahiti 
was sele<5led as the most desirable place, and a young lieutenant, James Cook, who had 
distinguished himself at Quebec and in the service generally, was put in command of 
the Endrafor and sailed for the little known island. After exploring the group, which 
he named "Society Islands" in honor of the Royal Society, he surveyed New Zealand 
and the east coast of Australia with an accuracy which left little for his successors, 
then sailed for home through Torres Strait. Brief must be the account in this place 
of Cook's voyages, but it maj' be stated that on the second, when the main object was 
to explore the antar<?lic region, he sailed in the Resolution (460 tons) and discovered 
New Caledonia and several islands of the New Hebrides. This time he sailed as Cap- 
tain, and on his return he was appointed Captain of Greenwich hospital with the rank of 
post-captain. This honorable sinecure he left to command the Resolution and Dis- 
covery on a voyage to discover the "Northwest Passage". Wintering in the Friendly 
Islands, he discovered the Hervey Group, often called Cook's Islands, and on his way 
north found the Sandwich Islands, which his countrymen have hardly yet learned to 
call Hawaiian. It was on his return from an unsuccessful search for the passage be- 
tween the Pac ific and Atlantic that he died at the hands of the Hawaiians at Keala- 
kekua Bay. 

Cook's example stimulated the French to renewed efforts, and the accomplished 
Jean Francois Galaup de la Perouse was sent in 1785 to search for the delusive passage. 
He was in command of the Bonssole and, with his assistant De Langle on the Astrolabe.^ 
sailed to the coast of Alaska. The same icy wall blocked their way that had turned Cook 
back, but on the north-east coast of Asia they made some discoveries. In December, 
1788, De Langle, Lamonon the naturalist, and ten of the crew of the Astrolabe were 
massacred on Tutuila of the Samoan Group (named Navigator Islands by Bougain- 
ville), but the rest of the expedition reached Botany Bay in January, 1788, and was 
not heard from after leaving that port. 

In 1 79 1 D'Entrecasteaux was sent in search of La Perouse. He surveyed the 
Louisiade Archipelago and made some interesting discoveries in that region but died 
on board July 20, 1793, still ignorant of the fate of his countrymen. Only in 1828 
Peter Dillon found the remains of the wrecked vessels on the island of Vanikoro in 
the New Hebrides. 

Lieutenant Bligh, in the Bounty, was at Tahiti in 1788, and six months after 
the famous mutiny broke out and the commander was set adrift in an open boat. In 
this he made his adventurous voyage to Timor discovering the Banks Islands on the 

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COOK AND LA PEROUSE. 9 

way. Captain Edwards, who was sent in the Pandora to search for the Bounty^ dis- 
covered Anuda and Fataka Islands, but his ship was wrecked on a reef (Pandora Reef) 
in Torres Strait. 

In 1796-97 Captain Wilson, during the missionary voyage in the Duff^ dis- 
covered the Gambler Islands and rediscovered the Duff Group. In the latter year there 
was great adivity in the Australian region when George Bass discovered Bass' Strait, 
and with Matthew Flinders surveyed the east coast of Tasmania. Captain Flinders 
continued this work in the Investigator but was captured by the French in 1804 and 
kept a prisoner for six years. 

George Vancouver, another great Englishman who had been with Cook in his 
last two voyages, explored the Pacific (1792-1795), especially on the north-west coast 
of America, and had much to do with the conquest of the Hawaiian Group by Kameha- 
meha. Only his untimel}- death soon after his return to England in 1795 prevented 
his return to the Pacific for farther exploration. 

The Russians now took vip the task and in 1804 Admiral Krusenstern sailed 
around the world. From 1815 to 1818 Otto von Kotzebue followed in the Rurick dis- 
covering a number of low islands in the Paumotus and farther north ; while in 1828 
Liitke, in the Semavme, surveyed the Carolines. To this nation also belongs the voy- 
age of Bellingshausen in 18 19-21. 

England continued the work with Captain William Beechey in the Blossom^ 
1825-28; Sir Edward Belcher in the 5?/^//?^r, 1836-42; Captain Fitzroy (with whom 
was Charles Darwin) from 1832 to 1836; and Sir James Ross with the Erebus and 
Terror^ 1841-43; all of the voyages adding largely to the knowledge of the Pacific. 

In 1838 the United States Government entrusted to Lieutenant (afterwards 
Admiral) Charles Wilkes the command of its first and greatest exploring expedition, and 
under his diredlion surveys were made of the Hawaiian, Fiji, Samoan, Paumotu and other- 
groups, while the results to Natural Science were even greater than to geography. 

The French had not been idle, and mention should be made of the following 
government voyages in addition to those already noticed. Louis de Freycinet with 
the Uranie and Physicienne^ 1817-20; Duperrey on the Coquille, 1822-25; Dumont 
d'Urville on the Astrolabe^ 1826-29; and du Petit Thouars on the Venus, 1836-39, 
made some geographical discoveries and corrected many mistakes of their predeces- 
sors, but perhaps their harvest was rather in the realm of Natural History, and 
indeed with these voyages the discovery of new lands ceased and the efforts of suc- 
ceeding explorers were diredled mainly to investigation of natural phenomena, as in 
the Austrian voyage of the Novara, i857~59) of which the naturalist Dr. Karl von 
Scherzer was historian; and the Italian voyage of the Magenta, 1865-68, whose story 
was so well told by another naturalist. Dr. Enrico Hillyer Giglioli. The greatest of 

these scientific voyages was that of the English in the Challenger, 1872-76. The 

[93] 



,o INDEX TO I HE PAC/F/C fSLANDS. 

depths of the ocean were studied in this long voyage and at the same time (1873-76) 
the United States sent the Tuscarora in command of Belknap, Erben and Miller, to 
take soundings for a submarine cable across the Pacific. The British ship Gazelle 
took many soundings in the South Pacific, and the British ship Pengttin under Com- 
mander Balfour has the distintflion of reaching the greatest depth in this ocean in 
1895, when in latitude 30°28'S. and longitude 176° 39' W. 5107 fathoms were meas- 
ured. The United States surveying vessel Albatross has made no slight contribution 
to the knowledge of this ocean and its inhabitants of the lower forms of animal life. 
Before we leave the story of the discoveries in this ocean tribute should be paid to the 
hardy American whalers who discovered many islands and have left the name of their 
ship, sometimes indeed their whole ship on the islands they discovered. 

The a(?tivity at the present time in the examination of the oceanic depths due 
to the various schemes for laying telegraphic cables will no doubt result in considera- 
ble increase of our knowledge of the bottom, and it seems probable that in the next 
few years the map will be something more than a mere outline. 

The story of the great discoverers is a tragic one, as nearly all met a violent 
death, from Balboa to Dumont D'Urville, and every islet has its romance although 
often untold by mortal tongue: Defoe did not tell of all the Robinson Crusoes, nor 
Melville all about Typee. Islands have been found and lost again, men and ships 
have been lost and never found again ; and from the time when the early whalers were 
said to have hung their consciences upon Cape Horn as they entered the Pacific 
Ocean, to the later days when the labor pirates disposed of theirs in some equally con- 
venient way, there has been great crime and great cruelty through the islands of this fair 
ocean. Those usually considered of a higher race who have voyaged through the 
Pacific have not always been missionaries, nor have they always been true to the tra- 
ditions of their race. How often have they expressed the utmost horror of the poor 
untaught cannibals while thehiselves devouring the souls and lives of those they pre- 
tended to detest ! 

Glancing but briefly at the results of all these discoveries in the province of 
Natural History we find certain fadls that will be a foundation for many theories as to 
the origin of both animal and vegetable life on the land found here and there amid the 
waste of waters. First of the great earth cup that contains this greatest of oceans, an 
expanse of water extending 10,000 miles from Quito to the Moluccas and covering 
nearly 70,000,000 square miles of the earth's surface. 

Depth of the Ocean. — Modern deep-sea soundings have established the fact 

that the average depth of the Pacific Ocean is greater than that of the Atlantic, and 

that in it are found the greatest depths yet reached in any ocean. The average height 

of the continents bounding this ocean is 800 feet, while the average depth of the Pacific 

is 2500 fathoms, or about three miles below the average continental level 

[94] 



CURRENTS OF THE PACIFIC. ii 

If an imaginary line be drawn from Honolulu to Tahiti the portion of the Pacific 
to the east of this line is of comparatively even and moderate depth and there are few 
islands. West of this line island groups are abundant and the bottom presents great 
irregularities. Abysmal holes abound and submarine peaks arise in some cases many 
thousand feet from a depressed plateau. Shallow trails are said to extend from Pata- 
gonia to Japan, and parallel to this occur the wrinkle-like elevations of the bottom on 
which occur the many groups of islands. The seas that fringe the western boundar}- 
of this ocean are separated from the main basin by plateaus of considerable height, 
although still submarine, and this feature has furnished rather insecure foundation 
(in our present knowledge) for many theories of animal and vegetable distribution. 
A matter of considerable interest is the occurrence of deep holes such as that the 
Challetigcr found between the Caroline and Marianas Groups where the soundings indi- 
cated 4475 fathoms, or about five miles and a quarter. Another occiirs east of Tonga ; one 
has just been found near Midway Island, and the "deep" along the eastern coast of Japan 
from 20° N. to 50° N. seems like a long narrow crack in the sea bottom. Other deeps have 
been charted and the number which bear distincflive names is already considerable, but 
they can best be studied in the Challenger reports and on the more recent hydrographic 
charts. The shoals seem even more important as they may be inchoate islands. 

Currents of the Pacific. — It is certainly known that the vast body of water 
of this ocean is in a constant state of circulation, and in a way partly independent of 
the prevailing winds, although, as we shall see below, the winds vary with the seasons 
as do the main channels of circulation. In this place it is suflficient to mention the 
great streams or arteries which flow in tolerably determined bounds and in constant 
direction while we must pass by the less definite currents which are modified by lands, 
by shoals, or \)y the winds, — currents which in meeting do not mingle, but the denser or 
cooler ciirrent sinks below and passes beneath its lighter antagonist. 

Bering Strait is but a little gateway and admits no important current from the 
Ardlic seas, but on the south from the Antarctic regions a strong cvirrent flows north 
to New Zealand where it is turned eastward to the coast of Patagonia, a branch con- 
tinuing east past Cape Horn, while the main stream, called in honor of its discoverer 
Humboldt, passes iip the coast of South America until the isthmus of Panama defledls 
it to the west. As it meets the coast of Formosa it also encounters and travels with a 
stream analogous to the Gulf Stream of the Atlantic, the Kuro siwa of the Japanese, 
so called from its dark blue color. Merged with this it flows northeast then east until 
the Alaskan shores divert it to the south and west. The Kuro siwa has an average 
maximum temperature of 86° F., or about 12° greater than that of the waters of the 
ocean through which it passes. Narrow near Formosa, it gradually' broadens until 
north of the Bonin Group it is 500 miles wide. Between the two great equatorial cur- 
rents flowing westward on either side of the equator is a narrow counter-equatorial 

[95] 



12 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



current flowing to the east. Still farther observations on the currents are needed, for 
their influence, although of less interest to navigators in these days of steam-propelled 
vessels has most important bearing on the peopling of the different groups. 

The cases of Japanese junks recorded as drifting to the Hawaiian Islands and 
to the north-west coast of America have often been referred to, and it is well known 
that the inhabitants of the Alaskan Islands obtain much of their fuel as driftwood 
from the Asiatic coast: it should also be noted that many of the largest and most 
famous double canoes of the Hawaiians were hewn from logs of Oregon pine brought 
to the shores of Niihau and Kauai by the waves. I myself saw dozens of such logs 
in 1864, some of great size, some bored by Teredo, others covered with barnacles, along 
the shores of Niihau. To the same shores are brought lumps of fine pumice which 
the ancient Hawaiians freely used to polish their canoes and wooden dishes. 

Winds of the Pacific. — In some considerable measure accelerators if not 
originators of oceanic currents are the prevailing winds. The two agencies combined 
have had a large part in the distribution of animal and vegetable life through this 
ocean. In the eastern half of the Pacific, which is comparatively free from land, the 
north-east trade winds blow with marked regularity as far south as the equatorial belt 
of calms which encircles the globe nearly parallel with the equator, and in the southern 
hemisphere the south-east trade winds blow as regularly to the same belt where they 
rise and return in the upper regions to the polar seas whence they came. Such is in 
general the plan of air currents in the open ocean of the eastern half, but the north 
and south limit of each of these trade winds varies with the season, and wherever isl- 
ands occur a variation results not always easy to explain : even the very low coral 
islands dre quite sufficient to change the force and diredlion of the trade winds, substi- 
tuting a land and .sea breeze system. The following table, taken from Kerhallet, will 
show clearlv the variation of the "Trades": 



K TABLE OF THE LIMITS OF THE "TRADES" AS AFFECTED BY CHANGE OF SEASONS. 



POLAH LIMIT 



K<il'.\T(HtIAl, LIMIT 



OK THE SK. 



Junanr.r 21° O* N. 

Ka^iroito' 2» 2S 

Miin-h «' » 

April :«> I) 

M*)r a» r, 

JUM 27 41 

J«ljr 31 4.1 

AOKWrt 2!i W 

K«|rt«nbpr -':i 2w 

ilrtabrr 21 « 

Xorpmbcr • 1 23 i> 

l)n«-nilMT M 



OK THK HE. 



,T3» ays. 

2S A9 

:il 10 

27 2.-1 

2K 24 

2ri 

25 2K 

24 IN 

24 51 
2:1 27 

25 3U 
22 SO 



OK THB NE. 



V W N. 
4 1 

ir> 

4.-. 
o2 

B* 
H 



K 
4 
7 
!l 
12 

ir, 

1:1 Ml 



VI 



•Hi 



6 U 



OK THE 8E. 



8" CN. 



:i :i» 
2 MO 
5 4 



1 H 



BREADTH OK THK 
INTERVENING ZONK 
OK CALMK. 



:i» 30' 

2 1 

•_' 25 

2 4.-, 

4 \K\ 

7 2K 

7 1 

I-.' .-Id 

.-. 4.-. 

N 4». 



The division of the trades on the belt of the "Doldrums" is always to the north 

of the equator, perhaps owing to the unequal distribution of land and water in the two 

hemispheres, for representing land by loo the proportion of water in the north hemi- 

L96] 



WINDS OF THE PACIFIC. 



13 



sphere is 150 while in the south it is 628. Over the doldrums, at a great height, 
hangs a belt of cloud formed by the opposing currents of different temperatures. 

Formerly it was believed that the trade winds extended over the entire breadth 
of the Pacific, but although additional data are needed, enough are at hand to show 
that this is true only of the region extending between the Galapagos and the Paumotus, 
or from 90° to 150° west longitude, less than half its extent so far as the SE. trade winds 
are concerned: the NE. trades blow as far west as the Mariannes. We fortunately 
have tables of wind observation from two points in the western course of the northern 
belt of wind. At Jaluit in the Marshall Group (169° E.) Dr. Steinbach has made the 
observations given in the following table : 



TABLE OF THE DIRECTION OF THE WIND AT JALUIT, MARSHALL ISLANDS, FOR THE THREE 
YEARS 1892-1894 AS OBSERVED BY DR. STEINBACH. 

(The tiffures are percentagrew.) 



.January . . 
February.. 

March 

.\l)rll 

May 

.Tnne 

.Inly 

AnKuet .. 
.September 
October .. 
November 
December.. 



N. 



NNE. 



NE. 



47 
34 
35 
20 
13 
14 
9 
12 
G 
6 
16 
46 



ENE. 



27 
31 
34 
30 
33 
21 
26 
16 
11 
24 



E. 


ESE. 


9 


6 


16 


7 


1- 


(i 


■iSi 




29 


4 


28 


12 


26 


11 


IB 


10 


IS 


17 


18 


14 


13 


8 



() 

4 
4 
6 
8 
15 
24 
14 
4 






2 
1 
3 
1 
2 
9 
12 
3 
1 



WSW. NW. 



NNW. 



n 
4 

14 
11 
20 
13 
25 
K 
6 
4 



At Ponape in the Caroline Group (158° E. ) Mrs. L. H. Gulick, of the American 
Mission, kept a meteorological record for several years. From this the winds for the 
year 1854 are shown as follows: 



H0.NTH8. 


DATS OP 
TRADE WIND. 


vahmbI'e''«',.nd. °*v» ok calm. 




MONTHS. 


DAYS OF 
TRADE HIND. 


DAYS OK 
VARIABLE WIND. 


DAYS OP CALM. 


.lainiary 

February 

A[arch 

\pril 


2il 
2S 
23 
29 
29 
22 


2 
II • 
S II 

1 

2 





11 
7 

11 
B 

15 

29 


11 
24 
16 
10 
15 
1 


9 


.\up:u8t ...; — 

September 

October 

November 

December 



3 
14 


Mav 















Among the islands between the Australian coast and the Paumotu Group the . 
SE. trade winds are only felt during the winter or between March and Odlober. In 
the belt of calms storms and abundant rains are not uncommon. South of the Tropic 
of Capricorn are found the anti-trades blowing from the NW. or W. with considerable 
regularity, and north of the Tropic of Cancer blows the SW. anti-trade. This SW. 
wind coming over the vast area of northern Asia is a cold dry wind, but when it crosses 
the warm stream of the Japanese current it condenses the tropical vapors brought by that 
stream from the south and thus causes almost perpetual fog : as it strikes the Alaskan 
shores it is a warmer rain-bearing wind. In the western Pacific monsoons take the place 
of the trade winds, blowing half of the year in one direction but reversing the diredlion 

during the other half. The change of monsoons is much dreaded asprolific of storms. 

[97] 



14 



fXPFX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



Hurricanes seldom occur in the open Pacific, but in the region of Samoa and Fiji 
and farther to the west are far from uncommon. The whole of the north-west portion 
between 20 and 45^ N. is subject to cyclonic storms called typhoons. A capital review 
of these storms, both hurricanes and typhoons, is to be found in Scgelhandbuch fiir den 
Stillen Ozeati of the German Hydrographic Board, Hamburg, 1897. 

Climate. — From the great range in elevation from the coral islet over which 
the stonn waves break to the heights of the island of Hawaii where the volcanic peaks 
closely approach the line of i4,(Xkd feet; from the winds of constant direAion in the 
eastern half to the fickle airs of the Solomon Islands: there is even in the main portion 
of Oceania which is within the tropics a great variety of climate. In the trade wind 
regfions the moisture brought in the breezes is mainly precipitated on the windward 





MATUKU 






y 0^0t*jMjx^t<^^'^Cf :*'-^/ y*^/^^.- *H- ,^ 







„..- '^:^^>:7^'-'->^-:^:h^^ 



>»ALMYRA 10. *'*''W*/ 






'»*!"■*'■ -.viL '-.//>' >'V 



CORAI. ISLANDS. 



FIG. I 




side of high islands leaving the lee side often dry and desert-like, while where the 
mon.soons prevail both sides get a share of the rain and the vegetation is more luxuri- 
ant and uniform. Indeed the rain is often superabundant on some groups of the 
western Pacific, as the early Spanish navigators found to their disgust, for in those 
days the seamen had no proper shelter and had to cook their food on the open deck. 
The dry climate of the Hawaiian Islands where the natives could wear bark cloth had 
its counterpart in the cool and wet New Zealand where the same Polynesian had to 
make his garments of the warmer and more durable flax which he ingeniously made 
water-proof. New Zealand and its dependencies alone extend beyond the tropics and 

[9«] ^ ' 



VOLCANOES AND CORAL ISLANDS. 15 

in the southern part of that noble group the southern Alps vie in beauty and majesty 
with the better known Swiss mountains. Perhaps nowhere in the world outside of the 
Pacific can so great a variety of climate be found. Tables of rainfall, maps of isother- 
mic lines can be given of some parts of the Pacific region, but the record is too imper- 
fect and as yet covers too narrow a territory to make it worth while to reproduce here. 

Island Forms. — A marked difference exists between islands in our region : some 
rise high above the ocean presenting conical peaks more or less eroded into radial val- 
leys ; the peaks and slopes generally, at least on the windward side, covered with dense 
vegetation ; while the second class consists of a low sand bank not more than a dozen 
feet above the ocean and only visible to the approaching vessel by the lofty coconut trees. 
Of the former class are the Hawaiian, Samoan, Society Groups, and most of the western 
islands, while to the latter class belong the Paumotus, Gilbert and Marshall Groups : the 
two forms are sometimes combined as at the Fijian Group. So far as known all the 
high islands of the central Pacific and most of those in the west are volcanic. 

Volcanic Systems. — All along the shores of the Pacific are a(5live volcanoes. 
Commencing with the little known volcanoes of the Autarkic region, of which w^e may 
hope to learn more in view of the present interest in Aritar^lic exploration, the Andes 
continue the line with some of the loftiest in the world near the equator. Central 
America presents volcanoes of great variety and interest, mostly detached and not in 
mountain chains. Mexico with her Coseguina and others less active in modern times, 
while Shasta, Ranier and Baker carry the line northward until it takes to the water in 
the Alaskan Islands and crosses to the fine ranges of Kamchatka, then through Japan, 
the Philippines to Java and Sumatra where it leaves this region. With such a wall of 
fier}' sentinels it is not surprising that the enclosed space should bristle with similar 
volcanic and seismic phenomena. Hawaii on the north-east seems to be a prolongation 
of the Mexican line which is marked by Colima, Popocatepetl and Orizaba. It is a 
line of volcanic adlion extending nearly a thousand miles, although the portion to the 
north-west has long been extinct. At the extreme soiithwest is the largest adlive crater 
in the world, Kilauea, which has given its name to a remarkable type of pit crater. 
The Marquesas, although volcanic, present no craters and have long been extinct : and 
this is true of the Society Islands, but their near neighbor the Tongan Group is still 
adlive and submarine volcanoes break out, form islands of loose cinders, and soon are 
converted to shoals by the waves. New Zealand contains several grand volcanoes and 
its volcanic phenomena in the way of hot springs are noteworthy. The "Terraces" 
on the North island were the most beautiful in the world until destroyed by the erup- 
tion of Tarawera (in June, 1886). In the New Hebrides are several smaller adlive 
vents; one of them, on Tanna, has been constantly a(5live, like Stromboli, at least since 

the time of Cook. The Solomon Islands and the Bismarck Archipelago are fulK- vol- 

[99] 



i6 



/NDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



canjc, eruptions frequently occurring in some part of that territory. A region of such 
marked volcanic chara(5ler might be expected to exhibit the concomitant phenomena of 
earth movements, both earthquakes and the grander if less obtrusive movements of 
elevation and depression, and it was the latter change in level that gave Darwin the 
foundation of his ingenious theory of the formation of 

Coral Islands. — Most important, both from a geological and a zoological 
standpoint are the buildings of the coral-forming polyp. Throughout the portion of the 
Pacific between the dotted lines on the diagram of this ocean (Fig. 2) this minute animal 
has bj- the force of numbers greatly increased the area of habitable land, made harbors 




FIG. 2. i)i.\GRAM OF isochrvmf;s bktwf:en which rf;kf-corals occur. 

possible, and changed if not created currents in the equatorial sea. This is not a work 
now complete or of paroxysmal or intermitent nature, but it is a work of the present 
day, like the aeolic erosion of valleys and shows no sign of diminution. 

While the other great agency in the formation of the intra-Pacific lands, vulcan- 
isni, seems to be diminishing from Hawaii to the Solomon Islands, the coral polyp, all 
unconscious, it may be, as the volcano of its mighty work, goes on building up reefs 
which in time become habitable islands. 

As a certain degree of warmth is needed for the life as well as growth of reef- 
forming corals, and not all corals come into this class, the boundaries of the coral 
region both north and south of the equator will be determined by the isoaymr (or line 
of equal cold) of 68° Fi, colder water preventing their growth, and their adlivity in- 
crea.sing with the mean temperature. In the hotter water under the equator the tem- 

[lOOJ 



§ 

< 



o 
lO 



» 






(0^ 



to 



o 

i< 

u 

o 
•-i 

o 



g 

t-1 







o 



^^^^ 



&1 



<S 



\ i 



(?/ 



M 

I 



a. 

D 
O 

o 

•J 
•J 

< 



•J 



i4 

O 

91 



r/ 



« 



(S 



l« 









(0 

o 



(0 



(0 


1-^ 

2 




Q 




n 


UJ 




z 


1-^ 


_l 




o 




q: 




< 




o 





o 

o 



2 






2 



IT 

I 



» 



o 
to 



t^y 






CO 



o 




Jmmmmmm»& 



CORAL REEFS. 17 

perature is 85° F., or two degrees higher than in the Atlantic. The mean temperature 
for the year is, in the North Pacific 73.5° F.; in the South Pacific, 70° F. Where the 
temperature of the surface is never below 70° F. during the year, that is within i5°-20° 
of the equator, the reef corals abound both in species and individuals, as at the Fiji 
Group, which is one of the most remarkable coral gardens of the ocean. The Hawaiian 
Islands are near the northern limit of subtorrid warmth and only the hardier forms are 
found (as Porites and Pocillopora) and their growth is not so luxuriant : the beautiful 
Madrepo7-a of the southern groups is wholly wanting. This brief reference must 
suffice to indicate the important faAor that temperature makes in the distribution 
of reefs. Corals will not grow in muddy water, or when the percentage of salt falls 
below a certain point, hence their absence opposite the discharge of rivers. In 
depth the living corals (reef-building) do not extend beyond twenty-five fathoms 
or 150 feet (Dana). 

The Hawaiian Islands are well provided with fringing reefs but have no 
barrier reefs, and these two forms are thus distinguished : the former is a fringe or ex- 
tension around or on certain coasts of a high island, presenting a tolerably flat surface 
at low tide, interrupted by wells and channels ; the latter is detached from the shore 
by a channel of greater or less width, and may form a wing encircling the island, or it 
may extend along a coast as the Great Barrier Reef of the east coast of Australia 
which extends parallel with that coast some 1250 miles. What is the explanation of 
these detached reefs ? It is not so difficult to understand the growth from a shore 
as the polyp grows, comes too near the surface, is exposed too long at low tide, dies 
and its successors have to push seaward. On most fringing reefs the dead far out- 
numbers the living coral. If coral, probably from a deficiency of light, cannot grow 
at a depth below twenty-five fathoms, how could a detached mass start from the bottom 
of an ocean which in the immediate vicinity of most coral islands presents a much 
greater depth ? Charles Darwin explained this in a very simple way and his conclu- 
sions, with all their consequences, were accepted as satisfactory for many years. It is 
well known that changes of level take place in "solid" land. On the Hawaiian island 
Oahu the ancient coral reef is now from two to three fathoms above the level at which 
it was formed not many ages ago, and other regions have as evidently subsided. In 
this subsidence Mr. Darwin finds the key to the formation of barrier reefs. Granted 
the subsidence this theory capitally explains all the phenomena of reef formation. 
Agassiz, Dr. Murray and Professor Alexander Agassiz (feeling that the subsidence 
theory was not proven for all localities) base their explanation of the barrier reef 
on the growth of the coral on the rim of a volcanic crater at a suitable depth. There 
is this difficulty that some of the atolls in the Indian Ocean would presuppose a crater 
thirty miles in diameter, a size which has no parallel on the earth's surface. Interest 
has lately been excited in this question by the borings on the coral island of Funafuti, 

Memoirs b. P. B. Museum, Vol. I., No. 2.-2. L^*-"^ J 



i8 INDEX TO THH PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

and by the renewed explorations of Alexander Agassiz, but at the present writing the 
evidence is not conclusive on either side. 

Without adopting either theory we may state that coral islands have a fringing 
reef more or less interrupted, sometimes a barrier reef, while the island in many cases 
becomes simply a ring of circular or irregular form, and the enclosed space is called a 
lagoon in the atoll. An opening into this lagoon may convert it into a good boat 
harbor, or the continuity of the ring and the growth of coral or the wash of sand and 
debris may fill the lagoon converting it into a simple coral island with a fringing reef. 
Many islands have simply a depression in the centre marking the former lagoon. 
Atolls have often many islets inhabited on the ring, while other islets rise from the 
shallow lagoon. 

From the organic nature of the reefs they are constantly changing, and the 
change is generallj' a growth : hence channels become shallower and unless kept open 
by some fresh water stream finally close ; lagoons which have served for harbor to ves- 
sels of light draft become dry land. Coral rock is easily cut and artificial channels 
can often be cut to good harbors, and the apparent scarcity of such havens in the cen- 
tral Pacific maj^ be remedied. The growth of coral patches off harbors and in channels 
is a serious danger to navigation and requires frequent surveys. The rate of growth 
of coral reefs is not yet satisfaAorily determined. Darwin's Voyage of the Beagle, and 
Dana's Corals and Coral Islands may be consulted for farther information as to the 
growth of corals. In regard to the geographical distribution of reefs it may be briefly 
stated that there are no reefs on the South American coast, and only detached corals in 
the Panama region. Easter Island is without reefs, so is Pitcairn, although there are 
some growing corals about the latter, while the neighboring Paumotus consist of eighty 
coral islands, nearly all with lagoons; the Marquesas have little coral about them; 
the Society Islands and Fiji abound in reefs. The Samoan and Tongan are well pro- 
vided with reefs, although in the former group Tutuila has less coral than Upolu. Of 
the Hawaiian Islands Kauai, Oahu and Molokai have extensive reefs, while Maui and 
Hawaii have very little except detached corals ; Necker and Nihoa have none, but 
farther toward the west are many reefs. The Gilbert, Marshal and Caroline Islands 
are almost entirely coral. The Marianas are aAively volcanic in the northern por- 
tion where there are no reefs, but the southernmost Guam has extensive reefs ; so have 
Yap and the Pelews. The New Hebrides again are a(5lively volcanic and have few 
reefs, while New Caledonia abounds in them. The Coral Sea and Great Barrier reef 
continue the line .southward. The Louisiade Group and the Admiralty Islands have 
barrier and fringing reefs, while the north coast of New Guinea which is fringed with 
volcanic islands has no reefs. Of the Solomon Group only the western portion has 
extensive fringing reefs. As to the extent of all the reefs in the western Pacific there 

is great lack of trustworthy information. 

[102] 



FLORA OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 19 

Flora. — On the shores of nearly all the islands in our region are found a few 
plants common to all tropical countries, and which are easily dispersed by currents. 
They belong to the families Malvaceae, Convolvulaceae, Solanaceae and Leguminosse, 
and are of little interest. This association of plants is often called the madreporic 
flora. In the low islands of the Pacific there is little else for the botanist; add the 
ubiquitous pandanus, coconut and mangrove and the tale is told. In the high islands 
the interesting and peculiar flora begins at the height of about 1200 feet, and it is this 
flora that contains all the species peculiar to the islands. 

In the many shaded and moist valleys of Polynesia ferns find a congenial home, 
and from the lightness of their spores are easily distributed ; hence the Polynesian 
flora presents 15% of ferns. Other predominant plants are provided with especially 
light seeds as in the families Urticaceae, Rubiaceae, Lobeliacege and Orchidacge. The 
last family counts many species in Fiji and the Society Islands as well as in Australia, 
while on the Hawaiian Group only three small species are found. On the other hand, of 
the Lobeliacese none are found in Fiji, three only in the Societj^ Islands, while on the 
Hawaiian Islands are found more than fifty species. Most of the Polynesian vegetation 
is woody ; annuals form only 1%, and most of these are strangers confined to the shores. 

The question of the origin of the plants on isolated groups is of great interest, 
but its discussion would carry us far beyond the limits of this introduftory chapter. 
It will be- found, however, that the widely disseminated plants are either provided with 
wings or other suitable appendages for the wind-borne journey, or are attraAive food 
for birds of passage. In the stomachs of pigeons killed in Micronesia have been found 
the seeds of Fijian plants. The lantana (Z. camara) was cultivated for 3'ears in gar- 
dens in the Hawaiian Islands but it showed no tendency to spread until the so-called 
mina {Acridotheres tristis) was introduced, when the berry became its favorite food 
and the indigestible seed was scattered everywhere. Cosmopolitan species are intro- 
duced by winds and currents, hence a study of these will explain many cases. Rare 
American plants are almost confined to the Hawaiian Group, the nearest to that con- 
tinent and in the line of the NF. trade winds. 

Of the flowering plants the proportion to the whole flora is in south-eastern 
Polynesia 20%; in Fiji, 40%; and in the Hawaiian Islands, 80%. The affinities of the 
plants in each group are instruAive. About 500 species are common to Asia and 
tropical Australia. Some 220 species are common to New Zealand and Australia. 
Of the two species of Ranunculus found on the Hawaiian Islands, one resembles 
R. sericeus of Mauritius; the other, R. repens of America. Fiji has one species each 
of three Asiatic genera, Ternsfrcemia^ Saurauja and Eurya. Hawaii and the Mar- 
quesas have each a species of the distinctively American genus Waltheria. 

If we look rapidly at a few of the more important families we shall find that the 

Leguminosse are not common in Polynesia ; of the genus Acacia all the species peculiar 

[103] 



ao 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



to this region are phyllodineous and the rest of this peculiar group is Australian. 
Among Rosaceae the genus Acmna has one species peculiar to the Hawaiian Islands 
while some thirty other species are South American. Of Pittosporaceae the genus 
Pitlosporum, which is Australian in large part, has twelve species in New Zealand, ten 
in the Hawaiian Islands, six in Fiji, and one in Southeastern Polynesia. The family 
Rubiaceae contains 7% of the flowering plants peculiar to the Hawaiian Islands, 14% 
of those peculiar to Fiji, and in New Caledonia some two hundred species are reported. 
In all the islands there are three hundred species, while Australia has scarce one 
hundred. There are several curious Compositae in the Hawaiian Islands, IVtlkesia^ 
Argvroxipliium and Remya. The genus Lipocli(eta has one species in the Galapagos 
while twelve are Hawaiian. Of the Campanulaceae, besides five species of Lobelia^ 
there are five genera, Brighamta^ Deltssea, Rollandia^ Clermontta, and Cyanea peculiar 
to the Hawaiian Islands, and another Apetahia peculiar to the Society Islands : the 
familj' is not found beyond those two groups in Polynesia : the centre of the Lobeliaceae 
is American. Of the Urticacese the genus Fiats has a dozen species peculiar to Fiji, 
twenty-three (all but six peculiar) in New Caledonia. The Palms are all related to 
the Malaj'sian flora. In the Filices the relationship is well shown in the following 
table taken from Drake del Castillo : 



TypK. 

Astatic 

AaMtrallan 

New Z4>iilaDd 

American 

Cosmopolite 



» p.c. 



CENTRAL AM> EART 
POLYNEHIA, 



50 p.c. 

2 
20 

2« 



18 p.c. 

1 

4 

26 
it2 



ALL OCEANIA. 



33 p. 

2 

3 
IX 
44 



The paucity of edible fruits is a feature of the Polynesian flora as is also the 
absence of poisonous plants on most of the islands. Although not rivaling the Ameri- 
can economic woods in variety or beauty, there are nevertheless many choice timber 
woods in the Pacific Region. The koa of Hawaii, the kauri of New Zealand, the kou 
and kamani of the southern islands, and the eucalypti of Australia are both beautiful 
and valuable, although many are fast disappearing and I know of no serious attempt 
to cultivate them. 

Throughout Polynesia proper the Kalo {Caladium csailoitiim) was the staple 
vegetable food, varied, in the southern islands with the Breadfruit {Artocarpus znci'sa), 
and to the west, especially on sand islands and in Micronesia, the fruit of the Pandanus 
odoratissimus is an important addition to the dietary. • Bananas, yams, sugar-cane, 
kukui nuts, Canarium nuts, the fruits of some Myrtaceae and Vaccinieae were the prin- 
cipal fruits of the anciei^t Pacific-islander: all the fruits that now abound in the gar- 
dens and orchards have been brought since the time of Cook. 

For farther information on the Flora one may consult Remarques sur la Flore 

de la Polynesie par E. Drake del Castillo, Paris, 1890; A LcBurc on Insular Floras^hy 

[104] 



FAUNA. 21 

J. D. Hooker, London, 1868; also Dr. Hooker's admirable New Zealand Flora ; Mann's 
Emaneration of Hawaiian Plants; Die Vegetation der Erde^ by A. H. R. Grisebach; 
IntroduFlion to the Botany of the Challenger Expedition., by W. B. Helmsley. 

I/and Fauna. — In eastern Polynesia rats and mice were the only indigenous 
mammals, but to the west the wonderful Marsupials of Australia and New Guinea, the 
fruit-eating bats and some small and comparatively unimportant mammals extend the 
list slightly. Reptiles are not more abundant. New Zealand and the Hawaiian 
Islands have no snakes. Samoa, Fiji and Micronesia have a few harmless forms; 
while Australia has numerous deadly species. Crocodiles are found in Queensland 
and on some of the islands not far distant, and the lizards of Australia are of many 
species and sometimes of considerable size. New Zealand has the curious Tuatara 
(yHatteria punctata., Gray), but as we go eastward the species and individuals diminish 
until on the Hawaiian Group there are but six small species of lizard, and these are 
disappearing before the introduced mongoos. Of the birds New Guinea has the re- 
markable Birds of Paradise, and Australia has many and most interesting species. 
New Zealand has the Kiwi, a remnant of some of the most wonderful birds, now ex- 
tinct, that have ever lived. Samoa has another survival in the Didunculus, but again 
as we go east the birds grow scarce. In insect life the rule holds good and the fine 
butterflies and gigantic beetles of New Guinea give place to one or two diurnal lepi- 
doptera on Hawaii, where the insect fauna has been well worked and although of great 
interest to the entomologist has little to interest by size or beauty of form. 

The marine fauna is indeed as rich as the land fauna is poor, and the low coral 
islands of the central Pacific swarm with fishes which have always been the principal 
food of the inhabitants. These fishes are closely conneAed with East Indian forms. 
The great mammals of this ocean are far more important than those of the land and 
deserve far more notice than can be given in this sketch. 

"Whales and the Whaling Industry. — I place the whales and their pursuit 
together, for no other animals have caused such changes to the primitive inhabitants 
and no study of the ethnology of the Pacific can omit or fail to give its proper promi- 
nence to the whalers and their intercourse with the islanders of this ocean. The days 
are gone when fifty or more American whalers wintered or refitted in the harbors of the 
Hawaiian Group, but the effects of this intercourse will only cease when the weaker 
race has wholly succumbed to the advance of the white race. It is pleasanter to look for 
a moment at the whales than to consider the a6ls of their hunters. The polar whale 
{^Balcsna niysticetus) comes only into the most northern part of our region, but another 
species {B. japonica) is found from continent to continent nearly as far south as the 
Tropic of Cancer. Still another species is common south of Australia, around the 

South American continent, and to some extent between these points {B. antipodum). 

[105] 



22 INDEX TO Tf/I-: PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

The Sperm whale (P/ivsctcr macroapliahis) is found between Australia and New- 
Zealand, in Micronesia and around certain groups as the Hawaiian, Marquesas, Fiji 
and Society Islands. It is much more tropical, than the Balaenas, and while the latter 
prefer the cold polar waters and seldom go beyond the cooler currents of the Pacific, 
the cachelot is found especiallj' in the tropical region and serves to employ the ar<5lic 
whalers during the off season in the northern seas. Besides these "nobility" of the 
whale kind there are lesser lights hunted in the Pacific as in the Atlantic. The 
humpback i^Megaptera boops) is found all along the American coast, at many of the 
central island groups in the tropics, and off the shores of New Zealand, New Cale- 
donia and Australia. The Sulphurbottom {Sihbaldia sulp/iureus)^ Gray whale {Rha- 
chianeitcs glaiicus)^ Pacific finback i^BaUcnoptera velifera) and Rorqual i^B. davidsoni) 
are found off Japan, in Bering Sea and off the American coast. 

The pursuit of these great mammals employed many men and much capital as is 
well known. When in full force in 1846 there were 735 American vessels with an aggre- 
gate tonnage of 233,133 tons. It may perhaps be forgotten that a whale ship, from the 
length and hardship of the voyage was regarded as a sort of reform school for rather 
hardened young offenders who were not amenable to the good influences on land. Heuce 
it happened that many of these quasi convicts escaped to the island Edens and played 
the part of the serpent. But with these important exceptions I believe the influence 
of the whaling industry was not one of preponderant evil. Many natives went as 
sailors on these ships and learned to work as they would never have learned in the 
dolce far niente of their homes, and it was often the advice of these travelled country- 
men that opened the door to the white missionary. It is impossible to believe that 
the influence of the sturdy men who sailed from New Bedford and Nantucket was very 
bad. Have we not known them in their homes and shaken hands with their worthy 
descendants? Of the literature on this subject may be mentioned, F. D. Bennett, 
Whaling Voyage Round the Globe, f^SSS^; Beale, Jlie Sperm Whale and i/s Captors, 
i8^g; United States Fish Commission Report, /cV/^; Scammon, Mammalia of North- 
western America, 1884. 

Inhabitants and Their Origin. — In no part of the primitive world has 

there been more confusion of races, more difficulty in exact classification, and, it must 

be added, more ignorance of people than in the Pacific. We have prehistoric remains 

in Easter Island, in Tongatabu, in Ponap6 and in the Marianas of which Ethnologists 

know no certain origin. The great leaders of Ethnology have measured a few skulls 

(too often labelled "South Seas") and have compared imperfect vocabularies, and then, 

with some hesitation it is true, have made family arrangements in which they do not 

agree among themselves, and which farther knowledge may modify or replace. But 

this is not the place to enter into a discussion of the different systems, nor to follow 

[106] 



INDIGENOUS INHABITANTS. 23 

that fascinating — because so difficult — quest for the origin of the peoples we now find 
on the islands of the Pacific. All admit they are not autocthonous, but theories of 
their origin start both from the East and from the West. One claims that the Poly- 
nesians, to take one of the more evident divisions of the islanders, came from the great 
Malayan islands and worked eastward ; another contends that they had their origin in 
South or Central America and wei-e dispersed through the great ocean by the Trades ; 
while another, admitting their Asiatic birth, claims that they not only crossed the 
Pacific and peopled it, but continued their planting to the American continent. Let 
the theories await more complete knowledge: in the meantime all theorists in this 
domain are helping towards a final solution. 

We may, to save repetition in the list of island names of which this is an ex- 
tended introdu(5lion, adopt the most common and perhaps most correct classification 
into three main divisions without going beyond our region for relationships. These 
are Papuan, Micronesian and Polynesian. With the first we place Australians and 
the people of New Guinea, Pelew Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, Solomon Islands, 
New Hebrides, New Caledonia, Loyalty Islands and Fiji. The Australians are strongly 
differentiated from the others in mental if not in physical traits, and the Vitians are 
strongly tin(5lured with Polynesian blood, but on the whole the islanders mentioned 
agree in the following important matters ; flat and abundant hair on both head and 
body ; skin dark — almost black in Australia, Solomon Islands and New Caledonia, 
chocolate-colored in New Guinea, yellowish (from Malay admixture) in the Pelew Isl- 
ands ; scar or paint the body, but do not tatu ; do not circumcise except in Australia, 
Fiji and some islands of the New Hebrides; heads dolichocephalic, prognathous and 
phanerozygomatic ; nose broad and hooked ; lips intumescent but not so full as in the 
negro ; height medium ; chew betel rather than awa ; have artistic feeling in decora- 
tion (especially in New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago); cook in earthen 
vessels; are cannibals (except Australians and the Pelew Islanders); are noisy and 
restless, decidedly democratic, have no kings nor hereditary chiefs ; show no sentiment 
in favor of clothes ; are irreligious and exhibit great diversity of dialers. 

The Micronesian division includes the Marianas, Caroline, Marshall and Gilbert 
groups. It is a debatable ground between the first and last divisions. The people are 
a plainly mixed race of Papuan and Polynesian ancestry with considerable Malay ad- 
mixture at the western end. They are less democratic than the Papuans, more so than 
the Polynesians; use looms (as do also the New Hebrideans); are good navigators; 
tatu to some extent (Carolines); considerable diversity of dialects with many Polyne- 
sian roots. 

In the Polynesian Group are the Hawaiians, Samoans, Tahitians, Marquesans, 
Tongans, Paumotuans and Maoris. They have long, black, cylindrical hair, little of 

it on body, hence addiAed to tatuing in which they excel; brachycephalic, and not 

[107] 



24 



INDEX TO THE FACIE fC ISLANDS. 



very prognathous; fairly large stature; light-colored; very large dark eyes; pradlise 
circumcision; are not cannibals (except Marquesans and Maoris); caste institutions 
with kings and chiefs; are very religious; kapu system in full force; use awa, never 
betel ; no looms, no earthen vessels ; cook in earth ovens and with hot stones ; make 
kapa or bark cloth (as do also the Solomon Islanders and some tribes of New Guinea); 
have a strong sentiment of dress ; have a common language from Hawaii to New Zeal- 
and; are good seamen and fishermen. In ancient times were good navigators journey- 
ing in their canoes to almost incredible distances as seen in the ancient voyages of the 
Hawaiians to Tahiti. 

In every generalization there must be many exceptions, but the characters here 
given are very general. The hybrids are very numerous and most difficult to place 
when met casuallj'. The Papuan -|- Polynesian hybrid is much more homogeneous, 
that is, more difficult to pick out traits of either parent, than is the mixture of 
Chinese -j- Polynesian, where the Mongolian predominates but the Polynesian is still 
in evidence. Otherwise half-breeds in the Pacific are much as half-breeds are every- 
where else. 

Cannibalistn. — This custom which arouses a curious horror in most civilized 
people, although man is a carnivorous animal and human flesh is not unwholesome, 
was once prevalent in the Marquesas, Fiji and New Zealand, and is now in full force 
in the Solomon Islands, New Hebrides, Bismarck archipelago and parts of New 
Guinea. Pvlsewhere in the Pacific it has never existed or has yielded to the pressure 
of civilization. The origin.of this curious habit has been ascribed to various causes, 
as for instance, piety — the nearest relative devouring the remains of a dear corpse to 
place them nearest the seat of the affections and to protect them from outrage by the 
enem}-. Such disposal has occurred on groups not otherwise anthropophagic. To 
absorb the qualities of another is, I believe, the most orthodox application of cannibalism. 
Brave and tried warriors were eaten, never women or children, and the true cannibal 
never allowed a woman to eat a man ! Certainly the portions in which the desired 
qualities were supposed to reside were most sought, the hand, the heart, the testes. 
This effect of food is, perhaps unconsciously, recognized in the navy of a great nation 
where mutton is never eaten lest the marines become sheepish. It is worthy of note 
that the worst cannibals in the Pacific were also the most skilled producers. Maori 
and Marquesan carvings, Solomon Island canoes. New Hebridean mats are all in evi- 
dence. Revenge ; that sweet passion in the savage thought, — to cook an enemy like a 
dog or pig, to drink his blood, is world-wide in desire if not in full execution, and Kali 
the bloodthirsty wife of Shiva in the Hindu pantheon is not the only primitive deity 
in which this passion is per.sonified. Needed food: man, although carnivorous, did not 
suffer from famine on the Pacific Islands, at least on those where anthropophagy pre- 
vailed, but it has been suggested that in the long voyages food may have failed as it 

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LANGUAGE. 25 

has too often in the voyages of civilized men, and the weakest has been sacrificed to 
save life. The strong persistence of the habit once acquired is fully recognized. This 
might explain the prevalence of the custom among Maoris and Marquesans at opposite 
ends of the Polynesian domain. Cakobau used to boast that he had eaten one hundred 
and seventy-five of his fellow Vitians, and a New Hebridean belt in the Bishop Museum 
is hung with one hundred and thirty-five incisors, the tally of so many victims of its 
chiefly owner; but the commoner got little of this rich food, and now it has come that 
under British rule the last vestiges of this custom have been wiped out in the two 
South Pacific strongholds, New Zealand and Fiji. Even the trophies of cannibalism, 
arm and leg bones inserted in the stem of a growing tree, are more common in museums 
than in the Fijian archipelago. Evidently in the Pacific it will soon be only a matter 
of history. 

I/angtiages. — While among the Polynesian islanders there is an unmistakable 
relationship of language, in the Melanesian the confusion of Babel seems to rule 
supreme. On not a few small islands of Micronesia several mutually unintelligible 
tongues are found, and it woiild require much imagination to trace any conne<5lion. 
The languages of New Guinea are so little known that no comparisons can be drawn 
between them and the Melanesian, nor can it be stated with authority whether the 
Malay element is more preponderant there than in the tongues farther east. Codring- 
ton (in the work mentioned below) seems to regard the Melanesian as superior to the 
Polynesian. The languages of Australia offer other differences and still less relation- 
ship to the Malay. Even where certain common words are seledled and compared in 
the forty or fifty diale<5ls of which vocabularies are accessible, the result is by no means 
satisfactory, and to classify one must have recourse not to roots but to grammatical 
struAure, of which not enough is at present known to warrant any definite scheme. 
To enter into the peculiarities of even the best known would require not onlv much 
space but a knowledge beyond the reach of the present writer, and the subject will be 
left with a few examples of the languages of the Pacific as they have been printed. 
Those who are curious to know more may consult the works of which a list is appended. 
The similarity between the Polynesian dialedls is so great that a native of one group 
finds little difficult}^ in making himself understood in any other. Codrington, R. H., 
The Melanesian Languages^ Oxford, 1885; Gabelentz, H. C. von de, die Melanesischen 
Sprachen^ 2 vols., Leipzig, 1860-73; Humboldt, Wm. von, Ueber die Kawi Sprache 
auj der Insel Jai'a, 3 vols., Berlin, 1836-38; Hale, ^orat\o^ Ethnography and Philology 
of the U. S. Ex. Ex.^ Philadelphia, 1846; Inglis, J., Grammar and Diflionary of the 
Aneityumese Language^ London, 1882; Grezel, Pere, Diflionnaire Eutunien-Eranfais, 
Paris(?), n. d. ; Tregear, E., Maori - Polynesian Comparative Diflionary., Wellington, N. 
Z., 1891; Andrews, L. A., Diflionary of the Hazvaiian Language., Honolulu, 1865; 

Pratt, G., Grammar and Diflionary of the Samoan L.angnage, 2d ed., London, 189 1; 

[109] 



26 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Macdonald, D., The Asiatic origin of t lie Oceanic languages ; Etymological DiRionary 
of the language of Efate, London, 1894; Hazlewood, D., A Feejeean and English Dic- 
tionary, Vewa, Fiji, 1850; Cowie, Andson, English - Stilu - Malay Vocabulary^ London, 
1893 ; Williams, W. L., A Diflionary of the New Zealand Language, 4th ed., Auck- 
land, 1892; Crawfurd, J., A Grammar and DiHionary of the Malay Language, Lon- 
don, 1852; Gaussin, Dialect de Tahiti, de celui des lies Marquises, et en ginSral de la 
langue Polynesienne, Paris, 1853; Bopp, F, Verwandschaft der nialayische-polynesische 
Sprachen mi t den indisch-europaischen, Berlin, 1840. 

The illustrative sentence I have chosen is the invocation of the Lord's prayer, 
"Our Father which art in heaven. Hallowed be thy name." — Matthew vi, 9. 

Hawaiian — E ko makou Makua iloko o ka lani, i hoanoia kou inoa. 
Maori — E to matou Matua i te rangi, kia tapu ton ingoa. 
Tahitian — E to matou Metua i te ao ra, ia raa to oe i'oa. 
Tongan — Ko e man Tamai oku i he lagi, ke tabuha ho huafa. 
Rarotongan — E to matou Metua i te ao ra, Kia tapu toon ingoa. 
Sanioan — Lo matou Tama e o i le lagi, ia paia lou suafa. 
Rapanui — To matou Matua noho rangi e, ka tapu to koe ingoa. 

Fiji — Tama i keimami mai lomalagi Me vakarokorokotaki na yacamu. 

Aneiteum — Ak Etamama an nohatag, Etmu itaup nidani. 

Erromanga — Itemen e kam unpokop, eti tumpora nin enugkik. 

Uea — Kamomun etho njd drany, E so e kap iam. 

Marc — Cecewangoiehnij'ile ri awe ke! Hmijocengo ko re acekiwangoieni buango. 

Lifu — Tetetro i anganj-ihunieti e kohoti hnengodrai, jiniati e hmitote la atesiwa i enetilai. 

Motu — Ai Tamaraai guba ai noho, oi ladamu baine ahelagaia. 

Gilbert Islands — Tamara are i karawa, E na tabuaki aram. 

Mortlock — le ojon ami au pue iotok : Jam at me nono Ian. 

Rotuma — Ko otomis Oifa tae e lagi, La re titiaki se ou asa. 

Kusaie — Papa tumus su in kosao, E'los oal payi. 

I^bon — Jememuij i Ion, En kwojarjar Etom. 

Ponapr — ^Jam at me kotikot naloh, mwar omwi en kakanaki er. (Old version.) 

Ponape — ^Jam at me kotikot nalan, Mmar omui en Jarani ta. (New version.) 

Religion. — As has already been said the Polynesians were a religious people 

and their theogony was much the same on all the groups. The attributes of the gods 

differed widely, and the forms of worship as well. On the Hawaiian Group Maui, 

Kane and Lono were the great trinity while their subordinates were reckoned by the 

40,000 and the 400,000. Images were in demand and an odd beach-worn pebble would 

serve where the more elaborate carvings could not easily be obtained. Every guild 

[no] 



WORSHIP AND MISSIONS. 27 

had its deity, and the man often had a god distinct from that of his wife. In New 
Zealand divine images were rare and a very few of inferior workmanship have come to 
us. It is remarkable that when the Maoris excelled in wood-carving their skill was 
expended on other than divine images. So it was to even a greater extent with the 
Fijians and Samoans. Of the Society Islands idols of most complicated form and 
good workmanship are to be seen in the British Museum, but nowhere else. In Tonga 
images and bundles of sticks alike served to fix the wandering prayers of the people. 
Human sacrifices were most common on the Hawaiian Islands where cannibalism did 
not exist, least common among the anthropophagous Vitians. 

In the western Pacific the obje(5ls of worship were generally departed spirits, 
and a refined form of this ancestor worship is seen in the curious custom of Korowars 
in New Guinea which recalls the image always provided for the ka of the ancient 
Egyptian. The idols of the Marquesan at one end of the Pacific and of the New 
Hebridean at the other were elaborately cut from wood or stone. The temples of east- 
ern Polynesia were built of stone in substantial manner, while in the west the Mela- 
nesian eredled ephemeral stru6lures of cane or palm leaves, and the Fijian built with 
sinnet the hardly more durable "Devil Houses" of his cult. Had not the Hawaiian 
temples been destroyed by the hand of man they would have lasted for many centu- 
ries ; this is also true of the morais of the Tahitians. 

Throughout the Pacific there was an unseen world recognized by all. Good 
spirits and bad, white spirits and black were everywhere and were generally objedls 
of dread and propitiation. Night was especially the time when the spirits drew near 
to human beings, and even when Christianity has replaced many of the ancient beliefs 
a Pacific islander does not like to travel alone in the dark. 

Missions. — This is not the place to speak at length of the great work the 
devoted bands of missionaries have been doing for the last eighty years in the Pacific 
region. All seAs, from the Buddhist and Mahometan on the west to the Protestant, 
Catholic and Mormon on the east have earnestly ploughed some portion of the field, 
and the harvest has in many cases been good. With the religious Polynesians the 
work was not so difficult, and in turn the Tongan, Samoan and Hawaiian converts 
became earnest and successful helpers in the missions to the other groups. In the 
Marquesas faithful Hawaiian missionaries have labored for many years, and so have 
they done in Micronesia. The Melanesian Mission has also made good use of native 
converts in reclaiming the heathen. The whalers made it possible for the mission- 
aries to land on many islands, and the missionaries have in turn made it possible and 
pleasant for other civilized people to dwell where formerly paganism and cannibalism 

were supreme. 

[ill] 



a8 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

KapU System. — The earl)* voyagers found almost everywhere on the islands 
at which thev touched a system of which the name has become a common English 
word. They recognized it as a method of prohibition against which they were con- 
stantly striking, but to the present day no one has fully treated of the wonderful politi- 
cal and religious engine by which the Polynesian first, the Melanesian in imitation 
controlled the wishes and a(5ls of the common people. It was a mighty power in the 
hands of the ruler, whether priest or chief, and it might be exemplified in the strip of 
white kapa that, bound around a coconut tree, preserved the fruit from all marauders ; 
or the tuft of the same fragile material at the end of a slender wand which placed in 
the path would turn an army aside into the jungle. It might be temporar}^, as the 
order of silence which at stated times fell on all the land and not even a dog might 
bark or a cock crow while the kapu lasted, or it might be the lasting prohibition which 
denied to woman certain choice articles of food which man was free to eat. 

The origin of kapu is unknown but it must have been remote, so elaborate had 
the system become. It had grown until it became so complicated that the understand- 
ing of the common people could not compass it, and even to the chiefs its restrictions 
grew unbearable until in the Hawaiian Islands, where it reached its most perfect 
development, a great uprising swept it away and left a clear field for the introduAion 
of Christianit}-. 

My knowledge is not sufficient to permit me to decide which was the greatest 
achievement of the Polynesian mind, the Kapu or the system of water rights. Both 
are admirable and should sometime receive the attention they deserve in the thought 
of scholars. For information on these subjedls consult: Grefs Polynesian Mythology., 
London, 1855; Codrington, R. H., The Melanesians; Sttidies in their Anthropology 
and Folk-lore., Oxford, 1891; Gill, W., Myths and Songs of the South Pacific., London, 
1876; Stair, J. B., Old Samoa, London, 1897; Ellis, W., Polynesian Researches, Lon- 
don, 1830, 2 vols.; Bastian, A., Zur Kenntniss Hawaii'' s, Berlin, 1883; Fornander, A., 
The Polynesian Race, 3 vols., London, 1878-85; ^t.u\y,1., Recits dhcn vieux sauvage 
pour sen'ir h Phistoire ancienne de Havaii, Chalons-sur-Marne, 1859. 

The Partition of the Pacific. — Unlike the partition of the African conti- 
nent, the appropriation of the islands of the Pacific has led to no important wars or 
diplomatic difficulties, and the division is now nearly complete. Foreign nations have 
not quarrelled over the spoil and the natives have generally acquiesced in a change of 
sovereignty which they could not well prevent. In New Zealand the Maoris made a 
fierce resistance to the invaders, but this did not last long. France found some fight- 
ing before she could control all the south-eastern portion of the Pacific, and Spain 
found .some energetic protests to her work in the Marianas. Elsewhere it was "Good 
God, good devil" to the natives so long as they had their accustomed food and were 

not compelled to work. 

[112] 



PARTITION OF THE ISLANDS. 29 

Among the powers there was slight fridion at times. The Hawaiian Islands 
were seized by England (Lord George Paulet) but relinquished, threatened by France 
(La Place) and Japan until the United States put an end to all claims by annexation. 
In Micronesia Germany's claim to a part of the Carolines was adjudicated by the Pope, 
and now Spain has sold all of that extensive archipelago as well as the part claimed, and 
thrown in the remnant of the Marianas to boot to Germany. The tripartite attempt 
to govern Samoa threatened to make trouble, but this was happily averted by the 
withdrawal of Great Britain and the amicable division of the group by Germany and 
the United States. When by the fortune of war the United States acquired Guam and 
the Philippines, Spain ceased to be an important owner of Pacific territory, and Eng- 
land, the United States, Germany, France and Japan control the entire region. 

When the question of a trans-Pacific telegraphic cable arose there was adlive 
annexation by Great Britain of all islands, islets or rocks that happened to be in any 
of the tracks proposed, and Japan seized Marcus Island in imitation of more important 
powers. In the hurry some islands were taken that had alread}^ been appropriated by 
another government, but the real value of these bits of sand and rock is not sufficient 
to make trouble in these days of wiser arbitration. 

The colonization of these islands, some of them without inhabitants, others with 
a dying population, but many of them most attractive in scenery and climate, has not 
yet progressed far except on the Hawaiian Islands, New Zealand and Australia. 
Germany has an elaborate official organization in her colonial islands, but officials 
alone will not bring prosperity to a colony. France has some choice islands, but for 
some reason immigrants do not increase there. Will the United States be as success- 
ful as England in her new colonial experience? 

In Conclusion. — A few words of more formal introdu6lion may lead the reader 
to the geographical material to which this long chapter is the preface. The maps 
have been construdled from the best government charts, although they are copies of 
no one chart ; neither are they, like the composite photograph, a combination of many; 
Seledlion has been made, but no serious attempt has been made to produce a finished 
chart ; it would be useless in the present state of our knowledge of the Pacific islands, 
and it would not greatly surprise the author should the exact surveys that must be 
made in the near future, expose great inaccuracies, nay, even render the present maps 
quite unrecognizable as delineations of the same island or group. But they will have 
served their modest purpose : the Primer must come before the Reader, and if they will 
in any way clear the path of the future geographer of the Pacific by giving ground for 
just criticism, they will not have been offered in vain. 

The needs of the administration of a museum like this that bears the honored 
name of Mrs. Bishop, have compelled much reading of voyages and descriptive accounts 

of the Pacific region, and notes have* been made for years and arranged alphabetically 

[113] 



30 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

on uniform slips, which now number nearly 4000, and the convenience for reference 
has been so g^at that these notes have been made the basis of the list of islands 
here given. 

I am sorry that I am not so familiar with many of the dialedls of the Pacific as 
to be always sure of the orthography, or even of the meaning of names, but I have con- 
sulted the best authorities within my reach. In some cases I may seem to have wilfully 
left the right and chosen the wrong, as in the case of the name Paiifuotu which I have 
retained as the best known throughout this region, although the form Tuamotu adopted 
by the French may be more correct. The first word of the compound is usually 
dropped among traders and navigators in the south Pacific and Motu alone used. 

As to the heights given I have met with difficulty. Findlay's Diredlory may 
state the height of an island as 3000 feet, a later chart will put it at 2 100, while a still 
later H\'drographic report will call it 1200, not one of these important publications 
giving the authority. An ordinary estimate should not vary so much, and I was in- 
clined to omit all heights as well as population, but finally have given them as merely 
approximate and the reader can attach his own value. 

To supplement the meagre information given in the Index authorities have 
been sometimes appended to the text, and the following list will assist some perhaps 
to follow more closely the information attainable. It does not of course pretend to be 
even a partial Bibliography, but simply a list of some of the more important works 
used in the compilation of this Index. 

The Life of Ferdinand Magellan and the first Circumnavigation of the Globe, 1480-1521. By F. H. 

H. Guillemard. London, 1891. 
Pigafetta, Antonio, Primo Viaggio intorno al Globo Terracqueo, ossia ragguaglio della navigazione 

fatta sulla squadra del Capit. Magaglianes 1519-22, publicado per la prima volta da Carlo Amo- 

retti. Milano, 1800. 

Historia del Descubrimiento de las regiones austriales hecho por el general Pedro Fernandez de 
Quir6s. Publicado por Don Justo Zaragoza. Madrid, 1876-80, 2 vols. 

Schouten ( Willeni Cornelissen) and Jacques Lemaire. Novi F'^reti a parte meridionali F'reti Magel- 
lanici, in Magnum Mare Australe detedlio ; fadla laboriosi.ssimo et periculosissinio itinere a 
Guilielmo Cornelii Schoutenio Hornano annis 1615, 1616, et 1617 totum Orbem terrarum circum- 
navigata. Amstelodami, 1619. Also in Dutch, 1618. Lemaire published his narrative of the 
same voyage in 1622. 

An.son's Voyage round the World, 1740-44. By R. Walter. London, 1767. 

Cook, Captain James. — Journal during his first voyage round the world made in H. M. bark 
"Findeavor," 1768-71. A literal transcription of the original MSS. with notes and introduction. 
Edited by Captain W.J. L- Wharton. London, 1893. 

—Second Voyage toward the South Pole and round the World, performed in the "Resolution" 

and "Adventure," 1772-75. London, 1777, 2 vols. 

A voyage to the Pacific Ocean, undertaken by command of His Majesty, for making discov- 
eries in the northern hemisphere: performed under the direcftion of Captains Cook, Clerke and 
Gore, on H. M. S. "Resolution" and " Di.scovery , " 1776-80. London, 1781, 3 vols. 

Bougainville's voyage round the World, 1765-69. Tran.slated by J. R. Forster. London, 1772. 

[114] 



r 



LIST OF BOOKS. 31 

Forrest, Capt. Thomas. — Voyage to New Guinea and the Moluccas from Balambangan, 1774-76, 
with a Vocabulary of the Magindano Tongue. London, 1779. 

Wilson, H. — Account of the Pelew Islands in the west Pacific. By George Keate. London, 1788. 

Portlock, Capt. Nat. — Voyage round the World, more particularly to the Northwest coast of America, 
1785-88, in the "King George" and "Queen Charlotte." Captains Portlock and Uixon. Lon- 
don, 1789. Dixon also published an account written by W. Beresford. 

La Perouse, J. F. G. de. — Voyage autour du nionde pendant les anndes 1785-88, redige et publi^e 
par M. L. A. Millet-Mureau. Paris, 1797, 4 vols, and atlas. 

Labillardiere. — An account of a voyage in search of La Perou.se, undertaken by order of the Con- 
stituent As.sembly of France, and performed in the jear 1791-94 in the "Recherche" and 
"Esperance," ships of war under command of Rear-Admiral Bruni D'Entrecasteaux. London, 
1802, 2 vols. 

Marchand. — Voyage round the World, 1790-92. B3' Etienne Marchand, 2 vols. London, 1801. 

Vancouver, George. — A voyage of discovery to the north Pacific ocean and round the world 

in the years 1790-95. London, 1798, 3 vols, and atlas. 

Wilson, Capt. J. — Missionary voyage to the south Pacific ocean in the ship "Duff," 1796-98. 
London, 1799. 

Peron, F. — Voyage aux Terres Australes, 1800-04. Paris, 1807-16. 

F'linders, M. — Voyage to Terra Australis, 1801-3. London, 1814, 2 vols. 

Kotzebue, Otto von. — Entdeckungs-Reise in der Sud see und nach der Behring's Strasse, in den 
Jahren 1815-18. Weimar, 1821, 3 vols. 

Kru.senstern, Adam John von. — Reise um die Welt in den Jahren 1803-6, auf befehl seiner kaiser- 
lichen Majestat Alexander des Erster auf den Schriffen Nadeshda und Neva, 3 vols. St. Peters- 
burg, 1 8 10. 

Byron, Capt. Lord G. A. — Voyage of H. M. S. "Blonde" to the Sandwich Islands in the year 1824-5. 
London, 1826. 

Freycinet, L. de. — Voyage autour du Monde sur les Corvettes I'Uranie et la Physicienne pendant 
les annees 1817 a 1820. Paris, 1824-44, 8 vols. 4to., 4 vols. fol. 

D'Urville, J. Dumont. — Voyage de Decouvertes de I'Astrolabe. Paris, 1830-33. 

Stokes, J. L. — Discoveries explored during the voyage of H. M. S. "Beagle" in 1837-43. London, 
1846. 

Jukes, J. Beete. — Surveying voyage of H. M. S. "Fly" in Torres Strait, New Guinea, etc. London, 
1847. 

Wilkes, Charles. — Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition, 1838-42. Philadelphia, 
1845, 5 vols. 

Hochstetter, F. von. — New Zealand; its physical geography, geography and Natural History. 
Translated by Edw. Sauter. Stuttgart, 1867. 

Moresby, John. — Discoveries and Surveys in New Guinea and the D'Entreca.steaux islands. Lon- 
don, 1876. 

Thomson, J. P. — British New Guinea. London, 1892. 

Bevan, T. F^. — Toil, Travel and Discovery in British New Guinea. London, 1890. 

Chalmers, J. and Gill, W. W. — Work and Adventure in New Guinea. London, 1885. 

Romilly, H. H. — The western Pacific and New Guinea. London, 1887. 

Smith, R. B. — The Aborigines of Vi<5loria. Melbourne, 1878, 2 vols. 

Spencer, B. and Gillen, F. J. — The native tribes of central Australia. London, 1899. 

Codrington, R. H. — The Melanesians. Oxford, 1891. 

Heeres, J. E. — The part borne by the Dutch in the Discovery of Australia, 1606-1765. Leiden, 1899. 

[115] 



32 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



Rosenberg, C. B. H. von. — Reistochten uaar de Geelviukbaai op Nieuw Guinea in den jareu 1869 
en 1870. 'S Gravenhage, 1875. 

Abel Janszoon Tazman's Journal. Amsterdam, 1898. 

West, T. — Ten yeans in south-central Pohnesia (Tonga). London, 1865. 

Mariner, W. — An Account of the Natives of the Tonga islands. London, 181 7, 2 vols. 
--, Williams, T. — P'iji and the Fijians. London, 1858, 2 vols. 
^ Waterhouse, J. — King and people of Fiji. London, 1866. 
. Turner. George. — Nineteen years in Polynesia. London, 1861. 

,. Samoa a hundred years ago and long before. London, 1884. 

-? Lang, J. D. — Origin and migrations of the Polynesian nation. 2d edn. Sydney, 1877. 
.- Guppy, H. B. — The Solomon islands and their natives. London, 1887. 

Woodford, C. M. — A Naturalist among the Head-Huuters (Solomon Islands). Melbourne, 1890. 
. Brenchley, J. — Cruise of the "Cura^oa" among the South Sea islands during 1865. London, 1873. 

Vincendon-Dumoulin. — Isles Marquises ou Nouka-Hiva. Paris, 1843. 

Museum Godeffroy. Journal. Hamburg. 

Voyage of Governor Phillip to Botany Bay (Journals of Shortland, Marshall and others). London. 

Taylor, R. — Te Ika a Maui, or New Zealand and its inhabitants. London, 1870. 

Findlay, A. G. — Direcftory for the Navigation of the North Pacific Ocean. 3d. edn. London, 1886. 

Directory for the Navigation of the South Pacific Ocean. 5th edn. London, i886(?). 

British Admiralty Reports and Sailing Direcflions to date. 



LIST OF MAPS. 



2 

3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
10 
II 
12 



Hawaiian Islands (Main). 
Hawaiian Islands (Western). 
Caroline Islands (Western). 
Caroline Islands (Middle). 
Caroline Islands (Eastern). 
Marshall Islands. 
Gilbert Islands. 
New Guinea Coast Islands. 
Louisiade Archipelago. 
Bismarck Archipelago. 
Solomon Islands. 
New Hebrides. 



13 
14 
15 
16 

17 
i8 

19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 



New Caledonia and Loyalty. 

Fiji. 

Samoan Islands and Niiie. 

Ellice Group. 

Phoenix and Union I.slands. 

Tongan Group. 

Line Islands and Tongareva. 

Society Islands. 

Paumotu Archipelago (West). 

Paumotu Archipelago (East). 

Marquesas and Hervey Islands. 

Index Chart. 



ILLUSTRATIONS IN TEXT. 



Butaritari. 


Malekula. 


New Zealand. 


Rapanui. 


Fanning. 


Marianas. 


Palmyra. 


Washington 




Matuku. 


Peru. 
[116] 





170 



RONCELAP 



Utirik 







/-/RONCERIK 



Taka , 



E. 



BlKAR 



\^ 



i$\\ AlLUK 



10 °N. 






Jemo j\ '^'tsJ 



MtAOI 



\i 



.ir 



Mentschikow 
Group 



WN. 



RoMANzow Group 






v~ v;-:-s:j 







•A. 



Lip ^ 



''v*i Nemu 



Jabwat 



AaiNCLABLAB 1^^..../^' 



MARSHALL 



Kiu. 



Namorik C«=>>' 



i: 



5°N. 



/ 1 Erjkub 



(^•'~>[; Maloelab 



Madjuro 

rx "7-, ;^ ARNO 



ISLANDS 



MiixE ,■-• S-. 

•'■?■■■■ ■•-■i'S 



•'^^:if:^A 






d^N. 






170° 



E. 



n 



it 

f 



'^iJiiir 




t$tti-. 



i '<■ **i#i 






}*3gi 



.wa 



AN INDEX TO THE NAMES OF THE ISLANDS OF OCEANIA. 



AaSU, or Paris, on the north coast of New Guinea, 3° 22' S., 143° 25' E. Thickly 

wooded and inhabited. On the same reef is the islet Unei. 
Aatao, one of the many names given to Angatau, Paumotu islands. 31.* 
Ababa, see Torres islands. Also called Baba. 

Aba evara, the western islet of the Basses group, Louisiade archipelago. 
Abaga gaheia, or Abagaheia, eastward of Pana trusima (Earle) in the Louisiade 

archipelago. 1.7 m. long, 585 ft. high. 
Abatl, in Cloudy bay on the south coast of New Guinea. 10° 13' S., 148° 42' E. 
Abaura, or Midge islands, three low and wooded islets near Fly river, south coast of 

New Guinea. 8° 29' S., 143° 39' E. 
Abavi, in Cloud}' bay on the south coast of New Guinea. 10" 15' S., 148° 44' E. 
Abgarris, also called Faed islands, in the Bismarck archipelago. A chain of low 

islands, of which Goodman is the southernmost, extending 30 m. nw-se. North 

point 3° 09' s., 154° 22' E. Discovered by Captain Renneck of the Lyra. 10. 
Abian, a form of Apaiang, Gilbert islands. 

Abingdon, of the Galapagos. o°34'25"n. 1950 ft. high. Resort of the Buccaneers. 
Abo, on the coast of New Guinea. 8° 22' S., 143° 07' E. 
Abuda, within Angasa reef of the Fiji group. 18° 56' vS., 181° 26' 30" b;. 
Abutolema, without Angasa reef of the Fiji group. 18° 53' 30" S., 181° 24' E. 60 ft. 

high. 
Abutuena, Angasa reef of the Fiji group. 
Achir = Uea of the Loyalty group. 13. 
Actaeon, or Amphitrite islands in the Paumotu group were discovered in 1833 by T. 

Ebrill in the Tahitian trader Amphitrite. The names are much mixed on charts. 

Maturei vavao, Tenarunga, Vehanga and Tenararo. 2,Z. 
Adabadana Kawa, of the Talbot group on the coast of New Guinea, between Kawa 

and Mata Kawa. 9° 17' s., 142° 11' E. 
Adams, southernmost of the Auckland islands, belonging to New Zealand. 2000 ft. 

high. 
Adams (Ingraham), see Huapu of the Marquesas. 23. 
Adams (Roberts), see Nukuhiva of the Marquesas. 23. 
Adele, easternmost of the Louisiade archipelago, only 500-600 j-ards in diameter. 

11° 29' 50" ,s., 154° 26' 10" E. Discovered by Captain Coutance. 
Adi, on the coast of New Guinea. 4° 05' s., 133° 30' 30" E. 
Admiralty Islands were discovered by Schouten and Lemaire in July, 1616. The 

group consists of one large and many small islands. Carteret visited it in 1767. 

Admiralty, the largest, was described by D'Entrecasteaux in 1792. It is 50 m. 

*Names considered more correct are printed in heavier-faced type. The number at the end of the paragraph indicates the map on 
which the island will be found. 

Memoirs B. P. B. Ml'SEUM, Vol. I., No. 2.— 3. F117I '■'^' 



34 . INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

E-W.X15 ni. N-S. 3000 ft. high. Challenger visited the group and named after 
the officers nearlj' every bay, point or rock. Jesus Maria, La Vandola, Elisabeth, 
Sugar-loaf, Western, Wild, Suhm, and many mere rocks compose this interesting 
group now included in the Bismarck archipelago. The inhabitants are not very 
dark, often dye their black hair red ; wear little clothing — the men, as their sole 
garment, a white cowry shell ; use splints of obsidian for knives and spear points ; 
can-e fine circular bowls often of great size ; principal food, sago. Centre of prin- 
cipal island about 2° 10' S., 147° 00' E. lO. 

Admiralty Islets, a small group a mile and a half from north end of Lord Howe 
island. 

Adventure, see Motutunga of the Paumotu islands. 21. 

Adventurer Islands are two islands about half a mile in extent, low, wooded, and 
connecfted b^- a reef. Reported in 1877 by Mr. Ebur}', master of the Adventurer. 
Existence is doubted. 

Agaga*= Anganga of the Fiji group. 

Agakanitai, an islet of Mangareva. 

Agata, south of Yasawa towards Naviti, Fiji. Is it confounded with Agate ? 

Agate, in the Yasawa group, Fiji, near Naviti. Small, rock}-, high. 17° 11' 30" S., 
177° 08' 10" E. Named for one of the artists of the United States Exploring 
Expedition. 14. 

Agonies ^ Hermit islands in the Bismarck archipelago. lO. 

Agrigan, of the Marianas. A volcanic island 6 m. long by 2 m. broad, and 2000 ft. 
high. 18° 48' N., 145° 40' E. In 1810 Captain Brown and other Americans with 
several families of Hawaiians formed a colony on this island, but it was broken up 
by the Spaniards who destroyed the plantations and carried off the Hawaiians to 
slavery and they were never again heard from. See Chamisso in Kotzebue's 
voyage. For map of the group see Marianas. 

Aguari, see Santa Catalina, Solomon islands. ll. 

Ague, islet of the Harcourt group on the northeast coast of New Caledonia. 

Agtlijan, of the Marianas, was discovered by Magelhaes March 6, 152 1, in 14° 51' n., 
145'' 30' K. It is 3 m. long hy 2 m. wide and uninhabited. 

Ahangatou = Angatou of the Paumotu group. 21. 

Allii, or Peacock, is low, coral, inhabited, and about 13 m. long. The east end is 
14° 27' 20" S., 146° 13' 24" E. 20. 

Ahunui, also called Fangataufa and Cockburn, of the Paumotu group, was discovered 
b}- Captain Beechey in 1826 and named after the Comptroller of the Navy. It is 
a closed lagoon island nearly 4 m. in diameter and the southwest end is in 

22 17 S., 138 39 53 W. 

Aidoumea, or Aidoema, on the south coa.st of New Guinea. 3° 58' s., 134° oo'e. 

Called formerly Lsla del Capitano Luis Vaes de Torres from its discoverer. 
Ailing^nae, or Remski-Korsakoff of the Marshall islands is 12 m. southwest from 

Rongerik. It is 15 m. e-w. and 4 m. n-s.; uninhabited. It was discovered by 

Kotzebue, and the southwest point is 11° 08' N., 166° 20' E. 

'Although thU in the correct form it has seemed best in giving the Vitian names to adopt the phonetic spelling: g is pronounced n^, 
c Uth. and h is mil. Thus Cakob.iu is pronounced Thakonibau: Baga, Mbanga, etc. 

Ln8] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. . 35 

Ailingiappel, islet of Mentschikow or Kwadjelin in the Marshall islands. 
Ailinglablab, of the Marshall islands, was discovered by Captain Bond in December, 

1792. It is 36 m. long and composed of many islets on the ring encircling in a 

very irregular way a lagoon. The northwest end is 8° 11' N., 167° 58' E. 
Ailuk, also Tindal, Watts or Krusenstern of the Marshall islands, was discovered by 

Captain Marshall in 1788, and is 20 m. long and 5-8 m. wide. 10° 30' N., 170° 04' E. 
Ain, wooded islet of Mengalia reef on the northeast coast of New Caledonia. 
Ainioro, one of the Amazon islands on the south coast of New Guinea. 10° 21' S., 

149° 17' E. 
Aiona, islet of Murua or Woodlark in the Trobriand group. 9° 13' s., 152° 49' E. 
Aiou = Yowl, west from the New Guinea coast. 
Aipere, a name sometimes given to Tanna of the New Hebrides. 
Airik, islet of Maloelab in the Marshall islands. 8° 31' N., 171° 10' 30" E. 
Aitutaki, of the Hervey group, was discovered April 11, 1789, by Captain Bligh of 

the Bounty a few days before the mutiny broke out. It is high and 18 m. in 

circumference, with a reef on the southwest coast. Population about 1500. 

The finest tatuing I have ever seen was on two Aitutakian sailors. 18° 54' .S., 

159° 41' w. 2Z. 
Aiva, is a double islet, Aiva-va and Aiva-thaki, between Lakemba and Oneata of the 

Fiji group; low, not exceeding 30 ft.; uninhabited; 9 m. X 3-5 ni. 18° 21' S., 

181° 17' E. 14. 
Aivei, islet on the coast of New Guinea. 7° 50' s., 145° 10' E. 
Aivo, or Renny, is on the east side of Malaita, Solomon islands, low and wooded ; 

less than a mile NW-SE. 8° 58' s. 
Akahaina, or Fakaina, or Predpriatie, of the Paumotii group was discovered by Kotze- 

bue in 1824. It is low, inhabited, about 4 m. long. The centre is in 15° 58' s., 

140° 11' 30" W. 31. 
Akamaru, or Wainwright, is an islet of Mangareva of the Paumotu group. 23. 
Akamoktim, islet of Peleliu of the Pelew or Palao islands. 
Akani, a group of islets in the Bismarck archipelago. 3° 20' vS., 154° 36' E. 
Akiaki, or Thrum Cap of the Paumotu group was discovered by Bougainville in 1768 

and by him called Les Lanciers ; inhabited, though a low coral bank less than a 

mile in diameter. 19° 17' 40" S., 138° 42' w.O 33. 
Akoo, islet of Ontong Java, Solomon islands. 5° 37' S., 159° 34' E. II. 
Alapawa, in Cook strait, New Zealand. 41° 12' S., 174° 20' E. 
Alau, islet off the east coast of Maui, Hawaiian group. 20° 43' 50" N., 155° 58' w. 
Albany, on the coast of Australia. 10° 43' .S., 142° 36' E. 
Albatross, islet at the mouth of Saluafata harbor on Upolu, Samoan group, 9 m. east 

of Apia. 
Albemarle, of the Galapagos, 60 X 15 m-, 4000 ft. high; six volcanoes; largest of 

the group. 
Alcester, a group of three islands of the Trobriand group extending about 3 m. ene- 

wsw. The natives are most skilful canoe builders. 9° 29' S., 152° 30' 45" E. 
Alcmene, an islet 3 m. southeast from Isle of Pines, Loyalty group. 22° 40' S., 167° 29' E. 
Alden, of the Hudson group, Fiji. High and rocky. 17° 37' 20" S., 177° cxd' E. 

[119] 



36 • INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Alefa, of the Tongan group is in 20° 00' S., 174° 30' w. 

Aleford, group of four small and reefed islets at the head of Milne bay at the south- 
east end of New Guinea. 10° 22' S., 150° 20' E. 

Alele, coastal islet of New Guinea. 7° 52' S., 145° 13' E. 

Alet, islet of Enderby, Caroline islands. At the east of the fringing reef which ex- 
tends 5.5 m. E-\v. and 3 ni. N-s. is Pozoat. 17° 19' 25" N., 149° 15' E. 

Alewa kalou, Awakalo or Round, an uninhabited rocky islet of Fiji, 50oi ft. high. 
16° 40' S., 177° 46' E. 

Algrail, islet of Wolea, Caroline islands. 

Alita, southernmost of the Trois Soeurs, Solomon islands. ll. 

Allen, one of the Wellesley group in the Gulf of Carpentaria. 

Allison, is between L'Echiquier and Durour in the Bismarck archipelago. Dis- 
covered b}- Captain Allison in 1885. 2-3 m. nw-se., 100-150 ft. high, covered with 
trees. 1° 25' vS., 143° 26' E. 

Allufatti ^ Alofa, Home islands. 

Almagan, an active volcano of the Marianas. It is 2.2 m. N-s. by 1.5 E-w., and 2316 
ft. high. 17° 36' N., 145° 50' E. See map under Marianas. 

Alofa, one of the Home islands southeast from Fotuna. It is 6 m. E-w. by 3 m., and 
1200 ft. high; volcanic. 10° 16' s., 178° 00' w. 18. 

Alu, a wooded coral island 150 ft. high at the east end of Shortland island, Solomon 
islands. It is well cultivated, and surrounded, except on the northwest side, with 
a fringing reef. 7° 08' s., 155° 50' E. II. 

Amantl, or Moller, of the Paumotu group was discovered by Captain Bellingshausen 
in 1829. It is 18 m. ne-S\v. and 8 m. wide. Inhabited and abounds in pearl oys- 
ters. The northeast point is 17° 43' s., 140° 39' w. 

Amat, Isla d'. In 1774 Spanish priests gave this name to Tahiti. 

Amazon Islands, two small islands in Amazon bay on the south coast of New 
Guinea. The}- are called Ainioro and Laraoro. When, some years ago, natives 
attacked H. M. S. Bratnble a canoe filled with female warriors accompanied the 
party, hence the name of both bay and islands. 

Ambatiki, of the Fiji group, is nearly an equilateral triangle of 2 m. on a side and sur- 
rounded by a reef. It is 750 ft. high, and inhabited. 17° 47' s., 179° 10' 30" E. 14. 

Anibau, see Mbau of the Fiji group. 14. 

Ambrym, of the New Hebrides, was discovered by Cook in 1773. It is volcanic, Mt. 
Marum having had an eruption in 1888, and is 22 m. K-w. and 17 m. N-s.; about 
3000 ft. high; population dense. 16° 10' s., 168° 05' E. 13. 

Amedee, islet of New Caledonia, is 10 m. off Noumea in 22° 28' 44" s., 166" 28' 40" E. 
On it is a fine lighthouse 174 ft. high. 

Amere, islet on the southeast reef of New Caledonia. 

Amesse, islet of Namoluk of the Caroline islands. 5° 45' 15" N., 153° 16' 30" E. 4. 

Aniicitia, an island perhaps identical with Oraluk of the Carolines. 4. 

Amota, one of the Hermit islands, in 1° 32' S., 144° 55' E. 8. 

Amphlett Islands are northeast of Moratau of the D'Entrecasteaux group, about 
9" 20' s., 150" 48' E. There are eight or more small islands, wooded and of niod- 
, erate height, forming a broken chain parallel to the coast. 9. 

[120] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 37 

Amsterdam, islet on the coast of New Guinea. 0° 20' s., 132° 08' E. 

Amsterdam (New), a name given by Tasman, in 1643, to Tongatabu. 

Amytideu, an islet of Namonuito of the Carolines. 4. 

Anaa, or Chain of the Panmotus, was discovered by. Cook in 1769. The northwest 
point is in 17° 23' s., 145° 38' 30" w. In 1874 there were 1500 inhabitants and 
7,000,000 coconut trees. Inhabitants formerly war-like, good sailors, and canni- 
bals ; obtained control of many of the neighboring islands. 31. 

Anabadibadila, islet of the Dumoulin group on the southeast coast of New Guinea. 
It is 17 ft. high. 

Anacoretas, called also Hermit, Monk's, Anchorite, were discovered by Bougainville, 
August 7, 1768. There are five or six islets covering a space 2.5 m. long. The 
inhabitants are said to resemble Chinese. 0° 50' s., 145° 35' E. 8. 

AnagUSa, or Bentley of the Louisiade archipelago, in 10° 43' s., 150° 43' E., is 1.2 m. 
E-w. and half a mile broad; inhabited; 350 ft. high. 

Anakarukarua, one of the Dumoulin group on the coast of New Guinea. 225 ft. high. 

Anangai, see Wolea, Caroline islands. 

Anataxan, or Anatajan, of the Marianas, is 5 m. E-w. and 1.5 N-.s., about 1200 ft. high; 
volcanic. 16° 19' N., 145° 35' E. See map under Marianas. 

Anatlinga, islet on the north coast of Vanua levu, Fiji, north of the entrance to the 
Lekutu river. 

Anchor, low, small, wooded on northeast of Bast cape of New Guinea. 

Anchorage, or Pass at the mouth of the lagoon of Taka or Suvarov. 13° 13' s., 
163° 09' 15" \v. 

Anchorage, islet of Stewart island. New Zealand. 

Anchorite, see Anacoretas. 

Andatavie, marks the north limit of Ngaloa harbor, Fiji. It is 165 ft. high. 

Andema, or Ant, of the Carolines, was discovered by Liitke and is about eight miles 
west of Ponape. It consists of a dozen coral islets and is not permanently in- 
habited; belongs to a chief of Ponape, and is resorted to for fish and turtle. 
The name has been explained to mean Ant over there. 6° 45' N., 158° E. 5. 

Andiwathe, islet 250 ft. high, off the west coast of Vanua mbalavu, Fiji. 14. 

Andrew, near the centre of Hercules bay, low and wooded, on the northeast coast of 
New Guinea. 

Androna, in the Yasawa group, Fiji, extends 3 m. by 1.2 and is 900 ft. high. The 
north point is in 16° 52' s., 177° 24' 30" E. 14. 

Anegada, La. Quiros discovered January 26, 1606, an island which he called Luna 
puesta ; Gaspar Gonzales de Leza called it La Anegada, and Jose Espinosa named 
it Encarnacion. 

Aneiteum, was discovered by Cook in 1773 in his passage through the New Hebrides. 
It is 10 m. E-w. and 6 m. N-s., 2788 ft. high, and has 1500 inhabitants. Southwest 
point is in 20° 15' 17" ,s., 169° 44' p:. In control of the Presbyterian Mission. 

Anganga (Agaga), high, uninhabited island of Fiji. The east end is in 16° 34'3o"s., 
178^^ 38'2o"e. 

Angasa is 150 ft. high and has three islets within the same reef in Fiji. 18° 55' s., 

181" 28' E. 

[121J 



38 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Angatau, also called Arackcheeff or Araktchev and Ahangatiu, is a low island of the 
Paumotu group, discovered hy Bellingshausen in 1820; 200 inhabitants. 15° 52' S., 
140° 52' w. 31. 

Angaur, see N'yaur, of the Palao or Pelew islands. 

Angerimus Islands, in Geelvink bay on the north coast of New Guinea. 2° 50' S., 
135' 00' E. 

Angri£Fe, or Attack, is connedled with New Ireland by a reef. It was called by the 
second name from a war-like attempt on a boat of the German war ship Gazelle, 
2° 55' S., 151° 08' E. 

Anhar, see Anaa or Chain, in the Paumotu archipelago. 

Anil, islet of Namu, Marshall islands. 

Aniwa, or Immer or Nina, of the New Hebrides, is about 2 m. long. It is a station 
of the Presbyterian Mission. 19° 18' S., 169° 38' E. 

Anna, or Current, was discovered in 1761 ; it is low, half a mile in diameter, and in- 
habited. 4° 39' N., 132° 04' E. 

Annan Islands, three in number, off the north end of Viti levvi, Fiji. The group 
extends 4 m. by 0.7 m., and rises to a height of 610 ft. North point, 17° 3o'4o"s., 
178° 12' E. 

Annamokka, or Rotterdam, Tasman's name for Namuka of the Tongan group. 

Annatam, a form of Aneiteum, of the New Hebrides. 

Anne, islet in the Bismarck archipelago. 4° 57' S., 151° 12' E. 

Annula, see Anuda. 

Anologo, one of the Matema islands, Santa Cruz group. 10° 07' s., 165° 38' E. It 
extends i m. E-w., and is 120 ft. high; w. ^ S., 17 m. from Nukapu. British pro- 
tectorate August 18, 1898.* 

Anonima, see Namonuito, Caroline islands. 

Anser, or Glennie, a small group west of Wilson point, south coast of Australia in 
Bass strait. 

Anson, 13° o' N., 141° 35' E., is of doubtful report. A name of Buka in the Solomon 
group. 

Ant, of Andema group, Caroline islands. 6° 44' N., 157° 53' 30" E. 

Antipodes, rocky, uninhabited group, iioo ft. high. 40° 40' 53" S., 178° 43' K. Not 
exadlly the antipodes of London. Belongs to New Zealand. Called also Penan- 
tipode. 

Anuanuraro, of the Paumotu archipelago, is a lagoon island named by Quiros, in 
1606, San Miguel Archangel. 20° 24' 57" .s., 143° 31' 12" w.O 31. 

Anuanurunga, of the Paumotu archipelago, also called Four Crowns and Cuatro 
Coronadas, was discovered by Quiros in 1606. 20° 38' s., 143° 19' w. 21. 

Anuda, or Cherry, was discovered in 1791 by Captain Edwards in the Pandora. It is 
1.5 m. in diameter and 325 ft. high. The inhabitants are Polynesian, make neat 
canoes, chew betel, and the men have an average height of 5 ft. 11 in. British 
prote(5lorate declared Oct. i, 1898. 11° 40' S., 169° 40' E. 12. 

Anutunga, low islet near Ngaloa bay on the north coast of Vanua levu, Fiji. 
16° 37' s., 178° 40' E. Inhabited. 14. 

•For the official notice* of theic Prote<!torate> I am indebted to H. B. M. Consul in Honolulu, W. R. Hoare Ksq. 

[122] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 39 

Anuu, islet, 65 ft. high, east of Tutuila, Samoan islands. 14° i8'4o"s., 170° 3o'4o"w. 

Belongs to the United States. 15. 
Aoba, Omba or Leper, of the New Hebrides, was named by Bougainville Isle des 

Lepreux under a mistaken diagnosis. It is 17 m. long, 3CX30-40OO ft. high, and 

inhabited. 15° 15' S., 167° 50' E. 13. 
Aore, islet off the southeast coast of Espiritu Santo in the New Hehrides. The 

natives of this region are all cannibals. 
Aoura, islet of Mokil in the Caroline archipelago. 
Apaiang, or Charlotte, in the Gilbert group, was discovered by Captain Marshall in 

the Charlotte. It extends 16 m. by 6 m. and consists of six islets on a high reef. 

Population in 1886, 1300. The islets are Terio or Marshall, Allen, Gillespy, 

Clerk, Smith and Armstrong. Southeast point is in 1° 43' 25" N., 173° 06' 45" E. 7. 
Apamama, Hopper or Roger Simpson, in the Gilbert group, was discovered by Captains 

Marshall and Gilbert in 1788. It extends about 12 by 5 m. and the islets are about 5 

ft. above the sea. Population, 650. Northwest .point 0° 30' n., 173° 53' 35" E. 7. 
Apapa, or Cabras, on the west coast of Guam, Marianas. 

Apataki, or Hagemeister atoll, in the Paumotu archipelago, was discovered by Cap- 
tain Hagemeister in 1830. It extends 17 m. N-s.; is a low coral atoll and in- 
habited. The northwest point is in 15° 14' s., 146° 32' w. 30. 
Api, called also Tasiko and Volcano, in the New Hebrides, extends about 25 m. NW-SE., 

and is 6-10 m. wide ; fertile, well wooded, densely peopled ; 2800 ft. high. 16° 38' s., 

168° 12' E. 12. 
Apia, a name of Apaiang, Gilbert group. 
Aplin, see Idika, New Guinea. 
Apolima, of the Samoan Group, is an extinct volcano, 547 ft. high, and five sea miles 

from Savaii. It covers 1.8 sq. m. 13° 49' 30" s., 172° 03' w. 15. 
Ara, of the New Hebrides, is a wooded islet on the fringing reef of Valua, off the 

southwest point. It has perhaps 100 inhabitants. 
Arabi, or Hat, of the New Hebrides, is an islet off Tangoa on the south coast of 

Espiritu Santo. 
Arag, of the New Hebrides, called also Pentecost, Whitsuntide, Bougainville, is 38 m. 

long, and 2000 ft. high. Its inhabitants are noted for their large canoes. North 

end is in 15° 25' S., 168° 07' E. 13. 
AraktcheeflF, an islet of Maloelab in the Marshall group. 
Araktcheeff, or Araktchev, see Angatavi, Paumotu archipelago. 21. 
Aranuka, or Henderville, of the Gilbert group, was discovered by Captains Marshall 

and Gilbert; is 6.5 by 5.5 m. The northeast point is in 0° 13' 25" N., 173° 41' E. 7. 
Aratika, or Carlshov, of the Paumotus, was discovered by Roggewein in 1722, and 

named Carlshov by Kotzebue. It is 20 m. west from Kawehe, and is 8 X 5 m.; 

wooded and inhabited. The west point is in 15° 33' 25" S., 145° 39' w. 21. 
Arayon^set, of the Pelew group, lies south of Ka3^angle with Carapellas and Korack 

on a reef extending 4.5 m. N-s., 5 m. E-w. 
Arch, two islets on a reef nearly three miles in circumference, in 10° 47' s., 150° 46' E. 

The highest is 360 ft.; they are variously called Nasa peipei, Nasa ruarua and 

Koia reibareiba, Ilei. 

[123] 



40 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Archangel, see Anuanuraro of the Pauniotus. 21. 

Archipel du Saint Esprit, a name given by De Fleurieu to the New Hebrides. 

Arden, islet in Torres strait. 9° 54' S., 142° 57' E. 

Arecifos, see Udjelong in the Marshall group. 6. 

Arimoa, three islets on the north coast of New Guinea, 500 ft. high, wooded and in- 
habited. \ 45' .S., 138° 45' K. 

Aris, a volcanic island on the north coast of New Guinea, two miles northwest from 
Vulcan; about 700 ft. high. 4° 00' S., 144° 56' E. 8. 

Amavon, islet off Choiseul, Solomon group. 7° 25' .S., 158° 00' E. II. 

Arno, of the Marshall group, is also called Arhno, Daniel or Pedder. It is the largest 
reef, or at least has the most land, of any in the Ratak chain, as it is more than 
300 m. in circumference. The islets, among them Tagelib, High and Ine, are not 
more than 6-8 ft. above the sea but support a population of 30CX) (in 1882). Islets 
at the north and south extremes are often at war with each other. Northeast 
point, 7° 30' N., 171° 55' E. 6. 

Aro, islet east of Tabutha, Fiji. 17° 42' 30" s., 181° 22' w. 14. 

Arorai, or Hurd of the Gilbert group, was discovered from the brig Elisabeth about 
1809, and was named Hope; changed to Hurd by Purdy. A well wooded atoll 
6-7 m. NW-SE., a mile and a half wide. Population in 1883, 1200. 2° 39' .S., 
177° 01' E. 7. 

Arossi, see San Cristobal of the Solomon group. II. 

Arova, or Rossel, see Roua of the Louisiade archipelago. 9. 

Arrecifos, of Villalobos (1545), are the Pelew islands. 

Arrowsmith, see Majuro of the Marshall group. 6. 

Arsacides, Terre de, a name given in 1769 by Surville to Malaita, Solomon islands. 

Art, largest of the Belep group, northwest of New Caledonia. It is 1 1 m. NW-,SE. 13. 

Arteck, islet off north point of Babeltop, Pelew islands. 

Arthur, islet of Eniwetok of the Marshall group. 11° 40' N., 162° 15' E. 

Aru, two islets on the north coast of New Guinea. 

Anitua, of the Paumotu archipelago, the Rurick of Kotzebue, is a lagoon atoll 20 ft. 
high. The natives are of Tahitian origin. The northwest point is in 15° 10' s., 
146" 49' 20" w. 30. 

Arzobispo, one of the Volcano group south of the Bonin islands. 

Asaua, or Asawa, .^ee Yasawa, Fiji. 

Ascension, see Ponape, Caroline archipelago. 

Asia, islets east from Gilolo; low, wooded. 1° 00' N., 131° 17' E. Another group with 
same name off coast of Peru. 

A.sore, see Tanna, New Hebrides. 

Asouni, islet in Makira bay of San Cristobal, Solomon islands. 

Asuncion, or Assumption, in the Marianas, 19° 45' n., 145° 29' E. A volcanic cone 
about a mile in diameter and 2800 ft.zb high, 54 m. n. by w. from Agrigan. The 
west side is covered with vegetation. Discovered by La Perouse Dec. 14, 1786. 

Ata, or Pylstaart (Tropic-bird) in the Tongan group, was discovered by Tasman in 
1643. Island northeast from Tongatabu; 3 m. long, 1165 ft. high, uninhabited. 
22" 20' s., 176° 12' 30" w. 18. 

[124] 



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INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 41 

Atafu, or Oatafu, a closed coral lagoon of the Union group, discovered by Byron in 
1765. Also called Duke of York. It is 3 m. E-w., 2.5 m. N-s., 8-10 ft. high. There 
are said to be 63 islets covered with pandanus and coconut trees. Some 260 in- 
habitants; subject to Fakaafo. 8° 39' 40" s., 172° 28' 10" w. British protedlorate 
proclaimed June 22, 1889. 17. 

Atana, a chain of islets lying northwest from Rotuma. The eastern is Wea (Emery); 
the western, Athaluna. 

Atangota, islet northwest from Rotuma. 12° 30' s., 177° 14' E. 

Atata, islet northwest from Tongatabu, Tongan group. 21° 03' s., 175° 15' w. 

Athaluna, one of the Atana chain, northwest of Rotuma. 

Atit, is a low, wooded islet in Tuo passage on the northeast coast of New Caledonia. 

Atiu, of the Hervey group, was discovered by Cook March 31, 1777; called by him 
Wateeoo. It is 100 m. north from Mangaia, 20 m. in circumference, of uplifted 
coral, 394 ft. high. 19° 59' s., 158° 06' w. 33. 

AtO, islet of the Yasawa group, Fiji, between Matathoni and Yangati. 16° 59' 30" S., 
177° 18' 25" E. 14. 

Attack, see Angriffe, Bismarck archipelago. lO. 

Attack, islet in delta of the Fh' river. New Guinea. 

Auckland, an uninhabited group belonging to New Zealand, discovered in 1806. 
Northeast cape, 50° 30' 25" S., 166° 19' 12" E. 

Aukena, islet of Mangareva. Also called Elson. 

Aiilong, see Orolong of the Pelew group. 

AuotU, of the Hervey group, was discovered by Cook in 1773. It is a twin islet with 
Manuae enclosed by one reef, barren, with few inhabitants. 19° 14' S., 158° 58' w. 24. 

Aura, or Duperrey, is an islet of Mokil in the Carolines. 6° 40' N., 159° 53' E. 5. 

Aura, see Kaukura in the Paumotu archipelago. 15° 41' s., 146° 50' 30" w. 

Aureed, islet in Torres strait. 9° 57' S., 143° 17' E. 

Aurh, Ibbetson or Traversey of the Marshall islands, is 15 m. long and from 4 to 9 m. 
wide. The lagoon is deep and surrounded with 32 islets. The northeast point 
is in 8° 18' N., 171° 12' E. 

Aurobu, islet 150 ft. high on the sovith side of Bagaman in the Louisiade archipelago. 

Aurora, see Maiwo of the New Hebrides. 

Aurora, see Makatea of the Paumotu archipelago. 

Austral, or Tubuai group, a name given by Mr. Williams in his "Missionary Enter- 
prises in the South Seas" to a group of very little known islands in the southeast 
Pacific. They belong to France. Population, 1875, according to French reports. 
Of the group Vavitao is 100 ft. high, and was discovered by Broughton in 1791; 
Tubuai discovered by Cook 1777; Rurutu, discovered by Cook in 1769, is 1300 ft. 
high; Rimatera, discovered by Henry and Norurotu, Hull, Maria and Sands, dis- 
covered by J. R. Sands in 1845, complete the list. 

Autano, an islet of Fakaafo, of the Union group. 9° 24' 55" s., 171° 12' w. 

Avea, of the Exploring group, Fiji, is a small island northeast from Vanua mbalavu, 
3 ni. in circumference and 600 ft. high. Population, 40. 17° 10' 30" S., 181° 06 E. 

Awakalo, see Alewakalou, Fiji. 

[125] 



42 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



Baba, see Torres islands. 

Babagarai, or Smith islet on the southeast coast of New Guinea. 

Babeltop, of the Pelew group, is also spelled Baobeltaob, etc. It is of irregular shape, 
20 m. N-S. Mt. Aremolunguj is 2000 ft. high. Northeast end, 7° 40' 30" N., 

134 38 45 E- 
Bacon, Fiji, is a white rock 60 ft. high covered with guano within Argo reefs. i7°o4's., 

178° 25' w. 
Badeneu, see Moali, Loyalt}-^ archipelago. 
Badila beddabedda bonarua, westernmost and largest of the Brumer group on the 

coast of New Guinea, in 10° 45' 24" S., 150° 23' 03" E. It is 2.5 m. long, half a 

mile wide and 670 ft. high. 
Bagabag, or Rich, the Sir R. Rich of Dampier, is 4 m. in circumference and 1500 ft. 

high. It is in 4° 50' S., 140° 12' E. lO. 
BagaitnotU, islet of the Tongan group. 
Bagaman, or Stanton of the Louisiade archipelago is 2.5 m. E-w. by 1.7 m., and 720 

ft. high. 11° 08' s., 152° 40' E. 
Bagamoti, islet southeast coast of New Guinea, near Sideia; 115 ft. high. 
Bagavirana, of the Conflict group, Louisiade archipelago. An atoll 10 m. E-w. by 

5 m. x-s. Ten islets uninhabited ; covered with Casuarina trees. Visited by H. 

M. S. Conflict in 1880. 10° 46' s., 151° 46' E. 
Bagga, islet in bight on west side of Vella Lavella, Solomon islands. 7° 47' s., 

156° 30' E. 
Bag^ag^a, or Markham of the D'Entrecasteaux group, is an islet in Moresby strait 

between Dauila and Moratau. 9° 25' S., 150° 25' E. 
Baibara, islet on coast of New Guinea. 10° 20' s., 149° 36' E. 
Baibesika, islet on southeast coast of New Guinea, a mile east of Suau, 1.5 m. by 

0.5 m., 560 ft. high ; cultivated. 
Baiiri, largest of the Dumoulin group ; 365 ft. high, with few inhabitants. 10° 54'! 7" s., 

150 44 52 E. 
Baiwa, with Pana wadi and Pana roran in the Renard group, Louisiade archipelago. 
Baker, or New Nantucket, was discovered by Captain H. Foster of the h2ir<\\\^ Jamaica. 

Taken by the United States in 1857. A guano island i m. E-w., 0.7 m. wide, 20 ft. 

t_'1 O / // y-O / // 

high, o 13 30 N., 176 29 30 w. 
Balabio, off the northwest point of New Caledonia. 

Baldwin, islet of the Yasawa group, Fiji. 17° 26' 50" s., 177° 00' 45" E. 14. 
Ballale, islet northeast of Shortland, Solomon islands. 6° 58' s., 155° 52' E. 
Bampton, see Parama, coast of New Guinea. 
Banabana, or Grange, on the coast of New Guinea, is low and wooded. 10° 22' S., 

148^^ 54' E. 
Banepe, see Panavi, Santa Cruz group. 
Banga Netepa, see Panavi, Santa Cruz group. 
Banganeda, see Matema. 13. 

Banks, in Torres strait. 10° 12' s., 142° 15' E. 8. 
Banks, in Spencer gulf, South Australia. 34" 30' s., 136° 20' E. 

[126] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 43 

Banks group was discovered by Quiros and visited by Bligh in May, 1789. It con- 
sists of Vanua Lava, Gaua, Mota, Valiia, Ureparapara, with twelve islets. An- 
nexed by Great Britain August 18, 1898. 12. 

BarauagO, islet 120 ft. high in Utuha passage, south coast of Florida, Solomon islands. 

Barclay de Tolly, see Raroia of the Paumotu archipelago. 31. 

Barena, of the Stewart islands or Sikaiana. ll. 

Baring, see Namorik of the Marshall group. 6. 

Barn, off Australian coast. 10° 49' s., 142° 18' E. 

Barnard, N., coast of Australia. 17° 41' s., 146° 12' e. 

Barnard, S., coast of Australia. 17° 52' s., 146° 11' e. 

Barr, islet on the north side of Mille, Marshall group, east side of entrance to lagoon. 
6° 14' N., 171° 46' E. 6. 

Barren (Cape), northeast from Tasmania, east entrance to Banks strait; 2300 ft. 
high. Another island of the same name is in the Hunter group northwest of 
Tasmania. 40° 25' and 40° 32' S. 

Barrier (Great), in Hauraki gulf. New Zealand, also called Otea, is 21 m. by 10 m., 
and 2130 ft. high. In the same gulf is Little Barrier, 9 m. west from Great 
Barrier. Also called Houtourou. 4 m. N-s., 3.7 m. E-w.; 2400 ft. high. 

Barrier islands, in the channel between Dauila and Moratau of the D'Entrecasteaux 
group. 9° 24' S., 150° 25' E. 9. 

Barringfton, of the Galapagos, was named by Colnett. 0° 50' 30" S., 90° 10' w. 

Barrow, see Vanavana of the Paumotu archipelago. 

Bartlett, islet of Tutuila, Samoan islands, off Massefau bay. 

Barwell, see Tucopia. 12. 

Basilaki, or Moresby, is a well wooded, densely populated island noted for the careful 
cultivation of kalo, sago, betelnut, sugar, Indian corn, etc. It is 10 m. E-w. by 3.5 
m.; 1326 ft. high. 10° 37' S., 151° 00' 35" E. 9. 

Basilisk, see Sideia, New Guinea. 

Bass, islet of Taumaco group. 12. 

Bass islands, or Maretiri, are 46 m. E. by s. from Rapa. Four islets, 346 ft. high, 
discovered by Captain Bass who first sailed through the strait, which bears his 
name, between Australia and Tasmania. 27° 55' 30" s., 143° 28' 20" w. 

Bassakanna, a circular islet off the northwest coast of Malaita, Solomon group. 
8° 22' S., 160° 29' E. 

Basses, are low coral islands in the Loiiisiade archipelago. 10° 58' S., 152° 45' E. 
Gumaian is the largest and easternmost, Abaevara is at the other extreme, and 
Leiga with Isurauaraua complete the group. 

Bass, reef-tied islet of Maloelab, Marshall group. 6. 

Bat, the westernmost of the Purdy group, discovered by Captain Bristow in 18 17, con- 
sists of two flat islands and islet covered with coconut trees and enclosed by reef 
close to which no bottom at 20 fathoms. 2° 51' S., 146° 12' E. lO. 

Batanta, a long, narrow and mountainous island on the coast of New Guinea. 

Bateman, a low islet of the Underwood group, Fiji. 17° 40' 30" S., 177° 14' 20" E. 

Batiki, or Mbatiki, Fiji, is near the centre of the group; is 2 m. in diameter and 609 

ft. high. Population in 1880, 342. 17° 46' S., 179° 10' E. 

[127] 



44 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Bail, see Mbau, Fiji. 

Baudissin, is at the northwest end of New Ireland, Bismarck archipelago, and ex- 
tends 7 m. E-w. 2° 46' S., 150° 40' E. 

Bauro, see San Cristobal, Solomon islands. II. 

Baux, see Nnkuhiva, Marquesas group. 23. 

BavO, islet 3 m. E. from Idiha on the Southeast coast of New Guinea. 

Baxo trista, islet on southeast end of Oraluk reef, Caroline group, 50 ft. high. 
f 27' N., 155° 24' E. 4. 

Bayonnaise, islet at south entrance to Kuto bay. Isle of Pines. Named from French 
ship. 

Beacon, islet of Australia. 12° 48' s., 143° 36' K. 

Beagle, islet of Guadalcanar, Solomon islands. II. 

Beaupre, or Eo of the Loyalty group, northwest of Uea, was discovered in 1782 by 
D'Entrecasteaux. Covered with coconut trees; inhabited. 20° 20' s. Named for 
the Geographical Engineer of the Recherche. 

Beatltiful, a group in the Gulf of Carpentaria, north coast of Australia. 

Bedford, see Vehanga of the Adlseon group. 33. 

Bee, on the south shore of Huon gulf. 7° 30' s., 147° 27' E. 

Beechey, i-slands of the Bonin group. 27° 08' N., 142° 15' E. Annexed by Japan. 

Beika, on the southeast coast of New Guinea, east of Sariba; 130 ft. high; densely 
wooded. 

Belcher = Taravai, islet of Mangareva. 

Belep, fivf islets and a number of rocks northwest from New Caledonia. 13. 

BellevTie, group on the coast of New Guinea. Jervis island is the principal. 9°56's., 
142"^ 09' E. 

Bellingshausen, Society group, was discovered by Kotzebue in 1824. It is low 
and uninhabited. Named for the distinguished Russian navigator. 15° 48' s., 
154° 30' w. 20. 

Bellona, of the Solomon group, was discovered by Captain Wilkinson in the Indis- 
pensable, 1790. It is small, 400 ft. high, and uninhabited. August 18, 1898, it 
was declared a part of the British Solomon islands Prote(5lorate. ii°25's., 

159° 45' K- II- 
Bentinck, one of the Wellesley group in the gulf of Carpentaria. 
Bentley, see Anagusa, Louisiade archipelago. 
Bega, see Mbenga of Fiji. 
Berriberrije, or Slade, Louisiade archipelago, is the northwest and most conspicuous 

of the Engineer group, 1.7 m. nw-sk., half a mile wide, 596 ft. high. 10° 37' s., 

151° 16' E. 
Bertrand, on the north coast of New Guinea. 3° 11' s., 143° 10' E. Low and wooded, 

near Schouten. 

Berry, islet 60 ft. high, of the St. Andrew group, Admiralty islands. 

Berud, see Kuria of the Gilbert islands. 

Bet, see Burrar in Torres strait. . 

Beverley, a group off the east coast of Queensland, Australia. 21° 30' s., 149° 45' E. 

[128] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 45 

Biak, is separated from Korrido by a narrow channel, the two forming the Schouten 
islands. 1° s., 136° 02' E. Little known. 

Bickerton, see Late, in the Tongan group. 18. 

Bigali, see Pikelot, Caroline islands. 

Bigar, another form of Bikar, Marshall islands. 

Bigedj, islet of Kwadjelin, Marshall islands. 

Bigini, see Bikini, Marshall islands. 

Biguela, see Pikelot, Caroline islands. 

Bikar, or Dawson, consists of three islets on the east side of the atoll in the Marshall 
islands. According to Kotzebiie the centre of the group is in 11° 48' n., 170° E. 

Bikerei, islet of Maiana, Gilbert group. 1° 00' 20" n., 173° 00' 45" E. 7. 

Bikini, or Eschscholtz, was discovered by Kotzebue in Oct. 1825. Marshall group, 
18 m. N-s. South point is, according to Brown, 11'' 33' n., 165° 37' E. 6. 

Bilibili, in Astrolabe bay. New Guinea. 5° 20' s., 145° 46' E. Natives are enterpris- 
ing traders and make excellent pottery. 

Bindloe, of the Galapagos, is 8cx) ft. high. 0° 18' 50" n. 

Bio, 2 m. northwest from Ugi, Solomon islands ; coral islet 100 ft. high, uninhabited. 

Birara, a name of a district of New Guinea, sometimes incorredlly applied to the whole 
island. 

Bird, islet on east coast of Admiralty. 2° d8' vS., 147° 14' E. 

Bird, islet in passage between Mbenga and Viti levu, Fiji. 18° i9'2o"vS., 177° 58' 15" E. 

Bird, islet of Palmyra. 

Bird, see Farallon de Medinilla of the Marianas. 

Bird, see Nihoa of the Hawaiian group. 

Bird, see Reitoru of the Paumotu archipelago. 

Bird, a name given by Cook to Hikueru, Paumotu archipelago. 

Bird, a small group off the Australian coast. 11° 47' s., 143° 06' E. 

Birnie, of the Phoenix group, was discovered by Captain Emment. It is a mile long 
and not more than 6 ft. above the sea. 3° 34' 15" S., 171° 42' w. British protec- 
torate July 10, 1889. 

Bishop, see Nonuti, Gilbert group. Also Tapituea of the same group. 

Bishop and his Clerk, rocky islets south from Macquarie. 55° 15' S., 160° 10' E. 

Bishop Jun(5lion, see Erikub, Marshall islands. 

Bitutu, islet of Tarawa, Gilbert group. 120° 33' N., 172° 55' 30" E. 

Bin, islet 2 m. northwest from Ugi, Solomon group. 1.5 m. long, 240 ft. high. 
10 II vS., 161 38 E. 

Biva, a low, coconut-covered, inhabited islet a mile in length, 10 m. west from Yasawa 
group, Fiji. 17° 08' 30" S., 176° 52' 30" E. 

Blackney, or Blakeney, a low, wooded island in the Louisiade archipelago. 

Blair, Fiji. 18° 30' 10" s., 177° 36' e. 

Blake, see Motuiti of the Marquesas. 

Blunt, Fiji. 18° 52' s., 178° 24' 40" e. 

Blanchard, of D*Entrecasteaux, is the island known as Doini. 10° 42' s., 150° 40' E. 

Blanche, islet 280 ft. high, on the north coast of Rendova, Solomon islands. 

Blaney, see Nonuti of the Gilbert group. 

[129] 



46 INDEX TO THE PACIFC ISLANDS. 

Blelatsch, islet of Yap, Caroline archipelago. 9° 30' 10" N., 138° 04' 42" E. 

Bligh, see Mematangi of the Paumotu archipelago. 

Bligh, Ureparapara of the Banks group. There is a Bligh island in Nootka sound, 
and another o£f the coast of Alaska. The name recalls the commander of the 
Boutity. 

Blosseville, a high, steep, wooded crater with several villages on the crater edge. 
3 36' S., 144° 32' E. 8. 

Blunt, see Mbulia, Fiji. 

Bobo, or Bristow, a low, mangrove-covered island, 11-12 m. in circumference on the 
coast of New Guinea. 9° 08' S., 143° 14' E. 

Bobo eina, or Huxley of the Louisiade archipelago, is 800 ft. high and thickly wooded. 

Bobu, islet on the north coast of Murua or Woodlark island. 8° 58' S., 152° 46' E. 

Boiaboiawagga, islet in the Louisiade archipelago a quarter-mile long E-w., densely 
wooded. 

Bock, islet of Ailinglablab, Marshall group. Another of the same name is an islet of 
Udjae. 

Bogen, islet of Maloelab, Marshall islands. 

Boh, islet in Tanle ba}^ on the northeast coast of New Caledonia. 

Boig^, or Paigo, a low, swampy island 6 m. E-w., 2 m. N-s., near the mouth of the 
Mai Kassa river on the south coast of New Guinea. 9° 20' s., 142° 15' E. 

Boitnagi, of the Kiriwina or Trobriand group. 8° 31' S., 150° 52' E. 

Boirama, a grassy islet 290 ft. high, northeast from Nukata in the Louisiade archi- 
pelago. 

Bolabola, or Borabora of the Society group, is mountainous and pi6luresque, rising in 
Mt. I'ahia to 2165 ft. Large population. North end is in i6°22's., i5i°4o'w. 20. 

Bolang, on the coast of New Guinea. 2° 03' s., 131° 56' E. 

Bonabe, Panopea, Baanopa, or Ocean, of the Gilbert islands, was discovered in 1804 
from the ship Ocean. It is lo-ii m. in circumference. 0° 52' 02" .s., 169° 35' E. 

Bonabona = Torlesse, islets in the Louisiade archipelago. 

Bonham, see Jaluit of the Marshall islands. 

Bonin, Bonin-sima, a chain extending almost N-s. from 27° 45' to 26° 32' N., divided 
into four small groups. Parry, Kater, Peel and Coffin. They are high and vol- 
canic; except a small colony on Peel they are uninhabited. Probably discovered 
bjr Japanese fishermen about 1675, they were unknown to the world till 1823 
when Captain Coffin, an American whaler, discovered and took possession of the 
southern group. In 1824 Jo^i^ Ebbets, another American, discovered the central 
since called Peel. Visited by Liitke 1828, Beechey 1827, Collinson 1853, and by 
Commodore Perry. Claimed by Japan. 

Bonnawan, a grassy islet a mile N-s., and 335 ft. high, in the Loui.siade archipelago. 

Bonvouloir, a group in the Louisiade archipelago seen by D'Entrecasteaux. It ex- 
tends in a slight curve about 20 m. nw-SE. Inhabitants are Papuans. East islet 
is 500 ft., Hastings 10 m. to WNW. is 400 ft. high. Five miles beyond there are 
3-4 i.slets on the same reef. Centre 10° 20' s., 151° 56' E. Bonvouloir was an 
officer on the Recherche. 
■ Booby, a bare, uninhabited rock 35 ft. high in Torres strait. 10° 36'o5"s., 141° 54' 45" E. 

[130] 



INDEX TO THE PACIEIC ISLANDS. 47 

Bordelaise, see Oraluk of the Caroline islands. 

Borne, islet 50 ft. high off Hanaiapa bay on Hivaoa, Marquesas islands. 

Bory, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 7° 14' n., 151° 39' 37" E. 

Boscawen, see Tafahi of the Tongan islands. l8. 

Botany Isles of Cook are between New Caledonia and Isle of Pines. 

Boucher, see Tiger of the Loyalty group. 

Boudeuse, low, uninhabited island, shaped like a horseshoe open to the west. Dis- 
covered by Bougainville August 9, 1768, and named after his ship. 1° 25' S., 
144° 32' E. 

Bougainville is the largest of the Solomon islands; extends no m. NW-SE., and is 
30 m. wide ; very mountainous, with volcanic peaks reaching nearly 10,000 ft. 
Bagana, in the centre, is adlive. Owing to the ferocity of its inhabitants little is 
known of the interior. Cannibals all. The north point is in 5° 24' S., 154° 38' E. ll. 

Bouka, or Buka of the Solomon islands, is much lower than Bougainville, more fer- 
tile and more populous. Natives said to have the finest physique in the group; 
they are adlive and daring cannibals. The north point is in 5° s., 154° 35' E. II. 

Bounty, a group of 24 islets and rocks, inhabited and belonging to New Zealand. 
Discovered by Captain Bligh of the Boutity^ Sept. 19, 1788. 47° 50' S. 

Bourke, islet in Torres strait. 9° 52' S., 143° 22' E. 

Bouro, see San Cristobal, Solomon islands. 

Bow, see Hau of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

Bowditch, see Fakaafo of the Union group. 17. 

Bowerick, islet of Oneatoa, Gilbert islands. 1° 47' 40" .s., 175° 35' 20" E. 7. 

Brackenridge, low, i m. long, off Vanua levu, Fiji. i6°33's., 178° 47' 20" E. Named 
for the botanist of the United States Exploring Expedition under Wilkes. 

Bramble Cay, see Massaramcoer. Sand islet at northeast boundary of Queensland 
colony. 

Brampton, see Parama, New Guinea coast. 

Brander, islet of Rahiroa of the Paumotu archipelago. 

Brattle, islet of Albemarle in the Galapagos. 

Brewer, islet in China strait. 10° 34' 30" S., 150° 43' 45" E. 

Brierly, see Daddahai in the Louisiade archipelago. 

Bristow, see Bobo on the New Guinea coast. 9° 08' S., 143° 14' E. 

Britannia, another name of Mare, Loyalty group. 

Broadmead, one of the St. Andrew group. Admiralty islands. 

Brocke, see Jarvis. 

Brongniart, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 7° 33' 30" N., 151° 47' 02" E. 

Brooker, see Utian of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Brown, same as Bikini of the Marshall group. 

Brown, see Eniwetok of the Marshall islands. 

Brown, see Lae of the Marshall islands. Named for Captain J. W. Brown who dis- 
covered it. 

Brown, islet iti Henry Reid bay on the east side of New Britain. 

Browne is low, wooded, on the same reef with Carpenter and Tracey in Nares harbor. 
Admiralty group. 

[131] 



48 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Brunier, see Tassai, coast of New Guinea. 

Brumer group consists of six small basaltic islands; largest and westernmost 2.5 m. 
by 0.5 m., 665 ft. high, inhabited. 10° 46' s., 150° 22' E. People use canoes with 
outrigger and double mat sails. The other islands are Badila beddabedda bonarua, 
Harikoa, Gobi gobi, Bugomaki and Abana. 

Buchanan, in the Admiralty group. 1° 56' s., 146° 28' E. 

Budd, an extinct volcano, 800 ft. high, in the Ringgold group, Fiji. 17° 26' 30" S., 
180° 23' E. 

Buen viage (Isla de), discovered by Quir6s July 8, 1606. Probably one of the Gilbert 
islands. Quir6s says : "Este dia se vi6 una isla de hasta seis leguas de boj ; 
y porque hasta aqui no se habia encontrado tierra alguna ni bajo, ni otra cosa que 
impidien nuestro camino, se le puso por nombre Buen Viage: s\\ altura son tres 
grados y medio parte del Norte. Acordose de no ir a ella por no ser ya a pro- 
p6sito }• por el riesgo de ser baja." Viages de Quiros, /., jji?. This day was seen 
an island about six leagues in circuit ; and because thus far we had encountered 
neither land nor shoal, nor other thing which might impede our way, we bestowed 
the name Good Voyage. Its latitude is three and a half degrees North. It was 
determined not to land as it was not convenient and there was risk of reefs. 

Buena "Vista, or Yatilau of the Solomon islands, is 1050 ft. high. 8° 53' 30" S., 

159 59' 30" K. II. 

Bugomaki, one of the Brumer group, 220 ft. high. 

Bugotu, the native name (of a part) of Ysabel, Solomon islands. 

Buhi, islet on northwest extreme of the Tongan group, on the same reef with 
Ofolanka. 

Bukalau, low islet of Fiji. East point, 16° 12' 20" s., 179° 45' 50" e. 

Bulia, see Mbulia in the Kandavu group, Fiji. 

Bull, islet of St. Andrew group. Admiralty islands. 

Bultig, or Hump islet, in Geelvink bay. New Guinea; 10-12 m. X 4 m. 

Bunatik, islet on the .southeast coast of Ponape, Caroline islands. 

Buninga, southwesternmost island of the Shepherd group, New Hebrides. Three- 
quarters of a mile ne-SW. 723 ft. high. A hundred inhabitants, all Christian. 

Bunker, another name of Jarvis. 

Bunkey, see Namonuito of the Caroline islands. 4. 

Buraku, or Murray, an uninhabited volcanic peak, 1000 ft. high, northwest from 
Guadalcanar, Solomon islands. 8° 59' s., 158° 35' E. 

Buriwadi, islet of the Kiriwina or Trobriand group. 8° 32' S., 150° 52' E. 

Burke, islet on the coast of New Guinea. 10° 10' .s., 142° 30' E. 

Burnett, see Noina of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Burrar, or Bet, of the Three Sisters (Bet, Sue, Poll) .in Torres strait. 10° 10' S., 
142' 50' E. 

Burrh, islet at the entrance of Port Rhin on Lukunor, Marshall islands. 6° 14' N., 
171 46' E. 

Burrows (1842), see Mare, Loyalty group. 

Burwan, inhabited islet in Malo pass, off Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides. 

Bushy, islet off Australian coast. 10° s., 142° 58' E. 

[132] 





145° 


E. 

8 

comerson ^-^ 

^•'' Anacoretas 
.•-1 


' 


L'ECHIQUIER 

• • . Boudeuse . 
-- o ..-■'■•. 

DuRouR ;'V «> 


-•-v Hermit 

....--!.■•' 

ADMIRALTY 


- 


GROUP 






Wksterm,;>' «% 

9 


■--^^ 




PURDY 




^^^-V » Kairu t 

^-^ ^_ \^ RSIi^y '^ Gamot 

^ J ^ 
NEW GUINEA ^-^__-,,.X^ I.e;son 


4°S. 


) Aris 

/ «3 


4°S.| 




V^-o y^-^ Vulcan 1 
^^1 Leooarant 1 




Turn agniu ^.'Dauan *V-5' 



Sabai 



10° 8. 



Warrior . »• 



Damley^s 



f .^'^ Murr»y 



io°s. 



Mulgrave^^*^''^ ^'Long ^ 



Thursday ^ _.T 




/•3 



^ 



<1 

«3 



c 



145"^ 



E. 



CORAL SEA 



















mw 




















k 
















s 

.■J 

5 




















■ 


















i. 


















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. 



























1 


I 










r' 


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> 














.^.j Ui?i 






' 


.,,..11.^. . 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



49 



.^ 






BUTARITARI 






„fi^^' 






Btltaritari or Touching in the Gilbert group, is an atoll of triangular form, about 
14 m. on a side. As shown in the figure, most of the land is on the south side 
of the lagoon and there are the principal villages. Namaka, Nakudi, Pikhat, 
Ourik and Napuni are the main islets. The entrances to the lagoon are on the 
west side. The northwest point is in 3° 14' n., 172° 39' 50" E. In 1886 the popu- 
lation was 3000, all protestants. The American Board has a station here. The 
south side is a continuous grove of coconut and pandanus, and a large amount of 
copra is exported annually. 7. 

Butchart, or Dekatua, is an islet of the 
Engineer group, Louisiade archipel- 
ago, 350 ft. high, covered with coconut 
trees. 

Button is a low islet in Shallow bay of 
Admiralty island. 

Button, a grassy islet in China strait. 
10° 34' S., 150° 44' E. 

Button, see Utirik, of the Marshall islands. 

Byam, see NGanati, Paumotu archipelago. 

Byam Martin, an old name of Vairaatea, 
Paumotu archipelago. 

Byer, see Patrocinio of the Hawaiian group. 

Byron, island in Engineer group of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Byron, on the southeast coast of New Guinea; forms a triangle with Grant and 
Shortland. 

Byron, see Nukunau, Gilbert islands. 7. 







FIG. 3. 



Cabeva, islet of Fiji. 16° n' 20" s., 179° 34' 45" e. 

Cabras, see Apapa on the west coast of Guam, Marianas. 

Cadmus, a name of Morane of the Paumotu archipelago. Z2. 

CairncrosS, a group on the Australian coast. 11° 15' S., 143° E. 

Calalin, islet of Majuro, Marshall islands. 7° 09' n., 171° 13' E. 

Calvados Chain, Louisiade archipelago ; a series of high islands extending 45 m. 
from Panasia. The villages are generally on the northern sides of the densely 
wooded islands. The canoes are large and fitted with oval mat sails. The in- 
habited islands are: Pana varavara, Utian, Panaudiudi, Toloi awa, Gulewa, Ulu- 
lina, Moturina, Panarora, Paba baga, Pana nuniara, Panantinian and Panawina. 

Calvert, see Maloelab of the Marshall group. 

Campbell, an uninhabited group 30 m. in circumference; discovered in 1810 by Cap- 
tain Hazelburgh and named for the owner of the brig in which he sailed. Dent 
lies to the northwest, Jacquemart to the south. The highest hill is 1500 ft. high. 
52° 33' 44" S., 169° 09' 09" E. 

Campbell, islet in Torres strait. 9° 33° 08" s., 143° 29' E. 

Candelaria .Shoals, of Mendana, now called Roncador. 11. 

Cannae, a rock 200-250 ft. high, 9 m. west from Laughlan. Discovered by Dumont 
D'Urville. 9° 18' s., 153° 27' E. 



Memoirs B. P, B. Museum, Vol. I., No. 2.-4. 



[132] 



50 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



Canton, Mary Balcout or Swallow, in the Phoenix group, is a low, sandy island 1 1 m. 

long, 50-500 ft. wide and 10- 1 8 ft. high. 2° 44' 35" S., 171° 42' w. 17. 
Cap, islet between Gibba and Turtlebacked, off New Guinea. 9° 49' s., 142° 42' K. 
Cap, see Tabutha, Fiji. 14. 

Capeniur, islet of Ailuk, Marshall islands. 10° 17' 25" N., 169° 59' 20" E. 8. 
Carapellas is south of Kayangle, Pelew islands, with Arayonzet and Korack on a 

reef 4.5 m. x-s., 5 m. E-w. 
Carlshoff, see Aratika, Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

CAROLINE ISLANDS. 



NAitTK Name. 


Chabt Name. 


0l80OT»IB. 


Latitddk 

NOBTH. 


lonoitdde 
East. 


AUTHOBITY. 


Population. 


Waatera Oi»«p: 


















NOoU. 


Uatelotas (Spenser). 
Lauioliork, I'In. 


Vlllalobos. 1543. 


8" 


17' 0" 


isr 


SS' 0" 


Cheyne. 


100 


T«p. 


Oaap. 
Hackende. 


Hunter. 1791. 


9 


87 


138 


08 


D'UrvUle. 


2000 


Uhithl. 


Hunter. 1791. 


10 


0« 


139 


60 


Lutke. 


200 


P«ja. 


Tromelln. Fals. 


Tromelln, 1828(7). 


9 


4« 


138 


16 


*' 


300 


Sorol. 


PbUip. 


Hunter, 1791. 


8 


08 


140 


OS 


" 


20 


C«ntrml Uroup: 


















Knraplff. 


Kama. 


Hunter, 1791. 


6 


40 


143 


10 


Liitke. 


50 


W<il«i. 


nie. Thirteen Ids. 


Wilson. 1793. 


7 


23 .30 


143 


67 


'• 


600 


If&llk. 


Wilson. 


Wilson, 1793. 


7 


14 


144 


31 




200 


Faraalfp. 


Gardner. 


Liitke, 1828. 


8 


36 


144 


36 


*' 


Uninhabited. 


Ollmariii. 




Lutke, 1828. 


7 


48 


146 


66 


" 


200 


Urinien. 


HlKb. 


Capt. Orimes, 1841. 


9 


15 


145 


33 






KIsto. 


HaweU. 


Wilson. 1793. 


7 


30 


146 


19 




300 


Lamotrpk. 


Swede. 


Wilson, 1793. 


7 


27 


146 


.30 


" 


200 


Falo. WMt. 


West. 


Lutke, 1828. 


8 


08 


146 


60 


" 


Uninhabited. 


Hatawsl. 


Toeker. 


Wilson, 1793. 


1 


22 


147 


06 


Duperrey.' 


200 


Pttda. 


Uvdia. 


IburKoita. 1801. 


8 


38 


147 


13 




Uninhabited. 


IMkvlot. 


Coqnille, nigall. 


Duperrey, 1824. 


8 


09 


147 


42 




Uninhabited. 


8ak. 


IbarKoUa. 


IbarKoita, 1799. 


6 


28 


149 


30 


Fre.yclnet. 


100 


Pol oat. 


Kndfrhy. Katu. 


IbarKoita, 1801. 


7 


19 25 


149 


16 




100 


Tamatain. 


LoH .Mart ires. 


Ibargoita, 1801. 


7 


27 


149 


28 


Duperre.v. 


200 


Namonnlto. 


Anuninia, Hunker. 


















Uvlngston. 


Ibargoita, 1801. 


9 


00 


149 


47 


Lutke. 


60 


Falo. Fjwt. 


Lutke. 


Lutke, 1828. 


8 


33 20 


161 


26 


" 


60 


Namollpiafane. 


Fananon. 


Hall, 1824. 


8 


25 30 


161 


49 15 




50 


Morileo. 


Hall. 


Hall, 1824. 


8 


41 


162 


25 


" 


100 


Rak. 


Hogrolen, Trnk. 


Duperrey, 1825. 


7 


43 


161 


46 


D'UrvllIe. 


8000 


IXNiap. 


Dnperrey. 
DOrrlUe. 


Lutke, 1824. 


6 


53 


162 


42 20 


Duperrey. 


200 


N'ama. 


Duperrey, 1825. 


6 


59 


162 


33 


Flndlay. 




Namolak. 




Lutke, 1828. 


6 


45 15 


163 


16 .30 


Liitke. 


.■lOO 


Etal. ) 




( Mortloek, 1793. 


6 


35 


168 


43 


Che.vne. 


200 


l.QkoDor. } 


Mortlock Islands. 


! Mortloek, 1793. 


6 


29 IS 


168 


68 


Liitke. 


200 


Satoan. ) 




( Mortloek, 1793. 


5 


17 


158 


46 




600 


Nakaor. 


Monteverde, Dnnkin. 


Monteverde, 1806. 


3 


62 


164 


66 


Flndlay. 


600 


Onilak. 


Bordelalse, San Af^ostlno 


Tompson, 1773. 


7 


88 


165 


09 


" 


Uninhabited. 


Kmatem Group: 


















NOatik. 


Los Vnlientes, Uaven. 


Tonipson, 1773. 


6 


47 80 


157 


32 


Flndlay. 


30 


Pakln. 


Pefruenema. 


Lutke, 1828. 


7 


02 


167 


47 30 


Cheyne. 


50 


Andvnia. 


Ant. 


Frascr, 1832. 


6 


45 


158 


00 


" 


Uninhabited. 


Ponape. 


Ascension, PayntiMit. 


Lutke, 1828. 


6 


48 


158 


07 


Lutke. 


6000 


MokU. 


Duperrey, Welllnirton. 


Duperrey, 1824. 


6 


39 


159 


63 


Duperrey. 


80 


llngalap. 


Uiuffrave, McAsklll. 


Masgrare, 1793, 


6 


12 


160 


58 


McAsklll. 


■SOD 


KMato. 


Uolan, Strong. 


Croier, 1804. 


6 


19 


163 


06 


LUtke. 


700 



Caroline Islands extend from the Pelew group to Ualan, and from 2° to 12° N., and 
with the Marshall and Gilbert groups are comprised in that portion of the Pacific 
usually called Micronesia. The name comes from that given by the Spanish 
Admiral Don Francisco Lezcano to a large island in the group not now identified. 
Duperrey and Liitke made the group known geographically, and to Dr. Luther 
Halsey Gulick, an American missionary, we are indebted for much information on 
both islands and inhabitants. The earliest account is by a Jesuit missionary, 
Juan Antonio Cantova, who visited portions of the group in 172 1 and was killed 
at Mogmog ten years later. There are perhaps 877 square miles distributed over 
nearly fifty groups, most of them atolls. The table will show the distribution 

[133] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 51 

more clearly, but the population there given is only approximate. In 1885 the 
German gunboat litis took Yap, which Spain at once claimed and her claim was 
sustained by the Pope, adling as arbitrator. After the war with the United States, 
and the loss of Guam and the Philippines, Spain sold the entire group to Germany 
for $4,000,000. 

Caroline, or Thornton, a group of low coral islands on one reef 7 m. long, i m. wide. 
Taken by England July 9, 1868. 10° o' 01" s., 150° 14' 30" w. 

Carpenter, islet on the same reef with Browne and Tracey in Nares harbor, of 
Admiralty island. 

Carr, a high island in the Hudson group, Fiji. North point in i7°35's., i77°oi'3o"e. 

Carry, crescent-shaped, uninhabited island in Fortescue strait, southeast coast of New 
Guinea, i m. ne-SW., 300 ft. high. 10° 34' 45" s., 150° 54' 45" E. 

Carteret, a group of six islets on a circular reef 10 m. diameter, all inhabited and 
thickly wooded. Discovered by Captain Carteret in 1767. 4° 45' s., 155° 20' E. 

Carysfort, see Tureia, Paumotu archipelago. 

Case, a high island of the Hudson group, Fiji. 17° 37' 30" s., 177° 03' 30" E. 

Casey, islet i m. north from Montravel, New Caledonia. 

Castori, a high, rocky group on the southeast point of New Guinea. 10° 47' s., 
150' 38' E. 9. 

Catherine, islet off Cape Ducie on the northeast coast of New Guinea. 

Catherine, see Ujae, Marshall group. 

CattO, islet 2 m. off southwest end of Eua, Tongan group. Discovered by Tasman in 
1643. 21° 29' S., 174° 50' 30" w. 

Cerisy, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 7° 11' 05" N., 151° 51' 36" E. 

Cette, another name for Eunauro on coast of New Guinea. 

Chabral, see Lifu of the Loyalty group. 

Chain, a low, wooded islet northeast of East cape, New Guinea. 

Chain, see Anaa, Paumotu archipelago. 

Chamisso, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 7° 16' 48" N., 151° 47' 42" E. 

Champignon, islet in St. Vincent bay on southwest coast of New Caledonia. 

Chanal, of Marchand, is Hatutu of the Marquesas group. 

Chanter, islet off the east coast of Raoul, Kermadec group. 29° i5'3o"s., i77°54'o2"w. 

Chard, islet 4.7 m. long, 100 ft. high, off the coast of New Britain. 5°27's., i5o°58'e. 

Charles, of the Galapagos is 24 m. in circumference; once settled, now deserted. 
1780 ft. high. 

Charles Hardy, see Nissan of the Bismarck archipelago. 

Charlotte, another name for Apaiang, Gilbert islands. 

Chas, see Wari, New Guinea. 

Chase, see Tamana, Gilbert islands. 

Chassant = Salat, of the Caroline islands. 

Chatham, a group belonging to New Zealand and situated in 43° 48' 59" s., 176° 39' 50" w. 
It was discovered by Captain Broughton of the armed tender Cliatkavi attached to 
Vancouver's expedition in 1791. At the time of the discovery there were some 
1200 natives of a race resembling the Maori and called Moriori. They were a 
cheerful and healthy people dressed in seal skins, but when, in 1840, Dr. Dieffenbach 

[134] 



58 INDEX TO THE PACIEIC ISLANDS. 

visited the group, only 90 survived. In 1830 there had been an importation of 800 
Maoris, and the present population is a very motley one. The largest island, 
Chatham or Warekauri, extends on the north coast 31 ni., on the south about half 
that distance. Pitt or Rangihaute is 1 1 m. from Chatham and 8 m. long. A mile 
off the southeast end of Pitt is Rangatira or Southeast, and still farther to the 
southeast is Tarakoikoia or the Pyramid, a bare rock 566 ft. high. In 1868 this 
group was surveyed by the New Zealand Surveyor General, S. Percj' Smith. 
Both the geological formation and the flora connect the Chatham islands with 
New Zealand. 

Chatham, of the Galapagos, 19 m. NE-SW. by 8 m., 1650 ft. high. Only island of the 
group where water is always found. 

Chaumont, see Hui-w^adiamo of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Cherr\-, see Anuda. 12. 

Chicayana, a spelling of Sikaiana or Stewart. 

Chikuru, a name of the islet Pingelap, Caroline islands, usually called Tugulu on the 
charts. 

Chissy, islet on the Maclay coast of New Guinea. 6° 02' S., 147° 32' E. 

Choiseul, of the Solomon islands, was discovered in April, 1568, by Pedro de Ortega 
Valencia and Hernan Gallego, Mendana's pilot. The present name commemo- 
rates the distinguished minister of Louis XV. In extent, 83X20 m., and 2000 ft. 
high; mountainous and wooded. The north point is in 6° 37' S., 156° 27' E. II. 

Christina (Cristina), the old name of Tahuata, of the Marquesas islands. 

Christmas, a low, lagoon island extending 44 m. E-w. Discovered by Cook December 
24, 1777. The water of the lagoon is said to be remarkably salt. Annexed by 
Great Britain March 17, 1888. 1° 59' N., 157° 32' w. 

Church, islet on south side of Huapu, Marquesas islands. 

Cicia, see Thithia, Fiji. 

Cicobia, see Thikombia, Fiji. 

Clarence (Duke of), .see Nukunono, of the Union group. 17. 

Clark, a low island of the Fiji group. 16° 22' 24" S., 179° 11' 32" E. 

Clarke, island on the north side of Banks strait. 

Clerk, see Onoatoa of the Gilbert islands. 

Clerke, see Tekokoto of the Paumotu archipelago. 

Clermont de Tonnerre, see Reao, Paumotu archipelago. Named for the French Min- 
ister of Marine. 

Cliff, islet of the Australian coast. 14° 13' s., 143° 48' E. 

Cliff, two islets off the coast of New Guinea. 9° 26' s., 146° 56' E. 

Cliffy ^ Ikaika Keino of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Chokach, an islet within the reef of Ponape, Caroline islands, on the north side. 

Clipperton, a lagoon i.sland, uninhabited; discovered by Captain Clipperton in 1705. 
There is a deep hole in the lagoon, and trachytic rocks on the outer ring. 
Claimed by France. 10° 17' N., 109° 13' w. 

Clock, islet on the Au.stralian coast. 14° 04' s., 144° 17' E. 

Cloquet, a name of Gicquel which was formerly described as an island on the north 
coast of New Britain ; now known to be a peninsula. 10. 

[135] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 53 

Close, islet in the Bismarck archipelago. 4° 57' s., 151° 18' E. 

Clute, see Hiti, Paiimotu archipelago. 

Coast, island off New Gninea, 300 ft. high, well-wooded, and with a fringing reef. 

10 35 25 s., 150 40 20 E. 
Cockatoo, islet in Thousand Ships ba}^, Solomon islands. 8° 33' s., 159° 37' E. 
Cockbum, group off coast of Australia. 11° 51' s., 143° 18' E. 
Cockburn, see Ahunui, Paumotu archipelago. 33. 
Coconut, in the Bismarck archipelago, with Leigh and the coast of New Ireland forms 

Carteret harbor. Inhabitants cannibals. 4° 42' S., 152° 42' E. 
Coconut, islet on the New Guinea coast. 10° 04' s., 143° 03' E. 
Cocos, island known to Wafer, Dampier and other early navigators, 4.5 m. ne-SW., 

ver}' high. 5° 32' 57" n., 88° 02' 10" w. Northeast from the Galapagos. 
Cocos, a name given in 1790 by Captain Wilkinson to the group discovered by Lemaire 

and Schouten, and by them called Marqueen. 
Codfish, islet off the west coast of Stewart, New Zealand, 3 m. nw-SE., 2 m. wide. 
Cofl&n, group of the Bonin islands. 26° 38' N., 142° 15' E. 
Collis a name of Kamaka, an islet of Mangareva. 

Columb, a coral islet, wooded and inhabited, in Astrolabe bay. New Guinea. 
Colvocores.sis, see Draviuni, Fiji. 
Commerson, or Comerson, two low islands discovered by Bougainville in 1768. 

0° 40' S., 145° 17' E. 
Conflict, group of more than 22 islets in the Louisiade archipelago. io°46's., 151° 46'E. 

Named for H. B. M. S. Conflict in 1880. 
Connor, see Katai in the New Guinea region. 
Constantin, see Greenwich of the Caroline group. 
Contrariete, the old Spanish name of Ulava, Solomon islands. 
Contrariete islet = Porondu, New Caledonia. 
Conversion de San Pablo (La), supposed to be Britomart, of Duperrey. Discovered by 

Quiros February 10, 1606. See Qiiirds Viajes^ /., 256; //., 7, 92. 
Cook, islet at entrance to Christmas island lagoon. 1° 57' 16" N., 157° 27' 45" w. 
Cook, see Tarawa, Gilbert islands. 

Cook, islet on the northeast coast of Fate, New Hebrides. 
Cook Islands, a portion of the Hervey group, often so-called. 
Coquille, see Pikelot of the Caroline islands. 
Cornwallis, another name for Johnston. 
Coronados, see Anuanurunga, Paumotu archipelago. 
Cosissipe, island in the Hermit group. It abounds in pigeons. 
Count Heiden ^=- Likieb, Marshall group. 
Coutance, a well-wooded islet of New Guinea, half a mile long and a quarter broad. 

10' 13' s., 148° 07' E. 
Covell, a name for Ebon, Marshall islands. 

Crab, islet on the northwest coast of York peninsula, Australia. 10° 58' s., 142° 56' E. 
Craven, a high island in the Hudson group, Fiji. 17° 39' s., 177° 01' 30" E. 
Credner, or Pigeon group, lies between Duke of York and New Britain ; low and thickly 

wooded islands, each with a separate reef with deep water between. 4° 15's., 152° 19' E. 

[136] 



54 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Crescent, see Tinioe, Pauniotu archipelago. Z2. 

Cretin, see Tami, east coast of New Guinea. 6° 45' S., 147° 49' E. Named for Lieu- 
tenant Cretin of the Recherche. 

Croker, see Heraiki, Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

Crouy islet is in Dumbea passage, entrance to Noumea roadstead, New Caledonia. 

Crown is 7 ni. northwest from Long on the coast of New Guinea. It was discovered 
by Dampier; is 4-5 m. in circumference, and 2000 ft. high. 5°o8's., 146° 56' E. 

Culpepper is the most northerly of the Galapagos, very barren, 550 ft. high. 

1° 39' 30" N-. 92° 03' w. 

Cumberland, see Manuhangi, Paumotu archipelago. 

Cumberland, an extensive group off the east coast of Queensland, Australia, reach- 
ing to 21° S. 

Cumming, low islet of Fiji. 16° 21' 40" s., 179° 08' 47" E. 

Cuop, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 

Cure, a name of Ocean in the Hawaiian group. 

Current, see Pulo Anna, Caroline islands. 

Curtis, two rocks in the Kermadec group, 500 ft. high. Said to emit hot water and 
steam. 30° 36' s., 179° 14' w. 

Cyclades ( Les) of Bougainville = New Hebrides. 

Cjrprian Bridge, the easternmost island on the west side of Bougainville strait, Solo- 
mon group, 377 ft. high, dome-shaped. 

Daddahai, <»r Brierly, in the Louisiade archipelago; about a mile in circuit, 380 ft. 

high, wooded and inhabited. 11° 18' s., 153° 08' E. 
Dageraad= Aurora or Makatea of the Paumotus. Discovered by Roggewein in 17 12. 
Daiwari, or Gibbons, islet of Nuakata, Louisiade archipelago; 290 ft. high, clothed 

with grass, uninhabited. 
Dalrymple, in Torres strait. 9° 37' S., 143° 18' E. 
Dambach, a small cluster on the east coast of Bougainville, Solomon islands. 5" 41's., 

155° 07' E. 
Dampier, or Karkar, is 6-7 m. northeast of Cape Croisilles on the coast of New 

Guinea; volcanic, and about 5000 ft. high, 36-40 m. in circumference. 4° 42' ,S., 

145' 58' E. 10. 
Danger, see Pukapuka, Paumotu archipelago. 2,2. 
Danger group consists of three islands, Pukapuka, Motukoe and Motukavata on a 

reef 8 m. E-w. and 4 m. n-s. Discovered by Byron June 21, 1765. Lagoon closed, 

landing dangerous. 10° 53' s., 165° 45' 30" w. 
Danger, islands of New Guinea. 0° 15' s., 135° 05' E. 
Dangerous Archipelago, a name of the Paumotu group. 
Daniel, .see Arno of the Marshall group. 
Dao Balayet, a sand islet marking Estrees passage on the northwest coast of New 

Caledonia. 
Daos islets form the south part of Belep group. New Caledonia. 13. 
Daomboni, islet on the north coast of New Caledonia. 
Damley, a name of Erub on the New Guinea coast. 

U373 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 55 

Daru, or Yam, at the mouth of the Oriomo (Tait) river, north of Bobo and between 
Bristow and the mainland. Fertile, fine timber, not many natives. 9° 05' S., 
143° 12' E. 

Dauan, islet off the west side of Saibai on the South coast of New Guinea. 9° 25' S., 
142° 32' E. 

Dauar, or Dowar, islet within the same reef with Mer and Waier of the Murray isl- 
ands; Papuan inhabitants. 9° 54' s., 144° 02' E. 

Daugae, islet on the reef at the north extreme of New Caledonia. 

DaugO, the highest of the Fishermen islands off Port Moresby on the south coast of 
of New Guinea. Natives numerous, dark copper color; they have large canoes 
with four mat sails. 9° 32' S., 147° 04' E. 

Dauila, or Goodenough, of the D'Entrecasteaux group, is 21 m. NW-SE. A mountain 
range, of which the highest peak reaches 8500 ft., extends throughout. Well 
peopled and cultivated to some extent. 9° 31' s., 150° 20' E. 

Daussy, islet in Arembo bay on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 

Davis, a high island in the Yasawa group, Fiji. 17° 27' 40" s., 177° 00' 30" E. 

Davis, see Rapanui or Easter. 

Dawhaida, see Marokau of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

Dawson, largest of the Laseinie group in the Louisiade archipelago, 0.7 m. NW-SE., 
450 ft. high, uninhabited. 

Dawson, a very small reefed islet in the D'Entrecasteaux group. io°2i's., i5i°25'e. 

Dawson, see Bikar, Marshall islands. 6. 

Day, one of the Tiri islets off Vanua levu, Fiji. 16° 24' 14" S., 179° 09' 20" E. Low 
coral. 

Dayman, islet in Torres strait. 10° 45' s., 142° 21' E. 

Dayrell, islet off the east coast of Raoul, Kermadec islands. 

Deal, island of Kent group in Bass strait. 39° 30' s., 147° 18' E. 

Deans is one of the names of Rahiroa, also called Vliegen and Nairsa, Paumotu archi- 
pelago. 

Death, islet in St. Vincent bay on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 

Deblois, islet of New Guinea. 3° 22' S., 144° 09' E. 

Deboyne, group in the Louisiade archipelago is 6 m. from St. Aignan, a high 
(1500ft.), wooded cluster, of which Panniet is the largest; Rara at the southeast 
extreme. Nivan, Panapompon, Nibub, Mabui, Redlick and Torlesse complete 
the list. 

Debo3:ne, see Panniet of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Debriin, islet near Noumea on the south side of New Caledonia. 

Ducena = Maitea in the Espinosa chart. Discovered by Quiros February 12, 1606. 

Deception ^ Moso, New Hebrides. 

Deed.es, two i.slets 0.7 m. apart in the Engineer group. 10° 32' S., 151° 16' E. 

Deguala, one of the Pleiades group northwest of Uea, Loyalty group. 

De Haven, a high island of the Ringgold group, Fiji. 16° 30' 20" S., 180° 21' 30" E. 

Deirina, islet of New Guinea, 0.7X0.5 m., 280 ft. high, inhabited. 

Dekatua, or Butchart, islet of the Engineer group, 350 ft. high, covered with coco- 
nut palms, 

[138] 



56 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Delami =: Roporopo in Orangerie bay, southeast coast of New Guinea. 

Deliverance islet, a point in tlie north boundary of Queensland colony. 9° 34' s., 
141 45' H. 

Denham, islet at west end of Kandavu, Fiji. 

Deni is the native name of Nitendi or Santa Cruz in the New Hebrides, according to 
Codrington. 

Dent, island in Northwest bay, Campbell island, New Zealand. 

D'Entrecasteaux group was seen from a distance bj- the French navigator from whom 
it is named. Captain Moresby examined the islands in 1874. The group con- 
sists of Duau (Normanby), Moratau (Fergusson), Dauila (Goodenough), Rapu- 
tata Sanaroa (Welle), Dobu (Goulvain), all of them high and fine islands, well 
peopled. 9. 

D'Entrecasteaux, inhabited islet half a mile long in the Admiralty group. i°53's., 
146° 30' E. 

De Peyster, see Nukufetau of the Ellice group. 16. 

D'Haussez, see Mercurj-, New Zealand. 

Des Lacs, one of the French group, 1550 ft. high, inhabited. 4°38's., 149° 33' E. lO. 

Des Lanciers, a name given by Bougainville to Akiaki or Thrum Cap of the Paumotu 
islands. 

Devarenne, islet in St. Vincent baj' on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 

Deverd, islet off Chasseloup bay on the northwest coast of New Caledonia. 

Didig^li, wooded islet, 150 ft. high, with fringing reef on the southeast coast of New 
Guinea. 

Didot, islet in Mueo passage near Noumea, New Caledonia. 

Didynius, see Ito, islet on the New Guinea coast. 

Dieterici, a small group on the northeast coast of Bougainville, Solomon islands. 
6° 08' S., 155° 23' E. 

Digaragara, islet at west opening of the outer ring of Egum atoll in the Kiriwina 
group. 9' 22' 30" S., 151° 53' E. 9. 

Dingen, small island in Dampier strait. 

Dinner, see Samarai on the coast of New Guinea. 

Dire(5lion = Manevai, Santa Cruz islands. 

Dirc(5lion, see Namena, Fiji. 

Disappointment islands (of Byron), in the Paumotu archipelago, were discovered by 
Byron June 17, 1765. 14° 09' s., 141° 14' w. Consist of atoll Napuka or Why- 
toohee and Tepoto or Otooho. 21. 

Disappointment, off the west coast of the Auckland i.slands. New Zealand. 

Disappointment, one of the Taumaco group. 

Disappointment, is the largest of the Duff group, 1200 ft. high. Natives are Poly- 
nesian, number about 350, thin and ugly, armed with bows and poisoned arrows. 

Di.sappointment, see Ro.sario of the Bonin i.slands. 

Dobu, or Goulvain, is at the entrance to Dawson strait in the D'Entrecasteaux group, 
2 m. N'-s., 2.2 m. E-w.; inhabited by Papuans. 9° 46' s., 150° 52' E. 9. 

Dodogessa, islet off Dauila in the D'Entrecasteaux group. 

Dog, .see Nonuti of the Gilbert group. 

[139] 



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INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 57 

Dog, see Pukapiika of the Paumotu archipelago. 

Dogigi and Rikarika compose the Lebrun group of the Louisiade archipelago. The 

former is 165 ft. high. 
Doi, or Konaoe is one of the Ono i lau group, Fiji. 
Doini, the Blanchard of D'Entrecasteaux on the southeast coast of New Guinea, is 

2 m. ENE-wsw., half a mile wide, 510 ft. high, and well cultivated. 10° 42' S., 

150° 40' E. 
Dominica, the Spanish name of Hivaoa, Marquesas islands. 23. 
Dongaloa, a group of low islets off Viti levu, Fiji. 17° 24' S., 177° 39' 30" E. 
Dot, islet in Huon gulf on the east coast of New Guinea. 7° 05' s., 147° 08' E. 
Double, on the Australian coast. 16° 44' s., 145° 44' E. 
Double, islet in Torres strait. 10° 27' S., 142'' 25' E. 
Double, see Nemu, New Caledonia. 
Doubtful, an islet of Beaupre, Loyalt}^ group. 
Doubtful, see Tekokoto, of the Paumotu archipelago. 31. 
Dougherty, seen b}' Captain Dougherty in 184 1 from \v'\\2\&r James Stewart. Seen 

again in 1859. 59° 21' S., 119° 07' w. 
Dove, islet in Torres strait. 10° 04' s., 142° 57' E. 

Dover, two islets on the south coast of Admiralty. 2° 16' S., 147° 13' E. 
Dowar, see Dauar in Torres strait. 
Dowsett Reef is 13 m. south from Malo reef in the Hawaiian group. It extends 

8 m. X 4 ra. 25° 13' N., 170° 38' w. On July 4, 1872, the whaling brig Kanieha- 

melia^ Captain Dowsett, struck on this reef which is awash in some parts. 
Dowsett, see Bikini of the Marshall group. 

Drala, see Ndrala, Fiji ; islet 80 ft. high, off the east coast of Viti levu. 
Dramai, islet on the New Guinea coast. 4° 06' s., 134° 10' E. 
Draviuni, see Ndraviuni, Fiji. 
Druadrua, see Ndruandrua, Fiji. 
Druau, see Ndruandrua, Fiji. 

Drummond, a name of Tapituea of the Gilbert islands. 
Du ami and Du ana, islets in Kutu ba\'. Isle of Pines. 
Duau, or Normamby, of the D'Entrecasteaux group, is 39 m. long, mountainous,' 

rising to an height of 3374 ft., and inhabited. The southeast cape is in 10° 10' s., 

151° 14' E. 
Dublon, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 7° 22' 15" n., 151° 55' 22" E. 
Dubouzet, or Nu islet, bears a lighthouse at the entrance to Noumea, New Caledonia. 
Dubuaru, islet on the New Guinea coast. 9° 08' s., 142° 58' E. 
Duchateau, three low, wooded islets, Pana bobai ana, Pana rurawara; and Kukulub, 

of the Louisiade archipelago. 11° 16' s., 152° 22' E. 
Duchess, see Uruma of the D'Entrecasteaux group. 9. 

Ducie was discovered b}^ Captain Edwards in H. M. S. Pandora in 1791. A low, un- 
inhabited lagoon i.sland 1.7 m. XE-Sw., and i m. wide .in 24° 40' s., 124° 48' w. 
Ducos, islet in St. Vincent bay on the southwest coast of New Caledonia. 
Dudemaine, islet on the north coast of New Guinea, 100-200 ft. high. 3° 08' S., 

142° 20' E. 

[140] 



58 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Dufaure, on the north side of New Britain, is 7 m. long. 5° 06' s., 150° 14' E. 

Dnfaure, see Mugula on the southeast coast of New Guinea. 9. 

DufiF, group in the Santa Cruz islands, was discovered by Quiros and Torres in 1606, 
and again by Captain Wilson, in the Duff^ September 25, 1797. Consists of ten 
small islands extending SE-NW. 17 m. Inhabitants largely Polynesian. British 
prote<5lorate declared Odlober i, 1898. 9° 48' s., 167° 10' E.© 12. 

Dugong, islet on the New Guinea coast. 10° 31' s., 143° 03' E. 

Dugumenu, a low, coral island 0.5 m. in diameter, of the Trobriand group. 

Dtlipoi, islet of Mahabarina, of the Killerton group, off the north shore of Milne bay, 
Xew Guinea. 

Duke of Clarence, see Nukunono of the Union group. 17. 

Duke of Gloucester, a group of three atolls named by Carteret in 1767. Nuku- 
tapipi or Margaret, Anuanurunga, Coronados or Four Crowns, and Anuanuraro 
or .Archangel, in the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

Duke of York, a group of 13 islets, of which this is the largest, Bismarck archi- 
pelago, between New Britain and New Ireland. It is 5 m. E-w., 3.5 m. n-s. 
Makada and Uluare are the only others of any size, but all except Ulu are in- 
habited by cannibals. 4° 09' .s., 152° 28' E. lO. 

Duke of York, see Atafu or Oatafu of the Union group. 17. 

Duke of York, see Moorea, Society islands. Name given by Wallis July 27, 1767. 20. 

Dutnoulin, group of four islets and two detached rocks, Baiiri, Ana karukarua. 
Ana badi badila, Uarama kiukiu. The first is 365 ft. high and inhabited. io°55's., 

Dumplings, a group of three islets from 180-250 ft. high on the northeast coast of 

New Guinea. 
Duncan, a group of islets in Torres strait. 10° 16' s., 142° 06' E. 
Duncan, of the Galapagos. 

Dundas, on the northeast coast of Auckland islands. New Zealand. 
Dundas, see Apamama, Gilbert islands. 7. 

DungeneSS, islet on the south coast of New Guinea near Tut. 9° 51' s., 142° 55' E. 
Dunk, i.slet of the Australian coa.st. 17° 58' s., 146° 11' E. 
Dunkin, see Nukuor, Caroline archipelago. 4. 
Duperre, a group of five wooded islets on a reef in the Louisiade archipelago. 11° 12's., 

152" K. 
Duperrey, a low, wooded, inhabited island in Humboldt bay on the north coast of 

Xew Guinea. 
Duperrey, see Aura, an islet of Mokil, Caroline islands. This name is applied to 

Mokil, also. 
Duportail, a group on the north side of New Britain, 5 m. by 2.7 m. There is an 

aclive volcano near the .southwest end. 4° 55' S., 151° 21' E. Named for Lieu- 
tenant Duportail of the Espcrance. 10. 
Duroc, islet in Alcniene passage, Isle of Pines. 
Durour, a flat i.slet on the coast of New Guinea, discovered by Carteret September 19, 

1767- 1° 3.Vs-, 143' 11' K- 
D'Urville, in we.st end of Cook strait. New Zealand. 

[141] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 59 

D'Urville, see Kairu, New Guinea. 

D'Urville, see Nama islet of Losap, Caroline islands. 4. 

Dyar, islet on the New Guinea coast. 1° 37' s., 131° 45' E. 

Eap, an old spelling of Yap, Caroline islands. 

Bar, islet of Uluthi, Caroline islands. 

Earl Dalhousie shoal, Caroline islands. 8° N., 145° 09' E. 

Earle ^ Pana krusima of the Louisiade archipelago. 

East Faiu or Liitke, a low coral island 0.7 m. long, with fringing reef, uninhabited. 
Caroline islands. 8° 33' N., 151° 26' E. 

East, see Waremata of the Louisiade archipelago. 

East, a group of four islets off the north coast of New Hanover, the easternmost being 
the largest. 

East, islet 60 ft. high off Florida, Solomon islands. 

East, islet off Kandavu, Fiji; rocky, 69 ft. high. 

East, islet of Wari or Teste, New Guinea, 100 ft. high. 

Easter, see Rapanui. 

Eastern, islet of Midway islands, Hawaiian group, 1.2 m. long, 6-15 ft. high, covered 
with coarse grass and small shrubs; sand dazzling. 28° 12' 22" n., 177° 22' w. 

Ebadon, islet of Kwadjalin, Marshall islands. 9° 22' n., 166° 53' E. 

Ebon, called also Boston and Covel, of the Marshall group, consists of 21 well wooded 
islets on a reef 25 m. in circumference. Discovered May 25, 1824, by Captain 
Ray, an American. 4° 48' n., 168° 45' \v. The islets of importance are called 
Jurijer, Enijarmek, Ebon, Dereg, Enijadok, Guamaguamlap, Euer, Munjak, Taka, 
Enilo, Jio, Met. Ebon islet forms the south and southeast side of the atoll; 5 m. long; 
is the largest and most important of the group. American mission station. 6. 

Ebuma, islet 80 ft. high, near Samarai on the southeast coast of New Guinea. 

Eddystone, see Panarora of the Louisiade archipelago. , It is 540 ft. high and inhabited. 

Eddystone, see Narovo, Solomon islands. 11. 

Edgecombe, see Tupua, of the Santa Cruz group. 

Edigen, islet of Kwadjelin, Marshall gi'oup. 

Efate = Fate or Vate or Sandwich, of the New Hebrides. 

Egerup, see Erikub of the Marshall islands. 6. 

Egg, see Nui of the Ellice group. 18. 

Egg, see Lehua, Hawaiian group. 

Egmont, .see Vairaatea, Paumotu archipelago. 33. 

Egmont of Carteret is Santa Cruz, or Deni (Nitendi). 

Egtim, atoll in the Trobriand group, is 13 m. in diameter, the encircling reef opening 
only on the Nw. and ne., having six islets on the north portion, Degargara, 
Yanaba, Wiakou, Napasa, Tabunagora, Nagian ; while in the centre of the lagoon 
are Fandaio, Simlakita, Kadais Mua and Egum in one group to the north, and 
Nasakor consisting of four islets to the south. 9° 26' s., 151° 58' E. 9. 

Ehiki, islet of Panasia, Louisiade archipelago. 

Eiao, called also Masse, Knox, Hiaou, of the Marquesas group, is 6 m. ne-SW., 2000 ft. 

high, well wooded, but uninhabited. 8° 02' S., 140° 41' w. 33. 

[142] 



6o INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Eil, Malk or Irakong, of the Pelew islands, is rocky and well-wooded. io° ii' 30" N., 

134 27 30 E. 
Einieo, see Moorea, Society islands. 30. 
Eintnlap, islet of Udjelong, Marshall islands. 
Eirek, islet of Wotto, Marshall islands. 

Eject, islet in Majuro lagoon, 9.5 m. from from the entrance, Marshall islands. 
Ekolo, islet of Ontong Java. 5° 38' S., 159° 34' E. II. 
ElatO, or Haweis, Caroline group, consists of the islets Falifi, Toass, Namoliaur. 

f 30' N., 146° 24' E. 
Eld, a small, high island near Naviti, Yasawa group, Fiji. Of triangular form, i m. 

long. The north point is in 17° 09' 40" S., 177° 10' 10" E. Named for Henry Eld 

of the United States Exploring Expedition. 
Elephant, islet of Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides. 
Elisabeth, one of the Admiralty group; a low coral island 1.2 m. N-s, by 0.2 m. wide; 

inhabited. 2° 55' .s., 147° 03' E. 
Elisabeth, near Mbenga, Fiji. 

Elisabeth, see Henderson of the Paumotu archipelago. 
Elisabeth, see Toau of the Paumotu archipelago. 
Elisabeth, see Manoba of the Solomon islands. 
Eliza, see Tepoto of the Paumotu archipelago. 
Eliza, see Onoatoa of the Gilbert group. 
Eliza, see Peru of the Gilbert group. 
Ella, islet of Ifalik, Caroline islands. 
Ellice group. Consists of nine low atolls of which eight are inhabited; extends 

NW. by N.-SE. by S. about 360 m.; peopled from Samoa, except Nui whose inhabitants 

came from the Gilbert islands. Visited by Maurelle in 1781, and by Captain 

de Pey.ster in 1819. The atolls are Nurakita or Sophia, Nukulaelae or Mitchell, 

Fangawa, Funafuti or Ellice, Funafana, Nukufetau or De Peyster, Vaitupu or 

Tracy, Nui or Netherland or Egg, Niutao or Speiden or Lynx, Navomana or 

Hudson, and Nanomea or St. Augustine. 16. 
Ellice, see Funafuti. 

Elliott, island of Fiji, named for the Chaplain of Wilkes' ship. 18° 51' s., 178° 24' E. 
Elmore, islet of Odia atoll, Marshall group. 
Elson is the same as Aukena of Mangareva. 

Emery, or Wea of the Atana group, northwest from Rotuma; 700 ft. high. 
Emmons, islet of the Hudson group, Fiji. 17° 38' 20" s., 177° 06' E. A high islet 

named for Lieut. Geo. F. Emmons of the Wilkes Expedition. 
Encamacion of Quir6s (1606) was placed in about 24° 50' s., 137° 42' w., but there is 

no land near that position. As Quiros estimated the distance from the American 

coast at 1500 legnas it would be difficult to identify his island, which he describes 

as nearly level with the water. 
Enderbury, a guano island of the Phoenix group, 3 m. by 2.5 ui., and 23 ft. high. 

The north point is in 3° 06' 35" s., 171° 14' 25" w. 17. 
Enderby, islet on the northeast coast of Auckland island. New Zealand. 

[143] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 6i 

Bnderby, one of the Tamatam or Los Martires group in the Carolines, discovered by 

Ibargoitia in 1799. It consists of Alet and Poloat with a fringing reef 5.5 m. E-w. 

and 3 m. N-S. 7° 19' 25" N., 149° 15' E. 4. 
Enear, islet of Ebon, Marshall islands. 

Bngebi, islet on the north side of Eniwetok, Marshall islands. 
Engineer, see Tubutubu, New Guinea. 
Bngineer group, in 10° 37' s., 151° 16' e., consists of four islands, Berri berrije or 

Slade, Nara nara wai or Skelton, Kuriva or Watts, and Dekatua or Butchart. 9. 
Bngnoch, islet of Yap, Caroline islands. 
Bniwetok, or Brown of the Marshall group, was discovered b}^ Captain Thomas 

Butler, December 13, 1794. Consists of 30 islets on a reef 29 m. in diameter. 

The north point is in 11° 40' N., 162° 15' E. 6. 
Bnkaba, islet of Fiji, 2 m. by i m., well wooded, and inhabited. The north end is in 

18° 50' S., 181° 06' 30" E. 
Bntrance, islet east of Prince of Wales in Torres strait. 10° 42' S., 142° 17' E. 
Bntrance, at the mouth of Aird river. New Guinea. 
Bntrance, islet in the Louisiade archipelago. 
Entry, see Kapiti, New Zealand. 
Bnybarbar, islet of Rongelab, Marshall islands. 
Bnyebing, islet of Ailinglap, Marshall islands. 
Bnylamiej, north islet of Udjae; one of the finest in the Marshall islands. 9° 21' N., 

165° 36' E. 
Bnyvertok, islet of Rongelab, Marshall islands. 11° 16' n., 167° 43' E. 
Eo, another name for Beaupre, Loyalty group. 13. 
Bori, an uninhabited islet of the Mamanutha ira group, Fiji. 
Epi, see Api of the New Hebrides. 

Bpoko, the westernmost islet of the Renard group, Louisiade archipelago. 
Braniau, at the entrance to Erakor lagoon. Fate or Sandwich island. New Hebrides. 

Headquarters of the Presbyterian mission. 
Brikub, or Bishop Jun<5lion or Egerup, is an uninhabited island of the Marshall 

islands, 25 m. \>y 6-1 1 m. The southeast point is in- 9° 06' N., 170° 04' E., accord- 
ing to Kotzebue. 
Bromanga, a high and rocky island of the New Hebrides, 30 m. by 32 m. Five 

missionaries have been murdered here. 12. 
Brradika, or Hat islet at the entrance to Havannah harbor in Fate, New Hebrides, 

contains a coral mouiid 345 ft. high rising from a low island. 
Erronan, see Futuna, New Hebrides. 
Bru, islet of Kwadjelin, Marshall group. 
Brub, or Darnley in Torres strait, is a volcanic island 5 m. in circumference and 610 ft. 

high. 9° 35' 20" S., 143° 45' E. 
Eruption, see Misima in the Louisiade archipelago. 
Eschscholtz, a jiame given to Bikini by Kotzebue in honor of Johann D. Eschscholtz, 

who was naturalist on both of Kotzebue' s expeditions. 5. 
BspiritU Santo, New Hebrides, called Australia del Espiritu Santo by Quiros in 

April, 1606, and by the settlers and traders plain Santo, Marina of the natives, is 

[144] 



62 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

a high volcanic island 75X40 m. in extent, and 4000 ft. high. Inhabitants were, 

and to some extent still are cannibals. The .sonthwest point is in 15° 38' 08" s., 

166° 46' 30" E. 
Estancelin, see Matnrei Vavao in the Acflseon gronp, Panmotu archipelago. 
Htal, of the Carolines, is 12 m. in circumference and has some 400 inhabitants. Fine 

breadfruit trees here are said to measure 60 ft. to the first limb. 5° 35' n., 

153° 43' K- 5- 
Bthel, islet at the head of Port Moresby, south coast of New Guinea. 

Bua, of the Tongan group, was discovered by Tasman in January, 1643, who called it 

Middleburg. It is 10 m. southeast from Tongatabu, is 30 m. in circumference, 

and 1078 ft. high. 21° 20' 30" s., 175° 02' w. About 300 inhabitants. 18. 
Euaiga, see Euaiki of the Tongan group. 

Buaiki, islet of Tongatabu, much higher than the others. 2i°07'3o"s., 174° 55' w. 18. 
Eugene, islet on the southwest coast of Ysabel, Solomon islands. 8° 17' .S., 159° ii'e. II. 
Eugenie, islet in Cloudy bay on the coast of New Guinea. 
Eunauro (Euna), or Cette, is on the southeast coast of New Guinea. 10° 25' S., 

149° 26' E. Rocky, thickly inhabited by savages who have large canoes and fight 

chiefly with spears. 
Eurupig or Kama, Caroline archipelago, consists of two islets on a reef 2.5 m. long. 

Population, 50. 6° 40' N., 143° 10' E. 3. 
Evans, of the Louisiade archipelago, was discovered in 1841. 9° 10' .s., 151° 55' E. 
Evans, islet of Sugar-loaf, is in Cook strait. New Zealand. 
Ewing, islet on the northeast coast of Auckland islands. New Zealand. 
Ewose, near Tonga in the New Hebrides, is 1.2 m. nw-se., and 1076 ft. high. About 

30 inhabitants. 
Exchequer, see L'Echiquier. 8. 
Exploring islands, a name given by Wilkes in 1840 to an important group in Fiji 

enclosed hy a reef 77 m. in circumference, which has a sloping edge to windward. 

The islets are Munia, Malatta, Osubu, Vanua mbalavu, Avia, and Susui. 
Eyo, islet in Makira harbor of San Cristoval, Solomon islands. 

Faaite, or Miloradowitch of the Paumotu islands, was discovered by Bellingshausen in 

1819. It is 15 m. long and 5 m. wide. The west end is in i6°43's., 145° i9'3o"w. 21. 
Fabre, a guano island of the Huon group. 
Faed, see Abgarris of the Bismarck archipelago. 

Fafa, islet of Tongatabu, Tongan islands. 21° 05' s., 175° 08' w. 18. 
Faiava or Wasau islet of Uea, Loyalty group. 
Faioa, islet of Uvea or Wallis. It is covered with coconuts. 
Fais, see Feys, Caroline archipelago. 
Faitruk, a group in the west part of Ruk lagoon, Caroline islands. Consists of Tol, 

Fanup, Fanupenges, Remalum, Oni, Utet, Jawt, etc. Population not less than 

8000; fierce, untamed heathen. 
Faiu (east) or Liitke, of the Caroline islands, was discovered by Liitke, and is a low 

coral island 0.7 m. long; uninhabited. 8° 33' 20" N., 151° 26' E. 4. 

[145] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



63 



Faiu (west), low, wooded, coral islet, 300 yards in diameter and uninhabited. 8°03'n., 
146° 50' E. 3. 

Faguin, see Rowland. 

Fakaafo or Bowditch, in the Union group, was discovered by Captain Hudson of the 
United States Exploring Expedition. A British protectorate was proclaimed June 
20, 1889. A triangular coral island 8 m. N-s., 4 m. E-w.; population about 250. South 
point is in 9° 26' 40" s., 171° 03' 15" w. Sixty-two islets. Also written Fakaofu. l6. 



FANNING ID. 




ENGLISH HARBOR, 




FIG. 4. 

Fakaina, see Akahaina of the Paumotu archipelago. 

Fakarawa, or Wittgenstein, was discovered by Bellingshausen in 1829. A lagoon 
atoll 32 m. by 10 m. Station of the French Resident for the Paumotu archi- 
pelago. Northeast point is in 16° 05' S., 145° 33' w. 

Falalep, islet of Uluthi of the Caroline archipelago. 

Falalis, islet of Wolea, of the Caroline archipelago. Population, 600 (Gulick). 

Falang, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 7° 21' 22" N., 151' 52' 57" E. 

Falcon, Tongan group. 20° 21' S., 175° 23' w. First seen as a breaking reef from 
H. M. S. Falcon in 1885. An eruption of that year left it 2 m. long and 250 ft. 

[146] 



64 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

high, according to a survey in 1889. Ten years later Captain Field, in H. M. S. 
Pftigiiin^ found nothing but a breaking shoal. 

Faleii, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 

Falevai, islet in the Tongan group. 

Palifi, islet of Elato, Caroline islands. 

Fallafagea, a form of Kelifijia in the Tongan group. 

False, islet on the northeast coast of New Guinea, near Huon gulf. 

False, see Thikombia, Fiji. 

Falulap, islet of Wolea, Caroline archipelago. 

Fanadik, central islet of Tamatam or Los Martires, Caroline archipelago. 

Fananu, islet of Namolipiafane, Caroline islands. 

Fandaio, islet in the lagoon of Egum, atoll of the Kiriwina group. 9°25's., i5i°57'e. 

Fangataufa, see Ahunii, Paumotu archipelago. 

Fangawa, westernmost islet of Nukulaelae, Ellice group. 9° 22' S., 179° 50' E. 16. 

Fanning was discovered in 1798 by Captain Edmund Fanning, an American, in the 
ship Betsy. Annexed by England March 15, 1888; 9.5 m. nw-se., 27 m. in cir- 
cumference; very fertile; English harbor on the west side is within an opening 
to the lagoon, and the principal houses are south of this. 3°5i'25"n., i59°22'w. 

FanuatapU, high, rocky islet, east coast of Upolu, Samoan islands. 

Fanuatapu, inhabited islet on the southwest side of Nui, Paumotu archipelago. 

Fanup, islet of Ruk lagoon, Caroline archipelago. 

Fanupenges, islet of Ruk lagoon, Caroline archipelago, 3 m. east from Tol. 

Faore is the second in size of the Stewart islands at the northwest end of the reef. 

Fapula, islet on the east coast of Ysabel, Solomon islands. 8° 19' s., 159° 42' E. II. 

Fara, islet on the east coast of Ysabel, Solomon islands. 8° 09' s., 159° 35' K. II. 

Faraguet, a low, wooded islet of Sans Souci group. New Guinea. 3° 08' S., 142° 24' E. 

Farailes, islet of Wolea, Caroline archipelago. 

Farallon de Medinilla or Bird Island, of the Marianas. Volcanic, 2 m. ne-SW., 50 ft. 
high. 16° 30' N., 146' E. See map of Marianas under that name. Farallon is the 
common Spanish term for an isolated high rock. 

Farallon de Pajaros, in the Marianas, is an adlive volcano 1039 ft. high ; in eruption in 
1S77. Discovered by Douglas Sept. 12, 1789; 1.2 m. in diameter. 20° 36' n., 144° 55' E. 

Farallon de Torres, in the Marianas. Formerly pinnacled rocks, but now reduced 
by the action of the waves or volcanic forces to rocks awash. Named for a former 
governor of Guam. 16° 51' n., 145° 50' E. 

Fararik, islet of Ifalik, Caroline islands. 3. 

Faraulep or Gardner, of the Caroline islands, was discovered by Liitke, March 28, 
1818. There are three islets on a reef 4 m. in circumference. 8° 36' n., 144° 36' E. 

Fataka, or Mitre, was discovered by Captain Edwards, in 1791, while searching for 
the mutineers of the Bounty. It is uninhabited; 2 m. n\v-se. A British pro- 
teAorate was proclaimed Odlober i, 1898. 11° 55' s., 170° 10' E. la. 

Fate, the correct form of Vate or Sandwich, as v does not occur in the alphabet of that 
island. Also called Efate and Efat. Is considered the finest island of the New 
Hebrides; 20 m. E-w. 17° 40' s., 168° 20' E. The natives have more Polynesian blood 
than their neighbors, and there are many Samoan words in their language. 12. 

Ch7] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 65 

Fatuba, one of tlie Pleiades group, northwest from Uea of the Loyalty islands. 

Fatufatu, a rocky islet of Tahaa, Societ}' islands, ao. 

Fatuhiva or Magdalena of the Marquesas group. Discovered by Alvaro de Mendana, 

July 21, 1595. It is 8 m. N-s., 4 m. K-w., and 3675 ft. high. The west end is in 

10° 24' s., 138° 40' w. 
Fatuhuku or Hood of the Marquesas group. An uninhabited island, ir8o ft. high; 

discovered in 1774 by one of Cook's midshipmen who afterwards became Lord 

Hood. 9° 26' s., 138° 56' w. 
FatUttianga, the southwesternmost islet of the Vavau group, Tongan islands. 
Fauna, islet in the northeast part of Ruk lagoon, Caroline islands. Population, 150. 
Fauro, volcanic island 11 m. N-s., and 1925 ft. high, in the Solomon group. 6° 56' s., 

156° 04' E. 
Fawsawn, islet of Ruk, Caroline archipelago. 
Fead, see Abgarris in the Bismarck archipelago. 
Fedarb, a group of three thickly wooded islets in the Admiralty islands. The eastern 

one has a conical peak 250 ft. high. 2° 22' S., 147° 26' E. 
Fearn, or Hunter, was discovered by Captain Fearn in the Hunter in 1798. It is a 

volcano 974 ft. high, wooded on the slopes; sulphurous vapors escape. 22° 24' S., 

172° 05' E. 
Federal, or Ingraham, is Nukuhiva of the Marquesas islands. 
Fefau, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 
Fenuafu, islet of Uvea or Wallis. 
Fenua iti, see Takutea of the Hervey group. 
Fenualoa, of the Santa Cruz group, is 4.5 m. n-s. b}^ 0.7 m.; 100-200 ft. high. 

Extensive reefs. 
Fetiua ura, or Scilly of the Society group, was discovered by Wallis in 1767. It is a 

circular reef 6-7 m. in diameter with a closed lagoon; inhabited. 16° 31' s., 

154° 43' w. 

Fentia ino, a wooded islet of Tahiti opposite Tomotai valley. 

Ferguson, islet in Shallow bay of Admiralty island. 

Ferguson, island in Marau sound east of Guadalcanar of the Solomon islands. 
9 50 30 Sm 160 48 45 E. 

Fergusson, see Moratau of the D'Entrecasteaux group. 

Ferneaux, see Marutea, Paumotu archipelago. 22. 

Fetohougo, a spelling of Fatuhuku of the Marquesas group. 

Fetouhouhou, see Hatutu of the Marquesas group. 

Fetuku, .see Fatuhuku of the Marquesas group. 23. 

FeyS, or Tromelin of the Caroline archipelago, was discovered by Captain Tromelin 
in 1828. 2.6 m. in circumference and 30 ft. high; of coral rock, but has no lagoon 
or fringing reef. When discovered had 300 inhabitants. 9° 46' N., 140° 35' E. 3. 

Fiji or Viti. An important group of the central Pacific comprising 155 islands, 100 
of which are inhabited, as many more islets and reefs. The total area is not less 
than 7500 square miles, extending in longitude from 175° E. to 177° w., and in 
latitude from 15' s. to 22° S. The formation is both coral and volcanic, although 
there are no active volcanoes. Coral formations niav be studied here to great ad- 

MEMoiRS B. 1'. B. MUSKU.M, Vol. I., No. 2.— 5. ['49] 



66 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

vantage. The highest peak rises to a height of 5000 ft. In 1889 the population, 
including Rotunia, was 124,010, of which 122,012 were native Fijians. These are 
a fine race, all nominally Christian, although within the memory of man, can- 
nibals. The language is a branch of the same stock whence the Polynesian lan- 
guages have been derived, and is not difficult to acquire by English-speaking people. 
As the consonants have a different pronunciation from that of the English language 
the printed page seems far more remote from the Polj-nesian dialecfts than it 
really is. The names of islands, for example, spelled in the form adopted by the 
missionaries are quite different from the colloquial. The pronunciation is as 
follows: b = mb, c = th, d — nd, g = ng, q = nqorngg, p^v, vu = b. The 
vowels nearlv as in Italian. Dialedls occur in several parts of the group, but not 
at all to the extent found in the islands of the western Pacific. The group was 
discovered by Tasman February 6, 1643, and by him named Prince William Isl- 
ands. D'Urville made the first chart of the group, and in 1840 Wilkes spent six 
months surveying the entire archipelago. In 1875 (September i) Fiji was for- 
mallj- proclaimed a British colony. Thakombau, like Kamehameha on Hawaii, 
brought some order out of the devastating civil wars between petty chiefs, and 
during the last years of his life his supremacy was fully recognized b}^ all the 
other chiefs. After the annexation the seat of the colonial government was at 
Levuka on Ovalau, but since'1882 this has been transferred to Suva on Viti levu. 
The foreign government seems wisely administered and is acceptable to the 
natives. In February and March the rainfall reaches its maximum. During 
the hot months, from December to April, cyclones often of great severity occur. 
The temperature in the shade during the hot season ranges from 66° to 88°. From 
April to November, the fine weather season, the average daily temperature in the 
shade is about 78°. In 1876 the rainfall for the year at Levuka was 108.05 inches; 
rain fell on 162 daj's, the greatest fall for one day being 5.6 inches. Produ(5ls of 
the group are copra, sugar, cotton, fruit, peanuts, fibre and pearl shell. Fiji is the 
form of the name in the windward portion of the group, Viti in the leeward. 
Among the best books to be consulted for information on Fiji are Narratiir of tlic 
United Stales Exploring Expedition 18^8-1842^ by Wilkes ; Fiji and the Fijians, 
iSt^S, by Rev. Thomas Williams ; A Mission to Viti, by B. Seemann ; Kitig and 
People 0/ Fiji, by Waterhouse. 

Fila, a raised coral and wooded islet on the southwest side of Fate, New Hebrides. 

Firth, apparently a misprint for Frith. See Ilamu of the D'Entrecasteaux group. 

Fischel, islet in Astrolabe bay on the north coast of New Guinea. 

Fi.scher, see Visschers of the Bismarck archipelago. 

Fishermen, a low, sandy group off the coast of Motu, surrounded by reef. So named 
because the canoe which came off to the Bratnb/e had long seines fitted like Eng- 
lish nets. Natives of a dark copper color and ntimerous. 9°3o's., 147° 02' E. 

FitZ, island 100 ft. high off the coast of New Britain. 4° 52' .s., 150° 31' K. 

Fitzroy, island off Cape Grafton, Australia. 16° 56' s., 146° 02' E. 

Flat, islet of the^Haszard group. New Guinea. 

Flat, see Hemenahai of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Flat, islet on the south coast of Huapu of the Marquesas islands. 

[150] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 67 

Fliegetl, on the New Guinea coast. 7° 20' s., 147° 23' E. 

Flinders, or Great, on the north side of Banks strait, 2550 ft. high. 

Flinders, group on the Australian coast. 14° 11' s., 144° 17' E. Named for Captain 

Matthew Flinders. 
Flint, a low, guano, uninhabited island belonging to Great Britain. It was discovered 

in 1801. 2.5 ni. long, and 0.5 ni. wide. 11° 25' 43" s., 151° 48' w.O 
Florida, one of the Solomon group. The name was given by the discoverer, Mendana. - 

The native name is said to be Ngela, but others declare this is only the name of a 

district. It is 1500 ft. high and populous. There are several stations of the 

Melanesian mission on the coast. 9° 02' S., 160° 20' E. 
Fly, islet on the northeast coast of Fate, New Hebrides ; low, covered with trees. 
Fly, two islets off Death Adder bay on the northeast coast of New Guinea. 
Folger, one of the Magellan islands whose existence is doubtful. 
FollenitlS, islet on the north coast of New Guinea. 
Fonuafala, .see Fakaafo. 9° 22' S., 171° 17' w. 
Fonualei, Amargura or Gardner of the Tongan group, in 18° 02' S., 174° 24' w., was 

destroyed b}- an eruption in August, 1847. Ashes were thrown in large quantities 

on passing ships 500-600 m. to the northeast. 
Fouualoa, see Fakaafo. 9° 27' vS., 171° 14' w. 
Fonualoa, Tongan group. 

Forbes, group on the Australian coast. 12° 18' S., 143° 24' E. 
Forfano, see San Alessandro, Volcano islands. 
Forsyth, one of the Welleslej- group in the gulf of Carpentaria. 
Fortuna, 360 m. northeast of Fiji. Same as Fotuna below. 
Fotuhaa, islet of the Tongan group. 
Fotuna, with Alofa the Home islands. 8.2 m. by 5.2 m. Mt. Schouten is 2500 ft. 

high. 10° 14' 15" s., 178° 10' w. 18. 
Four Crowns, see Anuanurunga of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 
Four Facardins, see \"ahitahi, Paumotu archipelago. 

Fox, island 2 m. long, near Naviti in the Yasawa group, Fiji. 17° ii's., ij-j° oc,' t^o" yl. 
Fox, see Renard of the Louisiade archipelago. 
Francis, see Peru of the Gilbert islands. 7. 

Frankland, group on the coast of Australia. 17° 15' s., 146° 15' E. 
Franklin (of Ingraham), see Motuiti, Marquesas islands. 
Fraser, or Great Sandy, on the east coast of Queensland. 24° 42' S., 153° 11' E. 

North end. 
Frazer, see Andema of the Carolines. 
Freemantle (of Roberts), see Eiao, Marquesas islands. 
Freewill, see Pegan. 0° 57' N., 134° 21' E. 
French, islet in Laurie harbor, Enderby island. 
French, group discovered b^' D'Entrecasteaux and named lies Fran9aises. They are 

all high and adjacent to New Britain. lO. 
French Frigates, of the Hawaiian group, was discovered by La Perouse November 

6, 1786. He gave the name Basse des Fregates Fran^aises. It is usual to make 

the mistake in translating to print in the singular, but the name was given for 

[151] 



68 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

the two frigates of the expedition. A picturesque rock, very difficult of ascent, 
rises 120 ft. from the lagoon, and around are reefs and sand banks. Coarse grass 
and some small shrubs compose the vegetation. The lagoon and outer shores 
abound in sharks. 23° 46' 30" N., 166° 16' w. 2. 

Freycinet, in Dumbea passage. New Caledonia. Round, moderately high, wooded. 

Friday, north from Prince of Wales in Torres strait. 10° 35' S., 142° 09' K. 

Friendly, the name given by Cook to the Tongan group. 

Frith, in the southwest part of Moresby strait, D'Entrecasteaux group. 2 ni. K-vv., 
1.2 m. N-s.; 500rb ft. high; many inhabitants. Wallaby abound. 

Flia, islet of Hapai, Tongan islands. 

Fulanga, Fiji group. The west bluff is 150 ft. high. Inhabited. Fine timber. 
19° 04' 30" s., 181° 19' 40" E. East end. 

Fulatutasi, islet of Fakaafo or Bowditch. 9° 24' S., 171° 13' w. 

Funafana, southernmost island of the EHice islands. 

Funafuti, or Ellice, was discovered by Captain de Peyster March 18, 1819. A lagoon 
atoll 13 m. by 7.2 m. There are some 30 islets; principal one long but very 
narrow. Of recent interest as the scene of a boring into the coral reef, and of zoo- 
logical investigations, which have been published by the Australian Museum.* 
S° 35' 50" S., 179° 10' 40" E. 16. 

Fungalei, islet of Uvea or Wallis; about 200 ft. high. 

Furneaux, a group in Bass strait composed of Clarke, Cape Barren and Flinders. 

Futuna, or Erronan of the New Hebrides, is about 15 m. in circumference and 1931 ft. 
high. There are 900 inhabitants; of Tongan origin. 

Gabagabawa, islet northwest from Duau, D'Entrecasteaux group. 9^44 s., 150° 53' E. 

Gabba, islet on south coast of New Guinea. 9° 45' s., 142° 37' E. 

Gadogadoa, prominent islet, 315 ft. high, on the southeast coast of New Guinea. 

Gagan, islet of Kwadjelin of the Marshall islands, 

Galapagos. This group, on some accounts one of the most interesting in the Pacific 
region, lies on the equator .some 600 miles from Equador, to which it belongs. It 
extends 1° 30' both north and south of the equator, and the centre of the group is 
in longitude 90° 30' \v. Dampier, who visited these islands in Ma}', 1684, gave a 
quaint account of their inhabitants: "The Spaniards, when they first discovered 
these islands, found multitudes of guanoes (iguanas) and land-turtle or tortoise, 
and named them the Galapagos (tortoise) islands. I do believe there is no place 
in the world that is so plentifully stored with these animals. The guanos here 
are fat and large as any that I ever saw; they are so tame that a man may knock 
down 20 in an hour's time with a club. The land-turtle are here so numerous 
that 500 or 600 men might subsist on them alone for several months without any 
other sort of provision ; they are extraordinary large and fat, and so sweet that no 
pullet eats more pleasantly." All the early visitors speak of the abundance of 
this nutritious food; the buccaneers made good u.se of it, and in 1813 Porter, near 

Taking this island as a typical Central Pacific atoll, we may note the fauna as given by Hedley iu the Memoirs of the Australian Museum, 
iU.. 1899. No other portion of thi» Central Pacific fauna has been .so well studied. It is composed of 2 Mammals, i.-; liirds, 5 Reptiles, 
73 Finhes. 2 Enteropneustii. «- Cmstaceans. 27 Arachnids, .5 Myriopods, 42 Insedls, 440 Molluscs, i Drachiopod, 2S F.chinoderms, 5 Annelids, 
12 Cephyrean worma. 16 Sponges, S Hydrozoa, 2 Scyphozoa, and 120 A<5linozoa. 

[152] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 69 

a bay on the northeast part of James island, took on board about 500 individuals, 
or nearly 14 tons: Journal of a Cruise made to the Pacific Ocean, New York, 1822, 
2 vols. 8vo. The tortoise are now nearly extinct, and some species (there are dis- 
tinct ones on different islands) have wholly disappeared. See Catalogue of the 
gigantic Land Tortoises in the British Museum, by Giinther, London, 1877. There 
are six principal islands, nine islets, and man}' mere rocks. All are volcanic, and 
Darwin ( Volcanic Islands) estimated the number of extinct craters at 2000. The 
largest island, Albemarle, is 60X15 m., and 4700 ft. high. The other islands are 
Narborough, Culpepper, Wenman, Abingdon, Bindloe, Tower, James, Jarvis, 
Duncan, Indefatigable, Barrington, Charles, Hood and Chatham. See Proceed- 
ings of the Royal Geographical Society, 1880, pp. 742-755. 

Galera (La), discovered April, 1568, b}- Pedro de Ortega Valencia and Hernan Gallego 
of Mendana's expedition. Solomon islands. 

Galoa, see Xgaloa, Fiji. 

Gambler, see Mangareva in the Paumotu archipelago. Discovered by Captain Wilson 
in the Duff s.n6. named for Admiral Lord Gambier. 33. 

Ganges, nothing certain known of this island or reef reported in 39° 47' N., 154° 15' E. 

Gannet, .see Karewha, New Zealand. 

Garahi, islet of Sariba, southea.st coast of New Guinea; 355 ft. high. 

Garden, see lyin of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Gardenijs was named by Tasman for a member of Council for India. Tasnian calls 
it Gerrit de Nijs and Gardenys on the same page of his journal (p. 42 of transla- 
tion), 1643. About 20 m. off the northeast coast of New Ireland; i6oozb ft. high. 
The north end is in 3° 04' s., 152° 38' E. 

Gardner, of the Bismarck archipelago, is about 29 m. wnw. from Gardenijs, and more 
than 1600 ft. high. The north point is in 2° 45' S., 151° 55' E. 

Gardner, see Faraulep of the Caroline archipelago. 

Gardner, of the Hawaiian group, is a rock 200 yards in diameter, and 170 ft. high. 
It was discovered by the captain of the American whaler Mala, June 2, 1820. 

25 00 40 N., 167 59 05 W. 

Gardner, or Kemins, is the southwestern island of the Phcenix group. 4° 37' 42" S., 

174 40 18 w.o 

Gardner, see Fonualei, Tongan islands. 

Garnot, a volcanic cone in the Schouten group on the north coast of New Guinea. 

I 3i'«-, 144° 34' K. 
Garrick, on the New Guinea coast. 7° 48' S., 144° 52' E. 
Gaspar Rico, a name of Taongi, Marshall islands. 
Gau, see Ngaii, Fiji. 
Gaua, Gog or Santa Maria of the Banks group, is 10 m. in diameter and 2200 ft. high. 

It has aboiit 2000 inhabitants. 14° 15' S., 167° 28' E. 
Gaudichaud, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 7° 32' 35" n., 150° 59' 32" E. 
Gavotu, islet of Solomon islands. 
Gawa, an island of curious stru(5ture in the Trobriand group. It is 2 m. in diameter, 

and a coral wall rises 400 ft., within which is a plateau 100 ft. lower. Population, 

5QO±. 8" 3q',s., 151° E. 

C153] 



70 



INDEX 70 THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



Gela, see Florida, Solomon islands. 

Geloon, or Gelun, one of the Hermit islands. Inhabited. i° 32' S., 145° K. 

Gente Hennosa, or Swain, was discovered by Quir6s March 2, 1606, and by him 
named La Peregrina. Espinosa called it Isla de Gente Hermosa, from the beauty 
of the inhabitants. It is 7-8 m. in circumference, and 15-25 ft. above the sea; 
lagoon closed. At the time of the Wilkes expedition it was well wooded, but now 
the island is occupied by an American, Jennings, who has 800 acres planted with 
coconuts. 11° 05' s., 170° 55' 15" w. 15. 

Georgian, name given by Cook to Tahiti and the southeast group ; the northwest he 
called Societ}', for the Roj-al Society. 

Gera, inhabited islet off the northeast coast of Guadalcanar, Solomon islands. 

Gero, islet in Uarai baj-, southwest side of New Caledonia. 

Gerrit Den^-s, see Gardenijs of the Bismarck archipelago. 

Gesira, islet 220 ft. high on the southeast coast of New Guinea. 

Gibbons, see Daiwari of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Gicquel, a volcanic island on the north side of New Britain. Found by late surveys to 
be a portion of the main island. West end, 4° 57' S., 149° 52' E. Named for one 
of the pilots of the Recherche. 10. 

Gie or Pine islet off Isle of Pines. 13. 

Gig^la, islet 420 ft. high, wooded; connected with Abaga gaheia by reef on the south- 
east. Louisiade archipelago. 

Gikuo, islet of Ontong Java. 5° 19' s., 159° 46' E. II. 

Gilbert, islet, low and wooded, near Schouten islands on the north coast of New Guinea. 

Gilbert, see Maiana of the Gilbert islands. 7. 

GILBERT ISLANDS. 



Xativk Nahe. 


Chabt Name. 


DigCOTKBBE. 




Latitcoe 
North. 


Longitude 
East. 


Square Miles. 


• 
Popclatio.n. 


MfMrlMiroiiich <ir«iiip: 




















Miiklii. 


IMlt. 


Marwliiill * (iilliiTf. 


I7SS. 


.r 20' 4B" 


172° 


2S' 


45" 


2.7 


600 


Ilatarlturl. 


ToiichliiK. 






:! n 


172 


21 




11.5 


1 r,m 


MaraU. 


Matlhcw. 


MiirHhall A (iilliiTt. 


17XN. 


2 


17.S 


25 




».7 


2000 


ApaUuK. 


llmrldttp. 


MniNhnll <j< (iillii'it. 


17S.S. 


1 m 


172 


5K 


.30 


15.5 


3000 


Tfirawn. 


Kno.v. Cook. 


Marshall & Ullbert, 


)7S(>. 


1 «!) Il.'i 


173 


02 




15.5 


3;oo 


Miiliinii. 


Gilbert. Hall. 


MarKhall A Gilbert, 


17SS. 


."i.-i :io 


173 


03 


45 


11.5 


411OO 


Hiuipitan (iroup: 




















Karla. 


. Woo.ll.-. 


.Vlnr»hiill * (illbeit. 


17^X. 


l.-i 


173 


2K 


30 


_-, 


1 .500 


Aratinkfi. 


Henilfrvilli'. .Niiukl. 


.Mar«linll * (illbert. 




1:) 25 


173 


41 




« 


1 Olio 


A|tHIIIHinH. 


Hopppr. ItoKPr, .SInipHoii 


.MarNhHil & (iilhiMt. 


I7»<. 


8(1 


173 


53 


35 


(i.5 


.■.1100 


KiiiKMitilll <«r4>up: 




















NonuDtl. 


Hycleiifamii. 






(1 30 4.-. 


174 


1!( 


10 


11.5 


(iUOO 


Tapllrnra. 


Draniiiiond. BiHhop. 


('apt. Drain III on.l. 




1 m 45 


174 


45 




0.7 


HOOO 


IVra. 


KranclB. 


Capt. Clerk, lxi'7. 




1 17 ao 


175 


58 


.,- 


13.5 


2000 


NnkanHo. 


B.vron. 


B.vron, 17tiB. 




1 2:1 


17(i 


.34 




9.7 


5000 


Onoaton. 


(lerk. Onutu. 






1 5» 


17" 


30 




9.7 


3000 


Tamana. 


KoUber. I'hu-be. 






2 32 


17.'> 


55 




4 


2000 


Aroml. 


Hope, Hnrd, Aron. 


EluaMH, 1809. 




2 3!l 


177 


01 




11.5 


2600 



Gilbert Islands, so named by Krusenstern for the captain of the Charlotte, consist of 
16 islands not more than 20 ft. above the sea. The area of dry land is not more 
than 150 sq. m. Population, 50,000. They belong to Great Britain. The inhabi- 
tants have been christianized by the missionaries of the American and Hawaiian 
Boards and the Bible has been translated into the language of the group by Rev. 
Hiram Bingham, D.D, In former days the people were noted for the manufaAure 

[154] 



INDEX TO THE PACIEIC ISLANDS. 71 

of armor from cocontit fibre, and spears and knives armed with shark's teeth. 

Having no stone their adzes and axes were made from the hard shell of the 

Tridacna gi^as. 
Gilia, islet 200 ft. high, between Bagaman and Bobo eina, Loiiisiade archipelago. 
Giltia, of the Kiriwina group. 8° 37' 30" s., 150° 50' E. 

Ginara, islet on the south coast Murua, Kiriwina group. 9° 07' S., 152° 28' K. 
Gingala, group of six large and two smaller islands off Cape Cretin, northeast coast 

of New Guinea. Mostly conne(5led with each other and the coast b\' reef. 
Gipps, one of the French islands, 3 m. in circumference, thickly populated. Geysers 

on the southeast shore. 4° 32' vS., 149" 06' E. 
Givry, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 7° 08' 55" n., 151° 52' 07" E. 
Gi^O, of the Solomon islands, is 300-400 ft. high and has a fringe of reef and islets. 

8" 01' s., 156° 48' K. 
Glen, islet 30 ft. high off Cape Vogel, New Guinea. 9° 45' s., 150° 05' E. 
Glennie, see Anser. 

Glenton, or Kato katoa, is 3 m. in circumference and 400 ft. high. io°4o's., I5I°04'e. 
Gloucester, on the Australian coast. 20° S., 148° 27' E. 
Gloucester, see Paraoa of the Paumotu archipelago. 31. 
Goat, islet off Pangopango harbor, Tutuila, Samoan islands. 

Goat, islet 90 ft. high, off north coast of Vanua levu, Fiji, at entrance to Wailea bay. 
Goat, fourth islet from the westward in Wotje atoll, Marshall islands. 
Goat, see Korolib, Fiji. 
Goat, see Santa Clara. 

Gobigobi, rocky islet 330 ft. high, Brumer islands. 
Gog, see Gaua or Santa Maria, Banks islands. 
Gogan, islet of Rongerik, Marshall islands. 
Goodenough, see Dauila of the D'Entrecasteaux group. 
Goodhope, see Rekareka of the Paumotu archipelago. 31. 
Goodhope of Schouten is probably Niuafoou of the Tongan group. i8. 
Goodman, see Nugarba of the Bismarck archipelago. 10. 
Goold, on the Australian coast. 18° 10' vS., 146° 12' E. 
Goro, better Koro, Fiji. Fertile, 9.5 m. by 4.5 m.. South point is in 17° 23' S., 

179° 25' 50" E. 14. ^ ^ 

Goulou, old spelling of Ngoli, Caroline islands. 
Goulvain, see Dobu of the D'Entrecasteaux group. Goulvain was boatswain of the 

Reche}'che. 
Gower, of the Solomon islands, was named by Carteret in 1767. It is the Inattendue 

of Surville (1769). 7° 55' s., 160° 30' e:. 
Gowland, off the south shore of Collingwood bay. New Guinea. 9° 30' s., 149° 19' E. 
Grace, one of the Bonvouloir islands in the Louisiade archipelago. 10° 18' vS., i5i°o8'e;. 
Gracious, a group named by D'Urville Les lies Gracieu.ses. Bismarck archipelago. 

6 09' .s.„ 148° 57' E. 
Gran Cocal, see Nanomanga of the Ellice islands. 
Grand Duke Alexander, a name given by Bellingshausen in 1820 to Rakaanga or 

Reirson, 

[155] 



72 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Grandes Cyclades, a name given by Bongainville to the New Hebrides. 

Grange, see Banabana, New Guinea. 

Grant, a low coral islet near the north point of Basilaki, southeast coast of New 

Gninea. io° 32' 45" S., 151° 02' 50" E. 
Grass, or Wanim, islet of the Lonisiade archipelago, is 390 ft. high. 
Green, islet on the Australian coast. 16° 15' s., 146° 01' K. 
Green, islet of the south coast of Admiralty. The Groene Eylanden of Tasman. 

2 15' s., 147° 05' K. 
Green, islet on northeast coast of Auckland. 

Green, one of the low Tin islands of Vanua leva, Fiji. 16° 24' 14" S., i79°o5'27"k.O 
Green, islet in the southeast corner of the lagoon on Ocean, of the Hawaiian group. 
Named for \V. L. Green, Hawaiian Minister of Foreign Affairs. 28° 25' N., 1 78° 29' \v. 2,. 
Green, islet of Volcano island in Blanche bay. New Britain. 
Green, islet in Port Preslin, New Ireland. 
Green, east of New Ireland, 300 ft. high, densely wooded. 
Green, see Pinipel, Bismarck archipelago. 
Greenwich, Con.stantin or Kapinga marangi, Caroline islands, consists of 28 islets on 

a reef 14 m. N-s., 8-9 m. H-w. Discovered in 1825; 150 inhabitants. 1° 04' n., 

154° 45' E. 

Greig, see Niau, in the Paumotu archipelago. 

Grenville, a name of Rotuma. 

Gressien, see Muschu in the New Guinea region. 

Griesbach, on the northeast coast of Bougainville, Solomon islands, is a group of 
small islands. 6° 11' s., 155° 44' E. 

Griffith, near New Guinea. Southwest end 7° 43' s., 144° 35' E. 

Grimes or High, Caroline islands, was discovered b}' Captain Grimes in 1841. It is 
6 m. in circumference, wooded. 9° 15' n., 145° 33' E. 

Grimoult = Kiamu, New Caledonia. 

Gronemann, islet in Astrolabe ba}^ north coast of New Guinea. Small and uninhabited. 

Gros, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 7° 27' 02" N., 151° 53' 50" E. 

Guadalcanar, the Guadalcanal of Gallego and Mendana who discovered it in April, 
1568. One of the larger of the Solomon islands. Native name Guambata. 80 m. 
by 25 m. atid 8000 ft. high. Northwest point is in 9° 15' s., 159° 40' E.; east point, 
9°5o's., 160° 47' E. II. 

Guadaloupe (Isla de), in the Solomon islands. Discovered in April, 1568, by Men- 
dafia's expedition in latitude 9° 30' s. 

Puahan, a spelling of Guam, Marianas group. Guajan is another form. 

Gualito, see Ngualito, Fiji. 

Guam or Guajan of the Marianas or Ladrones. On this island, in 1668, the Span- 
iards founded a mission under the direction of Padre de Sanvitores who declares 
that during the first year he baptized 13,000 people and converted 20,000. His 
conversions were so very thorough that when Dampier visited the islands in 1686 
there were but 400 alive! Kotzebue, in 1817, found a single couple of the in- 
digenes surviving. The population in 1873 amounted to about 7000, imported from 
the Philippines and the Carolines. Guam is 29 m, long. As a result of the 

[156:1 



r' 

4. 



n«» i i m i »n «i - i n» i n» i 






I 

I. 



0) i 
















;•■•* 
















— -^ 
















?■ '■ 
















Vn ; 
















L. 
















■V 














■' 


r > 
















"•■*-' 














4 


:^-, 














i 


c 
















o 
















iV 














' 




1 










■•■■n --.:;■ 





INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISIANDS. 73 

Spanish-American war this island became the property of the United States. See map 

under Marianas. 1 3° 40' n., 144° 55' k., north point; i3°i5'n., 144° 47'?:., south point. 
Guap, see Yap, Caroline islands. 
Guap, islet in Dallmann harbor on the north coast of New Guinea, is inhabited by 

peaceable Papuans. 
Gudin, on the New Guinea coast. 3° 28' s., 132° 30' E. 
Gtie, islet near Coetlogon passage, Uea, Loyalt}' group. 
Guetche, islet on the same reef with the preceding. 

Guguan, an inaccessible rock 2.5 m. by i m. in the Marianas. 17° 19' n., 145° 49' E. 
Guilbert, on the New Guinea coast. 3° 12' S., 143° 15' E. 
Gulewa, in the Louisiade archipelago, i m. east from Pana udiudi; 0.7 m. long, 315 

ft. high ; inhabited. 
Gumaian, eastern and largest of the Basses i.slands, Louisiade archipelago. 
Gumoti, islet near Roux group on the southeast coast of New Guinea. 
Gunner's Quoin, or He Plate, islet on the south side of Huapu, Marquesas islands. 
Guppy, a small, wooded island in Choiseul baj- on the west side of Choiseul island, 

Solomon islands. Named for Dr. H. B. Guppy, who has written much on the 

Solomon islands. 

Haafeva, islet of the Tongan group. 

Haaio, islet on the south coast of Raiatea, Societj' islands. 

Haane, islet on the south coast of Huahuna, Marquesas islands. 

Haaono, islet of the Hapai group, Tonga islands. 

Hack, islet of Oneatoa, Gilbert islands. 1° 54' 30" s., 175° 39' K. 

Hacq, islet of Rule, Caroline islands. 

Hagemeister, see Apatiki of the Paumotu archipelago. 20. 

Haggerstone, on the Australian coast. 12° 02' S., 143° 18' K. 

Haidana, off Port Moresby on the .south coast of New Guinea. 9° 27'. s., 147° 02' E. 

Haines, near James bay on the southeast coast of New Guinea; i m. long, 0.2 m. 
wide, 250 ft. high. 10° 41' 10" s., 151° 03' 40" E. 

Hairiri, see Paraoa of the Paumotu archipelago. 

Hakelaki, on the ea.st coast of Ysabel, Solomon islands. 7° 53' s., 159° 22' E. 

Halelei, islet on east side of Maramasiki, Solomon islands, inhabited bj' wild and 
treacherous natives. 

Half-way, islet in Torres strait. 10° 08' S., 143° 17' E. 

Halgan, see Uea, Loyalty group. 13. 

Hall, see Maiana, Gilbert i.slands. 7. 

Hall, see Morileu, Caroline islands. 4. 

Hamelin, or Leliogat ; low and wooded. Loyalty group. 

Hamilton, on the Australian coa.st. 20° 22' .S., 149° E. 

Hammond, on the New Guinea coast, 3.5 m. by 1.5 m., 600 ft. high. ro° 30' s., 
142' 13' E. 

Hammond, see Rendova, Solomon islands. 

Hanakubakuba, one of the Obstrudlion group, so called becau.se they block the pas- 
sage betreen Nuakata island and East cape of New Guinea. It is 270 ft. high. 

[1573 



74 INDEX TO THE PACIEIC ISLANDS. 

Hancock of Roberts is Hatutu, Marquesas islands. 23. 

Hannam, island on the east side of Willaumez peninsula, New Britain. 

Hannibal, on the Australian coast. 11° 37' S., 142° 56' E. 

Hansa, see Vulcan, New Guinea. 

Hanudamava, islet 273 ft. high, near Port Moresby on the southeast coast of New 
Guinea. 

Hao, see Han of the Pauniotu archipelago. 21. 

Hapai, group of the Tongan islands, is composed of many small islands on a reef 
40X23 m., of which little is known. 

Harcourt, group consisting of Karu and Ague, north from Ugue bay on the north- 
east coast of New Caledonia. 

Hardman, group of two islets, low and wooded, in the Louisiade archipelago. 

Hardy, north of Collingwood bay on the coast of New Guinea. 9° 11' s., 149° 21' K. 

Hardy = He St. Ignace, Loyalty islands. 

Harikoia, .second in size of the Brumer group. New Guinea; 520 ft. high; inhabited. 

Harowani is the east of the Killerton group in Milne bay, on the east coast of New 
Guinea. A station of the London Missionary Society. 

Harp, see Han in the Paumotu archipelago. 31. 

Harper, on the coast of New Guinea. 8° 04' s., 148° 09' K. 

Harris, or Mewadi, is off the coast of Normanby (Duau), D'Entrecasteaux group. 
9° 52' S., 150° 57' E. 

Hash, see Mokor of the Caroline islands. Said not to exist. 

Hastings, in the Bonvouloir group, Louisiade archipelago; 400 ft. high. 10° 20' s., 
151 52' E. 

Haszard, two islands in the Engineer group. The southern one is about a mile long, 
200 ft. high, with a reef encircling. 10° 38' vS., 151° 22' K. 

Hat, see Vatu vara, Fiji group. 

Hat, see Teauaua of the Marquesas group. 

Hat, see Arabi of the New Hebrides. 

Hat, islet in Geelvink bay on the north coast of New Guinea. 

Hat, islet at entrance to Havannah harbor, of Fate, New Hebrides. 

Hatutu, or Chanal of the Marquesas group, is 4 m. b}' i m., and 1380 ft. high. 
Perhaps the Nexsen of Captain Planning, 1798. Marchand called it Chanal; 
Ingraham christened it Hancock, and Roberts named it Langdon. 7° 57' s., 
140° 34' w. 23. 

Hau, Bow, or Harp, was discovered by Bougainville in 1768. Cook visited it the 
next year and called it Bow. It is 30 m. long and 5 m. wide. 18° 03' 38" s., 
140° 59' 15" w. 21. 

Hawaii, the largest of the Hawaiian group, was called by Cook Owhyhee, misunder- 
standing the article O Hawaii. The island is wholly volcanic, composed of lava 
emitted from Kea, Loa, Hualalai and Kilauea. Of these volcanoes Kea has at- 
tained the height of 13,825 ft.; Loa, 13,675 ft.; and Hualalai, 8275. The area of 
the island is 4015 sq. m. While a large part of the surface is barren lava, along 
the shores and in the vallej's on the north and east sides much sugar is produced, 
and on the west side the best coffee of the group is found. 

[i5«] 



INDEX TO THE PACIEIC ISLANDS. 



75 



Hawaiian Group. Called by Cook Sandwich islands in honor of his patron the 
Earl of Sandwich, a cordial hater of Americans. The gronp was discovered bv 
the Spaniard Jnan de Gaetano in 1555, and again b}- Cook Jannary 18, 1778. 
They were annexed to the United States July 7, 1898.* The group consists of 
eight principal islands and a long range of uninhabited rocks extending many de- 
grees to the northwest. Perhaps more books have been written about the Hawaiian 
. islands than about any other group in the Pacific. The Geology has been pub- 
lished by Dana, the present writer and others; the Botany by Mann and Hille- 
brand ; the Ornithology by Wilson, Rothschild, Dole- and Bryan ; the Entomology 
by Perkins and others; Herpetolog}- b}' Stejneger. Other departments of Nat- 
ural History have not been adequately studied. Historical books, apart from the 
Voyages, are by Dibble, Bingham, Fornander and Alexander. A grammar of the 
language and a diftionary were published by Andrews, and the translation of the 
Bible by the American missionaries preserves the Hawaiian language in its purity, 
while in common use it has become very corrupt. A ver}- competent government 
survey, under the charge of Professor W. D. Alexander, has measured and mapped 
the topograph}'. In 1898 the imports amounted to $10,368,815.09; the exports, 
$17,346,744.79; Custom House receipts, $896,975.70. 

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 



Hawaii 

Mani 

Oahu 

Kauai 

Molokai 

Lanai 

Niihau 

Kahoolawp. 



Area in Square 


Mil 


f:h. 


Acres. 


Height in Y 


EET. 


Population in liSM. 


4,1)15 






2.")T0,0CHI 


18,825 




i 

33,28.-) 


ViK 






4(i(i,0(«l 


10,032 




17.726 


BOd 






:iN4.i)i)li 


4,0.SO 




40.205 


.■>4I) 






:148.(K)I) 


4.S00 




15,225 


■261 






167,0(10 


4,a5.S 




2,307 


!:!.-> 






X6,000 


:l,400 




105 


97 






62.000 


SIIU 




164 


611 






44.1)00 


1 ,427 







Kanla, Lehaa, Nihoa, Necker, French P'rigatee, Gardiner, Laysan, Llsiansky, Midway, and Ocean are rocks, uninhabited save by the/i'/vr 
natunr. 

Haweis, see Elato of the Caroline islands. 

Hawkesbury, islet in Torres strait. 10° 22' .s., 142° 07' E. 

Hayman, northwest of Hook on the Australian coast. 20° 03' .s., 148° 56' E. 

Hayter, .see Sariba on the New Guinea coast. 

Head, high, wooded island in China strait. 10° 34' 35" S., 150° 44' 40" E. 

Heath, 200 ft. high, off the coast of New Britain. 4° 51' s., 151° 32' E. 

Heath, see Rogeia, New Guinea. 

Height, see Hemeni of the Marquesas. 

Hemenahei, or Flat is the easternmost of the Calvados chain in the Louisiade archi- 
pelago; 2.5 m. E-w. by 1.2 m.: cultivated, but not inhabited because considered 
unhealthy. 11° 11' S., 153° 05' E. 

Henderson, or Elisabeth of the Paumotu archipelago, was discovered by a boat's crew 
from the whaler Essex, in 1820, and named for Captain Henderson ; 5 m. by 2.5 m., 
80 ft. high ; of raised coral, much undermined by waves. Cliffs are perpendicular, 
except on the north side. Uninhabited. 24° 25' S., 128° 19' w. 

•June 14, 1898, the Nerflands annexation resolution passed the House of Representatives ; July 6th the Senate confirmed the same ; July 
7th the President signed the joint resolution ; August 12th the United States flag was raised, and President Dole transferred the jurisdiiflion 
to the United States : but it was June 14, 1900, when annexation went fully into effect. 

[159] 



76 INDEX TO THE PACIEIC ISLANDS. 

Hendenille, see Aranuka of the Gilbert islands. 

Hennake (Henuake of Wilkes), see Pukapnka, Paumotu archipelago. 33. 

Henry, a low islet of the Underwood group, Fiji. 17° 41' 30" vS., 177° 17' 30" K.O 

Heraiki, Croker or St. Quentin, was discovered by Boneclieo in 1772; 4 m. nw-se.; 
uninhabited. 17° 28' s., 143° 23' 42" w.O 21. 

Hereheretui, Bligh or San Pablo, was discovered b}- Quiros in 1606. It is low, \n\- 
inhabited, and has a clo.sed lagoon; about 3 m. in diameter. 2i°4o',s., i40°38'\v.O 

Hergest, see Marquesas islands. 

Hergest Rock, .see Motuiti of the Marquesas islands. 

Hermit, Los Eremitanos, Agonies, a group of 17 islets, of which only Loof and Geloon 
are inhabited, extending 10 m. n-s., 13 m. p:-w. 1° 36' s., 145° E. 8. 

Heron, or Ola, is northeast from Roua, Louisiade archipelago. 10° 18' .s., 154° 16' E. 

Hervey, a name given by Cook September 23, 1773, for Captain Hervey, afterwards 
Earl of Bristol, Lord of the Admiralty. It applies properlj- to the two northern 
islands. In 1777 Cook discovered Mangaia, Aitutaki and others. Krusensteni 
proposed the name of Cook for the southern group, but there seems no geographi- 
cal division and Cook's name should hold. 

Hetau, islet of Bouka, Solomon islands. Small but thickh- populated by men of 
powerful build and thorough cannibals. 

Hetchin, islet of Malekula, New Hebrides. Inhabited and cultivated; natives have 
war canoes large enough to carry fifty men. 

Heuschober, of the Admiralty group. 2° 44' S., 147° 18' E. 

Hevaisi, islet of Panatinani, Loiiisiade archipelago, 275 ft. high. 

Heyn, small, wooded, 95 ft. high; 30 m. northwest from Rook or Umboi in the Bis- 
marck archipelago. 5° 25' ,S., 147"^ 44' E. 

Heyou, of Beechey, is Han of the Paumotu archipelago. 

Hiaou, a spelling of Eiao, Marquesas islands. 

Hibwa, a small, sandy islet 60 ft. high, northwest from Nuakata, Louisiade archipelago. 

Hieh, in Auckland harbor. New Zealand. 

High, on the Australian coast. 17° 09' .s., 146° 03' E. 

High, on the Australian coast. 10° 43' .s., 142° 24' E. 

High, islet on the northeast coast of Eromanga, New Hebrides. 18° 40' s.. 169° 20' E. 

High, islet in Bismarck archipelago. 4° 48' s., 150° 03' E. 

High, islet of Arno, Marshall islands. 

High, see Grimes of the Caroline islands. 

High, see Wuli of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Higham, islet in Shallow bay, Admiralty island. 

Hikueru, or Melville, was di.scovered by Cook and called Bird, April 6, 1769. Un- 
inhabited atoll of the Paumotus, well wooded. The lagoon has a boat entrance. 
17° 35' S., 142° 39' w. 31. 

Hilap, islet of Caroline islands. 

Hillsborough, of the Beechey group of the Bonin islands. 27° 08' n., 142° 15' E, 

Hinchinbrook, on the Australian coast. 18° 23' s., 146° 15' E-© 

Hinchinbrook or Man, see Vele, New Hebrides. 

Hitchin, islet on south coast of Malekula, New Hebrides. 13. 

[160] 



INDEX TO THE PACIE/C ISLANDS. 77 

Hiti, or Eliza, one of the Raeffsky group in the Pauniotus. Uninhabited. 16° 42' S., 

144° 09' w. Also called Ohiti and Clute. 21. 
Hivaoa or Dominica, of the Marquesas islands, was discovered by Mendana 21-22 Jnly, 

1595. Dumont D'Urville calls it Oniva-Hoa. 22 m. by 6 m., 2820 ft. high. The 

most fertile and populous of the group. Population in 1880, 25oo±- The east 

end is in 9° 47' s., 138° 47' w. 23. 
Hiw, the largest of the Torres group in the New Hebrides, is 6.5 m. X 3.5 m., and 

1200 ft. high. 13° 04' s., 166° 30' K. 
Hogoleu, see Ruk, Caroline islands. 

Holborne, on the Australian coast. 19° 42' S., 148° 21' K. 

Holeva, islet 2.5 m. long, on the same reef with Lefuka, Hapai group, Tongan islands. 
Holland, see Howland. 

Holt, see Taenga of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 
Home, group on the Australian coast. ri° 57' s., 143° 17' E. 
Honden, see Pukapuka, Paumotu archipelago. 22. 

Honegueneck, one of the Pleiades group northwest of Uea, Loyalty islands. 
Honni, see One, Gilbert islands. 

Hood, of the Galapagos, is the southernmost of the group; 640 ft. high. 
Hood, see Fatuhuku, Marquesas islands. 
Hook, on the coast of Australia. 20° 07' ,s., 148° 57' E. 
Hope, islet on the Great Barrier reef. 
Hope, see Arorai, Gilbert islands. 

Hope (Captain Charles Hope) see Niuafou, Tonga islands. 
Hopper, see Apamama of the Gilbert islands. 

Horea, islet on the north side of Tiano pass, west coast of Raiatea, Society islands. 
Horn, between Torres and Endeavor straits. 10° 36' .s., 142° 16' E. 
Home, group discovered b}- Le Maire and Schouten May 19, 1616. Consists of Fotuna 

and Alofa. Under French proteclorate. 
Horno, of the Admiralty group. 2° 11' S., 147° 46' E. 
Hosken, small, wooded, 150 ft. high. 7° 36' S., 147° 37' E. 
Houaf, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 7° 39' 05" N., 151° 43' 42" E. 
Houahouna, a chart form of Huahuna of the Marquesas islands. 
Houtourou, the native name for Little Barrier in Auckland harbor, New Zealand. 
Howe (Lord), see Mopiha, Societ}' islands. 
Howick, group on the Australian coast. 14" 30' S., 145° E. 
Howison, in the F'iji group; 36 ft. high. 18° 51' s., 178° 25' 30" E.O 
Howland was discovered bj- the American Captain Netcher, September 9, 1842. 

2 m. X 0.5 m., 20 ft. high. A guano island now claimed by Great Britain. 

o" 49' X., 176° 40' \v. 
Huaheine, easternmost of the Leeward group of the Society islands, discovered by 

Cook Jul}', 1769; 20 m. in circumference; divided at high water into Huaheine nui 

and Huaheine iti. Population, iioo. 16° 42' 30" s., 159° 01' 15" w. 20. 

Huahuna, of the Marquesas islands. 8° 55' s., 139° 34' \v. 

Huapu, or Adams of the Marquesas group is a bold and rocky island rising to a 

height of 4042 ft., and covering about 45 sq. m. 9° 24' s., 140° 05' w. 23. 

[161] 



78 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Hudson, of the Fiji group, was named for Captain W. L. Hudson of the United States 
Exploring Expedition. i8° 52' s., 178^ 26' K.O 

Hudson, see Nanomanga of the EHice group. 16. 

Hudson, see Mamanutha, Fiji. 

Hudson Group, Fiji, comprises Carr, Walker, Johnson, Case, Emmons, Alden, Craven, 
Perrv, Malolo, Malolo lailai, Soni, Palmer, Waldron, and Spieden, all named for 
members of the Wilkes Expedition. It is the extreme southwest group of Fiji. 

Huga, islet of the Tongan group. Also Huga Haabai and Huga Toga. 

Hueguenee, or Pine islet of Uea, Loyalty group. 

Huerta (Garden), the Spanish name of the island called Trevanion by Carteret, now 
known by the native name Temotu. It is off the northwest end of Santa Cruz in 
the New Hebrides, about a mile from shore. Roughly triangular; 2.5 m. on a side. 

Hugon, islet in Uitoe bay on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 

Huhunati, one of the Abgarris group, Bismarck archipelago. 3° 25' S., 154° 37' E. 

Hui-wadiamo, or Chaumont, lies diredlly south of Panaman, Louisiade archipelago. 
II' 34' S., 153° 08' E. 

Hull, a very small, reefed islet of the Bonvouloir islands, 0.5 m. NW-.SE. 10° 23' s., 
151° 10' E. 

Hull, of the Phoenix group, was discovered by Wilkes August 26, 1840. A British 
prote<5lorate was proclaimed July 11, 1889. The south point is in 4° 31' 25" s., 
172° 18' 15" w. 17. 

Hull, see Sands of the Austral group. 

Humphrey, see Manihiki. 19. 

Hunter, of the New Hebrides, is a volcano 0.5 m. in diameter and 974 ft. high, dis- 
covered by Captain Fearn of the Hunter in 1798. Sulphurous vapor issues from 
the wooded sides. 22° 24' 02" S., 172° 05' 15" E. 

Hunter, see Fearn on southeast side of New Caledonia. 

Hunter, see Kili of the Marshall islands. 6. 

Hunter, group off coast of Tasmania. 

Huon, group northwest from New Caledonia, was discovered by the D'Entrecasteaux 
expedition and named for Captain Huon de Kermadec. Consists of North Huon, 
Leleizour, Fabre, and Surpri.se; the last in 18° 31' s., 163° 08' E. 13. 

Hurd, see Arorai of the Gilbert islands. 7. 

Huxley, see Bobo eina of the Louisiade archipelago. 

labama, islet in the Louisiade archipelago, 220 ft. high; wooded and cultivated, be- 
tween Nuakata and East cape. 
lakuilau, a low coral and sand islet on the west coast of Viti levu, Fiji. 
lambu, a rock, densely wooded, 370 ft. high, west from Yanutha, Ringgold group, Fiji. 
lataui, the western islet of the Montemont group, Louisiade archipelago; 40 ft. high. 
Ibargoita, see Suk of the Caroline islands. 
Ibbet.son or Ibbet.sen, .see Aurh of the Marshall islands. 
Ich-Higen, islet of Port Puebo on the northeast coast of New Caledonia. 
Idaha or Aplin, a low, uninhabited islet at the northwest end of the visible Great 
. Barrier reef. 9° 24' s., 146° 51' E. 

[162] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 79 

le, islet of Port Mueo on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 

lehgabate, islet on the northeast coast of New Caledonia. 

lehhingen, islet on the northeast coast of New Caledonia. 

lenga, islet near Port Yengen on the northeast side of New Caledonia. 

leroni, see Maitre, New Caledonia. 

Ifalik or Wilson, of the Caroline islands was discovered by Captain Wilson in the 
Duff \vl 1793. It consists of four islets about a lagoon reef 5 m. in circumference. 
Ifalik, Moai, Ella and Fararik. 7° 14' n., 144° 31' p;. 3. 

Iguari, East and West, two islands in the ea.st side of China .strait, the finst 400 ft. 
high, the other about 200 ft. high; cultivated and wooded. 

Igurin, islet on the south side of Eniwetok, Marshall i.slands. 

Ikara is on the north side of Yasaiosa bay, New Guinea. 9° 39' s., 150° 02' E. 

Ikaika, Keino or Cliff}', of the Louisiade archipelago, is 250 ft. high off west side of Wari. 

Ikop, eastern islet of Namolipiafane, Caroline islands. 4. 

Iku, or Lone Tree islet in Bingham channel, Apaiang, Gilbert islands. 7. 

Ilamu or Frith, west islet in Moresby strait between Dauila and Moratau of the 
D'Entrecasteaux group. 9° 26' s., 150° 24' E. 

He Bouzet, see He Nou. 

lie Nou, a convict station near Noumea, New Caledonia. 

lie Plate, or Gunner's Quoin in the Marquesas islands. 

Ilei, one of the Arch group; 0.3 m. NW-SE.; 270 ft. high. New Guinea. 

lies du Golfe = Ugi and Bin of the Solomon islands. 

Illasasa, of the Kiriwina group. 8° 37' s., 151° 02' E. 

lUina, a peak 615 ft. high, between Bougainville and Fauro of the Solomon islands. 

Imbett, a reef islet in the Louisiade archipelago. 11° 02' S., 151° 17' E. 

Immer, see Aniwa, New Hebrides. 

Impakel, islet of Yap, Caroline islands. 

Imsa, islet in Orangerie bay, .south coast of New Guinea. 10° 24' S., 149° 34' E. 

Inattendue of Surville is Gower of Carteret. Solomon islands. 

Indefatigable, of the Galapagos, also called Duke of Norfolk; 24 m. E-w., 17 m. N-s. 

Independence, a name given in i860 to Maiden. 

Independence, .see Sophia of the Ellice group. 

Indispensable, of the Solomon islands. 12° 30' ,S., 160° 15' K.O 

Ine, islet on the south side of the lagoon of Arno, Marshall islands. A trading sta- 
tion there. 

Infernal, see Nokue, Isle of Pines. 

Inueki, islet on the south coast of Korido, Schouten islands. 0° 55' S., 135° 30' E. 

Inyeug, islet of Aneiteum, New Hebrides. 20° 15' 17" vS., 169° 44' 44" E. 

Ipotet, a rocky islet off Cape Vogel on the northeast coast of New Guinea. 

Irakong, or Eil Malk of the Pelew group. 10° 11' 30" N., 134° 27' 30" E. 

Iririki, islet with a beacon in F'ila harbor on the southwest side of Fate. New 
Hebrides. 187 ft. high. 

Iriru, islet on the south side of the entrance to Faaroa bay, Raiatea, Society islands. 

Isenay or La Baleine, one of the Pleiades group northwest from Uea, Loyalty islands. 

Isie, islet of St. Vincent bav on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 



8o INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Islas de los velas latinas = Southern Marianas. 

Islas de los Reyes, name given by Saavedra in 1528 to a part of the Caroline islands 

supposed to be Uluthi. 
Isubobo, islet off the southeast coast of New Guinea, near Sideia island; 115 ft. high. 
Itai, islet in Nandi waters on the west coast of Viti levu, Fiji. 
Itamati, islet on the reef of Pavuvu or Russell islands, Solomon group. 
Itapa, see Santa Ana, Solomon islands. 

Itiahi, islet at the entrance to Maupiti lagoon, Society islands. 
ItO or Didvmus, on the southeast coast of New Guinea. 1.2 m.Xo.5 m.; 500ft. high; 

uninhabited. 10° 33' 50" S., 150° 46' 25" E. 
Iwa, see Jouveney of the Kiriwina group. 

lyin, or Garden, is south of Tagula of Louisiade archipelago; 170 ft. high; cultivated. 
lyoh, islet on the coast of Malaita, Solomon islands. 

Jabbering, group of four islets in Ward Hunt strait. 9° 38' s., 149° 53' K. 

Jabeia, islet between Yasawa and Naviti, Fiji. 

Jabor, islet of Jaluit, Marshall islands. 5° 55' N., 169° 39' K. 

Jabwat, of the Marshall islands; 0.7 m. X 0.2 m. 7° 43' N., 169° 05' K. 6. 

Jacob, islet on the New Guinea coast. 3° 07' s., 132° 27' E. 

Jacquemart, off the south coast of Campbell island, New Zealand. 

Jacquinot, a conical island off the north coast of New Guinea. 3° 25' vS., 144° 22' E. 

Jaluit or Bonham, of the Marshall islands, was discovered in 1809 from the brig 
Iifis(if>rf/i. It is an atoll with 50 islets on a reef 32 m. n-s., and from 7 to 20 m. 
wide. In 1882 the population was 700. The lagoon has a depth of 25-30 fathoms. 
Now the seat of the German Government in the Marshall group. The north point, 
according to Captain Brown, is in 6° 22' N., 169"' 22' K. 6. 

James, of the Galapagos, is 1200 ft. high. 0° 15' 20" S. 

Jamna, on the north coast of New Guinea. The natives superior to those farther east. 

Jane, islet in the Caroline islands. 

Jane, islet, 600 ft. high, at the head of Port Moresby, New Guinea. 

Jappen, .see Jobi, New Guinea. 

Jardines (Los), a name given by the Spanish navigators to some garden-like islands 
eastward of the Marianas. Krusenstern thinks Namonuito in the Carolines. 
Mhnoires liydrographiques., p. 16. 

Jarrad, group on the south shore of Collingwood bay, New Giiinea. 9°34's., 149° 30' E. 

Jarvis or Bunker was discovered bj' Captain Brown in the English ship Eliza Erancis 
August 21, 182 1. A raised coral island 10-12 ft. above the sea, of triangular out- 
line; 1.7 m. E-w., I ni. N'-S. No trees, and little grass; mostly guano. Annexed 
to Great Britain June 3, 1889. o" 22' 33" .s., 159° 54' 11" w. 19. 

Jarvis, 525 ft. high, 36 m. from the coa.st of New Guinea. 9° 55' ,s., 142^ E. 

Jawt, islet of Ruk lagoon, Caroline islands. 4. 

JekoitS, islet of Ponape, Caroline islands. An irregular triangle, 1.5 m.i on a side, 
1000 ft. high. 5. 

Jemo, Temo or Steep-to was seen from the Natttilus in 1799. . It is 0.7 m. in diameter. 

10 00' 45" X., 169" 42' E. Marshall islands. 6. 

[164] 



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INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 8r 

Jenkins, 3 m. long, off the coast of New Britain, Bismarck archipelago. 5° 15' s., 

_ i5o'_39' H- 
Jeridy, islet at the east end of Majuro lagoon, Marshall islands. 7°o4'n., 171° 24' 30"?;. 
Jermaeloff or Yermaloff of Bellingshausen is Taenga of the Paumotu archipelago. 
Jervis is the largest of the Bellevue group in Torres strait. 9° 07' s., 142° ii' K. 
Jervis, an island of the Galapagos. 
JeSU Maria, of the Admiralty group, is 600-800 ft. high, 7-8 m. long, inhabited. 

2° 20' S., 147° 40' K. 
Jesus (Isla de), discovered by Alvaro de Mendana January 15, 1568. Perhaps Nano- 

mea, Ellice group. 
Jih, north islet of Odia atoll of the Marshall islands. 
Joannet, see Panatinani of the Louisiade archipelago. 
Jobenor, islet of Lukunor, Marshall islands. 
Jobi or Jappen, a large island at the entrance to Geelvink bay on the New Guinea coast. 

no m. E-w., 10-15 "1- wide, 2500 ft. high. Inhabited by Papuans on the lowlands, 

but on the mountains a more savage tribe is in constant hostilities with the 

dwellers on the shore. Belongs to the Sultan of Tidore and is under Dutch rule. 

The east end is in 1° 46' s., 136° 52' E. 
Johnson, one of the Hudson group, Fiji; 70 ft. high. 17° 36' 30" S., 177° 00' 20" E.O 

Named for Lieutenant R. E. Johnson of the Wilkes Expedition. 
Johnston group consists of three thickly wooded islets, about 70 ft. high, in the 

Admiralty islands. 2° 25' S., 147° 06' E. 
Johnston or Cornwallis was discovered December 14, 1807, by Captain Johnston of 

H. M. S. Conra'allis. Examined in 1859 by Lieutenant J. M. Brooks of U. S. 

schooner Fennimore Cooper. It is a lagoon island 3.5 by 3.2 m. and affords 

guano. Claimed by the American Guano Company of San Francisco. 16° 45' x., 

169° 39' w. 
Jomard, low group consisting of Panawaipona and Panarairai and a few islets in the 

Louisiade archipelago. 11° 15' s., 152° 09' E. 
Jombombo, islet in Astrolabe bay, northeast coast of New Guinea. 
Jouvency or Iwa, 24 m. east from Kitava in the Kiriwina group, a mile in diameter, 

consisting of coral terraces and precipices., thickly wooded. Ascent from the sea 

by ladders. Ebony in quantity. A finer people than on New Guinea. 8° 44' s., 

151° 44' K. Jouvency was Geographical Engineer on the Esperance. In the latest 

publication of the Admiralty Hydrographic Bureau this island is called Jouveney 

and is so printed on charts. 
Juan Fernandez, or Mas-a-tierra, was named for a Spaniard voyaging from Lima to 

Valdivia in 1563. It is a volcanic island 12X4 ^-i 3000 ft. high, 360 m. west from 

Valparaiso. For three years the residence of Alexander Selkirk, the prototype of 

the immortal Robinson Crusoe. 13° 37' 45" S., 78° 13' w. 
Judge and his Clerk, 24 m. n., 20° e. true from the north end of Macquarie island. 

54' 22' .s., 158' 46' E. 
Jurien, .see Kitava of the Kiriwina group. Jurien was a volunteer on the Esperance. 
Jurij, islet on the west coast of Ebon, Marshall islands. 4° 36' 33" n., 168° 41' 35" E. 

Mfmoiks H. p. U. Museum, Vol, I., No. 2.-6. L '^Sj 



82 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Kaafa, see Pylstaart or Ata of the Tongan islands. 

Kaan, a group of eight islets discovered by Tasman in 1643 and bj- him named 
Anthony Caens after a member of the Council ' for India. They are due north 
from the northeast point of New Ireland. 3° 30' s., 153° 28' K. The people are 
described as naked, ferocious and armed with spears. 10. 

Kabara, see Kambara, Fiji. 

Kahoolawe, of the Hawaiian group, is a rather barren looking sheep pasture south- 
west of Maui. It has an extent of 44,000 acres, and is 1427 ft. high. i. 

Kadais, islet in the lagoon of Egum atoll in the Kiriwina group. 9° 26' s., 151° 57' E. 

Kaboer, islet in Geelvink bay, on the north coast of New Guinea. 

Kada\ u, see Kandavu, F'iji. 

Kahalape, islet of Andema, Caroline islands. 

Kaiari, islet of Jobi, New Guinea. 

Kaileuna, of the Kiriwina group. 8° 35' s., 150° 55' E. 

Kaimbo, islet of volcanic and coral formation off east point of Yathata in the Lau 
group, Fiji. 1.5 m. long, 150 ft. high, cultivated. 

Kaini or D'Urville. Natives wear little clothing, are small (5 ft. high) and adlive; wear 
hair proje<5ling behind in a conical case 18 in. long. West end, 3° 20' S., 143° 26' E. 

Kajangle, group of four small islands surrounded by a reef in the Pelew group. The 
largest is 4 m. in circumference. 8° 03' N., 134° 39' E. 

Kakea, islet of Port Patteson, Vanua Lava, New Hebrides. 

Kakula, of the New Hebrides, is a low, tree-covered islet on the reef which extends a 
mile from the north shore of Fate. It is inhabited. 

Kalan, islet of Ontong Java. 5° 30' s., 159° 15' E. 

Kalap, see Mokil, Caroline islands. 

Kalatl, islet on the southwest side of Eua, Tongan group. 

Kalo, islet at west end of Udjelong, Marshall islands. 

Kaluma, a name of Panawina of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Kama, see Eurupig, Caroline i.slands. 3. 

Kamac or Table islet in Infernet passage on the southwest coast of New Caledonia. 

Kamako or Collie, an islet of Mangareva. 

Kambara, Fiji, 3.5 m. by 2 m.; of reftangular form, fertile and well wooded; 350 ft. high 
on the northwest side where there is no reef. South end, 18° 58' 13" s., 181° 03' E. 

Kanathia, Fiji, 5 m. west from Valua valavo, is 3 m. n-s., 2.5 m. E-\v., 830 ft. high. 
The peak is in 17° 16' 30" s., 180° 53' E. 14. 

Kandavu (Kadavu), Fiji, was discovered by Bligh and called Mywoolla. It is 32 m. 
EXE-\vs\v., and from half to eight miles wide. Buke levu or Mount Washington 
is 2750 ft. high. Population, about 7000. The peak is in 19° 05' s., 177° 58' E. 

Kandavu, islet in Nandi waters on the west coast of Viti levu. 

Kandomo, an uninhabited islet of Mamanutha ira group, Fiji. 

Klao, a conical rock, 3030 ft. high, northeast from Tofua, Tongan group. i9°4i'35"s., 
174' 59' 50" w. 

Kapeniur, islet of Ailuk, Marshall islands. At the north end ; 4 m. in circumference. 

Kapenmailang, a small group near Nukuor, Caroline islands, on which a pure Poly- 
nesian dialect is spoken. 

[166] 



INDEX TO THE PACIEIC ISLANDS. 83 

Kapenoar, islet of Pakin, Caroline islands. 7° 40' 40" n., 157° 44' K. 5. 

Kapenor, islet of Likieb on the west side, Marshall islands. 6. 

Kapinga marangi, a name of Greenwich, Caroline islands. 

Kapiti or Entry, New Zealand. 40° 50' .s., 174° 35' K. 

Kapuma, islet in Sonth bay of Fate, New Hebrides. 

Karajiu, Solomon islands. 8° 38' s., 158° 10' K. 

Karajiu geta, Solomon islands. 8° 30' S., 158° 07' K. 

Karajiu miki, Solomon islands. 8° 27' S., 158° 05' K. 

Karewha, in Bay of Plenty, New Zealand. 37° 29' S., 176° 10' K. 

Kar-Kar or Dampier, a high volcanic peak, 5000 ft. highi; 36-40 m. in circumfer- 
ence. 4° 42' s., 145° 58' K. 

Karkone, one of the Hermit islands, i" 32' S., 145° 01' K. 

Karlshoff, see Aratika of the Paumotu archipelago. 31. 

Karobailo Kawa, islet of the Talbot group between Kawa and Mata Kawa at the 
mouth of the Wassi Kussa river, New Guinea. 9° 16' s., 142° 11' K. 

Karoni, high islet within the reef of Mothe, Fiji. 18" 40' s., 181° 28' 40" K. 

Kartl, islet of the Harcourt group, north from Ugue bav on the northeast coast of 
New Caledonia. 

KaSSa, New Guinea coast. 9° 15' s., 142° 19' K. 

Kata, see Enderby, Caroline islands. 4. 

Katafanga, Fiji, a small island inhabited only during the turtle season. It is the 
property of an European. East point is in 17° 30' 30" s., 181° 19' 30" K. 

Katai or Connor, is triangular, each side 1.5 m., 430 ft. high, well wooded. io°4o'3o"s., 
151 05' 30" K. 

Katelma, islet of Pakin, Caroline islands. 7" 02' n'., 157° 47' 30" K. 

Kater, one of the Bonin group, 160 ft. high. 27° 30' n., 142° 16' K. 

Katharine, see Udjae, Marshall islands. 

Katill or Saken, of the Paumotu archipelago, was discovered bj- Bellingshau.sen in 
1822. The southeast point is in 16° 31' s., 144° 12' 10" w. 21. 

Kato katoa, see Glenton, New Guinea. 

KattOU, islet off the north point of Babeltop, Pelew islands. 

Kau, uninhabited island on the coast of New Guinea. 

Kauai, of the Hawaiian group. Here Cook first landed. It is the fourth in size and 
perhaps the most beautiful of the group. Area,, 348,000 acres. Population, 15,228 
in 1896. Volcanic adlion seems first to have ceased at this end of the chain. 
Atooi of Cook. 28 m. E-W. by 23 m. x-s. I. 

Kauehi, see Kawehe of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

Kaukura or Aura, of the Paumotu archipelago, is about 24 m. long, wooded and in- 
habited. 15° 43' s., 146' 50' 36" w. 30. 

Kaula, a red volcanic islet off Niihau of the Hawaiian group; 17 m. sw. from Niihau. 

Kaven, islet of Maloelab, Marshall islands; 2.2 m. by 0.7 m. 8° 51' x., 170° 49' K. 

Kaveva, islet in Sausau passage on the north coast of Vanua levu, Fiji. 

Kawa, westernmost of the Talbot group. New Guinea. 9° 16' s., 142° 09' K. 

Kawau, in Auckland bay. New Zealand. 

Kawehe or Kauehi, the Vincennes of Wilkes, in the Paumotu archipelago, was dis- 

L167] 



84 INDEX TO THE PACfFfC ISLANDS. 

covered by Captain Fitzrov in H. M. S. Bcoirlr m 1835. It is 12 m. N-s., open 
lagoon with 15 fathoms. Sonth point is in 15° 59' 48" s., 145° 09' 30" \v. ai. 

Kayangle or Moore of the Pelew islands; 1.5 m. long. 8° 02' 30" n., 134° 38' 30" K. 
Better spelling is Kajangle. 

Kayser, off west coast of Bouka, Solomon islands. 5° 31' S., 154° 36' K. 

Kea, an inhabited islet, 570 ft. high, near X'anua leva, Fiji. 16° 39' S., 179° 57' 20" K. 

Keaba, islet of Ysabel, Solomon islands. Sometimes spelled Keaha. 8'\s., 159° 28' K. 

Keai, near Port Chalmers, New Guinea. 8° 10' s., 146° 06' K. 

Keats, in Torres strait. 9° 41' s., 143° 25' E. 

Kelifijia or Falafagea, of the Tongan islands. 28° 31' s., 175° 18' w. 

Keltina, islet off north coast of New Guinea, near Cape King William. A German station. 

Kemin, see Gardner of the Phoenix group. 17. 

Kempe, group of two small islands connecfled by reef 1.5 m. north from Goulvain or Dobu. 

Kemtai, islet 20 ft. high, on the southeast coast of New Guinea. 

Kendec, wooded islet in Kumak passage on the northwest coast of New Caledonia. 

Kenned}-, see Motuiti of the Santa Cruz islands. 

Kent, group in Bass strait between Flinders and Cape Wilson. See F. Nixon, Nana- 
lizr of a I'isit to the islands in the Bass's Straits, London, 1857, 8vo. 

Kepara, or Two Brothers, was discovered by D'Urville. It is west from Bultig, New 
Guinea. 

Keppel, see Niuatobutabu of the Tongan islands. 18. 

Kerakera, islet on the bordering reef of Wari, Louisiade archipelago; 60 ft. high 
and grassy. 

Kerawarra in the Bismarck archipelago. 4° 17' .s., 152° 25' K. 

Kennadec group. Named by D'Entrecasteaux for the commander of D Espe ranee, 
Huon de Kermadec. The group is 500 m. KNE. from the north cape of New 
Zealand, and extends 140 m. nne-SSVV. There are four islands: the largest, Raoul, 
was named by D'Entrecasteaux for the officer who first saw it; the .south one for 
his ship, L'Esperance. Lieutenant Watts, in 1788, discovered Curtis and Macau- 
ley. Group annexed to Great Britain in 1886 and now a part of the colony of 
New Zealand. 

Kerne, see Squally, of the Bismarck archipelago. lO. 

Kewley, see Udjelong of the Caroline islands. 5. 

Kia, islet 780 ft. high, north of Vanua levu, Fiji, and just within the north point of 
the Great Sea Reef. 16° 14' s., 179° 06' E. 14, 

Kiamu or Grimoult, islet in Mueo bay, southwest side of New Caledonia. 

Kiangle, see Kajangle, Pelew islands. 

Kibu, of the Kiriwina group. 8° 40' s., 150° 48' E. 

Kie, islet 760 ft. high, off Muthuata on the north side of Vanua levu, Fiji. \(i' i3'54"s., 
170° 05' E. 

Kie, islet on the .southeast reef of New Caledonia. 

Kilagen, islet north side of Udjelong, Marshall islands. 

Kilap, islet of Uluthi, Caroline islands. 

Kill or Hunter group. Discovered by Captain Dennett; in the Marshall group; 2.5 m. 
in diameter, uninhabited. 5" 40' n., 169° 15' e.© 

[168] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 85 

Killerton, group of small islands on the coast of New Guinea : Harowani, inhabited ; 
Mahabarina, Waga tumaiawa on the southwest, and four smaller islets. lo'as's., 
150° 38' K. 

Kimbombo, three islets within a reef 12 ni. in circumference; south and largest 
densely wooded, 190 ft. high; middle one coral and .sand, 120 ft. high; northern- 
most and smallest also coral and sand, 100 ft. high. Fiji. 

Kimuta, westernmost and largest of the Renard group, Louisiade archipelago; 3.2 ni. 
long. Villages on the north side. 

Kinamue, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 

Kinde, islet north from Nemmene peninsula, southeast coast of New Caledonia. 

King, off northwest point of Tasmania. 

King George group, name given by Byron in 1765 to two atolls, Takapoto and 
Takaroa of the Paumotu archipelago. 31. 

King George, Wallis' name for Tahiti, Society islands. 

King, see Taiaro, of the Paumotus. 

Kingsmill, a name of a portion of the Gilbert islands, sometimes applied to the whole 
group. 

Kioa, in Somosomo strait, east of Vanua levu, Fiji; 5 m. nh-vSW., 920 ft. high, un- 
inhabited. 

Kiriwina or Trobriand. Names applied both to the principal island and to the whole 
group of low coral but fertile islands. The population is more than i8,ogx3 of 
Polynesian, and a mixture of Papuan, Polynesian and Malay. 9. 

Kitava or Jurien, of the Kiriwina group, is an elevated atoll 300-400 ft. high, with 
an area of 5-6 sq. m. There are 13 villages in the depression which marks the 
old lagoon. This is surrounded by a wooded coral wall 50-100 ft. high. Inhabi- 
tants are peaceful, industrious and fond of wood carving. They make wide- 
mouthed earthen pots for cooking, and have remarkable dances, using a sort of 
double shield in that amusement. 8° 40' s., 151° 24' E. 

Kiup, islet of Makin, Gilbert islands. 3° 17' n., 172° 56' 20" E. 

Kiusick, in the Yasawa group, Fiji; 40 ft. high. 16° 41' s., 177° 33' E.O 

Kivave, islet of Fakaafo. 9° 22' 20" s., 171° 12' w. 

Kiwai, a long and populous island at the mouth of the Fly river on the south coast of 
New Guinea; 37 ni. long. South point in 8° 54' S., 143° 36' E. 

Knox, see Ailinginae, Marshall islands. Also islet of this atoll. ii°05'n., 166° 35' e. 

Knox, see Eiao, Marquesas i.slands. 

Knox, a common misprint for Knoy, see Tarawa, Gilbert islands. 

Knox, islet 47 ft. high, in the Yasawa group, Fiji. 17° 26' s., 177° 02' E.O 

Knox group, ten islets 5 m. w. by N-E. by s.; 3 m. sw. from Mille, Marshall islands. 

Knoy, see Tarawa, Gilbert islands. 

Kobiloko or Yam, islet of Pavuvu or Russell group, Solomon islands. 9° 02' S., 

159' 05' E- 
Kodokupuei, islet of Sansoral. 5° 20' n., 132° 20' E. 
Koikoi, on the New Guinea coast. 10° 17' S., 149° 21' E. 
Koliviu, a mangrove-covered islet of the Maskelyne group. New Hebrides, 
Komachu, islet of Guadalcanar, Solomon islands. 

[169] 



86 INDEX TO THE PACfEfC ISLANDS. 

Komo levu, island north of Ularua, Fiji; 1.5 ni. by 0.5 ni., and 270 ft. high; in- 
habited. 18° 37' 30" S., 181° 20' K. 

Komo ndriti, dark, rocky companion to the last; levu = large, ndriti = small. 
iS ;,S' s., 181 18' 30" K. 

Konaoe doi, islet of Ono i lau, Fiji. 

Kondog^, islet of Muendo bay on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 

Konduyo, islet in Isie pa.ssage, New Caledonia. 21° 52' S., 165° 47' K. 

Koniene, has two curious peaks, in Kataviti bay on the northwest side of New Caledonia. 

Konig islet is north from Bilibili on north coast of New Guinea. 

Kora, islet east from Kia, Fiji. 

Korak, south of Kajangle, with Arayonzet and Carapellas on a reef 4.5 m. n-s., 
5 m. v.-w. Pelew islands. 

Kordinkoff, a name given by Kotzebue in 1824 to Rose island of the Manua group 
( vSamoan). 

Korido or Korrido, of the Schouten group, is little known. 0° 45' S., 135° 35' K. 

Koro or Goro, Fiji, is 10 m. N-s., 4.5 m. K-w., 1840 ft. high; wooded, manj- coconuts. 
Population about 1000. North point is in 17° 13' 30" s., 179° 26' 30" H. 

Korolib or Goat, Fiji, wooded islet 320X200 yards. 16° 46' 20" s., 180° 01' 40" E. 

Korotuna, F"iji, small, fertile, inhabited. 16° 04' s., 180° 37' 30" K. 

Korror, the .seat of government of the Pelew islands; 3.5 m. by 2.5 m. 

Korsakoff, see Ailinginae of the Marshall islands. Usualh- Remski-Korsakoff. 

Kosmann or Maragili, of the Loui.siade archipelago; uninhabited. ii°o6's., i5i°3o'e. 

Kotu, group of small islands at the southwest part of the Hapai group, Tongan isl- 
ands. Principal islands, Oua and Luanamo. 

Kotuho, Fiji. 16' 48' 50" s., 179' 25' 30" K.O 

Koulo, islet of the Tongan group. 

Koutousoff of Bellingshau.sen { 1820) is Makemo, Paumotu archipelago. 

Kowata, islet 570 ft. high off west coast of Viti levu, Fiji. 

Krudu, see Quoy, New Guinea. 

Krusenstern, see Tikahau of the Paumotu archipelago. 20. 

Kubokonilick, in the Bismarck archipelago. 4° 13' s., 152° 23' R. 

Kuebuni, islet north from Port Goro, southeast side of New Caledonia. 

Euiao, islet of the Kiriwina group. 8° 38' 30" s., 150° 51' K. 

Kuku, islet 87 ft. high on the southwest side of Malolo, Hudson group, Fiji. i7°47's., 
177 07' E. 

Kukuluba, islet 65 ft. high, east of the Duchateau group, Louisiade archipelago. 
II 16 .S., 152 21 45 E. 

Kulambangara or Kulambangra, of the vSolomon islands, is 16 m. n-s., 13 m. E-w.; 

5000 ft. high, f 58' s., 157° 05' E. 
Kumbara, on northeast coa.st of Guadalcanar, Solomon islands. 9° 31' io"s., 160° 29' E. 
Kumi, islet of Rongelab, Marshall islands. 11° 26' 35" N., 167° 10' E. 6. 
Kunie, see Isle of Pines. 13. 

Kurateke, see Vanavana of the Paumotu archipelago. 22. 
Kuria or Woodle, of the Gilbert islands, was discovered by Captains Marshall and 

Gilbert in 1788; 5 m. by 2.5 m, 0° 13' N., 173° 28' 30" E. 7. 

[170] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 87 

Klirimarau, islet of Pavuvu, Solomon islands. 

Kuriva is southeasternmost of the Engineer group, Louisiades; 2 m. R-w., 400 ft. high. 

Large village on the south side. 
Kurudu is 3 m. east from Jappen on the north coast of New Guinea. It is 8 m. K-w. 
Kusaie, Ualan or Strong, of the Caroline islands, was discovered in 1804 by Captain 

Crozer, who named it for Caleb Strong, the Governor of Massachusetts ; 8.5 m. 

K-w., -jq ni. N-s.; 24 m. in circumference; volcanic. Mt. Crozer is 2152 ft. high. 

Population about 400. 5° 19' n., 163° 06' E. 5. 
Kussa, of the Talbot group, north of Boigu, New Guinea. 9° 16' s., 142° 21' K. 
Kuthiu, a form of Kusaie, Caroline islands. 
Kutomo or Lesser Lsle of Pines, a portion separated from the main island by a narrow 

channel. 
KtltU, islet of Satoan, Caroline islands. 4. 
Kutusow, see Utirik of the Marshall islands. 6. 
KuvyO, islet of Maskelyne group, New Hebrides. 
Kwadelen or Kwajalong, see Kwadjalin. 
Kwadjalin, of the Marshall islands, consists of many islets about a lagoon, of which 

the west side is 58 m. long. The north islet is in 9° 14' n., 167° 02' E. Mentschi- 

kow group of map No. 6. 
Kwaiatabu, a name of Duau, D'Entrecasteaux group. 
Kwaiawata, of the Kiriwina group, is nearly 2 m. in diameter. The lagoon has a 

high, wooded, coral wall around, and the whole indications are of a raised island. 

About 400 inhabitants. 
Kwaiope, islet southeast from Moratau of the D'Entrecasteaux group. 9° 43' s., 

150° 54' K. 
Kwatatia, small island north from Rogeia, on the southeast coast of New Guinea, 

belonging to the London Missionary Society. 
Kwewato, a coral island, densely peopled, in the Kiriwina group. 8°3o's., 151° E 

I/abi, of the Kiriwina group. 8° 36' s., 150° 50' K. 

Laciba, see Lathiba, a small, low island off Ngau, Fiji. 

La Desgraciada, a name on the Spanish chart captured b\^ Anson and supposed to 
apply to one of the Hawaiian islands. 

Ladrone, a name given to the Marianas by some of the Spanish sailors of Magalhaes, 
who fancied the indigenes were great thieves. As they were not more so than 
other islanders, or perhaps than the sailors who named them, it seems a pity to 
attach the stigma of such a name to the group, especially as all the original in- 
habitants have been "converted" into the grave. 

I/ae or Brown, of the Marshall islands, was discovered by Captain J. W. Brown in 
December, 1858. It is a group of 14 islets on a reef 6 m. in diameter. About 250 
inhabitants. 9° n., 166° 20' E. 

Lagoon of Cook is Vahitahi of the Paumotu archipelago. Lagoon of Bligh is Tema- 
tangi of the same group. 

Lagrandiere, of the Kiriwina group. Named for Lieutenant Lagrandiere of the 
Espi'nince. 8" 52' s., 151° 12' E.O 

[171] 



88 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Lagrimas de San Pedro, a discovery of Quir6s, April 27, 1606, was perhaps the Banks 

islands. 
I<aig^el, northeast from Moratau, was named for Ensign Laignel, one of D'Entre- 

casteaux' officers. It is in 9° 18' S., 150° 55' E. 
I/aika is nearly 2 m. north from Tongoa of the New Hebrides and is not permanently 

inhabited. 
Lain, in Geelvink bay, northwest coast of New Guinea, o" 56' .s., 135° 30' K. 
Laing, islet in Hansa bay, north coast of New Guinea. 4° 12' .S., 144° 52' K. 
I/aine or Uo, is north from Mare of the Loyalty group. It is low and covered with 

pine trees. 
Lakahia, of the New Guinea region. 4° 06' s., 138° 28' H. 
Lakeba, see Lakemba, Fiji. 
Lakemba, a fertile island 5 m. K-vv., 3 m. n-s.; 720 ft. high. It has an extensive reef. 

Population has a large mixture of Tongan. Lakemba was the first Vitian island 

christianized by the English Mission in 1S35. Northeast point is in 18° 13' s., 

181° 12' K. 14. 
Lakena, islet of Nanomea, Ellice group. 16. 

La Madalena, a name given by Mendana to Fatuhiva of the Marquesas islands. 
La Menu, islet on the northwest coast of Api, New Hebrides. 16° 33' s., 168° 06' K. 
La Mesa, a name on the Spanish chart captured by Anson, supposed to apply to Hawaii. 
Lamoliork, see Ngoli of the Caroline archipelago. 
Lamotrek or Swede, a triangular reef about 6 ni. WNW-ESE. There are several islets 

on the Iwrder of the lagoon which are inhabited. 7° 24' N., 146° 30' E. 
Lamtlt, islet off the southwest coast of Vanua levu, Fiji. 
Lanai, an island in the central portion of the main Hawaiian group containing 

86,000 acres; 3400 ft. high, with a population of no. I. 
Lancier, see Akiaki of the Paumdtn archipelago. Z2,. 
Langdon of Roberts is Hatutu of the Marquesas islands. 
Laraoro, New Guinea. 10° 23' .S., 149° 20' E. 
Larkin, of the Caroline islands. 

Laseinie, a group of six islets in the Louisiade archipelago. 
Laskar, see Lisian.sky of the Hawaiian group. 2. 
La.s.sion, another form of Lisiansky. 
Las Tres Marias, .see Three Sisters, Solomon islands. 
Late i Tonga, Late i Viti and Booby, three islets in the lagoon of Reid reef in the 

Lau group, Fiji. 17° 54' s., 178° 23' w.O 
Late or Lette, a volcanic island of the Tongan group, 6-7 m. in circumference and 

1790 ft. high. 18° 52' S., 174° 37' w. 
Lathiba, small, low island off Ngau, Fiji. 

La Tortue, one of the Pleiades group, northwest from Uea of the Loyalty islands. 
La Treguada, see Ulava, Solomon islands. 
Laucala, see Lauthala, Fiji. 
Laughlan, a group around a lagoon 5 m. E-w., discovered by Captain Laughlan in the 

Mary, 1812. The ten islets are Wabomat, Budelun, Wasimu, Oburak, Bukulan, 

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INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 89 

Ozareo, Sureb, Kuneotu, Bwanibwani, Tamaris. The group is also called Nada. 
There are about 170 inhabitants — a colony from Murea. 9° 18' s., 153' 38' K. 

I/auru, on the New Guinea coast. 0° 31' s., 134° K,. 

I/ausancay, a group of low islands extending some 20 m. along a reef; between 
25 vS., 150 20 K. and 8 31 s., 150 26 K. 9. 

Lauthala (Laucala), Fiji, is 4 m. long and 880 ft. high. The peak is in 16° 47' s., 
180" 23' K. 

I^auvergne, islet of Ruk, of the Caroline archipelago. 

La Vandola, the easternmost of the Admiralty group ; nearly circular, about 600 ft. 
high, well peopled. 2° 15' .S., 148° 11' E. 

Lavao, see Yule. 

I/ayard, two low, small islands on the New Guinea coast. 7° 35' .s., 147° 32' E. 

I/ayrle, islet at the north side of St. Vincent bay on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 

I/aysan or Moller, of the Hawaiian group, is an American discovery. Captain Stani- 
kowitch, in 1828, named it after his vessel. It extends 2 m. by 1.5 m. and is per- 
haps 25 ft. high. For some years it has been leased by the Hawaiian Government 
to parties who export guano. 25° 47' 47" N., 171° 53' w. Z. 

Lazaroff or Lazarev, see Matahiva of the Paumotu archipelago. 20. 

I/eausan or Protedlion, on the northwest side of Fate, New Hebrides. 

I/Cbris, a high islet in Uarai passage on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 

I/ebrun group, northwest from Wari, consists of Hikarika and Dodigi, two conical 
islands extending E-w. 10° 52' S., 150° 57' E. 

Iv'^Echiquier group was discovered by Bougainville and named from a fancied resem- 
blance to a checkerboard. There are 53 islets, with some 800 inhabitants of a dark 
copper color and with long, stringy hair. The northeast point is in i°o6's., 144° 30' E. 

Lefuka, a form of Lifuka found on old charts. 

I<egoarant group, two small islands off the north coast of New Guinea, 3 m. from 
shore and half a mile apart. 5° 08' s., 145° E. 

I/Chua, a small, volcanic island about a mile from the north end of Niihau of the 
Hawaiian group. The channel between is very shallow. I. 

I/Ciga, islet of the Basses islands in the Louisiade archipelago. 

I<eigh, islet off Port Carteret on the coast of New Ireland. 

I^eili is large, low, of horseshoe shape, in Sio bay of Malaita, Solomon islands. 
8° 48' s., 160° 53' E. 

I/CJeune, a wooded islet on the north edge of a long reef in the Louisiade archipelago. 
11° 12' S., 151° 50' E. 

I/Ckeleka, islet on Barrier reef, 5 m. southeast from Oua, Hapai group, Tongan islands. 

I/Ckin, islet in form of a cube, between Uea and Moali, Loyalty group. 

I^eku, low islet off Viti levu, Fiji. 18° 04' S., 177° 16' E.O 

I/Cle, i.slet of Kusaie, Caroline islands. According to Liitke the natives pronounce 
the name Leila. 5° 20' N., 163° 09' E. 

lyeleigana, one of the Obstrudion islands, Louisiade archipelago; 325 ft. high, 
wooded and inhabited. 

I/Cleiijour, one of the Huou group. It has guano worked by a French establish- 
ment. 18° 18' S. 

C173] 



90 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Leleppa or ProteAion, New Hebrides; 2.5 m. nnw-SSE., 1.5 m. wide, 637 ft. high; in- 
habited. Off the northwest coast of Fate, forming the west side of Havannah 
harbor. 

Leligoat or Hamelin, a low and wooded islet of the Loj-alt}' group. 

Leluvia is south from Moturiki, Fiji; low and covered with coconut walks. 1 7° 48' 30" vS., 
178 46' K. 

I/Cnen, islet of Ailinglablab of the Marshall islands. 

I/COCadie group, two islets off the New Guinea coast. 

lyeonidas, low islet 0.7 m. in circumference, off Vanua levu, Fiji. 16° 39' 24 " S., 
178^ 36' 50" K.O 

Leper, see Aoba (Omba), New Hebrides. 

I/Cni, islet of Pavuvu, Solomon islands. 

I/eSSOn, an active volcano (May 20, 1874) on the north coast of New Guinea; 3.5 m. 
in circumference, 2200 ft. high. The natives wear their hair in bundles enclosed 
in basket work and often projedling a foot behind. 3° 35' s., 144° 47' K. 8. 

Lette, see Late, Tongan islands. 

I/CUen, south island of Namu atoll of the Marshall islands. 8° 14' N., 168° 03' E. 

Leuneuwa, islet of Ontong Java. 5° 28' s., 159° 44' K. 

Levalea, islet of Pavuvu, Solomon islands. 

Lewis, islet of the Yasawa group, Fiji. 17° 28' 40" S., 177° 00' 10" E.© 

lyib, of the Marshall islands ; 2.2 m. E-w. 8° 20' n., 167° 30' E. (Captain Dennett. ) 6. 

I/iftl, raised coral, 100-250 ft. high, in the Loyalty group. Population, 7000:^::. 
Formerly cannibals. 20° 36' S., 167° 06' E. 13. 

I/ifuka, low, 5 m.by 2 m., in the Hapai group, Tongan islands. 19° 49' s., 175° 41' w. 18. 

I/ikieb, of the Marshall islands, was discovered by Kotzebue November 5, 1817. It 
consists of 44 islets on an atoll 27 m. long and from 7-12 m. wide. 9° 48' N., 
169 21 E. 

I/ikuri, a sand islet off west coast of Viti levu, Fiji. 

Lileb, see Kwadjalin of the Marshall islands. 

I/ily, on the New Guinea coast. 9° 25' S., 147° 02' E. 

I/imu, islet in the Hapai group, Tongan islands. 

I/ina, of the Solomon islands. 7° 15' s., 157° 32' E. 

Linthicum, in the Underwood group, Fiji; low and wooded. i7°44's., 177° 15' io"e.O 

I/isiansky, of the Hawaiian group, was discovered by Captain Lisiansky in the Neva, 
0(5lober 15, 1805. It is 3 m. by 2 m., and 40 ft. high. 26° N., 173° 57' w. 3. 

Livingston, see Namonuito of the Caroline islands. 4. 

I/izard, islet of Hueguenee, Loyalty islands. 

I/izard, islet on the Australian coa.st. 14° 40' s., 145° 28' E. 

I/loyd, on the .Australian coast. 12° 46' s., 143° 26' E. 

I/O or Saddle, Torres islands; 3.5 m. n-s. by 2 m. e-\v., 500 ft. high. Natives quiet 
and friendU'. 13° 20' S., 166° 35' E. 

I/Oa (Observatory of Wilkes), is northeast from Oneata to which it is connedled by a 
sunken reef; 140 ft. high. 18" 24' 40" s., 181° 28' e.O 

Loangi, a mile long, off Vanua levu, Fiji. 

I/Och, New Guinea region. 7" 45' s., 144° 12' E. 

[174] 



INDEX TO THE PACTFIC ISLANDS. 91 

I/OCOl, islet at the head of Port Moresby, New Guinea. 

IvOfaga, of the Tongan islands. 19° 51' s., 175° 30' w. 

I/Ogea, in China strait, New Guinea. 10° 39' s., 150° 38' K. 

Loliwari, a name of Ambryra, New Hebrides. 

Lolo or Roro, forms of the native name of Yule. See Roro. 

I/Oloata with Lolorua, on east side of Port Moresby; 130 ft. high. 9'33's., 147" 17'E. 

I/Omlom or Nevelo, of the Matema islands, is 5 m. by 1.5 m., and 200 ft. high. Brit- 
ish protectorate was proclaimed August 28, 1898. 

Lone Tree, see Iku of Apaiang, Gilbert islands. Another of the same name on the 
north reef of Tarawa. 

I/Ong, volcanic island 2000 ft. high, north from Vitiez strait, north coast of New 
Guinea. North point is in 5° 14' s., 147° 07' v.. 

I/Ong, in Torres strait. 10° 02' S., 142° 50' E. 

I/Ong, islet in South bay, southwest side of New Caledonia. 

I/Ongatana, islet of Fakaafo, Union group. 9° 24' 40" s., 171° 12' w. 17. 

I/Onguerue, group in the southwest part of Huon gulf; islands are small, wooded and 
rock}', but Saddle island is 2.5 m. long and 700 ft. high. Named for Midshipman 
Longuerue on the Recherche. 7° 20' S., 147° 16' K. • 

I/Onkahtl, islet of Tatafa of the Hapai group, Tongan islands. 

I/OOf (Leaf) is the central island of the Hermit group; 500 ft. high. 1° 28' s., 

145° 05' E- 8. 

I/Opevi, a volcano of the New Hebrides, 4714 ft. high, adlive, occasionally ejecting 
ashes. Few inhabitants along the shore. 16° 28' s., 168° 18' K. 12. 

Lord Hood, see Marutea of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

I/Ord Howe was discovered February 17, 1778, by Lieutenant Ball. Volcanic and 
mountainous, Mt. Gower at the southern end being 2840 ft. high; about 5.5 m. 
long. On the west side are extensive coral reefs. Population, in 1880, 65. Belongs 
to New South Wales. 31° 36' 30" .s., 159° 05' io" K. See J. B. Wilson's Report, 
Sydney, 1882 ; also a paper by Mr. Corrie, Proceedings Royal Geographical 
Society, 1878, pp. 136-143. 

I/Ord Howe, islet off the southeast end of Santa Cruz. A British prote(5lorate was 
proclaimed August 18, 1898. 

Lord Howe, see Mopeha, Society islands. 

Lord Howe, see Ontong Java, Solomon islands. 

Lord North, see Tobi. 

I/Ord Salisbury, islet on the New Guinea coast. 7° 52' S., 144° 28' K. 

Losap, of the Caroline islands was discovered by Duperrey. It has about 300 in- 
habitants. Peace islet, in the same lagoon, has a population of 200. 6" 53' NT., 
152 42 20 E. 

Los Eremitanos, see Hermit. 8. 

Los Magos, Los Monjes, names on the Spanish chart captured by Lord Anson; sup- 
posed to apply to the Hawaiian islands. 

Los Martires, see Tamatam, Caroline islands. 

I<OS Negros, islets of Admiralty island, i" 55' S., 147° 16' E. 

C175] 



92 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



I/OS Reyes are two small, wooded islands about 500 ft. long. They are 15 m. north- 
west from La \'andola in the Admiralty group. 2° s., 148° 03' K. 

L'Ostange of Duperrey is Nengonengo of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

Los Valientes of Don Felipe Tompson is Ngatik of the Caroline islands. 5. 

I/Ottin is a nearU* circular volcanic cone, 5200 ft. high.; 12.5 m. Nw. by n. from Cape 
King of New Britain. 5° 18' s., 147° 35' K. 10. 

Lot's Wife, see Rica de Oro. 

I/OUisiade archipelago is an extensive range of islands situated southeast from 
New Guinea, between 10° io'-ii°5o'vS. and 154° 30-150° 55' K. Probably .seen by 
Torres in 1606, but named by Bougainville in 1793. Surveyed by D'Urville in 
1840. There is gold on Tagula (Sud-est), and although many portions of the 
group are still unknown it is thought to be rich in vegetable productions. There 
are more than 80 islands besides many rocks and reefs. Inhabitants are of a 
dark copper color, with Papuan hair; cartilages of nose and ears much distended. 
Cannibals on occasion. Named for Louis XV. of France. 9. 

I/OUntass, in the Bismarck archipelago. 4° 50' S., 150° 51' K. 

lyOVUka, a small, sandy islet in Nandi waters off the west coast of Viti levu, Fiji. 

Low, see Siassi on the east coast of New Guinea. 10. 

Low archipelago, see Paumotu archipelago. 

Lowendahl, see Nui of the Ellice group. 16. 

I/Oyalty group, discovered by Captain Butler in the Walpolc in 1800, or in the 
Brilanuia in 1803. The group runs parallel to the coast of New Caledonia at a 
distance of 50-60 m. Consists of Mare or Nengone, Lifu, Uea, with five islets 
between the first two. 13. 

I/Uanatno, <me of the Koto islands, Hapai group, Tougan islands. 

Luard islets are in Hercules bay on the New Guinea coast; six in number, low 
(40-70 ft.), and covered with trees. 7° 40' .s., 147° 42' E. 

Liitke, see East Fain, Caroline islands. 

I/Uhuga, islet of Hapai group, Tongan islands. 

I/Ukunor, of the Caroline islands, has been called the gem of Micronesia. It was dis- 
covered in 1793 bj' Captain J. Mortlock; 18-20 m. in circumference. Population 
about 850. It is not more than seven feet above the sea. 5° 29' 18" N., 153" 58' H. 4. 

I/Ukunor, islet off the southeast extreme of Mille, Marshall islands. 

I/Ungur, islet of Ponape, Caroline islands. 

I/USancay, reefs in the Kiriwina group, named for a lieutenant on the Esphancc. 

Lydia, see Pikela, Caroline islands. 

Lydia, see Nuakata near East cape of New Guinea. 

Lydia, see Udjae, Marshall i.slands. 

Lynx, see Niutao of the Ellice group. 16. 

Maabunghi, islet at the mouth of Tanle bay on the northwest coast of New Caledonia. 

Maben, low and wooded, a mile knk. from Kitai, New Guinea. 

Mabneian, a small, wooded island 0.7 m. long on the north edge of a long reef, 

Louisiade archipelago. 

[176] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 93 

Mabui, an islet of Misima, Louisiade archipelago ; small, wooded, 90 ft. high. 10° 56' s., 

152° 36' E. 
Mabuiag, island in Torres "strait. 

Macarthur, on the Australian coast. 11° 45' s., 143° E. 
Macaskill, see Pingelap of the Caroline islands. 
Macauley, of the Kermadec group, is 3 m. in circumference, 780 ft. high ; volcanic, 

uninhabited ; surrounded by perpendicular cliffs 600 ft. high, but can be scaled by 

means of a lava stream on the north side. 30° 16' s., 178° 32' w. 
Mac Donald, in the Bismarck archipelago. 5° 26' s., 150° 43' E. 
Mackenzie, see Uluthi of the Caroline islands. 3. 
Maclear, islet of the Admiralty group, 200 ft. high, 900 by 700 yards. 1° 55' s., 

146° 32' E. 
Macquarie, in 54° 44' s., 159° 49' E., is 1 20x5-1500 ft. high. In the early part of this 

century it is said 80,000 seals were killed on it. Now inhabited by birds only. 
Madaamet, islet of Ailinglablab, Marshall islands. Sometimes spelled Madamett. 
Maer (pronounced Mer~) is the largest of the Murray group in Torres strait. On the 

same reef with Dauer and Waier. Population, 450. 9° 55' s., 144° 02' E. 
Maewo, see Maiwo, New Hebrides. 

Magdalena, .see Fatuhiva of the Marquesas islands. 23. 
Magellan, an old name of the Marianas. 
Maghyr or Magur, islet of Namonuito, Caroline islands. At extreme north of atoll. 

80 f fr o t ir _^ 

59 45 ^'v 150 14 30 E. 

Maghyrarik, islet of Namonuito, Caroline islands. 

Magnetic, island of the Australian coast. 19° 10' s., 146° 51' E. 

Mago, see Mango, Fiji. 

Magone, islet on the northwest coast of New Caledonia. 

Mahabarina, middle islet of the Killerton group off east coast of New Guinea; 

0.5 ni. X 0.2 m. 
Mahea, islet at entrance to Hamene bay, Tahaa, Society islands. 2,0. 
Mahigi, see Ortega, Solomon islands. 
Mai or Mae is the name often given to Three Hills of the New Hebrides, but it is the 

name of the central district, not of the whole island. See Three Hills. 
Maia iti, see Tubuai manu of the Society group. 
Maiakei, a corrupt spelling of Maraki, Gilbert islands. 
Maiana or Hall, of the Gilbert islands, was called Gilbert by Captains Marshall and 

Gilbert in 1788; then called Hall by the Captain of the brig Elisabeth in 1809. 

It is 9 ni. NE-Sw. by 6 m. In 1886 the population was 1700. 0° 55' 30" N., 

o / // 

173 03 45 H- 
Maioiti, see Tapamanu, Society islands. 

Maim, off the New Guinea coast. 10° 25' S., 149° 21' E. 

Maitea or Mehetia, is the easternmost of the Society group; 7 m. in diameter, 1597 ft. 

_^"gh- 17' 53' S-, 148° 05' w. 
Maitland, two islets remarkably alike, southwest from St. Andrew islands in the 
Admiralty group. 2° 29' .s., 147° 18' E. 

[177] 



94 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Maitre, islet between Noumea and l^en island, New Caledonia. 

Maiwo or Maewo, also called Aurora, is the northeast island of the New Hebrides. 

It is 30 m. N-s., and 2CX)o ft. high. The north point is 14° 50' s., 168° 05' p;. la. 
Majuro or Arrowsmith was discovered by Captains Marshall and Gilbert in 1788. 

It consists of 33 islets on a reef 30 \>\ 10 m. Southeast point is in 7° 05' N., 

171° 23' K. 
Makada is an inhabited islet of the Duke of York group in the Bismarck archipelago. 

4^ 06' S., 152^ 26' K. 
Makahaa, islet in the Biha channel leading to Tongatabu, Tongan islands. 2 1° 06' 40" .s., 

175 08' w. 
Makamea, islet of Ontong Java. 5° 36' s., 159° 21' E. 
Makane, one of the Hermit islands. 1° 35' s., 144° 57' E. 
Makaptl, islet of Mangareva. 
Makaroa or Marsh, islet of Mangareva. 
Makatea, Metia or Aurora, of the Paumotu archipelago, the Recreation of Rogge- 

wein who discovered it in 17 12, is of uplifted coral, 230 ft. high. It is wooded, 

and inhabited by people who still make good kapa. North end is in 15° 49' 35' s., 

148' 13' 15" w. ao. 

Makemo (Makima of Wilkes), Phillips, Koutousoff (of Bellingshausen), was dis- 
covered from the Margaret in 1803. It is 40 m. WNW-ESE. The west end is in 
16° 26' S., 143° 56' vv. 

Makin or Pitt is the most northerly of the Gilbert islands, and is 6 m. long, and from 
a half to two miles wide. The northeast point is in 3° 20' 45" N., i72°58'45"e. 7. 

Makondratlga is i m. by 0.5 m., and half a mile northwest from Makongai, Fiji. 

Makongai is between Ovalau and Koro, Fiji. It is 2 m. by 1.5 m., and 876 ft. high. 
17 27' s., 179° 02' w. 

Makura, 4 m. southea.st from Mai, New Hebrides; 991 ft. high; i m. N\v-SE.; 120 
natives; all profess Christianity. 

Mala, see Malaita of the Solomon islands. 

Malaita, Solomon islands, t^e Mala of natives, Isla de Ramos of Gallego, Terre des 
Arsacides of Surville, was discovered by Hernando Enriqiiez of Mendaiia's expe- 
dition in 1568. It is 103 m. long and 4274 ft. high. The northwest point is in 
8° 19' s., 160° 30' K. The southeast point is in 9° 45' S., 161° 30' E. Natives are 
reputed treacherous. 

Malacan or Malacal, i.slet of Korror, Pelew islands. 7° 19' n., 134° 31' 45" E. 

Malaki is off the north side of Viti levu, Fiji. Of triangular form with sides about 
2 m. long, it is 755 ft. high, covered with grass and casuarina trees; inhabited. 
The northea.st point is in \f 16' 10" s., 178° 08' 40" E. 

Malamala, a sand islet in Nandi waters off the west coast pf Viti levu, Fiji. 

Malapa, the largest island in Marau .sound off Guadalcanar, Solomon islands. 9°46's., 
160' 48' E. 

Malatta, of the Exploring group, is joined to Vanua mbalavu by reef. It is 2 m. by 
0.3 m., and 420 ft. high. 17° 20' 30" s., 181° 01' E. 

Malaupaina, the southernmost of the Three Sisters, Solomon islands. The middle 
one is Malau lalo, the north one Malau. 

[178] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



95 



Maiden or Independence was discovered by Bj^ron July 29, 1825, on the voyage on 
which he brought the remains of the King and Queen of the Hawaiian islands to 
Honolulu. It is 4 m. in diameter, and about 30 ft. high. There are traces of a 
former Polynesian population in curious .stone stru(5lures. It is a British pos- 
session and is worked for guano. No fresh water on the island. It was named 
for an officer of the Blonde. 4° 05' .S., 155° w. 
Malebu, islet off north coast of Viti levu, Fiji. 

Malekula or Mallicolo, of the New Hebrides, extends 55 m. nw-vSK. by 15 m. The 
inhabitants are warlike but small in stature. The southwest point is in 16 26'vS., 
167° 47' K. As will be seen 
by the map, the northeast and 
south shores are fringed by a 
mountain chain. 

Malema, see Matema or Swallow 
islands. 

Mali is off the north coast of Va- 
nua levu, Fiji; 350 ft. high ; 
inhabited. 16° 20' 54" s., 179° 
19 42 K. 

Malima, two islets (south one 
130 ft. high) in the centre of 
a lagoon 1.7 m. in diameter, 
6 m. N. by w. from Kanathia, 
Fiji. i7°o8'3o"s., i8o°5o'e.G) 

Malinoa, small, low, 50 ft. high. 
Tongan gronp. 

Maliu or Toulon is 6 m. off Ama- 
zon bay on the sonth coast of 
New Guinea. It is 3 m. in cir- 
cumference, and 300 ft. high ; 
covered with trees and grass. 
There is a large village. 

Mallicolo, see Malekula, New Hebrides. The former perhaps more common on charts. 

Malo or St. Bartholemew, islet off the southeast side of Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides. 
Natives are small in stature, but vigorous eaters of human flesh.. 

Maloelab, Calvert, Araktcheeff or Kaven of the Marshall islands, was discovered by 
Captain Gilbert June 29, 1788, and by him named Calvert. It consists of 64 i.slets 
on a reef extending 33 m. nw-sk. by 15 m. Kotzebue gives the southeast point as 
m 8 29 N., 171 II K. o. 

Malog^, islet near Tangoa anchorage, Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides. 

Malolo islands, of the Hudson group, Fiji, extend over a triangle with .sides of 2 m. 
They are inhabited and well cultivated. Malolo, Malololailai, Ngualito, Mathiu, 
Wadingi and Vatu mbulo, the last three mere rocks. i7°46'io"s., i77°o8'4o"e.© 

Malololailai, islet southeast from Malolo, 30 ft. high. North point 17° 46' 30" s., 
177" 10' 30" E. 

[179] 




FIG. 5. malekula: from admiralty chart. 



96 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Malpelo, a barren rock surrounded b}' many islets, seen by Colnett July 1793; 1200 ft. 
high. 4° 03' N., 81° 36' w. 

Malukawa, north from Saibai, New Guinea. 9° 18' S., 142° 48' E. 

Malume group consists of Puna and Nugarba, Bismarck archipelago. 3° 13' s., 
154 26' K. 

Mamanutha, islands in the Hudson group, Fiji. 18° 52' S., 178° 26' K.O There are 
13 islands divided into two groups: M. i thake (windward), Mana, Matamanoa, 
Nantanivono, Tavua, inhabited. Moudriki, Monu, Yanua, Tokoriki, M. i ira (lee- 
ward), Yavuriniba, Kandomo, Vanua levu, Na vandra, Eori, all uninhabited. 14. 

Mambualau, low islet on reef of \'iti levu, Fiji. 17° 57' 10" s., 178° 48' 15" E.Q 

Mamere, islet within N'Goe reef on the southeast side of New Caledonia. 

Man, see Uatoni, Bismarck archipelago. lO. 

Man-of-war Rock, see Gardner south of the Hawaiian islands. 

Mana, uninhabited islet of Mamanutha i thake group, Fiji. 

Manahiki, a spelling of Monahiki or Humphrey. 19. 

Manaka, two groups in the Paumotu archipelago discovered by Cook in 1773. They 
each have lagoons and are very near each other. The north one is called 
Marokau, the south one Manaka. More than 20 islets. The south point is in 
18° 13' 28" s., 142° 10' w. 21. 

Mananua, islet on the southeast coast of New Guinea, 130 ft. high; east from Taurama. 

Manaswari, islet of Port Dorei on the north coast of New Guinea. There is a Mis- 
sion station here. 0° 55' S., 134° 08' E. 

Mando or Tie aux Canards, islet at the south end of New Caledonia. 

Mandoliana is .south from Florida, Solomon islands. 9° 11' 30" S., 160° 15' 30" E. 

ManduilotO, one of the islets of Sikaiana or Stewart island. 8° 23' S., 162° 58' E.i 

Manevai or Direction, islet of Vanikoro, New Hebrides; small, 250 ft. high. 

Mangaia, of the Hervey group, is 20 m. in circumference and 300 ft. above the sea. 
Discovered by Cook March 29, 1777. In 1885 it had a population of 4000 and is 
the centre of the Protestant Mission for the Central Pacific. The fringing reef 
has no entrance. The people were very skilful in carving paddles and handles of 
ceremonial adzes, as shown by the specimens in every museum. 21° 57's., i5i°o7' w. 

Mangareva, Peard or Gambler, a coral reef with five small volcanic islands and many 
islets, discovered bj' Captain Wilson in the DuffM.a.y 25, 1797. It was named for 
Admiral Lord Gambler. The group extends 4 m. ne-.SW., and there are three 
passages into the lagoon. Mt. Duff is 1315 ft. high. In 1880 the population was 
about 1000. Mangareva, Akamaru or Wainwright, Aukena or Elson, Taravai or 
Belcher, Agakauitai, Makaroa or Marsh, Kamaka or Collie, Manui, Makapu. 
Mangareva is an important station of the Roman Catholic Mission. 23° 08' s., 

134" 55' 30" w. aa. 

Mango (Mago), Fiji, is 18 m. nne. from Thithia, 3X2 m., and 670 ft. high; water only 
from wells. It is the property of English colonists. i7°27'3o"s., i8o°53'3o"e.O 
Mangorongoro, see Tongareva or Penrhyn. 
Mangrove, low island of Fiji. 17° 50' 30" s., 177° 21' K.O 
Mangs or Manjas, .see Urracas of the Marianas. 

Manicolo, a name of Vanikoro, New Hebrides. la. 

[180] 



ymfmmmmfmniMmmi^'ft 



mmmmm 



c. 



o 



! 



• v 



' ni 



I 



» 






Hmm 



firimmm 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 97 

Manihi, of the Paumotu archipelago, is the Waterlandt of Lemaire and Schouten, 
r6i6; 13 m. nE-SW. Inhabitants make curiously elaborate cances. The east end 
is in 14° 24' S., 145° 52' w. 31. 

Manihiki, see Monahiki. 19. 

Manim, islet of Jobi, New Guinea. 

Manima, islet of Tongatabu. 

Manoba or Elisabeth, a thickly wooded island off the northeast point of Malaita, 
Solomon islands. 8° 20' s., 160° 43' E. 

Manono, of the Samoan islands, is on the reef of Upolu. It has a surface of 3.3 sq. m.; 
500 ft. high. i3°5o's., 1 72° 01' E. Formerly the political centre of the feudal aristo- 
crac}-; at present a sort of naval dockyard where a large double war-canoe is kept. 15. 

Manor, of the Schouten islands. 0° 50' s., 136° E. 

Manose, one of the Hermit islands. 1° 34' vS., 144° 55' e. 8. 

Mantapeiti (leeward) and Mantapeitak (windward), islets of Ponape, Caroline islands. 

Manton, see Mokil, Caroline islands. 

Manua, of the American part of the Samoan group, covers 20 sq. m. and rises to a height 
of 2500 ft. 14° 15's., 169° 26'3o"w.O The traditionary cradle of the Samoan race. 

Manuae, a barren islet on the same reef with Anotu ; few inhabitants. Discovered 
by Cook in 1773. Hervey group. 33. 

Manuatha, off the north coast of Viti levu, Fiji; 400 ft. high. 

Manubada, islet off Port Moresby on the .south coast of New Guinea. 9° 32' S., 147° 10' E. 

Matiuhang^ or Cumberland, of the Paumotu archipelago, was discovered by Wallis 
in 1767. It is low but inhabited. The west end is in 19° 12's., 141° i9'o6"\v. 2,1. 

Manui, i.slet of Mangareva. 

Manumanu, at the mouth of the Vanapa river in Redscar bay. New Guinea. 9°09's., 
146 54 E. 

Maora, islet on the east reef of Huaheine, Society islands. 

Maoraha, islet of San Cristoval, Solomon islands. 

Map, islet on northern side of Yap, Caroline islands. 

Mapas, islet on the south coast of Murua, Kiriwina group. 9° 09' s., 152° 45' E. 

Mapeti, in Aifa pass on the coast of Tahiti, Society islands. 30. 

Mapia, see Pegan. 

Mara, islet in Muendo bay on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 

Maragili, a name of Kosmann islet in the Louisiade archipelago. 

Marai with Taliwewai forms Stuers islets; low, wooded, in the Louisiade archipelago. 

Maraki or Matthew, of the Gilbert islands, was discovered by Captains Marshall and 
Gilbert in 1788; 5X2.5 m., the lagoon shores almost entirely covered with vegeta- 
tion. Popiilation was 1900 in 1886. 2° N., 173° 25' E. 7. 

Maramasiki is .southeast of Malaita, Solomon islands. 9° 32' S., 161° 25' E.© 

Marambo, a small, wooded island 7 m. E. by N. from the soiith point of Kambara, 
Fiji; 160 ft. high. 

Marceau, islet in Arembo bay on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 

Marchand, see Nukuhiva of the Marquesas islands. 33. 

Marcken, incorredlly on the charts as Marqueen, was named by Lemaire from a sup- 
posed resemblance to the island of that name in the Zuyder Zee. Captain Mort- 

MEMOIKS R. r. B. MUSKUM, Vol.. I., NO. 2. — 7. L^"^ J 



98 



INDEX TO THE PACIEJC ISLANDS. 



Jock saw this group in 1795. It is supposed to be the Cocos of Wilkinson, 1790, 
and it has been called Massacre because here a crew was cut off in 1830. There are 
13 low, coral islands on a reef 10 m. in diameter. The south islet is the largest 
and inhabited. 4° 45' S., 157° E. 

Marcus, barren island in 23° 10' x., 154° K. Seized by Japan in 1899 in anticipation 
of a cable station. 

Mare or Nengone, the Britannia of Burroughs (1842), was. discovered by D'Urville 
June 15, 1827. It is the principal island of the Loyalty group, and has a popula- 
tion of about 2000. The northeast point is in 21° 29' 30" s., 168'' 06' K. 

Maretiri, see Bass islands. 

Margaret, an inhabited island near Sideia on the southeast coast of New Guinea ; 
1.5 m. E-w., 0.5 m. N-s.; 500 ft. high. 10° 41' s., 150° 54' E. 

Margaret, a name given to Nukutipipi by Turnbull from his ship Margaret. 

Margaretta, see Namo of the Marshall islands. 

Margaritana (La), an island discovered by Quiros April 26, 1606, 12 leagues from 
the San Marcos of de Leza. Perhaps one of the Banks islands. 13° S. 

Maria, see Moerenhout of the Paumotu archipelago. 23. 

Maria, an island on the east coast of Tasmania, 2750 ft. high, was a government re- 
serve for the last of the Tasmanians. 42° 40' S., 148° H. 

Maria, see Peru or Francis of the Gilbert islands. 7. 

Marianas or Ladrone. Although Magalhaes first discovered this group March 6, 
152 1, his name "Islas de las velas latinas" was soon superseded by that of Ladrones ; 
and in 1668 they were officially named Marianas in honor of Maria Anna of Aus- 
tria, widow of Philip IV. of Spain. The islands of the group arranged from south 
to north are as follows : 



Name*. 



EXTBKT. 



" 



(iaam 2« m. lonK. 

Ki>t«. Zarpant-. Lata 12 by 5.0. 

Asnijan 3 by 2. 

Tlnlan. Iloiia Vinta 10 by 4.5. 

Kalpan. S4^y|mn .' 14 ill. loiiff. 

Karalloa de MtHlinllla 2 ni. lunK. 

Anatajan 5 by 1.5. 

tiarlKnao 1.5 in. diaiiicter. 

Karnllnn de Torm, Zelandia 

OomiaD 2.5 by 1. 

Almaican 2.2 by l..'>. 

Paxan, Pafcon K by 2.5. 

AicfiiKan, <jriKan | 6 by 2.5. 

AHnndoD 1 rii. dtaniet(>r. 

L'rracaji 1 2.5 in. diameter, 

FaraUon de Pajaroa, Ony 1.2 m. diameter. 



Hkkjht. 



115(1 
SIK) 



KOO 

59 

IllKh. 



■>:\U 
U(IU 
ISIll) 
3S4N 



Population. 



701)0 



2C0 
700 



IjATITUDB 

North. 



l:r 14'00" 

14 OS 

14 fi-f 30 

14 6» 22 

16 OS 30 

16 2» 2!) 

16 20 

18 41 

16 51 

17 16 50 

17 34 
.IS W 

18 4« 20 
18 45 

20 oa SB 

20 33 



Longitude 

East. 



144' 44' (10" 



145 
145 
145 
145 
14i) 
145 
146 47 
146 .50 

145 60 15 

146 .51 
145 52 
145 41 

145 2!) 

146 20 
144 4» 30 



10 
30 

3(! 20 
44 

40 



45 



The primitive Chamorros have left memorials in remarkable stone columns on 
Tinian and Guam. These are, according to Lieutenant Mortimer, 5 ft. 4 in. broad 
at the base, 14 ft. high, and surmounted by hemispheres of stone 5 ft. 10 in. in 
diameter. As the group is situated at about the place where the northeast trades 
cea.se and the monsoons meet the rainfall is almost continuous, and atmospheric 
disturbances attain to the force of hurricanes. Earthquakes, as might be expe<5led 
in a country wholly volcanic, are common though not very severe. At the present 
writing it is understood that vSpain has sold the group to Germany since the acqui- 
sition of Guam by the United vStates at the end of the vSpanish-American war. 

[182] 



INDEX TO THE PACTEIC ISLANDS. 



Mariere or Pulo Mariere, also called Warren Hastings, 
was discovered by Captain Hutchinson September, 
1761. It is 2 m. N-s. b}' I ni. K-w., and inhabited. 
5 45 s., 132 28 K. 

Marina, a name of Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides, used by the 
Banks islanders. In Maewo and Oba it is called Marino. 

Marion, see Tupua of the Society islands. 

Marire, islet of Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides. 

Markham, see Bagiagia, a reef island in Moresby strait. 

Maro reef was discovered bv Captain Allen of the Ameri- 
can whaler Malo in 1820. About 35 m. in circumfer- 
ence; no land; breakers only. Northwest point is in 

25° 31' N-, 170° 37' 33" w. 

Marokau, Dawhaida or Ravahere was discovered by Cap- 
tain Cook in 1773. There is great uncertainty about 
this group, not as to its existence, but whether there 
are not two distinct reefs, besides the neighboring one 
of Manaka. I have followed the charts, but the sailing 
diredlions contradict these and there is no competent 
exploration to determine. North point is in 17° 55' s., 
142° 17' w. 

Maronu, islets in Uailu passage on the northeast side of 
New Caledonia. 

Maroupo, a name of Angatau of the Paumotu archipelago. 

Marovo, New Georgia or Rubiana, of the Solomon islands, 
consists of three principal islands and many islets, all 
of recent volcanic origin, some rising to a height of 
2500 ft. Inhabitants are dark, sturdy cannibals. The 
northeast point is in 7° 57' s., 157° 31' E. 

Marqueen of the charts should be Marcken as named by 
Lemaire. 

Marquesas, Les Marquises, were discovered July 21, 1595, 
by Mendaiia so far as the southeast group is con- 
cerned. The northern group by Marchand in 1791, 
and by Ingraham about the same time. Thej' were 
named in memory of Don Garcia Hurtado de Mendoza, 
Marques de Caiiete, Viceroy of Peru and patron of 
Mendana's second voyage. They were taken by France 
in 1842. The native inhabitants have diminished from 
the supposed number of 75,000 to less than 3500. 
They were of beautiful form, finely tatued, and hun- 
gry cannibals. Now they are perishing with leprosy, 
syphilis and other evils. Devoted Hawaiian mis.sion- 
aries have labored with them for forty years. The 
islands of the group may be tabulated as follows : 

[i«3] 



99 



Pajaros , 



Urracas 



Asuncion o , 



MARIANAS 

Agrigan 



Pagan ^ 
Almagan ^^ 

Guguan 
Torres 



OR 



Sari 



guan 



Anatajan 



Mcdinill* , 



Saipan 

Tinian 
Aguijan t- 

LADRONE 



<0} 



Rota 




OUAM 



FIG. 6. 



lOO 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



MARQUESAS ISLANDS. 



Nautb Nmc 


OBAST Name. 


DiHrOVKRKR. 


Extent in 
MILK8. 


Height in 

KKKT. 


Latitodk 
South. 


lonoitudr 
Wbst. 


Washlnictnn Ciroup: 

HMtQta 


Katunhn. Hancock. 

rhaurit. 

I.ai>fc(ltiM. 

NcXH^Il. 
HlHII. 

Knox. 
Kn*cMiantl»». 

KlibtTtH. 

.New York. 

fr'ninklln. 

Illnke. 

Hcrimtt. Two Itrothcrx. 

Ki'dcrnl. 

Sir Hcnr.v Martin. 

lie Manx. 

.\ilaniK. 

WaHlihiKton. 

Ma^MachusettH. 

Kloti. 

Oiiahouka, RoahouffH. 

.XdaiiiK. 

Wat^hin^^ton. 

Marcband. 

Onapon, Roapoaa. 


Inftrnhani, ITKl. 
Marchand. 1?.>1. 
UoliertK. iriW. 
Fanning. I"i*x. 
Marcliand. 17»1. 
InKraliain, ITiil. 
Itolx-rtB. 17!P;!. 
HcrjccKt. 17ii2. 
Faniilnjf, I7!W. 
InKrahani. 1701. 
l(obert«, 179:1. 

Inurahani. 1701. 
HerKCHt. 1702. 
Marchand, 1701. 
UobertH, 170S. 
InKrahani, 1701. 
KobertB. 1703. 
HerBest, 1702. 

Infn'ahani, 1701. 
Roberts. 1703. 


4 1..V 1. 
(1 li.v 3. 

Uni-k. 
14 b.v HI. 

7.6 b.v 5. 

9 by 8. 


13S0 
2II0II 

720 
40011 ? 

24:10 

404S 


, 7° 57' 00" 
X 02 

.S 43 
N ,>4 03 

■S VM 

24 


140° :14' 00" 




140 49 


llotnltl 

Nnknhlvn 


140 37 

1411 (HI 411 

1:10 :t4 




140 05 






Meadan* Group: 

Fatahoka 


Hood. 

Fatou-houkou. 

IVttikn. 

La Dominica. 

Ohlva-Hoa. 

Santa CrlKtina. 

San I'cdro. 

Moliotanc. 

iteuta Masduliua. 


Cook, 1774. 

Mendana, loori. 
DTrville. 
Mendafia, 1505. 
Mendaiia, 1605. 

Mendana, 150S. 


Hock. 

22 by 8. 

8.6 by 4. 
6 by 2. 

8 by 4. 


1180 

12X0 
2H20 
:)2X0 
1B40 

.3676 ' 


28 

47 

5!) 
10 Oil 

10 24 


l;ix 5(1 
l.'is 47 


Tahaata 


l:tO (HI 






FatalilTa 


1:18 40 







Marsh, see Makaroa, islet of Mangareva. 
Marshall, see Tarawa, of the Gilbert group. 



MARSHALL ISLANDS. 



NATirs Namk. 



Chart Namk. 



Ratark Oronp: 

Knox 

Mllle 

Amo 

Majaro 

Aarh 

Malodalf 

Briknb 

Wotje 

IJkleb 

J«IDD 

Ailko 

MiadI 

Taka 

CUrlk , 

BIkar 

Taonid 



Kalick (ironp IWmtl: 

Ebon 

Naniorlk 

Kill 

Jalolt 

AillDKlap 

Jabwat 

Nemo 

IJb 

I'l»«. 

\Mm 

Kwadlalln 

Wotto 

AlllDff1na« 

Kon^ap 

KonirrTlk 

HIklnl 

Kalwartok 

UHoa« 



Mnl^nve. 

I>aniel, IN'dder. 

ArroWHniith. 

Ibcfmjn, Travcrsc.v. 

Calvert. Kaveii, AraktclKM'ff. 

HIn1io|> .1 miction, KKcrnp. 

lioinanzow. 

Count Heldfm, Le^iep. 

Tenio, Htecp-to. 

TIndal, Watta. 

Medjit, New Year. 

Suvarov. 

KutuHov, Ilutton. 

DaWHon. 

Sin.vth, GaHi>ar Uico. 



BoHton, Covell. 

Harinfi:. 

Hnnter. 

Bonham. 

Odia. Klniore. Helut. 

\anin. MuKqulllo. 
Tebut. PrlnceHMH. 
Katherlne. 
Brown. 

Mennchikoff. 
Shanz. 

I'eHcadore. 
KllliHkl-KorHiikofl. liMdokala. 

KMcllKcholtZ. 

Brown, 

AreclfoH, Providence, Caaobos. 



NUHBEB OP 
I8LETB. 



10 



32 

(>4 

66 

44 

1 



21 

:i 

1 

5(1 

21 

1 

1 

14 



4S 
10 
40 
13 



UlflCOVEBER. 



<'M|)laiii .Min-Kliall. 178S. 
.Mar.sliall A (iili)ert. 
.\l;irsliiill A (iilhert. 
j Kotzebue. 



Kotzelme. 1X17. 
Kdtzehue, 1X17. 



(1. Ua.v. 1X24. 
Cajitaln Bond, 1702. 
Captain Dennet. 



Cnplain is I. 1702. 

(■jil»l)iiti Brown. lx.>, 

Caiitaiii Shanz. ls:!5. 

Caplnin WaliiH, 1707. 
Kotzeliue, 1X17. 

Captain T. Butler, 1704. 



[184] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. loi 

Marshall Islands, an extensive gronp between the Caroline and Gilbert islands, 
probably- visited by Alvaro de Saavedra in 1529. Captain Wallis, in 1767, was 
at Rongerik, and in 1788 Captains Marshall and Gilbert explored this group 
more thoroughly than any previous navigators. In February, 1886, Germany 
annexed the group and has since endeavored to colonize it, but without much 
success. 

Marshall Bennett, three small, high, uninhabited islands discovered by Captain 
Hunter of the Marshall Bennett in 1836. 8° 49' s., 151° 56' E. 

Martin, on the northeast coast of Bougainville, Solomon islands. 6° ii's., 155° 35' E. 

Martin, see Nganati of the Paumotu archipelago. 

Martin de Ma3-orga, name given by Maurelle in 1781 to the Tongan groiip. 

Martia or Maupiti of the Society islands. It is 6 m. in circumference and surrounded 
b}' a reef on which are several palm-covered islets; volcanic, 800 ft. high. Popu- 
lation, 300. 16" 26' S., 152° 12' W.O 20. 

Marutea or Lord Hood, in the Paumotu archipelago, was discovered in 1791 by Cap- 
tain Edwards in H. M. S. Pandora. The atoll extends 11 m. E-w., and 7 m. N-s., 
It is uninhabited and the lagoon is closed. 21° 31' vS., 135° 38' w. 33. 

Marutea or Furneaux, a low, inhabited atoll discovered by Cook in 1773. West end 
in 16° 54' S., 143° 20' \v. 

Mary Balcout of Wilkes is Canton in the Phoenix group. 

Mas-a-fuera is 92 m. west from Juan Fernandez, 8 m. N-s., 5 m. E-w., 4000 ft. high. 
33° 46' s., 80° 46' w. 

Masamasa is 575 ft. high, in Bougainville strait, Solomon islands. 6°47's., 156° 09' E. 

Mas-a-tierra, a name of Juan Fernandez. 

Maskelyne, group of low islands, thickly peopled, off the southeast coast of Malekula, 
New Hebrides. Sakau is the largest ; others are Kolivia and Kiwyo. 

Masmapi, islet in Dorei bay on the north coast of New Guinea. 

Massachusetts of Roberts is Huahuna of the Marquesas islands. 

Massacre, a name given to Marcken of Lemaire. 

Massaramcoer or Bramble Cay, a sandbank 10 ft. high at the northeast boundary of 
Queensland Colony. 9° 07' 50" S., 143° 52' 10" E. 

Masse of Roberts is Eiao of the Marquesas islands. 

Matador, of the Caroline islands was discovered in 1876. It consists of 15 islets on 
an atoll, some of them inhabited. 1° 30' N., 157° 05' E. 

Matahiva or Lazareff, of the Paumotu archipelago, a low, wooded island discovered 
by Bellingshausen in 1820. West end is in 14° 53' 30" s., 148" 43' 30" w. 

Mataiwa, a form of Matahiva. 

Mata kawa, of the Talbot group is opposite the mouth of the Wassi kussa river of 
New Guinea. 9° 16' s., 142° 12' E. 

Matamanoa, uninhabited islet of the Mamanutha i thake group, Fiji. 

Matangi, islet of Fakaafo or Bowditch. 9° 22' .S., 171° 12' w. 

Matangi, a small, unhabited island, i m. long, crescent-shape. Fiji. 

Matamuku, islet south of Kandavu, Fiji; 700 ft. high. 19° 10' 20" s., 178° 06' 40" E. 

Mataou or East Sentinel, islet at entrance to Comptroller bay, Nukuhiva, Marquesas 

islands. 

[185] 



I02 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



MATUKU 



MataSO or Two Hill of the New Hebrides, is about 19 m. north from Nguna; 1650 
ft. high. Natives friendly. Mission station. 17° 18' S., 168° 23' K. 

Matathoni levu, of Yasawa group, Fiji, 2 m. n-S. North point in 16° 57' S., 178° 1845" K. 

Matelotas, see Ngoli of the Caroline islands. 

Matema, Swallow or Reef, compri.se Lomlom, Nufiluli, Pileni, Nukapu, Anologo, 
Nibanga, Panavi, Nupani, Fenuloa. The group lies between 10° 04'- 10° 22' S., 
165'' 39-166° 19' E. British protectorate proclaimed August 18, 1898. 12. 

Materbert, small, rocky, off Gazelle peninsula of New Britain, Bismarck archipelago. 

Materhert, of the Bismarck archipelago, is 0.2 ni. long. 4° 17' S., 151° 32' K. 

Matthias, a mountainous and wooded islet 
northwest from New Hanover. i°32's. 

Mathieu, islet of Malolo group, Fiji. 

Mathuata ( Macuata), off north coast of Va- 
nua levu, Fiji; 1.5 m. long, 500ft. highdr- 

Matilda, see Mururoa of the Paumotu archi- 
pelago. 22. 

Matin, islet of Marovo or New Georgia, 
Solomon islands. 8° 25' .S., 158° 05' K. 

MatO, islet 5 m. .south from Uen island. 

Matthew, discovered by Captain Gilbert 
in 1788; 465 ft. high. 22° 20' 12" s., 

171 20 30 E. 
Matthew, islet in Uitoe passage on the 
southwest side of New Caledonia. 

Matthew, a basaltic cone southeast from 
New Caledonia. 

Matthew, see Maraki of the Gilbert islands. 

Mattinson, see Sophia of the Ellice group 
(exi.stence uncertain). 

Matty, or Maty, was discovered by Carteret September 19, 1767, and named for his 
friend Dr. Maty. It is 6 m. square, flat, and thickly peopled by a fine light col- 
ored race of uncertain relationship. Their implements are peculiar and exceed- 
ingly interesting. i°45's., i42°47'k. Probably this is Tiger of the charts. 8. 

Matu avi, one of the Stewart group. 8° 23' S., 162° 58' H. 

Matukanaputa, .small and rocky island off Gazelle peninsula of New Britain; 60 ft. 
high. 4° 13' s., 151° 32' K. 

Matuku, in Fiji, is a good example of a high (1262 ft.) island with a fringing reef. 
The map is copied from the survey given in the Cliallcni^cr Report. Matuku is 
4.5 m. x-s. Carr's harbor on the west side is the best i'n the group. The volcanic 
peaks add great beauty to the scenery. The south point is in 19° 13' 30" .s., 
179° 44' K. Population in 1880 was 712. 

Matupi, a small volcanic island in Blanche bay, New Britain. 4° 13' s., 152° 10' K. 

Maturei Vavao or Estancelin of the Paumotu archipelago, is the southeastern of the 

AAaeon group. It is 6 m. NW-SE. Northwest point is in 2i°27's., 136° 28' w. 22. 

[186] 




INDEX ro THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 103 

Maty was discovered by Carteret September 19, 1767, and named for his friend Dr. 
Maty. It is 6 m. square, flat and thickly peopled by a fine light colored race of 
uncertain relationship. Their implements are peculiar and exceedinglj' interest- 
ing. 1° 45' S., 142° 47' E. Probably this is Tiger of the charts. 8. 

Mau, Hinchinbrook or Vele of the New Hebrides, is a volcanic cone 2 m. in diameter, 
and 1493 ft. high. The crater is filled with vegetation. Natives peaceable. 

Maui, of the Hawaiian group, is the second in size, measuring 466,000 acres. It is 
43 m. long, divided b}- a low isthmus into East and West Maui. The former is the 
grand cone (10,032 ft. high) capped by the crater of Haleakala, which is more 
than 2000 ft. deep and 20 m. in circuit. The latter, also an ancient volcano, is 
lower (5820 ft.) and its flanks are deeply cut into pidliiresque valleys. Popula- 
tion in 1896 was 17,726. The north side of the isthmus is in 20° 54' 15" n., 
156° 29' w. I. 

Mailiki, of the Herve^' group, is about 6 m. in circumference, fertile, has no lagoon 
nor any opening in the fringing reef. 20° 07' .S., 157° 22' \v. 23. 

Maupiti, see Marua of the Society islands. 

Mausoleum, a sugar-loaf-shaped hill 650 ft. high, between New Ireland and New 
Hanover in the Bismarck archipelago. 2° 44' S., 150° 32' K. 

IVIauti of Byron is Mauiki of the Hervey group. 

Mavuva, islet of Mathuata on the north coast of Vanua levu, Fiji. 

MawtU, islet of Fakaafo or Bowditch. 9° 25' 30" S., 171° 12' 30" w. 

May, see Yakuve, Fiji. 18° 51' 45" s., 178° 27' E.O 

Mayon, see Marua or Woodlark. 

Mavor, see Tuhoua, New Zealand. 

Mba, islet of Uitoe passage, southwest side of New Caledonia. 

Mbatiki (Batiki), Fiji, near the centre of the group, is 2 m. in diameter and 609 ft. 
high. Population in 1880, 342. 17° 46' s., 179° 10' p:. 

Mbau (Ban), Fiji, small island east from Viti levu, 80 ft. high. 17° 59' 16" S., 
178 39 20 E. 

Mbe, islet in Port Uitoe, southwest side of New Caledonia. 

Mbenau, islet on the south coast of Vanua levu, Fiji, 100 yds. in diameter, covered 
with palms. 

Mbenga (Beqa), is 5X3 ni. and rises to 1400 ft. 18° 22' 15" S., 178° 07' 30" E. 

Mboa, islet in Uitoe passage on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 

Mbu, islet in Port Uitoe, on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 

Mbua, islet 35 ft. high on the shore reef at the southeast end of Nananu i thake, Fiji. 

Mbuimbani, a conical island 430 ft. high in Nanuku passage, Fiji; planted with 
coconut trees. 

Mbulia (Bulla), 460 ft. high, inhabited, in Kandavu group, Fiji. i8°46's., i78°33'e. 

Mbulo, a small island off Cape Pitt of Marovo, Solomon islands; about 800 ft. high. 
8" 45' S., 158° 15' E. 

McAskill, see Tugulu ; also Pingelap. 

McKean, of the Phcenix group, was discovered by Wilkes in 1840. It is low, 
0.7X0.5 m. 3° 36' s., 174° 16' w.O 17. 

Meaburn, islet of Caroline islands. 

[187] 



I04 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Meama, islet of the Tongan group. 

Meek, islet of Kwadjalin, Marshall islands. 

Medjit, see Miadi of the Marshall islands. 6. 

Meduro, see Majuro of the Marshall islands. 

Mefiir, a low, uninhabited island lo ni. long on the north coast of New Guinea. 

Mehetia, a form of Maitea of the Society islands, ao. 

Meiwa, islet east from Yeina in the Louisiade archipelago. ii° 22' S., 153° 30' K. 

Mej, islet on the west coast of Ebon, Marshall islands. 4° 36' 30" N., 168° 41' 30'' K. 

Mekinley, in China strait, 200 ft. high. 10° 33' S., 150° 43' 35" E. 

Mekundranga, a low island 1.2X0.2 m. Fiji. 17° 24' 16" s., 178° 58' 50" e.o 

Melbourne, see Tenarunga, Paumotu archipelago. 21° 22' S., 136° 34' w. 

Mali, a low, inhabited islet of Fat6, New Hebrides. 

Mellim, islet on the southeast coast of Marua of the Trobriand group. 9° 09' s., 

152 57' K- 
Mellu, islets of Kwadjalin of the Marsliall islands. 

Melville, see Hikueru of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

Mende, islet on the east side of Willaumez peninsula, New Britain. 

Mentschikow, see Kwadjalin, Marshall islands. 

Menu ( La), islet of Tasiko, New Hebrides. 

Meoko, better Mioko, inhabited islet of the Duke of York group, New Ireland. 

Meosnum, in Geelvink bay on the north coast of New Guinea; 12-14 m. long, i m. 

wide. 1° 29' S., 135° 14' E. 
Mer or Murray, with Dauer and Waier within one reef. Inhabitants Papuan. 9°54's., 

144" 02' E. 
Meralaba, see Merlav of the New Hebrides. 
Merat, 3-4 m. in circumference, on the New Guinea coast. 
Mercury or D'Haussez, on the coast of New Zealand. 36° 40' s., 175° 45' E. 
Merig or St. Claire, is between Merlav and Gaua of the Banks islands; 200 ft. high. 

Population, 15-20. 14° 17' s., 167° 50' E. 
Merite, of the French islands, Bismarck archipelago, is about 5 ni. E-w by 4 m., and 

2150 ft. high; near New Britain. 4° 56' S., 149° 07' E. 
Merlav, Meralaba or Star Peak of the New Hebrides, is 2900 ft. high. Population 

about 7CX3. A Mission station. 14° 29' S., 167° 59' E. 
Messum, a raised coral island of the Louisiade archipelago. 
Meta, islet on the north coast of New Guinea, which with Gressien forms Dallmann 

harbor. 
Metia, see Makatea, Paumotu archipelago. 30. 
Metis, of the Tongan group, was first noticed in 1875 by Metis 75 m. from Falcon 

island. It was 29 ft. high; after an eruption it rose to 150 ft.; now a shoal bank. 

19° 11' s., 174° 49' \v. 
Metoma, between Middle and North of the Torres group, is about 450 ft. high. 

1.5 X 0.7 m. 

Mewadi, islet north from Duau, D'Entrecasteaux group. 9° 50' s., 150° 55' E. 

Mewstone, see Moturina of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Meyer, off the east coast of Raoul, Kermadec islands. 

[188] 



170 



Uente Hcnnosa 




SAVAn 



German American 



UPOLU 



'anaatapn 



Nuutele 



16oS. 



TUTUILA 



C^|n_^ oAnuu 



SAMOAN ISLANDS 



w. 



15 



MANUA GROUP 



0%i iipPIosenga 



SI 



' Tau 



Rosa 



Niae 

o 



170 



W. 



■^«Mwaaiia^f«wi^Mw«e<M*. 



riano 



'.- ^xmtf:' 



rr .:> :*? 



f 



B 



.1 




INDEX TO THE PACIEIC ISLANDS. 105 

Miadi, Medjit or New Year of the Marshall islands, was discovered by Kotzebue, 

January i, 1817. The atoll is 3 m. n-s., and 0.7 ni. wide. 10° i7'3o"n., i7o°55'e. 
Mibu, low, wooded, 11 m. in circumference, at the mouth of Fly river, separated by a 

narrow creek from the mainland. 8° 43' vS., 143° 23' K. 
Michaelov, see Tuvana i ra, Fiji. 
Middle, see Tegua in China strait. 

Middleburgh, on the New Guinea coast. 0° 24' S., 132° 10' E. 
Middleburgh, a name given by Tasnian in 1643 to Eua of the Tongan i.slands. 
Midge, see Abaura, New Guinea. 
Midway, of the Hawaiian group, was discovered by Captain Brooks of the Gambia in 

1859. He took possession for the United States. It was surveyed by Captain 

W. Reynolds (afterwards Admiral) in U. S. S. Lackawanna in 1867. Reef is 18 m. 

in circumference, with an entrance to the lagoon on the west. There are two islets. 

Eastern and Sand. 28° 12' 22" N., 177° 22' 20" w. It has (1900) been carefully 

resurvej-ed b}' the officers and men of the U. S. Iroquois^ and many soundings 

were made to facilitate its use as a cable station. 
Mille or Mulgrave, of the Marshall islands, is a chain of atolls 30 m. long; discovered 

by Captain Marshall in 1788. The southwest point is in 6° 09' n., 171° 30' E. 
Mills, one of the Tiri islands off Vanua levu, Fiji. 
Milne, off southeast coast of Raoul, Kermadec islands. 
Miloradowitch, a name given by Bellingshausen in 1819 to Faaite of the Paumotu 

archipelago. 
Minerva, see Pukaliuha, Paumotu archipelago. 

Miniminiahura is north of Saibai, New Guinea. 9° 17' S., 142° 45' E. 
Minto, see Tenarunga of the Adlseon group. 
Mioko or Meoko, is an inhabited islet of the Duke of York group in the Bismarck 

archipelago, where the German protectorate was proclaimed November 3, 1884. 

4 13 S., 152 28 E. 
Mioskaroar, small,low, thickly wooded, on north coast of New Guinea. o°i8's., i35°o3'e. 
Misima or St. Aignan of the Louisiade archipelago, is 21.5 m. E-w., 3-4 m. n-s., and 

3500zb ft. high. Population, in 1890, 3000; a mixture of Malay and Papuan 

stock; head-hunters, who have many canoes. Alluvial gold has been found. 

West cape 10° 38' .S., 152° 31' E. 9. 
Misool is 50 m. north from Ceram; 50X20 m., mountainous and wooded. Interior 

people are Papuan, on the coast much mixed with Malay. Subject to Sultan of 

Tidore. 2° S., 130° E. 
Misore or Mysore, see Schouten islands. 
Mitchell, a name of Nukulaelae of the Ellice group. 16. 
Mitiero or Mitiaro, of the Hervey group, is 10 m. in circumference, very barren ; deep 

lagoon with no opening in the surrounding reef. Population about 275. i9°49's., 

157° 43' w. 

Mitre, .see Fataka in 11° 55' s., 170° 10' E. 

Moai, islet of Ifalik, Caroline islands. 3. 

Moala, high, volcanic island of Fiji; 5X7 m., and 1535 ft. high. Population about 

600. South point is in 18° 41' s., 179° 53' E. 

Li 89] 



io6 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Moali, Muli or Badeneu, islet southwest of Uea, Loyalty. islands. There is only a 

boat passage between Moali and Uea. 
Modu nianu (for Moku nianii), old spelling of the Hawaiian name of Nihoa or Bird 

island. 
Moe, islet of Pavuvu, Solomon islands. 
Moller, see Amanu of the Paumotu archipelago. 
Moller, see Laysan, Hawaiian islands. 2. 
Moerenhout or Maria, of the Paumotu archipelago, was discovered by Mr. Ebrill of 

the Amphitrite in 1832. A lagoon in centre. 21° 53' S., 136° 20' w.O 33. 
Mofia, on the north coast of New Guinea ; half a mile N-s., 200 ft. high. 0° 28' vS„ 

135" 13' K. 

Mogtnog, islet of Uluthi, Caroline islands. 10° 06' n., 139° 45' 30" K. 

MogOgha, islet off the north coast of Vanua levn, Fiji. 

Moka, islet of Kia, Fiji. 

Mokaluva, islet at the entrance to Port Nukulau on the .southeast coa.st of V^iti levu, 
Fiji. 

Mokil or Duperrey or Wellington is 90 m. east from Ponape, Caroline islands. It was 
discovered June 18, 1824, by Duperrey. The reef is 3 m. in diameter and has 
three islets, Mokil, Aoura and Ongai (According to others the names are Urak, 
Manton and Kalap). About 175 inhabitants. South end is in 6°39'n., 159° 53' E. 

Moko, islet of Pavuvu of the Russell group, Solomon islands. 9° 04' s., 159° 07' E. 

Mokomok (Arrowroot), chief place of Uluthi or Mackenzie group, Caroline islands. 

Mokor, Caroline islands, a name in Dr. L. H. Gulick's list, in 5° 41' n., 152" 40' E. 
Said not to exist. 

Mokuhooniki, islet 198 ft. high, off east end of Molokai, Hawaiian group. 21 o7'4o"n., 
156 42 20 w. 

Mokulii, islet off north coast of Oahu, Hawaiian group. 

Mokungai, 10 m. from Ovalau, Fiji; 3 m. n-s., 1.5 m. E-w. The north point is in 
17 24' 16" S., 179° 01' E. 

Molahau, in Bismarck archipelago. 3° 14' s., 152° 28' E. 

Molard, see Ndundine, Loyalty islands. 

Mole, i.slet 0.7 m. long, in Purdy islands. 2° 52' S., 146° 18' v.. 8. 

Molokai, of the Hawaiian islands, is a long, high island, 4958 ft. high, and covering 
167,000 acres. Population, 2307. On the middle of the north side a tongue runs 
northward from the base of high precipices, and here, walled by nature from the 
rest of the island, is the Government leper establishment. The east end is in 
21" 09' 18' N., 156° 42' 45" w.; the west end in 21° 05' 50" N., 157° 18' 45" w. I. 

Molokini, of the Hawaiian islands, is a small, extinct crater in the channel between 
Maui and Kahoolawe. Uninhabited. 

Monagim or Monagun, islet east of Misima, Louisiade archipelago. 10° 42' S., 
i53_ 53' K. 

Monahiki or Humphrey was discovered by Captain Patrickson in the (rOod Hope, 
1822. British prote(5lorate declared August 9, 1889. It is a closed lagoon reef 
of triangular form with the apex to the north ; 6X5 m. 16"^ 2o'3o"s., i6i°oi' 15'w. 
Population, 400-500. 19. 

[190] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 107 

Mondriki, uninhabited islet of Mamanutha i caki group, Fiji. 

Money, islet of Pavuvu, Solomon islands. 

Monges (Monjes), see Anacoretas. 

Mono or Treasury is about 25 m. south from Bougainville of the Solomon islands ; 

6.5 m. E-w., 4 m. N-s.; 1165 ft. high. 7° 21' S., 155° 32' E. 
Monofe, of the Hermit islands. 1° 29' .s., 144° 59' E. 8. 
Montague, see Muna, New Hebrides. 
Montemont, two islands, la taui and Pana bobo, in the Louisiade archipelago. 

II 18 S., 152 18 E. 
Monteverde, see Nukuor of the Caroline islands. Discovered b}' Juan B. Monteverde 

in 1806. 
Montgomery, Solomon islands, is about 15 m. e. by s.-w. by n.; uninhabited. 8°43's., 

157' 29' E. 
Montravel is i m. e-w. at the west entrance to Praslin bay. New Caledonia. Named 

for Captain Tard}- de Montravel. 
Monu, uninhabited islet of Mamanutha i caki group, Fiji. 

Monuafe, islet of Tongatabu, opposite the entrance to harbor. 21° 06' .S., 175° 07' w. 
Mooa, islet on the New Guinea coast. 
Moore, see Kayangle of the Pelew islands. 
Moorea or Eimeo of the Society islands, rises in Oroo peak to 4045 ft. The south 

end is in 17" 34' 15" s., 150° 00' 30" w. 2,0. 
Mopelia, see Mopeha of the Society islands. 30. 
Mopeha, Lord Howe, Maura and Mobidie (of Turnbull), in the Society group, was 

discovered hy Wallis in 1767; 10 m. N-s., 4 m. E-w. 16° 52' S., 154° w. approx. 
Mor, 5 m. from Kutu, Caroline islands; 300 inhabitants. 

Moramba, Fiji, 0.5 m. in diameter, is well wooded. 18° 56' 30" s., 181° 09' E.© 
Morane or Cadmus, in the Paumotu archipelago, is a closed lagoon reef with three 

inhabited islets; 5 m. by 2.5 m. 23° 08' S., 137° ,20' W.O 2,2. 
Morata, the name of a district of Dauila, D'Entrecasteaux group, often applied to the 

island. 
Moratau or Fergus.son, of the D'Entrecasteaux group, is 30 m. E-w. by 24 m. N-S.' 

Mt. Kilkerran is 5000 ft. high. The island is cultivated and populous. 9. 
Moresby, see Basilaki. 

Moreton, off Moreton bay, Queensland ; 20X5 ni. North point is in 27°o6's., 153° i6'e. 
Moretiga, islet on the northwest coa.st of Isle of Pines. 

Morgusaia, islet on the south coast of Shortland, Solomon islands. 7°o7's., 155° 46' E. 
Morileu or Hall, discovered in 1824 by English Captain Hall. The group consists 

of Morileu, Rua, Namorousse and six islets. Population about 100. 8° 41' n., 

152' 25' E. 4. 
Morilug, coast of Australia. 10° 39' S., 142° 39' E. 
Morning Star, .see Udjelong of the Marshall islands. 
Mornington or Wellesley, a group in tlie Gulf of Carpentaria. Seen by Tasman in 

1644, but supposed to be part of the mainland. Named for Lord Mornington, 

afterward Marquis of Wellesley. 
Moro, islet in Kuto bay. Isle of Pines. 

[191] 



io8 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Morrell, reported by Captain Morrell in 1825 as of 29° 57' n., 174° 31' E.; bnt its exist- 
ence is doubtful, as it has not been seen for many 3'ears. Now expunged from 
Admiralty- charts (1900). 

Mortlock, a group of the Caroline islands discovered by Captain James Mortlock 
November 29, 1793. Consists of Lixkunor, Satoan, Etal. Three long groups and 
nine islets; in all, 98 islands. 4. 

Mortlock, see Marcken. 

Moseley, islet in Nares harbor. Admiralty island. Named for Henry N. Moseley, of 
the Challenger expedition. 

MOSO, Deception or Verao, on the northwest side of Havannah harbor. Fate, New 
Hebrides. There are several villages on the island, of which Moso is one. Verao 
means long. 

Mosquito, a group on the north shore of Goodenough bay on the northeast coast of 
New Guinea. 9° 46' s., 149° 53' E. 

Mota, New Hebrides, was discovered by Quiros in 1606 and called Nostra (nuestra) 
Senora de la Luz. Bligh called it Sugar-loaf. There are two wooded peaks about 
1250 ft. high. Forty-two villages contain 2000 inhabitants, according to French 
authority. 13° 48' s., 167° 40' E. 13. 

Motane or San Pedro, of the Marquesas islands, was discovered by Mendana July 21, 
1595. Tessan calls it O-nateaya. 4.5 m. nnw-SSE; 1565 ft. high, sterile and un- 
inhabited. 10° .s., 138° 50' w. 23. 

Motea, islet at entrance to Haniene bay, Tahaa, Society islands. 

Mothe (Moce), Fiji. Wilkes calls it Motha. 2.2 m. in diameter, 590 ft. high; soil 
rich, island pidluresque ; inhabited. 18° 36' 30" S., 181° 26' E.Q 

Motuhanua, islet to the eastward of Port Moresby, south coast of New Guinea. 
9' 32' .S., 147° 16' 30" E. 

Mottia, i.slet off the north coast of Vanxia levu, Fiji. 

Motuagea, islet of Fakaafo or Bowditch. 9° 22' 38" S., 171° 13' w. 

Motuaini, islet in Styx passage, Loyalty islands. 

Motuiti, islet of Fakaafo. 9° 22' 45" .s., 171° 13' vv. 

Motuiti (little island) or Franklin, sterile islet of the Marquesas. 8°43's., i40°37'w. 

Motuiti or Kennedy, New Hebrides, was discovered by Captain Simpson in the 
Xaulilus in 1801. Little is known of it. 8° 36' s., 167° 48' E. 

Motuiti, see Tubai> Society islands. 20. 

MotU Korea, in Auckland harbor. New Zealand. 

Motukavata, one of the Danger group; long, 125 ft. high, uninhabited. 10° 58' s., 
165 15' w. 

Motukoe, one of the Danger group; uninhabited, looift. high. io°53's., 1 65° 45' 30" w. 

Motuloa, islet of Fakaafo or Bowditch. 9° 22' 26" .s., 171° 12' w. 

Motumau or Table, on the New Zealand coast. 43° 04' s., 173° 10' E. 

Motunangea, islet of Fakaafo or Bowditch. 9° 24' S., 171° 13' w. 

Motunui or West Sentinel, islet at the entrance to Taiohae harbor, Nukuhiva, Mar- 
quesas islands. 

MotU ora, in Auckland harbor. New Zealand. Coconut i.sland, in Hilo harbor, has 
the same name which .signifies island of life. 

[•92] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 109 

MotupatU, ill Hauraki gulf near Waiheke, New Zealand. 

Moturiki is i m. sw. from Ovalan, Fiji; 5X1 m.; abounds in coconuts. 17' 47' 06" s., 

178° 48' 25" K. (Peak.) 
Moturina or Mewstone, of the Louisiade archipelago, is 3 m. ESE-WNW. by 1.7 in.; 

nearly 1000 ft. high ; inhabited. 
Motutulatula, islet of Fakaafo or Bowditch. 9° 24' 45" s., 171" 12' \v. 
Motutunga or Adventure, atoll of the Paumotu archipelago, was discovered by Cook 

in 1773. The lagoon has a boat entrance at the northwest side. Occasionally in- 
habited for colledling coconuts and pearl-shell. 17° 04' S., 144° 17' W.O 
Mouac, islet in Banare baj- on the northwest coast of New Caledonia. 
Mougaone, Tongan islands. 
Moulin. 18° 31' 10" s., 160° 52' 14" E. Named for one of the sailors in D'Entre- 

casteaux expedition. 
Mound, on the Australian coast. 17° 57' s., 146° 09' E. 
Mourilyan, on the New Guinea coast. 

Mount AdolphuS, group in Torres strait. 10° 38' s., 142° 37' E. 
Mount Cornwallis, see Tauan on the southwest coast of New Guinea. 
Mouse, one of the Purdy islands. 2° 55' .S., 146° 20' E. 
Mouse, islet in Fortescue strait, .southeast coast of New Guinea. 
Mown, islet of Kiriwina group. 9. 

Mua, islet of Egum, Kiriwina group. 9° 25' S., 151° 58' E. 9. 
Mudge, .see Narri of the Engineer group. 10° 45' s., 150° 18' E. 
Mugula or Dufaure is on the east side of Orangerie bay on the southeast coast of 

New Guinea; 3 m. N-.S., 2 m. E-w.; 1662 ft. high; inhabited. io°29's., i49°49'e. 
Muifuiva, islet near Namuka of the Tongan islands. 

Mukalau, low, 0.5 m. in circumference; off Viti levu, Fiji. 18° ii's., 178° 30' io"e.G) 
Mulgrave, in Torres .strait. 10° 07' S., 142° 09' E.O 
Mulgrave, see Mille of the Marshall islands. 
Muli, see Moali of the Loyalty group. 

Mulifonua, islet of Fakaafo or Bowditch. 9° 19' s., 171° 13' w. 
Mumbualau, islet between Suva and Levuka, Fiji. 
Muna, Nguna, Nuna or Montague, islet on the northeast coast of Fate, New Hebrides; 

1500 ft. high. 
Mungaiwa, islet of Yanutha of the Ringgold group, Fiji. 
Munia, of the Exploring islands, Fiji; 2X1 ni., 1054 ft. high. i7°22's., i8i°o7'3o"e. 

Inhabited. 
Munia, southwest from Fauro, Solomon islands; 0.7 m. in diameter, 275 ft. high, 

wooded. 
Murray, islet in Nares harbor. Admiralty island. Named for Dr. John Murray of the 

Cliallenger. 
Murray, see Mer. 

Murray, 100 m. northeast from Cape York in Torres strait. io°05's., 144" 05' E. 
Murray, see Buraku, Solomon islands. 
Murua or Woodlark, in the Kiriwina group, was discovered by Captain Grimes of the 

Woodlark of Sydney before 1836; 40 m. E-w. Northwest point 8° 54' s., 152° 35' E. 9. 

[193] 



no INDEX TO THE PACIEIC ISLANDS. 

Murtiroa, Osnaburgh or Matilda, was discovered by Carteret in 1767. It consists of 
18 low islands extending 14 m. The last name from the wreck of the whaler 
Matilda in 1792. East end in 21° 50' s., 138° 45' \v. Paumotu archipelago. 22. 

Muschu or Gressien, fertile and well peopled, on the north coast of New Guinea. 
3° 24' S., 143° 28' K. 

Museeket, islet of Ailinglablab, Marshall islands. 6. 

Muskillo, see Neniu, Caroline islands. 

Muswar, in Geelvink bay, north coast of New Guinea. 2° s., 134° 25' K. 

Mutakaloch, islet off the Metalanim coast of Ponape, Caroline islands. 

Muthuata, off Vanua levu, Fiji; i. 1X0.5 m., 1005 ft. high. East end in 16° 25' s., 
1 79 03' 54" K. 

Mutok, islet on the south side of Ponap6, Caroline islands. 

Mutokaloj, islet of Ponape, Caroline islands. 

Muturabu, islet of Tongatabu. 21° 05' 30" S., 175° 01' w. 

Muwo, of the Kiriwina group. 8° 43' S., 150° 58' E. 

Myet, in the Bismarck archipelago. 4° 06' S., 152° 27' E. 

Mv.sorv, see Schouten. 

Manuna, islet east of Port Moresby on the south coast of New Guinea. 9° 33' s., 
147' 16' K. 

Mj'woolla, .see Kandavu, Fiji. 

Nada, see Laughlan. 

Nag^atl, on the north side of the northeast opening of Egum atoll. 9°23's., i52°03'e. 

NagO, islet at mouth of Nusa harbor of New Ireland. 

Naiabo, small coral island, 40 ft. high, with a barrier reef 3 m. in circumference, in 
the Lau group, Fiji. 

Naiau, 3-5X2 m., 500-600 ft. high, Fiji. About 230 inhabitants. 

Naingani (Naigani), Fiji; 1X0.7 m., 420 ft. high. North point in 17° 33' 40" s., 
178' 43' E. 

Nairai, 10 m. n. bj* E. from'Ngau, Fiji; 4 m. x-,s., 1.5-3 '"• ^"-w. Needle peak 1078 ft. 
high. The north point in 17° 45' .s., 179° 28' 30" E. In 1880 there were 612 in- 
habitants. 

Nairn, off the southwest coa.st of Ysabel, Solomon islands. 7° 40' vS., 158° 20' E. 

Xair.sa, see Rangirba (Rahiroa) of the Paumotu archipelago. 

Naitatnba (Naitaba), Fiji; is high and rugged, triangular, 1.5 m. in diameter, 610 ft. 
high. Inhabited by Europeans.. 17° 03' 30" s., 180° 46' E.O 

Nakandra nui, islet on the north coast of Vanua levu, Fiji. 

Xakoga, see Anologo, Matema islands. 

Nakudi, i.slet of Butaritari, Gilbert islands. 3° 08' 25" n;, 172° 41' 15" E. 

Nakumbutha, small, rocky island off Vanua levu, Fiji. i6°35'3o"s., i78°36'3o"e.O 

Nalap, islet of Ponape, Caroline islands, off Ronkiti river. 

Xalogo, a trader's name for Anologo. 

Nama or D'Urville (Peace?), of the Caroline islands, is small, without a lagoon, but 
higher than most of the group. 6" 59' n., 152° 33' E. 4. 

Namaka, islet of Butaritari, Gilbert islands. 3° 11' 30" N., 172' 54' E. 

[194I 



INDEX TO THE PACTFIC ISLANDS. iir 

Namatotte, off the New Guinea coast. 3° 53' s., 133 49' K. 

Nambite, low, off \'aiiua levu, Fiji. North point in 16° 27' 54" S., 178° 50' E. 

Namena or Dire(5lion, Fiji; two high (320 ft.) hills covered with dense foliage; nn- 
inhabited; 1X0.2 m. Namena reef encloses a lagoon 13 m. long and 2-3 ni. wide, 
with an average depth of 16-20 fathoms. 17° 06' S., 179° 06' K. 

Namo or Margaretta of the Marshall islands. Sonth point in 8° 55' N., 167° 42' K. 

Namoliaur, islet of Elato, Caroline islands. 

Namolipiafane, of the Caroline islands, was discovered by Hall in 1824. The reef is 
40 ni. in circumference, encloses 13 islets, among them Ikop, Fananon, Namonine. 
25 30 N., 151 49 15 E. 4. 

Namolllk or Skidd}', of the Caroline islands, was discovered by Liitke in 1828. Reef 
is 15 m. in circumference, with five islets. 5° 45' 15" n., 153° 16' 30" E. 4. 

NamonuitO, Bunkey, Anonima, Livingstone, was discovered b}' Ibargoitia in 1801. 
Reef enclosing the group is 45 m. E-w. The islets are Amytideu, Maghyr, 
Maghyrarik, Ounalik, Onoup, Pilipal, Pizaras and Ulul. 8° 33' N., 150° 31' E. 

Namorik or Baring, of the Marshall islands, was discovered by Captain Bond Decem- 
ber 15, 1792. Two islands on a reef 5 m. in diameter. Popiilation about 300. 
5° 35' X., 168^^ 18' E.O 6. 

Namorus or Namorousse, islet of Morileu, Caroline islands. 

Namotu, islet 300 yds. in diameter on the west coast of Viti levu, Fiji. 

Namtuiroj, islet of Kwadjalin, Marshall islands. 

Namu, see Nemu. 

Namua, islet east from Upolu, Samoan islands. 

Namuine, islet of the Namolipiafane atoll in the Caroline islands. 8° 25' 30" N., 

151 49 15 E. 
Namuka, see Nomuka, Tongan islands. 
Namuka is 7 m. west from Mbenga, Fiji, enclosed in the same reef; 1.7 m. n-s. by i m. 

8'-' ' ff ^ o (-)'■ " . /^ 

21 50 S., 177 58 50 E.O . 

Namuka i lau (eastern), 15 m. north from Fulanga, Fiji; 4 m. E-w., 1.5 m. N-s.; 

260 ft. high. East point in 18° 47' s., 181° 21' 30" E. 
Namuka, islet 3 m. southwest from Suva harbor, inside the shore reef; inhabited. Fiji. 
Namuka, islet off centre of south side of Api, New Hebrides; 500 ft. high. i6°49's., 

168" 19' E. 
Nananu group, Fiji, consists of Nananu ira and i thake (leeward and windward); 

230 ft. high. 
Na NdongU or Tiri islands, off north coast of Vanua levu, Fiji. 
Nangani, 5.5 m. northwest from Ovalau, Fiji; i m. N-s., 600 ft. high. 
Nangati, in Yasawa group, Fiji; 1X0.5 m., 930 ft. high; inhabited. 16° 57' 30" S., 

o / 'I . r\ 
177 19 40 E.O 

Nani, islet between Nekete and Lavaissiere bays on the southeast coast of New Cale- 
donia. 

Nanikirata, Islet of Apaiang, Gilbert islands. 1° 54' n., 172° 54' 30" E. 

Nanomanga or Hudson, of the Ellice group, is 1.5 m. N-s., i m. E-w.; lagoon closed. 
Population in 1886 was 320 protestants. 6° 13' S., 176° 16' 30" E. 16. 

[195] 



112 INDEX ro THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Nanomea, the San Augustine of Maurelle, 1781, was discovered by Maurelle. There 
are two islands on the reef within 3-4 ni. of each other, the westerly called Lakenu, 
the other Nanomea. Supposed to be the Taswell and Sherson of the brig ElisabclJi^ 
1809. Nanomea is 4X1.5 ni. Rev. J. S. Whitmee says the inhabitants are phys- 
ically a remarkabh' fine race, numbering about 1000 ( 1870). This is the northern- 
most of the Ellice group. 5° 36' 30" .s., 176° 10' K.O 

Nanouki, see Aranuka of the Gilbert islands. 

Nanoultl, of the Kiriwina group, is in 8° 46' s., 150° 58' E. 

Nanouti, see Nonuti or Sj'denham, Gilbert islands. 

Nantucket, see Baker. 

Nansouti, a wooded islet on the barrier reef of Tahiti, Society islands. 2,0. 

Nanuia, high, inhabited islet, 0.7 m. in diameter; of the Yasawa group, Fiji. 16° 5830 "s., 
177 19 50 E.O 

Nanuku, Fiji; 1.5X0.5 m. on a reef 14X8 m. 16° 42' 30" s., 180° 36' E.O 

Naonao, islet on the south reef of Raiatea, Society islands. 

Napasa, islet on northeast part of outer ring of Egum atoll. 9° 20' 30" .s., 152° E. 9. 

Napier, off northeast coast of Raoul, Kermadec islands. 

Napuka or Whytoohee, in the Disappointment group of Byron, Paumotu archipelago. 
Wooded islets conne(5led by an irregular reef enclosing a lagoon. Inhabitants 
said to be a distinct race. The east end is in 14° 10' 40" s., 141° 12' 50" w. 

Napuni, islet of Butaritari, Gilbert islands. 3° 10' 20" N., 172° 41' 10" E. 

Naranarawai or Skelton, of the Louisiade archipelago, is an inhabited island 2 m. 
ESK-w.vw. bj' half a mile wide, and 500 ft. high. 

Narancpuli, islet at the entrance to Port Lod on the southeast side of Ponape, Caro- 
line islands. 

Narang^ or Narangai, high island of Fiji. 16° 48' 30" s., 179° 29' 20" E.O 

Narborough, of the Galapagos, is a volcano 3720 ft. high. 

Narcissus, see Tatakoto of the Paumotu archipelago. 23. 

Nares, on the Australian coast. 19'' 44' S., 148° 21' E. Named for Captain G. S. 
Nares of the Challenger. 

Naria, in Cloudy bay, New Guinea. 10° 14' .s., 148° 39' E. 

Narlap, islet with Narmaur forming the entrance to Kiti harbor on the southwest 
end of Ponape, Caroline islands 

Narmaur, at the mouth of Kiti harbor, Ponape, Caroline islands. 6°47'n., 158° 08' E. 

Narovo or Eddystone, of the Solomon islands, is 4X1 ni.; volcanic, the adlivity con- 
fined at present to the south portion; lagoon frequented by crocodiles. Natives 
friendly and good pilots. Eddystone Rock and Simbo are islets on the reef of 
Narovo. 8" 15' s., 156° 28' E. 

Narri or Mndge, of the Louisiade archipelago, is a low, eoral, uninhabited islet 0.7 m. 
NE-SW. 10° 45' S., 150° 18' E. 

Nasakor, one of the south group of islets in Egum atoll lagoon. 9° 27' vS., 151° 
58' 30" V, 9. 

Nassau, islet di.scovered in 1835 from the whaler Nassau; fringing reef. ii°33'2o"s., 

165° 25' w. 

Nataka, islet of Butaritari, Gilbert islands. 3° 10' 10" n., 172° 55' 10" E. 

[196] 



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INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 113 

Nathula (Nacula), islet between Yasawa and Naviti, Fiji. 

Nau, on southeast coast of New Caledonia. 

Nauru, see Nawodo, Gilbert islands. 

Nauta, of the Kiriwina group. 8° 37' s., 150° 50' E. 

Nautilus, see Tapiteuea of the Gilbert islands. 

Nautaniwono, uninhabited islet of Mamanutha i caki group, Fiji. 

Navandra, uninhabited islet of Mamanutha group, Fiji. 

Navini, sand islet in Nandi waters on the west coast of Viti levu, Fiji. 

Naviti, important island of the Yasawa group, Fiji; 8X3 m., 740zb ft. high. i7°o5's., 

177° 14 E. 
Naviu, on the New Guinea coast. 8° 12' S., 143° 36' E. 

Navumbalavu, islets 122 ft. high off Viti levu, Fiji. 17° 37' 30" s., 178° 37' E.O 
Navutuiloma, densely wooded; 210 ft. high; in the Yangasa cluster, Fiji. 
Navtltuira, densely wooded; 270 ft. high, in the Yangasa cluster, Fiji. 
Nawi, islet 130 ft. high at the mouth of the Na Kama creek on the south coast of 

Vanua levu, Fiji. 
Nawi, islet of the Schouten group in Geelvink bay. 2° 15' S., 136° 18' E. 
Nawodo, Nauru, Shank or Pleasant of the Gilbert islands was discovered by Captain 

Fearn of the Hiinter in 1795-8; 15 m. in circumference, raised coral, 100 ft. high; 

in centre a fresh water lagoon. Population about 1200, a fine race. 0° 25' S., 

167° 05' E. 
Nayau, Fiji, an inhabited island 4X2.5 m., 275 ft. high, with reef on one side only. 

Northwest point is in 17° 57' 30" S., 180° 58' E. 
Nda, on the great reef south from New Caledonia. 

Nde, islet on passage from Noumea to Uen island, south end of New Caledonia. 
Ndendi, a spelling of Nitendi or Santa Cruz, New Hebrides. 
Ndie, islet of the Great South Reef, New Caledonia. 

N'digoro, islet on the outer reef in Isie passage on the northwest side of New Caledonia. 
Ndrendre and Ndrendre lailai, islets with Thumbu on the north coast of Viti levu at 

the entrance to the Rakiraki river. 
Ndravuni or Colvocoressis, Fiji; an inhabited island 1.2 m. N-s., 0.2 m. E-w.; 350 ft. 

high. 18° 49' 30" S., 178° 25' 40" E.O 
Ndruandrua, islet on the north coast of Viti levu, Fiji; 156 ft. high. 16° 12' 24" S., 

179 35 20 E.O 
N'dakue, islet in Port Uitoe on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 
Ndundine, Ndundure or Molard, uninhabited island west from Mare, 3 m. in circum- 
ference. Loyalty islands. 
Nea, islet in Kuabuni opening on the southeast coast of New Caledonia. 
Neba, inhabited islet in Pume passage, northwest coast of New Caledonia. 
Necker, of the Hawaiian group, was discovered by La Perouse November i, 1786. 

Named for the great minister of Louis XVL Rocky; 280 ft. high; volcanic, the 

remains of a crater with a shoal extending miles to the southward. 23° 35' 18" N., 

164° 39' w. 
Neckes, see Puketutu, New Zealand. 
Negeri, see Nihiru of the Paumotu archipelago. 

Memoirs B, P. B. Museum, Vol. I., No. 2.-8. [ ' 97 J 



114 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Nekumara, islet between Dobu and Kwaiope, east from Dawson strait, D'Entrecas- 
teaux group. 9° 44' S., 150° 54' E. 

Nemu or Double, islet in Infernet passage on the southwest coast of New Caledonia. 

Nemu or Musquillo, atoll of the Marshall islands. The south point is in 8° 14' n., 
168'' 03' K. 

Nendahande, islet south from Balabio on the northeast coast of New Caledonia. 

Nendiale, islet in Banare bay on the northwest coast of New Caledonia. 

Xengone, the native name of Mar^ or Britannia of the Loyalt\^ islands. 

NengonengO or Prince William Henry of the Paumotu archipelago was discovered 
by Wallis in 1765; 5 m. E-w. North end is in 18° 43' S., 141° 40' w. 21. 

Neni, low and covered with coconut trees, on the northeast coast of New Caledonia. 

Nenon or Nenu, in Port Bouquet on the east coast of New Caledonia; 1.5 m. E. by 
N.-w. by s. 

Nepean, island with extensive reefs in Torres strait. 9° 34' S., 143° 38' E. 

Nepean, one of the Kermadec islands; 0.2 m. long, 50 ft. high. 29° 04' s., 167° 58' E. 

Netherland, see Nui of the Ellice islands. 

Neu Hannover, see New Hanover. 

Neu Lauenburg, German name for Duke of York islands. 

Neu Mecklenburg, German name for New Ireland. It seems unfortunate that in 
changing the well-known names of their new possessions the Germans should not 
have improved on the former rather unsuitable appellations. I cannot see that 
New Mecklenburg is any more appropriate than New Ireland. 

Neu Poraniern, the German name for New Britain. 

Nevelo, see Lomlom, Santa Cruz. 

Nevil, see Tobi, Caroline islands. 

New, island of the New Guinea region. 2° 30' S., 131° 34' E. 

New Amsterdam, the name given by Tasnian to Tongatabu. 

New Britain (Neu Pommern of the Germans). Carteret, in 1767, found that what 
Dampier had supposed a bay when in 1700 he sailed through the strait that bears 
his name and proved that there was an island distinct from New Guinea, was 
really another strait, so he named the land to the east New Ireland, and the west- 
em one New Britain. Little is known of New Britain, large as it is. There are 
many adlive volcanoes in the long and narrow island. Cannibals are numerous 
but in constant tribal warfare; 330 m. long, nowhere more than 50 m. wide. The 
north point is in 4° 07' vS., 152° 10' E. lO. 

New Caledonia was partly discovered by Cook, but D'Entrecasteaux completed the 
work. Taken by France in 1853 i* was made a penal settlement in 1883 in spite of 
the experience of England in her Australian penal stations, and the constant es- 
cape of convidls is a great damage to the neighboring colonies. New Caledonia is 
about 216 m. long, 30 m. broad. There are two parallel ranges of mountains ex- 
tending the whole length ; the eastern, about 25CX) ft. high, has an even and regu- 
lar outline, while the western mountains are higher (2600-3600 ft.) and more 
irregular in form. Mt. Douit, over Cape Colnett, is 5570 ft. high. Among other 
minerals nickel is found here.* The native houses are generally conical. The 

*Ueiirtcan— Kapport 8ur la Constitution de la Nouvelle Calfidoiiic, 1S76. Pelatan— I,es Mines de la Nouvelle CalC-donie, 1892. 

[198] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 115 

natives use jade in weapons and ornaments. The winter season is from December 
15 to April 15. The north point is in 20° 45' s. 13. 

New Georgia, see Rubiana of the Solomon islands. 

New Guinea was discovered by the Portuguese Jorge de Meneses in 1524; visited by 
Saavedra in 1528 ; Grijalva y Alvarado in 1537 ; Inigo Ortiz de Retes in 1545, and 
the last gave the name New Guinea. The history of the discovery of New Guinea 
is a most complicated one, each discoverer mapping but a small portion of the 
coast, and to this day the coast line is not well surveyed, while much of the in- 
terior remains unexplored. In 1705 a Dutch expedition explored the deep bay on 
the north coast which was named for one of the ships of the expedition Geelvink 
(yellow finch) , and many other Dutch explorers were sent by the East India Com- 
pany from Batavia to this portion of New Guinea which was gradually claimed by 
Holland. The boundary of Dutch New Guinea on the east is a straight line 
drawn from Cape Bonpland on the east side of Humboldt bay, in 140° 47' east 
longitude to 140° E. on the south coast. In 1885 the portion not claimed by the 
Dutch east of the 141st meridian was divided between England and Germany, the 
former taking the south coast from the mouth of Bensbach river in latitude 
9° 07' 35 " S-, longitude 141° 01' 48" E., this meridian forming the boundary till it 
meets the Fly river which becomes the boundary until it crosses the 141st merid- 
ian ; also all the north coast from the east point to Mitre rock in latitude 8° s. 
April 4, 1883, the resident magistrate at Thursday island hoisted the British flag 
at Port Moresby and took possession of all between 141° and 155° E. And on Sep- 
tember 4, 1888, the Administrator proclaimed the annexation as a crown colony 
under the name of British New Guinea. 

In its greatest length wnw.-ese. New Guinea extends 1306 m., and its area, 
including adjacent islands, is about 312,000 sq. m. The Owen Stanley range rises 
to a height of 13,205 ft. Many tribes are found, but the type is Papuan, and is 
found in purity on the northern portion. To the northeast Polynesian colonies 
have resulted in some mixture. On the south coast the natives are enterprising 
traders, making long voyages with the monsoons in their lakatois which are 
clumsy, compound boats with two masts and V-shaped sails. Sago and pottery 
are the principal cargo. Houses on the shore are built on piles, and farther in- 
land often in trees for safety. 

For further information as to the discovery see Bougainville, Edwards, Flin- 
ders, D'Entrecasteaux, Freycinet, D'Urville, Moresby, Owen Stanley. And for 
the geography and general description, see D'Albertis, Lawes, Chalmers, Powell, 
and the reports of the Administrator. 

New Hanover (Neu Hannover of the Germans) was discovered by Carteret. It is 
37 m. e-w., 20 m. N-s. Fertile and mountainous, rising to 2000 ft. 10. 

New Hebrides. Quiros was the first to discover any of the extensive group, or rather 
groups, which are now known by the colleAive name of New Hebrides. He saw but 
one island which he fondly imagined was part of the great southern continent, then 
the dream of navigators, and he called his discovery Australia del Espiritu Santo, 
a name since curtailed to Santo in the Trader's vernacular. Cook discovered most 
of the southern chain and he gave the name New Hebrides in 1773. The natives 

[199] 



ii6 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

are of the black Papuan or Melanesian stock and have a reputation for cannibal- 
ism, treacherj- and uncertain temper. They have been outraged repeatedly by the 
labor pirates, and their hostilitj- to the kind of white men who have principally 
reached their islands does not seem unreasonable. The}- are far from being an 
homogeneous population : Pol3'nesian settlements exist throughout the group, and 
more than a score of languages are noted. The climate is not very well suited to 
white occupation, being damp and otherwise unwholesome. Although the group 
has not been well studied interesting particulars of portions of the islands have 
been published by the missionaries m'Iio have labored against great discouragement, 
and more especiallj' by Commander Markham in his "Cruise of the Rosario," 1872. 
Walter Coote's "Wanderings, South and East," 1892; and Julius Brenchley's in- 
teresting "Cruise of the Cura9oa," 1865. 

Part of the group has already been annexed by Great Britain, and it is sup- 
posed that France has desires for the rest as contiguous to her New Caledonian 
colony. Several agricultural companies of each nation are attempting to develope 
the resources of the country. 13. 

New Ireland (Neu Mecklenburg) was supposed by Lemaire and Schouten to be a part 
of New Guinea. Dampier, in 1700, proved it to be a separate island, and sixty- 
seven j-ears later Carteret demonstrated the strait between it and New Britain. 
240X15 ni., volcanic and rising to 7000 ft. Papuans, physically inferior to those 
of the Solomon islands. Cannibals ; practise circumcision but not tatuing. Coun- 
try not well known. 

New Jersey adjoins Santa Cruz. 

New Market, see Baker. 

New Nantucket, see Baker. 

New Philippines, a name once given to the Caroline islands. 

New Year, see Miadi of the Marshall islands. 

New York, see Washington. The same name was given hy Fanning in 1798 to Eiao 
of the Marquesas. 

New Zealand. This important group lies between the parallels of 34° 30' and 
47° 30' south latitude and the meridians of 166° 36' 30" and 178° 36' 05" east longi- 
tude, being roughly the antipodes of Great Britain. The area is 104,403 sq. m. or 
nearly equal to that of the British islands. The three islands are variously styled, 
but the Maori names were Te ika a Maui (The fish of Maui) for the northern one; 
Te wahi Pounamu (The place of Greenstone) for the middle; and Rakiura for 
Stewart island. These have given place to New Leinster, New Ulster and New 
Munster (of Governor Hobson),or more commonly Northern, Southern and Stewart. 
Tasman sighted the western coast December 13, 1642, but in sending a boat 
ashore the natives attacked and killed four of the crevy. Tasman called the place 
Mordenaars (Murderers) bay and did not again attempt to land, but sailed to the 
extreme northern end, discovering Three Kings islands (on the eve of Epiphany) 
and thence sailed to the Tongan islands. Tasman's first name, Staatenland, he 
later changed to Nova Zeeland. Cook was the next European to reach these 
shores (Odlober 6, 1769) and in Mercury bay, on November 11, he took formal 

[200] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



117 



NEW ZEALAND 





possession for King George III. Cook spent nearly a year (327 days) in the 
group and his surveys gave the first definite knowledge of the islands. 

As early as 1814 a Church mission was started and later other denominations 
followed. In 1840 both Wellington and Auckland were founded and colonists 
gathered until the natives were driven to exasperation and wars followed for many 
years. At present all is 
peace and by the wise 
system of the British the 
Maoris are segregated as 
much as possible, so that 
the traveller who merely 
visits the principal cities 
rarely sees a Maori. 
The census of 1881 gave 
44,099, a slight increase 
over the previous one. 
Yet, as the estimate in 
1840 was 107,000, the 
race is dying as all other 
inferior people must in 
the presence of the white 
intruders. 

The Maori race is 
supposed, mainly on the 
basis of their own tradi- 
tions, to have come to 
New Zealand in the 
fifteenth century from 
Hawaiki to the eastward. 
Their language closely 
resembles the Hawaiian, 
but these, whose tradi- 
tions go far beyond that 
date, have no remem- 
brance of such an emi- 
gration as told in the 
Maori traditions. When 
first discovered they were 
cannibals and particu- 
larly fierce, but like other cannibals they showed remarkable talent for fine work ; 
and to their intelligence is due the fact of their rapid conversion to Christianity 
and their comprehension of the advantages of civilization, which while removing 
them speedily from a world of trouble promised them a pleasanter one beyond the 

grave, "where the wicked cease from troubling." Maoris are a fine race of Poly- 

[201] 



GTON 



HRISTCHURCH 



Stewart f^ 



FIG. 8. 



n8 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

nesians, more manlj' and vigorous than the Hawaiian whom they closely resemble 
in outward form. 

The climate of New Zealand is not extreme but is subject to sudden changes, 
which do not increase the death rate which is very low. Volcanoes and snow-capped 
mountains add greatly to the beauty of the scener}^, and also give variety to 
climatic effe^ls. One thing is quickly noticed by the traveller, that the ruddy 
complexions of England are rather enhanced here while they soon disappear in 
the Australian colonies. 

Nexsen, a name given by Fanning, in 1798, to Hatutu of the Marquesas islands. 

Ngaloa (Galoa), of the Fiji group, is a small island which gives its name to the har- 
bor on the south side of Kandavu. 19° 05' 10" s., 178° 1 1' 3o"e. ( Challenger survey.) 

Ngaloa, on the north coast of Vanua levu, north of Lekutu river. Thickly peopled. 
16° 37' 24" S., 178° 41' 32" E.O 14. 

Ngamea (Qamea), northeast from Taviuni, Fiji; 5.7 m. long E-w., 1000 ft. high; 
about 500 inhabitants. 16° 47' S., 179° 44' w. 14. 

Nganati, Pinaki or Whitsunday of the Paumotu archipelago, was discovered by Wallis 
in 1767. It is low and wooded. 19° 40' 22" S., 140° 22' 28" w. There is much 
confusion on the charts. 21. 

Ngasi mbali, a low, uninhabited islet off Kandavu, Fiji, 60 ft. high. 

Ngatik, or Raven islands, 50 m. sw. from Ponape; discovered in 1773 by Don Felipe 
Tompson; 22 m. in circumference, and there are 11 islets on the unbroken reef. 
There is a small lagoon. Much copra is exported. 5° 47' 30" N., 157° 32' E. 5. 

Ngau, the Angau of Wilkes, is 27 m. southeast from Ovalau, Fiji ; 1 1.2 X4 ni. On the 

west is a barrier reef 16 m. long. Dilathoa peak is 2345 ft. high, in 17° 58' 30" s., 

80 f ff ^ 
I 33 30 E. 

Nge, islet near Dumbea passage at the south end of New Caledonia. 

Ngea, islet in Bulari bay, New Caledonia. 

Ngele levu, a coral reef i m. SE-NW. in the Ringgold group, Fiji. 

Ngoli, or Lamoliork, Caroline islands. The Matelotas of Villalobos in 1545 ; consists 

of five islets, the south one inhabited. 8° 15' N., 137° 35' E. 
Ngualito, islet of Malolo islands, Hudson group, Fiji. 
Nguna, see Muna of the New Hebrides. 
Niau, or Greig, a low, wooded island of the Paumotu archipelago, 4 m. in diameter, 

with a closed lagoon. The hurricane of 1878 almost depopulated this island. 

16° 11' s., 146° 22' w.O 
Nibanga, the southeast island of the Matema group; small, round, 200 ft. high, in- 
habited. 10° 21' S., 166° 17' E. Santa Cruz islands. 
Nicholson, in the Tongan group, was first known as Beveridge reef, now a coral 

island 3X2 m.; an example of an island formed fi-om a reef in recent times. 

20° 02' s., 167° 49' w. 
Nie, islet in Dumbea bay, north from Ducos peninsula on the southwest side of New 

Caledonia. 
Nielsen, islands off the north coast of New Guinea at the mouth of Prince Albrecht 

harbor. 

Nienane, a high, bare rock between Daos and Art islands, Belep group, New Caledonia. 

[202] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 119 

Nigeri, see Nihiru of the Paumotu archipelago, ai. 

Nifilofi or Nifilole, of the New Hebrides, extends i m. NW-SE., and is 120 ft. high. 

Nifo, in the Yasawa group, Fiji, is between Matathoni levu and Yangati. 16° 59' 30" S., 
177 19 10 E.O 

Night, a wooded island on the Australian coast. 13° 11' S., 143° 35' E. 

Nigahatl, islet off the northwest point of Panatinani, Louisiade archipelago. 

Niguna, see Muna, New Hebrides. 

Nihiru, Niheri or Nigeri, of the Paumotu archipelago, is a well wooded island with a 
lagoon opening on the south side. It is 7 m. in diameter. North point is in 
16° 41' S., 142° 53' w. 21. 

Nihoa or Bird, of the Hawaiian group, is a volcanic mass rising steep from the water 
to a height of 880 ft., the only landing place being on the south side. Discovered 
by Captain Douglas of the Iphigenia April 13, 1789. Modu manu of the old charts 
is a corruption of Moku manu=:=Bird island. 23° 05' 50" n., 161° 56' 30" w. I. 

Niihau, of the Hawaiian group, is the most westerly inhabited island of the group, 
with a superficies of 62,000 acres, and is about 16X6 m. and 800 ft. high. Used 
mainly as a sheep ranch. I. 

Niletlti, a wooded islet in Tohio passage, on the soittheast coast of New Caledonia. 

Nimanil is 25 m. northeast of Santa Cruz; 200 ft. high. 10° 21' S., 166° 17' E. 

Nimoa or Pig, of the Louisiade archipelago, is fertile, well wooded and inhabited ; the 
largest in Coral Haven 1.5 m. southeast from Panatinani; 455 ft. high. 

Nimrod islands were seen by Captain Eilbeck in the Nhnrod in 1828. 56° 20' s., 
158° 30' W. Existence doubtful. 

Nina, see Aniwa, New Hebrides. 

Ninepin, on the coast of New Guinea. 10° 13' S., 142° 40' E. 

Ninita, in the Louisiade archipelago. 11° 17' s., 153° 15' E. 

Ninon, of the Louisiade archipelago, is northeast from Moturina. Half a mile long, 
175 ft. high. 

Ninuha, on the east coast of Ysabel, Solomon islands. 7° 54' s., 159° 20' E. 

Nitendi, see Santa Cruz, of the New Hebrides. 12. 

Niua, see Aniwa, New Hebrides. 

Niuababu, islet of the Tongan group. 

Niuafoou, of the Tongan islands was discovered by Captain Edwards in H. M. S. 
Pandora August 3, 1791, and by him called Proby. It is an adlive volcano 3.5 m. 
N-S., 3 m. E-w. Was in eruption in 1853 when many lives were lost; April 12, 
1867, and again in 1886 and 1887. 15° 34' S., 175° 40' 40" w. 

Nitiatobutabu, of the Tongan group, was discovered by Lemaire and Schouten May 
II, 1616. Named Keppel by Wallis in 1767. It is 2000 ft. high. 15° 52' S., 
173° 50' w. 18. 

Nitie or Savage. 19° s., 170 w. Is a coral island upheaved, 300 ft. high, and about 
30 m. in circumference. It was named by Cook (June 20, 1774) Savage because 
his boats were fiercely attacked when making a landing. Population in 1872, 
5,124; is increasing. Natives rather small and dark; have a language of their 
own closely resembling Sanioan ; were not cannibals, did not offer human sacri- 
fices nor worship idols. Much of their work was quite distinct. 15. 

[203] 



I20 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Nine, islet of Fakaafo. 9° 22' 40" S., 171° 13' w. 

Niumano or Tasman atoll is the easternmost and largest of the Tasman group. 

4° 35' S., 159° 30' E. 

Niutao, alias Lynx, Sepper, Speiden (Wilkes) of the Ellice islands, is 2.5X1.5 m-» 
densely covered with coconut trees. Population, 417. 6° 08' S., 177° 22' E. 16. 

Nivani or Nivan, a small island southwest of Misima (St. Aignan) in the Louisiade 
archipelago. 

Nmara, a grassy, uninhabited islet 230 ft. high on Kandavu reef, Fiji. 

Nogahanghe, a rocky islet near Paaba island on the noilhwest coast of New Caledonia. 

Noina or Burnett is small and wooded, 3.5 m. N. by E. from Panasia, Louisiade archi- 
pelago. 

Nokue or Infernal islet in Kuto bay, Isle of Pines. 13. 

Noma, islet in lagoon 9 m. from Losap, Caroline islands; 200 inhabitants. 4. 

Nomuka, of the Tongan group, the Annamooka of Cook, is a triangular coral island, 
the sides 2 m. long. Peaks rise to a height of 166 ft. Closed salt lagoon 0.7 m. 
in diameter. 20° 15' S., 174° 50' w. 

Nono, islet of Pavuvu or Russell group, Solomon islands. 8° 02' vS., 159° 05' E. 

Nonuti, Sydenham, Dog, Blaney, or Nanuti of the Gilbert islands, measures 19X8.5 m. 
The southeast point is in 0° 46' 05" S., 174° 31' 30" K. 7- 

Norbarbar is the native name of Ureparapara or Bligh in the Banks group. 

Nord, see Gipps, Bismarck archipelago. lO. 

Norfolk, was discovered by Cook Odlober 10, 1774. It is 5X2.5 m. and 1050 ft. high. 
The English frigate Sirius was wrecked here near the end of 1790. It belongs to 
New South Wales. This beautiful island was once a convict station, but this was 
given up in 1855 and the next year the Pitcairners were removed from the lonely 
island where thej' had vegetated for 67 years to this much finer island. Soon, how- 
ever, 40 of the 194 returned to their old home. Those on Norfolk island have 
doubled their number and are fairly prosperous. 29° 01' S., 167° 56' E. 

Normanby, a name of Duau of the D'Entrecasteaux group. 

Norstip, a low, wooded islet, uninhabited, near Port Stanley, Malekula, New Hebrides. 

North or High, Fiji. 16° 28' 30" s., 180° 20' 30" e.O 

North, see Hetau, Solomon islands. 8° 50' S., 159° 58' E. 

North, in Marau sound on the northeast coast of Guadalcanar, Solomon islands. 
9° 44' S., 160° 47' E. 

North, small island on the north side of the Trobriand reef. 8° 25' S., 150° 48' E. 9. 

North or Nord, see Gipps, Bismarck archipelago. lO. 

North, one of the Torres group. Banks islands; 1200 ft. high. 

North, group of islets off the north coast of New Hanover. 

Northumberland, an extensive group on the east coast of Queensland, Australia, 
reaching to 22° S. 

Norton, in the Bismarck archipelago. 5° 24' S., 150° 31' E. 

Nosoata, islet at the mouth of Rewa river, Viti levu, Fiji. 

Nouvelle Cy there (La), a name given to Tahiti by Bougainville in 1768. 

Nu, see Dubouzet islet, New Caledonia. 

[204] 



- 


175° 


W. 




• 

i7 


^ 






PHCENIX GROUP 

Cantok 


■- 






McKban 


BiRNIB 




Enderbury 
Fhcenix 




", 




Gardker 


Sidney 
Huh. <? 

«o 




5°S 








5°S 


■ 






UNION GROUP 


'• 


• 




• 


\ 


• 


- 






OatXpu 

o 


■ 








NUKUNONO ^^ 


Fakaafo 




175° 


w. 







J 






\ 


1 

I 










* 




! 


It 

1 






I 

1 

) "1; 
















i 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 121 

Nuakata or Lydia, is east of the Bast cape of New Guinea; loio ft. high, thickly 

inhabited. 10° 17' s., 151° E. 
Ntiare, on the great South Reef of New Caledonia, 3.5 m. SW. by s. from Kie. 
Nubaru or Nubara, islet on the southeast coast of Murua. 9° 10' vS., 153° E. 
Nubiam, Trobriand group. 8° 40' 30" s., 150° 52' E. 
Nufiltlli or Nufiloli, of the Matema group, is a mile long and 200 ft. high. British 

protedlorate was declared August 18, 1898. 
Nugarba or Goodman, the southernmost of the Abgarris group, Bismarck archipelago. 

The north point is in 3° 23' S., 154° 41' E. 
Nugatobe, a group of three small islands, Fiji. 17° 18' s., 180° 29' E.O 
Nugent, islet off the east coast of Raoul, Kermadec islands. 
Ntlgtl consists of two islets. Pari sule and Pari pile, lying between Florida and Gua- 

dalcanar, Solomon islands. 9° 18' s., 160° 15' E. 
NugU, islet of Tongatabxi on the northeast. 21° 05' 30" s., 174° 58' 30" w. 18. 
Nui, Netherland or Egg, was discovered in 1827. There are 8 islets on the east side 

of the reef. Although geographically of the Ellice group the people and language 

are derived from the Gilbert group. 7° 13' 20" S., 177° 14' 30" E. 
Nuimbtia, a low, wooded islet in Tupeti passage on the southeast coast of New Cale- 
donia. 
Nukapu, of the Matema group, is a mile long and 100 ft. high. People Polynesian. 

This was the place of Bishop Patteson's murder. 
Nuku, islet of Tongatabu, Tongan islands. 18. 
Nuku akimoa or Sail-rock, islet of Uvea or Wallis; 15 ft. high. 
Nuku atea, islet of Uvea; 200 ft. high. 
Nukufetau or De Peyster group, Ellice islands, was discovered in 18 19. 8-9 islets 

around a lagoon 7 m. in diameter, with an entrance on the northwest side. In 

1881 the population was 250. North point is in 7° 56' s., 178° 27' 30" E. 
Nukuhiva or Marchand is the principal island of the Marquesas ; 14 m. E-w., 10 m. n-s. 

Lofty mountains and fertile valleys, but the population in 1880 had been reduced 

to 800; twenty }'ears before it was over 2000. 8° 57' s., 140° 15' w. (West end.) 23. 
Nuku ira, one of the Tiri group on the north coast of Vanua levu, Fiji. 
Nukulaelae or Mitchell group, Ellice islands. A lagoon island 7 m. n-s., 2 m. E-w. 

14 islets; 150 inhabitants in 1886. 9° 18' s., 179° 48' E. 
Nukulakia, islet of Fakaafo. 9° 25' S., 171° 14' w. 
Nukulau, a low, sandy, well wooded islet«o.3Xo.2 m.; off Viti levu, Fiji. 18° io'23"s., 

178 30 30 E.O 
Nukulevu, Fiji, is small, fertile, inhabited. 17° 41' 16" s., 178° 39' 10" E.O 
Nukumanu, an inhabited island west from Nuku mbasanga, Fiji. 16° 20' 30" s., 

180° 36' 40" E.O 
Nukumanu, see Tasman. 

Nukumasanga, islet of Fakaafo. 9° 24' 12" .s., 171° 12' w. 
Nuku mbasanga, one reef encloses this and Nuku mbalate; 10 m. north from 

Nanuku, Fiji. 16° 19' S., 180° 45' 20" E. 
NukumbatU, islet 80 ft. high, off the north coast of Vanua levu, Fiji. 
Nukumbati, a low, mangrove islet 0.3 m. n-s., 400 yds. wide. i6°27'54"s., i79°oo'45"e.O 

[205] 



laa 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



Kukunamu, islet of the Tongan group. 

Nukunau or Byron, Gilbert islands, was discovered by Commodore Byron July 2, 
1765; 8Xi-5 m.; in 1872 population was 5000. 1° 23' S., 176° 34' E. 

Nukunono or Duke of Clarence, in the Tokelau or Union group, was discovered by 
Captain Edwards in the Pandora in 1791; 7.2 m. n-S., 5 m. E-w.; of triangular 
form, with 93 islets on the reef. 9° 05' s., 171° 46' w. British protedlorate de- 
clared June 21, 1889. 17. 

Nukuor, Monteverde or Dunkin of the Caroline islands, was discovered in 1806 by 
Juan B. Monteverde; 12-14 m. in circumference. About 150 Polynesian inhabi- 
tants who hold to their primitive religion ; the language is said to be pure Maori. 
3° 52' N., 154° 56' E. 4. 

Nukusemanu, islet on the east side of the reef of the same name in the Ringgold 
group, Fiji. 

Nukusesuki, islet of Fakaafo. 9° 24' 10" s., 171° 12' w. 

Nuktltapipi or Margaret, of the Paumotu archipelago, was discovered by Turnbull 
March 6, 1803, and named for his ship. It is low, wooded, 2 m. in circumference. 
20 42 21 s., 143 03 48 w.O 

Nukutavake, Lagoon or Queen Charlotte, of the Paumotu archipelago, was dis- 
covered by Wallis in 1767. 18° 43' 19" s., 138° 47' 13" w.O 33. 

Nuktltolu, three uninhabited islets 4 m. from Yathata in the Lau group, Fiji. 

Nukutu, islet off north coast of Vanua levu, Fiji. 

Numfoor. 1° 01' s., 134° 45' e. 

Nunga, a rock, Fiji. 16° 55' s., 177° 20' 30" E.O 

Nungna, islet on Boussole reef southeast from Vanikoro, New Hebrides. 

Nunuan, islet of the Louisiade archipelago, 200 ft. high. 

Nuotaea, islet of Apaiang, Gilbert islands. 1° 53' n., 172° 56' 10" E. 7. 

Nupani, one of the Matema islands. 10° 04' s., 165° 40' E. British protedlorate de- 
clared August 18, 1898, 

Nura, islet in south part of Indispensable strait near Malaita, Solomon islands. 
9° 33' S., 160° 45' E. 

Nusa and Nusalik, islets off the coast of New Ireland, Bismarck archipelago. 

Nuulua, islet east of Upolu, Samoan islands; 120 ft. high. 

Nuutele, islet east of Upolu, Samoan islands; 2CX) ft. high. 

Nuvera, islet off Vanua levu, Fiji. North point in 16° 28' 50" s., 178° 48' 30" E. 

N'yaur or Angaur, southernmost of the Pelew islands; 4.5 m. ne-SW. 6°5o'n., 134° 10' E. 

Oaftina, islet of Fakaafo. 9° 22' 10" s., 171° 12'w. 

Oahe, a name of Manihi, Paumotu archipelago. 

Oahu, of the Hawaiian islands, the Wahoo of the old English charts, although not 
the largest is the principal island of the group. Its area is 384,000 acres; height 
at the Kaala mountains, 4030 ft.; and the population in 1896 was 40,205. On this 
is the capital city, Honolulu ; also Pearl Lochs, an extensive harbor. I. 

Oaitupu, see Vaitupu of the Ellice group. 

Oandrau, low islet off Vanua levu, Fiji. 16° 34 30" s., 178° 47' E.O 

Oatifu, better Atafu of the Union group. 

L206] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 123 

Oatara, islet on extreme east of reef of Raiatea, Society islands. 

Oba or Lepers, New Hebrides. Often written Omba or, with the article, Aoba (b=mb). 
About 17 m. long and 4000 ft. high. Natives have a good charader, and there is 
a station of the Melanesian mission on the northern side. The name Leper was 
given under a mistaken diagnosis; inhabitants were not lepers. 13. 

Obelisk or Sugar-loaf, islet south of Huapu, Marquesas islands. 23. 

Obelisk, one of the Taumaco group. 

Obi, islet of Yap, Caroline islands. 

Observation or Mono, Solomon islands. 7° 24' 30" s., 155° 34' 01" E. 

Observation, on the north coast of Duau, D'Entrecasteaux group. 9° 43' 53" s., 
150 44 43 E. 

Observation, on the north coast of New Guinea. 2° 36' s., 140° 42' 11" E. 

Observatory, small, stony islet in Nares harbor. Admiralty island. 1° 55' 10" s., 
146 41 E. 

Observatory, at Balade, New Caledonia. See Pudui^. 

Observatory, see Loa, Fiji. 

Obstruction, of the Louisiade archipelago, a group so named because the islands 
block the passage between Nuakata island and East cape. They are Hana kuba- 
kuba, Lelei gana, labama, Banibani siga. 

Obula, islet west of Duau, D'Entrecasteaux group. 9° 49' s., 150° 46' E. 

Ocean or Cure, of the Hawaiian group, is an atoll 14.7 m. in circumference, 56 m. west 
from Midway island. There is one sand island 1.5X0.7 m.; another called Green, 
and two islets in the southeast corner. 28° 25' 45" N., 178° 29' 45" w. Taken pos- 
session of by the Hawaiian government during the reign of Kalakaua. a. 

Ocean, see Bonabe, Gilbert islands. 

Ocheou of Belcher is Hau of the Paumotu archipelago. 31. 

Odia, see Wotje of the Marshall islands. 

Odia, see Ailinglablab, Marshall islands. 

Oema, of the Solomon islands, is 10 m. NW. from Cyprian Bridge island, and about 
800 ft. high. 8° 40' s., 156° 05' E. Oema atoll is 2 m. north from Oema island. 
It has a lagoon and several islets. 

Oeno, low and uninhabited island 65 m. NW. by N. from Pitcairn. Discovered by Cap- 
tain Henderson of the Hercules. 24° 00' 30" S., 130° 40' w. 

Ofalaga, islet of the Tongan group. 19° 37' S., 175° 34' w. 

Ofiti, see Tepoto of the Paumotu archipelago. 31. 

Ofolanka, islet on the same reef with Buhi in the northwest part of the Tongan group. 

Ofu, of the Samoan islands, has an area of 9 sq. m., and is 1020 ft. high. By conven- 
tion proclaimed February 16, 19CX), it came under the jurisdidlion of the United 
States. The west point is in 14° 11' s., 169° 36' w. 15. 

Ofu, islet of the Tongan group. 

Ogasawara, see Bonin. 

Ogea, see Ongea, Fiji. 

Ogle, a low islet of the Underwood group, Fiji. 17° 40' s., 177° 14' 30" E.O Named 

for Alexander Ogle, a marine of the United States Exploring Expedition who died 

at sea, August 12, 1839. 

[207] 



124 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Oheteroa, see Rurutu of the Austral islands. 

Ohiti, see Hiti. O is the article. 

Oidi islet is east from Hueguenee, Loyalty islands. 

Okimbo, Fiji, three islets on one reef, 4 m. E-w., 3 m. n-s.; desolate, uninhabited. 

17° 03' S., 180° 59' E.O 
Ola is the native name for Heron islet, Louisiade archipelago. 
Olenea, see Ularua, Fiji. 

Olevtlga, islet northwest from Florida, Solomon islands. 9° s., 160° 04' E. 
Olimarao or Olimario, of the Caroline islands, was discovered by Liitke in 1828. 

There are two islets on a reef 5-6 m. in circumference ; 200 inhabitants. 7° 43' 30" N., 

145° 56' 45" K- 3- 
Ollap, islet of Tamatam, Caroline islands. 7° 38' n., 149° 30' E. 4. 
Olo, one of the Pleiades group northwest from Uea, Loyalty group. 
Oloosinga of Wilkes is Olosenga, Samoan islands. 
Olorua, islet in the Lau group, Fiji ; 250 ft. high. 
Olosenga, Samoan islands, has an area of 6 sq. m. and is 1500 ft. high. North point 

is in 14° 11' S., 169° 32' w. Manua group. Belongs to the United States. 
Olot, islet of Maloelab, Marshall islands. 8° 46' N., 171° 09' 42" E. 6. 
Oluksakel, islet of Korror, Pelew islands; long, narrow and rocky. 
Olu malau, Las Tres Marias, or Three Sisters, Solomon islands, were discovered by 

Hernando Enriquez of the Mendafia expedition, May, 1568. The group lies north 

of San Cristobal, extends 10 m. nnw-SSE.; flat, uninhabited, coral. II. 
Omba, see Oba, New Hebrides. 

Ombelim, islet on west side of Wotto, Marshall islands. 10° 10' N., 167° 05' E. 6. 
Ombi, small, uninhabited island of the Yasawa group, Fiji. i7°3o'3o"s., i77°04'e.O 
Omene, low islet off Viti levu, Fiji. 16° 45' 16' s., 178° 38' E.O 
Onata, see Pegan. 0° 57' n., 134° 21' E. 
Onavero, see Nawodo, Gilbert islands. 7. 

One or Honni, islet of Makin, Gilbert islands. 3° 16' N., 172° 54' 45" E. 
Oneaka, on the same reef with Kuria, Gilbert islands. 0° 16' N., 173° 26' 30" E. 
Oneata, north from Mothe, 12 m. southeast from Lakemba, Fiji. Within a barrier 

reef 26 m. round, 2.5X0.5 m.; 160 ft. high. East point is in 18° 24' 30" S., 

80 / // „ 
I 27 30 E. 

Oneeheow, an old English name of Niihau, of the Hawaiian group. 

O'Neill, see Weitoa of the New Guinea region. 

Oneke is perhaps identical with Onoatoa, Gilbert islands. 

Onemok, islet of Kwadjalin, of the Marshall islands. 

One Tree, a low islet of the Yasawa group, Fiji. 16° 47' 09" S., 177° 26' 08" E. 

Onevai, islet on north of Tongatabu. 21° 05' S., 175° 05' w. 

Ongai, islet of Mokil, Caroline islands. 

Ongea (Ogea), Fiji, consists of two islets, Ongea levu (large) and Ongea ndriti 
(small). The former is 4 m. long, 1-2 m. wide, 270 ft. high, densely wooded, has 
So inhabitants. The latter is 1.7 m. E-w., i m. n-s., 300 ft. high, uninhabited. 
North end of levu is in 19° 03' s., 181° 30' E. The centre of ndriti is in 19° 07' s., 

. i8i° 29' E. 

[208] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 125 

OngOttlbua, islet on the northeast coast of New Caledonia, containing about two acres 

of grass. 
Oniop, islet of Lukunor, Caroline islands ; 300 inhabitants. 4. 
Ono is northeast from Kandavii, Fiji; 4.5X3-5 m. Peak Mbualu, 1160 ft. high. 

Population in 1880 about 790. 
Ono i latl, Fiji, consists of six islands, 3 volcanic, 3 coral. Group extends 5 m. 

NE-SW., and is 4 m. wide; highest peak, 370 ft. Population about 450. 20° 39' s. 
Onoatoa or Clerk of the Gilbert islands. 1° 51' s., 175° 36' E. Described by Rev. H. 

Bingham as 12 m. long, having a lagoon bordered by a reef on the western side, 

with a good boat channel near the centre. Islets are Tanyah, Bowerick, Sand, 

Otoeie, Hack, Taburari, Onutu, Teumah. Population, 3000. 7. 
Onoune, islet of the Caroline islands. 
Onotlp or Onupe, islet of Namonuito, Caroline islands. 
Ontong Java. 5° 25' S., 159° 30' E. A reef 50 m. E-w., 20 m. N-s., with many densely 

peopled islets. Natives said to be of Polynesian origin. Only weapon a sling. 

Named by Tasman in 1643, afterwards identified with the Lord Howe of Captain 

Hunter, 1791. 
Onua, islet off the north end of Alu, Solomon islands. 
Onutu, islet of Onoatoa, Gilbert islands. 

Opea, islet near the Roux group on the south coast of New Guinea. 
Oparo, a name of Rapa. 

Oputotara, islet of Tahiti on the soiith end of the barrier reef. 
Oraluk, Bordelaise or San Agostino of the Caroline islands, was discovered in 1826 

by Captain Saliz of Bordeaux. It is 2 m. long, 100 ft. high, coral. 7° 38' N., 

155° 09' E. 

Oreia, small, low and wooded island of the Renard group, Louisiade archipelago. 

Orlofe, islet, inhabited, off the north end of Alu, Solomon islands. 

Ormed, islet of Wotje, Marshall islands. 9° 33' 16" N., 170° 10' 58" E. 

Orokou, islet off the north point of Babeltop, Pelew islands. 

Orolong, 1.5 m. long, off northwest point of Uruktapi, Pelew islands. 7° 18' N., 
134° 25' E. 

Ortega, islet of the Solomon islands. 8°33's., i59°48'e. Named for Pedro de Ortega 
Valencia, an officer of the Mendana expedition of 1567. 

Ortijen, islet northwest from Cape Duperre on the north coast of New Guinea. 

Orumbau, islet off the northwest coast of Malekula, New Hebrides. i6°o4's., 167° 21' E. 

Osasai, islet 225 ft. high, wooded, near Tagula in the Louisiade archipelago. 

Osnaburgh, a name given by Wallis to Mururoa, Paumotu archipelago. 

Osubu, a group of three islets, high and rocky, east from Avia in the Exploring isl- 
ands, Fiji. 17° 10' s., i8r° 10' E.O 

Otafi, islet of Fakaafo. 9° 23' S., 171° 13' w. 

Otaheite is Tahiti with the article, O Tahiti. 

Otdia, a form of Odia, see Wotje. 

Otea, the Great Barrier of Cook, is about 21 m. long and 10 in its greatest breadth. 

Central Peak rises to 2130 ft. This the largest of the islands to seaward of the 

gulf of Hauraki, New Zealand. 

[209] 



126 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Otoeie, islet of Oneatoa, Gilbert islands. 

Otooho, see Tetopoto of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

Otovawa, islet 0.7X0.5 m. in the Yasawa group, Fiji. South point is in 16° 56' 40" s., 

177 19 20 E. 
Ottltolu, islet of Tongan group. 
Oua, islet of Kotu, Hapai group, Tongan islands. 
Oua Houka, see Huahuna of the Marquesas islands. 
Ouap, of the New Guinea coast. 3° 24' S., 143° 28' K. 
Ouap, see Yap of the Caroline islands. 
Ouapou, see Huapu of the Marquesas islands. 23. 
Oudot, islet of Rule, Caroline islands. 7° 24' 10" N., 151° 44' 34" E. 
Ouessant or Tariwerwi is low and wooded, south from Wari, in the New Guinea 

region. 11° 10' S., 151° 13' E. 
Ounalik, islet of Namonuito, Caroline islands. 4. 
Oura, see Takapoto, Paumotu archipelago. 

Ourik, islet of Butaritari, Gilbert islands. 3° 11' 15" n., 172° 41' E. 
Ovaka, islet of the Tongan group. 
Ovalatl, Fiji, is 8 m. N-s., and 6 m. E-w.; 2089 ft. high. Levuka is the principal port. 

The observatory on the east side is in 17° 40' 46" s., 178° 52' 40" E. 
Ovalu or Passage, Fiji, is 0.5 m. long, 104 ft. high (Vatu i thake). 17° 22' 30" S., 

178° 48' E.O 
Ovau is between Fauro and Bougainville, Solomon islands; 1340 ft. high. 8° 48' S., 

156" K. 
Ovawo, near Yasawa, Fiji, is 1.5 m. in circumference, 40 ft. high. 16° 47' 30" S., 

177° 25' E.O 
Ove, islet .south from Umboi in the Bismarck archipelago. Thickly populated. 
Ovolau, see Ovalau, Fiji. 
Oua raha is Santa Ana, Solomon islands. Owa riki is Santa Catalina. Natives are 

lighter colored and of finer physique than their neighbors. 
Owen Stanley is Sabari or Sabarai of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Paaba is on the northwest coast of New Caledonia, 6 m. east from Tande. It is 5 m. 

N-s., and is inhabited by the Neneena tribe. 
Paaio, islet in Banare bay on the north west coast of New Caledonia. 
Paama is 3 m. from the northwest point of Api, New Hebrides; 5 m. N-s., 1.2 m. E-w.; 

about 1900 ft. high. 16° 28' S., 168° 12' E. 
Paanopa, a form of Bonabe. 

Pachiai, islet of Andema, Caroline islands, at the northeast point of the reef. 
Pacific is north of Ronongo, Solomon islands. 7° 52' S., 156° 30' E. II. 
Padeaids or Traitors, an exten.sive group of low islets, about 30 m. E-w., on the north 

coast of New Guinea. 1° 10' S., 136° 45' E. 
Pagan, of the Marianas, is 8X2.5 m. and has three adlive volcanoes from 800-1000 

ft. high. 18° 04' N., 145° 42' E. See map under Marianas. 
Paguaiganique, islet on the southeast side of the reef of Andema, Caroline islands. 
Paguenema, see Pakin, Caroline islands. 

[210] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 127 

Pahare, islet on the eastern reef of Huaheine, Society islands. 

Paho, north of Saibai on the south coast of New Guinea. 9° 18' s., 142° 46' E. 

PaigO, see Boigu of the Talbot islands on the New Guinea coast. 9° 20' s., 142° 29' E. 

Pakin, of the Caroline islands, was discovered bj' Liitke in 1828; 5 islets extending 
5 m. NW-SE., Katelma, Ta, Tagaik, Kapenoas. Called also Pakeen and Pegue- 
nema. 7° 02' N., 157° 47' 30" E. 5. 

Palakuru or Pigeon, near New Britain, in Bismarck archipelago. 4° 16' s., 152° 21' E. 

Palao, another form of Pelew. 

Palav, islet of Ontong, Java. 5° 05' s., 159° 20' E. 

Palea, islet of Fakaafo. 9° 22' S., 171° 12' w. 

Palilug or Goode, is small, 250 ft. high, in Torres strait. 10° 32' S., 142° 09' E. 

Pallikulo, islet of Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides. 

Palm, a large group in Halifax bay, on the Australian coast. 18° 42' S., 146° 43' E.O 

Palm, of the Solomon islands. 7° 30' S., 157° 47' E. 

Palmer, a high island in the Hudson group, Fiji. 17° 45' S., 177° 07' E.O 

Palmerston, eight sandy islets on a reef enclosing a lagoon. Discovered by Cap- 
tain Cook June 16, 1774, and named for Lord Palmerston, then First Lord of 
the Admiralty. 18° 04' S., 163° 10' w. 

Palmyra or Samarang was discovered by ''^:^f^^'"'^^^'^' '^^ 

Captain Sawle, of the American vessel ^y>"^ '^>i:'^^*^# ,irf''^« ' ^^^"•'k^ 
Palmyra^ November 7, 1802. There are V'^> -^c^^ \ \ I { ' V^^^'"^' 
several islets not over six feet high ^^ ^V.,.,vy^ !^V/,c*''° i f'''^^'^^ 

extending over an area of 5.7 m. E-w., ,*..^,*«feii!l^^^^»3°^' 

1.6 m. N-s. The position, according to '-v;:^'^"^^^^/;;^^''^;^^ ^^^-'^ 

aptam Skerrett, is 5 49 04 N., 162 
11' 29" w.; 50 islets. Taken for the ' "' 

Hawaiian Kingdom by Captain Zenas Bent, of Honolulu, in 1862. Annexed by 
Great Britain May 28, 1889. The proclamation, issued under Kamehameha IV., 
was as follows: 

"Whereas, on the fifteenth day of April, 1862, Palmyra island, in lat. 5 deg. 5omin. n. and 

long. 161 deg. 53 min. w. was taken possession of with the usual formalities by Capt. Zenas Bent, 

he being duly authorized to do so in the name of Kamehameha IV. King of the Hawaiian Islands. 

"Therefore, This is to give notice that the said island so taken possession of is henceforth 

to be considered and respedled as part of the domain of the King of the Hawaiian Islands. 

(Signed) L. KAMEHAMEHA. 
Department of Interior, June 18, 1862. Minister of the Interior." 

Pam, islet in Harcotirt bay. New Caledonia. 

Panabahai or Peak is a grassy island 200 ft. high, off the southwest point of Panati- 
nani of the Louisiade archipelago. Pana is the native word for island. See 
Malay Pulo, Sulu Po. 

Panabobaiana, west of the Duchateau group, Louisiade archipelago; 0.7 ni. in diam- 
eter; 75 ft. high. 11° 16' 43" S., 152° 21' 37" E. 

Panabobo, eastern islet of the Montemont group, Lotiisiade archipelago ; 50 ft. high. 

Panakrusima or Earle of the Louisiade archipelago; 360 ft. high. 

Panakuba, islet of Mabneian, Louisiade archipelago. 

[211] 




128 ■ INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Panaman or Woody, islet 200 ft. high, on Bagana reef, Louisiade archipelago. 

\\ 28' S., 153° 11' E. 
Panangaribu, islet near Pananumara, Louisiade archipelago. 

Panantinian or Sharpe is an inhabited islet of the Calvados group, Louisiade archi- 
pelago. 
Pananumara, in the Louisiade archipelago, is r.3 m. R. by n.-w. by s.; 425 ft. high. 
Panapompom, a wooded and inhabited island, 2 m. in diameter, 520 ft. high, 2 m. 

southeast from Panniet, Louisiade archipelago. 
Panarairai, the smaller of the Jomard group, Louisiade archipelago. 
Panaroran, with Baiwa and Panawadai in the Renard group, Louisiade archipelago. 

II 07' s., 152° 30' E. Also called Eddystone; 540 ft. high. 
Panarurawara is the midmost of the Duchateau group, Louisiade archipelago; 75 ft. 

high. 11° 16' S., 152° 21' E. 
Panasia or Real, of the Louisiade archipelago, is uninhabited, 2 m. long and very 

narrow; 530 ft. high. 11° 09' s., 152° 22' E. 
Panatinani or Joannet, of the Louisiade archipelago, is an inhabited island 10.5 m, 

long and mo ft. high. The northwest point is in 11° 10' s., 153° 06' E. 9. 
Panaudiudi is i m. long, 390 ft. high, northeast from Utian, Louisiade archipelago. 
Panavaravara, inhabited island on the Calvados chain. 
Panavi or Banepe=Banga Netepa of the Matema islands. 10° 17' S., 166° 19' E. 

British protedlorate proclaimed August 18, 1898. 
Panawadai, with Panaroran and Baiwa, in the Renard group. 
Panawaipona, the larger of the two islets of the Jomard group, 1X0.3 m. 11° 15' S., 

152' 09' E. 
Panawina, inhabited island of the Louisiade archipelago, 4 m. E-w., 945 ft. high. 

11° 11' S., 153° E. 9. 
Panemote. 9° 28' s., 151° 58' e. 

Panemur, islet of Andema, Caroline islands, at the south end of the reef. 
Pangai, islet of Fakaafo. 9° 24' 28" s., 171° 12' w. 

PangaimotU or Pangimotu, islet of Tongatabu. 21° 07' 30" s., 175° 08' w. 
Paniau, islet of Ponape, Caroline islands. 

Panniet or Deboyne, of the Louisiade archipelago, has an area of 10 sq. m.; 2000 pop- 
ulation in 1890. 10° 41' s., 152° 23' E. The inhabitants make the best canoes and 
sell them for 10-50 stone adzes. (This is of former days.) 
Panopea, see Bonabe. 

Papakena, see Tureia of the Paumotu archipelago. 32. 

Paples, on the New Guinea coast ; 250 ft. high, well wooded. io°33'2o"vS., i50°44'45"e. 
Parama or Bampton (Brampton), on south coast of New Guinea; 10-12 m. in circum- 
ference, inhabited 9° s., 143° 22' E. Station of the London Missionary Society. 
Paraoa, Hariri or Gloucester was discovered by Wallis in 1767. It is low and at 
present uninhabited. There is a stone struAure at the southeast point. i9°o8's., 
140° 40' \v. Paumotu archipelago. 31. 
Paraponpon, a small island a few miles south from Panniet of the Louisiade archi- 
pelago. 10° 47' s., 152° 24' E. 

Paris, see Aasu on the north coast of New Guinea. 

[212] 



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HORNE ISLANDS 




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Tafehi 

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TONGAN ISLANDS 

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20° S. ! 


FONUAl^l 

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VAVAU GROUP 

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Haano ' .' 

••. «..^r2-'puA 

KoTu **oi.:»;«^i HAPAI GROUP 

^^^^'^S™ 20° S. 


No 

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TGNCATAbuV^ ^Eua 1 




^ Kallav 


"^""t-. 175° 


w. 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 129 

Pari, two islands off the northeast coast of Guadalcanar, Solomon islands. 9° 43' 30" s., 
160° 46' E. Pari pile is smaller than Pari sule, which is about i m. E-w. by half a mile. 

Parivara, see Varivara, New Guinea. 

Pariwara, two islets near Redscar bay, New Guinea. 

Parry, a small group of the Bonin islands. 27' 40' N., 142° 14' E. 

Parry, islet of Eniwetok, Marshall islands. 11° 21' N., 162° 25' E. 

Parry, see Mauki of the Hervey islands. 

Parseval is at the entrance to Port St. Vincent, New Caledonia. 

Pa rum or Parram, islet of Ponap6, Caroline islands. 

Pass, see Anchorage, Suvaroff group. 

Passage, in Choiseul bay, Solomon islands. 

Passage, see Ovalu, Fiji. 

Passage, see Vatu i thake, Fiji. 

Patik, islet of Ponape, Caroline islands. 

Patrocinio or Byer, of the Hawaiian group, was discovered by Captain Zipiani, of the 
Spanish ship Nuestra Seiiora del Pilar in 1799; 3 m. long, volcanic. Called Byer 
by Captain Morrell, July, 1825. Place doubtful. 28° 30' n., 177° 18' E. It has 
been expunged from the British Admiralty charts on perhaps insufficient grounds. 

Paumotu, Tuamotu or Low archipelago. Coral atolls extending over sixteen degrees 
of longitude. The native name means "Cloud (or bunch) of islands." Quiros, in 
1606, saw several islands of the group, but these cannot now be determined so 
great is the similarity among all these islands. Many of the great navigators ob- 
served several islands, but Wilkes (1841) gave more accurate details, and to his 
surveys the modern charts are chiefly indebted. The inhabitants vary from the 
Vitian to the Tahitian type. There are 78 atolls each numbering many islets; 18 
atolls are inhabited, the population being estimated at 8000, nearly all of them 
Protestants. Flies are very troublesome. Principal exports, copra and pearl shell, 
in the hands of American and British merchants of Tahiti. France took the 
archipelago in 1844 and the French Resident is stationed on Fakarava. The de- 
tached islands to the southeast, Ducie, Henderson, Pitcairn and Oeno are British 
possessions. From the structure of the atolls their form is continually changing, 
and occasionally in severe storms the sea breaks over them destroying the inhabi. , 
tants and making radical changes in the geography. 30, 21, 23. 

Pavuvu, see Russell, Solomon islands. 

Peacock, see Ahii of the Paumotu archipelago. 20. 

Peak, see Panabahai of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Peard, a name of Mangareva or Gambier. 22. 

Pearl and Hermes reef, Hawaiian islands. Discovered in 1822 by two whalers. 
Pearl and Hermes wrecked near the eastern end on the same night, within ten 
miles of each other. An atoll extending E-w. 16 m., n-s. 9 m., or 40 m. in circum- 
ference, with 12 islets, the southeast one in 27° 47' 50" N., 175° 51' w. 2. 

Peddlar, see Arno, Marshall islands. 

Peel, one of the Coffin group, Bonin islands. 27° 08' N., 142° 15' E. 

Pegan, St. David, Freewill or Onata. Reported by ship Warivick in 1761. Atoll 14 m. 
N-s., with 4 low islets; inhabited. Under the Dutch flag. 0° 57' N., 134° 21' E. 

Memoirs B. p. B. Museum, Vol. I, No. 2. — 9. L^'SJ 



I30 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



Pegue, one of the Hermit islands. i° 35' s., 144° 58' E. 8. 

Peihi, islet on the west reef of Huaheine, Society islands. 

Peka, high island of Fiji. 16° 52' 54" S., 177° 26' 06" K.© 

Pele, northeast from Fate, New Hebrides; 2 m. long, 300 ft. high; Polynesian inhabitants. 

Pelelep, of Dnperrey is Pingelap, Caroline islands. 

Peleliu or Pililu, of the Pelew islands, extends 3 m. NE-SW. 6° 58' N., 134° 16' 15" E. 

Pelew or Palao, the Arrecifos of Villalobos, who discovered them in 1543, extend abont 
85 m. \-s., while the greatest breadth does not exceed 7 m. A barrier reef with 
many passages extends the whole length of the group. The population in 1875 
was 10,000; less than a century before it was 40,000. No pestilence, no massacres, 
simpl}' want of energ}^ Semper says : "The iron of the European follow^ed too 
close upon the stone of the savage." The six principal islands are N'yaur on the 
south, Peleliu, Eil Malk or Irakong, Uruktapi, Korror (seat of government), and 
Babeltop, with manj^ islets. 

Pelican, on the Australian coast. 13° 53' S., 143° 52' E. 

Pell, .see Lisiansk}- of the Hawaiian group. 

Peme, the northeast islet of the Hermit group. 1° 29' S., 145° 06' E. 




FIG. 10. PERU. 

Penantipode, a name sometimes given to Antipodes island, New Zealand. 

Pender, a circular islet of the Engineer group, Louisiade archipelago. 

Penrhyn, see Tonga reva. 

Pentecost, see Arag of the New Hebrides. 

Percy, low and wooded, 2 m. long, in Cloudy bay, on southeast coast of New Guinea. 

Peregrina (La), see Gente Hermosa. 15. 

Peroat, see Peru of the Gilbert islands. 

Perry, a high i.sland of the Hud.son group, Fiji. 17° 41' 30" .s., 177° 05' E.O 

Peru, Sunday, Maria, Eliza, Peroat or Francis, was discovered by Captain Clerk of the 

ship /(?//« Palmer in 1827; 11 m. long, 6-8 ft. high. Population about 2000. 

Southeast point is in 1° 27' 35" .s., 176° 05' w. 
Pescado (Isla de), discovered by Quiros February 21, 1606. Perhaps the same as San 

Bernardo, or even Solitaria. 
Pescadores, see Bikini, Marshall group, or Rongelab. 

[214] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC IS I AMDS. 131 

Petat, off west side of Bouka, Solomon islands. 5° 09' s., 154° 30' E. 

Philip, see Sorol of the Caroline islands. 

Philip, islet at the entrance of Makira harbor, San Cristoval, Solomon islands. 

Phillips, a name given to Makemo, Paumotu archipelago, by Trumbull in honor of Sir 
Richard Phillips, late Sheriff of London. 

Phoebe, see Baker, also Tamana, Gilbert islands. 

Phcenix, a groiip of 8 low, scattered islands. For position see the islands composing it, 
Gardner or Kemin, Hull, Sydney, Phoenix, Birnie, Enderbury, Canton, McKean. 17. 

Phcenix, the nomenclator of the previous group, is a mile long and half as broad, 
18-20 ft. high. Formerly had deposits of guano, but was worked out in 187 1. 
British protectorate was proclaimed June 29, 1889. 3° 47' s., 170° 43' w.O 

Piano, one of the Hermit group. 1° 34' s., 144° 56' E. 

Piedu, island 540 ft. high in Bougainville strait, Solomon islands. 6°52's., 156° 09' E. 

Piele, near Nguna, New Hebrides ; 2 m. long ; inhabited. 

Pig, see Nimoa of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Pig, see Ulu of the Bismarck archipelago. 

Pigen, islet of Aurh, Marshall islands. 

Pigeon, on the Australian coast. 12° 31' S., 143° 18' E. 

Pigeon, near Moresby island. New Guinea; 60 ft. high. 

Pigeon, see Credner of the Bismarck archipelago. 

Pigeon, see Palakuru of the Bismarck archipelago. 

Pikela or Lydia of the Caroline islands. 8° 38' n., 147° 13' E. Considered doubtful. 3. 

Pikelot or Coquille, of the Caroline islands, was discovered by Duperrey July 3, 1824, 
and by him called Bigalli. It is but 300 yds. in diameter, low and uninhabited. 
Liitke places it in 8° 09' N., 147° 42' E. 3. 

Pikhat, islet of Butaritari, Gilbert islands. 3° 13' 10" n., 172° 40' E. 

Pileni, inhabited island i m. NW-SE., 100 ft. high, in the Matema group. British pro- 
tectorate declared August 18, 1898. 

Pililu, .see Peleliu, Pelew islands. 

Pilipal, islet of Namonuito, Caroline islands. 

Pilot, islet at the mouth of Requin bay, Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides. 

Pinaki, a form of Nganati. 

Pine, see Hueguenee, Loyalty islands. 

Piner, a low island of the Tiri group, off Vanua levu, Fiji. 16° 23'54"s., i79°o8'25"e.© 

Pines (Isle of), lies southeast from New Caledonia and belongs to France; 11.5 m. 
NW-SE.; 880 ft. high. About 800 natives of Papuan stock and formerly cannibals. 
Here the French missionaries took refuge in 1847 when driven by the natives from 
Balade in New Caledonia. 22° 39' 20" S., 167° 28' E. 13. 

Pingelap, Musgrave or MacAskill, of the Caroline islands, was discovered by Captain 
Musgrave in the Sugar Cane, 1793; and again by Captain MacAskill of the ship 
Lady Barlow in 1809. Three islands compose the group which is 2.5 m. in diam- 
eter; Pingelap is the southern and principal, Taka is small, and Tugulu (Chikuru) 
is the northern. They are well wooded and have about 900 inhabitants, of light 
color. 6° 12' N., 160° 53' E. 5- 

Pionne, islet of Banare bay on the northwest coast of New Caledonia, 



« 



132 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Piper, a group on the Australian coast. 12° 15' vS., 143° 14' E. 

Pipoa, on the Australian coast. 14° 07' s., 144° 32' E. 

Piron or Yeina is 1 1 m. northwest of Tagula in the Louisiade archipelago. Inhab- 
itants warlike. 

Pise or Pis, islet of Rule, Caroline islands. 7° 42' 30" n., 151° 46' E. 

Pisonia, one of the Wellesley group in the Gulf of Carpentaria, northeast from Morn- 
ington. 16° 30' S., 139° 32' 30" E. 

Pitcaim was discovered by Carteret July 2, 1767. Supposed by some to be the Encar- 
nacion of Quir6s; 2.2 m. E-w., i m. wide, 1000 ft. high. Named for a relative of 
the Major Pitcaim who fired the first shot in the American revolution. Most in- 
terest attaches to this island from the mutiny of the Bounty in 1789. These mu- 
tineers were not the first inhabitants, however, for skeletons buried with stone 
adzes and a pearl shell not found now on the island, have been unearthed in several 
places. British protectorate proclaimed August 18, 1898. Adamstown is, accord- 
ing to Beechey, in 25° 03' 37" S., 130° 08' 23" w. 

Pitt, a small, low, wooded island on the New Guinea coast. 10° 35' 20" .S., 15 1° 02' 50" E. 

Pitt, see Makin of the Gilbert islands. 

Pitt, see Rangiauria, one of the Chatham islands. 

Pizaras, islet of Namonuito, Caroline islands. 8° 34' 20" N., 150° 32' 30" E. 4. 

Platform, islet in midst of reefs. Admiralty group. 2° 44' S., 147° 03' E. 

Pleasant, see Nawodo of the Gilbert islands. 

Pleiades, a group northwest from Uea, Loyalty islands. They are, beginning at the 
northeast end, North, Isenay or La Baleine, La Tortue, Fatouba, Hueguenee or 
Pine, Oidi, Deguala. 

Poanopa, a way of spelling Bonabe. 

Pollard Rock, a name of Gardner of the Hawaiian islands. 

Pole, in Torres strait. 10° 12' s., 142° 28' E. 

Poll, of the Three Sisters group in Torres strait. 10° 15' S., 142° 49' E. 

Poloa, islet of Tongatabu on the northwest. 20° 05' 30" S., 175° 14' 30" w. 18. 

Poloat or Enderb}^ of the Caroline islands. In 1799 Ibargoitia discovered an island 
which he called Kata. Freycinet found it was two distinct islands, one of which 
he called Alet, the other Poloat or Pozoat. They are on a reef 6 m. E-w. Popula- 
tion about 100. 7° 19' 25" N., 149° 15' E. The group is usually called Enderby, 
a name given by Captain Renneck in 1826 in honor of his employers, London 
merchants. 

Pomodedere, in Cloudy bay on the New Guinea coast. 10° 17' s., 148° 46' E. 

Pompom, islet off the south coast of Murua in the Kiriwina group. 9°o7's., i52°3i'e. 

Ponafidin, one of the Bonin islands. 

Ponape or Ascension was discovered by Liitke January" 2, 1828; 12 m. N-s., 14.5 m. 
E-w.; 2861 ft. high; coral reef 60 m. in circumference, on which are many basaltic 
rocks or islets. Metalanien harbor, which is in 6° 51' N., 158° 18' E., has on the 
shores very interesting ruins (see Geograpliical Journal^ ^^99i P- 105; also. La Isla 
de Ponape., by Pereiro, 1895; both give maps of these ruins which were first 
noticed by Dr. L. H. Gulick of the American mission). Ponape is the largest and 
most important of the Caroline islands. Fanua pei = Land of the holy places. 5. 

[216] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 133 

Pones, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 

Pontli, in Auckland barbor, New Zealand. 

Poporang, islet of Shortland, Solomon islands. ll. 

Porcupine, islet at base of Mont d'Or at the south end of New Caledonia; 300 ft. high, 

rock}' and covered with fir trees. 
Porondu or Contrariet6, islet on the southwest coast of New Caledonia; low and 

wooded. 
Pororan, off the west coast of Bouka, Solomon islands. 5° 15' s., 154° 30' E. 
Portland, three low, wooded islands in the Bismarck archipelago, the eastern one the 

largest; 2.5 m. long, inhabited. 2° 38' s., 149° 40' E. 
Portland, see Waikawa, New Zealand. 
Portlock, in Torres strait. 10° 07' S., 142° 22' E. 

Possession, northeast from Banks in Torres strait. 10° 05' S., 142° 20' E. 
Possession, in Endeavor channel. io°42's., 142° 23' E. It seems probable that there 

is but one Possession island, but on the chart sometimes one, sometimes the other 

position is given. 
Pott, one of the Belep group northwest from New Caledonia ; 4 m. NW-SE. 
Powell, islet near Pender in the Louisiade archipelago. 

Po^oat or Poloat, eastern islet of Enderby group, Caroline islands. 7°2o'n., i49°i7'e. 
Predotir (Le) islet off St. Vincent bay on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 
Predpriatie, see Akahaina, Paumotu archipelago. Named for Kotzebue's sloop of war. 
Prince Frederick Henry, a low, flat island, 90 m. long, on the southwest coast of 

New Guinea, north of the Gulf of Carpentaria. 
Prince of Wales, a group in Torres strait, comprising Thursday, Horn, Prince of 

Wales, Friday (Quarantine station), Goode and Hammond. io°4o's., 142° ii'e.© 
Prince William Henry, see Nengonengo of the Paumotu archipelago. 
Prince William Islands, Tasman's name for the Fijian group. 
Princessa, see Lib of the Marshall islands. 6. 

Proby, the name given by the discoverer. Captain Edwards, to Niuafoou, Tongan islands. 
Prospect, see Washington. 
Prote6lion, see Leausan, off the northwest coast of Fate, New Hebrides. Leleppa, on 

the same coast, is also called Protedlion, or are they perhaps confounded? 
Providence, see Udjelong of the Marshall islands. 
Pudiue or Observatory, islet off the northeast coast of New Caledonia. Here was 

buried Huon de Kermadec, captain of the Espcrance of D'Entrecasteaux' expe- 
dition. (Died May 7, 1792.) 
Puen, islet, see Montravel, New Caledonia. 
Pugelug, islet of the Caroline islands. 

Pukapuka, a name given by traders to Tog in the Torres group. 
Pukapuka, or Gierke, low, inhabited atoll of the Paumotu archipelago. i7°23's., 

138° 35' w. 
Pukapuka, the north island of the Danger group, 80 ft. high. Population, 375; 

coconut trees abundant. 10° 53' S., 165° 45' 30" w. 
Pukapuka, Henuake, Honden or Dog, was discovered by Lemaire and Schouten April 

10, 1616; 330 m. west from Manahiki, and consists of three islets around a fine 

[217] 



134 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

closed lagoon. The first Jo/in Willia^ns was lost here in 1864. Uninhabited, but 

it is said that there are snakes there. 14° 55' 40" S., 138° 47' 36" w.O Must not 

be confounded with Danger island. 22. 
Pukararo (rff/'<? = leeward), one of the islets of Vairaatea, Paumotu archipelago. 

North end is in 19° 18' S., 139° 18' w. 22. 
Pukaruha, or Serle, was discovered by Captain Wilson in the DuffW.2,y 28, 1797, 

who named it for the author of Hone Solitarife ; 7.5X2.2 m., 12 ft. high, with 

closed lagoon ; 120 inhabitants. Southeast extreme is in i8°22'3o"s., i36°58'3o"w. 

(Beechey.) 22. 
Pukaninga (/7/;/^« = windward), islet of Vairaatea, also called Egmont; discovered 

by Wallis in 1767. 19° 18' S., 139° 18' w. 22. 
PuketutU or Neckes, in Manukau harbor, New Zealand. 

Pully, one of the Tiri group, off Vanua levu, Fiji. 16° 25' 24" S., 179° 07' E.© 
Pulo Anna or Current, of the Pelew group, is half a mile long, low, inhabited. Pulo 

is the Malay for island. 4° 38' N., 132° 02' E. 
Pulo Mariere or Warren Hastings, Caroline islands, was discovered in 1761. Low, 

inhabited; natives resemble Malays. 1.5 m. n-s. 4° 20' N., 132° 28' E.(?) 
Pulo Suge or Pulusuk, see Suk of the Caroline islands. 4. 
Pulo Wat, see Fanadik, Caroline islands. 

Puna, northernmost of the Malume group, Bismarck archipelago. 3°io's., i54°25'e. 
Punawan, largest of the Duperre group, Louisiade archipelago. 
Puramatara, islet off Cape Surville, San Cristoval, Solomon islands. 
Purdy, a ^roup of which the islands were by Krusenstern named Bat, Mole and 

Mou.sc. 2° 55' S., 146° 28' E. The inhabitants resemble Admiralty islanders. 8. 
Puynipet, one of the many forms of Ponape. 

Pylstaart (Tropic Bird), see Ata of the Tongan islands. Tasman's name. 
Pyramid, islet of Malaita, Solomon islands. 

Qakea, islet on the east coast of Vanua Lava, New Hebrides, at the south entrance to 

Port Patteson. Here the language of Mota is spoken. 
Qamea, the Fijian orthography of Ngamea, Fiji. 
Queen Charlotte, see Akiaki, Paumotu archipelago. 22. 
Queen Charlotte, see Nukutavake, Paumotu archipelago. 22. 
Quemel, islet on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 
Quirosa, a name of Ponape, Caroline islands. 
Quoin, on the Australian coast. 12° 25' S., 143° 29' E. 

Quoin, rock islet a mile southeast from Mugula, south coast of New Guinea. 
Quoin or Tua, .southeast from Orangerie bay, south coast of New Guinea. 
Quoy or Krudu, on the New Guinea coast, extends 8 m. E-w., and is well wooded. 

Raberabe, low island of Fiji. 16° 57' 25" S., 178° 43' 20" E.O Also Rabi Rabi. 

Radogala, see Rongelab, Marshall islands. 

RaefFsky, a group of the Paumotu archipelago, discovered by Bellingshausen in 1820. 

Consists of Tepoto, Tuinaka and Hiti. 21. 
Rahiroa, see Rangiroa, Paumotu archipelago. 20. 

[218] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 135 

Raiatea or Ulietea, of the Society islands, is about 30 m. in circumference, and the 
highest peak is 3389 ft. Population, 1400; all Protestants. Tahaa is within the 
same reef and there are ma:ny islets between them. 16° 40' S., 154° 40' w. 20. 

Raine, in Torres strait. 11° 35' 50" S., 144° 02' 20" E. 

Rairoa, see Rangiroa, Paumotu archipelago. 30. 

Rakaanga or Reirson lies about 20 m. nnw. from Monahiki. Discovered by Bellings- 
hausen in 1820, who called it Grand Duke Alexander. Captain Patrickson called 
it Reirson in 1822. Population, about 350. No lagoon. io°02'vS., 161° 05' 30" w. 
British protedlorate declared August 9, 1889. 

Rakino, in Auckland bay, New Zealand. 

Raki Raki, high island off Viti levu, Fiji. 17° 20' 20" s., 177° 59' 30" K.O 

Rakiura, the Maori name of Stewart island. New Zealand. 

Ralick, a name given to the western chain of the Marshall islands. 

Rambi (Rabi), high, inhabited island of Fiji; 8.7 m. ne-sw., 4.5 m. wide, 1550 ft. high. 
North point is in 16° 24' 40" s., 180° 08' E. 

Ramos (Los), a name given by both Gallego and Figueroa to Malaita, Solomon islands. 
8° 19' S., 160° 09' E. 

Ramung, islet on the northern side of Yap, Caroline islands. 

Ranai, a form of Lanai, Hawaiian islands. 

Rangiauria or Pitt, the southeastern of the Chatham islands. New Zealand. 

Rangiroa, Rahiroa, Vliegen, Deans or Nairsa, is an extensive atoll with many islets; 
66 m. long, inhabited. (Wilkes, I., 337.) 15° 05' 15" s., 147° 58' 34" w. 20. 

Rangitoto, a volcanic island in Auckland harbor, New Zealand. 

Rano, islet on the northeast coast of Malekula, New Hebrides. 12. 

Raotll or Sunday was discovered by D'Entrecasteaux March 15, 1793; 12 m. in cir- 
cumference, 1627 ft. high. Of the Kermadec group, belonging to New Zealand. 
29° 20' s., 178° 10' w.Q Joseph and Ange Raoiil were pilots on the Recherche. 

Raoul was represented on former charts as an island of some size between Gicquel and 
Willaumez in the Bismarck archipelago. It is now found to be part of a moun- 
tainous peninsula of New Britain. 10. 

Rapa or Oparo was discovered by Vancouver December 22, 1791; about 20 m. in cir- 
cumference, and 2100 ft. high. Natives do not know the name Oparo, but call the. 
island Lappa (Rapa). Climate delightful. When discovered population num- 
bered 1500 fine Polynesians resembling Maoris; February 23, 1882, there were but 
100 all told. On six hills there are stone fortifications like the Rapanui terraces. 
Natives make a thick, heavy kapa. French protectorate in 1844; island annexed 
to France February, 1882. See account by Captain Vine Hall, Proc. Roy. Geog. 
Soc, June, 1869. 27° 36' s., 144° 22' w. 

Rapaiti, islet of Rapa. 27° 38' S., 144° 15' w. 

Rapanui or Easter, said to have been seen by Davis in 1686. Admiral Roggewein 
saw it first on April 6, 1722 (Easter Sunday). Cook saw it in 1774. It is of tri- 
angular form, the longest side measuring 13 m. ne-SW. Volcanic with trachytic 
lava and obsidian. The inhabitants are Polynesian from Rapa, and they call 
their island "Te Pito o te honua," the navel of the earth. The nio.st interesting 

remains on the island are the huge images so often described, and other relics of 

[219] 



136 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



ancient inhabitants. Rapanui was surveyed by Beecliey in 1825, and by H. M. S. 
Topaze in November, 1868. For full account see Anuario Hidrogmfico de la 
Marina dc Cliili, /SS/, pp. 164-190., Santiago.; Tour du Monde^ XXXVI., 225. 
The best account is by W.J. Thompson, U. S. Navy, in the Report of the U. S. 
Nat. Museum^ 1889, p. 447. From this the map is copied. 27°o8's., 109° 25' w. 

Raputata or Welle, also called Sanaroa, of the D'Entrecasteaux group, is low, 10 m. 
N-s., 8 m. E-w.. About 250 inhabitants. 9° 38' s., 151° E. 9. 

Rara, western of Sloss group, Louisiade archipelago. 

Rara ni Tinka, a name of Tavuka, Fiji. 

Raraka, of the Paumotu archipelago, was discovered Odlober i, 183 1, by Captain 
Ireland of the brig Adhemar. It is triangular, 15 m. on a side. Lagoon has deep 
blue water. (Wilkes, I., 330.) Inhabited. West point is in i6°o8's., i45°oo'4o"w. 

Raroia or Barclay de Tolly 
was discovered by Bell- 
ingshausen in 1820; of 
the Paumotu archipel- 
ago; population, 75. The 
north point is in i5°56's., 
142° 22' w. 

Rarotonga, a beautiful isl- 
and of the Hervey group, 
was discovered by John 
Williams in 1823 ; at 
least he gave the first 
authentic report of it. 
It is about 30 m. in cir- 
cumference, volcanic, and 
very fertile. Mt. Ter- 
vanga is 2920 ft. high. 
Population, 2000. English protectorate declared in 1888. 2\ 

Rat, in Fortescue strait. New Guinea. 10° 36' 35" s., 150° 54' E. 

Ratack or Radack, the eastern chain of the Marshall islands. 

Rativa, islet on the coast of Vanua levu, Fiji. 16° 44' 20" S., 179° 40' 30" E.© 

Raur, southeast islet of Wolea, Caroline islands; inhabited. 7°2i'3o"n., i43°57'3o"e. 3. 

Ravahere, .see Manaka, Paumotu archipelago. Some refer it to Marakau or Dauahaida. 

Ravaivai, see Vavitao of the Austral islands. 

Raven, see Ngatik of the Caroline islands. 5. 

Ravenga, islet off Port Patteson, Vanua Lava, New Hebrides. 13° 48' s., 167° 30' E. 
Here the language of Motlav is spoken. 

Ravu ravu, off Vanua levu, Fiji; 1.5x0.7m. Inhabited. 16° 27' 24" S., 178° 56' 10" E.O 

Razor, two islets near Sideia, New Guinea; 200 ft. high. 

Real, .see Panasia, Louisiade archipelago. 

Reao or Clermont -Tonnere was discovered by Duperrey in 1822. A low, inhabited 
atoll, lo-i I m. long and very narrow. Paumotu archipelago. Northwest end is 

in 18° 16' 50" s., 137° 09' 06" w. ZZ. 

[220] 




RAPANUI OR EASTER ISLAND 



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INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 137 

Recherche (He de la), name given by the French to Vanikoro, New Hebrides. 

Recreation, of Roggewein, is Makatea of the Paumotn archipelago. 

Red, on the Australian coast. 10° 50' s., 142° 20' R. 

Redika, a wooded islet on the Great South Reef of New Caledonia. 

Redlands, off Sandwich island, Bismarck archipelago. 3° s., 150° 45' E. 

Redlick, a ring of low islands on a reef 4.5X2 m., with a closed lagoon, in the 

Louisiade archipelago. 10° 50' S., 152° 30' E. 
Redman, islet of Choiseul, Solomon islands. 
Reef, see Matema group, Santa Cruz islands. 

Refuge, islet of Bougainville, Solomon islands, near Cape Friendship. 
Reid, Fiji; high. 17° 57' 20" s., 181° 38' 30" e.O 
Reid, islet of Guadalcanar, Solomon islands. 
Reid, a name of Tuinaka, Raeffsky islands. 31. 
Reirson, name given to Rakaanga by Captain Patrickson in 1822. 
Reitoru, Hikuera or Bird, a low, uninhabited island of the Paumotu archipelago. 

17 48 10 s., 143 04 52 w. 21. 
Rekareka or Goodhope of the Paumotu archipelago; inhabited; 5 m. ne-SW. by 4 m. 

Boat entrance to lagoon. 16° 48' s., 141° 35' w.O 31. 
Remalutn, islet of Faitruk group in Ruk lagoon, Caroline islands. 
Reniski Korsakow, see Ailinginae, Marshall islands. Also Rimski-Korsakoff. 
Renard or Fox, Louisiade archipelago; 11 islets within reef. H. M. S. Renai'd^ 1879. 

10° 49 S., 152° 58' E. 
Renard, Solomon islands; 1.5 ra. long, 220 ft. high. Named for British war vessel, 

RSnard, 1880. 7° 41' s., 156° 32' E. II. 
Rendova, Solomon islands; volcanic, 2500 ft. high, densely wooded; 18 m. n-s., 8 m. 

E-w. North point is in 8° 24' S., 157° 15' E. II. 
Rennell, Solomon islands. Two islands, Mongiki = Bellona and Mongava^Rennell, 

discovered by Butler in 1794. Population said to be Polynesian. British pro- 

tedlorate declared August 18, 1898. West end 11° 40' s., 159° 55' E. 
Rennell, in Torres strait. 9° 45' s., 143° 15' E. 
Renny, see Aivo, Solomon islands. 

Resolution, off southwest coast of Middle island. New Zealand. Named for Cook's ship. 
Resolution, see Tauere, Paumotu archipelago. 
Revolution (lies de la), a name given by Marchand to the northwest group of the 

Marquesas in 1791. 
Reynold, see Vanua kula, Fiji. 
Reynolds, of the Underwood group, Fiji. Named for William Reynolds (afterwards 

Admiral). 17° 43' ro" s., 177° 12' 10" E.O 
Rica de Oro, Rica de Plata, two islands of the Bonin group. For years their 

fabled riches were an El Dorado to the Dutch navigators. 
Rich, see Bagabag in Astrolabe bay on the north coast of New Guinea. 
Riche, of D'Entrecasteaux, is not an island but a bluff in Holnicote bay on the north- 
east coast of New Guinea. Riche was one of the naturalists on the Espcrance. 
Richmond, a low island of the Tiri group off Vanua levu, Fiji. 16° 25' 24" S., 

179 07 50 E.O 

[221] 



138 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

RiflF, north from Ronongo, Solomon islands. 7° 49' S., 156° 26' E. 

Rikarika, western and largest of the Lebrun group, Louisiade archipelago; 360 ft. 
high. 10° 52' S., 150° 57' E. 

Rimitara, Austral islands; 2-3 m. in diameter, 3 15 ft. high; inhabited. 22°4o's., i52°45'w. 

Rimski-Korsakoff, see Ailinginae, Marshall islands. 

Rimsky, a name of Rongelab, Marshall islands, on some charts. 

Ringgold, Fiji; a high, volcanic group, not inhabited, comprising Budd, Maury, 
North, Holmes, De Haven; all named for officers of the Wilkes Expedition. 

Riou, see Huahuna of the Marquesas islands. 

Roahouga, see Huahuna of the Marquesas islands. 

Roapoua, an old chart name for Huapu, Marquesas islands. Also spelled Roapua. 

Robatu, see San Cristoval of the Solomon islands. 

Robbe (Seal), islet in Marau sound, east end of Guadalcanar, Solomon islands. 

Roberts (of Hergest) is Eiao of the Marquesas islands. 

Roberts Isles, a name given b}' the Dacdahis to the Marquesan group. 

Rock, a low, inhabited island in Naloa bay, Vanua levu, Fiji. i6°39'24"s., i78°39'e.O 

Rocky, a dark-colored rock with a scant covering of grass on the summit, on the 
southeast coast of New Guinea. 10° 41' 25" S., 150° 59' 45" E. 

Rocky, see Sophia of the Ellice islands. 

Rocky, islet northwest from Mornington island in the Gulf of Carpentaria. 16° 19' S., 
139° 24' E. 

Rofei, islet off Fauro, Solomon islands; 0.3X0.5 m. 123 ft. high. 

Rogeia or Heath, off east end of New Guinea, 4 m. nw-sk.; i m. wide, 12 15 ft. high; 
well w(X)ded. 10° 38' S., 150° 38' E. 

Roger Simpson, a name of Apamama, Gilbert islands. 

Roi, islet of Kwadjalin, Marshall islands. 6. 

Roissy, off New Guinea. 3° 15' S., 144° 03' E. 

Rokahanga, a chart name of Rakaanga, Paumotu archipelago. 

Romanzoff, see Tikei of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

Romanzoff, see Wotje, Marshall islands. 

Roncador or Candelaria reef, Solomon islands, was seen by the pilot Maurelle in 
1 781. Passing it in the night the noise of the breakers suggested the name 
(Snorer). It is almost certain that it was the same reef seen by Meudana in 1567 
and called by him Baxos de Candelaria. It is 18 m. in circumference and has two 
openings on the southwest to a good lagoon. 6° 15' s., 159° 14' E. II. 

Rongelab or Bigini, of the Marshall islands, the Pescadores of ancient charts, was 
discovered by Wallis, September 3, 1767. A lagoon atoll 16 m. long. Gulick 
gives the population in i860 at 120; Witte, in 1878, at 18. 11° 19' n., 167° 35'E.O 

Rongelapelap, islet of Rongerik, Marshall islands. 11°. 14' 30" n., 166° 59' E. 

Rongerik, Marshall islands. Discovered by Kotzebue; 36 m. long, with a width from 
3-20 m. The population in i860, according to Gulick, was 60; in 1878 Witte 
gives only 10. 11° 14' n., 166° 35' E.O 6. 

Ronhua, islet in Port Uitoe on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 

Ronongo, island south from Vella Lavella, Solomon islands, from which it is sepa- 
rated by Wilson strait. About 2000 ft. high. 8° s., 156° 32' E. 

[222] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISIANDS. . 139 

Rook, see Umboi, Bismarck archipelago. This name was given by Dampier for Sir 

George Rook. 
Roporopo, islet I m. southwest from Mugula in Orangerie bay, New Guinea. io°3i's., 

149° 47' 37" E. 
Roro or Ynle, on the south coast of New Guinea, is 4X i-5 ni., and 534 ft. high. 8°48's., 

146° 32' E. A mission station. The name is sometimes writen Lolo. 
Rosario, of the Bonin islands, is 148 ft. high. 27° 18' N., 140° 50' E. 
Rose, a coral islet discovered by Freycinet ; named for his wife who accompanied him; 

70 sea miles east from Manua, Samoan islands. It is inhabited only by birds. By 

the treaty of 1899 it belongs to the United States. 14° 31' 30" S., 168° 08' 30" w. 15. 
Rosse, northeast coast of Auckland islands. New Zealand. 

Rossel, see Roxia of the Louisiade archipelago. Rossel was Lieutenant on the Recherche. 
Rota, Zarpane, Sarpan, or Luta, of the Marianas, is of calcareous rock, 12X5.5 '^^- ^^'^ 

800 ft. high. 14° 08' N., 145° 10' E. See map under Marianas. 
Rotch, see Oneke. 

Rotcher, see Taniana of the Gilbert islands. 
Rotterdam, Tasman's name for Namuka of the Tongan group. 
Rotuma, Rotuam or Grenville, was discovered by Captain Edwards in 1791 ; 8 m. e-w., 

2 m. N-s.; 800 ft. high. Islets on the south are Solnahou, Solkop; on the east, 

Afgaha; north, Hanoua; on the west, Ataou, Hofliona, Ouea. Population, 2500; 

all Christian. While the people are classed as Polynesian, their language belongs, 

according to Codrington, to the Melanesian group. 12° 28' s., 177° E. 16. 
Roua, Rua or Rossel, of the Louisiade archipelago, is 18.5X6 m., 2750 ft. high, 

thickly wooded. Inhabitants, Papuan cannibals ; a short, robust race, sooty brown; 

their language bears no resemblance to any known New Guinea dialect. East 

point is in 11° 23' S., 154° 18' E. 9. 
Round, see Alewakalou, Fiji. 
Round, islet in Marau sound, Solomon islands. Another of this name off Ysabel in 

the same group. Still another in the Woodlark group. 
Roux, five islets covered with coconuts, off the southeast coast of New Guinea. 

10° 39' S., 149° 58' E. 
Rowa is the northernmost of the Reef group. Banks islands. It has a mission station. 
Royalist, a name sometimes given to the south group of Ruk, Caroline islands, com- 
prising South and Givry. 
Rtia, islet of Morileu, Caroline islands. 

Ruac, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 7° 41' N., 151° 55' 22" E. 
Ruadika or Solitary of the Solomon islands. 8° 45' S., 159° 47' E. 
Ruapuke, at east entrance to Foveaux strait, New Zealand. 
Ruarua, a group of several islets off the east side of Yendua, Fiji. 
Rubiana, New Georgia or Marovo of the Solomon islands. 8° 22' .S., 157° 17' E. II. 
Ruk, Truk or Hogoleu, of the Caroline islands, was discovered by Duperrey June 

24, 1824. The largest groxip in the Carolines, composed of ten high, basaltic 

islands in an immense lagoon, with numerous islets (about 60) on the outer reef. 

Some of these islands rise to a height of 1000 ft., and are 10-15 ^i^- i" circumference. 

South, Givry, Hacq and Lauvergne are on a redlangular reef 12X5 ™-t detached 

[223] 



I40 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

from the main reef. Pis, Tsis, Tol, Woles, Salat or Chassant, Cuop, Faleii, Umol, 
Pones are some of the islands. Rev. F. M. Price, an American missionary sta- 
tioned on Rule, estimates the population at 15,000. The north end is in 7° 42' 30" N., 
151° 46' E. 4. 

Run, in Geelvink bay on the north coast of New Guinea. 2° 30' s., 134° 35' E. 

Rua kiki, off the northeast coast of Guadalcanar, Solomon islands. 9° 30' 05" s., 
160° 37' E. 

Rua suli, off the northeast coast of Guadalcanar, Solomon islands. 9°3o'.s., i6o°36'e. 

Rurick, see Arutua of the Paumotu archipelago. 

Rurutu or Oheteroa, of the Austral group, was discovered by Cook, August 14, 1769; 
1350 ft. high. Population about 600, all Protestant, under the teaching of the 
London Missionary Society. Annexed by France in 1889. 22°29's., i5i°2o'25"w. 

Russell or Pavuvu, a group northwest from Guadalcanar, 20 m. E-w., 12 m. N-s.; 
largest island is 1600 ft. high. Natives peaceable, keen traders. 9°o4's., i59°o5'e. 

Sabarai or Owen Stanley, of the Louisiade archipelago, is 4X0.3 m., low, thickly 

wooded; inhabited. 11° 08' S., 153° 06' E. Also spelled Sabari. 
Sable, south from Goodman in the Bismarck archipelago. 3° 32' S., 154° 36' E. 
Sabuda, on the New Guinea coast. 2° 37' S., 131° 38' E. 
Saddle, see Lo, New Hebrides. 
Saddle, in Torres strait. 10° 10' S., 142° 40' E. 
Sagitaria (La), an island discovered by Pedro Fernandez Quir6s, 12-13 February, 1606. 

According to Espinosa this is Tahiti. 
Saibai, low, 12X4 "^^ on the south coast of New Guinea. Population, 100. East end 

is in 9"^ 24' S., 142° 47' E. 
Sainson, low, wooded island on the north coast of Humboldt bay, New Guinea. 

3° 09' s., 142° 24' E. 
Saint Aignan, see Misima, Louisiade archipelago. Saint Aignan was a Lieutenant on 

the Recherche. 
St. Ambrose is 4 m. in circumference, 720 ft. high (1500 ft. Maclear). 26° i9'45"s., 

79° 49' 45" w. 
St. Andre, see Sansoral. 
St. Andrew, a group of six islands near the Admiralty islands: Violet, Waikatu, 

Bull, Broadmead, Berry and a bushy islet. Natives seem to be a finer race than 

the New Irish or Solomon islanders. 2° 26' S., 147° 24' E. 
St. Augustine, see Nanomea, Ellice group. 16. 
St. Bartholomew, see Malo, New Hebrides. 
St. Bruno, an inhabited islet off the northeast point of Gardenijs, in the Bismarck 

archipelago. 
St. Claire, see Merigi of the New Hebrides. 
St. David, see Pegan. 

St. Felix is 9 m. west from St. Ambrose ; barren, volcanic. 26° 16' 46" s., 80° 00' 15" w. 
St. George or San Jorge, see Tuilagi, Solomon islands. 

St. Ignace or Hardy, islet in Ugue bay on the northeast coast of New Caledonia. 
St. John, see Wonneram, Bismarck archipelago. 

[224] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 141 

St. Joseph, near Gardenijs, Bismarck archipelago; about 650 ft. high; inhabited. 

St. Matthias or San Matthias, of the Bismarck archipelago, was discovered by 
Dampier; 24 m. E-w., 15 m. n-s. i° 40' s., 149° 40' K.O 10. 

St. Patrick, of the Admiralty group. 2° 32' S., 147° 15' E. 

St. Peter, see Ponafidin of the Bonin islands. 

St. Phalle, island in Arembo bay on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 

St. Phalle, islet on the west part of Balabio reef, New Caledonia. 

St. Simeon, see Tauere, Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

Saipan or Seypan, of the Marianas, was discovered by Magalhaes March 6, 152 1. 
Volcanic; 14 m. long, 1345 ft. high (Marche). Once populous, but now depopu- 
lated by the Spaniards who also drove out an American colony in 1815. In 1877 
it was repeopled by importing 876 Chamorros and Caroline islanders. Saipan is 
the Serpana of Quiros, who visited it in 1596. 15° 15' N., 145° 44' E. See map 
under title Marianas. 

Sakau, islet off northeast point of Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides ; about 500 ft. high. 

Sakau, islet southeast from Malekula, New Hebrides; 1.7 m. ne-SW.; 340 ft. high. 

Sakea, islet of Fakaafo. 9° 26' s., 171° 13' w. 

Saken, see Katiu of the Paumotu archipelago. 31. 

Salat or Chassant, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 

Sala y Gomez was discovered in 1793 by the Spanish commander of that name. 
Small, rocky; inhabited only by birds. 26° 27' 41" S., 105° 28' w. 

Saltoi, see Arorai of the Gilbert islands. 

Salwati, off the northwest coast of New Guinea. About 30 m. in diameter. Subject 
to the Sultan of Tidore. Papuan with admixture of Malay. Mohammedans. 
Wild tribes in the interior. 1° 15' s., 130° 45' E. 

Sam, a low island of Fiji. 17° 35' 30" s., 177° 25' 20" E.O 

Samarai or Dinner, in China strait. New Guinea; 1.5 m. in circumference, 155 ft. high. 
From June to December not unhealthy. No good water. 10° 37' s., 150° 41' E. 

Samarang, a name of Palmyra. 

Samba, native name of Mendana's Santa Ysabel, Solomon islands. 

Samoan Islands lie between the parallels 13° 30'- 14° 30' S. and the meridians 
i68°- 173° w. Krusenstern believed them identical with the Bauman islands seen 
by Roggewein in 172 1. So far as any certain knowledge of them was obtained we 
are indebted to Bougainville who, in 1768, touched there and called the group 
lies des Navigatetirs. The Wilkes expedition, in 1839, surveyed them with some 
care. The group (with the exception of Rosa or Rose island) is volcanic, but 
without adlive craters ; although near Olosenga there was a submarine eruption 
in 1866. There are 13 islands generally surrounded by coral reefs, and there is 
but one good harbor in the group, that at Pangopango on Tutuila, for Apia on 
Upolu has only an open anchorage within the reef. The islands are, beginning 
at the west end, Savaii, Manono, Apolima, Upolu, Fanuatapu, Namua, Nuutele, 
Nuulua, belonging to Germany ; and Tutuila, Anuu, Ofu, Olosenga, Tau and 
Rose belonging to the United States. Civil wars have prevailed of late years and 
England, Germany and the United States undertook to establish peace and a gov- 

L225] 



142 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

emment by a tripartite convention (1889) which was a miserable failure, and at 
last the group was divided, as shown on Map 15, between German}' and the United 
States. Proclaimed February 16, 1900. The area of the group is about 2650 
sq. m.; and the native population, which is gradually diminishing, is estimated at 
30,000. From December to April hurricanes may occur. The most complete ac- 
count of the geography of the Samoan islands will be found in the Journal of the 
Godeffroy Museum, Hamburg, 1873-5. 

San Alessandro or Forfano, one of the Volcano islands. 25° 24' N., 141° 15' E. 

San Antonio, islet off the northeast point of Gardenijs, Bismarck archipelago; well 
wooded; natives friendly. 3° 07' s., 152° 43' K. 

Sanaroa, one of the names of Raputata or Welle in the D'Entrecasteaux group. 9. 

San AugUStino, an islet of Oraluk, Caroline islands. 7° 37' N., 155° 09' E. 

San AugUStino, one of the Volcano islands; 623 ft. high. 24° 14' n., 141° 25' E. 

San Bartolomeo (Bajos e Islas de), islands in 30° n. seen by Quiros. 

San Bernardo (Islas de), discovered by Mendana August 20, 1595, in 10° 40' s. Danger 
islands (?). Perhaps the same that Gonzales called Isla de Pescado, February 
21, 1606. Quiros Viajes, I., 53, 260; II., 6, 7, 10, 55. 

San Bruno, of the Bismarck archipelago. 3° 05' s., 152° 42' E. 

San Cristobal, Arossi, Robatu, the Paubro of Gallego in the Solomon group, was 
discovered by Mendana in June, 1568; 76X23 m., 4100 ft. high. Northwest point 
is in 10° 10' s., 161° 20' E. 

Sand, the western islet of Midway atoll, Hawaiian islands; 1.5X0.7 m., 57 ft. high; 
little vegetation, sand glaring. 28° 12' 22 " N., 177° 22' 20" w. 2. 

Sand, islet of Onoatoa, Gilbert islands. 1° 49' s., 175° 37' E. 

Sand islet, see Dao Balayet, New Caledonia. 

Sandford, high island of Fiji. 18° 50' s., 178° 24' e.O 

San Dimas, Solomon islands; discovered by Pedro de Ortega Valencia, of Mendana's 
expedition, in April, 1568. 9° 31' s. Quiros Viajes, I., 4; II, 4, 28,. 37. 

Sands, group in Austral islands; discovered by J. R. Sands, in the whaler BcJijnviin 
Tucker, 0<5lober 19, 1845. Examined in i860 by Captain Lebleux, in the ship 
Railleur, who found a triangular reef, the longest side extending 3 m. NW-SE., with 
3 islands, a fourth one at the apex of the triangle 2 m. ne. from central island; 
highest point, 66 ft. above the sea. Hull, Maria, Sands, Nororutu. Northwest 
corner 21° 49' .'i., 154° 51' w. 

Sandwich, of the Bismarck archipelago, is 6-8 m. from the southwest coast of New 
Ireland; 10 m. E-w., 8 m. n-.s.; 600 ft. high. North point is in 2°53's., 150° 49' E. 

Sandwich, Cook's name for the Hawaiian islands. 

Sandwich, see Fate, New Hebrides. 

Sandy, one of the Belep islands. New Caledonia. 13. 

Sandy, on the Australian coast. 12° 35' s., 143° 31' E. 

San Francisco, the name given by Mendana to Wake island Odlober 4, 1568. 

San Francisco, near Gardenijs, Bismarck archipelago; about 650 ft. high; thickly 
peopled. 2" 50' S., 152° 38' E. 

San Gabriel, of the Admiralty islands, is about 6 m. long; thickly peopled, 2°o6's., 

147° 3/ E. 

[226] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 143 

San German (Isla de), discovered among the Solomon islands by Pedro de Ortega 

Valencia of the Mendana expedition, April 9, 1568, in 9° 30' vS. 
San Jeronirao (Isla de), Solomon islands; one of the discoveries of Pedro de Ortega 

Valencia. Perhaps the same as San Jorge. 
San Jorge (Isla de), Solomon islands, near Santa Ysabel. Natives called it Varnesta 

or Borne. Discovered April 23, 1568, by Ortega and Gallego of the Mendana 

expedition. 
San Jorge, of the Admiralty group. 2° 22' S., 147° 18' E. 
San Jose, between San Francisco and San Bruno, Bismarck archipelago. 2° 59' S., 

152° 39' E- 
San Juan, see Ugi, Solomon islands. 
San Juan Bautista, an unidentified discovery of Quiros, January 29, 1606, in 24° S., 

139° w. 
San Marcos, see Choiseul, Solomon islands. 
San Marcos, discovered by Quiros April 25, 1606, is, according to Espinosa, Pan de 

Azucar of the Banks islands. 
San Mateo (Bajos de) seen by Mendana, September 1568, in 8° 30' N. 
San Miguel, discovered by Quiros February 9, 1606, in 19° s. The saints of the old 

Spanish voyagers are harder to find on the charts than saints in real life. 
San Miguel, of the Admiralty group. 2° 17' S., 147° 31' E. 
San Nicolas, another of the discoveries of Ortega and Gallego, April, 1568. "Noroeste 

de Santa Ysabel ;" but there are many islands in that position. ll. 
San Pablo, see Hereheretui of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 
San Pedro, see Motane of the Marquesas islands. 23. 
San Quentin, .see Heraiki of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

San Rafael, of the Admiralty islands, is 3 m. long and very flat. 2° 06' s., 147° 45' E. 
Sansoral or St. Andre, discovered by Padilla in 17 10, consists of two islands, Sansoral 

and Kodakopuei or Fauna; low, 350 inhabitants resembling the central Caro- 

lineans. 5° 20' N., 132° 20' E. Also spelled Sonsol, and incorredlly Sonsoral. 
Santa Ana, native Itapa, was discovered by Francisco Muiioz Rico, of the Men- 

daiia expedition, Julj' 4, 1568, in the Solomon group; 520 ft. high. 10° 51' S., 

162° 26' E. 
Santa Catalina, native Aguari, of the Solomon group, was discovered by Francisco 

Mufioz Rico and Hernan Gallego in July, 1568. It is 2 m. E-w., and 320 ft. high. 

10° 54' S., 162° 25' E. 
Santa Christina (Cristina), see Tahuata of the Marquesas islands. 
Santa Clara, a barren island 4-5 m. in diameter, southwest from Juan Fernandez. 

Also called Goat. 
Santa Cru^ Group, discovered by Mendana in 1595; again by Carteret in 1767. 

Examined by D'Entreca.steaux in 1793. There are seven larger islands, Vanikoro, 

Tapoua, etc. British protedlorate declared August 18, 1898. 
Santa Crus;, Egmont or Nitendi (Ndendi) was discovered by Mendana September 7, 

1595 » 15 rn- long, with fringing reef. Carteret called it Egmont. Here Mendana 

died Odober 18, 1595. 10° 40' s., 166° 03' E. 12. 

[227] 



144 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Sans-Souci, off Berlin harbor on the north coast of New Guinea, comprise Sainson 

and Faragnet; low, wooded. 
Santa Isabel, Solomon islands, see Ysabel. 
Santa Maria, see Gaua, New Hebrides. 
Santiago, north from San Cristobal, Solomon islands ; discovered by Mendana May, 

156S. 
San Urban, close to Guadalcanar; discovered by Hernando Enriquez of the Mendana 

expedition. Perhaps San Juan. 
Sariba or Haj-ter, on the New Guinea coast; 5 m. ESE-WNW., 800 ft. high. Named 

for Lieutenant Hayter. 10° 31' S., 150° 45' E. 
Sarig^an, of the Marianas, a volcanic cone 1.5 m. in diameter. Formerly inhabited, 

now deserted. 16° 42' n., 145° 43' E. See map under title Marianas. 
Sarpan, see Rota, Marianas. 

Satalo, islet on the south coast of Upolu, Samoan islands. 
Satawal or Tucker, of the Caroline islands ; discovered by Captain Wilson of the Duff^ 

Odlober 25, 1793 ; 2-3 m. in circumference; 200 inhabitants. 7° 22' N., 147° 06' E. 
Satoan, of the Mortlock group of the Caroline islands; 7X12 m.; 60 islets and less 

than 1000 inhabitants. Chickens, pigs, dogs and cats are all eaten here. The 

.south end is in 5° 17' n., 153° 46' E. 4. 
Saumatafanga, islet of Fakaafo. 9° 25' .s., 171° 12' w. 
Saunders, see Tapamanu, Societj' islands. 30. 

Sau sail, islet on the north coast of Vanua levu, Fiji. 16° 16' 24" S., 179° 25'2o"e.O 
Savage, sec Niiie. 
Savaii, of the Samoan islands, is the largest of the group; 40X20 m., 5400 ft. high; 

shores low. South end in 13° 48' 40" S., 172° i7'3o" w. Belongs to Germany. 15. 
SavO, a volcano north of the west end of Guadalcanar; the Sesarga of Mendaiia. 

Discovered by Pedro de Ortega Valencia and Hernan Gallego, April, 1568. Sur- 

ville called it Isla de las Contrariedades. Nearly circular; 4 m. in diameter, 1800 

ft. high; At present emits steam. Inhabited. 9° 08' S., 159° 45' E. 
Scarborough, a name given to the north group of the Gilbert islands from the ship 

Scarborough, one of those commanded by Captains Gilbert and Marshall. 
Schanz, see Wotto of the Marshall islands. 
Schouten, a group off the north coast of New Guinea consisting of Mysory, Korido 

and Biak. The last two may be one island. 1° s., 136° E. 
Schotlten, another group, more to the eastward, consisting of Lesson, Garnot and 

Blosseville. 
Scilly, six islands 60 ft. high, wooded, in the Bismarck archipelago. 4°03'.s., 151° 22'E. 
Scilly, see Fenuaura of the Society islands. 
Seagull, a name of the Raeffsky islands, Paumotu archipelago. 
Secretary, islet on the southwest coast of Middle island, New Zealand. 
Seg^, on the New Guinea coast. 5° 08' s., 145° 50' E. 
Seniavina, Caroline islands; discovered by Liitke in 1828 and named after his vessel. 

Consist of Ponap6, Ant and Pakin. 

Sentinel, East and West ; two high islands on either side of the entrance of Taiohae 

bay, south side of Nukuhiva, Marquesas islands. 

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INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 145 

Sepper, see Nuitao of the Ellice group. 16. 

Serapin, islet at entrance to Wanderer bay, on Guadalcanar, Solomon islands, where 

in 185 1 Mr. Boyd, of the yacht Wanderer^ was massacred. 9° 41' s., 159° 39' E. 
Serle, see Reao or Pukaruha of the Paumotu archipelago. 
Sesarga, Mendaiia's name for Savo, Solomon islands. 
Setovi or Selovi, a flat island 2 m. east from Aore, New Hebrides. 
Set! Seu, islet near Roux group on the south coast of New Guinea. 
Seven Islands, a name of Ngatik of the Caroline islands. 
Sewell, in Cloudy bay, New Guinea. 
Shank, see Nawodo of the Gilbert islands. 
Shanz or Schanz, a name of Wotto, Marshall islands. 
Sharp, in the Trobriand group. 9° 34' s., 151° 39' E. 
Sharp, see Panantinian of the Louisiade archipelago. 
Shepherd, a group near Api in the New Hebrides, consisting of Tongoa, Tongariki, 

Buninga, Valea, Ewose, Laika, Mai and Tevala. 
Sherrard, on the Australian coast. 12° 58' s., 143° 37' E. 
Shortland, of the Solomon islands, is 11 m. E. by N. -w. by s., 7 m. wide, 675 ft. high. 

7° 03' S., 155° 45' E. For Shortland's Journal see Philips' Voyage to Botany bay, 

ch. xviii. 
Shortland, on the southeast coast of New Guinea; 0.3 m. in diameter; 200 ft. high. 
Siande, islet; wooded, at entrance to Port Burai on the southwest side of New Cale- 
donia. 
Siapunor, islet of Lukunor of the Caroline islands. 4. 
Siassi, a low archipelago off the east coast of New Guinea, near Umboi. 5° 55' S., 

i47°55'e.__ 
Sideia or Basilisk, on the New Guinea coast, forms three sides of a hollow square 

open to the west; 8.2 m. E-w., 7.5 m. n-s.; inhabited; 1330 ft. high. 10° 34'2o"s., 

150° 49' 55" E. 
Sidney, see Sydney, a group on the New Guinea coast. 9° 35' S., 149° 49' E. 
Sidney, or Sydney, of the Phoenix group, was discovered by Captain Emment ; 2 X i m.; 

20 ft. high. 4° 25' 30" S., 1 7 1° 2 1' 40" w. O There are remains of stone buildings here. 
Sikaiana or Stewart, discovered by Captain Hunter, 1791. Fine robust race of light 

brown color. Formerly under the Hawaiian flag ; British protedlorate declared ' 

August 18, 1898; 1.2 m. long, 150 ft. high. 9° s., 163° E. Faore, Manduiloto, 

Barena, Matu avi are uninhabited islands of this group. 
Sikalai, islet of Fakaafo. 9° 22' 25" S., 171° 12' w. 
Silat, islet of Ruk of the Caroline islands. 
Simbo, see Marovo, Solomon islands. 

Simlakita, in the lagoon of Egum atoll. 9° 26' S., 151° 57' E. 9. 
Simonov, see Tuvana i tholo, Fiji. Named for the astronomer of Bellingshausen's 

expedition. 
Simpson, see Apamama of the Gilbert islands. 

Sinclair, small island near Naviti, Yasawa group, Fiji. 17° 12' 30" S., 177° 08' 30" E.O 
Sinde, islet within N'Goe reef on the southeast coast of New Caledonia. Is it Siande? 
Single Tree Islet, on the north coast of Vanua levu, Fiji. 

MEMyiRS B, P, }j, MuSKL'M, Vol. I., No. 2. — 10. L^^9J 



146 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Sin Puerto (Isla), discovered by Quir6s January 29, 1606, in 24° 45' 8.,= San Juan 
Bautista? Islands without port are not exceptional. 

Sir Charles Hardy lies to the east of New Ireland; 300 ft, high; wooded. 

Sir Charles Hardy, a group on the Australian coast. 11° 54' S., 143° 28' E. 

Sir Charles Saunders, a name given by Wallis to Tapamanu of the Society islands. 

Sir Edward Pellew, a group at the west side of the Gulf of Carpentaria ; 5 islets, of 
which Vanderlin is the largest. 

Sir Henry Martin, a name of Nukuhiva of the Marquesas islands. 33. 

Sisters, two small islands off the coast of Malaita, Solomon islands. 

Six Islands, see Apaiang of the Gilbert islands. 

Skelton, a name of Naranarawai of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Skiddy, see Namoluk, Caroline islands. 

Skobelev, islet in Friedrich Karl harbor on the north coast of New Guinea. 

Slade, see Berri Berrije in the Engineer group off New Guinea. 10° 37' S., 151° 16' E. 

SloSS group, in the Louisiade archipelago, consists of Rara and Panaroba, both small 
and wooded. 

Small, an islet east from Duau, D'Entrecasteaux group. 10° 06' s., 151° 15' E. 

Smith, low islet of the Underwood group, Fiji. 17° 43' S., 177° 16' 20" E.O 

Smith = Babagarai near Glenton, New Guinea ; uninhabited. 

Smyth, see Taongi of the Marshall islands. 

Snares, a group of rocks 250 ft high, southwest from Stewart island, New Zealand. 

Sobareigi, north from Saibai, New Guinea. 9° 22' S., 142° 42' E. 

Sobasoba, islet of Duau, D'Entrecasteaux group. 9° 49' S., 150° 48' E. 

Society Islands, so named by Cook, in 1769, in honor of the Royal Society, were 
first discovered by Quir6s in 1606. Captain Wallis rediscovered the group June 
19, 1767, and knowing nothing of previous observations called it for his patron, 
George III., King George Islands. At that time Lieutenant Furneaux took for- 
mal possession. April 2, 1768, Bougainville arrived at Tahiti in the Boudeuse^ 
and after a short experience with the inhabitants called it La Nouvelle Cytrehe. 
The famous transit of Venus expedition, commanded by Lieutenant Cook, arrived 
April 12, 1769. After the observations were concluded Cook surveyed Tahiti 
(Otaheite) and discovered the northwestern group to which he gave the name 
Society, calling Tahiti and the neighboring islands Georgian, but his first name 
has been extended to the whole group. In 1772 Bonecheo was sent by the Span- 
ish government to these islands, and on his report he was again sent with the 
means of colonizing as then understood, in 1774. Cook twice again visited Tahiti. 
The next European to arrive was Lieutenant Bligh in the Bounty in 1788. Van- 
couver came in 1791. In 1842, on account of hostilities to French missionaries, 
Du Petit Thouars compelled Queen Pomare to sign a treaty in favor of French- 
men, and this was followed in 1844 by the forcible seizure of the island by Bruat 
in the name of Louis Philippe of France. In 1888 the entire group was declared 
under a French prote<5lorate. 

While government accounts are kept in francs and centimes, the merchants 
all do business with the Chilean dollar. The principal exports are cotton, copra, 
coconuts, oranges, vanilla, lime juice and edible fungus. All tropical fruits grow 

L230] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 147 

well when introduced. The climate is hot and moist, causing rapid growth of all 
vegetation, but is healthy for Europeans. The islands are, from the southeast, 
Maitea, Tahiti, Tetuaroa, Moorea and Tapamanu for the windward group; and 
Huaheine, Raiatea, Tahaa, Bolabola, Tubal, Marua, Mopiha and Bellingshausen 
for the leeward group. 30. 

Socorro (Nuestra Setiora del), see Taumaco. 

Sogaura, an island north of Saipai on the New Guinea coast. 9° 19' s., 142° 44' E. 

Sola, see Pylstaart. 

Solander is west of Foveaux strait; mountainous, 1075 ft. high. 46° 32' S. Named 
for Dr. Solander, one of Cook's naturalists. 

Solia, islet of Kia, Fiji. 

Solitaria (La), discovered by Mendana August 29, 1595. Native name Tayti. io°4o's. 

Solitary, in Huon gulf on the east coast of New Guinea. 7° 10' S., 147° cx)' E. 

Solitary, see Ruadika of the Solomon islands. 

Solomon Islands. A large group discovered by Mendana in 1567. This interest- 
ing Spaniard, in his anxiety to colonize and make his discoveries of use to his 
country, strove for many years to induce the aiithorities to send another expedi- 
tion; but it was not until 1595, when he was advanced in years, that his wishes 
bore fruit. He was not destined to again see the islands which had been named 
Islas de Salomon in hopes to attract colonists to this supposed Ophir. Mendana 
died at Santa Cruz, and the remains of his expedition sailed on to Manila. The 
narrative of Gallego, the pilot of the first expedition, had been suppressed, and 
that of Quiros, who held the same position in the second expedition, met the same 
fate. Drake had made his name terrible in the Pacific, and the jealousy of the 
Spaniards led to a studied concealment of their discoveries, and for two centuries 
the memory of this group was fading and passing into legend. So it was that the 
Spanish discoveries profited no one; and even when at last the suppressed journals 
were brought to light they afforded little new information, for the work of discovery 
had been done again in the meantime. In 1767 Carteret sighted outlying islands 
of the group (Gower), and also a part of Malaita, but he did not suspect that he 
had found the Solomon islands, although he had been looking for them. The next 
year Bougainville made more definite work, but the real discovery took many 
years, and to the present no sufficient survey has been made. Only the shores of the 
larger islands have been explored, and the outlines are very inexact on the charts. 
For more than thirty years the Melanesian Mission has braved the dangers 
of climate and savages and made it possible to land on many islands of the group. 
Dr. Guppy says truly that the only redeeming feature of the intercourse of the 
white man with these islanders is this grand mission. 

The group covers an area 600 m. in length NE-SW. Most of the islands are 
volcanic, some are calcareous, and some are both. The natives are Papuan, but 
show traces of Melanesian, Polynesian and Malay. They are of medium height, 
well-proportioned, but do not have attradive features. The scantiest clothing is 
worn, but ornaments are much in use, such as bracelets, anklets and nose pins. 
Cannibals generally, they yet make good servants. 

The principal islands are, beginning at the northwest, Bouka, Bougainville, 

[231] 



148 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Shortland, Fauro, Choiseul, Ysabel, St. George, Gower in the German part ; and 
Mono, Vella Lavella, Ronougo, Narovo, New Georgia (Riibiana), Buena Vista, 
Florida, Guadalcanar, Malaita, Ulava, San Cristoval in the English portion. As 
the map (l2) does not give the line of demarcation between the portions allotted 
to Great Britain and to German}^, the official bounds may be given here. South- 
ward and eastward of a line joining the undermentioned positions these islands 
belong to the former, northward and westward to Germany. 



A. 


Lat. 8° oo' s. 


Long. 154° 00' E. 


E. 


Lat. 8° 50' s. 


Long. 159° 50' E. 


B. 


" 7°i5's. 


" 155° 25' E. 


F. 


" 6° 00' s. 


" 173° 30' E. 


C. 


" f^s's. 


" 155° 35' E. 


G. 


" i5°oo's. 


" 173° 30' E. 


D. 


" 7° 26' s. 


" 156° 40' E. 









Since the above was written the Solomon islands have been repartitioned be- 
tween England and Germany as a part of the arrangement by which the former 
withdrew from the Samoan group. The convention was signed at London on the 
14th November, 1899, but proclaimed by the High Commissioner for the Western 
Pacific at Suva, 6th Odlober, 1900. It transfers from Germany to the Protedlorate 
of the British Solomon islands the following: — 

Choiseul, and the small islands depending thereon; Ysabel, and the small 
islands depending thereon, including Ramos and St. George; Shortland, with 
Morgusaia, Alu, Poporang, False, Onua and Ballale; Fauro, with Oema (island 
and atoll), Ovau, Asie, Illina, Nusave, Niellei, Nusakoa, Benana, Nufahana, 
Munia, Piedu, Masamasa and Cyprian Bridge; Tasman or Niumanu atoll, com- 
prising Niumanu, Loto and thirty-seven others; Ontongjava; El Roncador or 
Candelaria reef; Gower or Inattendue. 

Songo, a low coral islet at the entrance to Na Tandola harbor on the west coast of 
\'iti levu, Fiji. 

Soni, a high island of the Hudson group, Fiji. 17° 44' S., 177° 07' 40" E.© 

Sonsol = Sansoral of the Pelew islands. Not Sonsoral. Sonsol with Fauna forms the 
group of St. Andre. 5° 20' n., 132° 20' E. 

Sophia, Mattinson, Independence or Rocky, of the Ellice group; 2-3 m. in circumfer- 
ence; wooded. 10° 46' s., 179° 31' E. 16. 

Sorol or Philip, of the Caroline islands, was discovered by Captain Hunter in 1791, 
who called it Philip. Consists of two small groups 5 m. apart; 20 inhabitants. 
8° 06' N., 140° 03' E. 

Sotoan, see Satoan, Caroline islands. 

South, islet Caroline atoll. 10° 00' 01" s., 150° 14' 30" w. 

South, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 6° 57' N., 151° 57' 30" E. 

Sovu, three uninhabited rocks off the northeast coast of Vanua Mbalavu, Fiji. The 
most westerly has a peak 230 ft. high. 

Sowek, a small group on south coast of Korido, Schouten islands. o°45's., 135° 25'E. 

Spear, a group on the northeast coast of New Guinea. 8° 58' 30" s., 149° 10' E. 

Speiden, see Tavarua, Fiji. A name given by Wilkes for the purser of the Peacock. 

Speiden, see Nuitao of the Ellice group. Spelled also Spieden in Ex. Ex. 

Spencer Keys, see Ngoli, Caroline islands. 

[232] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 149 

Spike, low and wooded, i m. in diameter, near North Foreland, New Guinea. 

Spires, two small coral patches near Utian of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Squally, of Tasman, is the Kerne of Bougainville; about 2 m. in diameter, low and 
wooded. 1° 40' S., 150° 30' E. lO. 

Staateu Land, Tasman's name for New Zealand. 

Stacey, see Su-a-u, New Guinea. 10° 43' 30" s., 150° 14' E. 

Stalio, on the southeast coast of Bougainville, Solomon islands. 6° 25' S., 155° 56' E. 

Stanton, see Babaman of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Star or Star Peak, see Merlav, New Hebrides. 

Starbuck, or Volunteer, was discovered by Captain Starbuck of VAigle, whaler, in 
which the Hawaiian king, Liholiho, and suite went to England. Sighted by Lord 
Byron when he returned the bodies of the King and Queen. Taken by the British 
in December, 1866; 5 m. E-w., 1.5 m. N-s., 15 ft. high; a guano island. 5° 38' S., 

155° 55' w. 

Starbuck, see Aranuka of the Gilbert islands. 

Staver, see Vostok. 

Steeple, see Jemo, Marshall islands. Properly Steep to. 

Stephen, see Ugar, Torres strait. 

Stewart, New Leinster or South Island (Rakiura), of New Zealand, was discovered 
by Cook in 1770. In 1809 it was explored and surveyed by Captain J. Chase in 
the Pegasus; named for W. Stewart, First Officer; then uninhabited. Population, 
in 1886, 200; niostl}^ Maoris or half-breeds; 39 m. n-s., 20 m. E-w., 3200 ft. high, 
wooded. On the west coast are islets Long, Mogy and Codfish. Other islets are 
Bench, Weka, Breaksea, Entrance, Pearl, Anchorage, Noble, Wedge, Ernest and 
Raggedy. 

Stewart, see Sikaiana. Discovered by Captain Hunter in 1791. 

Stirling, south from Mono, Solomon islands, is a raised coral reef 200 ft. high; 
3X0.5 m. 7° 25' S., 155° 31' E. 

Stobual, islet of Aurh of the Marshall islands. 8° 18' 42" N., 171° 12' E. 6. 

Storm, a high island of Fiji. 18° 20' 20" s., 178° 10' 15" E.O 

Strachan, a large interfluvial island on the south coast of New Guinea, between the 
Wassi Kussa and Mai Kussa rivers. 

Stradbroke, 33X6 m. off Moreton bay, Queensland. North point is in 27° 23' S., 

153° 15' E. _ . 

Straggling, northeast of the east point of Deaf Adder bay. New Guinea; 2.2 m. off 

shore. 7° 27' S., 147° 27' E. 
Strait (E.), in Torres strait. 10° 29' S., 142° 26' E. 
Strawn, islet of Palmyra. 
Strong, see Kusaie, of the Caroline islands. 

Stuart, near Mbenga, Fiji; high, 1.5 m. in circumference. i8°24'2o"s., i78°05'25"e.O 
Stuers consi.sts of Marai and Taliwewai in the Louisiade archipelago. 11° 07' s., 

151° 08' E. 
Su-a-U or Stacey was formerly supposed the south end of New Guinea; extends 2 m. 

NE-SW.; 787 ft. high. 10° 43' S., 150° 14' E. 
Suckling Reef, see Uluma of the Louisiade archipelago, 

[233J 



I50 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Sudest, see Tagula of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Sue, of the Three Sisters in Torres strait; 15 ni. from Warrior. 10° 13' s., 142° 49' E. 

Stlgar-loaf, 13 m. south from Admiralty island; 4-5 m. in circumference; 800 ft. high. 

2' 22' 30" s., 146° 49' 15" E. 
Sugar-loaf, see Obelisk of the Marquesas islands. 
Sugar-loaf, see Mota of the Banks islands. 
Suhm, of the Admiralty group; half a mile long; uninhabited. 1° 50' s., 146° 33' E. 

Named for Rudolph von Willemoes Suhm, naturalist on the Challenger. 
Suk or Pulo Suk, of the Caroline archipelago, was discovered by Ibargoitia in 1799. 

Population, 100 Pol3mesian. 6° 28' N., 149° 30' E. 
Suk, see Supiori of the Schouten islands. 

Sule, islet on the east coast of Ysabel, Solomon islands. 8° 05' S., 159° 32' E. 
Sulphur, one of the Volcano islands. 24° 50' N., 141° 18' E. 

Sunday, islet north from Moratau, of the D'Entrecasteaux group. 9° 16' s., 150° 30' E. 
Sunday, see Peru of the Gilbert islands. 
Sunday, see Raoul, Kermadec islands. 

Supiori or Suk, of the Schouten islands in Geelvink bay on north coast of New Guinea. 
Surprise, one of the Huon group, 2 m. E-w., i m. n-s. 18° 31' s., 163° 08' E. 13. 
Susui, of the Exploring islands, Fiji, is between Munia and Vanua valavo; cultivated. 

I7°2i's., i8i°03'e.O 
Suvarov, a group discovered by Lieutenant Lazai-ev in the Suv&rov in 1814. A reef 

8 m. N-s., and nearly as broad, has several wooded islets mostly in the northern 

part. British prote<5lorate declared April 22, 1889. 13° 13' s., 163° 09' 15" w. 
Suvirov, see Taka of the Marshall islands. 6. 
Suwarro, a low, wooded islet off Malekula, New Hebrides. 
Suwan, mangrove islet off Malekula, New Hebrides. 
Swain, see Gente Hermosa. 
Swallow, see Matema. 12. 
Swallow, see Canton, Phoenix group. 
Swede, see Lamotrek, Caroline islands. 
Sweers, a long, narrow island east from Bentinck, Wellesley islands, in the Gulf of 

Carpentaria. 17° 05' S., 139° 54' E. 
Sydenham, see Nonuti, Gilbert islands. 7. 
Sydney, Phoenix islands, was discovered by Captain Emment. It is a coral reef with 

closed lagoon, 2X1.7 m. British protectorate declared June 26, 1889. West side 

is in 4° 27' 22" S., 171° 15' 09" w. 17. 
Sydney, a group in Ward Hunt strait. New Guinea. 9° 35' s., 149° 49' E. 

Ta, islet of Pakin, Caroline islands. 5. 

Taabame, islet on a reef of the same name on the northeast coast of New Caledonia. 

Taanlai and Taanlo, islets near Paaba on the northwest coast of New Caledonia. 

TaarutO, on the northeast coast of Guadalcanar, Solomon islands. 9°35's., 160° 37' E. 

Tabal, islet of Aurh of the Marshall islands. 6. 

Tabanagore ■=■ Tabunagora. 

Table, see Kamac, New Caledonia. 

[234] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 151 

Table, see Motiimau, New Zealand. 

Tabua, high islet off Viti levu, Fiji. West side is in 17° 30' s., 177° 30' 10" E. 

Tabunagora, an islet of the outer ring of Egum atoll at the northeast part, on the 
south side of the opening to the lagoon. 9° 21' 30" S., 153° 02' E. 

Taburari, islet of Oneatoa, Gilbert islands. 1° 54' 45" s., 175° 47' 10" E. 

Tabutha or Cap, inhabited island of Fiji, 3X1.7 m., 350 ft. high. i7°4o's., i8i°i2'e.O 

Taenga or Holt, discovered in the Margaret in 1803 and named Holt ; low, inhabited. 
Northwest point is in 16° 18' s., 143° 17' w. Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

Tafahi or Boscawen, of the Tongan islands, was discovered by Lemaire and Schouten 
May II, 1616, and by them named Cocos. Wallis, in 1767, named it Boscawen; 
2000 ft. high; inhabited. 15° 52' S., 173° 50' w. 

Tafolaelo, islet of Fakaafo. 9° 24' 50" S., 171° 12' W. 

Tagaik, islet of Pakin, Caroline islands. 7° 04' 04" N., 157° 47' E. 

Tagula or Sudest is the largest of the Louisiade archipelago, being 40X8 m., and 
2689 ft. high; wooded and inhabited. Northwest point is in 11° 20' s., 153° 11' E. 

Tahaa is within the same reef with Raiatea, Society islands; 1936 ft. high. Many 
islets on the reef. 16° 35' S., 151° 35' 06" w. 2,0. 

Tahanea or Tchitschagof, of the Paumotu archipelago, a reef covered with wooded 
islets. Three good entrances to the lagoon. The west end is in 16° 52' S., 
144° 58' w. 31. 

Tahanlagh, islet off the north end of Balabio, New Caledonia. 13. 

Tahiti or Otaheite, of the Society islands, the Sagittaria of Quiros who discovered it 
February 10, 1606. Wallis rediscovered it in 1767. 17° 38' 30" s., 149° 30' w.O 
33 m. NW-SE.; divided into two parts by an isthmus about 1.2 m. wide, the smaller 
called Taiarapu. Orohena, the highest peak, is 7329 ft. Barrier reef surrounds 
the island at a distance of 1-2 m., within which are several good harbors, the 
principal being Papiete on the northwest. Here is the seat of Government. Point 
Venus, the place of Cook's observations, is on the north side. 30. 

Tahuata or Santa Cristina, of the Marquesas islands, was discovered by Mendaiia 
21-22 July, 1595; 8.5 m. N-s., 1.2-5 ™- E-w.; 3280 ft. high. Population, in 1888, 
was 408. 9° 56' 21" S., 139° 06' w. 23. 

Tahura, old chart name for Kaula of the Hawaiian islands. I. 

Tahurowa =■ Kahoolawe, Hawaiian islands. 

Taiahu, islet on the east reef of Huaheine. 

Taiaro or King, of the Paumotu archipelago, was discovered by Captain Fitzroy of 
H. M. S. Beagle in 1835. The lagoon is closed; islets wooded; few inhabitants. 
15° 46' S., 144° 37' w. 21. 

Taifaur, a grassy islet, 270 ft. high, northwest from Abaga gaheia in the Louisiade 
archipelago. 

Taii, islet of Tongatabu on the northeast. 21° 01' S., 174° 57' w. 18. 

Taitaka, islet in the centre of Port Stanley, Malekula, New Hebrides; 400X200 yds. 

Taka or Suvarov, atoll with closed lagoon and a few islets on the east reef. Popula- 
tion, 20 in i860. Discovered in 18 14 by Lieutenant Lazarev in the Suvarov. 
Protedlorate declared by Great Britain April 22, 1889. 13° 15' S., 163° 10' W. 

Takain, islet of Ponape, Caroline- islands. 5. 

[235] 



i5a ■ INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

TakapotO (Oura of Cook), in the King George group, of the Paumotus. It is low, 
wooded, with closed lagoon and many islets. North point is in 14° 32' 08" s., 
145° 14' 30" w. ai. 

Takaroa (Tiokea of Cook) , low, wooded atoll, open lagoon ; with the preceding forms 
King George group. The north point is in 14° 22' 10" s., 144° 58' 30" w. ai. 

Taka, islet of Pingelap, Caroline islands. 5. 

Taki, a low island of Fiji. 17° 07' 06" s., 176° 52' 50" e.O 

Takoume := Takurea of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

Takurea, Wolkonski or Takoume, is an inhabited atoll with closed lagoon. North- 
east end is in 15° 39' 30" s., 142° 06' 15" w. ai. 

Taklltea or Fenua iti, of the Hervey islands, is 3 m. in circumference, uninhabited, 
well wooded. 19° 49' S., 158° 16' w. 23. 

Talbot, a small group on the south coast of New Guinea between 142° 08'- 142° 22' E. 
longitude and 9° 15 -9° 21' S. latitude. Consists of Kawa, Mata kawa, Adabadana 
kawa, Karobailo kawa, Kussa and Boigu. 8. 

Taliwewai, a low coral island of the Stuers group, Louisiade archipelago. 9. 

Taloes, islet of Ruk, south side of east entrance to the lagoon. 

Tamami, see Tinakula of the New Hebrides. la. 

Taman (Tomun or Tanman), islet of Ponape, Caroline islands. 

Tamana or Rotcher, of the Gilbert islands, is 3X0.7 m. Population, 500. 2° 32' S., 

175° 55' H. 

Tamatam or Los Martires, of the Caroline islands, consists of a reef 11 m. N-s., 6 m. 
E-w., with four islands: on the north, Ollap; in the centre, Fanadik; and at the 
south, two called Tamatam. About 200 inhabitants. East end is in 7° 27' 30" N., 
149° 28' E. 

Tamborua, islet 99 ft. high at the entrance to Wailea bay on the north coast of Vanua 
levu, Fiji. 14. 

Tami, native name of the Cretin islands on the New Guinea coast. Four low, well 
wooded and inhabited islands. 6° 45' s., 147° 54' E. 

Tanabtlli, on the southeast of Ysabel, Solomon islands. 8° 27' S., 159° 43' E. 

Tande, 1070 ft. high. 20° 05' s., 163° 46' e. 

Tandruku, islet 35 ft. high off the northeast coast of Viti levu, Fiji. 

Tangadio, islet on the northwest coast of New Caledonia. 

Tangoa = Tanoa =^ Tongoa, New Hebrides. 

Tanle, islet at the mouth of Tanle bay on the northwest coast of Ncm' Caledonia. 

Tanna or Aipere, of the New Hebrides, was discovered by Cook in 1774. An adlive 
volcano, Mt. Yasua, has been in continvious eruption since the time of Cook. In 
1878 there was a severe earthquake which altered the region about Port Resolu- 
tion. In the centre mountains rise to about 3000 ft. Some 8000 natives, formerly 
cannibals. 19° 31' 17" s., 169° 20' E. The size is given in one place at 30X10 m. 
In another, of equal authority, 18X10 m. And still another says 40X35 m. The 
reader may choose. Tanna = Honua^ land. la. 

Tannawa, islet of Viti levu, Fiji. 17° 47' 16" s., 178° 39' 10" e.O 

Tanyah, islet of Oneatoa of the Gilbert islands. 1° 47' s., 175° 34' E. 7. 

Taongi, Caspar Rico or Smyth, a low atoll with closed lagoon. 14° 45' N., 169° 15' E. 

[236] 



145' 



W. 



Mamihi 

w 



TaKAPOTOH'?/ 



Takaroa 



-ISA' 



21 



Tktopoto,^ 



PAUMOTU GROUP ^.gS"*™" 

[ WEST ] 



4 



TiKEl 



15° S. 



AratiKa 



ToAU \^,f Kav 






EHE j/^ 

Raraka 



Taiaro 



Takurea 










Ancatau 



Fakai awa 



KATio Taenga 

'3?-?^ Makemo '^^^^ 



il/ft'RAROIA 



Akahaiha^ 



^ 

^•*>"_ 



>^ 



i^^.1 






Faaite ^O^J ga^. ,^ :4t 



^ 



Rbkarbka 



Anaa 



MOTUTUNGA 



Heraiki . 






% 



Tekokoto 



Tauere 



C^-' 



Hixueru 



Amahu 



Reitoro 



<^ 



r1 



Marokau 



I 

Makaka i;?'-v(\ 






Uau 



Nengonenco . 






Manumanci 



(^> 



Paraoa 



Hbreheretui 

20° S. (§ 



NGanati 



% 



Anuanuraro 



^) 



AnuanurunqA 



§ 



NUKUTAPIPI 



Tbmatakgi 



w 



145' 



w. 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 153 

Taoru, islet of Raiatea, Society islands. 30. 

Taoui, one of the Admiralty islands. West end in 2° S., 146° 32' E. lO. 
Tapak, islet on the northeast side of Ponape, Caroline islands. 

Tapamanu or Saunders, also called Maiaiti and Tubuai manu, of the Society islands, 
was discovered by Captain Wallis July 28, 1767; 6 m. long. Northeast point is in 

o c>f ff ^ Of 

17 38 41 s., 150 33 w. 

Tapelau, islet of Yap, Caroline islands. 

Tapimoor, islet of Mille, Marshall islands. 

Tapiteuea or Drummond, of the Gilbert islands, was discovered by Captain Bishop 
of the Nautilus. It is 30 m. long and 0.5-0.7 m. wide. Population, 7000-8000. 
North point is in 1° 08' s., 174° 37' 30" E. 

TapitU, a form of Tapiteuea, Gilbert islands. 

Tapu, island in Auckland harbor, New Zealand. 

Tapua, Utupua or Edgecumbe, in the Santa Cruz group, was discovered by Mendaiia 
in 1595. Carteret named it Edgecumbe in 1764. The west summit is in 11° i7'3o"s., 
166° 32' 1 4" E., according to D'Urville. British protedlorate declared August 18, 
1898. 13. 

Tapui, a conical islet in Ahurei bay, island of Rapa. 

Tarakoi, islet of Rapa. 27° 35' s., 144° 18' w. 

Taravai or Belcher, islet of the Mangareva group. 

Tarawa, Cook or Knoy (not Knox), of the Gilbert islands; 18 m. n-s., 13 m. E-w. 
North end is in 1° 39' 05" N., 173° 02' E. 7. 

Tareti, a sandy island near Noumea, New Caledonia. 

Taritari, a common form of Butaritari, Gilbert islands. 

Tariwerwi, see Ouessant, of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Tarrang, islet of Yap, Caroline islands. 

Tasiko, see Api, New Hebrides. la. 

Tasman, atoll discovered by Tasnian in 1700, and seen by Captain Welling in 1824. 
Some 40 islands on a reef encircling a lagoon ; 1 1 m. E-w., 7 m. N-s. Inhabitants 
resemble Gilbert islanders. Niumano, the largest island, is on the east side in 
4° 35' S-, 159° 30' E. British protedlorate proclaimed Odlober 6, 1900. 

Tassai or Brumer, New Guinea. 

TastU, an inhabited island in Humboldt bay on the north coast of New Guinea. 

Tatafa, islet 3 m. southwest from Lefuka in the Hapai group of the Tongan isl- 
ands. 18. 

Tatakoto, called also Narcissus, Egmont and Clerke, of the Paumotu archipelago, 
was discovered by Bonecheo in 1774; 4X1 ni.; inhabited. 17° iS's., 138° 19'w. 22. 

Tatana, islet in Port Moresby on the south coast of New Guinea. 

Tail, the largest of the Manua group, Samoan islands, is 14 m. in circumference, 
2500 ft. high; well watered and fertile. Belongs to the United States. 

Tau, islet of Tongatabu. 18. 

Taiia, islet east from Tangoa, Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides. 12. 

Tauak, lagoon islet of Ponape, Caroline islands. 

Tauan or Mt. Cornwallis, is 9 m. in circumference and 795 ft. high. Inhabitants 
Negrito. Station of the London Missionary Society. 9° 25' 30" s., 142° 32' E. 

[237] 



154 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Tauata or Santa Cristina, of the Marquesas islands; 9 m. N-s., 5 m. E-w., 3280 ft. high. 

Population, 450 in 1880. South point is in 10° 02' S., 139° 09' w. 23. 
Tatiere or Taueri, also St. Simeon, Resolution and Tandrec, of the Paumotu archi- 
pelago, was discovered bj- Bonecheo in 1772. Named by Cook in 1773 after 

his ship; 4 m. in circumference; two islands. West point is in 17° 22' 21" S., 

141° 29' 39" w. 21. 
Taulalia, islet in the Ringgold group, Fiji. 
Taumaco, discovered by Quiros, April 7, 1606, and named Nuestra Senora del Socorro, 

is, according to Espinosa, the Duff group. 12. 
Tauna, islet of Rapa. 27° 36' S., 144° 17' w. 

Tauttl, islet on the northwest of the outer reef of Tahaa, Society islands. 
Tauturau, islet of Rapa. 27° 37' s., 144° 16' w. 
Tavarua or Speiden island, off the west coast of Viti levu, Fiji. i7°52's., 177° io'3o"e. 

Named Speiden by Wilkes after the Purser of the Peacock. 
Tavea, high island in Naloa bay, Vanua levu, Fiji. Inhabitants make good pottery. 

16° 38' 24" S., 178° 43' 30" w.O 
Taviuni or Vuna, Fiji; 23X8 m.; Ngalau peak, 4040 ft. high. Population, 2600 in 

1880. East point is in 16° 48' 30" s., 180° 14' E. 
Tavua, inhabited islet of Mamanutha i thaki group, Fiji. 

Tavuka or Rara ni Tinka, islet 150 ft. high, 2.2 m. south from Yanutha, Fiji. 
Tavtinasithi, Fiji; coral islet, half a mile in diameter, 200 ft. high; uninhabited. 
Tchitschagoff or Tchitchagov, see Tahanea, Paumotu archipelago. 
Teapi, see Rapanui. 

Teauaua or Hat, islet in Shavay bay on the southeast side of Huahuna, Marquesas. 
Tebut, see Lib of the Marshall islands. 
Tegpua, a circular island in the middle of Torres group, about 3.5 m. in diameter, 

nearly 600 ft. high; 2.5 m. southeast from Hiw or North island. 
Te Houra, see Waikawa, New Zealand. 

Teilau, uninhabited islet 500X150 yds., on the southeast coast of Viti levu, Fiji. 
Tekareka, see Tekokoto, Paumotu archipelago. 
TekokotO, Tekareka or Doubtful, of the Paumotu archipelago, was discovered by 

Cook, August II, 1773. It is a circular reef a mile in diameter. 17° 20' s., 

142° 37' W.O 21. 
Teku, see Anuanurunga of the Paumotu archipelago. 
Teku, see Vanavana of the Paumotu archipelago. 22. 
Texnatan^ or Bligh lagoon, of the Paumotu archipelago, was discovered by Bligh in 

1792. It is 7 m. in diameter. Some of the inhabitants were removed to Tahiti in 

1858 on suspicion of having eaten a shipwrecked crew. North point is in 2i°38's., 

140° 40' w. 21. 
Temelflua, near Taumaco, the same as Tukopia. 
Temo, see Jemo of the Marshall islands. 
TemotU or Trevanion, Santa Cruz group, at the entrance of Trevanion lagoon, the 

Puerto gracio.sa of Mendaiia who named this island La Guerta. Carteret called 
it Trevanion. It is 10 m. in circuit. British protedlorate declared Odlober i, 1898. 
The north point is in 10° 40' s., 165° 41' 30" E. 12. 

[238] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 155 

Tenararo or Bedford island, in the AAason group of the Paiimotu archipelago, is 2 m. 
in diameter, with a closed lagoon. About 20 inhabitants. 21° 18' s., 136° 42' w. 

Tenarunga or Minto, of the Adlaeon group in the Pauniotu archipelago, is 7 m. north- 
west from Maturei vavao. 21° 22' S., 136° 34' w. 22. 

Te Ndu encloses Port Laguerre on the west. On the southwest side of New Cale- 
donia; I m. N-s. 

Tenia, islet on the north side of St. Vincent passage, on the southwest side of New 
Caledonia. 

TepotO or Ofiti (the Eliza of Mauruc) was discovered by Bellingshausen in 1820. 
Of the Raeffsky group in the Paumotu archipelago. 16° 48' S., 144° 19' w. 21. 

Terio, islet of Apaiang, Gilbert islands. 1° 48' 30" N., 173° 01' E. 

Tern, on the Australian coast. 11° s., 142° 46' E. 

Testard, two islets on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 

Teste, see Wari on the New Guinea coast. 

Tetaro, islet on the northeast part of the outer reef of Raiatea, Society islands. 

Tetiaroa, a chart form of Tetuaroa, Society islands, ao. 

Tetuaroa, of the Society islands, was discovered by Quiros, February, 1606. A reef 
with a dozen islets, wooded. East end is in 17° 07' 15" s., 149° 29' 30" w. 

TetOpOtO (Disappointment islands of Byron), of the Paumotu archipelago, covers 
about 9 sq. m.; no lagoon; uninhabited (?); large trees. i4°o8's., 141° i6'w. 21. 

Teuaua, islet of Uapvt in Shavay bay, Marquesas islands. 

Teumah, islet at the northwest extremity of Onoatoa, Gilbert islands. 1° 53' S., 
175° 30' E. 

Tevai, within the reef of Vanikoro ; 9 m. in circumference ; high. 

Tevairoa, islet of Bolabola, Society islands. 

Tevala, one of the Shepherd islands, New Hebrides ; small and almost inaccessible; 
324 ft. high at the west end. 

Thakaundrove, islet in Uaikava harbor on the south coast of Vanua levu, Fiji. 

Thakavi, islet on the north coast of Vanua levu, Fiji. 

Thangalai, south from Moturiki on the southeast coast of Viti levu, Fiji. 17° 47'46"s., 
178° 46' 40" E. 

Thikombia (Cicobia), one of the Exploring islands, Fiji; 5 ra. northeast from Munia;: 
3 m. SE-NW.; 1.7 m. wide; north end is in 15° 47' 40" S., 180° 09' E. 14. 

Thithia (Cicia), a fertile, inhabited island 4X3 m., 300 ft. high. Northwest point is 
in 17° 44' 30" S., 180° 42' E. 14. 

Thombia, the highest of the Ringgold group, is the crater of an extinct volcano, in 
the centre of which is a lake 24 fathoms deep; whole island not quite 2 m. in cir- 
cumference; 590 ft. high. 

Thompson, Fiji. 18° 30' 45" s., 177° 36' 45" e.O 

Thornton, see Caroline. 

Three Hills, of the New Hebrides, is 6 m. NE-SW., and 2.5 m. wide. Mae is the cen- 
tral district and is pure Polynesian, while the languages on the other side are 
Melanesian. The three hills are, from the east, 1850, 1450 and 1400 ft. high. 
17° 05' s., 168° 19' E. 12. 

Three Kings, group northwest from Cape Marie van Diemen, New Zealand. 

[239] 



156 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Three Sisters, rounded islets near east point of Bultig, New Guinea. io° 13' s., 

142° 19' E. 
Three Sisters, Las Tres Marias or Olumalaii of tlie Solomon islands. About 10° s., 

162° E.; 230-250 ft. high. The south island is named Malaupina, the north one 

Alita. 
Thrum Cap, see Akiaki of the Paumotu archipelago. 
Thukini, islet on the north coast of Vanua levu, Fiji. 

Thumbu, islet 100 ft. high at the mouth of Rakiraki river, north coast of Viti levu, Fiji. 
Thursdaj-, see Waiben. Centre of Pearl and Trepang fisheries. 
Ti-a, islet at the north end of New Caledonia. 

Tiae, islet at the entrance to Tanle bay on the northwest coast of New Caledonia. 
Tiano, islet on west coast of Raiatea, Society islands. 

Tidiatlt, two islets off Cape Baye on the northeast coast of New Caledonia. 
Tienghiene, islet at the mouth of Nehue bay on the northwest coast of New Caledonia. 
Tiere, wooded islet of Tahiti, opposite Tomotai valley. 
Tiga, Tika or Boucher, of the Loyalty group, 8-10 m. in circumference, 150 ft. high, 

with fringing reef. Used as a dump for the worst natives. 21° 29'2o"s., 168° 17' E. 
Tiger, an island "inhabited by ferocious savages," discovered by Captain Bristow in 

1817; 6.7 m. E-w. i°45's., i42°i8'e. Probably identical with Matty, which see. 8. 
Tikahau or Krusenstern, of the Paumotu archipelago, was discovered by Kotzebue in 

1815. A small, wooded island 10 m. in diameter, with a lagoon and inhabitants. 

The north point is in 14° 52' ,S., 148° 15' 15" w. 20. 
Tikei or Romanzoff, of the Paumotu archipelago, was discovered April 20, 181 5, by 

Otto von Kotzebue and named for Prince Romanzoff. 14° 57' S., 144° 35'3o" w.O 31. 
Timboor, of the Yasawa group, Fiji; high. 16° 40' s., 177° 30' 30" E.O 
Timoe or Crescent, of the Paumotu archipelago, was discovered by Captain Wilson in 

theZ)/(^, in 1797; uninhabited. Northeast point is in 23° 17's., 134° 34' io"w. ZZ. 
Tinakula or Tamani is a permanently adlive volcano 2200 ft. high, in the Santa Cruz 

group. British protectorate declared August 18, 1898. 10° 23' 30" S., 165° 47' 30" E. 
Tindal, see Ailuk of the Marshall islands. 6. 

Tingolanu, a low island off Marovo, Solomon islands; 3-4 m. N-s. 8°43's., 158° 15'E. 
Tinian, of the Marianas, was discovered by Magalhaes, March 6, 1521. He called it 

Bona Vista; 10 m. N-s., 4.5 m. E-w.; 234 inhabitants in 1887. 14° 59' 22" n., 

145° 33' E. Low, but volcanic. See map under Marianas. 
Tiokea, .see Takaroa of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 
Tioae, islets in bay of the same name near Noumea, New Caledonia. 
Tioki, islet of Fakaako. 9° 24' 20" s., 171° 12' w. 

Tipamau, islet at the entrance to Fairoa bay, Raiatea, Society islands. 
Tiri, a group of low, mangrove-covered islands off Vanua levu, Fiji. Consists of Wil- 
liams, Green, Mills, Finer, Pully, Richmond and Day. 
Tiritiri, in Auckland harbor, New Zealand. 
Tissot, see Baibesika, 3 m. east from South cape, of New Guinea. 
TisungatU, islet of F'akaafo. 9° 24' 35" S., 171° 12' W. 
Tjan, islet of Maloelab, Marshall islands. 8° 52' 39" N., 171° 01' 31" E. 

Tnagtlinui, islet of Nui, on the east side ; inhabited. Ellice islands. 

[240] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 157 

Toahotu, islet off Tahaa, Society islands. 2,0. 

Toamaro, islet off west side of Raiatea, Society islands. 

ToasS, islet of Elato, Caroline islands. 7° 24' 30" N., 146° 19' E. 

Toau or Elisabeth, of the Paumotu archipelago, lagoon atoll with many islets ; 20 m. 
E-w. All the fish in the lagoon are said to be poisonous. The southeast point is 
in 15° 58' S., 145° 49' 30" w. 31. 

Tobi, Lord North or Neville, was discovered on the ship Lord North in 178 1; 1.5 m. 
long, well wooded, inhabited. 3° 03' n., 131° 04' E. 

Tobin, in Torres strait. 10° 06' 30" s., 142° 21' E. Tobin Cay is in 9° 37' s., 143° 40' E. 

Toemo, islet in Port Goro at the south end of New Caledonia. 

Tofua {whale in Tongan) , a volcano 5 m. in diameter, 2800 ft. high. 19° 45' S., 1 75° 03' w. 

Tog or South (called Pukapuka by the traders) is an inhabited island of the Torres 
group, 9 ni. in circumference, and 600 ft. high. 

Tokelau, see Fakaafo. 

Tokelau or Union group consists of Atafu with 63 islets, Nukunavi with 93 islets, 
and Fakaafo with 62. 17. 

Tokikimoa, islet of Fakaafo. 9° 24' 32" S., 171° 12' w. 

Tokoeoa, islet on the north of Mille, Marshall islands, at the west side of the entrance 
to the lagoon. 

Tokoriki, uninhabited islet of Mamanutha i thaki group, Fiji. 

Tokowa, islet on the west side of the entrance to Port Rhin, Mille, Marshall islands. 

Toku, a low island, 11 m. ESE. from Amargura or Fonualei, Tongan islands. i8°o8's., 
174° 08' w. 18. 

Tokuna, Toguna or Alcester, 3 islets within one reef in the Trobriand group. 9° 29' S., 
152° 30' 45" E. The name seems to belong rather to the people than to the islands. 

Tol, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands; 10 m. in circumference, 700 ft. high; largest of 
the Faitruk group in the western part of the lagoon. 7°2i'o8"n., 151° 39' 22" E. 

Tombarua, low island of Fiji. 17° 59' 46" s., 178° 45' 10" E.O 

Tomman or Uru, off the southwest coast of Malekula, New Hebrides; i m. NW-SE., 
260 ft. high. 

Tonga (Toga) or Friendly Islands, a group of 150 islands and islets occupied by 
some 22,000 inhabitants. It is essentially a volcanic group, although many of the 
islands are low. The group was discovered by Tasman in 1643. Tongatabu he' 
called Amsterdam, Eua Middleburgh, and Namuka Rotterdam. Cook was there 
both on his second and third voyages, and gave the name Friendly. The Span- 
iard Maurelle discovered Vavau in 1781. The government is a limited monarchy, 
the seat of government at Nukualofa on Tongatabu. Now England controls the 
group.* The Wesleyan mission was established in 1826, and the inhabitants are 
all Christian. The group has not been fully surveyed. 18. 

Tongaravu, islet 70 ft. high off the east coast of Viti levu, Fiji. 

Tongareva or Penrhyn was discovered by Sever in the ship Lady Penrhyn. An atoll 
12X7 n^-) ^"<^ 50 ^t. high; the lagoon is 9 m. across and contains 15 islets. In 1863 
it was almost depopulated by Peruvian slavers. March 22, 1888, it was annexed 
to Great Britain. Tongareva means Tonga in the heavens. 9°o6'25"s., i58°02'io"w. 

*A British protectorate Over the entire group was proclaimed May 19, 1900. 

[241] 



158 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Tongariki, volcanic island in the New Hebrides. 17° s., 168° 36' E. la. 
Tongatabu or New Amsterdam was discovered by Tasman January 29, 1643 ; 27 m. 

E-w., 10 m. N-S., 60 ft. high. Composed entirely of coral rock. In places there 

are caves with fine staladlites. See Mariner's account. 21° 07' S., 175° ri' E. 
Tongoa, New Hebrides, the Shepherd islands of Cook, are off the south coast of 

Espiritu Santo. A Presbyterian mission here. 15° 36' 12" S., 167 °E. 
Topati, islet on the east reef of Huaheine, Society islands. 
Torea, islet on west coast of Raiatea, Society islands. 
Torlesse or Bonabonanga, low, wooded, uninhabited islets 8.5 m. southwest from 

Panniet in the Louisiade archipelago, on a reef 4 m. long. io°48's., 152° 13' E. 9. 
Torres (Ababa, Baba or Vava), a group of the Banks islands consisting of Hiw 

Metoma, Tegua, Lo, and Tog. They have little water and the natives depend on 

coconuts for drink. The north island is 1200 ft. high, the others much lower. 

Melanesian mission has a station here. 
Torres, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 7° 20' N., 151° 24' E. 
Tortoise, an islet of the Pleiades group. Loyalty islands. 13. 
Torua, islet of Maloelab, Marshall islands. 8° 43' 10" n., 171° 09' 35" E. 
Totoya, Fiji; 5 m. E-w., 3.5 m. n-s. Notch peak is 1200 ft. high in 18° 56' 30" s., 

180 05 30 E. 
Totten, a high island of the Yasawa group, Fiji. 17° 29' 30" S., 177° 01' 15" E.O 

Named for George M. Totten of the Wilkes expedition. • 
Touching, see Butaritari, Gilbert islands. 
Toukoua, an islet of Ontong Java. With the rest of the group belongs to Great 

Britain. 
Toulon, see Maliu kolo. New Guinea. 

Toveru, islet on the west side of Buru bay on the northeast coast of New Caledonia. 
Tovu and Tovu lailai are both on the same reef on the north coast of Viti levu, Fiji. 

The former is 250 ft. high. 
Tower, of the Galapagos, is 2 1 1 ft. high. 0° 20' N. 
Tracey, low, uninhabited island of the Admiralty group. 
Tracy, see Vaitapu, Ellice islands. 16. 
Traitor, a group of small and low islands north of Jobi in Geelvink bay. New Guinea. 

I 15 S., 136 31 E. 
Traitors or Padeaids on the north coast of New Guinea. 
Travers, in Torres strait. 10° 23' S., 142° 20' E. 
Traversey, see Aurh, Marshall islands. 
Treasurers, second in size of the Duff group. 
Treasury, see Mono, Solomon islands. II. 

Tree, 4x2 m. low and wooded, off Fly river. New Guinea. 8° 41' s., 143° 37' E. 
Tree, islet of Arova, Louisiade archipelago. 
Tree, islet of Florida, Solomon islands. 
Treguada (La), of the Solomon islands, was discovered by Mendaiia in May, 1568. 

Native name Braba or Vraba. Now Ulaua. 

Tres Marias, see Olu malau, Solomon islands. 

Trevanion, see Temotu of the Santa Cruz islands. 

[242] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 159 

Trevennen, see Hiiapu of the Marquesas islands. 

Trio, islets on east side of Hugon island on the southwest coast of New Caledonia. 

Trobriand, see Kiriwina group. 

Troilem, islet of Uluthi, Caroline islands. 3. 

Trois Soeurs, of Surville = Tres Marias of Mendafia := Olu malou. 

Tromelin, see Feys of the Caroline islands. 3. 

Truk, a form of Ruk, Caroline islands. 

Tsis, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands; 0.7 m. in diameter. 7° 18' 30" N., 151° 48' 30" E. 

Tua, see Quoin, New Guinea. 

Tuamaco, a name given by Quiros to Disappointment island in the Duff or Wilson 

group. 
Tuamotu, the French form of Paumotu ; tua a bunch, and motu island. 
Tuanae, islet on northeast reef of Maupiti, Society islands. 
Tuanaki or Reid, atoll in the Raeffsky group, in the north, uninhabited. 16° 41' S.) 

144° 14' w. 
Tuatua, see Haszard islands, Louisiade archipelago. 
Tu-aye, islet in Banare bay on the northwest coast of New Caledonia. 
Tubal or Motuiti, uninhabited, lagoon island. Society islands. 16° 15's., 151° 48' w. 30. 
Tubanaielli, west of Kambara, Fiji; uninhabited; 150 ft. high; with fringing reef. 

18° 42' 30" S., 180° 56' E.O 
Tubuai, of the Austral islands, has an encircling reef about a mile from shore. Popu- 
lation in 1881 was 343. 23° 21' 45" S., 149° 35' 35" w. 
Tubuai manu, see Tapamanu, Society islands. 

Tubuai, a name often given to the Austral islands from the principal island. 
Tubutubu or Engineer, in the New Guinea region. 
Tuck, one of the Magellan islands ; existence doubtful. 
Tucker, see Satawal, Caroline islands. 3. 
Tucopia is 7 m. in circumference, and 3000 ft. high ; inhabited by mild and inoffensive 

Polynesians. British pro tedlorate declared August 18, 1898. 12° 21' S., 168° 43' E. 
Tuesday islands are in Torres strait. 10° 32' S., 142° 21' E. 

Tufa, islet of Rongelab of the Marshall islands. 11° 14' 35" N., 166° 47' 40" E. 6. 
Tufaaga or Tufaka, islet on the northwest coast of Tongatabu. 2i°04's., I75°i5'w. 18. 
Tugua, in the Tongan group. 18. 

Tugulu, the northern islet of Pingelap, Caroline islands. 6° 14' n., 160° 52' E. 5. 
Tuhoua or Mayor, in the Bay of Plenty, New Zealand. 
Tuilagi or St. George, uninhabited island southwest from Ysabel, Solomon islands. 

13 m. long. 8° 30' S., 159° 30' E. II. 
Tuinaka or Reid, of the Paumotu archipelago. Northwest point is in 16° 37' 17" s., 

144° 13' w. 
Tuki, a mile in diameter, off Viti levu, Fiji. 17° 19' 40" S., 178° 02' E.O 
Tukopia, see Tucopia; Temelflua of Quiros. 
Tukua, islet of Ontong Java. 5° 34' S., 159° 15' E. 
Tuma, in the Kiriwina group. 8° 29' S., 150° 52' E. 
Tumbu, on the New Guinea coast. 4° 25' S., 133° 35' E. 

Tuna, islet of Tiri group, 100 ft. high, on the north coast of Vanua levu, Fiji. 

[243 



i6o INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Tlipete, on the south coast of New Caledonia. 

Tupinier, in Dampier strait, Bismarck archipelago. Adlive volcano, in eruption in 
1877. 5° 25' S., 148° 08' E. 

Tupua or Marion, islet in Teavanui harbor, Borabora, Society islands. 20. 

Turea, on the south coast of New Guinea. 

Tureia, Carysfort or Papakena, was discovered by Captain Edwards in H. M. ^.Pandora 
in 1791. Lagoon closed. East end is in 20° 45' s., 138° 30' w. 

Turn-again, on the south coast of New Guinea. 9° 34' s., 142° 16' E. 

Turtle, see Vatoa, Fiji. 

Turtle, islet in Malo pass, Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides. 

Turtle, islet in Port Powell, of New Britain. 

Turtle-backed, off the New Guinea coast. 9° 54' s., 142° 46' e. 

Tut or Warrior, an inhabited sandbank with an extensive reef. 9° 48' vS., 142° 55' E. 

Tutuila, of the Sanioan islands, is 17X5 m., high, volcanic. Mataafo peak is 2359 
ft. high. It has the fine harbor of Pangopango on the south coast, nearly bisedling 
the island. In Asu bay Comte de Langle, M. de Lamanon and a boat crew of 
La Perouse's fleet were massacred in 1787. The west cape is in 14° 20' 40" s., 
170° 48' 14" w. This with the Samoan islands to the eastward now belongs to the 
United States. 15. 

Tuvana i tholo or Simonov, and Tuvana ira or Michaelov, of Fiji, are each about half 
a mile in diameter. The surrounding reefs are circular, and the islets are nearer 
the north side. Named for the astronomer and artist of Bellingshausen, 1820. 

o / r>0 / '/ 

21 03 s., 178 50 10 w. 
Tuvuna, islet east from Tongoa, New Hebrides. 
Tuvutha (Tuvuca), Fiji; a densely wooded and inhabited island, 800 ft. high, in 

17° 40' s., 178° 49' w. Palolo are caught off the eastern point. 
Tuyam, islet 0.3 m. long, 160 ft. high, on the southeast coast of New Guinea. 
Two Brothers, see Kepara, New Guinea. 
Two Groups, see Manaka, of the Paumotu archipelago. 
Two Hills, see Mataso, New Hebrides. 17° 18' s., 168° 23' E. 

Ua Huka, see Huahuna of the Marquesas islands. 23. 

Ualan, a name of Kusaie or Strong island of the Caroline archipelago. 5. 

Ualeva, of the Tongan islands. 

Ualomo, islet of Ugo bay, Isle of Pines. 

Uanne, islet in Gazelle passage on the northwest coast of New Caledonia. 13. 

Uap, see Yap of the western Caroline islands. 

Uapora, see Huapu of the Marquesas islands. 

Uapu, see Huapu of the Marquesas islands. 

Uatom or Man, in the Bismarck archipelago, is in 4° 07' S., 152° 03' E. On the coast 
of New Britain. 

Udia-Milai, see Bikini of the Marshall islands. 

Udjae or Katherine, of the Marshall islands, is 22X6 m. Udjae or Ujae the southern 
islet, and Enylamiej the northern one, are considered the finest and most fertile 
of the group. The north point of Enylamiej is in 9° 21' N., 165° 36' E. 6. 

[244] 



-m 



1 t O a PUKAPUKA 



^. 



w: 



22 



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INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. i6i 

Uluma, or Suckling reef, is in the Louisiade archipelago. 

Ultinau, ill the Admiralty group, is in 2° 06' s., 147° 32' E. 

Uluthi, Uluti or Mackenzie, of the Caroline islands, was discovered by Captain 
Mackenzie in 1823, but previously by the Spaniard Egoi. The islets Mogmog 
(on which Padre Cantova was killed when endeavoring to establish a Jesuit mis- 
sion), Falalep, Troilem, Ear and Kilap are the principal ones. 9°56'n., i39°5o'e. 3. 

Umaitia was Bougainville's name for Tetuaroa. 

Umboi or Rook is immediately west of New Britain; 28X16 m., 5000 ft. high, 
volcanic. 10. 

Umol, islet of Ruk in the Caroline islands. 

Umuda, at the mouth of the Fly river. New Guinea. 8° 28' S., 143° 48' E. 

Unalik, see Ounalik, islet of Namonuito, Caroline islands. 

Undaga, one of the French islands, Bismarck archipelago. 4° 38' s., 149° 12' E. 10. 

Underwood group, Fiji, consists of Bateman, Henry, Linthicum, Ogle, Reynolds, 
and Smith. 

Undui, islet of the Ono i lau group, Fiji. 14. 

Unei, on the north coast of New Guinea. 3° 10' S., 143° 21' E. 

UneS, islet of Uea, Loyalty group; covered with many flat-topped hills. 

Uneyeute, islet at the southeast end of Namonuito, Caroline islands. 

Union or Tokelau, group of low coral islands extending 180 m. NW-SE.: Gente Her- 
mosa, Fakaofu, Nukunono, Atafu. Belongs to Great Britain. 17. 

Uo, see Laine of the Loyalty group. 13. 

Upolu, of the Samoan islands, is the second in size and contains the principal port, 
Apia, of the German portion of the group; 39.5 m. E-w., with an average width of 
8 m.; 3200 ft. high. Subject to hurricanes. 13° 46' s., 171° 20' w. 15. 

Ura, see Takapoto of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

Urak, see Mokil, Caroline islands. 

Urara, of the Bismarck archipelago; i m. E-w. 4° 17' S., 151° 39' E. 

Uraura, islet in the harbor on the south side of Pallikulo, New Hebrides. 

Ureparapara or Bligh is 12 m. northwest from the north point of Vanua lava. New 
Hebrides; nearly circular; 12 m. in circumference, 2440 ft. high; volcanic; 300 
inhabitants. 13° 35' s., 167° 18' E. 12. 

Uri, islet of Malekula, New Hebrides; 1.5 m. WNW-ESE.; low, inhabited. 

Uripiv, islet of Malekula, New Hebrides, half a mile in diameter ; 300-400 inhabitants. 
Natives are said to bury their old or sick people alive. Presbj^terian mission station. 

Urombo, islet of Malekula, New Hebrides. 15° 58' s. 

Urracas, of the Marianas, consists of three islands in a circle 2-3 ni. in diameter; 
probably the remains of a sunken crater. 20° 08' n., 145° 19' E. See map under 
Marianas. 

Urn, see Tomman, New Hebrides. 

Urukiki, islet off Port Stanley, of Malekula, New Hebrides. 

Uruktapi or Urukthopel, of the Pelew islands, is 5.5 m. long; uninhabited. South 
point is in 7° 14' 30" N., 130° 28' E. 

Uruma or Duchess, of D'Entrecasteaux group, is west from Duau. 9°57's., i50°5i'e. 

Useless, two small, wooded islands on the New Guinea coast. 10° 35'45"s., 150° 51' E. 

Memoirs B. P. B. Museum, Vol. I., No. 2.— n. 1^45 J 



1 62 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Utan, islet in Meoko harbor, Duke of York island, Bismarck archipelago. 

Uteroa, the northern islet of Tapiteuea, Gilbert islands. North end is in i° 08' 20" s., 
174° 45' E.; south end 1° 29' 14" s., 175° 11' 02" E. 7. 

Utet, islet in Faitruk group, Ruk lagoon, Caroline islands. 

Utian or Brooker, in the Louisiade archipelago. 11° 03' S., 152° 27' E. 9. 

Utirik, Button or Kutusow, Marshall islands, is 20X5 ni. 11° 20' n., 169° 50' E.O 

Utupua, an old form of Tapoua or Edgecumbe of the Santa Cruz group. 

Uvea or Wallis was discovered by Maurelle in 1781, and again by Wallis in 1797. 
There are nine separate islands from i-io m. in circuit, and many islets or rocks 
enclosed \vithin one reef, though there is a ship passage to the lagoon on the south. 
Uvea is 7 m. n-S., volcanic, 197 ft. high. Reef 14 m. N-s., 9 m. E-w. Came under 
French influence in 1842 ; at first attached to the jurisdic^tion of Tahiti ; November 
27, 1887, it was, with Futuna, made part of New Caledonia. Population in 1880, 
5000 and increasing. On the south are Faiia, Nukuatea, Nukuafo, Nukufetao, 
Faioa, Akimoa or Sail-rock ; on the east, Nukulufala, Lonaniva, Fougalei ; on the 
north, Takuaviki, Nukuteatea, Nukuloa, and Nukufutu. The southwest point of 
vea is in 13 23 35 S., 176 11 47 w. lo. 

Uvea, a form of Uea, Lo)^alty group. 

Uyelang, islet of Udjelong, Marshall islands. Northeast end in 9° 43' n., 161° 19' E. 

Vaga, of the Kiriwina group. 8° 44' s., 150° 55' 30" E. 

Vahanga or Bedford, in the Adlaeon group; 5 m. west from Tenarunga, Paumotu 
archipelago. 32. 

Vahine, a form of Huaheine, Society islands. 

Vahitahi or Cook's lagoon was discovered by Bougainville in 1768, and seen by Cook 
the next year; 3X1 m. Paumotu archipelago. 18° 42' S., 138° 50' w. 2,2,. 

Vaiorea, islet on the west side of Huaheine, Society islands. 

Vairaatea, Vairaotea or Egmont, of the Paumotu archipelago, was discovered by Wallis 
in 1767; consists of two islets, Pukararo (leeward), Tres Cocotiers of Mauruc, and 
Pukarunga (windward) or Egmont. 19° 20' S., 139° 18' w. 22. 

Vairaatea, see Mururoa, Paumotu archipelago. Often confounded with the preceding. 

Vaitupu or Tracy, of the Ellice group, is of oval shape with fringing reef; 4 m. in 
diameter. Formerly spelled Oaitupu. 7° 30' vS., 178° 41' E. 16. 

Vakuta, inhabited i.slet of the Kiriwina group. 8° 47' s., 151° 04' E. 

Valea, one of the Shepherd islands. New Hebrides; uninhabited, narrow, almost in- 
accessible; 367 ft. high. Above the steep sides are coconut groves. la. 

Valise, see Guilbert, New Guinea. 

Valua, of the New Hebrides, extends 6 m. ne-SW.; 1400 ft. high. Fertile, with a pop- 
ulation of about 1000. A station of the Melanesian mission. 13° 40' S., 167° 38' E. 

Vambi, one of the French islands, Bismarck archipelago. 4° 40' .S., 149° 11' E. 

Vanama, south from Tagula, Louisiade archipelago. 11° 38' s., 153° 31' E. 

Vanavana, Kurateke, Barrow or Teku, of the Paumotu archipelago, was discovered 
by Beechey January 31, 1826. It is a narrow strip of sand surrounding a lagoon; 
1.2x1.7 m. 20"" 45' s., 139° 03' w.O 22. 

Vanderford, of the Underwood group, Fiji. 17° 38' s., 177° 21' 30" E.O 

[246] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 163 

Vanderlin, the largest of the Sir Edward Pelew group in the Gulf of Carpentaria. 
Named for one of the directors of the Dutch East India Company who was a great 
promotor of marine discoveries. 

Vangunu, a name of the island off the southeast end of Ne-w Georgia or Rubiana, 
Solomon islands. 

Vanikoro, of the Santa Cruz islands, is 30 m. in circumference and 3000 ft. high 
Densely wooded and only the coast inhabited. Tevai is on the same reef. As the 
scene of the loss of the two ships of La Perouse, in 1788, Vanikoro has a sad in- 
terest. British proteAorate declared August 18, 1898. ii°4i'5o"s., i66°5i'e. 12. 

Vanua kula, an islet of Kandavu, Fiji, 250 ft. high. 18° 48' S., 178° 25' 10" E. 

Vanua lava or lavu. New Hebrides, the largest of the Banks group, 15 m. n-s., 10 m. 
E-w.; 3000zb ft. high, active volcano on the ridge. 13° 48' s., 167° 30' 30" E. 12. 

Vanua levtl, Fiji; 100X25 m., 3200 ft. high, is the second in size of the Vitian group 
and mountainous and wooded, with many bays and harbors with entrances through 
openings in the barrier reef. The northeast point is in i6°o6'3o"s., i8o°o7'e. 14. 

Vanua masi, coral islet, 80 ft. high, within the Argo reef, Fiji. i8°05's., 178° 27' w. 

Vanua mbalavu, Fiji, is 14X1 m.; Mt. Koro mbasanga is 930 ft. high. 17° 13' s., 
178" 58' w. 

Vanua vatU, Fiji, is 6 m. in circumference and 310 ft. high. Frequented by fisher- 
men. 18° 22' S., 180° 39' E.O 

Vao, islet of New Caledonia. 20° 35' S. 

Vao, islet of Malekula, New Hebrides, off Port Stanley. 

Varivari, two islets on the south coast of New Guinea. 

Vate, see Fate, New Hebrides. 

Vatganai, islet in Banks group. New Hebrides. 13° 12' .s., 167° 40' E. 

Vatia, islet on the north coast of Viti levu, Fiji, 600 ft. high. 17° 20' s., 177° 50' E. 

Vatia, small, high and rocky island off the north coast of Tutuila, Samoan islands. 15. 

Vatilau or Buena Vista, off the northwest coast of Florida, Solomon islands; 1950 ft. 
high. 8° 53' 30" S., 159° 59 30" E. II. 

Vatiu, see Atiu, Hervey islands. 23. 

Vatoa or Turtle was the only one of the Fijian group seen by Cook in 1774. Coral, 
2X0.5 m., 209 ft. high. Population less than 100. 19° 47's., i7i°43'42"e. 14. 

VatU i thake, off Vanua levu, Fiji. North point is in 16° 33' 24" S., 178° 44' 30" E. 

Vatu, a high island in the Yasawa group, Fiji. 17° 16' S., 177° 07' E.O 

Vatu ira, islet 100 ft. high, off the northeast coast of Viti levu, Fiji ; in the north 
part of the Vatu ira lagoon, which is 14X3 ni- 17° 19' S., 178° 27' E. 

Vatuka, one of the Tiri group, off the west coast of Vanua levu, Fiji. 

Vatu lailai, islet at the mouth of the weather passage to Vatu leile, Fiji. 

Vatu leile, Fiji, a well wooded, inhabited island, 6.7X1.7 m. and no ft. high. 
18 34 30 S., 177 36 30 E. _ 

Vatu levu, islet off Vatu leile, Fiji. 

Vatu SavU, islet off Vatu leile, Fiji. 

Vatu vara or Hat, Fiji; 1.2 m. in diameter, 1030 ft. high; coral, with steep cliffs on 
all sides; the property of an American who resides there. 17° 25' S., 179° 32' w. 

Vatu Rhandi, New Hebrides. 13° 12' S., 167° 40' E. The proper form is Vatganai. 

L247] 



1 64 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Vauvilliers, islet north from Mare, Loyalty islands. 

Vavara, islet on the east side of Huaheine, Society islands. 

Vavau or \'avao, Tongan islands, was first visited by Maurelle in 1781. Population in 

1891 was 5084. To the south and west are many islets. 18° 38' 20" s., 174° 01' w. 18. 
Vavi ai, islet in Guasop harbor on the south side of Murua or Woodlark island, of 

the Louisiade archipelago. 9. 
Vavitao or Ravaivai, of the Austral islands, was discovered by Captain Brougliton 

O(5lober 23, 1791; or, as some claim, by Bonecheo in 1772; 10 m. long; high. 

23° 55' S., 147° 48' w. 
Vehanga or Bedford, in the Adlseon group, Paumotu archipelago, uninhabited ; 2 m. 

in diameter. 21° 20' S., 136° 39' w. 22,. 
Vehi, or Wedge, is half a mile wsw. from south cape of New Guinea. 
Vekai, low islet 6 m. from Tabutha, Fiji ; uninhabited but frequented by turtle hunters. 

i7°33's., 181° ii'e.O 
Vela la Velha is southeast from Mono, Solomon islands ; 2800 ft. high. Volcanic, 

with fumaroles and hot springs. 
Vele or Hinchinbrook, New Hebrides; northeast from Fate; 800 ft. high. See Mau. 
Velerara, low and sandy island, Fiji. 16° 52' S., 181° 00' 45" E.O 
Velitoa, islet off Tongatabu, Tongan islands. 
Vella I^avella, Solomon islands; 23 m. long, -mountainous, with several volcanoes 

more than 1000 ft. high. North point is in 7° 32' S., 156° 35' E. II. 
Venariwa, grassy islet 500 ft. high; 0.6X0.3 m. northwest from Moturina, Louisiade 

archipelago. 
Vendralala, a high island in Naloa bay, Vanua levu, Fiji; inhabited. 16° 36' 54" S., 

178' 42' 45" E.O 
Ventenat, see Digaragara, Louisiade archipelago. Named for Louis Ventenaf, nat- 
uralist and chaplain of the Recherche. 9. 
Verao, see Moso, New Hebrides. 
Veriararu, islet of Tahiti, Society islands. 

Vesey is east from Commodore bay, New Britain. 5° 27' S., 150° 48' E. 
Viendrala, islet on the north coast of Vanua levu, Fiji ; 99 ft. high, cultivated. 
Vicuna, low island of Fiji. 16° 11' 35" S., 179° 50' 25" E.O 
Village, an islet off the north coast of New Guinea, inhabited and conneAed to the 

mainland by a reef bare at low water. 
Vincennes, see Kawehe, Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

Vingoru, one of- the French islands, Bismarck archipelago. 4° 36' s., 149° 21' E. 10. 
Violet, islet 60 ft. high in the St. Andrew group. Admiralty islands. 
Visschers, .said to be three islands in the Bismarck archipelago, 1000 ft. high, coast 

steep. Inhabitants naked, dye their hair and tatu to some extent. Their canoes 

are a single log with carved ends. 2° 37' S., 151° 58' E. lO. 
Viti, see Fiji. 

Vitora, on the .southea.st coast of Ysabel, Solomon islands. 8° 37' s., 159° 46' E. 
Viwa, in the bay of Mbau, Fiji; 1x0.3 m., i6o± ft. high. i7°56'56"s., i78°39'25"e.O 
Viwa, in the Mamanutha group, Fiji; icxsdb ft. high. 17° 08' .s., 176° 54' E. 
Vliegen, see Rangiroa, Palliser group, Paumotu archipelago. 33. 

[248] 



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INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 165 

Volcano, in Anson archipelago. 22° 30' N. 

Volcano, off the northeast point of Umboi, 3500 ft. high. Dampier saw an eruption 

in March, 1700. 5° 32' S., 148° 06' E. 
Volcano, on the west side of Blanche bay, New Britain, rose in February, 1878. 
Volcano, see Tinakula, New Hebrides. 
Volcano Islands, or Magellan archipelago, a small volcanic group south of the Bonin 

islands. Annexed by Japan in 1891. Arzobispo, Santo Alessandro, Sulphur, 

Santo Agostino. Uninhabited. 
Volunteer, see Starbuck. 
Vomo, on the northwest coast of Viti levu, Fiji; 2 m. in circumference, 380 ft. high, 

flat-topped. The south point is in 17° 30' s., 177° 15' E. 
Vomo lailai, a rock 200 ft. high on the south side of Vomo, Fiji. 17° 29's., 177° 13' E.O 
Vostok, Wostok or Staver, was discovered by Bellingshausen in 1820; about 0.3 m. 

in diameter. Low, sandy, thickly covered with trees. io°o6's., I52°23'w. British. 
Votia, low island, Fiji. 17° 33' 30" S., 177° 26' 20" E.O 
Vua, islet in the Mato passage, Great South reef of New Caledonia. 
Vulan, New Guinea region. 3° 57' s., 132° 41' E. 
Vulcan, a volcanic cone 12 m. in circumference, clothed with vegetation to a height 

of 3000 ft.; above that barren. Crater emits smoke. 4° 10' S., 145° 02' E. 
Vulelua, on northeast coast of Guadalcanar, Solomon islands. 9°29'i5"s., i6o°28'e. II. 
Vuna, a common name of Taviuni, Fiji. 

Vuro, islet on the northeast point of Ono, Fiji; 270 ft. high; uninhabited. 
Vuro lailai (Little Vuro), a rock 90 ft. high on the reef between Ono and Vuro. 

Wabuda, at the mouth of Fly river. New Guinea. 8° 23' S., 143° 45' E. 

Wagipa, islet southeast from Dauila, D'Entrecasteaux group. 9° 32' S., 150° 21' E. 

Waia, in the Yasawa group, Fiji; 3 m. in diameter; 1641 ft. high. North extreme 

^17° 16' S., 177° 05' E. 
Waia lailai (Little Waia); 2X1.5 m. North point is in 17° 19' 40" s., 177° 06' E. 
Waia lailai thake, Fiji, in the Yasawa group; 1X0.5 m., 555 ft. high, inhabited. 

17° 22' 20" vS., 177° 06' 10" E. Observatory Hill. 
Waiben or Thursday, in Torres strait. 10° 36' S., 142° 12' E. A port of call for steamers 

between Singapore and Brisbane; in telegraphic connection with the latter. 
Waier or Wyer, within the same reef with Mer and Dauer, in Torres strait. 9° 54' S., 

144° 02' E. 
Waigiu, 80X20 m., rugged and hilly; Papuan, with wild tribes in the interior. East 

end is in 0° 20' s., 131° 20' E. Subject to the Sultan of Tidore. 
Waiheke, in Auckland harbor, Hauraki gulf. New Zealand. 
Waihu, an old chart name for Rapanui or Easter island. 
Waikatu, the largest of the St. Andrew group, Admiralty islands. Inhabitants seem 

to be a superior race. 
Waikawa, Te Houra or Portland, in Hawke bay. New Zealand. 
Wailagilala, low islet of sand and coral in the Lau group, Fiji; 9X3 cables, at the 

northeast corner of a lagoon 9 m. in circumference. Also Weilangilala. 

Waima, see Uen, New Caledonia. 

[249] 



i66 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Wainwright, see Akamaru, islet of Mangareva. 22,. 

Wakaia or Wakaya, lo m. east from Ovalau, Fiji; 4X1-5 ni., 595 ft. high. North 
point is in 17° 35' 16" S., 179° 02' E. 

Wake was discovered in 1796 from the Prince William Henry ^ but it is probably the 
San Francisco of Mendana; 20-25 m. long, 8 ft. high. When I saw it from the 
masthead of the ship Oracle., in 1865, it was covered with a low and sparse vege- 
tation. 19° 15' N., 166° 30' E. Annexed by the United States in July, 1898. 

Waldron, a small island in the Hudson group, near Viti levu, Fiji. 17° 51' s., 
177° 09' 30" E.O Named for Purser R. R. Waldron of the Wilkes Expedition. 

Walibi, islet of Panatinani, Louisiade archipelago; 140 ft. high, grassy. 

Walker, in the Hudson group, Fiji. 17° 34' 30" S., 177° 03' 10" E.O Named for 
Lieutenant W. M. Walker of the Wilkes Expedition. 

Walker, discovered b}? Captain Walker in 1814. 3° 34' N., 149° 15' w. Existence doubtful. 

Wallis (Red), in Torres strait. 10° 50' s., 142° 02' E. 

Wallis (Woody), in Torres strait. 10° 52' S., 142° 02' E. 

Wallis, islet of Port Praslin, New Ireland. 4° 48' S., 152° 47' E. 

Wallis, see Uvea. 18. 

Walo, islet north of Port Stanley, on the coast of Malekula, New Hebrides. 

Walpole, Loyalty islands, was discovered November 17, 1794, by Captain Butler of 
the Walpole. 22° 38' 07" s., 168° 56' 45" E. 

Wanim or Grass, in the Louisiade archipelago; 1.5 m. N-s., 390 ft. high. 

Waremata or East, in the Bonvouloir group, Louisiade archipelago, is 5CX) ft. high, 
densely wooded. 10° 26' s., 152° 03' E. 

Wanawana, an extensive, low, densely wooded island off the west side of New Georgia 
( Marovo), Solomon islands. 8° 12' S., 157° 07' E. 

Waratap, on the east side of South bay of Fate, New Hebrides. 

Wari or Teste, between the Louisiades and New Guinea: called Teste by D'Urville; 
2.5 m. E-w., 0.2 m. wide; inhabited by uncouth natives who wear human jaw bones 
as armlets. 10° 57' 55" S., 151° 03' 20" E. 9. 

Wariura, 8° 22' s., 143° 24' E. 

Warren Hastings, see Pulo Mariere, Caroline islands. 4° 20' N., 132° 28' E. 

Warrior, see Tut on the south coast of New Guinea. 

Wasau =; Faiva, islet of Uea, Loyalty islands. 

Washington, New York or Prospect, was discovered by Captain Fanning in 1798; 
3.2 X I -2 m., 10 ft. above the sea ; covered with coconut and other trees. No lagoon, 
but a fresh water pond. 4° 41' 35" n., 160° 15' 37" w. (Fig. 12.) 

Washington, see Huahuna, Marquesas islands. 

Wasima, 175 ft. high, .southeast from Dituna point, southeast coast of New Guinea. 

Wasp, islet near Laj^ard islands on the north coast of New Guinea. 

Wateeoo = Atiu, Hervey islands. 

Waterlandt, of Schouten and Lemaire, is Manihi of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

Watmough, a low island off Viti levu, Fiji. 17° 45' 50" S., 177° 20' 40" E.O 

Watson, islet off Blanche harbor. Mono, Solomon islands. 

Watts, see Ailuk of the Marshall islands. 6. 

Watts, see Kuriva in the Engineer group, Louisiade archipelago. 

[250] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



167 



Wavi ai, see Vavi ai, Woodlark or Murua. 

Wea or Emery, of the Atana islands, northwes); from Rotuma. 

Webb, 2-3 islets covered with coconut trees, near Roux islands, New Guinea. 

Also called Ulawabai. 
Wedge, islet of Stewart island, New Zealand. 
Wedge = Vehi, on the southeast coast of New Guinea. 
Wednesday, in Torres strait. 10° 32' S., 142° 18' E. 
Weeks was seen by Captain Gelett, of the Morning Star^ in 24° 04' N., 154° 02' E., 

December 17, 1864. It had been previously reported. About 5 m. long, densely 

wooded with trees and shrubs ; a knoll in the centre rising 200 ft. above the sea. 

Uncertain on charts. 
Weitoa or O'Neill, on the southeast coast of New Guinea; nearly 2 m. NW-SE., and 

580 ft. high. 10° 41' S., 150° 56' E. 
Welle, see Raputata of 

the D'Entrecasteaux 

group. 9. 
Wellesley, group in the 

Gulf of Carpentaria, 

of which Mornington 

is the largest. The 

others are : Rocky, 

Pisonia, Beautiful, 

Forsyth, Bentinck, 

Allen, Sweers and 

Fowler. 
Wellington, see Alapawa, 

New Zealand. 
Wellington, see Mokil of 

Caroline islands. 5. 
Wenman, of the Galapagos, the fragment of a volcano now 830 ft. high. 
West, islet of Kandavu, Fiji; 25 ft. high. 

West, islet of Niuatobutabu, Tongan islands ; 70 ft. high, 0.7 m. in diameter. 
West, in Torres strait. 10° 33' 45" S., 150° 48' 25" E. 
West, islet south side of Umboi, Bismarck archipelago; 150 ft. high. 
West, islet off Cape Queen Charlotte, west side of New Hanover; inhabited. 2° 26' s., 

149° 55' K. 
West Danger, of the Marshall islands. 

Western, a group of the Admiralty islands. 2° 12' S., 148° 00' 40" E. lO. 
Whakari or White, in the Bay of Plenty, New Zealand. 

Whale (La Baleine), see Isenay of the Pleiades group. Loyalty islands. 13. 
White, see Whakari, New Zealand. 

Whitsunday, see Nganati of the Paumotu archipelago. 2,\. 
Whitsunday, see Nukutavake. 

Whitsunday, on the Australian coast. 20° 15' S., 149° 02' E. 
Whitsuntide, see Arag, New Hebrides. 

[251] 




FIG. 12. WASHINGTON ISLAND. 



r68 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Whittle, Fiji. i8° 50' 30" s., 178° 25' 30" e.O 

Whytohee, see Napuka of the Pauinotu archipelago, ai. 

W'iak, see Schouten. 

Wiakow, on the north part of the outer ring of Egum atoll, Trobriand group. 
9 20 30 s., 151 58 E. 

Wild, of the Admiralty group; 0.7 m. long. Named for J. J. Wild, artist on the 
Challenger. 1° 55' 10" S., 146° 40' 56" E. 

Willaumez, now ascertained to be a part of New Britain. Named for one of the officers 
of D'Entrecasteaux, Ensign on the Recherche. 

William IV., see Ant of the Andema group, Caroline islands. 

Williams, one of the Tiri islands off Vanua levu, Fiji. 16° 24'45"s., 179° 06' 22" E.O 

Wilson, islet off Blanche harbor of Mono island, Solomon islands. 

Wilson, see Ifalik, Caroline islands. 3. 

Wilson, a name of the Duff islands, so called because seen by Captain Wilson, Sep- 
tember, 1797. 

Wilson, see Manihi of the Paumotu archipelago. VI. 

Wittgenstein, see Fakarawa of Paumotu archipelago. So named by Bellingshausen. 31. 

Woahoo = Oahu, Hawaiian islands. Old English name found on charts with Owhyhee. 

Wolea or Ulie, Caroline islands, was discovered by Captain Wilson in the Duff in 
1793. Wooded and inhabited atoll 0.7 m. in diameter, with 22 islets. North end 
7° 23' 30" N., 143° 57' E. 3. 

WoleS, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 

Wolkonski, see Takurea of the Paumotu archipelago. 31. 

Woodlark, see Murua, Kiriwina group. 

Woodlc, see Kuria of the Gilbert islands. 

Woody, opposite Entrance island in Torres strait. 10° 40' s., 142° 20' E. 

Woody, islet in Arembo bay, on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 

Woody, see Panaman of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Wostok, a form of Vostok. 

Wotja, the westernmost islet of Odia atoll, Marshall islands. There is much con- 
fusion with a similar name in the Romanzow atoll. 

Wotje, Odia or Romanzow, of the Marshall islands, extends 29 m. K-w., with a width 
from 6-12 m. There are 65 islets on the reef. Christmas harbor, of Kotzebue, is 

O o' " O /'/ ft ^ ^ 

in 9 28 09 N., 170 16 05 E. 0. 
WottO, of the Marshall islands, was discovered by Captain Shanz of the Russian 

navy. It is 18 m. long and 4-12 m. wide. 10° 05' n., 166° 04' E.© 
Wrack, in the Bismarck archipelago. 3° 15' s., 154° 31' E. 
Wuli or High, on the northwest coast of Roua, Louisiade archipelago; 1.4 m. E-w., 

300 ft. high; inhabited and cultivated. 11° 42' S., 154° 02' E. 
Wyer, a form of Waier, Torres strait. 

Wytoohee, see Napuka, Paumotu archipelago. Disappointment islands of Byron. 
Yaba, islet in Banare bay, on the northwest coast of New Caledonia. 
Yabwat, see Jabwat, Marshall islands. 
Yaga, of the Kiriwina islands. 

Yakimoan, islet northwest from Panawiua, Louisiade archipelago, 

[252] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 169 

Yalangalala, uninhabited islet, Fiji. 16° 49' 30" s., 180° 57' 20" E.O 

Yambtl, uninhabited island, 170 ft. high near Vuro, off Kandavu, Fiji. 

Yamiga, islet on the southwest coast of New Guinea. 

Yande, 6 m. west from PaabS. on the northwest coast of New Caledonia; 1070 ft. high, 

inhabited and well cultivated. 
Yandtia, high, inhabited island, 12 m. in circumference; Loto peak, 875 ft. high, is 

in 16° 49' s., 178° 16' E. 
Yanguel, see Kayangle of the Pelew islands. 

Yanganga, islet 887 ft. high on the north coast of Vanua levu, Fiji. 
Yaniba, largest of the group on the north side of the outer ring of Egum atoll; 14 

islets, the highest 150 ft. Population 200. 9° 20' 30" S., 151° 55' E. 
Yanutha lailai and Yanutha levu, two islets between Ovalau and Moturiki, Fiji. 
Yanutha loa, off the west coast of Vanua nibalavu, Fiji; 160 ft. high. 
Yanuya, inhabited island of the Manianutha i thake group, Fiji. 
Yanu yanu eloma, grassy islet 140 ft. high on the Kandavu reef, Fiji. 
Yanu yanu sau, islet 80 ft. high on the reef of Kandavu, Fiji. 
Yap or Ouap, of the Caroline islands, is on a reef 35X5 ni. A volcanic peak 1170 ft. 

high. The north islet is in 9° 37' n., 138° 08' E. Population 8000, Malay with slight 

Polynesian admixture. The stone money of the group consists of wheels of aragon- 

ite from 6 in. to 12 ft. in diameter. See photograph in The Caroline Islands, by 

F. W. Christian, 1899, p. 236. 
Yaroua, islet of Tuvutha, Lau group, Fiji. 
Yarru, on the New Guinea coast. 9° 07' s., 143° 12' E. 

Yaruman, islet 285 ft. high, northeast from Pana numara, Louisiade archipelago. 
Yasau-i-lau, near Yasawa, Fiji ; 0.5 m. long, 437 ft. high. i6°5i'4o"s., i77°26'4o"e.© 
Yasawa group, Fiji, consists of Timboor, Kiusick, Yasawa, Asawa, Ovawa, Androna, 

Yasawailau, Otovawa, Nansia, Nangati, Matathoni levu, Yangati, Naviti, Eld, Fox, 

Agate, Sinclair, Waia, Waialailai, Waia lailai thake, Biwa, Knox, Ombi, Baldwin, 

Davis, Totten, Lewin, Vomo. 
Yasawa, inhabited island 8X2 m., 781 ft. high, in the group to which it gives name. 

The north point is in 16° 43' s., 177° 30' 05" E. 14. 
Yaukuve or May, islet of Ono, Fiji; 400 ft. high. 
Yaukuve lailai, near by, is 200 ft. high. 
Yavurimba, uninhabited islet of Manianutha ira group, Fiji. 
Yavutha, islet 240 ft. high, of the Angasa group, Fiji. 
Yeccla, islet of the Carteret group. Bismarck archipelago. 
Yeharnu, islet of the Carteret group. 

Yeina, north from Tagula, Louisiade archipelago. 11° 20' S., 153° 28' E. 
Yendua, see Yandua, Fiji. 

Yengiebane, islet near Paaba on the northwest coast of New Caledonia. 
Yeuoe, islet in Banare bay on the northwest coast of New Caledonia. 
Yermaloff, of Bellingshausen, is Taenga of the Paumotu archipelago, ai. 
York, a group in Torres strait, 9° 44' S., 143° 25' E. This group is shown on the 

Surveyor-General's fine map of Queensland and British New Guinea, 1896, but I 

have been unable to find any description. 

[253] 



170 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

York, Duke of, an interesting group, of volcanic origin, between New Ireland and 

New Britain in St. George channel. 
York, Duke of, see Atafu of the Union group. 17. Wallis gave this name to Eimeo, 

Society islands. 
Young, on the Australian coast. 12° 07' S., 143° 12' E. 
YOVO, islet of the Carteret group, Bismarck archipelago. 
Yowl, a group of 16 low islands on the west coast of New Guinea. o°25'n., 131° 00' E. 

Papuan. Group surrounded by a coral reef 60 m. in circumference. This belongs 

to the Moluccas and is not properly included in our region. 
Ysabel or Bogotu, the Camba of Mendana, Solomon islands. The full name was 

Santa Ysabel de la Estrella; 125 m. NW-SE. by 25 m., 3900 ft. high. The Mela- 

nesian mission has several stations here. The northeast point is in 7° 18' S., 

158° 08' E. 
Ythata, high, inhabited island north from Vaturera, Fiji; 2.5 m. E-w., i m. N-s. East 

point is in 17° 17' s., 179° 34' 30" E. 
Yule, see Roro. 

Zarpane is a name of Rota of the Marianas. 

^et, islet off the north end of Loof, Hermit group. 8. 

i^eune, a small group on the southeast coast of Bougainville, Solomon islands. 

6° 17' s., 155° 48' E. 
^ille, islet in Dampier strait. 

ZoUer, off the southwest end of Bouka, Solomon islands. 5° 25' S., 154° 32' E. 
ijuckerhut, of the Admiralty group. 2° 24' S., 146° 49' E. 

[254] 



ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA. 



Asie, Solomon islands. All the islets of the Solomon islands and of Ontong Java in 
this supplementary list were taken into British jurisdidlion by treaty with Germany 
as mentioned under Solomon islands. 

Benana, Solomon islands. 

Dauahaida or Marokau, of the Paumotu archipelago. 

Engaulii, islet of Ontong Java. 

False, Solomon islands. 

Grampus islands are attributed to Captain Meares, April 4, 1788, in 25° 15' N., 146° E. 
Two islands close together, another southwest from these. Perhaps the Sebastian 
lyopez of the Spanish charts. 

Lehuanu, islet of Ontong Java. 

Loto, Solomon islands. 

Malabrigos or Margaret, a group of three islands discovered by Captain Magee in 1773, 
in 27° 20' N., 145° 45' E. Perhaps the Malabrigos (bad shelter) of Torres in 1543, 
but the identification is uncertain. 

Marakau = Marokau, of the Paumotu archipelago. 

Margaret, see Malabrigos above. 

Mongava, a name of Rennel, Solomon islands. 

Mongiki, a name of Bellona, Solomon islands. 

Nee, islet of Ontong Java. 

Niellei, Solomon islands. 

Nieue = Niiie or Savage. The JurisdiAion of Her Britannic Majesty's High Com- 
missioner's Court for the Western Pacific was extended to Niiie October 19, 1899. 

Nufahana, Solomon islands. 

Nusakoa, Solomon islands. 

Nusave, Solomon islands. 

Oikuo, islet of Ontong Java. 

Oku, islet of Ontong Java. 

Palav, islet of Ontong Java. 

Piedu, Solomon islands. 

Porporang, Solomon islands. 

Kalan, p. 82, should be Kalau. 
Leuneuwa, p. 90, should be Leueneuwa. 
Oua raha, p. 126, should be Owa raha. 

[255] <'7'> 



DIVISION OF THE PACIFIC AMONG THE NATIONS. 



The present ownership of the islands of the Pacific Ocean, whether by outright 
annexation, purchase or protedlorate, is as follows : 

Great Britain. — Australia, Tasmania, islands of Torres strait, S. E. New Guinea, Lou- 
isiade archipelago, Solomon islands (except northwest corner), Santa Cruz, Lord 
Howe, Norfolk, Kermadec, Chatham, New Zealand, Fiji, Ellice, Gilbert, PhcEnix, 
Union, Tonga, Niiie, Line islands, Hervey (Cook), Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie 
and Oeno of the Paumotu archipelago. 

Germany. — N. E. New Guinea, Bismarck archipelago, N. W. Solomon islands, Pelew, 
Marianas (except Guam), Caroline archipelago, Marshall islands and Western 
Samoa. 

France. — New Caledonia, Uvea, Society islands, Paumotu archipelago (except islands 
in the southeast extreme), and Marquesas islands. 

The New Hebrides are jointly watched or protec^led by Great Britain and France. 

United States. — Hawaiian group. Wake, Guam and Eastern Samoan islands. 

Holland. — Western New Guinea. 

fapan. — Bonin and Marcus islands. 

Equador. — Galapagos group. 

Chile. — Rapanui or Easter island, Juan Fernandez group, and St. Felix islands. 
(.72) [256] 

Issued December, igoo. 



















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DU 
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Brigham, William Tufts 
An index to the isl 
of the Pacific Ocean 



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CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POC 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRA