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Wm. H. Allen & Co., Frmterv, 13, Waterloo Place, Pall Mall, S.W. 


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^ All eyes in the East, as in the West, have long 
expected the struggle for supremacy between 
England and Eussia. That struggle, if for a 
season deferred, still appears to be inevitable. ^ 

Every act in the great drama of war between 
Eussia and Turkey has most powerfully affected 
the nations of Central Asia and agitated our 
north-west frontier in India. While in our< 
peaceable and well-ordered possessions the call to 
arms against the Czar has excited the utmost 

The Seikh and the Gourka, the fiercest soldiers < 
in Asia, to whom the din of battle is as the 
breath of their nostrils, vie in ardour with the Mus- 
sulman, who burns to avenge the wrongs of the 
Head of his faith. Even the Hindost^nee, v 
forgetting his caste restraints and prejudices, 
longs to strike a blow for those whose salt he 


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and his fathers have eaten in contentment and 

>. In Northern India, the Punjaub and the border 
lands beyond, we have an inexhaustible field for 
recruiting men of fine physique whose trade is 
war, and accustomed to arms from childhood. 

^ *' There never was put forward a greater fallacy 
or an error more likely to be mischievous, than, 
that the Turkish question was of no importance 
in an Indian point of view." The grand problem 
now in course of solution in Turkey must affect 
in its results, whatever they may be, in the most 
immediate and powerful manner, our prestige and 
prosperity in India. Even during the Crimean 
campaign, the varying fortunes of the field 
elicited either the apprehension or the applause 
of the nations of the East, from the shepherd 
in his solitude to the warrior chief in his strong- 
hold, while thousands of Moolahs prayed Allah 
to bless the arms of the " Sooltan of Room." 

When the fall of Sebastopol was announced 
at Dera Ismael Khan, on the Upper Indus, the 
news was received with the greatest enthusiasm 
by all classes. The bazaars of the city were 
brilliantly illuminated, every wealthy shopkeeper 
displaying from 1,000 to 1,200 lamps. 
^ The native soldiers of India have not only 
fought the battles of the Empire in Persia, China 


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and Abyssinia, but the Sepoy of Bengal and 
Madras crossed bayonets with honour with the 
French in the Mauritius, while their brethren of 
Bombay were sent under Sir David Baird to en- 
counter the same gallant enemy in Egypt, by Lord 
Wellesley, a Governor-General of India whose 
eagle-eyed and bold conceptions were at the time 
as much decried and cavilled at by lesser men as 
now we see decried and maligned the manly and 
good old English policy of the present Govern- 
ment in upholding the honour of the country 
and in protecting the rights of nations confirmed 
by treaties. 

The policy of the Empire at this moment is 
resisted even by those whose experience and know- 
ledge might have taught them that in the gravest 
crises of our time loyalty to the throne and love 
of country would be best evinced by a noble 
forbearance, if not a generous support, to Her 
Majesty's servants under such momentous circum- 

It is in vain to say India is not threatened, that 
the Suez Canal is safe. The canal — glorious work 
as it is — can be easily injured, or even for a time 
destroyed. We want an alternative route to 
India, and, after having ignored for years the 
warnings of our leading statesmen and soldiers, 
are we to be told from Vienna that the best 


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alternative route is not only threatened but that if 
llussia gets possession of "Batoum, which, in 
relation to the Upper Euphrates valley forms the 
first stage firom a political, military and com- 
mercial point of view down to Mesopotamia and 
the Persian Gulf,"* the command of the best 
route to our Indian possessions would be in the 
hands of our rival for empire in the East ? 
> It is certain if we decline to connect the Medi- 
terranean with the Persian Gulf, Russia will con- 
nect the Black Sea with the Persian Gulf. The 
nation desires peace, but the strong man must be 
armed to hold his goods in peace ! 

Is it too much to say that had the Persian Gulf 
been united with a port on the Mediterranean by 
the Euphrates Railway the Russo-Turkish war 
would not have occurred? When peace is 
restored, it is to be hoped that our Government 
will come to an agreement with the Porte as to the 
Euphrates Railway on the basis recommended by 
the Select Committee of the House of Commons, 
presided over by Sir Stafford Northcote in 1872, 
and for the Euphrates telegraph, terms for which 
were arranged with Her Majesty's Government 
in 1857. The Porte however preferred a line 
through Asia Minor. 

I cannot refrain from again calling attention 

* Vienna Correspondent of Times, 8th May, 1878. 


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to the opinion of the Austrian War Minister, who, 
after the battle of Sadowa, re-organised the army 
and brought it to its present state of eflficiency. 

So long ago as 1858 Field-Marshal-Lieutenant ^ 
Baron Kuhn von Kuhnenfeld predicted that 
Kussia would in future probably try to satisfy 
her craving for an open sea-board by operating 
through Asia. 

' ** She will not," says this distinguished 
authority, " reach the shores of the Persian Gulf 
in one stride, or by means of one great war. But 
taking advantage of continental complications, 
when the attention and energy of European 
States are engaged in contests more nearly con- 
cerning them, she will endeavour to reach the 
Persian Gulf step by step, by annexing separate 
districts of Armenia 

* " Whatever the commercial value of the Suez 
Canal to Central Europe, there is no doubt that 
it is secondary in importance to the Euphrates 
Kailway, which affords tiie only means of stem- 
ming Kussian advances in Central Asia, and 
which directly covers the Suez Canal/ "♦ 

At this moment when great events in Europe 
are being watched by our distant fellow-subjects 
in India and by the tribes and nations which 

♦ Vide Appendix E. 368. 


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viii PREFACE. 

dwell between us; when the first Mahomedan 
power in the world is held in the deadly grasp of 
the Czar; when England, this time not "the 
unready" is slowly but resolutely putting her 
native legions in motion, and their dusky brothers 
in India are hurrying to arms at the call of their 
common sovereign ; at this moment some account 
of the past and present history of India and Her 
Neighbours may not be deemed inopportune. 

Among the more important considerations 
presented to the reader of this volume, the 
following appear to merit special remark — 

> That England is not only a great Eastern 
Power, but that she possesses more Mahomedan 
subjects than the Sultan and the Shah to- 
gether; — 

y That the standing armies of the feudatory 
princes of India number over 300,000 men with 
more than 6,000 guns ; — 

And that it is urgent to have improved and 
additional means of communication between 
England and India. 

In order further to interest the general reader 
I have made prominent as central figures, the 
heroes and heroines of Indian history, sur- 
rounded by the dramatic incidents of their 
careers, leaving in shadow the minor actors, and 


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passing over altogether, or but briefly alluding to, 
events of secondary importance ; giving, in short, 
a series of word-pictures of the more remarkable 
characters, occurrences, and places. 

I have to thank kind friends for valuable 
advice and assistance, and to Mr. Edwyn Sandys 
Dawes I am specially indebted for that which 
relates to commerce and finance. 

W. P. A. 


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Botrndariee — ^Extent — Himalaya Bange and Minor Hills — ^Valleys — 

Principal EiTers and Sources— Ports 1 



Seasons in Hills and Plains 8 



Flora and Fauna • 11 



Precious Stones — Coal — Iron — Mineral Oil — Tin . . . .15 



Population — Government — Eaces — Languages — Eelinons — Ma- 
homedanism — Brahminism — Budism — ^Parsees— Eeugion of the 
Seiks 17 


THE PEOPLE — continued. 

Casto — Character of the People — Hindoos — Mahomedans, &c. . 29 



Complication of early Indian History — ^Alexander's Invasion of the 
PuDJaub, B.C. 3z7-rFir8t Authentic Information — Commence- 
ment of Continuous History, A.D. 1000— Eule of Eajpoot 
Prii^^jes — First Maliomedan Invasion by Mahmoud of Ghuzni — 
189 Years after his Death his Dynasty was exterminated by 
Mahmoud, of Ghor 35 



Hindoo Princes resolve to throw off Mussulman yoke— Mahomed of 
Ghor invades India and is defeated— Pithowra king of Delhi 


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carries off the daughter of Jye-Chund Bay of Canonje— Ma- 
homed Ghor invades India again — Takes Delhi and Canouje— 
Death of their Xmm and mial oyerthrow of Eajpoots— Ma- 
homed returns to Ghozni — ^Made nine Expeditions to India- 
Was succeeded by the Slave Kings for 81 years— Genghis £!han, 
with his Scythian and Tartar hordes — St. Loais and his Crusade 
— Timour the Lame — Triumphs over Bajazet — ^Eetums to Sa- 
marcand laden with spoil — ^His Death 44 



Baber founder of Mogul dynasty — Baber's Eirploits and Character 
— Hoomayoon — Contemporary Events and Characters — ^Flodden 
Field— Knights of St. John and Solyman — Luther — Francis the 
First and Sayard— Charles V. and Titian — Michael Angelo— 
Torquato Tasso— Henry VIII. — ^Pope Leo— Akbar the Great — 
His rare Personal QuaHties and Enlightened Policy: — His reign 
coincides with that of Elizabeth — His death — Memory, how 
revered-— Jehangire — ^The beautiM Noor Mahal — Shah Jehan 
—Built the Taj Mahal and adorned Delhi — ^Aurungzebe a bad 
man but a good Sovereign — What he did and how he died — 
Anarchy — Shah Ahun I. — Concessions to Mahrattas — Sivajee — 
Peishwa — ^Nadir Shah — Massacre at Delhi— Betires laden with 
spoil — Peacock Throne— Koh-i-noor — ^Nadir murders his son 
and is himself assassinated— Shah Alara II. rescued by Lord 
Lake in 1803— The last Great Mogul dies a convict in a remote 
province 49 



Physical Features — Ancient Splendour of Madura and Beejanuggur 
— WeU-being of the People — First Invasion by Alia the San- 
guinary — ^Arabs — ^Elingdoms of the Deccan — Mahomedan Kings 
of Beejapore, Ahmednug^ur, Gk)lconda and Baidar league 
against great Hindoo Elingaom of Beejanuggur — Site of Ma(&as 
granted to England in 1640 — ^Mysore — Akbar — Beautiful Queen 
of Gnrrah — Aurungzebe — ^Rise of Mahrattas — Sivajee— -iSack 
of Surat — ^Baja of Satara — Nizam-ul-Mulk founder of Hydra- 
bad dynasty— The Peishwas — Tara Bhye— Hyder A li— First 
Mysore War — Sur Eyre Coote— Second Mysore Wai^-Tippoo 
Saib— Third Mysore War— Fourth Mysore Wa^— Fall of 
Seringapatam and Death of Tippoo — Hindoo Dynasty restored 
—The last of the Peishwas — His odious administration and 
Deposition — His adopted son the Nana Sahib, of Bithoor . 62 



Princess of Scinde— Beautiful Sultana Eezia of Delhi — Hindoo 

Queen of Gurrah— A Sultana Eegent— Mother of Sivajee . 79 


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Noonnahal, Consort of Shah Jehajosire — Aijamund 6ana (of the 

Taj), Consort of Shah Jehan — The Emperor's Daughters . 89 


THE KEMABKABLB WOMEN OF ivm^— continued. 

Ahalja Bhye the Good, Queen of Indore— Tulsee Bhye the Cruel, 

Kegent of Indore 96 



Begum Sumroo of Sirdhanah — ^Walter Reinhart — Chief Officers — 
Colonel le Vaisseau — George Thoman, a common sailor, after- 
. wards a Rajah — Begum's Court — Adopted Son, Dyce-Sombre— 
Domestic Chaplain, Father Julius Csesar , . • . . 101 



Lutchmee Bhye, the Rebel Queen of Jhansi — Her wrongs — Her 

revenge and heroic death 110 



Kudsia Begum of Bhopal — Sekunder Begum, her great qualities — 

Begum Shah Jehan, the present Ruler 113 



Rivalry of Portuguese, Dutch, French and Eufflish in the East — 
First English ship — First factonr, Surat— The transfer of the 
Island of Bombay from Charles II., the dowry of his Queen to 
the East India Company in 1668 — Gradual spread of English 
rule over the provinces which Sivajee and the Peishwas had 
wrested from tne Moguls and minor sovereigns of the Deccan 
— ^Mahableshwar — ^Poona — Oomrawuttee — Goa. . . .118 



War with the French-^live — Coote — Dupleix — Lab»urdonnais— 
Bussy — Nawab of Camatic — Madras — ^Arcot, heroic defence of 
— ^Vellore, mutiny of— Gillespie and the 19th Dragoons — Ootaca- 
mund — Tinnevelley — Pooree — Juggemath — ^ngoon — Moul- 
mein 126 

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Job Charnock — ^Prince Azim — ^Emperor Ferokshere — Hamilton — 
Mahratta ditch — ^Aliverdi Khan — Suraj-ud-doula — ^Fort William 
— Black Hole — Calcutta — Ho wrah — ^JBarrackwore — Serampore 
— Plassy, Battle of— Clive^Meer Jaffier— -Moorshedabad — 
Patna— Benares 135 



Mahrattas — Tragical occurrences — Alameire II. — ^Vazir Gazi-ud- 
deen — Shah Alam 11. — Battles of Buxar, Patna and Guya — 
Camac and Munro— M. Law — ^Allahabad— Cawnpore— Luck- 
now — Oude — ^Agra 145 



Shah Alam 11. — ^Viceroy of Oude— Meer Cossim — Sumroo— Mah- 
rattas— -Gt>lam Kadir — Scindia — Lord Lake — ^Bahadour Shah- 
Delhi and its vicissitudes — The Xoh-i-noor and the Peacock 
Throne — ^Mahdajee Scindia — Daulat Rao Scindia — Holkar— 
Ochterlonv — Alarm in the Palace-^Mutineers — ^The Xing, the 
Captain or the Guard, and the Physician — ^Willoughby fires the 
Arsenal — Siege — Capture — Englishmen dine in Palace of 
Mogul — Hodson at Hoomayoon's tomb— Surrender of Xing 
and Princes — Grand reception to Prince of Wales — ^Proclama- 
tion of Empress 153 



P&neeput — Meerut — Simla— Umritsur — ^Lahore — Peshawur — Mool- 
tan — Sukkur, Bukker and Roree— Shikarpore— Jacobabad— 
Dadur— Hyderabad — ^Kurrachee 163 





Clive — Governor of Bengal — Warren Hastinss, 1st Govemor- 
Greneral — ^Lord Comwallis— Lord Tei£;nmouth — ^Lord Wellesley 
— ^Lord Minto— Lord Hastings — Lord Amherst — Lord William 
Bentinck — Lord Auckland— 3iOrd Ellenborough— Lord Hard- 
inge— Lord Dalhousie^Lord Canning, 1st Viceroy — Lord 
E^^ — Lord Lawrence — ^Lord Mayo — ^Lord NorthbrooK — ^Lord 
Lytton "" 


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Oodeypore — Je3rpore — JoudIipore-7Desert States .... 197 


Alwar — Xishengarli — Dholpore — Bhurtpore — Tonk — Kotah — 
Keraolee— Political Eelations 213 



Khyrpor^— Bhawulpore — Cashmere — Punjab Hill States . .218 



Putiala — Jkend— Nabha— Faredkhot — ^Maler Eotk — Eampore • 222 


Bbopal — Bundelkbund — Gwalior — Mahrattas — Indore— Dar and 

JDewas . 225 



Baroda — Kolapore — Sawant-Wari — Jinjiri — Cntoh — Xatiawur — 

Pahlanpore — Mabi Xanta—- Eewa Eanta 232 



Hyderabad — Mysore — Cochin — Travancore — Padukatta — Petty 

Hill Chiefs— Standing Armies of Native States . . .238 



Portogaese— Dutch*— Danish-^French 252 


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Cotton-— Effects of Civil War in' America — Cotton Manufacture 

revived in a new form in India 2C6 


coUMBBCB 07 INDIA — continued. 

Rice — Jute — Cereals — Seeds — Tea — Sugar — Opium — Coffee- 
Indigo — Saltpetre — Timber — ^Tobacco— Agriculture— Primitive 
method of Natives —European Planters 272 



Roads — Railways — Telegraphs 288 



Ancient Routes of Commerce— Shipping — The Suez Canal — The 

Euphrates Railway — Harbours 293 



Revenue — Land Tax — Opium Tax — Salt Tax, Customs, &c. — ^Indian 

Budget — Lord Nortnbrook on Famines — Depreciation of Silver 301 



Beloochistan — Afghanistan — Persia — Turkistan — Russia — How to 

check her advance towards India 310 


OUB NBtQHBOUBS — cofUinued. 
Tibet— Nepaul—Sikkim— Bhutan— Burmah—Siam . . . .331 


OUB NBIGHBOUBS — continued, 

Malay Peninsula — Singapore — Java — Sumatra — Borneo — Spice 

Islands— New Guinea 338 


OUB NBIGHBOUBS— eonc/lMf0(^. 

Muscat — Zanzibar — Ceylon 344 


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British Bule in India^Origin and Progress 


. 118—178 

„ „ Bengal Presidency . 

. 136—144 

„ „ Bombay . • . • 

. 111—126 

M „ Madras .... 

. 126—184 

„ „ N.W. Provinces 

. 145—176 

„ „ N.W. Provinces, Punjab anc 

Scinde • • 

. 163—176 

Climate and Seasons of India .... 

8— 10 

Commerce of India 

. 266—287 

Communications, External 

, 293—800 

„ Internal 

. 288—292 

Deccan, The . * • 

62— 78 

Early History of India 

35— 48 

Euphrates and Indus Route . • ^ . . 


European Settlements (Foreign) in India • 

. 252—265 

Fauna and Flora of India 

11— 14 

Feudatory Native States of India . . . . 


„ „ „ Central 


„ „ Cis-Sutlej • 


n „ .) Indus and Tributaries . 



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-Feudatory Native States of Jats and Minor States 
y, n f» Rajpootana. 

n ,) ,, Southern 

„ „ „ Western 

Finance of India 

Governors-General of India from Plassey, 1767, to the 
Proclamation of the Queen as Empress of 
India, 1877 

Jungle, Life in the 

Minerals of India 

Mogul or Tartar Dynasty of India .... 

Our Neighbours • 

People of India • . 

Physical Features of India .' 


Treaties between the Queen of Great Britain and the 
Nizam of Hyderabad • . . • 

Women of India, Remarkable 




855— ai^9 
15— 16 
49— 61 


17— 34 

1— 7 




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Boundaries — Extent — Himalaya Range and minor Hilla — ^ValleyB — Prin- 
cipal Rivers and Sonroes — Ports. 

Boundaries. — ^India, includes not only the great penin- 
sula stretching southward, like a vast triangle, from the 
Himalayas to Cape Comorin, but also a long strip of 
seaboard on the eastern side of the Bay of Bengal, from 
Chittagong to the tenth parallel of northern latitude. 
The base of this pyramid is formed by the long mountain 
ranges of the Himalayas — ^the "Abode of Snow," an-<; 
swering to the Imaus of Greek geographers— which 
divide all upper India from Turkistan and Tibet, bear- 
ing away south-eastwards from Cashmere to the eastern 
comer of Assam. The natural barrier thus formed 
between India and the outer world, is carried on south- 
wards by the hills which separate the Punjab and Scinde 
from Afghanistan and Beluchistan. From Assam, at the 
eastern end, a like hill-barrier marks off British territory 
from Burmah and Siam. The whole length of India's 
land-boundary is nearly 4,500 miles; the seaboard from 
Kurrachee on the west, to the southernmost point of 
Tenasserim on the east, being about 4,000 miles. 

Extent. — Some idea of the size of our Indian Empire 
may be gathered from the fiEict that Peshawur and Cape 
Comorin are more than 1,800 miles apart, while the dis- 



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2 /•• : :/: •!*: iJifiU im HER NEIGHBOURS. 

tance from Kurrachee to Rangoon is nearly 1,900 miles, 
or nearly thrice the distance of the Land's End from 
John o* Groat's. Even in Southern India, it is 900 miles 
across from Bombay to Point Palmyras on the Orissa 

"^ coast. India, in short, covers an area of more than 
1,500,000 square miles, or as much ground as all Europe, 
without Russia.* Of this area, three-fifths, or more 
than 900,000 square miles, are ruled du^ctly by us : 
the remainder, consisting chiefly of Native States, owning 
in different degrees a certain vassalage to the Paramount 
Power, which has supplanted alike the Mahratta and the 
Mogul. The French and Portuguese stiU retain the 
rights of Sovereignty over limited territories. 

General Physical Features. — The vast and sparsely 
wooded plains watered by the Ganges and the Junma, 
and stretching for many hundred miles from Umballa 
to Rajmahal, show broad tracts of level well-cultivated 
ground, interspersed with sandy waste. In Bengal a 
vast alluvial plain yields an increase elsewhere unknown. 
In parts of the Punjab and Rajpootana, in Central India, 
and Guzerat, the surface of the ground is broken into 
frequent hUls and valleys, more or less wooded. In 
Southern India and the Central Provinces, there are no 
plains of any magnitude, if we except the strip of coast 

^>overlooked by the Eastern and Western Ghauts. Indeed, 
nearly the whole of Southern India, or the Deccan, is a 
rugged table-land, girdled with a chain of hills varying 
in height from 1,500 to 7,000 feet. 

Hills, — Hindustan, or the land of the Hindoos, is, 

* From this reckoning the Island of Ceylon is, of course, omitted, as 
forming politically no part of India in the present day. 


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strictly speaking, the country between the Himalayas and 
the Vindhya Hills, with the Indus for its western and the 
Ganges for its eastern boundary ; the southern half of 
India being more correctly styled the Deccan, or Southern 
Land. The great mountain mass of the Himalayas, somev 
1,500 miles long by 150 broad, is at once the largest 
and loftiest in the world. Its snowy peaks tower with 
solemn majesty from twenty to twenty-nine thousand feet 
above the sea, while the passes across it are often 17,000 
feet high, only a thousand feet below the line of per- 
petual snow — 2,000 feet above the summit of Mont 
Blanc. The glaciers in these mountains far surpass 
in extent those of the Alps. For rugged grandeur*^ 
nothing can approach the higher ranges, while the lower 
and outer, on which stand Simla, Kasaulee, Mussoorie, 
Nainee-Tal with its beautiful lake, Almora, and Dar- 
jeeling, at heights varying from 6,000 to 8,000 feet, 
have the softer beauty of steep hill sides clothed with 
oak and fir, and noble rhododendrons. From some of 
these hill-stations, you may look over a billowing sea of 
hills to the great Snowy Range some fifty or sixty miles 
away, yet in certain seasons seeming quite close at hand. 
In these mountains, with the exception of Kangra, and 
the Dhoon, there are few valleys of any great extent, 
the hills usually rising steeply up from hollows many 
hundred feet, and the villages climbing with difficulty 
up the slopes. From the plains to Simla and other hill 
stations there are good roads, but in the interior of these 
regions the road is usually but a few feet wide, with a 
rocky wall on one side, and a precipice going sheer 
down from the other. Here and there, through a deep 


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narrow gorge or yawning chasm, winds a swift streatn, 
only to be crossed by a hanging bridge of rope, sway- 
ing with every movement, or the trunk of a mighty 
pine. One chann of momitain scenery is wanting here. 
Except in the rainy season, when every dry watercourse 
becomes a torrent, there is a general absence of water^ 
especially in the form of lakes. 

" The advantages of the Neilgherry Hills have'yet to 
be fully utilized for European settlements. The climate, 
configuration, soil and water supply of these hills are all 
&vourable ; and the range is easily accessible. In estab- 
lishing new stations there, however, or in enlarging 
existing stations, it will be well to keep in mind the 
mistakes of plan and the neglect of sanitary precautions 
which have brought so many hiU stations into disrepute, 
and which some years ago, in like maimer, affected the 
reputation of Ootacamund as a place of residence."* 

Valleys. — The Kangra and smaller valleys of the 
Himalayas are of great fertility. In them we see the 
astonishing spectacle of the productions of the temperate 
atnd torrid zoipies growing side by side, the creeping rose 
intertwining its branches with the bamboo, and the wild 
violet and tulip flowering round the roots of the plantain. 
Further in the interior there are inexhaustible forests of 
pine growing in a rich vegetable loam, on which all the 
fruits and vegetables of Europe will thrive in perfection. 
In Kanawur, the vine unpruned, uncultivated, growing 
like a bramble in the hedges, yields a grape unequalled 
in the world. Water power, as we have seen, is not 

* Indian Pablic Opinion. 


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wanting at certain seasons. The wool trade might be 
increased to any extent. At the confluence of certain 
streams gold dust is found. The Kulu valley, in the 
Kangra district of the Punjab, is very rich in minerals, 
one of the most valuable of which is galena or lead 
ore, oftea containing large percentages of silver. 
Still more valuable than gold or silver — ^iron exists in 
the hills i^ extraordinary abundance, though coal 
is wanting. Following the lead of the Government, 
European enterprise has already made great progress in 
the cultivation of the tea plant in the hilly regions of 

Rivers. — From the heart of these mountains spring the 
great rivers of Northern India, the Indus, the Sutlej, 
the Junma, the Ganges, and the Brahmapootra, which 
after gladdening and fertilising the plains below, find 
their way by many mouths to the Arabian Sea and 
the Bay of Bengal. The longest of these rivers is the 
Indus, which after receiving the other rivers of the 
Punjab, reaches the Arabian sea some 1,800 miles from 
its source. The Ganges, with a total length of 1,500 
miles, having its turbid volume swollen at Allahabad 
by the blue waters of the Jumna, debouches in the Bay 
of Bengal. At one time the country through which 
these rivers now flow, was the sandy bed of a broad 
sea rolling between the Himalayas and the Vindhya 
Range. In those days, many parts of the Deccan must 
have been under water. Some curious fossils have been 
found in the Sewalik Hills, a low range outlying the 

The Suliman Hills which form the western boundary 


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of the Punjab overlook the course of the Indus for some 
350 miles, from a height almost of 11,000 feet. Much 
lower than these, but with a savage grandeur of their 
own, are the Aravulli Hills, from whose southern spurs 
the Vindhyas stretch away across the peninsula at a 
height seldom exceeding 2,000 feet. Their northern 
ridges slope down to the table-land of Malwa. Between 
them and the bolder line of the Satpoora Hills, flows the 
Nerbudda along its rocky bed through 800 miles of 
winding clifis and dark forest down to its outlet in the 
Gulf of Cambay. Into the same gulf below Surat falls 
the Taptee. 

From the western end of the Satpooras a long chain of 
hills passes near the seaboard down to Cape Com6rin, 
their height varying from 1,000 to 4,700 feet at Mahabu- 
leshwar, the summer retreat of the Bombay Government, 
to 7,000 near Coorg. At this point the Western Ghauts 
or " Stairs " meet the loftier Neilgherry or Blue 
Mountains, and these again stretching eastward join the 
Eastern Ghauts, a lower range which runs up the Madras 
Coast northward to melt into the highlands of Orissa. 
The country enclosed by these ranges forms a broad and 
rolling table-land, watered by many rivers and broken 
towards the south into craggy hills. Of these rivers the 
chief is the Godavery, which rising in the Western Ghauts 
near Nassick bends south-eastward to cross the Nizam's 
dominions, and receiving the drainage of the Satpooras 
cleaves its way, after a course of 900 miles, through the 
Eastern Ghauts into the Bay of Bengal near Kokonada. 
Next in length comes the Kistna, which also rises in 
the Western Ghauts, and after a devious course reaches 


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the Coromandel Coast near Masulipatam. In the north- 
eastern comer of the Bay of Bengal lies the Delta of the 
Brahmapootra, one of the greatest of Indian rivers, which 
under the name of the Sanpoo flows for many hundred 
miles along Tibet, until turning the eastern comer of the 
Himalayas it rolls westward through the broad Assam 
valley, past Goalpara, into Lower Bengal. Another large 
river, the Irawaddy, descends from its Himdlayan cradle 
through Upper Burmah southward into Pegu, and after 
a course of nearly 1,100 miles reaches the sea by several 
mouths between Cape Negrais and Rangoon. 

Ports. — For all its length of coast-line India possesses 
but few good harbours. That of Bombay however is one ** 
of the noblest in the world. Kiurachee, the European 
port of India, is destined to be to the Indus and its tribu- 
taries what Calcutta is to the Ganges and its tributaries. 
Moulmein and Eangoon carry on a thriving trade, and, 
in spite of some dangerous shoals in the Hoogly, the 
port of Calcutta is the seat of a sea borne trade worth 
more than £50,000,000 sterling. Goa, a good harbour 
on the western coast, belongs to Portugal. Carwar, 
Cochin, and Viziadroog might be made more useful at no 
great cost, and the harbour now making at Madras on 
the skilful plan of Mr. William Parkes, consulting 
engineer to the Secretary of State for India, will turn an 
open roadstead into a welcome and sheltered haven. 



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Seasons in Hilk aad Plains. 

Climate. — ^India in its hills and plains may be said to 
possess every variety of climate and temperature. 

The seasons are three ; the hot, the rainy and the cold 
seasons. These vary much in different localities, but 
as a rule the hot season generally may be said to prevail 
from the middle of March to the middle of June. 

In the plains of India, during the hot weather, the 
moist heat of Bengal and the dry heat of the hot winds 
of Northr Western India and the Punjab, rising to 120^ 
in the shade, differ from each other much as a vapour 
bath does from the mild blast of a furnace. 

Along the coast line the sea breezes are very 
refreshing and serve to temper the heat. At Simla 
and other hill stations the summer is delightful. 

About the middle of June the rains commence « and 
continue with little intermission till the end of September. 
The ndnfeU varies greatly. In the North- West Pro- 
vinces and Guzerat it ranges from 15 to 30 inches, most of 
it felling in three months. In the Khasia Hills 600 
inches of rain have been measured in the year. This is 
also the season of inundation from the melting of the 
snow in the mountains, causing the rivers to overfloij^^ 
their banks. 


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November December and January constitute the 
winter months or cold season which is preceded and 
followed by short periods of moderate heat. During the 
winter months in the N.W. Provinces and the Punjab 
there is invigorating cold weather, when water is frozen 
in the shallow pools during the night and there is hoar- 
frost in the morning, the comfortable warmth and glow 
of a fire reminding the English sojoumec of home. 
Even in Lower Bengal and Southern India, the tempera- 
ture is moderate, and life something more than enjoy- 
able from the buoyancy of the air under a cloudless 

At the hill stations, such as Simla and Mussoorie, the 
cold is intense during this period, and the &I1 of snow 

So recent is our acquaintance with those portions of 
our widely extended dominions best adapted for the 
residence of Europeans, that at the neighbouring stations 
of Bareilly, Moradabad, and Shajuhanpore, the existence 
of the beautiful lake at Nainee Tal was as much a mys- 
tery, 30 years ago, as the sources of the Niger, 

The Himalayan and Inter-Himalayan regions are 
wonderfully adapted for the European constitution. 
They are as salubrious, and generally cooler than a great 
portion of Australia. Europeans can, if they choose, 
work in the open air, in proof of which it is stated that 
the strongest built house at one of the hill stations was 
constructed entirely by European soldiers, without any 
native aid whatever. 

The offspring of pure European parents brought up in 
the hill a does not degenerate. East Indians or Eura- 


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sians rather improve than otherwise in those elevated 

This being so, one would ask why military settlements 
have not been made in the Himalayas of time-expired or 
pensioned European soldiers, whose sons could succeed 
their fiithers in the ranks. A small colony of Europeans 
in the hills with railways in the plains would have been 
a sheet anchor during the mutiny and might have 
prevented it. * 

Now that railways are being extended in all directions 
it is to be hoped that fitting stations may be found in 
the hills, for the majority of the European troops in 
India. This would promote health and efficiency, saving 
many valuable lives and much expenditure. 

* Vide Colonization in India and Australia, compared by the Aathor^ 


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Fhra. — The broad belt of marshy jungle deadly to 
human life which divides the Himalayas from the 
adjacent plains, affords, in wood and some other materials, 
the means, to a limited extent, of smelting the abundant 
iron ore found on the lower slopes. Many parts of 
India are rich in forest trees suited to almost every 
purpose of use or ornament. The teak tree abounds in 
British Burmah, the Godavery valley, and Malabar ; the 
bamboo in Kamaun, Bengal, and Southern India. Pines 
and deodars luxuriate in the Himalayas ; saul, ebony, 
and satin-wood, in Central India ; the sandal, iron, and 
blackwood in Coorg, and Mysore ; oak and waJnut-wood 
in Sikkim; the India rubber-tree in Assam; and the 
palm-trees of the tropics, in Bengal. 

The noble mango-groves of Hindiistan give welcome 
shade to the traveller weary with marching over 
miles of sun-burnt plain, and the banyan-tree of Bengal 
grows into a forest by throwing out new roots from 
its spreading branches. Cottages are thatched with 
palm-leaves, and houses built with the help of scaffolding 
made of bamboo. Cocoa-nut fibre makes excellent 
rigging, and cocoa-nut oil is highly prized for lamps. 
Bamboo fibre serves for mats and baskets; a bamboo 
stem makes the best of lance-shafts, while one of its joints 


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will do duty for a bottle. From the sap of the palm-tree 
is brewed the taree or toddy, a fevourit-e drink among the 
lower classes. Another kind of pahn yields the betel-nut, 
which natives of every class and both sexes delight to 
chew. The saul and deodar are largely used for railway 
sleepers, and ia districts where coal is dear, forest timber 
serves as fiiel for steamers and railway tyains. 

All over India there are two harvests yearly ; in some 
places three. Bajra,* jowdr,f rice, and some other grains 
are sown at the beginning and reaped at the e^d of the 
rainy season. The cold, weather crops, such as wheat, 
barley, some other kinds of grain, and various pulses, 
are reaped in .the spring. It is a mistake to suppose 
that the people of India live entirely on rice. Rice is 
grown mainly in some parts of Lower Bengal, in British 
Burmah, the Concan, and Malabar. In Hindustan and 
the Punjab the staple food is wheat and millet ; in the 
Deccan a poor kind of grain called ragee. J Berar, Khan^ 
desh, and Guzerat yield large crops of cotton, while the 
sugar-cane abounds in Rohilcund and Madras. The 
poppy-fields of Malwa and Bengal yield the opium which 
forms a main source of Indian revenue. Indigo and jute 
are raised in Bengal. Coffee has become the staple 
product of the hill districts in Coorg, Wainad, and the 
Neilgherries. The tea-gardens of Assam, Cachar, Sylhet, 
and the southern slopes of the Himalayas from Kangra to 
Darjeeling fiirnish ever-increasing supplies of good tea. 
The quinine-yielding chinchona is grown in forests yearly 

• Holcus Spicatiu. — ^A small round grain, 'Tery nourishing. 
t Holcns Sorgiim. — Common in Leyant, Greece, and Italy. 
X Cynosimis coroianos. 



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increasing on the Neilgherry and Daijeeling Hills. 
Another medicinal plant of great value, the ipecacuanha, 
seems to thrive in the Sikkim Terai. Cardamoms and 
pepper abound along the Western Ghauts, hemp and 
linseed are largely exported, and tobacco is widely grown 
throughout India. 

Of fruit and vegetables there are many kinds. 
Mangoes^ melons, pumpkins, guavas, custard-apples, 
plaintains, oranges, limes, citrons, and pomegranates, 
abound everywhere ; figs, dates, peaches, strawberries, 
and grapes thrive well in many places ; apricots, apples, 
and black currants grow wild in the hiUs, as the pine- 
apple does in British Burmah. Cucumbers, yams, 
tomatoes, sweet potatoes, and many vegetables grown in 
England, are raised abundantly for general use. " Flowers 
of every shape and hue, and often of the richest scent, 
from the rose and jasmine to the oleander and the water- 
lily, spangle the plains, cover the sur&ces of lakes and 
ponds, or glimmer in climbing beauty among the woods. 
The rhododendrons of the Himalayas grow like forest 
trees, and crown the hill-side in April and May with far- 
spreading masses of crimson blossoms! From the 
rose-gardens of Ghazipur is extracted the attar, a few 
drops of which contain the gathered fragrance of a 
thousand flowers.*" 

Fauna. — The jungles are alive with elephants, bears, 
wild buffaloes, tigers, leopards, panthers, and hysenas. 
Wolves and jackals prowl among the ravines in quest of 
deer and other prey. The lion, inferior in size and 
courage to his African brother, is chiefly to be found in 
the wilds of Rajpootana and Guzerat ; the camel in the 
• Trotter's ** History of India."— Introduction. 


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sandy regions of the North West ; the one-homed rhi- 
noceros among the swamps of the Ganges. Deer of 
many kinds abound everywhere. Snakes, poisonous and 
harmless, haunt the jungles and glide among the ruins 
of old cities. Wild boars are common in Bengal and 
Western India. Monkeys abound in most parts of the 
country. The rivers swarm with fish, and alligators 
bask like huge lizards along their banks. Horses and 
ponies of divers breeds are used chiefly for riding, while 
the fields are ploughed and the carts and carriages of the 
country are drawn by buUocks of the Brahmini or 
humped species. In many parts of India oxen still serve 
as carriers of merchandise. Buffaloes are generally kept 
for milk and ploughing. Sheep and goats are very 
common, and the goat of Thibet supplies the soft posh" 
mina of which Indian shawls and other articles of 
clothing are made. 

The woods re-echo with the harsh cry of the peacock 
and the lively chattering of parrots, woodpeckers, and 
other birds of gay plumage ; to say nothing of those 
which are common to India and the West. Eagles and 
falcons are found in some places ; kites, vultures, and 
crows may be seen everywhere. The great adjutant 
stork of Bengal with much gravity does scavenger's 
duty in the most populous cities. Pheasants, part- 
ridges, ortolans, quail, snipe, wild-geese and ducks in 
great variety and abundance tempt the sportsman. The 
sparrow has followed the Englishman into the Himalayas. 
It is worth remarking however that song-birds are 
almost as rare in India as snakes in Ireland.* 

• Vide Appendix A "Life in the Jungle;" or, "The Sportsman's 


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Precious Stones — Coal — Iron — Mineral 0^1 — Tin. 

Precious Stones. — Of mineral wealth India possesses her 
fair share. It is true her once renowned wealth in 
diamonds and other gems has disappeared and the &mous 
mines of Golconda have ceased to yield their former trea- 
sures; but opals, amethysts and garnets, jasper and car- 
nelians are still found in various places, and gold is washed 
in small quantities from her streams. More useful minerals 
are now however the most diligently sought for. 

Coal. — India possesses extensive coal fields, and of late 
years, and notably during the scarcity of this fuel in Eng- 
land in 1871 and 1875 much capital has been invested in 
opening up collieries. At Raneegunge near Calcutta 
several mines have been worked for the past twenty years 
with more or less success, and on the East Indian and Great 
Indian Peninsular Railways native coal is chiefly used. 
The low prices, however, at which English and Australian 
coal is now being delivered at the seaports of India 
operates against the development of this branch of native 

Iron. — Iron is also known to exist in many parts, but 
more particularly in the sub-Himalayan districts of 
Kemaon and Gurwal and in the Madras Presidency. It 


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is very pure and abundant, but the absence of coal in the 
immediate vicinity of the ironstone prevents it being 
worked. Sooner or later, probably, arrangements will be 
made to convey the iron ore to the Bengal coal fields, 
and coal fi-om Bengal to the iron-producing districts ; and 
a trade will spring up similar to that now so extensively 
and profitably conducted between ports on the Spanish 
coast and our own great iron towns on the east coast of 
England, or in the progress of chemical science ere long 
means may be found for extracting the metal fix)m the 
ore by some more economical process than the present 
costly system of smelting, with its excessive consumption 
of fuel. 

Mineral Oils. — In Burmah there is a considerable and 
growing production of mineral oils. 

Tin. — ^In the Malay peninsula the rich mines of tin are 
beginning to be worked; but both of these industries are 
yet capable of great extension. 


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Population — Goremment — SaceB — Langoages — Eeligions— Mahomed- 
anism — ^BrahminiBm — ^Budism — Parsees — ^Religion of the Seiks. 

Population. — According to the latest census returns, 
British India, as apart from the purely Native States, is 
now peopled by 190 million souls ; a number largely in 
excess of all former estimates. Add to this the 50 mil- 
lions roughly reckoned for the Native States, and a 
quarter of a million for French possessions, and half a 
million for those of Portugal, and we get a total of 
240f millions for all India. Of this vast number, the Pro- 
vince of Bengal was found to contain 64f millions within 
its area of 212,451 square miles, or an average of 805 to 
the square mile. But now that the thinly- peopled tracts 
of Assam and Kachar have been formed into a separate 
proviQce, Bengal may be ssdd to yield an average popula- 
tion .of 380 to the square mile, or a total of 60^ millions. 
Without Orissa the average would be 430, and in some 
districts or shires, such as Burdwan or Patna, exceeding 
550 to the square mile. 

In the North- Western Provinces — ^the "Doab," or 
*' country of two rivers," to wit, the Jumna and the 
Granges — ^there are 80f millions of people over an area 
of 81,000 square miles. This means an average of 380 
souls to the square mile in a province nearly as large as 



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England, Wales, and Ireland together, and little less 
populous than England herself. The grain producing 
coimtry of Oude, l3ang between the Ganges and the 
Nepaulese Hills, covers an area of 24,000 square miles, 
equal to Holland and Belgium, with 11^ million souls, 
or an average of 469 to the square mUe. In the Panjab, 
exclusive of Cashmere and other tributary States, there 
are nearly 18 millions of people, or 171 to the square mile. 
In British Burmah, about 2f millions, or only 31 to the 
square mile, are scattered over an area larger than the 
North-western Provinces. Madras contains about SOJ 
million people, in an area of 124,500 square miles, or 
243 to the square mile, which is a good deal larger than 
the British Islands. Bombay and Scinde, with an area 
little less than that of Madras, nimaber only 16^ million 
souls, or 131 to the square mile. The Central Provinces, 
though nearly as large as the North- Western, appear to 
have only 8i million, or an average of 96 to the square 
mile. This is about half the average of Mysore, and 
but little higher than that of the small hill-province of 
Coorg. In Ajmeer, the English portion of Rajpootana, 
the average is reckoned at 115, and in B^rar at 126 to 
the square mile.* 

Government — All these provinces, except Mysore, 
now held by us in trust for its future sovereign, the 
descendant of the old Hindoo dynasty displaced by 
Hyder Ali, and Berar, still nominally governed for the 
Nizam of Hyderabad, make up the empire directly ruled 
by the British crown. Subject to the general con- 

* StatiBtical Abstract of British India from 1865 to 1875 ; presented 
to Parliament. 


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RACES. 19 

trol of the Home Government, the Viceroy and Governor- 
General in Council may be said to govern as well as 
reign over the widely extended Empire of British India. 

The Presidencies of Bombay and Madras are ruled by 
Governors appointed from England, with legislative and 
Executive Councils, Bengal is presided over by a 
Lieutenant-Governor, aided by a Legislative Council. 
The North- Western Provinces and the Punjab have each 
a Lieutenant-Governor without a council. The latter is 
still a- "Non-Regulation Province," so fer as its govern- 
ment is not conducted by civil officers alone, and accord- 
ing to the old regulations Of the Company. To the same 
class belong Oude,* the Central Provinces, Assam, Berar, 
and British Burmah, which are governed each by a Chief • 
Commissioner, with a staff of officers, civil and military, 
who dispense justice, look after the revenue, and pre- 
serve the peace in districts larger than a good-sized 
English county. 

Races. — The people of India may be classified in three 
ways, according to race, language, or religion. First in "^ 
order come the aboriginal races, now scattered among the 
hiUs and jungles throughout the country to the number 
of about twelve millions. Under the name of S4nth^s, 
Bheels, Coles, Mairs, Gonds, &c., they all seem to 
belong to the same Papuan or Australoid type ; short of 
stature, dark skinned, with high cheek bones, flattish noses, 
large jaws, wide mouths, very little beards, and long 
coarse hair. They eat all kinds of food, drink fermented 
liquors, ignore clothes, worship their own gods, speak a 
language and follow customs unlike those of their more 

• Now mer^d in the N.W. Provinces. 


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civilised neighbours. Their weapons are bows, arrows, 
and spears, useful alike in hunting and in war. In paits of 
Southern India, as in Australia, the boomerang is also used. 

Of a kindred, but seemingly higher tj^e, are the Dra- 
vidian races of Southern India, who number about thirty 
millions ; whose languages, the Tamil, Telugu, and 
Oanarese, have a literature more than a thousand years 
old, and whose early civilisation dat^s back some way 
beyond the Christian era. To the old Dravidian settlers, 
whencesoever they came, may perhaps be ascribed the 
dolmans, cromlechs, cairns, flint tools, iron spear-heads, 
and other relics of a remote past, similar to those which 
have been found in various parts of Europe. In the 
hills that border Assam, Bengal, and Upper India, we 
meet with races of Indo-Chinese or Mongolic stock, akin 
to those which inhabit Burmah, Thibet, and Siam. They 
aU speak dialects of the same language, and show their 
common origin in their short but sturdy frames, small 
eyes, high cheek bones, scanty beards, thin lips, flattened 
noses, and yellowish or copper-coloured skins. 

'By far the most numerous of Indian peoples are the 
Hindoos themselves, whose language and physical traits 
>alike proclaim them sprung from the same Aryan stem as 
the Persians, the ancient Greeks, the Celts, and nearly all 
the nations of modern Europe. Their Sanskrit-speaking 
forefiithers seem to have gradually made their way "from 
the regions of the Hindoo Koosh, across the Indus, into 
the plains of the Punjab and Sirhind, or the country 
between the Sutlej and the Ganges. Their first settle- 
ments were probably made about 1500 B.C., if not before. 
Their earliest literature, the Vedic hjrmns, written in a 


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language fer older than the Greek of Homer, stamps them 
as already a cultivated and progressive race, of high reli- 
gious instincts, varied mental power, and much capacity 
for social and political growth. Their oldest epic, the 
Ramayan, older than the Hiad, or even the Pentateuch, 
teems with pictures of every domestic virtue, with passages 
of pure moral beauty and keen poetic insight, with tokens 
of fer reaching philosophy, lofty religious yearnings, and 
refined enjoyment of all good things in Art and Nature. 
In many of the arts and sciences these old Hindoos were 
in advance of nearly all the more civilised nations, Aryan, 
Semitic, or Turanian, of their day. They had learned to till 
the ground, to trade, to buUd tanks and temples, to weave, 
muslin, to produce cunning work in iron, gold, silver, 
earthenware, ivory and precious stones, ages before Rome 
was founded or Hezekiah reigned in Judaea. In their 
village communities and caste-rules of the present day 
we have still at work the principles of a system of law 
and self-government which appears, from the femous Code 
of Menu, to have been firmly established many centuries 
before the Christian era. For breadth and subtlety their 
old philosophers have never been surpassed by the boldest 
thinkers of any age or country. In short, the Aryan 
forefethers of the modem Hindoo were a race whom the 
most civilised nations in modem Europe might be proud 
to claim as kin. 

As the early Aryan settlers gained the mastery in Hin-^ 
dustan, they drove before them most of the older races 
into the hills and forests, much as the Saxons served the 
Britons, while the remainder, held in a kind of serfage, 
made up the lowest of the four castes or classes into 


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which the new social system of their conquerors was 
divided. Great Hindoo kingdoms, which lasted for many 
centuries, covered the country north of the Nerbudda. In 
due time Bengal itself was peopled by an Aryan race, 
and finally the whole of Southern India passed imder the 
sway of Hindoo princes, though there the process of 
absorbing or exterminating the subject races was never 
carried so far as in the north. Among the later Aryan 
settlers in India were the Yavans, probably Ionian 
Greeks, who founded a dynasty in Orissa, and the fol- 
lowers of Alexander have left their mark in the Punjab. 
Of Hindoos by race, the actual number for all India may 
now be reckoned at 150 millions,, who diflfer from each 
other in as many ways as an Englishman differs from a 
Frenchman, a Spaniard or a Greek. But all alike, from 
the fair-skinned fiery Kajpoot aijd the broad-shouldered 
Seik of the north, to the lithe little Mahratta in the west 
and the dark-skinned, peace-loving trader or peasant of 
Bengal, are remarkable as a rule for handsome faces, 
delicate features, slenderly graceful figures, and well 
shaped limbs. 
^ Of kindred race to the Hindoos are the Parsees. In 

the eighth century, not long after the Arab conquest of 
Persia, and the establishment of Islam in the room of the 
old national sun-worship, the Parsees, a small remnant of 
the unconverted race were driven by steady persecution, 
. from their retreats in Khorasan to the isle of Ormuz, in 
the Persian Gulf. Their ill-fortune still following them, 
they took sheltei*, first at Dili, in the Gulf of Cambay, 
iand some years later in Guzerat. Here under certain 
conditions they were allowed to dwell, to erect their 


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towers of silence for the departed, and to build the 
temples which held the sacred flame kept ever burning 
in honour of their god — the pure and bright Ormuzd.< 
From Guzerat they gradually made their way over 
Western India, until at last a new Parsee settlement 
sprang up in Bombay itseli^ where the Parsees have since 
taken the lead in every field of commercial enterprise 
and social progress. 

The Patans, or Afghans, on the other hand, who^ 
inhabit the Punjab firontier, parts of Rohilkund, and 
much of Hyderabad, belong to that Semitic race which 
furnished Mahomet with his firat converts, and India with 
her earliest Mahommedan rulers. Far more numerous v^ 
are the Moguls, a Turkish race, whose forefathers fol- 
lowed the genial, daring and chivalrous Baber into Hin- 
dustan. They number more than thirty millions in all, 
peopling mainly the Punjab, the country around Delhi, 
and Bengal. 

Langrmges. — The languages or dialects spoken in dif- 
ferent provinces, exceed in number those of aU Europe. 
Of those derived from Sanskrit there are at least a dozen <. 
of which Hindi, the language of North- Western and Cen- 
tral India, is the most purely Aryan, and Urdti, the lan- 
guage of the official classes, is the most largely mixed 
with foreign elements, Persian, Arabic, and even English. 
Each great province, sometimes each district, has its own 
dialect, diflfering from the others much as English differs 
from German, or as both differ from Italian or French. 
In Southern India the Drayidian languages, such as 
Tdmil and Telugu, have the widest prevalence, except in 
Maharashtra the country of the Mahrattas, who speak a 


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dialect resembling Hindi. Assam and Nepaul are Aryan 
by language, while Bootan, British Burmah, and Manik- 
poor belong in language as well as race to the Turanian 

> Religions. — Classified according to their religious 
creeds, the people of India might be broadly divided 
into Mahommedans and Hindoos. In Bengal alone the 
followers of the Arab Prophet exceed 20 millions. Of 
the remaining 21 millions, more than 13^ are to be found 
in the Punjab and N.W. Provinces, and ^ million in the 
Central Provinces. In Hyderabad, also, and Cashmere, 
the Mahommedans muster strong. If language is not 
always a sure clue to race, neither is religion. While 
the Patans and Moguls of India speak a language mainly 
of Aryan birth, millions of Mussulmans in Bengal, and 
nearly all the Mussulmans in Cashmere, are Hindoos by 
race, whose forefethers adopted the creed of their Moslem 
conquerors. The Hindoos in their turn have made a 
large number of converts in the lowest caste from the 
people whom they originally subdued. Most of the 
Indian Mahommedans profess the Sunee or Turkish 
form of Islam, but the Shea sect, who like the Persians, 
pay special homage to Ali, the prophet's son-in-law, and 
to All's two sons, Hassein and Hossan, as his lawfrd 
successors in the Califitte, are to be found chiefly in 
Cashmere and the Deccan. The differences between 
them correspond to those between different sects of 

"Christians. In spite of quarrels on minor points, they 
agree in revering the Koran as the word of God delivered 
through his prophet Mahomet, the great fountain of 
moral, social, and civil law for all true believers. 


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A third form of Islam is the Wahabee, which has lately 
made some way among the Mahommedans of Behar. 
These Puritans of their fidth are followers of Abduls 
Wahab, whose son, in the latter half of the eighteenth 
century, began to^ preach a reUgious revival among Hs 
countrymen in Nejed. In India the movement was taken 
up by Seyed Ahmad of Roi-Bareily, who, exchanging the 
life of a freebooter for that of a fanatic, took to studying 
divinity at Delhi, made a pilgrimage to Mecca, and after 
preaching his new doctrines in Calcutta and Bombay, 
set out for the Punjab to proclaim a jehad, or holy war, 
against the Seikhs. His death in battle in 1831 brought 
his mission to an early close. But his influence survived 
him, and a Wahdbee colony in Swat beyond the Indus, 
became the centre of a movement in which the Mahom- 
medans of Patna have since borne a leading part. During 
the great mutiny they plotted freely against their Christian 
rulers; but the punishment inflicted on their leaders 
taught them a lesson which they wiU not soon forget. 

The Hindoos by religion outnumber the MahommedansC 
by about four to one. Their creeds, however varied, 
resolve themselves into one common essence. Whether 
they worship the Supreme Being under the form of 
Brahma, Vishnu, or Siva, or bow down to all the minor 
gods of the Hindoo Pantheon, to say nothing of the sprites, 
demons, stocks, and serpents, borrowed from surround- 
ing races, they all alike profess their belief in the Shastras 
or holy books, as expounded and enforced by their 
' Brahmin teachers. From the V^das, the Puranas, and 
other Sanskrit writings, these Indian Priests and Levites 
have built up a religious system which has held its ground 


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through all the political changes of three thousand years. 

> The inroads of Budhism, Islam, and Ghristianity, have 

made but little impression on a creed so wonderfully 

:>adapted to all shades of Hindoo thought and feeling. In 

its purest form, as represented by the Vedantists, who 

accept the teaching of the V^das only, it is a Theism of 

>a high order. Under the guise adopted by the 
Brahma Samaj, the new eclectic school of Ramohan Roy 
and Keshab Chunder Sen, with a lofty conception of the 
all pervading power of the Deity, it emulates the bene- 
ficent spirit of Christianity, but the seal is wanting — ^the 
belief in the Great Atonement. It is among the higher 
and more cultivated classes that Brahminism in its more 
spiritual forms may chiefly be found. With the 
multitude it degenerates into mere idol worship and the 
mechanical observance of the rites and practices enjoined 
by their spiritual guides, whose principle- of action — 
" populus vult decipi, decipiatur " — is not unknown in 
countries boasting a purer creed. 

;^ From the older Brahminism sprang the . Budhist 
reform of which Sakya Miini, a prince of Kapila to the 
north of Oude, was the real or traditional author in the 
sixth century before Christ. Budha, or the Sage, as 
lie was afterwards called, denounced the Brahmin priest- 
hood of his day in much the same spirit as the early 
Christian teachers inveighed against the Pharisees. He 
taught that faith and pure living were better than sacri- 
fices and formal penances, that the path to happiness lay 
in love, forgiveness of injuries, self-control, and doing good. 
Rebelling against the tyranny of caste, he declared that 
men were equal in God's eyes, and that a Brahmin had 


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no more claim to special sanctity than a Sudra or a Pariah. 
The new doctrine gradually spread over many parts of 
India, and in due time won its way into Ceylon, Burmah, 
Thibet, and China. But Brahminism fought hard fon; 
life ; in the course of centuries it supplanted its younger 
rival ; and in the tenth century of our era Budhism in 
India was fairly trampled out. The only traces of it now 
visible there, besides the temples, halls, and other build- 
ings which mark its former sway, may be discovered in the 
Jains, of whom a few hundred thousand dwell in 
Western and Central India, retaining some of the old 
Budhist usages mixed up with those of the Brahminic 
school. Budhism as such is now confined to British 
Burmah and the hills bordering on Cashmere. 

Another revolt from J5rahminism was proclaimed in 
the 15th century by Nanak Shah in the Punjab, who 
learned from his master Kabir, that lesson of spiritual 
brotherhood which he afterwards strove to practise in 
his own way. His chief aim was to establish a religious 
system embracing alike Hindoo and Mahommedan. 
But his followers, the Seikhs, as they were called, found 7 
so little favour with the Mahommedans, that after many 
years of persecution they took up arms under Guru 
Goviud, a successor of Nanak, and maintained a long and 
furious struggle which finally left them for half-a-century 
masters of the Punjab. Their fiery prowess must have 
made up for their numerical weakness, for at this 
moment the true Seikhs in the Punjab number little more 
than a million, as compared with over 16 millions 
Mahommedans, and Jats and others.* 
• Parliamentary Paper. 


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^The native Christians of India are supposed to number 
about a million, most of wham are to be foimd in Mala- 
bar, Travancore, Tinnevelly, and other parts of Southern 
India. In the North there are only a few thousands, 
representing the scanty outcome of many years of 
missionary work. Of the southern Christians the great 
bulk belong to the Romish or the Sjnrian Church. 
Tradition assigns the origin of the latter to the preaching 
of the Apostle Thomas. Be that as it may, a Christian 
community appears to have flourished in Malabar since 
the second century of our era, and in the tenth century 
many converts were made by Sjrrian missionaries in 
Travancore. In the middle of the 16th century the 
zealous St. Francis Xavier gathered the first converts 
ijito the Romish fold. Swartz, the Danish missionary, 
did the like service two centuries later for Protestant 
Christianity in Southern India. Some fifty years elapsed 
before the first English missionaries set foot in Bengal ; — 
amongst the most zealous and distinguished of whom 
were Carey, Marshman and Ward, Henry Martin, and 
Archdeacon Corrie the Mend of Heber ; and in more 
recent times. Dr. Duff and other eloquent and devoted 
men have worthily followed in their steps. 
> The Mogul Empire lost its power in India in a great 
degree by interfering with the religion of the people. 
The decline of the Portuguese dominion was also accele- 
rated by the same cause. From that error we as a 
government wisely abstain. 


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THE PEOPLE — continued. 

Caste — Character of the people — Hindoos — ^Mahommedans, &c. 

Caste. — In the social and religious life of the Hindoos < 
the caste system has always played an important part.* 
The four castes or " colours " of the old village commu- 
nities, as described in the Code of Menu, were marked 
off sharply from each other by rules and restrictions of 
the most binding character. First in order came the 
Brahmins, the &vourites of the Gods, the privileges 
expounders of the holy books, to kill one of whom was 
the worst of crimes, while even to insult one was a wrong 
almost inexpiable." -The Cahutriya or warrior caste 
ranked next. To this belonged most of the old Indian 
princes, and its purest living representatives are perhaps 
to be found in the Rajpoots of Central India. In the 
third rank came the Vaisyas, who concerned themselves 
in law, medicine, trade, and agriculture. 

• These three classes embraced all men of pure Aryan 

* '* The fint improBsion is, that caste ia a thing positively unique ; there 
is nothing in any ooontrj vdth whose history we are familiar, ancient or 
modem, with which it can be compared ; it has a social element, but it is 
not a social distinction; it has a religious element, but it is hardly a 
religious institution ; it finds its sanction in a religious idea, inasmuch as 
Brahma is said to have been its author, but it liyes on irrespectiye of 
religious faith or observance." — '*The Trident, the Crescent, and the 
Cross," by the Bev. James Yaughan. Longmans and Co., 1876. 


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blood; all the " twice-bom," as they proudly called them- 
selves, who alone had the right to wear the sacred thread that 
distinguished them from men of low or non- Aryan birth. 
To the fourth or Sudra caste were relegated all the " low- 
bom" and converts, who served as hewers of wood and 
drawers of water for the conquering race. They might 
follow only such trades and callings as were forbidden to 
the three higher castes. In order to keep them in their 
proper place, they were shut out from every privilege 
enjoyed by the twice-born. No Sudra for instance might 
dare to read the V^das, to eat or intermarry with a 
member of a higher cast€, to sit on the same mat with a 
Brahmin, or even to amass property for his own use. 

In course of time however, these distinctions tended 
to melt away or reappear under new aspects in ever- 
increasing numbers. Caste still seems to bind Hindoo 
society together, but under conditions very different from 
those of Menu's day. Instead of four castes there are now 
some hundreds, most of which represent particular trades, 
callings, or creeds, and so answer to the guilds, trade- 
unions, and sects, of mediaeval and modem Europe. 
Even the Brahmins no longer form one caste, or refrain 
from pursuits once forbidden to their priestly forefathers. 
In the struggle for life they and the Sudras have often 
changed places, and a Brahmin now thinks it no shame 
to be a soldier, or a clerk in a public or merchant's office, 
or to fulfil stiU more humble duties. The very Pariahs 
and dregs of Indian society, scavengers, leather-dressers, 
conjurors, thieves, and so forth, have formed themselves 
into castes, each fenced round by strict rules. In 
one shape or another, caste has made its way among 


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the Jains, the Seikhs, and even the \Mahommedans, 
numbers of whom indeed retain little of Mahomet's 
religion beyond the name. As a means of holdings 
society together, of keeping men under some kind of 
moral discipline, the caste system, in its present shape, 
must be regarded as a power for good mther than 
evil, whatever fault may be found with it as a hindrance 
to the spread of Western influences and the free play of 
individual energies. 

Character of the People. — In mental as in bodily traits, < 
there are certain broad differences between the Hindoos 
and the Mahommedans. The latter, as a rule, are bolder 
in speech and bearing ; more truthful, energetic, self- 
asserting ; less refined in their tastes, less supple- witted, 
less patient of steady toil, less slow to move along new 
paths. Of the " mild Hindoo," we heard more perhaps 
twenty years ago than we do now ; and remembering 
how he behaved during the Mutiny, one is tempted to 
think of Byron's Lambro, "the mildest-mannered man 
that ever cut a throat," Still, in a subject race, mildness 
of manner, if coupled with other good qualities, has an 
undoubted charm ; and the Hindoos strongly resemble the 
Italians, alike in their worse and better traits. If they 
are more or less prone to crooked and cunning ways, if 
they are slow to forgive an enemy, and generally careless 
about speaking the truth, they are also, in the main, tem- 
perate, courteous, self-controUed, cheerful, industrious, 
keen-witted, religious, and kind-hearted. In short, 
according to Professor Monier Williams, as he lately told 
us, there are " no people in Europe more religious, none < 
more patiently persevering in common duties, none more 


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docile and ameimble to authority, none more courteous or 
respectful towards age and learning, none more dutiful 

^ to parents, none more intelligent." As for the vices 
and defects he found among them, these abound to 
no greater extent than they do "among those merely 
nominal Christians who, after all, constitute the real 
mass of the people in Europe." 

Thos6 who have mixed most freely with the 
Hindoos, Mountstuart Elphinstone, for instance, and 
Colonel Meadows Taylor, bear witness to the same 
effect. Both describe them also as honest in their 
transactions with each other ; and Elphinstone, who had 
a clear eye for both sides of their character, declares with 
much truth, not only that those who have known them 
the longest have always judged them most favourably, 
^3ut that " all persons who have retired from India think 
better of the people they have left after comparing them 
with others, even of the most justly-admired nations." 
Lord Northbrook spoke on a recent occasion under 

> similar impressions. " Taking India altogether, those 
millions of Indians are a people who commend themselves 
most entirely to the affections of those who govern them. 
I do not think there exists a more contented people, a 
people more ready to obey to the letter and feel confi- 
dence and trust in those put over them. All do their 
duty to their relations and friends in times of difficulty, 
and all live peaceably one with another. There is no 
man, I venture to say, who has had charge of a district 
of India, and has had to deal with the natives of that 
country, who will not say the same as I am saying now 
— ^no man who has had charge of a district who does 


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not go away with a feeling of affection for the natives of 
India — a feeling which remains with him during his 

The Hindoos are humane by nature, and believing as <. 
they do in the transmigration of souls are, especially in 
the South, careful of animal life, lest in destroying a 
beast of prey, or a noxious reptile or insect, they may 
have injured a remote ancestor or deceased friend. 

But it is hardly possible to give a perfectly feir and 
sound estimate of the general character of a people divided 
into so many castles and classes, loosely held together by 
certain affinities of race, language and religion. What is 
true for instance of the modem Bengalee, as painted for 
us in Macaulay's memorable portrait of Nand-Kumar, 
would be far from true if applied to the average Hindoo 
of the North- West Provinces, or even to the Mahrattas of 
Western and Central India, and would ui no way be 
applicable to the Seikhs. Differences of climate and pass- 
ing circumstances must have played their part in mould- 
ing for good or ill the different types of native character, 
mental as well as physical. Consider, too, the difficulty 
of passing a fair judgment on people with whom we can 
never come into close social contact. As the moon always 
shows the same side of her body to our earth, so it is 
obvious that our native Indian subjects sho'^v but a part 
of their true nature to their foreign lords. That very 
courtesy which leads them to say pleasant things to our 
faces, enhances the difficulty of judging them aright. 
If it is hard for an average Englishman to understand 
an Irishman or a Frenchman, how very much harder for 
him to take the true measure of a people whose ways, 



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thoughts, feelings, interests, are widely distinct from ours ; 
whose social leaders will not even eat or drink with us, 
with whose wives and daughters no man is permitted to 
talk face to &ce, and whose self-esteem is continually 
wounded by the proofs of their subjection to a strange, 
unyielding, though far from oppressive rule# 

Giving every consideration to the many good qualities 
possessed by the natives of India, it must be admitted 
by those who know them best that they are not a people 
formed to govern, but rather to yield obedience to a 
stronger will, their ability to pass competitive examina- 
tions, notwithstanding. 

Of course there are numerous individual exceptions to 
the above, especially in the northern and western 
provinces of India, but as for the acute and subtle 
genuine Bengalees, "there never, perhaps, existed a 
people so thoroughly fitted by nature and by habit for a 
foreign yoke."* 

* Lord Macaulay's Critical and HiBtorical Essays. 


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Complication of early Indian HiBtory— Alexander's Invasion of the Pon- 
jaub, B.C. 327 — First Authentic Information — Commencement of 
Continuous History, A.D. 1000 — ^Rule of iBajpoot Princes — ^First 
Mahommedan Invasion by Mahmoud of Ghizni — 189 Years after his 
Death his Dynasty was exterminated by Mamoud, of Ghor. 

Having described the extent and physical character- 
istics of the country, and having given some account 
of the various races which inhabit it, a brief glance at 
the early history of India appears desirable before ad- 
verting to the origin and progress of British rule in that 

That complicated record of countries and dynasties, 
which we include under the comprehensive title of the 
history of India, presents great difficulties alike to the 
student, and to the historian. The vastness of the sub- 
ject would seem to exact detail, yet the amount of details, 
which interrupted civilisation, continual warfare, the 
history of vast territories, complex constitutions, and 
quickly changing dynasties afford, seems almost to defy 
a comprehensive treatment of the subject. Littie or< 
nothing is known of the history of India before the time 
of Alexander's invasion. The Vedas date about 1400 < 
B.C., the code of Menu from 900 to 300, the Ramyana 
and the Mahabarata somewhat later. But these sacred 
books give us a picture of the religious and social 
condition of India, rather than of its political history. 


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^ It is to the officers of Alexander's array, that we owe 
our knowledge of ancient India. The accounts they 
wrote, condensed and verified by Diodorus, Strabo, 
Pliny, Arrian, and Athenaeus, dating from the invasion 
of the Punjab, B.C. 327, are our earliest authentic 
sources of information, and it is not until the year A.D. 
1000, that we have anything like a continuous history of 

> That date marks the era when Mahmoud of Ghuzni 
invaded the country of the Hindoos, and Sanscrit, the 
ancient language of poetry, philosophy, and science gave 

> way, before the rougher language of the camp. From 
the earliest records, we learn that India had always been 
divided into large provinces, or kingdoms, and that these 
were ruled by rajahs, or kings, supported by a council 
of Brahmins or priests, who were entitled to sit on the 
right of the throne, while the Cahutriyas, or warriors, 
occupied the left. The Brahmins had supreme power. 
They could condemn a king, if they saw fit, but no 
provocation on their part would have been recognised as 
an excuse for that sovereign, who should dare to take 

> the life of one of these holy men. It is believed that 
from very early ages, the provinces, west of the Indus, 
were tributary to the kings of Persia. Alexander the 
Great claimed India through Persia, and 800 years after 
Alexander's time, we find that the Shah of Persia still 
styled himself king of India. There was however no 
paramount sovereign of India at the time of Mahmoud's 
invasion. The rajahs were united for defence, under 
the I'ajah or kiug of Canouje, to whom as Protector 
all tributary priuces paid allegiance. The Rajpoot race 


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was dominant, and Hindostan, at that time divided into * 
four great kingdoms, i.e. Dehli, Canouje, Mewar, and 
Guzerat. The first, second and last-named had magni- < 
ficent capitals. Subuctugi, the father of Mahmoud, from 
a slave had risen to sovereignty, and at the time of his 
death Mahmoud was absent in Ehorassan. His brother 
Ismael seized the empire, and attempted by bribery and 
corruption to secure his position on the usurped throne, 
Mahmoud first tried persuasion upon his treacherous 
brother, but soon had to reconquer his crown and capital 
at the point of the sword, and was clemently satisfied, to 
confine his mischievous relative for life in the luxurious 
fortress of Georghan, At the age of twenty-eight [ A. D < 
997] Mahmoud's supremacy was acknowledged from the 
frontiers of Persia, to the banks of the Indus, from Balkh 
to the Arabian Sea. He reigned without a rival in the 
East. He was no less a scholar than a warrior, delight- 
ing in the liberal arts, building gorgeous palaces, and 
laying out exquisite gardens ; a prince, splendid and 
magnificent, even in the land of splendour itself. Besides 
these more civilised tastes, the lust of conquest and the 
fenaticism of the " true believer " possessed him. His 
avarice was largely tempted, by what, during his father's 
life-time, had become known to him of the riches of India, 
and had he needed it, the warrant of the Prophet was 
not wanting to encourage him in a war of extermination 
against all unbelievers. " The sword " says Mahomet, is 
the key of paradise, whoever falls in battle, his sins are for- 
given." The comparatively effeminate Hindoos must 
have seemed a pleasant and easy prey to these fierce 
fanatics from the North, whose swiftness to shed blood. 


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desolated during 300 years the Eastern world. During 
a period of twenty-four years Mahmoud made twelve 
expeditions against the cities and temples of India. 
Every object of Hindoo worship was ruthlessly 
destroyed ; the plunder brought back to Ghuzni from 
the ravaged lands was fabulous alike in quantity and 
quality. The Rajpoot king of Lahore, on being taken 
prisoner in battle, collected a funeral pile, to which he 
set fire with his own hand, and so died, but not before 
ten necklaces had been taken from his neck, one of 
which alone was valued at £82,000. It is however to be 
bomeinmind that the quantity and valueof jewelsand gold 
taken from the Princes and temples of India owe much 
to the oriental imagination. After this victory Mahmoud 
established a Mahommedan governor in the Punjaub, and 
returned to Ghuzni. He annexed Moultan and the 
whole of the Peshawur Valley^ and the greater part of 
Scinde, and exacted tribute from every sovereign from 
Cashmere to the mouths of the Indus. One of his 
expeditions was directed against the temple and fort of 
Binn^, a structure said to have been roofed and paved 
with gold, and the enterprise of its conquerors was 
rewarded by incredible amounts of gold, silver and 

Andipal, king of Lahore, entreated the conqueror to 
spare the temple of Tannassar, the most holy of their 
sacred places ; the Mecca of the Hindoos. Mahmoud 
replied that " the followers of Mahomet were vowed to 
root out idolatry." The shrine of the god was pillaged, 
and the image of Jug-Soom smashed into a thousand 

• Sir Edward Sulliyan's "Prmces of India." 


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atoms, which were sent to pave the streets of Ghuzni, 
Mecca, and Bagdad. After plundering Dehli, Mahmoud 
returned to Ghuzni laden with treasure, and accompanied 
by 40,000 male and female captives. In the year 1018 
he turned his destructive steps towards Cashmere, the 
paradise of Persian poets. This happy valley was 
devastated by his troops, and in the year 1018, after 
settling some little difficulties with his northern neigh- 
bours, the kings of Bokhara and Charism, he marched 
on Canouje the capital of Hindostan. His Afghan and 
Tartar bands struck terror into the hearts of the inhabi- 
tants of the capital, and they fled in aU directions, whilst 
the craven prince Eorra, Maharajah of Canouje, after 
paying an enormous ransom, embraced the Mahom- 
medan fidth, and three years later was with his whole 
family put to death for his apostacy, by neighbouring 
Hindoo princes. But this submission on his part did 
not save Muttra, the &bled birth-place of the divine 
Krishna, from devastation. For 20 days it was given 
up to plunder and massacre, and 63,000 Hindoo devotees 
to the shrine, were slain in cold blood. The wealth 
acquired by Mahmoud was enormous. Great idols of 
pure gold, with eyes of rubies and adorned with 
sapphires were among the spoils borne homewards on 
850 elephants, followed by 50,000 captives. With the 
accumulated plunder of eight expeditions Mahmoud now 
proceeded to beautify his Alpine capital. Ghuzni, built 
on a rock 300 feet above the surrounding plains, soon 
became a city of groves, temples, and palaces, the 
beauty of which was unrivalled in Asia. It would be 
impossible to follow the insatiable and rapacious 


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Mahmoud through the twelve expeditions, which mark 
his ambitious and cruel progress. His last raid was 
on Anhulwarra, the capital of Guzera.t, the third and 
most wealthy of the kingdoms of Hindostan. After 
occupying Anhulwarra, he proceeded to Somnauth " the 
Dwelling of the Deity/' where for forty centuries had 
stood the temple of the Hindoo god Soma, '^ The Loixi of 
the Moon." From the extreme confines of Balkh and 
Persia, firom the uttermost regions of the Camatic and 
Bengal, millions of credulous pilgrims had from time 
immemorial wended their way hither, to lay their offerings 
at the feet of the Hindoo Pluto. Fabulous accounts of the 
riches of this shrine had reached Mahmoud's ears, and he 
resolved to make its treasures his own. His troops 
however, at the last moment, wavered, and could not 
penetrate beyond the outworks of the sacred portions of 
the holy city. Then the grey-haired warrior, rising in 
his stirrups called aloud on the name of Allah, and taking 
his favourite general by the hand, shouted to all true 
sons of the Prophet to follow him. The troops rallied ; 
a final charge was made, and the prize which he had come 
2,000 miles to conquer, lay at length at his feet. The 
Brahmins offered enormous sums to save their God, 
but in vain. Amidst the groans of an agonised multi- 
tude Mahmoud, raising his mace, struck the desecrated 
idol a blow on the face, and his soldiery speedily 
concluded the work their sovereign had begun. The 
idol was hollow. Piles of diamonds and sapphires, a 
ruby of enormous size, and a quantity of pure gold 
were extracted from the shrine. 

The last days of Mahmoud were overshadowed by the 


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consciousness, that his successes notwithstanding, the 
empire of Ghuzni was already tottering to its fidl. The 
very Tartar hordes that had proved such valuable 
adjuncts in his victorious hands, threatened to become 
his most dangerous enemies. The size of the empire 
constituted its chief danger. A few days before his 
death, he entered his treasury; then bursting into 
tears, closed the doors in silence, on the vast wealth 
which it contained. A day later he reviewed his 
troops, and as legion after legion passed before him, he 
again wept bitterly ; then retiring in silent anguish to 
his "Palace of Delights," raised with the plunder of 
numberless Hindoo shrines and cities, after thirty-four 
years of adventure and success, he breathed out a sad- 
dened soul at last. It is now just thirty-four years ago, 
since British arms bore back in triumph to the capital of 
Hindostan those world-renowned sandal-wood gates, 
which Mahmoud tore from the temple of Somnauth, and 
which his successors raised in remembrance and glorifi- 
cation of that act above his tomb. Equally successful in 
war and in peace, Mahmoud was not without some of the 
milder virtues. Mussulman historians depict him as a 
benefactor of the human race, and to this day Moslem 
priests read the Koran, over the tomb of this true son of 
the Prophet, Hindoos describe him as a consuming fire- 
brand, whose claim to immortality lies in the magnitude 
of his crimes. But little of his private life is known. 
He is said to have been just, and anecdotes are 
told in confirmation of the assertion. His favourite 
wife, the daughter of his treacherous foe, the king of 
Cashgar, was called the " Sun of Beauties," but as a 


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rule, harem life is totally devoid of interest in its 
details, and it is enough to know the fair Haramnour 
had many rivals. Mahmoud was the only great sovereign 
of his race, and in 189 years after his death, Ins dynasty 
became extinct. He had already foreseen the disruption 
of his empire, when the growing power of the Turkoman 
race had made itself apparent to him before the close of 
his reign, but its final ruin was caused quite as much by 
iQtemal weakness and treachery, as by the attacks of 
external foes. 

Mahmoud left two sons who repeated. in their own 
persons the history of their father's accession and their 
uncle's treachery. The younger, Mahommed, usurped 
the elder Musuad's throne, but was soon deposed, and 
branded across the pupil of his eyes with a red-hot iron. 
Five years later the blind Mahommed restored to liberty 
and sovereign power, returned with interest the treat- 
ment he had received. He degraded and imprisoned 
Musuad and raised his own son to the throne. This 
prince, Ahmad I., at once slew his uncle Musuad, and 
though Mahommed the blind king wrote to his nephew 
Modoad disclaiming all complicity with the deed, Modoad 
did not hesitate to avenge his father's murder. He took 
Ahmad prisoner, and slew every member of his uncle's 
fjBunily. Hia brother Musdoad now made war against 
him, but some imknown hand assassinated the rebel and 
his general, and Modoad returned to reign at Ghuzni. 

Modoad had died at Ghuzni and was succeeded by his 
infant son, who was murdered after six days by his uncle 
Ali. Ali reigned two years and was deposed by Resehed, 
a son of Mahmoud who after forty days was assassinated 


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by his omrahs, and Feroch Zaad, a son of Musdoad 
chosen by lot to succeed him. Feroch reigned six years 
and was succeeded by his brother Ibrahim, a prince who 
delighted in learning and the arts of peace. He reigned 
thirty-one years, and was succeeded by his son Musaod 
II., who walked in the steps of his fetther. Musaod 
was succeeded by his son Shere, who was almost imme- 
diately assassinated by his brother Arsilla. Bjn'am, a 
younger brother defeated Arsilla under the walls of 
Ghuzni, and seated himself on the throne, but after a 
disastrous reign of thirty-five years, Byram was obliged 
to fly to India, where he died in the year 1152. 
Chusero, the son of Byram, retired to Lahore and 
ruled there for seven years, when he was succeeded by 
his son Chusero II. Chusero and all his family were 
betrayed and put to death by Mahmoud, brother of 
Yaas, king of Ghor, and with them the Ghuznite 
dynasty became extinct. * 

• Keene'B "Fall of the Mogul Empire." 


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Hindoo Princes resolye to tlurow off Mussnlman yoke — ^Mahomed of 
Ghor invades India and is defeated — Pithowra king of Delhi carries off 
tlie daughter of Jye-Chund Ray of Canouje — ^Mahomed Ghor inyades 
India again — ^Takes Delhi and Canonje — Death of their Kings and final 
overthrow of Rajpoots — Mahomed returns to Ghuzni — Made pine 
Expeditions to India — ^Was succeeded by the Slave Kings for 81 years 
— Genghis Khan, with his Scythian and Tartar hordes— St. Louis and 
his Crusade — Timour the Lame — Triumphs over Bajazet— Ret urns to 
Samarcand laden with spoil — His Death. 

The time had now come when, perceiving the family 
quarrels, the revolt of its governors and the encroach- 
ments of the Turkomans imperilling the Ghuznite 
empire, the Hindoo princes of India resolved to make a 
combined effort to throw off the Mussulman yoke. 
Mahomed of Ghor, an Afghan warrior, coming pre- 
sently to the throne, proceeded to invade Hindostan, and 
singling out Pithowra, king of Delhi, engaged him in 
single combat, but his gallantry was in vain. His armj^' 
was scattered and he himself carried almost insensible to 
Lahore. Pithowra king of Delhi, after quarrelling with 
his ally Jye-Chund Ray king of Canouje, bore off the 
daughter of the latter, and, defended in his retreat bv 


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the pick of India's chivalry, succeeded in gaining his 
capital with a lovely and willing bride, not however at a 
less cost than that of leaving nearly all his warrior-band 
dead upon the road. The abduction of this lady led to 
war between the Rajahs of Canouje and Delhi, which 
was the cause of their final overthrow and withdrawal 
from that part of India, but not before Jye-Chund Ray 
had taken Delhi and Pithowra had expiated his sins 
against his kingly neighbour by death. Mahomed Gori 
roused by the news of the conquest of Delhi now 
equipped himself for a crusade against India. He took 
and sacked Canouje ; and Jye-Chund Ray its king, met ' 
with a congenial death in the sacred waters of the 
Ganges. Jye-Chund Ray of Canouje and Pithowra of 
Delhi were the last great Hindoo sovereigns of Hindostan 
(1194), and with the fall of their capitals and the ex- 
patriation of the Rajpoots the military spirit of the people 
was extinguished . After the conquest of Delhi Mahmoud 
turned his arms against Bengal, where he took the sacred 
city of Benares, and after pillaging a thousand shrines 
and temples returned to Ghuzni at the head of his 
victorious army followed by 4,000 camels laden with the 
spoils of his conquests. Mahomed Ghor made nine 
expeditions to India, and left a treasure, the amount of 
which sounds incredible in western ears. He was at last 
assassinated, and left only one daughter. After his death 
the empire was divided amongst his slaves. The so- 
called dynasty of the slave kings lasted for eighty-one 
years. It presents the usual features of crime and 
assassination, since it numbered ten sovereigns, only 
three of whom died natural deaths. 


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> It is not until the year 1227, the year in which St. 
Louis led his ill-feted crusade to the Holy Land, that 
Genghis Khan at the head of his Scythian and Tartar 
hordes arrests the attention of the student of Indian 
History. Chief of the pastoral millions of central Asia, 
the career of the Shepherd King was one of unceasing 
bloodshed. He burst on the kingdoms of Asia with an 
army never equalled in numbers either before or since. 
According to Elphinstone, "This irruption of the 
Moguls was the greatest calamity that has fellen on 
mankind since the Deluge. They had no religion to 
teach and no seeds of improvement to sow, nor did they 
offer an alternative of conversion or tribute; their only 
object was to slaughter and destroy, and the only trace 
they left was iij the devastation of every country which 
they visited." • 

Knowing no god but his own will, no pleasure but 
the destruction of his kind (it is said that upwards of 
14,000,000 were slaughtered by Genghis during the 
last twenty years of his life), he scoffed alike at learning 
and religion, littered Ins horses with the contents of the 
grandest library in Asia, burned the Bible, and cast the 
Koran imder his horses feet in the holy mosque of 
Bokhara. The empire he bequeathed to his son 
extended 1,800 leagues from east to west, and more 
than 1,000 from north to south. His was the porten- 
tous shadow that heralded the coming event. The 
Mogul age had fellen on India, and Genghis was only 

* " History of India," by the Hon. Moxmtstnort Elphinstone. Edited 
by E. B. Cowell, M.A. 


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paving the way for the invasion of Timour the Tartar 
150 years later.* 

Genghis Khan was succeeded by Feroze, and he in 
turn by his sister the beautiful Sultana Rizia, who was 
put to death soon after her accession. In 1287, Feroze 
the Benevolent ascended the throne. Alia the San- 
guinary carried war into the Deccan, an accoimt of 
which will be found in a later chapter. From 
1321-1387 endless Afghan rulers sat on the throne of 
Hindostan. Amongst them may be numbered Muba- 
rick, Chusero, Ghfyi, Toghlak, Mahomed III. and Feroze 
the Benevolent. 

In 1398, nearly 400 years after the invasion of Mah- 
moud of Ghuzni, came Timour the Tartar, or Timour 
Leng, so called from his lameness. During five days 
this ferocious slayer of men gave up Dehh to rapine and 
pillage, and every soul above fifteen years of age was 
ruthlessly butchered by his soldiery. History has no 
horrors to compare with those of this wholesale slaughter. 
In less than an hour aft;er the diabolical order was given 
one hundred thousand human beings had, according to 
Mussulman historians, been massacred in cold blood. 
Erecting his standard above this city of shambles, 
Timour seated himself on the ancient musnud of the 
Sultans of Dehli, and there received the petitions of 
iallen kings, and the homage of suppliant sovereigns. 
Petitioned by the Brahmins to spare their god, " I will 
break your gods," he ruthlessly replied, " to give them 
the opportunity of performing a miracle and mutn'Tig 
themselves whole." 

Timour did not remain long in Hindostan. He feared 

• Sip Edward Sullivan's " Princes of India." 


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the effects of its enervating climate on his army, inured 
to the snow and frosts of Central Asia. At this time 
the fame of Bajazet's, the Ottoman conqueror's exploits, 
reached Timour Leng's ears, and he determined to lose 
no time in picking up the gauntlet for supreme authority, 
which he conceived Bajazet to have cast down. But 
though he resolved on quitting Delhi, he was equally 
determined that his name should not be forgotten. He 
caused the money of the ancient capital of Hindostan to 
be stamped with his image and superscription, and his 
name to be invoked in the mosques (as it was cursed in 
the Brahminical temples) of Hindostan. 

Timour triumphed over Bajazet, and glutted with 
conquest returned to Samarcand, to hold high festival 
in celebration of the marriages of his six grandsons. 
The gardens of the Imperial palace ran with kermiz, 
hippocrene, brandy, and the choicest wines ; several large 
forests were cut down to supply fuel for the banquets, 
which lasted two months. The turquoise gates and the 
porcelain pavilion were open to all comers, whilst the 
Green Palace which Timour had erected as a convenient 
place whither to conduct rivals or relatives quietly, and 
there kill them outright, or, if clemently disposed, apply 
the terrible "fire-pencil" to their eyes, was closed by 
royal command. Soon after this pompous celebration 
of his pride and victories, the king of twenty-eight 
crowns was summoned to his last account. Cahnly 
stretched upon his bed, as though his life had been one 
of serene benevolence from his earliest career, he awaited 
death with the often-repeated Mahomedan formula on 
his lips : " There is no God but God." 


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Baber founder of Mogul dynasty — Baber's Exploits and Character — 
^ Hoomayoon — Contemporary Erents and Cliaracters — Flodden Field — 
S[nights of St. Jolm and Solyman — ^Luther— Francis the First and 
Bayard— Charles V. and Titian — Michael Angelo — Torquato Tasso— 
Henry VIII.— Pope Leo— Akbar the Great— His rare Personal 
Qualities and Enlightened Policy — His reign coincides with that of 
Elizabeth — His death — ^Memory, how revered — Jehangire — The beauti- 
fal Noor Mahal — Shah Jehan— Built the Taj Mahal and adorned Delhi 
— ^Aurungzebe' a bad man but a good Sovereign — ^What he did and how 
he died — ^Anarchy — Shah Alam I. — Concessions to Mahrattas — Sivajee 
— Peishwa — Nadir Shah — Massacre at Delhi— Retires laden with 
spoil — Peacock Throne—Koh-i-noor — Nadir murders his son and is 
himself assassinated— Shah Alam II. rescued by Lord Lake in 1803 — 
The last great Mogul dies a convict in a remote province. 

Baber Khan of Kokhand, the founder of the Moguls 
dynasty of Hindostan, 1527, was descended both from 
Genghis Khan and from Timour. He was well-fitted, 
alike by birth and nature to take his place amongst 
the splendid array of contemporary sovereigns who 
mark the period of the " Renaissance" — The age that 
witnessed the chivalry of Scotland meet a glorious 
death on Flodden Field ; that saw the Knights of St. 
John striving hopelessly against Solyman with his army 
of 140,000 men, and his fleet of 400 ships. It was 
during this age that the German monk burned the papal 
bull before the gates' of Wittenburg, and Francis the 
First solicited knighthood after the battle of Marsignano 



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at the hands of Bayard. It was in this age that the 
Emperor Charles V. stooped at Titian's feet to pick up 
the brush which had fellen from the great master's hand. 
Michael Angelo built St. Peter's, and decorated the 
Sistine Chapel, and Torquato Tasso wrote his " Gerusa- 
lemma Liberata.^' The eighth Henry reigned in England, 
the first Francis in France, the fifth Charles in Germany 
and Spain, and Pope Leo X. a MsBcenas amongst Popes. 
Before the age of sixteen Baber had twice seized and 
occupied the great Mogul capital of Samarcand; he 
took Cabul in 1504 ; in 1518 he conquered the Punjaub ; 
in 1526 he invaded India, met Ibrahim Lodi, the last 
Sultan of the Lodi race that reigned in Hindostan, and 
defeated him at the battle of Paniput, where after the 
victory, the dead body of the king was found surrounded 
by 6,000 Afghan nobles, who had fought until their 
last breath by the side of their sovereign. In the year 
1527 the Afghans and Hindoos led on by Sanga Rana 
of Oudypore, leagued themselves together against Baber, 
but were utterly routed near Agra, and the capture of 
Chanderi, 1528, seemed to establish his ascendancy. 
Yet it was not until his forty-fourth year that Baber 
seated himself permanently on the throne of Delhi, and 
established the Mogul d3alasty in Hindostan. Thence- 
forth his energies were devoted to the arts of peace. 
His memoirs, written in simple language, form one of 
the most delightful biographies ever given to the world. 
He was a poet, a musician, and a botanist. Learned in 
all eastern lore, he united with the theology of Mahomed 
the abstruse studies of the Moorish doctors, and a 
thorough knowledge of the Persian poetry and literature 
of his native Turkestan. Merciful for a Mogul, tolerant 

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for a Mussulman, chivalrous, generous, and brave ; an 
affectionate son and a devoted father, we find in him 
united all the noblest qualities of the east and of the west. 
The only blot upon his otherwise noble character was that 
fatal vice common to his race and lineage, but not even 
the degrading effects of intemperance could dim the lustre 
of his fine nature, or overthrow his powerful intellect. 
His son being ill, Baber was told by the wise men that 
the only propitiation for his life would be the sacrifice of 
what he himself most valued. " That must be my own 
existence " he replied, and in nursing his heir he con- 
tracted the illness which was shortly to kill him. By 
his dying request his remains were taken to Cabul. 
He met his end calmly and bravely. His last words 
were the Mahomedan formula "there is no God but 
God," and with these upon his lips, Mahomed Baber, 
sumamed the Victorious, passed away from a world 
where even in that splendid age, few could be said to 
equal, none to excel him. 

Baber dead, his beloved son Hoomayoon ascended the^ 
throne, which already began to totter to its foundations. 
Shere Khan, the foremost man in India, an Afghan 
chief of great physical and mental power, rebelled and 
conquered Hoomayoon at Agra. Escaping with his life 
to Ajmere he was received by its friendly Rajpoot 
sovereign, and here in the fortress of Ammercote was ^ 
born his son Mahomed Akbar, destined to become the 
most enlightened legislator and the greatest monarch tiiat 
ever ascended an eastern throne. Shere Khan having 
established himself on the musnud of Hoomayoon, reigned 
five years and left the throne to his son Selim, who reigned 


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nine years, and followed in the enlightened footsteps of his 
fiithen Four princes of the family of Shere Khan sat on 
the throne of Hindostan, in the two years succeeding 
Selim's death, when in 1555 Hoomayoon was recalled after 
a banishment of sixteen years to his capital. The sceptre 
of empire had now passed for ever from the Afghans, 
but Hoomayoon did not live to enjoy his restoration. He 
slipped on the terrace of his palace at Delhi, was taken 
>up insensible and never spoke again. In the tomb of 
Hoomayoon, near Delhi, the first hereditary Mogul 
sovereign, the last Mogul Emperor of Delhi was taken 
prisoner, with three of his sons ; the latter were soon 
afterwards shot on theiir way to Delhi by Captain 
^Hodson in 1857. Hoomayoon was succeeded by his 
son, Akbar the Victorious, whose reign coincides with 
that of Elizabeth of England. He was the first Indian 
emperor who made no distinction between Hindoos and 
Mussulmans. He maintained that each creed had an 
equal claim on his protection and impartiality, and 
disclaimed both by word and deed all sympathy 
with the intolerance of his countrymen. He suppressed 
enforced suttees, and permitted widows to marry again. 
In accordance with his principles of perfect toleration 
he allowed the Jesuits to build churches in Agra and 
Lahore, and to endow colleges. Chivalry ofiers nothing 
more striking than his daring deeds of prowess; 
rejoicing in fighting for fighting's sake, he yet possessed 
the most conspicuous ability as a great commander, and 
the most beneficent genius as a wise king. Proud of 
his personal strength, humane, just, and generous, he 
stands a splendid and unrivalled figure in the history of 


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Hiadostan. He recovered Delhi and Agra from Hemu 
Rajah, stormed and took Chitore, reconquered Guzerat, 
Behar, Bengal, and Orissa from his rebel nobles, and 
thus crushed out the last remains of Afghan power in 
Hindostan. Cashmere was conquered in 1587, Scinde in 
1592, and Gandahar in 1594, Besides his hereditary 
dominions beyond the Indus, the whole of Hindostan 
except Oud3rpore was under his sway* The great mistake < 
of his life was that of attempting to conquer the Moham- 
madan kingdoms of the Deccan. The successful defence 
of Ahmednuggur by its noble Queen is celebrated in 
Indian history. Akbar succeeded, it is true, in annexing 
Kandeish, and Jehangire, and Aurungzebe followed up 
these conquests, but they were nevertheless destined to 
be the ruin of the Mogul Empire. When Akbar^s days 
were drawing to a close, he called his eldest son Selim to 
Ins side, and confided his kingdom and faithful servants 
to the care of his successor, closing his farewell address 
with the touching words, " my servants and dependents 
when I am gone forget thou not, neither the afflicted in 
their hour of need ; ponder word for word on all that I 
have said to thee. Do thou bear all in mind, and again 
forget me not.*' And thus on the night of the lOth^ 
October, 1605, Akbar Shah, the ornament of the world, 
the Asylum of the Nations, the King of Kings, the 
Great, the Fortunate and the Victorious, took leave of 
the world, and passed to " where beyond these voices 
there is peace." To this day his memory is held in 
reverence by the faithful, and pilgrimages are made to 
his magnificent tomb near Agra.* 

* Lord Lake quartered in tluB vast building a regiment of dragoons 
with their horses. 


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Akbar was succeeded by his son Jehangire Selim, 
sumamed the Conqueror of the World, whose eldest son 
Chusero rebelled against his father, and was imprisoned 
for life. His third son Shah Jehan succeeded him, and 
was in turn succeeded by his third son Aurungzebe, 
names well known in history. But although the Mogul 
Empire seemed to grow in outward glory, the race of 
Baber never produced after Akbar a really great man. 

> Jehangire, an intemperate and vicious prince, owed much 
to the services of Aiass the good, the father of the cele- 
brated Noor-Mahal, or light of the Harem, a woman who 
during 20 years ruled Jehanghire and the Empire of 
Hindostan with a power as absolute as that exercised by 

^ Semiramis or Cleopatra. Sir Thomas Roe, the English 
ambassador sent by James I. to the Court of the great 
Mogul, gives a most amusing account of his intercourse 
with, and the life and habits of, this singular sovereign 
whose frightul habits of intemperance were most dis- 
gusting. The Empress Noor-Mahal survived Jehanghire 
18 years, and £250,000 a year was paid to her annually 
as jointure out of the national treasury. 

Shah Jehan ascended the Mogul throne in 1628, and 
inaugurated his reign by indiscriminate slaughter of all 

> his male relatives. He married a niece of the beautiful 
Nour-mahal and never took any other woman to wife. 
To her memory a devoted and faithful affection raised 
the celebrated Taj Mahal, the most perfect specimen of 
Saracenic architecture in the world. During twenty-two 
years 20,000 men were employed, and nearly a million 
sterling was expended upon it. The years 1631-32 
were marked by plague, pestilence and famine, which 


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converted the smiling plains into howling wildernesses. 
Seeing the distress of his people, Shah Jehan did all 
that he could to relieve their sufferings, but still the hand 
of the angel of death was not stayed. At length, dis- 
gusted by the apathy which sought relief at the shrines 
of their gods rather than in action and energy, he drew 
the sword of religious persecution and destroyed temples 
and gods alike with an unsparing hand. The impolicy 
of such a line of action soon became apparent to him, for 
he said he had converted after this fashion thousands to 
enthusiasm and martyrdom, and observed that " a prince 
who wishes to have subjects must take them with all 
the trumpery and trouble of their religion !" Shah 
Jehan was an able ruler, though his private character was 
disfigured by many vices. He was boundless in his dis- 
play and enjoyed a revenue of 40 millions sterling. He ^ 
beautified Agra with the Taj and immortalised himself 
by those lovely gardens at Delhi which have inspired all 
subsequent eastern song and romance, as well as by the 
fortified palace and other magnificent structures within 
its walls. Shah Jehan's sons rebelled against him as<. 
he had rebelled against his father, and Aurungzebe his 
third son, who usurped his throne and kept him for the 
last eight years under restraint, was never mentioned by 
Shah Jehan without curses. ^'Fathers have been 
dethroned by their sons before," it was his custom to 
observe, " but it was reserved for Aurungzebe to insult 
the misfortune of a parent." His death made no 
difference to Aurungzebe who had been for many years 
the actual Emperor of Hindostan. 

Ascetic by nature and ambitious by disposition, Aur- 


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ungzebe was eminently adapted to carry out a policy of 
dissimulation. Hjrpocritical, unforgiving and crafty, 
suspicious, cold-hearted, and a bigot in religion, he 
>was none the less a skilful ruler. A bad man but a good 
sovereign, his evil acts were those of nature, his good 
those of policy. His powerful character declared itself 
when his father Shah Jehan was first struck with paralysis. 
He threw his brother Morad, the favourite of the army, 
into prison, and finally caused him to be beheaded. 
Dara, his eldest brother fled beyond the Indus, and soon 
after, losing his only, and passionately loved wife, Dara 
tore ofi^ his imperial turban, cast aside his magnificent 
robes, and renounced for ever the hopes and pleasures of 
life. Not long after this he was betrayed to Aurungzebe 
and carried in ignominy to Delhi, where his brother and 
sovereign ordered his immediate assassination. Sujah 
the youngest brother was slain in Arracan, and Soliman 
the son of Dara, and Sefe his grandson, as well as the 
child of Morad, having been compelled to drink " poust," 
the potion prepared from poppy seeds, by which it was 
customary to remove superfluous princes of the house of 
Timour, Aurungzebe at length reigned undisturbed, the 
greatest potentate of the eastern world. 

He defeated the Afghans, forced them to re-cross 
the Indus, and carried fire and sword into the fidr 
valleys of Afghanistan. Notwithstanding religious 
intolerance, peace marked the history of the central 
provinces of Hindustan, but the Emperor's contests with 
the kingdoms of the Deccan and the inroads of ftajpoots, 
Afghans, Seikhs and Mahrattas show how numerous were 
the enemies of the Mogul race* A portent of the rapid 


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&11 which it would experience whenever the master hand 
should fail. 

From this period the history of Aurungzebe is so 
involved with that of the history of the Deccan that we 
must refer our readers to the succeeding chapter for 
much which belongs properly to the history of Hindustan. 
It was in the year 1707 at Ahmednuggur in the Deccan, 
in the fiftieth year of his reign and the ninetieth of 
his age, that the great message came to Aurungzebe. 
Vanity of vanities, all is vanity ! was like that of 
Solomon, " the sad and splendid," his farewell cry. He< 
desired to be buried in the simplest manner, and left 
orders that no splendid mausoleum should be erected to 
his memory. A bad son, an imjust father, an inhuman 
brother, he was nevertheless as a ruler nearly as great as 
Akbar, as a warrior as brave as Baber, and as a sovereign 
more magnificent than either of those princes. He 
encouraged learning, science and the arts; developed 
commerce and agriculture, was indefatigable in business, 
and moderate in his pleasures. 

Some idea of the anarchy that succeeded Aurungzebe's 
death may be gathered from the feet that during eleven 
years 17'07-1718 five sovereigns sat upon the musnud of 
the Moguls, two of whom, together with six unsuccessful 
competitors, were slain in battle or otherwise came to 
untimely ends. Bahadur Shah the successor of Aurung- 
zebe was forced to make concessions to the Mahrattas, who 
under Sackojee and the Peishwas had already seized their 
opportunity. From 1718-1803 they Were often supreme 
at Delhi, but the sight of Rajpoots, Mahrattas, Seikhs 
and Jats all contending against each other, or united 


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against a nominal sovereign, could not fisul to arrest the 
attention of the conqueror, who was watching the 
situation with a keenly observant eye and only waiting 
the opportunity to dash in and seize the prize. 
> The invasion of Nadir Shah in 1738 completely shat- 
tered the empire of the Moguls. 

Nadir Shah was a Persian of low origin. He answered 
all enquiries as to his birth and lineage by the conclusive 
argument of the pedigree of the sword. His son 
desiring to marry a princess of the race of Timour, an 
envoy of the now merely nominal sovereign of Hindostan 
required that he should prove a male pedigree extending 
through seven generations. "Go, tell your mastery" 
Nadir Shah replied, dismissing the ambassador with 
contempt, " that my son is the son of Nadir Shah, the 
son of the sword, the grandson of the sword, and so on 
until he has a descent of seventy generations instead of 

Nadir Shah after driving the Afghans out of Persia 
followed them into Hindostan. The Emperor Mahomed 
made a feeble show of resistance, but quickly retired 
before the victorious arms of the conqueror. In the 
massacre he ordered at Delhi the streets ran blood, but 
during the awful hours of slaughter Nadir Shah, unmoved 
and calm, remained seated in a mosque in the great Bazar. 
So terrible was his countenance that none dared approach 
him. At length Mahomed and his omrahs ventured 
into his ruthless presence. He asked them what they 
wanted, and they humbly implored him to spare their 
city, but he answered not a word, until Mahomed, bathed 

• Sir Edward Sullivan. 


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in tears, prostrated himself on the ground, laying his 
crown at the conqueror's feet; and on this act of sub- 
mission, Nadir ordered the massacre to be stayed. 

Thirty-seven days Nadir Shah occupied Delhi. Before 
quitting the city he replaced the humbled Mahomed on 
the throne. He commenced his return march laden with 
treasure variously estimated at from 10 to 30 millions 
sterling. Amongst his spoils were the femous peacockC 
throne* of Shah Jehan, and that historic diamond which 
excited the admiration of the visitors to the Great 
Exhibition in 1851, and is now the most precious gem 
in the regalia of the Empress of India. 

Had he chosen to do so, there is no doubt but that 
Nadir could have established a Persian dynasty on the 
throne of Delhi, but he was wise enough to see that an 
empire with two capitals so far apart as Delhi and 
Ispahan must result in disaster, and naturally preferring 
the land of his speech and kindred to that of Moguls and 
Hindoos he returned to Persia. He was assassinated in 
his tent near Meshed by his own nobles, whose indignation 
he had excited first by the murder of his own son, and 
then by the massacre of 50 persons of high rank, because 
they had not interfered on behalf of his heir. 

Mahomed Shah survived the invasion of Delhi nine 
years, and died in 1748, after a disastrous reign of 30 
years. He was succeeded by his son Ahmed Shah, but 
the days of the Mogul djmasty were numbered, and 
another Power with advancing standards was in the 
field, to whom Mogul and Mahratta must alike give 

* Valned by Tavemier, a French jeweller, at iS6,000,000 — an evident 


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place. The fifteenth great Mogul, Shah Alam II., 
was rescued by Lord Lake from the Mahrattas in 1803i 
and the seventeenth and last, a victim or traitor, or both, 
was taken prisoner after the treacherous outbreak of 
1857 and died a convict in a remote comer of the 
distant province of Pegu in 1863. 
> Thus ended the once powerful and magnificent dynasty 
of the great Mogul which in the zenith of its power 
possessed a revenue of £40,000,000, and a veteran army 
of 500,000 men, with a mighty artillery under Euro- 
peans. The Court of the Emperor, whether he was 
enthroned in his sumptuous palace at Delhi, or took the 
field either for pleasure or war, was, under Shah Jehan 
and Aurungzebe, unequalled for the number of subject 
kings and princes, and the splendour of its appointments. 

Sir Thomas Roe, Bemier and others who accompanied 
the Mogul in these imperial progresses, describe the 
grand camp as on a colossal scale^ containing within its 
canvas walls ample accommodation not only for a great 
army and its countless followers, but every luxury, 
however superfluous. 

In addition to magnificently caparisoned elephants, 
and horses with hawks, hounds, and hunting tigers for 
field sports, there was a menagerie of the rarest ftTiimft lg 
for the amusement of the Emperor and the Court. 

There were " Halls of audience for public assemblies 
and privy councils, with all the courts and cabinets 
attached to them, each hall magnificently adorned, and 
having within it a raised seat or throne for the Emperor, 
surrounded by gilded pillars with canopies of velvet, 
richly fringed, and superbly embroidered ; separate tents, 


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as mosques and oratories; baths; and galleries for 
archery and gymnastic exercises ; a seraglio as remark- * 
able for luxury and privacy as that of Dehli." ♦ 

Nothing according to Bemier, can be more royal and 
magnificent than the seraglio on the line of march. 
" Stretch imagination to its utmost limits, and you can 
conceive no exhibition more grand and imposing," the 
ladies, in curtained canopies, mounted on huge elephants, 
blazing with gold and azure, surrounded with eunuchs, 
well mounted and splendidly dressed, with troops of 
female servants from Tartary and Cashmere, fentastically 
attired on handsome horses. 

No wonder if such a vision inspired the imagination of 
Indian poets, and made them " represent the elephants 
as conveying so many goddesses, concealed from the 
vulgar gaze." 

• Sydney Owen, Bernicr, &c. 


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Physical Features — Ancient Splendonr of Madura and Beejann^gur — 
Well-being of the People— First Invasion by Alia the Sanguinary ^- 
Arabs — Kingdoms of the Deccan—Mahommedan Kings of Beejapore, 
Ahmednuggur, Gk>lconda and Baidar league against great Hindoo 
Kingdom of Beejanuggur — Site of Madras granted to England in 1640 
— Mysore — ^Akbar — Beautiful Queen of Gurrah — ^Aurungzebe-^Eise of 
Mahrattas — Sivajee — Sack of Surat — Baja of Satara — Nizam-ul-Mulk 
founder of Hydrabad dynasty — The Peishwas — Tara Bhye — Hyder Ali 
— ^First Mysore War— Sir Eyre Coote — Second Mysore War — ^Tippoo 
Saib — Third Mysore War — Fourth Mysore War— Fall of Seringapatam 
and Death of Tippoo — Hindoo Dynasty restored — The last of the 
Peishwas — His odious Administration and Deposition — His adopted son 
the Nana Sahib, of Bithoor. 

The history of the Deccan, or the south country, is 
closely interwoven with that of Hindostan, but it has 
nevertheless a history and fortunes of its own. 

Between the 23rd and 25th parallels of latitude the 
Vendhya range, extending from the north-west of 
Guzerat to the Ganges, divides the Deccan from Hindo- 
stan, although the Mogul Emperors affected to regard the 
Nerbudda as the boundary of the provinces directly 
subject to the Imperial Crown.* 

* The Mogul Emperors fixed the Nerbudda for the limit of their pro- 
Tinces in those two great diyisions, but the division of the nations is made 
by the Vindhja mountains. It is well remarked by Sir W. Jones and 
Major Bennell that both banks of rirers in Asia are generally inhabited 
by the same community. The rule applies to Europe and is as true on 
the Ehine or the Po as of the Granges or the Nile. Biyers are precise and 
eonrenient limits for artificial diyisions, but they are no great obstacles to 
communication; and to form a natural separation between nations, 
requires the real obstruction of a mountain chain.— JlfoiMi^t^tkir^ Slpiin^ 


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The Deccan, is, after passing the broad and deep 
valleys of the Nerbudda and Taptee, for the most part a • 
lofty table land of triangular form, buttressed on all sides 
by ranges of hills, called the Ghats or Stairs, that on thee 
west being the highest and best known, having a border 
of low land intervening between them and the sea, pos- 
sessing in some portions scenery of singular beauty and 

The lofty table land has a general inclination, from 
west to east, f5pom the Malabar to the Coromandel coast 
the province of Orissa, its eastern border, and merging 
on the south' west in the large table-land of Mysore. Its 
chief rivers, having their rise in the Western Ghats, flow 
across the peninsula in deep channels, little accessible to 
the cultivator for the irrigation of his fields. 

There are vast tracks of forest, having patches of 
cultivation, with villages few and far between, but the 
usual aspect of this elevated region is that of billowy 
downs, covered with verdure, or that of vast plains of 
waving cotton and com, without a tree or a farm house 
to break the monotony ; the people choosing as is usual 
with the agricultural population, especially in Eastern 
countries, to live together for mutual protection in villages 
more or less remote. When the crops are gathered and 
the grass is withered from the heat of the sun, nothing can 
be more dreary than the general aspect of the country. 

" All the traditions and records of the peninsula recog- ^ 
nise, in every part of it, a period when the natives were 
not Hindus."* 

Tamil, the language of the most ancient kingdoms of 

• ProfeBsor WilBon. 

Digitized by 



the south of the peninsula appears to have preceded the 
> introduction of Sanscrit, and Professor Wilson is of 
opinion that the civilization of the Deccan preceded our 
era by many centuries. 

Strabo and Arrian on the authority of the companions 
of Alexander describe the inhabitants of the south as not 
inferior in refinement to the other nations of India, and 
the former historian mentions that Pandyon, one of the 
minor kings of the Deccan, had sent an ambassador to 

There are five languages spoken in the Deccan which 
appear to point to a similar number of national divisions.* 

Centuries before our era the Pandyon dynasty reigned 
in Madura, where they have continued to reign until 
comparatively recent times. The Cholas reigned in 
Conjeveram and afterwards in Tanjore. 

After many revolutions and changes, of which we know 
little or nothing, these states in 1300, were merged in 
the vast Hindoo kingdom of Beejanuggur. Madura and 
Beejanuggur are represented by travellers as having 
exceeded Delhi and Canouje in splendour and magni- 
tude, whilst the irrigation works, tanks, highly-culti- 
vated country and general well-being of the people 
proved the Government to have been an enterprising and 
enlightened one. It was under Alia the Sanguinary, 
nephew and murderer of the amiable Feroze that the 
Deccan was first invaded (1294) by a sovereign of 
Hindustan. During his predecessor's lifetime Alia had 
been Governor of those districts of which the boundary is 
the Nerbudda. The febulous accounts of the temples 

* Mountstoart Elphinstone. 


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SK. jpfc^issi 


and shrines, of the fair cities, and fruitful plains of the 
countries of the Deccan, tempted Alia on ascending 
the throne to advance upon the coveted territory. He 
took and sacked Dowlatabad, and the Agas of the Moslem 
conqueror were astonished by the undreamed-of glories 
of EUora and Ajunta. Encouraged by success, Alia 
despatched his General Cafoor with orders to penetrate 
south as &r as the kingdoms of the Camatic and Mysore. 

There were few Mahommedans in the Deccan; but a 
band of enterprising Arabs had established themselves on 
the coast of Malabar, and with a fierce and untiring 
vigour, carried on a joint war for the true faith, and in 
defence of their trading occupations. Whilst Cafoor was 
ravaging the smiling regions of the south, sacking Hindoo 
cities and pillaging Hindoo shrines, Alia invaded Guzerat 
(A.D. 1300), and destroyed the cities of Anhulwarra 
and Somnauth, rebuilt after the conquest of Mahmoud 
by a subsequent Jain sovereignty. From thence he led 
his armies against Bajpootana and other states. 

Alia and his general, Cafoor, having ravaged Guzerat, 
Rajpootana and the fertile kingdoms of the Caimatic, were 
now called home by the incursions of the Mogul on 
Delhi; but from the first invasion of the Deccan under 
Alia the Sanguinary until 1818, when English arms 
reduced its princes to submission, the Deccan never again 
knew a moment's peace. In 1347, fifty-two years after 
AUa the Sanguinary first conquered Dowlatabad, the great 
revolt of the Deccan Ameers against Mahomed bin Tuglak 
occurred, when Zuf&er Eahn, a successful soldier, was 
raised to the throne. He founded the Brahmini djoiasty, 
so called in grateful remembrance of his old master and 



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bene&ctor, who was a Brahmin, which reigned at Kal- 
burga from 1347 to 1526. : 

In 1526 the kingdom was divided under the Adil 
Shahis of Beejapore, the Nizam Shahis of Ahmednuggur, 
the Kutub Shahis of Golconda, the Fuad Shahis of Berar 
and the Band Shahis of Baidar. After this rebellion the 
Mahonmiedan rulers of Delhi never again crossed the 
Nerbudda until the reign of Akbar. These Mahommedan 
kingdoms of the Deccan were at the height of their 
prosperity when the Portuguese first went to India; and 
in 1565 the kings of Beejapore, Ahmednuggur, Golconda 
and Baidar combined against the Hindoo kingdom of 
Beejanuggur. The aged king, Ram Raja, was slain in cold 
^ blood, and his kingdom rent in pieces ; and it was from a 
successor of Ram Raja that the English in 1640 received 
the grant of the site of Madras. It was then that 

> Mysore became independent. Akbar carried his arms 
' into the Deccan, but was met by heroic opposition from the 

beautifiil Hindoo Queen of Gurrah, Durghetti, who, 
deserted by her troops and agonised by the loss of her 
son, preferred death to disgrace, and terminated her own 

It was during the wars caused by the endeavours of 
Akbar's successors to reduce the kingdoms of the 
Deccan, that the Mahrattas rose to supreme power, both 
in the Deccan and Hindustan. 

> The Mahrattas were so called from Maharastra, a land 
of mountain fastuesses— a Switzerland — on the western 
margin of the Deccan, a fitting cradle for the future 
plunderers and conquerors of India. 

-, These mountain rats, as the Great Mogul Aurungzebe 
contemptuously called them, notwithstanding the want 


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of any Kterature of their own — ^their rude and ungainly 
appearance, the absence of all refinement in manners and 
social habits and their inferiority in other respects 
to the other natives of the Deccan, have, fix)m their 
indomitable perseverance and energy, whether as peaceful 
tillers of the soil or as marauders or soldiers, achieved an 
influence and renown, not only beyond all the other nations 
of the South, but have more nearly accomplished universal 
dominion in India than any other Hindoo people.* 

The Mahrattas early took service in the armies of 
the Mahommedan kings of Delhi and the Deccan. In 
1553 Shajee, of the respectable Bosla family, was 
commander of a party of horse of the Nizam Shah 
of Ahmednuggur. He was the father of the femous 
Sivajee, who was bom at the fort of Joonair in 1627. 
At nineteen he seized the hiU fort of Toma, and with 
the treasures there taken built the fort of Kaighur. 
Soon after he took Surghur and Purundar, and in 1659, 
when the Beejapore Government attempted to seize him 
at Pertabghur, he successfully baflBied them by the trea- 
cherous murder of their general, Afzul Khan, whom 
whilst pretending to embrace, he ripped open with 

* The Mahratta country proper extends from Snrat and Na^nf to 
Bijapor and Groa — a hilly tract bounded by the Satpura Mountains on 
the north, and the Shyadri range of the Western Ghats, and the maritime 
belt of the Eohkan on the west, and watered by the Nerbudda, the 
Tapti, the Grodarery, the Bima, and the Kishtna. The cradle of the race 
lies in the Mawuls of the Deccan, or upland valleys of the mountain 
sources of the Grodavery, Bima, or Kishtna. The Mahratta country, 
indeed, corresponds with the kingdom of the ancient Bajput dynasty of 
the Yadavas in Telingana. It is the Cabul of the Deccan — a country 
abounding in all the resources of war, in which armies can be prepared in 
perfect secrecy, and descend to sweep the rich plains below without a 
moment's warning, to which every road afibrds a safe retreat, and which 
is unassailable, except by a scienfcifio foe. — The " Time$ " Summary. 


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steel-hooks " tiger-claws " secreted in his left hand, and 
then dispatched him with the dagger which he held in 
his right. He next became master of EjJian and the 
greater part of the Concan. 

When the king of Beejapore sent messengers to 
Sivajee requiring hiin to submit, he proudly answered^ 
"What superiority has your master gained over me, 
that I should consent to your mission? begone speedily, 
lest I disgrace you ! " 

Adventurous Hindoos joined his standard from all parts 
of the Deccan and the Concan, and his plundering bands 
of wild horsemen became the terror of the inhabitants. 

When Aurungzebe, who had been appointed Viceroy 
of the Deccan by his &ther. Shah Jehan, began to 
meditate treason, he saw in Sivajee one who could assist 
him in his unscrupulous projects. He encouraged him 
to attack the kingdom of Beejapore, and made over two 
or three forts to him to assist his plans. When later oa 
he was preparing to march towards Agra to dethrone his 
&ther, he sent to Sivajee requesting him to join him. 
But Sivajee treated the prince's messenger with indignity, 
drove him from his presence, and ordered the missive he 
had brought to be tied to the tail of a dog. 

He next turned his arms on Surat, took the city by 
coup de main^ and plundered it for six days. He was 
content with the spoil of the Mussulman merchants, and| 
as the city was overflowing with the gold of Persia and 
Arabia, he left the Dutch and English &ctories un- 
molested. Aurungzebe was so delighted with the 
successftil resistance of the English, that to show his 
gratitude and admiration, he conceded fresh privileges to 
the East India Company. After this Sivajee submitted to 


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Aunmgzebe and distinguished himself in his service in 
the invasion of Beejapore. But Aurungzebe never forgave 
him his former insolence and defiance, and always spoke 
of him as " the mountain rat." His son Sumbajee became 
a commander of 500 horse in the Mogul army. In 1666 
Sivajee visited Delhi. He was coldly received by Aurung- 
zebe and placed among the inferior omrahs, who at a 
considerable distance surroimded the throne of the great 
Mogul. It is said that the proud Mahratta shed tears of 
rage and indignation at this premeditated insult, and 
hurled threats and defiance at "the conqueror of the 
world." Tradition adds that a daughter of Aurungzebe 
looking through a grated window into the hall of reception 
was so struck by the bold and undaimted indignation of 
the Mahratta, that her pleadings and intercession moved 
the heart of her imperious and relentless parent to mercy. 
Sivajee escaped from Delhi and rapidly regained his own 
dominion. In 1668 both Golconda and Beejapore paid him 
tribute. In 1676 he invaded the Gamatic, and on return- 
ing to Raighur died there in 1680. " Bom in a fort, his 
greatness rose from Ids forts, and in a fort he died." He 
was fifty-three years old at the time of his death. " He 
was a great captain," said Aurungzebe, on hearing that 
his old enemy was no more; "and the only man who 
has had the power to raise a new kingdom, whilst I have 
been endeavouring to destroy the ancient sovereignties of 
India." Sivajee is one of the greatest princes of Hindoo^ 
history. Nearly the same age as Aurungzebe, his cha- 
racter had many points of similarity with tiiat of the 
great Mogul. Both were energetic, crafty and ambitious. 
Aurungzebe was a Mahommedan bigot, Sivajee was mild 
and merciful. A devoted worshipper of Brama, he 


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seemed to retaliate on the Moslems the cruel persecution 
they had inflicted on his race. He styled himself the 
" Champion of the Gods," and made it his special boast 
that he protected " Brahmins, kine and cultivators." His 
daring in action, his craft in council, his lavish generosity, 
his strength, courage and activity, were the glory and 
admiration of his race, and long after his death it was 
the proudest boast of a Mahratta soldier to have seen 
Sivajee charge hand to hand. Sivajee left immense wealth, 
and at his death was absolute sovereign of a large terri- 
tory in the Deccan. In the distant south he possessed 
the district of Tanjore, equal in extent to many native 

The latter years of Aurungzebe were fiill of great and 
well-merited anxieties. His children, one after the other, 
turned against him, and always found in the Mahrattas 
and Rajpoots allies able and willing to support them. 
His fourth son, Akbar, had formed an alliance with 
Sumbajee, the son of Sivajee, and his banner frequently 
flaimted side by side with that of the Mahratta, on the 
hard-fought fields of the Deccan. The rebellion of the 
Deccan was now general. The kings of Beejapore and 
Golconda united with other Deccanee princes, and 
directed by Sumbajee, formed a powerful league 
against the advancing power of the Mogul. Everywhere 
Aurungzebe's arms were victorious; but it was only for a 
time. The kings of Golconda and Beejapore submitted; 
his son Akbar fled in an English ship, whilst Sumbajee, in 
a state of intoxication, was betrayed into the hands of the 
Mogul. He was blinded with a red-hot iron, had his 
tongue torn out, and was beheaded. EGs minister 
Kulushi shared a like cruel fate. The king of Golconda 


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was publicly scourged, to extort confession of his wealth, 
and the monarch of Beejapore was paraded in silver 
chains before the conqueror. Sumbajee was succeded by 
his son Sackojee aged six, known in history as Saho, or 
" thief," a nickname given him by Aurungzebe. He was 
kept prisoner, and Ram Raja, his imcle, assumed the 
leadership of the Mahrattas. In 1700 Aurungzebe took ; 
Satara, and Ram Raja dying in the same year, his widow 
Tara Bhye assumed the command of the Mahrattas in their 
strife with the Moguls. , On Aurungzebe's death (1707) 
Sackojee was released, the sword of Sivajee and territory of 
Satara were restored to him, and a grant of a percentage 
of the revenues of the Mahratta country, on the condition 
of his maintaining tranquillity. At this time also, the < 
femous Nizam-ul-Mulk, the foimder.of the dynasty of 
the Nizams of Hyderabad, was appointed Viceroy of 
the Deccan by Shah Alam I. Sackojee appointed Balajee < 
Kishwanath, a Brahmin, his Prime Minister, or Peishwa. 
and from this time the Brahmin Peishwas were the real 
heads of the Mahratta confederacy. In 1718 Sackojee 
sent an army to assist the Seyud faction in Delhi, with 
the history of which city until 1803 the Mahrattas are 
henceforth closely connected. 

When Nizam-ul-Mulk, Viceroy of the Deccan, died in 
1748, his son Mizaffir Jung should have succeeded him, 
but Nasir Jung, the second son, seized his fether's 
treasures, and, having bought over the army, proclaimed 
himself subhadar of the Deccan. 

Nasir Jung and Mohommed Ah, Nawab of the 
Camatic, were supported by the English under Law- 
rence, but the character of these princes was so 
disgusting to the English, that we abandoned their 


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cause, and the French under Bussy defeated Mahommed 
All and Nasir Jung at Cuddalore. Nasir Jung wbs shot 
by the Nawab of Cuddalore in 1750. Muzaffir Jung 
the elder son of the Nizam-ul-Mulk, was then proclaimed 
subhadar of the Deccan, but his triumph was of short 
duration, for he was assassinated by the Nawab of 
Kumul in 1751. His younger brother, Salabat Jung, 
was installed at Aurungabad as subahdar of the Deccan 
by Bussy, and French rule was gradually extending 
over the &ir fields of the South. It was, indeed, only 
with the greatest difficulty that the English main- 
tained their position in Madras. 

The great Peishwa, Bajee Rao the first, died, leaving 
a son, Balajee Bajee Rao, or Nana Sahib, as he was com* 
monly called amongst his country people, who succeeded 
his fiither, but not without considerable opposition, for the 
ascendancy of the Brahmin Peishwas had always been 
viewed with jealousy by ahnost all the Mahratta chiefs of 
different lineage. In 1749 the long reign of Saho, the 
Mahratta Raja, the grandson of Sivajee, the prisoner and 
proteg^ of Aurungzebe, the patron of three generations 
of Brahmin PeishwaB, came to an end. Having no 
son to succeed him, he was disposed to adopt his relative 
and old enemy, the Raja of Kokpore, but the same 
absence of heirs in the case of the Raja seemed a strong 
objection to his nominatiou. Some attempt was made to 
substitute a remote descendant of Wittojee, the great 
uncle of the hero of the Deccan^ but Tara Bhye, the 
widow of Ram Raja Sivajee's son, declared that after the 
death of her son, Sivajee the Second, she had concealed a 
posthumous son of his, and she now demanded that this 
alleged grandchild should be recognised as the pro- 


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spective sovereign of the Mahrattas under the title of 
Ram Raja 11. Saho's wife, who thus saw herself robbed 
of the power she had anticipated, as regent during the 
minority of the remoter candidate, was determined not 
to abandon the game without a struggle. Balajee, the 
new Peishwa, mistrusted both ladies; but the dislike 
that prevailed against the Brahmin ascendancy rendered 
it almost impossible that he should follow his inclination, 
suppress the Raja-ship altogether and proclaim himself 
head of the State. He managed both the rivals, how- 
ever, with considerable craft, and contrived so that 
Sukwar Bhye on the death of the Raja felt compelled to 
carry out her avowed intention of suttee. A deed had 
been executed by the dying Raja, empowering Balajee to 
" manage the whole government of the Mahratta Empire, 
on condition of his perpetuating the Rajahs name, and 
keeping up the dignity of the house of Sivajee, through 
the grandson of Tara Bhye and his descendants." * Tara 
Bhye watched all these arrangements with a jealous and 
disapproving eye, and determined to bide her time. 
Apparently absorbed in the cares and education of the 
young Raja, who lived at Satara, she never ceased to 
scheme for the overthrow of Balajee's power. 

He now marched against Salabat, Viceroy of the 
Deccan, but his expedition came to a sudden end. 
News reached him that Tara Bhye had retired into the 
fort, and after in vain endeavouring to persuade her 
grandson to throw off the yoke of the Peishwa, had 
turned upon the miserable youth with fierce invective 
railing at him as an impostor and a changeling, whilst 
he ordered the old orthodox Mahratta troops by whom 

* Major Grant Doff. 


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she was surrounded, to fire on the Raja's people. She 
invited Dunnajee Guikwar to join her in ridding the capital 
of the Brahmin clique, and turned the guns of the fort 
upon the town, which was occupied by the Peishwa's 
troops. But the Guikwar shortly afterwards fell into 
Balajee's hands, and Tara Bhyewas left todefy thePeishwa 
alone. This she continued to do, and, aware of the 
jealousy with which he was regarded, Balajee was afraid 
to proceed to extremities with her. Her energy, her 
ability, her prestige with the people, all made her a 
dangerous enemy, and after a time terms were agreed 
upon between them. She retained possession of the fort 
of Satara, and of the Raja's person and establishment, 
whilst the Guikwar was bound to 3deld permanently half 
the revenues of Guzerat to the victorious Balajee. Balajee 
now turned his arms once more against Salabat who was 
forced to cede territory between the Taptee and the 
Godavery to the Peishwa, whose army twice within a 
short time overspread the Camatic, and established the 
Mahratta supremacy in the Deccan. 

From the fall of Beejanuggur in 1565 imtil 1761, a 
Hindoo dynasty had reigned in Mysore until Hyder Ali, 
the successftil adventurer, general, and minister, deposed 
his master and usurped his throne. In 1766 he invaded 
Malabar and took Calicut. The English, the Mahrattas 
and the Nizam formed an alliance against him, but the 
Nizam went over to Hyder, and the Mahrattas took to 
plundering, and thus the first Mysore war ended in the 
discreditable peace of Madras, 1769. In 1778 Hyder 
Ali, the Nizam, and the Mahrattas were all united against 
the English. The Camatic was desolated, and so critical 
had the position become in Madras, that a message was 


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sent to Warren Hastings at Calcutta for assistance. Sir 
Eyre Coote presently coming to the aid of the English, 
Hyder Ali was defeated, and dying shortly afterwards, 
was succeeded by his son Tippoo. The second Mysore 
war was ended by the treaty of Mangalore, 1784, The 
third Mysore war gave us the half of Tippoo's dominions 
which we shared with our allies. The siege of Seringa- 
patam and the death of Tippoo in 1799 concluded the 
fourth war, after which the ancient Hindoo dynasty was 
restored to a limited sway, and the family of Tippoo 
pensioned off by Government. 

Balajee, after the battle of Paniput, sickened and died. 
He was succeeded by his second son, Madu Rao, 
appointed to the office of Peishwa by the reputed 
descendant of Sivajee, Ram Raja, of Satara. He was 
succeeded by his yotmger brother, Narayana Rao, who 
was almost immediately murdered by his uncle Ragoba. 
Ragoba in 1773 assumed the dignity of Peishwa himself. 
In 1776 the representative of Narayana Rao's post- 
humous son, Madu Rao Narayana (believed by some 
writers to be a supposititious child) signed with Warren 
Hastings the Treaty of Purhandur. The seventh and 
last Peishwa, Ragoba's son, the odious Bajee Rao, was 
bom in 1774. The captive of Satara, Ram Raja, died in 
1777, and was succeeded by an adopted son, known as 
Saho n. The mother of Madu Rao poisoned herself^ 
and in 1795 Madu himself committed suicide. Bajee 
Rao II. now filled the office of Peishwa. The whole 
Mahratta confederation was in a state of disruption, and 
in 1802, after Holkar had seized Poona, the Peishwa fled 
for protection to British arms, and signed the Treaty 
of Bassein, which gave the British the Malabar coast and 


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the command of the Indian ocean, and by which the once 
redoubtable Mahratta Confederation was virtually brought 
to an end. This was the result of the first Mahratta 
war. The second Mahratta war ended in the victories 
of Sir Arthur Wellesley at Assaye and Argaum in the 
Deccan against Scindia and the Rajah of Berar ; and 
by Lord Lake at Delhi, where he defeated Scindia's 
brigades trained by French ofiicers, when he restored 
Shah Akm to the throne, and subsequently he crushed, 
at the obstinately-contested field of Laswarree, Scin* 
dia's remaining battalions. And the third Mahratta 
war in 1804-5, Lake drove Holkar, the only remain- 
ing unbroken Mahratta power, in headlong flight, after 
the loss of his guns at Deeg, into the Punjab, and 
established the British as the paramount power in India. 
Bajee Rao II., the great grandson of the first Peishwa, was 
the last who filled that gi'eat office, which with him, after 
lasting 100 years, finally terminated. He was an un- 
worthy descendant of the great men who had been his 
predecessors. He was distinguished, even in the Eastern 
world, by dissimulation and debauchery of the lowest kind. 
So cowardly, that he fled before his enemies like a 
hunted hare ; he was the tool and willing instrument of 
the basest of ministers, Trimbukjeet Dainglia, at whose 
instigation he is supposed to have caused the assassination 
of the able and upright Gunga Dhur Shastree, the 
minister of the Guikwar, then on a special mission to his 
court; this being only one amongst many of the crimes 
he conunitted under the influence of his profligate 
favourites. The only redeeming quality he appears to 
have had was some consideration for the fortunes of those 
who had adhered to him in his reverses. When he 


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assented to deposition and resigned himself a captive to 
our hands, he stipulated as a condition that his Mthful 
followers should be cared for. 

He surrendered in 1818 to Sir John Malcolm, who, to 
the astonishment of all acquainted with Indian affairs, 
guaranteed him an annual pension of eight lakhs of rupees 
or £80,000 per annum- Having no children, Bajee 
Rao II. adopted a son who was to succeed to his vast 
wealth, but not to the pension or title of Peishwa. This 
young man, described at the time of Bajee Rao's death as 
^^ quiet and unostentatious, not at all addicted to any 
extravagant habits, and invariably showing a ready dis- 
position to attend to the advice of the British Com- 
missioner," was none other than the infamous Dundoo <. 
Punt, better known as Nana Sahib. Resentment 
against the British Grovemment, for disallowing his 
claim to succeed to the Peishwa's titles and pension 
as well as to his private fortune, amounting to £280,000, 
seems to have inspired him with a revengeful bitterness 
that only bided its time to blaze forth in unrelenting 
fury, and when the annexation of Oude imder Lord 
Dalhousie gave a plausible pretext for resentment, it is 
said that princes and native chiefs, who had hitherto held 
back, now responded to his appeals, and swore to fiirther 
him in his projects of revenge.* 

The history of the Indian Mutiny needs no repetition 
here. The Nana was proclaimed Peishwa by the rebel 
Gwalior contingent and others. After passing through 
many vicissitudes and losing every battle, the blood- 
stained and perjured slaughterer of innocent women and 

• Sir John Eaye^B " History of the Sepoy War." 
t Meadows Taybr*s '< Manual of Indian History." 


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children fled to Bithoor, attended by a few horsemen, 
"and as he rode through Cawnpore his horse flecked 
with foam, he might have met the public criers pro- 
claiming that the Feringhees had been well nigh ex- 
terminated, and offering rewards for the heads of the 
few who were still left upon the &ce of the earth. 
But the lie had exploded, and his one thought of that 
moment was escape from the pursuing Englishman. 
Arrived at Bithoor, he saw clearly that the game was 
up, his followers were fast deserting him. Many it 
is said reproached him for his fidlure. All, we may be 
sure, clamoured for pay. His terror-stricken imagina- 
tion pictured a vast avenging army on his track ; and 
the great instinct of self-preservation prompted him to 
gather up the women of his femily, to embark by night 
in a boat, to ascend the Ganges to Futtehgurh, and to 
give out that he was preparing himself for self-immola- 
tion. He was to consign himself to the sacred waters of 
the Ganges, which had been the grave of so many of his 
victims. There was to be a given signal through the 
darkness of the early night, which was to mark the 
moment of the Ex-Peishwa's suicidal immersion. But 
he had no thought of dying. The signal light was 
extinguished, and a cry arose from the religious mendi- 
cants who were assembled on the Cawnpore bank of the 
river, and who believed that the Nana was dead. But 
covered by the darkness, he emerged upon the Oude 
side of the Ganges, and his escape was safely accom- 
plished."* The holy men proceeded without delay to 
plunder the palace of their quondam benefactor. 

Thus vanished from the scene, like a baneful meteor, the 
guilty shadow of the once renowned and imperial Peishwas. 

• Kaye's " Sepoy War." 


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PrincesB of Scinde — Beautiful Sultana Bezia of Dellii — Hindoo Queen of 
Gurrah — ^A Sultana Regent — ^Mother of Sivajee. 

Before describing the origin and progress of British 
rule in India, a few words on the women of that country 
who, by their beauty, ability, and courage, have power- 
fully affected its history, may not be uninteresting. 

Accustomed as we have been to regard all Eastern " 
women as both mentally and morally inferior, and accept- 
ing broadly the fact of their imperfect education, sub- 
ordinate position and secluded lives, it is with a feeling 
of surprise akin to admiration that we recognise the 
startling influence exercised by women on the fate of the 
Eastern world, — an influence not to be attributed to 
mere personal charms alone, nor to the infatuation of a 
besotted passion, which any given sovereign may have 
felt for this or that favourite of the harem, but con- 
spicuously due (in combination with beauty) to ability, 
energy, craft, perseverance and ambition on the part of 
those who have come prominently to the front in the 
history of India. The seclusion of high-caste Hindoo 
women was probably not so strict in earlier ages as at 
present, but that their separation from the outer world 
was considered both desu'able and expedient there can be 
no doubt. The wife was enjoined to give her entire 
devotion and obedience to her husband; she was to lead 


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a life of seclusion, and to keep herself from conta<;t with 
the world. Men were told to honour the women of their 
fiunily lest "it wholly perish;" and it is added that 
whereas, in fiimilies where the women are not held in 
honour, "all religious acts become fruitless," in those, 
on the other hand, " where a husband is contented with 
his wife, and she with her husband, "will fortune 
assuredly be permanent."* 

It would almost seem as though the general subjection 
of women had been more than counterbalanced by their 
individual supremacy in those countries where the very 
title of "Sultana" soimds, in Western ears, nearly 
sjmonymous with that of a toy ; a beautiful, soul-less, 
gracefiil creature, helpless and useless, meant to be, and 
sent to be, simply and solely, " a moment's ornament." 
Too chUdish for companionship, too ignorant for opposi- 
tion, too helpless for self-dependence, the Moslem faith 
instils the inferiority of the female sex as an article of 
religion. " Women," it says, " are only superior in craft 
and cunning." They are not allowed to read the holy 
books — they are not permitted to eat with their husbands 
— they are debarred from inheriting paternal property. 
Seclusion is their portion and ignorance their fate. 

The history of the remarkable women of India has 
yet to be written, but a brief glance at some of the more 
prominent female figures who have illustrated Eastern 
story by their charms, courage and devotion may not be 
without interest to the reader. It will, at any rate, go 
far to show that the "coming woman," the capable, 
enduring, heroic, high-souled woman, determined, skilful, 

* Colebrooke's AnaHe Beteareiei. 


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dominant and pEedominating is not so entirely a product 
of the West, or a dream of the future, as some of the 
subjugators of the sex would have us believe. 

The Princess of Scinde. — Of the extraordinary reso- 
lution shown by Indian women, we have a striking 
example as early as 711 a.d., in the conquest of Scinde 
by the Arabs. 

Amongst the numerous female captives of Scinde were 
two beautiful princesses, who were reserved for the harem 
of the Conmiander of the Faithful, Walid, the sixth 
caliph of the house of Ommeia. When the elder was 
introduced to her Aiture lord, she burst into a flood of 
tears, and declared that she was now unworthy of his 
notice, having been already dishonoured by lus nephew' 
Casim, be;fore she was sent out of her country. Enraged 
at the insult offered to him by his inferior, and inflamed 
by the sight of her beauty and distress, the caliph sent 
orders that Casim sbould-be sewed up in a raw hide and 
sent to Damascus. When he produced the body to the 
princess, she was so overjoyed at the sight, that she 
exultingly declared Casim had been innocent, but that 
she had now avenged her Other's death and the ruin of 
her femily! This heroic l^y and her sister met with a 
cruel and ignominiotis death.* 

The beatOifid Sultana Rezia ascended the Imperial 
musnud at Delhi on the deposition of her brother in 
1236. "Rezia Begum," says Ferishta, "was endowed 
with every princely virtue, and those who scrutinize her 
actions most severely, will find it to be in her no £iult 
that she was a woman, "f 

• Briggs* Ferishta; Pottinger's "Travels." t Briggs* Ferithia. 



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Not only was she beautiful as the day, but her energji 
ambition and judgment were such, that twice during the 
lifetime of her fisither Altamish, he entrusted his kingdom 
to her care. " The burden of power," he said to his 
omrahs when he appointed her as regent, during his 
absence on his southern campaigns, ^^ is too heavy for my 
sons, even though I had twenty such, but not too heavy 
for Rezia, delicate though her body may be, she has in 
her more spirit than all of her brothers put together." 

The fidr sultana on ascending the throne, daily gave 
audience, habited as a sultan. ^^ She discarded her female 
apparel and veil, wore a tunic and cap like a man, gave 
public audience, and rode on an elephant without any 
attempt at concealment." * She reformed abuses, revised 
the laws, and fulfilled the enthusiastic predictions of her 
nobles and her people. But unfortunately her great 
ability did not shield her from weakness, and by the 
elevation to power of an Abyssinian slave, she roused the 
jealousy and excited the indignation of her nobles. 

In the rebellion that ensued, her fitvourite was killed, 
but Rezia, who saw her cause to be desperate, managed 
to fiuscinate by love or by ambition one of the rebel chie&i 
who married her, and joined his forces with hers against 
his former associates. After two bloody battles she was 
made prisoner along with her husband, and both were 
put to death.f 

" With a look," said her grand vizier, " she could revive 
her dying friends, or render helpless her most powerful 
foes." Yet her charms had no weight against the 

• 8ir Henry Elliot's Sutoriam. 
t Elphinsione's "Hiitory of India." 


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vindictive fiiry of her rebellious nobles, who slew her 
without remorse after a reign of three years and six 

The story of Pudmani, the Beauti^ at the siege of 
Cheetore under Alia the Sanguinary (a.d. 1300) has 
been told in another chapter*.* It affords a touching 
illustration of that high Rajpoot courage and devotion 
which inspired even the women and children of this 
fearless race with heroism, and enabled them to brave 
death rather than incur dishonour. 

The " johur," or the ordeal of death, fiir from intimi- 
dating them, was welcomed as the means of re-uniting 
husbands and wives, fathers and children, and conducting 
to the warrior's paradise the woman who had loved her 
warlike lord. Many utterances of heroic Kajpoot wives 
and widows adorn the records of Eastern courage. " Tell 
me, Badul," cried the wife of Gorah, one of the defenders 
of Cheetore, uncle of the beautiful Pudmani, ^^ tell me^ 
how did my love behave?" 

"0 mother," replied the boy, "how further describe 
his deeds when he left no foes to dread or admire 

" My lord wiU chide my delay," exclaimed the high- 
souled woman, as waving a fond and smiling fiirewell to 
the stripling, she sprang into the devouring flames of the 
funeral pile awaiting her.f 

During Akbar's invasion of the Deccan more than 
one startling proof of the heroism of its women was 
brought home to him. The revolted Bahadoor Eahn? 

* See Chapter on Bajpootana. f Snlliran. 


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Sultan of Guzerat, having fallen iilto the hands of the 
Moguls (1560) his mistress, said to be one of the most 
beautiful women ever seen in India, became the property 
of a Mogul chief renowned for his fierce and cruel nature. 
Finding resistance to be unavailing, she appointed an hour 
to receive him. Her attendants adorned her with her 
most splendid jewels, dressed her in magnificent attire, 
sprinkled her couch with perfumes, and* left her to 
receive her conqueror in state. Drawing a mantle over 
her face, she lay down to rest, and it was only when her 
attendants approached to warn her of the presence of her 
future lord, that they discovered the gentle slumber she 
had feigned was the last long sleep of death. 

The Hindoo queen Durghetti^ who reigned over the 
small territory of Gurrah, is another woman &med in the 
history of the Deccan for her beauty and accomplish- 
ments, her heroism and constancy. Ten sovereigns of 
her race had already reigned in succession over the 
fertile and prosperous district which was hers by inherit- 
ance. Bent upon developing the resources of her happy 
little state and increasing the prosperity of her people, 
the spirited Hindoo queen turned all her attention and 
energy to those ends. Aseph Jah, one of Akbar's 
generals, determined to overthrow her power and conquer 
for his master her smiling territory. Without a moment's 
hesitation the queen called together her peaceful and 
peace-loving subjects. They responded to her appeal 
with ready devotion, and burning with indignant enthu- 
siasm, she placed herself at the head of her troops. A 
helmet on her head, a quiver at her side, a lance in her 


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hand, she advanced to meet the invading Mogul. Per- 
ceiving that her troops, new to the art of warfare, were 
advancmg upon the enemy in disorder, she sotmded a 
recall, re-formed and harangued them, telling them that 
they were to wait for a signal from the royal elephant, 
on which she was herself seated, before advancmg. Sur- 
prised by this unexpected resistance, the Moguls were 
driven back and left 600 dead upon the field. But Dur- 
ghetti's nobles refused to carry out her tactics and foUow 
up their advantage by a night attack upon the discomfited 
troops g£ Aseph «^ah, and when on the following day he 
renewed the engagement with fresh reinforcements, they 
fled in confrision, leaving guns and arms in the handsr of 
the enemy. The courageous queen, supported by four 
of her chieftains, bore the brunt of the battle, 
holding out valiantly after all hope was at an end. Her 
fidends implored her to fly — ^her son fell at her side, 
pierced through the eye by an arrow — the princess, 
deserted by her troops," was in imminent danger of 
faffing into the enemy's hands. Turning to the chief 
officer of her household, " Haste !" she cried, "let your 
dagger save me from the crime of putting an end to my 
own existence! We are overcome in war, but we need 
not be vanquished in honour!" Her fiiithful servant 
had not, however, the courage to fulfil this her last 
request and, seeing that her exhortation could not 
prevail over his affection, she snatched the dagger 
from his side "and satisfied the immortal longings of 
her soul."* 

* Sulliyan, Elpliinstone and others. 


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Chand Sultana is one of the most distinguished 
women that have ever appeared in India. She was 
acting as regent for her in£mt nephew, Bahadur Nizam 
Shah, of Ahmednuggur, and she was no sooner aware 
of the approach of the Moguls (under Akbar about 
1595) than she applied herself to conciliate the l^ng of 
Beejapoor, her relation, and at the same time to reconcile 
the heads of other interested parties, that all might be 
united to resist the power whose ambition threatened 
equal danger to all. Her defence of Ahmednugger is 
£Eunous in history. She superintended the workmen and 
directed the mining and trench work, exposing herself to 
the same dangers as the rest. Two mines had already 
been rendered useless by her counter-mines, but unfortu- 
nately before means could be taken to render it ineffectual, 
a third mine was fired, the counter-mines blown up, and a 
large breach made in the wall, by which such a panic was 
created, that the besieged were on the point of deserting 
their posts and leaving the breach open to the advance of 
the stonning party. But Chand Sultana, with a naked 
sword in her hand, clad in complete armour, a veil over 
her face, sprang into the breach, and, having thus rallied 
her troops, she continued her exertions until every power 
within the place was brought against the assaulting 
Moguls. Matchlock balls and arrows poured on them 
from the works — guns were brought to bear upon the 
breach — ^rockets, gunpowder and other combustibles were 
thrown amongst the crowd in the ditch, and the garrison 
in front opposed so steady a resistance, that, after an 
obstinate and bloody contest, the Moguls were obliged to 
withdraw. The activity and energy of the regent were 


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not slackened during the night, and the Moguls, finding 
next day that the breach was built up to such a height as 
to render it impossible to mount it without firesh mines, 
a truce was agreed upon on both sides. Mahommed 
Ehan, whom Chand Sultana had appointed her Prime 
Minister, plotted against her; her government became 
more and more disturbed by internal fiustions, and whilst 
she was negotiating a peace with the Moguls, the soldiery, 
instigated by her opponents, broke into the female apart* 
ments and treacherously put her to death. 

Chand Sultana is the &vourite heroine of the Deccan, 
and is the subject of many fitbulous stopes. Even Ehafi 
Ehan mentions her having fired silver balls into the 
Mogul camp, and the common tradition at Ahmednugger 
is that when her shot was expended she loaded her guns 
successively with copper, with silver, and with gold coin, 
and that it was not until she had begun to fire her jewels 
away that she consented to make peace. 

The history of Tara Bhye, given at page 72, is another 
proof of the ambition, ability and energy of Indian women, 
whilst that of the mother of Sivajee, the popular hero of 
the Deccan (bom 1627) deserves mention. She was of 
good &mily and a woman of so much ability and character 
that during his father's absence in the Caniatic, Sivajee 
was left to the care of his mother and of his fiither's 
agent, a Brahmin. He appears fi*om the first to have 
looked to her for counsel and sympathy in all his 
undertakings, his great object in life being to firee 
himself from Mahommedan control. His tutor and 
guardian, Dadajee Eonedeo, at first endeavoured to dis- 
uade the youth firom his wild undertakings, but, failing 


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to do so, he appears to have succumbed to the force of 
Sivajee's character and to have come at last to share his 

His mother, an enthusiast in religion, believed herself 
to be visited by the goddess Bowhanee, whose revelations 
shadowed forth the future fireedom of the Mahrattas fipom 
Mahommedan yoke, and the fiiture greatness of her son. 
Later on, when his &.me became established, no one 
doubted but that his mother's dreams and visions, which 
had become popular amongst his people, were in reality 
the divine revelations they pretended to be. He remained 
devoted to his mother, claimed her blessing on all his 
undertakings, however questionable, and never ceased to 
pay her every honour that affection and respect could 


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NoonnaLal,* Consort of Shah Jehangir^— Aijannind Baim,t (of the Taj), 
Consort of Shah Jehan— The Emperor's Daughters. 

Noormahal.—No more jextraordinary example of the 
triumph of beauty and ability over precedent, tradition, 
and every prejudice, religious as well as social, exists, 
than that of Noormahal, the light of the harem, who for ^ 
twenty years, as the wife of Jehangtre, reigned, with a 
power as absolute over the mighty empire of Hindostan 
as that exercised by Semiramis and Cleopatra over the 
kingdoms of Assyria and Egypt. 

Her father, Chaja Aiass, a Tartar of noble blood but 
poor circumstances, became later the High' Treasurer 
of the Empire of Hindostan, but his daughter Noormahal 
was bom in the days of his adversity amongst the wilds 
of Western Tartary as her parents were wandering, in 
search of fortune, towards India. The beautiful Noor- 
mahal frequently accompanied her mother to the harem 
of Akbar, and here Prince Selim, heir to the throne, saw 
and loved her. He demanded her hand of her fether, 
who replied that his daughter was promised to Shere 
Afkun, a young Persian lord. Noormahal, who appears 

* Afterwards Noorjehan. t Or Mumtazmahal. 


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to have been of a practical turn of mind, thought it wiser 
to take the magnificent Shere Af bm than to incur the 
danger of mating with the future Emperor. The 
Emperor Akbar absolutely refused to interfere or annul 
the engagement, and Shere Afkun was determined not to 
renounce bk right — even for the heir to the crown — ^to 
the most beautiful woman in the world. 

When Akbar died, and Selim ascended the imperial 
musnud, under the name of Jehanghire, Shere Afkun 
was soon removed to a happier sphere, and the lovely 
Noormahal transferred to the 2^enana of the Emperor. 

For some reason which does not appear, she remained 
six years in absolute seclusion ; but the talk of her wit 
and beauty which reached the Emperor's ears at length 
determined him on visiting her. He found her in a 
plain muslin dress, surrounded by slaves dressed in the 
finest brocades and cashmeres. She had learned the 
charm of modesty during the period of her retirement ; 
and, with downcast eyes, she stood before the Emperor 
in all the unadorned simplicity of her dazzling beauty. 
The first question he asked her was why her slaves were 
dressed so much better than their mistress ? to which 
the cunning Noormahal shrewdly made answer, " Those 
bom to servitude must dress as it shall please those whom 
they serve. These are my slaves, and I make the burden 
of their bondage pleasant to them by every indulgence 
in my power. But I am your slave, oh. Emperor of the 
world ! and must dress according to your pleasure, and 
not my own." Casting a necklace round her neck 
of forty pearls, each worth £4,000, Jehangire ordered 
the clever intrigante to be proclaimed Empress of the 


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World. From the humblest apartments of the Zenana 
she at once removed to those of the Sultana. She was 
permitted to assume the title of Shahi, or Empress ; to 
change her name from Noormahal, Light of the Harem, 
to Noor Jehan, Light of the World ; whilst the besotted 
monarch caused to be inscribed on the gold coin of the 
realm : " Gold has acquired a hundred degrees of ex- 
cellence in receiving the name of Noor-Jehan." He was 
then forty-four years of age. Like another famous 
Eastern Queen^ ^^age could not wither hqr, nor custom 
stale her infinite variety," and for twenty years her 
magnificence dazzled Hindostan. It was she who gave 
away the smallest as well aa the greatest official appoint- 
ments. From Western Tartary came crowds of cousins 
to share in the brilliant fortunes of the superb Empress. 
Her father was Prime Vizier ; her brother, Asiph Ehan, 
was first Omrah ; Shah Jehan, the Emperor^s fiivourite 
son, married her niece, the daughter of Asiph Khan ; whilst 
Prince Sheriar, Jehanghire's third son, married her own 
daughter by her first husband, the luckless Shere Afkun. 
Led by her, Jehanghire was induced to ill-treat and 
mistrust Mohabit Khan, to whom he had been thrice 
indebted for the safety of his kingdom ; and in return 
Mohabit, by a coup-de-matn^ seized the Emperor and 
carried him off to his own camp. Noormahal escaped in 
disguise, and, calling her brother Asiph to her aid, 
mounted her elephant and prepared to rescue the 
Emperor. Though her daughter was wounded in the 
fray and sank feinting at her side, this daring woman 
pursued her way, until at length her troops were 
ovenvhelmed and she was forced to fly to Lahore. 


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Mohabit accused her of having planned her husband^s 
death, and she was conducted by him before the Emperor 
to make her defence. " You, who are Emperor of the 
Moguls,'' said Mohabit, exhortixig the in&tuated monarch 
to throw off her dangerous influence, " ought to follow the 
example of Grod, who is no respecter of persons." But the 
beautiM and specious Noormahal prevailed ; and when 
the Emperor, affected by the sight of her tears, appealed 
to Mohabit to spare her, the chivalrous soldier replied, 
That the Emperor of the Moguls should never ask a 
&vour of him in vain, and signed to the guards to 
relinquish their prisoner. Noormahal survived her 
husband eighteen years ; but from the hour of his death 
she retired altogether fix)m affairs of state, and closed her 
life amongst the gardens and palaces of the royal resi* 
dence of Lahore. 

Arjamund Barm. — Although not distinguished by the 
craft and ability of her predecessor, Arjamund Banu, 
the heroine of the Taj Mahal, has been handed down to 
posterity by the story of her beauty and unbounded 
influence over the Emperor Shah Jehan. 

It was the custom in those days, as it is in our own, 
for ladies to hold &ncy &irs, and to sell their merchandise 
to the highest bidders. Shah Jehan, then a prince 
residing at his father's court at Agra, attended a bazaar 
where the Emperor had commanded that the nobles 
should give whatever price was asked for their wares by 
the feir staU-keepers. Prince Jehan, pausing before the 
booth of Arjamund Banu, the daughter of the Vizier 
Asiph Jah, and wife of Jemal Eahn, was so struck by her 
beauty and grace that when she asked him £12,500 for a 


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piece of sugar candy, cut in the shape of a diamond, the 
in&tuated young man smilingly paid the fency price de- 
manded for her bon-bon by this enterprising saleswoman. 
He invited her to his palace; and when^ after three days* 
s^aur with him, she returned to her husband, she felt 
much aggrieved that her lawful lord received her less 
warmly than she considered becoming. She immediately 
complained of her tyrant's fit of the sulks to Shah Jehan, 
who quickly found a remedy against the recurrence of 
such attacks of temper. He ordered him to the elephant 
garden, that he might there be destroyed. Jemal Eahn, 
upon this unpleasant news, hastened to the prince and 
humbly begged that he might be allowed to explain. 
Permission was graciously accorded, when he judiciously 
declared that his reserve had not proceeded from cold- 
ness, but from a sense of his unworthiness to take to his 
bosom the being who had been honoured by the attention 
of the son of the great Mogul. A royal suit and the 
command of 5,000 horse was immediately bestowed upon 
the accommodating husband, and the lady was trans- 
ported forthwith to the seraglio of the prince. She 
possessed, it is said by historians, the wit and beauty of 
her aunt, Noormahal, and the wisdom and integrity 
of her grand&ther Aiass. She is spoken of as that 
virtuous woman who is proverbially a crown to her 
husband, whose only wife she remained during twenty 
years, and when she died the Taj Mahal at Agra, that 
exquisite dream in marble, bore witness to the devotion 
and attachment which even her memory was still able to 

The daughters of Shah Jehan. — The daughters of Shah 


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Jehan were important actors in the scenes of his eventful 
reign. They were all three women of beauty, talents 
and accomplishments. Jehanara, the eldest, was remark- 
able alike for wit and beauty. Her devotion to her &ther 
knew no bounds ; and he had so high an opinion of her 
judgment, that his will became in many cases subservient 
to that of his lovely tyrant. Nevertheless, a terrible 
story of the summary vengeance he wreaked upon a 
&voured lover shows that affection did not altogether 
blind him to the possible effects of his daughter's some- 
what too elastic morality. He paid her an unexpected 
visit ; and, in the hurry and concision occasioned by the 
inopportune attention, Jehanara could think of no better 
place wherein to conceal the contraband lover than in 
one of the huge cauldrons made to hold water for the 
bath. Then, after affectionately enquiring after her 
health, he insisted on the restoring and curative effects 
of hot water, and desired that fires should at once be 
made under the cauldrons in order that she might 
without delay experience the agreeable results he des- 
cribed. Jehanara dared not resist; and, feigning uncon- 
sciousness of her agony, her &ther remained conversing 
cheerfully and afi&bly with his miserable daughter until 
a servant brought him word that the unhappy lover was 
boiled to death, when, without uttering a word of 
reproach, he amiably took his departure. His second 
daughter, Ranchenara Begum, was acute, artful, intrigu- 
ing and ambitious, and as devoted to Aurungzebe as 
Jehanara was to Prince Dara, her fitther's eldest son, and 
hdr-presumptive. Later, when Dara had been defeated 
by Aurungzebe, and his wife and son placed with Jeha- 


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nara under close restraint, it was the younger sister 
Ranchanara Begum, who scented out all the plots and 
intrigues at Court and confided them to Aurungzebe. 
The gentleness of Suria Banu, the third daughter, kept 
her aloof from political intrigue and &mily dissension. 
Jehanara tenderly nursed her &ther through his last 
illness, and survived him many years. Her brother 
Aurungzebe was eventually reconciled to her ; and amidst 
the ruin and desolation of the pearl mosque at Delhi, may 
still be deciphered the last injunction of ^^the perishable 
pilgrim,'' Jehanara Begum : ^^ Let not any person desecrate 
my tomb with any other thing than earth or flowers, for 
these are fitted for the resting place of a Holy Spirit."* 



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Ahalya Bhye the Gk>od, Queen of Indore — ^Tolsee Bhye the Crael, 
Begent of Indore. 

Ahalya Bhye^ the Queen of Indore^ or^ the dominions of 
Holkar.-^AhslyB, Bhye was the widow of the only son of 
Mulhur Rao Holkar, the founder of the Holkar djnaasty, 
and on the death of her only son, who died in early 
childhood, soon after the death of his grandfather, 
assumed, according to the custom of the Mahrattad, the 
administration of the country. 

The long, peaceful, and successful reign of this illus* 
trious lady was at its commencement vehemently opposed 
by the intrigues and machinations of Bagonath Rao, the 
uncle of the then Peishwa, who endeavoured to force upon 
the Queen the adoption of a child whose future move- 
ments might be subject to his guidance or that of his 

This scheme was entirely frustrated by the wise 
conduct of the princess aided by the determination of the 
chiefs of the Mahratta States, to uphold ^^the legitimate 
rights of the widow of Mulhar Rao's son."* 

• Malleson's "Native States of India." 


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In India during the ktter half of the eighteenth 
century, the power of the sword was supreme, and in 
nothing was the wisdom of the Ranee, Ahalya Bhye more 
remarkable than in her choice of the commander of her 

Tukajee Holkar, who was appointed to this high office, 
was not related to, although of the same tribe as, Mulhar 
Rao. He was of mature age, unambitious, of excellent 
character, possessing sound sense, but without brilliant 
qualities. Ahalya Bhye soon gave Tukajee a large share 
in the general administration of the country, but whether 
he was near the capital or in the more distant provinces, 
he served the Ranee with the utmost fidelity and respect 
during her long reign of thirty years- 

Her Highness had representatives at most of the 
Courts of India. The administration of justice was 
scrupulously attended to, the Queen herself being at all 
times accessible and attending to the most insignificant 
cases when reference was made for her decision. The 
accounts of the State receipts and disbursements were 
kept with the most scrupulous exactitude. 

" During thirty years of rule," says Colonel Malleson, 
"perhaps no prince or princess ever conciliated more 
respect from foreign sovereigns than did this illustrious 
Hindu lady. She was extremely pious, much given to 
devotion, yet she found time to attend to the important 
affairs of state." She transacted business firom 2 p.m. to 
6 p.m., and fi:om 9 p.m. to 11 p.m. Her dominions were 
but once invaded and then unsuccessfully, and the internal 
administration was equally fortunafte, for nowhere were 
the people more happy or prosperous. She built forts 



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and made roads, and Indore, the present capital, she 
found a village and left a wealthy city. 

Fortunate, and held in the highest regard as a ruler, 
yet the loss of her children under peculiarly painful cir- 
cumstances, left on her life an impression of sadness 
which no success in public affairs could alleviate. 

Ahalya Bhye died in 1795 at the age of sixty, utterly 
exhausted by the cares of State. According to Sir John 
Malcolm this famous lady " was of the middle stature 
and very thin; her complexion, which was of a dark 
olive, was clear; and her countenance is described as 
having been to the last hour of her life agreeable. She 
was very cheerful, seldom in anger, possessed a cultivated 
mind, was quick and clear in the transaction of public 
business, and even flattery appears to have been lost 
upon her."* 

Honoured and held in reverence during life for her 
piety, virtues and good deeds, she died universally 
beloved and lamented. 

Tulsee Bhye^ Regent of Indore. — Tulsee Bhye was 
beautiful, cruel and profligate, and met with a tragical 
end — a contrast in every respect to Ahalya Bhye. 

She was thfe proteg^ of a sectarian Brahmin, and would 
have been considered his daughter did not the vow of 
celibacy of the holy man forbid such a supposition. 

A Mahratta adventurer thought he might promote his 
own interests through the influence of her beauty on 
Jeswunt Rao Holkar, the Maharajah of Indore. The 
prince saw Tulsee Bhye, was at once captivated, and, 

* Malleson*8 " Natiye States of India/' and Sir John Malcolm's '* Central 


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notwithstanding that she was a married woman, had her 
at once placed in the harem, while the husband was sent to 
prison. Some lingering feeling induced her to entreat her 
spell-bound lord to liberate the unfortunate husband, who, 
on receiving a dress of honour, a horse and a small sum of 
money, departed to seek his fortunes elsewhere. The 
influence of this new ornament to the harem became 
supreme over the prince and the State and continued until 
Holkar became insane, when she was appointed regent, 
and having no children adopted a son of the Maharajah by 
another woman. The people bore with her cruel and 
abandoned conduct imtil at last, having executed her 
Prime Minister, an old, popular, and faithful servant of 
the Slate, and having appoiuted a worthless paramour 
to his high office, her power over the army became little 
more than nominal, and as she was suspected of intriguing 
with the English with a view to their protection, some of 
the leading men in the State conspired against her. She 
was ruthlessly slain almost in the midst of her soldiers 
but not a hand was raised to rescue her — beauty and 
appeals for mercy were unavailing. Thus miserably 
ended the cruel and criminal career of the beautiful 
Tulsee Bhye. 

Tulsee Bhye was beheaded on December 20, 1817. 
Her accomplishments and character are thus described 
by Sir John Malcolm : — " Tulsee Bhye," he writes, " was 
not thirty years old when she was murdered. She was 
handsome, and alike remarkable for the fascination of her 
manners and quickness of intellect. Few surpassed 
her in fluent eloquence, which persuaded those who 
approached her to promote her wishes. She rode with 


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grace, and was always, when on horseback, attended by 
a large party of the females of the first families of the 
State, But there was never a more remarkable instance 
than in the history of this princess, how the most 
prodigal gifts of nature may be perverted by an indul- 
gence of vicious habits. Though not the wife of Jeswant 
Rao, yet being in charge of hija femily, and having 
possession of the child, who was declared his heir, she 
was obeyed as his widow. As the favourite of the 
deceased and the guardian of their actual chief, she had 
among the adherents of the Holkar femily the strongest 
impressions in her fe,vour, but casting all away, she lived 
unrespected and died unpitied."* 

• Malcolm's « Central India." 


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Begum Sumroo of Sirdhanali— Walter Beinhiirt— Chief Offioeni— Colonel 
le Vaisseau — George Thomas, a common sailor, afterwards a Bajah— 
Begum's Court — Adopted Son, Dyce-Sombre — ^Domestic Chaplain, 
Father Julius Cnsar. 

The Begum Sumroo* bom about 1753, was the ille- 
gitimate daughter of a Mohammedan of Arab descent. 
She was also reported to have been a native of Cash- 
mere, and to have been originally a dancing girl. On 
the death of her father she and her mother, in order to 
avoid the persecution of the legitimate heir, removed 
in 1760 to Delhi. It is not certain when she entered 
the fiunily of Sumroo, nor even that she ever became his 
wife. This Sunu-oo was a native of Treve in the duchy 
of Luxemburg, his real name, Walter Reinhardt, but 
more familiar to us by his Indian soubriquet of Sumroo 
or Sombre. He had come to India as a sailor in the 
French navy, deserted to the British service, and joined 
the first European battalion raised in Bengal. Deserting 
again, he joined the French garrison at Chandemagore? 
and was one of the few who foUowed Law when that 
officer refiised to surrender the place to the British. 
After the capture of his gallant chief, Sumroo, under 

* Or Zeb-ul-19'isa, the ornament of the sex, christened Johanna Nobilis. 


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103 • " ■ " I^^OIA ANB^ HER NEIGHBOURS. 

Meer Cassim, Nawab of Moorsedubad, advanced against 
the English, and by the Nawab's orders, on his arrival 
at Patna he put all the English prisoners to death. All 
suspected of being firiends of the English were assassi- 
nated, and Sumroo, firing volleys into the prisoners' 
rooms, about 200 British, including the Resident and 
all his followers, met with a cruel end. Sumroo, sold 
his sword first to one party and then to another, as 
interest might dictate. After his death,* which took 
place at Agra, 1778, his soldiery were maintained by his 
supposed widow, and the Mogul Minister who perceived 
her to be a woman of extraordinary ability, put her — 
instead of her step-son by another Mussalmani, who was 
a minor— in possession of the lands which had been held 
by Sumroo for the support of his troops. Her army is 
stated to have consisted of five battalions of Sepoys, about 
300 European officers and gunners, with forty pieces of 
cannon and a body of Mogul horse. This efficient little 
army was engaged in many parts of India. A detachment 
of it fought under Scindia against Wellington at Assay e, 
and on another occasion operated against the Seikhs ; and, 
after quelling a rising in the Cis-Sutlej States, this ener- 
getic and loyal lady suddenly appeared with her European 
officers in the palace of the Emperor at Delhi, and over- 
awed by her presence Rohilla conspirators, causing them 
to regain their camp on the other side of the Jumna. In 
1781, she embraced Christianity. She founded a Chris- 
tian mission which grew by degrees into a convent, a 
cathedral, and a college; and there were some 1,500 
native and Anglo-Indian Christians resident at Sirdhanah. 

* The widow of one of Sumroo's descendants still occupies a house and 
park near Meerut. 


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Here she kept up princely state, and in 1792 married 
Colonel le Vaisseau, who was one of the chief European 
officers of her little army. Her troops, not approving of 
this arrangement, revolted and a revolution broke out at 
Sirdhanah in fevour of her step-son, Zafaryab Khan, or 
Aloysius Reinhardt, residing at Delhi with the title of 
Nawab. The Begum and Le Vaisseau escaped, but 
were pursued. They agreed that neither was to survive 
the other, and when the soldiery came up a scream from 
the female attendants of the Begum caused Le Vaisseau 
to look into the litter. The white cloth on her breast 
was stained with blood. She had stabbed herself, but the 
dagger glancing aside on the breast-bone, she had not the 
courage to repeat her blow, or rather, as it is alleged by 
many, had no intention to do so. Her husband put his 
pistol to his temple, the ball passed through his head, and 
he fell dead to the ground. 

The Begum was carried back to the Fort, stripped of 
her property, and tied under a gun. Here she remained 
several days, and must have died of starvation but for 
the kindly offices of a faithful ayah^ who supplied her 
more pressing necessities. 

She appealed to George Thomas, an Irishman, for- 
merly her chief officer, who commanded her troops in 
the dashing charge which rescued the Emperor at 
Gokalgurh, but now the Rajah of Hansi.* With the 
generosity which is a characteristic of his nation, this 
man whom she had illused for years, hastened to her 
rescue with a body of troops, and reinstated her in her 
dominions, and restored to her her army, which she 

* See not^ at the end of this chapter. 


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retained unmolested for the rest of her life. Her troops 
having already, before Thomas appeared in the field, found 
out the total inefficiency through insobriety of their 
new chief Zafisiryab, and having become tired of being 
their own masters, plundered him to the skin, and were 
thankful to return to their allegiance. Unwilling to 
compromise her position a second time as Sumroo's heir, 
she never again gave way to the softer emotions of 
the heart. Death soon relieved her of all anxiety 
concerning her stepson. He died of the eflfects of 
intemperance, leaving a daughter who married Mr. Dyce, 
an Eurasian, and became the mother of Mr. D. 0. 
Dyce-Sombre, who, with his sisters was adopted by 
the Begum, and whose melancholy story is fresh in the 
memory of the present generation.* The management of 
her territbries occupied most of her time and attention, 
and their eflfective supervision absorbed her energies. 
In addition to the territory round Sirdhanah, the Begum 
possessed a moderate Principality fifty miles south of 
Sirdhanah, and another near Delhi. Peace and order 
were well kept throughout her dominion, no lawless 
chiefs were allowed to harbour criminals or defraud the 
public revenue. The soil was maintained in complete 
cultivation. The peasants were sometimes obliged to 
plough their fields at the point of the bayonet. 

Thomas describes the Begum at that time as small and 
plump, her complexion fair, her eyes large and animated. 
She wore the Hindustan costume made of the most 
costly materials. She spoke Persian and Urdu fluently, 
and attended personally to business, giving audience to 

• Keene's " Fall of the Moghul Empire." 


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her native employees behind a screen. At Durbar she 
appeared veiled, but in European society she took her 
place at table waited upon exclusively by maid servants- 
She was an imperious, unscrupulous woman of immense 
force of character,* 

Bishop Heber in his delightful journal mentions the 
Begum Sumroo as " a little queer-looking old woman, 
with brilliant but wicked eyes, and the remains of beauty 
in her features." He says she was generally respected 
both by her soldiers and the people of the country, and 
possessed considerable talent and readiness in conversa- 
tion, but that he heard terrible accounts of the ears and 
noses she had cut off, and of her vindictive and un- 
relenting tyranny. He also alludes to the story of the 
poor Nautch girl whom she caused to be buried alive, 
but does not give liie reason of this ferocious act, either 
considering the details unfit to be recorded by the pen 
episcopal, or his informant having judged them to be of 
a nature better withheld from their reverend hearer. 
Whatever her defects may have been, she was a brave 
leader in the field and a wise and successful ruler of her 
fertile territory. She once, when co-operating with the 
imperial army,rescued the Emperor from a critical position, 
for which service he called her his daughter, a designatio4 
of high honour and dignity, and conferred upon her the title 
of Zeb-ul-Nisa, the ornament of the sex. No province 
in India appeared better administered than Sirdhanah. 

The writer has a lively recollection of seeing the Begum 
in extreme old age, shortly before she died, seated in 
Durbar, robed in the finest Cashmere shawls, with a 
jewelled turban and embroidered slippers, one of her 



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pretty little feet resting on a footstool, smoking her 
hookah and chatting familiarly with her European visitors 
seated in a semicircle on her right and on her left. The 
native vassals and sirdars of Her Highness were numerous 
and had no seats assigned them, and as they approached 
to pay homage, the Chamb^lain, or Master of the Cere- 
monies, proclaimed with a loud voice their style and titles. 

The Begum bore herself bravely while seated in her 
great chair rolled up in her Cashmeres, and her large 
black eyes were bright and fiill of humour. On one 
occasion, when admitted too early to the Durbar haU 
before the aged queen was seated, the writer was amazed 
to see how bowed, and shnmk and feeble she was, but 
as soon as she had taken her place all idea of physical 
infirmity vanished. 

At this time Mr. Dyce Sombre, the Begum's adopted 
son, was all powerful at her little Court, and no one 
could be more courteous and kind than he was, and his 
two sisters were then married to officers in the ser- 
vice of Her Highness, one an Englishman and the other 
an Italian nobleman. The Begum was affable and 
kind in manner, hospitable and charitable, but was unable 
entirely to emancipate herself from the old feelings of 
one accustomed to despotic authority. She had a fairly 
equipped army of 5,000 men, cavalry, infantry, and 
artillery, and, like all Oriental potentates, their pay was 
frequently greatly in arreare. About the time alluded 
to there was to be a parade of troops before the palace, 
some of the men refused to faU in unless they received 
some portion of their over-due pay. The aged lady 
watching their proceedings from the balcony, inune- 


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diately issued orders for execution of the malcontents, 
and was with some difficulty persuaded by her European 
officers not to have recourse to such summary pro- 

She built a beautiful church, taking St, Peter's at 
Rome as her model. She entertained two priests as 
domestic chaplains, one an Irishman, Father Macdonald ; 
the other an Italian, the well-known Father Julius 
CsBsar, afterwards by the Pope raised to the episcopate. 

In 1836 this veiy remarkable and energetic lady died 
in extreme old age, and when the writer was in Rome not 
long after, he heard of the liberality of her alms and her 
princely donation to the Pope, and that a church with 
special services was set apart for masses for the repose of 
her soul. Her statue surmounting a group in white 
marble by TadoUni stands over her tomb in the church 
which she built at Sirdhanah. The chief portion of her 
great wealth is now being enjoyed in this country by the 
heirs of her adopted son, the late D. 0. Dyce Sombre. 

Note — George Thomas, the Sailor Bajah, was a common sailor in the 
British Navy, who, having deserted his ship, and having wandered about in 
various parts of India, entered the service of the Begum, and rose to 
be one of her chief officers. The young Irishman was brave, hand- 
some, and generous, and gave every indication of capacity for command 
and administrative ability of no common order. 

His dashing bravery was signally shown when he at the head of a 
detachment of the Begum's troops, rescued the Emperor Shah .^Jsm from 
a critical position, and changed the fortunes of the day during the 
determined sortie of the garrison of Gokalgurh, in 17S8. 

Some years afler this the Begum having married M. le Yaisseau, a 
Frenchman in her service, Thomas left her in disgust. 

Soon after this Thomas entered into correspondence with several 
native chiefs, and was soon in eharge of an extensive territory yielding a 
large revenue, and when he appeared iu public was escorted by a chosen 
body of horsemen. 


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The Begam, instigated by her hosband, invaded Thomas's new district, 
but was recalled by a rerolution at Sirdhanah, which led to her deposi- 
tion, when Thomas forgot all past injustice, and came to the rescue with 
all the generosity and ohiTalry of a warm hearted Irishman. 

Thomas, soon after leaving Sirdhanah, was adopted by a powerful native 
chief of a capricious character, and who not long after placing our adven- 
turer in charge of certain wild and almost inaccessible districts, died 
insane. This and other circumstances in those lawless times fraught with 
change and vicissitude, enabled the enterprising seaman to achieve for a 
time independent sovereignty. 

Hansi, the chief town of a district between Delhi, the Punjab, and 
Scinde, had fallen into decay, but he rebuilt ihe town, and restored the 
ruined fortifications, and such was his reputation that the people gladly 
returned to sow and till once more the long-neglected fields. 

Here, to use the words of Eajah Thomas, ** I established a mint, and 
coined my own rupees, which I made eurrejU, (!) in my army and 

country cast my own artillery, commenced making muskets, 

matchlocks, and powder ..... till at lengh, having gained a capital and 
country bordering on the Sikh territories, I wished to put myself in a 
capacity, when a favourable opportunity should o£fer, of attempting the 
conquest of the FaDJab, and aspired to the honour of placing the British 
standard on the banks of the Attock." 

Thomas having extended his. conquests towards the Punjab, cherished 
no less a design than the conquest of that country, and having achieved 
his purpose, was, Nearchus like, to descend the Indus, and lay his con- 
quest at the feet of his liege lord, Greorge III. 

But the days of the sovereignty of the sailor lUgah were numbered. 

General Perron was now all powerful at Delhi and in Upper India, and 
he too had been a humble saUor, and in the plenitude of his power he 
would not brook the proud independence of the British seaman, and 
strange to say, the two men now stood face to face as representing Eng- 
land and France, rivals for the supreme power in Hindoostan. 

On Thomas's refusal to acknowledge the supremacy of Perron, his 
territory was invaded and his capital besieged, and after an heroic 
resistance, the brave sailor Bajah was allowed to retire to British territory 
on the 1st January, 1802. He died a few months afterwards on his way 
to Calcutta. 

Begum Sumroo took charge of his family, but they have long since 
merged in the native population. 

It would have been well had the British Government cast the shield of 
protection over Thomas in his manful struggles against Mahratta lawless- 
ness, and the still encroaching and daring ambition of France, but at 
that time the country ruled by Thomas was regarded as distant from the 
British territory as Cabool is now. 


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This extraordinary man gave peace to a tnrlnilent countiy, and put an 
end to the perpetration of crimes which the British Groyemment has found 
it difficult to deal with successfully. 

So completely had the Sajah identified himself with his people, and 
isolated himself firom his own countrymen, that when Lord Wellesley 
asked him to send him some account of his dominions, he begged that he 
might be allowed to send it in Persian, as he had forgotten English. 

He reigned for four years with great success and beneficence, and it is 
much to be regretted that he was not able to return to enjoy some portion 
of his hard won honours and wealth and to spin stupendous yams about 
the famous pagoda tree in his native Tipperary.* 

* I have followed in the above, Zeene and the authorities he quotes. 


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Lutchmee Bhje, the Eebel Queen of Jhansi — Her wrongs — ^Her revenge 
and heroic death. 

Lutchmee Bhye^ the fierce Ranee of Jhansi^ must not be 
V passed over in silence. The great blot on the otherwise 
successful and brilliant administration of Lord Dalhousie 
was his policy of annexing native states, which lapsed 
to the paramount power from the want of heirs. 
Perhaps of all annexations the small Mahratta State 
Jhansi was the worst. It was usual in Mahratta States 
for the widowed queen to exercise sovereign power during 
the minority of the heir to the throne, or to adopt an 
heir should there be no legitimate claimant. In this 
case, on the death of the Rajah, the Queen was not only 
denied the power of adoption, which according to the 
custom of her country she considered her right, but she 
was deposed under humiliating and aggravating circum- 
stances, and the Principality incorporated with the 
British dominions. 

Having deprived the Ranee of all power and authority, 
and sequestrated her husband's private estate, the British 
authorities had the incredible meanness to call upon her 


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to pay the Prince's debts out of the slender provision 
they had awarded her. The Ranee petitioned and 
remonstrated in vain. We had no mercy, no considera- 
tion for the deeply injured woman, and we cannot be 
surprised that when in the hour of our tribulation we 
cried to her for succour, her ears were closed against us, 
and that she knew no mercy. 

The Ranee was in the prime of life, of a goodly 
presence, able, acute, a perfect mistress in the art of 
dissimulation, and knowing how to bide her time. That 
time came when our rebellious Sepoys were bent on 
uprooting all established authority and making an end 
of the English rule by fire and sword. 

At Jhansi there was the usual staflf of civilians with 
detachments of native troops of all arms. The Europeans 
numbering about seventy in all. The little force at 
Jhansi was not slow to follow the example of their 
mutinous comrades elsewhere. The Queen had by this 
time embodied troops of her own under the plea of self- 
protection. Appeals fi-om the English to the Ranee for 
aid or protection were vain. No answer was returned, 
the messengers being slain at the palace gates, and soon 
the handful of English men, women, and children were, 
in cold blood, ruthlessly butchered, after having been 
by the natives in our service most treacherously and 
cruelly betrayed. 

The British exterminated and their power laid in the 
•dust, the Queen issued from her palace with flaunting 
banners, and was proclaimed sovereign of the State. 

It is matter of history how the Ranee defended her 
ill-gotten power; the siege and taking of Jhansi being 


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one of the most brilliant feats of arms of Sir Hugh 
Rose and his gallant army; and how when the relieving 
army mider Tantia Topee was defeated she escaped 
through the force surrounding her. Having succeeded 
in joining the forces of Tantia Topee, the amazon queen 
was conq)icuous at the head of her horsemen at the 
battle of Kunch, in the vain attempt to bar the advance 
of the British on Calpee on the Jumna, the great arsenal 
of the rebels in that part of India. 

Driven from Calpee with heavy slaughter, the broken 
forces of the enemy fled to Gwalior, where the mutinous 
contingent opened its ranks to receive them, and where 
the able, but craven Tantia Topee deputed by the so- 
called Peishwa, Nana Sahib, assumed the chief command. 

The brave young Scindia and his able and loyal 
minister, Sir Dinker Rao, had to fly for their lives. 
At Gwalior, strongly entrenched round the great rock 
fortress, liie rebels made their last stand. ' After 
three days of stubborn resistance they were finally 

On the third day their leader Tantia Topee fled in 
good time as usual, but the Ranee, in male attire, ac- 
companied by a lady of the palace, was found dead on 
the field of battle pierced by sword as well as bullet. 

Thus died in the prime of her days, as she desired, ^ — 
with her sword in her hand, the blood-stained and 
vindictive queen. None of the rebel host displayed 
such courage and conduct as the &ted Ranee, and hot- 
withstanding her many crimes we cannot withhold our 
admiration for her proud and undaunted bearing when 
adversity overwhelmed all around her. 


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Kudsia Begum of BLopal — Sekimder Begum, her great qualities — ^Begum 
SHah Jehan, the present Ruler. 

Sekunder Begurri^ of Bhopal. — This distinguished lady 
was descended from Dost Mahomed, an Afghan noble- 
man, who during the anarchy that prevailed on the death 
of the Emperor Aurungzebe, took possession of the terri- 
tory adjacent to the town of Bhopal, and called his new- 
made domain Bhopal, after his capital. 

At a moment when the arrival of General Goddard's 
.force of 4,000 or 6,000 men on the western coaat 
was of vital importance, the way was barred across the 
peninsula by all the princes of Central India save one. 
That one was the Nawab of Bhopal, who not only gave 
free passage through his country, but liberally supplied 
the necessities of the army. This well-timed hospitality 
laid the foundation of a friendship which has never been 
broken and has been on: several occasions of the utmost 
value, both to this country and Bhopal. 

In 1817 Nuzzer Mahomed, the able and upright 
minister of Bhopal, having married the daughter of the 
previous Nawab, concluded a treaty with the British 



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government, which guaranteed the country to himself on 
certain not very onerous conditions. 

On his death, his widow, the Eudsia Begum, became 
Regent, and a marriage was arranged between his nephew 
Jehangire Mahomed Khan and his only daughter, the 
Sekunder Begum. On this Jehangire was to be 
declared Nawab, but the queen regent, the Kudsia 
Begum, who was only seventeen when the reins of 
government were placed in her hands, had become 
enamoured of power, and postponed the celebration of 
the nuptials on various pretexts. At last, on the media- 
tion of the British Government, the Kudsia Begum 
retired on a handsome provision, and Jehangire was 
duly invested as Nawab in 1837. 

The Sekunder Begum was formed to rule, from her 
abilities, her resolution, and lofty aspirations. She 
quarrelled with her husband and went to live with her 
mother, where she remained for six years watching 

About this time the profligate career of Jehangire 
was brought to a close, and after some delay, in February 
1847, Sekunder Begum was appointed sole regent for 
her only child, a daughter. ' 

" In six years she paid off the entire public debt of 
the State; she abolished the system of farming the 
revenue, and made her own arrangements directly with 
the heads of villages. She put a stop to monopolies of 
trades and handicrafts; she brought her Mint under her 
own management; re-organised the police, and made 
many other improvements. In fact she displayed in all 
departments of the State an energy, an assiduity and 


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an administrative ability, such as would have done credit 
to a trained statesman.''* 

The Begum was not only an able and successful 
administrator, but a vigorous and heroic rujer. 

When the storm-cloud of lS5t broke upon Central 
India, the Begum never faltered. She sheltered British 
officers. She put down with a strong hand her own 
mutinous contingent. She soothed the excitement of her 
capital, and gave peace and order to her territory. 

" She did all this under great difficulties : when the 
contingent raised in Bhopal and commanded by British 
officers had mutinied, when her mother, who had become 
a bigot, and her uncles, who were weak-minded and 
priest-ridden, were urging her to declare a religious war 
agdnst the infidel. But the Begum never fidtered. 
She was true to the last." 

If the Begum was wise and courageous she was also 
generous and liberal to aid, to reward, and was prompt 
in all things. 

To us she gave s6ldiers and supplies of all kinds 
without stint, and her own people who stood by her and 
us in the hour of trial, when the hearts of men were 
fidling them through fear of the tribulation that was 
upon them, were munificently rewarded. For important 
services to the paramount powe^, Sekunder Begum had 
additional territory awarded her with powers and privi- 
leges much coveted by native states, and in 1863 Her 
Highness was invested with the dignity of the highest 
grade of tiie Star of India. 

• Mallesorfs " Native States of India.- 



116 ;ndia and her neighbours. 

This famous Begum of Bhopal was of small stature 
and fragile frame, and continued her wise rule until her 
death, in October, 1868. 

. The sentiments of the government of India regarding 
the character and services of. Sekunder Begum are 
expressed in the following extract of an Order issued by 
the Viceroy. After stating the profound regret with 
which the Government had received intelligence of the 
demise of that illustrious lady, the document continues : — 
" Her Highness had conducted the administration of this 
principality since the year 1847, when, she was first 
appointed regent, with ability and success, until the day 
of her decease'. In the early years of her rule, she 
improved the system by which the revenue of the State 
is collected, abolished monopolies, regulated the Mint, 
re-organised the police, and gradually increased the 
revenue, while she effectually diminished the public debt. 
In later times, by her support of the cause of male aad 
female education, by her superintendence of works 
intended to supply her capital with pure and wholesome 
water, by the constructi<»i of serais and roads, and by 
other improvements, she gave convincing indications of 
real and abiding interest in the progress of her people 
and in the prosperity of her country. But it was by her 
firm conduct during the great mutiny that she established 
a more direct title to the acknowledgments of the head 
of the administration. 

" Her unswerving fidelity, her skill in the management 
of affairs at an important crisis, the bold front which she 
presented to the enemies of the British power, and the 
vigilance with which she watched over the preservation 




of Englishmen, were acknowledged by Lord Canning, in 
open durbar, in terms of well-deserved praise and 
commendation, and the gratitude of the British Govern- 
ment was further evinced by a grant of territory which its 
owner had justly forfeited in open rebellion, by a recog- 
nition of the right of succession, according to the custom 
of the principality and the Mahomedan law, and by the 
bestowal of one of those titles which the Sovereign of 
Great Britain, as the fountain of honour, has instituted to 
reward good services performed in India, either by 
natives of the country or by the British servants of the 

The daughter, Begum Shah Jehan, at once succeeded. 
She, too, has one child, a daughter. Sultan Jehan, who 
was married on February 1, 1875, to Meer Ahmed Ali 
Ehan Bahadur, a nobleman of Afghan descent. She has 
learned English. The Begum of Bhopal receives a sialute 
of 19 guns. 


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BiTalry of Portaguese, Dntdi, French and English in the East — "Fitat 
English ship — First factory, Surat — The transfer of the Island of 
Bombay from Charles II., the dowry of his Queen to the East India 
Company in 1668 — Gradual spread of English rule orer the pro- 
yinces which Sivajee and the Peishwas had wrested from the Moguls 
and minor soTereigns of the Deccan— Mahableshwax— Poona — Oomra- 
wuttee— ^a. 

Having traced the history of India, from the earliest 
times to the overthow of the Mahratta supremacy 
and the extinction of the Mogul dynasty, we have now 
to describe the modest origin and wonderful progress 
of British rule in India, resulting in a dominion more 
solid and assured in the contentment of the people, 
as well as more prosperous and brilliant, than that under 
Akbar the Great or Aurungzebe. Before describing the 
origin and progress of the British in India, a very brief 
recapitulation will render the subject clearer and more- 

It has been already seen that in the cold grasp of the 
aged and bigotted Emperor Aurungzebe the sceptre of the 
Great Mogul had imprinted upon it the germ of decay. 


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From Cabul to Cape Comorin authority was shaken. On 
the North West the Afghans and Seikhs were arming, and 
the Mahrattas in the Souths having recently defeated the 
Emperor in the field^ hung like a cloud on the Western 
Ghats ready to lay waste and pillage the plains of Hin- 
dostan. So soon as the master's hand was withdrawn 
the fairest provinces in India were to be the prizes to be 
contended for by rebellious vassals, adventurers, and 

Early in the sixteenth century the Portuguese by 
doubling the Cape of Good Hope and establishing a 
paramoimt influence in the eastern seas, and extensive 
commercial relations between Europe and the East, by 
this route, they supplanted the Venetians and Genoese 
who traded with India via Syria and Egypt. 

Portugal having become little more than an appanage 
of the Crown of Spain, its colonial dominion received a 
blow from which it never recovered. 

The Dutch with characteristic energy and perseverance 
towards the end of the sixteenth century followed the 
example of the Portuguese, and succeeded in command- 
ing and retaining a large share in the eastern trade as 
well as considerable political influence. 

The magnificent results obtained from the adventures 
of the Portuguese and Dutch were not lost upon the 
rest of Europe, and even Louis XIV., the Grand 
Monarque, declared that it was not beneath the dignity 
of a gentleman to trade with India. About the year 
1660 companies or associations were formed for prose- 
cuting the trade with India, and the representatives of 
the two great nations, that were destined in a com- 


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paratively short period to contend for the empire of 
India, were merely merchants and supercargoes with 
bills of lading, and invoices of their wares for their 
credentials. The strangers in many instances by the 
perfidy of the native princes had to convert their stores 
and fiwtories into fortifications, and their cleits into 
officers of the native troops they had embodied for 
their defence, and thus they became conquerors in self- 
defence — ^masters instead of suppliants for protection 
and leave to trade. 

The French and English were forced continually to 
make common cause with one or other of the contending 
princes, and in this way the superiority of the West 
over the East became demonstrated. 

The predominance of the English and the French over 
the natives of the country, led to a jealousy and conflict 
of interests inevitable between the two great rivals of 
the West, who, instead of being nierely allies in subor- 
dination to the native Princes, Soubodars, Nawabs, and 
Eajahs, had gradually become principals in the arena, 
whether of politics or war, and a great portion of the 
last century was occupied by their varying and stirring 
fortunes in their bold attempts to seize the falling sceptre 
of empire. 

Subsequent chapters being devoted especially to the 
doings of other European nations in India, it is desirable 
to confine our attention in this exclusively to the pro- 
gress of our own countrymen in India. 

Surat ^c. — "The first English ship which came to 
Surat, was the Hector, commanded by captain William 
Hawkins, who brought a letter from the company, and 


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another ftom the king, James I., to the great Mogul 
Jehangire, requesting the intercourse of trade. 

" The Hector arrived at Surat in August, ] 608."* 
The first formation of an English fectory took place at 
Surat, in 1612, under the protection of the Emperor 
Jehangire, which controlled all the fectories firom Cape 
Comorin to the Eed Sea and Persian Gulf, with ad- 
ditional privileges accorded by the Emperor Aurungzebe 
in consequence of his admiration of the successful resist- 
ance of the English fectory td^ivajee when he plundered 
the city. 

The town of Surat, 150 miles north of Bombay, lies 
on the Taptee not fer from its mouth, contains 130,000 
people, and is still the seat of a considerable trade, 
however fellen from the high estate it once enjoyed, 
before Bombay sprang up to supersede it. Here in the 
17th century, for about seventy years the young East 
India Company drove the bulk of its modest trade by 
permission of the Mogul emperors. Passing northward 
by the still populous town of Bar6ch (or Broach), in 
these days a busy cotton-mart, and by Baroda, the 
. capital of the Gaikwar's State, we come to Ahmedabdd, 
formerly one of the noblest cities in India in the days 
of the Bahmani kings of the Deccan, and still remark- 
able for the beauty of its chief buildings and the remains 
of palaces, mosques, and aqueducts which bear witness 
to its olden glories. Yet grander are the remains of ^ 
Muhammadan architecture to be found at Beejapore, 
the capital of an old and splendid Pathan d}Tiasty over- 
thrown by the arms of Aurungzebe. Within the 

* Orme's Fragments. 


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mouldering walls and among the massive ruins of a vast 
city that once rivalled Delhi and Agra, only ten thousand 
people now dwell. 

Bombay J the capital of Western India, and the most 
populous city in the empire next to London, and the 
most thriving in the whole Peninsula. At Bombay 
His Koyal Highness the Prince of Wales on the 8th 
November, 1875, first placed his foot on Indian soil 
when commencing his memorable tour, and received a 
loyal and enthusiastic welcome. The city and its 
suburbs, containing altogether about 650,000 souls, 
spread over a group of islands, which joined together by 
causeways, form a kind of promontory with one long 
horn at the eastern or Colaba end, and a shorter one from 
the Malabar Hill, While Back Bay carries its deep arch 
between them. The breadth of this promontory never 
exceeds three miles, and its total length from Colaba to 
Sion is about fifteen. Two ranges of whinstone rocks, 
rising sometimes 190 feet above the sea, give Bombay a 
beauty of outline wholly wanting to the uniform flatness 
of Calcutfaif and Madras. A noble bay on the eastern or 
Mazagon side of the island, affords one of the finest 
harbours in the world. 

Of the earlier history of Bombay, or Mumbai, as the 
Mahrattas caU it, there is little worth mentioning before 
it fell into the hands of the Portuguese in 1632. At that 
time it seems to have been little better than a sickly salt- 
marsh. In 1661 it was ceded to England as part of the 
dowry of Catherine of Braganza. Seven years later, 
Charles II. handed it over to the East India Company at 
a quit-rent of £10 a year. For some years the English 


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settlement had to contend with the twofold dangers of 
an unhealthy climate and foreign attacks. In 1686 the 
seat -of government and of the Company^s trade on that 
side of India, was shifted from Surat to Bombay, and in 
1708 Bombay was formed into a Presidency, like Madras 
and Calcutta, with a Governor and Council of its own. 

From that time the city grew steadily, both in political 
and commercial importance, through all the troubles 
which harassed Western India in the last century. Prac- 
tically safe from foreign invaders, it became the centre of 
a flourishing trade, and the meeting-place of traders and 
refugees from countries far and near. Its prosperity cul- 
minated with the American war of 1861-64, which for a 
few years threw the command of the cotton trade of the 
world into the hands of Bombay merchants, and the 
cotton-growers of Western India. 

With the return of peace came a sudden collapse, the 
more disastrous for the gambling mania which had 
seized upon the leading citizens of Bombay. Since 
then, however, the city has gradually emerged from its 
sudden eclipse, and still runs Calcutta a close race for 
commercial pre-eminence — a race in which it may yet 
prove the winner, were it not for the vast producing 
districts in the rear of the metropolis. In some respects 
Bombay has already outstripped its eastern rival. The 
native town, with its broad bazaars and many-coloured 
house-fronts, is one of the most picturesque in India. In 
public buildings of architectural beauty, in the public 
spirit of its native citizens, especially the Parsees, in 
culture, enterprise, social progress and general well-being, 
no other Indian city can touch the capital of the west. 

In the. eighth century, not long after the Arab conquest 


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of Persia, and the establishmeiit of Isl&m in the room of 
the old national sun-worship, the Parsees, a small remnant 
of the unconverted race, were driven by steady persecu- 
tion from their retreats in Ehords^ to the isle of Ormuz 
in the Persian Gulf. Their ill-fortune still following 
them, they took shelter, first at Dili, in the Gulf of 
Cambay, and some years later in Guzerdt. Here under 
certain conditions they were allowed to dwell, and to build 
the temples which held the sacred flame kept ever burn- 
ing in honour of their god — ^the pure and bright Ormuzd. 
From'Guzer&t they gradually made their way over 
Western India, until at last a new Parsee settlement 
sprung up in Bombay itself, where the Parsees have 
since taken the lead in every field of commercial enter- . 
prise, and social progress. 

Of late years a new industry has gained a firm footing 
in Bombay. At this moment eighteen cotton mills are 
at work in the Island, and thirteen more are nearly com- 
pleted — to say nothing of the mills which Bombay capi- 
talists are founding in Surat, Ahmedabad, Madras, 
Nagpore, and the Deccan. Railways connect Bombay 
with nearly all the chief cities of India — vid Jubbulpore and 
Allahabad, it is connected with Delhi and Calcutta, and 
another line places it in railway connection with Madras. 
Its water supply is now brought chiefly fi'om a great 
reservoir at Vehar, some fourteen miles off. Six miles 
from the city, in the island of Elephanta, are the £unou8 
Caves, masterpieces of old Buddhist and Jain archi- 
tecture, hewn out of the solid rock, and still wonderful 
to look at even in their decay. The cave-temples of 
Kanhari, in the neighbouring island of Salsette will also 
repay a visit, although they cannot vie with the more 


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imposing beauty of those at Karli on the road to 

On the Western Ghats, some thirty miles fix)m Bombay, 
is the pleasant hill-station of Matheran, about 2,500 feet 
above the sea, noted for its verdure, and the vie-^s it offers 
of the surrounding country. Further south on the same 
range is the larger station of Mahdbleshwar at a height of 
4,500 feet above the sea, the Simla as it were of Bombay, 
near which springs the sacred source of the Kistna. 

Poona. — The city of Poona, the ere-while capital of 

the Maharatta Peishwas, lies 74 miles south-eastward 

from Bombay, on a treeless plain about 2,000 feet above 

the sea. It still contains about 100,000 inhabitants, and 

. forms the military head-quarters of Western India. 

Oomraumttee. — In the fertile province of Berar 
peculiarly suitable for the cultivation of cotton is the 
large and rising town of Oomrawuttee, the great cotton- 
mart for Central India. 

Goa. — Sailing down the coast from Bombay, we come 
to Goa, the ancient seat of Portuguese rule in India, 
and stni in its decay an interesting relic of the greatneds 
associated with the names of Vasco da Gama and Albu- 
querque. Its harbour ranks next to that of Bombay, and 
a Portuguese Viceroy still holds his little court in the 
modem town. But it is in Old Goa, now a mass of 
nearly deserted ruins, that the monuments of former great- 
ness alloyed by religious fimaticism may be looked for 
in the magnificent cathedral, a few fine churches, and a 
convent hardly to be surpassed for size and grandeur by 
any in Europe. Lower down the coast stands Cochin, 
where Vasco da Gama died in 1525, and a little above 
it is Calicut, where he landed for the first time in 1498. 


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Wars witt the French — Clive^— Coote — ^Dnpleix^-Labonrdoimais — ^Bussy 
— Nawab- of Camatio — ^Madras — Arcot, heroic defence of— Vellore, 
mutiny of— Gillespie and the 19th Dragoons— Ootaoamnnd—'Tinne-' 
velley — ^Pooree^Tuggemath— Rangoon — Monlmein. 

The beginnings of Madras date from the founding of 
an English settlement in 1625 at Masulipatam ; but 
the town of Madras, the great seat of English rule in 
Southern India, dates its origin from 1640, when the 
first English factory on the site of the present city was 
turned into a fortified post, under the name of Fort St, 

A hundred years later came the wars with our French 
rivab, signalised by the dashing deeds of Clive, Law- 
rence, Forde, Coote, and other heroes, and crowned at 
last, after several reverses, by the firm establishment of 
our sway along the whole of the Coromandel Coast. 

In 1746 the French under Dupleix and Labourdon- 
nais took the town of Madras, and soon after Anwar-ud- 
din, Nawab of the Camatic, sent an army of 10,000 men 
to demand the cession of the town. This large army 

Digitized by 



Buffered a disgraceful defeat by Paradis at the head of 
230 Europeans and 700 Sepoys. 

This action of no great magnitude in itself was fraught 
with momentous consequences, for it demonstrated to 
Europeans and natives, how impotent a native force, 
however numerous, was to cope with the disciplined 
valour of Europeans, or even with that of natives if led 
by Europeans. 

For a brief period nothing could be more brilliant 
than the career of the French in the Camatic, under the 
auspices of Dupleix and the gallant Bussy. The vain- 
glorious and Bobadill-like doings of the former, his pillar 
of victory, and the town built to perpetuate his name 
are mentioned in a subsequent chapter. 

In this part of India the fortunes of the English were 
reduced to the lowest ebb, when a new actor appeared 
on the scene, the " heaven bom soldier " Clive, a young ^ 
clerk or writer in the service of the East India Company, 
who having distinguished himself greatly as a volunteer, 
had obtained a commission in the army, and earned still 
further distinction. 

Clive having obtained permission from the then 
Governor of Madras, with a handful of men to seize the 
important fortified town of Arcot, the capital of the 
Nawab of the Carnatic. The garrison seeing CUve and 
his men marching steadily to the attack during a storm 
of thunder and hghtning, thought they were fire proof, 
and panic-striken fled before them, abandoning the 

The heroic and successful defence of this place against 
overwhelming odds, led the way to other victories over 


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the French and their Allies, but Clive, whose genius and 
bravery had done so much to advance the prestige of the 
British, was now called to achieve other and more 
arduous exploits in Bengal, and was obliged to leave to 
another the glory of giving the coup de grdce to the 
French influence in that part of India. 

In 1759 the gallant Colonel Eyre Coote came with a 
moderate reinforcement of troops, and encountered the 
French army under Lally and Bussy at Wandewaah, 
when the French army was totally routed, and the 
heroic Bussy made a prisoner. In 1761 Pondicherry 
surrendered. Lally was beheaded in Paris in 1766, and 
three years afterwards the French East India Company 
was dissolved. 

Thus the dream of a French Empire in India was at 
an end. 

A little later began the hard fight for empire between 
the English and the House of Hyder Ali, the Jugurtha 
of India, which was to issue in the capture of Seringa- 
patam in 1799, in the death of his son Tippoo, and the 
utter overthrow of his dynasty. In the next two 
years, parts of the Nizam's country and the whdle of 
the Camatic were added to the dominions ruled firom 
Madras, which had become the seat of a separate 
Presidency in 1654. 

Madras^ the capital of southern India, contains a popu** 
lation of 500,000 and spreads over a length of nearly 
four miles, with an average breadth of two and a quarter. 
A good deal of this space is fiUed up with gardens and 
enclosures, or " compounds," as in India they are gener- 
ally called. Most of the public buildings and the 


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merchants* houses front the sea, which here thunders 
along the beach in lines of breakers so heavy that no 
ship can approach or ordinary boat can live in them, as a 
rule, but the Mussula boats and the Eatamarans of the 
country pass through these breakers with impunity. 
In spite of its open roadstead, Madras contrives to do a 
fair amount of trade with foreign countries ; and when 
Mr. Parkes's scheme for a close harbour with curved 
breakwaters shall have been carried out on the lines 
already sanctioned, the capital of Southern India may yet 
come much nearer the commercial greatness long since 
achieved by Calcutta and Bombay. 

Arcot. — Arcot, the former capital of the Camatic, lies 
inland on the railway from Madras to Beypore. It is a 
large and prosperous town, memorable for the glorious 
defence which Clive and a few hundred Sepoys and 
Englishmen made in 1751 against the repeated onsets of 
the Nawab, Chunda Sahib's powerful army, with his 
French allies. 

"Military history records few events more remark- 
able than this memorable siege. Its conduct at once 
placed Clive in the foremost rank of distinguished 
commanders. Justly has it been said that he was ' bom 
a soldier.'* At the time when with a handfiil of men, 
most of them unpractised in the operations of war, he 
defended the fort of Arcot against a force several 
thousand strong, his military experience was small, 
while of military education he was entirely destitute. 
His boyhood had passed in idleness, or in the reckless 

* Major Lawrence, ''Narratiye of the War on the coast of 


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perpetration of mischief^ while the few years which he 
had numbered of manly life had, for the most part, been 
occupied with the details of trade. Deprived of all the 
means by which, in ordinary cases, men are gradually 
prepared for the duties of military service or command, 
he showed himself a perfect master of the arts of war. 
Like all other eminent commanders, he communicated to 
those under him a spirit of devotedness and self- 
abandonment, which is among the most graceful, as well 
as the most valuable qualities of a soldier. An instance 
of this occurred among the native troops employed in 
the defence of Arcot, which is alike honourable to them 
and to their commander. When provisions became 
scarce, and there was ground for apprehending that 
famine would compel a surrender, the sepoys proposed 
that their diet should be restricted to the thin gruel in 
which the rice was boiled, and that the whole of the 
grain should be given to the Europeans, as they required 
more nourishment." * 

VeUore. — At a short distance from the frontier of 
Mysore, Vellore was chosen, after the fall of Seringa- 
patam, as the future residence of the family of Tippoo 
Sultan, and was garrisoned by a wing of the 69th 
Europeans and two regiments of Native Infentry, one 
of the latter being largely recruited from the soldiers of 
Tippoo's own army. 

Changes introduced in the dress of the Sepoys of the 
Madras army had engendered a spirit of distrust and 
disaffection especially at Vellore. 

• Maloolm'8 "Life of Olive." 


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" At 3 o'clock on the morning of the 10th July, 1806, 
the two native regiments at Vellore rose in sudden mutiny, 
attacked the European barracks, where some 370 men of 
the 69th Foot were yet sleeping, poured volley after 
volley into their helpless victims, and shot down thirteen 
officers coming out of their rooms."* 

A British officer on duty outside the fort, hearing the 
firing inside, immediat.ely proceeded to Arcot, nine 
miles distant, and in fifteen minutes after his report, the 
gallant Colonel Gillespie with two squadrons of the 19th 
Dragoons had started for Vellore, having left orders for 
the rest of his regiment with the gafloper-guns to follow 
without delay. A native cavalry regiment obeyed with 
alacrity the trumpet-call and was speedily in the saddle. 
When Gillespie arrived at the gate of Vellore, the hard- 
pressed British soldiers drew up by means of a rope the 
gallan tcolonel, and began at once the work of retribution ; 
the galloper-guns meanwhile proclaiming their arrival 
by blowing open the gates, when the Dragoons dashed 
in, followed by the black horsemen, who emulated the 
ardour of their European comrades in putting to the 
sword all implicated in this treacherous, blood-thirsty, 
outbreak. Of the gallant 69th, ninety-five officers and 
men lay dead and nearly as many wounded. But the 
family of Tippoo were mercifully spared the punishment 
of their evident participation in the movement, for they 
and their servants had encouraged the mutineers both 
by word and deed, and had hoisted the tiger-striped 
banner of their father with his insignia over the palace, 

• Trotter's " India." 


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There is nothing finer in history than this prompt and 
heroic ride to save. 

If there had been a Colonel Gillespie at Meerut in 
1857, what might we not have been saved ? 

Utakamund. — What Simla is to Calcutta and Maha- 
bleshwar to Bombay, the beautiful hill-station of 
Utakamund in the Neelgerries is to Madras. Lying more 
than 7,000 feet above the sea, this healthiest of Indian 
sanitaria has a smaller rainfall and a more even tempe- 
rature than any of its Himalayan rivals. Nearer Madras 
are the Shevarai HiUs, forming part of the Eastern Ghats, 
and oflfering a pleasant retreat in the hot- weather to those 
who may shrink from the longer journey to Utakamund 
or to the Palnai HiUs still further South. 

Pooree. — On the northern frpntier of the Madras 
Presidency, but under the Government of Bengal, lies the 
province of Orissa, a land of hills and wood fringed by a 
narrow seaboard through which the MahAnuddee flows 
by numerous outlets into the Bay of Bengal. The seat 
for many centuries of successive dynasties, Hindoo, 
Yavan, and Muhammadan, Orissa was finally rescued 
from Maharatta inroads in the beginning of the present 
century. Its chief town, Cuttack, has a considerable 
trade and a population of 40,000. Far more famous is 
the ancient and holy city of Pooree at its southernmost 
corner. Hither from aU parts of India flock crowds of 
Pilgrims, eager to wash out their sins by worshipping at 
the shrine of Juggemath, or Vishnu, whose far-famed 
pagoda towers to a height of nearly 200 feet from the 
midst of 120 smaller temples, and in whose service some 
20,000 men, women, and children are constantly 


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Rangoon and Moulmein. — Crossing the Bay of Bengal, 
past the jungle-covered islands, the Sunderbunds, and 
the mouths of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra, we sight 
the hilly coast of Araccan, conquered from the Burmese 
in 1826, and now forming part of British Burmah. Its 
chief town, Akydb, is a small but flourishing seaport. 
After rounding Cape Negrais, Bassein on the most 
westerly mouth of the IrrawAddy is the first place that 
calls for passing notice. On the Rangoon river, a broad 
branch of the Irrawaddy lies crowned by its great Golden 
Pagoda, the populous and flourishing city of Rangoon, 
not only the maritime capital of Pegu, which, with the 
rest of that province, fell into our hands during the 
Second Burmese War of 1853, but the Capital of 
British Burmah, and where the Chief Commissioner of 
the province resides. To the East of Rangoon, a little 
way up the broad and deep Salwin river, is the important 
town of Mouhnein, the most important town of Tenas- 
serim, another Burman province ceded to us in 1826. 
With its broad streets of teak-built houses, its fine 
markets, roomy quays, and a population already number- 
ing 20,000, Moulmein is one of the healthiest towns and 
most thriving seaports in British India. 

Near the Gulf of Manar, and less than one hundred 
miles to the south of the town of Madras, is Tinnevelly, 
noted chiefly for its native Christians and a pearl-fishery 
of no great importance. Further up the coast is Nega- 
patam, .and a few miles up the Cavaree lies Tanj6re, 
remarkable for its pagodas and a considerable trade in 
silks and muslins of home manufacture. Further inland 
on the same river is the town of Trinchinoply, which 


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played an important part in the wars of the last 
century, and still carries on a respectable trade in gold 
filagree-work, cheroots, and cutlery. Higher up the 
coast is Pondicherry, the last important relic of French 
power in Southern India, a power which for some ye^ffs, 
under Dupleix and his successors, fought hard for 
mastery against its English rival, but happily fought in 
vain. With the capture of Pondicherry from the brave 
but hapless Lally by the redoubtable Sir Eyre Coote in 
1761, French supremacy in India virtually received its 

While the English and French were struggling with 
varying fortune for supremacy in the Camatic, and the 
Deccan, events of the utmost importance affecting the 
future empire of India were about unfolding themselves 
in Bengal, the richest and most populous of aH the pro- 
vinces which owned allegiance to the Mogul. 


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JobCliaxncM;k--IVinceAzim---£mperorFerokBhere--Hamilton — Mahratta 
ditcb. — Aliyerdi Khan — Suraj-ud-doular-rFort William— Black Hole — 
— Calcntta— Howrah— Barrackpore— Serampore — Plassy, Battle of— 
Cliye — ^Meer. Jaffiei>—MoorBhedabad—'Fatiuir— Benares. 

Whilb the power and influence of the British were 
already considerably advanced at Bombay and Madras 
on the opposite sides of the peninsula, nothing could be 
more feeble or unpromising than their efforts to establish 
a footing in Bengal, arising in a degree from their own 
violence, which led to their expulsion from Hooghly and 
other factories ; but their privileges were restored 
through the intervention of Mr. Boughton, whose 
surgical aid had been of service to one of the daughters 
of Shah Jehan and subsequently to the Viceroy of 

But the real foundation of our rule in Bengal was laid 
by Job Chamock's successful negotiation* in 1695, 

• Job Cbamock, wben agent or cbief of the East India Company's 
Factory at Calcutta, happened to be present at the preliminary arrange- 
ments for a suttee, when he was so interested by the distress /ind beauty 
of the young widow, who was very reluctant to quit this sinful wwld, 
that he ordered his guards to rescue her. They lived happily together for 
years, and had a family, and when she died, Chamock sacrificed yearly a 
cock upon her tomb. The fair Hindoo instead of becoming a Christian 
had unfortunately made Job a pagan. 


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when the villages of Chatanatti, Calcutta, and Gorindpur, 
were bought from Prince Azim, then Viceroy pf Bengal 
anfl the grandson of Aurungzebe. Soon after this time 
the Emperor Ferokshere was unable in consequence of 
indisposition to receive his bride, a fair princess of 
Rajpootana, and was so overjoyed at this cure by Mr. 
Hamilton the surgeon of the British embassy, that he 
asked him to name his reward, on which Hamilton 
patriotically asked for additional privileges and pro- 
tection for his coimtrymen to trade. Five years later 
the works of Fort William on the Hoogly, outside 
Calcutta, were rising from the ground, as a bulwark 
against Mahratta and other foes. The Mahratta Ditch, 
dug in 1742, marked the modest boimdaries of the 
new Presidency, which, covering only a few square 
miles of ground, was content to flourish under the 
protection of Aliverdi Ehan, the Soubadar or Viceroy 
of Bengal. His grandson, Suraj-ud-doula, picked a 
quarrel with his English ' neighbours, which issued in 
the capture of Fort William, and the dreadful incidents 
of the Black Hole, where, in one hot night of June, 
1756, one hundred and twenty-three men and women 
out of one hundred and forty-six in all, died miserably 
of heat, thirst, and overcrowding in a guard-room only 
twenty feet square, lighted by two small windows 
strongly barred. For a moment the English power 
in Bengal seemed utterly and for ever dead. 

But a new life awaited it at the hands of Clive and 
Admiral Watson. In the following January Calcutta 
was retaken, and on the 23rd June, 1757, the hosts of 
Suraj-ud-doula were finally routed by Clive's little army 


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near the village of Plassy, on the road to Moorshe- 

Calcutta. — Of the many cities of India famous either 
in the past or the present, politically or commercially, 
Calcutta, as the capital of our Indian Empire, and 
the great outlet for the trade of Bengal and Upper 
India, claims in an especial manner our attention. 
Lying about one hundred miles up the Hoogly it has 
grown, from a group of small villages into a city 
stretching about four miles and a half along the noble 
river just named, with a breadth of less than two miles, 
and a population now reckoned at more than 400,000. 
Calcutta, or Kalikatta, derives its name from the Hindoo 
goddess Edli, whose worship is still common in Bengal, 
and among whose votaries were the Thugs or Stranglers 
— a class of professed thieves and murderers, whom 
Sleeman, and other officers of the Company, were 
engaged some forty years ago in hunting down. So 
thoroughly was that work done, that the Thug no 
longer dares to pursue his horrible calling within reach 
of a British magistrate. The white town of Calcutta, 
which sweeps back from the river and Grovemment 
House, round the broad Maidan or plain behind Fort 
William to the Cathedral founded by Bishop Wilson, has 
some right to be called " the City of Palaces," from the 
imposing look of the large, lofty, white two-storied houses, 
with deep pillared verandahs, which reminded Bishop 
Heber of St. Petersburgh. Government House itself is 
a noble buUding in the Italian style, which London might 
well envy. Some other of the public buildings, notably 
the Courts of Justice, the Currency Office, the Post and 


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Telegraph Offices, a church or two, one or two hotels, 
and the merchants' offices are handsome structures ; but 
the Cathedral is unworthy of being the Metropolitan 
Temple of the Church in India, and the black town is a 
mass of mean-looking houses huddled along narrow and 
dirty streets. 

Between the Maidan (a grassy plain) and the river 
lies Fort William, half hidden behind its deep moat, and 
capable of holding 15,000 men. Fifty or sixty years 
ago it was one of the strongest of modem fortresses, and 
its strength even now, if it were properly armed, would 
no doubt suffice to protect the city from any approach 
by water. The river itself in front, is generally alive 
with shipping from all parts of the world, and with all 
kinds of native craft, from the crank, high-stemed 
dinghy, with its naked rowers, to the great corn-boats 
slowly bearing their freight up stream; steamers from 
Europe, models of engineering ingenuity, contrasting 
strangely with the primitive craft of the country. 

In the Mall, or Course along the river, and in 
the bazaars, you may see people of many difierent races, 
clothed in every kind of garb, from the sleek black Ben- 
galee, in robes of pure white, to the tall, fair, but dirty- 
looking merchant from Cabul, in his high turban and 
loose sheepskin tunic. " Strings of rude bamboo carts, 
drawn by slow oxen, impede the progress of well- 
appointed broughams, bearing rich merchants to their 
counting-houses ; and the splendidly-equipped scarlet 
orderlies of the viceroy's body-guard, are seen side by 
side with the tawdry and ill-mounted ruffians who hang 
on the skirts of some petty native despot. Everywhere 


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the completeness, polish, and brilliancy of Europe, are 
seen contrasted with the rudeness, squalor, and tawdry 
finery of Asia.* 

Across the Hoogly and now connected with Calcutta 
by a floating bridge, is the important suburb of Howrah 
with its docks, the terminus of the East Indian Railway, 
which runs up to Delhi, and also links Allahabad to 
Jubbulpoor. Another and more pleasant suburb is 
Garden Reach, on the Calcutta side of the river. Here 
still lives the Ex-king of Oude, whose dethronement in 
1866, however well deserved, may have helped to bring 
about the general rising of that province in the follow- 
ing year. During the Mutiny, the Calcutta Volunteers, 
mostly English merchants and traders, kept order and 
restored tranquillity to the metropolis, which was 
greatly disturbed, notwithstanding the noble bearing 
of the Governor-General and Lady Canning, the letter 
showing her fair fece in the feshionable drive as usual. 
In these latter days, the Maidan has twice witnessed the 
gathering of high English officers and richly-decked 
native princes, to take part in the splendid pageant of a 
Chapter of the Star of India, held on each occasion by 
a Prince of our own Royal House. A little up the 
river is Barrackpore, the head-quarter of the Presidency 
division of the army, with a country house and park for 
the Governor-General, and on the opposite bank is 
Serampore, the old seat of missionary enterprise in 
Bengal, and for many years a Danish settlement before 
its transfer. to the Company in 1845. A few miles 

♦ Times of India "Handbook of Hindustan." 


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higjier up is the French settlement of Chandemagore, 
which was taken by the English, but finally restored to 
France in 1816. 

PlcLSsy. — Ninety-six miles north of Calcutta, on the 
route to Moorsehabad. Ever to be had in remembrance 
as the scene of Olive's wondrous victory ! 

But the turning point of our fortunes which converted 
at a blow traders into heroes -and statesmen deserves 
more than a passing allusion. 

No wonder if the heart of the " heaven bom General " 
faltered for a moment on the eve of such a crisis — ^it was 
either — ^victory or ruin ! " Olive was unable to sleep ; he 
heard through the whole night the sound of drums and 
cymbals from the vast camp of the Nabob. It is not 
strange that even his stout heart, should now and then 
have sunk, when he reflected against what odds, and for 
what a prize, he was in a few hours to contend. 

" Nor was the rest of Surajah Dowlah more peaceful. 
His mind at once weak and stormy, was distracted by 
wild and horrible apprehensions. Appalled by the great- 
ness and nearness of the crisis, distrusting his Oaptains, 
dreading every one who approached him, dreading to 
be left alone, he sat gloomily in his tent, haunted, a 
Greek poet would have said, by the furies of those who 
had cursed him with their last breath in the Black Hole. 

" The day broke ; the day which was to decide the fete 
of India. At sunrise the army of the Nabob, pouring 
through many openings from the camp began to move 
towards the grove where the English lay. Forty thou- 
sand infantry, armed with firelocks, pikes, swords, bows 
and arrows, covered the plain. They were accompanied 


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by fifty pieces of ordnance of the largest size, each 
tugged by a long team of white oxen, and each pushed 
on from behind by an elephant. Some smaller guns 
under the direction of a few French auxiliaries, were 
perhaps more formidable. The cavalry were fifteen 
thousand, drawn not from the effeminate population of 
Bengal, but from the bolder race which inhabits the 
northern provinces ; and the practised eye of Clive could 
perceive that both the men and the horses were more 
powerful than those of the Camatic. The force which 
he had to oppose to this great multitude consisted of 
only three thousand men. But of these nearly a thou- 
sand were English, and all were led by English officers, 
and trained in the English discipline, conspicuous in the 
ranks of the little army were the men of the Thirty- 
Ninth Regiment, which still bears on its colours amidst 
many honourable additions won under Wellington in 
Spain and Gascony, the name of Plassey, and the proud 
Motto " Primus in Indis." The battle commenced with 
a cannonade in which the artillery of the Nabob did 
scarcely any execution, while the few field-pieces of the 
English produced great effect. Several of the most 
distinguished officers in Surajah Dowlah's service fell, 
disorder began to spread through his ranks, his own 
terror increased every moment; one of the conspirators 
urged on him the expediency of retreating. The 
insidious advice agreeing as it did with what his own 
terrors suggested, was readily received. He ordered 
his army to fall back, and this order decided his fate, 
Clive snatched the moment, and ordered his troops to 
advance. The confiised and dispirited multitude gave 


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way before the onset of disciplined valour. No mob 
attacked by regular soldiers was ever more completely 
routed. The little band of Frenchmen who alone ven- 
tured to confront the English were swept down by the 
•stream of fugitives. In an hour the forces of Surajah 
Dowlah were dispersed never to reassemble ; only five 
himdred of the vanquished were slain. But their camp, 
their guns, their baggage, innumerable waggons, innu- 
merable cattle remained in the power of the conquerors. 
With the loss of twenty-two soldiers killed and fifty 
wounded, Clive -had scattered an army of near sixty 
thousand men, and subdued an empire larger and more 
populous than Great BritaiQ."* 

Under a new Nawab of Bengal, set up by the con- 
querors, large districts around Calcutta were added to the 
Company's rule. In 1765 all Bengal, Bahar, andOrissa 
were made over to the Company by Shah Alam, the 
Mogul Emperor, as a kind of fief, to be held on payment 
of a fixed tribute. In the time of Warren Hastings, 
the first and greatest Governor-General of India, these 
rich and populous provinces dropped by force of 
circumstances into the entire possession of their English 
masters, who also gained a footing in Benares and 

Moorsheddbad — On the Bhaugeruttee has long since 
dwindled from its former splendour, as the capital of suc- 
cessive Nawabs of Bengal, is the place where the victor 
c£ Plassy, flushed from his overthrow of one king, set up 
another in his stead. This city was formerly the head 

* Life of Clive by Malcolm. — Macaulay's Critical and Historical 


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quarters of the silk trade, and is still celebrated for its 
exquisite carving in ivory. 

Paina. — Turning thence up the Ganges, we come to 
the rich and populous city of Patna, 380 miles from 
Calcutta, peopled chiefly by Mahonmiedans, and famous 
as the scene of several English victories, of a massacre of 
English prisoners by the ruffianly Walter Reinhardt, 
otherwise Sumroo, in 1763, and in later days of many a 
Mussulman plot against our rule> Patna is alike famous 
for its opium and rice. 

Benares. — Forty miles further from Calcutta, on the 
left bank of the Ganges, towers Benares, the holy city of 
the Hindoos, in a stately semicirde above the broad river, 
presenting to the first view a rich confusion of temples, 
palaces and ghd.ts, or bathing-stairs, interspersed with 
clumps of trees, and crowned by two lofty minarets, 
which recal the palmiest days of Mogul rule. The city 
itself is, a dense maze of narrow crooked streets, often 
lined by lofty and noble stone houses, and generally 
thronged by Brahmins, pilgrims, Fakeers, traders, and 
Brahminee bulls. At all hours the numberless shrines 
are visited by eager worshippers bearing gifts, while the 
Ghats are daily trodden by thousands of people met for 
bathing, praying, preaching, bargaining, gossiping, or 
sleeping. So sacred is deemed the Ganges at Benares 
that the police have occasionally to restrain the over- 
zealous pilgrims from seeking eternal bliss by immo- 
lating themselves in its turbid waters. At once the. 
Oxford and the Mecca of India, Benares also ranks 
amongst the very wealthiest of Indian cities, and drives a 
lucrative trade in kincobs, brocades, and other rich fabrics. 


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Here, too, it was that Warren Hastings, amidst a 
whole populace in arms against their E^jah's seeming 
oppressor, quietly finished the draft of his -treaty with 
Scindia, while faithM messengers stole out of the city 
with demands for succour from the nearest military post. 
And here it was that Neill's timely daring and Tucker's 
heroic firmness, prevented a mutinous outbreak in 1857 
from blazing into a general revolt. 


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Mahrattas-^Tragical occurrences — Alamgire II. — ^Vazir Gazi'ud-deen— 
Shah Alam II. — ^Battles of Buxar, Patna and Guya — Camac and 
Munro-^M* Law — Allahabad— Cawnpor© — Lnoknow-— Otide — ^Agra. 

For the latter part of the eighteenth century, the 
Mahrattas were the dominant power in the Deccan and 
Hindostan, but their disunion and rivahy, not only 
gave opportunity for the intrigues of other adventurers 
at the Imperial Court at Delhi, but rendered the 
permanency of their own widely extended dominions 

The Mahrattas frequently without any apparent design 
but to prove their own ubiquity and daring, insulted the 
Emperor, flaunting their banners and defying his 
authority under the very walls of his palace, and even 
when entrusted with the highest oflBces leaving their 
liege lord to the mercy of the unscrupulous and blood- 
thirsty miscreants, who, in times of violent vicissitude 
and revolution, had too frequently a footing within the 
palace, and who stopped at no outrage or crime to gain 
their ends, or of those who employed them. 



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A short time before the fatal field where the Abdallec 
Shah of Afghanistan, the most renowned soldier in Asia, 
had humbled the pride and broken the power of the 
Mahrattas, the infamous Vazir 6azi-ud-deen had the 
unfortunate Emperor, Alamgire the II., assassinated. 
The heir apparent, Ali Ghohur, afterwards Shah Alam 
the IL, previous to this having bravely cut his way 
through his enemies, entered into an arrangement with 
the then Governor of Allahabad for the recovery of 
Bengal, Behar, and Orissa, the prince being the legally 
appointed Soubadar of these provinces. 

As the movements of the prince greatly influenced 
our progress in Hindostan, while it led to the consolida- 
tion and permanency of our rule in the lower provinces, 
a few words as to his personal appearance and character 
may not be out of place on his advent — to him a new 
arena of politics and war. 

The prince at this time was about 40 years of age, 
handsome, tall, and of a dignified presence, brave, and 
almost too merciful to his enemies, without enterprize or 
force of ^vill, fond of pleasure, and too compliant to those 
about him; the character of his ancestor Aurungzebe 
was like that of Louis the XI., while that of Shah 
Alam resembled that of Charles the II., abandoning 
great designs for sensual gratifications. 

Such was the royal adventulrer who driven by adverse 
fate, sought a precarious footing in the wide dominions 
which by right were all his own. 

The news of his father's death, and the appointment 
of his own son Prince Jewan Buckt to act in Delhi as 
Regent in his absence, at last reached the exiled prince, 


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when he was at once proclaimed and acknowledged as 
Shah Alam the II., or Conqueror of the World. 

Shah Alam established his Court at Allahabad, at 
the confluence of the Ganges and Jumna, and made 
various excursions with such troops as he could collect 
into Behar, with a view of extending the limited terri- 
tory subject to his sway. He encountered the British 
forces under Major Camac and Major Munro (afterwards 
the famous Sir Hector Munro) at Buxar, at Patna, and 
finally at Guya. — In aU these actions the Emperor was 
defeated, although supported by the powerful Viceroy of 
Oude, Meer Cossim, with the miscreant Sumroo and his 
trained battalions, and the distinguished French adven- 
turer, M. Law, who, when deserted by all, reftised to 
surrender his sword, but was received by the British 
with honor and hospitality. 

It was after peace was restored, and a small addition 
had been raade to the territory subject to the Emperor 
for his pressing necessities, that the powers and privileges 
of the British over Bengal, Behar, and Orissa were 
extended, and they were made perpetual collectors of 
revenue. And in return his vassals and servants were 
pleased to confirm Shah Alam in the possession of the 
scanty remains of sovereignty at Allahabad. 

Allahabad. — Allahabad, the present capital of the 
North- West Provinces, is commanded by a strong fort 
which marks the meeting of the blue waters of the 
Jumna with the turbid flood of the Ganges. The city, 
which is about five hundred miles from Calcutta, was an 
important place in the Mogul days, when its old 
Hindoo name of Prag was exchanged for the one it now 


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bears, Allahabad or the city of Allah. It still boasts a 
population of 100,000, and retains its old sanctity in 
Hindoo eyes. During the Mutiny, the sepoys quartered 
there suddenly rose upon their officers, some of whom 
were cruelly murdered, and the city with the sur- 
rounding country was given over to anarchy and 
plunder, until NeiU's timely arrival with his Madras 
Fusiliers encouraged the resistance already made by 
Brasyer's Sikhs, secured the Fort itself from further 
danger, and finally drove the rebels away from that 

Cavmpore. — On the right bank of the Ganges is Cawn- 
pore, an old city with 110,000 inhabitants and a large 
trade, especially in saddlery and other articles of leather 
manufacture. On the plain outside once stood perhaps 
the largest cantonment in India, before the British out- 
posts were advanced to UmbaUa and Ferozepore. From 
two of the barracks poor Sir Hugh Wheeler and his un- 
daunted but ill-fitted garrison maintained for three weeks 
of June 1857, a hopeless defence against swarms of rebels, 
led by the infamous Nana of Bithoiir. From the banks 
of the neighbouring river, his ruffians began their cowardly 
and cruel slaughter of men without arms, and women 
and children who. had been promised a safe conduct to 
Allahabad. Of the hapless survivors, four only lived to 
greet their advancing coimtrymen ; the rest were either 
slain on the spot, or reserved for that final massacre, 
whose still fresh traces told their tale of horror to Have- 
lock's heroes on the memorable 16th July. The well 
into which the still warm bodies of the victims had 
been thrown has since been covered with a memorial 


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figure, and surrounded with a handsome parapet, while 
a beautiful garden seems to relieve, in some degree, the 
sad memories of the place. The Prince of Wales during 
his recent tour paid with his usual good feeling a reverent 
visit to the last resting place of the slaughtered innocents 
of his country. 

Laehnow. — From Cawnpore let us cross the Ganges, 
and follow the toad taken by Outram, Havelock, Neill, 
and afterwards by Lord Clyde to Lucknow, once the 
capital of the Nawabs of Oude and subsequent kings. 
This large, picturesque, and populous city — which at 
one time contained some 300,000 souls, a number now 
greatly reduced — stretches for four miles along the right 
bank of the Goomtie, here spanned by two bridges. Its 
noble-looking mosques and semi-Italian palaces, sur- 
rounded sometimes by green and wooded parks, awaken 
in the mind a sense of grandeur and beauty, which a 
nearer view of the streets and buildings does not tend to 
deepen. Some of the buildings, however, and one or two 
of the streets are weU worth seeing. The ruined Resi- 
dency still attests the fierceness of the struggle waged for 
months in 1857, by a small but noble garrison of men 
and women against the whole armed strength of Oude. 
Of the cool courage and heroic endurance shown by all 
who shared in that defence it is impossible to speak too 
highly. Of those who fought and fell there, the first^ 
aUke in rank and worth was the noble Sir Henry Law- 
rence^ the greatest soldier-statesman of his day. Neill's 
death just outside the Residency, in the very moment of 
victory, cast a shadow on the glorious deeds that marked 
the first relief of Lucknow — soon to be rendered still 


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more deep by the loss of Havelock, the hero of that 
brief but brilliant campaign. How bravely Outram, the 
Bayard of the Indian army, held the post of danger, into 
which he and Havelock had forced their way through 
fearful odds, until Sir Colin Campbell came up to the 
final rescue, need not be told again. The latest 
memories of Lucknow, are connected with the visit of 
the Prince of Wales, with his splendid welcome by the 
once rebeUious, but now loyal Talukdars of Oude, and 
with the kindly and gracious words addressed by him 
to some of the sepoy veterans, who stood so loyally by 
our countrymen throughout the trials of the siege. 
^ Eighty miles east from Lucknow, on the banks of the 
Gogra, stands the ancient and populous city of Oude, 
dear to Hindoos as the former seat of one of the oldest 
and most powerful Hindoo dynasties centuries before the 
Christian era. 

On the north-western border of Oude, lies the fruitful 
and well- watered province of Rohilchund, forming part 
of the North- Western Provinces. Its chief towns, 
Bareilly, Shahjahanpur, and Moradabad, are the centres 
of populous districts, which in 1857 were given over 
for a time to all the horrors of mutiny and rebellion. 

Agra. — Placed on the Jumna, is the once imperial city 
of Agra, known to the Moguls as Akbarabad, or the 
city of Akbar, greatest and wisest of the old Emperors 
of Hindustan. The city, which he may be said to have 
founded, still boasts a population of 145,000, and was 
captured by Lake in 1803. 

Sometime before the Mutiny, it became the seat of 
our rule in the North- West Provinces. Within the city 


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Me one or two fine streets of stone-built houses and at 
least one noble mosque, the Jununa Masjid. But its 
greatest ornaments are the picturesque fort of red sand- 
stone, built by Akbar, and further up the river, that 
exquisite "dream in marble," the Taj-Mahal, which 
Akbar's grandson Shahjehan reared with the aid of 
Italian architects, to the memory of his lovely and well- 
beloved Queen, Mumtaz-i-Mahal, the Flower of the 
Palace. This gem of Eastern art, for such it is, with its 
tapering minarets, upswelling marble dome, delicate 
trellis work, and gracefully flowing mosaics, is unsur- 
passed, as Elphinstone rightly observes, by any other 
building in Europe or Asia, " for the richness of the 
material, the chasteness of the design and the effect at once 
brilliant and solemn." Even m Florence its mosaics in 
pieira dura are unequalled. Its stately grace and perfect 
symmetry of form, must strike the beholder from almost 
any point of view ; but it is seen to best advantage, either 
from across the river, or else by moonlight, glistening 
in white softness through the long dark avenue of 
C3rpresses which, from a majestic gateway, lead up to its 
broad marble basement. 

The Fort itself, m which our beleaguered countrymen 
found safe shelter during the worst days of 1857, con- 
taiQS many beautiful buildings of stone, marble and in- 
laid work, dating from the times of Akbar and SLah- 
jahan. Among these the exquisite Moti Musjid, or 
Pearl Mosque, with its graceful arches and clustering 
domes, fiUs the foremost place. ' Here, too, are the marble- 
floored rooms once inhabited by ladies of the Imperial 
Harem, and the palace where Shah-Jahan passed his 


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latter days, a state-prisoner, by sufferance of his son 
Aurungzebe. The civil and military lines spread for some 
distance over the plains outside the city. Akbar himself 
lies buried in a noble mausoleum at Secundra, a few 
miles distant from Agra, so vast that Lord Lake was said 
to have quartered a regiment of Horse in its Arches. 
Mahommedans to this day visit this tomb with as much 
awe and reverence as if the great Emperor was almost 
divine. Twenty miles south-east from Agra, at 
Futtepore Sickri towers the great mosque, whose lofty 
gateways and vast quadrangle, still attest the archi- 
tectural glories of Akbar's reign. 

On the Jumna, thirty-five miles north-west of Agra, 
is Muttraj an old Hindoo city famed for its sluines and 
sacred monkeys. Many years ago two young English 
officers in sport wounded one of these sacred animals, 
which created such a commotion by the screams of his 
countless relatives, that the people rose in a frenzy of 
religious enthusiasm, and the Englishmen, to save them- 
selves, forced their elephant to cross the river, but as the 
animal rolls in the water, only the mahout or driver 
reached the opposite bank. Muttra was also the 
favourite head-quarters of Madojee Scindia, the Pateil,* 
when he was supreme director and protector of the 

• Or beadle, or headman of a village as he loved to call himself in the 
plenitude of his power. This office in his native village was hereditary 
in his family. 


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Shah Alain 11.— Viceroy of Oude— Meer Cossim—Smnroo — Mahrattas 
— GK)lam Kadir — Soindiar^Lord Lake— Bahadoor Shah — ^Delhi and its 
▼icissitudea — The £oh-i-noor and the Peacock Throne— Mahdajee 
Scindia— Daolat Bao Scindia—Holkar—Ochterlony— Alarm in the 
Palace — ^Mutineers — ^The King, the Captain of the Guard, and the 
Phjaician— Willonghby fires the Arsenal— Siege— Capture— English- 
men dine in Palace of Mognl — Hodson at Hoomayoon's tomb — Sur- 
render of King and Princes — Grand reception to Prince of Wales — 
Plroclamation of Empress. 

After the battles of Patna, Buxar and Guya, the 
Emperor Shah Alam II. resumed his residence at Alla- 
habad, and the Viceroy of Oude had favourable terms 
granted him and nearly all his teritory restored. Meer 
Cossim fled despoiled and deserted by the viceroy and 
his former tool, Sumroo, fqr protection to the RohiUas, 
where he died; and Sumroo with the remnant of his 
force entered the service of the Rajah of Jej^re. 

Soon after this the Emperor got tired of his modest 
retirement and mimic court, and was easily persuaded by 
the Mahrattas, who had reasons' of their own for wishing 
to have the charge of the person of the sovereign, to 


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return to the palace of his ancestors at Delhi, and in 1771 
contrary to the advice and urgent remonstrances of his 
English fiiends and protectors, Shah Alam accompanied 
Scindia to the imperial city, where he was received with 
great manifestations of loyalty and rejoicing, and wa» 
enthroned with every circumstance that could give 
splendour to so august a ceremonial. 

The Maharattas were from 1771 to 1803 the masters 
of Hindostan, under Scindia, the Pateil, and his successor,, 
but for a space the attention of this renowned warrior 
and crafty politician was absorbed in his attempts to 
achieve supremacy in the court of the Peishwah, as he 
had already succeeded in doing in that of the Emperor. 

In this season of neglect, a wretch, Golam Kadir, an 
Afghan, aided by the discontent of the Mogul nobles, 
under the Maharatta rule, forced himself with his imme- 
diate followers into the palace and compelled the helpless 
emperor to appoint him his Vizier, the highest office in 
the state. 

This atrocious ruffian having, it has been said, received 
at the hands of the emperor an irreparable wrong in his 
early youth, thirsted for revenge on the imperial house- 
No sooner was he installed in office than he filled the 
palace with those devoted to his interests. After grossly 
insulting the emperor and his family, he with his own 
hands blinded the aged monarch, tortured the princes, 
and outraged the sanctity of the haram in frantic attempts 
to obtain possession of fancied hidden treasure. After 
heaping every insult and degradation on the inmates of 
the palace, and having collected a vast amount of valu- 
ables, having robbed the ladies even of their personal 


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ornaments — scared by the rumour of the too tardy 
approach of Scindia, Golam Kadir collected his booty, 
and after burning a portion of the palace, sought safety 
in flight, during the darkness of the night. This fero- 
cious assassin came to a dreadful end. In a vain attempt 
to escape with the most valuable jewels, he fell from his 
horse and was secured by the country people and sent to 
Scindia, who had now resumed his functions as Lieu- 
tenant-General of the kingdom. After having been 
degraded and tortured in the most dreadful manner, his 
head was cut off and placed at the feet of the now blind, 
aged, prostrate emperor whom he had so remorselessly 
insulted and outraged so recently. Shah Alam remained 
poor and neglected by Scindia, until rescued by Lord 
Lake, in 1803. One of the grandsons who had been 
tortured in the presence of the emperor, was Bahadour 
Shah, who witnessed in his palace at Delhi in 1857, the 
massacre in cold blood of Englishmen, women and 

Delhi. — Nearly a thousand miles by road from 
Calcutta. For miles before the eye rests on the taU red 
sandstone walls and bastions of the city founded, or 
rather rebuilt by Shah- Jehan, the ground is covered with 
the ruins of former Delhis, or of the yet older Hindoo city 
of Indraprastha. Successive d3niasties, Hindoo, Pathan, 
and Mogul, have left the traces of their olden splendour 
in or about the city, whose name to Englishmen will 
always recal at once the darkest and the brightest page 
in the history of our Lidian Empire. From the day<^ 
when Pritwi Kajah, the last Hindoo King of Delhi, fled 
before the onset of Muhammad Ghori's Afghan horsemen 


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in 1193 A.D., to the hour when Nicholson's stormers 
planted the British flag once more on the walls of the 
great rebel stronghold, in September, 1857, Delhi has 
lived on through a long train of chequered experiences 
such as perhaps no other of the world's chief cities can 
match. Every foot of ground within or around its walls 
is indeed historical. To tell of all that has happened 
there would be tantamount to writing the history of 
> Hindustan. No other city, not even Rome herself, has 
witnessed such swift and frequent alternations of success 
and suffering, peace and bloodshed, greatness and 
humiliation, good government and fearful tyranny. In 
the fourteenth century it was well-nigh unpeopled, in 
order that Muhammad Toghlak might indulge his 
whim for transferring the seat of empire to the Deccan. 
Of course the attempt foiled, and Delhi throve again 
imder his humane successor, Feroze Shah. But the 
last days of that century beheld its streets piled with 
dead, and its houses gutted of their wealth, by order of 
the merciless conqueror Timoor the lame. 

For many years after 1450 the citizens had a long rest 
from suffering under the wise rule of Bal61 Lodi. Then 
came a time of ftirther trouble, which ended in the con- 
quest of Delhi by Baber, the brave, chivalrous and jovial 
founder of the Mogul dynasty, in 1526. During the 
long reign of his grandson Akbar, contemporary with our 
own Elizabeth, Delhi flourished as it had never done 
before. For about two centuries it continued to reflect the 
greatness and the splendid tastes of its Mogul rulers, 
from Akbar to Aurungzebe. Its outward glories culmi- 
nated under Shah- Jehan, to whose princely tastes are due 


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the noblest streets in the modem city, and the magnificent 
fortified palace, with its lofty red stone walls, its stately 
halls of marble and mosaic, and its wide arcaded courts, 
surpassing in magnificence, according to Heber, the 
Kremlin at Moscow. He, too, it was who built the great 
Jamma Musjid, one of the noblest mosques in the world, 
and who surrounded the city with walls and noble gate- 
"wnys, covering a circuit of seven miles. 

Early in the eighteenth century the Imperial City was 
rudely awakened fi-om its long rest, to go through a 
new course of trials and disasters, now due to civil com- 
motions, now to new invaders from without. Hardly 
had it escaped the attack of Bajee Rao's Mahrattas in 1737, 
when it fell a prey to the greed of the Persian savage, 
Nadir Shah, who, after renewing the massacres of Tf moor, 
C0,rried away fix>m the plundered city many millions* 
worth of treasure and jewels, including the Koh-i-noor, 
the chief ornament of the famous Peacock Throne of 
Shah- Jehan. Some years later, the Great Mogul of that 
day was blinded and slain by his own Viader, and for 
months contending factions filled the city with their 
murderous havoc. Three years afterwards, in 1756, 
Delhi was plundered by a new invader, Ahmed Shah, the 
Duranee King of Afghanistan. The work of ruin was 
carried on by the Mahrattas, who, in 1759, despoiled and 
disfigured the still lovely palace of Shah Jehan. There, 
too, it was that the infamous Gholam Kddir, in 1788, 
" with his own hands shared in the torture of the Royal 
Family, and the blinding of the helpless old Emperor, 
Shah Alam." By that time the Mahrattas, recovering 
firom their crushing defeat at Paneeput in 1761, came 

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again swarming over Hindustan, and the poor blind 
descendant of Akbar was presently replaced on his 
shadowy throne by Mahdajee Scindia, who for some years 
ruled the country in his name. Under his successor, 
Daulat Rao Scindia, the helpless puppet and virtual 
prisoner of his new protectors, held his mockery of an 
Imperial court, until the capture of Delhi by Lord Lake 
in 1803, when the poor old man was found '* seated under 
a small tattered canopy, the remnant of his royal state, 
with every external appearance of the misery of his con- 

From that moment all Delhi, outside the palace where 
Shah Alam still reigned over his own household, passed 
under the rule of that Company to whom Shah Alam, in 
1765, had granted the government of Bengal. Thence- 
forth, save for Holkar's sudden dash on Delhi in October, 
1804, baffled by Ochterlony's gallant defence, nothing 
ruffled the peace of the famous city until in the early 
morning of the 11th of May, 1857, the mutinous 
troopers of th6 Third Bengal cavalry, which had been 
unaccountably allowed to escape from Meerut, 
clamoured loudly under the palace windows of the king 
for help and leave to enter the city — ^they had over- 
thrown the English and had come to fight for the King 
and the Faith. The troopers cried to the king with a 
loud cry, for a great fear was upon them, for they 
thought in their terror that they saw the gleam of the 
avenging sabres of the British dragoons in headlong 
pursuit of the scared and frantic troopers — but alas of 
the magnificent European brigade at Meerut^ not a 
man moved in pursuit of these traitors and murderers. 


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If swift retribution had followed their blood-stained 
steps, what prolonged anguish might we not have been 
spared ! what horrors might not have been averted ! 
Hearing their cry, the king summoned, to his presence 
Captain Douglas, the Commandant of the Palace Guards. 
In the Hall of Audience, supporting his tottering limbs 
with a staff, the aged monarch met the English captain. 
Douglas said that he would descend and speak to the 
troopers; but the king implored him not to go, lest his 
life should be sacrificed, and laying hold of one of his 
hands, whilst AhsonooUah, the king's physician, took 
the other, imperatively forbade him to go down to the 

In vain the Captain of the Palace Guards delayed the 
troopers for a moment, and only for a moment, for there 
were traitors within, as well as without, the great strong- 
hold of the Moguls, the clatter of horses* feet in the 
streets .and the fierce shouts of the troopers, followed by 
a great multitude — ^proclaimed that the first act of the 
great drama was consummated by our mutinous soldiery 
— ^a dome-like cloud rose above the arsenal fired by the 
heroic Willoughby — Delhi had fallen — ^the Mogul was 

The grandson of Shah Alam looked on without a pro- 
test at the butchery of English men, women and children 
within the palace where he himself, in 1788, had been 
tortured by order of the ruffian who had put out his 
grandfather's eyes. It was not long, however, before Mu- 
hammad Bahadur Shah and his femily reaped the reward 

• Sir J. W. Zaye. 


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of their weakness or their crimes. An avenging force of 
Englishmen, Seikhs and Goorkas sat down before the 
blood-stained city, and after several months of hard 
fighting and stem endurance, the storming columns won 
their way through the breaches made by their guns, 
into a stronghold guarded by many times their own 
number. When we took possession of the fortified 
palace, on the 20th September, "it is related that a 
sentry was found at each gate, with his musket on his 
shoulder, grim and immoveable, prepared for his doom.'' 
" The British standard was hoisted, and the English- 
man celebrated his victory by ordering dinner in the 
Dewan-Khas, with its lustrous marble walls and lovely 
arabesques,"* and realised as he looked at the golden 
letters inlaid in the white marble under the cornice 
tbe truth of the famous inscription quoted by Moore 
— "If there is a Paradise on earth it is this — ^it is 
this." But where was the great Mogul? The king 
with his fitmily and thousands of armed retainers had 
removed to Hoomayoon's tomb, an enormous structure, 
a short distance beyond the walls of Delhi. Hodson, 
the fierce and renowned partisan leader, had sought 
and obtained leave to receive the sword of Bahadour 
Shah. " So Hodson went forth firom his resting-place, 
and stood out before all, in the open space near the 
beautiful gateway of the tombs, a solitary white man 
among so many, awaiting the surrender of the king and 
the total extinction of a dynasty the most magnificent 
that the world has ever seen."* The king was not 

♦ Sir J. W. Kaye. 


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allowed to return to the palace, but was placed in 
honourable confinement in a private dwelling. Next \ 
day Hodson with a hundred of his troopers received the 
surrender of three of the princes with thousands of their 
followers, but unfortunately when near Delhi, fearing an 
attempt to rescue the princes, he deliberately shot the 
Shazadas with his own hand, thus dimming the lustre of 
his recent conduct, which had been noble and heroic. 
Two of these unhappy princes had in the words of Sir 
Archdale Wilson " been most virulent against us," and 
several other princes of the femily were afterwards caught 
and hanged for the part they had borne in the massacres 
of May. The sentence of death passed some months later 
on the king himself, was commuted into one of transpor- 
tation for life, and the white-haired convict disappeared 
from the scene of his ancestral glories to end his days in 
a distant comer of Pegu. 

The grand reception given to the Prince of Wales at 
the old imperial city will long be held in remembrance, 
as it concentrated as it were in one view the past, the 
present, and the future. The old Mogul nobility, the 
magnificent palaces and mosques of their once imperial 
house were in the assured possession of the stranger, 
when artillery, infantry and cavalry in splendid array 
ushered in the Prince their future Emperor, from whose 
gracious bearing they might gather happy omens for 
the ftiture. The Prince, before quitting Delhi, held 
a grand review of all arms on that ever-memorable ridge, 
some of the troops and officers occupying the points 
they held so bravely during the siege ; and as he rode 
along the line of British soldiers, the haughtiest and 



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most energetic of native princes was proud to ride on 
the right hand of the English prince and avow himself 
the fidthM servant of our Queen. 

At Delhi, on the 1st of January, 1877, Queen Victoria 
was proclaimed Empress of India by Lord Lytton, her 
viceroy, in the presence of her vassal kings and long 
descended princes, with their armed retainers and clans- 
men around them ; some arrayed in complete armour 
like the Paladins of old, some in gorgeous raiment, 
stiff with barbaric pearl and gold ; all this mighty host 
stood forth with drooping banners in homage to their 

Old imperial Delhi has witnessed many a grand and 
stirring spectacle, but not in the palmiest days of Shah 
Jehan or Arungzebe was there such an array of princely 
splendour, or loyalty to the imperial throne so significant. 

NoTB.— Dellii, besides being for ages the seat of empire, has ever from 
its geographical position oommanded a mighty trade— its bankers and 
merchants being famed for their riches and extensive oommerci^J relations 
«^its jewellery and embroidery being preferred to all others. Within the 
waUs of Delld there are the termini of three lines of railway — the East 
Indian, from Calcutta, the Bajpntana State Hne from Bombay, and the 
terminus of the Soinde, Ponjab and Delhi railway from Enrrachee. 


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P2aeepat<-»Meerat-»Simla---nmritBar--'Laliore---Pe8liawar*Mooltiin — 
Sukknr, Bakker, and Boree— Shikarpore — Jacobabad—Dadur— Hyder- 
abad — Kunachee. 

Pdneeput. — On the not far distant plains (from Delhi) 
of Paneeput the drama of Empire was enacted over and 
over again. On those plains, Baber and his Moguls 
overthrew, in 1526, the hosts of Ibrahim Lodi, the last 
of the old Pathdn kings of Delhi, and so fomided the 
dynasty which, with one brief interval, held its sway for 
the next two hundred and fifty years. Thirty years < 
later, on the same field, the youthfiil Akbar crushed out 
the last hopes of the rival Afghan dynasty of Shir Shah. 
In 1761, the field of Paneeput witnessed the shock of 
two great armies fighting over the death-stricken body 
of the Mogul Empire. The victory won by Ahmed 
Shah's Afghan and Mogul warriors on that day of 
terrible slaughter, proved equally fittal to the House of 
Bdber, and to the growth of that Mahratta empire 
which Sivajee and his successors had striven to rear on 


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the ruins of that of the Mogul. This celebrated battle, 
which permanently affected the fete of the Moguls and 
Mahrattas, removed many obstructions from the path of 
the continually advancing and victorious British, and 
well merits a passing notice. 

The Mahrattas having invaded the Punjab roused the 
resentment of the Abdallee king of Afghanistan, who 
once more crossed the Indus at the head of his fierce 
and veteran horsemen. 

Ahmed Shah, who had been a man of war from his 
youth, was at the time the most renowned general in 
Asia, far-seeing, patient,* skilful, indefatigable, prompt, 
and resolute. Sedasheo Rao Bhow,* his Mahratta 
opponent, without experience in war, was imperious, 
contemptuous, and headstrong, but brave in action. 

The forces were about equal, leaving out of calcula- 
tion the clouds of irregular horsemen which hovered 
about both armies. Nothing could be more simple than 
the dress, arms and camp equipage of the northmen, 
while the men of the south, with their officers decked 
out in cloth of gold (degenerate sons of the great 
Sivajee!) they emulated in all their appointments the 
splendour of the Mogul glories of bygone days with their 
vast pavilions, the gilded tops of which were never again 
to reflect the slanting rays of the evening sim to welcome 
the return of the doomed warriors, who now humbled by 
famine, were sadly and sternly prepared for the worst ; 
and what a contrast did they present to the proud and 
gKttering array which entered that encampment only 
a few short weeks before ! 

* Bhovr«-a Hindoo title. 


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The Mahrattas were in a camp strongly entrenched, 
and began to suffer from the want of supplies, when the 
Bhow sent a letter to his friend, the Nawab of Oude, 
who was negotiating for terms with the Afghan kiug. 
" The cup is now full to the brun, and cannot hold 
another drop. If anything can be done, do it, or else 
answer me plainly at once ; hereafter there will be no 
time for writing or speaking." 

When the Mahrattas were reduced to their last meal 
they issued forth from camp determined as they swore 
to conquer or die. To quote the words of Grant Duff, 
" The ends of their turbans were let loose, their hands 
and fiwes were anointed with a preparation of turmeric, 
signifying that they were come forth to die ; and every- 
thing seemed to bespeak the despondency of sacrifice 
prepared, instead of victory determined ;" but their 
ancient valour and dan did not desert them in this 
extremity. They came on like a whirlwind, and for a 
moment the fierce onset of the Mahratta horse appeared 
to shake the tried veterans of the Abdallee and in some 
portions of the field to force them to give ground, but 
the tenacity and strength of the north, aided by a skilful 
general, prevailed against the misdirected, fiery, and 
impetuous valour of the south. The victory was com- 
plete. The general-in-chief of the Mahrattas and the 
Peishwa's son, with Scindia and many men of note, fell 
on this fatal field. The renowned Holkar fled. Maha- 
rastra was filled with mourning, and the spirit of the 
people appeared crushed. 

Thenceforth India lay at the mercy of any power 
strong enough to take advantage of the weakness and 


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confusion caused by the rout of Pdneeput, and the con- 
queror's subsequent retreat to his own country. Four 
years later, the victor of Plassy, Glive, became the 
virtual master of Bengal, while his countrymen in 
Southern India, firesh from the death-blow they bad 
inflicted on their French rivals, were already marching 
forward on the path of assured dominion. 

MeeruU — Forty miles to the north of Delhi lies 
Meerut., famed for its cheerful hospitality and rich 
verdure. Here the mutiny first showed itself red-handed 
with fire and slaughter of the helpless, and here too with 
the most magnificent brigade of Europeans — horse, foot 
and artillery, the frantic sepoys were allowed to escape, 
to put the garrison and Budmashes of Delhi into a blaze 
of rebellion, which was the signal for a conflagration all 
over the country. As remarked in a preceding chapter, 
if that handful of native cavalry which led the revolt 
had been either crushed in their lines or pursued even to 
within the gates of Delhi, what blood and treasure, what 
unspeakable anguish to English hearts and homes might 
have been spared ! 

Sirrda^ ^c. — ^Proceeding northwards, past Kumaul and 
Umballa, we cross the low Sewalik Range that forms an 
outwork to the Himalayas, and winding up by the hill- 
station of Dugshai, arrive at last on the wooded slopes of 
Simla, towering from eight to nine thousand feet above 
the level of the sea, in full sight of the great central 
range, its icy pinnacles glistening in the silent air as far 
as the eye could reach. Amidst the deodars and rhodo- 
dendrons of this Indian Capua, the rulers of India, and as 
many as possible of their countrymen, spend the hot and 


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rainy months of each year, recruiting mind and body with 
the breezy air, healthM exercise, much cheerful society, 
and all the silent influences of grand mountain scenery. 
Ever since the days of Lord Dalhousie, Simla has been 
the usual head -quarters of the Indian Government for 
more than half the year. Daijeeling, on the borders of 
Sikhim, is the summer retreat of the Government of 
Bengal, Ninee Tall, in Kamaon, for that of the North- 
West Provinces, and Murree, on a lower range of the 
Himalayas, beyond Rawalpindee, of the Government of 
the Punjdb. At the last-named hill-station, as well as 
Eisaulee, Dugshai, Subdthoo, and Landour, English 
troops and invalids are generally quartered. 

Umritsur. — ^The road from Simla eastward, brings us 
across the Sutlej at Rupur, where Lord Auckland had a 
courtly meeting with Runjeet-Singh, to JuUunder, chief 
town of the district occupied by us after the first Seikh 
war. On the line of the Scinde, Punjab and Delhi 
Railway thence to Lahore lies Umritsur, the sacerdotal 
and commercial capital of the Punjab, the Holy City 
of the Seikhs, famous for its temples, its sacred tank, 
" Amrita-Saras," or Fountain of Nectar, and its com- ^ 
mercial wealth and enterprise; its merchants having 
extensive business relations with Central Asia, on one 
hand and on the other with Calcutta and Kurrachee, its 
industries include the manufacture of calicoes, silks, and 

Ldhore. — Lahore, the political capital of the Punjab, 
lies on the Ravee, and embraces within its walls a circuit 
of seven miles. Like other cities that lay in the path of 
invaders from beyond the Indus, Lahore had for many 


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centuries been held by the Keutenants of successive 
dynasties, from the days of Mahmiid of Ghuzni until it 
became the capital of the consolidated and powerful 
kingdom of Runjeet Singh, whose ashes lie nobly enshrined 
close to the citadel where he dwelt. Ruins of former 
cities may be seen for miles round the present capital 
which still contains about 100,000 inhabitants, and 
possesses mosques, temples and palaces of interest and 
magnitude. The Emperor Jehangire lies buried across 
the Ravee, in a stately tomb surmounted by four tall 
minarets. North of the city are the Shalimar Gardens, 
where Shah Jehan and his ladies were wont to enjoy the 
cool shade of marble-floored summer-houses, made cooler 
by the playing of numberless fountains. Entered by 
Lord Gough's troops in 1846, Lahore was finally placed 
under our rule in 1849, when the whole Punjab became 
ours by right of conquest, and the boy-successor to the 
throne of Runjeet Sing became in England a happy and 
honoured country gentleman. During the eventful year 
of 1857 the Punjab was ruled by a noble band of 
Englishmen, Lawrence, Montgomery, Macleod, George 
Barnes, Edward Thornton, Douglas Forsyth, Mac- 
pherson, Corbet, Sydney, Cotton, John Nicholson and 
Herbert Edwardes. In the absence of their chief the 
dire calamity broke out in various stations, when a few of 
these men took counsel together and decided on the 
complete disarmament of the large force of native 
soldiers at Lahore ; and this was done so well that no 
blood was shed and no murmur was heard. 

The armourers and cutlers of Lahore have been long 
celebrated for their swords and other implements of war. 


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The reception of the Prince of Wales was very strikmg, 
fix)m the noble stature and bearing of the chiefs and 
their retainers, many of them being sheathed in armour. 

Peshdwur. — From Lahore the main road takes us north- 
westward across the Land of the Five Rivers, by Guje- 
rat, the last great battle field of the Seikhs and English; 
Jhelum, where Alexander and Poms fought and Sir Walter 
Gilbert led his flying column in chase of the routed 
Seikhs ; Rawal Pindi, where the last of the Seikh veterans 
gave up their arms ; across the Indus at Attok, where 
Gilbert's guns and cavalry nearly caught up the retreating 
Afghans — to P eshdwur , which overlooks the mouth of 
the formidable Khyber Pass, forced so brilliantly in 1 842 
by the Sepoy and firigKiSh soldiers of Sir George PoUock. 
This city, bu 3t by Akbar, and afterwards the seat of an - 
Afghan dynasty, from whose hands itjwas^ wrested by 
Runjeef "Suigh, is still important as the great frontier 

outpost^or watch tower, of British India. Here, as at 

Lahore7"Sr great danger was timely averted in 1857p 3y 
the tact and courage of British officers entrusted with the 
task of disarmmg a^whole brigiide of Sepoys beforeThey 
could rise against our countrymen. 

Mooltdn. — ^Mooltdnj on the lower Chenab, contains 
some 80,000 inhabitants, and carries on a thriving trade 
in silks, shawls, brocades, and cotton cloths of its own 
making. Its history may be traced back to the time of 
Alexander, if the Malli whom he conquered lived in 
Mooltan. In the eighth century of our era it was taken 
by the Arabs, by Mahmud of Guzni in the eleventh, by 
Timur in the fourteenth, and by Runjeet Singh in 1818. 
The murder of two English officers here in 1848 by order 


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of the Seikh governor Mulraj, brought on the second Seikh 
war, in which Herbert Edwardes won his first laurels by 
driving Mulrdj back into his stronghold, and keeping him 
there until a British force came up to complete the work 
he had begun. During the Mutiny of 1857, two Sepoy 
regiments were here disarmed by a mere handful of 
English gunners. The railway links Mooltan with 
Lahore, and a like connection with Eurrachee will be 
completed when the "missing link" is constructed 
between Mooltan and Kotree, the upper terminus of the 
Scinde line, opposite Hydrabad, on the Indus. 

Shikarpore. — A populous town about twenty miles 
from Sukkur,* on the route from Scinde to Khorasan 
and Afghanistan by Dadur, the Bolan Pass and Quetta. 
It is renowned for the extent of its banking relations 
over the East. 

The subjoined account, though long, is not only so 
picturesque, but so illustrative of the personal character- 
istics of the tribes and nations on the N.W. frontier, 
that I transfer it without abridgement. 

The Great Bazar or main street, almost bisects the 
city. " We have specimens of at least a dozen nations, 
not including ourselves. The little Brdhui, with his flat 
face, broad limbs and stalwart shoulders clothed in a 
robe of camel's hair, stands gazing like an Epicurean at 
the tempting store of the halwai or confectioner. Knots 
of Afghans are chaffering noisily about the value of 
their horses, ponies and dromedaries. You may see 

• Sukkur is on the right bank of the Indua and Eoree on the left, with 
Bakkur a rocky island between them. This is the point at which it is 
proposed to bridge the river for the Indus Valley Bailway. 


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what these men are by their tall, large forms, eager 
utterance, fiery eyes and energetic gestures. Though 
not allowed to carry arms, their hands are deep in their 
waistbands, as if feeling for the wonted Charay, the long, 
single^edged dagger which they use with such effect. It 
is about the size of the old Roman sword, and it speaks 
volumes for the stout-heartedness of the wielders. The 
wild, sun-blackened Beloch, whose grizzled locks and 
scarred cheek tell mutely eloquent tales of the firee- 
hooter's exciting life, measures the scene with a gaze that 
means * what a waste of loot ! ' or turns, with the action 
of a cat-o'-mountain, upon the running footman pre- 
ceding that pulpy Sindi rider in the brocaded cap and 
dress of padded chintz: the ^flunkey' has taken the 
liberty of pushing the knight of the road out of the way. 
The huge and brawny Mulla from Swat, an Eastern friar 
of Copmanhurst, all turban and kammerband (waist- 
shawl) the clerical calotte and cassock of El-Islam, looks 
down with infinite depreciation upon the puny Sindis 
amongst whom he has come to live and thrive. Fierce, 
bull3ang Pathans, the Afghan * half-castes' of the plains, 
dispute with smooth-tongued Persian traders : Kandahar 
meets Mult&n, intent only upon capping cheating by 
cheating; the tall turban of Jaysalmir nods to the skull 
cap of Peshln, and the white calico sleeve of Eju^kh and 
6ujer4t is grasped by the hairy claw of Keldt. Now, a 
grimy Moslem cook pours a ladleM of thick oil upon a 
fizzing mass of kabdbs, whose greasy steams, floatmg 
down the Bazar, attract a crowd of half-famished ryot 
navvies and ditchers, to enjoy, in imagination, the * plea- 
sures of the table.' Then a smooth-faced Lohana asks 


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you 40 rupees for a goat-tog chogheh, or cloak, whose 
worn condition reduces its value to 12 or less. 

" Here, a Bhatiya vendor of dried fruits, sugar, spices, 
opium and hemp — ^the tout ensemble fragrant as a drug- 
gist's shop in the dog days — dispenses his wares to a 
knot of Jat matrons and maidens, with a pah: of scales 
and a set of weights which would make justice look her 
sternest. And there grim Indine Chalybes — ^black- 
smiths, tinmen, braziers and others — are plying their 
ringing, clanging, clattering, clashing trade in a fectitious 
temperature of 150° Fah., and in close proximity of a 
fire that would roast a lamb. 

" Yet heard through all this din is the higher din of 
the human voice undivine. Every man deems it his 
duty on 'Change to roar, rather than to speak — none may 
be silent — even the eaters of pistachios and the smokers 
of tobacco must periodically open their throats to swell 
the clamour floating around them. Except when the 
crafty Hindus transact business with fingers hidden 
under a sheet, not a copper pice changes hands without a 
dozen offers and refusals, an amount of bad language and 
a display of chapmanship highly curious to the Western 

" The typical man (of the Shikarpiiri Hindus proper), 
is a small, lean, miserable-looking wretch, upon whose 
wrinkled brow and dra^vn features, piercing black eyes, 
hook nose, thin Kps, stubbly chin and hahF-shaven cheeks 
of crumpled parchment, avarice has so impressed her 
signet, that everyone who sees may read. His dress is a 
tit^ht little turban, once, but not lately, white, and a 
waistcloth in a similar predicament; his left shoulder 


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bears the thread of the twice-bom, and a coat of white 

paint, the caste-mark, decorates his forehead. Behind 

his ear sticks a long reed pen, and his hand swings a 

huge rosary — ^token of piety, forsooth! That man is 

every inch a Hindu trader. He. may own, for aught we 

know, lakhs of rupees; you see that he never loses an 

opportunity of adding a farthing to them. He could, 

perhaps, buy a hill principality with a nation of serfs ; 

yet he cringes to every Highlander who approaches his 

cloth-shelves, or his little heaps of silver and copper, as 

though he expected a blow from the freeman's hand. 

Scarcely a Moslem passes without a muttered execration 

upon his half-shaven pate, adown whose sides depend 

long love-locks, and upon the drooping and ragged 

mustachios covering the orifice which he uses as a mouth. 

There is a villanous expression in Shylock's eyes, as the 

fierce fanatics void their loathing upon him ; but nothing 

in the world would make him resent or return slight for 

slight — ^nothing but an attempt to steal one of his 

coppers, or to carry ofi^ a pennyworth of cloth. 

" This Shikarpuri, having few or no home manufac- 
tures, began long ago to devote his energies to banking, 
and in less than half a century he overspread the greatfer 
part of inner Asia. From Turkey to China, firom 
Astrachan to Cape Comorin, there was hardly a con- 
siderable commercial town that had not its Shikarpuri 
or the Shikarpiiri's agent." 

" The fidr sex at Shikarpiir, both Moslem and Hindu, 
has earned for itself an unenviable reputation; perhaps 
we can hardly be surprised by the feet. The women are 
far famed for beauty, the result of mixing with higher 


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blood — ^for freedom of manners amounting to absolute 
" festness " — and for the grace with which they toss the 
kheno or ball. These attractions have often proved 
irresistible to the wild Highlanders that flock to the low 
country bringing for sale their horses, woollens and dried 
fruits. You will see more than one half-naked, half- 
crazy beggar, who, formerly a thriving trader, has lost 
his all for the love of some ShikarpAri syren. By these 
exploits the fidr dames have more than once involved 
their lords in difficult and dangerous scrapes. Moreover, 
when the young husband that was, returns home old and 
gray, to find a ready-made &mily thronging the house, 
scandals vnll ensue — there are complaints and scoldings; 
perhaps there is a beating or two before matrimonial 
peace and quiet are restored. The Hindus of the other 
Indine cities have often proposed to place their northern 
brethren under a ban till they teach their better halves 
better morals." ♦ 

Jacohabad and Dadur^ the former the head-quarters 
of the renowned Scinde horse, called after the celebrated 
General John Jacob, who reclaimed the land from the 
desert, planted it with trees, and adorned it with flowers 
and shrubs ; but it has become unhealthy and its existence 
imperilled by rivers in the vicinity changing their beds; 
a more stable site for the cantonment appears desirable. 
Dadur is a small town near the mouth of the Bolan 
Pass and about 65 miles from Jacobabad, and the proper 
terminus of the long-needed railway from Sukkur. 

Hydrdbdd. — Hydrdbad, the old capital of Scinde, lies 

• «< Scinde Beyisited/' by Captain Bichard Burton, 1877. 


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on the left bank of the Indus, not fer from the ancient 
Tatta at the top of the delta, where the sailors of 
Nearchus were so alarmed by the noise of the rushing 
tide in the narrow creeks, which they mistook for the 
roar of monsters of the deep, coming to swallow them 
up. Hyderabad is in communication with Mooltan and 
other places by means of steamers and native craft on the 
Indus, and is opposite Kotree, the upper terminus of the 
Scinde Railway, being a little more than 100 miles froni 
Eurrachee, through which it has access to the sea. Its 
artisans are noted among other things for their skill in 
making swords, matchlocks, and various other kinds of 
arms. It was near this city that Napier's small force 
routed the numerous and brave Beloochee troops, the 
famed " barbarian swordsmen " of the Scinde Ameers, in 
February, 1843, and so brought the whole province 
under British rule, and enabled him to say — -peccavil 

Kurrdchee. — But the most important city in that part of 
India is Eurrachee, on the Arabian Sea, near the low 
range of hills which divides Scinde from Beloochistan. 
During the last thirty years its growth in size and com- 
mercial importance, as the main outlet for the trade of 
Scinde and the Punjab and adjacent territory has been 
largely aided by the vast improvements made in its 
harbour, under the direction of Mr. W. Parkes, con- 
sulting engineer for the harbour to the Secretary of State 
for India. The Scinde Railway connects Eurrachee with 
Eotree on the Indus, and when the line is extended to 
Mooltan, Eurrachee, from its geographical position as the 
European port of India, and its unrivalled accessibility 
during the prevalence of the south-western monsoons, 


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will command much of the trade which now finds its way 
from the Punjab and N.W. Provinces to Calcutta on the 
one hand and Bombay on the other. Abeady ships of 
very large tonnage can enter and lie in its harbour at any 
part of the year, and more than a thousand vessels, 
including coasters, now yearly enter the port of Kurra- 

Having given an outline of the progress of British 
rule in India, and some description of the chief actors 
in the crowded arena of politics and war, as well as a 
glance at the places where great battles had been fought, 
or revolutions accomplished, it might be well, before 
turning to the summary of the acts of the several 
Governors-General, or to the subsequent chapter on the 
Native States, to remind the reader of the provinces im- 
mediately subject to the British crown. 

The division of British India into three Presidencies, 
Bengal, Madras, and Bombay, has been modified by the 
division into provinces, each ruled by a Lieutenant- 
Governor or Chief Conmaissioner. Madras and Bombay 
retain on the whole their former limits, but the over- 
grown Presidency of Bengal has been broken up into 
Bengal Proper, Assam, and British Burmah, the North- 
West Provinces, and the Punjab; to which may be 
added the Central Provinces, fonx^ed out of the old 
Sagur and Nerbudda districts, the lapsed Mahratta State 
of Nagpore, and part of Bundlechund. Each of these 
provinces represents a certain phase in the conquering 
career of the grand old East India Company. 

Digitized by 





Clire— Oovemor of Bengal— Warren Hastings, 1st GoTemor-Gkneral — 
Lord Ck)mwalliA-~Lord Teignmouth — ^Lord Wellesley — ^Lord Minto— 
Lord Hastings — Lord Amherst — Lord William Bentinok — ^Lord Auck- 
land — ^Lord Ellenborough — ^Lord Hardinge — ^Lord Dalhonsie— Lord 
Canning, Ist Viceroy— Lord Elgin^-Lord Lawrence— Lord Mayo- 
Lord Northbrook— Lord Lytton. 

Until the battle of Plassy in 1757 the progress of the 
British in India was little better than a series of obscure, 
if heroic struggles, for leave to trade, and to defend their 
limited possessions against the exactions and capricious 
tyranny of the native rulers of the country, or the 
jealousy of foreign rivals in eastern enterprize. 

The battle of Plassy was the- turning point of our 
fortunes, the commencement of our dominion. CKve, 
the Warwick of the time, deposed one king of Bengal 
and set up another. 

In 1759 the Dutch squadron was captured in the 
Hooghly; while in the following two years the French 
were defeated at Wandewash by Sir Eyre Coote, they 
were driven out of the Camatic, and by the fidl of 
Pondicherry their power was annihilated. 



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In subsequent years the British, with ever-advancing 
standards, take Moorshedabad, Monghyr, and Patna, 
and after defeating the Emperor Shah Alam II. 
and the Viceroy of Oude, aided by the ex-Nawab of 
Bengal, Meer Cossim, had the power hitherto exercised 
by right of conquest legally confirmed by an 
imperial edict conirtituting them the imperial Dewans 
or collectors of revenue for the provinces of Bengal^ 
Behar, and Orissa, on payment of a moderate tribute. 

In 1767 Clive leaves India, and Hyder Ali, the Sultan 
of Mysore, appears in the field, and two years after- 
wards he suddenly approaches Madras when a peace is 
arranged. He said, "I do not fear the English fi-om 
what I see, but fi\>m what I do not see ! " 

Warren Hastings^ 1772 — 86, the first Governor- 
General, discontinues payment of tribute to the Emperor 
of Delhi. During his reign the Rohillas were defeated ; 
Salsette fell to our arms. Colonel Maclean, the agent 
of Hastings in England, tendered his resignation in con- 
sequence of dissatisfaction of Home Authorities, which 
is accepted, but Hastings repudiates the act of his 
agent and retains his high office. About the same time 
Loixi Pigot, Governor of Madras, is unlawfiilly arrested 
by his own council and dies. Renewal of war with 
France; Pondicherry capitulates to General Munro. 
In 1780 Captain Popham carries Gwalior by esca- 
lade ; Bassein surrenders to Goddard. Scindia is 
defeated by Camac and granted favourable terms. 
Colonel Baillie's force is cut to pieces by Hyder Ali. 
Sir Eyre Coote takes command of Madras army and 
defeats Hyder Ali in repeated engagements. In the 


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same year, 1781, the Dutch settlements in India and 
Ceylon were taken by the English. Cheyt Smgh, Rajah 
of Benares, deposed by Hastings with extraordinary 
coolness and resolution, under most perilous circum- 

Braithwaite's force annihilated by Tippoo Sultan. 
Naval engagement with French without result. Death 
of Hyder Ali. Hastings concludes a treaty favourable to 
England with Oude, and aids in spoliation of the Begums. 

In 1783 the brave and distinguished veteran Sir 
Eyre Coote, sinks under infirmity and the toils of war. 
There is peace with the French, but war with Tippoo 
Sultan, which was concluded in the following year. 

Various accusations were brought against Hastings, 
and the chief accuser was a Brahman, Rajah Nuncomar, 
who was himself soon after found guilty of forgery and 

Besides the conquest of Rohilchund, Hastings was in- 
volved in many and great wars with the Mahrattas and 
Hyder Ali of Mysore, and sent at a critical moment, 
as already mentioned, with that prescience for which he 
was remarkable, a small force under Colonel Goddard 
from Calcutta to Surat, which in the face of many diffi- 
culties it efiected, having defeated the armies of Scindia 
and Holkar and taken Bassein by assault. 

It was to meet the expenditure incurred by these 
wars that he was led to demand the large sums of 
money from the Rajah of Benares and the Begums of 

However we may deplore the means used for raising 
funds necessary for carrying on to a successful issue the 


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great designs of the Govemor-GeneraJ, he acted with a 
Bingle eye to promote the prosperity and glory of his 
country by consoKdating and extending its dominion, 
over whose destiny he watched with a vigilance that 
never slumbered, a resolution that never faltered, or 
enquired too nicely into the means to attain the end. 

In 1786 Hastings returns to England, and in 1787 is 
formally impeached by the Commons before the House 
of Peers, when Burke and Sheridan deliver most 
eloquent orations, and in 1796 he is acquitted but 
financially almost ruined by the expense of the trial, and 
was allowed to live and die utterly neglected by the 
government. In extreme old age when he appeared to 
give evidence at the bar of the House of Commons every 
head was uncovered by, a simultaneous impulse to do 
reverence to the great patriot and statesman. 

T^rd ComwaUisy 1787 — 93. — ^After an interval of two 
years Lord Comwallis was appointed Governor General, 
and in 1791 takes command of the army in the field, 
defeats Tippoo Sultan under the walls of his capital, 
Seringapatem, and many strong places surrender to his 
arms. In the following year he appears again before 
Seringapatam, when Tippoo gives two of his sons as 
hostages, cedes territory, and pays a large sum of money. 

But however succ6ssfiil as a soldier. Lord Comwallis 
is better remembered in connection with the permanent 
settlement of the land tax in Bengal. 

Lord Comwallis was for his eminent services raised to 
a Marquisate. 

Sir John Shore^ Lord Teignmouthj 1796 — 98, who 
carried out the non-intervention policy of the Court of 


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Directors, the period of his rule was not distinguished 
by very important events; however, he was neither 
deficient in promptitude nor courage when he felt he was 
called upon to interfere in the deposition of the illegiti- 
mate and worthless Nawab Nasir Ali of Oude in the face 
of a dangerous opposition* Sir John Shore was elevated 
to the peerage as Lord Teignmouth, and sailed from 
India in March, 1798. 

Ixyrd MomingUm^ Marquis WeUesley. 1798 — 1805,' 
commenced his magnificent rule in 1798 which was 
adorned by the victories of Lord Lake, Sir Arthur 
WeUesley, and other great commanders. 

In the beginning of this century the sway of the 
British extended over RohUchund and part of Oude. 
Lord Wellesley's wars with the Mahrattas issued in the 
conquest of the fertile plains between the Jumna and 
the Ganges, from Cawnpore up to Delhi and Meerut, 
in 1803. 

Lord Wellesley's fiur-reaching imperial policy which 
embraced within its scope Europe as well as Asia, not 
only added kingdom after kingdom to the extent of our 
dominion, but elevated at critical periods of our history 
the power and glory of the British name. 

By the destruction of Tippoo Saib, the ruthless tyrant (, 
of Seringapatam, and his dynasty; by the reduction of 
the pretensions of the Soubadar of the Deccan, the 
Nizam of Hydrabad ; by the protection and restora- 
tion of the Peishwah; by the overthrow of the great 
Mahratta leaders, Scindia, the Rajah of Berar, and 
Holkar; by the rescue and protection of the blind, aged, 
and helpless Emperor of Hindoatan, no rival, whether 


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European or native, was left in the field to contest our 

Lord Wellesley after having for seven years performed 
magnificent service to his country, and having in an 
eminent degree displayed all the kingly virtues, was 
elevated to a marquisate, but so mole eyed were the 
CJourt of Directors in Leadenhall Street, or so intent on 
profits and bills of lading that thirty years elapsed 
before they understood the magnitude of the services of 
their Governor General; at aU events that period, the 
life of a generation, elapsed before they made him any 

Lord Ccmwcdlis in 1805 resumed his high office, but 
only to die. He was succeeded provisionally by Sir 
George Barlow, whose timid policy of non-intervention 
and in making peace on too favourable terms with those 
with whom the great Lord Wellesley had been at war, 
?' left the brave Rajpoots, the allies of England, to the 
tender mercies of the Mahrattas, their old enemies and 

Duiing this illomened reign the VeUore mutiny 

Lord Minto^ 1807 — 13. — During this period the war 
between the French and English raged with great ftiry, 
and the troops of the latter took from the French and 
their allies all their possessions in the east, including 
Bourbon and Mauritius. At this time also the rich 
island of was wrested from the Dutch. 

Piracy in the Persian Gulf was suppressed. Sir John 
Malcolm was sent on a mission to Persia, and Mr, 
Mountstuart Elphinstone to Afghanistan. 


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^ The Seikhs at this time had risen to be a formidable 
power in the Punjab under the Lion of Lahore, Runjeet 
Singh, and it was apprehended that France and Russia 
might stir up the Shah of Persia, the Ameers of Afghan' 
istan and Scinde, and our formidable neighbour Runjeet 
Singh, to form a confederacy against us. \ 

Lord Minto, notwithstanding these sinister auguries, 
formed friendly treaties with all these potentates. 

Lord Moira^ Marquis of Hastings^ 1814 — 23. — After 
the great wars of Lord Wellesley the land had still to be 
subdued. New quarrels with native rulers involved new 
conquests. The hill tracts of Kumaon were wrested in 
1815 from the insolent and aggressive Nepaulese. Three 
years later, Ajmere, the Sagur and Nerbudda districts 
passed under our rule. 

Lord Moira was a distinguished soldier of noble 
character, whose prolonged reign of nine years was 
distinguished by many brilliant services, by the 
deposition of the Peishwa, by the crushing defeat of 
Scindia and Holkar, by the destruction of the Pindarics 
(a powerful confederacy of savage freebooters), the eleva- 
tion of the Nawab Vizier of Oude to the kingly dignity. 

While Lord Hastings was occupied with the Mahrattas 
and Pindarics, the King of Burmah sent an insolent 
message demanding the cession of territory. The 
Governor-General treated the letter as a forgery, saying 
he ftiUy relied upon the good disposition of the king. 
The ruse succeeded, and before the king made a second 
demand, the Mahrattas and Pindarics were disposed of, 
and his golden-footed majesty was speedily deprived of 
three of his best provinces, 


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The prestige of the British name was not only 
greatly advanced by victories in the field against appa- 
rently overwhelming numbers, but many of the strongest 
fortresses iq India submitted to our arms. The 
Gk)vemor-General, who had also acted as the Com- 
mander-in-Chief, was created Marquis of Hastings, and 
left India amid the hearty good wishes and applause of 

Lord Amherst^ 1828 — 28. — First Burmese war, in 
which the king cedes Assam, Arracan and Tenasserim; 
enlarging the boundaries of the great Bengal Presidency; 
yrith a heavy pecuniary indemnity. The storming of 
Bhurtpore by Lord Combermere in 1825. 

In 1827 Lord Amherst solemnly assured the great 
Mogul in his palace at Delhi that the British were now 
the paramount power in India. . 

Lord William Bentinck^ 1828 — 35. — His administration 
was distinguished by peace within and without our 
border, and for social and economical reforms. The 
great act by which his name will be handed down to 
posterity, was the abolition of suttee, or self immolation 
of the wife on the death of the husband. He did much 
towards the extirpation of Thuggee, a tribe of pro- 
fessional murderers, by strangulation. At this time 
appeared Ramohun Roy, who desired to reform his 
countrymen, especially iq their religious views. He 
came to England as agent for the king of Delhi and 
died at Bristol in 1833. 

Lord William Bentinck was very unpopular with the 
army, fix)m having, in obedience to the Court of 
Directors, reduced the batta or field allowance. 


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Lard Auckland, 1836— 42.— In 1836 the British out- 
posts overlooked the Sutlej at Ferozepore and Loodiana. 
Disasters occurred to our arms from interfering in the 
iotemal affaurs of Afghanistan, with the view of counter- 
acting the designs of Russia by deposing one king and 
setting up another, under the mistaken impression that 
Shah Sujah, the sovereign of our choice, was more 
popular than Dost Mahommed, the vigorous Ameer in 
chief. The retreat, sufferings and destrubtion of our 
little army cast a gloom not only over India but England, 
and taught our native soldiers and subjects a lesson 
fraught with future calamity, that we were not invincible. 

Lord Auckland's management of the finances was 
successful, and his administration otherwise showed 
ability of no conunon order, but the ill-fated Afghan 
campaign cast a cloud over an otherwise statesmanlike 

Lord JSUenborough, 1842 — 44. — Notwithstanding that 
the lustre of the British arms was dimmed by the 
retreat, the honour of England was gloriously upheld in 
Afghanistan by Nott in Candahar and by Sale and the 
" illustrious garrison " at Jellalabad, that that honour was 
finally vindicated and the prestige in a great measure 
restored, was much more owing to the conduct of the 
above-named commanders and the skill and determi- 
nation of the relieving general, Sir George Pollock, than 
to the resolute councils of the new Gk)vemor-General. 
Having reduced the strongholds of the country, defeated 
the Afghans in every action, and released the prisoners, 
Generals Pollock, Nott and Sale returned in triumph to 
India and were received on the frontier by the Govemor- 


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General with every circumstance of honour. Soon 
after this (1843) Sir Charles Napier was sent to Scinde. 
^ He defeated the Ameers in two pitched battles. The 
country was annexed without just cause, as it would 
appear, albeit it has prospered under our rule. 

During the wars in Afghanistan and Scinde, the 
Mahrattas of Gwalior had been turbulent in consequence 
of the childhood of the Maharajah Scindia. They were 
defeated in two pitched battles on the same day. 
Maharajpore, where Sir Hugh Gough commanded, the 
other Punniar where General Grey was the chief. 

Lord EUenborough held opinions at variance with 
those of the Court of Directors of the East India 
Company. He treated them with disrespect, and, after 
an unusually short tenure of office, was suddenly recalled 
by the Court, in virtue of the power vested in them, 

Lord Hardinge^ 1844 — 47. — A distinguished soldier, 
who had seen much service in the Peninsula and at 
Waterloo, with the most peaceful intentions was com- 
pelled to go to war with the Seikhs, our old allies and 
neighbours, but jealous rivals for supremacy in India. 

Since the death of the old Lion of the Punjab in 1839 

\^the country of the five rivers had been the scene of 

anarchy and revolution, resulting in the assassination 

of several members of the royal femily, and of the chief 

men of the State. 

At length, having exterminated all the members of the 
family of Runjeet Singh of mature age, the Sirdars 
placed on the throne his last descendant, Dhuleep Singh, 
a child of tender years. 

The Seikh army was at this time numerous, and disi 


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ciplined, with a magnificent artillery, while the physique 
and courage of the men were of the first order ; they 
had conquered in every field, and longed to cross swords 
with the British, and were not to be denied. The 
master's hand was gone, and the existing leaders were 
intriguing for the supreme power, which no one appeared 
strong enough to wield. 

The Seikhs crossed the Sutlej (1846) and invaded 
British . territory, when Sir Hugh Gough, Lord Har- 
dinge and Sir Harry Smith hastened, with very 
inferior forces to drive them back over the boundary 
river, the Sutlej, which they succeeded in doing after 
fighting four pitched battles — Moodkee, Feroshah, Ali- 
wal, and Sobraon. 

The British army crossed the Sutlej, took possession 
of the citadel of Lahore, the young Maharajah, Dhuleep 
Singh, made his submission, peace was granted on 
moderate terms, Jullundur was annexed, and Cashmere 
was erected into a tributary State, on Golab Singh of 
Jununu pajdng £1,000,000 sterling towards the 
expenses of the war. 

The latter portion of Lord Hardinge's tenure of his 
high office was adorned by his humane and successful 
efforts to suppress many cruel practices then prevalent 
amongst the aboriginal inhabitants in the remote fast- 
nesses of Lidia. 

Sir Henry Hardinge after earning golden opinions 
of all returned to England in 1847, having been elevated 
to the peerage as Viscount Hardinge. 

Lord DcUhoitsiej 1848 — 66. — Lord Dalhousie went 
to India with the most pacific views to promote its 


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social aad material prosperity; especially the cultivation 
and exportation of cotton, but soon the renewed turbu- 
lence and treachery of the Seikhs demanded the energetic 
action of the Governor-General in the field of politics 
and war. 

Mulraj the Seikh Gt)vemor of Mooltan, had been 
privy to the murder of two British officers, the Punjab 
was in feverish state, the old soldiers were mustering in 
secret ; the heavy guns and other arms which had been 
buried were being dug up, and once more it was evident 
that the Khalsa, the old Seikh army, was determined to 
try again the fortune of war. 

Mooltan was taken by storm under General Whish ; and 
Lord Gough, after fighting the bloody and indecisive 
battle of Chilleanwallah ; obtained chiefly through the 
splendid way in which his artillery was served, a brilliant 
and complete victory in the battie of Gujerat. 

Sir Walter Gilbert, with his fLying column, in hot 
pursuit, compelling the fiigitives to surrender, and their 
A%han cavalry allies being well mounted barely escaping 
to their own coxmtry by the Khyber Pass. 
I The annexation of the Punjab was now (1849) deter- 

> mined. Once more the boy king sat upon his throne in 
the great hall of his palace, surrounded by his Court and 
his Sirdars, and signed in fuU Durbar a treaty, resigning 
to the English the sovereignty of his country, receiving 
in return a pension small in comparison of the greatness 
of the sacrifice, and to that which was given to deposed 
potentates less entitled to consideration. 

The Seikhs have been amongst the most loyal subjects 
of the British crown, and their country has been 


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prosperous and happy. The ever- widening circle of our 
rule continued to extend, 

The annexation of Pegu (1852) followed fix)m injuries 
received at the hands of the king of Burmah; of Nag- 
pore, from the rajah having no heir; of Oude (1856) 
from the continued misery of the people by the mis- 
government of the king ; not to mention minor gains in 
Bundelchund and Sikkim. 

With the retirement, in 1856, of Lord Dalhousie, the 
march of conquest may be said to have stopped. Very 
little at least has since been added to the empire, whose 
bounds he was but too ambitious of extending. Of all 
these conquests, there are very few which an impartial 
reader of British Indian History can condemn. 

While the boundaries of the empire were greatly 
enlarged, every eflFort was made to advance the social 
and material prosperity of the people, the administration 
of justice was improved, colleges and schools were 
established, railways and telegraphs, roads and canals 
were extensively introduced. 

Lord Dalhousie may have erred in annexing terri- 
tory, which sowed the seeds of future woe, but on the 
whole his reign was vigorous and brilliant, and he may 
fairly be considered the greatest of all the Proconsuls 
after Lord Wellesley. 

Lord Dalhousie was rewarded by a Marquisate, but 
he did not live long to enjoy it. He had indeed given 
his life for his country. 

Lord Canning^ 1856 — 62. — The great event of Lord 
Canning's reign, indeed, in the whole history of Lidia, 
was the revolt of the native army of Bengal. 

The alleged causes were the forcible conversion of 


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Mahomedans and Hindoos by the new cartridges, which 
were fiilsely said to be greased with the fat of pigs and 
cows, so as at once to defile Mahomedans and Hindoos 
alike ; and that all the native states were to be annexed, 
like Oude. 

There may have been something in these rmnours, but 
there were other causes at work. From their fine 
physique and soldierly qualities we had pampered the 
Bengal Sepoy unduly, at the same time by our central- 
izing system we had taken away the power of reward and 
punishment fix)m commanding officers of regiments, and 
as an Asiatic likes to look upon the &ce of the man who 
has power over him, thus were old bonds between officer 
and soldier loosened. At the same time, we left much 
of our artillery and arsenals in their custody — ^notably 
Delhi. We had been massacred by the Afghans and 
they, the Sepoys, had enabled us in our hard struggle 
with the Seikhs to get the victory. Why should they 
not fight as well without us as with us, and with our 
own arms and training? Pandy had become a mon- 
strously conceited fellow, and coveted the dignity and 
power of command, and would have it any price. 
y The main incidents of the mutiny are briefly told in 
the preceding chapters, but all who desire a full narrative 
are referred to the eloquent pages of Sir John W. Kaye. 

If Lord Canning was slow and reluctant to realize the 
gravity of the storm that was about to shake the empire 
to its basis, he met the tempest with calmness and reso- 
lution, and never for a moment lost his dignity and self- 
possession; and, when the danger was past, lio one was 
more clement or generous. 

At this period the grand old East India Company 


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became a thing of the past, and the Governor-General 
became the Viceroy of our Queen. 

Among the last acts of Lord Canning was the granting 
of sunnuds or patents to the princes of India who had 
done good service, constituting them feudal nobles of the 
empire, and guaranteeing their rights and privileges, with 
power of adoption on fidlure of issue. 

On the 1st of November, 1858, Lord Canning issued 
in llie Queen's name the fiunous Proclamation which 
transferred the immediate sovereignty from the Com- 
pany to the Crown, by which " Queen Victoria took the 
miUions of India under her gracious protection, and 
promised to govern them according to those beneficent 
maxims which have always distinguished British rule. 
The Proclamation was translated into aU the vernacular 
languages of India, and was read in every station and 
in every native court on the 1st November, 1858. Her 
Majesty's kind words, full of grace and dignity, doubt- 
less did much to reassure the minds of the people, and to 
convince them that the intentions of their English rulers 
were as just and benevolent as their military strength 
had recently proved to be irresistible." * 
. Nothing can be finer than the closing words of the 
future Empress of India: — "When by the blessing of 
Providence the internal tranquillity shall be restored, it 
is Our earnest desire to stimulate the peaceful industry 
of India, to promote works of public utility and improve- 
ment, and to administer the government for the benefit 
of all Our subjects resident therein. In their prosperity 

* Lethbridge's " Introduction to History of India." 


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Tnll be Our strength, in their contentment Our security, 
and in their gratitude Our best reward. And may the 
God of all power grant to Us, and to those in authority 
under Us, strength to carry out these Our wishes for the 
good of Our people." 

Shortly before leaving India Lord Canning had to 
deplore the loss of Lady Canning, one of the most 
gracious and gifted ladies that ever visited Lidia, and 
whose fair fece and engaging demeanour spoke of hope 
and better times in the darkest hour of the mutiny. 
Lord Canning scarcely lived long enough to receive the 
cordial greeting of his countrymen on his return from 
his arduous labours; but his lamented and premature 
death cannot b6 laid to the charge of India. 

Under the most trying ordeal no one could have 
represented England with more manliness and dignity 
than the first Viceroy. 

Lord Canning for his calm, dignified and resolute 
government of India was rewarded by a step in the 

Lord Elgin^ 1862 — 63, gave much promise of a useful 
and brilliant career, when his valuable life was suddenly 
terminated by a disease to which he was liable, and had 
nothing to do with the climate. 

Lord Lawrence^ 1864 — 68. — Sir John Lawrence was 
rewarded by this high office for the eminent services he 
rendered his country when Lieut.-Govemor of the 
Punjab. His reign was honourably distinguished by 
the "masterly inactivity" with which he abstained from 
meddling with the tangled yam of Central Asian 
politics beyond our frontier. Sir John Lawrence on his 


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return to England was elevated to the peerage as Lord 

Lord MayOy 1869 — 72, succeeded Lord Lawrence, and 
excited hopes of a bright future, but was to the regret of 
India and England assassinated by a wretched fanatic. 

His noble stature and distinguished manners made an 
extraordinary impression on the natives of India. 

Lord Norihbrook, 1872 — 75, will long be remembered 
for his courage in abolishing the most unpopular, and 
most abhorrent to Orientals, of all taxes, the income tax; 
he promoted many useful measures; and his efforts were 
successful in mitigating the horrors of the famine in 
Bengal in 1874. 

Lord Northbrook had- the honour of receiving the 
Prince of Wales as his guest during his visit to India, 
and on resigning the viceroyalty was created an earl. 

Lord Lyttorij 1876. — This accomplished nobleman had 
the high distinction of proclaiming her Majesty Queen 
Victoria as Empress of India at Delhi, on the first of 
January, 1877. It is earnestly to be hoped that circum- 
stances may permit Lord Lytton to pursue the wise 
policy of his predecessors in his high office, of abstaining 
as much as possible from intermeddling with Central 
Asian politics beyond our border. While these lines are 
being written, the Viceroy, the Duke of Buckingham, 
Governor of Madras, and Sir Richard Temple, Governor 
of Bombay are working together in the most harmonious 
and zealous manner to mitigate the distress of our fellow- 
subjects in India, resulting from famine and its conse- 

The magnificent donation of half a million sterling 



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from the people of England to ameliorate the distress of 
their fellow subjects in India, with thi3 noble devotion of 
all the Queen's officers in India, from the Viceroy down- 
wards, must have broken through the icy barrier of 
caste of the Hindoo and the pride of place of the 
Englishman, and established a stronger feeling of mutual 
sympathy and regard, and made the rigid justice and 
inflexible rule of the heavy handed Englishman more 
acceptable to the mass of the people. 

How the educated natives appreciate our rule will be 
seen by the following extract from a recent speech of a 
Hindoo gentleman at a public meeting at Bombay in 
September, 1877. 

" I am sure that every sensible and well-informed 
man in this country is loyal. This country for many 
past centuries had no government deserving the name. 
There was neither internal peace nor security from 
foreign invasion. There was no power in India which 
could put a stop to the evil practices of sati, infanticide, 
religious suicide, and human sacrifices. The whole 
nation presented a scene of stagnation and ignorance ; 
but the case is now diflferent. Under the auspices of a 
beneficent, civilized, and strong Government, we have 
become progressive. Light and knowledge are pouring 
in upon the country. Old prejudices and errors are 
vanishing. We therefore count it a great privilege to 
be loyal subjects of the Empress of India. There is 
now security of life and property, as pei^ect as human 
institutions can make it. Those who are old enough are 
aware of the plundering excursions of Pindaris, who, 
descending from the ghauts, spread terror in the Concan. 


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These professional robbers have been extirpated by the 
British Government* We enjoy liberty of speech, 
petition and press. We enjoy the blessings of education, 
useful public works, internal peace, and freedom from 
foreign invasions." 

The events that have occurred since the abolition of 
the Government of the East India Company, with the 
exception of the great mutiny of 1857, did not, from 
their- comparatively recent date, appear to demand more 
than a passing notice. 

A fiiir review of what happened from Plassy and Arcot, 
to the political deiath of the East India Company in 1858, 
when, as already stated, the onward march of the con- 
queror was stayed, is a record of achievements of which 
every Englishman may well be proud. While the Court 
of Directors were preaching peace and commercial 
diligence, their servants in India were continually driven 
by circumstances, often unforeseen and seldom hoped 
for, to play the part of statesmen and soldiers, to turn 
their factories into fortified towns, to gather revenue as 
well as trade profits, exhibiting all the nobler qualities 
of mighty conquerors, winning province after province 
from weak or hostile rulers, and finally to place all 
India with princes as its vassals at the feet of a Com- 
pany which always shrank from taking the next step on 
the road to a consummation so wonderful, and, for the 
Company itself, so short-lived. The history of those 
hundred years, during which our countrymen and their 
sepoy comrades bore the Company's flag from one end 
of India to the other, against the heaviest odds, over 
barriers the most appalling, is frill of stirring appeals to 

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the heart of every Englishman who takes an interest in 
his country's fortunes, and feels his blood warmed 
by a succession of great deeds in war and in council, 
deeds tarnished on the whole by few crimes and fewer 


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Oodeypore— Jeypore — Joudhpore— Desert States. 

The Native States of India^ if in that term we include 
every small chiefship or barony lying within our borders, 
and subject more or less closely to British rule, number 
more than four hundred and sixty, and cover an area of 
about 600,000 square miles, peopled on a rough reckon- 
ing l>y nearly fifty million souls. We may divide^ them 
locally into twelve groups, aiTanged in the following 
order : — 1. The Indo-Chinese group, as typified in 
Manipore and other small states bordering Assam and 
Lower Bengal, 2. The aboriginal chiefships in Cbota 
Nagpore, Orissa, Jeypore (in Madras), and the Central 
Provinces. 3. The Native States, mostly Hindoo, which 
girdle the western Himalayas from Cashmere to Gurhwal 
and Rampore. 4. The Afghan tribes beyond the Indus. 
5. The Seikh States of Sihrind, such as Puttiala, Jhend, 
Nabha, Ndhan, and Eotgarh. 6. The Mahomedan 
States of Bhawulpore, and Khyrpore, in or close to 
Scinde. 7. The States and Chiefships of Malwa and 
Bundelchund, including the Mahratta States of Ind6re 
and Gwalior. 8. The Rajpoot kingdoms of Rajpoo- 
tana. 9. The cluster of little states in Eattiawar and 


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the northern half of Bombay. 10. The Mahratta and 
other states in the Concan and the western Ghdts, such 
as Kolapore and Sdwant-Wari. 11. The great Maho- 
medan kingdom of Hyderabad ; and 12. The old Malayan 
States of Travancore and Cochin in Southern India, to 
which may be added the Hindoo State of Mysore. 

These groups might re-arrange themselves into 

>Rajpoot, Mahratta, Mahomedan, Indo-Chinese, and Ab- 
original, but for the &ct that in some states the mass of 
the people differ from their rulers in race and creed, 
while in others it is hard to say which race or creed pre- 
ponderates. A Hindoo Rajah reigns in Travancore, for y 
instance; a Mahomedan B^gum governs Bhopaul; a i 
Seikh dynasty holds Cashmere : the bulk of Scindia's sub- 
jects are not Mahrattas, nor do the Mussulmans outnum- 
ber the Hindoo and Dravidian ^-aces in Hyderabad. With 
regard to the rulers of these states, there is one easy 
mode of distinguishing a Mahomedan from a Hindoo 

> dynasty. Rajah or Maharajah, Rdna, and Rao, with the 
feminine Ranee, are all Hindoo titles of sovereignty, while 
Thdkure and Sirddr answer to our Barons. A Maho- 
medan Prince, on the other hand, is a Sultan, a Nawab, 
or a Meer, while Khan expresses a somewhat lower rank. 
Rdjpootdna. — Of all these States the oldest and histori- 
cally the most renowned are those of Rajpootana, the land 
of Rajpoots or Princes, which extends from Scinde almost 
to the Jumna, and from Bhawulpore to the borders of 
Malwa and the presidency of Bombay. It is a land of 
rocky hiUs, and wide, dry, often sandy plains, covering 
an area of about 114,000 square miles, equal to the 
British Islands, peopled by ten or eleven million souls. 


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No small part of it is mere desert, haunted only by wild 
beasts of various sorts, from the nilgau to the lion. The 
fertile tracts ajQPord pasture for sheep, horses, and 
camels, or yield crops of com, cotton, sugar, opiimi, and 
tobacco. The iahabitants are nearly all Hindoos of 
various castes and tribes, from the high bred Rdjpoot and < 
the keen-witted Brahmin, to the hard-working Jdts and 
the humble dealers in grain. The Rdjpoots pride them- \ 
selves on the purity of their descent from the Kshatriya, 
or Warrior Caste of Maru's day, and some of their princes 
would even trace their lineage back to Rdma, the 
mythical king of Oude. 

Oodeypore. — Of these princes, the highest in rank by <s. 
common consent is the Rdna of Mew&r or Oodeypore, 
whose kingdom has an area of 11,614 square miles, and a 
population reckoned to exceed a million. Centuries before 
Mahmud of Ghuzni invaded India, his fore&thers held 
the country of which Oodeypore is now the capital. By < 
some it is alleged that the blood of the Sassanian kings 
of Persia and that of the Caesars of Rome meet in the 
veins of this feudatory prince. In the fourteenth 
century the renowned Hamir beat back the Pathdn 
.masters of Delhi, and recovered his capital, Cheet6re, 
from the successor of Alla-ud-deen. Another of his 
line, the yet more famous Rdna Sanga, defeated the 
Muhammedans in battle after battle, and baffled for a 
brief space the might of Bdber himself. His grandson, 
Paertdub Rdna, fought hard and long against Akbar's son < 
Jehdngire, and, Cheet6re having been destroyed, founded 
a new capital, Oodeypore, in honour of his father OoJee 
Singh. The story of the first siege of Cheetore is one of 


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the most romantic on the many-coloured page of Indian 
history. Rumours of the extraordinary beauty of the 
Protector's* wife having reached the ears of the Sultan 
of Delhi, Alla-u-deen, better known as AUa the Sangui- 
nary, he made the surrender of the princess the condition 
of peace. He succeeded by a stratagem in capturing her 
husband, and by this means matters appeared to be 
greatly simplified. The beautiful Pudmani assembled 
her kinsfolk, and taking counsel of them it was agreed 
that if AUa would raise the siege, her hand should be 
his reward. She stipulated that every respect should be 
shown her, and all the proprieties of harem life observed. 
She obtained leave to enter the conqueror's camp, 
attended by the ladies of her household. Half an hour 
was to be allowed for a final farewell between the un- 
happy husband and wife. On the appointed day 700 
litters accompanied her to the royal camp, each litter 
carried by six armed soldiers disguised as porters, and 
containing, instead of a lady in waiting, a fierce warrior 
of Cheetore armed to the teeth. The parting over 
between husband and wife, the former entered the litter 
waiting to convey him back to his city, whilst the 
supposed, damsels were to remain with their devoted 
queen and accompany her in the conqueror's train to 
Delhi- But the scheme being discovered, the Rajpoot 
warriors sprang fi-om their palanquins, when a bloody 
fray ensued. The husband and wife escaped into their 
capital, but the flower of the chivalry of Cheetore was 
the price paid for their safety. Cheetore was again 

* Or chief of tho confederate princes of Sajpootana. 


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besieged, and, on its final fete becoming apparent, Pud- 
mani, and thousands of the wives and daughters of the 
inhabitants performed the johur, or immolated them- 
selves, rather than fall into the hands of the conquerors. 

Three times Cheetore was besieged and sacked, the 
first time, as just related, was in A.D. 1295. 

Before alluding to the second siege under Bahadour, 
Sultan of Guzerat, in 1533, a brief mention may be made 
of one of the many customs of this land of romance and 
war, many of them akin to the usages of the feudal 
times in our own country, and bespeaking a conmion 
origin, or at all events apparently springing from like 

From remote times there appear to have been great 
feudal lords in Rajpootana dwelling in large castles with 
lesser barons under them, with minstrels and bards in 
the hall to extol the gallant deeds of the cavaliers. 
The long-descended dames were famed alike for their 
beauty, their pride and their virtue, and renowned as 
their fitthers and brothers for their devotion to the 
honour of their country. 

The glowing pen of Colonel Tod, the Froissart of 
Rajpootana; thus describes a romantic and knightly 
usage: — "The festival of the bracelet (Rakhi) is in 
spring, and whatever its origin, it is one of the few when 
an intercourse of gallantry of the most delicate nature 
is established between the &ir sex and the cavaliers of. 
. Rajast'han." 

" Though the bracelet may be sent by a maiden, it is 
only on occasions of urgent necessity or danger. The 
Rajpoot dame bestows with the Rakhi the title of 


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adopted brother; and while its ax^ceptance secures to 
her all the protection of a * cavaliere servente/ scandal 
itself never suggests any other tie to his devotion. He 
may hazard his life in her cause, and yet never receive a 
smile in reward, for he cannot even see the feir object 
who, as brother of her adoption, has constituted him her 
defender. But there is a'charm in the mystery of such 
connexion, never endangered' by close observation, and 
the loyal to the fair may well attach a value to the public 
recognition of being the Rakhi-bund Bhau, " the brace- 
let-bound brother" of a princess. The intrinsic value of 
such pledge is never looked to, nor is it requisite it 
should be costly, though it varies with the means and 
rank of the donor, and may be of flock sUk and 
spangles, or gold chains and gems. The acceptance of 
the pledge and its return is by the Katchli, or corset, of 
simple silk or satin, or gold brocade and pearls. In 
shape or application there is nothing similar in Europe, 
and aa defending the most delicate part of the structure 
of the feir, it i^ peculiarly appropriate as an emblem of 
devotion. A whole province has often accompanied the 
Katchli, and the monarch of India was so pleased with 
this courteous delicacy in the customs of Rajast'han, on 
receiving the bracelet of the Princess Kumavati, which 
invested him with the title of her brother, and uncle and 
protector to her infant, Cody Sing, that he pledged him- 
self to her service, "even if the demand were the castle 
of Rinthumbor." Humayoon proved himself a true 
knight, and even abandoned his conquests in Bengal, 
when called on to redeem his pledge and succour Chee- 
tore and the widows and minor sons of Ganga Rana. 


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Humayoon had the highest proofs of the worth of those 
courting his protection; he was with his fitther in all his 
wars in India, and at the battle of Biana his prowess was 
conspicuous and is recorded by Baber's own pen. He 
amply fulfilled his pledge, expelled the foe from Ghee- 
tore, took Mandoo by assault, and, as some revenge for 
her king^s aiding the king of Guzerat, he sent for the 
Bana Bikramayat, whom, following their own notions of 
investiture, he girt with a sword in the captured citadel 
of his foe. The Mahomedan historians, strangers to 
their customs, or the secret motives which caused the 
Emperor to abandon Bengal, ascribe it to the Rana's 
solicitations; but we may credit the annals, which are in 
unison with the chivalrous notions of the Bajpoots, into 
which succeeding monarchs, the great Akbar, his son 
Jehangir and Shah Jehan entered with delight ; and 
even Aurungzebe, two of whose original letters to the 
queen-mother of Oodipoor are now in the author's pos- 
session, and are remarkable for their elegance and purity 
of diction, and couched in terms perfectly accordant with 
Rajpoot delicacy.'* 

On the first occasion, we have seen that thousands of 
the women followed the example of their queen and 
performed the johur; on the second 13,000 women 
immolated themselves; on the third, when Akbar 
besieged Gheetore and utterly destroyed it, 8,000 Raj- 
poots, with all their wives and families, performed the 
dreaifiil rite. The heroism of the women of Gheetore 
stands unrivalled even amongst the Rajpoots. Rin- 
thumbor next surrendered, and the Rajpoots became, 
notwithstanding their daring and warlike spirit, subject 


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to the Moguls, until the Mahrattas arose and oppressed 
them yet more cruelly. 

It is the special boast of the Mew&r princes, that none 
of their house ever intermarried with the Mogul 
Emperors of Hindustan. 

Rana Raj Singh the writer of the remarkable letter 
quoted below could wield the sword or spear as well as 
the pen, and was ready, like a true knight, to do his 
devoir at the behest of his lady-love. 

To wed with the Moslem was most distasteful to the 
haughty beauties of Rajpootana, and when a &it 
priixcess of Marwar was solicited in marriage by the 
Emperor Aurungzebe, she appealed to the chivalry of 
the Rana Raj Singh in these words: — "Is the swan to 
be the mate of the stork? Is a Rajpootnee, pure in 
blood, to be the wife of the monkey-fiswjed barbarian?" 
The Rana hastened to the rescue, defeated the imperial 
escort of cavalry and bore off in triumph the lady as his 

Aurungzebe's bigotry* drove the Rdjpoots into fresh 

* "ThiB letter (says Colonel Tod)» first made known to Europe by Ormot 
has by him been erroneously attributed to Jesswunt Sing of Marwar, 
who was dead before the promulgation of the edict, as the mention of 
B»Tn«Tig sufficiently indicates, whose father Jye Sing, was cotemporary 
with Jesswunt, and ruled nearly a year after his death. My Moonshee 
obtained a copy of the original letter at Oudipore, where it is properly 
assigned to the Bana. It were superfluous to give tf translation after tha 
elegant production of Sir. W. B. Bouse. 

Letter from Bana Raj Sing to Aurungzebe. 

* *' All due praise be rendered to the glory of the Almighty, and the 
munificence of your majesty, which is conspicuous as the sun and moon. 
Although I, your well-wisher, have separated myself from your sublime 
presence, I am nerertheless zealous in the performance of every boauden 


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nor wholly unsuccessful revolts. But in an evil 
moment, they turned for help to the ambitious and 
rapacious Mahrattas, and for many years Mewdr and all 
Rajpootdna suffered grievously from Mahratta exactions 

act of obedience and loyalty. My ardent wishes and strenuons sorrices 
are employed to promote the prosperity of the Slings, Nobles, Mirzas, 
Bajahs, and Boys, of the provinces of Hindoostan, and the chiefs of 
Mnxm, Turaun, Soom, and Shawn, the inhabitants of the seven climates, 
and all persons travelling by land and water. This my inclination is 
notorions, nor can your royal wisdom entertain a doubt thereof. Eefleot- 
ing therefore on my former services, and your majesty condescension, I 
presume to solicit the royal attention to some circumstances, in which the 
public as well as private welfare is greatly interested. 

' " I have been informed, that enormous sums have been dissipated in 
the prosecution of the designs formed against me, your well-wisher ; and 
that you have ordered a tribute to be levied to satisfy the exigencies of 
your exhausted treasury. 

* ** May it please your majesty, your royal ancestor Mahomed Jehaul ul 
Been Akbar, whose throne is now in heaven, conducted the affairs of this 
empire in equity and firm security for the space of fifty -two years, pre- 
serving every tribe of men in ease and happiness, whether they were 
followers of Jesus, or of Moses, of David, or Mahomed; were they 
Brahmins, were they of the sect of Dharians, which denies the eternity of 
matter, or of that which ascribes the existence of the world to chance ; 
they all equally enjoyed his countenance and favour ; insomuch that his 
people, in gratitude for the indiscriminate protection he afforded them, 
distinguished him by the appellation of Juggat Gooroo (Guardian of 

* '* His Majesty Mahomed Noor ul Deen Jehangheer, likewise, whose 
dwelling is y\owin paradise, extended, for a period of twenty-two. years, 
the shadow of his protection over the heads of the people ; successful by 
a constant fidelity to his allies, and a vigorous exertion of his arm in 

' "Nor less did the illustrious Shah Jehan, by a propitious reign of 
thirty-two years, acquire to himsdf immortal reputation, the glorious 
reward of clemency and virtue. 

* " Such were the benevolent inclinations of your ancestors. Whilst 
they pursued these great and generous principles, wheresoever they 
directed their steps, conquest and prosperity went before them ; and then 
they reduced many countries and fortresses to their obedience. During 
your majesty's reign, many have been alienated from the empire, and 


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and Pinddree raids. At length, in 1818, when the 
Mahratta power had been finally broken by Lord 
Hastings, the victorious English held out a protecting 
hand to the princes of Rajpootdna. A treaty made with 
the Rdna of Mewdr secured tp him all his sovereign 
rights, limited only by the mild demands of his future 
protectors, British supremacy was enforced by the 
pa3mient of a yearly tribute, and the surrender of the 

farther loss of territory mnst neoessarily follow, since deTastation and 
rapine now universally preyail without restraint. Your subjects are 
trampled under foot, and every province of your empire is impoverished; 
depopulation spreads, and difficulties accumulate. VThen indigence has 
reached the habitation of the sovereign and his princes, what can be the 
condition of the nobles P As to the soldiery, they are in murmurs ; the 
merchants complaining, the Mahomedans discontented, the Hindoos 
destitute, and multitudes of people, wretched even for the want of their 
nightly meal, are beating their heads throughout the day in rage and 

' " How can the dignity of the sovereign be preserved, who employs his 
power in exacting heavy tributes from a people thus miserably reduced? 
At this juncture, it is told from east to west, that the Emperor of 
Hindostan, jealous of the poor Hindoo devotee, will exact a tribute from 
Brahmins, Sanorahs, Joghies, Berawghies, Sauyasees ; that, regardless of 
the illustrious honour of his Timurean race, he condescends to exercise 
his power over the solitary, inoffensive anchoret. If your Majesty places 
any faith in those books, by distinction called divine, you will there be 
instructed, that God is the God of all mankind, not the Grod of Mahomedans 
alone. The Pagan and the' Mussulman are equal in his presence. Dis- 
tinctions of colour are of his ordination. It is he who gives existence. In 
your temples, to his name the voice is raised in prayer ; in a house of 
images, where the bell is shaken, still he is the object of adoration. To 
vilify the religion or customs of other men, is to set at nought the pleasure 
of ^e Almighty. When we deface a picture, we naturally incur the 
resentment of the painter ; and justly has the poet said, presume not to 
arraign or scrutinize the various works of power divine. 

" ' In fine, the tribute you demand from the Hindoos is repugnant to 
justice : it is equally foreign from good policy, as it mwit impoverish the 
country ; moreover, it is an innovation and an infringement of the laws 
of Hindostan. But, if seal for your own religion hath induced you to 


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K&na's right to make treaties with foreign powers. 
The revenue is £250,000. Oodeypore, the capital, is 
ftdomed with magnificent structures, and has a lake with 
a marble palace rising as it were out of the water. 
The Rana was loyal in 1857. The present prince is 
only eighteen years of age. He is entitled to a personal 
salute of 21 guns.* 

Jeypore. — Next in dignity is the kingdom of Jeypore, 
founded in a.d. 957 by another descendant of Rdma. 
This State has an area of 15,000 square miles, and a popu- 
lation little short of two millions. Some of its rulers 
fought with success against the PathAn kings of Delhi, 
but later Rajahs succumbed to the prowess or the arts of 
the Mogul emperors, and gave their daughters in mar- 
riage to the house of Akbar. Among the foremost < 
princes of this line was Jey Singh, whose reign began to- 
wards the end of Aurungzebe's, in the last days of the 

determine upon this measure, the demand ought, by the rules of equity, 
to have been made first upon Ramsing, who is esteemed the principal 
amongst the Hindoos. Then let your well-wisher be called upon, with 
whom you will have less difficulty to encounter : but to torment ants and 
flies is unworthy of a heroic or generous mind. It is wonderful that the 
ministers of your government should have neglected to instruct your 
Majesty in the rules of rectitude and honour. — ^Tod's " Bajast'han, toL i., 
p. 380, note." 

* " The Gkiptas, on the oyerthrow of the Sahs, founded a second dynasty ^ 
at Yallabi, in Kattiawar, and when the last of the Yallabis were driven 
out of Guzerat by Naushirvan, the great Sassanian king of Persji^^ 
A.D. 621-67d— the Yallabi Prince Goha was married to the daughter of 
Naushirvan. She was grand-daughter of Maurice, Emperor of Constan- 
tinople, and from her is descended the present Eana of TJdaipur, or 
Maiwar, who thus represents at once the legendary heroes of the 
"Eamayana" and " Mahabharata," the Sassanians of Persia, and the 
OsBsars of Eome. Maiwar is the only Hindu dynasty which has outlived 
the thousand years of Mohammedan domination in India, and the £ana 
still possesses nearly the same territory which his ancestors held with 


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seventeenth century* flis deeds of arms against the 
Mogul were outshone by his attainments in the arts and 
sciences, A renowned astronomer, he built observato- 
ries at Delhi, Jeypore, and Ben&res, furnished with instru- 
ments of his own invention. The best works of the 
greatest mathematicians were by his orders translated 
into Sanscrit, The handsome modem city of Jeypore 
was built under his directions, remarkable for its lofty 
stone houses faced with a chunam^ or stucco, almost as 
hard and p9lished as marble, and set off with frescoes, 
sculptures, and stone balconies enclosed in lattice-work 
of stone, A vast palace, and many Hindoo temples of 
large size, enhance the beauty of this noble Rajpoot 

Public inns, or aarais^ for travellers, were freely 
scattered about his kingdom. Under his long and 
enlightened rule, Jeypore flourished as it had never done 
before. Then came a long period of intestine feuds, 
under weak and dissolute rulers, and of much suffering 
from Mahratta and Pindaree aggressions. Jeypore 
at length turned for aid to the rising British power ; 
but the treaty of 1803, which placed hex: under British 
protection, was set aside by Lord ComwaUis, and it was 

almost imTa^3riiLg sucoesa against Casim and Malimoad of Grazni, and tLe 
Afghan kings and Mogul emperors of Delhi. 

>• " In 1809 £ajpntana was thrown into disorder by the contest of the 
princes for the hand of Krishna Kumari, the beautiixil daughter of the 
Bana of TJdaipnr. To stay the fratricidal strife and bring back peaoe to 
the land, the peerless maiden took the bowl of poison offisred to her by 
her distracted father, and exclaiming, " This is the bridegroom foredoomed 
for me," drank it off and sickened, trembled, fell, and died as she spoke 
the words. It was a page from the Mahabharata quickened into life once 
more."— 2ViN««. Vide Appendix D. 


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not till 1818 that Jeypore was finally added to the list 
of states which paid tribute to their new overlord, the 
East India Company. 

The present Maharajah is conspicuous as one of the 
ablest and most enlightened of Indian princes. Under 
the successful guidance of the late Colonel W. Eden, the 
able Political Resident at his Court he did good service 
in 1857. The Maharajah had a seat in the legislative 
council of the Viceroy, is a G.C.S.L, and is entitled to a 
personal salute of 21 guns. The state yields a revenue 
of £475,000. 

Joudhpore. — Joudhpore, or Marwdr, the largest but 
not the most populous of the Rdjpoot kingdoms, with an 
area of more than 35,000 square miles, peopled by 
2 million souls, was ruled in the middle of the thirteenth 
century by the Raht6res, a Rdjpoot clan who had wandered 
thither after the conquest of Canouj by Muhanunad Ghori, 
in 1193. Two centuries later, one of their Rajahs, Joudh 
Singh, foimded the city which now gives its name to the 
whole State. After the defeat of the great R4na Sanga, 
the head of the Rdjpoot league against the Moguls, Joudh- 
pore also had to bend under the yoke of the House of 
Bdber, and to purchase peace from the victorious Akbar 
by giving him a Joudhpore princess to wife. Successive 
Rajahs fought and ruled with distinction imder their new 
lords ; but Jeswant Singh, who had done loyal service 
to Shah Jehdn, paid only a fitful allegiance to his crafty 
successor Aurungzebe, whom he fought not imsuccessfully 
with his own weapons of intrigue and treachery. After 
his death the annals of Mdrwdr become stained with 
crime and confused with intestine broils. One prince 



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murders another, only to reap jn his turn the just re- 
ward of parricide at the hands of a kinswoman whose 
nephew he had wronged. Rival piinces fight for the 
throne. At length the Mahrattas appear upon the scene 
of anarchy and bloodshed, and the brave Bijee Singh, 
after one successful fight, fails at last to hurl back the 
trained battalions of Scindia's general, De Boigne. In 
the days of his successors, the land is harried by swarms 
of Pinddree robbers, under their most ferocious leader, 
Ameer Khdn. 

At length in 1818, Mdrwdr also passed under our pro- 
tecting rule. But the troubles of the State were not yet 
over. Misrule, and consequent anarchy, grew so ram- 
pant, that in 1839 a British force under Colonel Suther- 
land marched to Joudhpore, and held that city for five 
months, while order was re-established under new condi- 
tions, which bound the Rajah, Mdun Singh, to respect the 
rights of his nobles, so far as they accorded with ancient 

Joudhpore has a revenue of only £250,000 a year. 
The two preceding Maharajahs were bad rulers and 
incorrigible vassals. Joudhpore did good service 
during the Mutiny, and its present ruler bears a good 
character with his Own subjects and with the paramount 
power. He is entitled to a personal salute of 19 guns 
and is a G.C.S.I. 

The Desert States. — Bikaneer to the north and Jaisal- 
mere on the west of Joudhpore have each a larger area 
than Oodeypore, but lying as they do amidst the sand-hills 
of the Great Indian Desert, they are very thinly peopled ; 
the former by half-a-million, the latter by only 70,000 
souls. Bikaneer was founded by a son of the Rajah who 


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gave his name to Joudhpore. Its people are mainly Jats, -- 
a Hindoo race apparently akin to the Getsd of Latin 
history and to the Jutes who peopled part of Denmark 
and England. One of its Rajahs, Rai Singh, followed 
Akbar's standard in all his wars, and gave his daughter 
in marriage to Akbar's son, Jahangire, More fortunate 
than its neighbours, Bikaneer escaped the ravages of 
Maharatta and Pindaree greed in the 18th century. Like 
the other Rdjpoot States it afterwards owned allegiance 
to the British power. 

Jaisalmere was founded in the middle of the 12th 
century by a Bhati prince whose forefathers had once 
ruled in Ghuzni and Lah6re. In the latter part of the 
13th century Jaisalmere was closely besieged by the 
troops of Alla-ud-deen Khilji, the Sultan of Delhi. 
Hopeless of relief, the defenders, according to Rajpoot 
usage in such cases, resolved at any rate to die with 

Rajpoot honour demanded the "johur," or self- 
immolation of its women. When their destiny became 
inevitable, the Queen, stepping forth from amongst her 
attendants, replied, in answer to the summons sent by 
the men, "To-night we shall prepare. To-morrow^s 
light wiU find us inhabitants of paradise." By daybreak 
next morning four thousand women of all ages gave up 
their lives without a murmur, and apparently without 
fear, the willing sacrifices of honour. The women were 
all put to death by fire or the sword, and then the men, 
headed by their sovereign, rushed forth to meet the foe, 
and died fighting to the last man. In the following 
centuries little is heard of Jaisalmere beyond its wars 


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with Rdjpoot or Afghdn foes. In 1818 the Rdwa, or 
ruler of Jaisahnere followed the example of his brother 
princes, and placed his country under our protection* 
The capital of the State is one of the healthiest and 
most beautiftd towns in India, built entirely of stone 
adorned with abundant and tasteful carvings. The 
ruler of Bikaneer has a salute of 17 guns, while he of 
Jaisalmere has a salute of 15 guns. 


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Alwar — ^Eighengarh — ^Dbolpore— BhioLrtpore — Tonk— Kotab— Keranlee— 
Political Belations. 

The Jdt States. — The other 13 States in this group 
are comparatively small, from Alwar with an area of 
3,024 down to Kishengarh which covers only 724 square 
miles. Two of them, Dholpore and Bhurtpoi^, on the 
left bank of the Chumbul, are Jat States, ruled, that is, 
by Jat princes. Both are of recent origin. Dholpore 
was made over early in this century to the R4na of 
G6had in exchange for his own district claimed by 
Scindia, and Bhurtpore was one of the little states which 
rose in the last century out of the ruins of the Mogul 
Empire. Runjeet Singh, a descendant of its founder, 
gave Holkar shelter within the walls of his almost inac- 
cessible capital in 1805, an act which led to the fruit- 
less siege of that stronghold by Lord Lake. After 
beating back our troops four times with heavy slaughter, 
the Rajah came to terms and agreed to acknowledge the 
East Lidia Company as his suzerain. Twenty years later 
Lord Combermere led another British army against the 
one stronghold which had successfully braved our arms. 


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This time Bhurtpore was taken and its rightful Rajah 
restored to power in the room of the usurping Diiijan 
Sal. His son, the present Rajah, enjoys a salute of 
17 guns, while 15 are allotted to the R&na of Dholpore, 
who received a Grand Commandership of the Star of 
India for his loyal conduct throughout the Mutiny. 

Tonk. — Another relic of the Mogul Disruption is the 
Muhammadan principality of Tonk, founded at the close 
of the last century by the terrible freebooter Ameer Khan, 
a Pathan adventurer from Rohilkimd, whose marauding 
bands followed the standard of Jeswant Rao Holkar. 
The dominions which this soldier of fortune carved 
out for himself with Holkar's leave were secured to him 
in 1817 by the Indian Government, on condition of his 
renouncing all further connection with the Pindarees and 
reducing the number of his troops. From that time the 
famous freebooter eschewed his evil ways, became res- 
pectable, even devout, and governed his little State of 
2,730 square miles as successfully as he had formerly 
ravaged its Rdjpoot neighbours. His son behaved weU 
during the Great Mutiny, but the next Nawab, who 
succeeded him in 1864, was deposed in 1868 by Lord 
Lawrence, the Viceroy, for the part he took in murder- 
ing the uncle of one of his Thakures, or Barons. The 
late Nawab was conveyed as a prisoner at large to 
Benares, and his eldest son was pjaced upon the Guddee^ 
the cushion which in India does duty for a throne. He 
has a personal salute of 17 guns. 

Bundee. — Biindee, with an area of 2,291 square miles, 
dates from the middle of the 14th century. The first 
Rao of Biindee was a Chohan Rajpoot, who fled from 


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Moslem tyranny into Mewar, and afterwards founded 
the State which his descendants still rule. The Raos 
of Biindee alternately served and fought against the 
Moguls. One of them in 1804 gave timely help to 
Colonel Monson's shattered and exhausted troops during 
their retreat before Holkar. His grandson in 1817 
zealously aided his English allies in cutting off the 
retreat of the Pindarees, a service rewarded by the 
recovery of possessions which Holkar and Scindia had 
taken from his family. In 1 8 1 8 Bundee also was formally 
placed under our protection, and its Maharaos receive a 
salute of 17 guns. 

Kotah. — Kotah, with more than twice the area of 
Biindee, was an offshoot of the latter, dating only from 
1625, when it was bestowed by the Emperor Jahangire 
on a prince of Biindee, in return for faithful services in 
the field. In later times Kotah paid tribute to the Mah- 
rattas, until their overthrow paved the way for its 
acceptance of British suzerainty. In 1857 the Rdo of 
Kotah made no apparent effort to repress the mutiny 
of his Contingent, or to save the Political Agent from 
murder ; for which reason four guns were taken from the 
number of his salute. The full number of seventeen 
was however restored to his successor some years ago. 

SirShee. — The Rdos of Sir6hee, a small State on the 
borders of Mewar, and Joudhpore, claim the proud 
distinction of never having owned the suzerainty 
of any power, until in 1823 one of them agreed to 
pay tribute to the Indian Government in return for 
his admission to the benefits of British rule. In 1845 - 
another Rdo ceded Mount Aboo as a sanitarium to 


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the English on condition that no cows or pigeons were 
ever killed there. His services during the Mutiny were 
rewarded by a large reduction of his tribute. Fifteen 
guns is the number of the Rao's salute. 

Karavlee. — The little State of Karaulee was the first to 
claim the protection offered in 1817 by the Marquis of 
Hastings to the princes and people of RajpootAna. In 
1852, on the death of its Rajah without a direct heir, 
Karaulee would have been absorbed into British India by 
Lord Dalhousie as a lapsed fief. But opinion in this 
country proved hostile to that great ruler's bold policy, 
and the right of a feudatory to adopt an heir in certain 
cases was admitted by the placing of Madan Pal on the 
vacant Guddee. In return for his services during the 
Mutiny, the new Rajah obtained a remission of his debt 
to the Supreme Government, and an increase of his salute 
fix)m 15 to 17 guns. 

Folitical Relations. — The relations of all these States 
with the Supreme Government are managed by the 
Governor-General's Agent from Moimt Aboo, where he 
resides in the hot season, visiting the different States in 
the cold weather. For this purpose the whole of 
Rajpootana is divided into seven Agencies, the Mewar, 
the Jeypore, the Marwdr, the Hardotee, and so forth. 
Each is under an English "Political," who transacts 
business with the native ministers, and combines in 
himself the various parts of diplomatist, head magis- 
trate, and minister of State, with large if undefined 
powers of interference in the internal affairs of his 
Agency. The Marwar Agent holds a special Court for 
deciding all disputes between the different States of 


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Rajpootdna. Besides Mount Aboo, there are two districts 
ruled directly by British officers, Ajmere, with an area 
of 2,000 square nules, was ceded by Scindia in 1818, and 
annexed to the Government of the North- Western Pro- 
vinces, Not long afterwards the hilly tracts of Mairwara, 
peopled by abori^nal Mairs, passed under British 
keeping, and its rude inhabitants repaid the efforts of 
their new masters to reclaim them from their savage 
ways by rallying freely to our side in the troubled days 
of the Mutiny, 


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Khyrpore — ^Bhawulpore — Cashmere — Punjab Hill States. 

Khyrpore and Bhdwulpore. — Along the left bank of 
the Sutlej and the Indus stretch the Muhammedan States 
of Bhawulpore and Khyrpore. The former, a long strip 
of land between the river and the desert which girdles 
the north-west boundaries of Rajputana, covers an area 
of 15,000 square miles, of which only a third is culti- 
vated. It was founded in 1737 by Dattd Khan, a 
Daudputra, or " son of David," whose clan boasted their 
descent from Abbas, the Prophet's uncle. The people 
he found there were mostly Jats. His great-nephew 
Bhawul Khdn, built the city which has given its name 
to the State. Another Bhawul Khan, nephew of the 
former, had to beseech English aid against the encroach- 
ments of the Seikh ruler Runjeet Singh, who had ahready 
stripped him of his possessions on- the right bank of the 
Sutlej. English influence did its work, and subsequent 
treaties with Bhawulpore in the interests of our trade 
improved the alliance thus begun. In 1838 the Nawab, 
who had long since disowned his vassalage to Candahar, 


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formally transferred his allegiance to the Indian Govern- 
ment. Ten years later his Daudpiitras marched forth 
to aid Captain Herbert Edwardes in his brilliant achieve- 
ment when he drove the rebel Mulraj back witlun the 
walls of Mooltan. In 1866, on the death of the last 
Nawab, the government of the State was entrusted to the 
Political Agent during the minority of the rightful heir. 
Under Colonel Minchin's fostering care the coimtry is 
fiist recovering from the misrule and neglect of former 
days; and the young Nawab, who is being carefiilly 
trained by an English tutor, will begin his reign in 1879 
with every advantage that an upright and able ruler 
could desire. His salute is 17 guns. 

Khyrpore on the Indus has an area of 6,000 square 
miles. Its ruler, Meer Ali Murad, was the youngest 
brother, of Meer Riistum, one of the Talpoor Ameers of 
Scinde, when that country was conquered by Sir Charles 
Napier in 1843. In the general overthrow of the Tdlpoor 
dynasty, Ali Murad contrived to retain his share of the 
family estates; but his attempt to get more than his 
share by means of forgery was found out some years 
later, and duly punished by Lord Dalhousie with degra- 
dation from the higher rank of Rais, and forfeiture of 
part of his dpminions. His salute is 15 guns. 

Cashmere. — Among the Native States of Northern 
India, Cashmere claims the first place, with its area of 
79,784 square miles and a population of above a million 
and a half. The present kingdom includes not only the 
famous valley of Cashmere, but the lull districts of 
Jummu, Baltistan, and Ladakh. The beautiful valley 
of Cashmere, 70 miles long by 40 broad, is surrounded 


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on aU sides by lofty and rugged highknds, a wilderness 
of mountain ridges thrown out from the great Himalayan 
chain, through which the Indus and the Jhelum cleave 
their way down into the Punjab. The people of Cash- 
mere are mainly Hindoo by race, with a certain admixture 
of the Tartar and Thibetan elements in the more 
mountainous parts. Successive dynasties of diflTerent 
races ruled the country, before it passed under the sway 
of the Emperor Akbar in the latter part of the 16th 
century. The rule of the Moguls was supplanted in 
the last century by that of the Persian conqueror. Nadir 
Shah. Eighty years afterwards the country fell into 
> the hands of Rimjeet Singh, and in 1846, after our first 
Seikh War, it passed by right of conquest into British 
keeping. But Golab Singh, the Dogra Chief of Jummu, 
who had remained neutral during the war, was allowed 
to purchase for £ 1,000,000 sterling the whole province 
from its new masters, on conditions of fealty enforced by 
the payment of a yearly tribute, in the shape of one 
horse, twelve shawl goats, and three pairs of shawls. His 
> loyalty stood the test of the second Seikh War in 
1848-49; and his successor, Runbeer Singh, sent his 
troops in 1857 to bear their part in the memorable siege 
and storming of Delhi. An able and enlightened ruler, 
as things go, Runbeer Singh has done much to foster the 
trade, industry and moral welfare of his subjects. The 
revenue is £835,234. This Chief is a general in the 
British army, is G.C.S.I., and entitled to a personal 
salute of 21 guns.* 

•For this and other States, see J. Talboys Wheeler's "Imperial 
Assemblage at Delhi/' 


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Punjab EiU States — On the southern bcfrders of 
Cashmere is the Hill-State of Chamba, an old Eajpoot 
principality, covering more than 3,000 square miles, and 
rich in forests of Deodar, which have been rented to the 
Indian Government. To the south and east of the 
Kangra District are the small States of Mimdi, Suk^t, 
and Bass^r, which last has also rented its deodar forests 
to the Paramoimt Power, Of the 26 small Hill-States 
to the South of the Sutlej the largest is Nahan or Sarmiir, 
whose Chief rules over 90,000 subjects, and receives a 
salute of seven guns. The hill-station of Easaulee (or 
Kussowlie) was built on land obtained from the Rajah 
of Baghat. These hill-chiefs are all of good Rajpoot 
lineage, and enjoy like their more conspicuous peers the 
right of adoption in defiiult of direct heirs. Beyond the 
Sutlej also lies the Seikh State of Kapurthulla one of 
whose Rajahs, Rundhlr Singh, fought so loyally for his 
English friends in 1857-58, that his domains were 
enlarged by fresh estates in the Pimjab and two JageerS 
or fiefs in Oude; he is entitled to a salute of II guns. 


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Putialfr— Jhend— I^abha— Faredkhot — ^Maler Kotia— Bampore. 

Putiala. — ^Of the Cis-Sutlej States in Sirhind, the 
great plain between the Sutlej and the Jumna, where 
the &te of India has so often been decided by the shock 
of anns, Putiala, with an area of 5,412 square miles, 
peopled by 1,650,000 souls, ranks first, both in extent 
and for the noble services its Chief and people rendered 
to our cause during the worst days of the Mutiny. 
Founded by a Seikh Jat m the 17 th century, Putiala 
and several other Stiates on the British side of the Sutlej 
passed under our protection in 1809. For the help he 
gave us some years later in the war with Nepaul, the 
Bajah of Putiala was rewarded with new estates. A 
like return was made for the loyal conduct of another 
Rajah during the first Seikh War. It was the same 
Narindar Singh who, at the outbreak of the Mutiny in 
1857, at once cast in his lot with ours, placed himself 
and his troops at our disposal, kept the road open from 
Lah6re to Delhi, lent his money freely to the Indian 
Government, sent out his soldiers wherever they were 
needed for the maintenance of order or the suppression 
of revolt, and spared no efibrt which a fidthfiil vassal 
might make on behalf of his liege lord. For these 


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splendid services the Maharajah was duly rewarded by 
the gift of forfeited estates yielding two lakhs of rupees 
a year, by the right of adoption in defiiult of heirs, and 
by the power of inflicting capital punishment within his 
own realm. His successor, Mahindar Singh, who died 
lately in the sixteenth year of his rule, was a weU- 
taught, aTble, and enlightened prince, who spoke English, 
and administered justice on English principles. He was 
entitled to a salute of 17 gims. 

Jhend. — Not less faithful in the hour of our great need 
were the Eajahs of Jhend and Nabha, both descended 
from the same clan as Patiala. Jhend, a small State of 
1,236 square mUes, helped Lord Lake against Holkar in 
1805, and a few years later secured its independence of 
Runjeet Singh by acknowledging the Indian Government 
as its Overlord. In the two Seikh Wars Rajah Sanip 
Singh Stood loyally by his English masters, and in 1857 
he vied with Putiala in the zeal and promptitude of his 
movements on their behalf. In a very few days after 
the rising at Delhi, the road from Kurnaul to that city 
was guarded by his troops. At Budlee Serai, on the 
memorable 8th of June, they assisted to chase the rebels 
into the stronghold which they afterwards helped to 
storm. Their Rajah himself took part in the famous 
siege. For these and subsequent services he was re- 
warded with an increase of territory, the right of 
adoption, the ftill power of life and death, and a salute of 
eleven guns. In person and character Sarup Singh, 
was among the noblest specimens of the Seikh race. On 
his death in 1864 he was succeeded by his son, Rugbheer 
Singh, who had proved himself the worthy heir of his 
high-minded father. 


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Nabha^ S^c. — The Rajah of Nabha, a yet smaller State 
than Jhend, made ample atonement during the Mutiny 
for his father's shortcomings during the Seikh War of 
1845. Some of his troops were sent to occupy 
Loodidnah, while another body did good service at the 
siege of Delhi. He would have placed himself at their 
head, but this offer was declined on the plea of his youth. 
The rewards conferred upon him were similar to those 
conferred on his kinsmen of Jhend and Putidla. Dying 
of fever towards the end of 1863, he was succeeded by 
his younger brother, who has a personal salute of 
13 guns. 

Of the other States between the Sutlej and the Jumna, 
Faridk6t is the largest with an area of 643 square miles. 
It was founded by a Burdr Jdt in the time of Akbar, 
and its Eajah rendered us good service during the 
troubles of 1857. Mal^r Kotla is ruled by a Pathdn 
Nawdb whose ancestors came firom Cabul. These two 
chiefs have a salute of 11 and 9 guns respectively. 

Rdmpore. — The Nawdb of Rdmpore rules a State 
within the British province of Rohilkund, having an area 
of 945 square miles and a population of ne^ly half a 
million. It was a forefather of the present Nawdb who 
fled before Colonel Champion's Sepoys in the time of 
Warren Hastings. In the general overthrow of the 
Afghan Rohillas he was allowed to retain his lordship of 
R&mpore as a fief of the Nawdb of Oude. For his services 
during the Mutiny the present Nawdb received a further 
grant of land. He is a good Arabic and Persian scholar, 
and is entitled to a salute of 13 guns. His revenue is 


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Bhopftl— Bundelklnmd — Gwalior— Mahrattas— Indore— Dar and Dewas. 

BhopdU. — The chief Muhammadan State in Central 
India is that of Bhopdl, lying between the Vindhya 
Hills and the Nerbudda, with an area of 8,200 square 
miles, peopled by 769,200 souls. It was founded by an 
Afghan follower of Aurungzebe, whose successors 
gallantly held their own against many an attack from 
their Mahratta neighbours. In 1818 BhopAl was placed 
under British protection. During the Mutiny the brave 
and able Sekundar Begum stood so loyally by the 
British power, that her dominions were enlarged by new 
grants and her dynasty assured by the right of adoption. 
On her death in 1863 she was succeeded by her like- 
minded daughter, the Shah Jeh&a Begum.* Her 
Highness is a 6.C.S.I. and is entitled to a salute of 
19 guns. 

Bundelkhund. — ^Bundelkhund or the land of the Bun- 
delas, and Bhagalkhand, peopled by the Bhagelas, .both 
Hindoo tribes, contain a cluster of Native States, stretch- 
ing from the Betwa eastward to Mirzdpore. Chief of 
these is Rewah, a highland State with an area of nearly 
13,000 square miles, the Rajah, under the vigorous lead 
of Captain Willoughby Osborne, showed a bold front 

• Fi<fo chapter XVI.. 



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to the mutineers ajid rebels in 1857. His loyalty was 
rewarded with the hill district of Amarkantak and the 
right of adoption. His salute amounts to 17 guns. 
Next in importance comes Urcha or Tehri on the Betwa, 
whose Kajah became our vassal in 1812. Datia, an off- 
shoot of Tehri passed under our protection in 1804, and 
Samptar, which had once formed part of Datia, in 1817- 
The little State of Pauna, south of Tehri, was once 
&mous for its diamond mines. Besides these, Bundel- 
khund contains some 32 minor chiefships covering an 
area of 6,300 square miles, only one of which is ruled by 
a Muhammadan. 

Gwdlior. — Passing over the smaller States controlled 
by the Central India Agency, through its various bran- 
ches from Western Mdlwa to Bhagalkhund, we come to 
> the larger kingdoms of Gw41ior and Ind6re, still ruled by 
Mahratta princes of the Scindia and Holkar lines. The 
Mahrattas, so called from Maharaatra, a hiUy region, 
which they have inhabited from time immemorial. This 
tract, which lies along the eastern slope of the western 
ghats in the Deccan, abounding in mountain fsistnesses 
and small hill forts, appeared to be a fitting nursery for 
the ftiture robbers and plunderers of India. Although 
this race may have taken their name from that region of 
mountain fitstnesses, where they may have in early times 
sought a refuge, it would appear that they must have 
largely inhabited the Deccan generally, for in no other 
way can we account for the swarms which burst forth 
from time to time, like a flight of locusts devouring the 
land, " making a solitude^Jand calling it peace." Under 
Sivajee they became soldiers and conquerors, and 


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extended their sway in all directions. Sivajee's 
successors became little more than State prisoners in the 
hands of the Peishwa or chief minister,* who ruled with 
a varying sway the formidable Mahratta confederacy, 
which was gradually formed under his auspices, some 
member of which, such as Scindia and Holkar carried 
their swarms of horsemen with or without the leave of 
the Peishwa up to the gates of Delhi, and became at 
once the masters and protectors of the Imperial throne; 
the advent of the English alone staying their victorious 
career towards the complete conquest of Hindostan. 

The history of India in the last century is fiUed with 
the wars and plottings of the great Mahratta chieftains, 
who in the name of their nomioal head, the Peishwa of 
Poona, strove to build up a new Hindoo Empire on 
the wrecks of the Mogul power, 

Junkaji Scindia, grandson of Rdnojee, (the Pateil, or 
head man of his village) the founder of his line, was 
captured and slain after the terrible defeat of Pdneeput 
in 1761. But his uncle Mddhojee, escaping with a 
wound that lamed him for life,t lived to carry his arms 
over great part of Upper India, to escort a Mogul 
emperor back to Delhi, and to rule the provinces around 

* But a desoendaat of the renowned freebooter still reigns at Kolapore 
a small state on the Western Ghauts. Vide page 283. 

t He fled from the disastrous field, but was pursued to a great distance 
by an Afghan, who, on reaching him, gave him so severe a cut on the knee 
with a battle-axe, that he was deprived for life of the use of his right leg. 
His enemy, content with inflicting this wound, and stripping him of some 
ornaments and his mare, left him to his fate. He was first discovered by 
a water-oarrier, of the name of Banak Ehan,* who was among the 

* His service was grateftilly rewarded. Sanak Elian, the water-carrier, 
was afterwards styled the Bhaee, or brother, of Madhajee Sindia, raised 
to the finfc oommand in his army, and afterwards loaded with favours. 


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the Imperial Capital in that emperor's name. Events 
meanwhile brought him into colKsion with the English, 
and his defeat by Colonel Camac in 1782 issued in a 
treaty which bound him to remain neutral in the war 
which Warren Hastings was waging against other foes in 
the Deccan. At his death in 1794 the Mahratta power 
had reached its height. Nearly aU Upper India paid 
tribute to the successor of Madhojee, and the poor old 
Emperor Shah Alam was a mere helpless pensioner on 
Scindia's bounty. 

In the days of his successor, Daulat R^ Scindia, a 
change for the worse set in. Already weakened by his 
quarrel with Jeswant RAo Holkar, Scindia had ere long 
to pay the penalty of trying conclusions with the con- 
querors of Seringapatam. At Alygurh, Assaye, Argaum, 
and LAswdri, his best troops, trained by French leaders, 
fought in vain against Englishmen and Sepoys led by 
Wellesley and Lake. In the last days of that eventful 
1803 he had to sign the treaty which stripped him of all 
his conquests between the Jumna and the Ganges, as 
well as those in Western India ; and reduced him from 

fugitiyes : this man, placing Kim upon Iiib bullock, carried liim towards 
the Deckan. Madhajee used frequently to recount the particulars of this 
pTirsnit. His fine Beckany mare carried him a great way ahead of this 
strong ambling animal Upon which the soldier who had marked him for 
his prey, was mounted ; but, whenever he rested for an interval, however 
short, his enemy appeared keeping the same pace ; at last* his fatigued 
mare fell into a ditch. He was taken, wounded, spit upon, and left. He 
used to say to the British Besident at his Court, the late General Palmer^ 
that the circumstance had made so strong an impression upon his imagi- 
nation, that he could not for a long time sleep without the AfTghan and 
his clumsy charger pacing after him and his fine Deokany mare 1 ['' Cen- 
tral India/' by Sir John Malcolm.] 


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his virtual headship of the Mahratta League to a mere 
equality with the chiefs of rival States. In 1818, after the 
Peishwa's final overthrow, Daulat RAo made new conces- 
sions to the power which thenceforth took the place alike 
of Mahratta and Mogul. Shortly after the death of his 
successor Junkaji in 1843, the Gwdlior nobles provoked 
a quarrel with the English, which issued in the victories 
of Mahdrdjpore and Punnidr, the reduction of the Gwdlior 
army, and the raising of a Contingent commanded by 
British officers. 

In 1857 the brave young Jaiaji Scindia, (the present 
ruler) under the guidance of his able minister Dinkar 
Rdo, strove hard to keep his own subjects faithful to 
his liege lords. But the Gwdlior Contingent mutinied 
at last, and in June of that year Scindia was flying 
for his life from the troops of the rebel leader, Tantia 
Topee. Happily Sir Hugh Rose came promptly to his 
succour ; and in less than three weeks Scindia rode in 
triumph through his capital which British daring had won 
back for its rightful master. It need hardly be said that 
his loyalty reaped its due reward. The country now 
ruled by him covers 33,000 square miles, stretching un- 
evenly, in a disjointed way, from the Chumbul up to the 
Nerbudda, and reckoned to contain about 2,500,000 
souls, all Hindoos of various races, with Brahmins and 
Mahrattas for the ruling class. The revenue is 
£1,200,000. There is a British Resident at the Court 
of Gwalior, and a British garrison in the great rock 
fortress. The Maharajah is a general in the British 
army, is a G.C.S.I., and is entitied to a personal salute 
of 21 guns. 


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Inddre. — ^Iiid6re, the State ruled by a descendant of 
Mulhar Bdo Holkar, a Mahratta of the Shepherd caste 
lies mainly in the old province of Mdlwa, and covers an 
area of 8,075 square miles, with a population of more 
than half a million. After the rout of Pdneeput, Mulhar 
Edo retired to the country he had conquered and held 
as a fief fi-om the Peishwa. His successors brought fresh 
provinces under their sway, and engaged in frequent 
wars with their great rival, the house of Scindia. In the 
first years of this century Jeswant Rdo Holkar turned 
his arms against the English, but the defeats inflicted on 
him by Lake's warriors sent him flying to the Punjdb. 
The treaty of December 1805, brought him a peace 
cheaply purchased by the loss of part of his dominions. 
In 1818, soon after the defeat of the Ind6re troops at 
Mahidpore by Sir T. Hislop, the young Mulhar RAo 
Holkar, then a boy of sixteen, signed a treaty which cut 
off a large sUce from his realm, and placed the remainder 
under the British guarantee. His latest successor, 
Tiikajee RAo Holkar, feiiled during the Mutiny to keep his 
troops from turning their guns against the English 
Residency and rioting in the murder of helpless English 
ftigitives. But Holkar's share in that dismal business 
seems to have been purely passive, and the Indian 
Government never called him to account for the misdeeds 
of his mutinous soldiery. Unlike Scindia, whose tastes 
are chiefly military, Holkar takes a keen interest in 
revenue affairs and in the manu&cture of cotton 
febrics ; a little too keen indeed if the stories told of him 
are not pure inventions. Among the crops raised in his 
country opium takes a foremost place* The revenue is 


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£500,000- There is a British Resident at Ind6re and a 
British garrison is cantoned at Mhow, thirteen miles £pom 
Holkar's capital, which betokens his dependence on the 
Paramount Power* He too is a G.C.S.I,, and is entitled 
to a personal salute of 21 guns. 

JDhdr and Dewds.-^The little State of Dh&r on the 
Nerbudda was also founded by a Mahratta. Its people 
rebelled against us in 1857, and the country was confis- 
cated. But when it came out that the Rdjah had sufiered 
for the sins of others, he was reinstated in his former 
donudns, except that portion which had been transferred 
to Bhopdl. His salute amounts to 16 guns. The same 
number is granted to the two Chiefs of Dewds, a little 
State of 256 square miles. 


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BaiodA— Eolapore— Sawant-Wari— Jmiiri — Cntch — ^Eatiawnr— Pahlaii- 
pore — Mahi Kanta — ^iiewa Kanta. 

Baroda. — The Native States in Western India outside 
Sdnde are very numerous and of all sizes, from a petty 
chiefehip of a few square miles to Baroda with an area of 
4,399 and a population of about two millions. This 
latter State includes part of Kdnd^ish and Kdtiawdr with 
the bulk of Gujerdt. Its founder, Ddmajee GaikwAr 
(Herdsman), a successful Mahratta officer, who died in 
1720, was succeeded by his nephew Pilaee who perished 
at the hands of assassins employed by the Rdjah of 
Joudhpore. His son Ddmajee fought at Pdneeput, but 
lived to strengthen his hold on Gujerdt. In 1780 his 
successor entered iuto close alliance with the English, 
who helped to make him independent of the Peishwa. 
Subsequent treaties brought Baroda within the circle of 
States dependent on the British power. In the fight for 
empire between the English and the Mahrattas, the 
Gaikw&r dynasty remained true to its treaty engage- 
ments; and in 1857 Khandi RAo Gaikwdr did loyal 
service to his friends in need, who rewarded hirn with 
the right of adoption and the remission of certain claims 


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on his revenue. His brother, who succeeded him in 
1870, was the Mulhar RAo whose continued misrule, 
followed up by an accusation of attempting to poison the 
British Resident, compelled the Viceroy in 1875 to 
depose him fix)m the Guddee, and send him a State 
prisoner to Madras. A chUd belonging to another 
branch of the same family was installed as Gaikwdr in 
his stead, and the conduct of afiairs has meanwhile 
been entrusted to Sir Mddhava R4o, a statesman who 
had already proved his worth in the government of 
Travancore and afterwards of Ind6re. The revenue is 
£1,1 50,000- The Gaikwdr's salute is 21 guns. 

Koldpore. — ^While Sattdra, the old seat of Mahratta 
power, has long been absorbed into British India, Kold- 
pore on the eastern slopes of the Western Ghdts, between 
Ratnagiru and Belgaum, is still ruled by a descendant of 
the famous Slvajee. In the last century Koldpore was 
given to acts of piracy which provoked the interference 
of the Bombay Government. By the treaty of 181 1 the 
Rdjah agreed to keep the peace with his neighbours, and 
yield up his forts in return for the British guarantee. 
Fresh breaches of the peace provoked sterner measures 
on our side, and at last in 1844 a general rising in the 
South-Mahratta country had to be put down by a British 
force. From that time the government of the State was 
retdned in British hands until 1862, when Rdjdh Sfvajee, 
who had stood our firiend during the Mutiny, was allowed 
to govern for himself. His successor, a promising youth , 
came over to England in 1871 and died at Florence on 
his way home in the following year. During the mino- 
rity of the present Rdjah, the country is administered by 


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the Political Agent. Area 3,184 square miles; popula- 
tion, 802,691; revenue, £304,724; salute, 19 guns. 

Sdwant'WM.—Tlie chief of Sdwant-WAri, a State of 
800 square miles in the southern part of the Concan, is 
a Mahratta of the Bhosla family which once gave rulers 
to NAgpore. In 1730 one of his ancestors formed an 
alliance with the English against the pirate lords of 
Eoldba. During the last century Sawant-Wari and 
Kolapore were engaged in fighting each other whenever 
their taste for piracy found no sufficient food elsewhere. 
Moi'e than once the Indian Grovemmenthad to interfere 
with a high hand, and in 1819 the ruler of SAwant W&n 
3rielded up a part of his dominions in exchange for the 
protection assured him by the agents of Lord Hastings. 
Fresh disturbances called for fresh displays of our 
authority in 1839 and 1844, and for many years the 
State was ruled by British officers. In 1867 a new 
Rajah was allowed to rule in fact as well as name ; but 
after his death the country passed again under British 
management, the present Rajah being still a mere boy. 
Of the minor chiefships in the Southern Mahratta country 
Sanglee is the largest and most important. The Chief of 
Nurgiind, whose ancestor had fought stoutly against 
Tippoo, was hanged in 1857 for the murder of the 
Political Agent, and his Jageer was confiscated to the 
Paramount Power. 

Jinjlra. — On the Western coast, a littie to the south of 
Bombay, lies the small Muhammadan State of Jinjira, 
ruled by a Habshee, or Abyssinian Sidee, whose forefiithers 
held their fief as admirals of the Sultdn of Beejdpore, and 
engaged in frequent wars with the countrymen of Sivajee. 


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In 1733, the Sldee of that time entered mto a close alii- 
ance with the English, which has never since been 

CiUch. — The Rdo of Cutch, that angular tongue of 
land which stretches from the delta of the Indus to 
Gujerdt, with the Raun of Cutch on its northenii and 
the Gulf on its southern side, rules over an area of 
6,500 square miles, peopled by half a million souls. The 
Raun itself, a desert of salt and sand at one season, be- 
comes a vast though shallow lake at another. Low vol- 
canic hills run across the land of Cutch, the greater part 
of which is little better than a desert, fringed by 
grassy plains and fields of rice, cotton, sugar-cane, or 
millet. The inhabitants are mostly Hindoos with a 
sprinkling of Muhammadans, and the Jhdr^jas, a Rdjpoot 
tribe from Scinde, form the ruling class. The present 
dynasty was founded in the fifteenth century, but the 
title of' Rao is younger by a hundred years. In the 
first years of this century, rival rulers, Hindoo and Mu- 
hammadan, shared the coimtry between them. Their 
quarrels and piracies brought English influence, armed 
or peaceful, into frequent play, in the early years of this 
century. In 1819, the Rdo was dethroned, and his 
State administered for his child-heir, until 1834, when 
the reins of government were handed over to that heir. 
In 1860 the latter was succeeded by Rao Pragmul, an 
able ruler, who did his best to put down infenticide and 
the slave-trade, which his subjects carried on with Zan- 
zibar. On his death in the early part of 1875, the 
State once more passed under British management. 
Under the Rao of Cutch there are some two hundred 
chie& or barons, each of whom wields almost sovereign 


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power within his own domains. The present Rao has a 
revenue of £210,000, is eighteen years of age, and has 
two sons and a daughter, is a G.C.S.I. and has a salute 
of 17 guns. 

Kdtiawdr. — To the south of the Gulf of Cutch, lies 
the peninsula of K&tiawar, with Ahmedabad and the Gulf 
of Cambay for its eastern boundary. Within its area of 
21,000 square miles, a crowd of chiefe rule over some 
two million subjects in all, mostly Hindoos of various 
tribes, with a sprinkling of Pathdns in the towns and of 
aboriginal Bheek and Edtees in the central highlands. Of 
these chiefe, who are said to number 216, the Nawdb of 
Junagurh, descended from a soldier of fortune who rose 
to powelr in the last century, may be held to rank first. 
He pays tribute both to the Gaikwar and the Indian 
Government. The Jam of Nawanagar, a Jhareja Rajpoot 
whose line dates from the sixteenth century, holds a part 
of his domains under Jiinagurh and Baroda. The 
Thakure of Bhaunagar, whose Rajpoot forefather settled 
in Kdtiawar in the thirteenth century, has the largest 
revenue — £80,000 — of any chief in the peninsula.. 
Two other chiefships, Piirbandar and Drangdra, 
make up the list of those whose rulers have the 
power of life and death over all but British sub- 
jects. For the trial of capital ofibnces in the remain- 
ing states, and of crimes committed by petty chiefs, 
there is a special criminal court, over which presides 
the Political Agent. 

Pdhlanpore. — The PAhlanpore Agency controls a group 
of eleven States, four Muhammadan and seven Hindoo, 
lying between Rajpootana and Baroda, and covering an 
area of 6,041 square miles. Of these, the largest is Pah- 


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lanpore, whose Dewan claims descent from a Lohdni 
Afghan, on whom the title was bestowed by the Empe- 
ror Akbar. . The present Dewdn proved himself our true 
friend during, the mutiny. Eadhanpore was founded in 
the seventeenth century by a Persian adventurer from 
Isphahan. These two chiefe alone have the power of try- 
ing for capital oflPences. 

Mdhi Kdnta. — ^In the Mahi Eanta Agency there are 
three score and odd petty chiefs, whose estates, with 
those of the Rajah of Idar, cover an area of 4,000 square 
miles, peopled by 311,000 souls. The only chief worth 
mentioning is the Rajah of Idar, a State founded in the 
eighteenth century by two younger brothers of the Rajah 
of Joudhpore. The engagements of the remainder with 
the Indian Government may, in the words of Colonel 
Malleson, be generally described as ^^engagements on 
their part not to rob or steal.'* 

Rewa Kdnta — The Rewa Kanta States, on the east of 
Baroda, cover an area of about 4,900 square miles, peo- 
pled mainly by Hindoos and Bheels. Among the sixty 
chiefs who have feudal relations with us, the Rdjah of 
Rajpipla stands first. The tribute which his ancestors 
paid to Akbar, was afterwards transferred to the Gaikwar, 
but a portion of it is now paid to his British protectors. 
Chota Oodeypore and Deogurh Baria, both founded by 
Chohan Rajpoots, passed under our protection in 1803. 
These two States yield a revenue, the one of 100,000 the 
other of 75,000 rupees a year. The revenues of the re- 
maining chiefships are still smaller, though some of them 
have an area of several hundred square miles. Another 
group of small chiefships lies about the borders of Khan- 
deish and Nasik. 


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Hyderabad — Mysore — Coclim — Travancore — Padukatta— Petty Hill 


Hyderdhad. — The largest Native State in India is 
that of Hyderabad, with an area of 98,000 square miles, 
larger than that of Great Britain, and a population of 
nearly nine millions. The first Nizam, or Subahdar 
of the Deccan, as he once was called, was Chin Kilick 
Khan, a Turkish noble whose father had held high 
office under Aurungzebe. * Under a show of allegiance 
to the Delhi Emperors, Chin Kilick, otherwise Asaf Jah, 
extended his sway jfrom the Nerbudda to Trichinopoli, 
and from Musulipatam to Beejapore. After his death 
in 1748, the quarrels and intrigues of his sons brought 
the Mahrattas, the French, and finally the English into 
conflict or alliance with the rival claimants to the kingly 
power. Our first treaty with the reigning Nizam was 
made in 1759, when Saldbat Jang ceded one of his 
districts, and promised to dismiss his French allies. A 
few years later a fi*esh alliance was sealed by the cession 
of more territory, in exchange for a British subsidy. In 
the war with Tippoo Sultan in 1790, Nizam Ali found 


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his advantage in siding with his English friends, and his 
prudence was rewarded with a slice of Tippoo's kingdom. 
After the fidl of Seriugapatam, the Nizim's share of 
Tippoo's forfeited dominions was made over to the East 
India Company, as a provision for the payment of those 
auxiliary troops which he had bound himself to main- 
tain under British officers, for the special purposes of 
British rule. 

His Successor, Sikandar Jah, was an indolent, pleasiu*e- 
loving prince, who bore little love for his English pro- 
tectors. But the services rendered by his troops during 
Lord Hastings's war with the Pindarees and Mahrattas in 
1817-19, won for their sovereign a further increase of 
territory, and a final release from all feudal dues to his 
Mahratta neighbours. From that time, however, the in- 
ternal affairs of Hyderabad, in spite of English inter- 
ference, fell into worse and worse disorder. The country 
was misgoverned, its revenues were plundered by greedy 
adventurers, a large body of unpaid or badly-paid sol- 
diers preyed upon the people, the great landholders 
waged war with each other, the Indian Government 
pressed in vain for the arrears of interest due on its loans 
to the Nizam. At last, in 1853, British forbearance 
could wait no longer. Under pressure from Lord Dal- 
housie, the Nizam of that day ceded in trust to his English 
creditors the fertile province of Ber4r, on condition that its 
surplus revenues, after defraying the cost of the Nizam's 
Gontingenti should be handed over to the Nizam's 

The capital is a large and populous fortified city, 
tenanted chiefly by Mussulmans of various races and 


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sects, and adorned with numerous mosques, a fine palace, 
and the imposing group of buildings which form the 
Residency. A sea of verdure divides the city from the 
neighbouring cantonment of Sikunderabad. Not many 
miles off is the £buiious battle-field of Assaye, where ^^ the 
Sepoy General," Sir Arthur Wellesley, with Ids 4,500 
English and native troops routed some 50,000 Mahrattas 
in September, 1803. 

The ruined city of Golconda is a few miles west of 

During the troubles of 1857, our hold on Southern 
India was greatly strengthened by the goodwill or, at 
least, the timely quiesence of Hyderabad. Happily for us, 
a wise and powerful minister, the Nawdb Salar Jung, 
guided the counsels of the new Nizdm. Any incipient 
rising was promptly quelled, and a part of the Nizam's 
Contingent fought bravely under English leading, side by 
side with the sepoys of Bombay and Madras. In return 
for these services, half a million of the Nizam's public 
debt was cancelled, and a part of the ceded districts given 
back to him. His able minister became Sir Saldr 
Jung, G.C.S.I., the new Order specially created to do 
honour to those Indian princes and nobles who had stood 
most loyally in their allegiance to the British Empire, 
andjof those who otherwise deserved well of England 
for good service done for India. Under that minister's 
guidance, Hyderabad has ever since made steady pro- 
gress in [the paths of peace, order, and general well* 
d ^ing. On the of the last Niz4m, in 1869, a 
Council of Regency, headed by Sir Salar Jung, took the 
government into their hands during the minority of 


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Afzal-ud-dauk's heir, then a delicate child of only four 
years. Watered by the Godavari, the Kistna, the Warda, 
and their respective feeders, Hyderabad is rich in natu- 
ral resources, which have yet to be fairly developed. 
Renowned in former days for the diamonds of Golconda, 
it has lately opened up new stores of wealth in the coal- 
fields which spread fer along the Warda Valley. There 
is an English Resident at the Nizam's Court, and a 
strong British garrison hard by, in the suburb of Secun- 
drabad. The present Nizam is now eleven years of age, 
receives a salute of 21 guns and has a revenue of 

Myswe. — South of the Nizam's country, lies the woody 
and rugged table-land of Mysore, covering a surfece of 
29,000 square miles, peopled by more than five million 
souls. Mysore, best known historically as the seat of a 
Mahomedan power which gave us no little cause for 
anxiety, from the days of Warren Hastings to those of 
Lord Wellesley. Two able, bold and ambitious rulers, 
Hyder Ali, a Path4n officer from Lahore, and his son 
Tippoo, succeeded for more than thirty years in holding 
the spoils first won by the former, against the onsets, 
single or combined, of Mahratta, Mogul,, and English 

In 1799 Tippoo Sultan relying upon aid from France, 
was rash enough to defy for the third time the British 
power, when Seringapatam was taken by storm under 
General Harris and Sir David Baird. After the place 
had feUen the body of the Sultan was found in a gate- 
way under a heap of slain, preferring as he had said a 
soldier's death to an ignominious surrender. 



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For centuries before Hyder rose in the service of the 
Mysore Rajah^ a long succession of Hindoo princes had 
ruled the country which Hyder was at length to win. 
After the fall of Seringapatam in 1799, a part of Tippoo's 
dominions passed within the British pale, the remainder 
being handed back to a prince of the dynasty which 
Hyder had dethroned. During his minority, Mysore was 
fisdrly governed by an able Brahmin minister; but in 
1832, the misrule of its new Rajah provoked Lord 
W. Bentinck to relieve him of a burden he was quite 
unfit to bear, and presently the government was entrusted 
to a British Commissioner and his staflFl It was not till 
1867, a few months before the old Rajah died, that the 
right of his adopted heir to inherit the kingdom forfeited 
by his adoptive father was formally acknowledged by 
the home Government of India. In 1868, the new Rajah 
was duly proclaimed ; but being then a little child, his 
country remained under our management, and an Eng- 
lish tutor, Colonel Malleson, was appointed to train him 
worthily for his future post. For that end no pains have 
since been spared, and the young Rajah gives fair pro- 
mise of doing credit to his able guardian. The climate 
of Mysore, which lies exposed both to the south-west 
and north-east monsoons, is very moist, and this, 
combined with the general height of the country above 
sea-level, serves greatly to temper the fierce tropical 
heat. All sorts of wild beasts, including tigers and 
elephants, abound in the wooded valleys, and some of 
the cofiee now exported fix)m Southern India, is grown 
in the highlands of Mysore. The revenue is £1,094,968. 
The ruler has a salute of twenty-one guns. 


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Cochin. — To the south of Malabar lies the little Native 
State of Cochin, which, in spite of Portuguese and Dutch 
inroads, and of wars with Malabar, maintained for many 
centuries its old independence under its own Hindoo 
sovereigns. At last, however, it fell under the yoke of 
Hyder Ali, from whom, in 1791, it was delivered by 
British help. Subsequent treaties bound the Zamorin 
of Cochin to pay us tribute in return for the British 

Travancore. — From the southern frontier of Cochin to 
Cape Comorin extends the kingdom of Travancore over 
an area of 6,600 square miles, about five times the size of 
Cochin, with a population of two million and a quarter. 
Before the middle of the last century, Travancore was 
ruled by a number of chiefs, whose subordination to one 
head was begun by Rajah Mastanda, and completed by 
his successor. The latter proved our staunch ally 
against Hyder Ali and his son Tippoo. In 1793 he bar- 
gained to supply the Bombay Government with pepper 
in exchange for arms and European goods. Two years 
later he too entered into that system of subsidiary 
alliances which issued in establishing our supremacy 
over all India. In Travancore, as well as Cochin, exists 
the custom, handed down by the Nairs, the ruling class 
in those countries, by which the succession to the guddee 
descends invariably in the female line. In other words, 
the Rajah's next heir is never his own son, but the son 
of his sister or his daughter, or, failing these, of some 
near kinswoman whom he may have adopted. Besides 
various classes of Hindoos and Mussulmans, Travancore 
owns many thousands of Native Christians, chiefly of 


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the old Syrian Church. In this State, also, the heat is 
largely tempered by the heavy rains, the sea-breezes, 
and in many parts by the height of the land above the 
sea. Under the wise management of Sir T. Madhava 
Rao and the present minister, Travanc6re has become a 
model Native State, with a large yearly balance saved 
from its handsome revenues, while its schools, roads, 
reservoirs, and other public works, will bear comparison 
with those of many under our own rule. The Rajah is 
a G.C.S.I. His salute is seventeen guns. 

PadvMtta. — On the eastern side of Southern India, 
between Trichinopoli and Madura, is the little State of 
Padukatta, whose ruler, commonly known as the Ton- 
diman Rajah, belongs, like most of his subjects, to the 
Kullan or Thief Caste. His ancestors were our oldest 
and truest allies in the fight for empire last century 
with the French, and in our subsequent wars with 

Among lesser chiefs on the Madras side, we may 
mention the Rajah of Yizianagram, who claims descent 
from an old Rajpoot family, and receives a salute of 
thirteen guns, but retains no kind of Political independ- 

Petty Hill- Chiefs. — In the Jeypore Agency (Madras) 
which once formed part of Orissa, a wild, rugged country, 
peopled thinly by aboriginal Konds, there are a number 
of petty chiefs, whose power over their own tribesmen is 
limited by the general control of the Political Agent. In 
the Central Provinces there are eighteen feudatory chiefs, 
ruling about a million of people, over an area of 28,000 
square miles, and paying a fixed tribute yearly to the 


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Indian Government. They are free to govern according 
to their own kws, so long as they keep the peace and 
refrain from oppression. Like conditions govern our 
relations with a number of petty chiefs in Orissa, in Chota- 
Nagpore, on the west of Bengal, in Tipparah, to the 
south of Silhet, and in the hill districts of Assam, peo- 
pled by rude tribes of Nagas, Khasias, Garos, Abors, and 
80 forth. The outlying State of Munipore, on the Cachar 
frontier, with an area of 7,584 square miles, is ruled by 
a Rajah whose ancestors, with English help, threw off 
the Burman yoke in 1823, and who now enjoys a quali- 
fied independence under our guarantee. A small part 
of Kuch Behar, on the northern frontier of Bengal, is 
still governed by its own Rajah. 

We have now gone through the list of Native States 
and Chiefships, which owe direct allegiance to the Lnperial 
Crown. Their total revenue amounts to £14,500,000, of 
which only about £742,000 accrues as tribute to the 
Paramount Power. Among them they can muster an 
armed force of 64,172 cavalry, 241,063 infantry, and 
about 9,390 trained gunners, with 5,252 pieces of 
ordnance. A great many of these troops would 
probably count for little beside our own Sepoys, some 
of them being merely picturesque ruffians in old world 
link mail ; but Scindia's infantry are highly disciplined 
and carefully drilled, and the Nizam's troops are not to 
be despised. Each of the larger States moreover counts 
its guns by hundreds, such as they are^ and it appears 
that some of the Native Princes, especially Scindiah, are 
beginning to adopt the short-service system, as a means 


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of evading the rules which limit the numbers of their 
standing armies. 

Thus there is an army, more or less effective, of above 
300,000 men and over 5,000 guns in the service of the 
native princes of India. This enormous force is certainly 
not required for internal tranquillity or for display on 
state occasions. As for external purpose there is none, 
as the Imperial Power both restrains these vassal poten- 
tates from aggression upon each other and from every 
possible enemy from without. What, then, is the 
meaning of this immense standing army, which is being 
better armed and disciplined year by year, and notably 
in the case of Scindiah augmented by the short service 

It would be well to demand from H.H. of Gwalior 
some explanation of his evasion of the rules which 
define the number of his troops; cmd the costly and 
useless armies of the other feudatories should be either 
greatly reduced or a portion of them used for imperial 

Is what is now felt to be an inconvenience to be allowed 
to grow to a menace? This playing at soldiers on a 
large scale by the feudatory princes of India, the at 
present loyal subjects of Her Majesty, should cease, and 
the sooner the better for them and for us. 

Far be it from us to think that the opportunity we 
have given them of meeting at the imperial assemblage 
and elsewhere, — bringing tribes and nations together 
that never met before fece to fiwe, or if they did in 
times past it was too frequently for mutual destruction 


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— can be turned to evil, or that, having 'made them to 
know each other and enabled them to take counsel 
together and to estimate each other's strength, that they 
would be tempted to use the telegraph and the railway 
to communicate and combine against us and misuse the 
very means which we have introduced for their and our 
own advantage. 

Yet as the Paramount Power in India we owe a duty 
to those who live under the shadow of our protection, to 
put an end to arrogant assumption, or evasion of treaties, 
and to curb these inflated useless armaments, so fraught 
with future danger, especially to the feudatory princes 

The British force in India consists of 65,000 Euro- 
peans and 125,000 Native troops under British officers, 
190,000 in all, nmnerically less than two-thirds of the 
forces of the Native Princes. The troops of the feuda- 
tories would as a rule be useless against an external 
enemy, however well they might enact the part of 
Bashi-Bazouks in provinces which might be left un- 
protected by the withdrawal of our troops on any 
emergency. The contribution of £750,000 paid by the 
feudatory princes is much too small for the immunity 
they enjoy from internal disturbances and external 
aggression, while their exchequer would be improved 
and the burdens on their people lightened by the 
enforced reduction of armies who have no foe to fight 
with, unless they turn their arms against their friends 
and protectors. 

The heroic and loyal conduct of some of the feudatory 


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princes of India, especially during the Mutiny, has been 
done justice to in former chapters. 

From the foregoing sketch it will be seen that within 
the boundaries of our Indian Empire, no such thing as 
an independent Native State exists, or has for many years 
past existed. From the time, indeed, when Lord Hast- 
ings dealt the death-blow to Mahratta ascendancy, the 
English have virtually remained Lords Paramount of all 
India. In 1819, says Captain Trotter, " the last of the 
Peishwas had ceased to reign, the Raja of Berar was 
a discrowned ftigitive, the Raja of Satara a king only in 
name, while Sindia, Holkar, and the Nizam, were depen- 
dent princes, who reigned only by the sufferance of an 
English Governor-General at Calcutta. The Mogul 
Empire lingered only in the palace of Delhi ; its former 
Viceroy, the Nawdb of Oudh (afterwards king) was our 
obedient vassal, the haughty princes of R&jput&na bowed 
their necks, more or less cheerfully, to the yoke of 
masters mercifal as Akbar, and mightier than Aurangzebe. 
Ranjit Singh himself cultivated the goodwill of those 
powerful neighbours who had sheltered the Sikhs of Sir- 
hind from his ambitious inroads/' The conquest of the 
Punj&b, Scinde, and British Burmah, the absorption of 
Oude, and the final extinction of the Delhi dynostyj 
completed the process begun by Clive. The Royal Pro- 
clamation of November, 1868, followed up by the Sunnads 
or Letters-Patent^ m which Lord Canning guaranteed to 
the Native Princes and Chiefs their old treaty rights, 
enlarged in some cases by new concessions, may be said 
to have formally reasserted the supreme powers which the 


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aervants of the East India Company had for half a century 
wielded without dispute. The degrees of vassalage may 
vary widely, from the kind of sovereignty still enjoyed 
under the German Kaiser by the King of Saxony or 
Bavaria, to the very limited powers of an English land- 
owner acting as a Justice of the Peace. But of the 
vassalage itself ther^ is no doubt whatever. The most 
powerful of Indian princes holds his dominions by a 
tenure, diflTering only in degree from that of the smallest 
Feudatory who, within certain limits, rules over a few 
square miles of country in accordance with the rights 
transmitted fi'om his fore&thers. 

The Proclamation of the Queen at Delhi as Empress 
of India on the 1st of January, 1877, while confirming 
the princes and people in the possession of their rights 
and privileges, made it plain to aU that their Empress 
was not only the fountain of honour and beneficence, 
but of power also; that the destinies of India and Eng- 
land are one; the Empress-Queen being as much the 
Sovereign of India as of England. 


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" The native Chiefs command collectively 5,252 Guns, 
9,390 tramed Artillerymen, 64,172 Cavalry and 241,063 
Foot soldiers." They are cantoned as follows: — 









Central India 




Central PioTinoea 



WeBtem India 




Southern India 




Eastern India 




Northern and North Western India ... 




" The appended List will show how these forces are dis- 
distributed among the more important States:" — 







TTdaipnr ... ... 

































































Jaisalmir ... ... ... 

• 12 























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Other States in Bundelkhond . 










































— . 





Oifl-Satlaj States 

Trans-Satlaj States 














Petty states ... 




• MaUeson's "Native States of India.*' 


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Portuguese — ^Dutch — Danish — ^French. 

The Portuguese. — To the Portuguese belongs the 
honour of having been the first of modem European 
nations to carry its arms and trade into any part of India- 
V The fifteenth century, famous for the discovery of 
America by Columbus and his successors, saw also in 
1486 the successful rounding of the Cape of Storms — 
the name first given to the Cape of Good Hope by the 
r» brave Portuguese captain, Bartholomew Diaz. Twelve 
years later the yet more famous Vasco da Gama, the dis- 
coverer of Natal, cast anchor ofi' Calicut, on the Malabar 
coast. His efforts to establish a peaceftil trade with the 
subjects of the well-disposed Zamorin, or Tamuri of 
Calicut, were thwarted by the intrigues of Moorish rivals 
from Egypt and Arabia, who begrudged a share of their 
profits to the strangers and infidels from the far West, 
and tried, but in vain, to capture Vasco's three ships on 
their homeward voyage. 

In 1500 the attempt to establish trade with Calicut 
was renewed by Pedro Cabral, with a larger fleet. 
Moorish jealousy again stood in the way, and a Portu- 
guese factory at Calicut was carried by storm. After 
plundering and burning some Moorish vessels by way of 


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reprisal, Cabral found a friendlier welcome at Cochin and 
Cannanore, Further insults to the Portuguese flag were 
requited two years later by Vasco da Gama himself, who 
bombarded Calicut and hanged a number of native 
fishermen by way of a warning to their rulers. At 
Cochin, however, he found his countrymen fiairly estab- 
lished as traders, under the protection of a rajah who 
refused to obey the orders of his suzerain, the now hostile 
Zamorin of Calicut. 

In the next few years the Portuguese fleets at Chaul, 
Diu and elsewhere, fought winning batties against 
numerous, and sometimes formidable foes. Under the 
far-femed Albuquerque, the Portuguese ere long carried < 
their arms from Ormuz, in the Persian Gulf, to Malacca, 
and Goa itself became the seat of his viceregal sway. 
Some years after his death, in 1515, the port of Diu, on 
the southern coast of Kattywar, fell at last into l*ortu- 
guese hands. Its capture was shortly followed by that 
of Daman, on the coast between Surat and the Northern 
Concan. Attacked in vain by the fleets and armies of 
neighbouring rulers, Diu for some time flourished as the ^ 
chief seat of Portuguese trade in the Gulf of Cambay. 

During the sixteenth century the Portuguese reigned 
supreme on the seas, and along the coast of Western 
India. A great league of native princes warred for ten 
months in vain against the splendid city of Goa, 
defended only by 700 soldiers and 1,300 monks, with 
the help of their .armed slaves. The chief seat of 
Portuguese rule in India had already become the great 
stronghold of Roman Christianity in the East, governed 
by an archbishop whose influence was strengthened by a 


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large body of monks, aad secured by the terrors of the 
> Inquisition. There is a noble cathedral, and a church 
which contains the shrine of St. Francis Xavier, Rome's 
first and noblest apostle to the East.* The churches 
founded by him are still conspicuous, with their 
Christian villages nestling under palm-trees, to the 
traveller as he passes the southern shores of the 
peninsula. Monasteries, churches, palaces and other 

* " The road to the cathedral passes under a large arched gateway. 
In a niche over the arch, beneath one of St. Catherine, stands a painted 
statue of Yasco da (not de) Ghuna, and we were told that it was of neces- 
sity that each^Tovemor of Groa should go under this archway — *' Aliter 
Gubemator not potest fieri." There was one of the smooth, well-bred, 
amiable ecclesiastics, who are ever to be found in situ, to show the Prince 
round and explain everything. The cathedral inside is of vast and noble 
proportions, very plain and massiye outside. It contains shrines and 
chapels, and much gQding, many middling pictures, fine old silver work. 
There were only seven worshippers — all women, all natives — ^all before 
one shrine ; at least, they were real, for the visit was a surprise. What 
had become of the worshippers for whom these churches had been erected? 
Or were they the work of Faith and Hope P From the cathedral the 
Prince went to the Bom Jesus. On the steps a musical performance wel- 
comed the Prince, which he never heard or saw the lilgs of before. One 
tall, lanky native gentleman, whose principal raiment was a big drum 
slung from his neck, belaboured that instrument with one hand, and with 
the other held to his mouth a fearful tube of brass, from which he com- 
pelled the most dreadful sounds. A boy beside him, without the benefit 
of drum, clanged two cymbals, and a c<»uple of youths joined in, one on a 
kettledrum the other on a drum simple. Above this din rose the ding 
dong of the small, and the sonorous roU of the great, bells of the church, 
and the barking of noisy curs. There were no beggars, and that for the 
y reason that there were no people to be begged of. The Bom Jesus is 
chiefty noted for the shrine of St. Francis Xavier, a man whom the 
churches of the world may unite in accepting as a true apostle. It is 
certainly one of the most beautiful and one of the richest objects of the 
kind which can be seen anywhere. But it is placed in a very small, dark 
chapel, and can scarcely be conveniently examined. The treasuries, full 
of gold and silver cups for the sacred elements, were opened, and their 
contents and many curiosities were exhibited." — " The Prince of Wales's 
Tour," by W. H. Eussell. 


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public buildings still attest the former greatness of a 
power now hastening to decay. The middle of the 
same century (the sixteenth) saw the Portuguese 
established also in the valley of the Ganges, at a place 
since known as Hooghly, on the river of that name. In 
Ceylon, also, they soon obtained a footing. Of the sea- 
borne trade of India, the countrymen of Albuquerque 
enjoyed, if not quite a monopoly, at least the lion's share. 
No foreign ship in these waters could hope to trade in 
peace without a Portuguese passport, or was free to trade 
at all if a Portuguese vessel remained unloved. But, 
with the first years of the seventeenth century, new 
rivals began to assert their strength. To the daring /^ 
Dutchmen, fresh from their revolt against Spain, the 
Portuguese gradually yielded Ceylon and Malacca. 
English fleets drove them out of Ormuz, and wrested 
from them the trade of Surat. Chimnajee, brother of the 
Mahratta Peishwa, Bajee Rao, drove them in 1739 out of 
Bassein and Salsette. 

Long before then, in 1632, their settlement at Hooghly 
had been stormed by Shah Jehan's Moguls, with heavy 
slaughter of its brave garrison, and the almost utter 
destruction of a very large fleet of merchantmen. 
Thenceforth the Portuguese never rose again to power 
on the side of Bengal. 

By the middle of the eighteenth century the glory had 
departed from the Portuguese possessions in Western 
India also. A Portuguese viceroy still rules over a 
province forty miles long by twenty wide, and inhabits a 
huge palace in New Goa, overlooking a harbour second 
only to that of Bombay. But Old Goa is now little 


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more than a cluster of splendid ruins ; and the trade of 
the modem city, built largely of materials brought from 
Old Goa, has dwindled down to a mere nothing before 
the advance of its great English rival on the same coast. 
Diu and Daman have both shared in the same decay, 
although the former affords good anchorage, while Daman 
can still boast of its docks and its appliances for building 
ships. At Goa the Prince of Wales met with an 
interesting and impressive reception. 

The Dutch. — The first appearance of the Dutch in 
Indian wa^rs was ere long followed by the establishment 
of trading factories at Surat, Balasore, Chinsurah, and 
other places along the coast. In the early part of the 
seventeenth century the Hollanders seem to have entered 
into a sort of trade-affiance with their English cousins in 
the East ; but after the collapse of their Portuguese 
rivals, the jealousies which sprang up between the two 
Teutonic nations bloomed forth at last in the massacre 
under judicial forms of twelve Englishmen at Ambojma, 
in 1623, and the closing of the Moluccas to English 
trade. A temporary revival of the old concert took 
place in 1627, when a fleet of Dutch and English ships 
sailed together from Surat to form a settlement in 
Bombay. That scheme, however, came to nought, and a 
bitter spirit of rivalry marked the subsequent career of 
-the Dutch and English merchant-companies. During 
the war between England and Holland, which broke out 
in 1652, the Dutch wrought much damage to our trade 
in the East, especially at Surat. In 1656, three years 
after the peace, they retook Colombo from the Portu- 
guese, and gained possession-of Calicut. Again in 1673, 


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towards the close of another war which left England 
supreme at sea, a strong Dutch fleet threatened Bombay, 
and afterwards sunk or captured several of our merchant- 
men off Masulipatam, 

From that time, for many years to come, the Dutch 
and English in India held their several ways in peace 
and comparative friendliness, the power and interests of 
the former being centred rather in Java than in India 
itself, where the only troubles the English encountered 
arose from the aggressions of native princes in Bengal 
and Maharashtra, on the Malabar coast, on the opposite 
side of the Peninsula. At last, in 1759, the intrigues of 
Meer Jaffier, the new English-made Nowab of Bengal, 
with the Dutch at Chinsurah, led to a sharp but short 
struggle between the latter and the countrymen of our 
gallant Clive, fresh from the victories which had avenged 
the disaster of the Black Hole. In requital for outrages 
done to English shipping in the Hooghly, Conunodore 
Wilson, with his three men-of-war, attacked and captured 
twice their number of the Dutch ships. On the plain of 
Bidara, outside Chinsurah, a force of Dutchmen and 
Malays was heavily routed by about half as many 
Englishmen and Sepoys under Olive's best officer, the 
bold Colonel Forde, who had been told by Clive to "fight 
immediately," and the Order in Council should be sent 
him on the morrow. Thoroughly humbled by these 
defeats, the Dutch were glad enough to accept peace on 
Olive's own terms, and to resume the footing on which 
they had hitherto traded in Bengal. 

In 1781, when Holland and England were again at 
war. Sir Hector Munro, the hero of the splendid victory 



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of Buxar in 1764, attacked and captured the strong 
Dutch settlement of Negapatam at the mouth of the 
Cavery. This success was followed early in the next 
year by the capture of several Dutch settlements in 
/ Ceylon. Later wars resulted in fresh victories, and 
before the end of the 18th Century the Dutch had lost • 
all their possessions in India and Ceylon. In 1811 their 
losses were crowned by the conquest of Java under Sir 
Samuel Achmuty ; but after a few years of English rule 
that island was finally restored to its former masters in 
1816. Chinsurah itself, which still remained in Dutch 
keeping, was made over to England, with Malacca and 
some other places in the Eastern seas, in exchange for 
our possessions in Sumatra. 

The Danes. — Denmark also played its part among the 
pioneers of European trade with India. About 1619 the 
agents of a Danish company made their way from Ceylon 
to the coast of Tanjore, and with the countenance of its 
Rajah founded their first settlement at Tranquebar, 
whose old Danish fort, the Dansborg, still gleams white 
and picturesque as viewed from the sea. In the course 
of a century of peaceful trade broken by few quarrels 
with neighbours of either colour, the Danes had carried 
their settlements, few and far between, up the Bay of 
> Bengal into the Hooghly. A few miles above Calcutta, 
on the opposite bank, they founded Serampore, "a hand- 
some place" — ^wrote Heberin 1825 — "kept beautifully 
clean, and looking more like a European town than 
Calcutta." Here, towards the end of the last century, 
Messrs. Carey, Marshman and Ward founded a Baptist 
Mission, whose work, though hindered for a time by the 


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English masters of Bengal, was destined to smooth the 
way for other labourers in the same field. Long before *:, 
then, in the first years of the same century, Tranquebar 
itself became the seat of a Danish Protestant Mission, 
ere long to be rendered famous by the life and labours of 
its greatest leader, Christian Frederic Swartz, the 
Protestant Xavier. From 1750, for more than thirty ^ 
years, did Swartz pursue his self-denying career among 
the natives of Southern India, winning reverence for his 
spotless worth, even from the fierce Hyder Ali. On one 
occasion, when the Madras Government sought to treat 
with the formidable ruler of Mysore, he refused to receive 
an envoy from their own service, " Let them send me 
the Christian" (meaning Swartz), "hewiQnot deceive 
me." On his deathbed the Rajah of Tanjore begged 
the great missionary to imdertake the guardianship of 
his son and heir. Nearly to the middle of this century 
the Danes contrived to keep their footing on Indian 
groimd. But meanwhile, the British colour had been 
spreading over the map of India, and the Danish settle- 
ments had become more of a burden than a gain to the 
mother country. Thus it happened that in 1845 Seram- 
pore and Tranquebar were handed over to the East India' 
Company in exchange for a goodly sum of ready money. 
The French. — Last but not least conspicuous of the 
European candidates for a share of India's wealth, were 
the French, whose first settlements at Pondicherry on 
the Madras coast, and Chandemagore on the Hooghly, 
date only from the latter half of the seventeenth century. 
It was in 1664 that the first French ** Company of the * 
Indies" was started under the auspices of the great 

Digitized by 

Googl e 


mmlster, Colbert. Four years kter the first French 
fiwtory was established at Surat. The Grand Monarque 
had declared *' that it was not beneath the dignity of a 
gentleman to trade with India," and ere long the French 
had gained a footing at Masulipatam and St. Thome, or 
^Milapore, on the Madras coast. On their expulsion 
fi-om the latter place by the Dutch in 1674, some of its 
defenders under the gallant Martin set forth to found a 
new settlement on the sea-coast, about 80 miles south of 
Madras, on a piece of ground obtained irom Sher Khan 
Lodi Governor of the Camatic for the King of Beejapore. 
After- a struggling infency, imperilled by the move- 
ments of the famous Mahratta, Sivajee, the new 
settlement of Pondicherry, as it came to be called, 
in 1679 became the fi-eehold of the French Company, 
and Martin set to work at fortifying the ftiture capital 
of French India. But the Dutch at that time were too 
strong for him, and in 1693 Pondicherry, after a stout 
resistance, passed into their hands. 

Four years afterwards it was restored to its former 
owners under the Treaty of Ryswick. Martin resumed 
his old post, and with the aid of his countrymen soon 
made Pondicherry safe from ordinary risks of capture. 
The town itself grew into a handsome city, defended by 
a strong French garrison, and important as the chief 
seat of French power in India. 

In the first half of the 18th century Mah6 on the 
Malabar coast, and several other places were added to 
(he French Company's rule. 

Chandemagore prospered under the management of 
Dupleix, whose talents were soon to display themselves 


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on a wider theatre. In 1741 he became Governor of 
Pondicherry. Five years later the capture of Madras 
by the high-souled but iU-starred Labourdonnais en- 
couraged Dupleix to carry out a scheme of conquest, 
which at one time bade fair to place France, not England, 
at the head of aU India. His trained Sepoys taught our 
own countrymen how to win victories against any 
number of iU-led native troops. The peace of Aix-la-/^ 
Chapelle in 1748 involved the surrender of Madras to 
the English, but it set Dupleix jfree to make his power • 
felt over all the neighbouring princes, to control the 
destinies of the Deccan under a ruler of his own choosing, 
and to win for his masters the virtual lordship of the 

Dupleix was at this time a power in India. He^ 
dominated over the native princes, and, disdaining the 
feeble action of the English, cherished the idea of 
founding for his country a vast empire in the East, and 
for himself he had the wildest visions of future power 
and glory. He was gorgeously arrayed and held great 
state, in strange contrast to the simple attire and modest 
appointments of his English rivals. Princes were his 
vassals and the revenues of provinces flowed into his 
exchequer. He was a master in intrigue and without a 
rival in resource, and never faltered in his diplomatic 
resolves ; but he required others to fight his battles. He 
was not a soldier, and disliked the noise and turmoil of 
war as unsuitable to his genius. He required tran- 
quillity for the elaboration of his plans, and this course 
he defended in language worthy of Captain Bobadil. 
Dupleix was a great man nevertheless. 


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He reckoned however without that sturdy force of 
English rivahy which was soon to bear fruit in the vic- 
tories of Clive and Lawrence, bettering the lessons they 
had learned from the French. His own recall in 1755 
proved perhaps a yet deadlier blow to schemes which his 
weaker successors lacked the means or the energy to 
carry to successfiil issues. In 1757, the year of Plassey, 
Clive became master of Chandemagore. His best 
subaltern, Forde, drove the French, in Bussy's absence, 
out of the Northern Circars. In vain did the brave but 
hot-headed Lally attempt to stay the tide of England*s 
fortunes by the capture of Fort St. David, and the siege 
of Madras. On the road to recover the former " lay the 
city of the victory of Dupleix, and the stately monument 
which was designed to commemorate the triumphs of 
France in the East. Clive ordered both the city and the 
monument to be razed to the ground. He was induced, 
we believe, to take this step, not by personal or national 
malevolence, but by a just and profound policy. The 
town and its pompous name, the pillar and its vaunting 
inscriptions, were among the devices by which Dupleix 
had laid the public mind of India under a spell. This 
spell it was Clive's business to break. The natives had 
been taught that France was confessedly the &st power 
in Europe, and that the English did not presume to 
dispute her supremacy. No measure could be more 
effectual for the removing of this delusioii than the 
public and solemn demolition of the French trophies." * 
Eyre Coote's crushing defeat of the French at Wandi- 

* " Critical and Historical Essays," by Lord Macaulay, and '* Life of 
Cliye/' by Sir John Malcolm. 


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wash was crowned by the capture of Bussy, the only 
Frenchman who had seemed to approach the genius of 
Dupleix, With the fell of Karical in 1760, nothing 
remained of Dupleix's empire save Pondicherry, 
In the following January Lally himself was starved into 
surrendering the stronghold which, with feiling means 
and ever-darkening hopes, he had defended against a 
close siege of four months. 

With the fall of Pondicherry the French power in 
India may be said to have passed away. On the peace 
of Paris in 1763 the French regained possession both of 
Pondicherry and Chandemagore. But never again could 
they make head against the growing power of their English 
rivals. In 1778, when the two nations were again at 
war, and Warren Hastings was Governor-General of 
India, both these places were recaptured by our troops, 
and the fortifications of Pondicherry once more 
destroyed. A few months later not an inch of ground 
in India remained to the French. Twice again, with 
returning peace, was Pondicherry restored to its first 
owners, only to fall again, after a brief interval, into our 

Meanwhile the old rivalry between French and Eng- 
lish was maintained into the beginning of this century 
by a succession of French officers who placed their 
swords at the disposal, now of Hyder Ali and Tippoo 
Sahib, now of the Nizam of Scindia, or of any prince 
strong enough to strike a blow for the sovereignty of India. 
But it was all in vain. His French allies failed to avert 
the doom which overtook Tippoo under the gateway at 
Seringapatam ; Raymond's Sepoy brigades were . dis- 
armed by Malcolm, and disbanded at Hyderabad. 


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Perron was glad to retire from Scindiah's service, 
" when every hereditary prince, from the Sutlej to the 
Nerbudda, acknowledged him as master, and he enjoyed 
an income equal to that of the present Viceroy and 
Commander-in-Chief of India combined ; at this climax 
of his fortune when he was actually believed to have 
sent an embassy to the First Consul of the French 

The femous Savoyard General De Boigne's trained 
battalions were nearly annihilated by Lake's Englishmen 
and Sepoys at Laswari. 

After the peaf e of Paris in 1814, Pondicherry, Chan- 
demagore, Mah^, Earical, and Yanaon on the Ori3sa 
coast, were finally restored to France. Of these places 
Pondicherry alone retains any of its old importance. 
The city and surrounding country cover an area of 107 
square miles, peopled by about 140,000 souls, of whom 
less than half are contained within the town itself. 
Described by Lord Valentia in the beginning of this 
century as the handsomest town he had seen in India 
except Calcutta, Pondicherry with its well-built streets, 
shady boulevards, and white-stuccoed public buildings, 
still retains much of its former beauty ; and its lighthouse, 
90 feet high, throws its friendly warning many miles out 
to sea. But the city has no harbour, and its declining 
trade now barely exceeds the value of £200,000 a year. 

Chandemagore also has seen its best days, and the 
Hooghly, which once bore the largest vessels thither, 
now flows in shallow volume past its lonely quays and 
grass-grown streets. The Prince of Wales was received 
here with much simplicity and cordiality. 

* The Fall of the Moghul Empire, by H. G. Keene. 


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The rivalry of the English and French for Empire in 
India has been very remarkable and the contrast of the 
treatment of the officers of the two countries at the 
hands of their governments on their return home, will be 
found not less so. 

"The equitable and temperate proceedings of the British 
Parliament (respecting Lord Olive's conduct in India) 
were set oflF to the greatest advantage by a foil. The 
wretched government of Louis the Fifteenth, had mur- 
dered directly or indirectly, ahnost every Frenchman 
who had served his country with distinction in the East. 
Labourdonnais was flung into the Bastille, and after years 
of suffering left it only to die. Dupleix, stripped of his 
immense fortune, and broken-hearted by humiliating 
attendance in antechambers, sank into an obscure grave. 
Lally was dragged to the common place of execution 
with a gag between his lips. ITie Commons of England, 
on the other hand, treated their living captain with that 
discriminating justice which is seldom shown except to 
the dead."* When thus praising ourselves for the 
treatment of our public men, let us not forget Sir 
Walter Raleigh, Warren Hastings and Governor Ejrre, 
lest we become too proud* 

* Critical and Historical Essays by Lord Macaolay. 


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Cotton— EflTecta of Civil War in Americar— Cotton Manufacture revived 
in a new form in India. 

Commerce. — ^From the very earliest times, India has 
been a great commercial country, and to trade with the 
Indies was the ambitioi;i of each European nation as it rose 
in the scale of civilization and power. To the Portuguese 
belong the credit of the first successfiil trade operations 
between Europe and India by sea, aa has been already 
stated, and to their intrepid Navigator, Vasco da 
Gama, are we indebted for the discovery of the Cape of 
Good Hope route, by which for three centuries and a 
half the vast bulk of the traffic was conveyed. 

Our own Commercial relations with this great country 
date from the year 1600, when Queen Elizabeth granted 
a charter to a number of London Merchants, and from 
this small commencement developed the powerful East 
India Company, which not only displaced the commerce 
of Portugal, Holland, and France, but became the 
political ruler of India until absorbed by Her Majesty's 
Government in 1858. 

Since the days of the Company's Factories or trading 
establishments, the trade of India has undergone, not 


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only gigantic growth, but many changes. The varied 
climate of India and her abmidant population enable her 
to produce almost everything that is necessary or agree- 
able to man. As the Crimean war stopped the trade in 
Russian hemp, and developed the growth of cotton and 
jute, and the American war further enriched the cotton 
growers of India, so whilst imder the peaceable and 
beneficent rule of Great Britain, India will always gain 
by the cessation of production in other parts of the globe, 
from war or any other calamity. India is eminently an 
agricultural country, two-thirds of her dense population 
live by the cultivation of the soil, and the land tax still 
yields the chief part of the revenue. 

To develope the resources of a country is to utilize its 
soil and climate for the growth of the products most 
suited to them, and to provide easy transit for the ex- 
change of commodities fi-om one district to another. 
This simple truism, too often neglected, is becoming 
more apparent to the Government of India and to the 
people, and to this we are indebted to a great extent for 
the large annual outlay upon roads, railways, and canals. 

The industry of the Indian Cultivator is ably seconded 
by the Merchant, and trade both Home and Foreign is 
steadily growing, but large as its proportions now are, 
it may be regarded only as yet in its infancy. 

The Home trade consists of the exchange of products 
from one province to another; for instance, since the 
extended growth of cotton in Western India, and of coffee 
in Ceylon and the Malabar Coast districts, grain and sugar 
have had to be imported from Bengal in large quantities 
to supply the wants of these districts. Under the head of 


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Home trade may also be included the barter or exchange 
of commodities with the countries bordering upon India, 
though it is known to be very extensive, no reliable 
statistics exist by which its value can be gauged. The. 
Home coasting trade is estimated at 25 millions 
sterling per annum, 15,000 vessels and native craft of all 
kinds are employed upon it. The value of the Fomgn 
trade is more readily arrived at by the Custom House 
returns, and the following figures fi^om the Government 
Blue Book show the progress that has been made. 


Yearly aioerage during each half decade for forty ffearB^ ending ZXei March, 
1876, vnth the average yearly excess of Imports over JSarports, or Exports 
over Imports for each period. 


Exoeae of im- Excess of Ex- 

Avenge of 



TotaL portoTerEx- 

port over Im- 

Fire Tean. 














































* TsAPB OF BoKBAT.— The trade retunu of British India for the 
twelve months from let April, 1876, to 3l8t March, 1877» show that the 
imports of merchandise amounted to Rs. 37,26,13,219, and of treasure to 
Rs. 11,43,61,197 ; total, IBjr. 48,69,74,416. The exports of merchandise 
were valued at Rs. 61,07,65,941, and of treasure to Rs. 4,02,98,978 ; total, 
Rs. 66,10,64,919. The share of Bombay, exclusive of Scinde, in this trade, 
was as follows : — 


Merchandise Rs. 12,74,72,244 

Treasure 8,29,61.682 


Rs. 71,04,34,826 


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During these forty years the above figures show that 
there has been an excess of exports over imports 
amounting to £226,500,000, or at the rate of £5,650,000 
per annum. During the last fifteen years, commencing 
three years after the Mutiny, the excess export has 
averaged £10,777,000 per annum. 

The import of gold and silver during the four decades 
included above, amounted to £342,360,546, whilst the 
export only reached £43,192,463 during the same time; 
showing the enormous absorption of £300,000,000 in 
round numbers, or at the rate of £7,500,000 worth of 
these durable and universally valuable commodities per 

England of course occupies the place of first impor- 
tance in the trade with India; China is next in rank, but 
all civUized countries to a greater or less extent are 
steady and increasing consumers of her products. 

The principal exports are cotton, opium, rice, grain, 
jute, tea, coflfee, timber, indigo, saltpetre, tobacco, seeds, 
shellac, gums, oils, wool, cocoa-nut, and cocoa-nut fibre. 


Foreign Goods Es. 1,79,15,882 

IndiaiL Produce and Manufactures ... 20,62,48,065 

Treasure 3,29,06,758 

Total ;.. Es. 26,70,70,706 

That is to say, the trade of Bombay amounted to more than 40 per cent, 
of the whole trade of India. The figures of the trade of Scinde stand 
thus : — Imports of merchandise, Bs. 32,04,621 : treasure, £s. 28,610 ; 
total, Es. 32,33,231. Exports of merchandise, Es. 1,64,60,787 ; treasure, 
Es. 1,87,950; total, Es. 1,66,48,737. The whole volume of Indian trade 
was larger last year than in any previous year since the American War. 
The value of the wheat exported rose from E«. 90,10,255 in 1875 — ^76 to 
Es. 1,95,63,325 in 1876—77. 


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shawls, and other valuable fabrics. In exchange India 
imports cotton and woollen goods, and other manu- 
factured goods of all kinds, machinery, clothing, stationery, 
railway materials, wines and spirits, besides metals, salt, 
coals, and other raw products, and many other articles. 

Cotton. — Of the above articles of export cotton is first 
in value and fi^om time immemorial has been one of 
India's staple products. The beautiful gossamers, the 
woven air muslins of Dacca and the calicoes of Southern 
India, soft in texture and tasteful in design, enjoyed a 
world-wide renown when the textile productions of 
Europe were rude and undeveloped. 

In the earlier years of trade with India it was these 
fine manufactured goods which were sent to Europe, 
and not the raw material, and the hand loom weavers in 
every Indian village supplied serviceable cloths for the 
wants of their neighbours and had to spare for other 
countries. The invention of steam machinery coupled 
with the cheapening of freight which followed the exten- 
sive growth of our mercantile marine brought about a 
gradual change. England in turn became the manufac- 
turer of cotton goods for consumption in India, receiving 
back the raw material; and extensive cotton fields grew 
up in all parts of India, the chief seat of production 
being in the western provinces for which Bombay is the 
outlet. The civil war in America in 1861 gave a new 
and powerful impulse to the growth of Indian cotton, 
and in a few years it rose in value fi-om 6 to 37^ 
millions sterling. The producing districts for a moment 
became rich beyond the dream of avarice, and the for- 
merly poor Ryots became men of substance, independent 


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of loans from the usurious money lenders, and able to 
deck out their wives and daughters in costly ornaments 
of gold and silver. With the close of the civil war this 
flush of prosperity began to wane, American cotton 
gradually assumed its old ascendancy in the English 
markets, and the value of raw cotton exported from 
India consequently fell in 1872 to about 14 millions 

Another change is now taking place. India is again 
resuming the manufacture of cotton goods, and in the 
neighbourhood of Bombay and Calcutta many spinning 
mills supplied with the best machinery of the day have 
been erected. It is found that the supple fingers, quick 
intelligence and patient habits of the natives of India 
make them the best of mill hands, and bearing in mind 
the cheapness of their labour as compared with that of 
Europeans, and the fact that the raw material is at hand 
and that there is a ready sale for the goods when made, it 
is evident this comparatively new industry, or more 
properly speaking, old industry revived in a new form, 
must rapidly grow, and it is well that we should be 
prepared for its competing with our home manufectures, 
not only in the Indian markets but elsewhere. 


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Rice— Jute— Cereals— Seeda— Tea— Sugar— OpiTun— Coffee— Indigo- 
Saltpetre — Timber — Tobacco — Agriculture— PrimitiTe method of 
Natives — ^European Planters. 

Eice. — Next to cotton, rice ranks in quantity though 
not in value as an export, and few trades have grown 
with the extraordinary rapidity of the Indian rice trade. 
From Calcutta and the ports on the Madras coast rice is 
extensively shipped to Bombay and the ports on the West 
. coast of India, to Muscat, the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea 
ports, Mauritius and Australia. It is from British 
Bunnah, however, that the rice trade has developed in 
the most remarkable degree. Little more than twenty 
years have elapsed since the first cargo of rice was 
exported from a Burmese port, and now the exports 
thence exceed half a million of tons annually to all parts 
of the globe. This very cheap and nutritious article of 
food is growing in fitvour, particularly on the continent 
of Europe, and it is to be regretted that the people of 
England do not sufficiently appreciate it. 

Jute. — How little is known to the public at large of 
this most useftil article of commerce ! To many well- 
informed persons the name even is unknown, and yet 


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what a conspicuous place it occupies in the manufactures 
of the United Kingdom and India! The jute or Indian 
hemp trade received its first important start in 1854, 
during the war with Russia, but the Civil War in the 
United States gave the strongest impetus to it. Before 
the year 1858 the export of jute fi-om Calcutta was only 
about 20,000 bales; in 1868, the exports were 800,000 
bales, and in 1872 the shipments of jute and jute 
cuttings actually exceeded 2,000,000 bales. Of this 
quantity the United Kingdom took about a million and 
a-half bales, America 450,000, and the Continent the 
remainder. But in addition to the large quantities of 
raw material thus exported, there is a considerable local 
consumption of jute cloth and extensive export of manu- 
factured articles; in the year 1872, above referred to, 
there were 106,000 pieces of gunny cloth and 28,500,000 
gunny bags exported from Calcutta. Jute is used for 
sacking, sail-cloth, carpet manufecture, paper making and 
many other purposes. This one article of commerce has 
built up the prosperity of the town of Dundee, and the 
trade between Calcutta and that port employs a splendid 
fleet of iron sailing ships, of which the nation may be 
proud. The quantity of jute imported into the United 
Kingdom now exceeds 200,000 tons per annmn. Some 
excellent jute miUs have recently been erected in the 
neighbourhood of Calcutta, but the manufitcture is at 
present chiefly confined to sacking and gunny bags which 
are exported to China, Australia and all parts of the globe. 
Efforts are being made to establish the manufacture of 
the finer descriptions of cloth, and with reasonable 
prospects of success. 



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Cereals. — Hitherto India has not been a large grain- 
exporting country; wheat, maize, barley and pulse have 
been chiefly grown for home consumption, and the 
exports have been comparatively limited owing to grain 
deteriorating during the long sea voyage round the Cape 
to Europe ; but the opening of the Suez Canal and the 
construction of railways and roads in India having 
accelerated the transport to Europe, wheat has been 
shipped in annually increasing quantities from Calcutta, 
Bombay and Kurrachee to London and Liverpool. Last 
year 5 per cent, of the British imports of wheat came 
from India, and there can be little doubt the trade will 
grow rapidly. The valleys of the Nerbudda, Upper 
Ganges, Indus and other large rivers in India are capable 
of producing an almost unlimited supply of wheat, and 
demand will speedily ensure it. The average annual 
importation of wheat into England at the present time 
is about 12,500.000 quarters, and with our rapidly- 
increasing population and decrease of arable land, the 
deficiency of home-grown breadstuflFs must increase. 
The knowledge of this &ct has long occasioned more 
or less anxiety. It has been stated that the great 
wheat-producing countries have only to combine to with- 
hold their, supplies to starve us into submission. It 
is improbable that such a state of things could be 
brought about, but admitting the possibility, why should 
not India in this respect largely provide for our require- 
ments? The exportation of wheat would enrich her, by 
forcing a larger importation of the precious metals which 
would tend to diminish the losses in exchange with 
Europe, which have of late been sustained by merchants 


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who have had to remit money from the East, and by 
servants of the Crown whose incomes are derived from 

Lord Lawrence, in his report on the Punjaub when 
Lieutenant-Governor, states, that 500,000 tons of wheat 
might be exported annually from that province alone,* 
without interfering with the wants of the people, and the 
Times recently drew attention to the following remark- 
able growth of the Calcutta wheat trade: — In 1870 ihe^ 
quantity of wheat exported from Calcutta was 2,000 
tons, in 1873 it was 10,000, and in the first eight 
months of the last year (1876) no less than 120,000 
tons were shipped to England, which came chiefly from 
the Punjaub, and it only requires the completion of the 
Indus Valley Railway to export wheat in greater 
abundance at a cheaper rate, from this province. The 
quality of Indian wheat is much liked by millers because 
of its extreme dryness, f 

• Vide " The Indus and its Provinces," by the Author. 

t " Since the report was published advices had also reached them f^m 
India that arrangements had been made with Scinde, Punjab and Delhi 
Railway Company, by which purchasers of grain in the Punjab would be 
able to send it down to Calcutta from Umritsur — a distance of about 
1,245 miles — at the remarkably low cost of about 12b. 9d. per qr. — Speech 
of Mr. B. W. Crawford, Chairman East Indian Railway, Jan. 4, 1877. 

The Dundee Advertieer, under date 8th February, 1877, states: — 
'* the following figures show the extraordinary rapidity with which the 
shipments of wheat from Calcutta to Great Britain have extended. It will 
be seen that while the clearances were only 500 tons in 1870 and 14,370 in 
1874, they sprang up to 49,930 tons in 1873 and 141,716 hist year. The 
shipments through the Suez Canal were equal to the freight of forty 
steamers of 2,000 tons. The total quantity of wheat shipped from CtUcutti^ 
in 1876 was equal to the entire crop grown in Scotland. The following 
are the figures :— > 


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Seeds. — Collectively seeds form a huge item in the 
commerce of India — linseed, rape, gingelly, castor and 
other oleaginous seeds are largely shipped from India to 
Europe. In utilizing these seeds, the oil is first 
extracted and the refuse (in the form of oil cake) is then 
used for cattle feeding and artificial manures. A large 
quantity of rape and linseed goes forward to the south of 
France and to Italy, where the oil by carefiil refining is 
used for adulterating olive oil, and for preserving fish, 
&c. The use of oil cake in England for cattle feeding is 
extending. The production of meat for the increasing 
necessities of our large population cannot be overtaken 
by grazing or feeding upon farm produce, consequently 




liTonxKd. 1 





























, ,, 








. •• 










. • • 



























• • • 



























• 600 













Clearances during 1870 ... 

., 1871 ... 

,. 1872 ... 

.. 1873 ... 

„ 1874 ... 

„ 1876 ... 

.. 1876 ... 

„ Jan. to Oct., 1877 ... 

600 tons. 

12.316 .. 

2,196 „ 

11,446 „ 

14.370 „ 

4d,930 „ 

141.716 „ 


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farmers have to seek elsewhere for food for their stock, 
and oil cake has proved so far to be the best procurable, 
and when fed upon it cattle and sheep fatten quiekly and 
give back valuable ingredients for enriching the soil. A 
trade once established with England in any article of 
food, whether for nian or beast, must of necessity 
increase, and the products and uses of the Indian seeds 
are so varied and necessary to the wants of civilized 
society, that we may fairly assume that the trade in 
them will steadily continue to increase. 

Tea, — In connection with the introduction and growth 
of the various commodities which India produces, the 
progress of tea cultivation is perhaps of all the most 
interesting to record. As recently as the year 1832 
Lord William Bentinck, Governor-General of India, pro- 
posed active measures to introduce this most useful plant 
into India. Previous to this the cultivation had been 
recommended by sevei^ persons, by some who possessed 
scientific knowledge because they believed the climate 
and soil of the hill districts were suitable to it, and that 
the culture would be a profitable one, and by others 
because they felt that the world at large ought not to be 
solely dependent upon China for this . highly- valued 
product. The Chinese being then as now strangely 
exclusive, few facilities and many obstacles were put in 
the way of foreign trade by their government, and for 
this reason it was considered to be of national importance 
to England that some better field should be provided for 
the supply of tea. Hence the Directors of the East 
India Company sanctioned a liberal expenditure upon 
experiments. Seeds and plants were imported from 


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China, as well as persons accustomed to the cultivation; 
but, as in all such attempts, there were many difficulties 
at first to contend with and many fiiilures. In 1834 it 
was discovered that the tea plant, somewhat different to 
the China plant, but nevertheless the tea plant, was 
growing wild in Assam, and some of the leaves having 
been manufactured into tea, which was highly approved 
of by the London tea brokers, hopes were entertained 
that it might be produced in sufficient quantities to 
become a staple article of commerce. Experiments 
continued to be made by Government with the indi- 
genous plants, and with seeds and plants imported from 
China, nurseries being established in Assam, the Hima- 
layas, Neilgerries and elsewhere with more or less 
success. In 1839 the first Joint Stock Tea Company 
was fonned in London, " The Assam Company," with a 
capital of one million sterling, and the fortunes and 
reverses of this Company furnish an excellent illus- 
tration of the fluctuations experienced in tea culture in 
India. At one time their £20 shares were sold for less 
than 2s. each. Tea cultivation at that time was at its 
lowest ebb; Government had abandoned the work to 
private speculators, and owing to mismanagement aU 
hope of successfully producing tea in India was well nigh 
abandoned. The shares thus sold at 2s. are 'now worth 
£64, and the Assam Tea Company, once so near ruin, is 
at present a most prosperous undertaking. Tea agri- 
culture and manufacture may now be deemed to be well- 
established industries of India. At the present time 
there are numerous joint-stock tea undertakings, and still 
more gardens in private hands, and the importation into 


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England in 1875 amounted to no less than 25 million 
lbs., equal in value to £2,200,000 : but this does not 
represent the whole ; for India with her large population 
is herself a consumer of the leaf. Year by year the 
growth is extending, more care and experience are intro- 
duced into the cultivation and manufacture, and the 
problems which exercised the minds of the fer-seeing 
Governor-General and others forty years ago are now 
happily solved. It is estimated there are 160,000 acres 
of land now under tea cultivation, which within a few 
years should yield 50,000,000 pounds weight per 

* Tba of China ajtd of India. — Sir W. H. Medhurst, in his last 
Consular £«pon from Shangliai, recently laid before Parliament, states 
that the tea trade of that port showed again in 1875 a marked decline. 
The competition of India increases. Fifteen years ago the growth of tea 
in India was regarded as an experiment, bat the export from Calcutta 
reached 26,0CX),000 lb. in 1875, and now it may almost be thought that 
unless there be some change in the mode of cultivation or packing, it is 
only a question of time when China will be ousted from the field. The 
total export of tea from China was 212,000,000 lb. in the season 1875-76, 
or four millions less than in the preceding season. The increase in th^ 
demand for tea in Great Britain has heretofore benefited both China and 
India, but the returns for 1875 indicate that the whole increase then went 
to the credit of India. The cause of the poor quality of Chinese tea of 
late years seems to lie in hasty preparation, with a view to bring teas early 
to market, and in the unsystematic way in which the different processes 
necessary to convert the raw leaf into the tea of commerce are carried on. 
Small proprietors, farmers, to whom the cultivation of tea is mostly a 
secondary object, growing from 50 lb. to 500 lb., carry it off on their backs 
to a neighbouring market, and even to a second, perhaps, the unfired leaf 
spoiling fast by exposure to the air and the long interval between the 
picking and the firing. The packers are speculators, who hire a house 
in the district temporarily, and collect the leaf in little lots from the 
growers. TJius, the leaf from different districts is mixed, and pure, one- 
flavoured tea is scarce. The packing also is defective ; if wood is scarcet 
it is planed so thin that a cwt. chest is little better than a band-box, and 
the outside package splits and the inside bed gets rent and torn^ Sir 


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Sugar — ^At one time this was a commodity very largely 
exported, as much as 350,000 tons having been shipped 
annually, but now, although the quantity produced is 
greater than ever, India imports more than she exports. 
This fact is worthy of notice, as indicating the increased 
wealth and prosperity of the people. 

Opium. — Much has been said and written respecting 
the growth of this drug, and the immorality of the 
Grovemment of India in directly encouraging and super- 
vising a trade in many respects so injurious. It is not 

VT. H. Medhurst says that we must look to India for the perfection of tea 
coltore ; mere planting, picking and firing are all in one hand, and the 
needfiil capital outlay to produce a good result is not spared. In China 
the process is in the primitive and unscientific style dear to the natives of 
that country. He considers that nothing but the introduction of European 
capital and enterprise into the tea districts can save the foreign tea trade 
of China from decay. Had foreigners free access to the country, not only 
would the leaf be systematically packed, and not left at times to grow old 
on the shrubs and at times to spoil after picking, while the owner is 
haggling for the lust cent., but many a barren hiUside would be cleared of 
its jungle, and employment given to thousands of half-starved peasants. 
Isolated attempts made by foreigners to perfect the system of packing 
tea by personal supervision in the interior have been generally unsuccessful, 
except in the case of brick tea made in some of the black tea districts, 
under the eye of Eussians from Siberia, who show more readiness in 
adapting themselves to Chinese ways, and whose GK>vemment gives them 
every protection. Were permission given to foreigners to hold land in 
the interior, a few well-ordered plantations would in time reform the 
Chinese methods by example. In regard to green tea China is being 
ousted from the American markets by Japan, where no labour u spared in 
the firing and packing, and the petty economies are not attempted which a 
Chinaman will employ at any cost. His inland taxation also is heavy. In 
India the trade is free, and in Japan burdened only with a nominal tax. 
The Chinaman is not keeping his place in the race. Our Custom House 
returns for 1876 show 155,897,192 lb. of tea imported into the United 
Kingdom from China, but that is 5,000,000 lb. less than in the preceding 
year; the import frt>m British India, 28,126,854 lb., shows an increase 
amounting to 2,342,000 lb.— Tsmtf«, May 21, 1877. 


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our intention here to enter upon the merits or demerits 
of this vexed question, it is sufficient for our purpose to 
note the feet of its existence and to state that if the re- 
venue of upwards of six millions sterling which the opium 
monopoly yields to the Government were given up, other 
taxes would have to be levied, to make good the defi- 
ciency. The efiect of this tax is to make opium so much 
more costly, and consequently to diminish the con- 
sumption, and it is hard to see any reasonable grounds for 
abandoning so valuable a source of income and shifting a 
burden fi*om the shoulders of the Chinese, who buy this 
baneful drug, to the backs of our poor Indian subjects. 
In the provinces of Behar and Benares Government 
supervises the growth of the poppy and manufecture of 
the opium, binding the ryots to sow yearly the needful 
amount of land, and receiving the entire produce at 
certain fixed prices. The opium is gathered in the early 
spring, manufactured and stored in the summer at Patna 
and Ghazepore, and sold by public auction in the following 
year at Calcutta to merchants who ship it to China. In 
Malwa, on the other hand, the opium is produced by the 
subjects of native princes and forwarded to Bombay 
for shipment where it pays a heavy export duty. The 
general adoption of this latter system is advocated by 
many who would wish to see the Government of India 
fireed from all immediate connection with the opium 
trade, and we must confess our preference for it ; but the 
Bengal system has prevailed so long that Indian 
financiers hesitate to interfere, lest the revenue should 
be adversely affected. 

Coffee. — Like tea the growth of Indian coffee is com- 


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paratively recent, and the progress has been very satis- 
factory. The value of the exports has mcreased from 
£75,000 in 1849 to £1,250,000 in 1874; and upwards of 
100,000 acres are now planted with coffee in Coorg and 
the Wynaad alone, besides large tracts in Travancore. 

The cultivation of tea, coffee and indigo in India has 
been taken up by some of our retired officers, and pro- 
vides occupation for a great many young men, who go 
out from England to superintend the plantations and 
manufacture.* On some of the plantations a few of the 
more enterprising agriculturists produce other valuable 
plants such as India rubber. Tobacco, Chincona, &c., 
which are sent forward to Calcutta, Bombay and 
Madras for shipment to Europe. 

Indigo — Is chiefly cultivated in Behar and the 
N. W. Provinces and is exported to aU parts of the world. 
The trade in this beautiful dye has grown in the last 
ten yeara from two to three and a-half millions sterling. 

Saltpetre. — The soil of Upper India teems with 
"villanous saltpetre," which modem nations find so 
indispensable, either for peace or war. This article, 
which the Indian husbandman would so gladly miss from 
his fields, is collected and exported to Europe, America 
and China to the value of about half a million sterling 
per annum. 

. Timber. — The forests of British Burmah jdeld rich 
stores of teak, that most valuable timber, which is now 
extensively used in this countr}\ Nearly as hard and 
durable as oak, it is easier to work and it can be polished 

* In the beautiful vaUcy of Kangra in the Himalayas there are more 
thiUL thirty Buropeans solely engaged in tea plantinf^. 


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as highly as mahogany ; in ship building and railway 
carriages it is especially serviceable, and for beauty and 
solidity combined no wood surpasses it. The teak ships 
built in Bombay, Cochin and Singapore were found after 
fifty years of hard work to be as tough and seaworthy as 
when new; and but for the changes that have taken place 
in naval architecture, whereby a modem iron ship is 
capable of carrying a much heavier cargo than the old- 
feshioned vessels the pride of our youth, these good old 
craft would still be ploughing the waters. 

Other woods, such as the Himalaya pines and deodars 
serve many purposes of use and ornament. The SfiJ 
forests of the Himalayas provide sleepers for our rail- 
ways. The light and feathery bamboo growing every- 
where in India must not be overlooked. This invaluable 
wood, always available, is put to every conceivable pur- 
pose ; it provides the supports for the rude huts in the 
jungle ; tipped with iron it may be used for an instrument 
of war or implement of husbandry; sawn off above a 
knot it makes a drinking cup; it is used for making pens, 
and for musical instruments; it forms the arms for the 
palanquins to carry the living, or the bier to bear the 
dead to the funeral pile. In Japan young bamboo 
stewed or preserved is esteemed a great luxury. In 
China and Persia old bamboo is in more frequent 
request, but the application is external and of a less 
agreeable character; it is usually applied to the back or 
to the soles of the feet. The fibre is worked up into 
mats and baskets and boats' sails. The Sissa or black 
wood of Bombay, the sandal wood of Southern India and 
ebony of the West are known to us all in the exquisite 


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carved pieces of furniture, inlaid boxes and ornaments 
which so admirably exhibit the artistic taste of the 
workman and the beauty of the material. 

Within the last sixteen years the Government of India 
has very properly undertaken the conservancy of the 
forests ; on the one hand the department has to take care 
that timber is feUed and disposed of upon prudent and 
safe principles, and that there is no needless waste of the 
valuable tracts of forest at the disposal of Government ; 
on the other hand the cultivation of the more valuable 
timber needed for the construction of public works, rail- 
way sleepers and for commerce has to be attended to. 
The young men selected in England for this work have 
to undergo a special education, and are sent to Germany 
and other countries to study other forest conservancy 
systems before taking up their duties in India. The 
practical value of this good service cannot be over-esti- 
mated when we bear in mind not only the value of the 
timber but the disasters that have overtaken Eastern 
countries, where fertile districts have been rendered 
barren deserts by the reckless destruction of the forests. 
Through the influence of cultivation rains are now 
periodical in parts of Scinde where they were formerly as 
rare as at Aden, that barren rock garrisoned by our 
Indian troops. By clothing the bare hill sides with 
wood, and by judicious planting, not only may rains be 
rendered more regular and genial, thus lessening the 
chances of frequent drought and famine, so fearfully 
destructive to human and animal life in India, but some- 
thing may be done to limit, if not prevent those terrible 
floods, which carry everything before them whilst they 


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last; climates also may be changed and .unhealthy 
districts rendered more salubrious. Before leaving this 4^ 
subject we must mention the valuable service rendered to 
India by the introduction of the Chincona and ipecacu- 
anha plants. The important medicinal properties of < 
quinine produced from the Chincona bark are well 
known to all, but the boon to India is especially great ; 
with the aid of this powerful restorative travellers ward 
off attacks of jungle and malarious fever; and many 
have shewn, like the great African traveller Livingstone, 
how with its aid they have been able to prosecute their 
journeys and their work, when without it they must have 
succumbed to disease. Ipecacuanha is now accepted as .' 
the most efficacious remedy in the treatment of dysentery, 
the malady of all others most destructive to European life 
in India. Chincona was introduced into India in the - 
year 1860, and Mr. Clement Markham, C.B., the cour- 
teous and well-known Secretary of the Geographical 
Society superintended the transport of the plants from 
South America to the Neilgerries, where by care they 
have been successfully grown; and the Indian cultivation 
is so far secured, that there is no longer any anxiety as to 
the supply of this invaluable bark. The ipecacuanha 
root more recently introduced, has been planted on the 
outer slopes of the Sikhim Himalaya, and there is every 
reason to hope for equal success with it. 

Tobacco — Is widely cultivated for home use in many 
parts of India, but as yet the quantity imported into 
Europe has been very limited, owing to defects which are 
still to be remedied in the process of preparing the leaf. 

Agriculture. — As before stated India is essentially an 


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agricultural country, and the mass of the population 
support themselves by husbandry, but in the tillage of 
•^the soil the ryots, or peasantry, follow the rude and 
inefficient methods of their forefathers, merely scratching 
the surfece of the ground by means of a bullock -plough 
of the most feeble and primitive construction, using little 
manure or other means to aid the dormant resources of 
the soil, and in the absence of irrigation, trusting the 
coming harvest solely to the sun and rain of heaven. 
The ryots' mode of rearing live stock is equally 

General and scientific farming, as practised in Europe, 
America and Australia has never been really tried in India. 

The European planters of India, unlike the native 
ryots, are an enterprising and prosperous class, and the 
increasing demands for the products before enumerated 
when treating of the commerce of India, necessitate the 
use of machinery and ever-improving modes of culti- 
vation. Native formers, like their brethren elsewhere, 
are slow to adopt changes, and do not readily take either 
to improved implements or a more scientific mode of 
working. Animal food is so little consumed by the 
natives of India, that the profits of raising agricultural 
stock are not sufficiently high to encourage expenditure 
in the direction of rearing improved breeds of sheep and 
cattle. Effijrts to improve the quality of cattle and 
horses and to introduce foreign seeds and plants have 
from time to time emanated from the Government, and 
experimental farms have been worked in the Presi- 
dencies of Bengal, Madras and Bombay which have been 
of service in the selected localities and have helped to 


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fiimish statistics ; but the experiments have involved 
considerable outlay and have led to little practical result 
generally. Recently agricultural exhibitions have been 
organized with some success in various parts of India, 
and the c<Mnpetition created for the prizes appears to be 
producing a beneficial efiect. It is very interesting to 
note in the last report of the "Material Progress of 
India," that in British Burmah the ploughs in use 
numbered 383,976. Steam machinery is little used and 
probably not needed, because not only is manual labour 
abundant and cheap, but the regularity of the seasons 
relieves the farmer from the anxiety and hast^ which 
attend the harvesting of crops in our more uncertain 

In agricultural operations in India irrigation forms 
one of the most necessary and costly items of expenditure, 
and in every province the peasants patiently draw from 
wells and streams the life-sustaining water which under 
the powerful rays of the tropical sun produces rapid 

The sad effects of drought have more than once lately 
been painftilly illustrated. The native rulers have an 
adage that " to attempt to relieve a famine is to water 
the branches when the roots are dead;" thanks however 
to roads, railways and steamers, it has been proved that 
relief can be given. Still, such calamities as the Orissa s 
and Bengal &mines and that subsequently prevailing in 
Madras and Bombay are terrible to contemplate, and to 
prevent rather than to cure them, the rigorous prose- 
cution of irrigation works should always be kept promi- 
nently in view with improved means of communication. 


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Soadfl — ^BaDways — Telegraphs. 

Communications. — Under this head a volume might be 
written. The communications, external and internal, 
comprise lines of ships and steamers, telegraphs, rail- 
ways, roads, canals, &c., &c., representing many millions 
*of money and emplo)dng thousands of persons. Like 
the Romans of old, the British may now fairly be said to 
make road-making the first of their duties, and through- 
out the provinces of India this necessaiy work is 
diligently prosecuted. In the neighbourhood of large 
towns the responsibility of providing good roads 
devolves upon the municipalities, &c., in the provinces 
the means are provided by the presidency funds 
apportioned to such local works. For information con- 
cerning the postal and telegraphic services and railways 
the reader interested in such matters should peruse the 
Government reports, which furnish precise and valuable 
details, and alone can properly explain the gigantic 
character of the work which is embraced under these 
three heads. The postage of a letter from and to any 
place in India is half an anna, equal to three farthings, 


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and except England no country in the world possesses a 
more efficient postal service. 

Telegraphs. — In telegraphy India is little if anything 
behind Europe. From Europe to India there exist the ^ 
deep sea cable through the Red Sea, and two distinct 
land ' communications through Turkey, Russia and 
Persia; these are connected with a sub-marine cable by 
the Persian Gulf to Kurrachee. It also possesses tele- 
graphic communication with China and Australia, and 
an efficient internal service is maintained with the 
principal military and commercial centres. Had these 
complete services been in existence in 1857, on the out- 
break of the mutiny, many valuable lives might have 
been spared, and it is apparent that our tenure of India 
is greatly strengthened by the &cilities now existing. 
The wide extent of territory spanned by the wires neces- 
sarily renders the services costly to organise and maintAin, 
and not only is the material Hable to damage by storms, 
floods and robbery, but the distance from observation 
gives fiicilities for dishonest tampering. A curious in- 
stance of this occurred some time ago ; some telegraph 
clerks, at the instigation of a wealthy native, dealing 
largely in opium, proceeded to a soHtary spot, where they 
cut the wires, read off all the messages, and transmitted 
them to Bombay with such alterations as enabled their 
employer to reap the unfidr advantage which he sought. 

RaUways. — In railway communication a good com- 
mencement has been made, but much remains still to 
be done in this respect. At present there are five or six 
great trunk lines intersecting the country: the East 
India Railway extending from Calcutta for 1,000 miles 



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along the valley of the Ganges and Jumna to Delhi, to 

meet the Indus Valley line from Kurrachee, and thus to 

form the great steam arch connecting the Bay of Bengal 

with the Arabian Sea, and which at Allahabad throws 

out a branch to Jubbulpore to meet the Great Indian 

Peninsular Railway, placing Calcutta and Bombay in 

immediate connection ; the Bombay and Baroda Railway 

running from Bombay almost in a direct northerly line to 

Surat, Baroda and Ahmedabad, and tapping the cotton 

districts; ^he Scinde, Punjaub and Delhi Railway 

commencing from Kurrachee and proceeding vid Lahore 

to Delhi, which with its proposed branches to the Bolan 

and Kyber, will be the great political line of India, by 

providing the means of transport of troops and material 

for the defence of the frontier, and 3nable us to meet 

Russia in the markets of Central Asia on more than 

equal terms, and which at the same time will open up 

the great grain-producing districts of the Punjaub ; the 

Oude and Rohilkund ; the Southern of India ; the 

Madras and minor lines; — altogether in 1877 there were 

8,142 miles open, of which 1,729 miles are of the metre 

3ft. 34in. gauge, the remainder being 6nJ[the normal gauge 

of 5ft. 6in. 

That there should be two gauges in India is much to 
be regretted, as a branch might speedily become a trunk 
line. The principal portions of these lines have beeu 
constructed and are being worked by Companies and 
Boards of Directors under Government supervision. A 
few have been made by Government officers, and the 
question of the friture regarding Indian railways is, 
whether they should pass wholly into the possession of the 

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State and be worked from one central point, or whether the 
several Companies should maintain their distinctive com- 
mercial character and be managed as at present. Those 
in favour of the former system, with some show of reason, 
maintain that as the Government guaranteed interest is 
what the shareholders chiefly look to for the return on 
their capital, there can be no objection to the lines 
being entirely under the control of the State. But, on 
the other hand, it is clear that our English railways 
could never have arrived at their present efficient and 
profitable condition, nor could they meet the ever- 
varying wants of the public were it not for the character 
of the management and its freedom from the hard and 
fast regulations of the public services. The capital of 
the railway companies of the United Kingdom in 1876 
reached the sum of 658 millions, and the yield of the 
gross revenue from this immense investment was 
62 millions, the net revenue being 29 millions. These 
figures will give some idea of the cost of providing 
railways for our great Indian dependency, and it is not 
too much to say that no single department of Govern- 
ment can possibly do justice to these gigantic works, and 
that the best that can be done is to continue and perhaps 
strengthen the present system of supervision. 

Further, the progress of this necessary and national 
work ought not to be left to the mere question of a sur- 
plus or deficiency in the Budget. In India we possess a 
magnificent estate needing capital for its development, 
and we have a tolerably sure guarantee that money 
advanced will be honestly expended; but instead of 
advancing money for railways, canals, roads, &c., in 


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Indis, for bringing produce from the interior to the 
coast, we lend millions to foreign countries to be 
squandered, or perhaps to be spent in arms and war 
vessels to be used against ourselves. One word more 
before leaving the question of railways. It is proposed 
in some places to make lines parallel with the coast. In 
the present condition of the country it appears question- 
able policy to use state funds for the construction of 
lines of railway, which would compete with and tend to 
cripple the sea traffic now maintained by private enter^ 
prise. It would be much better to encourage the 
development of that traffic by improving the existing 
harbours and constructing new ones where they may be 
most required, at a reasonable outlay, and confining the 
extension of railways and roads to lines into the interior 
for the free exchange of commodities. 

All must concur in the opinion recently expressed by 
Lord Salisbury, and that is, ^^ that the best and surest 
means of developing the resources of a colony h to 
improve the means of commimication." 

It is expected that in 1879 the net revenue of the 
guaranteed railways will be equal to the amount of the 
interest guaranteed by the State. 


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Ancient Bontes of Commerce — Slupping^— The Suez Canal^The 
Euphrates Bailway — ^Harbours. 

Few facts bear more conclusive testimony to the sagacity 
of the ancients, when the limited amount of their 
geographical knowledge is remembered, than the tenacity 
with which commerce adhered to the direction given to 
it by them, and the readiness with which it returns to 
any of those channels when temporarily diverted by 
political events or geographical discoveries. The over- <^ 
land route from Europe to India, by the Isthmus of Suez 
and the Red Sea, is certainly as old as the days of the 
early Phoenician navigators. The navigability of the^ 
Euphrates was tested long before Trajan ever sailed on 
its waters, and was revisited by the Italians in the eleventh 
century, and our own merchants in the days of Elizabeth 
as the best way to the East;* whilst the value of the 

• " Yarions causes concurred in restoring liberty and independence to 
the cities of Italy. The acquisition of these roused industxy and gave 
motion and vigour to all the active powers of the human mind. Foreign 
commerce revived, navigation was attended to and improved. Constanti- 
nople became the chief mart to which the Italians resorted. There thej 
not onlj met with favourable reception, but obtained such mercantile 
privileges as enabled them to carry on trade with great advantages. They 
were supplied both with the precious commodities of the East, aud with 
many curious manufactures, the product of ancient aits and ingenuity still 


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Indus, as the shortest and easiest route for the commerce 
of India, not only with Central Asia and the north of 
Europe, but with the whole of the West, was fully 
recognised by the later Romans in the seventh century. 
Necessity, in their case, was the mother of invention. 

-> When the rapid progress of the Mohamedan arms had 
wrested Egypt from the Byzantine power, and thus closed 
the overland route of Suez to the Greek merchants, they 
forthwith turned to other means and sought out a new 
channel, by which the productions of the East might be 
transmitted to the great emporium of the West. The 

> route thus discovered was that by the Indus. The rich 
and easily-stowed products of India were carried up the 
great river as &r as it was navigable ; thence transported 
to the Oxus, down which stream they proceeded as fer 
as the Caspian Sea. There they entered the Volga, and 
sailing up it, were carried by land to the Tanais (the 
Don), which conducted them into the Euxine Sea, where 
ships from Constantinople waited their arrival. The 
discovery of the long, but easy route, by the Cape of 

' Good Hope, combined with the deadly feuds between the 

•ubsisting among the Greeks. As the labour and expense of conyeying 
the productioi^s of India to Constantinople, by that long and indirect 
coiirse which I have described (the route by the Indus, the Oxus, the 
Caspian, and the Volga) rendered them extremely rare, and of an exorbitant 
price, the industry of the Italians discovered other methods of procuring 
them in greater abundance and at an easier rate. They sometimes 
purchased them at Aleppo, Tripoli, and other ports on the coast of Syria 
to which thc^ were brought hy a route not unknown to the ancients. They 

I were conveyed from India by sea up the Persian Gulf, and, ascending the 
Euphrates and Tigris as far as Bagdad, were carried by land across the 
desert of Palmyra, and from thence to the towns on the Mediterranean." 

. —Robertson's '' America^" quoting from Bamusio. 


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Christians of the West and the Mahomedan nations 
that held the countries of the Nile and the Euphrates, 
for a time diverted the stream of commerce from those 
routes. It has not been so, however, with the Indus, to 
the same extent. If the revival of the overland route < 
and the hoped-for re-opening of the Euphrates as the 
highway to the East, are evidences of a return to old 
paths, the continuance of a commerce with Central Asia 
and northern Europe, by way of the Indus, and the two 
great gates of India, the Khyber and Bolan Passes, is a 
pregnant proof of the tenacity with which trade adheres 
to its old channels, and of the sagacity which originally 
selected that direction for the produce of the East. — 
However gi^eat may have been the changes of masters "^ 
and manners in the territories between the Indus and the 
Bosphorus, a portion of the tide of commerce has flowed, 
and does still flow, as it did in the seventh century.* 

With respect to its shipping, India has experienced 
great changes since the pioneer expeditions of the old 
East India Company in the 17th century. At that time, 
it would appear, the carrying trade by sea, with the 
exception of the very few British, French, Portuguese 
and Dutch vessels trading with Europe, was in the hands <v 
of the Arabs, who have ever shown themselves bold and 
skilful seamen. These were superseded by the fine old 
ships of the East India Company, half frigate and half 
merchantmen, and some still living relate with pride 
how the perils of the voyage to India in their vessels 
were often enhanced by successftil encounters with 
hostile men-of-war and with pirates. 

* " The Indus and its Provinces," by the Writer. 

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It is however during the last fifty years that the 
greatest changes have taken place. The rapid growth of 
the Indian trade about half a century ago necessitated an 
extension of the marine, and private shipowners one by 
one then entered the field, and continued sending their 
ships in increasing numbers to the ports of Calcutta, 
Madras and Bombay. 

In 1834, through the energy and heroic perseverance 
of Richard Waghom, the route through Egypt, better 
known as the Overland Route, was adopted for the 
carriage of letters, thereby shortening the passage to 
India by at least half the time* occupied by a Cape 
voyage. This mail service by the Isthmus was con- 
ducted between Suez and India by steam vessels of the 
Indian Navy until the year 1840, when the Peninsular 
and Oriental Steam Company contracted with the 
Government of India to carry it on; and from that time 
> until 1869 when M. Lesseps' great work of cutting 
through the Isthmus was completed, this Company, with 
the Messageries Maritimes, enjoyed a virtual monopoly 
of the most valuable part of the Indian trade. Immedi- 
ately however upon the Suez Canal becoming a fait 
Qjccomfli^ the enterprise of British shipowners was 
brought into full play, and large and powerful steamers 
were constructed for the new route. Steam vessels now 
run regularly firom London, Liverpool, Glasgow, Hull 
and Southampton to Kurrachee, Bombay, Madras and 
Calcutta: while the number of sailing vessels by the 
Cape does not diminish. Round the coast of India and 
Ceylon to Burmah, the Straits Settlements, China, 
Australia, Java, in the Persian Gulf and Red Sea and on 


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the East Coast of Afiica there are lines of steamers 
under the British flag trading regularly from the 
principal ports of India, The officers and engineers of 
these ships are British — ^the crews chiefly natives of 
India. As recently as 1857, on the outbreak of the 
Sepoy War, the Government of India were in extremity 
for steamers to bring troops from Mauritius, Ceylon and 
China to the assistance of their hard-pressed and greatly 
outiiumbered forces. At the present time, it would be 
easy for that Government to have promptly available,, 
chiefly by means of the Suez Canal, 80,000 to 100,000 
tons of steam shipping for such a purpose. An 
additional security for the safety of the Empire, is thus 
afforded, the value of which it would be difficult to 

But, in congratulating the nation upon this great 
additional security, it must not be overlooked that it is 
dependent upon access to the Suez Canal being always 
available. Should that route be closed, which might 
easily occur by accident or design,* or by a com- 
plication OF EVENTS IN EuBOPE, our cxtcnsivc steam fleet 
would be rendered useless, either for purposes of trade 
or for transports,! and as the commerce of India extends, 
so that country becomes more identified with the interests 

* See Appendix E., " Eyidence of Select Committee of the House of 
Commons on Euphrates Sailway, 1871-1872," &o. 

t On a recent occasion Sir Gramet Wokeley dechured at a numerously 
attended meeting at the Eoyal United Service Institution, that the largest' 
ironclads could not pass by the canal, and it was erident that it would be 
the easiest matter in the world to stop the tn),ffic on that canal. It might 
be done by a few barges, by one good large torpedo, by a vessel laden with 
dynamite or powder and taken to certain positions in the canal well known 
in our Intelligence Department, and where they would do enough damage 


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of Great Britain. The necessity for the alternative route 
by the Euphrates Valley becomes more than ever 
apparent. Twenty years have elapsed since the largest 
and most influential deputation that ever waited upon a 
Minister urged the importance of this subject upon Lord 
Pahnerston, and in 1871-1872 the Select Committee of 
the House of Commons, presided over by the present 
Chancellor of the Exchequer, fully confirmed the 
opinions then expressed,* and recommended the con- 
struction of the Euphrates Valley Railway connecting a 
port on the Mediterranean with the head of the Persian 
Gulf, to the consideration of Government, based on the 
evidence of Lord Stratford de Redclifie, Lord Strathnaim, 
Sir Barde Frere, Sir Donald Macleod, Sir Henry Green, 
Mr. S. Laing and Sir Henry Tyler; of General Chesney, 
the original explorer of the route, and of two oflicers of 
the expedition. Admiral Charlewood, R.N., «nd Mr. W. 
Ainsworth ; of Sir John Macneill, Mr. Telford MacneiQ 
and Mr. Maxwell, C.E., who surveyed and reported on 
the most difficult portion of the design, and of Captain 
Felix Jones, who surveyed the entire route, from the 
head of the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean. If this 
line were in other than British hands, in those of Russia, 
for instance, the Suez Canal could be turned, and the 
railway could be extended through Persia and Beloo- 
chistan to India, notwithstanding all the ironclads of 
England being in the Persian Gulf. 

to stop the canal for a year. Or a simpler method might be adopted by 
taking oat a few heavy yessels and scuttling them. So we could not 
depend upon the canal. 
* See Appendix E, Euphrates and Indus route. 


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In seaports and harbours of reftige India is less 
fevoured by nature than most other parts of the globe, 
but efforts have been, and are being made to supply the 
deficiency. It is fiir, however, from being destitute of 
such natural advantages. The harbour of Bombay is 
probably one of the safest and most picturesque in the 
world, and would accommodate shipping far in excess of 
the trade of the .port, present and prospective. Cal- 
cutta, approached by a noble, though somewhat 
treacherous river, is admirably situated for trade, and 
the long rows of stately Indiamen moored along the 
banks was a sight not to be surpassed elsewhere. Madras 
is unfortunately, at present possessed of no harbour, and 
the loss of shipping, lives and property at that place has 
been very great; in bad weather vessels have to slip their 
cables and run out to sea to prevent stranding. Cochin 
possesses a good little harbour, but the bar is only to be 
crossed by vessels of small tonnage and light draught. 
Within six miles of Cochin, however, is Narrakal, where 
ships discharge and load in perfectly smooth water in the 
heaviest weather; this harbour is an open roadstead, and 
how it happens to have its peculiar immunity has never 
been satisfectorily explained ; passengers and cargo 
landed there are conveyed by back water to stations on 
the Madras Railway. At Carwar, on the Malabar coast, 
and Kurrachee, a port 500 miles north of Bombay, 
excellent harbours have been constructed, easy of access 
and provided with accommodation for a large trade, 
which is finding outlets at these ports. 

Besides the above-named, there are the smaller ports 
of Pooree, Gopaulpore, Vizagapatam, Coconada, Masu- 


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lipatam, Negapatam, Tuticorin, Colachel, Aleppy, Cali- 
cut, Tellicherry, Cannanore, Mangalore, Vingorla, 
Rutnagherry, Surat, Gogah, Porebunder and Verawa, 
a3 well as the ports in British Burmah, Arracan and the 
Malay Peninsula, All of these placies have of late years 
greatly increased their imports and exports, and some of 
them being the terminal ports for the railways, will 
doubtless be fer better known in the future. 

Between the southern ports of India and Ceylon there 
is a very considerable trade, which deserves a better 
communication than now exists; it has been proposed 
that the Paumbaum Channel, which divides India and 
Ceylon, should be deepened, in order that large steam- 
ships to and from the East Coast of India may be saved 
the extra distance of going round the island of Ceylon, 


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BeTena&— Land Tax— Opimn Tax— Salt Tax, Customs, &o.-— Indian 
Budget — Lord Northbrook on Famines — ^Depreciation of Silver. 

The revenue of India at the present time (1878) 
amounts in round numbers to fifty millions sterling a 
year, or nearly double the figures of 1850, and higher by 
ten millions than the sum total of I860. As compared 
with the revenues of England or France, these fifty 
millions may appear a small sum to raise fi'om so large a 
population, but the great mass of the people is very poor, 
Uving from hand to mouth in the most simple, fi^gal and 
primititve manner possible, consiuning little that can 
legitimately be taxed; and it should further be 
remembered that a foreign government cannot tax its 
subjects to nearly the same extent as a native govern- 
ment : for what in the one case is submitted to as a 
necessary evil, is in the other resented as extortion, and 
pointed to as an aggravation of the drawbacks of foreign 
rule. One such drawback of an undeniable character in 
connection with the collection of revenue is the petty 
tyranny which corrupt native officials are prone to wield 
in the name of their foreign masters, too few to supervise 
personally what is going on and keep the rapacity of 


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subordinates in check. In trying to reach the wealthier 
classes we ar^e liable to provide lucrative emplo3maent for 
a large niunber of native underlings, who render them- 
selves extremely obnoxious to all classes of their 
countrymen and bring discredit on our rule, without 
producing much benefit to the public revenue. The 
fiscal arrangements in connection with the now happily 
abolished, the odious and inquisitorial inconae-tax, may be 
cited in illustration of this. 

The chief sources of revenue in India are the land-tax, 
opium and salt monopolies, excise, customs and stamps. 
The first of these yields two-fifths of the whole amount 
raised, or about 21 millions sterling, and is the tax best 
known to the people of India, every successive dynasty 
having imposed it. Under Hindoo and Mahomedan 
Governments the tax levied on the landholders repre- 
sented about two-thirds of the gross produce of the land. 
Under British rule, in those provinces where the land is 
subject to re-assessment at stated intervals, the contri- 
bution to the State is estimated at about half the net 
rental of each estate ; but in Bengal, where the land 
revenue was permanently settled by Lord Comwallis in 
1793, the increased value of the land and its products 
has rendered the tax comparatively insignificant. 

The Land Assessment has always been troublesome 
and many proposals have been put forward with the 
view of adopting a more uniform system, and have from 
tame to time been hotly debated ; but the varying 
circumstances of climate and long existing habits and 
customs in the different localities, render it a most 
difficult subject to grapple with. In Madras the settle- 


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ment is made yearly direct with each ryot. In the 
North- West Provinces the settlement is fixed for thirty 
years, the revenue officer dealing through the village 
head-men. A similar process is pursued in the Punjaub, 
while in Oude the Talukdars, or landholders, have to pay 
the Government demand. Bombay has a thirty years' 
settlement based on the Madras or Ryot wari system. 

The Opium-Tax^ which yields about eight millions a 
year, has already been described. 

The Salt-Tax comes next, which swells the revenue 
by about six millions. This tax upon one of the first 
necessaries of life can only be justified by necessity ; it 
presses hardly upon the poor by preventing them from 
using enough salt to keep their households and their 
cattle in proper health. An effort is being made to 
lessen the evils of the tax by abolishing a long line of 
inland custom stations throughout the country, and this, 
with reduced carriage, will facilitate the distribution of 
the commodity ; but, so soon as the finances of India will 
admit of it, the tax should for sanitary reasons be abolished. 

Customs jnield about two and a-half millions, derived 
from a number of imports and a few articles of export. 
Except those levied on wines and spirits, the duties now 
in no case exceed 6 per cent, ad valorem. Until recently 
the import duty on manufactured cottons and woollens 
was 7 per cent., but on the strong representations of the 
Manchester manu&cturers that they were unable to 
compete with the growing manufactures of India, Lords 
Salisbury and Northbrook agreed to reduce it to 5 per 
cent. Stamps and excise each yield a sum about equal 
to the customs: and the post-office, telegraph, forests. 


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justice, and a few other items make up the balance of 
India's revenues. 

The above revenue of 50 or 51 millions sterling is 
faiiiy balanced by the expenditure, of which the army 
absorbs upwards of 15 millipns, aud the interest on the 
debt nearly five millions. Of late years an increasing 
interest has been shewn in Indian finance, and in the 
discussion of the question we have two distinct parties, 
one predicting utter ruin and discomfiture firom the 
growing expenditure, the other pointing to the 
increasing prosperity of the country and the elasticity of 
the revenue. It is not our intention to take part 
on either side ; each is doing a good work, and if the 
British public generally would manifest a yet deeper 
concern in the affairs of our great Indian Empire, we 
should not have to complain of lukewarmness in the House 
of Commons when Indian subjects are debated. It is to be 
feared, however, that the people of England do not suflBl- 
ciently realize how much of their country's wealth, power 
and glory are derived from the possession of India, and 
how much of all these we should lose if deprived of the 
government of that noble dependency. We have already 
pointed to the poverty of the masses of the Indian popu- 
lation and the peculiarities of our foreign rule, as 
powerM arguments in fiivour of a minimum taxation and 
restricted expenditure, and in the serious depreciation of 
silver, which has hung like a black cloud over Indian 
finance for the past two years, we have a further 
incentive to economy. At the same time, with our 
experience of the past, are we not justified in somewhat 
discounting the future? Although the people of India 


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are poor, India is not poor in her soil and climate; with 
her teeming population, peacefiil and industrious, she 
might be made a mine of wealth ; and how much more 
judiciously might not the surplus earnings of England be 
spent in India than squandered in foreign loans ! 
Koads, railways and canals for opening up and irrigating 
the country, would be excellent investments and help the 
people to bear a heavier taxation. 

Our Indian Budget has hitherto been exposed to the 
disturbing elements of the opium-tax and small wars, to 
whixjh must now be added famines and the depreciation 
of sUver. Public opinion has fixed upon the Govern- 
ment of India the responsibility of meeting femines with 
relief, and in quick succession they have had to contend 
with the Orissa and Bengal fiimines, and as would appear 
from the recent despatches, an enormous expenditure 
has been required to relieve the late distress in the 
Madras and Bombay Presidencies. 

The experience derived from femines in the past proves 
that they do not extend at one time over the entire 
continent of India, but on the contrary a scarcity in one 
province is generally fwe might almost say invariably) 
compensated by an abundant harvest in another. For 
instance, during the Orissa &mine there was a large sur- 
plus of grain in Bengal and Burmah. During the 
Bengal fitmine upwards of 500,000 tons of rice were con- 
tracted for by the Government of India from Burmah, 
Madras and Saigon; and lately, in view of the scarcity 
prevailing in the Madras and Bombay Presidencies, it was . 
a matter of sincere congratulation to learn that the rice 



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fields of Bengal and Burmah were blessed with an 
abundant harvest. 

That portion of the public press which most strongly 
insists upon the Government of India directly protecting 
the people from the scourge of famine, insists also upon 
the necessity for limiting the expenditure upon public 
works to an amount which may amiually be spared from 
the revenue. Would it not, however, be more prudent 
to increase, rather than to diminish the expenditure 
upon roads, railways and canals, thus expediting the 
opening up of the country from the coast to the interior 
and fi-om one district to anothfer, in order to facilitate 
the operations of trade and enable it in its natural 
course to provide for the scarcity of one province irom 
the surplus in another, instead of throwing the onus of 
this upon the Government, as well |as that of providing 
work at periods of need.* 

* On this subject the following extract from a speech by Lord North- 
brook at the Society of Arts, on 16th February, 1877, is of interest, and 
corroborates the views above expressed. 

" Lord Northbrook said, that in dealing with famines in India, the 
extension of railroads was the most effective manner of fl[uarding against 
any such calamity. It was only the existence of railroads in India which 
made it possible for any government to meet these famines (hear, hear) 
In the recent famine in Eajpootanah it was perfectly impossible, owing to 
the difficulties of transport, to have conveyed the food, of which there was 
plenty, to the famished district, the distance between the two places being 
so gi'eat. At the present time the government of India was doing its 
utmost to prevent a repetition of calamities that had overtaken some parts 
of the country. It would be successful, because the railroads now 
traversed the whole area of the recent famine, and enabled the country to 
send on demand food-grain to districts that required it (hear, hear). 
Although the cost of the famine in Bengal was six millions and a-half 
sterling, the surplus of three years was sufficient to produce a sum equal 
to the whole of the expenditure — a fact which showed the sound condition 
of Indian finances" (cheers).— I¥me«, 17th February, 1877. 


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Depredation of Silver. — But how is the silver diffi- 
culty to be surmounted ? At first sight it would appear 
there can be no relief, but in truth the " silver dUemma" 
and the "fiimine question" have practically to be met 
in the same way. The commimications which would 
facilitate the distribution of grain, would also fecilitate 
the transport of the produce of India, and, whilst lessen- 
ing the chances of scarcity of food for the people, would 
tend to equalise the balance of trade with foreign 

To interfere directly with the silver currency itself is 
next to impossible, but it does not appear there are 
grounds for much despondency. Heavy as has been the 
fell in the value of silver, it is improbable that it should 
all at once and permanently lose its place. The demon- 
etizing of silver by Germany and the alleged greatly- 
increased production of the American mines have 
certainly produced a marked decline in its value, but it 
has already recovered 8 per cent, from the lowest point. 
The sensitive state of the market, however, has opened 
the door to speculation, and not only the Government of 
India but all who are trading with the East, find their 
calculations for the present at the mercy of buUionist 

There can be no fixity of exchange between two 
countries, one of which has a ^old and the other a silver, 
standard, because setting aside aU other considerations it 
is impossible that parallel lines of cost should be pre- 
served between these or any other two substances, and 
this would be the first necessity for such fixity. With 


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regard to a metallic currency India's primary require- 
ment is to possess that which is the most suitable for 
her internal transactions. If this be silver then of 
necessity her international transactions must be chiefly 
settled in that metal, which as an import would alone 
yield a certain return. The bitter experiences of the 
past resulting from the operations of unsound currency 
views are not likely to be repeated in India ; and we 
may be confident that if it is found expedient to change 
the standard from silver to gold, it will only be done in 
common justice to our fellow subjects in India by the 
government calling in the silver currency and issuing a 
new gold currency for the same. 

But it would appear that India is still fisur from 
requiring such a change. That the fluctuation in the 
price of silver will continue for some time to be a 
source of anxiety to those directing the finances of India 
is probable, but on the other hand there are fitir grounds 
for believing that silver will not permanently fell very 
much below its present value. The reported yield of 
the American mines is proved to have been greatly 
exaggerated, and whilst some countries are exchanging 
silver for gold, there are others as yet without a metal 
currency, and to these silver is becoming more acceptable. 
Africa, for instance, only now being opened up to the 
commerce of the world, will doubtless take a portion, 
when the rich lands described by Livingstone, Burton, 
Grant, Speke, Baker, Cameron, .Stanley, and other 
travellers, have been freed from the iniquitous slave Ixade 
and brought under cultivation. 


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The high protective duty in Great Britain of eighteen 
pence per oz. (about 33 per cent.) upon manufactured 
silver, has greatly diminished the use of the pure metal 
for such purposes during the past twenty-three years, 
notwithstanding the enormous growth of the wealth of 
the country. In the present position of the silver 
market, the wisdom of retaining this exorbitant tax is 
very doubtful. 

Digitized by 



BeloochiflUn— AfghAniflt&n--Per8ia—Tarki8t4n*-Bu88ia. 

Having treated in previous chapters of the various 
provinces and principalities or vassal States owning 
allegiance to the Empress of India, and of the settle- 
ments of European Powers, let us briefly survey the 
different countries which girdle the frontiers or affect 
the fortunes of her Indian empire. 

Our relations with Russia may be powerfully 
influenced by our relations with Cabul, and our 
relations with Cabul may modify our treatment of the 
intervening hill 'tribes on our north-west frontier. 

So that, whatever disturbs and excites one or other of 
the States named in the heading of this chapter, will 
affect or influence the others more or less remotely. 

Bdoochistan. — To begin with Beloochistan. This 
country, spreading from the Arabian Sea to the borders 
of Afghanistan, forms the western boundary of Scinde. 
It is a land of hills and deserts, with here and there a 
cultivated valley, inhabited by a number of pastoral tribes 
who obey no government but that of their several chiefs. 
Of these the most considerable is the Kh4n of Ehelat, 
who wields among his neighbours a kind of lordship as 
unstable as that which the earlier kings of France wielded 


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over the Dukes of Burgundy and other powerful vassals 
of their day. It is difficult to say what the Beloochees 
are by race, for they vary greatly among themselves 
in ethnical traits. Semitic or Aryan, however, they 
all speak some Aryan tongue, and profess some form of 
Mahomedanism. The country is said to be rich in 
minerals, especially copper and sulphur. Such trade as it 
' boasts is carried on by caravans, or kafilas, which make 
their way across the Hala Range into Scinde through the 
long winding gorges of the Bolan Pass, liable occasionally 
to attacks from tlie robber tribes who infest the border. 
The chief carriers, of the trade are the Lohanee 
merchants, a pastoral race of Afghans, who occupy the 
countr}' eastward from Ghuzni to the Indus.* 

* Lohanee mereUants. The following is an extract from an interesting 
letter from Sir Bartle Frere, when Commissioner in Scinde, to the Author: 
— " These men are the great carriers of the Afghan trade. They have 
their homes about Ghuzni, where they spend the summer. Since the 
trade vid Tatta and the Indus was extinguished in the latter end of the 
last century, these people hare supplied themselves with seaborne goods 
vid Calcutta. They descend the passes before they are blocked up by 
snow, between Ghuzni and the Indus, in yast caravans of eight or ten 
thousand souls — the whole tribe, moving bodily — ^men, women, children 
and cattle— their goods being on camels and ponies. Arrived in the 
Derajat, they leave the aged men, women and children in black felt tents, 
with their flocks and herds in the rich pastures bordering on the Indus, 
while the able-bodied men push across the Punjaub with their goods for 
sale, either in that province or on the banks of the Granges. The leading 
merchants precede the main body on dromedaries, taking with them a few 
samples, letters of credit, &c., &c, — ^make their purchases at Delhi, Agra, 
Allahabad, Cawnpore, Mirzapoor, and even Calcutta, and return with them 
express — coUect their families and flocks, and force their way up the 
passes. Their numbers generally enable them to compoimd with the tribes 
of the mountains for a reasonable amount of black mail ; but they have 
sometimes to fight their way. I have heard of the wife of an eminent 
merchant of this tribe, whose husband had been detained longer than he 
expected at Delhi, ofiering the " Eaffila-Bashee (head of the caravan) 


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It was along the sandy wastes of southern Beloo- 
chktan that part of Alexander's army plodded their 
weary way back to Babylon from the plains of Scinde, 
while Nearchus and the fleet proceeded by the Arabian 
Sea and Persian Gulf. .Great, too, were the hardships 
which Sir John Eeane's soldiers had to endure in their 
successful march through the Bolan Pass to Candahar 
and Ghuzni, in 1839. In 1843 bravely did the Belooch 
troops of the Ameers of Scinde fight against Sir C. 
Napier at Meanee and Hydrabad.* 

Afghanistan^ — North of Beloochistdn are the rugged 
highlands of Afghanistan, the land of a Semitic race 
with a varying admixture of Aryan blood, and a common 
devotion to the creed of Islam. Their language Pushtu, 
belongs to the same Aryan stock as Sanskrit, and is 
nearly allied to the Beloochee. The country, which is 
about as large as the Punjab, Oude, and the North- 
Westem Prpvinces together, is divided from the Punjab 
by the Suleiman Hills, while the lofty Hindoo Koosh, 
the supposed cradle of the Aryan races, sweeps with 
many spurs across its northern provinces. Far away 
towards the Amu or Oxus lies the province of Balkh, 
the ancient Bactria, once ruled and largely colonised by 
Alexander's Greeks. In later times Afgh^istan became 
the prize of successive conquerors from Persia and 

demurrage at the rate of 10,000 rupees a day, to defer the upward march 
of the caravan, and enable her husband to rejoin, as she knew that if left 
behind he would be unable to follow them through the passes, except at 
great risk of his life and the property he might have with him." — " The 
Indus and its Frovinees.'* 
• " Conquest of Scinde," by Sir W. Napier. 


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Turkist^ and the eyrie whence successive invaders 
swooped down upon the Punjab and Hindustan. From^ 
thence in the beginning of the 11th century issued the 
terrible Mahmud of Ghuzni, followed nearly 200 years 
later by Mahomed Gh6ri, founder of the Pathdn king- 
dom of Delhi. At the close of the 14th century the < 
merciless Timur passed like a bloody meteor from the 
Indus to the Ganges, and back again to Samdrkhand. 
In 1526 the adventurous Bdber led his hardy Turks and c 
Afghans from C&hul to the field of P^eeput. A later 
victory of Pdneeput, won by another warrior from 
Afghanistan, Ahmed Shah, failed to rescue from impend- 
ing ruin the splendid dynasty of Baber Akbar and 

It was a grandson of the last named conqueror whom ^ 
Sir John Keane's Army of the Indus set forth in 1839 
to replace on the throne whence he had been driven by 
the powerful Dost Mahomed. The brilliant storming 
of Ghuzni was followed by Shah Sujah's triumphant 
return with the help of British bayonets to Cabul. 
Dost Mahomed fell into our hands, and under British 
protection the new king reigned for a time in peace. 
But in 1841 the flames of insurrection burst out on all 
sides, and the British troops cantoned at Cdbu] found 
themselves helpless, for want of a capable leader, to meet 
the growing danger with a bold front. At last in the 
bitter January of 1842, Elphinstone and his doomed 
followers, of whom only 4,000 were fighting men, passed 
out from their surrendered post, as Sir Hugh Wheeler 
afterwards did from Cawnpore, under promises of safe 
retreat. Afghan treachery and the snows of the passes 


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leading to Jelldlabad soon did their worst, and one man 
only, Dr. Brydon, struggled on to the place where the 
gallant Sale and his "illustrious garrison" still upheld 
the honour of our flag. Of the rest only a few score 
men and women escaped the general massacre by 
becoming prisoners to Akbar Khan, the son of Dost 

A few months later, however. General Pollock was 
forcing his way through the far-fieuned Khyber Pass, 
which had so often baffled the efforts of larger armies led 
by the best generals of Akbar and Aurangzebe, JeM- 
labad was relieved, and Pollock marched on through 
every hindrance to Cdbul, where he was joined by Nott, 
the heroic defender of Candah4r. With the recovery of 
the prisoners, and the burning of the great bazdr at 
Cdbul ended the work which Pollock and Nott had to 
accomplish. On the return of the victors to Ferozepore, 
Dost Mahomed was set free ; and thenceforth for many 
years the great Barukzai chief held firm sway over the 
country still ruled by his son Sh^re Ali. In the second 
Seikh War a body of Afghans fought against us and 
shared the defeats of the Ealsa leaders Sh^re and 
Chuttur Singh ; but during the Mutiny, thanks to Sir 
John Lawrence and Sir Herbert Edwardes, our old 
enemy Dost Mahomed proved himself a wise and 
forbearing neighbour, if not a £dthful friend. His son, 
who after some years of chequered fortune, fought his 
way into his &ther's throne in 1868, has hitherto kept 
the mastery over his unruly and turbulent subjects, with, 
until lately, the countenance and occasional help in arms 
or money of the Indian Government. 


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Along the rugged hills that bar Afghdnistdn from the 
Punjdb dwell a number of fierce warlike tribes, who 
scarcely owe a nominal allegiance to the neighbouring 
rulers, and prefer a life of fighting and plunder to the 
regular pursuit of trade or husbandry. Their quarrels 
with each other are varied by raids across the border, 
which have brought them one after the other into more 
or less disastrous collision with our troops. For many 
years after the conquest of the Punjdb a British force 
had to go out against one or another of these robber 
clans, burning their villages, carrying off their cattle, or 
clearing off old scores by well-aimed discharges of 
shrapnel and rifle-balls. Now and then a refi-actory 
tribe has been starved into submission by a well-planned 
blockade. Sometimes, as in the Ambeyla campaign of 
1863, the offending tribes have only been brought to 
terms after inflicting heavy losses on their assailants. 
Of late however the peace of the frontier has only been 
broken by smaller raids by these restless hill-men, a 
good many of whom have taken service among their 
kinsfolk in the regiments of our Punjab Frontier Force, 
as the highlanders did in Scotland when they enrolled 
themselves in the Black Watch. 

The two border countries of Beloochistdn and Afghdn- 
ist4n should be conciliated by us by the establishment of 
Mendly commercial relations, while we should abstain 
firom provoking their hostility by interference in their 
internal affairs. To advance beyond the mountain 
barrier is to abandon a strong position for a weak one, 
and convert those who might be our friends into 
treacherous and vindictive foes. 

With a railway along the valley of the Indud from 


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Lahore to Kurrachee, with branches to the Khyber Pass 
and the Bolan, and no fubther, with our resources close 
at hand we can await the advance of aggression with 
tranquillity, while we promote the prosperity and comfort 
of our wild and restless neighbours, subduing them 
through their interests, by affording them a ready and 
certain market for their horses, their fruit, their silk and 
their wool. 

In 1857, when the writer formed part of a deputation 
to Lord Palmerston regarding steam communication to 
the north-west frontier of India vid the valleys of the 
Euphrates and Indus, he pointed out the importance of a 
railway along the valley of the Indus with branches to 
the two great passes of the Khyber and the Bolan in the 
following words, "The grand object was to connect 
England with the north-west frontier of India by steam 
transit through the Euphrates and Indus Valleys. The 


THE Beitish army CANTONED IN THE PuNJAUB and Con- 
nected by the Euphrates line by means of steamers, the 
flank and rear of any force advancing through Persia 
towards India would be threatened. So that the invasion 
of India would by this great scheme be placed beyond 
even speculation."* 

In order to strengthen the hands of those entrusted 
with the management of our frontier policy, the writer 
also twenty years ago advocated the union of the 
Punjaub and Scinde. 

" The union of the Punjaub with the Meerut and Delhi 
territory for political and military purposes, has been so 

• Vide Letter to Viscount Palmerston, K.G., by W. P. Andrew, 1867. 


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plainly marked out by recent events, that their -political 
connection under one distinct government appears inevit- 
able, and the fortunes of these extensive and important 
regions are inseparably connected with that of Scinde/'* 

"The two provinces (Scinde and the Punjaub) have 
been connected by the fortunes of the great empire to 
which both belong. They are the provinces of the Indus, 
as Bengal and Behar are the provinces of the Ganges. 
They constitute one section of the empire, and are sepa- 
rated from every other part of it by rivers, mountains, 
the sea, or broad belts of sandy desert. Their com- 
mercial interests are inseparably united." Both must 
ultimately depend upon the traffic of the same railway 

"Both depend for their communication with the 
external world upon one and the same port. The Pun- 
jaub has no outlet towards the north, but an imperfect 
outlet towards the west, and a long, difficult, and 
expensive, though open outlet towards the east. Would 
the Government place Bengal under one authority, and 
the Hooghly, under the commissioner of Pegu ? Yet 
that is exactly what we have done with our north-west 
possessions. Our Danube has its mouth occupied, not 
by enemies, it is true, but by allies, owing allegiance to 
a diflTerent authority. 

"Again, the physical, political, and social character- 
istics of the two countries are identically the same. 
Physically, the districts of Mooltan, Dhera Ghazee Elian, 
and Ehangurh might be districts of Scinde. The soil is 
the same, the products are the same, the people are the 

• "The Indus and its Proiinces." 


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same. Politically, both have the same disadvantages, 
and the same military necessities. Both have a turbu- 
lent frontier to be guarded, which is identical in cha- 
racter from one end to the other, and which should be 
arranged on one principle, and be obedient to one head. 
The vast ch^ of military forts which stretch along the 
Scindian and Punjabee frontiers, depend upon one head. 
Both have populations whom it is necessary to disarm 
and overawe, and in both an enormous military force 
requires an energetic central administration. The system, 
too, of the Punjaub, would suit the province of Scinde 
better than that of Bombay. It is less regular, and 
better adapted to the fierce passions and uncontrolled 
habits of a wild Mohammedan people. The revenue 
settlement, too, is more in consonance with the ancient 
ideas of the population." 

" It (the union) would strengthen, not root up, the 
system already successful ; and on every other ground it 
is indispensable." The presidency of the Indus would be 
the first in political importance of the great divisions of 
British India. This immense territory, extending from 
Kurrachee to Peshawur and Delhi, would cover an area 
of 130,000 square miles,* and is occupied by a 
population of nearly thirty millions. 

Our most dangerous foreign relations, with Central 
Asia and with the Beloochees and with the innumerable 
warrior chieftcuns of the highlands, must be conducted 
at Lahore. Whoever may be the final authority, every 
word of the Lieutenant-Governor reverberates among 
the hills, every blunder is bitterly resented in Cabul.f 

• Great Britain ooren 63,300 square miles. 

t " The Friend of India *' and " The Indus and its Froyinces." 


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In these border lands to have a rival in prestige and 
power would be dangerous — to have a superior would be 
impossible — and every act in the great drama of the 
Russo-Turkish war as affecting the fortunes of the Sool- 
tan of Room and the white Czar Avill be minutely 
canvassed and well remembered in Central Asia as well 
as in the bazars along the length and breadth of India. 

Persia. — On the west of these two border countries, 
stretches the kingdom of Persia, or Iran, still largely peo- 
pled by the same old Aryan race which once sent forth a 
Darius and a Xerxes on bootless errands against the Greeks 
of Marathon and Salamis, and afterwards fought in vain 
under another Darius against Alexander's sturdy Mace- 
donians. Between that monarch's fall and the victories 
achieved by Othman's Arabs, successive dynasties, Greek 
or Persian ruled the land of Cyrus the Great, and carried 
on a frequent struggle with the Byzantine Emperors. 

As related in a previous chapter, the Parsees, descend- 
ants of the old Persian fire- worshippers, left their native 
land in the early days of Mahomedan conquest to find 
shelter from persecution, first in Gujerat, and afterwards 
in Bombay. Though few in number, they are at once 
among the wealthiest, most enlightened, and most ener- 
getic citizens of the western capital. 

The official designation of the sovereign is Shah-in- 
Shah, or King of Kings. He holds in his hand the lives 
and property of his subjects, but, unlike the Sultan of 
Turkey, has no spiritual supremacy.* 

* The Sultan is the Caliph or spiritual head of the Soonees, who adhere 
to the sucoesson of Mahomet Aboobukhr, Omar, and Osman, while the 
Sheahs are the foUowers of Ali, the son-in-law of Mahomet and his sons, 
Hoossein and Hassan, whose memories they revere, and annually lament 
their death by public mourning. 


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^ One of the greatest kings of modem Persia was Shah 
Abbas, a contemporary of Akbar and om: own Elizabeth. 
In the early years of this century the first Napoleon 
sent a mission to Tehran, which was received with extra- 
ordinary distinction, in order to further his designs on 
India, and for several years French influence was all 
powerful at the Court of the Shah. 

Before anything was accomplished to the detriment of 
England, her great and implacable enemy was removed 
from the arena in which he had enacted so great a part, 
and Persia fell again into the coils of a more sinister and 
abiding influence. 
A ^ Russia from the time of Peter the Great sought under 
one specious pretext or another to despoil Persia of whole 
provinces, having recourse to violence when other means 
failed. This state of things continued until about the 
middle of the eighteenth century, when the ferocious 
but mighty conqueror. Nadir Shah, compelled the 
Muscovite and the Turk to restore the territory they 
had Avrested from the ancient dominions of the Shah. *> 
(^ On the death of Nadir Russian designs were renewed. 
Russia interfered to settle the claims of rival princes of 
Georgia, which owned allegiance to the Persian crown, 
and settled the matter by absorbing the province in the 
mighty spunge of Russian ambition. 

War was declared, and Persia was defeated, and more 
territory was annexed by her powerful and relentless 
foe, until at last, fearful that the Colossus of the North 
would seize in his iron hand the entire kingdom of Persia, 
the British interfered diplomatically and obtained a 
respite for the enfeebled and hard-pressed king, who 


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agreed to give up more territory, and to have no armed 
vessels on the Caspian. 

Regarding the insidious movements of Russia towards 
the East, Sir Justin Sheil, late British Envoy at the 
Court of Tehran, made some years ago the following 
pregnant and suggestive remarks : — 

" The Caspian Sea washes the coasts of the Persian 
provinces of Talish, Geelan, Mazenderan, Asterabad, and 
Persian Toorkomania. The inhabitants of these spacious 
territories carry on an extensive commerce, in part with 
the Persian ports on that sea, in part with the Russian 
districts on its northern and western shores. With a far- 
seeing policy, which anticipates all the possibilities of 
futurity, when Persia was gasping almost in the last 
throes, Russia humbled her to the dust, by forcing on 
her the renewal of a stipulation contracted at the treaty 
of Goolistan, by which she bound herself not to maintain 
any vessel of war in the Caspian Sea. Upwards of a 
hundred years ago, an Englishman named Elton, a man 
of wonderful abUity and resource, who had been brought 
up to a seafering life, and who had previously been an 
officer in the Russian navy, was in the service of the Shah 
(Nadir), and not only conamanded his naval forces in the 
Caspian Sea, but built ships for him on European models. 
The most unnautical nation in the world, with an English- 
man as their leader, became dominant on the Caspian ; 
and, as the author of the * Progress of Russsia in the 
East ' says, ^forced the Russians to lower their Jlag^ and 
the banner with the open hand* floated triumphantly 

* ** The banner of Persia is surmounted by an open band, of wbich the 
five fingers are said to express Mabommed, Aii, Eatma, Hassan, and 



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through the length and breadth of the Caspian. To 
preclude a revival of this discomfiture, Persia was forced 
to sign her degradation, and the Caspian became a 
Russian lake." 

" Not a boat is allowed to move without a passport, 
under heavy penalties, and even Persian boats are imder 
the same restriction; this, too, on the coast of their own 

In the early part of this century the British envoy 
concluded a treaty with the Shah of Persia, which 
brought Persia and India for the first time into close 
political relations, with the view of thwarting the 
ambitious designs of Buonaparte against our Eastern 
possessions. Some years afterwards an embassy fi'om 
England reached Ispahan, and since then English 
influence has been always brought to bear on Persian 
politics. In 1839 Lord Auckland's forward movements 
in the Persian Gulf and Afghanistan compelled the Shah 
to recal his troops from the siege of Herdt, so gallantly 
defended by the young Englishman, Eldred Pottinger. 
Another attempt in the same direction in 1856 had to 
be checked by force of arms, and Sir James Outram's 
brief but successful campaign along the Persian Gulf, 
ended in a peace which has never since been broken. 
Rumour gave Russia the credit of suggesting these 
moves, but which were promptly disavowed. 

The revenue of Persia is less than £2,000,000, and as 
there is generally a surplus, it is paid to the private 
treasury of the Shah, who is supposed to be enormously 
rich, while his people are miserably poor and diminishing 
in number fi:om misgovemment. The area of the country 


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is above 600,000 square miles, with a population of 
4,000,000, or about seven to the square mile. 

The present Shah, Nasr-ud-din, visited Europe in 
1874, taking England on his way from Berlin to Paris. 
To judge from his diary, which was afterwards published, 
he was particularly struck with the populousness, the 
general well-doing, the busy traffic, and the vast resources 
of this fortunate country. Tehran, his present capital, 
is in telegraphic communication with Bombay, London 
and St. Petersburg, and he is said to be anxious to 
introduce railways and other modem improvements into 
his dominions. 

It is to be hoped the Shah may be allowed to cultivate 
the arts of peace, and that he may not have to play the 
part of Roumania or Servia in Central Asian politics. 

Turkistdn. — Along the northern frontier of Persia, 
AfghdnistAn, and Cashmere, stretches a vast expanse of 
rolling table-land, crossed here and there by rugged hills, 
and watered mainly by two rivers, the Sir and the Amu, 
better known to classical scholars as the Jaxartes and 
the Oxus, Tiirkistdn, or as it was once called, Tartary, 
extends from the Caspian to the borders of China, and is 
peopled for the most part by roving tribes of Turkomans, 
Uzbeks, Kurghiz, and other branches of the great Mongol 
race. Of this vast region the only settled parts are the 
three " Khanates," or kingdoms of Khiva, Khokan, and 
Bokhara, with the country lately ruled by Ydkiib Beg, 
the strong-handed Ameer of Kdshgar. The terrible 
Tartar, Chingiz Kh4n, carried his iron sway over the 
greater part of Central Asia, and his famous grandson 
Tamerlane (Timur the lame), ruled over a wide dorai- 


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nion from his splendid capital of Samarcand in Bok- 
hara. From the neighbouring province of Khokdn, or 
Firghdna, Timur's illustrious descendant, Bdber, made 
his way, after many strange turns of fortune, across the 
Indus to found the Mogul Empire of Hindustan. 
Khiva, the ancient Khdrizm, was also in its time a 
powerful kingdom ; but its greatness had long* decayed, 
before the marauding habits of its people provoked the 
Russians, in 1874, to invade their country, and reduce 
their Kh&a to the state of a tributary prince. 

One after another, each of these three khanates has felt 
the weight of Russia's victorious arms, and paid with 
loss of territory for its raids on Russian ground, or its 
vain resistance to Russian ambition. The work of con- 
quest, begun about twenty-five years ago, has already 
stripped them of half their former territories, and the 
Kh^s who still nominally rule the remainder, have simk 
into the position of weak and obedient vassals to the- 
" White Czar." Kashgar, on the other hand, under the 
strong sway of the late Ydkub Beg, the successful soldier 
from AudijAn in Khokdn, has in the last twenty years 
risen from an outlying province of Western China, into a 
powerful Mahomedan State, connected by commercial 
treaties alike with Russia and British India. The encourag- 
ing reports of English travellers to Yarkand, one of the 
Amir's chief cities, were followed up in 1874 by the 
despatch of an English mission under Sir Douglas Forsyth, 
who brought back with him a treaty securing &vourable 
terms of trade between the two countries. It would 
appear, however, that no profitable trade can ever be estab- 
lished with a country divided fix)m India and Cashmere 


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by dreary and difficult mountain passes of tremendous 
height, open only for a few months in the year, and ^ven 
then unfit for the passage of anything but lightly laden 
mules and ponies. The Chinese, moreover, who have so 
lately crushed the Mahomedan revolt in Yunnan, seem 
little disposed to let Kashgar slip for ever from their 
grasp; while the close neighbourhood of Russia, with 
her known dislike of all conunercial rivals, bodes ill for 
the hopes which Sir D. Forsyth's mission raised in the 
hearts of English cotton spinners, and Indian dealers in 
tea, kinkobs (or gold brocades), piece-goods, and shawls, 
even were it possible to overcome the physical difficulties, 

But Yakoob Beg is dead, and a striking actor is 
removed from the scene of Central Asian politics, leaving 
his kingdom tojbe absorbed once more in the overgrown 
empire of China, which has been for years slowly 
advancing to resume its old dominion. Or, if the 
Celestials are too tardy, Eussia is ready with her 
protection^ like as in the other Khanates, even although 
the people may be Mahomedan fanatics; and their late 
prmce received titles of honour from holy Bhokara and 
the Sooltan of Room. No man in Central Asia can wield 
the sword of Yakoob Beg. 

" If Kashgar were permitted to fell into the Czar's 
possession, we should lose our prestige with the 
Mahomedans in Central Asia ; whilst the occupation of 
Kashgar would prove a disagreeable thorn in our side, 
and give rise to endless intrigues." 

" We have learnt how much trust can be placed in a 
Russian statesman's promises."* 

• "A Ride to Kliiva," by Captain Fred Bumaby. 

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How methodically and steadily, if slowly, the task 
enjoined upon his successors by Peter the Great has 
been pursued, let history attest. 

The old southern boundary of Russia in Central Asia 
extended from the Ural, north of the Caspian, by Oren- 
burg and Orsk, to the old Mongolian city of Semipola- 
tinsk, and was guarded by a cordon of Cossack outposts. 
^ In 1716 Peter the Great sent a force, comm^ded by 
Prince Bekovich, to take possession of part of the eastern 
shore of the Caspian. Three forts were then built, 
though subsequently abandoned, after an unsuccessful 
expedition against the Kliivans. JMore recently, since 
1834, Russia has succeeded in firmly establishing herself 
on the eastern shore of the Caspian, where she has now 
four permanent posts. Fort Alexandrovsk, Krasnovodsk, 
at the mouth of the Balkan Gulf; Chikishlar, at the 
mouth of the Atreck ; and the island of Ashurada. To ' 
the east she has crossed the Kirghis Steppe and 
established herself on the Sir Daria, or Jaxartes, which 
Admiral Boutakoff is said to have navigated for 
1,000 miles in 1863. Thus the Russian frontier in 
Central Asia has been pushed forward imtil her 
advanced posts on the east look down from the Tian 
Shan range upon the plains of Chinese Turkestan. In 
Western Turkestan, also, she has gradually extended her 
boundary, and has annexed or subjected Tashkend, 
Kokand, Khojend, Samarcand, Bokhara and Khiva. In 
thus pursuing her career of annexation, Russia but 
follows the natural policy of a great military empire, 
being forced, moreover, as Sir John Malcolm said, by an 
impelling power which civilisation cannot resist when in 


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contact with barbarism. She may indeed stop short of 
absolute and entire annexation, but there can be no doubt 
that by bringmg Khiva imder the same yoke as 
Bokhara, has established her influence on the Oxus, 
as she has abready established it on the Jaxartes. 
The Oxus, or Amu Daria, is a noble river, not easy of 
navigation, but, it is believed, capable of being made so. 
It will furnish a ready means of canying the tide of 
Russian annexation eastward until it finds a barrier in 
the Hindoo Koosh.^ When Russia shall have established 
herself along the Oxus, her position will be at once 
menacing to Persia and India. FromChardjuy on the 
Oxus there is a road to Merv, distant about 150 miles, 
and from Merv a direct road runs along the valley of 
the Murghab to Herat, the " key of India." Merv is 
historically a part of the Persian Empire, but in these 
Countries it is notoriously difficult to define boundaries 
with any precision. Should Russia succeed in occupjdng 
Merv, as there is too much reason to fear she ultimately 
will, and in converting the neighbouring tribes into 
friends or allies, her position would be one which we 
could not regard without the gravest apprehension. ^ 
^ Surely, in the face of such facts as these, the time has 
arrived when England should rouse herself from the 
apathy of the past, and take steps to secure the incalcu- 
lable advantages which would accrue to herself and her 
Eastern dependencies from the opening up of the 
Euphrates route. ^ 

The military and political value of the Euphrates Line 
is a matter of extreme moment, and has a far more 
decided bearing on the defence, not only of Turkey, but 


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of Persia and the whole district lying between the 
Mediterranean, the Caspian, and the Indian Ocean than 
might at first be supposed. 

^ So long ago as 1858 Field-Marshal Lieutenant Baron 
Kuhn von Kuhnenfeld, Austrian War Minister, predicted 
that Russia would in future probably try to satisfy her 
craving for an open sea-board by operating through Asia. 
C*"She wiU not," says this distinguished authority, 
" reach the shores of the Persian Gulf in one stride, or 
by means of one great war. But taking advantage of 
continental complications, when the attention and energy 
of European States are engaged in contests more nearly 
concerning them, she will endeavour to reach the Persian 
Gulf step by step, by annexing separate districts of 
Armenia, by operating against Khiva and Bokhara, and 
by seizing Persian provinces 

* " The most important lines which Eussia must keep in 
view for these great conquests are, 

*"1. The line from Ears to the Valley of the 
Euphrates and Mesopotamia. 

'"2. ThatfromErivanbyLake VantoMossulinthe 
Valley of the Tigris, to Mesopotamia, and thence, after 
junction with the first line, to Bagdad. 

* " 3. That from Tabreez to Schuster, in the Valley of 
the Kercha, where it joins. 

* " 4. The road leading from Teheran by Ispahan to 
Schuster and thence to the Persian Gulf. .... 

* " Once in possession of the Euphrates, the road to the 
Mediterranean, vid Aleppo and Antioch, and to the 
conquest of Asia Minor and Syria is btit short. 

' " It is clear that all these lines are intersected by the 


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line of the Euphrates, which, running in an oblique 
direction from the head of the gulf north of Antioch to 
the Persian Gulf, passes along the diagonal of a great 
quadrilateral which has its two western comers on the 
Mediterranean, its two eastern on the Caspian and 
Persian Seas, and so takes all Russian lines of advance 
in flank. 

* *' From this it is evident that the secure possession of 
the Euphrates Line is decisive as regards the ownership 
of all land lying within the quadrilateral. It must 
therefore be the political and strategic task of Russia to 
get the Euphrates Line into her hands, and that of her 
enemies to prevent her doing so at any cost. 

' " The great importance of a railway along this decisive 
line which connects Antioch with the Persian Gulf 
follows as a matter of course. It is the only means by 
which it would be possible to concentrate, at any 
moment, on the Euphrates or in the northern portion of 
Mesopotamia, a force sufficiently strong to operate on the 
flanks of the Russian line of advance and stop any 
forward movement 

' " It is true that, at first, the aggressive policy of 
Russia in the East wiU only threaten the kingdoms of 
Turkey and Persia, but as neither one nor the other, nor 
both combined, would be strong enough, without assist- 
ance, to meet the danger successfully, England must do 
so ; and it is certain that she must, sooner or later, 
become engaged in a fierce contest for supremacy with 

' " The Euphrates Valley Railway becomes therefore a 
factor of inestimable importance in the problem of this 


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great contest. Even now the construction of the line 
will counteract the Asiatic policy of Eussia, for it will 
strengthen the influence of England in Central Asia and 
weaken that of Russia 

* " The growth of Russia in the East threatens, though 
indirectly, the whole of Europe, as well as the States 
named above, for, if she were firmly established in Asia 
Minor, the real apple of discord, Constantinople, would 
be in imminent danger, all the commerce of the 
Mediterranean would fall into her hands, and she would 
command the canal through the Isthmus of Suez. 

* " Whatever the commercial value of the Suez Canal 
to Central Europe, there is no doubt that it is secondary 
in importance to the Euphrates Railway, which affords 
the only means of stemming Russian advances in Central 
Asia, and which directly covers the Suez Canal." 

" Yet the establishment of this route has been pressed 
for twenty years in vain on the attention of the Govern- 
ment of this country ; and even the high reconunendation 
of the Select Committee of the House of Commons h^s 
failed to awaken the Government to a sense of the 
gravity of the issues involved."* ^ 

• « The Euphrates Valley route to India, in connection with the Central 
Asian Question," by W. P. Andrew. A Lecture delivered at the Boyal 
United Service Institution, May, 1873. 


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OUR NEIGHBOURS — Continued. 

Tibet — ^Nepaul — Sikhim — ^Bhutan— Burmah — Siam. 

Tibet — The great table-land of Tibet, lying between 
the Kuen Lun Range and the Himdlayas, is still for the 
most part a land unknowTi to Europeans,, whom Chinese 
jealousy has long and persistently shut out from even a 
passing acquaintance with the country ruled in their 
name by a succession of Buddhist Lamas, or incarnation, 
of the great Buddha himself. Of these Lamas, whose 
sanctity is upheld by large bodies of Buddhist monks 
dwelling in strong convents picturesquely perched on 
steep hill-tops, the most important is the Lama of Lhasa, 
the capital of Tibet, in the valley of the SAnpee or upper 
course of the Brahmapiitra. It was to one of his pre- 
decessors that Warren Hastings, in 1784, sent Mr. Bogle 
on a friendly mission which was welcomed in a friendly 
spirit. For a few years an Indian agent lived at the 
Lama's capital, and trade with Bengal was carried on by 
way of Bogra. But little came oi a movement which 
succeeding Governors-General were unable or unwilling 
to follow up, and fear of Nepaulese aggression imited with 
orders from China to close the door which Warren 
Hastings had opened. Early in this century another 


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Englishman, Mr. Manning, made his way as &r as Lhdsa, 
but he too had to leave the country. Of later years 
Lhdsa has been visited and parts of Tibet surveyed by 
some of Colonel Montgomerie's " Pundits," travelling in 
disguise as Buddhist pilgrims. Hitherto, however, all 
attempts to open Tibet, the country of the shawl goat, 
of gold, silver, and precious stones, to our regular Indian 
trade, have been baffled by the vigilance of the Chinese 
soldiers along the frontier. 

Nepaid. — Along the southern frontier of Tibet lie the 
Him^ayan States of NepAul, Sikhim, and Bhutan. Of 
these the westernmost is the independent Kingdom of 
NepAul, which stretches for about 500 miles along the 
Him41ayas overlooking Rohilkund, Oude, and Northern 
Bengal, and is peopled mainly by races of Tibetan or 
Chinese descent, with a certain admixture of Hindoo or 
^emi-Hindoo immigrants who form the governing race. 
The highest mountains in the world furnish a snowy 
background to this Indian Switzerland without its lakes. 
The Nepaulese mostly dwell in the valleys, the largest of 
which is twelve miles long by nine broad. Through 
these valleys which are feirly cultivated, flow the Gogra^ 
the Gundak, and the Kosi, on their way down to the 
mighty Ganges. Catmandoo, the capital, lies in one of 
the valleys, along the bank of a small stream, and is 
reckoned to have a population of 50,000. Most of the 
people are Buddhists in religion and Mongol in speech^ 
but the ruling classes speak a kind of Hindi. Copper, 
iron, and brass articles are manufisu^tured in the country, 
and form with timber, hides, rice, ginger, and honey, the 
chief objects of trade with other countries. 


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In the beginning of this century an English Resident 
was established at Catmandoo, where the Gurkha 
dynasty had reigned for about forty years past. But in 
a few years the Resident was recalled, and in 1814 the 
continued encroachments of the Nepaulese on British 
ground led to a war in which, after a brave resistance, 
they were finally beaten by Sir David Ochterlony ; and 
the Giirkha Government had to purchase peace by 
forfeiting part of their possessions. From that time an 
English Resident has always lived at Catmandoo ; but 
to this day no other Englishman is allowed to enter the 

Ever since 1846, when the famous Jung Bahddur 
marched his way to power by the destruction of all his 
rivals, the government of the country virtually rested in 
his hands, under a Rajah who retains the mere show of 
kingly power. During the Mutiny Sir Jung Bahddur 
proved so useful an ally, that he was rewarded with 
some forest-lands on the Oude border, and made Grand 
Commander of the Star of India.* He gave the Prince 
of Wales a princely welcome within the borders of 
Nepaul, and treated him to some days of rare and 
exciting sport among the elephants and tigers of the 
Terai, or jungle, at the foot of the Nepaulese hills. Sir 
Jung having died rather suddenly, a son appears to have 
succeeded to his power. 

Sikhim. — The little State of Sikhim divides Nepdul 
from Bhut&n, of which latter it may be called an offshoot. 
Our relations with the Sikhim Rajah began apparently 
in 1817, when his little territory in the Tista valley was 

* Preyious to this Sir Jong was a 6.C.B. 


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placed under a British guarantee. In 1835 he made the 
Darjeeling district over to the Indian Govennnent for a 
few hundred pounds a year. His seizure of Dr. Camp- 
bell and Dr. Hooker in 1849, in revenge for the refiisal 
of the Government to send back his runaway slaves, was 
punished by the forfeiture of his lowland domains and 
the temporary stoppage of his allowance. But the latter 
was afterwards restored to him, and has lately been 
doubled as a reward for his co-operation in our efforts to 
open a trade with Tibet through his country. 

Bhutan. — Bhutdn, on the east of Sikhim, covers the 
northern frontier of Assam. The Bhutias, who people 
its rugged highlands are of a kindred race to their 
Tibetan and Burmese neighbours. They too are Budd- 
hists if they are anything in creed, and are governed in 
spiritual things by a Dharm Rajah, and by a Deb Rajah 
in things temporal. Their chiefs are called Penlos. In 
the time of Warren Hastings their raids into Kooch 
Behar were checked by British interference ; and since 
then they gave us no further trouble until after our 
conquest of Assam. Subsequent raids into Assam 
provoked reprisals, followed by the despatch of Mr. 
Ashley Eden's embassy to Pundkha. He was received 
with coldness and insolence which brought on a war 
ending in the annexation of the Dudrs, or passes from 
Bhutdn into Dharangu and Kamrup, 

In the highlands to the east of Bhutdn and round 
the north-eastern frontier of Assam, are a number of 
wild tribes, Abors, Daflas, Mishmis, Singphos, Kdmptis, 
and so forth, all of the same Chinese type, and more or 
less prone to raiding across the frontier. By means of 


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small yearly payments in money, they are generally 
kept from indulging their lawless habits at the cost of 
their peaceful neighbours; but the desire for plunder 
sometimes gets the better of their prudence, until 
they have learned the sharp lesson of a close 

Burmah. — The Patkoi and Yomadung Hills form the 
western boundary of Burmah Proper, whose southern 
frontier marches mth Pegu and Siam. It is boimded 
on the east by Yunnan and on the north by offshoots 
from the Himalayas. Its area of 42,000 square miles, 
watered by the Irawdddy and the Salwin, is supposed to 
contain about 3,000,000 sould. Mandalay, the present 
capital, lies on the Irawaddy, not far from the ruins of 
two former capitals, Ava and Amerapura. In the days 
of Alompra a successful military adventurer and his 
earliest successors, the Burman empire extended over 
Assam, Arakan, Pegu, and other provinces now subject 
to British rule. But Burman arrogance came into 
conflict with British power, and the braggart King of 
Ava paid dearly for his rash invasion of Bengal with the 
loss of several provinces in 1826. In 1853 another war 
provoked by another King of Burmah ended in the 
forfeiture of Pegu and the remainder of the Burman 
seaboard. A British Eesident is now firmly established 
at Mandalay, a city of wooden buildings, which 
contains about 80,000 inhabitants, and is the seat of a 
considerable trade with British Burmah, and Western 
China. Within and about the Burman frontier are a 
number of hill-tribes, Shdns, Khdkyens, and Karens, 
over whom the King of Burmah has little, if any direct 


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control. Higher up the Irawdddy is the town of Bhdmo, 
whence Major Sladen led an exploring party in 1868, 
across the hills to the borders of Yunnan, with the 
view of opening up a regular trade-route from Western 
China to Eangoon. Burman jealousy and the Panthay 
revolt from China combined to mar the success of his 
imdertaking, and a more recent mission led by Colonel 
Horace Browne was driven back by a sudden onset of 
hill-men and Chinese, with the loss of one of it-s leading 
members, the brave young Margary, who had just 
before made a successful journey overland from Pekin to 

Siam. — On the southern frontier of Burmah is the 
kingdom of Siam, peopled by a kindred race to the Bur- 
mese, with features yet more expressive of their Mongol 
ori^n. They, too, like their neighbours, are Buddhists 
in religion. The western frontier of Siam marches with 
that of Tenassarim. Its chief river, the MeinAm, flows 
southward into the Gulf of Siam, past Bankok, the sea- 
port of the capital itself, which lies forty miles higher up 
the. river. Siam the capital, is surrounded with water, 
and intersected with canals, spanned by numerous bridges. 
The houses are mostly built, like those in Burmah, of 
timber and bamboo, thatched with palm-leaves ; those 
pearest the river being raised some feet from the ground 
on strong wooden piles. Outside the city is a floating 
town of boats, each the home of two or three fiunilies. 
Elephants, rhinoceroses, tigers, boars, and other wild 
beasts abound in the woods and marshes of Siam. Its 
mines yield gold, copper, tin, lead, and antimony, and 
the rich soil of the plains needs little help from art to 


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grow anything suited to a tropical climate. In the 
animal kingdom the most celebrated is the famous white 
elephant, and the edible swallow, whose nest is the delight 
of Chinese gourmands. The present king of Siam is an 
able and enlightened ruler, well stored with Western 
learning, and of a marked turn for scientific pursuits. 
His goodwill to the rulers of India has shown itself in 
yanous ways, and the help he gave our astronomers in 
the process of observing the recent transit of Venus, 
would have done honour to the most civilised of 
Western States. 

The foreign trade is in the hands of Chinese, and 
centres at Bankok, the capital. In 1874 the exports 
amounted to £1,225,864, the chief article being rice. 
The imports were of the value of £964,128, comprising 
textile fabrics, hardware and opium, all from India.* 

* ''Area ... ... ... about 250,000 square mileB. 

Population ... ... „ 11,800,000=47 to sq. m. 

Beyenue ... estimated at £3,145,000. 

Ezpenditore is stated to be within receipts."* 

• '< Statesman's Year Book/' for 1878. 


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OUB NEiQHBOtiRS — continued. 

Malay Peninsula— Singapore— Java— Sumatra— Borneo — Spice Islands 
—New Gtiinea. 

The Malay Peninsula. — South of Tenassarim stretches 
the long, narrow Malayan Peninsula, inhabited by 
people chiefly of the original Malay stock, from which 
the native populations throughout the Eastern Archi- 
pelago have sprung, but containing also Indian, Chinese 
and other elements. The greater part of the peninsula 
is divided into small States, each ruled by an inde- 
pendent chief or Sultan, whose power over his vassals 
varies with his ability and their own means of resistance. 
English rule, however, prevails in the district of Malacca, 
bordering the Straits between the Peninsula and the 
island of Sumatra. Malacca, its chief town, lies at the 
mouth of a small river, and has long been the outlet for 
a considerate trade. In the last two centuries this 
province has passed successively under Portuguese, 
Dutch, and English rule ; the last-named transfer dating 
from 1824. The other English settlements in this 
quarter are Penang, a small island off the Malayan coast, 
near the northern entrance of the Straits, the province 


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of Wellesley, a narrow strip of seaboard opposite Penang, 
and the island and town of Singapore. 

Singapore is a place of considerable importance, serving 
as an entrepdt for the commerce of Europe, India, China 
and the Eastern Archipelago. Its admirable position 
and the entire absence of any restrictive dues or vexatious 
regulations have combined to raise it within a com- 
paratively brief period to a centre of great activity. The 
climate though hot is remarkably healthy.* 

These " Straits Settlements," as they are called, were 
for many years ruled from India, in the name of the 
East India Company ; but after the transfer of India to 
the Crown, they were disjoined from the Viceroy's 
government and administered by the Colonial Office. 

Java. — Of the three large islands that fringe the 
Malay Peninsula, Java, the smallest and southernmost, is 
the most important. It is about 575 miles long and 
varies in breadth from about 48 to 120 miles. The soil 
is for the most part extremely fertile, and it produces 
large crops of coffee, sugar, rice and spices. Tobacco 
and tea are also cultivated with success, though at 
present on a small scale. The climate is generally 
healthy. The island contains several volcanoes, and 
earthquakes are consequently not uncommon. It is, as 
is well known, under the dominion of the Dutch, whose 
system of administration has been very successfril in 
securing the prosperity of the European settlers and 
tranquillity among the native tribes. As in Hindostan, 
the Government is the principal landowner ; but, unlike 
our sovereignty, it derives large direct trade profits from 

* Area, 1,350 square miles ; population, 308,097. 


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its possessions, which go to swell the revenues of the 
mother country. In the five years between 1811 and 
1816, the island passed under British rule, and Sir 
Stamford Raffles was appointed Lieutenant-Governor, 
under the authorities at Calcutta. While occupying 
this position, he instituted many reforms and greatly 
ameliorated the condition of the native races, by whom 
his memory was long gratefully cherished. The original 
population of Java is Malay, but there are numerous ad- 
mixtures firom neighbouring countries. The Chinese are 
well represented, and many of the settlers from the 
" Flowery Land " have achieved wealth and position as 
planters or traders. The religion of the natives is chiefly 
the Mahomedan. There are still several native princes 
exercising a certain amount of authority, and some of 
them maintaining considerable state, but their rule is 
always under the direction of the agents of the Supreme 
Government. It is in Java that the febled Upas tree 
was said to flourish which destroyed all life that came 
within the influence of its deadly exhalations.* 

The Dutch claim authority over most of the other 
islands of the Eastern Archipelago, the chief seat of 
Government for the whole of their possessions being at 
Batavia, the capital of Java, from which place a well- 
conducted steam service keeps up regular communication 

* The word U'piu in the Jayanese dialect signifies poison, and it has 
been applied to a large forest tree, the Antiaris Toxicaria, which yields a 
juice of dangerous quality, which the natives used in former times to 
poison their arrows. The operation of the poison, however, is slow, and 
it can be easily counteracted. This appears to be the origin of the Upas 
tree of tradition, and the reality, as usual, affords a very slender basis for 
the absurd superstructure of fiction. 


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with the outlymg territories. Batavia was formerly very 
insalubrious, having been built in the old Dutch style on 
a low, marshy site, with numerous canals running 
through it ; but some few years ago the canals were filled 
up and other improvements were introduced, and it is 
now considered as healthy as any town in the East. Of 
the other towns in Java, Samarang and Sourabaya on the 
north coast are by &r the most important. The places 
on the south coast are few and small, but regular com- 
munication has recently been established between them 
and Batavia, and the usual results of increased £su;ilities 
of intercourse may be expected to follow.* 

Sumatra^ the large island north-west of Java, has still 
its native rulers, but all of them are now under Dutch 
control. Till lately the Sultan of Atjeh, or Acheen, 
occupied an independent position as sovereign of a small 
but valuable district at the north-west end of Sumatra, 
but, hostilities having broken out between him and the 
Dutch in 1872, the result has been that he and his 
feudatories after a stubborn, resistance are now practically 
reduced to subjection. Sumatra has many large tracts 
still unexplored, some of which are believed to contain 
valuable mineral deposits. It is the country irom which 
black pepper is mostly obtained, and this was the 
principal article of trade of the subjects of the Sultan of 
Atjeh. Other tropical products such as cofiee and sago 
are profitably cultivated, and at Deli and Langkat on the 

•"Area ... ... 6] ,336 square miles. 

Popiilation ... 18,126,269 — or 363 per square nule. 

1874^Import8 ... £7,874,416. 
„ Exporte ... £12,017,666." 
• — " Statesman's Year Book," 1878. 


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eastern coast tobacco plantations have lately been much 
extended. Padang, the capital of Siunatra, is on the 
western coast, and since the commencement of military 
operations at Atjeh has greatly risen in importance. 

Borneo. — In this large island — ^the largest in the 
world next to Australia — ^the Dutch have extended 
their sway over about two-thirds of its space, and they 
have several settlements on the east, west and south 
coasts, from whence their influence extends over the rule 
of the native chiefs. Borneo is a mountainous country, 
but the coasts are bordered by extensive plains, the soil 
of which well repays the cultivator. Its native inhabi- 
tants are of a fiercer and more intractable character than 
those of the neighbouring islands, and owing to this, 
among other causes, European settlement has not made 
the rapid progress which from the natural advantages of 
the island might have been predicted. Here we find 
innumerable species of the Simia tribe, including the 
orang outang. On the north-east coast of Borneo is the 
province of Sarawak, which some thirty years ago was 
granted by the Sultan of Borneo to Sir James Brooke, 
as a reward for assistance rendered in suppressing the 
piratical raids of the Dyaks, a fierce and sanguinary 
tribe of his own subjects. 

Spice Islands and New Guinea. — To. the east of 
Borneo are the beautiful Spice Islands, the most 
important, though not the largest of which are Amboyna 
and Banda, the nutmeg and clove plantations of which 
are widely celebrated, and the tawny and robust 
inhabitants, once among the most warlike, are now 
subdued and peaceable. Eastward again of the Spice 


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Islands, the magnificent island of New Guinea claims 
attention. At present it is but little known, although 
doubtless before long European enterprise will succeed 
in establishing a footing there, to the advantage both of 
its promoters and of the now uncivilized inhabitants of 
the island. The exquisite birds of Paradise, whose 
plumage has been so frequently borrowed to grace the 
head gear of ladies, find their chief home in New 


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OUB NEiGHBOUBS — concluded. 

Musoat—ZaiLzibar — Ceylon. 

Muscat and Zanzibar. — Muscdt or OmAn on the South 
Arabian, and Zanzib^ on the East Afiican coast, should 
also be mentioned in a list of India's neighbours. The 
Arab rulers of both countries are of the same fisanily, 
Zanzibar formerly paying tribute to Muscat. But four- 
teen years ago on the death of the last Imaun, Zanzibar 
became independent. Oman forms the south-east 
extremity of the Arabian peninsula, washed partly by 
the Indian Ocean and partly by the Persian Gulf. The 
sur&ce is varied by mountains and woods, wildernesses 
and fertile oases; the latter produce dates, grain and 
lofty trees yielding the true gum arabic (acacia vera.) 
Muscat and Mattra are the chief towns and ports of the 
country ruled by the Imaun or Sultan; the former is the 
capital, and is situated near the entrance to the Persian 
Gulf, with a population estimated at 60,000. The harbour 
is completely sheltered fix>m the prevailing winds or mon- 
soons. The town is built along the shore in the form of a 
horseshoe, encircled by hills crowned with forts. The 
houses are mean ; even the Sultan's palace is no exception. 
The streets are so narrow, that palm leaves laid across 
from house to house form a perfect protection from the 


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sun, whose rays are here unusually powerM. The town 
of Mattra is near Muscat, is connected with it by a good 
road, and has about the same number of inhabitants ; has 
docks for ships and a seafaring population. There is an 
extensive transit trade with Arabia, Persia and India ; 
cloth and com being the principal imports. The exports 
consist of dates, horses, salt fish, hides and madder to 
India; sharks' fins to China, and asses, &c., to Mauritius ; 
besides pearls, and gums and other products. In 
addition to the native Arab inhabitants there are, 
attracted by the hope of gain or barter, Persians, 
Hindoos, Syrians, Kurds, Afghans, Beloochees, Negroes 
and other races.* 

Zanzibar. — The Suahele or Zanzibar coast, is com- 
mercially the most important portion of the east coast of 
Africa. Facing it, and close to the main land are the 
islands of Pemba, Zanzibar and Mafia, which, together 
with the adjacent coast, are subject to the Sultan of 
Zanzibar, though his rule does not extend fer inland. 

" The extreme limits of his rule are the settlement of 
Warsheikh on the southern SomMi coast north of the 
Juba, and the village of Tunque immediately south of 
Cape Delgado (10° 43' S.) where his dominions touch 
those of Portugal."! 

According to Stanley, "Zanzibar is, of course, the 
place from which travellers bound for East Central 
Africa start. It is forty-five miles long by about fifteen 
miles average width. It is interesting to the explorer, 
as the point where he organises his forces." 

• " Universal Gazetteer," by W. F. Ainsworth, F.E.G.S., Ac. 
t <* Africa," by Keith Johnston. 


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The island of Zanzibar is '^ 2,400 nautical miles from 
the southern point of India, and about the same distance 
from the Cape of Good Hope and the Suez Canal."* 

The town of Zanzibar has a handsome appearance, 
being built of white stone ; and the streets present an 
animated aspect, from the motley crowds of natives and 
foreign merchants from all the neighbouring* coasts 
engaged in the commerce of this rising port, which is 
the centre of the trade of the eastern shores of Africa. 
From the apathy of the native races the trade is almost 
entirely monopolised by Hindoo as well as Mahomedan 
merchants from India, who deal not only in EngUsh 
goods, but in those of the continent of. Europe and 
America. Notwithstanding the great acuteness and 
perseverance of these Indian traders, the vast resources 
of the east /of Africa are far from being developed. Ever 
since the British India Steam Navigation Company in 
1873 established a monthly Hne of st/eamers between 
Aden, Zanzibar and Madagascar, a considerable impulse 
has been imparted to commerce. The slave trade has 
been for years chiefly in the hands of the natives of India, 
but in 1873 Sir Bartle Frere, as the representative of 
England, concluded a treaty with the Sultan of Zanzibar 
for its suppression in Eastern Africa which was con- 
sidered at the time a diplomatic victory ; as yet, how- 
ever, the chief result obtained has been that of giving 
the trafSic a new direction by longer routes to other 
ports, leaving the old familiar roads and dep6ts for ship- 
ment on the coast encumbered and defiled with the 
skeletons of a bygone trade. 

Slowly it begins to appear that, so long as the demand 

• "Africa," by Keiih Johnston. 


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for slaves all over the East continues, this inhuman traffic 
cannot be effectually put down. Domestic slavery in 
Egypt has not diminished, and the demand for slaves in 
Arabia, Persia and Madagascar is now as great as ever, 
and a new slave market on the Somali coast, near Cape 
Guardafui, was recently established for local wants. 

Besides, in the interior there are no means of 
preventing the Africans themselves from taking part in 
the purchase and sale of slaves ; and in many regions 
the horrors of a revolting superstition and the hideous 
practice of cannibalism reign supreme. In regarding the 
various races in the dark continent, it is melancholy to 
think that the man-eating barbarian excels his fellow 
barbarians, both in physical attributes and mental force. 

Commerce under European guidance will, it is hoped, 
gradually penetrate into the darkest recesses of this 
benighted land, bringing in its train the humanizing and 
elevating influences of the religion and enlightenment of 
the west, rending asunder the dark cloud of cruelty and 
barbarism with which its fece has been covered for centuries 
as with a funeral pall. It may be long, but it will 
surely come, when, instead of internecine war there shall 
be peace ; when the sound of the hammer shall ring in 
the solitude, and the desert shall blossom as the rOse. 
Ages vfixxBt elapse before the African is free, but in the 
meantime the good work is progressing. 

The present Sultan of Zanzibar, Seyd Burghash,* is 

* " Zakzibab axd thb Slayb Tbadb. — Haying only recently returned 
from the ea(Bt coast of Africa, where I had been employed organizing a 
colony of freed slaves on behalf of the Church Missionary Society at Erere 
Town, Mombas» I wish to add my testimony to the sincerity and good 
faith of His Highness the Sultan in the part he is taking for the 
suppression of the traffic. His last scheme has been to raise a force 


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giving effect to the treaty for the suppression of the 
slave trade with sincerity and good faith, and when His 
Highness visited this country not long ago he made a 
very favourable impression, by his dignified demeanour 
and the anxiety he evinced for the improvement of his 
country. During the prevalence of the slave trade, the 
valuable resources of the country were undeveloped 
and legitimate trade entirelj neglected, but now the 
energies of the merchants are directed of necessity to 
the establishment of a trade in ivory, cinnamon, cloves, 
sugar, cocoa, coffee, nutmegs and other spices; indigo, 
cotton and other products, and the Sultan has set a good 
example by the establishment of thriving plantations. 
He has also an extensive and valuable stud for rearing 
horses, the entrance to which is said to be guarded by an 
enormous sow, as a charm agamst evil spirits playing 
pranks on the horses. 

The population of the island and town of Zanzibar " is 
estimated at firom 300,000 to 350,000, or about 375 to 
the square mile, and of this number about 60,000 live in 
the city. During the north-east monsoon, the arrival of 

coDsisting entirely of freed slaves, to take the place of the mercenaries 
from the north, who are directly interested in keeping the trade alive. 
These men are well drilled by European instmctors, and are ready at any 
time to be landed where their services may be required. My object in 
writing you, Sir, is to suggest that something should be done to recognise 
the efforts of Seyd Burghash in having done his part well. No better 
time than the present could be found to send His Highness 400 Snider 
rifles, with a good supply of ammunition, as his troops are principaUy 
armed with the old matchlock. As his new yacht will sail shortly for 
Zanzibar, the arm racks on board should not be empty. 
I remain, Sir, your obedient servant, 

W. F. A. H. SUSSELL, Commander, EJT., 
Temple Clnb, Arundel Street, Strand, March 25."— 2imc#. 


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foreign traders increased the population by 30,000 or 
40,000. The basis of the population is formed by the 
Arabic owners of the soil and the numerous half-castes 
of mixed Arabic and African blood."* 

Ceylon. — One of India's nearest neighbours is the 
island of Ceylon, divided at one point from Southern 
India only by a narrow sea with rocks and sand-banks, 
one of the latter, of considerable magnitude, being 
denominated Adam's bridge, between two parallel ridges 
of rock, leaving, after several attempts at improvement, a 
passage for vessels of light draught. Taproban^, under 
which name it was known to the ancients, the great 
island, the fame of which has exercised such an influence 
over men's minds for many centuries — "the mother 
land of &bles — the country which to the Greeks, the Ro- 
mans, the Egyptians and the Arabs offered the same mys- 
terious attractions that the East long did to the people of 
Western Europe." The mountain range which forms 
the backbone of Ceylon, varies in height from two to 
eight thousand feet., and undulates into &ir and fertile 
valleys, while great tracts of forest afford shelter to 
elephants and many other wild beasts. Ceylon, or Lanka, 
its old Hindoo name, is about the size of Ireland, and is 
supposed to contain over two million people, mostly 
Buddhists, who speak a language akin to the T&mil of 
Southern India. In the northern parts are various races 
of Indian origin, while Mahomedan Arabs are found 
everyw^here, and a few aboriginal Veddahs still linger in 
their native forests and hills. The Indian' element has 
of late been fed by a steady flow of immigrants from the 

• '< Africa/' by Keith Jolmston. 


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mainland. Rice, coffee, cotton, sugar, tobacco, cinnamon, 
and cocoa-nufs, form the staple produce of the island, 
which also yields many kinds of minerals and precious 

The interior is remarkable for possessing some of the 
grandest and most lovely scenery in the world, the hill 
sides being clothed with the most exuberant and magni- 
ficent of tropical vegetation, mingled with trees of a 
sterner climate. Side by side with the oak there are the 
banyan and iron- wood trees, the satin-wood tree and the 
acacia, rhododendron and magnolia, with mighty creepers, 
while mountain and valley glow with every variety of 
flower and colour. All this is still to be seen in full 
bloom and beauty, in defiance of the inroads of the rice 
and coffee planters. 

Kandy, in the middle of the island, was the seat of a 
long line of native kings. Since the final capture of 
Kandy in 1815 there have been several uprisings and 
rebellions, one, the most formidable, in 1817 ; the latter 
in 1848, which Lord Torrington stamped out with a* 
vigour which nearly brought on him the fiite incurred by 
Governor Eyre in later years. 

" All we had heard," says a recent traveller, " of the 
beauty of the situation of Eandy and of the character of 
the scenery, was fully sustained. In a deep ravine at 
one side of the plateau, or, more properly speaking, of 
the broad valley surrounded by hills, overlooking a still 
deeper depression, on which the town is situated, the 
Mahawelli Ganga river thunders in its rocky bed. The 
small lake by the side of which part of the city is built 
lends a charming repose and fireshness to the scene, which 


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is mirrored in its waters. Wherever the eye is turned 
rise mountain tops, some bare masses of rock, others 
clothed with vegetation. There is no idea of a town or 
of a *city' to be realized in what one sees : it is all 
suburb— verandahed pavilions and bungalows stretching 
in lines bearing the names of streets ; here and there 
the native houses packed more closely may be termed 
lanes ; but the whole place is as difiused as Balham, or 
Clapham, or any other rural quart-er of the great Metro- 
polis. Kandy was once a stronghold of kings ; but it 
was not till the end of the sixteenth century that it 
became the capita.1. When that dignity was conferred 
on the city, it was forbidden to the common people to 
have windows, or white walls or tiles to their houses, as 
these were luxuries for royal use alone. Public buildings, ' 
properly so called, there are none ; but in lieu of these 
was one of the most picturesque crowds ever seen." 

The English capital, Colombo, is a flourishing town on 
the western coast. Point de GaJle, at the extreme south- 
west,^ has a large though rocky harbour, and is still the 
meeting place for mail-steamers plying between Suez and 
the far East. The pearl fishery in the Gulf of Manir, 
still employs a good many divers during the season, 
which is of short duration, commencing towardi? the 
end of February, and terminating early in April. 
Colombo, although a rising town and the chief port of 
the island, is an open roadstead always difficult of 
access, and the last act of the Prince of Wales before 
leaving Ceylon was to lay the foundation stone of a 

" The undertaking is a great one, and worthy of all 
success, and the breakers which thundered close at hand 


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spoke very eloquently of the necessity for such a work, 
which will illustrate the administration of Sir W. H. 
Gregory," * the then Governor, leaving at the same time a 
fitting and lasting memorial of the Prince's visit.f 

Having thus glanced at the past aad present of India, 
and of the nations which surround her, or influence her 
fortunes, the author concludes with the hope that he 
may have in some degree excited an additional interest 
in our great Eastern Empire, and with the sincere wish 
that its inhabitants may realise to the fullest extent the 
beneficent desires conveyed in the grand and simple 
words of the Queen, addressed in 1858 to her people 
in India: "It is Oub earnest desire to stimu- 

OF ALL Our subjects resident therein. In their 

TENTMENT Our SECURITY, and in their gratitude 
Our BEST bewArd. And may the God of all power 


GOOD OF Our people." 

• RuBsell'g " Tour of the Prince of Wales." 

t Ceylon. Area 24,464 Bqoare mfles. 

Population 2,128,884.-1870. 

Revenue £1,376.888^ 

Expenditure £1,276,930] ^^^^ 

— •' Statesman's Yeax Book," for 1878. 


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A Correspondent, says The Times, who has resided and hunted in the 
district writes to us : — 

Moondia Ghaut is the place whence the telegrams relating the sporting 
adventures of the Prince of Wales have recently been despatched. No 
doubt many have searched for it unsuccessfully on the map, so a short 
account of its position and physical characteristics may not be without 
interest. The word ' ghaut/ or ' ghat/ bears several analogous meanings. 
We daily hear it applied to the scarped and terraced hills overlooking 
Bombay and the Concan. The bathers' ghaut, or flight of steps at 
Benares or Hurdwar, is familiar to every reader of Indian travels. So 
hereafter Moondia Ghaut, or ford, will be remembered as the spot selected 
as the head-quarters of the Prince's sporting excursion in India. 

' It is the sport of kings,' was the remark made by a distinguished 
officer, brother to one of the Prince's most trusted companions, as we put 
our elephants in line to beat from the little river Ghoka to Moondia Ghaut, 
one brilliant October morning twelve years ago. The sport of kings! 
Little thought we then how his words would be verified! — how the 
pathless plain over which the line slowly but irresistibly swept would 
become historic, as the meeting place of the heir to the British Empire and 
the ruler of proud Nepaul. 

Moondia Ghaut is the name of a ford over the Sarda, a river of which 
the left bank belongs to Nepaul and the right bank to the Province of 
Bohilkund. The territory opposite the Ghaut, and for many miles to the 
eastward along the foot of the lower ranges of the Himalayas, was 
conferred upon Nepaul by Lord Canning, after the Mutiny, in reward for 
the assistance given by the Goorkhas to our arms at Lucknow and 
elsewhere. The policy of that step has been warmly debated, but it 
would seem discourteous to raise the discussion at a time when the Prince 
has been enjoying the unique hospitality of what may be called the 
Goorkha State on the very ground in question. 

Even after the cession of the Nepaulese Terai, the actual boundary was 
long in dispute, and it was during the determination of the boundary 
question that we first had the opportunity of becoming acquainted with 
this paradise of sportsmen. 

Moondia Ghaut, tiU about ten years ago, was included in the district of 
Shahjehanpore, but it was then transferred to Phillibeet, a sub-magistracy 


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connected with Bareillj. The Ghant lies 70 or 80 miles to the north of 
Shahjehanpore, and only about 90 miles north-east of PhiUibeet. 

For a considerable part of the year the vicinity of Moondia Ghaut is 
almost deserted. Lying as it does in the heart of the Terai, a district 
notorious for malaria, it is only habitable in the cold season. From the 
end of November tiU the middle of March, not only is there no danger of 
fever, but the climate is most enjoyable. After March till the rains 
commence the atmosphere in the Tend is very hot and muggy, but at that 
season the danger to health lies in the temptations to injudicious exposure 
to the sun, rather than in any miasma peculiar to the locality. From the 
beginning of the rains till some time after they have ceased, residence in 
the Terai is fatal to most constitutions. Englishmen, hill-men, and 
Hindostanees alike flee. The villagers of the Phillibeet district speak of 
even the very southern fringe of the Terai with bated breath, and call it 
Mar, or Death. Not a soul remains save the Taroos (so called from their 
being the inhabitants of the Terai), a distinct race, squalid, feeble and 
timid, but singularly truthful, which has struggled on for ages against 
adverse physical influences. It is wonderful that they should live where 
all others die. They seem to use no special prophylactics against ilbess, 
but rather to have inherited from their ancestors comparatively fever-proof 
constitutions. Many faU victims to wild beasts. They have, indeed, little 
wherewith to protect themselves, except the voice, on which they place 
great reliance. It is often impossible to induce a Taroo to go alone through 
his native wilds, though he will start readily enough if he has a companion. 
They do not seem to care about being in close proximity to one another. 
As long as they can give an occasional halloo and hear the answer faintly 
resounding through the giant tree trunks they are satisfied. Their dislike 
to solitary journeying is, however, attributable as much to horror of evil 
spirits as to fear of bear or tiger. 

To the sportsman and naturalist, if not to the statesman and adminis- 
trator, the abundance, the bewildering variety of animal life, amply 
compensate for the deficiency of population. 

'You have never killed a crocodile? WeU, there are a do:;en Ijring on 
that sandbank, and you can have your pick if you hold straight. I woxdd 
not try the largest of all, he is lying directly end on, and at this angle the 
bullet would glance. Take the third from the left. He is very nearly as 
large, and you can clearly see the patch of pale, soft skin just behind the 
foreleg. Put your bullet right in the middle of that patch, and he will 
never move again. You cannot get near enough to him or sufficiently 
above him to shoot him through the brain. If he once wriggles into the 
water you will lose him, though his carcase may, perhaps, be picked up 
ten miles down the river.' 

' Are you a fisherman F — Just below the throat of that rapid, where you 
see that naked dusky imp holystoning a prostrate elephant in the shallow 


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water, you are sure to hook a maliBeer before breakfast. If be will not 
take a fly, yon can try a phantom minnow or a live bait. Be enre that 
yonr tackle is strong and your line long, for you never can tell how far a 
big one will go in his first rush, though he is apt to sulk afterwards. They 
are not as lai^e here as in the Ganges or the Jhelum, but we shall expect 
some steaks for breakfast from the tail of a 20-pounder at least.' 

'Are you eager to slay the brindled monarch of the forest? Hark! 
Did you hear that dull grunting roar on the river bank P Pshaw ! Merely 
some wretched buffalo moaning for her calf. Again! Listen! A hundred 
yards further up the river. No I There is a vibration in that sound once 
heard never forgotten. Low and distant though it be, yet it seems to 
thrill the very ground beneath your feet. Don't you notice how the 
mumbling conversation of the camp is suddenly hushed P All are 
listening. I hear a Dhummer mutter outside the tent, ' Sher bolta, kat 
zacur milega' There is a tiger calling; we are sure to get him to- 

The Sarda emerges from the Himalayas at Burrumdeo. Moondia 
Ghaut is about twenty-five miles to the south of that place. From the 
debouchure at Burrumdeo down to Moondia Ghaut the Sarda is a bright, 
sparkling, merry moimtain stream, often broken into two or three channels. 
It flows through grassy glades and emerald sissoo. forests, swells* here over 
deep sunken rocks, and there forms a tail below a shoal of glittering gravel, 
which makes the fisherman's eye glisten as it recalls to memory happy 
days on the Spey or the Eindhom. But here and there a backwater still 
as death runs back far into a ghastly swamp, where the water is never 
rippled, save by the silent plunge of the weird snake-bird, or the stealthy 
waddle of a gorged alligator. Huge ungainly fish and bloated carrion 
turtle glide far below the surface, round the skeleton roots of bleached 
and barkless trees, a phantom forest lichen-shrouded. On the stark 
framework of bonelike branches sits motionless the gaping, lock] awed 
cormorant, with half-spread stiflened wings — a living parody of taxidermy ; 
or the foul vulture, its livid neck smothered in flufly feathers, like some 
shapeless Caflre kaross, the only sign of life a dull, deceitful eye. On a 
dead willow, stretching far over the inky pool lies twined a python, limp, 
semi-rotten. The head is gone ; the muscles of the neck blanched and 
torn into strings are hanging a few inches above the water, jagged by 
resistance to the tug of the turtle teeth. Here and there the scales have 
separated, and the glairy sodden skin hangs flabby and ruptured. Can 
you believe that you are within earshot of a babbling, rattling mountain 
torrent on whose floods the mightiest tree trunks are but as straws, a 
torrent irresistible, ever living, ever fitful P A few miles below Moondia 
Ghaut the river loses its rocky and rapid character, and rolls slow and 
turbid through fulvous unvarying plains. 

It is a few minutes before sunrise, and the bank overhanging the river at 


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this spot faces nearly north-east. Below there is the river bed, perhaps 
300 yards broad, but the water does not cover the whole of it. The 
largest channel is just below our feet, and there is another considerable 
stream under the opposite bank, while two or three smaller rivulets ripple 
over beds of shingle, or flow silently under the ephemeral banks of 
crumbling islets. On yon dry sandbank lies a mighty tree, in shape 
uninjured, but ever and anon a light flickering tongue of flame shoots up 
.through some minute crevice in the bark, or a filmy curl of smoke wreathes 
itself into nothingness in the still chill air. That tree is hollow from end 
to end, the core eaten out by a mouldering fire. For weeks trunk and 
branches have been charring internally under its ravages, though the 
traces of destruction are scarcely visible. A few days more — ^a puff of 
strong cold wind from the mountains — and that mighty shell — trunk, root 
and branch— will gradually sink away with a dull crash into a mere heap 
of white ashes outlined on the golden sand. 

Not are these tiny gray ripples the only signs of fire which add still life 
to the landscape. On the right where that crowded promontory juts out 
into the river, you can see the lurid furnaces of the rust-coloured catechu- 
burners. Here and there along the distant bank a faint column of smoke 
betrays where the gold washers are pursuing their miserable avocation. 
Immediately opposite signs of matutinal cookery taper upwards far above 
the low acacia trees, in which the huts of the Nepaulese outposts nestle, 
and far away to the north and east faint gauzy lines are traced on the 
high hills. At this distance they look like mere floating, fading films of 
mist. In trudi they are the evidence of forest fires involving the vegeta- 
tion of whole mountain sides in one common destruction. 

By what a curious perversion of language Anglo-Indians speak of those 
mountains as ' the hills.' ' Do you realize that those peaks which the sun 
is just illumining with the brightest, most glittering gold, are the virgin 
summits of some of the highest mountains in the globe P Look at the 
isolated pyramid of Nunda Devi ! Watch the bright sunbeams kissing 
successively the three points of the trident of Trisul. ' Enough ! You 
will see no more sunlight effects until the beams light up that black 
thunder cloud at the foot of the mountains with dazzling fringe. For at 
least 100 miles over many a sleeping valley and many a haughty range a 
dark veil of mist clouds the lesser mountains. From the gleaming snow 
peaks, which are already fast changing from gold to silver, right down to 
that serrated line of gigantic pines which bristle on the crest of the nearest 
chain, there is nothing but a lava-like sea of the densest fog. Here and 
there you can see it slowly swirling out of the transverse ravines in huge 
burly masses almost down to the level of the Terai itself. Every valley 
under that stupendous pall is still in darkness. Were you standing on a 
lofty peak jutting up through the mist, you would fancy yourself in some 
glassy ocean studded with wooded reefs and atolls, a sail-less silvern 


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archipelago, fit foreground for the home of eternal snow, the holy 

Even in the winter an Indian sun soon makes itself felt, and though the 
whole orb has scarcely freed itself from the eastern hills, there is a 
perceptible change in the temperature, and a flickering breeze wafts the 
tinkling of mauy bells along the river bank. From a sandy ravine, half 
hidden in billowy grass, with long and stately tread comes the lord of a 
hundred herds, a milk-white Gujerati bull, of height and girth enormous, 
with satin skin and gentle eyes that almost cause one to sympathize with 
a Sikh's religious feelings and forswear beef for ever. On his head a fillet 
of cowrie shells, on his brawny chest a fiattened bell, and on his back 
behind the vast hump, half drooping with its own weight, a Banjora baby 
boy clad in his mother's favourite colours of blue and crimson, and so 
laden with jewels that of skin you can see little but a nutbrown face 
lighted up by two sparkling, wondering black eyes and ten chubby little 
fingers, of which five are twined lovingly in the loose skin of his giant 
steed. No load ever desecrates the broad back of this majestic bull save 
this child, the hope of the wandering Banjara tribe, and perhaps occasion- 
aUy his mother, though rarely does her proud and lissome form acknowledge 

Behind the bull the herd — and what a herd ! — ^a long, fan-shaped surging 
mass, of which the rear is completely concealed by dust, cattle of every 
shape and colour, of every age and every condition. No struggling, jost- 
ling Smithfield crowd. With solemn peaceful step 2,000 head debouch 
upon the strand and slake their thirst among the shallows. And this herd 
is only a drop in the ocean compared to the number of homed cattle that 
annually depasture the Terai. From the fertile plains of Oude, from the 
ajrid wastes of Allyghur or Grourgaon, from the far-off eyries of the 
Kymore hills, pour annually countless myriads of half-starved quadrupeds 
to revel in the succulent herbage of the great northern jungles. 


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That the descendaut of Sanojee Sindia shotdd be a British General 
must seem very strange to the class of old Indians who only remember 
old India. The story of the rise of the slipper-bearer of the Peishwa, 
who became one of the most famous of Mahratta Chiefs, has been dis- 
credited by recent writers ; but there can be no doubt that before 1725 
very little was known of Banojee, and that, at the best, his family belonged 
to the Chumbi, or cultivator class.* But these were fine times for daring 
men, and the Mahratta sword was busy cutiang slices off the Empire of 
the Mogul and carving them into kingdoms. When Banojee died in 1750, 
he had founded a dynasty. His legitimate sons did not succeed; but 
Madhajee, an iUegitimate son, by craft as much as by courage, established 
himself in such a position that he became the master of the Peishwa, and 
restored Shah Alum to his throne in Delhi. He it was who inflicted one of 
the greatest blows and most bitter disgrace ever endured by a British force 
in India at Wargaum, baffled Goddard*s attempt to force him to give battle 
by masterly mancBuvres, and, forcing him to seek the seaboard, secured at 
his leisure a large part of Central India. In a subsequent campaign he 
forced Camac to retreat and ratified a treaty with the British, by which 
he was recognised as an independent prince, secured all Grwalior except 
the fortress, and bound us to recross the Jumna. His usurpation at Delhi, 
with which we did not interfere, was one of the boldest acts of his extra- 
ordinary career. He was neutral in our first war with Tippoo. Finding 
we were too busily engaged to interfere .with his ambitious projects, he 
conceived the idea of becoming master of the Peishwa himself, and of 
establishing himself at Poona, but he died just as he was about to realise 
his magnificent conception, which would have brought him into collision 
with our growing power under circumstances which would place the 
greatest strain on all our resources and power. The confiict came when 
we were able to dictate terms, and well for our rule was it that Lord EUen- 
borou^ in 1844 rose superior to the instincts of conquest and annexation, 
for it was the gratitude and attachment of the present ruler of Grwalior 
which in 1857 exercised a most potent infiuence on the course of the 
insurrection. His fidelity can only be appreciated at its true value by 
those familiar not so much with the facts as with the local colour and all 
the material incidents of the crisis. He had been well rewarded, and now 
there is an increment to his honours, but we fear he would freely give up 

* Banojee was Pateil, beadle or headman of his village, and the designation of 
Pateil was greatly affected by bis descendant Madojee in the plenitude of his 

Digitized by 



ribands, medal, uniform, army rank and all, for that rock from which 
British sentries look down on Ids city, and British guns point at his palace. 
Above all things, however, he is fond of soldiering, and when the Prince 
of Wales asked him to ride down the line at the Delhi BevieWy it was said 
that the act was worth a million of money. Sindiah waa once a splendid 
horseman— now he has lost his nerve. His manners are uncouth, his voice 
harsh and vulgar, but he has a fine eye and a very earnest, honest look, 
nor has he any power of dissimulation. Therefore, we should like to know 
how he received his appointment. The other General is a man of very 
difierent type. He is essentially of a British-made dynasty, but it is said 
that he rules his people with much severity, and that, seat of pleasure as 
it is, Cashmere is inhabited by a very wretched population. It would be 
very interesting toieam what the new officers think of their honours. — 
Army and Navy Gazette. 


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Extract from a Treaty between the East India Company and the Nizam, 
dated the 2l8t May, 1853. (See Aitchison's '* Treaties, Engagements and 
Sunnuds," vol. v., pages 104, 106.) 

Article 6. 
For the purpose of providing the regular monthly payment to the said 
contingent troops, and payment of Appa Dessaye's chout and the allow- 
ances to Mohiput Ram's family and to certain Mahratta pensioners, as 
guaranteed in the 10th Article of the Treaty of 1822, and also for payment 
of the interest at six per cent, per annum of the debt due to the Honour- 
able Company, so long as the principal of that debt shall remain unpaid, 
which debt now amounts to about fifty lakhs of Hyderabad rupees, the 
Nizam hereby agrees to assign the districts mentioned in the accompanying 
Schedule marked A, yielding an annual gross revenue of about fifly laldis 
of rupees, to the exclusive management of the British Resident for the 
time being at Hyderabad, and to such other officers, acting tinder his 
orders, as may from time to time be appointed by the Grovemment of 
India to the charge of those districts. 

Abticlb 8. 
The distriote mentioned in Schedule A are to be transferred to Colonel 
Low, C.B., the Resident, immediately that the ratified Treaty shall be 
received from Calcutta ; and that officer engages on the part of the British 
Government that the Resident at the Court of Hyderabad for the time 
being shall always render true and £uthftd accounts every year to the 
Nizam of the receipts and disbursements connected with the said districts, 
and make over any surplus revenue that may exist to His Highness, after 
the payment of the contingent and the other items detailed in Article 6 
of this Treaty. 

Extract from a Supplemental Treaty between Her Majesty the Queen 
of Grreat Britain and the Nizam, ratified by Lord Canning on the 3l8t 
day of December, 1860. (See Aitchison's " Treaties," &c., vol. v., pages 
115 and 116.) 


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. APPENDIX C. 363 

Abtiolb 2. 
The Viceroy and Gk)yemor-Greneral in Council cedes to His Highness 
the Nizam in full sovereignty the territory of Shorapore. 

Abticlb 3. 

The debt of about fifty (50) lakhs of Hyderabad rupees due by the 
Nizam to the British Groyemment is hereby cancelled, 

Article 4. 

His Highness the Nizam agrees to forego all demand for an account of 
the receipts and expenditure of the assigned districts for the past, present, 
or future. But the British Government will pay to His Highness any 
surplus that may hereafter accrue after defraying all charges under 
Article 6 and all &ture expenses of administration, the amount of such 
expenses being entirely at the discretion of the British Government. 

Abticlb 5. 

The Viceroy and Grovemor-General in Council restores to His Highness 
the Nizam all the assigned districts in the Eaichore Doab and on the 
western frontier of the dominions of His Highness adjoining the Collecto- 
rate of Ahmednuggur and Sholapore. 

Abticlb 6. 

The districts in Berar already assigned to the British Government 
under the Treaty of 1863, together with all the Surf.i-khas talooks 
comprised therein, and such additional districts^ adjoining thereto as will 
suffice to make up a present annual gross revenue of thirty -two (32) lakhs 
of rupees currency of the British Grovemment, shall be held by the British 
Government in trust for the payment of the troops of the Hyderabad 
Contingent, Appa Dessaye's chout, the allowance to Mohiput Bam's 
family, and certain pensions mentioned in Article 6 of the said Treaty. 

Abticlb 7. 

The Surf-i-khas talooks and additional districts mentioned in the fore- 
going Article are to be transferred to the Besident as soon as this Treaty 
is ratified. 


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KiSHKA EoHABi Bab, the 'Virgin Princess Kishna,' was in her six- 
teenth year : her mother was of the Chawnra race, the ancient kings of 
Anhnlwara. Sprang from the noblest blood of Hind, she added beauty 
of face and person to an engaging demeanour, and was justly proclaimed 
the ' flower of Eajast'han.' When the Eoman father pierced the bosom 
of the dishonoured Virginia, appeased virtue applauded the deed. 
When Iphigenia was led to the sacrificial altar, the salvation of her 
country yielded a noble consolation. The votive victim of Jephtha's 
success had the triumph of a father's fame to sustain her resignation, and 
in the meekness of her sufferings we have the best parallel to the sacrifice 
of the lovely Xishna: though years have passed since the barbarous 
immolation, it is never related but with a faltering tongue and moistened 
eyes, ' albeit unused to the melting mood.' 

The rapacious and bloodthirsty PatHan, covered with infamy, repaired 
to Oodipoor, where he was joined by the pliant and subtle Ajit. Meek in 
his demeanour, unostentatious in his habits, despising honours, yet covetous 
of power,— ^religion, which he followed with the zeal of an ascetic, if it did 
not serve as a cloak, was at least no hindrance to an immeasurable ambi- 
tion, in the attainment of which he would have sacrificed all but himself. 
When the Patlian revealed his design, that either the princess should wed 
Eaja Maun, or by her death seal the peace of Eajwarra, whatever argu- 
ments were used to point the alternative, the Eana was made to see no 
choice between consigning his beloved child to the Eahtore prince, or wit- 
nessing the effects of a more extended dishonour from the vengeance of 
the Fatluin, and the storm of his palace by his licentious adherents : — ^the 
fiat passed that Elishna Komari should die. 

But the deed was left for women to accomplish — the hand of man 
refused it. The Eawula* of an eastern prince is a world within itself; it 

* Harem. 


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is the labyrinth containing the strings that more the puppets which alarm 
mankind. Here intrigue sits enthroned, and hence its influence radiates 
to the world, always at a loss to trace effects to their causes. Maharaja 
Dowlut Sing, descended four generations ago from one common ancestor 
with the Eana, was first sounded "to save the honour of Oodipoor;'' 
but, horror-struck, he exclaimed, " accursed the tongue that commands 
it ! Dust on my allegiance, if thus to be preserved !" The Maharaja 
Jowandas, a natural brother, \( as then called upon ; the dire necessity 
was explained, and it was urged that no common hand could be armed 
for the purpose. He accepted the poniard, but when in youthful loveli- 
ness Kishna appeared before him, the dagger fell from his hand, and he 
returned more wretched than the victim. The fatal purpose thus revealed, 
the shrieks of the frantic mother reverberated through the palace, as she 
implored mercy, or execrated the murderers of her child, who alone was 
resigned to her fate. But death was arrested, not averted. To use the 
phrase of the narrator, "she was excused the steel — the cup was 
prepared," and prepared by female hands ! As the messenger presented 
it in the name of her father, she bowed and drank it, sending up a prayer 
for his life and prosperity. The raving mother poured imprecations on 
his head, while the lovely victim, who shed not a tear, thus endeavoured 
to console her : " why afflict yourself, my mother, at this shortening of 
the sorrows of life P I fear not to die 1 Am I not your daughter P Why 
should I fear death P We are marked out for sacrifice* from our birth ; 
we scarcely enter the world but to be sent out again ; let me thank my 
father that I have lived so long If Thus she conversed till the nauseating 
draught refused to assimilate with her blood. Again the bitter potion 
was prepared. She drained it off, and again it was rejected ; but, as if to 
try the extreme of human fortitude, a third was administered ; and for 
the third time nature refused to aid the horrid purpose. It seemed as if the 

• Alluding ^to the custom of infanticide — here, very rare. •••••*. 

t With my mind engrosRed with the scenes in which I had passed the better 
part of my Ufe, I went two months after my return from Bajpootana, in 1823, to 
York Cathedral, to attend the memorable festival of that year. The sublime 
recitations of Handel in '* Jephtha's Vow," the sonorous woe of Sapios' " Deeper 
and deeper still," powerfully recalled the sad exit of the Bajpootani ; and the 
representation shortly after of Kacine's tragedy of " Iphig^nie," with Talma as 
Achille, Duchesnois as Clytemnestre, and a very interesting personation of the 
victim daughter of Agamemnon, again served to ^aken the remembrance of this 
sacrifice. The following passage embodying not only the sentiments, hut couched 
in the precise language in which the '' Virgin Kishna " addressed her father — 
proving that human nature has but one mode of expression for the same feelings — 
I am tempted to taraOBcribe : 


Cesses de voua troubler, vous n'dtes point trahi. 
Quand vous commanderez, vous seres ob^i : 


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fabled charmj which guarded the life of the founder of her race, was 
inherited by the Virgin Eishna. But the bloodhounds, the Patlian and 
Ajit, were impatient till their victim was at rest ; and cruelty, as if 
gathering strength from defeat, made another and a fatal attempt. A 
powerful opiate was presented-^/^<« Kasoomha draught,* She received 
it with a smile, wished the scene over, and drank it. The desires- of 
barbarity were accomplished. "She slept !"t a sleep from which she 
never awoke. 

The wretched mother did not long survive her child; nature was 
exhausted. In the ravings of despair she refused food, and her remains 
in a few days followed those of her daughter to the funeral pyre. 

Even the ferocious £han, when the instrument of his infamy, Ajit, 
reported the issue, received him with contempt, and spumed him from his 
presence, tauntingly asking, "if this were the boasted Eajpoot valour P" 
But the wily traitor had to encounter language far more bitter firom his 
political adversary, whom he detested. Sangram Suktawut reached the 
capital only four days after the catastrophe — a man in every respect the 
reverse of Ajit — audaciously brave, he neither feared the frown of his 
sovereign nor the sword of his enemy. Without introduction he rushed 
into the presence, where he found seated the traitor Ajit. *' Oh, dastard ! 
who has thrown dust on the Seesodia race, whose blood which has flowed 
in purity through a hundred ages has now been defiled ! this sin will 
check its course for ever ; a blot so foul in our annals, that no Seesodia 
will ever again hold up his head ! A sin to which no punishment were 
equal. But the end of our race is approaching ! The line of Bappa 
Eawul is at an end I Heaven has ordained this ; a signallof our destruc- 
tion/' The Bana hid his face with his hands, when turning to Ajit, he 
exclaimed, " thou stain on the Seesodia race ! thou impure of Bajpoot 
blood, dust be on thy head, as thou hast covered us all with shame. 
May you die childless, and your name die with you ! Why this indecent 
haste P Had the Fatlian stormed the city P Had he attempted to violate 
the sanctity of the EawulaP And, though he had, could you not die as 

Ma vie est votre bien. Vous voulez le reprendre, 
Yds ordree, sans detour, pouvaient Be faire entendre ; 
D'un obU auBsi content, d*un coeur aussi soumis. 
Que j'aooeptab T^poux que nous m*aviez promis, 
Je saurai, s'il faut, victime ob^iaaante 
Tendre an fer de Calchas une tdte innocente ; 
Et reflpectant le coup par voua-mdme ordonn^, 
Yona rendre tout le sang que vous m*avez donn^." 

* The Eaaoomba draught ia made of flowers and lierbs of a cooling quality, 
into this an opiate waa introduced. 

t The simple but powerful expression of the narrator. 


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Eajpoots, like your anceBtors P Was it thus they gained a name P Was 
it thus our race became renowned — ^thus they opposed the might of kings P 
Have you forgotten the Sakas of Cheetore P But whom do I address — 
not Eajpoots P Had the honour of your females been endangered — ^had 
you sacrificed them all and rushed sword in hand on the enemy, your 
name would have liyed, and the Almighty would have secured the seed 
of Bappa Eawul. But to owe preservation to this unhallowed deed ! You 
did not even await the threatened danger. Fear seems to have deprived 
you of every faculty, or you might have spared the blood of Sreejee, and 
if you did not scorn to owe your safety to deception, might have substi- 
tuted some less noblie victim ! But the end of our race approaches ! " 

The traitor to manhood, his sovereign, and humanity durst not reply. 
The brave Ssogram is now dead, but the prophetic anathema has been 
fulfilled. Of ninety-Jive children, sons and daughters, but one son (the 
brother qf Eiskna) is left to the Sana ; and though his two remaining 
daughters have been recently married to the princes of Jessnlmer and 
Bikaner, the Salic law, which is in full force in these States, precludes all 
honour through female descent. His hopes rest solely on the prince, 
Juvana Sing, and though in the fiower of youth and heidth, the marriage 
bed (albeit boasting no less than four young princesses) has been blessed 
with no progeny. 

The elder brother of Juvana died two years ago. Had he lived, he 
would have been Umra the Third. With regard to Ajit, the curse has 
been fully accomplished. Scarcely a month after, his wife and two sons 
were numbered with the dead; and the hoary traitor has since been 
wandering from shrine to shrine ; performing penance and alma in expia- 
tion of his sins, yet unable to fling from him ambition ; and with his beads 
in one hand, Bama ! Bama I ever on his tongue, and subdued passion in 
his looks, his heart is deceitful as ever. Enough of him : let us exclaim 
with Sangram, " Duet on ku head,*' which all the waters of the Ganges 
could not purify from the blood of the virgin Kishna. — Tod*s Bajcutfhan. 


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Deputation to Viscount Palmerston, Z.G. on 22nd June, 1857 — ^Letter 
from W. P. Andrew, Esq. to the Right Hon. Viscount Pahnerston, 
Z.G., June 30th, 1867— Report of the Select Committee of the 
House of Commons on the Euphrates Valley Railway, 22nd July, 
1872 (Extracts)— Letter from the Under Secretary of State for India 
to Mr. Andrew regarding the completion of the Indus Valley State 
Railway, 15th March, 1877. 

A deputation, in favour of the British GoTemment granting pectmiary 
support to the Euphrates Valley Railway, had an interriew with Viscount 
Palmerston, 22nd June, 1857. 

The deputation consisted of the Earl of Shaftesbury, Mr. Andrew 
(Chairman of the Euphrates Valley Railway), Mr. P. Anstruther, Mr. 
W. F. Ainaworth. Sir F. L. Arthur, Bart., Mr. A. F. Bellasia, Sir W. 
Colebrooke, C.B., the Earl of Chichester, the Earl of Carnarvon, Major- 
General Chesney, R.A., Mr. F. Ellis, M.P., Mr. Estcourt Sotheron, M.P., 
the Hon. J. C. Erskine, Mr. A. S. Finlay, M.P., Lord Gk>derich, Mr. H. 
GLidstone, Mr. W. Hutt, M.P., Mr. Thomas Headlam, M.P., Mr. T. B. 
Horsfall, M.P., Col. Harvey, M. T. K. Lynch, Mr. John Laird, Mr. 
Macgregor Laird, Mr. James Merry, M.P., Sir H. Maddock, Major 
Moore, Sir D. Norreys, M.P., Colonel W. Pinney, M.P., Mr. F. W. 
Russell, M.P., Sir Justin Sheil, Z.C.B., Count Strylecki, Col. Steinbach, 
Gen. Sabine, Lord Talbot de Malahide, the Lord Mayor (Mr. Alderman 
Finnia), Mr. Matthew Uzielli, Mr. W. Vansittart, M.P., Sir W. F. 
Williams of Kars, Mr. A. Denoon, Mr. L. W. Raebum, Mr. Wickham, 
M.P., Hon. A. Kinnaird, M.P., Mr. Arthur Otway, the Earl of Albemarle, 
Lord Ashley, Mr. Thomas Alcock, M.P., Mr. J. E. Anderdon, Viscount 
Bangor, Mr. W. Buchanan, M.P., Mr. F. B. Beamish, M.P., Mr. G. 
Bowyer, M.P., Dr. Boyd, M.P., Major C. Bruce, M.P., Lord Colchester, 
Lord Cloncurry, Lord Cremome, Lord R. Clinton, Sir Edw. Colebroke, 
M.P., the Hon. H. Cole, M.P., Mr. R. W. Crawford, Alderman Copeland, 
M.P., the Bishop of Durham, Lord Dufferin, the Earl of Donoughmore, 
Mr. R. Davison, M.P., Colonel Dunne, M.P., Sir James Duke, M.P., the 
Earl of Enniskillen, Earl of Erne, Lord Elcho, Sir De Lacy Evans, M,P., 
Mr, J. C. Ewart, M.P., Sir J. Elphinstone, M.P., Mr. W. Fagan, M.P., 
Sir R. Ferguson, M.P., Sir G. Foster, M.P., Mr. C. Fortescue, M.P., Mr. 
F. French, M.P., Lord Robert Grosvenor, M.P., Mr. E. Grogan, M.P., 
Mr. S. Gregson, M.P., Mr. G. Hamilton, M.P., Mr. J. H. Hamilton, 
M.P., Colonel Harvey, Mr. A. Hastie, M.P., Mr. H. Ingram, M.P,, Mr. 
W. Kirk, M.P., Mr. T. Longman, Lord Monteagle, the Earl of Mayo, 
Mr. J. R. Mowbray, M.P., Mr. R. Monckton Milnes, M.P., Sir John 
Macneill, Mr. H. A. Mackinnon, Sir Roderick Murchison, Mr. G. 


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Macartney, M.P., Mr. J. M'Cann, M.P., Mr. J. M'aintock, M.P., Mr. 
M'Evory, M.P., Mr. P. W. Martin, Mr. C. W. Martin, Mr. G. G. 
MTherson, Mr. P. North, M.P., Colonel North, M.P., the Eight Hon. 
J. Napier, M.P., Mr. C. Newdegate, M.P., Sir George Pollock, G.C.B., 
Mr. J. Pritchard, M.P., the Earl of Boden, Lord Eossmore, Lord Stanley, 
Lord Sandon, the Bishop of St. David's, Mr. E. Slaney, Mr. W. Sowerby, 
Mr A. Turner, MP., Colonel Taylor, M.P., Mr. W. ToUemache, M.P., 
Sir H. Vemey, Lord Wrottesley, Mr. Whiteside, M.P., Mr, Thos. 
Williams, Mr. J. A. Warre, M.P. 

Lord Shaftesbury introduced the deputation to Lord Palmerston, and 
pointed out in forcible language, the vast importance to this country of 
securing an altemative route to India, and the great interest generally felt 
throughout the country in this great undertaking, so calculated to promote 
commerce, civilization, and Christianity, and stated that Mr. Andrew, the 
chairman of the company, would submit to his Lordship more detailed 

Mr. Andrew, after expressing his regret for the unavoidable absence of 
Lord Stanley, said that for some years it had been considered a great 
national object to secure an alternative short route to India, but that 
recently the establishment of the route by the Euphrates had become more 
and more necessary, and more especially since it had been determined to 
open up the Yalley of the Indus by the application of steam. The great 
traffic which would pour down this valley from Central Asia and the 
Punjaub, once flowing towards Kurrachee, would naturally seek an 
outlet by the sister valley of the Euphrates, at least the lighter and more 
valuable products as well as the mails and passengers ; but the support of 
the Government was not sought on commercial grounds. That support 
was sought alone on the ground of the political importance of this ancient 
line of communication. The grand object was to connect England with 
the north-west frontier of India, by steam transit through the Euphrates 
and Indus Valleys. The latter would render moveable to either the 
Elyber or the Bolan, the two gates of India, the flower of the British 
army cantoned in the Punjaub ; and the Euphrates and Indus lines being 
connected by means of steamers, we should be enabled to threaten the 
flank and rear of any force advancing through Persia towards India.* So 





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that the invasion of India, by this great scheme, would be rendered prac- 
tically impossible; AND IT WOULD BE EVIDENT, THAT THE 
WORLD. The countries to be traversed were the richest and most 
ancient in the world, and might again become the granaries of Europe, 
and not only supply us with wheat, but with cotton of excellent quality, 
and his gallant friend, General Chesney, who had recently visited 
these regions, would tell them that there were hundreds of thousands of 
camel-loads of this valuable commodity rotting on the ground for want of 
the means of transport. Sir W. F. Williams, of Kars. would tell them 
there was no difficulty in dealing with tlie Arabs, if they were fairly 
ti'eated. The Lord Mayor, who had had iniimate commercial relations 
with the East, and Mr. Lynch, of Bagdad, who had for many years 
traded with the Arabs, would speak to the honesty and trust- 
worthiness of the Arab. As to physical difficulty there was none — ^the 
line had been surveyed and proved to be singularly easy. Her Majesty's 
Government had given their powerful influence and support in obtainmg 
the firman and concession. They had placed Her Majesty's ship, 
Stromboli, at the disposal of General Chesney and Sir John Macneill, and 
the engineering staff; and Lord Stratford de Redcliffe had lent his 
powerful advocacy with the Porte. He (Mr. Andrew) was deeply grateful 
for the assistance thus far afforded them ; but they had now arrived at 
that point when something more was absolutely necessary, and that was 
the pecuniary support of Government, to enable the capital to be raised for 
the prosecution of the work. It was not a matter for private individuals 
to undertake. If they wanted an investment for their funds, they would 
certainly not choose Turkish Arabia. The establishment of a steam route 
by the Euphrates had been placed before the public and the Government. 
Many Chambers of Commerce and other influential associations had 
already memorialised the Government in favour of granting pecuniary aid; 
and it was believed the country was anxious that this route shoiQd be 
carried out by Englishmen, and it now rested with the Government to say 
whether they concurred in the importance of the work, and if so, whether 
they would be prepared to recommend such an amount of pecuniary 
assistance, whether by guarantee or otherwise, as would enable this, the 



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most important undertakiug ever submitted to their consideration, to be 
proceeded with. 

Sir W. F. Williams, of Zars, stated that during his long residence 
amongst the Arabs he experienced no difficulty in dealing with them, or in 
procuring, during his excavations in Susa, any number of workmen he 
might require ; and he also pointed out the great importance of the pro- 
posed harbour of Seleucia, as there was not a single good harbour on the 
Syrian coast. 

Count Strylecki briefly addressed his lordship on the support of succes- 
sive Turkish Governments to the undertaking, viewing it as of incalculable 
political importance to England in relation to her Indian possessions. 

Mr. Finlay, M.P., speaking from personal acquaintance with the country 
to be traversed, dwelt on its great capacity for development, if only the 
means of transport were afforded. 

General Chesney gave full explanations regarding the harbour, as to its 
exact position, capacity, &c. 

Sir Justin Sheil, late ambassador in Persia, dwelt on the political 
importance of the line, and said that it would shorten the distance to 
Kurrachee, the European port of India by 1,400 miles. 

The Lord Mayor (Mr. Alderman Finnis) had had, through his agents, 
extensive commercial transactions with the Arabs, and had found them 
most reliable and honest ; and he considered they were as much alive to 
their own interests as any other race, and would be in favour of the rail- 
way, because it would at once give them employment and afford them an 
outlet for their produce. 

Mr. Lynch, of Bagdad, from long residence, fully confirmed the 
Lord Mayor's views. 

Mr. Horsfall, M.P., assured Lord Palmerston that the undertaking was 
viewed with great interest in the manufacturing districts generally, and 
placed in his lordship's hands a memorial from the Chamber of Commerce 
of Liverpool, praying that the Government would extend the necessary 
pecuniary aid to the Euphrates Yalley Eailway Company. 

Lord Palmerston assured the deputation that the Government were 
fully alive to the great importance of the Euphrates route, that they had 
supported, and would continue to support it ; but he could not give an 
opinion as to giving the guarantee on the capital without consulting his 
colleagues. He requested Mr. Andrew to put his proposition in writing, 
and said it should have a proper amount of consideration, and that 
Government would be happy to aid it, if in their power. 

Mr. Andrew having thimked his lordship for the courteous reception 
accorded them, the deputation withdrew, much gratified by the manner in 
which they had been received.* 

* Reprinted from The Times and Morning Herald^ of tho 23rd June, 1857. 


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Letter from W. P. Andrew, JSsq,, to the Right Hon, Viscount 
Talmersion, K,Q. 

London, June 30, 18^. 
. Mx LoBD, — ^In compliance with the desire expressed by your Lordship, 
when the deputation waited upon you on the 22nd in&tant, in favour of a 
f^arantecd rate of interest being granted by Her Majesty's Croyemment 
on a portion of the capital of the Euphrates Yalley Eailway Company, 
that the proposition should be submitted in writing, I have now the 
honour to state for your Lordship's consideration that the pecuniary 
support of Grovemment is sought on the following grounds : — 

2. The establishment of a railway from the Mediterranean to the 
Persian Gulf woidd have the effect of reducing the distance between this 
country and India by upwards of 1,000 miles and the time to about four- 
teen days, or about half the period now occupied. 

3. It would be the means of consolidating the power of the Sultan in 
his Asiatic dominions. 

4. By means of this railway, taken in conjunction with the system of 
st^am transit now being established along the valley of the Indus from 
Lahore to the sea at £urrachee,* the large force stationed in the Punjaub 
would be rendered of incalculable importance by steamers uniting the line 
of the Indus with that of the Euphrate8,t for in that case any hostile force 
advancing towards the Indus would not only be met on the line of that 
river, but would be threatened along the sea-board of the Persian Gulf 
and the line of the Euphrates in flank and rear. 

5. The Indus and the Euphrates thus united, the dangerous isolation of 
Persia would be at an end, and a Eussian invasion of India would cease 
even to be speculated upon. 

6. The first section of the line, from Seleucia to the Euphrates, haa been 
surveyed by Major-General Chesney and Sir John Macneill, with an 
engineering staff, and has been reported as of easy construction. Copies 
of the reports of these able and scientific gentlemen are annexed for your 
lordship's information. 

7. The Turkish government undertake to commence simultaneously 
with the railway the construction of a harbour at the mouth of the Orontes 
at the proposed terminus of the railway. 

8. The harbour has been surveyed by Sir John Macneill, with the 
assistance of the officers of Her Majesty's ship " Stromboli." Phms of 
the proposed works have been already submitted to the First Lord of the 
Admiralty, and they are now forwarded for your Lordship's nspection. 

* Kurrachee is not only the port of the Indus and Oentral Asia, but from its 
geographical poaition and other advantages, appears destined to become the 
European port of India. 

t This has since been accomplished by the British India Steam Navigation 
Oompanj. The Indus BaUway is BtUl incomplete. — Page 379 of this Appendix. 


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9. There being no harbour on the coast of Syria, better than the open 
roadsteads of Beyrout, Jaffa, Tripoli, and Acre, or the pestilential harbonr 
of Alexandretta, the importance of having a safe and commodious harbonr 
will be apparent for political as well as commercial purposes. 

10. This harbour, connected by means of the railway with Bussorab at 
the head of the Persian Gulf, would giye to England the first strategical 
position in the world. 

11. The resources of England being made promptly ayailable on any 
emergency in the East, Chatham and Southampton would become the 
basis of operations, instead of Eurrachee or Bombay, and would enable 
this country to anticipate or repel, whether in Europe ot Asia, any attack 
with the rapidiiy and advantages of an irresistible force. 

12. On an emergency in India, troops from England could be landed at 
Kurrachee in three weeks, and in another week at Lahore, by steam 

13. The Euphrates Valley Bailway, in addition to its political 
advantages, would powerfully promote the commerce and civilisation of 
the world at large, and that the commercial and manufacturing communi- 
ties concur in these sentiments has been shown by the addresses lately 
submitted to your Lordship. They are quite alive to the importance of 
obtaining cotton, wool, sugar, indigo, and other products from India and 
Mesopotamia, and the production, being effected by free labour, would of 
necessity tend to the extinction of slavery. 

14. Through the zealous exertions of Major-G«neral Chesney, aided by 
the advice and powerful support of Viscount Stratford de Bedcliffe, a 
concession was granted by the Turkish Grovemment in the early part of 
this year, guaranteeing a minimum rate of interest of 6 per cent, on the 
capital required for the first section from the Mediterranean to the 
Euphrates, besides affording other privileges. 

16. But as these terms, from the state of the money-market and other 
causes, have neither been, nor are likely to be, sufficiently attractive to 
induce the British capitalist to embark his money in a distant enterprise 
the deputation, of which I had the honour of being a member, waited upon 
your Lordship with the view of impressing upon your attention the absolute 
necessity of the pecuniary support of Her Majesty's Government being 
extended to the undertaking, in the event of the GU>vemment concurring 
in the opinion expressed by the deputation, that the Euphrates Valley 
BaUway was a work of great national importance. 

16. It was most satisfactory to the deputation to have from your Lord- 
ship the assurance that Her Majesty's Government entirely concurred 
with the deputation as to the great importance to this country of con* 
necting England and India by the Euphrates Valley route, and that it 
would continue to receive the countenance and ftirtherance of 


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17. The financial support required from Her Majesty's Grovemment is a 
counter guarantee of 5 per cent, for twenty -five years, or 4i per cent, for 
fifty years, on the capital of £1,4^,000 for the firsit section. The respon- 
sibility incurred by the Government in granting this assistance wotdd, it 
is believed, be merely nominal, and could only accrue in the event of two 
contingencies — the railway not paying a moderate dividend, and the 
Turkish Grovemment failing to fulfil its part of the contract. 

18. Only under the above circumstances could Her Majesty's Grovem- 
ment be called upon to make any contribution, and it will be seen by 
reference to Sir J. Macneill's E/cport, that the existing traffic upon that 
portion of the route of the proposed railway is sufficient in his judgment 
to yield a dividend of 8 per cent, on the capital required. 

19. The East India Company might fairly be expected to share the 
responsibility of the counter guarantee, in the same way as they have 
already contributed to the subsidy to the European and Indian Junction 
Telegraph Company, as the establishment of the proposed route appears 
to be of vital importance for securing the good government and peaceable 
possession of India. 

20. The experienced and distinguished gentlemen with whom I had the 
honour of being associated in waiting upon your Lordship, on the 22nd 
instant, are well aware that the question of the Grovemment guaranteeing 
interest on an industrial undertaking is not free from difficulty, and this 
difficulty would be increased if, on the present occasion, the granting of the 
guarantee might hereafter be quoted as a precedent for similar demands. 

21. The pecuniary support of Grovemment is on the present occasion 
sought, not on industrial or commercial considerations, but on account of 
the political importance of the railway to the empire at large ; and it is 
to be remembered that whatever assistance the Government may render 
to the Euphrates Yalley JRailway, can never be quoted as a precedent for 
the j^therance of any similar undertaking, for no similar undertaking can 
possibly be brought forward, as the route proposed is at once the shortest 
and the easiest between England and India, the whole length of the 
valley of the Euphrates is so free firom impediment, that it would seem as 
if Providence had specially ordained it to be the great highway of nations 
between the East and the West. 

22. I beg to call your Lordship's attention to the accompanying memo* 
randum by Sir Justin Shell, on the political advantag o g (^ wt m ight fairly 
be expected to accrue to England by the proposed Euphrates YaUey 
Kailway being in the hands of Englishmen, and to the annexed report of 
the evidence in the committee of the House of Commons on the European 
and Indian Junction Telegraph Company, to the effect that no danger is 
to be apprehended to the construction of either a telegraph or a railway 
from the Arabs on the banks of the Euphrates and Tigris. 

28. In confiding to the consideration of Her Majesty's Grovemment 


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what is believed to be the most important work, viewed in all its bearings, 
that was ever submitted to any Government, I must state the general 
conviction that the Euphrates route will most assuredly pass into other 
hands if England declines the task. 

24. I beg again to express, on behalf of the deputation, their grateful 
sense of your Lordship's consideration and courtesy. 

I have the honour, &o., 

W. P. ANDEEW, Chairman. 
The Eight Hon. Viscount Palmerston, E.G. 

Beport of the Select Committee* of the House of Commons, on the 
Ettphrates Valley Railway, dated 22nd July, 1872. Extracts. 

Thb Select Comhittee appointed to Examine and Beport upon the 

whole subject of Eailway Communication between the Mediterranean, 

the Black Sea and the Persian Qulf, have considered the matters to 

them referred, and have agreed to the following Beport : — 

Tour Committee have to report that, in compliance with the directions 

of your Honourable House, they have taken evidence upon the whole 

subject of railway communication between the Mediterranean, the Black 

Sea and the Persian Gulf. 

They find that at the present time no such communication exists, nor is 
any plan for establishing it in course of execution, though it has been 
stated to them that the Turkish Government has it in contemplation to 
extend the line of railway now in course of construction from Scutari 
towards Bagdad, thereby connecting Constantinople and the Black Sea 
with the Yalley of the Tigris, whence the line might at a future time 
be continued to the Persian Gulf. The Russian system qf railways is 
nearly completed as far as Tiflis, and may shortly be expected to reach 
Beched on the Busso-Persian firontier. It is surmised that this system 
also might at a fliture time be extended to the Qulf, which would thus be 
brought into communication with the Black Sea at PoU. This is, however, 
as yet, mere matter of speculation. 

It has seemed to them (the Committee) that they would most properly 
discharge their functions by confining their attention to the question of 
establishing a route to the Persian Gxdf from some port on the Mediter- 
ranean, to which British ships could at all times have easy and uncontrolled 
access, and which would be likely to be available, whenever required, for 

* The Committee was oomposed of the following members :^Sir Stafford 
Korthcote, Bart. ; Yisooont Sandon ; Sir George Jenkinson, Bart. ; Hon. Fred. 
Walpole; Mr. Eaatwiok; Mr. Baillie Cochrane; Mr. Laird; Mr. Grant Duff; 
Hon. Arthur Einnaird ; Mr. Brassey ; Sir Charles Wingfield ; Mr. Henry Eobert 
Brand ; Mr. M' Arthur ; Mr. Byoe Kicol ; Mr. Eirkman Hodgson. This Com- 
mittee was appointed on the motion of Sir Gteorge Jenkinson.— W. P. A. 


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the traneiniBBion of troops and mails, as well as passengers and goods, to 

Upon this point they haye not only taken the evidence of a number of 
official and non-officisd witnesses, but hare also obtained, through the 
kindness of the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, a series of reports 
from certain of Her Majesty's consuls, who were considered by his lord- 
ship to be the best qualified to furnish yaluable information on the subject. 
These reports, which are highly interesting, will be found in the 

The evidence which your Committee have taken, and to which much 
more might have been added, has satisfied them that there is no insuper- 
able obstacle in the way of the construction of a railway from some 
suitable port in the Mediterranean to some other suitable port at or near 
the head of the Persian Gulf; that there is more than one port which 
might be selected at either end of the line; that there are several 
practicable routes ; that there would be no difficidty in procuring the neces- 
sary supply of labour and of materials for constructing a railway ; and 
that there need be no apprehension of its being exposed to injuiy by 
natives, either during the process of its construction or after it shall have 
been completed. They find, too, that there is reason to expect the 
sanction, if not the active concurrence, of the Turkish Grovernment, in 
any well-conceived project that may be presented to them. 

So far as the information ' they have obtained goes, they are disposed 
to prefer Alexandretta to Tripoli as the point of departure, even for a line 
down the right bank of the Euphrates ; while, shoidd a line down the 
Tigris be preferred, or should it be thought desirable to connect the new 
line with the projected Turkish system, there can be no doubt of the 
superiority of the former terminus. 

As regards the terminus on the Persian Gulf, your Committee are 
decidedly of opinion that it would be better to carry the line to some point 
where it might be brought into communication with the steam-vessela 
which are now under Gt>vemment subvention to carry the mails, and 
which ply from the Indian ports to Bussorah, than to continue it along 
the coast to Elurrachee by a very expensive and probably unremunerative 
route. Of the particidar ports which have been mentioned, they are 
inclined to prefer the port of Grane ; but upon this point, as well as upon 
the selection of a port on the Mediterranean, they think that a local 
inquiry, conducted by competent scientific authorities, with a special 
reference to the purpose in view, would be desirable. 

Passing from the question of the termini to that of the route itself, 
your Committee find that the arguments in favour of, and against, the 
Euphrates and the Tigris routes respectively, may be thus stated : — 

The Euphrates route is considerably the shorter, would be the cheaper 
to make ; and, ajwuming an equal rate of speed, would afford the quicker 


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passage for persons, troops, or mails passing between England and India. 
The Tigris route might attract the larger amonnt of traffic, and would 
connect itself better with the projected Turkish system. 

Among the witnesses whose evidence tends most strongly to support 
the policy of incurring the cost or risk of a national guarantee, your 
Committee may mention Viscount Stratford de Eedclifie, Lord Strath- 
naim, Sir H. Bartle Frere, Sir Donald Macleod, Mr. Laing, Colonel Sir 
H. Green, Colonel Malcolm Green, Captain Tyler, E.E., Mr. W. Gifford 
Palgrave, &c. 

Among those who suggest considerations tending to throw doubt on 
the propriety of such an expenditure, your Committee would call attention 
to the evidence of Lord Sandhurst^ Sir H. Eawlinson, Major Cham- 
pain, &c. 

Your Committee have not obtained full information as to the cost of 
any of the lines which have been proposed ; but they think it probable 
that the sum of £10,000,000 would be amply sufficient to cover the expense 
of the shortest route, at all events. 

What then are the advantages which the country might expect to gain 
from this possible expenditure P They are principally those to be derived 
from the more rapid transmission of mails, and from the possession of an 
alternative and more rapid route for the conveyance of troops ; and from 
the great commercial advantages, both to India and England, which the 
opening up of the route would confer. 

The amount of time that might be saved in the transmission of mails 
from England to Bombay is variously estimated by different witnessest 
some placing it at four days, others as high as seven or eight days ; but it 
must of course materially depend upon, first, the length of the railway, 
and secondly, the rate of speed at which the trains can travel, which again 
depends partly upon the gauge to be adopted, and thus the question is 
resolved into one of cost. Captain Tyler, B.E., who has gone carefully 
into the question, states the saving of distance by the Euphrates route 
from London vid Brindisi and Scanderoon to Bombay, as compared with 
that vid Brindisi, Alexandria and Suez, at 723 miles, and estimates the 
saving of time at 92 hours. The adoption of Kurrachee as the point of 
debarkation instead of Bombay, would of courS^e materially enhance the 
saving, and during the season of the monsoon the gain woidd be increased 
by avoiding the Indian Ocean. 

But nearly all the witnesses concur as to the importance of having a 
second or alternative route available in case of the first being impeded,* or 

* It has already been mentioned that in Sir Ghmet Wolseley's opinion '* the 
largest ironcladB could not paas by the canal, and it was evident that it would be 
the etuiett maUer m» ths world to stop the traffic on that canal. It might be done 
by a few barges, by one good large torpedo, by a vessel laden with dynamite or 
powder and taken to certain positions in the canal, where they would do enough 
damage to stop the canal for a year." — W.F.A 



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in case of an emergency arisins^, which might call for the rapid dispatch of 
troops, especially if they were wanted in the north-west of India. 

The importance of the proposed route by way of the Persian Gnlf 
would of course be materially enhanced, especially as regards the conrey- 
ance of troops, by the completion of the works now in progress at the 
harbour of Kurraohee, and of the Indus Valley, and the Lahore and 
Peshawur Bailways. Tour Commiti^ have therefore taken the eyidence 
of Mr. Thornton, the Secretary to the Public Works Department at the 
India Office, and of Mr. Parkes, the consulting engineer to the Secretary 
of State for India for the harbour at £urrachee, who haye spoken most 
favourably of the works now in progress there. Your Committee gather 
from the evidence of these gentlemen that the harbour, which is already 
available for the landing of troops and mails, will in the course of two 
more years be capable of receiving the large Indian troop-ships. TELE Y 

Speaking generally, your Committee are of opinion that the two routes 
by the Red Sea and by the Persian Gulf, might be maintained and used 
simidtaneously ; that at certain seasons and for certain purposes the 
advantage would lie with the one, and at other seasons and for other 
liurposes it would lie with the other ; that it may fairly be expected that 
in process of time traffic enough for the support of both would developo 
itself, but that this result must not be expected too soon; THAT THE 

• Vide pp. 369 and 379 of this Appendix. 


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From the Under Secretary of State for India to W. P. Andrete, JBsq,, 
Chairman qf the, Scinde, Pw^'aub, and Delhi BaiUoay Company, 
regarding the approaching completion qf the Indue Valley State BtUltoay. 

' India Office, I5th March, 1877. 

Sis, — ^With reference to the correspondence noted in the margin,* I 

• Lettan from Mr. am directed by the Marqnis of Salisbiiry to acquaint 

u^'^ eu2i£ toSSi yon for the information of the Scinde, Ponjaub, and 

WTC? (isro**896)?2S^^ ^«^ EaUway Board, that his LordsMp has received 

Ja&auy« 1877, (Ko. 906). a letter from the GU>Temment of India relative to the 

Letters from Under 8«orft- j. ^t t i -rr « «■..-» .^ 

tai7 of sute for India, to progress of the Indos V alley State Bailway, from 
and sut Jannary, 1877. which the following is an extract : — 

" The section of the line from Mooltan to Chnnni Ghate, and thence by 
a temporary surface line to a point on the Sutlej below its junction with 
the Chenab has now been opened for goods traffic, and thus is saved 
the difficult navigation in the Chenab, thereby adding some 20 to 30 per 
cent, to the carrying power of the Flotilla in correspondence with the 
Scinde, Punjaub, and Dehli Eailway. The passage over the SuUej at 
Bahawulpore is e£fected by a temporary bridge in the dry season, and by 
ferry in the rains." 

It is estimated that, with the exception of the bridges over the Sutlej 
and the Indus, the line throughout will be finished by the end of the pre- 
sent year, vis., the Section from Kotri to Sukkur by June, and that from 
Chunni Ghote to £otri by Deoember. 

I am, Sir, 

Your obedient Servant, 



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Abbas, the Prophet's uncle, 318 

Abdalee, 164 

Abdalee Shah, 146 

Abdul Wahab, 25 

Aboo, Mount, 214 

Aboobakhr, 319 

Aborigines, 198, 244 

Xbors, 246, S34 

Abyssinia, 12 

Abyssinian Sidee, 234 

Acheen, 341 

Achille, Talma's, 365 

Achmuty, Sir S., 258 

Acre, 373 

Adam's Bridge, 349 

Aden, 284, 346 

Adil Shah of Beejanuggur, 66 

Adjutant birds, 14 

^raun, 205 

Afghan (rulers), 47 ; (nobles), 50 ; 

(inroad of), 56—113, 154, 156, 

157; (king), 165, 207, 185; 

(State). 197; (trade), 311 
Afghanistan, 1, 56. 146, 157, 164, 

183, 185; (war), 186—310, 

312,313,315, 323 
Afghans, 23, 89, 50, 56, 58, 119, 

170 ; (half castes), 190—313, 

Africa (East coast), 297, 308; 

(East Central), 345, 346, 347 
African traYeller(LiYingstone), 285 

Afzul Ehan (murdered), 67 

Afzal-ud-Daula, 241 

Agas, 65 

Agencies, political, 237, 244 

Agra, 53, 55, 68, 93, 102, 150; (or 
Akbarabad), 150, 151 ; (descrip- 
tion of), 152—311 

Agra, battle of, 50, 51 

Agriculture, 272, 285, 286 pastim 

Ahalya Bhye Queen of Indore, 
good reign, 96, 97; loss of 
children, 98 ; character, 98 

Ahmad. 42 

Ahmed Ehan Bahadur (See Meer), 

Ahmedabad, 121, 124, 236, 290 

Ahmed Shah (Durance king). 157, 
163, 164, 313; Emperor of 
Delhi, 59 

Ahmednuggur, 53, 57, 62, 66, 67 
„ (defence of), 86, 87 

Ahsonoola (Royal Physician), 159 

Aiass (father of Noormahal), 54, 93 

Ainsworth, W. F., 298, 345, 368 

Aitcheson (n\ 362 

Aix-la-GhapeUe, peace of, 261 

Ajit, 364, 366 

^mere {See Ajmeer), 18, 51, 183. 

Ajmeer (See ^mere), 51 

Ajunta, 65 

Akbar (the Great), 49, 52 ; (liber- 
ality), 52 ; (conquests), 53 ; (titles, 
death, tomb, dominions), 53, 54, 

35 • 


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57, 62, 66; (successors), 66, 

70. 83, 86, 90, 118, 150, 161, 

153, 156, 158, 162, 203, 205 ; 

(house 0^, 207-209, 211, 237, 

248, 313, 314, 320 
AkbarKhan, 313, 314 
Akbarabad {See Agra), 150 
Akyab (Arracan), 133 
Alamgire IL, 145, 146 
Albemarle, Earl of, 368 
Albuquerque, 125, 253, 255 
Alcock, Thomas, M.P.. 868 
Aleppo, 294, 328 
Aleppy, 300 
Alexander (the Great), 22, 36; 

(invasion of India), 34, 35, 169, 

312, 319; (his officers), 36 
Alexandretta, 373, 376 
Alexandria, 377 
Alexandrovsk (fort of), 826 
Ali, son-in-law of Prophet, 24, 31 9, 

Ali, king of Ghuzni, 42 
Ali Gohur, afterwards Shah Alam 

II., 146, 147 (See Shah Alam). 
Aliverdi Khan, Viceroy of Bengal, 

Aliwal, battle of, 187 
AUa the Sanguinary, 47, 62, 64 ; 

(invades Deccan), 65 ; Guzerat, 

Alla-ud-Deen, Sultan of Delhi, 

211 ; See Alia the Sanguinary 
Allah, 40 
Allahabad, 5. 124. 139, 146; 

(described), 147; (sanctity), 

148; 153,290,811 
Allies of the French, 128, p<iS8im 
Alligators, 14 
AUyghur, 359 
Almora, 3 
Alompra, 335 
Aloysius Reinhardt (See Rein- 

hardt and Zafeurayab Khan), 103 
Alps, 3 
Altamish, father of Princess Rezia, 

Alwar, 213, 250 

Amarkantak, 226 

Ambeyla campaign, 315 

Amboyna, 342 

Ameer, ISb, passim 

Ameer Ehan, Pindaree chief, 210, 

Ameer of Eashgar. 323, 324 
Ameers of Scinde, 175, 186 
Amerapura, 335 
America, 252, 282, S. 285 ; 286, 

294, 346 
American Civil War, 123, 266, 

270, 280. 307. 308 
„ Cotton. 27] 
„ Silver Mines, 307, 308 
Amherst, Lord, 177, 184 
Ammercote, 51 
Amu or Oxus (See Oxus) 
Anarchy, 49 
Ancient India {See India), 36; 

(routes of commerce), 290 
Anderdon, J. E., 368 
Andipal, king of Lahore, 38 
Andrew, W. P., 316, 330, 368, 

369, 371, 375, 878 
Andyan, Ameer of Kashgar, 324 
Anglo-Indians, 858 
Anhulwarra, 40; (destroyed), 65, 

Anstruther, P., 368 
Antimony, 336 
Antioch, 328, 329 
Apostle Thomas, 28 
Apples. 13 

Appo Dessaje. 362, 363 
Apricots, 13 
Arab(conquest),22,123; (prophet), 

24, 62; (rulers), 344, 345 
Arabia, 68. 252, 345, 347; 

(Turkish), 370 
Arabian Peninsula, 344 
Arabian Sea, 5, 37, 175, 290, 310, 

Arabic, 23, 349 

Arabs, 169. 295, 349, 370, 871 
Arakan (See Arracan), 335 
AravuUi hills, 6 
Archipelago, Eastern, 338, 389 


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Arcot, defence of, 1S6; 127, 129, 

130, 106 
Area of India, 2 
Argaum, battle of, 76 
Ajjamund Banu, 89 

„ Her rise and influence, 


„ Becomes wife of Shah 

Jehan ; {See T^j Mahal) 
Armenia, 328 
Annies of Native States, 245, 246, 

Army, British, 146, passim 
Arracan, 56; Sujah slain in, 56, 

133, 335 
Arrian, 36, 64 
Arsilla, 42 
Art, 21 

Arthur. Sir F. L., 368 
Arungzebe {See Aurungzebe 
Aryan, 20, 21 ; (settlers). 21, 22, 

23, 24, 29; conquering race, 

Aseph Jah, 85 
Aseph Khan, 84-91, 238, 
Ashley, Lord, 368 
Asia, 39, 139, 146, 151, 164, 173, 

191, 373 
Asia, Central, 48, 49, 193, 290, 

294, 318, 319; politics of, 

323 — 345, 330, 372, passim 
Asia Minor, 328, 330 
Assam, 1, 7, 11, 12, 17, 20, 176, 

197, 245. 278, 334. 335 

„ (Tea Company), 278 
Assaye, battle of, 76. 240 
Assessment, land, 302 
Assyria, 89 
Asterabad, 321 
Atbenseus, 36 
Aljeh or Acheen, 341 
Atonement (Divine), 26 
Atreck, 326 
Attar of roses, 13 
Attock. 10!=*, 169 
Augustus, ambassador to, 64 
Aurungabad, 72 
Aurungzebe, Emperor of Hin- 

dostan, 49, 53, 54, 55 ; (cha- 
racter), 56, 57 ; death, 57—60. 
66, 69 ; his daughter, 69 ; latter 
years of, 70, 71, 72, 94, 95, 
113, 118; (admires English), 
120; sells them three villages, 
236—152, 126, 203, 207, 209, 
148, 313, 314 

Australia, 9, 15, 272, 273, 286, 
389, 296, 342 

Australoid races, 20 

Ava, 335 

Azim, Prince, 136 


Babeb, Khan of Kokhand, 49 
„ (Emperor of Hindostan) 
reign of, 44. 49, 50 ; character, 
51; his son, 23; 51, 54, 163. 
199, 203; House of, 209, 313. 

Babylon, 312 

Back Bay, 122 

Bactria, 312 

Badjazet. 48, 305 

Badul, 33. 

Bagdad, 39. 294, 370, 375 

Baghat K^ah, 221 

Bagonath Rao. 96 

Bagulkhan, 225, 226 

Bahar {See Behar) 142, 146, 147 

Bahadour Khan. 83 

Bahadour Nizam Shah. 86 

Bahadour Shah, 57, 153 

Bahmani kings, 121 

Baidar, 62. 66 

Baillie's force cut up. 128 

Baird, Sir David, 241 

Bajazet {See Badjazet). 48 

Bajee Rao, 72, 75 

Bajee Rao II. (Last Peishwa), 76, 
76; pensioned, death, 77 

Bajee Singh, 210 

Bajra, 12 

Be^er, African traveller, 308 

Balajee Bajee Rao, 72 

Balasore, 256 


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Balham, 351 

Balid Shahis, 66 

Balkan Gulf, 326 

Balkh. 37, 40, 312 

Balol Lodi, 156 

Baltistan, 219 

Bamboo, 4, 1 1 

Banda, 342 

Bangor, Viscount, 368 

Banjara tribe, 359 

Bankok, 337 

Banner of Tippoo, 131 

Banyan tree, 1 1 

Bappa Bawul, 364 

Baptist Mission, 258 

Bareillj, 9, 150, 256 

Barley, 12 

Barlow, Sir George, 182 

Barnes, George, 368 

Baroch, or Broach, 121 

Baroda, 121, 223, 232, 233, 236, 
237, 251, 290 

Barrackpore, 135, 138 

Barukzai Chief, 314 

Basein {See Bassein), treaty of, 75 

BcGshi Bazouks, 247 

Bassahir, 221 

Bassein, 133 ; captured, 178, 255 

Bassorah, 375 {See Bussorah) 

Bastile 264 

Batavia, capital of Java, 340, 341 

Batta, 184 

Battlesof Beypore, 129 ; Buxar,145 

Battles, 186, 228, passim 

Bavaria, King of, 249 

Bay of Bengal, 1, 5, 132, 153, 163, 
175, 290, 291. 258, 259 

Bayard, The Chevalier, 50 

Beamish, F. B. (M.P.). 368 

Bears, 13 

Beejanuggur, 62; Hindu kingdom 
of, 62, 64 

Beejapore-Bijapur,66,67,69; king- 
dom of, 68; subdued, 70, 7J, 
121 ; Admiral of, 234, 238 

Begum {See *' Kbudsia),'* <* Se- 

Begum Sumroo, early life and 

characteristics, 101, 102, 103 ; 
dies, 104 ; character and anec- 
dotes of, 105, 106, 107 

Begums, the, 179 

Behar {See Bahar), 25, 142, 146. 
147, 281, 282 

Bekovich, Prince, 326 

Belgaum, 233 

Belgium, 18 

Bellasis A. F. 368 

Beloch, 171 

Beloochee, 175; ethnology, 311, 

Beloochistan, 175, 310, 311, 313 

Beluchistan (Beloochistan), 1 

Benares, pillaged, 45; (Bajah), 
179; 281, 355 

Bengal (Lower), 7. 9, 11, 12 ; ooal 
fields, 16, 17, 20. 22, 23, 24, 28. 
40; Government, 132, 134; 
Mogul Viceroy of, 135, 186. 
137, 138; Nawab of, 142 ; Pre- 
sidency, 145-158, 166, 167, 
176; King of, 177; Ex-Nawab, 
178-184; 193, 202, 203, 244, 
257. 281, 302, 305, 332. passim 

Bengal Army revolts, 189 

Bengal Sepoys — characteristics. 

Bentinck, Lord William, 177, 242, 

Berar, 12, 18: Rajahs of, 181, 
247, 363; ceded, 239 

Berawghies, 206 

Berlin, 322 

Bemier, 60, 61 

Betel nut, 12 

Betwa, 225 

Beypore, 129 

Beyrout, 373 

Bhamo, 336 

Bhatiya, 172 

Bhaugenittee, 142 

Bhawul Khan, 218 

Bhawulpore-Bhawulpur, 198, 218; 
Nawab of, 218-251 

Bheels, 19, 236, 237 

Bhokara (See Bokhara), 325 


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Bhopal, Begum of, lU, 115, 116; 
Shah Jehan, 117, 198 

Bhopal, 113,225, 281. 251 

Bhurtpore, stormed, 184, 218, 214 

Bhutan, 331, 382, 838, 334 

Bhutias. 384 

Biana, 202 

Bible, the, 46 

Bidara, 157 

Bikanir, 211, 250 

Bikramajat, Rana, 203 

Binne, 88, 67 

Bird of Paradise, 

Bishop Heber (See Heber), 106 

Bithoor, 78 

„ Nana of, 148 

Black currants, 18 

Black Hole (of Calcutta), 135, 
136. 140, 257 

Black Sea, 875 

" Black Watch," the, 315 

Black wood, 13 

Bobadil, 201 

Bogle's Mission, 331 

Bogra, 331 

Bokhara, 89; great library, 46, 
826 327 

Bolan'Pass, 170. 174, 290, 295, 
811, 312, 816, 869, a70 

Bombay (Government), 2 ; 6, 7, 28; 
acquired, 118. 121; described, 
122. 123; merchants, 125-129: 
132, 162n., 176. 194, 198,288. 
284, 240. 251, 299; Govern- 
ment, 243, 268, 269, 271, 272, 
274, 28 1 , 288, 289. 290, 296,877 

Bom Jesus, 254, 256 

Boomerang, 20 

Boors, 336 

Bootan, 24 (Bhutan) 

Bopal, Begum of, 116 

Borneo, 338. 342 

Bosla family, 67, 284 

Bosphorus, 295 

Boughton, Mr., surgeon. 185 

Boulanoflf, Admiral. 326 

Boundaries of India, 1 and p€i8Hm 

Bourbon, 182 

Bowhanee (goddess). 8^ 
Bowyer, G. (M.P.). 368 
Boyd, Dr. (M.P.). 868 
BragauQa, Catherine of. 122 
Brahma, 71 
Brahmaputra, 5; f delta), 7; 183, 

Brahmin. Bralimins, 25, 29, 30, 

86, 40; petition, 47; dynasty, 

65, 66; Peishwas. 71. 72, 98, 

179. 199, 205, 206, 229, 242 ; 

bullocks. 14, paedffi 
Brahmini Dynasty, 65. 66 
Brahminee bulls. 143 
Brahminism. 26 
Brahui. 170 
Brama, 69 
Brand. H R., 875 
Brassey. Mr.. 875 
Brasyer^s Sikhs. 148 
Brathwaite defeated, 179 
Brigg's " Ferishta." 
Britain, Great, 142, 299 
British. 75, 128. 164. 178, 299 

British Army, 185-187 
British Burmah, 11, 12. 13, 18, 
24, 27, 133, 176, 248. 281, 335 
British Crown. 18; servants of, 


.. Dominions, 110 
Dragoons, 158 

,. Embassy. 136 

., Empire, 240 

„ Envoy, 391, 322 

„ Flag, 297 
Force, 210 

„ Government, 77, 108, 1 09, 


„ Governors, 117 

„ Islands. 18 

„ Made dynasty, 861 

„ Officers, 239, 234; mur- 

dered, 188 

,. Outposts, 185 

„ Power, 208, 885 

„ Protection, 212 

Resident (Indore), 231 



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British Rule. 36. 79. 118, 136, 

155. 239 

.. Seamen, 108 
Ships. 375 

„ Soldiers, 161 

,. Sovereign. 117 

,, Supremacy, 206 
British India, 133, 169. 233, 235. 

815. 818, 378 

., Steam Navigation Com- 
pany, 346, 3Y2 
Britons, 21 

Broach {See Braoch), 121 
Brooke, Sir J., 342 
Browne. Horace. 336 
Bruce. Major (M.P.). 368 
Brydon. Dr., 314 
Buchanan, W. (M.P.), 368 
Buckingham, Duke of, Governor of 

Madras, 193 
Buddha. 26, 331 
Budget, Indian. 291 
Budhism. 26, 332 
Budhist, 26, 331, 336; monks, 

331; pilgrims. 332, 349 
Budlee Serai, 233 
Budmashees, 166 
Buffaloes, wild, 13; 14 
Bukkur, 163, 170 
Bukkur, Isle of. 170 n 
Bullocks. Brahmin, 14 
Bundee (Raos of, 215), 250 
Bundelas, 225 

Bandelkhund, 189, 225. 251 
Buonaparte's designs, 322 
Burdwan, 17 
Burgundy, Dukes of, 311 
Burke. 180 

Bumahy, Captain Fred., 325 
Burmah. British {See British Bur- 

Burmah, 1, 16, 27; king of, 183. 

189-299, 305, 331; king of, 

335 ; historyand description. 336 
Burman arrogance, 335 : yoke, 244 
Burmese, 334; War, First and 

Second. 133. 184 
Burrumdeo. 357 

Burton. African trareller, 306 
Bussorah. Railway, 373, 876, 

Bussy defeats Mahomed All, 72, 
127; made prisoner, 128, 268, 

Buxar. battle of, 146. 258 

Byron's •* Lambro," 31 

By ram, 42 

Byzantine Empire, 319 


Cable, the Eurracbee, 289 
Cabral, Pedro, 252, 253 
Cabul— Cabool. 51, 67, 108, U9, 

138,224, 310.313,818 
Cacbar, 12. 245 
CsBsars, the. 199 
Cafoor. Alla*s general, 65 
Cahutrias, 29, 36 
Calcutta— trade, 7, 16, 25, 108, 

122. 123. 124. 129, 132, 135, 

136. 137 ; importance of, 137 ; 

description — cathedral, 137, 

138; volunteers, 139-143.147. 

155,162, J 67. 179, 258, 5^64. 

271, 272. 273. 274, 275. ftbl, 

289, 296. 311, 340 
Calicoes, 271 
Calicut— captured, 74, 125, S{^2; 

Dutch at, 256 
Califate, 24 
Calpee, 112 

Cambay. Gulf of, 6, 22. 124, 336 
Campaign, Persian, 322 
Campbell. Sir C, 150 
Campbell, Dr., 334 
Canal and Canals, 288, dOl. 305. 

Canal, Suez, 296, 297, 298, S46 
Candahar, 53, 218, 312 
Canarese, 20 
Cannanore, 253 

Canning, Lady, 139; dies, IM 
Canning, Lord — first Yieevoj of 

India, 117, 177, 189; revolt of 

Beogal Army, 190; digoified 

attitude, 190 ; India truiBferrod 


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to the Crown, 191 ; created 

an Earl, 193, 855. 362 
Canouje, 30, 37, 39, 44, 64, Q09 
Cape Coraorin, 6. 38, 39, 53, 61, 

119, 173, '^43 
Cape Delgaiio, 345 
Cape of Good Hope, 1 19, 252 ; (of 

storma), ti5-2, 266, 294-296, 346 
Cape Guardafui, 347 
Cape Negrais, 7 
*' Capua," the Indian, 166 
Caravans, 311 
Cardaraons, 13 
Carej, 28, 25» 
Carnac, defeats Scindiah, 147, 

x78; 197; 228, 360 
Carnarvon, Earl of, 268 
Carnatic, 40, 65, 74, 87 ; invaded, 

99; Nawab of, 126-128, 129, 

141, 177; Sovereign of. 259; 

French in, 261 . 
Carnelions, 15 
Carrying trade, 295 
Carwar, 7, 299 
Cash gar (Kashgar), death of king 

of, 41 
Cashmere, wool, 14, 18, 24, 27, 38, 

89, 53, 61, 101; shawls, 105; 

erected into a tributary State, 

187-197, 198, 218; valley of, 

219-221, 324 
Cfispian Sea, 321, 322, 326, 329 
Caste. 21, 26 n, 28, 29 ; or colour, 

Cathedral, of Calcutta, 137; of 

Goa, 254 ; built by Begum 

Sumroo, 102 
Catherine of Braganca, 122 
Catmandoo, capital of Nepaul, 

882, 883 
Cattle, 286 ; wild. 859 
Cavaree — Cavery. 133, 258 
Gave temples, Ajunta and Ellora, 

65; Kanhari, 124; Elephanta, 

124, Ac. 
Cawnpore. 78, 148, 149, 181, 811 
•' Celestiab," the, 325 
Celts, 20 

Central Asia. 46, 48, 49, 290 

„ Politics, 325-369 
Central Europe, 330 

„ India, 2, 23, 33, 113, 115, 

Central Indian Agency, 226-250, 

Central Provinces, 18, 19. 24, 250, 

Cereals. 272, 274, 275 
Ceylon. 2, 27, 178; Dutch in, 255, 

258, 267-296. 344, 349: pro- 
ducts, scenery, &c., 350, 351; 

Prince of Wales' visit, 35 1 ; 

area, population, &c., 352 
Chairman of Scinde, Punjab and 

Delhi Railway Company, 379 
Chalybes 172 
Charaba (State), 221 
Champain, Major, 37 ») 
Champion's Sepoys, 224 
Chand Sultana, ^6 ; put to death, 

87 ; heroine of Deccan, 87 
Chancellor of tlie Exchequer, 298 
Chanderi captured, 50 
Chandernagor-e, 101; taken, 140: 

restored, 140,259: taken, 262: 

Prince of Wales' visit, 264 
Character of the people of India, 

Chardjuy, 327 
Charii, 253 
Charism, king of, 39 
Charles II., 118, 122, 146 
Charles V., 49, 50 
Charlewood, Admiral, 298 
Chamock, Job, 135 
Chatanatti villages bought, 1 36 
Chawura race, 364 
Cheetore— siege, 83, 199, 200, 

201, 202; destroyed, 208, 867 
Chenab. 169; scarcely navigable, 

Chesney, General. ?98, 368, 370, 

Cheyt Sing deposed, 179 
Chichester, Earl of, 368 
Chief Commissioner, 183, 176 


zed by Google 



Chiefships, AborigiDal, 197; Na- 
tive, 245 
Chikislar, 326 
Chillianwalla, battle of, 1 88 
Chimnajep, 255 
Chin Eillick Khan, 288 
China, 27. 178. 269, 278, 277, 

278 ; tea cultivation, 279, 280, 

282, 288. 289, 296, 297, 322 ; 

and Hussia, 825; obstructive, 

88U385, 886, 889, 845 
Chinchona, 12, 282 
Chincona (Chinchona), cultivation 

of, Ac, 282 
Chinese, 280, 281; in Yunnan, 

825; soldiers, 832-837, 338; 

in Java, 340 - 
Chingis Khan, 822, 328 (See 

Ghengiz Khan) 
Chinsurah— Dutch at, 256, 257 

Taken by British, 258 
Chitore, 58 (See Cheetore) 
Chittagong, 1 

Chohan Eajpoots, 214, 287 
Choka River, 855 
Cholas, in Congeveram, 64 
Chota Nagpore, 245 
Chota Oodeypore, 236 
Christ, 26 
Christian rulers, 25 ; villages, 254 ; 

mission, 259-295 
Christianity, 26, 102 
Christians, 28, 32; Native, 183, 

150; Roman, 258-257 
Chumbi class, 860 
Chiimbul, 213, 229 
Chunda Sahib, Nawab, 129 
Chunni Ghate, 379 
Chusero, son of Byram, 42 ; son 

of Jehangire imprisoned, 54 
Chuttur Singh, 314 
. „ II., 42, 47 
Cinnamon, 348, 850 
Circars, Northern, 262 
Cis-Sutlej States, 102, 222, 228, 

Citron, 13 
Glapham, 351 

Clement, C. B.. 285 

Cleopatra, 54, 89 

Climate of India, 8, 242 

Clinton, Lord R., 368 

Clive (Lord), 126, 127; takes 
Arcot, 127; his genius, 128; 
victor at Beypore, 129, 135, 136, 
140; victor of Plassy, 141, 
142 ; master Of Southern India, 
166; his renown, 177; leaves 
India, 178-257, 262, 265 

Cloncurry, Lord, 368 

Clothing. 270 

Cloves, 348 

Clytemnestra, n 864 

Coal, 5, 12 ; England and Austria, 
15; fields, 16,270 

Coast, Coromandel, 7 

Coast, Malabar, 75 

Coasting trade, 260 

Cocoa-nut, oil, 10; and fibre, 11, 

Cochin, 7, 125, 198,238; Stete 
of, 243-253, 283 

Code of Menu, 21, 29. 35 

Cody Singh, 202 

Coffee, 12. 242, 267, 269, 272, 
281, 282. 339, 341, 348, 350 

Colaba, 122 

Colachel, 800 

Colbert, 258 

Colchester, Lord, 868 

Cold season. 8 

Cole. Hon. H. (M.P.). 868 

Colebrooke, Sir E., 868 

Colebrooke, Sir W., 368 

Colebrooke 8 •* Asiatic Researches," 

Coles, 19 

Colleges, Begum Sumroo's, 102 

Colonial OfiBce, 339 

Colonies, 10 

Colonization in India, 11 

Colombo retaken, 256, 351 

Colossus of the North, 220 

Columbus, 252 

Combermere, Lord — storms and 
captures Bhurtpore, 134, 213 


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' OommaDder-in-Chief, 176 
Commander of the Faithful, 81 
Commerce- of India, pasdm — 
ancient routes of, 298 , African, 
847; Chamber of, 370, 371 
Committee, Select, of the House 

of Commons, 330, 376 
Commons, House of, S64, SOS, 

330, 374, 376 
Communications in India, 288 and 

Comorin, Cape {See Cape) 
Company, East India, 137, 139, 

142, 362, passim 
Compensations of natives, 305 
Concan, 12, 194, 198, 234, 355* 
Congeveran and Tanjore, 64 
Conquest of Scinde, 3 1 2 
Conservation of forests, 284 
Constantinople, 293, 294, 330, 

Consul, the first (Buonaparte), 264 
Consuls, Her Majesty's, 876 
Convent, Begum Sumroo's, 102 
Coorg, 6, 11, 12, 18,282 
Coote, Sir Eyre. 75, 126, 128, 134, 
177, commands Madras army, 
178; dies, 179; victory at 
Wandewash, 262 
Copeland, Alderman, 368 
Copmanhurst, Friar of, 171 
Cof per, 335 
Corbet, 168 

Comwallis, Lord, Governor- 
General— 177, 180; settles 
land-tax— Mysore conquered — 
Policy of non-intervention, 181 ; 
Deposes Nawab of Dude — 
Leaves India, 1 81 ; again 
Governor-General — Dies, 182 : 
character, 208-302 
Cormorants, 357 
Coromaudel coast, 7, 63, 126; 

war on, 129 n 
Corrie, Archdeacon, 28 
Cossack outposts, 326 
Cossim, Meer, 153, 178 
Cottages, 11 

Cotton, 12; mills, 124; Mart, 
125-168; fabric, 230, 366; 
Manchester in India, 266, 269, 
270; American, 271; trade, 
290, 348, 350 

Court of Directors, 180, 182, 195 

Court of Tehran, British Envoy at, 

Courts of the Empire, 59; of 
India, 97 

Crawford, R. W.. 275, 368 

Creeds, 25 

Cremome, Lord, 368 

Creeping rose, 4 

Crimean War, 266 

Crocodiles, 356 

Cromlechs, 20 

Crown, the British — India trans- 
ferred to, 191 

Crown, Imperial, 245 ; servants of, 

Crown of Spain, 119 

Crows, 14 

Crusades, 49 

Cucumbers, 13 

Cuddalore, 72 

Currency, 308 

Custard, apple, 13 

Customs (House), 266-301, 802, 

Cutch, Rana of, 235 ; Gulf, 236 

Cuttack, 132 

" Cynosurus Coroianus," 

Cyrus the Great, 

Czar, " the Great White," 819, 324 

Dadajee Eonedbo, 87 
Dadur, 163, 170, 174 
Dalhousie, Lord, 77, 167, 177, 

188, 189, 216, 239 
Damajee, Gaikwar, 232 
Damascus, 81 
Damau, 253, 256 
Danes, 258, 259 
Danish fort, 258; mission, 28; 

settlements, 139, 252 
Dansborg, 258 


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Dauube, 317 

Dar, 2*^5 

Dara, flight of, 50, 94 
Darjeeling, V2, 13 

Dates, 13 

Datia, 2*46 

Daud Khan, founder of Bhawul- 
pore, 2 1 7 

DaudPutra, 217 

DaulutRao Scindia, 153, 158, 228 

David, 205 

De Boigne, 264 

Deccan, the, 12, 24, 25 ; war in, 
47-53, 56, 62, 64, 65, 66, 67, 
68, 70, 71, 73, 76, 83, 118, 
121. 124, 134, 145, 181, 227. 
228, 238, 261, 270 

Deeg, battle of, 76 

Deer 14 

Delhi, 2, 3, 25, 37, 39, 47, 49, 51, 
53. 56. 57, 58, 60, 61. 64, 65, 
67, 69, 76, 81, 95, 101, 102, 
104, 118, 139, 145, 146, 155, 
158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 168, 
166, 167. 180, 184, 190, 199, 
200, 207, 208. 222, 223, 224, 
227, 248, 289. 311, 316 

Delhi gardens. 55 

Delhi review, 361 

Deli. 341 

Denoon, A. 368 

Denmark, 211 

Deputation to Viscount Palmer- 
ston, 368 

Derajat, 211 

Deodar. 11, 12,283 
„ Forests, 221 

Desert States, 211, 212 

Desert, Great Indian, 210 

Destruction of idols, 40 

Dewans, Imperial, 178 

Dewan of Palanpore, 236, 237 

Dhar, 231 

Dharians, sect of, 205 

Dhera-Ghazee-Khan, 317 

Dholpore, Rana of, 213; 214, 

Dhoon (Valley of the), 3 

Dhuleep Singh (Maharajah), 186. 

187, 18ft 
Diamonds, 15: mines, 226, 241 
Dinkar Rao, Sir, 1 12, 229 
Diodorus, 36 

Directors, Court of, 180, 182, 184 
Diu, 22, 124, 253, 256 
Discipline, advantage of European, 

Doab, 17 
Dolmans, 20 
Don, the, 294 
Donoughmore, Earl of, 368 
Dost Mahomed, 113, 185, 313, 

Douglas Captain, 159 
Dowlut Singh. 365 
Dragoons, **the 19th," 126, 131 
Dranghdra, chief of, '-^36 n 
Dravidian, settlers, 20; races, 198 
Duchesnois, 365 
Ducks, 14 
Duff, Dr , 28 

Duff, Major Grant. 73, 165, 373 
Dufferin, Lord, 368 
Dugshai, 166 

Duke, Sir James, M.P., 368 
Dundee, 273 
Dundoo Punt, 77 
Dunnajee Gaikwar, 74 
Dunne, Colonel, MP., 368 
Dupleix, M., 134, 259, 261, 2«a, 

263, 265 
Durbars, 105, 106 
Durghetti, 84. 85 
Durham, Bishop of, 868 
Durjan Sal, usurper, 214 
Dutch factory, 68 : 119, 134, 177, 

179, 18*2, 243, 252, 253,255; 

fleet — shipping destroyed by 

British in the Hooghly, 257; 

258, 259 
Dyce Sombre, 101. 104 
Dynasty, Mogul or Tartar. 49, 62, 

64, 132, passim; Pathan, 131; 

Hyderabad, 71, 74; Gwalior, 

227; Gaikwar, 232; Gupta, 

297 ; Gurkha, 333, Ac. 


zed by Google 



Eagles, 14 

Earthquakes, 339 

East India Company, 68. 121 , 122, 

123, 162n, 1«0; government of 

abolished, 195; 209,249,266, 

839 ; end of, 362 
East Indian Railway, 16, 275. 289, 
Eastwick, Mr., 375 ' 

Ebony. 11 

Eden, Hon. Ashley, mission of, 334 
Eden, Colonel W., 209 
Edwardes, Sir Herbert, 168, 170, 

Egypt, 282, 294 296, 347 
Egyptians, 349 
Elcho. Lord, 368 
Elephant, 13, 39, 336, 356 

„ Garden, 93 
Elephanta, Caves of, 124 
Elgin, Lord, 177, 192 
Elizabeth, Queen, 49, 52, 156, 

266, 293, 320 
Ellenborough, I^rd, 177, 185, 360 
Elliot, Sir H.,(w) 81 
Ellora, Caves, of 65 
Elphinstone, surrenders, 813 
Elphinstone, Mountstuart, 46, 62, 

(n)8l, 85(w). 151, 182 
Elphinstone, Sir J., 368 
Elton, — , Englishman in Nadir 

Shah's service, 321 
Emperor of Delhi, 102, 203, and 

Empire, British, 297 

„ Of Ghengis Khan, 46 
„ Ghuznite, 44 

Of Hindostan, 54, 89 
Of India, 191, 204 
„ Of Mahmoud, 41 
Empress of India, 153, 249, 310 
England, U, 16, 18, 50, 108, 256, 

257, 258 ; Madras restored to, 

261 ; 269, 274, 276 
„ Commerce of, 277, 282, 

284; postal service, 280; re- 

venue of, 801, 816 ; influence in 
Persia, 320, 322; Shah visits, 
322, 329, 330 ; Queen of, 362, 

English, 23 ; missions, 28, 33 ; 
conquests, 65, 66, 68; con- 
cessions to Dvitch, 68 ; league of 
v^ith Nizam and Mahrattas, 74; 
Resident slain, 102; 109, 111, 
118; first ship, 118; make 
common cause with French, 
120; power totters, 136; vic- 
tories, 143, 152; officers, 169; 
garrison, 170; victories, 206; 
Residency at Indore, 230; sub- 
sidize the Nizam, 238-257; 
men, 264 ; Railway Companies, 
291; cotton spinners, 325-327; 
Resident at Court of Nepaul, 
333-338 passim 

Enniskillen, Earl of, 368 

Enterprise, private, 369 

Erivan, Lake, 328 

Erne, Earl of, 368 

Erskine, Hon. J. C, 368 

Eurasians, 10 

Europe. 21, 23, 119, 139, 151. 
2S2, 285 ; telegraph, 289 ; 293. 
294 295; complications 297; 
States of, 328: Central 332, 373 

European, soldiers and pensioners, . 
10 ; troops, 10; cultivators, J 02, 
2S2; society in Intia, 105; 
nationalities in India, 120 

Europeans, (the 69th Regiment) at 
Vellore, 130, 131 

„ During the Great 
Mutiny, 166 

Euphrates, Railway, 298, 294 (n), 
297, 298 ; Indian route, (n), 298 ; 
and Indus Valley, 316 ; import- 
ance of route, 327, 328; to 
Mediterranean, 828, 329. 369, 
374; and Indus route to Central 
Asia, 368; steam route, 870, 
871, 872, 878,375,876; pre- 
ferable to Suez, 878 ; chairman 
of Railway Companv. 8^ft ^'"' 


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cost of, 374 ; advaotages of, 377 
House of Commons on, 378 

Evans, Sir De Lacy (M.P.j. 368 

Ewart, J. C. (M.P.), 308 

Exchange, fixity of, 307 

Excise, 30*^ 

Expenditure of India, 304, 305 

Eyre, Governor (of Jamaica), 250, 


Fables, 64 

Factories and forts, 120 

Factories (Dutch), 256 ; East India 

Company's, 266 
Fagau, W. (M.P.,) 368 
Fakeers, 143 
Famines, 193, 305 
Fanatics, Mahomedan, 325 
Faridkot, 222, 224 
Father. Julius Caesar, 107 
Fatma (Fatima), nd2l 
Female line, succession in (Tra- 

vancore), 243 
Ferguson, Sir R. (M.P.), 368 
Fermented liquors, 19 
Feroch Zoad, 43 
Ferokshere, Emperor applauds 

British surgeon, 135 ; 136 
Feroze, 64 
Ferozepore, 185, 314 

(Village), hattle of, 187 
Feudatory Native States, 197-251 

Troops, 247 ; 249 
Findhom, 357 

Finlay, Mr. (M.P.), 368, 371 
Finnis (Lord Mayor), 368, 371 
Fire-worshippers, 319 
Firghana, 324 
Fish, 14 
Flint tools, 20 
Flodden, field of, 49 
Flora and Fauna, 11-14 
Florence, 151 
Flotilla, an Indus, 379 
Forde, Colonel, victor at Bidara, 


Foreign European settlements, 
252-265 : Trade of India. 268 

Forests, 285 ; scenery of, 357 
„ Timber and fuel of, 12 

Forests, 284, 286 

Foot, (Infantry) See Regiment, 41 

Fountain of Nectar (Qmritsir), 1 67 

Forsyth, Sir D. (mission), 168; 

Forts and factories, 120 

Fort William. 136, 137, 138 

Fortescue, C. (M.P.), 3n8 

Foster, Sir G.. 368 

France, 50, 108, 140, 241, 262, 
266, 2 76; revenue of, 801; 
kings of, 310 

Francis I., 49, 50 

French (possessions). 17, 23; rule, 
72; oflacers. 76; navy, 101, 
118, 126, 127; allies, 128; 
empire in India, 128-140 
auxiliaries, 141; at Plassey, 
142, 166: defeat at Wande- 
wash, 177; league, 228-233; 
•• Company of the Indies," 259. 
261; lessons, 262; trophies 
destroyed, 262; lose all, 263; 
intrigues, 263 : Republic, 

French, Mr., 368 

Frere, Sir Bartle, 298; (») 311, 
346, 376 

Freretown, 847 (n) 

" Friend of India '' 318 

Froissart, 201 

Frontier, raids, 315, policy, 315 

Fruit, 13 

Fuad Shahis, 66 

Fusileers, Madras, 148 

Futtehgurh, 78 


Gaikwab, 121 ; dynasty, 232, 236 

Galena ore, 6 

Gama, Vasco da, 125, 252, 254, 

Game in the Tend, 356 
Ganges, swamps, 1, 2, 14. 17, ^0, 


zed by Google 



78, 183, 143, U7, Iftl. 255. 
274 ; Railway, 200 ; 832, 356, 
Garden reach, 1 39 
Garnets, 15 
Garos, 244 

Gates of Somnath, 41, 65 
Geelan, 321 

General features of country, 2 
Genghis Khan, 44, 46, 47, 49 
Genoese, 119 
Geographical discoveries, 293 

„ Society, Secretary of, 

George III.. King, 108 
Georghan, 37 
Georgia, 320 
German, 23 ; " Monk Luther," 49, 

kaiser, 249 
Germany, 307 

" Gerusalemma Liberata" 50 
Ghaji, 47 

Ghats {See ghauts), 63, 194, 198 
Ghauts, 2, 6, 13, 132, 143 
Ghazepore ^Ghazipur), rose gar- 
dens, 13; 281 
Ghor, 45 ^ 
Ghuzni, 38, 39, 41; 44, 312; 

stormed, 313 
Ghuznite Empire, dynasty, 42, 44 
Gilbert, Sir Walter Raleigh, 169, 

187, 188 
Gillespie, Colonel, 126, 131, 132 
Ginger, 332 
Gladstone, H.. 368 
Glasgow, 296 
Goa, 7, 67, 118, 125, 253, 254; 

Old and New, 255, 256 
Goalpara, 7 
Goats, 332 

Godavery, 6 ; valley, 1 1 , 67 
Goddard, Colonel, 113; takes 
Bassein, 178; baffled at War- 
gaum by Madajee Scindiah. 360 
Goderich, Lord, 368 
Gogah, 300 
Gograh. 150, 832 
Gohad, Rana of, 213 - 

Golab Singh, 187, 220 
Golam Eadir, 153, 154 
Golconda, 15, 62, 69; submits, 

70 ; 240 
Gold, 336 
Gonds, 19 

Gk)olistan, treaty of, 321 
Goomtee, 149 

Goorkas, 160, 333 ; Goorkhas, 354 
Gopaulpore, 299 
Goriodpur, 136 

Gough, Lord, 168, 186, 187, 188 
Gourgaon, 359 

Gorernment, 18: Home. 19; 
137, 242, 279, 290; Home of 
India, SOb, passim 
Governors-General, 139, 177-196, 

275, 277, 298, 331, ;>a««m 
Grain, 12; supplies, 268, 305, 

306 ; districts, 307 
Grand Monarque, 259 
Grane, Port of, 376 
Grant, African traveller, 308 
Grapes, 13 

Great army of India, 307 
Great Blue Book, 268 
Great Britain. 142, 318, ^amm 
Great Indian Railway, steam arch, 

290 (See Indian and Railway) 
Great Mogul dynasty founded by 
Baber, 49; extinguished, 60; 
emperors, 49-61, 118, 157, 
Greek— Greeks, 20, 21, 22; 

merchants, 294 ; 349 
Green, Colonel, 376 
Green, Sir H., 368 
Green palace of Timour, 48 
Gregory, Sir W. H., 352 
Gregson. S. (M.P.), 268 
Grey, Genei'al, victor of Punniar, 

Grogan, E. (M.P.), 368 
Grosvenor, Lord Robert, 368 
Guavas, 13 
Giyerat, 319 .(5etf "Guzerat)" 

victory of, 188 
Gundak, 332 


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Gunga Dur Sbastree, 70, 84 

Guuga Rana, 202 

Guns of Native States, 245 

Gupta, dynasty , 207 n 

Gurkha dynasty, 333. {See Goor- 

Gurrah, Queen of, 62, 66 

Guru Govind, 27 

Gurwhal. 15, 197 

Guya, 145, 147, 153 

Guzerat, 2, 8, 12, 13, 23, 87, 40, 
58 ; ravaged, 65, 74 ; Sultan of, 
84; 124, 188; 201; King of, 
203; 207, 311 

Guzerati bull, 359 

Gwalior, 112; contingent, 177; 
captured, 178; 186,223 226; 
nobles, 229; fort, 229; con- 
tingent, 229; present state of, 
246, 251, 360 


Habshee, 234 

Hala range, 311 

Hamilton, Mr. G., a snrp^eon, 
cures the Great Mogul, 135 

Hamilton, G. (M.P.), 368 

Hamilton. J. H., 368 

Hamir, Rajpoot, heroic Rajah, 199 

Handel, 395 

Hanging bridges, 4 

Hansi, Rajab of. 103 

Haramnoor, Queen, 42 

Haraotee, 216. 234 

Harbours. 293 ; of refuge, 299, 800 

Hardinge, Lord, 177, 187 

Harris, Lord, General, 241 

Harvests, 12, 305, 306 

Harvey, Colonel, 368 

Hassan, 319 (See Hossan), 24 

Hassein, 24 {See Hoosein), 319 

Hastie, 368 

Hastings, Lord. 177, 184, 206, 
234, 239, 248 

Hastings. Warren, 142 144; first 
Govemor-General, 177; ceases 
to pay tribute, 178; conquests 
— Nuncomar, 179; his career. 

u-ial and deatb, 180; referred 
to, 224; treaty with Scindia, 

Hawkins, Captain William, i20 

Headlani. Thomas (M.P.>, 368 

Heber, Bishop, 2rt, 105, 157 

" Hector," the, first Engli&h ship 
at Surnt, 120. 121 

Hemp, 13, 267 

Hem& Rajah crushes the Afghan 
power, 53 

Henry VIII., 49 

Herat, siege of raised, 322; the 
key of India, 327 

Hezekiah, 21 

Hides, 332, 845 

Highlanders, 173> 174 

Hills, 2, passim 

Hill stations, 3, 167 

Hill tribes, 335 

Himalaya tea, 278 ; pines, 283 

Himalaya mountains, 1, 3, 4, 5, 
9.11, 12 166. 197. 331. 335, 
357, 3h2, j?a««m 

Himalayan Slates, 332, et seq. 

Hind, 364 

Hindi, 23, 24, 33i^ 

Hindoo, 18; virtues, 21; king- 
doms, 22. 26, 27 ; humanity, 
88; devotees, 39; Pluto, 40; 
shrines, 41 ; poetry, 44 ; princes, 
44 ; dynasty, 62, 74 ; cities, 65, 
67,68,69 75,79,97. 132, 140, 
155; traders. 173; race, 21 1-2 ^5; 
government. 302. 332 ; history, 
342; sovereigns, 348; mer- 
chants, 846 

Hindoo Koosh. 19, 312, 827 

Hindoo Na ive States, 197. et seq] 

Hindoos, 2. IJ, 24, 31, 32, 36, 38, 
52. 58. 148, 148, 227, 229, 
236, 237 

Hindostan-Hiudustan, 1.11, 12.23 
87. 39. 40,47,48,49; ex.ept 
Oodeypore. under the Great 
Moguls, 52: 56, 62, 66, 91, 
145, 158, 205, 206, 313, 324, 

Digitized by 




Hislop, Sir Thomas, 230 

Hoar frost, 9 

Hodson at Humftvoon's tomb, 

153. W\ lOL 375 
Holcus S|>ici(tus, 12 
Uolkar (See Indorf ), defeated, 76 ; 

founder of dviiHstVi 90, 99 ; 

family, 100, US, 165, 181, 213, 

214, 215, 223, 220-228, 248 
Holland, 257, 266 
Hollanders, 256 
Holy city of the Seikhs, 167 
Homer, *21 
Honey, 832 
Hoogly. 7. 136, 137, 139, 177. 

255; stormed, 255, 257, 258, 

259. 261 
Hooker, Dr., 75, 334 
Hoomayoon — Huniavoon, Em- 

peior. 49. 51, 62, 153, 160, 202: 

takes jSIandoo, 203 
Hoosein, 319 
Horned cattle, 359 
Horsfall, Mr. (M.P.). 368, 371 
Hossan. 24 
Hotels, 138 
Hot winds, 8 
House of Peers, 180 
House (dvnastv) of Timour, 66 
Howrah, 135, 139 
Hull, 296 

Humayoun (See Hoomayoon) 
Hurdwsr, 355, 356 
Hutt, Sir William, 368 
Hyaenas, 13 
Hyder Ali, 1?», 62; defeated, 75; 

dynasty, 128-178; 241, 242, 

243, 259, 2^3 
Hyderabad. 23, 24; dynasty, 62; 

Nizams of. 71, 168, 175, 17M. 

179, 181. 198. 238, 239, 263. 

362; contingent, 363; treaties 

with, 863 

Ibrahim Lodi. king of Ghuzni, 42 
„ Last Put'han king 

of Delhi— killed at the hattle of 
Paneeput, 50, 163 

Ice, 9 

Idar, Rajah of, 237 

J dols. great, 39 ; worship of, 26 

Iliad (Homei's), 21 

Imaum of Muscat, 343 

Iraaiis, 1 

Imperial forces, 147; Crown, 216 

India, 13. 14, 35. 58, 66, 69, 86, 
97.101,102, 105, 119; empire 
of. 120, 123, 125, 138. 155. 165. 
178, 179. 181. 187. 191, 193; 
sovereign of. 198, 202; princes 
of. 240, 248. 249 : forces of. 2 ;8 ; 
and Germany, 249; wealth of, 

., Empress of. 162, 194. 248, 
249; proclaimed at Delhi, 249 
„ Russian invasion of. 372 
„ In winter months, 9 ; na- 
tives of. 34 ; Northerr), 5 ; Cen- 
tral, 23. 24, 27, 29, 56; 
Southern, 2, 9, 11. 22. 27, 28, 
Westeni, 23, 27, 3.1; Upper, 20 ; 
Ancient, Hrt, 44, — paasim 

India rubber tree. 11, 282 

Indian Budget, 3nl 

„ Trade and Traders, 294, 
296, 325 

„ Switzerland, 332 
„ Telegraph, 289; Company, 

„ Ports, 376 

„ Railways(** See Railvrays ") 
„ Mutiny (of the Bengal 
Army), 10, 81. 77 
„ Navy, 296 
„ Ocean. 76 

„ Women. 87 (See also '• Re- 
markable Women of India)" 
„ Income-tax, J 93 
„ Shawls, 14 
„ Priests, 25 
„ Poets, 61 

„ Star of, order of the, 139, 
333, passim 

Indigo, 272, 347 


zed by Google 



Indo-Chinese, 20, 197 

Indore, 96 ;' rise of, 98, 226, ^30, 
2S1, p€udm 

Indraprastha, 155 

Indus, the, 5. 6. 7, 25, 86. 37, 88. 
66, 108. 164, 167, 170; Valley 
Railway, 170, 175, 197; States- 
218; Delta, 235, 251; Valley 
Railway, 274, 275 ; 294, 308, 
313 ; army of, 813 Valley, 315, 
816, 818 ; army of. 870 ; Valley, 
. 878 : Valley State Ikilway, 379 

Infanticide, 235 

Inquisition, the. 254 

Intelligence Department, 297 

Invasions of India {See "Alex- 
ander," " Mahmoud," •• Ti- 
niour,'' " Ghengis Khan," " Ba- 
her,-" Nadir Shah" 

Ionian Greeks, 22 

Ipecacuanha, 13, 285 

Ireland, 347 

Irishmen. 33, 103 

Iron, 5; ore, 11, 15; stone, 16 

Iran, 819 

Irrawaddy, the, 7, 183, 336 

Islam, 22, 24, 25, 26, 124, 312 

Ismail, 37 

Ispahan, 59, 237, 322, 328 

Isthmus of Suez, 293, 330 

Italy and Italians, 28. 81, 187, 
298, 294 

Jackals, 18 

Jacob General, John, 174 
Jacobabad, 163 174 
Jaffa, 278 

Jaiaji Sciudiah, 229 
Jain, sovereignty, 65; archi- 
tecture, 124 
Jaipur, (See Jeypore) 250 
Jaisulmir, 212(Jeysalmir) 
Jaisalmere, 250 (Jaisulmir) 
Jam of Nawanagar, 236 
James I, 121 
Jamma Musjid, 161 
Japan, 280, 288 

Jasmin, 18 

Jasper, 15 

Jats 27, 67, 170 199, 211, 218 218 

Java, 182, 257, 258; Captured by 

Sir S. Achmuty 258 — restored 

to the Dutch 258;— 296. 838, 

339, 840 
Javanese dialect 840 
Jaxartes, 322, 826, 327 
Jehangir — Jehangire — Jehangeer 

Emperor— 49, 53—89. 95, 114 

great Mogul 121 — 199, 203 
Jellalabad, 185 
Jehanara, 94, 95 
Jelum, the 356 
Jemal Khan ordered to '* the 

Elephent Garden " 93 
Jesuits at Agra and Lahore 52 
Jeswunt Rao 100 — Rao Holkar 

214, 228, 230 
Jeswunt Sing, n 204, 209 
Jewan Buckt, Prince, 146 
Jewels, 89, 40 
Jeypore-Jeypoor, Jaipur, 153 197, 

207, 208, 209. 244 
„ in Madras, 197 
Jeysalmir {See Jaisulmir, 211 
Jeysing, 207 {See Jye Sing) 
Jbialawur, 250 

Jharega, 236 ; Rajah of, 235 
Jhansi, 110 ; siege of. 111. 112 
Jhelum. the. 169 (See Jelum) 
Jhend, 197, 222 
Jingira, 232, 284 
Joghies. 206, 
Johanna Nobilis, 101 
Johir, Sultan of 201 
Johnston. Keith n. 846 
Johur. ordeal of 83, 203 211 
Jones. Captain Felix, 298 
Jones, Sir William 62 
Joonair, Fort, 67 
Joudhpore, 197. 209, 211, 282; 

Rajah of, 237 ; 250 
Joudh Sing. 209 
Jowar, 12 
Juba, 845 
Jubbalpore, 12i, 139, 290 


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Judaea, 21 

Jug Soom image, 38 

Jugganath, 132 

Juggat Gooroo, 205 

Jugurtba, 128 

JuHuB CsBsar, Father, 101, 107 

JuUunder, 167 — annexed 187 

Jurama Musjid, Delhi, 151 

Jumna, the 5, 147, 150, 152, 181, 

228 ; Railway 280 
Junagurh Nawab of, 230 
Junkaji, Scindiah 227, 229 
Jute, 260, 272. 273 
Jye Chund Ray, King of Canouj ; 

His Daughter abducted, 44 
Jye Sing, 204 


Kababs, 171 

Kabir, 27 

Eachar, 17 

Kackh, 171, 251 

KamiaBachee, 311 

Kaiser, The German, 249 

Kalburga, 66 

Kali, 137 

Kalian, 68 

Kamarin 11, 167 

Kamptis, 334 

Kamrup, 334 

Kanawur, 4 

Kandeish, 53, 232 

Kangra, 3, 4, 5, 12; District 221, 

Kanhari Cave temples, 124 

Kapila, Prince of, 26 

Kappurtballa, 221 

Karaulee, {See Keraulee) 

KarcauH, 250 

Karens, 335 

Karical, 203, 264 

Karli, 125 

Kars, defence of 370 — to Meso- 
potamia, 328 

Kasaulee— Kussowlie, 3 

Kashgar — Ameer of 323, political 
importance of, 325 

Kashmir, (See Cashmere), 251 

Kassoomba, S66 
Katamarans, 129 
Katchli, the gage, 202 
Katees, 236 

Katbiawar, 251 {See Kattiawar) 
Kattiawar, 207. 232, 236 
Kavaree, (i^^tf Cavaree-Cavery) 133 
Kaye, Sir J. W., 77,78. 157n, 190 
Keane, Sir John, 312 313 
Keene (H. G.) 109 
Kelatr-Khelat, 191 ; Khan of, 310 
Kemaon — Kamaun, 15 
Keraulee, 213; Karaulee, 216 
Keshab Chunder Sen, 26 
Khafi Khan, 87 
Khakyens, 335 
Khalsa army, 188 
Khan, the title, 198 
Khanates, the three, 323, 324, 325 
Khandesh, 12 (See Kandeish) 
Khaudeish (See Kandeish), 237 
Kharisim (See Charism), 324 
Khasia hills, 8, 244 
Khanghur, 317 
Khiva, 323, 324, 325 n 
Khojend, 326 
Khokan, 323, 324 
Khorassan, 22, 37, 170 
Khunenfeld, F .M. Lieutenant 

Von. 328 
Khyber— Kyber, 169, 188; Pass, 

295,312,370— gate of India,316 
Khyrpore, 197, 218, 295 
Kinkobs, 325 

Kinnaird, Hon. Arthur, 375 
Kirghis, steppe, 326 
Kirk, W. 368 

Kisaulee, 167 (See Kasaulee) 
Kishengurh, 213, 250 
Kishna, Princess, 364, 365, 366 
Kistna, 6, 67; source of 125, 241 
Kites, 14, 26 
Knighte of St. John, 49 
Kochin— 251— fi'M Cochin 
Koh-i-noor, the 49, 59, 153 
Kohkan 67; (See Kokand and 

Kokand, 326 


zed by Google 



Kolaba, Pirate Lords of 234 

Kolapore, Rrtjah of 73, 198 229, 
232, 233, 234 

Kolgarh. 197 

Kolhapur (See Kolapore) 251 

Kokonada, 6 

Eonds, 214 

Kooch Behar, 334 

Koran, the 24, 41. 46 

Korra, Prince 39 

Kosi, 332 

Kota, (See Kotab) 250 

Kotah, (See Kota) 250, 213 

KotBee, 170, 175 ; Kotri 879 

Kotri (See Kotree) 

Krasnodovsk, 326 

Kremlin, the 157 

Krishna, Hindu God, 39 

Krishna Kumari, tragic story of, 
208 (See Kishna) 

Kuch-(Kooch)-Behar, 221. 334 

Kiidsia Begum, 113, 114 

Kalian, or thief caste, 244 

Kulu Valley, its Minerals, 5 

Kulushi Minister of Sumbajie, 70 

Kumaon 183, (See Kamaun) 

Kanawur, 197, 202 

Kunch, Battle of 112 

Kurds, 345 

Kunhari Temples, 124 

Kurnaul 166, 223 ; Nawab of 72 

Kurnavati, 202 

Kurrachee, 1. 2, 7, 163, 167, 170 
175, 176 274, ^290. 299, 316. 
318, 369, 370; 371, 372, 373, 
376, 377, 378, passim 

Kurrachee cable, 289 

Kutub Shahis of Golconda, 66 

Kyber, (See Khyber) 369, RaU- 
way, 37C 


Labourdonnais 126, Captures 
Madras :201, 265 

Lahore 42, 44— Flight of Em- 
peror, 91; 163, 167, 169 170 
187, 222, 241, 316, 318, 372, 
373, Railway 378.— The Lion 
of (Runjeet Singh) 183, passim 

Lake, (Lord) — reseues Shah at 

Delhi 76 Alam 49, 60 150.153 

at 181, Bhurtpore 213; 230; 

Victory of Laswari 264, passim 
Laing, S. 298, 376 
Laird, Mr. 375 
Lally, French Commander, 128 

134, 262, 265 
Lama, (Buddhist) 331 
Lamps, 11 
Lance, Shafts 11 
Land Assessment, 302 
Landour, Hill Station, 167 
Land of Five Rivers, 169 
Langhat, 341 
Languages, 20, 23, 24 — ^Fire m 

the Deccan 64 
Laswaree, victory of, 76 ; Laswari 

228, 264, passim 
Law, refuses to surrender, 101 : 

Lawrence, 71 
Lawrence and Clive — Victories of 

Lawrence, Lord (Sir John) 71, 76 

177, 191, 192, 193, 214. 124 
Lawrence Major 129, 168 
Lawrence Sir Henry-The greatest 

Soldier Statesman of his daj 

Lead, 5, 336 

League of Nature Princes, 253 
Legislative Council, 19 
Leo X., Pope, 49. 50 
Leopards, 13 
Lesseps, 296 
Lethbridge, » 191 
Le Vaisseur, 103 
Levi tee, 25 
Lhasa, 331, 332 
Limes, 13 
Linseed, 18 
Lions, 13, 199 
Literature, Vedic, Ac. 20 
Livingstone, African Traveller 308 
Lohana, 171 
Lohani, Afghans, 287 ; merchants, 



zed by Google 



London, 127; merchants, 266, 271 

278, 280 
Loodiana, 185, 224 
" Lord of the Moon " 40 
Louis XI— 146 
Louis XIV, 119, 146 
Louis XV, 265 
Low, Colonel 262 
Lucknow, 49, 140 
Lutchmee, Bhjre, 110, 111, 112 
Luther, 49 
Luxembourg, 101 
Lytton, Lord, Viceroy 162, 177 



McArthub Mr., 875 

Macartney, G., 368. 369 

Macaulay (Lord). 33, 142n, 262n 

McCann, J. rM.P.), 868 

McClintock, J., 369 

Macdonald, Father, 107 

McEvory, Mr. (M.P.), 368 

Mackinnon, H. A., 368 

Maclean, Colonel, Agent of Warren 
Hastings, 178 

Macleod, Sir D., 168, 298, 368-376 

Macneill, Sir J., 298, 368, 370, 
372, 374 

Macneill, Telford, 298 

Macpherson, G. G., 163, 368 

Macedonians, 319 

Machinery, agricultural, Q87 

Madagascar, 346, 347 

Madajee Scindiah, 152, 860 

Madder, 345 

Maddock, Sir H.. 368 

Madhava Rao, Sir, 283 

Madras, 6; harbour, 7; 12, 15, 18 
grant of to England, 62-66 
peace of, 74, 122, 123, 124, 126. 
taken by French, 126 ; descrip 
tion of, 128, 129; army dis- 
trusted, 130, 132, 133. 135; 
Fusileers, 148, 176, 178, 193, 
197, 233, 258, 261. 262, 282, 
286, 296, 299; Railway, 302 

Madu Rao Peishwa, 7& 

Madura, 62, 64 

Maecenas, 50 

Mafia, Island, 345 

Magnolia, 350 

Mahabharata, 207 n, 208 

Mahabuleshwar, 6, 118, 126, 132 

Mahanuddee, the 132 

Maharajah of Canouje, 79 
„ Title of, 198 
„ Scindiah, 186 

Maharajpore, battle of 186, 229 

Maharasthra, 23, 66, 165, 226, 
227, 257 


Mabawelli gunga, 350 

Mahdajee Scindia, 153, 158 

Mahe. 255, 264 

Mahi, Kanta, J?32 

Mahidpore, Sir T. Hesley's vic- 
tory at, 230 

Mahinder Singh, 2*22, 223 

Mahmoudof Ghuzni, 36; Empire 
of, 37 ; conquest of the Punjab 
and Scinde 38-39 ; destroyer of 
idols — vast plunder secured, 
his death and issue, 40, 41, 42, 
45-47, 65, 167, 169, 199, 
208 », 313 

Mahmoud, the younger usurps the 
throne, is defeated &c., 42 

Mahmoud. brother of Yaas, king 
of Ghor, 42 

Mahmoud, Jehaul-ul-deen Akbarn 
205, (full name of Emperor 

Mahomed Ghor, after nine in- 
vasions of India, and amassing 
immense treasures is assassi- 
nated, 44, 45, 313 

Mahomed, Akbar bom, 51 (See 
Akbar the Great) 

Mahomed, the prophet — {See Ma- 
homet), 50 n, 205 

Mahomed Baber, sumamed '• The 
Victorious" (The Emperor 
Baber), 51 

Mahomed (Bahadur Shah Em- 


zed by Google 



peror) object submission to Na- 
dir Shah — restoration, 58 

Mahomed III, Afghan Emperor 
of Hindostan, 47 

Mahomed bin Tuglak 65 

Mahomed Shah (Emperor of 
Delhi), 59 

Mahomed Ali, Nawab of Garnatie 
Mohomroed ali — 71, 72 

Mahomed-Noor-ud-deen Jehangier 
n, 205 (full name of Emperor 

Mahommed Khan, Minister at 
Ahmedungger, 87 

Mahommedan yoke, 88; Arabs, 
101; land, 117; State, 234, 
294; goot, 302; merchants, 
346 ; of Deccan, 65 ; Arabs of 
Ceylon, 349 

Mahomedans, 206 n, 226, passim 

Mahomedan -rulers 23 ; states 1 98 
formula 51, 24, 25, 27. 29. 31 ; 
faith 39, Kings of Beejapore 62 
66, religion 340-revolt in Yun- 
nan, 325 ; fauadcs, 325 

Mahommed n 321, (The Prophet 
See ** Mahomet ") 

Mahomet (the prophet) 23. 24, 
30, 37, 38, 365 

MahratU and Mahratta8--2. 23 
inroad of 56 ; concessions to 57, 
60, 66; CJountryn 67, 70, 
chiefs 72, 73,; supremary 74; 
confederary 75, 79 ; 8«. 96. 98 ; 
lawlessness 108;— 110, 118, 
119, 125, 132; Insult the Great 
Mogul 145; 153, 154, 157; 
defeat of 157— Empire 163, 
164, 165 ; of Nagpore 176 : 178 
179, 181, 182, 183, 186, 198, 
204, 206, 211, 226; Treaty 
with 228 ; league 229-232 233, 
234, 238 : routed 255 259 

Mahratta ware with British 79, 

Mahratta Ditch (Calcutta) 135 
136, 145 

Maidan (Calcutta) 139 

Mail Service, 296 

Mairs, 19. 217 

Maiwar, 200, 207. 215 

Malabar, 11, 12, 28, 63, 25, 74. 

75 ; Hill 122,252, 257 299, 259 
Malacca,253,255, 258 ; capital, 338 
Malaya peninsula, 338 
Malayan States, 198 
Malays, houses of, 16, 257 ; race 

of, 340 
Malcolm, Sir John, 98, 99, lOOn; 

Life of Clive, 130 n, 142, 182. 

226. 262 n, 263 
Maler. Kotia, 222 
Malleson Colonel, n 90, 97. n 98, 

237, 260 
Mallet, Sir Louis, 379 
Malli, 169 
Malwa, 6, 12, 281 
„ 198 
,- 226 
Manar, Gulf of, 133. 351 
Manchester, 302 
Manikpoor, 24 
Mandalay, 335 
Mandoo. 203 
Mangalore, 75. 300 
Mango, Groves, 11, 13 
Manipore, 197 
Manning, 332 
Marathon, 319 
Margary, Mr., 336 
Marine owners, 296 
Marsham, Clement, 285 
Marshman, 28, 258 
Marsignano, 49 
Martin, 260 
Martin, C. W., 369 
Martin, Henry, 28, 
Martin, P. W , 369 
Maru, 199 

Marwar, 204, 209, 216 
Massacre in the Khyber Pass, 314 
„ Of Cawnpore, 148 
„ In Delhi, passim 
Massula boats, 129 
Masulipatam, 7. 126 238, 257 250 
Matheran, 125 


zed by Google 



Mattra, 344, 345 

Maun Sing, 210 

Mauritius, 182, 272, 297, 345 

Mawals, 07 

Mayo, Lord, 177, 193. 868 

Mazagon, 122 

Mazenderan, 321 

Meanee, battle of, referred to, 186, 

Mecca, 25, 38, 39 

Medhurst, 280 

Medicinal plants, 13 

Mediterranean, the, 294, 298, 
329, 370, 375, 376 

Meer Ahmed Ali Khan Bahadour, 

Meer Cossim, Nawab, 102; Vice- 
roy of Oude, 147. 153 

Meer (title), 198 

Meer Jaffier, 135, 142, 267 

Meerut. 102, 132,- 158, 163, 316 

Meinam River, 336 

Melons, 13 

Menu, Code of, 21, 29. 30 

Merghab Valley, 327 

Merry. J. (M.P.), 368 

Merv, 368 

Mesopotamia, 128 

Mewar, 37, 199; princes, 204, 
205 ; Rana. 206 

Mhow. 231 

Michael Angelo, 49, 50 

Milapore, 259 

Millet, 12 

Milnes, R. Monckton (M.P.). 368 

Minerals, 5 — ores, 16 

Mines, diamond, 226 

Minto. Lord. 177, 183 

Mirzapore, 225, 311 

Mishnis, 334 

Mizaffier Jung, 71 

Modoad, king of Ghuzni, 42 

Mogul, Moguls, 2, 3; age, 46; 
capital and dynasty founded, 
50; last Emperor, 52, 54; 
enemies, 56-59 ; dynasty, 59 ; 
Emperors, 62 65, 69; the 
" Great Mogul,'* 70, 71, 84, 85, 

118; 86, 87; Minister, 102; 
Horse. 102, 118; decay of 
Empire. 119; -The," 134, 
142-150, 153, 157; the 
-Great." 157-159, 204, 
206-208, 209, 213, 215, 226. 
229, 248, 255 ; fall of Empire. 
264. 332, 360 

Mohabit Khan, 91 

Mohiput Ram, 862. 363 

Moira, Lord, 183 

Moluccas, 256 

Mombas, n 347 

Monarque, Le Grand, 119 

Mongol race,20, 323 ; language, 332 

Mon^r, 178 

Monkeys, 14 

Monopolies of opium and salt. 302 

Monson, Colonel, 215 

Mont Blanc, 3 

Monteagle, Lord, 368 

Montgomerie, Colonel, 332 

Montgomery, (B. C S.), lr)9 

Moodkhee, battle of. 192 

Mooltan— Moultan, 38, 163, 169, 
170; taken 188, 317,379 

Moondia Ghat. 356. 357, 358, 359 

Moore, Major, 368 

Moorish vessels, 252 

Moorshedabad, 178 (See Mor- 

Morad, beheaded, 57 

Moradabad, 9, 150 

" Morning Herald," the, 371 

Momiugton, Lord, 181 

Morshedabad — Moorshedabad-l 35 
137, 140, 142, 143; Moor- 
sedubad, 1<>2 

Moscow. 157 

Moses, n 2U5 

Moslem, 24 ; cook, 171; women, 173 

Moulmein, 7, 215 

Mount Aboo, 215 

Mountain, road, 3 

Mowbray. J. R . 368 

Mubarick, 47 

Muhummad Bahadur Shah, 150 
{See Mahoned A Bahadur Shad) 



zed by Google 



Muhummud Ghori, 155, 209 

(See Mahomed) 
Muhummad Toglak, 156, (See 

Muhummadan dynasty, — (-SV^ 

Madomedan) 132 
Mulhar Kao.Gaikwar of Baroda,233 
Mulhar Rao Halkar, 23, 97 Son's 

Widow, 99, 97 
Mulla, 171 
Mulraj, 170, 135 
Multra, 59, 152 
Mumbai or Bombay, 123 
Mumtay, Mahal, 151, n 89 
Mundi, 221 
Munipore, 245 
Munro, Sir Hector, 147 ; takes 

Pondicherry 187; 267 
Murchison, Sir R , 368 
Murree, 167 
Muscat, 272 Imauni of 344; or 

Oman described 344, 345 
Muscovite, 320 
Musdoad, 42, 43 
Mussoorie, 3, 9 
Mussula, boats 129 
Mussulman, historians 41, 47 

merchants, 68 
Mussulman, 102 
Mussulmans, 198, 206 n, 235 
Musuad, 42; 11,43 
Mutiny the Great, 30, 77, 1 16, 139, 

144, 148. 150—195, 209, 210, 

214 222, 225, 229, 230, 233, 

247, 314, 356 
„ of Vellore, 130, 131 
Muttra, 39, 152 
Muzaffa Jung assassinated, 72 

(See Mizafier Jung) 
Mysore, 11, 18, «2 ; War with 

British, 62; table land, 63; 

independent, 66, 75, 130, 178; 

Sultan of, 178, 179, Hindoo, 

198; 238, 212, 258 


Nabha. 197, 222 

Nadir Shah, 49 — invades India, 

58; at Delhi — massacre, 58, 

leaves India, 59 ; 220, 320, 321 
Nugas (tribe), 245 
Nagpore — Kagpur, 67, 124, 176, 

189; ChotaN., 197, 234, 245 
Nahan, 197 
Nainee Tal, {See Ninee Tall) the 

Lake, 3, 9 
Nana Sahib, 62; causes of his 

disaffection, 77 ; fight 78, 112 ; 

of Bithour, 148 ^ 
Nand Kumar (See Nuncomar) 33 
Nanak Shah, 27 
Nanda Diva, 358 
Napier, Rt. Hon. J. 360 
Napier, Sir C. J. Conqueror of 

Scinde— victor at Hydrabad,! 75, 

and at Meanee 186, 214, 312 
Napier, Sir W'illiam, 312 
Napoleon, 328 
Narayana Rao, 76 
Narinda Singh, 222 
Narrakal, 229 
Nasik, 237 
Nasir Ah Nawal, 181 
Nasir Jung, 71 
Nassick, 6, 237 
Native States, 2, 176, 196, 198 

„ Princes, 120 

„ Infantry, 130 

„ Crews, 297 
NaushirvanH, 207 
Nawab (title of) 198, Pamm 

„ Bhawulpore, 218 

„ of Bopal 1 1 3 {See Bopal) &c. 

„ of Carnatic Anwar-ud-deen 

Nawanagar, 235 
Nazr-ud-deen Shah, 328 
Nearchus, 128, 175, 312 
Negapatam 133, 258 
Negrais. Cape, 7, 133 
Negroes, 345 
Neil, Sir John, 144. recovers 

AUahabad, 148-149 
Neilghenies — Neelgerries — cli- 
mate, scenery, 4, 6, 12. 13, 

132, 278, 285 


zed by Google 



Nejed, 25 

Nepaul, 24, 331, British Resi- 
dent — dy nast y — wars— cessions 
Sir Jung Bahadoiir and the 
Prince of Wales, 331, 332 

Nepaulese — ^aggression, 331, 332 
Hills, 17; 183, 333 

Nerbudda the 6, 22, 62, 63, 66, 
67, 176, 183. 231, 238 274 

Newdegate, C. (M.P.), 368 

New Guinea, 338, 313 

Nicol, Dyce, 375 

Nicholson (John) his ** Storm rrs " 
156; 168 

Niger, the 9 

Nile, the 62, 952 

Nil Gau, 199 

Ninee Tal— Ninee Ttdl, 167 

Nizams, Dominions, the 6, 18 

Nizamof Hyderabad, 71 128, 181 ; 
AH, 238 ; troops of 245, 248, 
263 ; his contingent, 239 

Nizam Shah, 67 

Nizam Shahis of Ahmednuggur, 66 

Noor Jehan, 91 

Noor Mahal, Consort of Jehangier, 
89 ; changes her name 91 ; 
rescues the Emperor 91, ac- 
cused by Mohabit 92 ; retires 
to Lahore, 92 

North Colonel (M.P.), 369 

North, F. (M.P.), 369 

Northbrook, Lord, 32, 177; 
abolishes Income-tax, 193, 301, 

Northcole, Sir Stafford, 375 

Norreys, Sir D. 868 

Nuncomar, {S^e Nand Kumar) 179 

Nurgund, chief of 234 

Nusr-ud-Deen, 323 

Nuzeer Mahomed, 113 


Oaks, 11 

Ochterlony, general. 153 

Oils 269— cocoa-nut 1 1 

Oleander, 13 

Oman, 344 

Omar, 319 

Ommeia, 81 

Oodee, Singh 199 

Oodeypore, 199,2 00, 201, 202, 

203, 204, 205 206, 207 
Oodipoor, 203, 210 365 
Oomrawattee, 118 
Ootacamund, 4, 126 
Opals, 15 
Opium, 12, 269, 280 281 ; frauds 

289 ; 299. 303 . 
Oranges, 13 
Origin and progress of British 

rule, 118, passim 
Ori8sa2, 6, 17, 22, 53 63. 132, 

197, 244 
Orme. (authority of quoted), 204 
Orsk, 306 
Ortolan. 14 

Osborne, Captain Willoughby, 225 
Osman, 319 
Oude. 17 18, 19 ; annexed 77-149, 

150, Viceroy of 153-179, 180; 

Nawab Vizier of, 183, 190, 198, 

199 290 303, 812, 332, 359; 

OudK 248 
Ovei^ow of rivers, h 
Overland route. 203, 296, 37ft 
Oxford, 143 
Oxus, 294 ; or Amu, 312-323 

Padukhatta — Padukatta,238,214 
Paertab Sing, 199 
Pahlanpore, 232, 236, 237 
"Palace of Delights." 41 
Palaces, city of, 137 
Palgrave, W. G , 376 
Palm trees, 11, 12 
Palmer, General, n 228 
Palmerston, Lord, 298, 316, 

n368. 371.372 
Palmyras, Point, 2 
Pandy. 190 
Paneeput — Pani put, battles of , 50, 

163. 166, 230, 232. 313 
Pantheon, Hindu, 25 
Panthers, 13 


zed by Google 



Papuan types, 19 

Faradis, M., defeats the Nawab of 

Caniatio, 127 
Paradise, Birds of, 343 
Paramount power, 2, 230, 234, 

Pariah, 27 

Paris, 263 ; peace of. 264, 323 
Parkes, William, 7, 378 
Parrots, 14 
Parsees, 17, 22, 23, 123. 126; 

history of. 319 
Patans {See Pat'han), 23, 171 
Pateil, 162, 154, 360 
Pathan, dynasty, 121. 199; kings, 

207214, 224, 236; kings of 

Delhi, 313. 364, 366 
Patkoi Hills, 335 
Patna, 17, 25, 102, 135 ; English 

victory, 143. 147 ; 153, 178,281 
Paum-baum caves, 300 
Peaches, 13 
Peacocks, 14 

Peacock throne. 49, 153, 157, 159 
Pearl fishery, 133, 351 
Peers, House of, 180 
Pegu, 7. 133, 161. 189, 317, 335 
Peishwa, 49, 57, 71 ; Bajee Rao, 

72, 75, 76; last, 76, 77, 78, 

96, 112, 118, 125, 154, 165, 

181, 183, 227, 329, 230, 248, 

Pemba Island, 345 
Penances, 26 
Penang, 338, 339 
Peninsula War, 186 
Pentateuch, 21 
People of India, 29 
Pepper, trade, 13 
Perebunder, 800 
Perron, General, 108, 264 
Persia, 22; kings of, 36, 37. 124, 

182; Shah of, 183, 199, 207, 

283, 292, 310, 312, 316, 317 
„ Ancient, 319 
„ Modern, 320 
„ Navy of, 321, 
„ Isolation of, 372 

Persia, banner of, 321 ; degraded, 

„ Revenue of. 322. 329, 
349, 369 

Persian and Persians. 23. 24 ; 
poets, 39 ; poetry. 50 : dynasty, 
59, 109. 157; gulf. 121, 124. 
182; traders. 171; telegraph, 
289; Gulf, 294, 296; ambas- 
sador, 371; Gulf, 312. 322. 
328, 329, 375. 376. 377. 378 

Persian, campaign of, 1856, 322 ; 
politics. 323; Empire, 327; 
Provinces, 328 

Pertabghur. 67 

Peshav^rur, 1; valley, 38, 163, 
169, 318 

Peshin, 171 

Peter the Great, 320, 326 

Petty hill chiefs. 238, 244, 245, 
246, 247, 248, 249 
„ Orissa chiefs, 244 

Pharisees, 26 

Pheasants, 14 

Philosophy, 21 

Phoenician navigators, 293 

Physical features, 12, 63 

Pigot, Lord, Governor of Madras, 

Pilace assassinated, 232 

Pilgrims, 40 

Pindarrees, 183, 194, 206,211,239 

Pine apples, 1 3 

Pines, 11, 283 

Pithowra, king of Delhi, 44 

Plantain, 4, 13 

Plantations, 282 

Plassy, victory of, 135, 136. 137, 

140 142 ; the d9th Regiment at 

141 ; 142, 146, 177, 194, 195, 

Point de Galle, 351 

Point Palmyras, 2 

Pollock, Sir George. 169, 185; 

takes Cabul, 314-369 
Pomegranate, 13 
Pondicherry. 133, 177, 178, 259, 



zed by Google 



Ponies, 14 

Poona, 76, 118, 125, 227. 360 

Pooree, 126, 132. 299 

Popes, the, 50 

Popham, Captain, takes Gwalior. 

Poppy, the. 281 : poppy fields, 12 

Population of British India, &c. 

Pore, the, 370 

Ports, ladian, I. 7, 297. 376 

Portugal, 7, 119. 266. 345 

Portuguese, 2. 28. 66. 118, 122; 
Viceroy, 125; flag. 253-255, 
256, 266, 338 

PoruB. 169 

Postal Service and Post office, 
137, 288 

Pottinger, Eldred, defends Herat, 

Pragma! Rao, 235 

Precious metals, 268 

Presidencies, the three, 19, 171 

Primitive agriculture, 272 

Prince of Wales {See - Wales,") 
122, 139, 254, 264, 333, 251, 
252, 255, 261 

Pritchard, J, (M.P.), 369 

Pritwi, Rajah, 155 

Protestant Mission, Danish, 259 

Provinces, N.W., Central, South- 
em. &c., passim 

Proclamation of the Empress of 
India. 249 

Produce of India. 207 

Protective duties, 204 

Public opinion. 205 

Pudmaui, "the Beautiful.'* Prin- 
cess, 42 ; her story, 200, 201 

Pulse, 12 

Pumpkins. 12 

Punjab, 5, 6. 9, 12, 18, 19, 22, 
23. 24, 25, 27, 36, 38, 50, 108, 
164, 167,176,183; "Lion of," 
186; 188, 192; Hill States, 
218, 242, 275, 290, 312, 314; 
frontier force, 315, 316; 
Guides, n317, 318, 369, 378 

' Po, the. 63 

• Punniar, victory of, 186, 229 

Puranas, the, 25 

Purbandar, 236 

Puritans (Wahabees), 25 

Pushtu language, 312 

Puteala— Putiala, 222, 223, 224 

Puthan dynasty, 155 (See Pathan) 


QoiNiKE, 12, 285 
, Quail, 14 

' Queens officers, 194 
I Queen Victoria, 177, 191, 193; 
proclaimed Empress of India, 
249, 352 
Quetta, 170 


Races, 18; aboriginal, 19 
I Radhanpore, 237 

Raebum, L. W. 308 
I Raffles, Sir Stamford, 340 

Ragee, 12 

Ragoba (Peishwa), 76 

Rahtore, clan, 209 ; Princes, 364 

Raichore Doab, 363 

Raighur, 67, 69 

Railway and railways, sleepers of, 
10; trains, 12; Bombay, 124; 
Madras, 1 29 ; Scinde and Pun- 
jab, 162 n; Delhi, 167; to 
Lahore, 170; Scinde, 175; 
Indus Valley, nl70, 270; 
Scinde, Punjab and Delhi, 275, 
289, 290; extent of, 290; 
companies, 291 ; State control, 
291 ; coast, 292, 305 ; for Persia, 
323; for Mesopotamia, 329. 
Euphrates Valley, 293, 298; 
system, Bengal, 317, 368; 
Kyber and Bolan, 370 : Indus, 
372; to Bussorah, 373; Rus- 
sian, 375; Lahore and Pe- 
shawur, 378, Company, 379 

Rainfall, 8 ; rainy season, 8 

Rajah Maun, (Singh) 364 


zed by Google 



Rajasthan, 200, 203, 207 ; 

" flower of," 364, 365, 367 
Rajpootana, 2, 13, 18; ravaged, 

65; princ(S, 136; I62n; 197, 

198, 199, 216, 217, 218, 236, 

248, 250, 306 
Rajpoots, 22, 29, 36, 38, 56, 57, 

70; courage of women, 83; 

182, 198, 199, 200; league, 

209; 211, 212, 214, 221, 235, 

244, 361 
Raj Sing, Rana, 204 
Rajwarra, 364 

Rakhi, festival, 200 ; bundbari,202 
Rama, 199, 207 
Ramayana, 21 
Ram Rajah, leader of Mahrattas, 

66, 71 ; Sivajee, 72, 73 ; death 

of, 75 
Ramohan Roy, 26 ; agent of king 

of Delhi, 184 
Rampore, 197, 224 
Rana, Ranee, titles, 198 
Rana Sanga, 209 
Ranak Khan, 227 
Rancheiiara Begum, 94, 95 
Ranee Gunge, coal mines, 15 
Rangoon, 126, 133, 336 
Ranojee, 360 
Rao of Bundee, 214 
Batnagiru, 233 
Ratnagurry, 300 
Raun of Cutch, 235 
Ravee, the, 167 
Rawa, the, of Jaisalmerc, 212 
Raw products, 270 
Rawul Pindee, 167, 169 
Rawlinson, Sir H , 376 
Reaping, 12 
Reched, 275 
Red Sea, 121, 293, 296; cable, 

289, 378 
Regiment, the 89th, 141 
Reinhardt (See Zafarayab Khan), 

Relief of Lucknow, 149 
Religious system, 25 
Remarkable women, 96, passim 

Rennaissance period, 49 

Rennell, Major, 63 

Report of Select Committee House 

of Commons, 375, 376 
Resched king of Ghuzni, 42 
Revenue, 301 
Rewa, 251 
Rewah, 225, 226 
Rewa Kanta, 237 
Rezifl, Sultana, 47, 77, 82 
Rhododendron, 3, 13, 350 
Rhinoceros, 14, 336 
Rice, 12, 2r.9, 272, 322, 350 
Rigging of Vessels, 11 
Rinthumber, 2f)2, 203 
Rivers, 1, 6, 7, passim 
Roads, 3, 291, 305 
Roadstead, Madras, 124 
Robber, tribes, 311 
Roden, Earl of, 369 
Roe, Sir Thoina<«, 54, 60 
Rohilcund — Rohilkhund — Rohil- 

kund, 12, 23, 150, 159, 179, 

181, 224, 29(1, 332, 355 365 
Rohillas, 102, 153 ; defeated, 178 

Roi Bareilly, 25 
Roman, descent of Rana of Jey- 

pore n 207 
Rome— Room— 159, 199 n 205, 

Romish Church, 28 
Boom— {See " Rome " ) 
Roree, 163, 170 
Rose, 4, 13 ; gardens, 3 
Rose, Sir Hugh, 112, 229 
Rossmore, 369 
Roumania, 323 
Rouse, Sir W. B. 
Royal United Service Institution, 

Rungbeer, Singh, 220 
Runjet, Sing, 107, 168, 283, 186, 

213, 218, 223, 248 
Rout, 303 
Rupur, 167 
Russia, 2, 183, 185, 290, 321, ; 

and China, 325 ; in Cential 


zed by Google 



Asia, 326^ 310 ; on the Oxas, 
327; lines of invasion, 328, 
329— Asiatic, 330 
Russian, 267, 280; Telegraphs, 
289 ; influence in Persia, 320, 
Navy, 321 ; invasion, 324 ; de- 
signs, 325 ; invasion, 372 
Russo — Turkish War, 319 
Russel], Commander, RN, 348 
Russell, Dr., Author of " Tour of 

the Prince of Wales" 352 
Rjotwari, system, 303 
Ryswick, Treaty of. 259 


Saokojee, 57, 71 
Sacred, places, 38 

„ thread, 30 
Saddlery, (Cavniporej 14n 
Sago, 341 
Sagur, 183 

Saho— reign of 72. his widow, 73 
Sahs, d^rnastyn, 207 
Saigon, 305 
St. David, fort, 262 
St. David's, Bishop of, 369 
St. Francis Xavier, 264, 259. Ac. 
St. George, Fort, {See Madras) 
St. John, Knights of, 49 
St. Louis' Crusaders, 44 
St. Peter, 50 
St. Petersburg, 1e7 
St. Thome, 259 
Sakya Muni. 26 
Sal (tree) 283 (S«f Saul) 
Salabat jung, 72; Viceroy 73 

Cessions by. 74 ; 238 
Salamis. 319 
Salar Jung, Sir 240 
Sale, Sir Robert, 165, 313 
Salisbury, Lord- 292, 303, 379 
Saltpetre, 272, 282 
Snlsette, 124, 178, 255 
Salt, (See Tax) : fish, 345 
Salutes to N. Princes— ;ww«w 
Salwin, the, 133, 335 
Samai'ang, 341 
Samarcaud, 50, 3*'J4, 320 

Sana, Rana, 199 

Sanatatria. 132. 215 

Sandal wood, 11 

Sandon, Lord, 369, 375 

Sandhurst, Lord, 376 

Sanga, Rana of Oodeypore, 50. 209 

Sangasiesn, 206 

Sanglee, 234 

Sangram Suktawut, 366, 367 

Sanitation, 303 

Sanorahs n. 206 

Sanpee, 331 

Sanpoo, 7 

Sanskrit, 19, 23. 25, 36, 64. 312 

Santhals. 19 

Sarawak, grant of to Sir J. Brooke 

Sardis, 208 

Sassanian Kings, 199, n 207 

Satinwood, 11, 350 

Satis (See Sutees), 194 

Satpoora, hills, 6 

Sattara, 62, 71, 72, 73-233; 
Rajah of 248 

Saul, (S«<? Sal) 11, 12 

Sawunt, Wari, 198, 232, 234 

Saxons, 21 

Saxony, King of, 92, 249 

Scanderoon, 377 

Scinde, 18, 37, Princes of, 77, 
1.7, 174, 174: Ameers of and 
annexation, 176, Horse (Jacob's) 
174, 186, 197, 235, 248, 284, 
310, 311, 316, 317, 318, (See 
Railways^ P. & D. Railway 
Co., 379 

Scindia, defeated 76, 103, 112, 
144, 153, 154, 165, 181, 183, 
185, 210, 213, 215, 226, 227, 
228 ; Infantry, 245, 246, 248, 
263, 269— A British General, 
360, 361, 379, • 

Scotland, 49, 175, 315 

Scythians, 46 

Sea breeze, 8 

Sea traffic, 292— routes, 295 

Seaport<«, 299 

Seasons, 8 


zed by Google 



Secretary of State fur iDdia, 175, 
. 378, 379 

„ Forgien Affairs, 376 

Secunderabad, 241 
Secundra, 152 
Sed-a-Sheo-Hao Bhow, 164 
Seeds, 272 
Seesodia, races, 366 
Sefe, graudson of Dara, 56 
Seikhs, Seik — Sikhs — reil igion, 
1, 8,- 25, 27, 30, 33, 56, 57, 
102, 108, 119, 148, 167, 183, 
189, 197; dynasty, 198, 221, 
224 ; Wars, 186, 187, 222, 223, 
314; 359, (5«« Sikhs of Sirhind) 
Sekunder, Begum, 113-114, 115, 

116, 117, 225 
Select Committee House of Com- 
mons, 297, 33'>, 370 
Selim, son of Shere Shah, 52, 
his family, 52 
„ 53, 90 (See Noormahal) 
Semiramis, 54, 89 
Semipolatinsk, 326 
Semitic, Language, 21 ; races, 

311, 312 
Sepoy, French 127, uniform of 

130, paidm 
Sepoy, War (See Mutiny) 78, 297 
Serampore, 135, 139, 258 
Serfage, 21 
Seringapatam, 75, 128, 130, 180, 

181, 228, 239, 241, 242, 263 
6er^na, 323 

Sewalic range, fossils, 5, 166 
Seyd, Burghaflh, 347, 348 
Seyed, Ahmad, 25 
Shaftesbury, Lord, 369 
''Shah in Shah" 319 
Shah, the 320, 321 
Shah, Abbas, 320 
Shah, Alam 1 , 49, 73, XL, 49, 60, 
76, 142, 145, 146, 153, 156, 
157, 158, 159, 172, 228, 360 
Shahjahanpore, 9 — Shajehanpore 

355, 356 
Shah, Jehan, 49, 54 ; destroy his 
blood relations, 54, 55, 50, CO, 

68, 89. 91, 92; daughters of 

93, 94 95, 151, 155, 162, 168, 

203, 205, 209 
Shah, Jehan, Begum of Bhopal, 

117 225 
Shah Sujah,' 185, 313 
Shahzadas, put to death — 161 
Shajie, of the Bosla family, 67 
Shaliniar, gardens, 168 
Sbans, tribe, 335 
Shark fins, 345 
Shastras, 25 

Shawl— Shawls, 325 ; Goats, 332 
Shawn?!, 205 
Shayadri, Range, 67 
Sheas, 24; Sheahs of Persia, 319 
Sheep, 14 

Sheill, Sir Justin, 321, 368, 371 
Sheliack, 268 

Shepherd Kings, 46 ; Caste, of 230 
Shere, S. of Musuad II, 42 
Shere Ali, 314 
Sheriar, Prince, 91 
Sheridan, R.B. 180 
Shere Khan Lodi, 259 
Shere Shah, (Afghan) 51, 52, 89, 

90, 91 
Shere Singh, 314 
Shevari, Hills, 132 
Shikarpore, 163, 170, 172, 173 
Shikarpuri, 173 
Ships, 288, owners of, 296 
Shipping, (Calcutta) 138-293 
Shir Shah, 163, (See Shere) 
Sholapore, 363 
Shore, Sir John, 180 - 
Short service system, 245 
Shylock, 173 
Siam, 331, 331 ; discription of 

336, 337 
Siberia, 280 
Sidee, Abyssinian, 234 
Sikhim— Sikhiin, 11 ; Terai, 13 
167, 285, 331, 332; Rajah 
333, 334 
Sikhs, 133; Sirdars 186, 188; of 

Sirbind 248 (See Seikhs) 
Sikander Jah, 239 


zed by Google 



Sikunderabad) 210, (See Secun- 

Silhet, 344, (See Sylhet) 
Silver, 5 ; depreciation of 301, 

305, 307 
Simla, 3, 8, 9, 125, 132, 166, 167 
Sindi, 171 

Singapore, 283, 338 ; described,339 
Siugphos, tribe, 334 
Sion, 122 

Sir or Jaxartes, 323, 326 
Sirdhanab, 101 ; extent of, 104 : 

105, 108 
Sirbind, 19, 197, 222, 248 
Sirohee, Raos of, 215, 216 
Sistine Gbapel, 50 
Siva, 25 

Sivajee, 49, 67, 68; dies, 69, 
character, 70, 72, 75 ; his 
mother, 78, 87, 88, 118, 
121, 163, 164, 226, 233, 234, 
Sladen, Major — explorer, 336 
Slaney, R. 369 

Slave King8 — dynasty, 45 ; suc- 
ceed Mahomed Ghori, 44 
Sleeman, Colonel, 137 
Smelting, 11 
Smith, Sir Harry, Victor of Ali- 

wal, 187 
Smithfield, 359 
Snakes, 14 
Snipe, 14 

Snow — melting, 98 
Snowy Range, 3 
Soliman, S. of Dara, 56 
Solyman, 49 
Soma, (Hindu God) 40 
Somali, Coast, 347 
Sombre, Dyce — bis story, his 
sisters, his heirs, 104, 105, 
106, 107 
Somnath, 40, restoration of gates, 

41 ; destroyed, 65 
Songbirds, 14 
"Sooltan of Room" 319, 325 

{See Room) 
Sourabaya, 41 

Sotheron, E. (M.P.,) 368 

Southampton, 296 

Sowerby, 369 

Sowing, 12 

Sparrows, 14 

Speke, African Traveller, 308 

Spice, Islands, 338, 342 

Spices, 339 

Spirits, (alcohol) 270 

Sports, wild, 355 

Stamps, .302 

Standard of gold and silver, 307 

Standing, Army, 246 

Stanley, African traveller, 308 345 

Stdnley, Lord, 369 

Staple, products, 332, 

Star of Inditi, order of, 115, 240, 

Stationary, 270 
Statistics of native armies, 250 

States, Native Feudatory Ac, 197, 
„ minor, 213 

Steam Co., P. & 0., 297 

Steamers, 12, 288 

Strabo, 36, 64 

Su*aits of Malacca, 338 

Straits Settlements, 296, 339 

Stratford de Redcliffe Lord, 298 
373, 376 

Strathnaim, Lord, 298, 376 

Strawberries, 13 

Stroraboli, 370 

Strylecki, Count, 368, 371 

Suahele, Coast, 345 

Subathoo, 167 

Subjects, races, 22 

Subuctuji, 37 

Sudra, 27, 30 

Suez canal and isthmus, 293, 296 
297, 298, 330, 346 (See Canal) 

Sugar--cane, 12, 272, 280, 339, 
348, 350 

Sujah, slain, 56 ; Shah (See Shah 

Snket, 221 

Sukhur, 163, 170, 379 


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SukwTir Bhyes' suttee, 73 
Suleiman range, 5, 312 
Sullivan, Sir E. 58, 84, 95 n 
Sultan— Mysore, 178; Delhi, 20O 

211, {See Mysore, Ac) 
„ Of Turkey spiritual sup- 
remacy of, 77, 319; 
„ Of Acheen, 341 
„ Of Borneo, 342 
„ Of Zanzebar, 34 6 
„ Consolidating the power of 

Turkish, 372 
Sultana, Bez.ia, 77 
Sumatra, 258, 338 ; described, 

341, 342 
Sumbajee, 69, 70, 71 
Sumptar, 226 
Sumroo — Sombre— Reinhardt, 

101, 102, 142, 148 
Sumroo, Begum her history, 101 

102 ; dies 104 ; character, 105 

Heber's description of 105 

rescues Emperor, 106 ; her 

chaplains liberality Ac, 107, 

108, 153 
Sunderbunds, 133 
Sunnees (sect of), 24 
Supreme Being, The, 25 
Suraj-u-dowlah, 135, 136, 137, 

140, 141, 142 
Surat, 67 ; captured, 08 ; sacked, 

62, 118, 120, 121, 123, 255, 

256, 259, 290, 300 
Sarghur seized, 67 
Suria, Banu, 95 
Sutherland, Colonel takes Joudh- 

pore, 210 
SutJej. 5, 191, 221. 222, pasnm, 

Ois Sutlej States, 223, 224; 

Trans, 250 
Suttee, 73 ; abolished, 135, 184 
SusR, exeavations at, 371 
Swartz, C. F. Missionary, 28, 259 
Swats, 25, 171 
Sweet, potatoes, 13 
Switzerland, 66 
Svdnev, 168 
sVlhet, 12 

Syria, 119, 294, 328; no harboun, 

Syrian, Church, 28, 244 
Syrians, 345 


TADOLiNr, sculptor, 107 

Taj Mahal, 49, 54, 92 ; described, 

Talbot de Malahide, Lord, 368 
Talish, 321 

Talukdars, of Oude, 150, 301 
Tamerlane {See Timoor), 323 
Tamil, language, 19, 23, 63, 349 
Tamuri, 252 
Tanais, the, 294 
Tanjore, 64 ; pagodas ; silk and 

muslin trade, 133, 258; Rajah, 

Tannasar, temple, 38 
Tan tia Topee, 112, 209 
Tartar, 41 ; horded, 46, 49, 323 
Tartars, Western, 91 
Tasso, Torquato, 50 
Tatta, 311 

Tauranian languages, 21, 24 
Tavemier, 59 n 
Tax, income, 193 

„ Land, 301 

„ Opium, 301 

„ Salt, 301 
Taxation, 301, 303 
Taylor, Meadows, Colonel, 32, 77 
Taylor, Colonel (M.P.), 369 
Tea, plant, 6 ; gardens, 12, 269, 

272, 277, 278, 279, plants, 

282, 283, 325, 339 
TeaCompany, Joint Stock, 278, 282 
Teak tree, 11, 282, 283 
Tehran, 320, 321 
Tehri— Tichri, 226 
Teignmouth, Lord, 180 (Sir John 

Telegraph, Calcutta, 138, 288; 

cable, 289, passim 
Telingaum, 67 
Tellic:herry, 300 
Teluga, 19, 23 


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Temple, Sir R., 193 

Tenasserim, 133, 336 

Tenure, 249 

Terai, 355, 350, 358 

Teutonic nations, 25^ 

Thaker, 214 

Theism, 26 

Thibet (See Tibet) 

Thibet goat, 14 

Thomas (St.), 28 

ThomaF, George, Begum Suraroo's 

Commander-in-Chief becomes 

Rajah of Jhansi, 107 ; bravery 

at Gokalgurh, 107; origin and 

character, 108, 109 
Thornton, Edward, 168 
Thuggee, L84 
Thugs, 137 
Tibet — Thibet, 1 9 ; described, 

331, 332; 334 
Tiflis, 375 ; route, 376 
Tigers, 13, 294, 336 
Tigris Valley, 375 
Timesy the, 275, 356, 371 
Timber, 269, 272, 283, 285, 332 
Timoor — Timour — Timur — 

Tamerlane, 156, 169, 313, 323, 


„ Invasion of, 44; returns 

to Samarcand, 44-47, 49; 

House of, 56 
Tin, 336 
Tinevelly, 28 ; Native Christians, 

133; pearl fishery, 133 
Tipperah, 245 
Tipperary, 109 
Tippoo Sahib — Tippoo Sultan, 

death of— family pensioned, 

75, 128, 130; his banner, 181, 

180, 181, 288, 241, 242, 243, 

Tista Valley, 333 
Titian, 60 
Tobacco, 13, 269, 272, 282, 283, 

285, 339, 350 
Tod, Colonel, 201, 207 n 
Toghlak, 44, 47 
Tullemache, 369 

Tomatoes, 13 
Tondiman, Rajah, 244 
Tonk, 213, 214, 250 
Toorkomania, Persian, 321 
Torna Fort, 67 
Torrington, Lord, 350 
Trajan, 293 
Tranquebar, 258, 259 
Travancore — Travancur, 28 ; 198, 

238, 243, 244, 251, 282 
Transports and transport of 

troops, 297 
Trans-Sutlej States, 250 
Treaties — treaty of ^fangalore, 

76 ; with Nizam of Hyderabad, 

362, &c. 
Treve, 101 
Tribute, 245 
Trichinopoly, 113, 244 
Trimbukjeet, Domgha, 76 
Tripoli, 293, 373, 376 
Troops (English, iu Himalayas), 

10; transport of, 297 
Trotter, Captain (History of India), 

13, 247 
Trade, carriers, 293, 324 
Traditions, 63 
Traffic, sea, 291 
Tucker (Colonel), 144 
TuKajee Holkar,fidelityof, 97,230 
Tulsi Bhye, the Cruel, 96 ; Regent 

of ludore — her story, 98 
Turk, 320 
Turkestan, 50, 310, described, 

323, 326 ; 
Turkey, 173, 327, 329 

„ Sultan of, his spiritual 

supremacy, 319 
Turkish race, 23, 24 ; nobles, 238; 

Arabia, 370 ; Government, 370, 

372, 376, 376, 378 ; telegraph, 

Turkomans, 41, 44, 323 
Turner, A (M.P.), 369 
Tuticorin, 300 
Tyler, Captain (R.E.), 376 
Tyler, Sir H., 298 
Types, Papuan, 19 ; of character, 33 


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Udaipub, (Oodeypore) 207, 250 
Umballa, 2, 148, 166 
Umritsir, 163, 275 
IJDder Secretary of States, India, 

United Kingdom, 273, 280 
United States, 278 
Upas tree and poison, 34U 
Ural, Mountains, 226 
Urcha, 226 
Urdu, 23 
Utakamund, 132, (See Ootaca- 

Uzbeks, 323 
Uzielli, M., 368 

Vaisseau, M. le, 107 

Vaisyas, 29 

Valentia, Lord, 264 

Vallabi, Prince tbe, 207, n 

Valleys, 1, 2, 3, passim 

Value of exports, 269 

Vansittart, W. (M.P.), 368 

Vassal States, 310 

Vedas, 26, 30, 35 

Vedantists, 26 

Veddahs of Ceylon, 349 

Vedic, hymns, 19 

Vehar, reservoir, 124 

Vegetables, 13 

Vellore, Mutiny. 126, 130, 131, 

Vendhya, range, 62, (See Vindhya) 
Venetians, 119 
Venus, Transit of, 337 
Verawa, 300 
Vemey, Sir H., 369 
Viceroy and Governor General, 19, 

deposes Gaikwar, 233; 363 

„ first, 192 
Victoria Empress Queen, 162, 

177, 191, 193,|MiMt»i 
Vindhya, the range, 5, 6 

Vingorla, 300 
Village, commuination, 29 
Vishnu, 25, 132 
Vizagapatam, 299 
Vizianagram, Riyah of, 244 
Vizia Droog, 7 
Volcanoes, 339 
Volga the, 294 


Waouorn, Richard, 296 

Wahabees, 25 

Wales, Prince of, 153, 161, 169, 

193, 254, 256, 264, 351, 355, 

361, passim 
Walnut, wood, 11 
Walpole, Hon. Fred, 375 
Wamad, 12 
Wandewash, battle of, 128, 177, 

Ward, 28, 258 
Warda, 241 

Wargaum, battle of, 360 
Warre, J. A. (M.P.)., 369 
Warrior caste, 1 99 
Warwick, 177 
Watson, Admiral, 257 
Wellesley, Sir A., 7jB, 181, 240 
Wellesley, Lord, 109, 181, 182, 
Wellington, 102 
Wheat, 12; clearances, 276 
Wheeler, Sir Hugh, 168, 313 
Whish takes Mooltan, 188 
Whiteside, Mr. (M.P.), 369 
Wickham, Mr. (M.P.), 368 
White Czar, 324 
Wild beast, 242, 356 

„ boars, 14; buffiilloes, 13 
Willoughby, Lienteuant, heroic 

conduct of, 153, 159 
Wilson, Professor, 66 

„ Bishop, 137 

„ Sir Arehdale,.161 
Williams, Thos., 369 
Williams, Sir F, of KarB70, 

Winds, hot, 8 
Wines, 369 


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^ooi, 269 
^'°*^%., Lord, ae, 


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Their Politioal and Commercial Importance. IlluBtrated by Stalistical 
TaUes and Maps. 8vo. 10s. 6d. 


With Official Correspondence and Maps. Dedicated to the Earl of 
Clarendon, E.G. 8to. lOs. 6d. 

In Relation to the Euphrates Valley and other Routes to India. 

With lUoitratiTe Mape, Statistical Tables, &c., from Official JSourcei. 
8yo. IDs. 6d. 


With Reports by General Chbbitbt and Mr. Jobn MacNeill, and 
Memorandum by Sir Justin Shbil, E.C.B. 


A Paper read before the British AsHOciation at Brighton in 1 872. With 
Map and Appendix. 


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A Lecture deliyered at the Boyal United Serrioe Institution, Lord 
Stsathkaisn, G.C.B., G.C.S.I., in the Chair. 


A Letter to the Duke of Arqtle, K.T., Secretary of State for India. 


By an Old Indian Postmarter. Third Edition, 1848. Maps. 8to 
100. 6d. 



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JAN 2 8 19/9 


NOV 2 5 2 



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YC 38653 

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