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Full text of "Indiana County, Pennsylvania; her people, past and present, embracing a history of the county"

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Embracing a History of the County Compiled by 


And a Genealogical and Biographical Record of Representative Families 




J. H. BEERS & CO. 


PREFACE ,,,3^3,^ 

lu presenting "Indiana County and Her People" to its patrons, the publish- 
ers have to acknowledge, with gratitude, the encouragement and support their 
enterprise has received, and the willing assistance rendered in enabling them to 
surmount the many unforeseen obstacles to be met with in the production of 
a work of such magnitude. To procure the materials for its compilation, official 
records have been carefully examined;- newspaper files searched, manuscripts, 
letters and memoranda have been sought; those longest in the locality were 
interviewed ; and all the material has been so collated, systematized and indexed 
as to render it easy of reference. 

He who expects to find the work entirely free from errors or defects has 
little knowledge of the difficulties attending the preparation of a work of this 
kind, and should indulgently bear in mind that ''it is much easier to be critical 
than to be correct." It is, therefore, trasted that the history Avill be received 
by the public in that generous spirit which is gratified at honest and conscien- 
tious effort. 

The publishers have been fox'tunate in securing the services of a staff of 
efficient and painstaking historians, who have been materially assisted by the 
gentlemen of the press and of the various professions, by the public officials, 
and by many other citizens of the- county, of all of whom personal mention 
would gladly here be made, did space permit. 

The work has been divided into two parts, History and Biography. The 
general histoiy of the county, and for the most part of the townships and 
boroughs, has been compiled and prepared by Prof. J. T. Stewart. The Blairs- 
ville chapter is from the pen of Thomas Davis Jlarshall ; the Montgomery town- 
ship chapter by S. K. Eank ; the Bench and Bar chapter bj' Samuel A. Douglass, 
Esq. Acknowledgment is made of assistance rendered by Gen. Harrj' White 
and Dr. "W. B. Ansley in the prosecution of the work. 

In behalf of the author thanks are extended to all who have contributed 
to the work, the ministers of the county, especially Revs. W. J. Wilson and 
H. F. King, of Indiana, Pa., and H. W. Maguire, of Cookport, Pa. ; the press, 
especially the Indiana Progress and the Saltsburg Press; the church officials; 
John Z. Simpson for the use of his library; James ^I. Swank; Dr. W. J. Mc- 
Knight ; John S. Ritnour, and William F. Lindsey. 

The Biographical department is of special interest. In nearly every instance 
the data were submitted to those immediately interested for revision and cor- 
rection. The work, which is one of genei-ous amplitude, is placed in the hands 
of the public with the belief that it will be found a valuable addition to the 
library, as well as an invaluable contribution to the historical and genealogical 
literature of Pennsylvania. 

The Publishers. 





Remains of an Extinct People 4 Bench and Bar 383 


Early Settlers S 

Indiana Borongh 395 



Modes of Travel 40 

Armstrong Township — Shelocta Eoroiijjh 432 



CHAPTER VI • Banks Township— Glen Campbell Borough 438 

The Pennsylvania Canal 49 CHAPTER XXHI 

CHAPTER VII Blackliek Township 445 

Mineral Resources of Indiana County 55 CHAPTER XXIV 

CHAPTER VIII Brushvalley Township— Mechaniesburg Borough.. 449 

Changes in the System of "Weather 79 CHAPTER XXr\" 

CHAPTER IX Buffington Township 452 

Beasts and Birds of Indiana County 84 CH-iPTFP XXVI 

CHAPTER X Burrell Township 455 

Number and Variety of Serpents SS 



History of Blairsville and Vicinity 458 

Indigenous Fruits of the County 90 

CHAPTER XII -, ^ ^. 

Canoe Township 482 

Formation of the County 92 

CHAPTER XIII , . „ -,. T, 

Center Township — Homer City Borough 484 

Political Parties 97 


County and State Officers 103 '''^'"y''''' Township-Clymer Borough 492 


Veterans of Indiana County 109 (-'oiie'iiaugh Township— Saltsburg Borough 499 


Schools of Indiana County 195 Grant Township 511 

Churches 231 Green Township 513 




East Mahoning Township — Marion Center Bor- Rayne Township 556 

""^•^ ^^^^ CHAPTERXLI 

CHAPTER XXXV Washington Township— Creekside Borough 559 

North Mahoning Township 527 


East Wheatfield Township — Armagh Borough. .. .561 
South Mahoning Township — Plumville Borough. . .5?.8 


West Mahoning Township-Smicksburg Borough . . 542 ^^'^^ ^Vteattield Township 566 


Montgomery Township— Cherrytree Borough 546 White Township 571 


Pine Township 552 Young Township 572 



Academies 218 

Blairsville 222 

Covode 225 

Eldersridge 218, 271 

Greenville 224 

Indiana 218 

Jaeksonville 221 

Purchase Line 515 

Saltsbiirg 225 

Allegheny Formation 58 

Coals in 64 

Allison, William E 390 

Allisons, The 484 

Alum Bank 455, 462 

Ambrose Baptist Church 294 

Animal Life 17 

Antioch Evan. Luth. Church.. 312 
Apprentice's Agreement, 1803. 454 

Arcadia 549 

Arcadia Presbyterian Church.. 280 

Armagh Borough 564 

M. E. Church 354 

Presbyterian Church 242 

Armstrong Township — Shelocta 

Borough 432 

Post, Wm., No. 303, G. A. E. 179 

Assessments, Early 97 

Associate Judges 104 

Associate Presbyterian Church. 317 
Assumption Church, Catholic. .1331 

Atcheson, George 194 

Attorney Generals, Deputy. .. . 105 

Attorneys, District 105 

List of Present 395 

Auditors, County 106 

Axes 16 

Baird Family 468 

James 462 

Bairdstown 461, 468 

Banks — 

Blacklick 457 

Blairsville 469 

Cherrytree 551 

Clymer 498 

Glen Campbell 440 

Homer City 490 

Indiana 419 

Marion Center 527 

Plumville 540 

Saltsburg 510 

Banks, John N 389 

Township • — Glen Campbell 

Borough 438 

William 394 

William, Deceased 385 

Baptist Association, Indiana. . 284 

Churches 284 

German Churches (Brethren) 362 
Barnes, Joseph 460 


Beasts and Birds of Indiana 

County 84 

Bell, John T 393, 867 

Bell's Mills (now Josephine).. 455 

Bench and Bar 383 

Beracha U. P. Congregation.. 339 
Berringer P.O. (Kesslerville) 514 
Bethel Evan. Lutheran Church 311 

Presbyterian Church 263 

U. P. Church 336 

Bethesda (now Nebo) Presby- 
terian Church 258 

Birds 86 

Black, James 461 

William E 391 

Blacklick Baptist Church 290 

Free Methodist Church 361 

M. E. Church 353 

M. E. Church, Buffington 

Township 356 

Presbyterian Church 234 

Township 445 

Blair, David 394 

Eev. David 319 

Hon. John P 388, 679 

Samuel S 386 

Blairsville and Vicinity 458 

Academy 222 

Attorneys 469 

Banks 469 

Baptist Church 295 

Beginning of Blairsville.... 474 

Borough OfiBcers '. 470 

Business People, Past and 

Present 474 

Days of the Pioneer 458 

Early Hotels 464 

Early Postmasters 464 

Early and Former Eesi- 

dents 461, 465 

Evangelical Association .... 346 

Free Methodist Church 362 

History by Decades 474 

Items of Interest 466 

Ladies ' Seminary 222 

Masonic Lodge 470 

M. E. Church 353 

Newspapers 464, 465 

Old Log Schoolhouse 465 

Presbyterian Church 235 

U. P. Church 331 

Present Business Houses... 471 
Present Commercial and In- 
dustrial Establishments.. . 470 

Eunning History 461 

y. M. C. A 470 

Blockhouses 12. 14, 432, 

..484, 486, 499, 5.56, 567, 573 
Bolar, Maj. A. J., Post, No. 

533, G. A. E 178 



Boroughs of Indiana County, 

,^'^K ■• 96 

Armagh 5(34 

Blairsville 455 

Cherrytree '.['.['. 550 

Clymer 496 

Creekside 560 

Glen Campbell 439 

Homer City 4S9 

Jacksonville 574 

Marion Center 523 

Mechanicsburg 450 

Plumville 540 

Saltsburg 503 

Shelocta 436 

Smicksburg 543 

Boyle, Albert C 389 

Brethren (German Baptist) 

Churches 362 

Brickmaking Material 69 

Bridges and Ferries, Salts- 
burg 507 

Brown, Lieut. Frank M., Post, 

No. 266, G. A. R 179, 574 

Brownlee, Eev. Dr. J. Day. 325, 625 

Brushvalley Baptist Church. . . 294 
Evangelical Lutheran Church 302 

Syncline 62 

Township — Mechanicsburg 
Borough 449 

Buffalo, Eochester & Pittsburg 

Eailroad 43 

Buffington, Judge Joseph.... 384 
Township 452 

Burrell Township 455 

Campbell, Gen. Charles 445, 460 

His Journal 446 

Family 460 

Campbell 's Mill 460 

Canoe Place (Cherrytree) 546 

Monument 550 

Township 482 

IT. B. Church 360 

Carboniferous System, Stratig- 
raphy 57, 74 

Carpenter, Ephraini 384 

John C 389 

Catholic Churches 281 

Census, Comparison of Years 

1840 and 1910 95 

Center Presbyterian Church ... 246 
Township — Homer City 

Borough 484 

CentervUle Presbyterian Ch. . 249 

Chambers, Moses 13, 459 

Chambersville 557 

Cherryhill Manor 492 

Cherryhill Township — Clymer 

Borough 492 



Cherrytiee Baptist Church.. 294 

Borough 550 

Monument (Canoe Place) . . 550 
Male and Female College.. 223 

M. P. Church 357 

Post, No. 40, G. A. E 178 

Presbyterian Church 265 

Chestnut Eidge 56, 64 

Anticline 61 

Christ Protestant Episcopal 

Church, Indiana 364 

Christian Churches 358 

Christ's Evangelical Lutheran 

Church, Garfield 313 

Church of God 362 

Churches 231 

Circular Hunt, Conemaugh 

Township 501 

Green Township 515 

Civil War, Indiana County in 

the 109 

History of Eegiments and 

Companies 109 

Soldiers, Eoster of Indiana 

County 144 

Veterans, First Eeunion . . 179 

Clark, J. Wood 393 

Hon. Silas M 388 

William 8 

Clarksburg 500 

Presbyterian Church 248 

Eeformed Presbyterian Ch. 343 

Clay Deposits 69, 497 

Clearing the Land 16 

Clerks 104, 107 

Clymer Borough 496 

Christian Church 359 

George 93, 383, 496 

M. E. Church 355 

Presbyterian Church 250 

Coal 63, 75 

Coalport 501 

Coffey, Titian J 386 

Cokeville, Coketo\vn 478 

Coleman, James M 388 

Nicholas 329, 501 

Colfax (Decker's Point P. O.) 511 
College, Cherrytree Male and 

Female 223 

Comet, 1835 82 

Commissioners, County 106 

Jury 105 

Clerks 107 

Conemnugh (West Penn) Di- 
vision, Pa. E. E 481 

Formation •5'9 

Formation, Coals in 67 

Presbytery 318 

Teachers' Institute ...211, 213 
Township — Saltsburg Bor- 
ough 499 

United Presbyterian Con- 
gregation 328 

Congressmen 103 

Conner, Rev. William 329 

Cooking, Early 25 

Cookport 513 

Baptist Church 288 

Evan. Luth. Church 310 

M. E. Church 357 

Coral 486 

Coroners 108 


County Agricultural Society. . 412 

Home 409 

Institute 213 

Medical Society 366 

Surveyors 108 

Court House Square, Indiana 

(view) 399 

Covered Bridge, Blairsville . . 463 

Covode (formerly Kellys- 

ville) 536 

Academy 225 

Cramer 562 

M. E. Church 355 

Creekside Borough 560 

Gas Field 69, 559 

Crete U. P. Church 338 

Croft Evangelical Church 345 

Crooked Creek 

Cunningham, Judge John . . 467 
Samuel 390 

Currie 's Eun Presbyterian 

Church 250 

Davidsville (Trade City P. O.) 527 
Decker's Point P. O. (Colfax) 511 

M. E. Church 351 

Declaration of Independence, 

First 459 

Deputy Attorney Generals 105 

Surveyors 108 

Diamondville (Mitchells Mills 

P. O.) 496 

Dias (or Nolo) Eidge 56 

Dilltown 453 

Baptist Church 298 

District Attorneys 105 

Surveyors 108 

Dixonville 514 

Wesleyan Methodist Church 360 

Douglass, Samuel A 387 

Drainage, Local 56, 71, 94 

Dress of Indians and Early 

Settlers 21 

Drum, Augustus 385 

Dunkers or Tunkers 362 

Dunmore 's War 459 

Dutch Eun Anticline 74 

Early Assessments 97 

Cooking 25 

County Eoads 47 

Election Places 96 

Farming 18 

Furniture 20 

Games and Diversions .... 30 

Mills 13 

Schools of Indiana County. 202 

Schools of Blairsville 465 

Settlers 8 

Settlers, Fare of 20 

Transportation, Cost of . . . . 45 
Wedding, An 26 

East Mahoning Township — 

Marion Center Borough.. 517 
Baptist Church 295 

East Eun 511 

East Union Presbyterian 

Church 276 

V. P. Congregation 334 

East Wlioatfipld Township- 
Armagh Borough 561 


Ebenezer Presbyterian Ch. . . 272 
Eclipse of Sun, June 16, 1806 81 

Elder, Eobert 573 

Eldersridge 573 

Academy 2I8,' 271 

Presbyterian Church 268 

Elders Eidge Quadrangle 70 

SyncUne 74 

Election Places, Early....'.".' 95 
Eleventh Eeserves, 40th Pa. 

.„ "^"ols 109 

Eoster 244 

Elkin, Hon. John P.. . .'.'.'.'392, 590 

„ '^•F 394 766 

Ernest 557 

Evangelical Association ...... 343 

Lutheran Churches 299 

Extinct People, Eemain's of'an "" 4 

Fairview Baptist Church "97 

Fare of Early Settlers 20 

Farming, Early jg 

Pee, Harry W sg"/ 933 

Feit, George J 394 

Ferries and Bridges, Saltsburg 507 
Ferry over Conemaugh Eiver.. 460 
Fifth Begiment, Pa. Vol. Inf.. 18'> 
Fifty-fifth Pa. Vols.... ns 

Fifty-sixth Pa. Vols. (Co.'b) 117 

Eoster 254 

Findley, George g 

Fiudley Patch Post, Ng.' Y3V 

G. A. E .'177 

^^reClay 69, 497 

First Declaration of Inde- 
pendence 4.59 

First Light Artillery, 43d Pa. 

Vols., 14th Eeserves H4 

Eoster 252 

First Mill ........'. 460 

Eoad ' 45 

Fisher, Hon. John S '393 638 

Five Points ggn 

Flax Brake "' 94 

Flora P. 433 

Forbes Eoad 458, 459 

Formation of the County 92 

Of Townships qn 

Fort Hill : : : : ; 507 

Fortieth Pa. Vols., 11th Ee- 
serves 109 

Eoster 244 

Forts 8, 12, 432 

445, 48.5, 486, 567,' 571 

Forty-first Pa. Vols., 12th Ee- 
serves 122 

Roster 150 

Forty-sixth Pa. Vols 114 

Roster 151 

Forty;third Pa. Vols., ist iight 

Artillery, 14th Reserves.. 114 

Tfoster 151 

Fourteenth Cavalry, 159th Pa. 

Vols 138 

Roster 170 

Fourteenth Reserves, 43d Pa. 

Vols., 1st L. A 114 

Roster 151 

Fourth Cavalry, 64th Pa. Vols. 159 

Frances 433 

I'rankstown Road, Old . 

45, 461, 563 



Free ilethodist Churches 361 

Free Schools 204 

I'reeport Coal, Lower 65, 75 

Upper 64, 75 

Friendship Chapel, Cherryhlll 

To«-nship 346 

Frolics, Pioneer Evening 32 

IViiits of the County, Indi- 
genous 90 

Gallows Hill 459 

Games and Diversions, Early. . 30 

Garfield (Robinson P. O.) 569 

Garfield Brethren Church. . . ; . 364 

Gas, Natural 67, 559 

Geological Structure 61 

Geology — 

Elders Eidge Quadrangle. . . 72 

Indiana Quadrangle 57 

Georgeville 518 

Baptist Church 296 

German Baptist Churches 

(Brethren) 362 

Germany M. E. Church 356 

Getty, John L 393 

Gettysburg M. P. Church 357 

Gilgal Presbyterian Church... 267 
Gilpin P. 0. (Kintersburg) ... 558 

Gipsy 549 

Girls ' Industrial Home 409 

Glen Campbell Borough 439 

Baptist Church 295 

Presbyterian Church 280 

Grace V. E. Church 346 

Graeeton 486 

Luther Chapel 308 

Graffs 463, 468 

Grand Army of the Eepublic . . 176 

Grant Township 511 

Greek Catholic Church 1249 

Green, Isaac 462, 463, 475 

Township 513 

Greenville 495 

Academy 224 

U. P. Church 339 

Greenwood Cemetery 413 

Grove Chapel Evan. Luth. 

Church 314 

Hannastown 459 

Harmony Grove Evan. Luth. 

Church 310 

Presbyterian Church 257 

Haying 'in the Olden Time 19 

Hazelet M. P. Church 356 

Hebron Evan. Luth. Church. . . 304 

Heilwood 553 

Dairy o54 

Hospital 334 

Presbvterian Church 257 

Heshboii M. E. Church 355 

V. P. Congregation 331 

Hill, Rev. George 236, 810 

John H 391 

Hillsdale 548 

Holy Cross Catholic Church.. 986 

Home P. 0. (Kellysburg) 557 

Homer City Borough 489 

Baptist Church 295 

Evan. Luth. Church 308 

M. E. Church 350 


Presbyterian Church 274 

U. P."Church 336 

Hood, Hon. G. W 391 

Hopewell if. E. Church 354 

Hortons P. 439 

Hospitals — 

Indiana 410 

Penn-Mary 554 

House Warming, The 28 

Household Jlanufactures .... 24 

Hunting, Subsistence bv 23 

Hunts — 

Circular 501, 515 

Wolf 17 

Hustonville 496 

"Indiana" Anticline (so- 
called) 63 

Indiana Baptist Association.. 284 

Indiana Borough 395 

Academy 218 

Banks 419 

Business Establishments. . . . 414 
County Agricultural Society 412 

County Home 409 

Court House Square (view) 399 
Early Residents, Tradesmen, 

etc 400 

Early Hotels 404 

Early Industries 401 

Electric Light and Power. . 405 

First Buildings 400 

Girls' Industrial Home 409 

Greenwood Cemetery 413 

Hospital 410 

Hospital View 410 

Hotels 428 

Lot No. 1 420 

Lot No. 1, First Building. . 420 
' ' Present Building " ...... 421 

Merchants, etc 421 

Municipal Building 411 

Normal School 226 

Normal School Views. . .226-230 

Oakland Cemeterv 413 

Philadelphia St. Views. .423, 425 

Press, The 428 

Sewage Disposal* Plant 407 

Site 397 

Societies, Clubs, Lodges 430 

Waterworks 405 

West Indiana Borough.... 404 

Y. M. C. A 410 

Y. M. C. A. Building, View 411 

Indiana Branch Railroad 48 

Indiana Churches 

Baptist, First 287 

Christian, First 358 

Evangelical Association . . 345 

Free Methodist 361 

Methodist Episcopal 347 

Presbyterian, First 244 

Protestant Episcopal, Christ 364 

V. P. Congregation 318 

IT. P. Congregation, Second 326 

Wesleyan Methodist 360 

Zion Evan. Luth 299 

Indiana County Agricultural 

Society . .' 412 

County Home 409 

County Medical Society. . . 366 


County Normal School 214 

County St. Railways Co 43 

Indiana Female Seminary 218 

Post, No. 28, G. A. R 176 

Quadrangle, The 55 

Institute, The County 213 

Institutes, Local . . . .' 213, 559 

Iselin 573 

Jack, Hon. S. M 391 

Jacksonville Academy 221 

Anticline 62, 73 

Borough 574 

M. E. Church '.'.'.'.'.' 351 

Presbyterian Church ....... 277 

V. P. Congregation....... 326 

Jamieson, Rev. John 329, 931 

Josephine (Bell's Mills) 455 

Judges, Associate 104 

President 104, 383 

Juneau 433 

U. E. Church '. 346 

Jury Commissioners 105 

Keener, Frank 393 

Kelly, James 459, 500 

Kelly, James M 384 

Kelly, Pliny 386 

Kellysburg (Home P. O.) . . . 557 
Kelly's Station (Tunnelston) . 500 

Baptist Church 290 

KeUysvUle (now Covode) 536 

Kesslerville (Berringer P. 0.) 514 
Kintersburg (Gilpin P. O.) . . 558 

Kittanning Coals 66 

Knott, Wilson 461, 468 

Labor and Its Discourage- 
ments 30 

Ladies' Seminary, Blairsville 222 

Land, The '. 14 

Langham, J. N 393 

Latrobe, Syncline 62 

Leech, John M 392 

Legal Relations of Man and 

Wife, Pioneer ' 29 

Leonard, Jane, Hall — Normal 

Recitation Building 227 

Liggett, W. N 394, 944 

Limestone 70 

Lockvale 43S 

Locust Lane 483 

Log Cabin, The 15 

Logan 438 

Judge James A 384 

Logging and Underbrushing. 17 

Lot No. 1, Indiana 420 

First Building on 420 

Present Building 421 

Love joy 5 16 

Lowry, John 388 

Loyaihanna Baptist Church.. 290 

Lucerne 486 

Luciusboro 488 

Luther Chapel, Graeeton 308 

Lutheran Churches, Evangeli- 
cal 299 

Lyon, Sanrael 390 

McCabe, Richard B 385, 477 

Melntyre 574 



McKee Run Anticline 63 

McKirahan, Bev. William 330 

Mahan, W. M 394 

Mahoning Baptist Church . . . 296 
United Presbyterian Con- 
gregation 334 

Mahonings, The 517 

East — Marion Center Bor- 
ough 517 

North 527 

South— Plumville Borough. 538 
West — Smieksburg Borough 542 

Mail Stage 47 

Manor Brethren Congregation 363 

Wesleyan Methodist Church 360 

Manufactures, Household .... 24 

Maple Sugar Industry 37 

Marchand 528 

Evangelical Association . . . 344 

United Evan. Church 344 

Marlin's Mills (Willet P. O.) 560 

Marion Center Borough 523 

M. E. Church 349 

Presbyterian Church 259 

Mauch Chunk Shale 58 

Meehanicsburg Borough 450 

Evan. Church of North 

America 345 

, M. E. Church 352 

Presbyterian Church 234 

U. P. Congregation 330 

Medical Profession 366 

Medical Society, Indiana Co. 366 

Members of Congress 103 

Meteorological Record, 1911 

and 1912 83 

Methodist Episcopal Churches 346 
Methodist Protestant Churches 356 
Mexican War, Indiana County 

in the 184 

Roster of Indiana County 

Soldiers 185 

Militia of Indiana County, 

1861 to 1865 141 

Militia of 1864 143 

Mills, Early 13 

Mineral Resources 55 

Mitchell, Dr. Robert 496, 785 

Mitchell's Mills P. O. (Dia- 

mondville) 496 

Modes of Travel 40 

Montgomery Brethren Church, ' 

Grant Township 363 

Township — Cherrytree Bor- 
ough .546 

Moorhead, Everett H 390 

Fergus 8, 459 

Port, White Township, View 12 
Mount Pleasant Presbyterian 

Church 240 

Mount Zion Evan. Luth. 

Church 311 

Myers, John 385 

Nashville 512 

National Guard, Pennsylva- 
nia 431, 482 

Nebo Presbyterian Church 

(formerly Bethesda) 258 

Newport 448 

Newspapers — 

Blairsville . . . '. 464 


Homer City 490 

Indiana 428 

Marion Center 527 

Saltsburg 510 

Nineveh 563 

M. E. Church 352 

Ninth Reserves, 38th Pa. Vols. 109 

Roster 144 

Nolo 552 

Anticline 62 

(or Dias) Ridge 56 

Normal School, Indiana 

County 214 

Pennsylvania State 226 

North Mahoning Township... 527 
North Point P. O. (Sellers- 

ville) 542 

U. B. Church 359 

Northern Turnpike 461, 462 

Northwestern Railroad 44, 476, 477 
Nowrytown Evangelical Asso- 
ciation 346 

M. E. Church 352 

Oakland Cemetery 413 

U. P. Church, Decker's 

Point 337 

Officers, County and State... 103 

O'Harra 467, 476 

Old Moorhead Fort, View. ... 12 
One Hundred and Fifth Pa. 

Vols 132 

Roster 166 

One Hundred and Fifty-ninth 

Pa. Vols., 14th Cavalry. 138 

Roster 170 

One Hundred and Forty-eighth 

Pa. Vols. (Co. E) 136 

Roster 170 

One Hundred and Third Pa. 

Vols 131 

Roster 165 

One Hundred and Thirty-fifth 

Pa. Vols 136 

Roster 168 

One Hundred and Seventy-sev- 
enth Pa. Vols 139 

O'Neil, James L., Post, No. 

537, G. A. R 179 

Paige, Edmund 386 

Parkwood 435 

Peelor, Elder 393 

Penn Run (Harmony) Pres- 
byterian Church " 257 

M. E. Church 355 

P. O. (Greenville) 495 

Pennsylvania Canal, The .... 49 

National Guard 431, 482 

Railroad 43, 476, 480 

School Journal, Extracts 

210, 217 

State Normal School 226 

State Normal School, 

Views 226-230 

Pensioners in Indiana County, 

1840 195 

Philadelphia Street, Indiana, 

Views. 421, 423, 425 

Physicians of Indiana County 367 

Pierce. John H . 392 

Pino Township 552 


Pine Flats 514 

Baptist Church 288 

Christian Church 359 

Pine Grove Wesleyan Metho- 
dist Church 361 

Pioneer Evening Frolics .... 32 
Legal Relations of Man and 

Wife 29 

Life, Reflections On 37 

Pioneers 8 

Pittsburg Coal ". 76 

Plum Creek United Presbyte- 
rian Church 340 

Plunnalle Baptist Church 289 

Borough 540 

Presbyterian Church 279 

Political Parties 97 

Pollock, John, Post, No. 219, 

G. A. R 179 

Porter, Daniel S 389 

Potter, John 386 

Pottsville Formation 58 

Presbyterian Churches 231 

Synodical Connections .... 231 

Planting and Growth 231 

Organization of Presbytery 232 

Presbytery, Conemaugh 318 

President Judges 104, 383 

Protestant Episcopal Denomi- 
nation 364 

Prothonotaries, Clerks, etc. . . . 104 

Purchase Line, The 546 

Purchase Line Academy 515 

Quadrangle, Elders Ridge. ... 70 

The Indiana 55 

Quaternary System 60 

Railroads 43 

Rayne Presbyterian Church. . 278 

Township 556 

Reed, G. P 386 

Reformed Presbyterian Ch. . 314 

Churches 340 

Registers and Recorders 104 

Remains of an Extinct People 4 

Representatives, State 103 

Reunion, First, of Civil War 

Veterans 179 

Rexis 453 

Rice, Conrad 395 

Richmond (Rochester Mills P. 

O.) 482, 512 

Anticline 62 

Baptist Church 297 

Post, G. A. R 179 

U. B. Church 359 

U. P. Congregation 335 

Roads 4i5 

Early County 47 

State 47 

Road Viewers, Early 47 

Robertsville 482 

Robinson P. O. (Garfield)... .569 
Foster, Post, No. 36, G. A. 

R 179 

Rochester Mills P. O. (Rich- 
mond) 482, 512 

Rockbridge Presbyterian Ch. . 238 

Roasiter 483 

Evangelical Association.... 345 

Prcsbvterian Church 242 



Roster of Indiana County 
Soldiers — 

Civil War 144 

Mexican War 185 

Spanish-American War 183 

Salem Evangelical Association 345 
Evan. Luth. Church, Smicks- 

burg 308 

M. P. Church So- 
Salt Manufacture 502 

Saltsburg Borough 503 

Academv 225 

Business Places 509 

Cemeteries 507 

Ferries and Bridges 507 

Kiskiminetas Springs School 

510, 601 

Soldiers ' Monument 508 

Way Back in the Sixties — 
A Pen Picture of Salts- 
burg 504 

Saltsburg Churches — 

Baptist 290 

Methodist Episcopal 351 

Presbyterian ; 252 

United Presbyterian 339 

Sandstone 69 

Sansom, James B 389 

Saxman 516 

School Code 209 

Superintendency 207 

Schoolhouses 216 

Schoolmasters 201 

Schools, Early 202 

Free 204 

Of Our Forefathers 195 

Of Indiana County 195 

Select 224 

Scotland 574 

Scott, John A 392, 622 

Second Pa. Vols., Mexican War 184 

Select Schools 224 

Sellersville (North Point P.O.) 542 

Seminaries 218 

Blairsville Ladies' 222 

Indiana Female 218 

Senators, State 103 

Serpents, Number and Variety 

of 88 

Settlers, Early 8 

Seventh Day Adventist Colony 728 

Seventy-eighth Pa. V. 1 129 

Eoster 162 

Seventy-fourth Pa. Vols 128 

Eost'er 158 

Shanktonn 516 

Sharp, Andrew 432 

Shelocta Borough 436 

U. P. Congregation 331 

Sheriffs 104 

Shiloh Baptist Church 297 

Shoupstown 562 

Sidney 438 

Signal Service, United States 

143, 174 

Sixty-first Pa. Vols. (Co. A.) . 119 

Eoster 156 

Sixty-fourth Pa. Vols., 4th 

Cavalry 159 

Sixty-seventh Pa. Vols 126 

Eoster 160 

Sloan, H. K 389 

Smicksburg Borough 543 

Presbyterian Church 233 

Smith. E. Walker 393 

Smithport (Hortons P. O.) . . . 439 

Christian Church 359 

M. E. Church 355 

Smyerstown 483 

Smyrna U. P. Church 340 

Snyder, Antes 460, 481 

Soils 70 

Soldiers. Civil War, Miscellane- 
ous List 174 

Soldiers' Monument, Saltsburg 508 
South Mahoning Township — 

Plumville Borough 538 

Spanish- American War 182 

Spinning Wheels 24 

St. Bernard Catholic Church.. 281 
St. Elizabeth's Catholic Church 997 
St. Francis' Catholic Church. 943 
SS. Simon and Jude's Cath- 
olic Church 282 

St. Mark 's U. E. Church 346 

St. Paul 's Evan. Luth. Church 304 

Stagecoaches 46 

Stakes Evangelical Association 346 
Stanard, Daniel 384 

John 387 

Starf ord 497 

State Normal School 226 

Roads 47 

Steel, Stewart 386 

Stewart, Ernest 394 

William M 385 

W. L 392 

Stewartsville (Parkwood P. 

O.) ,. 435 

Stores and Trade 35 

Stranford 457 

Stratigraphy, Carboniferous 

System 57, 75 

Strongstown 552 

M. E. Church 351 

Presbyterian Church 246 

Stuchell', John T 392 

Subsistence by Hunting 23 

Surveyors — 

District, Deputy, County... 108 
Susquehanna U. P. Church... 338 
Sutton, Thomas, Sr 386 

Tannery Village 435 

Tanoma 558 

Taylor, Alexander 386 

A. W 386 

David Blair 391 

John S 393 

Matthew 386 

Taylorsville (Utah P. O.) . . . . 515 
Teachers ' Institute, First 

County 210 

Teachers " Institutes — 

Conemaugh 211, 213 

County 213 

Washington Township .... 213 

White Township 214 

Telford, Judge S. J 384, 392 


Thirty-eighth Pa. A'ols., 9th 

Beserves 109 

Roster 144 

Thompson, John 14 

Joseph M 388 

Todd. William A 386 

Tomahawk Eights 14 

Tomb, D. H 393 

Topography 56 

Townships, List of 96 

Armstrong — Shelocta Bor- 
ough 432 

Banks— Glen Campbell Bor- 
ough 438 

Blacklick 445 

Brushvalley — Mechanics- 

liurg Borough 449 

Buffington 452 

Burrell 455 

Canoe 482 

Center— Homer City Bor- 
ough 484 

Cherryhill — Clymer Borough 492 
Conemaugh — Saltsbur'g Bor- 
ough 499 

Grant 511 

Green 513 

Mahoning, East — Marion 

Center Borough 517 

North 527 

South— Plumville Borough 538 
West — Smicksburg Bor- 
ough 542 

Montgomery — Cherrytree 

Borough 546 

Pine 552 

Rayne 556 

Washington — Creekside 

Borough 559 

Wheatfield, East — Armagh 

Borough 561 

Wheatfield, West 566 

White 571 

Young — Jacksonville Bor- 
ough 572 

Trade and Stores 35 

Nature of 36 

Trade City P. O. (Davids- 

ville) 527 

Evan. Luth. Church 306 

Transportation, Early Cost of. 45 

Travel, Modes of 40 

Treasurers, County 106 

Tunkers or Duniers 362 

Tunnelton (Kelly's Station). 500 

Presbyterian Church 262 

Twelfth Reserves, 41st Pa. 

Vols 112 

Roster 150 

Two Hundred and Sixth Pa- 

Vols 140 

Roster 171 

Twolick Baptist Church 292 

Mission 293 

Underbrushing and Logging. . 17 
Underground Railroad in In- 
diana County 191 

Union Presbyterian Church, 

Ernest . . . ." 281 



United Brethren Churches. . . 359 
Evangelical Association . . . 343 

Presbyterian Church 314 

Presbyterian Churches .... 317 

Urey 439 

Utah P. O. (Taylorsville) 515 

Veterans of Indiana County. 109 

Walker, James H 468, 476 

Wallace Mill and Fort . . 8, 445, 460 
War of 1814, Incidents of . . . . 185 
Washington Presbyterian 

Church ■ 242 

Township — Creekside Bor- 
ough 559 

Township Teachers ' Insti- 
tutes 213, 559 

Water 70 

Waterman 488 

Watson, M. C 391 

Weather, Changes in The Sys- 
tem of 79 

Meteorological Eecord, 1911 
and 1912 83 


Wedding, An Early 26 

Wehrum 453 

M. E. Church 355 

Weir, Hugh W 387 

\vesleyan Methodist Churches. 360 

West Indiana Borough 404 

West Lebanon 573 

Baptist Church 294 

Presbyterian Church 261 

West Mahoning Township — 

Smicksburg Borough .... 542 

West Penn (Conemauo-h) Di- 
vision, Pa. R. B 44, 481 

West Union United Presbyter- 
ian Church 333 

West Wheatfield Township .... 566 

Wbeatfield Townships — 

East — Armagh Borough. . . . 561 

West 566 

White, Judge Harry 384, 387 

Judge Thomas 383, 385 

Township Teachers' Insti- 
tute 214 

Township .571 

Wiggins, Coulter 389 


Wilderness, The 1 

WiUet P. O. (Marlin's Mills) 560 

Gas Field 68, 559 

Wilson, A. W 393 

Hall — N o r m a 1 Training 
School 226 

John E 390 

E. M 393 

Witchcraft Delusion 33 

Wolf Hunt 17 

Wool Wheel 24 

Y. M. C. A., Indiana 410 

Building 411 

Blairsville 470 

Young, Judge John 383 

Joseph J 385 

Township — Jacksonville Bor- 
ough 572 

Zion Evangelical Association. . 344 
Evan. Luth. Church. .. .299, 722 
Evan. Luth. Church, Ger- 
many 312 



Abel, William 1465 

Aekerson Families ....1106, 1178 

Ackerson, James W 1220 

Aekerson, Dr. Lewis E 1178 

Ackerson, William E 1106 

Adams, Alexander M 1 339 

Adams, Mrs. Amanda 1423 

Adams Family 1339 

Adams, Lert 1297 

Adams, William W 1423 

Ake, Jacob G 976 

Ake, James Dowler 976 

Albert, Leslie E 1430 

Alexander Family 813 

Alexander, Eay M., M. D 813 

Allison, Alexander H., M. D.. 8.51 

Allison, Elmer W 818 

Allison Families 819, 851, 957 

Allison, Harry E 955 

Altemus Families 1117, 1336 

Altemus, Mrs. Jennie 1274 

Altemus, Mathias S 1338 

Altemus, Newton G 1117 

Altemus, Mrs. Terzah P 1118 

Altemus, W. H 1274 

Altemus, William W 1337 

Altimus Family 780 

Altimus, Nicho"las D 780 

Amond, Charles E 1122 

Amend Families 10.36, 1122 

Amond, Frank C 1036 

Anderson Family 1395 

Anderson, John C 1395 

Ankeny, Edmund K 1199 

Ansley, Edward M 816 

Ansley Family 801, 816 

Anslev, Dr. William B 801 

Anthony Families 1058, 1307 

Anthony, John J 1307 

Anthony. Simon 1058 

Archibald Family 610 

Archibald. John P 610 

Armstrong, Andrew 1453 

Armstrong Family 1377 

Armstrong, Isaac N 1377 

Arnold Family 995 

Arnold, John'N 995 

Askins Family 771 

Askins, Wesley 771 

Aul Family 1294 

Aul, Thomas H 1294 

Auld Family 1399 

Auld, John M 1399 

Badger, Ferguson W 1130 

Badger, William 1130 

Baker, Andrew P 707 

Baker Family 707 

Baker, George 1356 

Baker, Hezekiah W 1356 


Baker, Samuel F ' 1443 

Banks, John N 389, 605 

Barber, Ezekiel A 1505 

Barber Family 1505 

Barbour, Arthur L 1090 

Barbour, Augustus F 1090 

Barbour, William 1090 

Barclay, Alexander M 1396 

Barkley Family 1222 

Barkley, John" M 1222 

Barnet't Family 1344 

Barnett, Samuel 1344 

Baron, Eev. Anthony 986 

Baroon Family ' 1376 

Baroon, Haryey H 1376 

Barrett Families 1140 

Barrett, John D 1574 

Barrett, William E 1140 

Barron, Albert M 998 

Barron Family 998 

Bartholomew Family 1583 

Bartholomew, Jacob 1583 

Bash Family 1142 

Bash, William Dripps 1142 

Baughman Family 1335 

Baughman, Jonas B 1334 

Baun, Dayid 1463 

Baun Family 1463 

Baun. Henry 1204 

Baun, Joseph G 1204 

Beam, John 1150 

Beatty Family 1077 

BeattV, James A 1077 

Beck," Elmer C 1586 

Beck Family 1586 

Bee, Daniel H 1246 

Bee Families 1246, 1448 

Bee, Jacob 1149 

Bee, John A 1149 

Bee, Leroy 1448 

Bell Families 867, 884 

Bell, J. J 1091 

Bell, John T 393, S67 

Bell, Milton S 884 

Bence. Charles L 1206 

Bence Families 958, 1207 

Bence, George 1450 

Bence, Henry 1450 

Benoe. John L 958 

Bennett, Abraham B 1521 

Bennett, Archie A 1526 

Bennett Families 

991. 1139, 1.521, 1526, 1.543 

Bennett, Harry W 1139 

Bennett, John 659 

Bennett, Xorris W 1543 

Bennett. Peter 658 

Berkeypile, Hezekiah 1251 

Berke.ypile, Steele 1252 



Best Family 1092 

Best, Martin W 1092 

Bier, John J 1319 

BUlingslee Family 1065 

Billingslee. Thomas F 1065 

Bishop, John 1321 

Black, Adam 699 

Black Family 699 

Black. John 1159 

Black. Solomon 1159 

Blackburn. Enos E 1420 

Blair FamUy 679 

Blair, Hon. John P 388, 679 

Blakley Family 1566 

Blue, Dayid 1593 

Blue, John 1593 

Boden Family 918 

Boden, Todd E., M.D 918 

Boggs Family 1070 

Boggs, Harry Austin 1070 

Bolar Family 1250 

Bolar, John A 1250 

Bostic, Edward K 1214 

Bostic, Jacob 1214 

Bothel, James 816 

Bothel, Nelson M 816 

Boucher Families. .805, 1035, 1205 

Boucher, Harry K 1205 

Boucher, John 1 1035 

Boucher. Joseph T 805 

Boyard Family 920 

Bovard, James C 920 

Bowers, Abraham 1401 

Bowers Family 1294 

Bowers. George W 1401 

Bowers, John S 1294 

Bowser, Anderson 876 

Bowser Family 1554 

Bowser. Dr, William E 876 

Bowser, Wilson M 1554 

Boyer Family 1097 

BoVer. Harrison B 1097 

Brandon Family 892 

Brandon, Thomas J 892 

Braughler Family 1285 

Braughler, George S 1285 

Brickell Family 1091 

Brickell, George A 1091 

Bricker, John G 1458 

Bricker, Phaip 14.58 

Brilhart Family 883 

Brilhart, William W 883 

Brinkman. WiUiam 1333 

Brody, Solomon 1199 

Brown, Chester A 1284 

Brown, Daniel 1078 

Brown Families 

1137. 1282, 1387, 1402 

Brown, Harry Y 1283 

Brown, Herbert M 1402 



Brown, Jacob 1137 

Brown, Michael E 1347 

Brown, Samuel F 1387 

Brown, Thomas C 1348 

Brown, William J 1283 

Brownlee, Eev. J. Day. 319, 325, 625 

Bryan Family 893 

Bryan, John E 893 

Buchanan Families .. .645, 750, 794 

Buchanan, George T 750 

Buchanan, Harvey S 794 

Buchanan, William L 645 

Buehman, Robert 1597 

Burgess, Joseph H 1072 

Burkett, Harry W '. 1501 

Burkett, Jacob 1501 

Burkett, J. & Son 1501 

Burkhart Family 829 

Burkhart, Jesse W 829 

Burns Family 1034 

Burns, Harry E 1133 

Bustnell, E. M., M. D 984 

Buterbaugh, Amariah N 1015 

Buterbaugh, Amos L 1433 

Buterbaugh Families 1015 

1295, 1302, 1369, 1400, 1433, 1557 

Buterbaugh, George M 1361 

Buterbaugh, George W 1400 

Buterbaugh, Harry E 1295 

Buterbaugh, Howard B., M. D.1557 

Buterbaugh, John 1492 

Buterbaugh, John H 1302 

Buterbaugh, Levi M 1487 

Buterbaugh, William H. (son 

of Levi M.) 1487 

Buterbaugh, William H 1369 

Butler Family 1172 

Butler, George W 1172 

Butler, John H 1207 

Butler, Eichard 1123 

Butler, Mrs. Sadie J 1124 

Butler, Samuel 1123 

Cable, Benjamin 1517 

Cable Family 1518 

Calderwood, Andrew 1408 

Calderwood, Eobert 1450 

Calderwood, Samuel 1408 

Calderwood, Ward 1450 

Calhoun, Alexander P 1472 

Calhoun, Mrs. Annie R 1113 

Calhoun Families. . 733, 1004, 1155 

Calhoun, Jefferson C 733 

Calhoun, William L 1155 

Calhoun, William E 1004 

Calhoun, William T 1444 

Cameron, Dr. Clark J 881 

Cameron Family 8S1 

Cameron, John G 954 

Camp Family 854 

Camp, Francis B 853 

Campbell, Adam 1131 

Campbell, A. W 905 

Campbell, Prof. Christopher 

A 943 

Campbell, Clement L 1177 

Campbell, Cornelius 643 

Campbell, Elsworth B 992 

Campbell Families 

897, 905, 968, 992 

1073, 1131, 1177, 1190, 1239, 1440 
Campbell, James 943 


Campbell, James S 1239 

Campbell, Joe J 1072 

Campbell, John 1055 

Campbell, John G., M. D 1073 

Campbell, Joseph L 1190 

Campbell, Robert S 1132 

Campbell, Thomas P 1440 

Campbell, William H 896 

Carnahan Families. . .684, 895, 920 

Carnahan, Israel 895 

Carnahan, Michael L 684 

Carnahan, William S 920 

Carney, Emerson R 1265 

Carney Family 1166 

Carney, Milton 1166 

Carr Family 1481 

Carr, John C 1481 

Carson Families 888, 1552 

Carson, Harry 1552 

Carson, John M 888 

Cessna Family 1528 

Cessna, George W 1120 

Cessna, Milton E.' 1528 

Cessna, Richard C 1120 

Chapman Family 837 

Chapman, James 837 

Churchill Families 1288, 1544 

Churchill, Dr. Merton E 1544 

Churchill, Philander 1288 

Clark, Armor P 888 

Clark Families 

..676, 686, 787, 888, 1032, 1112 

Clark, Harry E 688 

Clark, John W 686 

Clark, Joseph 688 

Clark, Samuel L 689 

Clark, Hon. Silas M., LL.D.388, 676 

Clark, Thomas B 1112 

Clawson, Benjamin 1188 

Clawson, Boyd J 1189 

Clawson Families 1188, 1459 

Clawson, Gere 1189 

Clawson, Thomas P 1459 

Cline Family 761 

Cline, Harry A 762 

Cline, John H 76a 

Clowes, Austin W 8519. 

Clowes Family 859' 

Coble, Epyrus 1286 

Coe, Benjamin F., M. D 637 

Coe Family 637 

Coleman, C. B. C 966 

Coleman, Eev. Elijah 1212 

Coleman Families . .966, 1017, 1212 

Coleman, Samuel C 1017 

Coleman, Wesley B 1212 

Compton, Edward C 1579 

Compton Family 1579 

Compton, Jackson A 1328 

Condron Family 1329 

Condron, James A 1329 

Conner Family 10.^3 

Conner, Jacob C 1033 

Conrad Family 1 023 

Conrad, Franklin G 1023 

Conrath Families 1079, 1506 

Conrath, George A 1079 

(!onrath, Eoy 1506 

Coon Family 1482 

Coon, Samuel G 1482 

Cooper, Era.smus R 1091 

Cooper, John F 1091 

Cooper, Naum 1486 

Coy Family 1072 

Cramer Families 660, 1424 

Cramer, Joseph 660 

Cramer, Eobert G 661 

Cramer, Thomas W 661 

Cramer, William E 1424 

Cramer, Wilson 660 

Cranmer, Carl B., M. D 1026 

Cranmer FamUy 1027 

Craven Family 986 

Craven, Mrs. Martha 986 

Craven, Thomas 986 

Crawford Families 



Crawford, Miss Mary B 

Crawford, Max 

Crawford, Samuel 

Crawford, William B 

Crawford, William H 

Creamer Family 

Creamer, Thompson 

Creps, Elbie E 395^ 

Crops Family 

Cribbs Family 

Cribbs, George W 

Cribbs, John 

Cribbs, Joseph M 

Croasmiin, Everett L 

Croasmun Families 1410, 

Croasmun, Miles 

Cronk, Charles 

Cronk, James 

Crofsman, Asa 

Grossman, James A 

Grossman, Samuel A 

Cumings Family 

Cumings, Miss Margaret B . . 

Cummins, Andrew J 

Cummins Family 

Cunningham, Alphonse 

Cunningham, David I 

Cunningham Families 

627, 719, 996, 

Cunningham, Eobert H 

Cunningham, S. Roy 

Cunningham, Thomas D 

Curfman, George H 

Daugherty Family 829 

Daugherty, John W 1425 

Daugherty. William S 829 

Davis, Alvin 1 1238 

Davis, Cameron 1504 

Davis, David W 1281 

Davis, Evan G 1340 

Davis Families 681, 1238, 1281 

1340, 1348, 1428, 1504, 1539 

Davis, John L 1539 

Davis, Price 1428 

Davis, William H 1348 

Davis, Wilson C 681 

Davison Family 814 

Davison, James C 814 

Deabenderfer, John 1441 

Deabenderf er, Lewis 1441 

Decker, Christopher 1348 

Decker, Peter E 1348 

DeLancey Family 808 

DeLancey, Jacob O.. 808 

DeVinney Family 945 







DeA'iiiney, James D 945 

DeVinney, George C 947 

Devlin Family 1227 

Devlin, William 1227 

Dick, David H 1028 

Dick, Dinsmore 1011 

Dick Families 1011, 1028, 1549 

Dick, George H 1549 

Dick, Jacob M 1123 

Dick, Jacob P 1123 

Dick, Martin H 1424 

Dickie Families. . .632, 1125, 1564 

Dickie, George C 632 

Dickie, Joseph Dixon 1125 

Dickie, William H 1564 

Dill, Benson S 692 

Dill Family 689 

Dill, Harry R 692 

Dilts Family 1590 

Dilts, Eobert H 1590 

Dinger, Elmer E 1585 

Dinger Family 1585 

Dixon Family 809, 1262 

Dixon, James 809 

Donahey, Benjamin F 1417 

Donahey Families. .859, 1293, 1417 

Donahey, .James H 1292 

Donahey, Theodore JI S59 

Dormire Family 1324 

Dormire, Jacob 1324 

Dorn Family 1150 

Dorn, John 1150 

Doty Families 652, 951, 1240 

Doty, Gillis M 951 

Doty, John 1240 

Douds, David W 609 

Douds Family 607 

Douds, James B 608 

Douds, Samuel W 607 

Dougherty Family 1451 

Dougherty, Joseph 1451 

Douglas. James C 1272 

Douglass Families. .896, 1270, 1578 

Douglass, John E 1270 

Douglass, Johnathan 1578 

Douglass, Samuel A 387, 896 

Dowler Family 864 

Dowler, Harry P 864 

Dreese (Treese) Family 1499 

Dugan, Thomas 627 

Duncan, Andrew 1481 

Duncan, Archie W 1464 

Duncan Families 

629, 13.55, 1464, 1481, 1535 

Duncan, Thomas B 15.35 

Duncan, William 1355 

Dunlap, Clark 1194 

Dunlap Family 1194 

Dunlap, Thomas 1102 

Dunsmore, William D 741 

Dwyer, Edward 650 

Earhart, Dr. E. Bruce 634 

Earhart Family 635 

Edmunds, Edward 1320 

Elbel, Charles E 1418 

Elbel, Charles W 1418 

Elbel Family 1141 

Elbel, George H 1141 

Elder, Aaron W 917 

Elder Families 917, 960 

Elder, Eobert Y 960 


Elkin Families 593, 766, 838 

Elkin, Francis 594 

Elkin, Hon. John P 392, 590 

Elkin, William F 394. 766 

EUiott Family 1118 

Elliott, Harry M 1118 

Emeriek Families 1075, 1483 

Emeriek, Harvey C 1075 

Emeriek, Eobert L 1483 

Empfield, Edward 1421 

Empfield Families ....1248, 1421 

Empfield, William H 1248 

English, Hugh Craig 799 

Evans, Benjamin F 913 

Evans Families 

773, 878, 913, 1053, 1252 

Evans, John S 878 

Evans, Josiah G 1252 

Evans, Samuel W 1053 

Evans, Mrs. Sarah 1054 

Evans, William A., M. D 644 

Evans, William A 772 

Everhart Family 1002 

Everwine, Jacob 1550 

Everwine. Jacob J 1550 

Ewing, Alexander 663 

Ewing Family 1413 

Ewing, Eobert A 1413 

Ewing, Rev. William D 

334, 339, 662 

Fair Families 882, 1164 

Fair, James 600 

Fair, E. Willis, M. S.. Ph. D. 600 

Fair, William M 882 

Faloon, Alexander 1360 

Faloon Family 1360 

Farabaugh, Charles G 1396 

Farnsworth Family 1228 

Farnsworth, John 1228 

Farri, Rev. Emilio 1331 

Fassett, Emory 1589 

Fassett. Leonard K 1589 

Fee Family 923 

Fee, Harry W 394, 923 

Fennell Family 1036 

Fennell, Harvey H 1589 

Fennell, John A 1036 

Fenton Family 1485 

Fenton, William H 14S5 

Ferguson, Charles D 904 

Ferguson Families 904, 1581 

Ferguson, W. Sherman 1581 

Ferrier, Andrew C 1215 

Ferrier Family 1215 

Fetterhoff Family 1420 

Fetterhof?, John W 1420 

Findley Families 775, 1005 

Findlev, James G 1005 

Findley, William H 775 

Fiscus," Alexander 1221 

Fiscus, Mrs. Mary E 1221 

Fi.«her, Alva C 1018 

Fisher Families.638, 812, 1018, 1218 

Fisher, Henry A 1218 

Fisher, James G., M. D 812 

Fisher, Hon. John S 393, 638 

Fleck, Mrs. E. M 824 

Fleck Family 824 

Fleck, Henry M 824 

Fleeger, Albert P 1389 

Fleming, David A 1508 


Fleming Families 

993, 1335, 1508 

Fleming, Francis J 1407 

Fleming, George H 1407 

Fleming, James G 993 

Fleming, Robert F 993 

Fleming, Ross S 1335 

Fleming, Thomas H 693 

Flickinger Family 807 

Flickinger, Harry 490, 807 

Foose, John 1469 

Foster, Andrew 1406 

Fouts Family 1544 

Fouts, Taylor W 1544 

Frantz Family 1081 

Frantz. Jacob 1082 

Frantz, James D 1084 

Frantz, Thomas H 1083 

Frasher, Elmer F., M. D.... 926 

Frasher Family 926 

Freeh Family 811 

Freeh, Peter 811 

Fry Families 1276, 1589 

Fry, Kinter 1276 

Fry, Oliver C 1589 

Fulton, Clyde E 1490 

Fyoek Families 857 

Fvock, Rev. John W 857 

Fyock, Samuel L 1-366 

Gailey Family 952 

Gailey, Samuel 952 

Gallagher, Jacob A 1315 

Gallaher Family 1476 

Gallaher, Dr. John W 1476 

Gamble Family - 908 

Gamble, George F 908 

Gardner, Charles H., M. D. .. 798 
Gardner Families. .797, 1133, 1532 

Gardner, James 797 

Gardner, John B 1133 

Gardner, William S 1532 

Gates Family 889 

Gates, William D., M. D 889 

George Families 

825, 835, 1225, 1462 

George. John P 1225 

George, Joseph W 1461 

George, Walter B 825 

George, William H 835 

Gerhard, Jacob F 1185 

Gessler. Charles U 1122 

Gessler, Mrs. Hannah 1122 

Getty Family 989 

Getty. James S 989 

Getty, Samuel J 1243 

Gibson, Mrs. Elizabeth 739 

Gibson Families 770, 1358 

Gibson, Ira E 770 

Gibson, Irving W 1358 

Gibson, James 1060 

Gibson, Samuel S 739 

Gilbert, Luman 1181 

Gilbert Family 1181 

Gill, John E 1323 

Gillespie, Amos E 922 

Gillespie Family 1274 

Glass Family 1084 

Glass. Thomas Burns 1034 

Glass, William A 1084 

Glasser Family 1542 

Glasser, John F 1542 



Glenn, Daniel 1121 

Glenn, Joseph 1121 

Glenn, Joseph J 1480 

Glenn, William A 1480 

Golden Family 1560 

Golden, Mabry J 1560 

Gordon Family 1313 

Gorman, Clinton D 791 

Gorman Families 791, 1468 

Gorman, John W 1468 

Gourley Family 693 

Gourley, John C, M. D 693 

Graff Family 711 

Graff, George W 1429 

Graff, Henry 711 

Graff, James G 713 

Graff, Sumner 713 

Graham, Allen S 1289 

Graham Families 

694, 1289, 1529, 1523 

Graham, James 694 

Graham, James B 1523 

Graham, William J 1529 

Gray, Alexander 1392 

Green, Elisha 899 

Green Family 899 

Green, Jame's B 899 

Greiner, George W 1447 

Greiner, John A 1157 

Greiner, William 1157 

Griffith, A. B 1457 

Griffith, Charles 1357 

Griffith, Charles R 713 

Griffith, Evan W 1555 

Griffith Families 713 

866, 1039, 1191, 1354, 1357, 1457 

Griffith, George S 866 

Griffith, Henry S 1354 

Griffith, Stephen B 1039 

Griffith, Thomas 1555 

Griffith, William 1191 

Grubbs Family 1563 

Grubbs, John M.. M. D 1563 

Grumbling Family 1060 

Grumbling, Hudson R 1060 

Hadden Family 1456 

Hadden, James W 1456 

Hahn, Mrs. Annie 1006 

Hahn, Louis J 1006 

Hall, Willis D., M. D 1579 

Hamilton, Aubrey M 1224 

Hamilton Families 

806, 826, 1099, 1265, 1412 

Hamilton, Stewart S 1412 

Hamilton, William A 1099 

Hamilton, William S 806 

Hamilton, William W 1224 

Hanna Family 1592 

Hanna, James A 1591 

Harbison, Alexander M 1046 

Harbison, Mrs. Elizabeth .... 864 
Harbison Families. 863, 1030, 1046 

Harbison, John 863 

Harbison, Joseph W 1030 

Harbison, Miss Martha J 864 

Harbison, William W 1048 

Harmon, Clair G., M. D 1172 

Hart Family 1375 

Hart, Harry H 1375 

Hart. Mrs. John A 1039 

Harvey Family 752 


Harvey, Nathan C 752 

Hastings, Carl M 629 

Hastings Families 629, 1208 

Hastings, Reuben 1208 

Hawes, Boyd W 875 

Hawes Family 875 

Hay Family 721 

Hay, Rev. Lewis, D. D 301, 721 

Hazlett Families 1516, 1517 

Hazlett, George W 1517 

Hazlett, James M 1516 

Hazlett, Samuel C 1264 

Hedden, Manley J 1500 

Hefflick, David 1468 

Hefflick, John 1467 

Heilman, Elmer E., M. D 1001 

Henderson, Mrs. Elizabeth G. 885 

Henderson Families 

617, 885, 965 

Henderson, John W 885 

Henderson, Joseph A 965 

Henderson, Samuel C 1457 

Henry, Daniel B 1460 

Henry FamiUes 657, 934, 1460 

Henry, Hon. James T 657 

Henry, Matthew H 934 

Herbison Family 1 135 

Hess, Albert H 1095 

Hess Family 1095 

Hess, George 1053 

Hess, George F 1404 

Hewitt, Irvin A 729 

Hicks, Abram 1135 

Hicks FamUies 1135, 1441 

Hicks, Lawrence 1441 

Hildebrand Family 1001 

Hildebrand, Thonias E 1001 

Hileman, Charles E 1210 

Hileman Families 1055, 1211 

Hileman, James M 1055 

Hill Families 810, 873 

Hill, Rev. George, D. D. ,236, 810 

Hill, William B 873 

Hines, Albert J 1436 

Hines, Celestian 1416 

Hines Family 1436 

Hines, Joseph 1390 

Hines, Roy J 1390 

Hoffman, Henry 1025 

Hoffman, Milton 1352 

Hollis Paipily 735 

Hollis, MeClellan 735 

Hollsaple, Joseph 1123 

Hood Family 648 

Hood, James 648 

Hood, Robert J 649 

Hoover, A. Clifford 963 

Hoover Family 963 

Hoover, Fred 1377 

Hoover, George W 1066 

Hoover, John T 1066 

Hopkins Family 938 

Hopkins. William W 938 

Horton Family 666 

Hotham, Brentwood H. De 

Vere, M. D 1301 

Houek Fainilies 1041, 1155 

Houck, George F 957 

Houck, Henry 1016 

Houck, J. Ward 1041 

Housholder, John R 1556 

Housholder, Solomon 1556 


Houston Family 959 

Houston, William 959 

Howard, Daniel 753 

Howard Family 753 

Hughes Family 1551 

Hughes, Thomas A 1551 

Hunter, Alexander 1583 

Hunter Families 856, 1454 

Hunter, George, M. D 856 

Hunter, Kinley 1453 

Hutchison Family 1176 

Hutchison, James J 1176 

Imbrie Family 828 

Imbrie, Rev. James M 828 

Irwin, Samuel 1116 

Irwin, William W 1116 

Jack Families 606, 1002 

Jack, Hon. Summers M..391, 606 

Jack, William B 1004 

Jackson, Walter H 927 

Jacoby, John 1470 

Jacoby, William 1471 

Jamieson, Rev. John 329, 931 

Jamison, William 1144 

Jeffries Family 743 

Jeffries, George H 743 

Johns, William, M. D 1093 

Johns, Wilson P 1093 

Johnston, Dr. Alexander. . . . 647 

Johnston, Alexander E 647 

Johnston Family 903 

Johnston, J. Milton 903 

Johnston, Stephen A 646 

Joiner, George M 1101 

Jones Family 922 

Jones, John R 1401 

Jordan Family 1109 

Jordan, Joseph A 1109 

Jordan, Robert 1109 

Kametz, Andrew 1488 

Kanarr Family 1257, 1290 

Kanarr, Jacob 1214 

Kanarr, Moses 1290 

Kanarr, Simon T 1257 

Kauffman Family 1166 

Kauffman, James S 1166 

Kaufman, Michael 1479 

Kaufman, Samuel 1479 

Keagle, George S 1475 

Keeley, James M 937 

Keely, Daniel 936 

Keelv Family 936 

Keibler, E. j. (John E.)....1525 

Keibler Family 1525 

Keith Families 1413, 1545 

Keith, George 1545 

Keith, Jeremiah 1413 

Kelly Families 1305, 1596 

Kellv, George W 1305 

Kelly, Henry C 1596 

Kennedy Family 1114 

Kennedy, Sylvester 1114 

Kerr, Albert C 1594 

Kerr Families 

1202, 1426, 1.542, 1594 

Kerr, John W 1426 

Kerr, Mrs. Mary 1594 

Kerr, Thomas 962 

Kerr, Thomas C 1201 



Kerr, William 1542 

Killin, Capt. Daniel 1044 

KiUin Family 1044 

Killin, Mr8. Nancy T 1045 

Kimple, Capt. William 1284 

King Families 1156, 1570 

King, Isaac Norman 1156 

King, Samuel T 1381 

King, William J 1570 

Kingston, Isadora 1488 

Kinnan Family 1111 

Kinnan, John T 1111 

Kinter, Mrs. Elisabeth 1199 

Kinter Families 

630, 742, 974, 1105, 1198 

Kinter, Herbert P 742 

Kinter, Capt. John 974 

Kinter, Capt. John A 631 

Kinter, Peter W 1198 

Kinter, P. Watson 975 

Kinter, Mrs. Sophia A 1106 

Kinter, WUliam H 1105 

Kirkwood, James S 1249 

Kish, Frank 1385 

Kissinger Family 1502 

Kissinger, William 1502 

Kleinstub, Herman 1317 

Kline Family 847 

Kline, George K 847 

Klingensmith Family 1438 

Klingensmith, Matthias T 1438 

Knauf, Henry W 1025 

Knox Family 1233 

Koontz Family 1497 

Koontz, Homer W 1497 

Krider Family 973 

Krider, Samuel A 973 

Kunkle, Calvin S 1119 

Kunkle Family 1119 

Kunkle. John "C 1262 

Kunkle, Lowry C 1244 

Kunkle, Mrs. Sarah E 1262 

Lafferty, John P 987 

Laney, John 1278 

Lang, Aaron W 1291 

Langham Families 654, 1243 

Langham, Harvey B 1248 

Langham, Jonathan N 393, 654 

Langham, Sharp S 1243 

Lariff, Harry 1489 

Laughry Family 1009 

Laughry, Johnson L 1009 

Lawrence Family 1376 

Lawrence, William S 1376 

Leard Family 822 

Leard, Zachariah 823 

Learn Families 1080, 1491 

Learn, Frank H 1080 

Learn, Oakley E 1491 

Leasure, David C 1209 

Leasure, Mrs. Evaline 1209 

Leasure Families 702, 

1215, 1216, 1533 

Leasure, John C 702 

Leasure, John W 1533 

Leasure, Samuel B 1216 

Leib, Paul 1499 

Lemke, Charles 1372 

Lemke, Lewis W 1373 

Lemmon Families 1124, 1269 

Lemon Family 1359 

Lemon, John G 1359 


Leonard, Miss Jane E. . . .227, 853 

Lettie Family 1029 

LeVine, Sol 1488 

Levinson, Harry 1596 

Lewis, Enoch F 1104 

Lewis, Estell B., M. D 1556 

Lewis, Capt. Even 1266 

Lewis Families 1012, 1104 

...1237, 1266, 1322, 1536, 1556 

Lewis, Hugh P 1012 

Lewis, John 1322 

Lewis, Samuel 1237 

Lewis, Thomas S 1536 

Liggett Families 944, 1356 

Liggett, J. Nelson 1356 

Liggett, WiUiam N 394, 944 

Lightcap, Mrs. Elizabeth S..1134 

Lightcap Families 1134, 1510 

Lightcap, J. Scott 1510 

Lightcap, Samuel 1134 

Lightner, Joseph F 1447 

Limrick, Andrew J 141 1 

Ling, Benjamin F 1157 

Ling Family 1157 

Lingle, Chester M 680 

Lingle Family 680 

Lintner, D. Elliott 1128 

Lintner Families 1127, 1341 

Lintner, Joseph P 1341 

Lintner, Miss Mary 1 1128 

Lintner, William 1127 

Liptak, George 1503 

Little Family 1235 

Little, William S 1235 

Llovd Family 1051 

Lockard, Elsworth M 839 

Lockard Family 839 

Long, Archibald A 1505 

Long Families 

685, 1313, 1505, 1514 

Long, Henry H 1313 

Long, Jesse M 1164 

Long, Jesse B 1164 

Long, Thomas H 685 

Long, William T 1514 

Longwill Families 1216, 1439 

Longwill, J. Clair 1439 

Longwill, John S 1216 

Lore, James 1470 

Lore, John H 1470 

Lose, James E 1189 

Lose Family 1189 

Loughry Family 1347 

Loughry, Joseph H 1347 

Loughry, Mrs. Martha B 1347 

Loughry, Miss Mary E 597 

Loughry, James A 598 

Loughry, Samuel L 598 

Loughry, W. R 604 

Lower Family 1592 

Lower, William H 1592 

Lowman, George 1519 

Lowman Families 1472, 1519 

Lowman, Hugh 1472 

Lowrv Family 663 

Lowry, Horace M 663 

Lucas Families 1287, 1306 

Lucas, Samuel S 1287 

Lucas, Thomas 1306 

Lukehart Family 1532 

Lukehart, Wallace E 1533 

Lukehart, William L 1532 


Lute, Frederick 1471 

Lute, Harvey S 1471 

Lydic, Chapman 1450 

Lydic, Elmer 1498 

Lydic Family 1444 

Lydic, William H 1444 

Lydick, Azariah J 1277 

Lydick, EUiott 'M 1382 

Lydick Families 

871, 890, 1277, 1382, 1427 

Lydick, Harry E 890 

Lydick, John P 1427 

Lydick, Joseph 871 

Lynn Family 1558 

Lynn, Thomas S 1558 

Lyons Family 958 

Lytle Families 998, 1455 

Lytle, John H 1455 

Lytle, Robert 1056 

Lytle, WiUiam B 998 

McAfoos, Benjamin M 1021 

McAfoos, George F 1021 

McAfoos, Mrs. Mary E 1021 

McAnulty, Asa E 1552 

McAnulty Family 1552 

McCartney FamUies 664, 1223 

McChesney, Robert, M. D 697 

McChesney, William A., M. D. 

374, 697 

McClaran Family 873 

McClaran, Joseph A 872 

McClaran, Hon. WUliam 1001 

McComb Families 663, 1038 

McComb, Gen. James 662 

McComb, John 1039 

McCormick Family 848 

McCormick, John B 542, 848 

McCormick, John B., Home of 848 
McCormick, John B., in his 

Workshop 848 

McCormick, Mrs. S. J . 1393 

McCormick, Winfield S 1393 

McCoy, Columbus 874 

McCoy Families 874, 1442 

McCoy, Samuel A 1442 

McCraeken Family 804 

McCracken, Joseph J 804 

MrCrea, Dr. Chalmers S 717 

McCrea FamUy '.1088 

McCrea, Gilbert T 716 

McCrea, Robert E 717 

McCrea, Thompson C 1088 

McCrea, William P 1090 

McCreary Family 718 

McCreary, Harry 718 

McCreery FamOy 1584 

McCreery, John G 1584 

McCrory Family 832 

McCror>, John G 832 

McCuUough, Andrew W 886 

McCuUough Families 

886, 975, 1305 

McCuUough, G<!orge W 1305 

McCuUough, Harmon L., M. D. 975 

McCune, George J 1462 

McDonnell Family 1100 

McDonneU. Simon 1100 

McElhoes Family 870 

McElhoes, James S 870 

McFarland, Clifford 1135 

McFarland Families 

676, 1135, 1561 



McFarland, Maj. Irvin 604 

McFarland, John E 1561 

McFarland, Wmiam 1135 

McPeaters, Charles A 1365 

McFeaters Families 1334, 1365 

McFeaters, John M 1334 

MeFeatters, Miss Clara E. . . .1573 

McFeatters, James S 1572 

MeFeatters, John A 1572 

McGaughey, Mrs. Elizabeth J . 1437 

MeGaughey Family 1437 

McGaughey, Joseph 1437 

McGee Family 5S8 

McGee, John 588 

McGee, Mrs. Sarah H 589 

McGovern, Peter J 715 

McGregor Families 698, 941 

McGregor, James C 697 

McGregor, William H 941 

McGuire, John H 1171 

McGuire Family 962, 1171 

McGuire, Levi 962 

McHenry, Mrs. Clara 1026 

McHenry, E. Quay, M. D 723 

McHenry Families 

723, 880, 1438, 1519, 1587 

McHenry, John 1026 

McHenry, Ealph F., M. D 880 

McHenry, Samuel E 1519 

McHenry, Smith M 1026 

McHenry, U. S. Grant 1587 

McHenry, William Simpson. .1438 

McHenry, William 1511 

Mclsaac Family 855 

Mclsaac, Hugh A 855 

McKalip Family 1059 

McKalip, James T>. . . : 1059 

McKee Family 1273 

McKee, James A 1273 

McKendrick, Mrs. Emma.... 1372 
McKendriek Families ..1019, 1371 

McKendrick, James 1019 

McKendrick, John 1371 

McKillip, Miss Anna J 1132 

McKillip Families 1132, 1537 

McKillip, Hamilton 1132 

McKillip, Mrs. Martha . 1538 

McKillip, WaUam W 1537 

McKnight, Col. Amor A 930 

McKnight Family 930 

McKnight, James A 613 

McKnight, Miss Mary C 613 

McKnight, Hon. William J., 

M. D 928 

McLain, Capt. Charles 763 

McLain Families 701, 763 

McLain, Capt. ftawin A 701 

McLaughlin Family 898 

McLaughlin, Gillis L 899 

McLaughlin, John 898 

McMillen, Simon 1144 

McMiUen, Sylvester 1547 

McMillen, William 1144 

McNelis, Bev. Neil P 282, 1036 

McNutt, Alvin T 865 

McNutt Family 865 

McQuilkin, Archie S 114S 

McQuilkin Family 1148 

McQuilkin, William H 827 

McQuown Family 968 

Mc'Quown, James A 96S 

Mabon, Archie W 633 


Mabon Families 633, 755, 1328 

Mabon, Isaac H 755 

Mack, David W 741 

Mack Families 635, 

740, 778, 1006, 1098, 1169, 1369 

Mack, George F 741 

Mack, Hugh St. Qair 1570 

Mack, Jacob W 1569 

Mack, James W 1098 

Mack, Eobert G 635 

Mack, Eobert H 778 

Mack, Sylvester S 1008 

Mack, Thomas C 1006 

Mack, William C 1169 

Maguire Family 837 

Maguire, Eev. Harry W..311, 837 

Mahan Family 948 

Mahan, Harry E 948 

Mahan, James C 949 

Mahan, WUliam H 948 

Mallory, Eev. Dr. Ira 797 

Mankovich, Eev. Paul 1249 

Manner, Elmer 1378 

Manner Family 1378 

Marasco, Anthony 1388 

Marasco, Joseph 1388 

Mardis, Miss Agnes 731 

Mardis, Dr. Benjamin F 730 

Mardis Family 729 

Mardis, Samuel J 730 

Mardis, Samuel L 730 

Marshall, Alvertus P 1259 

Marshall, Clark G 977 

Marshall Families . .789, 977, 1259 

Marshall, James F 1261 

Marshall, Godfrey 1048 

Marshall, Eobert J., M. D. . 

373, 789 

Marshall, Thomas D 791 

Martin Family 1163 

Martin, John D 1514 

Martin, Mrs. Maria 1514 

Martin, William H 1163 

Mathews Family 817 

Mathews, George H 818 

Mayer, Mrs. Olive F 676 

Meade, Charles 1165 

Meaner Family 1388 

Meanor, William P 1388 

Meekins, Thomas 1540 

Meekins, William H 1540 

Metz, Michael 1104 

Mikesell Families. 1071, 1168, 1202 

Mikesell, John K 1071 

Mikesell, John P 1168 

Mikesell, Eobert E 1202 

Mikesell, Mrs. Sallie E 1168 

Millen, Eobert H 1113 

Millen, Thomas H 1458 

Millen, William A 1113 

Miller, Amos S 1411 

Miller, Edward A 1161 

Miller Families 

994, 1027, 1042, 1095, 1161, 1182 
1230, 1286, 1344, 1351, 1548 

Miller, Herman H 1027 

Miller, Isaac K 1095 

Miller, Jacob W 1182 

Miller, Milton G 994 

Miller, Moses B 1548 


Miner, Eev. Noble G 1351 

Miller, Eobert N 1344 

Miller, Samuel M 1042 

Miller, WiUiam S 1230 

Minser Family 1417 

Minser, George A 1417 

Minser, Samuel L 1256 

Mitchell Families ..653, 785, 1065 

Mitchell, James 653 

Mitchell, Miss Flora Jane 789 

Mitchell, Dr. Eobert. .496, 653, 785 

Mitchell, Eobert 789 

Mock Family 1541 

Mock, Harry C 1541 

Mock, Jesse E 142? 

Mock, Joseph M 1130 

Mock, William H 1429 

Moore, Charles H 1165 

Moore Families 1165, 1538 

Moore, Frank Fisher, M. D. . . 1167 

Moore, Henry W 1538 

Moore, James C 642 

Moore, William 642 

Moorhead, Alexander T 757 

Moorhead Families 841, 1302 

Moorhead, Frank 1302 

Moorhead, Joseph 841 

Moorhead, Mrs. Mary A 1246 

Moorhead, Samuel N 1245 

Moreau, Albert F 1125 

Moreau Family 1125 

Morrow Family 1056 

Morrow, John E 1560 

Morrow, John W., M. D. .373, 1056 

Mulberger Family 1102 

Mulberger, Samuel J 1102 

Mumau Family 1435 

Mumau, Samuel E 1435 

Munshower Families ..1300, 1432 

Munshower, Samuel 1432 

Munshower, William H 1300 

Myers Families . .1280. 1387, 1582 

Myers, Ira A 1280 

Myers, Ira C 1387 

Myers, Jacob W 1582 

Neal Families 

771, 849, 1061, 1115, 1400, 1545 

Neal, Harry B., M. D 771 

Neal, Hugh K 1115 

Neal, John 1538 

Neal, John L 1061 

Neal, Josiah 1400 

Neal, Sharp, Sr 1545 

Neal, Thomas S 849 

Noaler, Henry 887 

Nealer, John 1161 

Nealer, John, Deceased 1162 

Neeley Family 1563 

Neele'y, Hon. WiUiam F 1563 

Nelson FamOy 916 

Nelson, Ulysses G 916 

Nesbitt Families 1068, 1183 

Nesbitt, Samuel M 1183 

New Family 683 

New, George J 683 

Nichol, Charles A 735 

Nichol Families 

735, 1318, 1430, 1492 

Nichol, James 1430 

Nichol, Wesley W 1318 

Nichol, William A 1492 

Niel, David T 668 



Niel Family 668 

Niel, James 1398 

Niel, John J 139S 

Nippes, Chester W. C 1299 

Nippes Family 1299 

Nippes, J. C 1299 

Nisewonger, Andrew 1278 

Nisewonger Family 1278 

Nixon, Edward 978 

Nixon, Miss Fanny W 979 

Noerr, George 1527 

Nogel, John 1104 

Nogel, Mrs. Margaret 1104 

North Family 1448 

North, Nathaniel S 1448 

Norton, Rosooe E., M. D 1397 

Notley, Delmont E 922 

Notley Family 922 

NonTy, James 1 1275 

Nowry, Samuel H 995 

Nupp' Cyrus 1374 

Nupp Families 1370, 1374 

Nupp, John M 1370 

Oakes, Cliflford J 1354 

Oakes Families 984, 1354 

Oakes, William E 984 

Oatman Family 746 

Oatman, Franklin P 746 

Oatman, Mrs. S. E 748 

Ober, Dayid 1466 

Ober, Lewis W 1432 

Ober Family 1053 

Ober, Joseph 1466 

Ober, William S 1431 

Oberlin, Curtis A 844 

Oberlin Family 842 

Oberlin, Harry W 843 

Oberlin, William P 842 

Ogden, George D 625 

Ogden, Capt. George H 624 

Ogden, Joseph C 625 

Ogden, Mrs. Nancy H 625 

Oliver Family 924 

Oliver, John S 924 

O 'Neill, Clarence B 742 

O 'Neill, Edward 753 

O'Neill Families 742, 7.53 

Orner, Daniel J 1107 

Orner Family 1107 

Orr Family 670 

Orr, James L 670 

Ortner, John A 1298 

Ortner, John S 1298 

Osmun, Earl C 1500 

Palmer, Alvin R 1581 

Palmer, Anthony A 926 

Palmer, Davis A 1016 

Palmer Families 

1016, 1203, 1342, 1.581 

Palmer, Joseph 1253 

Palmer, Mrs. Martha M 1253 

Palmer, Miss Mary R 926 

Palmer, Michael H 1203 

Palmer, Samuel 926 

Palmer, Samuel M 1342 

Park Families 758, 939 

Park, John T 939 

Park, Dr. Leon N 758 

Parnell, Joseph E 954 

Parry, Henry 1380 


Parry, Judson 1380 

Patterson, D. Donald 1145 

Patterson, Harry C. W 802 

Patterson Families. 802, 1145, 1549 

Patterson, John W 1.549 

Pattison Family 1467 

Pattison, Orrln J 805 

Pattison, Robert 1467 

Pauch, Charles F 1491 

Paul Family 1409 

Paul, William H 1409 

Paytash, Peter 1437 

Pearee, Charles H 1523 

Pearce Families 1454, 1523 

Pearee, James A 1454 

Peddicord, Clark D 1221 

Peddicord, J. Wilson 1366 

Peffer Family 1478 

Peffer, Micheal 1478 

Peterman Family 1040 

Peterman, James H., M. D..1040 

Petraitis, Frank 1496 

Pettigrew, Samuel 1391 

Pettigrew, Mrs. Sarah A 1391 

Pettigrew, Thomas S 1391 

Pfordt, Charles C 1513 

Phythyan, Frank 1435 

Pierce Families 765, 1138 

Pierce, John H 765 

Pierce, Peter C 1138 

Pittman Family 1494 

Pittman, Leonard D 1494 

Plotzer Family 1479 

Plotzer, George W 1479 

Plowman, Solomon E 1367 

Postlewait Family 1129 

Postlewait, J. Scott 1129 

Postlewait, Joseph W 1129 

Pounds Family 1567 

Pounds. John F 1567 

Pratt Family 596 

Price, David J 1419 

Pringle, David R 1474 

Pringle Family 1474 

Prothero Family 1200 

Prothero, Henry 1200 

Ramsay, Morris 1110 

Earasa.y, William 1110 

Rank Family 1032 

Rank, Samuel K 1032 

Rankin, Charles M 1343 

Rankin, David A 1373 

Rankin Families 

887, 1343, 1373, 1539 

Rankin, James B 1098 

Rankin, Joseph W 886 

Rankin, Matthew T 1097 

Rankin, William 1539 

Raraigh, David W 839 

Raraigh Family 840 

Bay Family 682 

Ra.v, Hugh D 1454 

Ray, Miss Margaret J 1024 

Ray, Robert N 682 

Ray, Samuel 1024 

Ray, William 1454 

Reed, Earl D 1498 

Reese, George J., M. D. . .372, 665 
Reisinger or Risinger Family 639 

Rezzolla, John 1500 

Rhea, Clarence B 1303 

Rhea Family 1303 

Ehoads Family 685 

Rhoads, Harry P 685 

Rhoads, Spencer H 1035 

Rhoads, William 1109 

Rice Family 1469 

Rice, WiUiam B 1469 

Richards Family 919 

Richards, John J 919 

Richards, John R 919 

Eichey Family 1391 

Eichey, William C 1391 

Riddell, Arthur M 644 

Riddle Family 983 

Riddle, Peter" 983 

Rinn, Daniel F 1008 

Rinn Family 1008 

Eishel, Henry 1232 

Risinger, Daniel E 1057 

Risinger Families. .639, 1049, 1057 

Risinger, James M 641 

Risinger, Michael H 1049 

Risinger, William P 641 

Robinson, A. J. Weir 970 

Robinson Families 

613, 744, 970, 1045, 1146 

Robinson, John W 613 

Robinson, Samuel J 1045 

Robinson, William E 744 

Robinson, William G 1146 

Rochester Family 774 

Rochester, John H 774 

Rodkev, George 1577 

Rodkev, John H .1577 

Rolley, Robert 1593 

Romance, Wasil 1593 

Roney Family 861 

Eone.y, Henry E 861 

Roof, George W 1254 

Roof, John H . 1254 

Rose Family 1067 

Rose, John Calvin 1067 

Rose, Samuel W 1192 

Roser, Dennis 1077 

Eoser Families 1077, 1316 

Roser, Fry 1316 

Ross Families 988, 1317 

Ross, Harry T 1317 

Ross, John Smith 988 

Eowe, Mrs. Catherine 1297 

Rowe, Daniel 1298 

Rowe Families... 1069, 1363, 1425 

Rowe, George F 1425 

Rowe, George L 1363 

Rowe, Samuel L 1069 

Rowland, Rev. Elias 298, 845 

Rowland Family 844 

Rowland, John D 1383 

Eowland, Rev. Martin L 

293-4, 846 

Rowland, William S 846 

Rowley. Josiah 1.548 

Rowley, William W 1549 

Ruffner, Dr. Harry E 1573 

Ruffner, Joseph R 1573 

Rugh Family 965 

Rugh, Samuel Truby 965 

Runyan, Rev. Andrew B 1187 

Runzo, Frank 1596 

Rupert Family 1461 

Rupert, Hezekiah 1461 

Rupp, H. Russell 1384 



Eyall Family 987 

Eyall, Eev. George M 255, 987 

Sandberg, George E 1345 

Sandles Family 1595 

Sandles, Harlan P 1595 

Sawyer, Peter 1324 

Sehall, Reuben E., M. D 891 

Schrader, Mrs. Mary A 1080 

Schrader, William 1079 

Schrader, William' J 1080 

Scott Family 622 

Scott, John A 392, 622 

Seanor Family 695 

Seanor, Harrison 695 

Sechler Family 1196 

Sechler, Joseph G 1196 

Serena, Joseph 901 

Serena, William B 901 

Sexton, Mrs. Alice D 765 

Sexton, Daniel 765 

Sexton, Jeremiah 764 

Shaffer Families 1217, 1846 

Shaffer, Frank H 1507 

Shaffer, Harry 1373 

Shaffer, Jacob 1373 

Shaffer, Joseph 1217 

Shaffer, Lloyd S 1346 

Shank Family 1154 

Shank, Harvey W 1154 

Shaulis, Edward F., M. D. . . . 907 

Shaulis Family 907 

Sheaffer, Elliott W 1587 

Sheaffer, Henry 1587 

Shearer, Samuel 1304 

Shearer, Samuel W 1304 

ShetHer Family 1220 

Sheffler, Samuel 1219 

Sherman, Jonathan C 1540 

Sherman, John H , 1540 

Shields, Adam 1074 

Shields Families 

861, 1010, 1050, 1074, 1234 

Shields, Franklin 1010 

Shields, George C 1050 

Shields, Jay H 861 

Shields, Samuel M 1234 

Shields, William 1035 

Shields, William D 1085 

Shields, W. L., M. D 860 

Shirley Family 1031 

Shirley, Thomas Elgin 1031 

Short, Blaine 1405 

Short Families 767, 1405, 1586 

Short, George M 1586 

Short, William J 767 

Shultz, Henry 1016 

Shultz, Thomas G 1016 

Sickenberger Family 1353 

Sickenberger, William N 1353 

Sides, Adam 1466 

Sides Families 1200, 1312, 1466 

Sides, Stuart J 1312 

Sides, WiUiani 1200 

Silvis, Jacob . 1447 

Simpson Families 

754, 775, 1022, 1063, 1407 

Simpson, George E., M. D 775 

Simpson, Hugh 874 

Simpson, Nathaniel C 1063 

Simpson, Robert E 1407 

Simpson, William A., M. D. . 754 


Siverd Family 1308 

Siverd, John B 1308 

Skinner Family 907 

Skinner, Lon H 907 

Skog, J. Oscar 1386 

Sloan, Barclay S 686 

Sloan Family 686 

Smith, Mrs. Alfred L 604 

Smith, Andrew J 987 

Smith, Clarence E 911 

Smith, Ebby W 1349 

Smith, Ebenezer W 890 

Smith Families 

891, 910, 911, 942, 963 

987, 12.54, 1349, 1445, 1458, 1580 

Smith, Howard D 1580 

Smith, Jacob 1445 

Smith, John 1254 

Smith, Dr. John H 1472 

Smith, John R 910 

Smith, John T 963 

Smith, Stacy H , 1458 

Snyder Families 

949, 1085, 1318, 1495, 1562 

Snyder, George J 1318 

Snyder, Harry A 1561 

Snyder, Harvey C 1495 

Snyder, Jackson K 1086 

Snyder, John D 949 

Snyder, John W 1552 

Snyder, William H 1086 

Somerville, Ezekiel 1280 

Somerville Family 1280 

SommervUle, Alan 718 

Speedy Family 1382 

Speedy, J. Clark 1382 

Spencer Family 1159 

Spencer, Capt." Peter C 1159 

Spicher, Clarence C, M. D 956 

Spicher Family O.Ki 

Spicher, Samuel 1327 

Spiers Family 1153 

Spiers, Harrison 1153 

Sproull Family 762 

Sproull. Eev. William J.. 258, 762 
St. Clair Families 

620, 803, 1014, 1575 

St. Clair, Hiram 1369 

St. Clair, James 1393 

St. Clair, James J 803 

St. Clair, John P 619 

St. Clair, Mrs. Mary E 1370 

St. Clair, Samuel G 1575 

St. Clair, William A 1014 

Stadtmiller, Bennet 1509 

Stadtmiller Family 1509 

Stahl, Harry D 1269 

Stahl, Samuel E 1269 

Stahl Family 1268 

Stahll, Wasiiington 1123 

Stanley Family 1242 

Stanley, Tracy C 1482 

Stear Family 1130 

Stear, John ' 1237 

Stear, John C 1130 

Stear, Peter 1520 

Steele Family 651 

Steele, Samuel C 651 

Steffey, Calvin H 1484 

Steffey Families 1484, 1506 

Steffey, Scott V 1506 

Steffy, Mrs. Mary J .'1511 

Steffy, Thoma-s S 1511 

Stephens, Benjamin L 1443 

Stephens, Edward H 1466 

Stephens Families 

670, 862, 1211, 1296, 1466 

Stephens, George M 674 

Stephens, Harry 1296 

Stephens, John H 675 

Stephens, Judge Marlin B 675 

Stephens, Samuel H 1538 

Stephens, T. D., M. D 862 

Stephens, William S 672 

Stephens, Thomas P 1211 

Sterner Family 1496 

Sterner, Harry E 1496 

Stevens, Samuel 1039 

Stewart, Alexander H., M. D. 954 

Stewart, Archibald T 1497 

Stewart, Archible 1174 

Stewart, Archie J 1172 

Stewart, Charles C 706 

Stewart Families . . . 703, 793, 954 

1020, 1120, 1172, 1174 

1314, 1321, 1345, 1497, 1504 

Stewart, George R 1314 

Stewart, James C 704 

Stewart, James N 793 

Stewart, John 1321 

Stewart, John G 704 

Stewart, Joseph C 1037 

Stewart, J. Milton 1345 

Stewart, John Murdock, M. D.1120 

Stewart, Joshua T 705 

Stewart, Miss Marinda 1174 

Stewart, Robert L 1504 

Stewart, Robert M 1020 

Stewart, Welmer D 1020 

Stiffey, Cyrus 1255 

StinVv Family 1255 

Sill I j-amily 824 

Siiit. William H 824 

Stiver, Adam T 858 

Stiver Family 858 

Stonebraker Family 1431 

Stonebraker, Henry 1431 

Stoops, David 1474 

Stoops, Robert 1474 

Stouffer, Cyrus 1126 

Stouffer Family 1126 

Strawbridge, Robert 1486 

Streams, J. A 1162 

Streams Families 1076, 1162 

Streams, Samuel 1162 

Strong Family 1489 

Strong, Lowry F 1489 

Strong, Wayne P 1110 

Stuchul, Robert H 1148 

Sutor Family 1258 

Sutor, Rufiis'A 1258 

Sutton Families 602, 912 

Sutton, J. Blair 912 

Sutton, Thomas 602 

Swank Family 1386 

Swank, George W 1386 

Swartz, D. Harvey 1490 

Swartz Family 1490 

Swasy Family 957 

Swasy, John H 957 

Taylor Families 724, 1512 

Taylor, Harrison L 634 

Taylor, John Bell 724 


Taj-lor, William B 

Telford, Eev. John C, D. D. . 
Telford, Judge Stephen J 

384, 392, 

Templeton Families 1067, 

Templeton, Robert F 

Templeton, William N 

Thomas, Evan J 

Thomas Families 

616, 1151, 1168, 1328, 

Thomas, Hiram 

Thomas, H. WaUace 

Thomas, Jesse 

Thomas, John C 

Thomas, Lewis 

Thomas, Lewis M 

Thomas, Thomas D 

Thomas, Verna C 

Thomas, Wilson C .'. 

Thompson Families . . 708, 782, 

lOo-i, 1178, 1422, 

Thompson, Harry E 

Thompson, Horace J 

Thompson, John D 

Thompson, John G 

Thompson, J. Wilson 

Thompson, John M 

Thompson, Robert A 

Thompson, Thomas W 

Thompson, William 

Tiger Family 

Tiger. Jacob 

Timblin Family 

Timblin, Ward N., V. S 

Tomb Families 737, 

Tomb, Hugh D 

Tomb, John C 

Tomb, Robert J., M. D 

Travis Family 

Travis, Harry M 

Travis, William G 

Treese (Dreese) Famil 

Treese, William C ' 

Trefnv, Eev. Charles L 997 

Trimble, Mrs. Dnisilla 1358 

Trimble, Felix B 1206 

Trimble, George 1358 

Trimble, Thomas 1206 

Trindle. Robert 1379 

Trindle, William 1379 

Truby, Simeon H 1186 

Truby Family 1186 

Truitt Family 985 

Truitt, Dr. Harrv W 985 

Tuck. Charles W 832 

Uncapher, Albert F 1147 

Uncapher Families 1147., 1384 

Uncapher, Joseph W.' 1384 

rrey, William it 1197 

Vogel Brothers 1339 

Vogel, Edward G 1340 

Vogel, John W 1340 

Waddell Family 1485 

Waddell, Samuel R 1485 

Waddle Family 971 

Waddle, James E 972 

Waddle, Samuel 972 

Wagner Families 732, 1310 







Wagner, John W 1310 

Wagner, Joseph Sides 1311 

Wagner, William B 732 

Wainwright Family 1332 

Wainwright, Samuel M 1332 

Wakefield, Edward B 950 

Wakefield Families 700, 950 

Wakefield, James M 700 

Walker Families ..666, 1093, 1101 

Walker, James G 1093 

Walker, Robert A 666 

Walker, Samuel W 1101 

Walker, Zenas T 1584 

Wallace, Ephrarm 999 

Wallace Families 999, 1385 

Wallace, Harry W 1385 

Walter Family 910 

Walter, WilHam 910 

Waltemire Family 1267 

Waltemire, Jesse" B 1267 

Warden Family 1076 

Wardrop, William B 1525 

Warrick, James 887 

Warrick, Mrs. Margaret .... 887 

Wassam Family 1152 

Wassam, Peter" W 1152 

Waterson, John 1362 

Watson, Alexander P 1350 

Watson Families 655, 1350 

Watson, James P 656 

Watson, Thomas C 656 

Watt Families 728, 1403 

Watt, .John W 728 

Watt, Thomas M 1403 

AVav Family 1330 

Way, Jesse L 1330 

Weamer. Andrew 1326 

Weamer Family 1326 

Weamer. Harry L 764 

Wehrle, Richard W 1184 

Wehrle Family 1184 

Weir Family 1196 

Weir, John 1196 

Weiss, Frederick 1228 

Weitzel Families 876, 950 

Weitzel, Frederick 875 

Weitzel. William F., M. D. . . . 950 

Welch, Edgar J 1078 

Welch Family 1078 

Welehonce Family 1028 

Welchonce, Harry M 1029 

Welehonce, Svlve'ster C 1028 

Wells, John C 1561 

Wells Family 1561 

Welteroth, Joseph 1405 

West Family 723 

West, Frank W 723 

Wetzel Family 955 

Wetzel, Samuel S 955 

Wheeler, John 1390 

White Families 575, 1149 

White, Gen. Harry. . .384, 387, 580 
■^Tiite, Judge Thomas. 383, 385, 575 

Widdowsou, Clark B 1052 

Widdowson, Edmund 777 

Widdowson, Mrs. Estella 962 

Widdowson Families 

777, 1052, 1136, 1236, 1244, 1367 

AViddowson, Harvey D 1136 

Widdowson, Harvey E 1236 

Widdowson, John D 962 

Widdowson, Joseph A 1244 

Widdowson, Kelson 1367 

Wieezorek, Rev. Francis L. 943 

Wiggins, Albert A 1457 

Wiggins, Judge Coulter 

„:••.■••■• 389, 470, 669 

Wiggins, Mrs. Elizabeth ....1457 

Wiggins Families 669, 1231 

Wiggins, James R 1231 

Wiggins, Mrs. Sarah J.... 1.599 

Wiggins^^ Thomas jjig 

Wiley Family jo-g 

Wiley, James M . . '. '. '. . [ '. ' '. ' 1^73 
Wilhelm, Augustus . . .'.'.['.'.'.Wil 

Williams, Elmer E 735 

Williams, Hugh E . .1273 

Williams Families . . 736 990 

1191'1171.n93.1210, 1273, 1364 

Williams, John J 1193 

Williams. John W. 1170 

Williams, Joseph T ;;.':i364 

W ilhams, Richard . . . 990 

Williams, William M '.i"09 

Williamson Family 906 

Williamson, Jesse J 906 

Willy, Christ :.■.■;. '1509 

Wilson, Andrew W 393 70Q 

Wilson, Bradley W '. . '1043 

Wilson Families ... 

... .617, 626, 720, 819, 966," 1362 

Wilson, Frank i3g2 

Wilson, Harry W . 790 

Wilson, J. Willis 626 

Wilson, Marsellen C 1366 

Wilson, Mrs. MarseUen C....1366 

Wilson, Robert 1043 

Wilson, Robert H . . .. 617 

Wilson, Robert M 393 734 

Wilson, Eev. W. J 947 1597 

Wimer Family 963 

Wineberg Family 1477 

Wineberg, Marti'n C '.'. .1477 

Wingert, Henry G 1.527 

Winsheimer, Frank 1175 

Winsheimer Family 1175 

Winters, Henry C 1508 

Wissinger, Mrs. Elizabeth m- 

len 1271 

Wissinger Family 1421 

Wissinger, Lewis S 1271 

Wissinger, James 1421 

Wohlers, Claus ]452 

Wohlers. Mrs. Flora .1453 

Wood, Dr. Edwin K 825 

Woolweaver Family 14.53 

Woolwea%er, John A 1453 

Work, David Brown 981 

Work Families 744, 980 

Work, Milton 744 

Work, Silas W 982 

Work, William A. S 982 

Wortman, Calvin M 1415 

Wortman Family 1415 

Wray Family 619 

Wright Family 1427 

Wright, Jeflferson 1427 

Wyncoop Family 1547 

Wyncoop, James S 1547 

Wynkoop Families 664, 1290 

Wynkoop, Matthew B 1290 

w"ynkoop, Matthew C 664 


Young Family 

Young, Mrs. Jane 

Young, Prof. Josias H.... 


, . . . 815 
, ... 815 
, ... 877 
. . . 815 

Younkins, Jacob 

Younkins, Jacob B 

Zacur, George 

Zanoni, Dante 




Young, Robert 

, . . . 877 



Zehner Family • 1076 

Zehner, Peter 1076 

Zener Family 1414 

Zener, Mary 1414 




To a person who has witnessed all the 
changes which have taken place in the west- 
ern country since its tirst settlement, its 
former appearance is like a dream or ro- 
mance. He will find it difficult to realize the 
features of that wilderness which was the 
abode of his infant days. The little cabin of 
his father no longer exists ; the little field and 
truck patch which gave him a scanty supplj- 
of coarse bread and vegetables have been 
swallowed iip in the extended meadow, or 
grain field. The rude fort in which his people 
resided so many painful summers has van- 
ished and, like the baseless fabric of a vision, 
left not a wreck behind. Large farms, with 
splendid mansion houses and well-filled barns, 
hamlets and villages now occupy the scenes of 
his youthful sports, hunting or military ex- 
cursions. In the place of forest trees or 
hawthorn bushes he sees the awful foinim of 
.iustice or the sacred temple with its glitter- 
ing spire pointing to the heavens ; and instead 
of the war whoop of savages or the howl of 
wolves, he hears the swelling anthem or peal- 
ing organ. 

Everywhere surrounded by the busy hum 
of man and the splendor, arts, refinements 
and comforts of civilized life, his former 
state and that of his country have vanished 
from his memory; or if sometimes he bestows 
a reflection on its original aspect, the mind 
seems to be carried liack to a period of time 
much more remote than it really is. The 
immense changes which have taken place in 
the physical and moral state of the country 
have been gradual, and, therefore, scarceh' 
perceived from year to year; but the view 
from one extreme to the other is like the pros- 
pect over a vast expanse of water, of the 

opposite shore, whose hills, valleys, mountains 
and forests present a confused and romantic 
landscape, which loses itself in the distant 

One advantage, at least, results from hav- 
ing lived in a state of society ever on the 
change, and always for the better; it doubles 
the retrospect of life. With me, at any rate, 
it has had that effect. Did not the definite 
number of yeare teach me the contrary, I 
should think myself at least one hundred 
years old instead of fifty. The case is said 
to be widely different with those who have 
passed their lives in cities, or ancient settle- 
ments, where, from year to year, the same 
unchanging aspect of things presents itself. 
There life passes away as an illusion or 
dream, having been presented with no strik- 
ing events, or great and important changes, 
to mark its different periods, and give them 
an imaginary distance from each other, and 
it ends with a bitter complaint of its short- 
ness. It must be my own fault if I shall ever 
have occasion to make this complaint. I do 
not recollect ever to have he; rd it made by 
any of my contemporary countrymen whose 
deaths I have witnessed. 

A wilderness of great extent, presenting 
the virgin face of nature, unchanged by 
human cultivation or art, is certainly one ot 
the most sublime terrestrial objects which the 
Creator ever presented to the view of man; 
but those portions of the earth which bear 
this character derive their features of sub- 
limity from very different characteristics. 
The great deserts of Africa wear an imposing 
aspect even on account of their utter barren- 
ness of vegetation — where no tree affords 
fruit, or shelter from the burning heat of the 


day, no bird is heard to sing, and no flower 
expands its leaves to the sun — as well as from 
their immense extent. In the steppes of Rus- 
sia, the oriental plain of Tartary, the traveler, 
did not his reason correct the illusion of his 
senses, at the rising and setting of the sun 
might imagine himself in the midst of a 
boundless ocean, so vast, so level and monoto- 
nous is the prospect around him. What must 
be the awful sublimity of the immense regions 
of polar solitude, where the distant sun re- 
flects his dazzling rays from plains of snow 
and mountains of ice ! 

The valley of the Mississippi, whose eastern 
and western boundaries are the Allegheny 
and Rocky Mountains, the northern the chain 
of lakes which separate us from Canada, and 
the southern the Gulf of Mexico, in addition 
to the imposing grandeur of its vast extent, 
is an immense region of animal and vegetable 
life, in all its endless varieties. In all this 
vast extent of country no mountain rears its 
towering head to vary the scenery and afford 
a resting place for the clouds, no volcano 
vomits forth its smoke, flame and lava in 
sublime but destructive grandeur. Even 
those portions of this valley which in ages 
past were the beds of lakes, but have been 
drained by the sinking of the rivers, present 
a rich vegetable mould. 

This great country seems to have been 
designed by Divine Providence for the last 
resort of oppressed humanity. A fruitful 
soil, under a variety of climates, supplies 
abundantly all the wants of life, while our 
geographical situation renders us unconquer- 
able. From this place of refuge we may hear, 
as harmless thunder, the military convulsions 
of other quarters of the globe, without feeling 
their concussions. Vice and folly may con- 
quer us ; the world never can. Happy region ! 
large and fertile enough for the abode of 
many millions. Here the hungry may find 
bread, and conscience the full possession of 
its native rights. 

One prominent feature of a wilderness is 
its solitude. Those who plunged into the 
bosom of this forest left behind them not only 
the busy hum of men, but domestic animdl 
life generally. The departing rays of the 
setting sun did not receive the requiem of the 
feathered songsters of the grove, nor was the 
blushing aurora ushered in by the shrill 
clarion of the domestic fowls. The solitude 
of the night was interrupted only by the howl 
of the wolf, the melancholy moan of the ill- 
boding owl, or the frightful shriek of the pan- 

ther. Even the faithful dog, the only stead- 
fast companion of man among the brute crea- 
tion, partook of the silence of the desert; the 
discipline of his master forbade him to bark, 
or move, except in obedience to his command ; 
his native sagacity soon taught him the pro- 
priety of obedience to this severe government. 
The day was, if possible, more solitary than 
the night. The noise of the wild turkey, the 
croaking of the raven, or "the woodpecker 
tapping the hollow beech tree," did not much 
enliven the dreary scene. The various tribes 
of singing birds are not inhabitants of the 
desert; they are not carnivorous and there- 
fore must be fed from the labors of man. At 
any rate, they did not exist in this country 
at its first settlement. 

Let the imagination of the reader pursue 
the track of the adventurer into this solitary 
wilderness, bending bis course towards the 
setting sun, over undulating hills, under the 
shade of large forest trees, and wading 
through the rank weeds and grass which then 
covered the earth. Now viewing from the 
top of a hill the winding course of the creek 
whose route he wishes to explore, doubtful of 
its course, and of his own, he ascertains the 
cardinal points of north and south by the 
thickness of the moss and bark on the north 
and south side of the ancient trees; now de- 
scending into a valley and presaging his 
approach to a river by seeing large ash, bass- 
wood, and sugar trees, beautifully festooned 
with wild grapevines. Watchful as Argias, 
his restless eye catches everything around 
him. In an unknown region, and surrounded 
with dangers, he is the sentinel of his own 
safety, and relies on himself alone for protec- 
tion. The toilsome march of the day being 
ended, at the fall of night he seeks for safety 
some narrow, sequestered hollow, and by the 
side of a large log builds a fire, and, after 
eating his coarse and scanty meal, wraps him- 
self up in his blanket and lays him do\vn on 
his bed of leaves, with his feet to the little 
fire, for rest, hoping for favorable dreams 
auguring future good luck, while his faithful 
dog and gun repose by his side. 

But let not the reader suppose that the 
pilgrim of the wilderness could feast his 
imagination with the romantic beauties of 
nature without any drawback from conflict- 
ing passions. His situation did not afford 
him much time for contemplation. He was 
an exile from the warm clothing and plentiful 
mansions of society. His homely woodsman's soon became old and ragged ; the crav- 
ings of hunger compelled him to sustain from 



day to day the fatigues of the chase. Often 
had he to eat his vension, bear meat or wild 
turkey without bread or salt. Nor was this 
all; at every step the strong passions of hope 
and fear were in full exercise. Eager in the 
pursuit of his game, his too much excited 
imagination sometimes presented to him the 
phantom object of his chase in a bush, a log, 
or mossy bank, and occasioned him to waste 
a load of his ammunition, more precious than 
gold, on a creature of his own brain, and he 
repaid himself the expense by making a joke 
of his mistake. His situation was not without 
its dangers. He did not know at what tread 
his foot might be stung by a serpent, at what 
moment he might meet with the formidable 
bear, or, if in the evening, he knew not on 
what limb of a tree, over his head, the mur- 
derous panther might be perched, in a squat- 
ting attitude, ready to drop down upon him 
and tear him to pieces in a moment. When 
watching a deer licking from his blind at 
night the formidable panther was often his 
rival in the same business, and if, by his 
growl, or otherwise, the man discovered the 
presence of his rival, the lord of the world 
always retired as speedily and secretly as pos- 
sible, leaving him the undisturbed possession 
of the chance of game for the night. 

The wilderness was a region of supersti- 
tion. The adventurous hunter sought for 
prophecies of his future good or bad luck in 
everything about him. iluch of his success 
depended on the state of the weather; snow 
and rain were favorable, because in the 
former he could track his game, and the latter 
prevented them from hearing the rustling of 
the leaves beneath his feet. The appearance 
of the sky, morning and evening, gave him 
the signs of the times with regard to the 
weather. So far he was a philosopher. Per- 
haps he was aided in his prognostics on this 
subject by some old rheumatic pain, which he 
called his weather clock. Say what you please 
about this, doctors, the first settlers of this 
country were seldom mistaken in this latter 
indication of the weather. The croaking of a 
raven, the howling of a dog. and the screech 
of an owl, were as prophetic of future mis- 
fortunes among the first adventurers into this 
country as they were amongst the ancient 
pagans; but above all, their dreams were re- 
garded as ominous of good or ill fortune. 
Often when a boy I heard them relate their 
dreams, and the events which bore out their 
indications. "With some of the woodsmen 
there were two girls of their acquaintance 
who were regarded as the goddesses of their 

good or bad lack. If they dreamed of the 
one, they were sure of good fortune; if of 
the other, they were equally sure of the bad. 
How much love or aversion might have had 
to do in this ease I cannot say, but such was 
the fact. 

Let not the reader be sui-prised at the 
superstition which existed among the first 
adventurers into the western wilderness. 
Supei-stition in all those who occupy perilous 
situations in life is universally associated 
with ignorance. The comets used to be con- 
sidered harbingers of war. The sea captain 
nails an old horseshoe to the foot of the mast 
of his ship to prevent storms. The Germans 
used to nail the horseshoe on the doorsill to 
prevent the intnasion of witches. The Ger- 
man soldier recites a charm at the rising of 
the sun, when in the course of the day he 
expects to be engaged in battle, by the means 
of which he fancies that he fortifies himself 
against the contact of balls of every descrip- 
tion. Charms, incantations and amulets have 
constituted a part of the superstition of all 
ages and nations. Philosophy alone cart 
banish their use. 

The passion of fear excited by danger, the 
parent of superstitution, operated power- 
fully on the first adventurers into this coun- 
try. Exiled from society and the comforts 
of life, their situation was perilous in the 
extreme. The bite of a serpent, a broken 
limb, a wound of any kind, or a fit of sickness 
in the wilderness, without those accommoda- 
tions which wounds and sickness require, was 
a dreadful calamity. The bed of sickness 
without medical aid, and, above all, to be 
destitute of the kind attention of mother, 
sister, wife, or other female friends, those 
ministering angels in the wants and afflictions 
of man, was a situation which could not be 
anticipated by the tenant of the forest with 
other sentiments than those of the deepest 

Many circumstances concurred to awaken 
in the mind of the early adventurer into this 
country the most serious and even melancholy 
reflections. He saw everywhere around him 
indubitable evidences of the former existence 
of a large population of barbarians, which 
had long ago perished from the earth. Their 
arrowheads furnished him vnth gun flints; 
stone hatchets, pipes, and fragments of earth- 
enware, were found in every place. The re- 
mains of their rude fortifications were met 
with in many places, some of them of con- 
siderable extent and magnitude. Seated on 
the summit of some sepulchral mound con- 


taining the ashes of tens of thousands of the 
dead, he said to himself: "This is the grave, 
and this, no doubt, the temple of worship of 
a long succession of generations long since 
molded into dust; these surrounding valleys 
were once animated by their labors, hunting 
and wars, their songs and dances; but obliv- 
ion has drawn her impenetrable veil over 
their whole history. No lettered page, no 
sculptured monument, informs who they were, 
whence they came, the period of their exist- 
ence, or by what fearful catastrophe the 
iron hand of death has given them so com- 

plete an overthrow, and made the whole of 
this country an immense Golgotha." 

Such was the aspect of this country at its 
first discovery, and such the poor and haz- 
ardous lot of the first adventurers into the 
bosoms of the forests. How widely different 
is the aspect of things now, and how changed 
for the better the conditions of its inhab- 
itants! If such important changes have 
taken place in so few years, and with such 
slender means, what immense improvements 
may we not reasonably anticipate for the 
future ! 


The western country, in common with al- 
most every other region of the earth, exhibits 
evidences of a numerous population which 
must have existed and perished long anterior 
to the period of history. The evidences of 
the most remote population of our country 
are found only in the few and rude remains 
of their works which have escaped the ravages 
of time. Such of these antiquities as have 
come under the notice of the author shall be 
described, with some remarks upon them. 

Arrowheads, at the first settlement of the 
country, were found everywhere. These 
were made of flint stone, of various sizes and 
colors, and shaped with great skill and neat- 
ness. Their fabrication required more skill 
and labor than that of making our ordinary 
gun flints. From the great numbers of these 
arrow points, found all over the country, it 
is presumable that they must have been in 
general use by a large population, and for a 
great length of time. The author has never 
been informed whether, at the discovery and 
settlement of America by the Europeans, the 
Indians were in the habit of using them. 
Some of these arrow points were of great size 
and weight, so that those who used them must 
have been gigantic fellows, and of great 
muscular strength. For a long time after the 
settlement of the country the Indian arrow- 
heads furnished the main supply of gun flints 
for our hunters and warriors, many of whom 
preferred them to imported flints. The ar- 
row points have nearly vanished from the 

Stone pipes and hatchets were frequently 
fDiiiul here in early times. The pipes were 

rudely made, but many of them of very 
fanciful shapes. The existence of these pipes 
shows very clearly that the practice of smok- 
ing acrid substances is of gi-eat antiquity. 
Before the use of tobacco the Indians smoked 
the inner bark of the red willow mixed with 
sumac leaves. They do so still, when they 
cannot procure tobacco. 

Some fragments of a rude kind of earthen- 
ware were found in some places. It was 
made of potter's earth mixed with calcined 
shells, and burnt to a proper hardness. This 
ware was no doubt used for cooking. 

Some rude trinkets of copper have been 
found in some of the Indian graves. These, 
however, were but few in number, and ex- 
hibited no skill in the art of working metals. 
IMany years ago I procured ten copper beads, 
which were found in one of the smaller 
graves. The whole number found at the time 
was about sixty. They appeared to have been 
made of hammered wire, cut off at unequal 
lengths, and in some of them the ends were 
not more than half their surface in contact, 
and so soldered. 

The ancient forts, as they are called, are 
generally found in the neighborhood of the 
large graves along the river, and mostly on 
the first alluvion of their bottoms. The.v are 
of all shapes and various dimensions. They 
have lieen so often described by various 
authors that a description of them is not 
necessary here. Whether they were really 
fortifications, or ordinary inclosures of their 
towns, is not so certain. It is said to have 
been a common practice among the Indians 
of ^lissouri to inclose a piece of ground. 


whicli they intended for a town, with stock- 
ades on each side of which they threw up a 
mound of earth, and that when one of their 
towns has been so long deserted that the 
stockading has rotted down, the remaining 
mound of earth has precisely the same ap- 
pearance as one of the ancient forts. If this 
was their origin, and most probably it was, 
they were fortitications in the same degree 
that the walls of all ancient towns and cities 
were, and not otherwise. 

The sepulchral mounds make by far the 
greatest tigure among the antiquities of our 
country. In point of magnitude some of them 
are truly sublime and imposing monuments 
of human labor, providing for the burial of 
llie dead. 

Most of the writers on the antiquities of 
our country represent the sepulchral mounds 
under consideration as peculiar to America. 
Were such the fact, they would be objects of 
great curiosity indeed, as their belonging ex- 
clusively to this quarter of the globe would 
go to show that the aborigines of America 
were different from all other nations of the 
earth, at least in their manner of disposing of 
their dead. But the fact is not so. The his- 
tory of these ancient sepulchers of the dead 
embraces Europe, Asia and Africa, as well as 
North and South America. Large groups of 
these mounds are met with in many places 
between St. Petersburg and Moscow in Rus- 
sia. When the people of that country are 
asked if they have any tradition concerning 
them, they answer in the negative. They 
.suppose that they are the graves of men slain 
in battle; but when or by whom constructed, 
they have no knowledge. Near the mouth of 
the river Don there is a group of five mounds 
which from time immemorial have been 
denominated The Five Brothers. Similar 
mounds are very numerous along the shores 
of the Black Sea, and those of the Sea of 
Azof, and throughout the whole country of 
Crimea. The}' are found throughout ancient 
Greece. In the neighborhood of ancient Troy 
there are several of them nearly as large as 
any in America. The mound described bj' 
Bobbins, in the vicinity of Wadinoon in 
Africa, is certainly an ancient sepulehi-al 
mound although he calls it a natural one. 
This is the more probable as the remains of 
fortifications or town walls, similar to those 
in our country, exist in abundance in the 
neighborhood of Wadinoon. On the hills 
near Cambridge in England are shown two 
large barrows as the tombs of Gog and ilagog. 
Tlie cairns of Scotland are structures of the 

same kind, but wholly of stone. Peru and 
Mexico contain a vast number of those 
mounds, of all shapes and of large dimensions. 
Lastly, the famous pyramids of Egypt have 
been ascertained to be sepulchral edifices,' In 
all probability they are coeval with the 
sepulchral monuments of other ciuarters of 
the globe already mentioned. They were de- 
signed for the last and permanent exhibition 
of the regal gi-andeur of those monarchs by 
wliom they were successively erected. 

The great number and magnitude of the 
sepulchral monuments of antiquity serve to 
show that, during the time of their erection 
over so large a portion of the earth, mankind 
generally must have been actuated by a strong 
desire to preserve the remains of the dead 
from dissolution, and their names and re- 
nown as far as possible from oblivion. The 
extensive catacombs of Egypt, Syracuse and 
Palestine are fully illustrative of the general 
wish for the preservation of the body after 
death, and posthumous fame. What niust 
have been the labor and expense of excavating 
limestone or marble rocks to such vast extent 
and with such excpiisite workmanship for the 
purpose of furnishing elegant and imperish- 
able recesses for the dead ! 

The ancient Egyptians held the first rank 
among the nations of antiquity, for their care 
and skill in preserving the remains of their 
dead. To the most splendid and extensive 
catacombs, they added the practice of em- 
balming their bodies, many of which have so 
far escaped the ravages of time. These em- 
balmed bodies, preserved from putrefaction 
liy cerates and bandages of linen, are still 
found, sometimes in solitary cells, and some- 
times in large numbers, in newly discovered 
catacombs ; but for want of letters, their early 
history has vanished forever. 

While the ancient Egyptians skillfully pre- 
served the individual bodies of their dead, 
other nations were in the practice of collect- 
ing the bones of their people and depositing 
them in sepulchral monuments of a national 
character. Nearly all the sepulchral mounds 
which have been thoroughly opened, in Asia 
and America, contain, about the center of 
the bottom, a coffin, or vault of stone, con- 
taining but one skeleton. This, we may rea- 
sonably suppose, was the sarcophagus of the 
patriarch, or first monarch of the tribe or 
nation to which the sepulcher belonged. 
Thenceforward all his people were deposited 
in the grave of the founder of the nation. In 
process of time, the steadily increasing 
mound became the national history. Its age 


was the age of the uatiou, and its magnitude 
gave the census of their relative numbers, 
and military force, with regard to other na- 
tions about them. What a sublime spectacle 
to the people to whom it belonged must one 
of those large sepulchers have been! The 
remains of the first chief of the nation, with 
his people, and their successors, through many 
generations, reposing together in the same 

It is a well-kno\\'n fact that some nations 
of Indians, ever since the settlement of 
America by the Europeans, have been in the 
habit of collecting the bones of their dead, 
from every quarter, for the purpose of de- 
positing them, with those of their people, at 
their chief towns. This must have been the 
general practice during the time of the erec- 
tion of the large ancient graves of our coun- 
try; for the bones found in those of them 
which have been opened have been thrown 
promiscuously together in large collections, 
as if emptied out of baskets or bags. 

Besides the large graves, smaller ones are 
found in many remote places, far from the 
large mounds and all traces of ancient forts. 
Most of these are made wholly of stone, and 
for the most part contain but a single skele- 
ton. Were these solitary mounds erected to 
the memory of the individual whose remains 
they cover? Such appears to have been the 
fact. That a similar custom prevailed among 
the ancient Hebrews we have evidence in the 
burial of Absalom, the rebellious son of 
David, who although unworthy of a place in 
the royal sepulcher, was nevertheless honored 
with such a rude monument of stones as we 
often meet with in our country. After he 
was slain by Joab, the commander in chief of 
his father's army, "They took Absalom and 
east him into a great pit in the wood, and 
cast a very gi-eat heap of stones upon him." 

From all these facts, it appears that the 
strong desire of posthumous fame induced 
those nations amongst whom the art of writ- 
ing was unlmown to preserve the remem- 
brances of their chiefs, or friends, by erect- 
ing over their dead bodies a heap of earth, or 
a pile of stones, as well as to make the con- 
gregated dead of many generations a national 
monument and a national record. 

The great antiquity of the monuments in 
question may be ascertained by many facts 
which cannot fail to strike the notice of an 
attentive observer of the relics of antiquity. 
In America, so far as the author knows, none 
of the large mounds is found on the first or 

lower bottoms of our rivers, but always on 
the second or highest alluvion; and such is 
their situation in Europe and Asia. * * * 
Their locations, mainly along the large rivers 
and on the shores of lakes, betoken the 
primeval state of nations. As the spoils of 
the water are more easily obtained than those 
of the forest, and these last more easily than 
the productions of the earth, the first em- 
ployment of man must have been that of fish- 
ing, and his first food the production of the 

These mounds and forts are not found in 
any great numbers along the shores of the 
main oceans. This circumstance goes to show 
that those by whom they were made were not 
in the practice of navigating the great seas. 
That their existence is of higher antiquity 
than the commencement of the period of his- 
tory is evident from the fact that none of them 
contains a single inscription of any kind. 

Another evidence of the great age of these 
rude remains of antiquity is this: There ex- 
ists nowhere even a traditionary account of 
their oi'igin. At the earliest period of the 
Grecian history they were supposed to be the 
graves of giants. After what lapse of time 
does tradition degenerate into fable! At what 
period of time does fable itself wear out, and 
consign all antiquity to a total and acknowl- 
edged oblivion ! All this has happened with 
regard to the antiquities under consideration. 

From all these considerations, it appears 
that any inquiry concerning the history of 
the antiquities of our country would be a 
fruitless research. "Close shut those graves, 
nor tell a single tale," concerning the numer- 
ous population whose relics they inclose. 

The antiquities of our country do not pre- 
sent to the mind of the author the slightest 
evidence that this quarter of the world was 
ever inhabited by a civilized people before it 
was discovered by the Europeans. They 
present no traces of the art of building, sculp- 
ture or painting; not a stone marked with a 
hammer is anywhere to be found. It is sup- 
posed by some that the aborigines of this 
country were in the habit of using iron tools 
and implements of war; that such was the 
fact appears very doubtful. There can exist 
no specimens of iron coeval with the antiq- 
uities of this country, as iron, in almost any 
situation, is liable to rust and pass to its 
primitive state of ore. At the discovery of 
America the Indians knew nothing of the 
use of iron. Any people who have ever been 
in the habit of using iron will be sure to leave 


some indelible traces of its use behind them; 
but the aborigines of this country have left 

Barbarians, in many instances, have pos- 
sessed, and do still possess, the art of writing; 
but it is not to be presumed that a civilized 
people ever were destitute of that art. The 
original inhabitants of this country pos- 
sessed it not, or they would certainly have left 
some traces of it behind them. 

After having passed in review the antiqui- 
ties of our country, particularly the melan- 
choly monuments of the ancient dead, what 
have we gained? Simply this, that the gen- 
erations of remote antiquity were eveiywhere 
the same, at least in their reverence for the 
dead, whose monuments constitute almost the 
only history which they have left behind 
them ; and that, for want of letters, and other 
testimonials of arts and sciences, we are war- 
ranted in saying that their state of society 
must have been that which we denominate the 
barbarous; yet their history, rude as it is, is 
entitled to respect. They were no doubt the 
antediluvian race ; they were the primeval 
fathers of mankind, the immediate progen- 
itors of our race, to whom the munificent 
Creator gave dominion over the "fish of the 
sea, the fowl of the air, and every living thing 
that moveth upon the earth." From them we 
have inherited our existence and our charter 
to this possession of the world. Even the 
barbaro\is state of society is entitled to re- 
spect ; for barbarism has its virtues. 

Much as the physical happiness of man 
has been augmented by civilization, how far 
has his moral state received improvement 
from the augmentation of his science and 
civilization? Have they made his heart the 
better? Have they taught him the noble 
philanthropy of the good Samaritan ? Or has 
he only exchanged the ferocity of the savage 
for the cunning of the sharper? Are the 
vices of our nature diminished in force, or 

are they only varnished like the whited 
sepulcher and placed under concealment, so 
as to attain their objects with gi-eater effect 
and on a bi'oader scale? Have the political 
institutions of the world become sources of 
freedom, peace and good will to the people? 
Let the boasted regions of our forefathers, 
enlightened Europe, answer the inquiry. 
There legal contributions, insupportable in 
their amount, induce all the miseries of 
pauperism; royal ambition presents its mil- 
lions of subjects to the deadly machinery of 
modern warfare; but are the valiant dead 
honored with a monument of their existence 
and bravery? No! That insatiable avarice 
which knows nothing sacred, makes a traffic 
of their bones, while the groaning engine eon- 
verts them to powder to furnish manure for 
an unfriendly soil. If this is civilization, 
pray what is barbarism? 

A veneration for antiquity seems to be 
natural to man; hence we consider as bar- 
barians those who demolish the relics of 
antiquity. "We justly blame the Turks for 
burning the fine marble columns of ancient 
Greece into lime; but do we display a juster 
taste, with regard to the onl.y relics w^ith 
which our country is honored? Wlien those 
relics have disappeared, and nothing but their 
history shall remain, will not future genera- 
tions pronounce us barbarians for having 
demolished them ? Those venerable sepulchral 
mounds ought to be religiously preserved, 
and even planted with evergi-eens. They 
would figure well in our gi-aveyards. public 
squares and public walks; but what is likely 
to be their fate ? If in fields, for the sake of a 
few additional ears of corn or sheaves of 
wheat, they are plowed down; if within the 
limits of a town, demolished to afford a site 
for a house or garden, or to fill up some 
sunken spot, while the walls which inclosed 
the towns or forts of the ancients are made 
into brick. Such is man. Such are the en- 
lightened Americans! 


Without doubt the first white settler of 
Indiana connty was George Pindley, who had 
migrated to the Piimroy and Wilson settle- 
ment, or what is now Derry township, West- 
moreland county, in 1764. The next year lie 
selected the tract afterwards occupied by his 
grandson, George Findle.y ilathews, in East 
Wheatfield township, near the present town 
of Cramer, Indiana Co., Pa. This selection 
was made by a tomahawk, but these tomahawk 
rights were as valid in those days as the more 
eumberaome surveys of later dates. His visits 
to ^his land were as frequent and his stay as 
long as the troublesome times would permit, 
and when the Revolutionary war began he 
had a clearing of about ten acres, and a rude 
cabin for his bride, whom he had married in 
Maryland, not far from Hagerstown, in 1776. 
In 1784 he again returned to his improve- 
ment, and continued his residence there, 
though repeatedly forced to seek shelter at 
Port Ligonier, or Palmer's Fort. His home 
was spoken of. May 29, 1769, as the "Findley 
Cabbins," in some of the application war- 
rants of that year. There were many early 
settlers whose graves were scattered in out- 
of-the-way places through the township, of 
whom no account is given except that they 
were pioneers. William Clark was mentioned 
as prominent among the pioneers. His im- 
provement was not surveyed till June 22, 
1776, and is described as situated on the 
"path" between Conemaugh and Blacklick 
ad.ioining George Findley, and including 
Wipey's "Cabbin" (Wipey was a peaceful 
Delaware Indian who was murdered by the 

Wallace's Fort, erected in 1764 or 1765, 
Gilson's Fort near New Derry, and Craig's 
Fort on the Loyalhanna, were the resort of 
the fleeing inhabitants when the alarm signal 
of three rapid shots told that the red face 
was nigh. The Wallace Fort contained about 

a half acre of ground and had a tine l)lock- 
house within the inclosure. In any case of 
actual attack by the Indians, the women and 
children were placed in the lower story, while 
the men proceeded above, and from the port- 
holes the trusty rifles made havoc with the 
brutal foe. 

The early pioneers were exposed to con- 
stant peril from the Indians. Although they 
lived in times of comparative peace, the 
treachery of the red man was too well known 
to permit them to be caught unprepared for 
an attack. The Indians generally made their 
raids in the fall of the year. During harvest 
time they often became very troublesome. 
They lurked in the woods, and cut off the un- 
suspecting settler when he least apprehended 
danger. The pioneers plowed and reaped 
with rifle in hand. One of the old pioneers 
used to relate how he stood with his rifle in 
hand, while his wife brought water from the 
spring. After the French and Indian war, 
in 1763, the Indians were not so hostile as 
when incited by the French. But when the 
Revolutionary war broke out, being urged by 
Great Britain, they attacked the settlers with 
ruthless and constant barbarity. William 
Findley, author of a history of Western 
Pennsylvania, speaking of this period, says: 
"During the whole time of the Revolutionary 
War, and for some time after it ceased, the 
country was cruelly wasted by perpetual 
savage depredations." 

In the month of I\Iay, 1772, Fergus Moor- 
head, his wife and three children, his two 
brothers, Samuel and Joseph, James Kelly, 
James Thompson and a few others, bid fare- 
well to their friends in Franklin county, and 
set out on their journey to the "Indian 
Country" west of the AUeghenies. Though 
the prospects of acquiring extensive posses- 
sions and wealth for themselves and posterity 
might buoy up the adventurous spirits of the 


three brothers, it may well be imagined that 
Mrs. Moorhead left home and all endearments 
with a heavy heart. But being a woman pos- 
sessing great energy of character, as is shown 
in the sequel, and touched, perhaps, with that 
romantic spirit peculiar to that period of 
which we are writing, she pressed forward 
with a firm step and a resolute heart, deter- 
mined to share with her devoted husband the 
dangers and trials of the wilderness. 

Fergus Moorhead had a wagon in which he 
placed the provisions necessary for the 
journey, his farming utensils and household 
effects. This was drawn by three good horses. 
Ilis other live stock consisted of a yoke of 
oxen, two milch cow.s. several head of sheep 
and hogs, and a lot of fowls. The progress 
of the party was necessarily slow. The mil- 
itary road opened out some years previous, 
from Cumberland to Fort Pitt, was the only 
one that led at that time across the moun- 
tains, and was in many places scarcely trace- 
able, while it occasionally passed through 
swamps and ravines, and then again over 
rocks and along mountain slopes, so -as to 
render it almost impassable. But even this 
road, bad as it was. had to be abandoned, as 
its course diverged considerably from the 
point which the adventurers wished to gain. 
Hence the.y had to make their way. as best 
they could, through the wilderness. It would 
be useless to attempt a description of the 
trials, the hardships and the dangers to which 
the party were daily and hourly exposed. 
Beasts of prey were roaming on all sides, 
seeking an opportunity to devour them. The 
rattlesnake and copperhead lay coiled among 
tlie weeds and bushes, ready to strike the 
deadly blow. And. most dangerous of all, 
the war whoop which sounded from hill to 
hill, and echoed through the intervening val- 
leys, gave warning of the proximity of the 
savage, thirsting for plunder and for blood. 
Both night and day they were continually in 
peril. With nothing but the heavens for a 
covering they laid down at night to rest 
themselves, and forget for a few hours the 
fatigue of the day in the lap of "nature's 
fond nurse, calm sleep," while one of the 
party stood sentinel, not knowing what mo- 
ment they might be attacked by the wild 
beasts or the Indians. Frequently the.y had 
to halt and cut away logs and remove other 
impediments, and as there were no bridges, 
they had frequently to cross the streams at 
imminent risk. 

At the end of four weeks from the time 
tliey had left Franklin county the party 

reached their point of destination. "Where 
the town of Indiana is now built, was the spot 
that had been selected for a settlement by 
Fergus jMoorhead, who had made an excur- 
sion into this section in 1770. For some rea- 
son the party changed their determination, 
and located a few miles further west. Having 
sat themselves down in the forest, without 
house or shelter, and remote from the nearest 
settlement, we may readily imagine that their 
situation was far from being comfortable. 
The land afterwards owned by Isaac A. ^Moor- 
head was that which they selected for their 
future home. They naturally looked around 
to find a spot of ground on which to erect 
buildings that would answer their immediate 
necessities, and selected the site of the Isaac 
Moorhead house. On the next morning they 
commenced the work of building a cabin. 
They also built pens for their horses, cows, 
oxen, sheep, hogs and fowls. When the build- 
ings were completed they were once more en- 
abled to lie down, if not under their own 
■'vine and fig tree" at least beneath their 
own roof, and enjoy the refreshing sweets of 
slumber. We next see them laying the "axe 
to the root" of the sturdy oaks of the forest 
and prostrating them with unsparing hands. 
They planted some corn and potatoes, for 
which they had cleared and grubbed a small 
patch of ground, and after this put another 
one in order for the garden. When this was 
completed. Joseph and Samuel 3Ioorhead left 
their brother and his family to return home. 
By this time harvest was rapidly approach- 
ing, and it was necessary that provisions be 
collected for the stock the next winter. In 
this respect Fergus Moorhead was highly 
favored. The land subsequentlj' owned by 
David Ralston, south of Indiana, was then 
partly clear of timber and brush, and clothed 
with a coat of luxuriant grass, of which he 
cut a sufficient quantity to supply his animals 
during the whole winter. 

During the summer he employed himself in 
clearing land for the piirpose of raising grain. 
The difficulties of a pioneer's life can only be 
apprehended fully by those who have had 
such experience as this family had. and the 
hardships and annoyances are almost beyond 
human conception. They were encouraged 
with the promise made far back in the days 
that are numbered with the past, that "the 
desert places should be made glad and the 
wilderness to blossom as the rose." 

The venomous reptiles and beasts of prey 
with which the country abounded proved the 
greatest annovance. It was almost impossible 



to go beyond the cabin door without hearing 
the quick snap of the vicelike jaws of the wolf 
or seeing the subtle panther crouching on a 
neighboring tree, its fiercely brilliant eyes 
peering through the thick foliage, or the blood- 
shot eyes of the catamount glaring hideously 
from a neighboring thicket. It was not uu- 
common to be confronted by a huge bear or 
two, that were at all times ready to greet the 
intruders with a friendly "hug." The cop- 
perheads and rattlesnakes were so numerous 
that, attracted by the shelter of the house, 
they would steal into it and secrete them- 
selves in the beds or any place that would 
afford them concealment." The cunning fox, 
too, could be seen loitering around, in con- 
stant readiness to commit some petty depre- 

The cattle were in constant danger of the 
most ferocious of these animals, and not in- 
frequently it was necessary to take the dogs 
and go to their relief. At night they were 
very much annoyed by attacks on the cattle 
or sheep in their pens, and Mr. Moorhead 
would frequently be forced to arise and 
assist the dogs in driving them away. This 
was always attended with the greatest dan- 
ger, from the fact that the snakes were 
so numerous as to almost preclude the 
possibility of escaping unharmed. They were 
also in constant dread of the Indiaiis, who, 
when the attention of the dogs was drawn to 
the nocturnal depredators of the cattle and 
sheep pens, might seize the opportunity to 
attack the family in their wildwood home. 

He had brought with him a sufficient quan- 
tity of flour to answer his family's wants till 
his potatoes and corn would be matured and 
fit for use in the fall. He cai-ried the corn to 
a mill on the Kiskiminetas, in what is now 
Westmoreland county, to be ground into 
meal. Here new difficulties had to be en- 
countered, inasmuch as he had to go the in- 
tervening distance between his house and the 
mill without the aid of a road, his eoui*se ly- 
ing through the woods, up hill and down 
dale; through brake, bush and swamp, his 
only guide the bright sun that shone in the 
heavens above him. At night he had to lie 
outdoors, and his horses had to content them- 
selves with such sustenance as the woods af- 
forded. The dangers of the day would only 
be supplanted by those of the night. We 
can imagine that his was "no very comforting 
condition, ' ' and the thought that his wife and 
three children were alone in the midst of the 
wild forest was not calculated to add to his 
peace of mind. 

The wild game which abounded in the _ 
woods supplied him with all the animal food" 
of which he was in need, but for salt, to- 
bacco, iron, clothes, etc., he had to return to 
Franklin county, and these articles had also 
to be packed across the mountams, on horse- 
back. This was no small undertaking for one 
man, nor was it unattended by great danger, 
for it required three or four weeks to make 
the journey. During all that time he would 
travel day and night, halting only long enough 
to permit his horses to graze on the grass that 
grew in the woods, which was the only food 
upon which they had to subsist, not knowing 
at what moment he might be killed by the In- 
dians, or devoured by some wild beast. The 
thought that his small family might be at the 
mercy of the savages, and that on his return 
he might find them murdered, his home 
burned, and his goods destroyed, was a source 
of infinite concern to him, and but served to 
urge him along the more speedily. 

Under such difficulties and anxieties the 
^Moorhead family lived for four years, from 
the time they left their home in Franklin 
county, and located in Indiana county, till the 
ever memorable year of 1776. Independence 
year was fraught with important national 
events and individual incidents. In that year 
the American colonies took active measures to 
shake off the "British Yoke," and the same 
year several engagements occurred on land 
and sea. The British employed all the In- 
dians that would engage on tlaeir side, to the 
number, as has been estimated, of about twelve 
thousand, but many small parties, acting as 
spies and marauders on the frontier, were not 
inchided in that estimate. 

At this time of which we write Samuel 
Mooi'head, who had been elected captain, was 
stationed (July, 1776) with a small company 
of backwoods militia at Kittanning. Being at- 
tacked with smallpox, he was unable to per- 
form his duty as an officer, and on this ac- 
count went to his brother, Fergus, and pre- 
vailed upon him to take command of the com- 
pany, while he remained with Fergus's family 
until he had recovered from his illness. He 
then went to Kittanning, where he and his 
brother passed the evening in talking about 
their family and friends, and planning how 
they would manage their business. It was 
decided that Fergus should return to his home 
on the following morning, in company with a 
soldier, named Simpson. A party of Indians 
who were lurking around the fort overheard 
the conversation of the Moorheads, and being 
familiar with the road Moorhead and Simp- 



son would take in the moi'ning — it being then 
known as the "Kittanning Path" — they se- 
creted themselves near it, on a hill, since called 
"Blanket Hill," about midway between Kit- 
tanning and Moorhead's, and there awaited 
the approach of their intended victims. Upon 
the arrival of Sloorhead and Simpson, who, 
though on hoi-seback and armed, did not sus- 
pect an attack, the Indians fired, killing Simp- 
son and the two hoi-ses on the spot, and before 
Moorhead could get away they seized him and 
made him a prisoner. After scalping Simp- 
son, they stripped off his clothes, and left his 
naked body l.ying at the side of the path, with 
the two dead horses. 

The Indians ordered Moorhead to take off 
his boots and loaded the two saddles and bri- 
dles on his back and started with him into the 
woods, so as to evade pursuit, marching in 
single file and taking care not to trample 
down the weeds, in order to leave their trail 
as indistinct as possible. In this way they 
proceeded rapidly all day, and in the evening 
came to a halt to take supper, which consisted 
of the remains of a deer killed some days 
previous, and of a groundhog, which one of 
the party shot during the evening. Having 
finished the meal the party prepared for lodg- 
ings by gathering some diy leaves on which 
to sleep, and then made aiTangeraents to se- 
cure Moorhead against escape during the 
night. They caused him to lie down and drove 
a stake into the ground on each side of him, 
and passed a long rope over his body, on each 
end of which an Indian lay. In this way 
they confined him each night during his cap- 

On the following morning Moorhead was 
deprived of his clothes, and was forced to 
put on Indian dress. He was compelled, 
as the day before, to carry saddles and bridles, 
and to travel all that day and all the day fol- 
lowing, without eating anything. They took 
from him his tobacco, Uius depriving him of 
what, under the circumstances, would have 
been to him a gi'eat luxury. After traveling 
about fift.y miles over hills and rocks, through 
swamps and thickets, and crossing streams 
and ravines, they reached an Indian camp. 
The Indian that shot Simpson, and the 
one who firet seized Moorhead, fired their 
guns and raised the scalp halloo as they ap- 
proached the encampment. This was a long 
yell for every scalp that was taken, followed 
by shrill, quick, piercing shrieks. These were 
answered from the camp by the discharge of 
rifles, and whooping and cries of joy. All 
rushed out to meet the approaching party. 

As the Indians crowded around him, Moor- 
head expected to be put to death at once, but 
they offered him no violence, and entertained 
the war party with great hospitality. Here 
they remained two nights and a day, and, 
leaving early in the morning after the second 
night, ti-aveled about forty miles, and in the 
^ evening reaching an Indian village. Here 
he saw the Indians for the first time perform 
several dances, one of which was the war 
dance, from which circumstances he inferred 
his hour was come, and that he was to be 
killed forthwith. But his apprehensions were 
happily unfounded, though he was compelled 
to pass through a trying ceremony. After 
kindling a large fire the whole company, men, 
women and children, danced around it for a 
long time, and then formed into two lines, 
armed with hatchets, ramrods and switches. 
Having thus arranged matters, they called 
jMoorhead to run the gauntlet, but as he had 
never before heard of such a ceremony he did 
not understand them. His captor endeavored 
to explain it to him, saying he was to pass 
through the two lines and receive a blow from 
each individual as he passed, and exhorted 
him to run his best, as the faster he ran the 
sooner the performance would be over. Moor- 
head entered upon the chase with the feelings 
of a man who supposed he was running for 
his life, and was severely switched along the 
line, three fourths of the way, when a tall 
chief, more devilish, if possible, than his com- 
panions, threw sand in his eyes, which added 
to his pain and completel.y blinded him. He 
tried, however, to proceed, but in his efforts 
to gi'ope along, he was pushed about from 
one to another, and struck and switched, until 
two young warriors each took him by the 
hand, and ran with him into the wigwam, 
where he was quickly visited by his captor, 
who asked him if he felt sore. Moorhead 
replied that he felt very much hurt, and in- 
quired what he had done to merit such usage. 
The Indian told him that he had done no 
harm, but this was the customary treatment 
of their prisoners ; that he had now seen all 
their ceremonies, and that in the future he 
would receive better treatment. 

Moorhead was taken by his captors to Que- 
bec. On the way the party traveled veiy 
slowly, some days advancing but two or three 
miles". Relying entirely upon their success in 
hunting for means of subsistence, it may be 
readily understood they did not "fare sump- 
tuously ' ' every day, but of what they had, the 
prisoner now always got his share. When 
tliey reached Quebec. ]\Ioorhead was sold to 



the British, and thei-e kept in confinement for 
eleven months. From the British he received 
worse treatment than at the hands of the In- 
dians. His food was of the coarsest and most 
unhealthy sort, the bread being dry and 
mouldy and the meat sour and at times almost 
putrid. From the second day of his captivity 
to the close his garments were neither changed 
nor washed. During all that time his hair 
was not cut nor combed, nor his beard shaved. 
At the end of eleven months he was exchanged 
and sent to New York. 

From New York, Moorhead set out immedi- 
ately, on foot, for his former home in Frank- 
lin county. Though supplied with provisions, 
such was the reduced state of his health, in 
consequence of long confinement and ill treat- 
ment, that he was able to carry only a small 
stock with him. He was obliged to stop fre- 
quently during the day to rest, and, as his 
journey was mostly through the wilderness, 
he had to sleep at night in the open air. At 
length his stock of provisions was exhausted, 
and he was compelled to kill a dog that had 
followed him from New York, and subsist 
upon its meat. Even this unpalatable food 
did not hold out, and he lived for many days 
on frogs and fruits. So altered was his ap- 
pearance that when he reached his father's, 
in Franklin county, no one knew him. 

From the day he was taken prisoner until 
his arrival in Franklin county he had not 
heard a word of his family, neither did his 
family know anything of his fate. Mrs. iloor- 
head had been left with three small children, 
and soon after her. husband's capture gave 
birth to a fourth, which was one of the first 
if not the first white child born in the county, 
and was named by his mother Fergus, after 
the father. In the meantime one of the chil- 
dren had died of smallpox, and upon Mrs. 
Moorhead devolved the duty of placing her 
child in the silent grave. Shortly afterwards 
she was visited by her brother, who assisted 
her in boxing up and burying her provisions 
and effects, after which she accompanied hira 
on horseback to her former home in Franklin 
county, where she remained till the unex- 
pected return of her husband; for all had 
given him up for lost. 

In 1781 the Moorhead family returned to 
their home in Indiana county. The articles 
which had been buried were mostly in a good 
state of preservation. The live stock was gone, 
having most probably been killed by the In- 
dians. A number of families from the coun- 
ties east of the mountains came with Moor- 
head and settled in this vicinity. Among tlie 

number were James Kelly, James Thompson, 
Moses Chambers, Colonel Sharp, Samuel and 
William Hall, brothers, the Walkers, Doties 
and othei-s. 

The first thing they did was to erect a fort 
or blockhouse near Moorhead 's cabin (on the 
present site of the stone house, E. B. Campbell 
farm) large enough to contain all the families 
and their effects. Here they remained at 
night and also during the ensuing winter, con- 
sidering it unsafe to sleep in their cabins. 
They next betook themselves to clearing out 
farms, and worked alternately on each tract, 
so as to give each individual an eciual chance 
with the others, to have his ground prepared 
for seeding in the fall. While the party was 
at work felling timber and clearing the 
ground, two or three men stood guard with 
loaded rifles, so 'as to give timely notice of 
the approach of danger, and be ready to re- 
sist an attack from the enemy. But fortu- 
nately the Indians did not trouble them. 

In the course of a few years, the settlers 
became comfortably situated. They raised live 
stock and gi-ain in abundance, engaged in 
domestic manufactures, and erected saw and 
grist mills, and soon became a thrifty com- 
munity. Their' children grew up and settled 
on lands around them, and each year brought 
arrivals of new families from the East. 

As the settlements increased, the Indians 
withdrew, and in a little over twenty years 
this section had been organized into a county, 
its seat of justice had been located, and its 
public buildings were erected. 

Mr. Moorhead died at the age of eighty-nine 
years, and left a numerous and respectable 
progeny, many of whom are yet residents of 
this county. Some of them occupy the very 
spot which was the scene of so many trials 
and hardships in days of yore. 

■ ' Dr. Doddridge tells us that in his lifetime 
he had noted marked changes in climate. 
When he first ventured into this section the 
snow lay long and deep amid the unbroken 
forests, and the summers were short and hot. 
With the first breath of spring, the season that 
brings such joy to the hearts of all in this 
day. the fathers and mothers of that day 
looked with a kind of terror on the trees, as 
they clothed themselves in verdure and deep- 
ened the gathering shadows of the pathless 
woods. Then it was that the Indian chose 
liis season of warfare and rapine. Then was 
the season of their scanty harvests, i)lanted 
in fear and worked in parties large enough to 
afford a respectable fighting force, while the 
families huddled together in the stockades and 


^^^^ -|| 






Old ;\IounnEAD Fort 
On the E. B. Campbell Farm, White Township 



forts, watching and waiting for the return of 
the men. Not a single time did the.y open the 
gates of their forts in the morning without 
the fear that the savages were lying in am- 
bush. Then the adventurous pioneer, who re- 
fused to listen to warnings, boasted that his 
crop of corn was better worked than that of 
his more circumspect neighbor, who retired 
within the fort at the first call of spring. 
If the savages had been seen in the neighbor- 
hood, runners were sent out in all directions. 
At night the runner came stealthily to the 
window or door, and gently rapped to awaken 
the sleepers. Constant fear taught our fore- 
fathers to sleep lightly. A few whispered 
words exchanged, and he disappeared in the 
forest to warn the next cabin. All was then 
quick and silent preparation. No light dare 
be struck, not even to stir the fire, but dressing 
the children as quickly as possible, and pray- 
ing that the baby would continue to sleep, for 
his cry might mean desti-uction, they caught 
up a few articles in the dark, and taking the 
rifle from the peg feared every shadow, while 
they stole oft" to the fort. The other children 
were so imbued with fear, that the name, In- 
dians, whispered in their ears, made them 

Another attempt at making a settlement 
within the limits of Indiana county was made 
in the year 1769, in the forks of the Cone- 
maugh and Blacklick. The country had been 
explored as early as 1766-67, and the explor- 
ers were particularly pleased with it. It was 
clear of timber or brush, and clothed in high 
grass — a sort of prairie. Moses Chambers 
was an early settler. Having served several 
years on board a British man-of-war, he was 
qualified for a life of danger and hardship. 
jMoses continued to work on his improvement 
till he was told one morning that the last 
.iohnnycake was at the fire. What was to 
be done ? There was no possibility of a supply 
short of the Conococheague. He caught his 
horse and made ready. He broke the johnny- 
cake in two pieces, and giving one half to his 
wife, the partner of his perils and fortunes, 
he put up the other half in the lappet of his 
coat with thonis, and turned his horse's head 
to the far east. There were no inns on the 
road those days, nor a habitation west of the 
mountains, save, perhaps, a hut or two at 
Fort Ligonier. The Kittanning path was 
used to Ligonier, and thence the road made 
by General Forbes' army. Where good pas- 
ture could, be had for his horse, there Moses 
tarried. To him day was as night, and 
night as the day. He slept only while his 

horse was feeding; nor did he give rest to his 
body nor ease to his mind until he returned 
with his sack full of corn. Moses Chambers 
was not the only one who had to encounter 
the fatigue and trouble of procuring sup- 
plies from Franklin county. All had to do 
so, such was the condition of this country, and 
such^the prospect of settlers after the peace 
of 1763. A scarcity of provisions was one 
of the constant dangers of the early settlers, 
and, to make the case worse, there were no 
mills, even after they began to raise grain. 
The first year some Indian corn was planted. 
It grew and in the form of "roasting ears" 
was gladly gathered for food. One can al- 
most see the hardy dame, with her home-made 
apron of ""lye color and white" pinned round 
her waist, stepping cautiously between the 
rows of corn, selecting the finest, that is to 
say the best, ears for dinner, ay, and for 
breakfast and supper, too. About the year 
1773 William B. Bracken built a mill on 
Blacklick, which was a great convenience to 
the settlers. They marked out a path by which 
they traveled to Bracken's mill. Around and 
near him gathered John Stewart, Joseph Mc- 
Cartney, John Evans. Thomas Barr, and John 
Hustin. About the year 1774, Samuel Moor- 
head commenced building a mill on Stony 
run, but before it was completed the settlers 
were driven off by the Indians. They fled to 
what was then called the Sewickley settle- 
ment. This was during the Dunmore war. 
However, they returned in the fall to their im- 
provements, and Moorhead completed the mill. 

Along and near Crooked creek located An- 
drew Shai-p (killed by the Indians in 1794), 
Benjamin Walker, Israel Thomas, James ile- 
Creight, Jacob Anthony, David Peelor, and 
John Patison. Among the early settlers along 
the Conemaugh river, Blacklick creek, and 
its tributaries, and in the southern part of 
the county, were Charles Campbell, Samuel 
Dixon, John ilcCrea, John HaiTold, Phillip 
Altman. Patrick McGee, Archey Coleman, 
George Repine, Malachia Sutton, William 
Loughry, Jonathan Doty, Jacob Brieker, 
James Ewing, James Ferguson, Peter Fair, 
James MeConib, Samuel McCartney, John 
Neal, Alexander Rhea, William Robertson, 
Daniel Repine, John Shields, Robert Liggett, 
David Reed, William Graham, Ephraim Wal- 
lace, George ilabon, the Hices, Hugh St. Clair, 
James McDonald, and William Clark. 

The northern part of the county, in the 
early days called "the Mahoning country," 
was settled at a more recent date. Among the 
early settlers were the Bradys. the Thomp- 



sons, William Work, Hugh Cannon, John Lea- 
sure, William McCall, John Park, William 
MeCreiy, the Pierces, Robert Hamilton, 
Joshua Lewis, and John Jamison. In addi- 
tion to those named, among the early settlers, 
in the central portion of the county, were An- 
drew Allison, Thomas Allison, Gawin Adams, 
George Trimble, Alexander Taylor, John Ly- 
tic, Daniel Elgin, Conrad Rice, Thomas Wil- 
kins, Daniel McKisson, James Mitchell, An- 
drew Dixon, John Agey, Blaney Adair, 
Thomas McCrea, Thomas Burns, William 
Lowry, John Wilson, Robert Pilson, John 
Thompson, Patrick Lydick, James Simpson, 
Christopher Stuchell and William Smith. 

Little is known or recorded concerning the 
adventures of the settlers during the war of 
the Revolution, and the subsequent campaigns 
of Harmar, St. Clair, and Wayne. It is prob- 
able their residence here was precarious and 
unsettled. Every settler was a soldier, and 
preferred, indeed, occasionally the use of the 
i-ifle to that of the axe or the plow. John 
Thompson was one of the very few who re- 
mained here. He erected a blockhouse six 
miles northeast of Indiana borough, where 
he resided throughout all the troubles of the 
frontier. After Wayne's treaty, in 1795, the 
settlers again returned to their homes, and 
resumed the occupations of peace. 

Object which invited early settlers. — Land 
was the object which invited the early settlers 
to cross the mountain, for as the saying then 
was, "it was to be had here for taking up"; 
that is, building a cabin and raising a crop 
of grain, however small, of any kind, entitled 
the occupant to four hundred acres of land 
and a preemption right to one thousand acres 
more adjoining, to be secured by a land office 
warrant. This right was to take effect if there 
happened to be so much vacant land, or any 
part thereof, adjoining the tract secured by 
the settlement right. 

Tomahawk rights. — There was, at an early 
period of our settlement, an inferior grade 
of land title, denominated the "tomahawk 
right," which was made by deadening a few 
trees, near the head of a spring, and mark- 
ing the bark of one or more of them with the 
initials of the name of the person who made 
the improvement. For a long time, many bore 
the names of those who made them. We have 
no knowledge of the efficacy of the "toma- 
hawk" improvement, or whether it conferred 
any right whatever, unless followed by an 

actual settlement. These rights were often 
bought and sold. Those who wished to make 
settlements could cut their favored tracts of 
land to take the tomahawk improvements 
rather than enter into quarrels with those 
that made them. Other improvers took the 
land with a view to actual settlement, and 
happened to be staid veteran fellows, taking 
a very different course from that of purchas- 
ing the "tomahawk rights." When annoyed 
by the claimants under these rights they de- 
liberately got a few good hickories and gave 
them what was called in those days a "laced 
jacket," that is, a sound whipping. 

Early settlers came in spring. — Some of the 
early settlers took the precaution to come over 
the mountain in the spring, leaving their fam- 
ilies behind to raise a crop of corn, and then 
return and bring them out in the fall. This 
was considered the better way. Others, es- 
pecially those whose families were small, 
brought them with them in the spring. The 
Indian meal which they brought with them 
over the mountain was usually exhausted six 
weeks too soon, so that for that length of 
time they had to live without bread. Lean 
venison and the breast of the wild turkey 
they were taught to call bread. The flesh 
of the bear was denominated meat. This ar- 
tifice did not succeed very well. After living 
in this way some time they became sickly — 
their stomachs seemed to be always empty, and 
tormented with a sense of hunger. How nar- 
rowly the children watched the growth of the 
potato tops, pumpkin and squash vines, search- 
ing from day to day to get something to an- 
swer in the absence of bread ! How delicious 
was the taste of young potatoes when they 
could get them! Wliat a jubilee when they 
were permitted to pull the young coi-n for 
roasting ears, still more so when it had ac- 
quired sufficient hardness to be made into 
johnnycakes by the aid of a tin grater ! They 
then became healthy, vigorous and contented 
with their station, poor as it was. 

Why the settlers liked the land here. — Ow- 
ing to the equal distribution of early land, 
directed by our land laws, and the sterling 
integrity of our forefathers, in their observ- 
ance of them, we have no district of "sold 
lands," as it is called, that is, large tracts 
of lands in the state of unfruitfulness, neither 
sold nor improved, as is the case in Lower Can- 
ada, and the northwestern part of Pennsylva- 
nia ; these unsettled tracts make huge blanks in 
the population of the counties where they' 
exist. The different lines between those whose 
lands adjoined were generally made in an 



amicable manner before any question was 
raised. In doing this they were guided mainly 
by the tops of ridges and watercourses, hence 
the greater number of farms in the western 
part of Pennsylvania bear a striking resem- 
blance to an amphitheatre. The buildings 
occupy a low position, and the tops of the 
surrounding hills are the boundaries of the 
tract to which the family mansion belongs. 
Our forefathers were fond of farms of this 
description, because, as they said, they are 
attended with these conveniences, ' ' that every- 
thing comes to the houses down hill." Most 
of the early settlers considered the land as of 
little value from this point of view, that after 
a few years' cultivation it would lose its 
fertility, at least for a long time. It was 
said that such a tield would bear so many 
crops, and another so many more or less than 


Trees of uniform size, as nearly as might 
be, were selected, cut into pieces of the de- 
sired length, and carried or hauled to the site 
of the proposed building. At each end was 
placed an expert hand with an axe to saddle 
and notch the log. The saddling was done 
by hewing the end of the log so as to give 
the upper half the shape of the roof of a build- 
ing. A notch was then cut into the log to lit 
the saddle, and of such depth as to bring the 
logs together. The usual height was one story. 
The gable was laid up with logs gradually 
shortened up to the top or peak, giving the 
shape or pitch of the roof. On the logs which 
formed these gables were laid stout poles, 
reaching from one gable to the other, at suit- 
able distances to hold the covering, which 
consisted of bark peeled from elm or bass- 
wood trees. The strips of bark were about 
four feet long and about two or three feet 
■n-ide, and laid in tiers, each lapping over the 
preceding one, after the manner of shingling. 
The bark was kept down by a heavy pole laid 
across each tier, and fastened at the ends. 
Sometimes, instead of bark, a kind of shingle 
was used, split from straight-grained trees, 
and resembling \uidressed staves of flour or 
liquor barrels. These by some were called 
shakes. They were laid about two feet to 
the weather, and were then fastened down b,y 
heaw poles called weight poles, as in the 
case of bark roofs. 

At one end of the building, a space of about 
eight feet in length and five or six feet in 
height was cut out and the space filled by a 

stone wall, laid in clay or mortal", for a fire- 
place. The chimney, resting on props made 
in various ways, was commenced at a proper 
height above the hearth, very wide, to cor- 
respond with the broad fireplace beneath it. 
It was built with split sticks of timber, re- 
sembling common strip laths, but being much 
larger, they were laid up in the manner 
of a cob house, the chimney being gi-adually 
narrowed upward to the top, where its size 
was about the same as was that of any ordi- 
nary brick chimney of a frame house fifty 
years ago. The inside was plastered with 
clay, or mud and chopped straw, the latter 
answering the same pui-pose as hair used in 
mortar in plastering the inside walls of a 
house. This "stick chimne.y," or "stick and 
clay chimney," was far from being fireproof. 
Fire would sometimes be communicated to the 
sticks from soot, and alarm the family. A 
speedy application of water thrown up plen- 
tifully inside soon allayed all fear. 

A door was cut through one side of the 
house, and split pieces for doorposts, some- 
times called ''door checks," were pinned to 
the ends of the logs with wooden pins. For 
the want of boards to make dooi-s, a blanket 
was used to close the entrance until boards 
could be obtained. The hinges and the latch 
were both made of wood. The latch was 
raised from the outside by a string passing 
through the door and fastened to the latch 
inside. The safety of the family during the 
night was effected bj' drawing in the latch- 
string. Floors were made of split slabs, hewed 
on one side, and sometimes called puncheons. 
For a window a hole was cut in the wall 
large enough to admit a sash of four or six 
panes of seven by nine glass. When glass 
could not be had, the hole was closed with 
gi-eased paper pasted over it. The cracks be- 
tween the logs were filled with mud or clay, 
the larger cracks or chinks being partly closed 
with split pieces of wood before the mortar 
was applied. 

Immigrants, as a rule, brought no bedsteads. 
A substitute was made by boring holes in 
the walls in the corner of the house into 
which the ends of poles were fitted. Three 
corners of the bedstead being thus fastened 
to the walls, it required but a single post. 
It now needed only a cord, which was some- 
times made of ebn or basswood bark. 

A view of the internal arrangements of 
these pi'imitive dwellings would be interesting 
to those who are acquainted with pioneer life. 
On entering (supposing it to be mealtime) the 
smaller children would be seen standing or 



sitting around a large chest in which some of 
the more valuable articles had been brought, 
and which served as a table ; the parents and 
.older children sitting at a table made, per- 
haps, of a wide puncheon plank, partaking 
of their plain meal, cooked by a logheap fire. 
In one corner of the room were one or two 
small shelves on wooden pins, displaying the 
tableware, when not in use, consisting of a 
few teacups and saucers, a few blue-edged 
plates, with a goodly number of pewter plates, 
perhaps standing singly on their edges, lean- 
ing against the wall, to render the display of 
table furniture more conspiciious. Under- 
neath the cupboard were seen a few pots, a 
spider and perhaps a bake-kettle. Not a suf- 
ficient number of chairs having been brought, 
the deficiency had been supplied with three- 
legged stoolsmade of puncheon boards. Over 
the doorway lay the indispensable rifle on 
two wooden'hooks nailed to a log of the cabin. 
On the walls hung divers garments of female 
attire made of cotton and woolen fabric, some 
of which had done long service before their 
removal hither. 

Log cabins were lighted in the night time 
in different ways. In the absence of candles 
and lamps light was, through the winter sea- 
sou, emitted from the fireplace, where the huge 
logs were kept burning. A substitute for 
candles was sometimes prepared by taking a 
wooden rod ten or twelve inches in length, 
wrapping around it a strip of cotton or linen 
cloth, and covering it with tallow pressed on 
with the hand. These "sluts," as they werc- 
sometimes called, afforded light for several 
nights. Lamps were prepared by dividing a 
large turnip in the middle, scraping out the 
inside quite down to the rind, and then in- 
serting a stick about three inches in length 
in the centre so as to stand upright. A strip 
of linen or cotton cloth was then wrapped 
around it, and melted lard, or deer's tallow, 
was poured in up to the rim of the turnip 
rind, when the lamp was full. Lamps of 
this kind were only occasionally used; more 
often a dish of refuse grease, in which a rag 
was inserted and set on fire, and fed with 
the melted fat, would aft'ord a sort of dismal 
light, and yet more disagreeable odor. By the 
light of tiiese and other rudely constructed, 
lamps, the women spun and sewed and men 
read when books could be obtained, or worked 
at some implement of household or field use. 
When neither lard nor tallow was on hand, 
the large lilazing fire supplied the needed 
liuiit. Bv these great fireplaces many skeins 

of thread were spun, many a yard of linen 
woven, and many frocks and pantaloons made. 
Living in houses like those described was 
attended with serious discomforts. A single 
room served the purpose of kitchen, dining 
room, sitting-room, bedroom, and parlor. In 
many families were six, eight or ten children, 
who were, with their parents, crowded into 
one room. In one corner was the father and 
mother's bed, and under it the trundle-bed 
for the smaller children. The larger ones 
lodged in the chamber, which they entered by 
a ladder in another corner, and sometimes 
made tracks to and from their beds in the 
snow driven through the crevices by the wind. 
Nor did the roofs, made of bark or "shakes," 
protect them from rain in the summer. How 
visitors who came to spend the night were dis- 
posed of, the reader may not easily conceive. 
Some, as their families increased, built on 
their houses an additional room of the same 
size and manner of construction as the former. 
Such were some of the dwellings and condi- 
tions of many of the pioneers of this portion 
of the State. Many were in a condition which, 
for comfort and appearance, were far inferior 
to that described in the foregoing. Imagine 
the state of those who. on foot and with packs 
on their backs, forced their way through the 
wilderness and tried to improve a piece of 


The lands in this section were covered with 
a dense and heavy forest. To clear the soil 
of this timber required an amount of hard 
labor of which many of its present occu- 
pants have no adequate conception. Many 
now living on the hard-earned fortunes of 
their pioneer fathers and grandfathers could 
not be induced to enter upon a similar course 
of labor. 

The early axes were rude and clumsy af- 
fairs, of twice and thrice the size, and double 
to quadruple the weight, of those in use now. 
The first improved were called Yankee axes 
by the early woodsmen, and were introduced 
into this county in 1815. Arnold Scale took 
a "Yankee axe" in 1820 for a debt of six 
dollars, interest for six years and .justice's 
costs, and was glad to secure it at the price. 
In about ten years after the introduction of 
the improved axes, the double-bitted axes came 
into use and are now the favorite of the woods- 




The first part of the clearing process was 
' ' miderbrusliing. ' ' The bushes and the small- 
est saplings were cut down near the ground 
and piled in heaps. The trees were then 
felled, their trunks cut into lengths of 
from twelve to fifteen feet, and the brush 
and .small limbs thrown into heaps. After 
the brush had become thoroughly dry, the 
whole field was burned over, thus assur- 
ing an abundant crop. The next part of the 
process was "logging." or log rolling. This 
required the associated labor of a number of 
men, who in turn assisted each other. The 
neighbors, on invitation, attended with their 
handspikes. These were strong poles, about 
six feet in length, flattened at the larger end, 
in order that they might be more easily forced 
between the logs. Logs too heavy to be car- 
ried were hauled to a pile by a team (gen- 
erally oxen^. and rolled upon the pile with 
skids, one end lying on the gi-ound, the other 
on the heap. The heaps were then burned, 
and the soil was ready for seeding. Timber 
was so plentiful at this time that the settlers 
thought nothing of burning it. This was a 
great waste of timber. If we had all that was 
buraed at that time, it would be very valu- 
able to us to-day. I\Iost of the logging was 
done by ' ' bees. ' ' A number of the neighbors 
would come together with their teams, at- 
tended by a sufficient number of extra hands, 
and a whole field of several acres would be 
logged in an afternoon. For these logging 
"bees." as at house and barn raisings, there 
was generally a two-gallon .iug of whiskey. 
Most of the men were moderate drinkere; 
some, however, gave indications, by their many 
witty sayings, that they had overstepped the 
bounds of moderation. But there were also, 
thus early, a few teetotalers, whose incredulity 
as to the magic power of strong drink as an 
assistance to manual labor had caused them 
to abandon its use. 


The wild animals inhabiting this section at 
the time of the first settlers were the deer, 
bear. wolf, wildcat, panther or painter, fox, 
otter, porcupine or hedgehog, raccoon, wood- 
chuck or groundhog, skunk, mink, muskrat, 
opossum, rabbit, weasel and squirrel. None 
were much feared except the bear and wolf. 
The former was the most dangerous, the lat- 
ter most destructive to propert.v. The bear 
is generall.y ready to attack a person; the 
wolf seldom does so unless impelled by hunger 
or in self-defense. For many years it was 

difficult to protect sheep from the ravages of 
wolves. Sheep had to be penned overnight. 
Many were destroyed in the daytime, near the 
house. It is the nature of the wolf to seize 
the sheep by the throat and suck its blood, 
and leave the carcass as food for other carniv- 
orous animals, provided the number of sheep 
is sufficient thus to satisfy the hunger of their 
destroyers. Pigs and calves also were some- 
times victims of these pests of the early set- 
tlers. Persons were followed by wolves to 
the very doors of their dwellings, and the 
sleep of families was often disturbed during 
a great portion of the night bv their bowlings. 
To effect the destruction of these animals, 
bounties for their scalps were offered b.y the 
public authorities, and this induced hunters 
and trappers to devote much time to the de- 
struction of wolves. As wolves hunt in the 
night, when the.v cannot be shot, most of them 
were probably caught in traps, of which there 
were several kinds. One was a pen built of 
small logs or heavy poles, six or seven feet 
high and narrowed upward. Into this pen a 
bait was thrown. A wolf could easily enter it 
at the top, but was unable to get out. Another 
was a steel trap, with jaws a foot or more in 
length. The clamps were notched like a cross- 
cut saw. It resembled in form a common 
spring rat trap. Attached to it was a chain 
with hooks, not to fasten it, but to make it 
difficult for the wolf to drag it. Caught, as 
he probabl.y would be, by the foreleg while 
trpng to paw out the bait, if the trap were 
fast he would gnaw off his leg and be gone. 


All the settled portion of this section of the 
State suffered severely from the depredations 
of wolves. The deep recesses of the ravines 
formed for them secure safet.v. where, dur- 
ing the daytime, they could quietly digest the 
mutton of the night before. Eighty and 
ninety years ago wolf hunts were common. 
The people became exasperated at the loss of 
their stock, and formed parties to exterminate 
the animals. Meetings were held at vai-ious 
points, and plans devised. A certain section 
of country, containing ravines, was determined 
upon, and simultaneous attack was made upon 
all sides. The men, early in the forenoon, 
formed a continuous line and entirely encir- 
cled the section. The number of men on the 
lines were sufficient to be within speaking dis- 
tance of each other. The signal for ad- 
vancing would be given by the leader, and 
it was carried from man to man. the lines 
moving forward in splendid order, growing 



more compact as they advanced toward the 
ravine and descended its side. No mau was 
to fire his gun until he received the command, 
and it was known that the lines were closed 
up. Finally the order to fire was given and 
the signal gun was discharged. Instantly 
the tiring became general. After the first 
discharge of firearms, the deer and rabbits 
within the lines became frantic with fright, 
making the rounds and seeking an opening 
through which to escape. After all the game 
that could be seen had been dispatched, a com- 
mittee was sent within the inelosure to search 
under all logs and fallen trees to ascertain 
if any game had fled to any of these places 
for safety. After the return of the commit- 
tee the men, by orders, moved towards the 
center of the inelosure, bringing in the game, 
consisting of from two to two dozen wolves, 
one or more bears, several deer, etc. If a ra- 
vine was too large it was subdivided, and one 
division after another was "cleaned out." 
After a few years it was only occasionally 
that wolves were troublesome, as they gen- 
erally left for some more secure quarters. 


Agriculture is a term hardly applicable to 
pioneer farming. The implements used would 
in' this age of improvement attract attention 
as great curiosities. The virgin soil, as has 
been observed, was ready for the seed when 
cleared of its timber. The principal instru- 
ment of tillage for several years was the tri- 
angular harrow, usually called drag. This 
consisted of pieces of timber (hewed before 
there were mills for sawing), about five inches 
square and six feet long, put together in the 
form of the letter A. The drag was some- 
times made of a crotched tree, and needed 
no framing. The teeth made of wood were 
double and even treble the size of those now 
used, in order to stand the severe trial they 
were to undergo. The drag bounded along 
over stubs and roots and stones, up and down 
the hillsides, drawn generally by oxen, often 
driven by boys. 

When the roots had become sufficiently 
brittle to admit of the use of the plow it was 
used. "When the first "Yankee improved 
plow" was brought into the country one man 
said, "The critter is too darned small. It will 
go to pieces sure." Another said. "Give me 
a plow with a twelve-foot beam and a seven- 
foot handle, and I can handle it." The old 
plow somewhat resembled the present plow, 
inasmuch as it was used for the same purpose. 

At first it was made entirely of wood; then 
iron points were added; and then an iron 
shoe, colter, etc. ; and, gradually, it was im- 
proved, until superseded upon the advent of 
the \ankee castiron plow. Later improve- 
ments in the plow and harrow, and the inven- 
tion of cultivators, corn planters, drills and 
other labor-saving implements, have wonder- 
fully changed the aspect of farming, and in- 
creased the power of production. Weeds were 
not so troublesome then as now, for many new 
weeds have sprung up since the railroads 
reached the prairies. The lighter farm imple- 
ments as now used were unknown. Heavy wood- 
en scoop shovels and forks with prongs an inch 
thick were considered necessary. In due time 
wheat was produced sufficient to sustain the 
families and a little later laws were passed to 
prevent the manufacture of wheat into whis- 
key, as it was needed for the support of the 
people and the soldiers. Rye was almost as 
much used as wheat and corn, and buckwheat 
and oats were soon introduced. Barley and 
rye were produced more abundantly about the 
time of the Civil war than ever before or since. 
Barley was worth six shillings, four pence per 
bushel in 1808. Rye was used instead of cof- 
fee in war times, because coffee could not be 
had or was too high. 

In harvesting, the change is no less strik- 
ing. Before the decay and removal of stumps 
permitted the use of grain cradles, wheat was 
cut with the sickle, now a rare implement. It 
was then a staple article of mei-chandise. In 
the old daybooks or journals of the early mer- 
chants could be found, under the names of 
scores of customers, the charge, "to one 
sickle," followed in many cases bv that other 
charge, "to one gal. whiskey," an article 
deemed by some as necessary in the harvest- 
ing operation as the implement itself. The 
cradle which supei-seded the sickle is now a 
thing of the past. It has given 7"ilace to the 
reaper, an instrument then seeminarly no more 
likely to be invented than the phototrraphic 
art or the means of hourly intercourse with 
the inhabitants on the opposite side of the 
globe. Imagine a farmer of Indiana county 
to-day, attempting to reap a wheatfield of 
forty acres with a sickle ! Then think of those 
western fields of one hundred to five hundred 
acres in extent ! There was nothing for a 
farm horse to do except plow or carry bur- 
dens, most work being done by oxen. 

The packsaddles and sleds gave place but 
slowly to wagons. The first wasron is said to 
have been drawn across the mountains in 17'^9 
by oxen. Wagons were not considered safe 



among the hills. The only loc-k or brake was 
a chain, and these were scarce. To brake 
them on a steep hill meant destruction. For 
several years there were extremely few wag- 
ons and roads on which to use them. A more 
simple vehicle was used. From a small tree 
was taken a piece having at one end two 
prongs. The single end was put in the ring 
of the ox yoke, the other resting on the ground. 
Across the prongs puncheon boards were laid 
and kept from sliding upwards by long 
wooden pins set perpendicular in each prong. 
Sometimes the oxen or horses were attached 
to the lower end of a log trough, the bottom 
of which had been flattened and the end 
hewed away from the under side to fit it, like 
a sled runner, for sliding over the rough 
ground. Some of the early settlers came into 
the country on "sled-ears," and used them 
for transportation purposes for several years. 
A sled car consisted of two poles, one on each 
side of the horse, one end of it being fastened 
to the hames, the other resting upon the 
ground. On the parts resting on the ground, 
puncheon boards were laid, and prevented 
from sliding upwards by long wooden pins 
in each pole. 

The pioneer's first harness was made of 
withes, with crooked roots or pieces of limbs 
or trees for hames. It was not long before the 
tanning of hides was commenced and then 
good, substantial home-made leather harness 
was made. 

Grain was generally threshed with the flail, 
ten or twenty bushels constituting a day's 
work. There were no fanning mills in the 
early times. (Ninian Irwin and a neighbor 
built the first fanning mill in 1824.) Some- 
times the grain was spread in shallow depths 
on the floor where it was threshed and placed 
in a box perforated with holes, or in a riddle 
(a very coarse sieve), about thirty inches in 
diameter and five or six inches deep. To raise . 
the wind a linen sheet, possibly taken from 
the bed, was held at the coraers by two men, 
who gave it a semi-rotary motion or sudden 
swing. A man would shovel or stir up the 
wheat on the floor, or hold up and shake the 
box or riddle with its contents, and the wind 
caused by the motion of the sheet would blow 
away the chatf. In this way about ten bushels 
could be cleaned in half a day. The introduc- 
tion of fanning mills was of great service and 
they soon came into general use. In the 
middle of the century what was Imown as 
the bunty horse-power machine, in which a 
cylinder was used to thresh out the grain, 
was introduced. The power was furnished 

by horses walking in a circle, attached to 
arms or sweeps. This required the assis- 
tance of neighbors and big dinners at the 
house. The old Milltown machine, manufac- 
tured in this country, was introduced before 
the war, and this has been followed by many 
improvements. The traction engine, which 
liauls the cleaner from place to place, was not 
known as late as 1876, though there was a 
machine on exhibition at the Philadelphia 
Centennial which could move itself forward 
and backward by its own apparatus, propelled 
by steam, but it was of English manufacture 
and too heavy for use. From this idea has 
grown the traction engine, which is common 
to-day and which has been the forerunner of 
the automobile. 

The grass was first cut with the sickle, but 
only for a brief period, as scythes were soon 
brought in by the immigrants and the hay 
harvest became a matter of considerable im- 
portance. A lad of sufficient age to drive 
a team can now cut with a mower from fifty 
to one hundred acres in an ordinary hay sea- 
son, and the hay may all be made during the 
same time by one person. The long swordlike 
scythe attached to its snathe gave place to the 
mowing machine in 1847, but the machine did 
not come into common use until almost ten 
years later. 

The husking of the corn was generally done 
in the field. In some parts of the country the 
ears, when fully ripe, were broken from the 
stalk, thrown into heaps, and then hauled into 
the barn and thrown in long heaps across the 
barn floor, ready for a corn husking, to w'hieh 
the neighbors, old and young, were invited to 
participate on some evening. The anticipation 
of a good time secured a good attendance. A 
good supper, which several of the neighboring 
women had assisted in preparing, was sei-ved 
from eight to nine o'clock. The "old folks" 
would then leave, and in due time the boys 
would gallant the girls to their homes. The 
recreation afforded to the young people by the 
freciuent recurrence of these festive occasions 
was as highly enjoyed, and quite as innocent, 
as most of the amusements of the present 
boasted age of refuiement. 


"Ilayiug in the old days was a much more 
formidable yearly undertaking than it is to 
modern farmers. Before the era of labor-sav- 
ing haying implements farmers began the 
work of haying early in the day and season, 
and toiled "hard until both were far spent. 



Human muscle was strained to exert a force 
equal to the then unused horsepower. On 
large farms many 'hands' were required. 
Haying was an event of importance in the 
farmer's year. It made great demands upon 
his time, strength, and pocketbook. His best 
helpers were engaged long in advance, some- 
times a whole season. Ability to handle a 
scythe well entitled a man to respect, while 
haying lasted. Experts took as much pains 
with a scythe as with a razor. Boys of to-day 
have never seen such a sight as a dozen stal- 
wart men mowing a dozen-acre field. 

"On the first day of haying, almost before 
the sun was up, the men would be at the field 
ready to begin. The question to be settled at 
the very outset was as to which man should 
cut the 'double.' This was the first swath to 
be cut down and back through the center of 
the field. 

"The boys brought up the rear in the line 
of mowers. Their scythes were hung well ' in, ' 
to cut a narrofr swath. They were told to 
stand up straight when mowing, point in, keep 
the heel of the scythe down, and point out 
evenly, so as not to leave 'hog troughs' on 
the meadow when the hay was raked up. Im- 
patient of these admonitions, they thought 
they could mow pretty well; and looked am- 
bitiously forward to a time when they might 
cut the 'double.' "- 


Among the many hardships of pioneer life, 
not the least is the" difficulty of procuring 
bread. For at least two years the settler in 
the woods must obtain his family supplies 
chiefly from other sources than his own land. 
This difficulty was enhanced by the remote- 
ness of his residence from older settlers, where 
his supplies were to be obtained. Hence, those 
who settled in this section within the first few 
years, had a severer experience than those who 
came after a surplus of grain was produced 
and mills for grinding it were erected at ac- 
cessible points. Rev. Mr. Woodend, in his 
centennial discourse, says: "The people who 
settled this country when it was a wilder- 
ness, are worthy of all honor and kind remem- 
brance. ' ' A later writer has said : "A more 
intelligent, virtuous and resolute class of men 
never settled any country, than the first set- 
tlers of western Pennsylvania ; and the women 
who shared their sacrifices were no less wor- 
thy." They came here, many of them, in 
poverty. They found little but hardships for 
very many vears. Thev found the land cov- 

ered with timber. There were for many years 
neither mills nor factories. With their own 
strong arms they must cut down the forest, 
fence the fields and build log cabins. Some of 
the first settlers lived on potatoes chiefly, the 
first year of their coming. 

Upon fish and game the pioneers relied for 
provisions until they could raise vegetables 
and grain. Whole families for many weeks, 
even months, tasted not a particle of bread, 
subsisting upon grain and other products of 
the forest. "Ramps" or leeks, with which 
the woods abounded, furnished to some extent 
food for man and beast. Leaves, which were 
in some regions far advanced before the disap- 
pearance of the winter snows, furnished for 
cattle a valuable pasture ground; and the 
bulbs later in the season were, in time of 
scarcit.y, used by settlers as a substitute for 
common articles of food. Families, too, lived 
for weeks on whole wheat and on meal from 
corn pounded out at home. For this purpose 
one end of a large block was scooped out, 
making a cavity to hold a half bushel or less 
of corn. A spring pole was fixed over the 
rafters or to something else of proper height. 
On the end of the pole, a wooden pestle was 
suspended by a rope. It will readily be im- 
agined that the principal use of the pole was 
to assist in raising the pestle ; and that a small 
quantity of grain was pounded out at a time. 
The pestle was not in all cases hung to a pole, 
but was sometimes used wholly by the hand 
of the operator. A corn cracker or hominy 
block was attached to some of the first saw- 
mills, and to these settlers would resort for 
many miles and wait sometimes two days in 
order to get a chance at the hominy mill. 

House Furniture and Bid. — The furniture 
for the table, for several years after the set- 
tlement of this country, consisted of a few 
pewter dishes, plates and spoons; but mostly 
of wooden bowls, trenchers and noggins. If 
these last were scarce, gourds and hard-shelled 
squashes made up the deficiency. The iron 
pots, knives and forks were brought from the 
east side of the mountains along with the salt 
and iron on packhorses. These articles of fur- 
niture corresponded very well with the ar- 
ticles of diet on which they were employed , 
"Hog and hominy" were proverbial for the 
dish of which they were the component parts. 
Johnnycake and pone were at the outset of 
the settlements of the country the only forms 
of bread in use for breakfast and dinner. At 
supper, milk and mush was the standard dish. 
When milk was not plenty, which was often 
tlie case, owing 1o the scarcity of cattle, or 



the want of proper pasture for them, the sub- 
stantial dish of hominy had to supply the 
place of them ; mush was frequently eaten 
with sweetened water, molasses, bear's oil, or 
the gravy of fried meat. 

Every' family, besides a little garden for 
the few vegetables which they cultivated, had 
another small inclosure, containing from half 
an acre to an acre, which they called a "truck 
patch, ' ' in which they raised corn for i-oasting 
ears, pumpkins, squashes, beans and potatoes. 
These, in the latter part of the summer and 
fall, were cooked with their pork, venison and 
bear meat for dinner, and made very whole- 
some and good tasting dishes. The standard 
dinner dish for every log rolling, house rais- 
ing and harvest day was a pot pie, or what 
in other countries is called "sea pie." This, 
besides answering for dinner, served for a 
part of the supper also, what remained from 
dinner being eaten with milk in the evening, 
after the conclusion of the labor of the day. 

In the whole display of furniture, delft, 
china and silver were unknown. It did not 
then as now require contributions from the 
four quarters of the globe to furnish the 
breakfast table, viz., the silver from Mexico; 
the coffee from the West Indies ; the tea from 
China, and the delft and porcelain from Eu- 
rope or Asia. Yet our homely fare, and un- 
sightly cabins and furniture, produced a hardy 
veteran race, who planted the first footsteps 
of society and civilization in the immense 
regions of the West. Inured to hardihood, 
bravery and labor from their early youth, they 
sustained with manly fortitude the fatigue of 
the chase, the campaign and scout, and with 
strong arms ' ' turned the wilderness into fruit- 
ful fields" and have left to their descendants 
the rich inheritance of an immense empire 
blessed with peace and wealth. 

The introduction of delftware was consid- 
ered by many of the backwoods people as a 
culpable innovation. It was too easily broken, 
and the plates of that ware dulled their scalp- 
ing and clasp knives; tea ware was too small 
for men; such might do for women and chil- 
dren. Tea and coffee were only "slops," 
which in the adage of the day "did not stick 
by the ribs." The idea was they were de- 
signed only for people of quality, who do not 
labor, or the sick. A genuine back^voodsman 
would have thought himself disgraced by 
showing a fondness for those slops. Indeed, 
many of them have to this day very little 
respect for them. 

Dress of the Indians and Early Settlers.— - 
The hunting shirt was universally worn. This 

was a kind of loose frock, reaching half way 
down the thighs, with large sleeves, open be- 
fore, and so wide as to lap over a foot or more 
when belted. The cap was large, and sometimes 
handsomely fringed with a raveled piece of 
cloth of a different color from that of the 
hunting shirt itself. The bosom of this dress 
served as a wallet to hold a chunk of bread, 
cakes, jerk, tow for wiping the barrel of the 
rifle, or any necessary for the hunter or war- 
rior. The belt, which was always tied behind, 
answered several purposes, besides that of 
holding the dress together. In cold weather 
the mittens, and sometimes the bullet-bag, oc- 
cupied the front part of it. To the right side 
was suspended the tomahawk and to the left 
the scalping knife in its leathern sheath. The 
hunting shirt was generally made of linsey, 
sometimes of coarse linen, and a few of dressed 
deerskins. These last were very cold and un- 
comfortable in wet weather. The shirt and 
jacket were of the common fashion. A pair 
of drawers or breeches and leggins were the 
dress of the thigh and legs; a pair of moc- 
casins answered for the feet much better than 
shoes. These were made of dressed deerskin. 
They were mostlj' made of a single piece with 
a gathering seam along the top of the foot, 
and another from the bottom of the heel, 
without gathers, as high as the ankle joint or 
a little higher. Flaps were left on each side 
to reach some distance up the legs. These 
were nicely adapted to the ankles and lower 
part of the leg by thongs of deerskin, so 
that no dust, gravel or snow could get within 
the moccasin. 

The moccasins in ordinary use cost but a 
few hours' labor to make them. This was 
done by an instrument denominated a moc- 
casin awl, which was made of the backspring 
of an old claspknife. This awl with its bucks- 
hom handle was an appendage of every shot 
pouch strap, together with a roll of buckskin 
for mending the moccasins. This was the 
labor of almost every evening. They were 
sewed together and patched with deerskin 
thongs, or whangs, as they were commonly 

In cold weather the moccasins were well 
stuffed with deer's hair, or dry leaves, so as 
to keep the feet comfortably warm; but in 
wet weather it was usually said that wearing 
them was "a decent way of going bare- 
footed"; and such was the fact owing to the 
spongy texture of the leather of which they 
were made. 

Owing to this defective covering of the 
feet, more than to any other circumstance. 



the greater number of our hunters and war- 
riors were afflicted with rheumatism in their 
limbs. Of this disease they were all appre- 
hensive in cold or wet weather, and there- 
fore always slept with their feet to the fire 
to prevent or cure it as well as they could. 
This practice unquestionably had a very salu- 
tary effect, and prevented many of them from 
becoming confirmed cripples in early life. 

In the latter j^ears of the Indian war our 
young men became more enamored of the In- 
dian dress throughout, with the exception of 
the matchcoat. The drawers were laid aside 
and the leggius made longer, so as to reach 
the upper part of the thigh. The Indian 
breechclout was adopted. This was a piece 
of linen or cloth nearly a yard long, and eight 
or nine inches broad. This passed under the 
belt before and behind, leaving the ends for 
flaps hanging before and behind over the 
belt. These flaps were sometimes ornamented 
with some coarse kind of embroidery work. 
To the same Ijelts which secured the breech- 
clout, strings which supported the long leg- 
gins were attached. When this belt, as was 
often the case, passed over the bunting shirt 
the upper part of the thighs and part of the 
hips were naked. The young warriors instead 
of being abashed by this nudity were proud of 
their Indian-like dress. They went into 
places of public worship in this dress. Their 
appearance, however, did not add much to 
the devotion of the young ladies. 


Moccasin shoes, buckskin breeches, blue 
broadcloth coats and brass buttons, fawnskin 
vests, roundabouts and woolen wammuses, 
leather or woolen gallowses, were worn with 
coon or sealskin caps in winter and chip or 
oat-straw bats for summer. Every neighbor- 
hood had then usually one itinerant shoemaker 
and tailor, who periodicallj' visited cabins and 
made up shoes or clothes as required. All 
material had to be furnished, and these itin- 
erant mechanics worked for fifty cents a day 
and board. Cordui-oy pants and corduroy 
overalls were common. The old pioneer in 
winter often wore a coonskin cap, coouskin 
gloves, buckskin breeches, leggins, and a wolf- 
skin hunting shirt. 

The wammuses, breeches and hunting shirts 
of the men, the linsey petticoats, dresses and 
bedgowns of the women, were all hung in 
some corner of the cabin on wooden pegs. To 
some extent this was a display of pioneer 


Home-made woolen cloth, tow, linen, linsey- 
woolsey, etc., were the materials in use. 
Barefoot girls "with cheek of tan" walked 
three or four miles to church, and on nearing 
the church would step into the woods to put 
on the shoes they carried with them. Some 
of these are living to-day. A woman who 
could buy eight or ten yards of calico for a 
dress at a dollar a yard put on queenly airs. 
Every married woman of any refinement then 
wore daycaps as well as nightcaps. Women 
usuallj' went barefoot in the summer, and 
in the winter covered their feet ^vith moc- 
casins, calfskin shoes, buffalo overshoes, and 

Linen and tow cloth were made from flax. 
The seed was sown in the early spring and 
ripened about August. It was harvested by 
"pulling." This was generally done by a 
"pulling frolic" of young people pulling it 
out by the root. It was then tied in little 
sheaves and permitted to dry, hauled in, and 
thrashed for the seed. Then the straw was 
watered and rotted by laying it on the ground 
out of doors. When the straw was again dried 
it was "broken in the flax-brake," after which 
it was again tied up, in little bundles, and 
then scutched with a wooden knife. This 
scutching was a frolic job, too, and a dirty 
one. Then it was hackled. The hackling 
process separated the linen part from the tow. 
The rest of the labor consisted of spinning, 
weaving, and dyeing. Linen cloth sold for 
about twenty-four cents a yard, tow cloth 
for about twenty cents a yard. Weaving 
originated with the Chinese. It took a thou- 
sand yeai-s for the art to reach Europe. 

The linsey petticoat and bedgown, wiiich 
were the universal dress of our women in 
early times, would make a strange figure in 
our days. A small home-made handkerchief, 
in point of elegance, would illy supply the 
place of that profusion of ruffles with wiiieh 
the necks of our ladies are now ornamented. 

They went barefooted in warm weather, and 
in cold their feet were covered with moccasins, 
coarse shoes, or shoepaeks, wiiich would make 
but a sorry showing beside the elegant mo- 
rocco slippers, often embossed with bullion, 
which at present ornament the feet of their, 
daughters and granddaughters. 

The coats and bedgowns of the women, as 
well as the hunting shirts of the men, were 
hung in full display on wooden pegs round 
tlie walls of their cabins, so that while they 



answered in some degree the place of paper 
hangings or tapestry they announced to the 
stranger as well as neighbor the wealth or 
poverty of the family in the articles of cloth- 
ing. This practice has not yet been wholly 
laid aside amongst the backwoods families. 

The historian would say to the ladies of 
the present time, our ancestors of your sex 
knew nothing of the ruffles, leghorns, curls, 
combs, rings and other jewels with which 
their fair daughters now decorate themselves. 
Such things were not then to be had. Many 
of the younger part of them were pretty well 
grown up before they ever saw the inside of 
a store room, or even knew there was such a 
thing in the world, unless by hearsay, and 
indeed scarcely that. lastead of the toilet, 
they had to handle the distaff or shuttle, the 
sickle or weeding hoe, contented if they could 
obtain their linsey clothing and cover their 
heads with a sunbonnet made of six or seven 
hundred linen. 

Subsistence by Hunting. — This was an im- 
portant part of the employment of the early 
settlers of this country. For some years the 
woods supplied them with the greater amount 
of their subsistence, and with regard to some 
families at certain times, the whole of it ; for 
it was no uncommon thing for families to live 
several months without a mouthful of bread. 
It frequently happened that there was no 
breakfast until it was obtained from the 
woods. Furs and peltry were the people's 
money. They had nothing else to give in ex- 
change for rifles, salt and iron, on the other 
side of the mountains. 

The fall and early part of the winter was 
the season for hunting the deer, and the whole 
of the winter, including part of the spring, for 
bears and fur skinned animals. It was a cus- 
tomary saying that fur is good during every 
month in the name of which the letter r oc- 

As soon as the leaves were pretty well down 
and the weather became rainy, accompanied 
by light snows, men, after acting the part of 
husbandmen so far as the state of warfare per- 
mitted them to do so. began to feel that 
they were hunters. They became uneasy at 
home. Everything about them became dis- 
agreeable. The house was too warm, the 
feather bed too soft, and even the good wife 
was not thought for the time being a proper 
companion. The minds of the hunters were 
whollv occupied with the camp and chase. 
They often got up early in the morning at this 
season, walked hastily out and looked anx- 
iously to the woods and snuffed the autumnal 

winds with the highest rapture, then returned ' 
into the house and cast a quick and attentive 
look at the rifle, which was always suspended 
to a joist by a couple of buck's horns, or 
little forks. The hunting dog, understanding 
the intentions of his master, would wag his 
tail and by every blandishment in his power 
express his readiness to accompany him to the 

A day was soon appointed for the march 
of the little cavalcade to the camp. Two or 
three horses furnished with packsaddles were 
loaded with flour, Indian meal, blankets and 
everything else requisite for the use of the 

A hunting camp, or what was called a half- 
faced cabin, was of the following form : the 
back part of it was sometimes a large log; 
at the distance of eight or ten feet from this 
two stakes were set in the ground a few inches 
apart, and at the distance of eight or ten feet 
from these two more, to receive the ends of 
the poles for the sides of the camp. The 
whole slope of the roof was from the front to 
the back. The covering was made of slabs, 
skins or blankets, or, if in the spring of the 
year, the bark of hickory or ash trees. The 
front was left entirely open. The fire was 
built directly before this opening. The cracks 
between the logs were filled with moss. Diy 
leaves served for a bedding. It is thus that 
a couple of men, in a few hours, will con- 
struct for themselves a temporary but toler- 
ably comfortable defense from the inclemen- 
cies of the weather. The beaver, otter, musk- 
rat and squirrel are scarcely their equals in 
dispatch in fabricating for themselves a covert 
from the tempest ! A little more pains would 
have made a hunting camp a defense against 
the Indians. A cabin ten feet square, bullet 
proof and furnished with portholes, would 
have enabled two or three hunters to hold 
twenty Indians at bay for any length of timo. 
But this precaution was never attended to ; 
hence the hunters were often surprised and 
killed in their camps. 

The site for the camp was selected with all 
the sagacitj' of the woodsmen, so as to have it 
sheltered by the surrounding hills from every 
wind, but more especially from those of the 
north and west. 

Hunting was not a mere ramble in pursuit 
of game, in which there was nothing of skill 
and calculation: on the contrary the hunter, 
before he set out in the morning, was informed 
by the state of the weather in what situation 
he might reasonably expect to meet with his 
game; whether on ithe bottoms, sides or tops 


of the hills. In stormy weather the deer al- 
ways seek the most sheltered places, and the 
leewai'd sides of the hills. In rainy weather, 
in which there is not much wind, they keep 
in the open woods on the highest ground. 

In every situation it was requisite for the 
hunter to ascertain the course of the wind, so 
as to get the leeward of the game. This he 
effected by putting his finger in his mouth and 
holding it there until it became warm, then 
holding it above his head; the side which 
first becomes cold shows which way the wind 

As it was requisite, too, for the hunter to 
know the cardinal points, he had only to ob- 
serve the trees to ascertain them. The bark 
of an aged tree is thicker and much rougher 
on the north than on the south side. The same 
thing may be said of the moss, it is much 
thicker and stronger on the north than on the 
south sides of the trees. 

The whole business of the hunter consists 
of a succession of intrigues. From morning 
till night he was on the alert to gain the wind 
of his game, and approach it without being 
discovered. If he succeeded in killing a deer, 
he skinned it and hung it up out of the reach 
of the wolves, and immediately resumed the 
chase till the close of the evening when he bent 
his course towards his camp ; when arrived 
there he kindled up his fire, and together with 
his fellow hunter cooked his supper. The sup- 
per finished, the adventures of the day fur- 
nished the tales for the evening. The spike 
buck, the two and three pronged buck, the doe 
and barren doe, figured through their anec- 
dotes with gi-eat advantage. It would seem 
that after hunting awhile on the same ground 
the hunters became acquainted with nearly 
all of the gangs of deer within their range, 
so as to know each flock of them when they 
saw them. Often some old buck, by the means 
of his superior sagacity and watchfulness, 
saved his little gang from the hunter's skill 
by giving timely notice of his approach. The 
cunning of the hunter and that of the old 
buck were staked against each other, and it 
frequently happened that at the conclusion 
of the hunting season the old fellow was left 
free, uninjured tenant of his forest ; but if 
his rival succeeded in bringing him down, 
the victory was followed by no small amount 
of boasting on the part of the conqueror. 

"When the weather was not suitable for 
hunting, the skins and carcasses of the game 
were brought in and disposed of. 

Many of the hunters rested from their la- 
bors on the Sabbath day, some from a motive 

of piety ; others said that whenever they 
hunted on Sunday they were sure to have bad 
luck all the rest of the week. 


Nearly all the. clothing of the early settlers 
was made from cloth of home manufacture. 
Long after the country had passed into its pio- 
neer state, the women carded, spun, wove, 
colored and fulled the fabric, and when this 
was done they made the clothing without the 
aid of tailors or fashion plates. When more 
spinning was to be done than the wife could 
do in addition to her ordinary housework, 
and where the daughters were too young to 
help, spinsters were employed to come into 
the families to spin flax in the winter season 
and wool in the summer. The price usually 
paid these spinsters was a shilling a day, a 
day's work ending at early bedtime. Some 
will be surprised when told that many of 
these women had money to show at the year's 
end. It was the custom, to some extent, to 
count a certain number of "runs" as a day's 
work. This had a tendency to accelerate the 
motion of the wheel and lessen the hours of 
labor. The spinning exercise is one which 
the young women of modern times have never 
enjoyed. The wheel used for spinning flax 
was called the "little wheel," to distinguish 
it from the "big wheel," used for spinning 
wool. These "stringed instruments" fur- 
nished the principal music of the family, and 
were operated by our mothers and grandmoth- 
ers with great skill attained without expense, 
and with far less practice than is necessary 
for our modern dames to acquire a skillful 
use of the elegant and costly instruments. 
They were indispensable household articles, 
and were to be found in nearly every family. 
The loom was not less necessary than the 
wheel. There were many houses, however, in 
which there was none. But there were always 
those who, besides doing their own weaving, 
did some for others. Woolen cloth was made 
in the home. There being at first no carding 
machines, wool was carded and made into short 
rolls with hand cards. These rolls were spun 
on the "big wheel," which is still to be seen 
in some of the houses of the old families, be- 
ing occasionally used for spinning and twist- 
ing cotton yarn. It was turned by hand and 
with a velocity to give it sufficient momentum 
to enable the nimble mother, by her backward 
step, to draw out a twist and thread nearly 
the length of the cabin. The same loom was 
used for both linen and woolen. A cloth 



was sometimes called linsey or linsey-woolsey, 
the warp being linen and the filling woolen. 
In the early part of the century Archibald 
Matthew, a cloth dresser by trade, came to 
East Wheatfield township. Wool for men's 
garments was then generally sent to him to 
be fulled and dressed, if the parties lived 
within a convenient distance. He in a short 
time (date unknown) built a small woolen 
mill and carding machine. Much dyeing was 
done in the family. Butternuts were used 
to make brown, peach leaves for yellow, and 
myrtle for a red shade. Woolen was also 
made and worn by the mothers and daughters. 
Flannel for women's wear, after dyestufifs 
were to be had, was dyed such colors as the 
wearer fancied. It was sometimes a plaid 
made of yarns of various colors, home-dyed. 
To improve their appearance, these flannels 
were sent to a cloth dresser (after such a me- 
chanic had come into the country), for a 
slight dressing. Dyewoods and dyestuffs 
formed no small part of the early merchant's 
stock. Barrels of chips. Nicaragua, logwood 
and other woods, kegs of madder, alum, cop- 
peras, vitriol, indigo, etc., formed a large part 
of the teamster's loading for the storekeeper. 
I\Iany can yet remember the old dyetub, stand- 
ing in the chimney corner, covered with a 
board and used as a seat for children, when 
the stools or homemade chairs were wanted 
for visitors. Nearly all the coats, "wam- 
muses," pants, etc., were made of homespun 
goods. When a young man appeared in a 
suit of "boughten" cloth, he was an object 
of envy to his associates. 

For many years, few except merchants, 
lawyers, doctors and some village mechanics 
wore cloth that had not passed through the 
hands of the country cloth dresser. Hence 
the early merchants kept small stocks of 

There were also tailoresses who came into 
families to make up men's and boy's winter 
clothing. The cutting was done by the vil- 
lage tailor, if a village was near. Bad fits, 
which were not uncommon, were generally 
charged to the cutter. Hence the custom of 
tailors, when advertising, "cutting done on 
short notice and warranted to fit," to append 
the ovei'-prudent proviso, if properly made 
up. These same tailoresses charged for their 
work two shillings per day. This was thought, 
by some, a little exorbitant, as the usual price 
of help at housework was but six shillings per 
week, Sundays not excepted. For a while the 
pioneers wore moccasins, and then boots and 
shoes were made of tanned leather. Farmers 

subsequently got the hides of their slaughtered 
cattle tanned "on shares," or if their share 
was insufficient to shoe the whole family, for 
the tanning and dressing other means of pay- 
ment was provided. Then there was in the 
ueighboi'hood a circulating shoemaker, who 
made his yearly autumnal circuit with his 
"kit." The children had a happy time dur- 
ing his sojourn, which lasted one, two or more 
weeks, according to the number of feet to be 
shod. The boys, who had doffed their old 
shoes when the winter snows had scarcely dis- 
appeared to enjoy the luxury of going bare- 
foot, were now no less joyful in the anticipa- 
tion of new ones to protect their feet from 
the frost or early snows. 

Large boys and girls, when leather was 
scarce and dear, were known to go barefoot 
the greater part of the year. It was not a 
rare thing to see girls, as well as boj-s, not in 
the poor families, at Sunday meetings with 
feet unshod. Some made shoes for themselves 
and families. Boots were little worn even 
by men except in winter season. Men's boots 
and shoes were usually made of coaree leather, 
called cowhide. Occasionally a young man 
attained the enviable distinction of appear- 
ing in a pair of calfskin boots, made by a 
skilled workman. Boots and shoes for both 
feet were made on one last. In those days, 
rights and lefts were not known. In this de- 
partment of dress, as in others, in respect to 
style and cost, the past and the present ex- 
hibit a remarkable contrast. 


To witness the several processes in cooking 
in pioneer times would likely surprise and 
amuse those who have grown up since cook- 
stoves came into use. The first thing to at- 
tract attention was the wide fireplace. Ket- 
tles were hung over the fire to a stout pole, 
sometimes called lug-pole, the ends of which 
were fastened on the sides of the chimney at 
such height as to be safe from ignition from 
the heat or sparks. The kettles were sus- 
pended from trammels, which were pieces of 
iron rods with a hook ,ou each end. The 
longest one reached nearly down to the fire, 
and with one or more shorter ones, a kettle 
was brought to the proper height aliove the 
fire. For the want of iron, wooden hooks 
were sometimes used for trammels, which 
being directly above the kettles, were safe 
from fire. 

The long-handled frying pan became a com- 
mon cooking utensil. It was held over the 



fire by hand ; but to save time the handle was 
laid on a bos or back of a chair, the pan rest- 
ing on the fire, while the cook was setting the 
table. The pan was also used for baking 
shortcakes. It was placed before the fire, 
leaning slightly backward, with coals under 
and back of it to bake the under side. A 
more convenient one was the castiron, three- 
legged, short-handled spider, which was set 
over the coals on the hearth for frying meat. 
The legs were of such length and so ad.justed 
that, when used for baking cakes and bread, 
by turning it towards the fire to the proper 
slope, handle upwards, it kept its position. 

An early mode of baking corn bread, was 
to put the dough on a smooth board, about 
two feet long and eight inches wide, placed 
on the hearth in a slanting position before 
the fire. When the upper side was baked, 
the bread was turned over for baking the 
other side. When lard was plentiful, the 
bread was shortened and called johnnycake. 
But a better article for baking bread than 
either the pan or spider was the castiron bake- 
kettle, in some places called "dutch oven," 
with lugs and a closely fitted cover. Stand- 
ing on the hearth with coals under and over 
it, bread and biscuit were nicelj^ baked. 
Bread for large families was, in after years, 
usually baked in large outdoor ovens built 
of brick or fireproof stone. Turkey and 
spareribs were roasted before the fire, sus- 
pended by a string, a dish or a pan being 
placed undenieath to catch the drippings. 
Some of the inconveniences in cooking in 
these open fireplaces can be readily imagined. 
Women's hair was singed, their hands were 
blistered and their dresses scorched. A frame 
house with jamb fireplaces, in a measure re- 
lieved the pioneer housewives. In one of the 
jambs was fixed an iron crane which could be 
drawn foi-ward when kettles were to be put 
on or taken off:. The invention of cookstoves 
began a new era in cooking; and some averse 
to the innovation intimated a desire to return 
to the "old way," which will hereafter be 
known only to history. 


For a long time after the first settlement 
of this country the inhabitants in general 
married young. There was no distinction of 
rank and very little of fortune. On these 
accounts the first impression of love resulted 
in marriage; and a family establishment cost 
but a little labor and nothing else. A descrip- 

tion of a wedding from the beginning to the 
end will serve to show the manners of our 
forefathers and mark the grade of civilization 
which has succeeded to their rude state of 
society in the course of a few years. 

In the first years of the settlement of this 
county a wedding engaged the attention of 
the whole neighborhood; and the frolic was 
anticipated by old and young with eager 
expectation. This is not to be wondered at, 
when it is told that a wedding was almost the 
only gathering which was not accompanied 
with the labor of reaping, log rolling, build- 
ing a cabin, or planning some scout or cam- 

In the morning of the wedding day the 
groom and his attendants assembled at the 
house of his father for the purpose of reach- 
ing the mansion of his bride by noon, which 
was the usual time for celebrating the nup- 
tials, which for certain must take place before 

Let the reader imagine au assemblage of 
people without a store, tailor or mantuamaker 
within a hundred miles ; and an assemblage of 
horses without a blacksmith or saddler within 
an equal distance. The gentlemen dressed in 
shoepacks, moccasins, leather breeches, leg- 
gins, linsey hunting shirts, and all home- 
made. The ladies dressed in linsey petticoats 
and linsey or linen bedgowns, coarse shoes, 
stockings, handkerchiefs and buckskin gloves, 
if any. If there were any buckles, rings, but- 
tons, or ruffles, they were the relies of old 
times, family pieces from parents or grand- 
parents. The hoi'ses were caparisoned with 
old saddles, old bridles or halters, and pack- 
saddles, with a bag or blanket thrown over 
them; a rope or string as often constituted 
the girth as a piece of leather. 

The march, in double file, was often inter- 
rupted by the narrowness and obstructions 
of our horse paths, as they were called, for 
we had no roads; and these difficulties were 
often increased, sometimes by the good and 
sometimes by the ill will of neighbors, by 
felling trees and tying grape vines across the 
way. Sometimes an ambuscade was formed 
by the wayside, and an unexpected discharge 
of several guns took place, so as to cover the 
wedding company with smoke. Let the reader 
imagine the scene which followed this dis- 
charge ; the sudden spring of the horses, the 
shrieks of the girls, and the chivalric bustle 
of their partners to save them from falling. 
Sometimes, in spite of all that could be done 



to prevent it, some were thrown to the ground. 
If a wrist, elbow or ankle happened to be 
sprained it was tied with a handkerchief, and 
little more was thought or said about it. 

Another ceremony commonly took place 
before the party reached the house of the 
bride, after the practice of making whiskey 
began, which was at an early period. When 
the party were about a mile from the place 
of their destination, two young men would 
single out to run for the bottle; the worse 
the path, the more logs, brush and deep hol- 
lows the better, as these obstacles afforded an 
opportunity for the greater display of intre- 
pidity and horsemanship. The English fox 
chase, in point of danger to the riders and 
their horses, is nothing to this race for the 
bottle. The start was announced by an In- 
dian yell; logs, brush, muddy hollows, hill 
and glen, were speedily passed by the rival 
ponies. The bottle was always filled for the 
occasion, so that there was no need for judges ; 
for the first who reached the door was pre- 
sented the prize, with which he returned in 
triumph to the company. On approaching 
them he announced his victory over his rival 
by a shrill whoop. At the head of the troop, 
he gave the bottle first to the groom and his 
attendants, and then to each pair in succes- 
sion to the rear of the line, giving each a 
dram ; and then, putting the bottle in the 
bosom of his hunting shirt, took his station 
in the company. 

The ceremony of the marriage preceded 
the dinner, which was a substantial back- 
woods feast of beef, pork, fowls, and some- 
times venison and bear meat roasted and 
boiled, with plenty of potatoes, cabbage and 
other vegetables. During the dinner the 
greatest hilarity always prevailed; although 
the table might be a large slab of timber, 
hewed out with a broadaxe, supported by 
four sticks set in auger holes, and the furnish- 
ings some old pewter dishes and plates, the 
rest wooden bowls and trenehei's. A few 
pewter spoons, much battered about the edges, 
were to he seen at some tables ; the rest were 
made of horns. If knives were scarce, the 
deficiency was made up by the scalping knives 
which were carried in sheaths suspended to 
the belt of the hunting shirt. 

After dinner the dancing commenced, and 
generally lasted till the next morning. The 
figures of the dances were three and four 
handed reels, or square sets and .iigs. The 
commencement was alwavs a square four, 
which was followed by what was called jig- 

ging it off; that is, two of the four would 
single out for a jig, and were followed by the 
remaining couple. The jigs were often ac- 
companied with what was called cutting out ; 
that is, when either of the parties became tired 
of the dance, on intimation, the place was 
supplied by some one of the company without 
any interruption of the dance. In this way 
a dance was often continued till the musician 
was heartily tired of his situation. Towards 
the latter part of the night, if any of the 
company, through weariness, attempted to 
conceal themselves for the purpose of sleep-, 
iug, they were hunted up, paraded on the 
floor, and the fiddler ordered to play "Hang 
on till tomorrow morning." 

About nine or ten o'clock a deputation of 
the young ladies stole off the bride and put 
her to bed. In doing this it frequently hap- 
pened that they had to ascend a ladder in- 
stead of a pair of stairs, leading from the 
dining and ball room to the loft, the floor of 
which was made of clapboards lying loose and 
without nails. This ascent, one might think, 
would put the bride and her attendants to 
the blush ; but as the foot of the ladder was 
commonly behind the door, which was pur- 
posely opened for the occasion, and its rounds 
at the inner end were well hung with hunt- 
ing shirts, petticoats and other articles of 
clothing, the candles being on the opposite 
side of the house the exit of the bride was 
noticed but by few. This done, a deputation 
of young men in like manner stole off the 
groom, and placed him snugly by the side of 
his bride. The dance still continued; and if 
seats happened to be scarce, which was often 
the case, every young man, when not engaged 
in the dance, was obliged to offer his lap as a 
seat for one of the girls ; and the offer was 
sure to be accepted. In the midst of this 
hilarity the bride and groom were not for- 
gotten. Pretty late in the night some one 
would remind the company that the new 
couple must stand in need of some refresh- 
ments, and "black Betty," which was the 
name of the bottle, was called for and sent up 
the ladder. 

In the course of the festivity, if any wanted 
to help himself to a dram, and the young 
couple to a toast, he would call out: 

"Wliere is black Betty? I want to kiss 
her sweet lips." Black Betty was soon 
handed to him. Then holding her up in his 
right hand he would say: 

"Health to the groom, not forgetting my- 



self; and here's to the bride, thumping luck 
and big children." 

This, so far from being taken amiss, was 
considered as an expression of a very proper 
and friendly wish, for big children, especially 
sons, were of great importance; as we were 
few in number, and engaged in perpetual 
hostility with the Indians, the end of which 
no one could foresee. Indeed many of them 
seemed to suppose that war was the natural 
state of man, and therefore did not anticipate 
any conclusion of it ; every big son was there- 
fore considered as a young soldier. 

But to return. It often happened that some 
neighbors or relations, not being asked to the 
wedding, took offense; and the mode of re- 
venge adopted by them on such occasions was 
that of cutting o£E the manes, foretops and 
tails of the horses of the wedding com- 
pany. Another method of revenge which was 
adopted when the chastity of the bride was a 
little suspected was that of setting up a pair 
of horns on poles, or trees, on the route of the 
wedding company. This was a hint to the 
groom that he might expect to be compli- 
mented with a pair of horns himself. 

On returning to the infare, the order of 
procession and the race for black Betty was 
the same as before. The feasting and danc- 
ing often lasted for several days, at the end 
of which the whole company were so ex- 
hausted with loss of sleep that several days' 
rest were requisite to fit them to return to 
their ordinary labors. 

Should I be asked why I have presented 
this unpleasant portrait of the rude manners 
of our forefathers, I in my turn would ask my 
reader, whv are you pleased with the histories 
of the blood and carnage of battles? Why 
are you delighted with the fictions of poetry, 
the novel and romance? I have related truth, 
and only truth, strange as it may seem. I 
have depicted a state of society and manners 
which are fast vanishing from the memory of 
man, with a view to give the youth of our 
country a knowledge of the advantages of 
civilization, and to give contentment to the 
aged by preventing them from saying "that 
former times were better than the present.' 


I will proceed to state the usual manner of 
settling a young couple in the world. 

A spot was selected on a piece of land ot 
one of the parents, for their habitation. A 
day was appointed shortly after their mar- 

riage for commencing the work of building 
their cabin. The fatigue party consisted of 
choppers, whose business it was to fell the 
trees and cut them off at proper lengths ; a 
man with a team for hauling them to the 
place, and arranging them, properly assorted, 
at the sides and ends of the building; a car- 
penter, if such he might be called, whose b\isi- 
ness it was to search the woods for a proper 
tree for making clapboards for the roof, 'rhe 
tree for this purpose must be straight grained 
and from three to four feet in diameter. The 
boards were split four feet long, with a large 
frow, and as wide as the timber would allow. 
They were used without planing or shaving. 
Another division was employed in getting 
puncheons for the floor of the cabin; this 
was done by splitting trees, about eighteen 
inches in diameter, and hewing the faces of 
them with a broadaxe. They were half the 
length of the floor they were intended to 
make. The materials for the cabin were 
mostly prepared on the first day and some- 
times the foundation laid in the evening. The 
second day was allotted for the raising. 

In the morning of the next day the neigh- 
bors collected for the raising. The first thing 
to be done was the election of four corner 
men, whose business it was to notch and place 
the logs. The rest of the company furnished 
them with the timbers. In the meantime the 
boards and puncheons were collecting for the 
floor and roof, so that by the time the cabin 
was a few rounds high the sleepers and floor 
began to be laid. The door was made by saw- 
ing or cutting the logs in one side so as to 
make an opening about three feet wide. This 
opening was secured by upright pieces of 
timber about three inches thick, through 
which holes were bored into the ends of the 
logs for the purpose of pinning them fast, 
A similar opening, but wider, was at the end 
for the chimney. This Avas built of logs and 
made large to admit of a back and jambs of 
stone. At the square, two end logs projected 
a foot or eighteen inches beyond the wall to 
receive the butting poles, as they were called, 
against which the ends of the flrst row of clap- 
boards was supported. The roof was formed 
by making the end logs shorter until a single 
log formed the corn!) of the roof. On these 
logs the clapboards were placed, the ranges 
of them lapping some distance over those next 
below them and kept in their places by logs 
placed at proper distances upon them. 

The roof and sometimes the floor were fin- 
ished on the same day of the raising. A third 


day was commonly spent by a few carpenters 
in leveling of? the floor, making a clapboard 
door and a table. This last was made of a 
split slab and supported by four round legs 
set in auger holes. Some three-legged stools 
were made in the same manner. Some pins 
stuck in the logs at the back of the house sup- 
ported some clapboards which served for 
shelves for the table furniture. A single fork, 
placed with its lower end in a hole in the floor 
and the upper end fastened to a joist, sei-^'ed 
for a bedstead by placing a pole in the fork 
with one end through a crack between the 
logs of the wall. This front pole was crossed 
by a shorter one within the fork, with its 
outer end through another crack. From the 
front pole, through a crack between the logs 
of the end of the house, the boards were put 
on which formed the bottom of the bed. 
Sometimes other poles were pinned to the fork 
a little distance above these, for the purpose 
of supporting the front and foot of the bed, 
while the walls were the supports of its back 
and head. A few pegs around the walls for a 
display of the coats of the women, and hunt- 
ing shirts of the men, and two small forks or 
buck's horns to a joist for the rifle and shot 
pouch, completed the carpenter work. 

In the meantime masons were at work. 
With the heart pieces of the timber of which 
the clapboards were made they made billets 
for chunking up the cracks between the logs 
of the cabin and chimney; a large bed of 
mortar was made for daubing up those cracks ; 
a few stones formed the back and jambs of 
the chimney. 

The cabin being finished, the ceremony of 
house warming took place before the young 
couple were permitted to move into it. The 
house warming was a dance of a whole night 's 
continuance, the company being made up of 
the relations of the bride and groom and their 
neighbors. On the day following the young 
couple took possession of their new mansion. 


Up to and later than 1843, Pennsylvania 
was under the common law system of Eng- 
land. Under this law the wife had no legal 
separate existence. The husband had the 
right to whip her, and only in the event of 
her committing ci-imes had she a separate ex- 
istence from her husband. But if the crime 
was committed in her husband's presence, she 
was then presumed not guilty. Her condition 
was legally little, if any, better than that of 
a slave. 

Under the common law, husband and wife 
were considered as one person, and on this 
principle all their civil duties and relations 

The wife could not sue in her own name, 
but only through her husband. If she suf- 
fered wrong in her person or pi'operty, she 
could, with her husband's aid and assistance, 
prosecute, but the husband had to be the 
plaintiff. For crimes without any presumed 
coercion of her husband, the wife could be 
prosecuted and punished, and for these mis- 
demeanors the punishments were severe. 

The wife could make no contract with her 
husband. The husband and she could make 
a contract through the agency of trustees for 
the wife, the wife, though, being still under 
the protection of her husband. 

All contracts made between husband and 
wife before marriage were void after the 
ceremony. The husband could in no wise 
convey lands or realty to his wife, onty and 
except through a trustee. A husband at 
death could bequeath real estate to his wife. 

^Marriage gave the husband all right and 
title to his wife's property, whether real or 
personal, but he then became liable for all 
her debts and contracts, even those that were 
made before marriage, and after marriage he 
was so liable, except for "superfluities and 

If the wife died before the husband and 
left no children, the husband and his heirs 
inherited her real estate. But if there were 
children, the husband remained in possession 
of her land during the lifetime of the wife, 
and at his death the land went to the wife's 

All debts due to the wife became after mar- 
riage the property of the husband, who be- 
came invested with power to sue on bond, note 
or any other obligation, to his own and ex- 
clusive use. The powers of discharge and 
assignment and change of securities were, of 
course, involved in the leading principle. If 
the husband died before the recovery of the 
money, or any change in the securities, the 
wife "became entitled to these debts, etc., in 
her own right. All personal property of the 
wife, such as money, goods, movables and 
stocks, became absolutely the property of the 
husband upon marriage, and at his death went 
to his heii-s. 

Property could be given to a wife by deed 
of marriage settlement. 

Property could be settled on the wife after 
marriage "by the husband, provided he was 


solvent at the time and the transfer not made 
with a view to defraud. 

The wife could not sell her land, but any- 
real estate settled upon her through ai trustee 
she could bequeath. 

The husband and wife could not be wit- 
nesses against each other in civil or criminal 
cases where the testimony could in the least 
favor or criminate either. One exception only 
existed to this rule, and that was that "the 
personal safety or the life of the wife gave her 
permission to testify for her protection." 


The necessary labors of the farms along the 
frontiere were performed with every danger 
and difficulty imaginable. The whole pop- 
ulation of the frontiers huddled together in 
their little forts left the country with every 
appearance of a deserted region; and such 
would have been the opinion of a traveler 
concerning it, if he had not seen, here and 
there, some small fields of corn or other grain 
in a growing state. 

It is easy to imagine what losses must have 
been sustained by our first settlers owing to 
this deserted state of their farms. It was not 
the full measure of their trouble that they 
risked and ol?ten lost their lives in subduing 
the forest, and turning it into fruitful fields ; 
but compelled to leave them in a deserted 
state during the summer season, a great part 
of the fruits of their labors was lost by this 
untoward circumstance. Their sheep and 
hogs were devoured by the wolves, panthers 
and bears. Ilorses and cattle were often let 
into their fields, through breaches made in 
their fences by the falling of trees, and fre- 
quently almost the whole of a crop of corn 
was destroyed by squirrels and racoons, so 
that many families, and after an hazardous 
and laborious spring and summer, had but 
little left for tlie comfort of the dreary winter. 

The early settlers on the frontiers of this 
country were like Arabs of the desert of 
Africa, in at least two respects; every man 
was a soldier, and from early in the spring 
till late in the fall was almost continually in 
arms. Their work was often carried on by 
parties, each one of whom had his rifle and 
everything else belonging to his war dress. 
These were deposited in some central place 
in the field. A sentinel was stationed on the 
outside of the fence, so that on the least 
alarm the whole company repaired to their 
arms, and were ready for the combat in a 

moment. Here, again, the rashness of some 
families proved a source of difSculty. In- 
stead of joining the working parties, they 
went out and attended to their farms by 
themselves, and in case of alarm an express 
was sent for thenj, and sometimes a party of 
men to guard them to the fort. These fami- 
lies, in some instances, could boast that they 
had better crops, and were every way better 
provided for the winter than their neighbors. 
In other instances their temerity cost them 
their lives. 

In military affairs, when every one con- 
cerned is left to his own will, matters are sure 
to be but badly managed. The whole fron- 
tiers of Pennsylvania and Virginia presented 
a succession of military camps or forts. We 
had military officers, that is to say, captains 
and colonels, but they, in many respects, were 
only nominally such. They could advise but 
not command. Those who chose to follow 
their advice did so to such an extent as suited 
their fancy or interest. Others were refrac- 
tory and thereby gave much trouble. These 
officers would lead a scout or campaign. 
Those who thought proper to accompany 
them did so, those who did not remained at 
home. Public odium was the only punish- 
ment for their laziness or cowardice. There 
was no compulsion in the performance of 
militaiy duties, and no pecuniary reward 
when they were performed. 

It is but doing justice to the first settlers 
of this country to say that instances of dis- 
obedience of families and individuals to the 
advice of our officers were by no means 
numerous. The greater number cheerfully 
submitted to their directions with prompt and 
faithful obedience. 


These were such as might be expected 
among a people who, owing to their circum- 
stances as well as education, set a higher value 
on physical than on mental endowments, and 
on skill in hunting and bravery in war than 
on any polite accomplishments, or fine arts. 

Amusements are, in many instances, either 
imitations of the business of life, or, at least, 
of some of its particular objects of pursuit; 
on the part of young men belonging to nations 
in a state of warfare, many amusements are 
regarded as preparations for the military 
character which they are expected to sustain 
in future life. Thus, the war dance of sav- 
ages is a pantomime of their stratagems and 



horrid deeds of cruelty in war, and the ex- 
hibition prepares the minds of their young 
men for a participation in the bloody trag- 
edies which they represent. Dancing, among 
civilized people, is regarded not only as an 
amusement suited to the youthful period of 
human life, but as a means of inducing 
urbanity of manners and good personal de- 
portment in public. Horse racing is regarded 
by the statesman as a preparation, in various 
ways, for the equestrian department of war- 
fare; it is said that the English government 
never possessed a good cavalry until, by the 
encouragement given to public races, their 
breed of horses was improved. Games, in 
which there is a mixture of chance and skill, 
are said to improve the understanding in 
mathematical and other calculations. 

]Many of the sports of the early settlers of 
this country were imitative of the exercises 
and stratagems of hunting and war. Boys 
were taught the use of the bow and arrow at 
an early age ; but although they acquired con- 
siderable adroitness in the use of them, so 
as to kill a bird or squirrel sometimes, yet it 
appears that in the hands of the white peo- 
ple the bows and arrows could never be 
depended upon for warfare or hunting, unless 
made and managed in a different manner 
from any specimens of them which I ever 
saw. In ancient times the bow and arrow 
must have been deadly instruments in the 
hands of the barbarians of our country ; but I 
much doubt whether any of the present tribes 
of Indians could make much use of the tlint 
arrowheads which must have been so gener- 
ally used by their forefathers. 

Firearms, wherever they can be obtained, 
soon put an end to the use of the bow and 
arrow; but independent of this circum- 
stance, military as well as other arts some- 
times grow out of date and vanish from the 

One important pastime of our boys was 
that of imitating the noise of every bird and 
beast in the woods. This faculty was not 
merely a pastime, but a very necessary part 
of education, on account of its utility in cer- 
tain circumstances. The imitations of the 
gobbling and other sounds of wild turkeys 
often brought those keen-eyed and ever watch- 
ful tenants of the forest with the reach of 
the rifle. The bleating of the fawn brought 
her dam to her death in the same way. The 
hunter often collected a company of mopish 
owls to the trees about his camp, and amused 
himself with their hoarse screaming; liis howl 

would raise and obtain responses from a pack 
of wolves, so as to inform him of their neigh- 
borhood, as well as guard him against their 

This imitative faculty was sometimes req- 
uisite as a measure of precaution in war. The 
Indians, when scattered about in a neighbor- 
hood, often collected together by imitating 
turkeys by day and wolves or owls by night. 
In similar situations our people did the same. 
An early and correct use of this imitative 
faculty was considered as an indication that 
its possessor would become in due time a good 
hunter and a valiant warrior. 

Throwing the tomahawk was another boy- 
jsh sport, in which many acquired consider- 
able skill. The tomahawk with its handle of 
a certain length will make a given number of 
turns in a given distance. Say in five steps 
it will strike with the edge, the handle down- 
wards; at the distance of seven and a half, it 
will strike with the edge, the handle upwards, 
and so on. A little experience enabled the 
boy to measure the distance with his eye, 
when walking through the woods, and strike 
a tree with his tomahawk in any way he 

The athletic sports of running, jumping 
and wrestling were the pastimes of the boys, 
in common with the men. A well grown boy, 
at the age of twelve or thirteen years, was 
furnished with a small rifle and shot pouch. 
He then became a fort soldier, and had his 
porthole assigned him. Hunting squirrels, 
turkeys and raccoons soon made him expert 
in the use of his gun. 

Dancing was the principal amusement of 
our young people of both sexes. Their dances, 
to be sure, were of the simplest forms, three- 
and four-handed reels and jigs. Contra 
dances, cotillions and minuets were unknown. 

Shooting at marks was a common diversion 
among the men, when their stock of ammuni- 
tion would allow it; this, however, was far 
from being always the case. The present 
mode of shooting ofifhand was not then in 
practice. This mode was not considered as 
any trial of the value of a gun ; nor, indeed, 
as much of a test of the skill of a marksman. 
Their shooting was from a rest, and at as 
great distance as the length and weight of 
the barrel of the gun would throw a ball on 
a horizontal level. Such was their regard to 
accuracy, in these sportive trials of their 
rifles, and of their own skill in the use of 
them, that they often put moss, or some other 
soft substance, on the log or stump from which 



they shot, for fear of having the bullet thrown 
from the mark, by the spring of the barrel. 
When the rifle was held to the side of a tree 
for a rest, it was pressed against it as lightly 
as possible, for the same reason. 

Rifles of former times were different from 
those of modern date: few of them carried 
more than forty-five bullets to the pound. 
Bullets of smaller size were not thought suf- 
ficiently heavy for hunting or war. 

Dramatic narrations, chiefly concerning 
Jack and the giant, furnished our young peo- 
ple with another source of amusement dur- 
ing their leisure hours. Many of these tales 
were lengthy, and embraced a considerable 
range of incident. Jack, always the hero of 
the story, after encountering many difficul- 
ties, and performing many great achieve- 
ments, came oif conqueror of the giant. Many 
of these stories were tales of knight errantry, 
in which some captive virgin was released 
from captivity and restored to her lover. 
These dramatic narrations concerning Jack 
and the giant bore a strong resemblance to 
the poems of Ossian, the story of the Cyclops 
and Ulysses, in the Odyssey of Homer, and 
the tale of the giant and Greatheart, in the 
"Pilgrim's Progress." They were so ar- 
ranged, as to the difi'erent incidents of the 
narration, that they were easily committed to 
memory. They certainly have been handed 
down from generation to generation, from 
time immemorial. Civilization has, indeed, 
banished the use of those ancient tales of ro- 
mantic heroism ; but what then ? it has sub- 
stituted in their place the novel and romance. 

It is thus that in every state of society the 
imagination of man is eternally at war with 
reason and truth. That fiction should be ac- 
ceptable to an unenlightened people is not to 
be wondered at, as the treasures of truth have 
never been unfolded to their minds ; but that 
a civilized people themselves should in so 
many instances, like l)arbarians, prefer the 
fairy regions of fiction to the august treasures 
of tnith developed in the sciences of theology, 
history, natural and moral philosophy, is 
truly a sarcasm on human nature. It is as 
much as to say that it is essential to our 
amusement ; that, for the time being, we must 
suspend the exercise of reason, and submit to 
a voluntary deception. 

Singing was another, but no ver.v common, 
amusement among our first settlers. Their 
tunes were rude enough, to be sure. Robin 
Hood furnished a number of songs; the bal- 
ance were mostly tragical, these last denom- 
inated "love songs about nuirder." As to 

cards, dice, backgammon and other games of 
chance, they knew nothing about them. 


In the pioneer days newspapers were few, 
dear, printed on coarse paper, and small. 
Books were scarce, there was only occasional 
preaching, no public lectures, and but few 
public meetings, excepting the annual Fourth 
of July celebration, when all the patriots as- 
sembled to hear the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence read. The pioneer and his family 
had to have fun. The common saying of that 
day was that "all work and no play makes 
Jack a dull boy." As a rule, outside of the 
villages, everybody lived in log cabins, and 
people were bound together by mutual de- 
pendence and acts of neighborly kindness. 
At every cabin the latchstring was always 
out. The young ladies of the "upper ten" 
learned music, but it was the humming of to 
' ' knit and spin ' ' ; their piano was a loom, their 
sunshade a broom, and their novel a Bible. A 
young gentleman or ladj' was then as proud 
of his or her new suit, woven by a sister or a 
mother on her own loom, as proud could be, 
and these new suits or "best clothes" were 
always worn to evening frolics. Social 
parties among the young were called ' ' kissing 
parties," because in all the plays, either as a 
penalty or as pai-t of the play, all the girls 
who joined in the amusement had to be kissed 
by .some one of the boys. To the bo.vs and 
girls of tliat period — 

■'Tlie earth was like a garden then, 

And life seemed like a show, 
For the air was rife with fragrance, 

The sky was all rainbow. 
And the heart was warm and joyous; 

Each lad had native grace, 
Sly Cupid planted blushes then 

On c'vcry virgin's face." 

The plays were nearly all musical and 
vocal, and the boys lived and played them 
in the "pleasures of hope." while usually 
there sat in the corner of the cabin fireplace 
a granddad or a grandma smoking a stone or 
clay pipe, lighted with a live coal from the 
woodfire, living and smoking in the "pleas- 
ures of memory." 

The plays were conducted somewhat in this 

A popular play was for all the persons 
present to join hands and form a ring, with 
a dude of that time, in shirt of check and 
liear-greascd hair, in tlie center. Then they 



circled round and round the center person, 
singing : 

■■King William was King James' son, 

And of that royal race he sprung; 

He wore a star upon his breast. 

To show that he was royal best. 

fio choose your east, go choose your west. 

Go choose the one that you like best ; 

If he's not here to take your part, 

Go choose another with all your heart." 

The boy in the center then chose a lady from 
the circle, and she stepped into the ring -^vith 
him. Then the circling was resumed, and all 
sang to the parties inside, 

■■Down on this carpet you must kneel. 
•Just as the grass grows in the field ; 
Salute your bride with kisses sweet, 
And then rise up upon your feet." 

The play went on in this manner until all 
tlie girls present were kissed. 

Another popular play was to form a ring. 
A young lady would step into the circle, and 
all parties would join hands and sing, 

••There's a lily in the garden 

For you, young man; 
There's a lily in the garden. 

Go pluck it if you can." etc. 

The lady then selects a boy from the circle, 
who walks into the ring with her. He then 
kisses her and she goes out, when the rest all 

"There he stands, that great big booby, 

Who he is I do not know; 
Who will take him for his beauty? 

Let her answer, yes or no." 

This play goes on in this way until all the 
sirls have been kissed. Another favorite play 
was : 

•■Oats, peas, beans, and barley grows ; 

Xone so well as the farmer knows 

How oats, peas, beans, and barley grows; 

Thus the farmer sows his seed. 

Thus he stands to take his ease; 

He stamps his foot and claps his hands. 

And turns around to view his lands," etc. 

Another great favorite was: 

"Oh. sister Phoebe, how merry were we 
The night we sat under the juniper-tree, 

The juniper-tree, I, oh. 
Take this hat on your head, keep your head warm, 
And take a sweet kiss, it will do you no harm, 

But a great deal of good, I know,'' etc. 

Another wf 

'• If I had as many lives 

As Solomon had wives. 

I'd be as old as Adam ; 

So rise to your feet 
And kiss the first you meet. 
Your humble servant, madam." 

Another was: 

"It's raining, it's hailing, it's cold, stormy weather; 
In comes the farmer drinking of his cider'. 
He's going a-reaping, he wants a binder, 
I've lost my true love, where shall I find her." 

A live play was called "hurly-burly." 
' ' Two went round and gave each one, secretly, 
something to do. The girl was to pull a young 
man's hair; another to tweak an ear or nose, 
or trip some one, etc. When all had been 
told what to do, the master of ceremonies 
cried out, 'Hurly-burly.' Every one sprang 
up and hastened to do as instructed. This 
created a mixed scene of a ludicrous char- 
acter, and was most properly named 'hurly- 
burly.' " 


The belief in witchcraft was prevalent 
among the early settlers of the western coun- 
try. To the witch was ascribed the tremen- 
dous power of inflicting strange and incurable 
diseases, particularly on children, of destroy- 
ing cattle by shooting them with hair balls, 
and a great variet.y of other means of de- 
struction, of inflicting spells and curses on 
guns and other things, and lastly of changing 
men into horses, and after bridling and sad- 
dling them riding them in full speed over 
hill and dale to their frolics and other places 
of rendezvous. More ample powers of mis- 
chief than these cannot well be imagined. 

Wizards were men supposed to possess the 
same mischievous powers as the witches; but 
these were seldom exercised for bad purposes. 
The powers of the wizards were exercised al- 
most exclusively for the purpose of counter- 
acting the malevolent influences of the witches, 
of the other sex. 

The diseases of children supposed to be in- 
flicted by witchcraft were those of the internal 
organs, dropsy of the brain, and the rickets. 
The symptoms and cure of these destructive 
diseases were utterly unknown in former 
times in this country. Diseases which could 
neither be accounted for nor cured were 
usually ascribed to some supernatural agency 
of a malignant kind. 

For the cure of the diseases inflicted by 
witchcraft, the picture of the supposed -witch 
was drawn on a stump or piece of board and 
shot at with a bullet containing a little bit 
of silver. This silver bullet transferred a 



painful and sometimes a mortal spell on that 
pai't of the witch corresponding with the part 
of the portrait struck by the bullet. Another 
method of cure was that of getting some of 
the child's water, which was closely corked up 
in a vial and hung up in a chimney. This 
complemented the witch with a strangury 
which lasted as long as the vial remained in 
the chimney. The witch had but one way of 
relieving herself from any spell inflicted on 
her in any way, which was that of borrowing 
something, no matter what, of the family to 
which the subject of the exercise of her witch- 
craft belonged. 

Wlien cattle or dogs were supposed to be 
under the influence of witchcraft they were 
burned in the forehead by a branding iron, or 
Avhen dead, burned wholly to ashes. This 
inflicted a spell upon the witch which could 
only be removed by borrowing, as above 

Witches were often said to milk the cows 
of their neighbors. This they did by fixing 
a new pin in a new towel for each cow in- 
tended to be milked. This towel was hung 
over the witch 's own door, and by the means 
of certain incantations the milk was extracted 
from the fringes of the towel after the manner 
of milking a cow. This happened when the 
cows were too poor to give much milk. 

The first German glass blowers in this coun- 
try drove the witches out of their furnaces 
by throwing living puppies into them. 

The greater or less amount of belief in 
witchcraft, necromancy and astrology serves 
to show the relative amount of philosophical 
science in any country. Ignorance is always 
associated with superstition, which, present- 
ing an endless variety of sources of hope and 
fear, with regard to the good or bad fortunes 
of life, keeps the benighted mind continually 
harassed with groundless and delusive, but 
strong and often deeply distressing, impres- 
sions of a false faith. For this disease of the 
mind there is no cure but that of philosophy. 
This science shows to the enlightened reason 
of man that no effect whatever can be pro- 
duced in the physical world without a corre- 
sponding cause. This science announces that 
the deathbell is but a momentary morbid mo- 
tion of the ear, and the deathwatch the noise 
of a bug in the wall, and that the howling of 
the dog and the croaking of the raven are but 
the natural languages of the beast and fowl, 
and no way prophetic of the death of the 
sick. The comet, which used to shake pesti- 
lence and war from its fiery train, is now 

viewed with as little emotion as the movements 
of Jupiter and Saturn in their respective 

An eclipse of the sun, an^l an unusual 
freshet of the Tiber, shortly after the assassin- 
ation of Julius Ctesar by Cassius and Brutus, 
threw the whole of the Roman empire into con- 
sternation. It was supposed that all the gods 
of heaven and earth were enraged and about 
to take revenge for the murder of the dicta- 
tor; but since the science of astronomy fore- 
tells in the calendar the time and extent of 
the eclipse, the phenomenon is not viewed as 
a miraculous and portentous, but as a common 
and natural, event. 

That the pythoness and wizard of the He- 
brews, the monthly soothsayers, astrologers 
and prognosticators of the Chaldeans, and 
the sybils of the Greeks and Romans, were 
merely mercenary impostors, there can be no 
doubt. To say that the pythoness and all 
others of her class were aided in their opera- 
tions by the intervention of familiar spirits 
does not mend the matter, for spirits, whether 
good or bad, possess not the power of life and 
death, health and disease, with regard to man 
or beast. Prescience is an incommunicable 
attribute of God, and therefore spirits can- 
not foretell future events. 

The afflictions of Job, through the interven- 
tion of Satan, were miraculous. The posses- 
sions mentioned in the New Testament, in 
all human probability, were maniacal dis- 
eases, and if, at their cures, the supposed 
evil spirits spoke with an audible voice, these 
events were also miraculous, and effected for 
a special purpose. But from miracles no gen- 
eral conclusions can be drawn with regard to 
the divine government of the world. The 
conclusion is that the powers professed to be 
exercised by the occult science of necromancy 
and other arts of divination were neither more 
or less than impostures. 

Among the Hebrews the profession of arts 
of divination was thought deserving of capital 
punishment, because the profession was of 
pagan origin, and of course incompatible 
with the profession of theism and a theocratic 
form of government. These jugglers per- 
petrated debasing superstition among the 
people. They were also swindlers, who di- 
vested their neighbors of large sums of money, 
and valuable presents, without an equivalent. 
On the ground then, of fraud alone, accord- 
ing to the genius of the criminal codes of 
ancient governments, this offense deserved 
capital punishment. 



But is the present time better than the past stores and trade 

with regard to a sviperstitious belief in occult 

influences ? Do no traces of the polytheism of . A great inconvenience incident to pioneer 
our forefathers remain among their Christian life is the want of the many articles essential 
descendants 1 This inquiry must be answered to the comforts of a family, which the farm 
in the affirmative. Should an almanac maker cannot supply. Therefore no immigrant is 
venture to give out the Christian calendar more welcome in a new settlement than the 
without a column containing the signs of the Ai'st merchant. Fortunately, there are sel- 
zodiac, the calendar would be condemned as clom wanting those who are ready to establish 
being totally deficient and the whole impres- a store when and where there is a population 
sion would remain on his hands. sufficient to sustain one. All of the early 

But what are these signs? They are eon- stores were kept m log buildings. The first 
stellations of the zodiac, that is, clusters of stocks of goods were small, yet they corn- 
stars twelve in number, within and including pnsed most of those articles which were 
the t'ropics of Cancer and Capricorn. These needed by the settlers. 

constellations resemble the animals after But the gi-atifieatiou of some at the advent 
which they are named. But what influence of the early merchant was greatly moderated 
do these clusters of stars exert on the animal by their inability to purchase his wares. The 
and the plant? Certainly none at all: and inhabitants were generally poor. They had 
yet we are taught that the northern constella- expended nearly all their money in their re- 
gions govern the divisions of living bodies moval, and the little they had left was wanted 
alternatelv from the head to the reins, and to 'Jiiy absolute necessaries. Farmers who 
in like manner the southern from the reins liad been here long enough to raise a small 
to the feet. The sign then makes a skip from surplus obtained some money from newcom- 
the feet to Aries, who again assumes the ei'S- But the majority were not so fortunate, 
government of the head, and so on. About Goods were dear, having been transported 
half of these constellations are friendly di- at great cost. They were first brought from 
vinities and exert a salutary influence on the Carlisle and Chambersburg, aud sometimes 
animal and the plant. The others are malig- four weeks were occupied in the round trip, 
nant in their temper, and govern only for After wagons were introduced the round trip 
evil purposes They blast, during their reign, ^^vas usually made in about ten days, though 
the seed sown in the earth and render medi- on many occasions double that time was used, 
cine and operations of surgery unsuccessful. But the high price of the merchant's goods 

We have read of the Hebrews worshipping '^vas but half of the farmer's misfortune, 
the hosts of heaven whenever they relapsed ^^hile he had to pay a double price for nearly 
into idolatry and these same constellations every article of store goods, he, much of the 
were the hosts of heaven which thev wor- time, was obliged to sell the products of his 
shipped We it is true make no offering to farm at about half the cost in labor. Wheat 
these hosts of heaven, but we give them our sometimes sold as low as a shilling per bushel; 
faith and confidence. We hope for physical corn, 6d. per bushel; lye. Is.; buckwheat, Is ; 
benefits from those of them whose dominion oats, 6d. per bushel ; tallow, 2 cts. per pound ; 
is friendly to our interests, while the reign lard, 2 cts per pound; pork, 4s. per cwt. ; 
of the malignant ones is an object of dread beef. Id. to 2d. per pound ; and other products 
and painful apprehension. Let us not boast m proportion. Ofttimes the prices were double 
very much of our science, civilization or even and even five times the foregoing, but the 
Christianity while this column of the relics market as a rule was weak and no buyers.- 
a ■' J.-11 T ^.,,-.^.r.c ti,^ Phvictinn the earliest account book which we have 

of paganism still disgraces the Cluistian ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^_^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ 


but as this only gives the aggi'egate amounts 

I have made these observations with a vle^^ ^^^^ ^^^^.^ ^^,.^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^-^^ ^^^ ^^^ 
discredit the remnants of superstition ^^^^ ^^ reckoning was by pounds, shillings 

still existing among us. While dreams, the 
howling of the dog, croaking of a raven are 
prophetic of future events we are not good 
Christians. While we are dismayed at the 
signs of heaven we are for the time being 
pagans. Life has evils enough to contend 
with, without imaginary ones. 

and pence, and until a comparatively late 
period the prices of goods per yard or pound, 
both in selling and buying, at wholesale and 
retail, were given in shillings aud pence. Be- 
tween 1794 and 1800 some of the prices were : 
';Wool hat, lis. 3d.: (1794) bandana handkf. 
lis. 3d. : half a pound of cut and dry tobacco, 




Is. 6d.; (1795) 1 skillet, 12s.; half a pound 
of lard, UVid; one-fourth bushel of salt, 6s. 
Bi/od. ; 8V2 pounds of bacon, 8s. 6d. ; pound 
of coffee, 3s. 9d. ; 1 pair mockisins, 3s. 9d. ; 
half a quire of paper, Is. 6d. ; two pipes, lid. ; 
one-fourth pound of tobacco, 9d ; half a bushel 
of potatoes, 3s. 9d. ; half pound of gun 
powder, 5s. Ti/od. ; two yards of calico, 7s. ; 
one pound lead. Is. IQi/od. ; one pair boots, 
2£ 16s. 3d.; one- fourth yd. eorderoy, 4s. 
9yod. ; one-half dozen knives and forks 
(1798), 12s. 6d.; two pounds soap, 2s. lOi/od. ; 
five tin cups, 4s. 8d. ; five yards Durant (?), 
1£ 2s. 6d. ; one peck salt, 7s. 6d. ; one crooked 
comb. Is. lOi/od. ; (1794) one pen knife, 3s. 
6d. ; three-fourl;hs yard Mersailles pattern, 14s. 
i/od. ; two and one-half yards muslin, 9s. 
4^d. ; one yard muslin, 3s. "9d. ; three and one- 
half yards binding. Is. 7d. ; one and a fourth 
yards calico, 9s. 4i/2d. ; one ounce indigo. Is. 
6d. ; forty-seven pounds of iron, l.£ 19s. 2d. ; 
one pair leggins, 7s. 9d. ; one quart whiskey. 
Is. lOi/od- ; one pair cotton cords, 7s. 6d. ; 
one-half dozen spoons, 10s. IV^d. ; one pair 
Rose Blankets, 2£ 12s. 6d. ; one pair cotton 
hose, 15s. ; one quire paper, 3s. ; one mill saw- 
file, 5s.; one blanket, 19s. 9d. ; one gimblet, 
4s.; two dozen screws. Is. IQi/od. ; two hun- 
dred tacks, 3s. 9d. ; two pounds coffee, 8s. ; 
one ounce indigo. Is. 6d. ; one-fourth pound 
(1796) of pepper, 2s.; four skanes thread. 
Is.; five yeards ribbon, 7s. 6d. ; nails one 
pound, 3s. ; one nutmeg. Is. ; factory muslin, 
one yard, 6s. ; Maccaboy snuff, one pound, 
13s. ; three sticks twist, 3s. ; one pair shoes, 
15s., one dozen buttons, 3s., one razor, 2s. 6d. ; 
(1789) one yard scarlet cloth, 3s. 6d. ; one- 
half a hundred quills, 8s. ; three yards Fur- 
stin (1797), 16s. 9d. ; one yard swanskin, 7s. 
71/id. ; one-half a pound of lead. Is. ; one quart 
salt. Is. lOi/od.; one paper of pins (1798), 
3s.; one pair of sisars (1798), 4s. 9d." 
Whiskey, that staple article in those days, 
varied in price from 6s. to 15s. per gallon, 
but the books indicated no perceptible de- 
crease in its consumption. On the 26th of 
December, 1789, Charles Campbell is credited 
with one barrel of salt, £7 10s. 


For Carpenters 

1800 '. ... 7(1 cents per day 

1810 $l-On per day 

1820 1-13 per day 

18.-!0-1840 1-40 per day 

1850-1860 1-50 per day 

For Day Laborers 

ISOO 62 cents per day 

aSlO 82 cents per day 

1820 90 cents per day 

1840-1SG0 $1.00 (about) per day 

Previous to 1840, a day's work was not 
limited by hours. It was by law and custom 
from "sunrise to sunset," or whatever the 
employer exacted. In 1840, however. Presi- 
dent Van Buren signed the pioneer executive 
order fixing a day's work in the Washington 
navy yard at ten hours per day. It took a 
great and protracted struggle for years to 
secure the general adoption of the ten-hour 

But our surprise at these prices will be 
less when we consider the cost of transporta- 
tion. With the products of their farms, at the 
prices they bore a few years later, farmers 
could hardly have paid for store goods, at 
the prices charged. Nor did farmers find 
permanent relief until the commencement of 
the canal and development of the furnace 

In those days, whiskey was the article 
whose sale was never diminished on account 
of hard times. In 1797 we count, on five 
successive pages, sixty-nine separate and dis- 
tinct charges for this article. During the 
war of 1812, flour rose to $19 per barrel; 
hollow castings ten cents per pound, and salt 
$12 per barrel. Maple sugar was exchanged 
at six cents per pound for goods; butter at 
six to eight cents; oats, ten to twelve cents 
per bushel ; and other produce in proportion. 

To facilitate the collection of debts, mer- 
chants, after cattle were plenty, received the 
same in payment from their customers and 
drove them to Eastern markets, or sold them 
to drovers from the East. Pork also was 
taken on account at prices which contrast 
strikingly with the present. Well-fatted pork, 
dressed, was sold for two dollars per hun- 
dred pounds. Lumber with its products, lath, 
shingles, etc., was received, and other things, 
such as furs, etc. 


From what has been said in the previous 
paragraphs, the reader will readily infer that 
trade was greatly restricted by the scarcity 
of the usual circulating medium. Few goods 
were sold for cash. Business was done on the 
credit and barter system, not only by and 
with merchants, but between the people. 
Notes were made payable in grain, lumber, 



cattle, furs, etc., and sometimes contained the 
stipulation, ''at cash prices." Almost every- 
thing had a cash and a barter, or a credit 
price. It was, however, not always easy to 
ascertain tlie cash price. ^lerchants often 
suffered great loss by this system of trade. 
Losses by bad debts, and losses on grain and 
other commodities, which it was almost im- 
possible to sell for cash, rendered the business 
an unsafe one. 

Most of the business was, for many years, 
transacted in tlie river towns which were first 
settled, and possessed superior commercial 
advantages. Maple sugar, long an important 
article of trade, came in large quantities from 
the settlements. The inhabitants generally 
supplying themselves, the price is said to have 
been, at times, as low as four cents per pound. 
Almost the only store sugar for years was the 
white, refined, put up in hard balls, solid 
loaves of a conical form, and called loaf or 
lump sugar, and was wrapped in strong, 
coarse paper. It was sold chiefly for sweet- 
ening medicines and the liiiuors of tavern- 


One of the i)ioniH'r industries in this wil- 
derness was niiii>li'-suiiaiinaking. The sugar 
season connneuced cither in the last of Feb- 
ruary or the first of ilarch. In any event, 
at this time the manufacturer always visited 
his camp to see or set things in order. The 
camp was a small cabin made of logs, covered 
usually with clapboards, and open at one end. 
The fireplace or crane and hooks were made 
in this way : Before the opening in the cabin 
four wooden forks were set deeply in the 
ground, and on these forks was suspended a 
strong pole. On this pole was hung the hook 
of a limb, with a pin in the lower end to 
hang the kettle on. An average camp had 
aliout three hundred trees, and it reciuired 
six kettles, averaging about twenty-two gal- 
lons each, to boil the water from that many 
trees. Tlie trees were tapped in various ways, 
viz. : First, with a three-quarter-inch auger, 
one or two inches deep. In this hole was put 
a round spile about eighteen inches long, 
made of sumacli or whittled pine, two spiles 
to a tree. The later way was by cutting a 
lioUow notch in the tree and putting the spile 
below witli a gouge. This spile was made of 
pine or some soft wood. At the camp there 
were always from one to three storage 
troughs made of cucumber or poplar, and 
each trough held from ten barrels upward. 

Three luuidred trees required a storage of 
thirty barrels and steatly boiling with six 
kettles. The small troughs under the trees 
were made of pine and cucumber and held 
from three to six gallons. We hauled the 
water to the storage-troiighs with one horse 
and a kind of "pung," the l)arrel being kept 
in its place by plank just far enough apart 
to hold it tight. In the fireplace there was 
a large backlog and one a little smaller in 
front. The fire was kept up late and early 
with smaller wood split in lengths of aliout 
three feet. We boiled the water into a thick 
.syrup, then strained it through a woolen cloth 
while hot into the syrup-barrel. When it had 
settled, and before putting it on to "sugar 
off." we strained it the second time. During 
this sugaring we skimmed the scum off with 
a tin skinnuer and clarified the .syrup in the 
kettle with eggs well beaten in sweet milk. 
This "sugaring off" was always done on 
cloudy or cold days, when the trees wouldn't 
run "sap." One barrel of sugar-water from 
a sugar tree, in the beginning of the season, 
would make from five to seven pounds of 
sugar. The sugar was always made during 
the first of the season. The molasses was 
made at the last of the season, or else it would 
turn to sugar in a very few days. The sugar 
was made in cakes, or "stirred off" in a 
granulated condition, and sold in the market 
for from six and a quarter to twelve and a 
half cents a pound. In "sugaring oft'." the 
syrup had to be frequently sampled by drop- 
ing some of it in a tin of cold water, and if 
the molasses formed a "thread" tliat was 
lirittle like glass, it was fit to stn*. 

Skill and attention were both necessary in 
"sugaring oft'," for if the syrup was taken off 
too soon the sugar was wet and tough, and 
if left too long, the sugar was burnt and 
bitter. Time has evoluted this industry from 
-Xorth western Pennsylvania. 

Sugar is supposed to hav(' l)i'i'n first used 
by the Ilclirews. 


The history of pioneer life generally pre- 
sents only the dark side of the picture. The 
toils and privations of the early settlers were 
not a series of unmitigated suft'erings. The 
addition of each new acre to their "clearings" 
brought with it fresh enjoyment, and cheered 
them on in pursuit of their ultimate object, 
an unincumbered and a happy home. They 
were happy also in their fraternal feelings, 
or, as one expressed it, "the feeling of brother- 



hood — the disposition to help one another"; 
or, in the language of another, "society was 
uncultivated; yet the people were veiy 
friendly to each other, quite as much so as 
relatives at the present day." 

We could not hardly endure the thought of 
exchanging eur comfortable and elegant car- 
riages for the rude ones of our fathers and 
grandfathers, which sen-ed for the purposes 
of visiting, and of going to mill and to meet- 
ing ; yet who doubts that families had a ' ' good 
time" when they made a visit to a "neigh- 
bor" at a distance of several miles, through 
the woods, on an ox sled? Our mothers were 
clad in homespun of their own make; and 
not a few remember the glad surprise when 
fathers, on their return from market, pre- 
sented their faithful helpmates with a six- 
yard calico dress pattern for Sunday wear. 
And it is presumed that the wearer was in 
quite as devotional frame of mind, and en- 
joyed Sabbath exercises quite as well, as she 
who now tlaunts her gorgeously trimmed silk 
of fifteen or twenty yards, made up into a 
style transforming the wearer into the "like- 
ness" of something never before seen or 
known "above," or "on the earth beneath," 
and altered with every change of the moou.. 

People were happy in their families. The 
boys, having labored hard during the day, 
sought rest at an early hour. Parents had 
the pleasure of seeing their sons acquiring 
habits of industry and frugality — a sure prog- 
nostic of success in life. The ' ' higher civiliza- 
tion" had not yet introduced 

"In every country viUage, where 
Ten chimney smokes perfumed the air" 

those popular modern institutions, the saloon 
and the billard room, in which so many youths 
now receive their principal training. Fewer 
parents spent sleepless nights in anxious 
thought about their "prodigal sons" or had 
their slumbers broken by the noisy entrance 
of these sons on returning from their mid- 
night revels. They saw no clouds rising to 
dim the prospect of a happy future to their 
children. Never were wives and mothers more 
cheerful than when, like the virtuous woman 
described by Solomon "they laid their hands 
to the spindle, and their hands held the dis- 
taff"; or when, when with their knitting 
work or sewing, and baby, too, they went — un- 
bidden, as the custom was — to spend an af- 
ternoon with the "neighbor women," by 
whom they were received with a hearty un- 
ceremonious welcome. The "latchstring was 
out" at all times; and even the formality of 

knocking was, by the more intimate neigh- 
bors, not observed. 

Nor did they lack topics of conversation 
at these visits. Prominent among them were 
their domestic affairs — their manifold indus- 
rial entei'prises and labors — and the antici- 
pated reward of their privations and toils. 
Their conversation, some may suppose, 
evinced no high degree of intellectual culture ; 
yet, as an indication of such culture, surely 
it would not suffer in comparison with the 
gossip of many of our modern ladies at their 
social gatherings. 

The following extract from the pen of a 
pioneer mother in another county may be 
read with interest by some: 

"The country arouud us was an entire 
wilderness with here and there a small cabin, 
containing a small family. We were nearly 
all new beginners, and although we had to 
work almost day and night, we were not dis- 
couraged. There were many and serious 
trials in the beginning of this country, with 
those who settled amid the heavy timber, hav- 
ing nothing to depend upon for a living but 
their own industry. Such was our situation. 
However, we were blessed with health and 
strength, and were able to accomplish all that 
was necessary to be done. Our husbands 
cleared the ground, and assisted each other 
in rolling the logs. We often went with them 
on these occasions, to assist in the way of 
cooking for the hands. 

"We had first-rate times, just such as hard 
laboring men and women can appreciate. We 
were not what now would be called fashion- 
able cooks ; we had no pound cakes, preserves 
or jellies, but the substantials, prepared in 
plain, old-fashioned style. This is one reason 
why we were blessed with health; we had 
none of your dainties, knickkuacks. and fix- 
ings that are worse than nothing. There are 
many diseases that we had never even heard 
of forty to sixty years ago, such as dyspepsia, 
neuralgia and many others too tedious ta men- 
tion. It was not fashionable then to be 
weakly. We could take our spinning wheels 
and walk two to four miles to a spinning 
frolic, do our day's woi'k, and after a first- 
rate supper join in !3ome innocent amusement 
for the evening. We did not take particular 
pains to keep oxw hands white ; we knew they 
were made for our advantage; therefore we 
never thought of having hands just to look 
at. Each settler had to go and assist his 
neighbors ten or fifteen days in order to get 
help in return, in log rolling time; this was 
the only way to get assistance. I have 



thought proper to mention these things, that 
the people now ma,v know what the early set- 
tlers had to undergo. We, however, did not 
complain half as much as people do now. Our 
diet was plain ; our clothing we manufactured 
Ourselves. We lived independent, and were 
all on an equality. How the scene has 
changed ! Children of these same pioneers 
know nothing of hardships; they are spoiled 
by indulgence, and are generally planning 
ways and means to live without work. ' ' 

It is, indeed, to many who have been 
brought up in the lap of, not a little sur- 
prising that a wife and mother should do the 
housework for a family in which were six, 
eight or more children, and occasionally some 
hired men, without extra help. Yet such in- 
stances were common. 

But advancement in society is an American 
trait. Had we pursued the course of the 
greater number of the nations of the earth, 
we should have been, at this day, treading in 
the footsteps of our forefathers, from whose 
example in many respects we should have 
thought it criminal to depart. 

The horse paths by which the early settlers 
made their laborious journe.vs over the moim- 
taius for salt, iron and other necessaries were 
succeeded by wagon roads, and those again by 
turnpikes, which brought the distant region, 
once denominated as the backwoods, into close 
and lucrative connection with the great At- 
lantic cities. Then followed, in quick suc- 
cession, as if by magic enchantment, canals, 
railroads and telegraphs. The duration of 
time for making the once perilous journey 
over the mountains was successively reduced 
from weeks to days, and from days to hours. 

The ruder spoits of former times — the 

trials of muscular strength and activity — ■ 
gave way to the more noble ambition "for 
mental endowments, to the spread of educa- 
tion, and skill in the useful arts. 

In the stead of the rude song, roughly and 
unskillfully sung, succeeded the psalm, the 
hymn, the quartette glee, and the swelling 

The linsey and coarse linen of the early set- 
tlers were in time exchanged for the substan- 
tial and fine fabrics of Europe and Asia, and 
soon superinduced the spirit of American 
genius for manufacture, which we now see 
fairly rivaling the world's industries. 

The hunting shirt gave place to a suit of 
broadcloth, and the feet that once trod in 
moccasins were enclosed in boots and shoes 
of tanned leather. 

Our development in the useful arts finally 
brought forth our great mamifaetories of iron 
and steel, crockery and glassware, implements 
and machinerj', and the rude utensils of the 
pioneer are supplanted with articles of the 
most improved utility and beauty, fabricated 
at our very doors. 

Instead of a blind imitation of the manners 
and customs of their forefathers, the people 
thought and acted for themselves: they 
changed themselves and everything around 
them. The changes gave new currents to 
public feeling and indi\idual pursuit, causing 
the improvements in the dress of the people 
and the furniture of their houses. Had the 
hunting shirt, moccasin and leggins contin- 
ued to be the dress of the men, had the three- 
legged stool, the noggin, the trencher and 
wooden bowl remained as the furniture of 
their houses, progress towards science and civ- 
ilization would have been much slower. 



Most striking changes have occurred in the standing that the horse was seklom allowed to 

modes of travel during the past century. One fall short of a trot. The balance of the night 

hundred years ago most of the travel was on we stayed at Mr. Robert McCrea's, and al- 

foot. It was not uncommon for men to walk though only nine miles from Indiana, we 

to Pittsburg and Harrisburg and sometimes rode thirty miles to reach home. When more 

to Philadelphia. The grandfather of the than half the distance had been ridden, we 

writer walked to Philadelphia from Buffing- were farther from home than when we started 

ton township, Indiana county, to purchase his in the morning. 

farm, traveling on an average four miles per "Fitted out with a good horse under me, 
hour. In those days horses were scarce, but and a tin horn in my belt, I usually started 
when horses became more plentiful horseback at four o'clock in the morning, meander- 
riding became the connnon mode of travel, ing now upon this side, then upon that, of 
The father and mother rode on horseback to the Pittsburg road, making that highway my 
church and the children walked until they center of operation, until I reached Elder's 
conceived the idea that it would be good fun Ridge, where I had my dinner, and horse 
to break the colts and ride with their parents fed at Mr. Robert Wilson 's, not far from where 
to church. The mails were all carried on the Elder's Ridge academy now stands, 
horseback. The personal experience related When approaching a box on the side of a 
by J. S. Reed will give some idea of the dif- tree in the woods, where a package was to be 
ficulties encountered in carrying the mail on left, I gave the signal by blowing my horn, 
horseback in the early days. The following that the nearest subscriber might know to 
is the story as told by him: "On New Year's examine the box for the package; but never 
day of 1827, I commenced my apprenticeship, waited a moment longer than I could place 
in the Indiana and Jetferson Whig, the tirst the package in the box, and be off again at a 
Democratic paper in Indiana county. It was fast gait. 

established by Alexander Taylor, who sold to "About every third or fourth trip a fresh 

John IMcCrea, with whom I served my appren- horse was necessary, which was obtained by 

tieeship. The terms of the apprenticeship either selling the one on hand and buying 

were, that I should find my own clothing, and another, or swapping directly for another. At 

ride two days in the week, alternately with length the boss purchased an Indian pony, 

Samuel Young, a boy near my own age (eight- which I taught to perform many antics; one 

een years), who had been in the office a few of which was to stop short, when the rider 

weeks before me, and serve three years. At would say 'stop.' This pony performed all 

that time there were only three post offices in that was required of him, while the distribu- 

the county, and our business was to carry the tion of newspapers was necessarily performed 

packages of newspapers in saddlebags, on by the 'printer's devil' on horseback, and was 

horseback, and leave them in their respective instrumental in giving a great deal of .sport 

boxes fixed to the sides of trees, at blacksmith to the boys then in and about Indiana. A 

shops, gristmills, and private houses, to suit fresh rider would be mounted upon him to 

the convenience of subscribers. The first day's take a ride, and told to say 'stop,' when the 

ride, measuring all the zigzags we made, pony was on the gallop. The rider would 

counted fifty miles. The first eighteen miles say 'stop,' as directed. The pony would in- 

were ridden before breakfast ; and in winter- stantly stop, with his head a little downwards; 

time, when the days were short, and the roads so unexpectedly, that the rider would pitcli 

bad, the last eight or ten miles of that day's forward on the pony's neck, when he would 

ride were to be ridden after night, notwith- drop his head so low as to let his rider down 




head-t'oremost to the ground. Another boy 
would mount feeling confident that he would 
stick on ; but only to share the same fate as 
liis predecessor, until sometimes from a half 
dozen to a dozen of an evening, one after an- 
other, would mount, to be surely let down in 
the same way. 

"'Sly boss dispensed with tlie distribution 
of his newspapers on his own hook, and ob- 
tained two contracts for carrying the mail on 
horseback — one from Indiana to Port Barnett, 
in Jefferson county, by way of Ewing's Mill 
and Punxsutawney, then merely having a 
name as a white man's town; the other from 
Indiana to Blairsville ; and, as I had proved 
myself to be an expert in horsemanship, I had 
the honor conferred on me of I'iding both 

"The round trip to Port Barnett. by the 
route directed by the post office department, 
to and from, was one liundred and sixteen 
miles. I left Indiana on Tuesday morning in 
wintertime so early as to be at Crooked Creek 
l)y daylight, and took breakfast and dinner 
each week at Mr. Henry VanHorn"s, sixteen 
miles on my route, and continued on the after 
part of the day, having the mail changed at 
Mahoning and at Punxsutawney. rode on and 
stayed over night at Mr. Isaac Lewis's, at the 
edge of an unbroken wilderness of seventeen 
miles — the first house being Port Barnett. a 
tavern on the clay pike leading from Erie to 
Lewistown, a mile and one-half east of where 
Brookville has since come into existence. 

"This wilderness was to be crossed both to 
and from Port Barnett in one day, with the 
addition of six miles to Punxsutawney. mak- 
ing forty miles through mud and pine roots, 
endangering the horse's legs in many jilaees 
of being broken. 

"I endured hardships and risks of life 
throughout the winter of '28 sufficient to make 
the hair turn grey upon a nervous man's head. 
There was not a bridge across a stream on 
the whole route. There are five streams on 
the route which were afterwards navigated 
for many miles above where they were then 
to be forded. Old men will remember that it 
rained almost incessantly during the winter 
of 1828, and consequently the streams were 
often over their banks and rushing through 
the laurels and hemlock timbers the whole 
breadth of the bottom land along them. In 
approaching the bed of the stream the horse 
would blunder over pine stumps hidden un- 
der water, and next plunge into a mudhole 
so deep as to bring the water upon his sides. 
The main current of the streams was ex- 

tremely swift, and their lianks so entangled 
with laurel and drift that there was great 
danger of being beaten down below the cross- 
ing, which would have been certain death to 
both horse and rider. 

"The regulation was to ride through the 
wilderness on Wednesday before breakfast, 
take breakfast at Port Barnett, which stood 
on the north bank of Sandy Lick (or Red- 
bank, as it is now called). On three occasions, 
that winter, to cross Sandy Lick was alto- 
gether impossible. The first I started as 
usual before daylight, without breakfast; 
got to the bank of the creek about ten o'clock, 
blew my horn, and was answered by Andrew 
Barnett (postmaster) that it was impossi))le 
to cross the stream through the drift that was 
passing. So I had to tack aliout with the mail 
as it was, and ride to the settlement without 
breakfast or feed for my horse. The road 
was bad, and my horse weak with luinger 
and fatigue was unable to make time. Night 
came on me before I reached the settlement. 
I had fed my horse before starting in the 
morning; but had not eaten anything from 
supper the night before, until late at night 
after arriving at the place I had started from 
in the morning. 

"On another occasion my boss sent with 
me to lift some money that was collected for 
him. which I put into a large calfskin pocket- 
book, ilost of the mone.v was silver. When 
within about fifteen miles of Indiana on my 
way homeward, I overtook Francis Gumpers, 
driving cattle. Just as I approached, the 
cattle took fright and I left the road. I 
.lumped off my horse, gave him the rein and 
In-ought back the cattle to the road some dis- 
tance ahead, while he rode on, leading my 
horse with the mail, and my overcoat thrown 
across the saddle. After again mounting and 
riding some miles. I found that the pocket- 
book and money were gone. I turned my 
horse and rode at a fast rate in search of the 
lost treasure, but without success. When I 
again met my old friend Gumpers, with his 
cattle, I intrusted the mailbag to him with a 
promise that he would deliver it at the post- 
office in good time. But as bad luck would 
have it, his cattle left the road, he left his 
horse, his horse left liim, took to the woods, 
lost the mail, and finally got to a farmhouse, 
where his owner found him next day, minus 
the mail. I rode back until benighted, stayed 
over night at a farmhouse on the road, but 
sleep was a stranger that night. ]\Iy boss had 
lent me his boots, new calfskin, which slipped 
on with a pretty good fit. That unlucky day 



it had rained so much as to wet them both 
inside and outside. I sat by the fire until 
they got dry. With a great deal of difficulty 
I got one of them otf with a bootjack, but the 
other was not to be got off, even though the 
old farmer got me down on my back and 
pulled till he hauled me along: then one of 
his boys at my request caught by my shoulders 
and held back while his father pulled ; but all 
to no purpose. The boot was there, I insisted 
on sitting by the fire; but boot or no boot I 
must go to bed. So neither barefoot nor shod 
I spent the night in bed. The next morning 
the boot that was off would not go on, though 
soap and smoke and sweat and breath were 
liberally expended in the effort to get it on. 
I rode back to a place where I was last sure 
of having the pocketbook, but without hearing 
anything of it. After returning to within a 
few miles of town I heard that the mail had 
been lost, which added no little to the chagrin 
I was already suffering. It is beyoud the 
power of my pen to describe my feelings as 
I rode up street with one boot immovably 
on, and the other in my hand, while from 
every shop or store window and door I had 
to hear the sarcastic inquiry, 'Tom, where 's 
the mail ? What 's the matter with your foot ? ' 
The mail had been found by an honest 
hunter, who had carried it to town on his 
back, and delivered it to the post office, a fact 
which I only learned when I called upon Mr. 
Dennison, the postmaster, to give myself up 
to the consequences of my carelessness. It 
was some consolation to know that I was for- 
given, so far as the mail matter was con- 
cerned. But how to meet my boss without his 
money was the question. After putting away 
my horse I ventured to the office where, con- 
trary to my anticipations, I was met with a 
smile instead of severity. 

"The money was safe, though neither boss 
nor I knew it until I arrived at Jlr. Van- 
Horn's (my place of breakfasting) on the 
following week. Two young men , one a 
nephew of Mr. VanHorn's, foimd it but a few 
minutes after it had been dropped, .iust where 
I had thrown my overcoat across the saddle, 
which turned the mouth of the side pocket 
down, and the weight of the silver in the book 
had caused it to drop out. I was very satis- 
factorily surprised when it was handed to 
me with the $42, the amount I had lifted, in 
it, and boss was as much surprised when I 
handed it to him on my arriving at home. 

"On another trip I left Mr. Lewis' in great 
haste, supposing I had overslept myself, be- 
lieving it to be davbreak when I first awoke. 

There was a little snow on the ground, hazy 
clouds, hiding the moon, and snow together 
making it almost as light as day. I jumped 
up, dressed, fed my horse, and hardly waiting 
till he was done eating, started. I rode on 
and on, deeper and deeper, into the dreary 
wilderness, the light only changing the dark- 
ness as I got into the dense pine timber, or 
becoming lighter as I emerged from it into 
open wood. At length the moon went down; 
then came on a torrent of rain; the little 
snow in a few minutes was gone, and such 
darkness was never surpassed, even in Bg}^)! 
My horse stopped and I could hear the water 
rushing against his legs. I was afraid to 
move him, lest he might have left the road, 
and was in the Ijed of some stream, where he 
could go no further. So I sat upon his back 
not knowing how soon he and I might be 
washed away by the rising flood. There I sat 
for hours, the rain pouring down, and, as I 
imagined, the waters rising to floods (as in- 
deed they were) in the streams both before 
and behind me. While sitting there, I could 
hardly know which I feared most, being 
drowned or eaten by wild beasts, as wolves 
and panthers were numerous in those wilds. 
A Mr. Henry Brewer had shot an old she 
panther, and captured five young ones, in the 
same wilderness, but a short time previously. 
This circumstance made my fears the greater. 

"Daybreak at last appeared, when I found 
myself sitting upon the horse's back, the horse 
in the middle of the road ascending the hill 
north of Big Sandy, and the water rushing 
down the road sufficient to run a mill. I put 
spurs to my horse, and by sunup had plunged 
through Sandy Lick, which was considerably 
swollen, had my horse fed, mail changed, and 
breakfast in a hurry, that I might get back 
through Sandy Lick and Big Sandy before 
they should get too high to be forded. This 
I effected by fast riding and reached the set- 
tlement much earlier in the day than on any 
other occasion. 

"The regulation was to leave Indiana on 
Tuesday mornings, make the trip, and arrive 
again on Thursdy by three o 'clock p. m. ; and 
leave on Friday morning for BlairsviUe, re- 
turning the same evening." 

Our merchants generally rode on horse- 
back to Philadelphia, a distance of 248 miles, 
to purchase their stocks of merchandise. 
Thomas Sutton kept a horse chiefly for the 
purpose of going to Philadelphia to lay in his 
stock of goods. A. W. Taylor tells of his 
father going to HaiTisburg to attend the ses- 



sion of the Legislature, with his own horse 
and sleigh. 

For many years it was the custom to carry 
the grain to mill on horseback. This was a 
job for the boys. As a rule two long tow 
bags were filled with grain and thrown across 
the horse's back by the father or a big 
brother and the boy placed on the horse to go 
four or five miles to mill. When the bags 
slipped ofi:', as was usually the case, it was 
impossible for the boy'to get the bags on the 
horse again until he would find some man to 
give him assistance. The slipping off usually 
occurred either going up or down hill. 

Forty years ago neither a bugg.y nor a 
carriage was seen in a funeral procession. 
The relatives all rode by twos on horseback. 

Singing schools and spelling bees were very 
common forty j'ears ago, and the young men 
of the neighboi-hood lined up on both sides 
of the entrance to the church or schoolhouse 
to ask the young ladies for their company 
home. If the young ladj^ did not want a 
young man's company she "sacked him," but 
if she accepted she would take hold of his 
arm, which was extended to her, and be es- 
corted to a stump or a rail fence ready to 
.iump on behind him on his prancing steed. 
The wilder the horse the more interest to the 
young people. A young man took gi-eat jjride 
in having a sleek horse, a good saddle and 
bridle, and a large spur. Horse racing by 
both sexes was a very common sport. At that 
time the ladies rode on sidesaddles; now but 
few of the young ladies can ride, even astride. 

As time went on buggies and spring wagons 
came into use. Buggies displaced horseback 
riding and the spring wagon was used instead 
of the heavy wagon which was used on the 
farm for haiiling. going to mill, to the store, 
and to the church. The spring wagon gave 
place to the surrey, which was more conven- 
ient, protected from the rain and storm, and 
more in keeping with the times. The cart, 
a two-wheeled vehicle, one that would shake 
you to pieces, was used, but has almost 
gone out of us(\ During the winter the 
"spider" and the ".iumper" gave way to 
the sleigh. The sleigh and the sled are still 
in use, but we do not have the snow for sleigh- 
ing as in former times. 

The stagecoach and the canal boats have 
given way to the electric car and steam car; 
the buggies, surreys, and dray wagons to the 
automobiles. "We are moving at a rapid rate. 
Distances that required an entire week to 
travel can now be covered in a few hours. 
Time and business have liecome so important 

that men cannot afford to spend so much time 
in travel. 

Indiana county has shared in all of these 
improvements. Almost all important points 
in the county can be reached by trolley or 
railroad. From Indiana town we have street 
ear communication with Blairsville and all 
intervening points ; with Clymer, making con- 
nection with the Pennsylvania and New York 
Central railroads to Cherrytree and Glen 
Campbell, Pine Flats and Heilwood, and Dix- 
onville: and with Creekside and Ernest. 

The Indiana Street Railway Company was 
chartered in April, 1902. The incorporators 
were John A. Scott, D. H. Tomb, M. C. Wat- 
son, J. Wood Clark, Griffith Ellis, Henry Hall, 
Walter Arms, J. N. Stewart, D. L. iloorhead 
and W. H. Jackson. This company sold to 
Hon. John P Elkin and his associates August 
6, 1907, and took the name, Indiana Count.y 
Street Railways Company. The present of- 
ficers are as follows: T. L. Eyre, Philadel- 
phia, president; James B. Phelom, Punxsu- 
tawney. Pa., vice president ; John G. St. Clair, 
Indiana, Pa., secretary and treasurer. The 
company has thirty-seven miles of street rail- 
ways and is in a prosperous condition. 

There are two railroads going out from 
Indiana, the Indiana Branch of the Pennsyl- 
vania and the Buffalo, Rochester and Pitts- 
burg. The Indiana Branch railroad, extend- 
ing from the Blairsville Intersection to Indi- 
ana borough, a distance of nineteen miles, was 
opened under the direction of the Pennsyl- 
vania Company on the 5th of June, 1856. At 
that time it consisted of a single track, had 
three bridges and seven intermediate stations, 
and employed two daily trains. In 1859 over 
forty tons of freight were handled. During 
1858 over six thousand tickets were sold at 
this station. For many years there were only 
two daily trains, the one leaving at 6 :15 
o'clock in the morning, causing passengers 
to leave the town without breakfast; and 
the other at 4:30 in the evening. Now we 
have five trains leaving and returning daily 
on the Indiana Branch, connecting with 
the Pennsylvania at Blairsville Intersection, 
and one train, "The Mountain Goat," daily 
between Cresson and Indiana by way of 
Ebensburg, Vintondale, and Black Lick. 

With the band playing and whistles blow- 
ing and lusty cheers from a thousand throats 
the first passenger train on thelndiaua Branch 
of the Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburg rail- 
way rolled into the county seat 9:10 o'clock, 
the first Monday morning in May, 1904. A 
good portion of the population of the town 



and two Imudred girl students from the 
normal school crowded the platform of the 
station, mounted to the top of flat cars and 
stood on board piles to join in the welcome. 

Had the big glittering engine been a hero 
of national fame it would not have received 
fonder caresses than were bestowed upon the 
iron monster as it stood panting and throb- 
bing, after the initial run from Punxsutaw- 
uey. A procession headed by the Indiana 
Band and town council marched to the court 
house, where a jollification was held. The 
meeting was addressed byHon. Harry White, 
who told of the experience of the Indiana 
county residents in buying stock for the In- 
diana Branch of the Pennsylvania railroad, 
which had a monopoly of the business of this 
territory for nearly half a century. Attorney 
John A. Scott, representing the Buffalo, Roch- 
ester and Pittsburg Railway Company, stated 
■ that while the main object in constructing the 
line was to secure a road for freight traffic 
the passenger department would not be 
slighted and that good service would be given 
at all times. Hon. John P. Elkin, who spoke 
of the industrial interest of the county and 
the great stores of hidden wealth which lie 
under the local hills for development, proph- 
esied that the population would take mar- 
velous leaps in the next few years and that 
by the close of the next decade there will be 
100,000 residents in the county and 15,000 
in Indiana. 

J. J. Archer, the ticket agent, reported that 
one hundred and sixty tickets hacl been sold 
at Indiana the first day. This railroad trav- 
erses a beautiful farming section in the north- 
ern part of the county, and is of great benefit 
to the inhabitants of that section. The road 
is well patronized. There are two trains daily 
which not only accommodate those who wish 
to go north in the morning and return in the 
evening, but also those who wish to come to 
11i(» coiuity seat and return the same day. At 
Creekside the train connects with a branch of 
the same road which goes to Shelocta, Park- 
wood, Mclntyre. Jacksonville, Altman, "West 
Lebanon, Clarksburg and Iselin. Two trains 
are run on this, branch daily, accommodating 
the residents of the southwestern portion of 
the county. A combination train runs daily 
from the Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburg 
depot at Indiana to Vintondale. It traverses 
its own track to Josephine and from there to 
Vintondale on the Penn.sylvania line. 

About ten years ago the Buffalo, Rochester 
& Pittsburg Railway Company built a road 
from Punxsutaw'ney down the Big IMahoning 

creek past North Point, Loop, and Goodville 
to Dayton and thence to Butler, where it con- 
nects with what was formerly the Narrow 
Gauge, but now the Buffalo & Ohio, at New 
Castle. There are two trains daily on this 

The North-Western Railroad Company was 
chartered by act of Assembly, approved Feb- 
ruary 9, 1853. The road extended to Blairs- 
ville down the valley of the Conemaugh and 
Kiskiminetas rivers, through Indiana and 
Westmoreland counties, to Freeport, in Arm- 
strong county. At this point it left the Al- 
legheny and ascended the Big Buffalo to 
Rough run ; thence up Rough run to the head 
waters of Coal run ; thence down Coal run to 
Butler, and thence through Butler and Law- 
rence counties to New Castle, where it con- 
nected with the Cleveland and JIahoning rail- 
road, the intention being to form a continuous 
I'kilroad route, without break of gauge, to 
Chicago, St. Louis and the West. The North- 
AVestern Railroad Company, after grading 
that part of the road from Blairsville to Alle- 
gheny Junction and completing the masonry, 
failed and was sold out at Philadelphia, in 
May, 1859, and purchased by a committee of 
the bondholders recognized as the Western 
Pennsylvania Railroad Company, under a 
charter approved March 22, 1860. The work 
of completing the road was begun in the 
spring of 1863. The track was laid each 
way, from Blairsville west and Allegheny 
Junction east. Passenger trains were put on 
in the fall of 1864, and run from each end. 
The high bridge over Wolford run was finished 
in 1865, and through trains immediately put 
on, running between Blairsville and the Al- 
legheny Valley railroad at the mouth of the 
Kiskiminetas river. The bridge over the Al- 
legheny river was completed in 1865. The 
part of the road from Freeport to Allegheny 
city was completed in the fall of 1866 and 
trains began to run through from Blairsville 
to Allegheny city at once. The branch to 
Butler was completed in 1871. The first train 
ran from Blairsville to Saltsburg. This road 
which is now the Pennsylvania Railroad of 
the Conemaugh Division (commonly known as 
the West Penn) has four trains daily from 
Pittsliurg to Blairsville Intersection tiy way 
of Saltsburg and Blairsville, giving the resi- 
dents of the southwestern part of the county 
railroad facilities to Pittsburg and the east 
as well as to the county seat. 

In 1912 the Pennsylvania Railroad Com- 
pany completed a road from Vintondale up 


Blackliek creek by way of the Red Jlill, White 
Will, to Colver and thence to Pine Flats. 

After a long delay the New York Central 
and Pennsylvania Railroad Companies com- 
pleted the road from Cherrytree to Clymer in 
November, 1905. Shortly afterwards the rails 
were laid up Dixon's run to Dixonville, a dis- 
tance of three miles, and down Twoliek creek 
to Sample run. a distance of a mile and a half. 

A peculiar coincidence in railroad building: 
in the county is the fact that the Buffalo and 

Susquehanna completed its line from Juneau 
on the Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburg to 
Wallopsburg by way of Covode and Plumville 
to Wallopsburg at the same time. 

In April, 1905. the New York Central and 
Pennsylvania completed the railroad to Heil- 
wood. the new coal town on Yellow creek, by 
way of Pine Flats. The New York Cen'tra"l 
and Pennsylvania Companies both run daily 
passenger trains from Cherrytree to Heilwood, 
Clymer and Dixonville. 




After the close of the Revolution the Gen- 
eral Assembly of Pennsylvania, by act of 
March 29, 1787, directed that commissioners 
should be appointed to survey a highway over 
the Allegheny Mountains between the watei-s 
of the Frankstown branch of the Juniata river 
and the Conemaugh river. By the same act 
the commissioners, having surveyed the pro- 
posed road, were further directed to trace 
the course of another road, beginning at the 
termination of the first mentioned road, and 
leading along "the left bank of the Cone- 
maugh" to that point "where the river began 
to be navigable, at all seasons. ' ' Down to this 
time communication between the Juniata and 
the Conemaugh valleys had been maintained 
by bridle paths. The connuissioners were ap- 
pointed, and on Dec. 18, 1787, their report of 
the survey they had made was confirmed by 
the Council of the Commonwealth, the Con- 
stitution of 1776 being still in force. On Sept. 
25, 1788. the opening of both roads was con- 
tracted for by Robert Galbraith. then the pro- 
thonotary of Bedford county. The contract 
was for the whole length of road from Franks- 
town, now in Blair county, to the point where 
the Conemaugh "began to be navigable at all 
points." This point was seventy miles east 
of Pittsburg by water. On Jan. 4. 1790, ]\Ir. 
Galbraith wrote to the Council that, agreeably 
to contract, he had opened the road from 
Frankstown to the mouth of Blackliek creek. 
The Blackliek enters the Conemaugh from the 
north, a short distance below Blairsville. At 
its mouth there once stood a small town called 
Newport. A ferry connected Newport with 
the opposite side of the Conemaugh in Wf«t- 

moreland county. The Frankstown road was 
subsequently, about 1791, extended by way of 
this ferry to Pittsburg, and its name is re- 
tained in Frankstown avenue of that city. 
It crossed the Alleghenies through Blair's 
Gap ill Blair county and through the central 
part of Cambria county near Ebensburg, 
thence passing through Armagh and north of 
Blairsville to its terminus at the mouth of 
Blackliek creek. This was the original 
Frankstown road. It was a thoroughfare con- 
necting the eastern and western parts of Penn- 
sylvania. It was succeeded early in the 
nineteenth century by the so-called Northern 
turupike, which was otherwise known as the 
Huntingdon turnpike. 

In the early days the cost of transportation 
between -the eastern and western parts of 
Pennsylvania by bridle paths, pioneer wagon 
roads, and turnpikes was a serious matter. 
"The good old times" were accompanied by 
great drawbacks and this was one of them. 
In Washington's diary of his trip to western 
Pennsylvania in 178-i he sa.ys, speaking of 
Pennsylvania: "There are in that State at 
least 100,000 souls west of the Laurel Hill 
who are groaning under the inconvenience of 
a long land transportation." In 1784 the 
freight rate from Philadelphia to Pittsburg 
was 121/) cents per pound, while in 1786 a 
rate of $10.50 per hundred weight (112 
pounds) was charged for the same distance. 
In 1803 the charge for hauling most articles 
of merchandise from Philadelphia to Pitts- 
burg was $5 per hundred. 

In 1817 it still cost $100 to move a ton of 
freight from Philadelphia to Pittsburg. The 
Pennsylvania Railroad Company now per- 
forms the same service for a few dollars. 



About 1890 an old gentleman who had been a 
merchant wrote to George B. Roberts, then 
president of the Pennsylvania Railroad Com- 
pany, as follows: "Before any canal was 
made I shipped eight hundred barrels of flour 
one winter from Pittsburg to Philadelphia by 
wagon, the freight on which was $2,400, being 
$3 per barrel. That was called back loading 
(Conestoga wagons, six horses, and bells). 
My first load of goods, sixty years past, cost 
$4 per hundred pounds from Philadelphia to 
Pittsburg. Having handled Uncle Sam's mail 
bags for over sixty-one years consecutively I 
have taken two bushels of oats, or four pounds 
of butter, or five dozen of eggs, or two bushels 
of potatoes, for a letter that came 400 or more 
miles. ' ' Those were the days when it was not 
required that postage should be prepaid and 
when the rates were high. 

After communication between Philadelphia 
and Pittsburg had been opened by means of 
roads and turnpikes, so that wagons and other 
vehicles could pass over them with reasonable 
speed, lines of stagecoaches were established 
for the conveyance of passengers and for car- 
rying the mail between the two cities and in- 
termediate points. Ringwalt says: "For 
many years two great lines of coaches run be- 
tweeii Pittsburg and Philadelphia starting 
daily; the 350 odd miles between the two 
cities were passed over in about three days, 
that is, if the roads were in very good con- 
dition, but more time was usually required. 
Every twelve miles a change of horses was 
made, and quickly. No time was lost and no 
rest was given to the traveler. The fare on 
the coach from city to city varied ^mewhat, 
as did the condition the roads were in, or as 
the rival lines cut the closest on prices. A 
through pass ticket from Pittsburg to Phila- 
delphia was all the way from $14 to $20, 
which in those days meant more than the 
same does now. There were special rates to 
emigrants, but they were brought west in 
covered wagons, and not on the regular 

"For twenty-five years emigrant travel 
formed a big portion of the biisiness along the 
turnpike. It was mostly from Baltimore, 
thousands of emigrants landing there, and en- 
gaging passage to the West through com- 
panies engaged in that business alone." Egle 
says that in August, 1804, the first through 
liiie of coaches from Philadelphia to Pittsburg 
was established. 

Ringwalt further says: "The stagecoach 
feature of the old turnpike is something with 

such a dash of liveliness about the very 
thought of it that it awakens our interest. It 
was truly the life of the turnpike. Dashing 
along at a gallop, the four horses attached to 
the coach formed quite a marked contrast to 
the slow-plodding teams drawing the big wag- 
ons. Then there was something of more than 
ordinary interest about the coach itself and 
the passengers as well." The driver invari- 
ably carried a horn with a very high pitched 
tone, which he winded at the brow of the last 
hill to signalize his approach. 

After the National road and the turnpikes 
had been built in Pennsylvania, a large busi- 
ness was done for many years, and until about 
the middle of the last century, in driving cat- 
tle, horses, sheep and hogs from the interior 
and western parts of Pennsylvania, and even 
from Ohio, to Baltimore, Philadelphia, and 
other eastern markets. The clouds of dust 
raised by the droves, the long lines of Con- 
estoga wagons vinited to make the thorough- 
fares of that day real arteries of commerce, 
which should not be lightly considered in 
comparison with the more expeditious trans- 
portation facilities of the present day. 

There were stagehouses or hotels placed all 
along the turnpikes. Here passengers secured 
a hasty meal while change of horses was made, 
and the present generation cannot realize the . 
commotion that was caused by the rival lines 
with horns blowing, streamers flying and 
horses on the full run. Sometimes as many 
as thirty stages stopped at one of these hotels 
in a single day. Most of them were drawn by 
four horses, but in climbing the mountains 
six were frequently used. For the accommo- 
dation of wagons and drovers the roadhouses, 
with large wagon yards, averaged one for 
every two miles along the road. These were 
built especially for the pui-pose and consisted 
principally of a large kitchen, dining room, 
and very large bar room, the latter also serv- 
ing as a lodging room for wagoners and dro- 
vers. Six and eight-horse teams were usually 
accompanied by two men, and all of them car- 
ried their own bedding, which was spread out 
on the bar room floor before a huge log fire 
in the chimney-place in the winter. 

The drover was ' ' the man on horseback ' ' of 
his day. He was a person of consequence. 
But he has departed. And the old stage 
drivers and wagoners! To-day they are 
scarcely to be found, "most of them having 
thrown down the reins and put up for the 



In July, 1827, in the "American," we find 
the following regarding the stage route from 
Ebensburg to Butler, via Indiana and Kit- 
tanning : ' ' The subscriber having become the 
proprietor of the line of stages, respectfully 
informs the public that he has provided him- 
self with new stages, excellent horses, and 
careful drivers; and is in all respects, fully 
prepared to render entire satisfaction to those 
who may patronize his line. Leaves Ebens- 
burg every Thursday at ten o'clock A. M., 
after the arrival of the Harrisburg and Pitts- 
burg stage, and an-ives at Butler, on Satur- 
day, at ten o'clock A. M. before the arrival 
of the Pittsburg and Erie stage at that place; 
so that passengers going in the direction of 
Erie can have a passage in that stage. Re- 
turning leaving Butler every Sunday, at 
eleven o'clock A. M. after the arrival of the 
stage from Erie, and arrive in Ebensburg 
every Tuesday at six P. M. ; from which place 
passengers going eastward can take the stage 
the next morning. 

"Passengers coming in this line as far as 
Indiana who may wish to visit Blairsville or 
Greensburg can, at all times be furnished with 
a conveyance to either of those places. 

' ' Leonard Shryock. ' ' 

These stage wagons were driven by four 
horses. The rate from Ebensburg to Butler 
was $3.75 ; from Butler to Kittanning, $1.25 ; 
from Kittanning to Indiana, $1.25 ; from In- 
diana to Ebensburg, $1.25. Way passengers 
were charged 6 cents per mile. 

state roads 

1810. — The road from Milesburg, Center 
county, to Leboeuf, Erie county, was located 
in 1810, and passed through the northeast 
comer of the county. The survey is dated 
Nov. 24, 1810. The commissioners were: 
Francis McEweu, John Maxwell and Joseph 
Moorhead, of Indiana county. In the same 
year a road was surveyed from Indiana to in- 
tersect this road. 

1818 — An act passed the Assembly in ISIT 
for the location and survey of a road from 
Bedford, Bedford county, to Franklin, Ven- 
ango county. The road was located and sur- 
veyed in 1818, and passed through Armagh, 
Indiana and other points in this county. The 
distance of this route was one hundred and 
twenty-eight miles. The commissioners were : 

A. McCalmont, Venango county; Isaac Proc- 
tor and Daniel Stanard, Indiana. 

1825— The "Old State Road" was located 
from Philipsburg, Center countv, via Indiana 
to Pittsburg m 1825. The survey is dated 
April 11, 1825. The commissioners were: J 

B. Shugert, John Taylor, of Indiana, and A. 
B. Reed. 

1826 — The road from Ligouier to Blairs- 
ville, and thence to Indiana, was located and 
surveyed in 1826. 

1838— The "New State Road" was located 
from Curwensville, Clearfield county, to East 
Liberty, Allegheny county, or as surveyed by 
IMeek Kelly in 1838. The commissioners were : 
Alexander Patterson, William McCuthin and 
Closes Boggs. 

1842 — The road from Cherrji;ree to inter- 
sect the Waterford and Susquehanna turn- 
pike was surveyed by David Peelor in 1842, 
the distance being fit\v-five and a half miles. 
The viewers were Robert Woodward, Henry 
Trease, Peter Clover, John Sloan, Jr.; John 
Decker and Heth F. Camp. 


At March sessions, 1807, petitions were pre- 
sented for roads; from Clark's mill to Indi- 
ana, from Rodgers' mill to Indiana, from Cam- 
bria county line to Armstrong county line, 
from Ann Shai-p's to the county line, from 
Elder's Ford at Conemaugh river to ^M'Kee's 
miU near McFarlau's mill. John Robinson, 
Wm. Cummins, Alex. Lyons, John ilitchell, 
Thomas Allison and Chr. Harrold, viewers. 

At September sessions, John M'Cready, 
Michael Campbell, James Gordon, Samuel 
Dickson, Daniel Smith and James Caldwell 
were appointed to examine a route from New- 
port to Indiana and report at the ensuing 

Thomas Sanderson, John il'Crea, Robert 
Kelly, ^Michael Campljell, Adam Altman and 
Francis Boals, were appointed to view and 
locate a road from Campbell's mill on Black- 
lick to Empfield's mill on Yellow creek. 

Alex. Taylor, Alex. Lyons, Christian Roof. 
Daniel Smith, Samuel Dixon and George Ran- 
kin were appointed to make a view of a road 
from Barr's store on Chestnut Ridge to in- 
tersect the road from Gen. Campbell's mill 
to Sloan's Ferry. 

Thomas Benson, Benjamin Walker, Joseph 
Moorhead. Samuel ^I'Nitt, David M'Cul- 
lough and Alex. Taylor were appointed to 
view a road from Indiana to the road from 
Woodward's to Bolar's. 



Win. P. Brady, Joshua Pearee, John 
Thompson, Jr., John Parks, Wm. Work and 
Hugh Brady appointed to report on a road 
from Brady's mill on Little Jlahoning to the 
contemplated West Branch road. 

James M'Comb, Adam Thompson, Thomas 
Baird, James Matthews, Moses Thompson, Jr., 
and William Coleman appointed to report on 
a road from Conemaugh river opposite Port 
Johnston to Harden 's branch, where it in- 
tersects the Indiana road. 

Reports of Roads Confirmed. — From Isaac 
Rodger's mill to Indiana. From William 
Clark's mill to Indiana. From Indiana to in- 
tersect at McFarlan's mill. From the Arm- 
strong county line to Brady's mill. Prom 
David Fulton's to Brady's mill. From New- 
port to intersect the Indiana road. 

Thomas Allison, John Wilson, Thos. 
M'Cartney, David Cummins, Joseph Moor- 
head, and James Wilkins, Sr., were appointed 
to locate a road from Indiana to Allison's mill, 
on Yellow creek. 

Wm. P. Brady, Thomas Lucas, Sam'l Scott, 
James M 'Henry, Capt. Hugh Brady and 
James Johnston appointed to lay out a road 
from Joseph Barnett 's on Redbank to Brady 's 

Thomas Allison, Esq., Michael Hess, James 
M'Kee, Peter Sutton, Joseph Parker and 
James Moorhead appointed to report on a 
road from M'Kee 's mill to Indiana. 

Pay of Viewers. — June 7, 1807, order is- 
sued to William Evans and Peter Gordon for 
assisting to view and lay out a road from 
David Fulton's to Brady's mill, $10. To 
John Evans for services on same road, $6. To 
James Gordon, Samuel Dixon, Daniel Smith, 
John M'Crady, and Michael Campbell, $2 each 
for viewing and laying out a road "from New- 
port to Indiana." To Matthew Wyncoop for 

assisting in laying out the road from David 
Fulton's to Brady's mill, $5. To William 
Clark, Esq., William Parker, Moses Craw- 
ford and George Findley, for viewing and 
laying out a road from Rodger's mill to In- 
diana, $3 each, and to William Lapsley and 
Thomas Sanderson, $1 each. 

June 10th, 1807, To John Robertson, John 
Mitchell, and Alex. Lyons, for viewing and 
laj'ing out road from McFarlan's mill to In- 
diana, $3 each. To John Work as one of the 
viewers of the road from David Fulton's to 
Brady's mill, $5. To Thomas Bracken, An- 
drew Wilkins, Sam'l Stevens, Benoni Wil- 
liams, $6 each, and to Joseph M'Cartney, 
Esq., $1, for viewing and laying out a road 
from William Clark's mill to Indiana. To 
Christopher Harrold for services on same 
road $2. 

June 12th. 1807, To Joseph Moorhead, Esq., 
Benjamin Walker and James M 'Knight, $6 
each, for assisting in laying out a road from 
Cambria county line to Armstrong county 
line. To Gawin Adams $4 and Phillip Rice 
$3 for services on same road. To James 
Brady for services in laying out a road from 
Armstrong county line to Wm. P. Brady's 
mill, $5. John Jamison, assisting to make 
State road, $8. 

June 15th, 1807, To Thomas M'Cartney for 
assisting in laying out the road from Cambria 
county line to Armstrong county line, $4. To 
Alexander Taylor $2, and Jacob Anthony, 
David M'CuUough, William Calhoun, Wil- 
liam Rankin and Robert Walker $1 each, for 
viewing and laying out road from Ann 
Sharp's to Armstrong county line. 

The foregoing appear to have been the first 
public roads laid out after the organization 
of the county. 


The location of the Pennsylvania Canal was 
begun April 20, 1825, by Nathan S. Roberts, 
an engineer, and was completed Dee. 6, 1826, 
and placed under contract the same year. In- 
structions were given to have particular re- 
gard to economy in all things. Mr. Roberts 
estimated that it would be necessary to have 
one engineer at $3,000 per year and reason- 
able expenses; two assistant engineers, one at 
$3 per day and expenses, and one at $2 per 
day and expenses; two target men at $1.50 
per day each and find himself; and two axe 
men, at $1 per day each and find himself. 

The general dimensions of the canal were 
fixed as follows : Width at the water line. 
40 feet ; width at bottom, 28 feet, and depth, 
4 feet. The locks were 15 feet wide and 90 
feet in length in the chamber. 

Governor Schultze in his message of 1826 
favored the Pennsylvania Canal. He stated 
that the transportation by land from Phila- 
delphia to Pittsburg would be reduced twenty 
miles. The object of the Pennsylvania Canal 
was to develop the natural resources, and 
cherish the industry of the Commonwealth by 
bringing all its important sections as near as 
possible to a sure and profitable market. 

At that time it was estimated that 578,160 
bushels of salt, and 17,440 tons of iron, ar- 
rived annually at Pittsburg by land and water 
from districts bordering on the Conemaugh 
and Kiskiminetas. Tlie Transportation of 
goods by land, from Philadelphia and Balti- 
more to Pittsburg, amounted to 9.300 tons a 
year, for which $465,000 was paid; and the 
return transportation to these places was 5,300 
tons, for which $132,500 was paid. The ag- 
gregate of this land transportation on 14,600 
tons may be added to the tonnage already 
stated as existing on the Juniata and Kiskim- 
inetas. Xor did this estimate include the flour, 
whiskey and other produce which arrived at 
Pittsburg by land, and was carried by land 
from the neighborhood of the Juniata. The 
trade on the Juniata amounted yearly to 

It was believed that the commerce already 
existing was an ob.ject sufficient to justify 
the undertaking proposed. But when the 
immense quantity of mineral and agi'icultural 
products, comparatively worthless, which a 
safe communication with a steady market 
would raise at once to their proper value, was 
taken into the account, the aggregate as above 
stated sinks into insignificance. It was ex- 
pected that the iron and coal trade of the 
Juniata, and the supply of salt, coal and iron 
of the Kiskiminetas. would increase in the 
same ratio. These things alone would afford 
the State a handsome revenue. 

Wm. Darlington, president, and James ilc- 
Ilvane. secretary, reported Feb. 27, 1827, as 
follows : 

'"One view of this subject remains to be 
suggested, which is entitled to great weight 
with the intelligent and patriotic. The State 
of Pennsylvania has advantages of the highest 
grade ; and sources of wealth almost without a 
limit. But while the bounties of nature have 
flowed so copiously, the great principle in 
the order of Providence which calls for hu- 
man eflt'ort, in exact proportion to natural 
capability has been indelibly written on her 
mountains and her torrents. For want of 
such exertion the prosperity of Pennsylvania 
has comparatively languished, while a more 
enterprising neighbor has advanced with un- 
paralleled rapidity. Without artificial navi- 
gation, the citizen of Pennsylvania has been 
limited in his commerce to the course of a 
stream or has found in his mountains an im- 
passable barrier to a profitable market. Hence 
each section of country has had a different 
outlet, most of it beyond the borders of the 
State; hence that wealth has been dissipated 
among strangera, which ought to be accumu- 
lated in emporiums of our own; and worse 
perhaps than all, a disunion of interest and 
of feeling has been created which is dangerous 
or enfeebling. 

"The system proposed is deemed adequate 
to the remedv of all these e\ils. It will give 




scope to our natural resources, and to our 
most valuable industry, axid increased secur- 
ity. It will unite all sections of the State by 
the band of common interests and mutual de- 
pendence. It will insure our citizens the 
profits of our industry, and accumulate that 
wealth which industry and enterprise, com- 
bined with natural and artificial advantages, 
cannot fail to produce." 

The committee appointed to make investi- 
gations regarding the advisability of making 
the Pennsylvania Canal reported as follows: 

"The greatness of the commercial empo- 
rium, and the superiority of the market on the 
Delaware, contrasted with the seaport on 
the Chesapeake, or any of the seaports of the 
South, will always attract the western trade 
into the Pennsylvania Canals. This result 
cannot be prevented by New York, as our 
route will be shorter and less interrupted by 
ice. When besides this advantage we con- 
sider the superior productiveness of the coun- 
try through which the Pennsylvania Canal 
will flow; the fertile valleys of the Susque- 
hanna, in their present cultivation, sending 
annually to the market products to the amount 
of nearly four millions of dollars; the ex- 
tent to which the manufacture of salt may 
be cai-ried; the immense masses of coal; the 
beds of iron ore, the most precious of metals, 
and would be converted into all its ar- 
tificial forms; the new mineral wealth 
which would be discovered by means of 
the geological and mineralogical survey now 
contemplated; and when we further con- 
sider the numerous branch canals and auxil- 
iary railroads, which would soon be con- 
structed, it will be perceived that the tonnage 
on the Pennsylvania route Avill be of vast 
magnitude, and greater than that which will 
ever pass upon any other route between the 
eastern and western waters. If then we as- 
sume that after the completion, the total of 
the tonnage of the descending- trade will be 
200,000 tons, which is but little more than the 
present tonnage of the Susquehanna; and if 
we compute the tolls at an average sum of one 
cent per ton a mile, for a mean distance of 
300 miles, it will give an annual sum of 
$600,000. From which, if we make ample 
deductions of 20% for repairs and superin- 
tendency, say $120,000, there will be an an- 
nual revenue of $480,000. This sum will pay 
the interest on ten millions of dollars, for 
money can be secured from the banks at 41/2%- 
Besides it has been ascertained that more than 
one million of dollars have been paid for 
many years in succession, for carrying com- 

modities from the Atlantic ports to the west- 
ern waters. 

"The next proposition which it is the pur- 
pose of the committee to sustain, is that the 
contemplated improvements will enliven the 
great roads of the State, and render pro- 
ductive the vast amount of stock in turnpikes 
and bridges (which has been computed at ten 
millions of dollars), and of which the state 
owns more than two millions of dollars. 

"A full development of our resources will 
give fertility and population to the barren dis- 
tricts, and spread agi-iculture, manufactures 
and commerce over the whole State, embrac- 
ing twenty-nine millions of acres. One of the 
results of this general prosperity will be an 
active intercourse between the various parts 
of our Commonwealth, and a vast increase 
upon the roads and bridges of those vehicles 
which pay toll without wearing out the road. 

"In presenting genei-al considerations in 
favor of the canal policy, the committee may 
be allowed to advert to the facilities it will 
hereafter afilord for the construction of rail- 
ways. Many intelligent persons are of the 
opinion that from the immense field for pro- 
ductive industry and active labor presented 
by Pennsylvania and from the magnitude of 
future trade between the seaports of our 
State and the great growing country of the 
west, railroads will hereafter be constracted 
parallel to our canals." 

The act to begin the Pennsylvania Canal at 
the expense of the State passed Feb. 2-5, 1826. 
In 1827 the State appropriated five millions 
of dollars for the Pennsylvania Canal. Jan. 
30, 1827, George T. Olmstead, assistant en- 
gineer to Nathan S. Roberts, reported to the 
Legislature of the State as follows: 

"The examination down the Conemaugh 
and Kiskiminetas has been confined exclusively 
to the north bank of the river, and is com- 
paratively the best, particularly when taking 
into view the advantage of a southern expo- 
sure. The line has been located with a strict 
adherence to a canal navigation, and no in- 
surmountable obstacles have been found to 
prevent such location, notwithstanding im- 
provements by slackwater navigation would 
perhaps be advisable in some places. It has 
been suggested that an improvement of the 
river passing through Laurel Hill and Chest- 
nut Ridge would be the cheapest or best mode 
to pursue. There would be no serious ob- 
jection to a slackwater navigation past Laurel 
hill ; the river has a descent of 32 feet to five 
miles, and could be overcome with two dams, 
while the Chestnut Ridge has a descent of 64 



feet iu the same distance, aud would be more 
expensive than a canal. 

"The stone necessary for the construction 
of locks can be found principally in the vicin- 
ity of the canal ; in some places, however, there 
will be a difficultj' in obtaining stone of good 
quality — the stone required for aqueducts, 
culverts, bridges, etc., can be obtained at al- 
most any point along the river. 

' ' Beginning at Johnstown and extending to 
the mouth of the Kiskiminetas there was 64 
miles of canal and 46 locks. The estimated 
cost is as follows : 
Total amount of excavation, em- 
bankment, etc. . . . ._ ;|^654,124.93 

368 feet of lockage (a) $600 per 

foot 220,800.00 

35 bridges (aJ $250 8,750.00 

32 miles of fence @ $480 15,360.00 

Add for contingencies lO^c 89,903.49 


"At this time no complaints were made by 
any person through whose lands the canal 

"The eleventh mile ran by Rodger's mill 
at old Ninevah. The line ran between the saw 
and grist mill. It was suggested that it would 
be better to move the grist mill below the 
canal. This was done. The cost of making 
this mile of canal was $12,808.30. 

"The lock at a small town called Abner- 
ville, east of Centerville, was on the fifteenth 
mile, and was the thirteenth lock west of 
Johnstown. The cost of this mile was 

"The thirty-second mile commences at 
Blairsville, and with the exception of two 
short pieces of narrow bottom land, an em- 
bankment in the bed of the river will be 
necessary the whole distance, from 6 to 12 
feet below. The mile will cost $21,426.60. 

"Mile 35 commences with a piece of deep 
cutting, and continues about 12 chains over 
very steep sideling grounds; the line then 
continues in the road on a narrow bank to 
Blaeklick creek, which will require an aque- 
duct of two hundred feet— surface water IS 
feet below and about two feet deep." 

The western division of the main line of 
the Pennsylvania Canal, as it passed along the 
Conemaugh, frequently opened iuto a series 
of slackwater pools in the river. Slackwater, 
the time when the tide runs slowly, or the 
water is at rest ; or the interval between the 
flux and reflux of the tide. Slackwater navi- 

gation, uaAngation iu a stream the depth of 
which has been increased, and the current di- 
minished, by a dam or dams. Nine miles 
below Blairsville the canal passes through a 
tunnel over 1,000 feet long, and emerges upon 
a stone aqueduct across the Conemaugh. 

To the travelers passing up the canal, the 
view of the aqueduct, and the western entrance 
of the tunnel, with the river aud rugged moun- 
tains above it, is exceedingly picturesque. 
Previous to the construction of the canal, the 
Conemaugh was a rough impetuous stream, of 
dangerous navigation. 

Before the slackwater dams were built, the 
rapidity of the water through Chestnut Ridge 
was such that a heavily loaded boat, after en- 
tering Richard's Falls, ran a distance of 
seven miles with the swiftness of the fastest 
racehorse, and in that distance were two of 
the shortest bends that ever a large craft of 
any kind was piloted around. These were the 
Spruce Bend and Packsaddle Falls. At the 
Spruce Bend a ridge of rocks projected almost 
across the river from the north side, leaving a 
channel of very little more than the width of 
the boat, aud the bend was so short that as the 
l5oat passed her bow was heading straight for 
the rocks on the north side, not much more 
than the length of herself ahead. If the pilot 
missed the exact spot on entering the chute, 
or a stroke of the oar was missed by himself, 
or his bowsman, the boat was smashed to 
pieces and often men killed among her broken 
timbers, or drowned in the boisterous billows. 
At a veiy early day three brothers were lost 
from a boat that was wrecked on this reef of 
rocks, and from that circumsstauce they got 
the appellation of the "Three Brothers," and 
were known by that name as long as the chan- 
nel of the Conemaugh was navigated. Rich- 
ard's Falls were often run l)y good pilots, by 
keeping the boat in her proper position while 
rounding the Horseshoe Bend at Lockport, 
without the stroke of an oar when entering or 
passing through, and as we swept down the 
straight rapids from the mouth of Tubmill 
to Spruce Bend an awful silence generally 
prevailed, our oars held in the proper po- 
sition to be dipped in the twinkling of an eye, 
at the pilot's command. As we came to 
the first bend the orders were given, "To the 
left." The blades were dipped, and every 
man's shoulder to the stems, dashed them 
across the boat with a rapidity that cannot be 
described. All except the pilot and the bows- 
man wheeled their backs to the oar and dashed 
back, followed by the undipped oars in the 
hands of the pilot and bowsman; the blades 



were dipped and every man wheeled with the 
quickness and exactness of rapid machinery, 
and we extended the chute, as if it were pos- 
sible to add anything to the motion and the 
strength of the men's nerves. The pilot's 
voice was heai'd above the roar of the con- 
vulsed waters, "Hard to the left," "Hard to 
the left," "Hard to the left"; and without 
time to breathe as we entered the Packsaddle, 
"Hard to the right"; and in the twinkling of 
an eye every man was on the opposite side of 
the oars, and all shoulders to their work, dash- 
ing them in the opposite direction ; and with 
a higher speed than that of lightning train of 
cars behind time, we passed that awful preci- 
pice, now to be seen by the traveler on the 
Pennsylvania railroad. All reeking with 
sweat, and bosoms heaving with respiration, a 
shout of joy was raised as we emerged from 
the Packsaddle. All dangers were then be- 
lieved to be passed. 

Boatmen from Johnstown and Ligouier Val- 
ley considered all danger passed when they 
had got safely through Chestnut Ridge, though 
there were scary places below to those who 
had seen nothing worse. These were Brown's 
Dam and Campbell's Dam on the Conemaugh, 
Kiskiminetas Falls on the Kiskiminetas, and 
Pocketv Chute on the Allegheny river. 

Mr. T. C. Reed gives the following: "The 
last craft of any kind that was ever run down 
the channel of" the Conemaugh through the 
Ridge, was a craft of green boards which was 
built at the foot of Richard's Ealls, on the 
north side of the river. It was getting dark 
when we had finished building our raft and 
hanging our bars. Lest the water should fall, 
to be too low in the morning, we pushed out 
and ran the frightful falls bends in darkness, 
having nothing visible but the white foam of 
the dashing waves and the rugged movuitain 
sides for our guides. Brother Andy was the 
pilot, and, if I remember correctly, Henry 
Harr the bowsman, and Robert Riddle and 
myself the only common hands. We ran safely 
through, landed that night at Blairsville, sold 
our boards to Noble Nesbitt, to be delivered 
at Livermore. The Pennsylvania Canal was 
just coming into existence. We shoved out 
the next morning, our raft of green boards all 
under water, except the floor, which was 
merely on a level with the top of the water. 
In crossing Campbell's Dam. at the mouth of 
Blacklick, she dived to the bottom. The dash- 
ing of the waves would have washed us off if 
we had not held on to the oars, one of which 
had become unshipped, leaving us to drift at 
the mercy of the current, standing in the 

water almost to our arms, with the raft un- 
der our feet. As we drifted along she kept 
gradually rising, until at last, about a mile 
below the dam, she came to the top of the 
water, when we quickly reshipped our un- 
shipped oar and landed safely at Livermore. 
Thus ended the navigation of the Conemaugh 

"The same year, 1829, the Blairsville Dam. 
the two dams in Chestnut Ridge, and the two 
dams in Laurel Hill, were built, and the only 
boating from Johnstown, or the valley, to 
Pittsburg afterwards was done on the canal. 
The canal was located along the end of my 
father's liouse. The canal was first com- 
menced by the filthiest, most ignorant, and 
uncivilized men that ever Cork emptied into 
the United States. On the first Sabbath after 
getting into their shanties, they got out with 
their shotguns and commenced shooting the 
poultry about the barnyard. My father went 
out and remonstrated, but he was answered : 
'Be jabers it's a fra country, an' we'll shoot 
as minny checkens as we plaze. ' 

' ' On the 4th of July a regular old-fashioned 
celebration was got up at Lockport on the line 
of the canal. The Irish in attendance fnr 
outnumbered all others. While the oration 
was being delivered they swore they would 
P'at the speaker ofi' the stand. They made the 
attempt but failed. They were driven out of 
1he village, many of them badly used up. 
They made a threat to take the place on the 
following Saturday. There were about five 
hundred men engaged in building the aque- 
duct. Tlie contractor provided every man 
with a rifle and ammunition for the occasion. 
On the appointed day the Irish collected in 
great numjjers on the bank of the river op- 
posite Lockport, where they came in view of 
over five hundred armed men. They were 
informed that if they attempted to cross the 
river they would be shot down. They scat- 
tered off faster than they had collected. 

' ' On one occasion three of my brothers, three 
or four hired men, and myself, were going 
home to dinner from our work at the saw- 
mill, on the lower end of the farm. We were 
crossing the fields some rods from the canal. 
We saw and heard a great commotion, but 
had no thought of anything unusual, and 
were passing by as we were in the habit of 
doing, supposing it to be but a common Irish 
fray among themselves, when we heard a well- 
known voice calling out: 'Will j^ou fellows 
allow a fellow to be murdered by a set of red- 
mouthed Irish?' It was William Bennett. 
More than one hundred Irishmen had him sur- 



rounded. Their noise could only be compared 
to the barking of as many angry bulldogs, but 
their courage fell far short of the courage of 
that animal. He had threatened the first 
man that would come within a rod of him, 
and they had made their inner circle fully 
that distance from the center which he oc- 
cupied. AVe all ran to his rescue, and such a 
chattering of brogue has seldom been heard. 
Those who made the first break didn't wait 
to see whether there were a dozen or a hun- 
dred of us, and more than one-half of them 
didn't know why the rest ran. The panic- 
stricken crowd might be compared to as many 
sheep with dogs let loose among them. They 
never stopped to look behind them, till they 
were out of sight, and how far they ran before 
they discovered they were not pursued, we 
never knew. 

■ ■ There were a great many cart horses used 
in building the embankment at the east end 
of the aqueduct. These were turned into my 
father's grain fields at the back part of the 
farm after night, and taken out before day- 
light in the morning; when the grain was 
nearly ready to be harvested, and before we 
knew of it, the crop was entirely destroyed. 
Our horses were poisoned by arsenic being 
put upon theii- chopped feed in such quantity 
that they had eaten but little of their feed. 
One of my brothers was on horseback on an 
errand. The feed was ready mixed in the 
feed box. He came home about dark, and 
fed all the horses in the stable. The next 
morning the one he had been riding was ly- 
ing dead in the stable, and five others were 
so badly poisoned that some of them never re- 
covered, but died lingering in misery for some 
months after receiving the poison. 

"About a mile of fence, together with the 
partition fences, the breadth of the first tier of 
fields along the river, were burnt in the shan- 
ties for fuel, and the whole laid waste during 
the two years of making the canal. The owner 
of the farm below my father's threatened the 
contractor with the law. if he would not pay 
for damage done to his farm. He replied : 
'D — n ye. bring on yer sheriff', an' I set me 
ban's on him, an' guv him a good batin, an' 
he'll not trouble me much.' He brought the 
sheriff, and the sheriff brought three or four 
rugged fellows with him from Indiana, and 
enlisted as many from the neighborhood of 
the scene of action. As they approached they 
were met by about one hundred Irishmen, 
armed with picks and shovels. One of the 
sheriff's posse drew and presented a pistol, 
which was sufficient, and they didn't bate the 

sheriff. ' The contractor was taken to Indiana. 
An Irishman from Blairsville bailed him for 
his appearance at next court, and before he 
left the justice's office he said to the prosecu- 
tor: 'Now, sur, I've guv bail, and I'll just go 
home an ' set me ban 's to work, an ' we '11 pile 
up all the rails on yer place, an' burn them to 
ashes.' Before he had finished he found him- 
self again in the hands of the sheriff, who took 
him to jail, where he remained a long time be- 
fore he could procure sufficient bail to release 
him till court. He was compelled to pay dam- 
ages, and taught that a 'fra country was not 
Mhat he took it to be.' 

"Before the Pennsylvania Canal was con- 
structed, salt and Juniata iron were carried 
across the mountains on packhorses. Two or 
three of the settlers were furnished with 
bacon, dried beef, deerskins, venison, etc., and 
all the horses in the neighborhood. A train of 
packhorses consisted of from five to a dozen 
and even more, tethered by a hitching rope 
one behind the other. The master of the train 
rode before or followed after the horses and 
directed their movements bj' his voice. About 
fifteen miles per day were traveled in this 
manner, and each horse carried about two- 
hundred pounds' burden. The harness con- 
sisted of a packsaddle and a halter, and the 
lead horse often had, in addition, a circling 
band of iron over his withers attached to the 
saddle and to which were hung several bells, 
whose tinkling in a way relieved the monotony 
of the journey and kept the horses from going 

"The paekhorse required the use of a pack- 
saddle. It was made of four pieces of wood, 
two being notched, the notches fitting along 
the horse's back, with the front part resting 
upon the animal's withers. The other two 
were flat pieces about the length and breadth 
of a lap shingle, perhaps 18 inches by 5 inches. 
They extended along the sides and were fas- 
tened to the ends of the notched pieces. Upon 
the saddles were placed all kinds of merchan- 
dise. Bars of iron were bent in the middle 
and hung across ; large creels of wicker work, 
containing babies, bed-clothing, and farm im- 
plements, as well as kegs of powder, caddies of 
spice, bags of salt, sacks of charcoal, and boxes 
of glass, were thus carried over the mountains. 
They crossed Laurel Hill on the road leading 
from Shrum's mill to Johnstown. By what 
route they crossed the Allegheny mountains, 
I do not know. After arriving at the caravan- 
sary, and exchanging their commodities for 
salt and iron, they loaded their horses by 
bending the bars of iron and hanging them 



across the paeksaddles on the horses' backs. 
The salt was carried in large bags of home 
manufacture. To protect the salt from rain 
the bags were covered by bearskins. Their 
homeward journey was performed by the same 
routine of the eastward trip. Shoppers from 
Pittsburg went to Philadelphia in squads of 
eight or ten to lay in their yearly supply of 
goods and brought them to Pittsburg in this 

"The time came at last to relieve the com- 
munity along the Conemaugh of their annual 
trip for salt and iron. An enterprising Ger- 
man, named John Benninger, built a quai'ter 
stock furnace and tilt-hammer forge on Tub- 
mill creek, not far from where Ross Furnace 
was afterwards built, and another tilt-hammer 
forge on the same creek, where Bolivar now 
stands. A considerable amount of bar iron 
was made by these works, but so brittle that it 
was unfit for the farmers' use, and the con- 
sequence was that he failed, and the works 
were suffered to go to i-uin. 

"By some means a road was opened across 
the mountains to Johnstown, I believe the old 
Franksto^vn road — and Juniata bar iron was 
brought in wagons to Johnstown, and carried 
to Pittsburg in flatboats at times of high water 
or freshets. Persons passing along the Cone- 
maugh river at the present day can form no 
correct idea of its appearance in the high 
water before the rocks were blasted out and 
the slackwater dams built in the mountain 
passes. I doubt whether a more difficult 
stream was ever navigated by men of any age. 
A great many were drowned in proportion to 
the number engaged in boating. For some 
years after boating commenced six or eight 
"tons were considered to be a load for a large 
boat. But one adventurer after another 
loaded heavier and. heavier, until, fifty tons 
of pig metal were loaded and carried safely 
by different boatmen. 

"Bar iron was the principal loading for 
boats built at Johnstown. After Westmore- 
land Furnace, Washington Furnace, and Ross 
Furnace were built, and the northern turn- 
pike was completed, boats built on the south 
side of the river, in Ligonier Valley, were 
loaded with pig metal, and those built on the 
north side were chiefly loaded with bar iron, 
brought by wagons to different boatyards 
along the north bank of the river. JTost of 
the pig metal stopped at Pittsburg, the great 
iron emporium of the world, to be manufac- 
tured into castings; but much of the bar iron 
went on down the Ohio river to Cincinnati 

and Louisville, and some was run on down the 
Mississippi to New Orleans in the same boats 
in which it left the Conemaugh valley. 

"The main line of the Pennsylvania Canal 
with its connecting railroads was opened for 
business throughout its entire length in the 
spring of 1834, the branches being opened at 
later dates. Important and valuable as these 
improvements were, in the aid they gave to 
the development of the material resources of 
Pennsylvania, and in bringing into closer re- 
lations the whole people of the Commonwealth, 
it is painful to record the fact that the opera- 
tion of the main line and its important 
branches virtually came to an end within 
thirty years after it began. This ever to be 
regretted termination of a great and useful 
enterprise was due primarily to the inefficient 
and sometimes corrupt management of the en- 
tire system and next to the competition of the 
Pennsylvania railroad, the building of which 
was authorized by an act of the Legislature 
dated April 13, 1846, and which was com- 
pleted to Pittsburg on Dec. 10, 1852. On Aug. 
1, 1857, the State sold the whole of the main 
line to the Pennsylvania Railroad Company 
for $7,500,000, which soon abandoned the 
great part of the canal. 

"Ephraim Stitt, of Blairsville, was prob- 
ably the last captain to bring through freight 
from Pittsburg to Johnstown. He brought a 
cargo consigned to the Cambria Iron Company 
in 1859. About Dec. 1, 1860, the Mononga- 
hela, of which George Rutlidge was captain, 
brought a cargo of salt and grain from Liver- 
more to Johnstown, and this was probably 
the last boat to bring a load of merchpndise 
to the latter place. There were no lock-ten- 
ders at this time. On May 1, 1863, the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad Company abandoned the 
canal between Johnstown and Blairsville. 

"The first tunnel that was built in the 
United States formed a part of the Portage 
Railroad. It was made at the staple bend of 
the Conemaugh, four miles from Johnstown. 
The tunnel was made through a spur of the 
AUeghenies, near which the stream makes a 
bend of two miles and a half. On the western 
division of the Pennsylvania Canal, at a plnce 
then and now called Tunnelton, about half 
way between Johnstown and Pittsburg, a tun- 
nel was built between 1827 and 1829 throush 
one of the foothills of the AUeghenies. This 
tunnel connected with an aqueduct over the 
Conemaugh. It was the third tunnel that 
was built in the United States." 




The Indiana quadrangle, which embraces 
one sixteenth of a square degree of the earth's 
surface, extends from latitude 40° 30' to 40° 
45' and from longitude 79° 00' to 79° 15', 
and has an area of about 227 square miles. It 
is situated in Indiana county, Pa., and is 
named from the town of Indiana, which is in 
the central portion of the quadrangle.' 


The triangulation stations described be- 
low, determined by the United States Geo- 
logical Survey, give precise locations for 
several points within and ad.iacent to the Indi- 
ana quadrangle. These stations are marked 
by stone posts 42x6x6 inches, set about three 
feet in the gi'ound, in the center of the top of 
which are cemented bronze tablets marked 
" U. S. Geological Suiwey — Pennsylvania." 

Kunkle. — On the land owned by Phil'p Kun- 
kle: about two miles north of Creekside post- 
office, near western end of a high ridge having 
scattered trees on the eastern end. 

Coleman. — In "White township, about two 
miles west of Indiana, on laud owned by D. 

Reference marks: Stone sunk 2 feet below 
surface of ground in direction of Kunkle 
station ; distant 10.2 feet to cross on stone. 
Stone sunk 18 inches below surface of ground 
in direction of "Warner station ; distant 12.3 
feet to cross on stone. 

Pouiand. — On a high hill on land owned 
bv W. S. Rowland: about four miles north of 
Plumville. in South IMahoning township, and 
near the line between "West Mahoning and 
South Mahoning townships. 

1 The Indiana quadrangle is included in the area 
surveyed by W. G. Piatt in 1877. and his report on 
Indiana county (HHHH), published by the Second 
Geological Survey of Pennsylvania, was frequently 
consulted in the preparation of this account. 

Warner. — About three miles southwest of 
Indiana, in White township, on the highest 
part of a bare, round-top hill, on land owned 
by ;\Ir. Warner. 

Nolo. — About one fourth mile north of Nolo 
post office, on land owned by Mr. McCafPery, 
on high ground, but not the highest point. 

Reference marks: Stones set 1 foot below 
surface of ground, with cross on top. and set 
on line with Evans and ilcCoy: distant 10 
feet from station. 

Strong. — In Cherryhill township, about two 
miles southwest of Greenville village, on the 
highest hill in the immediate vicinity, on land 
owned by H. B. Strong. There is a lone tree 
on the southwest part of the hill. 

Evans. — On Evans hill, Brushvalley town- 
ship, on land owned by John Evans, on high- 
est part of hill, cleared of timber with the 
exception of two small chestnut trees. 

Indiana Normal School. — Station mark: 
Cupola of normal school building. 

Widow. — In Blaeklick township, about six 
miles east of Blairsville. on the Blairsville and 
Ebensburg pike, on a bare hill about twenty 
rods south of the road, on land owned by heirs 
of J. W. Thompson. 

Watt. — About one mile southwest of Tan- 
nery and one and three-quarter miles north- 
west of Parkwood post office, on the highest 
point of the western one of two hills about 
the same height and one mile apart. The 
land is owned by Thomas Watt. 

Broadview. — About three and one-half 
miles north of Shelocta and a few rods east 
of the Armstrong-Indiana county line, on a 
high, bare hill, with some timber on the south- 
west slope. Tlie land is owned by John 

McCoy. — About one mile southeast of 
Taylorsville, on a bare, round-top hill owned 
by .Tames McCoy. 

" Palmer. — About two and one-half miles 
south of Rochester iMills post office, in Grant 
to^Tiship, on a very high, partly cleared ridge, 
on land owned bv Mr. Palmer. 



Reference marks: Stones set 1 foot below 
surface of ground, with cross on top, in line 
with stations Rowland and McCoy ; distant 10 
feet from station. 


Phymoffraphic Relations. — The two char- 
acteristic plains of the Allegheny plateaus are 
represented in the Indiana quadrangle, but 
their features ai-e so indistinct as to be almost 
unrecognizable. Chestnut Ridge represents 
the escarpment which elsewhere divides the 
lower, western plateau from the higher pla- 
teau on the east. 

West of Chestnut Ridge rounded hilltops 
and divides, ranging in elevation from 1,250 
to 1,400 feet, are thought to mark the lower, 
western plateau. It is supposed that they are 
the remnants of a more or less even surface 
which was produced by long-continued stream 
action when the entire region was nearer sea 
level than now, probably in Tertiary time. 
Later uplift and exposure to subaerial con- 
ditions have caused such erosion of the country 
as to leave in western Pennsylvania only the 
present faint traces of the old surface of de- 

The top of Chestnut Ridge is the sole rem- 
nant in the quadrangle of the older and higher 
plateau. Remnants of this are strikingly ap- 
parent in the area lyiug eastward, in the even- 
crested sky line formed by the tops of Dias 
Ridge and Laurel Hill as seen from the top 
of Chestnut Ridge. It is thought that this sky 
line marks an old land surface which once 
constituted an extensive and approximately 
flat low-lying plain. The geologic date of the 
formation of this old plain, the last traces of 
which are now passing away, is not known, 
but possibly, when detailed mapping shall 
have progressed across the State to the At- 
lantic coast, this physiographic stage can be 
correlated with a similar stage there recog- 
nized and referred to Cretaceous time. 

Surface Relief .—Chestnut Ridge is the most 
pronounced topographic feature of the Indiana 
quadrangle. The ridge enters in the south 
central part and extends northeastward across 
the quadrangle. It is a narrow highland belt, 
the distance from valley to valley on either 
side being only about five miles. The west- 
ern slope is the steeper, there being a change 
in altitude of 800 feet from the top of the 
ridge to Twolick creek, while on the east the 
falf to Brush valley is only about 500 feet. 
The ridge is dissected, but within the limits of 
the quadrangle is crossed by only one stream, 

Yellow creek, which flows in a narrow gorge. 
The top of the ridge is characterized by a 
number of knobs, ranging in elevation from 
1,700 to 1.900 feet. Chestnut Ridge marks the 
position of an anticline, which will be referred 
to below. It is capped by heavy sandstone, 
blocks of which litter the slopes and make the 
region difficult of access. 

Dias Ridge, sometimes called Nolo Ridge, 
occupies a small area in the southeast corner of 
the quadrangle. It is similar to Chestnut 
Ridge, from which it is separated by a gently 
undulating valley formed in shale and drained 
by Brush creek. 

West of Chestnut Ridge the country is more 
open and the topography is less rough. The 
region is occupied by three southwestward 
flowing streams, Twolick and Crooked creeks, 
which have cut broad and well-pronounced 
valleys in the general upland surface, and the 
south bi-anch of Plum creek, which drains the 
northwest corner of the quadrangle. The 
divides between these creeks form low, ill- 
defined ridges, the tops of which are marked 
by isolated, rounded knobs. In the southwest 
corner of the quadrangle the hilltops range 
between 1,250 and 1,400 feet in elevation. The 
divide between Twolick and Crooked creeks is 
a higher area, much of which is above 1,500 
feet, and a number of hilltops reach 1,600 
feet. Between Crooked creek and the south 
branch of Plum creek the surface is lower, the 
hills averaging only about 1,400 feet. 

The area ad.iacent to the town of Indiana 
is characterized by gently undulating topog- 
raphy, marked by a few low, rounded hills. 
This open stretch contrasts strongly with the 
rougher .surrounding country, and doubtless 
accounts for the fact that this part of the 
country was settled early, the relatively fertile, 
gently rolling country being naturally more 
attractive than the ridges. 

Drainage. — The drainage of the Indiana 
quadrangle passes entirely into the Allegheny 
river. The main waterways are Twolick, Yel- 
low and Brush creeks, which flow southward 
to .ioin the Allegheny by way of Blacklick 
creek and Conemaugh river, and Crooked 
creek, with its tributary, the south branch of 
Plum creek, which, flowing westward, reaches 
the Allegheny by a more direct route. The 
northeast corner of the quadrangle is but a 
few miles from the divide between the Atlantic 
and the Gulf of Mexico, where the headwaters 
of the West Branch of the Susequehanna 
river approach those of Twolick creek. 

An interesting feature of the local drainage 
is the abnormal direction of flow of the head- 


waters of McKee run and Crooked creek. 
Branches of McKee run heading near Grove 
Chapel have courses which suggest that they 
have not alwaj-s flowed into Crooked creek, 
and some tributaries of Crooked creek in the 
vicinity of Tanoma and Onbei'g likewise are 
reversed. Between Onberg and Tanoma, 
Crooked creek flows northward, while its 
branches flow southward. These facts sug- 
gest that in an earlier stage of stream devel- 
opment in this region the drainage of the area 
between the towns of Indiana and Dixonville 
was different from the existing system. There 
seems to have been a reversal of drainage, in 
consequence of which certain streams which 
formerly were tributary to Twolick creek now 
flow into Crooked creek. For some reason, 
streams draining into Crooked creek had the 
advantage over those which flowed into Two- 
lick, whereby the Ci'ooked creek drainage was 
enabled to cut back the divides at the ex- 
pense of the Twolick drainage until finally 
the headwaters of certain branches of Two- 
lick were tapped and their drainage was 
turned into Crooked creek. 



Character and Thickness. — The rocks ex- 
posed at the surface in the Indiana quad- 
rangle, except the alluvium found in the creek 
bottoms, are all of Carboniferous age. The 
surface rocks belong chiefly- to the Cone- 
maugh and Allegheny formations, but where 
Twolick and Yellow creeks and Allen run cut 
through Chestnut Ridge the Pottsville for- 
mation is exposed, and on Yellow creek, for a 
short distance probably, the 3Iauch Chunk 
shales also outcrop. From the lowest geologic 
horizon to the highest, only about 1.100 feet 
of roek in the vertical thickness intervene. 
These rocks are shales, sandstones, thin lime- 
stones and coals. 

The different sections illustrate the varia- 
bility of the sucession. Though a section in 
one part of the quadrangle may have approx- 
imately the thickness and general character 
of a corresponding section in another part, it 
is likely to show many minor variations. This 
is very apparent in the field. On attempting. 
for instance, to trace a sandstone which at one 
locality is thick and prominent, it may be 
found that it soon becomes more shaly and 
less prominent, and finally may lose its dis- 
tinctive features and pass into a sandy shale, 
or even into a sliale with no snnd admixture. 

Farther along the same horizon the sandy 
phase may reappear, so that the horizon may 
again be marked by a prominent sandstone. 
The strata therefore frequently occur as lenses, 
and just as a sandstone merges into a shale, so 
limestones and shales pass by transition into 
one another from point to point. Any phase 
may be strongly developed locally and else- 
where may fade out or merge into something 
else. Such changes are characteristic of these 
Upper Carboniferous rocks. 

Too much emphasis, however, must not be 
laid upon this irregularity. Over widely ex- 
tended regions uniform conditions prevailed 
and sedimentation resulted in strata which 
occur without much variation at the same 
horizon in large areas, and which can be 
traced many miles. Such hoi-izons seiwe very 
useful purposes in determining the geologic 
position of a series of rocks, and thej' make 
convenient division lines in mapping. The 
Pittsburg coal, the Upper Freeport coal, and 
the Pottsville sandstone are examples of 
strata that are persistent and distinguishable 
over wide areas. 

Some idea of the character of the rocks 
which underlie the Indiana quadrangle, but 
which do not outcrop within it, is furnished by 
the records of deep wells that have been sunk 
in search of gas. It must be borne in mind, 
however, that the holes were churn-drilled 
and that the value of such records varies with 
the care exercised by the recorder. The in- 
terpretation of these records is accordingly 
only tentative. 

All the wells which go deep enough show a 
conspicuous series of red shales and sand- 
stones, the top of which lies between 1,400 and 
1.500 feet below the Upper Freeport coal. 
Their average thickness in this region is about 
.350 feet. These rocks probably constitute a 
part of what formerly was called the Red 
Catskill, but as a distinct bed they are not 
known in outcrop, and conseciuently they have 
not received a specific name. 

An interval of about 550 feet above the 
top of the Devonian red beds is shown by the 
different records to be occupied by a series of 
rocks which is largely shah*, but which in- 
cludes several beds of sand. In one of these 
sandstones, lying about 1.100 feet below the 
Upper Freeport coal, natural gas in paying 
cjuantities has been found, a fact which will 
be refeiTcd to more fully under the heading 
"Mineral Resources." The exact stratigraph- 
ie horizon of this series can not now be 
stated, but is near the base of the Carboni- 
ferous and the top of the Devonian. 



Mauch Chunk Shale. — Of the rocks exposed 
at the surface of the Indiana quadrangle the 
Mauch Chunk shale is the oldest, though very 
little is known of it within this area. The 
records of deep wells show an interval of shale 
at the Mauch Chunk horizon between the 
Pottsville formation and the Pocono sand- 
stone. In some records these shales are re- 
ported red and in other no mention of the 
color is made. The thickest occurrence re- 
corded in this vicinity is in the Pickels well, 
on Chestnut Ridge, in Burrell township, where 
114 feet of red sands and shales are reported 
at the Mauch Chunk horizon. Northwestward 
the thickness diminishes considerably. 

Along Yellow creek where it crosses the 
Chestnut Ridge anticline there is sufficient 
interval for the Mauch Chunk to occur unless 
the Pottsville is unusually thick, but the rocks 
underlying the normal thickness of Pottsville 
in the Yellow creek gorge are concealed by a 
talus of heavy sandstone blocks. Inasmuch 
as in the region immediately south and south- 
west of the Indiana quadrangle the Mauch 
Chunk shales are well represented, and be- 
cause within this area some red material has 
been reported at the Mauch Chunk horizon in 
deep-well records, the presumption is that 
these rocks do outcrop in the Indiana quad- 
rangle. This was the determination of the 
Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania, 
and the Mauch Chunk is mapped accordingly. 

Pottsville Formation. — The Pottsville for- 
mation in this general vicinity consists of two 
beds of sandstone separated by an interval of 
shale which sometimes cames a bed of coal. 
But within the Indiana quadrangle, because 
of poor or incomplete exposures, no exact 
sections can be measured. Most of the records 
of deep wells within the quadrangle do not 
show distinctly this threefold division, but 
they give a general thickness of about 100 
feet for the formation. 

The Pottsville formation outcrops in three 
localities in the Indiana quadrangle — along 
Twolick creek where it emerges from Chestnut 
Ridge, in Allen run, and along Yellow creek 
where it crosses the Chestnut Ridge anticline. 

On Twolick creek the Pottsville occupies a 
small area near water level, the presence of 
the formation being made conspicuous by large 
blocks of sandstone in the creek. On Allen run 
for about a mile large blocks of snndstone 
near water level are thought to mark the out- 
crop of the Pottsville. Along Yellow creek the 
outcrop of this formation is greater. A heavy 
sandstone is there well developed, but the 
exposures are poor for detailed study. The 

hillslopes from the top of the formation down 
to the creek are strewn with huge blocks of a 
fine-textured, compact, whitish sandstone. 
Here the Pottsville measures about 100 feet. 

Allegheny Formation. — Overlying the 
Pottsville is the Allegheny formation, which is 
widespread in its occurrence and distinct in 
its definition. The Allegheny formation has 
been called the Lower Coal Measures, but in 
conformity with the custom of denoting for- 
mations by geographic names it has been 
named the Allegheny formation, from Alle- 
gheny river, where it is prominently exposed. 
The top of the Allegheny formation is marked 
by the Upper Freeport coal and the formation 
is delimited below by the Pottsville sandstone. 

Next to the Conemaugh the Allegheny is 
the most widespread formation of this quad- 
rangle, and its outcrop is important because 
of the associated coal beds. The map shows 
these rocks to outcrop in areas crossed by an- 
ticlinal axes along Chestnut Ridge, Rayne run, 
Crooked creek, McKee run, and the South 
branch of Plum creek. 

The thickness of the Allegheny formation 
in the Indiana quadrangle is about the same 
as in the adjoining regions. Although there 
are striking differences in stratigraphy, yet 
the total thickness of the formation is rather 
uniform. About 300 feet is the average, as 
the following well records show: The Win- 
sheimer well, two and one half miles west of 
Homer, gives a thickness of 285 feet, while the 
diamond-drill hole near Graceton records 318 
feet without certainty that the top of the 
Pottsville was reached. A diamond-drill hole 
near Gettysburg, about seven miles northeast 
of the cjuadrangle, shows a thickness of 303 
feet for the Allegheny formation; the gas 
wells on the south branch of Plum creek below 
Willet, about 300 feet; the St. Clair well, a 
mile south of Indiana, 301 feet ; and the Law- 
rence well, in Blacklick township, a few miles 
southwest of the quadrangle, 300 feet. 

The formation consists of shales, sandstones, 
a few thin limestones, and several beds of coal, 
some of which are of considerable economic 
importance. The Upper Freeport coal lies 
at the top of the formation and is rather per- 
sistent in its occurrence. This stratum is, how- 
ever, subject to variation, which will be dis- 
cussed under the heading "Mineral Re- 
sources." Below^ this coal at an interval vary- 
ing from to 40 feet the Freeport limestone 
and Bolivar fire clay members are often pres- 
ent, and these also will be referred to again. 
Then, after an interval of from 20 to 80 feet 
of dark shales, another coal sometimes occurs, 



which is called the Lower Freeport. Below 
are drab or dark-colored shales or sandy shales, 
sometimes a thiu bed of limestone, and occa- 
sionally a hea\T sandstone. This sandstone 
shows a thickness of 63 feet in bore hole No. 
1, near Graceton, where its top occurs 100 feet 
below the Upper Freeport coal. 

About the middle of the Allegheny forma- 
tion sometimes occur two or three beds of 
coal which are called the Kittanning coal. 
Only one of these, so far as known, is well 
developed in the Indiana quadrangle. This 
occurs about 200 feet below the Upper Free- 
port and is called the Lower Kittanniug coal. 
Drill records show in places a heavy sand- 
stone above this coal, and also one below. 
Thus, in a drill hole north of Yellow creek, 
near the east side of the quadrangle, a heavj^ 
sandstone was encountered whose top is 165 
feet below the Upper Freeport coal ; and drill 
hole No. 1. near Graceton, shows 5-4 feet of 
sandstone about 30 feet below the Lower Kit- 
tanning coal. 

In places limestone occurs associated with 
these coals. A bed of impure limestone 8 feet, 
9 inches thick was found in a drill hole on 
Ramsey run 175 feet below the Upper Free- 
port coal ; and in the same hole 4 feet, 5 inches 
of gray limestone occur 238 feet below the 
Upper Freeport. The former occurrence is 
noteworthy' because the limestone appears in 
the horizon of the Vanport (Ferriferous) 
limestone member. West of the quadrangle 
this limestone is well developed and is an im- 
portant key rock. Eastward it thins out. In 
the Indiana quadrangle the presence of the 
Vanport limestone member is recorded in only 
this diamond-drill hole, afid its outcrop is 
found at only one locality — along the axis of 
the Chestnut Ridge anticline, on the north 
slope of Yellow creek. Here fragments of 
limestone were found 80 feet above the top 
of the Pottsville and 20 feet below the Lower 
Kittannmg coal. 

From the horizon of the Vanport limestone 
member to the base of the formation the rocks 
are usually shales, among which one or two 
thin and unimportant layers of coal some- 
times occur. 

ConemaugJi Formation. — The rocks belong- 
ing to the Conemai;gh formation, which di- 
rectly overlies the Allegheny, have been called 
the Lower Barren Pleasures because they 
rarely carry workable coal and they lie be- 
tween formations which do contain valuable 
coal beds. But for the sake of unifonnity in 
geologic nomenclature the rocks have been 
named the Conemaugh formation, from their 

outcrop along Conemaugh river. The Cone- 
maugh formation is widespread in its occur- 
rence and is well defined. It is delimited 
above by the Pitt.sburg coal and below by the 
Upper Freeport, both coals being excluded 
from the formation. 

The Conemaugh formation, as shown by the 
geologic map, extends over most of the Indiana 
quadrangle. Except in the Chestnut Ridge 
region and a few other districts where the 
Allegheny formation outcrops, Conemaugh 
rocks are everj^diere exposed at the surface. 
The entire thickness of the formation is not 
present in the Indiana quadrangle. In the 
region to southwest of the area under con- 
sideration these rocks have a rather constant 
thickness of from 600 to 700 feet, but there is 
evidence that this thickness increases some- 
what northeastward. The best interpretation 
that can be given to several diamond-drill rec- 
ords in the southwestern part of the Indiana 
ciuadrangle, toward the center of the Latrobe 
syncline, places the Upper Freeport coal at an 
elevation of 650 to 680 feet, while adjacent 
hills on which the Pittsburg coal has not been 
found rise to a little more than 1,300 feet. 
These figures call for a thickness of over 600 
feet for the Conemaugh formation, an estimate 
which is borne out by facts in the territory to 
the south. A deep well at the Columbia Plate 
Glass Works at Blaii-sville gives an approxi- 
mate thickness of 675 feet for the Conemaugli. 
The Lawrence well on Grej's run, about a mile 
south of the southwest corner of the Indiana 
quadrangle, shows a thickness of at least 6''^0 
feet for the Conemaugh formation when there 
is added to the well record the thickness of 
rocks on an ad.iacent hill on which the Pitts- 
burg coal does not outcrop. 

As a whole the Conemaugh formation is 
composed largely of drab and reddish shales, 
but it is also characterized by the occurrence 
of important beds of sandstone. Minor beds 
of limestone and some coal are also included 
within the formation. 

There are four principal sandstones, but 
these occur as lenses or beds of limited extent 
and of local thickness instead of uniformly 
persistent strata. They therefore form mem- 
bers of the Conemaugh formation rather than 
distinct formations by themselves. The 
names given to these sandstones are those 
adopted in other localities where the Cone- 
maugh formation occurs, and their relative 
positions are approximately the same. AcKial 
identity in correlation caii not be established 
becaiise of the noncontinuity of the deposits 
as traceable beds. In lithologic character 



these sandstones resemble one another so 
closely that they can not be distinguished, but 
their stratigraphic position sei-ves to identify 
them. They range from hard, compact, fine- 
textured white or buff sandstones to friable 
and coarser-textured, much iron-stained sand- 
stones. Locally these rocks become conglom- 
eratic, the pebbles of quartz occasionally at- 
taining the size of beans. The sandstones 
vary in thickness from a few feet to 60 or 70 
feet. A common measurement when they are 
well developed is between 20 and 30 feet. 

The Connellsville sandstone member in this 
quadrangle is thin bedded, drab, and mica- 
ceous. It occurs about 80 feet below the 
Pittsburg coal, though in the type locality 
this interval is only about 50 feet. The Con- 
nellsville sandstone member outcrops in the 
Indiana quadrangle on only a few hills in 
the southwest corner, adjacent to the Pitts- 
burg coal area. 

The Morgantown sandstone member occurs 
about 500 feet above the Upper Freeport coal 
and is usually well developed. It is present 
on the hills west of Homer, on White, Cole- 
man and Warner hills, and between Grove 
Chapel and Tanoma. 

The top of the Saltsburg sandstone mem- 
ber is about 200 feet above the Upper Free- 
port coal. This sandstone outcrops at sev- 
eral localities in this quadrangle and occa- 
sionally is strongly developed, but at several 
places where its presence would be expected 
the sandstone phase is not present. The 
Saltsburg sandstone member occurs at Homer, 
at Edgewood, and along the road ci'ossing the 
hill northwest of Ideal. It is also well devel- 
oped on Dias Ridge, in the southeast corner 
of the quadrangle. It appears at the bend in 
the road between Indiana and Mechanicsburg 
just south of Twolick creek, and again on 
this road a little lower down the dip of the 
east flank of the Latrobe syncline, a short 
distance north of the creek. Thence south- 
westward it forms a bench along the hillside 
to the railroad cut south of Reed station. It 
shows in the western limb of the Latrobe 
syncline on the road along McCartney run a 
half mile west of Reed, where it has been 
quarried. This occurrence of the Saltsburg 
sandstone member is mentioned in detail be- 
cause it gives a surface demonstration of the 
existence in this region of the Latrobe syn- 

The ilahoning sMinlstiiin' member occurs at 
the base of the Conciiiiiimii formation. It is 
generally present within this (juadrangle, and 
its outcrop being contiguous to that of the 

Upper Freeport coal the position of the Ma- 
honing can be easily followed on the map. 
Tliis sandstone is prominent on Chestnut 
Ridge, about McKee run, and between Cham- 
bersville and Gaibleton. It is poorly devel- 
oped or not present at its horizon in Dixon 
run and in the south branch of Plum creek. 
It is recorded in several diamond-drill rec- 
ords, though in others it is absent. A strik- 
ing example of change in sedimentation, 
characteristic of the Coal Measures, is well 
shown by the distribvition of the Mahoning 
sandstone member. It is strongly developed 
as a massive conglomeratic sandstone on the 
ridge north of Penn run and east of Twolick 
creek, but in the nearby valley of Dixon run 
is scarcely recognizable. 

Drab shales and sandy shales, occasionally 
interbedded with bluish and reddish shales, 
are the most abundant rocks of the Cone- 
maugh formation. They occur between the 
sandstones that have just been mentioned and 
replace them wliere they are not developed. 
Locally the reddish shales attain prominence. 
For instance, the small hill east of the freight 
station in Indiana shows such a local devel- 
opment. These shales are about 350 feet 
above the Upper Freeport coal. 

Only a few outcrops of limestone were ob- 
served in the Conemaugh formation. On the 
hillside east of the road between Cherry run 
and Twolick creek, about one and one half 
miles southwest of Homer, is a thin bed of 
limestone carrying brachiopods. This bed oc- 
curs about midway in the Conemaugh forma- 
tion and probably represents the Ames (Crin- 
oidal) limestone member. Another exposure 
of what is believed to be this limestone occurs 
near the road forks at the head of Mudlick 
run. In Brushvalley, about three quarters of a 
mile northwest of Rico, underlying a coal 
which is there locally developed, is a limestone 
which has been quarried. This coal and 
limestone are thought to belong to the Elk 
Lick horizon and to be somewhat over 300 
feet above the Upper Freeport coal. 

The Conemaugh formation carries several 
coal beds, some of which within the Indiana 
quadrangle locally attain workable thickness. 
These coals are not persistent and their oc- 
currence is most irregular. They will be 
considered under the heading "Mineral 


Alluvium. — The flood plains of the stream.-, 
are composed of alluvium, consisting of sand. 



clay and silt. This material is made up of 
disintegrated rock particles which have been 
washed down from the hillsides and deposited 
in their present positions in times of high 
water. The most conspicuous occurrences are 
along the larger creeks and are mapped, but 
similar deposits too small to be shown on the 
map occur along all the streams. The allu- 
vium is fine-grained and where well developed 
makes valuable farm land. 


The Indiana ciuadrangle. situated as it is 
in the northeastern part of the plateau region 
not far from the Allegheny Front, conforms 
in geologic structure with the Allegl^eny 
Plateau. The rocks are bent into a series of 
low folds, which decrease in magnitude 

The structure contours are drawn with ref- 
erence to the Upper Freeport coal, the con- 
tour interval being 100 feet and the datum 
plane sea level. Ideally everywhere along any 
contour line the coal is at the same eleva- 
tion, and everywhere along the next contour 
above the elevation of the coal is 100 feet 
higher. The intersection of surface contours 
and structure contours of the same elevation 
marks the position of the outcrop of the 
Upper Freeport coal. Where the elevation 
of the surface at any point is greater than 
the elevation of the coal at that point, as 
shown by contiguous structure contours, the 
approximate depth of the coal below the sur- 
face may be found by subtraction. "Where 
the elevation of the surface is less than the 
corresponding elevation of the coal the latter 
has been removed bv erosion and the con- 
tours simply show structure. 

Suppose, for instance, the position of the 
Upper Freeport coal is desired at the In-idge 
crossing Twolick creek in the northern part 
of the town of Homer. It will be seen by the 
map that the elevation of the surface at this 
point is a little under 1.020 feet and that the 
bridge is a little above the 800-foot structure 
contour. The Upper Freeport coal, there- 
fore, is here about 1.020 minus 800 feet, or 
about 220 feet, below the surface. 

These structure contours, from the nature 
of the data on which they are based, cannot 
be made absolutely accurate, and this fact 
must be borne in mind. Nevertheless, the 
more facts used in their construction the more 
correctly can they be drawn. In the region 
southwest of the Indiana quadrangle, in the 
Connellsville basin, there is a great mass of 

mine data giving instrumeutally determined 
elevations of the coal. Structure contour 
lines constructed on this basis are very ac- 
curate and show that the main folds are com- 
plicated by many minor variations. In the 
Indiana quadrangle thei'e are no such avail- 
able data, and the broadly curved contour 
lines illustrating the structure of this region 
represent only the main features. Doubtless 
here, as in the region farther south, the rock 
structure is intricately warped, but the de- 
tails of these fluctuations can be determined 
only by actually following any one stratum 
over a considerable area as in coal mining. 

The structure contours of the Indiana quad- 
rangle are based on the position of the Upper 
Freeport coal, determined by its outcrop and 
by the records of a number of diamond-drill 
and deep-well borings. Moreover, the roads 
within the quadrangle have been traversed 
and the positions of the different rocks noted. 
This information, taken in connection with 
the records of the drill holes, often gave val- 
uable data regarding the position of the 
Upper Freeport coal horizon. But over much 
of the quadrangle the surface rocks are shale, 
sandy shale and shaly sandstone having little 
individuality, so that in many places informa- 
tion on which to draw structure contours is 
very meager. It is believed, however, that the 
main structural features of the quadrangle 
have been determined. 

Chestnut Ridge Anticline. — The most per- 
sistent and pronounced fold within the quad- 
rangle is the Chestnut Ridge anticline. This 
is one of the strongly developed folds of the 
Allegheny Plateau and can be traced for 
miles. The axis of the anticline corresponds 
with the crest line of Chestnut Ridge and 
crosses the southeastern part of the Indiana 
quadrangle in a slightly curved line. From 
the Conemaugh river to the southern limit of 
the area under consideration the pitch of the 
Chestnut Ridge anticline is northward, caus- 
ing the elevation of the Upper Freeport coal 
along the axis to fall from a reported altitude 
of 2,300 feet on the Conemaugh river to 1,700 
feet in the southern part of the Indiana quad- 
rangle. This descent of the axis continues 
for a short distance in the area under consid- 
eration and then rises, bringing the coal again 
above 1,700 feet on the road between .Mechan- 
iesburg and Indiana. Northeastward the axis 
continues to rise, so that the coal occurs above 
1.800 feet near the road between Indiana and 
Pike's Peak. Farther northeast the axis falls 
again, until about halfway between Penn run 
and Twolick creek the coal on the axis is be- 



low 1,600 feet. Thence the axis rises, aud 
where it leaves the quadrangle the Upper 
Freeport has an elevation of nearly 1,600 feet. 
The slope of the flanks of the Chestnut Ridge 
anticline is generally steeper on the west, and 
the height of the fold is most pronounced in 
the southern part of the quadrangle. Here 
there is a rise of over 1,000 feet in the posi- 
tion of the Upper Freeport coal from the 
trough of the syncline west of Chestnut 
Ridge to the crest of the anticline at the top 
of the ridge. Toward the north this differ- 
ence in elevation decreases to 600 feet and 
less. On the eastern slope of the anticline 
there is an interval of from 400 to 700 feet 
between the coal at the crest of the arch and 
the coal at the base of the adjacent trough. 

Bruslt Valley Hynclinc. — The syncline im- 
mediately east of the Chestnut Ridge anti- 
cline is marked by the valley of Brush creek 
and is called the Brush valley syncline. The 
exact position of the axis and the depth of 
this fold are not well known, but from the 
information at hand the relations seem to 
be as represented by the contours made. The 
Upper Freeport coal lies beneath the surface 
in Brush valley within the Indiana quad- 
rangle. This coal has an elevation of less 
than 1,200 feet in the middle of the basin 
north of Rico, and thence southward grad- 
ually rises, with the axis of the fold, so as to 
outcrop at an elevation of about 1,300 feet 
at the old Oberdorff mill on Brush creek, half 
a mile south of the quadrangle. 

Nolo Anticline. — East of the Brush valley 
syncline, occupying the southeast corner of 
the quadrangle, is the northwestern flank of 
the Nolo anticline. This fold was so named 
by W. G. Piatt because its axis passes near the 
town of Nolo. Within the Indiana quad- 
rangle the Nolo anticline is topographically 
marked by Dias Ridge. The Upper Freeport 
coal is not brought to the surface within the 
quadrangle by this fold but by outcrops in 
the valleys of Blacklick and Little Yellow 
creeks, and by the occurrence of recognizable 
sandstone on the ridge it is known that the 
Upper Freeport horizon rises from approxi- 
mately 1.200 IVcl ill the l!i-ush valley syncline 
to ovci- l.soo r,.i>( on III,' Xiilo iiiitirline. 

Latn,lu Siiiirliii, .-- Wrsl of Ch,. stunt Ridge 
there is a well-marked syncline which has 
been named from the town of Latrobe, in 
Westmoreland county, where it is well devel- 
oped. This fold has bcm Iraird from Indiana 
to Scottdale, and its sdiitliw.ird continuation 
is known as the riiiontdwn liasin. Between 
Blairsvillc and Tndiiina the Latrobe svncline 

rises and flattens out. Along the axis of the 
syncline on the Conemaugh river the elevation 
of the Upper Freeport coal horizon is about 
300 feet above sea level, while south of the 
town of Indiana the position of this coal along 
the same axis is over 1,000 feet. A mile south 
of Indiana there is a local rise of the Latrobe 
syncline, producing a small ai'ch across the 
trend of the axis. North of the town the 
syncline pitches downward for a short dis- 
tance, only to rise again toward Crooked 
creek. In the region between Indiana and 
Crooked creek there is little to indicate the 
geologic structure, but northeast of the creek 
the Latrobe syncline is split in two by a 
southward-plunging anticline whose axis ex- 
tends along Rayne run. 

The axis of the eastern fork of the Latrobe 
syncline passes between Dixon aud Rayne 
runs and rises northeastward, so that the 
Upper Freeport coal, which on the axis near 
Tanoma has an elevation of about 1,100 feet, 
on the same axis in the northeast comer of 
the quadrangle has an elevation of nearly 
1,500 feet. 

The western fork of the Latrobe syncline is 
not well marked. Its axis passes east of 
Kelleysburg and rises northward gradually. 

Richmond Anticline. — The axis of the anti- 
cline which divides the Latrobe syncline ex- 
tends from Rayne run northeastward between 
the towns of Deckers Point and Marion 
Center and is well marked near the town of 
Richmond, on Little Mahoning creek. This 
fold rises sharply northward, so that the 
Upper Freeport horizon, which at the mouth 
of Rayne run has an elevation of about 1,150 
feet, on the highland northeast of the Indi- 
ana quadrangle is over 1,700 feet above the 

Jacksonville Anticline. — In the southwest- 
ern part of the quadrangle the rocks of the 
western flank of the Latrobe syncline rise 
gradually westward to the crest of the next 
succeeding fold, the Jacksonville anticline. 
Consequently the Upper Freeport coal, which 
in the trough of the Latrobe syncline west of 
Gracetou has an elevation of about 600 feet, 
on the crest of the Jacksonville anticline has 
an altitude of over 1,200 feet. This fold has 
been called the Saltsburg anticline, but it is 
thought desirable to refer to it here as the 
Jacksonville anticline. The fold is well devel- 
oped near the town of Jacksonville, on Ault- 
man's ran, about two miles from the western 
edge of the Indiana quadrangle. The use of 
this local name .seems preferable, because it 
is not vet known whether the fold is the 


same one that crosses the Conemaugh above 

The so-called Indiana Anticline. — The 
stmcture here oiitlined is very different from 
what was formerly supposed, and this change 
of interpretation needs a word of explanation. 
The map of Indiana county issued by the 
Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania 
shows the Indiana anticline extending in a 
straight line across the county and passing 
through the town of Indiana. This supposed 
fold has been thought to be continuous on 
the southwest with the Fayette anticline in 
Westmoreland county, and on the northeast 
with the Richmond anticline, but it has been 
determined that this interpretation is incor- 
rect. The Richmond and Fayette anticlines 
are not continuous. The former pitches 
southwestwai-d and the latter pitches north- 
eastward, and the area between the Cone- 
maugh river and Crooked creek along the ex- 
tension of the axes of these folds is occupied 
chiefly by the Latrobe syncline. It is an odd 
coincidence that the axes of the Richmond 
and Fayette anticlines fall in line with each 
other, and it is not surprising that these folds 
have been thought to be continiTous, for in 
the intervening region surface exposures are 
poor and the structure can be deciphered only 
by detailed work. The jDresent determination 
is fully proved by the records of about fifty 
diamond-drill holes lately put down by the 
Rochester and Pittsburg Coal and Iron 

McKee Run Anticline. — A low anticline 
which crosses McKee run and which, there- 
fore, may be called the IMcKee run anticline, 
causes the Upper Freeport coal to outcrop 
for a short distance along that run. This anti- 
cline was formerly supposed to be a continu- 
ation of the Jacksonville anticline, but dia- 
mond-drill records indicate that the axes of 
the Jacksonville and JMcKee run anticlines 
do not coincide. The Jacksonville fold 
merges into the next syncline to the west 
about five miles west of Indiana, and the axis 
of the McKee run fold strikes into tlie north- 
west flank of the Latrobe syncline in the 
vicinity of Edgewood. 

The McKee run anticline is a low, gentle 
fold which makes itself apparent by bringing 
the Upper Freeport coal to the surface at an 
elevation of about 1.100 feet on 3IcKee run, 
and also on Crooked creek at approximately 
the same elevation. The axis crosses this 
creek about halfway between ChambersviUe 
and Gaibleton, but its northeastward exten- 

sion is not plain. This anticline is important 
because of the occurrence of gas along its 
nortliwest flank in the vicinity of Creekside. 


The mineral resources of the Indiana quad- 
rangle include coal, natural gas, clay, sand- 
stone, limestone, water and soils. 

Coal is the most important of the mineral 
resources of the Indiana quadrangle, and for 
many years a number of small banks, to sup- 
ply local demands, have been in operation. 

The Pittsburg coal outcrops a short distance 
to tlie south, but is not present in the Indiana 
quadrangle because the rocks containing it 
have been eroded from the surface. There 
are a few hills in the southwest corner of the 
quadrangle that are just high enough to carry 
this coal if the Conemaugh formation had its 
usual thickness of 600 feet; but, as already 
stated, there is evidence of a local thickening 
of the Conemaugh, which would account for 
the absence of the Pittsburg coal. 

The Pittsburg being absent, the coals of the 
Indiana quadrangle are limited to those 
which occur in the Conemaugh and Allegheny 
formations. . 

Country banks show the presence of coal of 
workable thickness in the Conemaugh in a 
few localities, but by far the most important 
coal beds belong to the Allegheny formation. 
In this connection it may be observed that 
some misconceptions exist regarding the 
occurrence and names of coals in this forma- 
tion. The common opinion that the Allegheny 
coals are very regular is probably due partly 
to the fact that a number of generalized sec- 
tions have been published showing a definite 
number of coal beds, and that these sections 
have been wrongly assumed to have wide 

The generalized sections of this formation 
in the Allegheny valley contain seven coals, 
which have been named Upper Freeport, 
Lower Freeport, Upper Kittanning, iliddle 
Kittanning, Lower Kittanning, Clarion and 
Brookville, while in the sections representing 
the formation in the first basin west of the 
Alleghenv Front these coals have been desig- 
nated by letters E, D', D, C, C, B and A 
respectively. These coals are all found some- 
where, and the generalized sections are meant 
to show simply their relative positions. It 
is an error, however, to assume that all these 
coals must occur everywhere throughout the 
area in which the formation is found. 

Some workers in the field, not thoroughly 



realizing the facts as to the distribution of 
the coal, have assumed that these seven coal 
beds are actually continuous over wide areas, 
and that wherever a coal is found in the 
Allegheny formation it must be correlated 
with one of the coals in the general section. 
But a careful consideration of the records of 
diamond drills that have pierced the entire 
formation or a study of complete natural ex- 
posures shows that often fewer than seven 
beds of coal occur in the Allegheny forma- 
tion, and that when neighboring sections are 
compared the coals in one cannot always be 
correlated with those of the other. 

It is important to draw attention to these 
conditions, but at the same time it is by no 
means asserted that none of the coals of the 
Allegheny formation have a widespread and 
continuous distribution, for the Lower Kittan- 
ning in particular is remarkably persistent. 
When this variability is borne in mind it be- 
comes evident that it should not be lightly 
assumed that the presence of a bed of coal 
in one locality in the approximate strati- 
graphic position of a coal in another locality 
necessarily implies that the two coals are 
identical. Such identity appears to be tacitly 
assumed in the wide application of the same 
names for the coal beds of the Allegheny 


The Allegheny coals of workable thickness 
within the Indiana quadrangle, so far as 
known, are the Upper Freeport, Lower Free- 
port and Lower Kittanning. The whole area 
of the quadrangle is indicated as underlain 
by workable coal except the valley portions 
below the outcrops of Lower Kittanning coal. 


The Upper Freeport is the most important 
coal in the quadrangle. Numerous openings 
have been made along the outcrop of this 
bed, and most of the drill holes which have 
penetrated its horizon have struck coal. 
Though it occurs generally throughout the 
area under consideration, it is not everywhere 
of equal importance, and locally it is either 
absent or becomes so thin as to be of little 
use. The Upper Freeport coal outcrops in 
six more or less distinct areas in the Indiana 
quadrangle. These areas are along Chestnut 
Ridge, on Dixon, Rayne and McKee runs, on 
Crooked creek, and along the south branch 
of Plum creek. 

Chestnut Ridge. — Chestnut Ridge is the 
most extensive of these areas, and numerous 
country banks have been opened on the coal. 

The principal coal workings within the 
cjuadrangle are those of the Graceton Coke 
Company at Graceton. This company oper- 
ates two mines in the Upper Freeport coal 
and manufactures coke. The mines ai'e lo- 
cated on the outcrop, favorably for gravity 
drainage. The dip of the coal is regular, be- 
ing about eight and a half per cent toward 
the mouth of the mine. The coal averages 6 
feet in thickness and is parted about 3I/2 
feet from the base by shale, which varies 
from 4 to 12 inches. The upper bench carries 
considerable sulphur and only the lower bench 
is used, after washing, for making coke. 

The coke is bright, hard, and has well- 
developed cell structure. The entire product 
of the mines is used by one company in mak- 
ing steel, and the coke is said to have a good 

A number of openings have been made on 
the Upper Freeport coal on Chestnut Ridge, 
in the southern part of the quadrangle, and 
measurements show that in this region there 
is little variation in the thickness of the coal. 

Farther north there are fewer openings on 
the Upper Freeport coal. Where exploited 
in the vicinity of Evans hill the bed is re- 
ported to be of little value. This, however, 
appears to be only local, for on Twolick creek 
southeast of Indiana the banks of McHenry 
and Agey show that the coal is well developed. 

Northward the Upper Freeport coal again 
decreases in thickness. In the several coal 
banks near Greenville there is further evi- 
dence of thinning. North of Greenville the 
Upper Fi-eeport coal appears to be unimpor- 
tant within the quadrangle. It is incon- 
spicuous beneath the massive Mahoning sand- 
stone which forms the ridge north of Penn 
Run, and on the 1,600-foot hill about two 
miles north of Greenville the Upper Freeport 
has not been found. A sandstone thought to 
be the Mahoning caps this hill, and a thin 
bed of coal supposed to be the Lower Free- 
port occurs below the limestone on the hillside. 

The Areal Geology sheet may be misleading 
here because the boundary line between the 
Allegheny and Conemaugh formations com- 
monly marks the outcrop of the Upper Free- 
port coal, wliereas here the boundary line, 
which is drawn at the supposed horizon of the 
Upper Freeport, does not mark the presence 
of the coal, but merely shows the line of 
separation of the two formations. 

Di.rnn and Rayne Iiuns. — In tlie valley of 


Dixon ran the Upper Freeport coal is unim- 
portant. Probablj- this statement is true for 
most of the Rayne run area also, but there the 
stratig:raphic position of the workable coal is 
not yet determined, as will be set forth more 
fully under the heading "Lower Freeport 
Coal." The uncertainty of the Upper Free- 
port in this region is indicated by the fact 
that a diamond-drill hole put down between 
Dixon and Rayne runs, one and a half miles 
northeast of Tanoma, shows no coal at this 

Crooked Creek. — Between Chambersville 
and Gaibleton the McKee run anticline causes 
the Upper Freeport coal to appear a few feet 
above water level for about one and one half 
miles along Crooked creek. The Mahoning 
sandstone is well developed and the Freeport 
limestone has been quarried at a few local- 
ities. Several small openings have been made 
on the coal in this region. 

South Branch of Plum Creek. — Along the 
south branch of Plum creek and its tributary, 
Sugarcamp run, a coal is exposed which is 
thought to be the Upper Freeport, although 
the Mahoning sandstone is not present. The 
coal is underlain by limestone, and the deep 
wells in this vicinity strike the gas sand at 
the same distance below this coal as do the 
wells near Creekside, where the coal is known 
to be the Upper Freeport. 

Openings have been made at several places 
along the outcrop, which is not far above 
water level. In the Brown bank 33 inches 
of coal were measured. At the Parke and 
Trusal banks, on Sugarcamp run, the coal 
measures 3 feet, 5 or 6 inches, parted by a 
1-ineh band of shale 5 inches from the base. 
W. G. Piatt reports a thickness of 3 feet, 4 
inches, inchiding a 1-inch shale parting near 
the base, in the Marlin bank near the mouth 
of Sugarcamp run. 

McKee Run. — On IMcKee run the Upper 
Freeport coal outcrops near water level for 
about half a mile, and several banks have 
been opened within this distance. 

Underground Occurrence of the I'ppcr 
Freeport Coal. — Concerning the underground 
occurrence and condition of the Upper Free- 
port coal within the Indiana ciuadrangle con- 
siderable information exists because of the 
recent diamond-drill explorations carried on 
by the Rochester and Pittsburg Coal and Iron 
Company and by others. Through the cour- 
tesy of those in charge the depth of the 
Upper Freeport horizon is given to the pub- 
lic, but there is little available information 
as to the thickness and character of the coal. 

In the Latrobe syucline south of Indiana 
the Upper Freeport has been rather carefully 
explored, and in general there seems to be a 
good body of coal. In the continuation of 
the basin northeast of Indiana not so much 
exploration has been carried on, but judging 
from the scanty information available the 
Upper Freeport seems to be variable in its oc- 
currence. It appears to thin out in the north- 
east part of the quadrangle, where the Lower 
Freeport is the most important coal. 

In Brush valley very little information 
exists concerning the character of the Upper 
Freepoz-t. The indications are, however, tliat 
the coal decreases in thickness from its devel- 
opment of 6 feet on Chestnut Ridge, but not 
enough drilling has been done to thoroughly 
test the region. 

Still less information exists concerning the 
underground development of the coal in 
the Eldersridge syncline within the Indiana 


The Lower Freeport coal is not persistent 
nor often very thick in the Indiana quad- 
rangle. Blossoms of this coal were noted at 
several localities and the bed was penetrated 
in several drill holes, but so far as known 
it attains workable dimensions only in the 
northeastern part of the quadrangle, in the 
vicinity .of Dixon and Rayne nins. 

Dixon Run. — In the valley of Dixon run 
several coal banks have been opened on a coal 
which is supposed to be the Lower Freeport. 
The Mahoning sandstone is not conspicuous 
in this region, but the workable coal is over- 
lain by limestone, and farther up by a thin 
bed of coal, which are thought to be respec- 
tively the Upper Freeport limestone and eoal. 
Moreover, in the adjacent valley of Buck run, 
which is just off the northeast edge of the 
quadrangle, a coal supposed to be the Lower 
Kittanning occurs about 160 feet below this 
bed. This interval corresponds very well with 
measurements made in other parts of the area 
under discussion, and affords corroborative 
evidence of the Lower Freeport age of the 
Dixon run coal. 

This coal is mined by Ed Woodison on the 
top of the divide between Dixon and Buck 
runs, about a mile north of Twolick creek, 
where a measurement of 4 feet, 4 inches of 
coal was obtained. From this point the dip 
of the western flank of the Chestnut Ridge 
anticline carries the coal rapidly down nearly 
to water level in the vallev of Dixon run. In 



the banks along the run south of Dixonville 
the coal varies from 3 feet, 6 inches to 4 feet. 
At the Black bank, half a mile north of 
Dixonville, it measures fi-om 4 feet, 2 inches 
to 4 feet, 4 inches. 

Raijne Run. — In the valley of Rayne run a 
number of country coal banks have been 
opened, but whether this coal is the Upper or 
the Lower Freeport is uncertain. The Ma- 
honing sandstone, which, when present, serves 
as a guide to the identification of the Free- 
port coals, is not well developed in this region. 
Locally a limestone occurs beneath the main 
coal, which would tend to show that it is the 
Upper Freeport, but, on the other hand, a 
thin coal outcrops from 20 to 40 feet above 
the main seam, which implies that the latter 
coal is the Lower Freeport. If this be so, the 
limestone would be the Lower Freeport in- 
stead of the Upper Freeport limestone, which 
usually is better developed. 

This is an illustration of a difficulty that 
occasionally besets the correlation of coals. If 
the Mahoning were well developed here, or if 
both the Upper and the Lower Freeport lime- 
stones were present, or if there were a com- 
plete section connecting the coals under con- 
sideration with some definite horizon either 
above or below, there would be no doubt. Or 
if these questionable coals were separated by 
a gi-eater vertical interval the general geo- 
logic structure would throw important light 
on the subject. Again, the presence of fossils 
would be important. Occasionally cases of 
this kind arise, when the question must be 
left open for further light. It is tentatively 
assumed that the thin upper coal is the Upper 
Freeport. Fortunately the distance between 
the coals is so small that the resulting error 
in mapping, on either supposition, is not 

At Botsford's bank, about half a mile north 
of Rayne post office, on the road to IMarion 
Center, the coal measures 3 feet, 10 inches; 
and on the farms of John Little and J. E. 
Manners, in the valley west of Botsford's 
bank, similar conditions prevail. That is, the 
main coal is almost directly underlain by 
limestone, and about 30 feet above is the out- 
crop of a thinner bed of coal with no sand- 
stone exposed. In the H. Edwards bank, on 
Crooked creek, a mile below Tanoma, there 
is a bed of coal which measures 3 feet, 2 
inches; and in the "Walker bank, on Crooked 
creek, about half a mile below Rayne ran, 
the coal is reported to be 2 feet, 8 inches 


The Kittanning coals seem to be repre- 
sented in the Indiana quadrangle by only one 
principal bed. This is shown by the few 
diamond-drill records that give the thickness 
of the entire Allegheny formation, and field 
observations on the outcrops confirm their 
testimony. The records, however, show the 
occasional presence of other thin coals belong- 
ing to the Kittanning group, and it is pos- 
sible that further drilling will reveal a 
greater thickness of these coals. 

The principal Kittanfling coal occurs about 
200 feet below the Upper Freeport and is 
considered to be at the Lower Kittanning 
horizon. The occurrence of this coal at the 
surface is limited to the deeper valleys of 
the Chestnut Ridge region. This line has been 
checked by the location of several country 
banks, but in the intervals between local mines 
the outcrop line is based on structure con- 

Several old banks have been opened on this 
coal in the southern part of the quadrangle, 
but measurements could not be made in them. 
Along Furriers run southwest of Evans hill 
there are two old openings, on the farms of 
Mrs. Douglas and William Lewis, where the 
coal is reported to range from Bi/o to 4 feet 

Along the flanks of the ravine of Yellow 
creek where it cuts through Chestnut Ridge 
there are several banks on this coal. At Fet- 
terman's, near Yellow creek, west of the road 
which passes just east of Moose and Strongs 
hills, the coal is said to measure 3 feet, 8 
inches; and at Campbell's bank, at the head 
of the run in the bend of the road on the 
north side of Yellow creek south of Strongs 
hill, the coal is 4 feet thick. This also is the 
measurement in the bank on the east side of 
the road passing southward from the Indiana- 
Greenville pike to the Yellow creek ford, 
northwest of IMoose hill. 

Twolick creek between Sample run and 
Ramsey run flows approximately parallel to 
the strike of the rocks, and in this interval 
several openings have been made on the 
Lower Kittanning coal. 

Along the Indiana-Greenville pike near the 
Twolick creek bridge are two old openings on 
opposite sides of the stream, where this coal 
measures about 31/0 feet. Farther up the 
creek several old openings are passed before 
Lydick's, just above the mouth of Allen run, 
is reached. 

On Penn run and its tributaries there are 



several banks opened on the Lower Kittau- 
ning coal. At Green's, near the road extend- 
ing northwestward from Greenville to Penn 
run, the coal measures 3 feet, 10 inches; and 
at Ackerson's, on the north fork of Penn run, 
one and a half miles clue north of Greenville, 
this coal is mined and is said to vary from 3 
feet, 10 inches to 4 feet, 3 inches. 

Several other openings have been made on 
this coal in Twolick valley, in the eastern part 
of the quadrangle, but the banks are not be- 
ing worked and measurements in them could 
not be made. 

The underground extension of the Lower 
Kittanning can be inferred from the records 
of only a few drill holes, but these indicate 
that the horizon is a persistent one. A drill 
hole near Graceton shows a thickness of 3 
feet, 3 inches of this coal. The presence of a 
coal 1 foot, 4 inches thick at the base of the 
Allegheny formation is also shown by the 
drill at Graceton. 

In Bnish vallej' there is indication that 
one at least of the Kittanning coals is well 
developed. Thus far only two drill holes in 
the valley have reached the lower coal horizon, 
and these did not penetrate the base of the 
Alleghenj' formation. The records of these 
drills show the presence of a bed of coal about 
170 feet below the Upper Freeport horizon. 
A further reason for expecting that these 
lower coals may be present in Brush valley 
is that along Blacklick creek at Vintondale, 
only a few miles from the Indiana quad- 
rangle, active coal mining in the Kittanning 
horizon is being carried on. The exact strati- 
graphic position of this Blacklick coal has not 
yet been detennined, but diamond-drill sec- 
tions furnished by j\Ir. C. R. Claghome show 
the general occurrence of two of the Lower 
Allegheny coals about 35 feet apart and 
measuring 2 feet, 6 inches and 4 feet. 


Records of diamond-drill holes show much 
variability in the number, position, and thick- 
ness of coal seams in the Conemaugh forma- 
tion. The number of coals present in a vei-- 
tieal thickness of 300 feet above the Upper 
Freeport horizon varies from none to five. 
Generally these coals measure only a few 
inches. There are,- however, at a few localities 
in this quadrangle, occun-enees of Conemaugh 
coals of workable thickness. These areas are 
in the vicinity of Gaibleton. south of Onberg, 
and in Brush valley. 

About Gaibleton there are two coals above 

the Upper Freeport horizon. The lower of 
these has been exposed in an old bank on the 
east side of Pine run near its mouth, and an- 
other bank which is thought to be on the same 
coal has been opened near the roadside a mile 
southeast of Gaibleton. This coal is reported 
to be about 2 feet thick, and it is estimated to 
be 60 feet above the Upper Freeport coal. 
The higher coal in the neighborhood of Gaible- 
ton is exposed in a few banks along Brush 
run and on the hills west of Rajme run. 
This coal is reported to be about 3 feet thick, 
and it is estimated to be 130 feet above the 
Upper Freeport. 

On the headwaters of Crooked creek, be- 
tween Onberg and Ideal, there are also several 
banks opened on coal in the Conemaugh 
formation. It is reported that this coal 
averages about 3 feet in thickness. The coal 
clearly lies above the Mahoning sandstone, 
which is well developed toward Twolick creek. 
It is estimated that the interval between this 
coal and the Upper Freeport horizon is about 
100 feet. There is no present evidence that 
this coal is continuous with that on Brush 

In Brush valley, on a hillside three quarters 
of a mile northwest of Rico, there is an old 
bank in which the coal is reported to be 31/^ 
feet thick and to overlie a bed of limestone. 
This outcrop seems to be of small extent, but 
it is interesting because of the clue furnished 
as to the depth of the Brush valley syncUne. 
The relation of the coal and limestone, taken 
in connection with the records of a few drill 
holes in this valley, suggests that this coal 
may be referred to the Elk Lick liorizon, 
which generally occurs somewhat over 300 
feet above the Upper Freeport. 

Another coal, repoi'ted to be 3 feet thick, 
occurs in Brush valley in an old opening on 
the west fork of Brush creek about one and 
a half miles southwest of Mechanicsburg. The 
best evidence available makes it probable that 
this coal is a little less than 200 feet above 
the Upper Freeport. 

It is thought that the coal near water level 
at the old Oberdoi'ff mill, about two hundred 
rods above the mouth of Brush creek, is the 
Upper Freeport. This coal is overlain by a 
massive sandstone and imderlain by lime- 
stone, but absolute correlation has not yet 
been established. 


Occurrence. — Natural gas has been suc- 
cessfully exploited in two localities within the 



Indiana quadrangle, about Creekside on 
Crooked creek and in the vicinity of Willet 
on the south branch of Plum creek. Wells 
have been drilled elsewhere, but, although 
gas has been reported from some of them, no 
wells within the quadrangle outside of the 
two areas named have produced gas in pay- 
ing quantities. Oil has not been found in the 

General Bclatiuns.— The Creekside field is 
a small, isolated one, while the Phim creek 
area forms the northern end of a larger pro- 
ducing field known as the Willet field. It is 
interesting to note that these two gas fields 
lie among the most easterly in the entire pro- 
ducing area. East of Chestnut Ridge no im- 
portant occurrences of gas or oil have been 
found, the producing area being confined to 
the region of gently folded rocks that lies to 
the west of that ridge. Eastward the rocks 
have been too much folded and broken to 
favor the retention of whatever oil or gas they 
may have contained. 

Relation to Structure— The relation be- 
tween the structure of the rocks and the occur- 
rence of gas and oil in the Appalachian field 
has long been recognized. By far the larg- 
est proportion of gas wells are located well 
up the flanks or along tlie axes of anticlines, 
while oil is associated with the flanks of syn- 
clines. These relations are explainable by 
supposing a natural distribution, according 
to gravity, of the liquids and gases which 
exist in the interetices formed by the loosely 
fitting rock particles. For instance, suppose 
a folded bed of sandstone to be permeated by 
gas, oil, and water; the heavier water would 
tend to seek the low-lying troughs of the 
synclines, while the lighter oil would ascend 
the flanks of the synclines, and the still lighter 
gas would tend to seek the arches of the 

The occurrence of gas within the Indiana 
quadrangle is no exception, the wells in the 
vicinity of Willet being along the flank of 
the Roaring run anticline, while those of the 
Creekside field extend along the McKee run 
anticline. Two deep wells have been drilled 
on the west flank of the Chestnut Ridge anti- 
cline, the Phillips well, on Yellow creek one 
and a half miles northeast of Homer, and the 
Porterfield, on Twolick creek east of Indiana, 
While no important amounts of gas were 
obtained it is interesting to note that sonie 
gas was found in the extreme eastern locality 
and that gas now escapes from the Phillips 
well. No wells have been put down along the 
Richmond anticline within the quadrangle. 

Stratigraphic Position of the Gas Sand. — 
Gas in paying quantity has been found at 
only one geologic horizon within the Indiana 
quadi-angle, though some of the deep wells 
report the presence of a little gas at several 
horizons. The important gas sand in this 
region occurs about 1,100 feet below the 
Upper Preeport coal and about 400 feet above 
the top of the red beds previously described 
as marking the upper part of the Devonian 
system. These intervals are remarkably con- 
stant, varying only a few feet in all the 
records examined. 

Prom the proximity of the fields and the 
constancy of the intervals between recogniz- 
able rock horizons it is probable that the same 
bed of sandstone carries the gas in both the 
Willet and the Creekside field, but with the 
present information it is impracticable to 
correlate this gas sand with that of other 
fields. While it is recognized that the fa- 
miliar names of gas sands used by the drillers 
constitute a serviceable terminology, it should 
be understood that the names indicate only 
approximate geologic position instead of 
actual identity of sandstones. The gas sand 
in the field under consideration has approxi- 
mately the position of the Murrysville sand. 

Willet Field. — The gas-producing area of 
the Willet field within the Indiana quad- 
rangle is limited to a few square miles in the 
vicinity of Willet. Gas was discovered in 
this region in the Kelly No. 1 well in De- 
cember, 1890, and other wells were soon put 
down. In 1891 gas was piped to Indiana, 
which since that date has been supplied from 
the Willet field by the Indiana Gas Company, 
now the American Gas Company. Efliorts 
have been made to find a northeastern ex- 
tension of this producing area, but thus far 
without success. To the sovithwest, however, 
there are a number of good wells, some of 
which contribute to the Indiana supply, while 
gas from other wells is piped to Pittsburg. 
Of the nine wells put down in this general 
vicinity within the Indiana quadrangle, six 
produce gas and three are failures. Thus far 
not one of the producing wells has been ex- 
hausted. No very systematic records have 
been kept of the pressure, but it is said that 
the Kelly No. 2 w^ell, near the ci-eek, not far 
from the northwestern edge of the quad- 
rangle, had a rock pressure of 275 pounds 
when the well was drilled in 1891 and a 
minute pressure of 125 pounds through a 
5%-inch casing. In 1901 the rock pressure 
in this well had decreased to 100 pounds. One 
of the best wells in the Plum creek field was 



drilled in 1901 on Dutch run about four miles 
southwest of the point where the south 
branch of Plum creek leaves the Indiana 
quadrangle. This is the Boyer well, which is 
reported to have had a rock pressure of 350 
pounds and a minute pressure of 245 pounds 
in a Gy^-inch casing. 

The gas sand in the Willet field varies 
from 15 to 25 feet in thickness and is a uni- 
form, moderately compact, light-gray sand- 
stone, admirably adapted for the storage of 

Creekside Field. — The gas-producing area 
of the Creekside field, as now known, is lim- 
ited to about one square mile along Crooked 
creek, in the vicinity of Creekside. This pool 
was first struck in ]\Iarch, 1900, and in the 
fall of 1901 the wells came into the control of 
the Indiana Gas Company and the gas was 
piped to Indiana. Seven wells have been 
.sunk in this field. Four of these are re- 
ported to be good, or fairly good, and three 
are dry. Rock pressure in the best Creek- 
side well is reported to have been 325 pounds, 
and the minute pressure 105 pounds in a 
4-incli casing. 

The Creekside gas sand, while thought to 
belong to the same horizon as that in the 
Willet area, is of much coarser texture, being 
sometimes conglomeratic. 


This is widely distributed in the Indiana 
quadrangle, but it has not received much at- 
tention. It consists of shale and fire clay. 
These are of sedimentary origin and are com- 
posed of fine-textured, more or less decom- 
posed rock fragments. These deposits occupy 
well-mai-ked stratigraphic positions and often 
are persistent over considerable areas. 

Sliale. — Fine-textured and homogeneous 
deposits of shale are of widespread occurrence 
in both the Conemaugh ancl Allegheny for- 
mations and outcrop over a large part of the 
area under discussion. These shales are not 
utilized except for the manufacture of build- 
ing and paving brick in the towns of Indiana, 
Clymer and Garfield. They seem to offer a 
field worthy of investigation. Homogeneous 
deposits of fine-textured, moderately fusible, 
and fairly plastic clay shales are valuable not 
only for the manufacture of building bricks, 
but for making paving bricks and for many 
other uses to which clay is applied. In con- 
junction with associated beds of limestone 
these shales also might be used in the manu- 
facture of cement. 

Fire Chnj. — Fire clay is clay that will re- 
sist a high degi-ee of heat. It is utilized in 
the manufacture of firebrick and other arti- 
cles for which clay is adapted. Valuable 
beds of fire clay are present in the Allegheny 
formation, the famous being the Bolivar 
clay, which is extensively worked at Bolivar, 
on the Conemaugh river. At the type locality 
it occurs from 10 to 20 feet below the Upper 
Freeport coal. Another valuable deposit of 
fire clay often occurs below the Lower Kit- 
tanning coal. This bed is extensively worked 
at New Brighton, near the mouth of the 
Beaver river. 

In the Indiana quadrangle no attempts 
have been made to utilize fire clay. Diamond- 
drill records show several beds of fire clay in 
the Allegheny formation. An outcrop of 
homogeneous, fine-textured, hard, drab fire 
clay, reported to be from 6 to 8 feet thick, 
was observed at the Bolivar horizon, on the 
property of J. S. Ralston, .just south of the 
Indiana-Greenville road, near the summit 
of Chestnut Ridge. Other outcrops should 
be sought on the hill slopes of the Allegheny 
formation going down from the Upper Free- 
port coal, likely horizons being a few feet be- 
low the Upper Freeport coal and below the 
Lower Kittanning coal. 


Sandstone suitable for building purposes 
occurs in many localities within the Indiana 
quadrangle. The principal beds are the Con- 
nellsville. Morgantown, Saltsburg and Mahon- 
ing, of the Conemaugh formation; the Free- 
port and Kittanning, of the Allegheny for- 
mation, and the Pottsville sandstone. No 
elaborate tests of these sandstones have been 
made, and but few stone buildings have been 
constructed within the area under consider- 
ation. A notable stone structure is the county 
courthouse at Indiana, which is said to be 
built of JIahoning sandstone. 

The available sandstones are of a variety of 
colors and textures, varying from whitish and 
greenish, through buff, brown and red. and 
from soft and loose-textured to hard and com- 
pact rocks. They can be obtained in blocks 
of convenient size, which apparently can be 
ea.sily dressed. 

The Pottsville sandstone in several localities 
outside of this ciuadrangle is crushed and 
used for making glass. In the area under con- 
sideration this rock is a pure sandstone, gen- 
erally free from iron stains. It occurs along 
Yellow creek adjacent to the Chestnut Ridge 



anticliae, on Twolick creek at the eastern edge 
of the quadrangle, and in a small area on 
Allen run. 

Thin beds of limestone which have been re- 
ferred to as occurring in both the Conemaugh 
and Allegheny formations are available for 
leaking lime for use as a fertilizer. The lime- 
stone most used is the Freeport deposit, which 
lies between the Upper and Lower Freeport 
coals. This limestone generally ranges from 
2 to 6 feet in thickness and is found in a 
number of localities within the quadrangle. 
Limestone in connection with suitable deposits 
of shale is a possible source of crude material 
for the manufacture of cement. 

The Indiana quadrangle is well supplied 
with water. A number of creeks and runs 
make flowing water widely accessible, springs 
are frequent, and water for domestic use is 
easily obtained from shallow wells. 

Deep-seated underground water is also 
available. The different beds of sandstone re- 
ceive water at their outcrops, and being perv- 
ious and commonly overlain and underlain by 
relatively impervious shales, the sandstones 
are saturated with water and constitute reser- 
voirs. Since there are several synclinal basins 
within the Indiana quadrangle artesian water 
thus becomes available. That is, if holes be 
sunk to water-bearing sandstones in proper 
places, water will rise in the holes to different 
heights, and sometimes to the surface, accord- 
ing to the artesian head. This artesian head 
is determined by the difference in height be- 
tween the elevation of the outcrop of the sand- 
stone and its elevation in the well. Promising 
localities for artesian water are in synclinal 
areas where sandstone outcrops along adjacent 
anticlines. In the basin of the Latrobe syn- 
cline west of Homer City, for instance, arte- 
sian water has been found in the Mahoniug 
sandstone which outcrops on Chestnut Ridge. 
Large supplies of artesian water, however, 
should not be expected. 

Seven wells were drilled in Indiana be- 
tween 1883 and 1891, from which the town was 
supplied with water. But in 1899 this source 
proved in.sufficient and recourse was had to 
Twolick creek, which now supplies water of a 
much inferior quality. One of these wells 
was put down 3,300 feet in search of gas, hav- 
ing been located along the supposed Indiana 

anticline; the other six range in depth from 
175 to 350 feet. Water in them is derived 
from both the Mahoning and Saltsburg sand- 
stones. In five of these wells the water is re- 
ported not to have risen above the horizon at 
which it was struck, but in two it rose 20 

There are also three successful deep wells 
in use at the State normal school in Indiana. 
These were sunk from 190 to 210 feet below 
the surface. Some water is derived from the 
Saltsburg sandstone, but the main supply 
comes from the Mahoning. In these wells the 
water is reported to rise 120 feet above the 
water-bearing horizon. 

Excepting the alluvium in creek bottoms 
the soils of the Indiana quadrangle are de- 
rived from the immediately underlying rocks. 
Being the products of the disintegration and 
decomposition of sandstones, shales and thin 
limestones, more ' or less mixed with the re- 
mains of animal and vegetable life, the soils 
of the area under consideration are mostly 
sandy and clay loams. The gently undulating 
topography of the greater part of the quad- 
rangle causes farming to be an important in- 
dustry, and with intelligent care the soils give 
profitable returns. Chestnut and Dias Ridges, 
however, are forest areas. Their steep slopes 
are strewn with sandstone blocks and the 
soil is lean and sandy. 



The Elders Ridge quadrangle is located in 
central western Pennsylvania. It extends 
from latitude 40° 30' on the south to 40° 45' 
on the noi'th, and from longitude 75° 15' on 
the east to 75° 30' on the west. It includes, 
therefore, one sixteenth of a square degree 
of the earth's surface, and covers an area of 
227 square miles. It takes its name from a 
small \'illage in its southern central part, in 
Indiana county, almost on the Armstrong- 
Indiana county line. 

About half of the quadrangle is in Arm- 
strong county and half in Indiana county. 
The N. 36° E. line, which forms a portion of 
the boundary between the two counties, ex- 
tends from tiie upper right-hand corner of the 
quadrangle to the Kiskiminetas river in the 
lower left-hand corner. The portion of the 
quadrangle lying soutli of the river, about 


five square miles in all, is a part of ^Yestmore- 
land county. 


The exact location of the Elders Eidge 
quadrangle with reference to latitude and 
longitude is determined from certain high 
points, the position of which has been ascer- 
tained accuratelj- by triangulation. There are 
four triangulation stations within the boun- 
daries, and five near by, which give complete 
control of the quadrangle. 

These stations are mai-ked by stone posts, 
6x6 or SxS inches in cross section, set about 
three feet in the ground. In the center of the 
top of each post is cemented a bronze tablet 
marked "U. S. Geological Survey — Pennsyl- 
vania." For the convenience of engineers 
making surface surveys the following descrip- 
tions of these stations are given. 

Kunlie. — On land owned by Philip Kunkle ; 
about two miles north of Creekside post office, 
near western end of a high ridge having scat- 
tering trees on the eastern end. 

Broadview. — About two and a half miles 
north of Shelocta and a few rods east of the 
Armstrong-Indiana county line ; bare hill, with 
some timber on the southwest slope. The land 
is owned by John Russell. 

Coleman. — In White township, about two 
miles northwest of Indiana, on a high hilltop, 
on land owned by D. Coleman. 

^yarner. — About three miles southwest of 
Indiana, in White township, on the highest 
part of a bare, round-top hill, on land owned 
by Mr. Warner. 

Wait. — About one mile west of Tannery 
and one and three-quarters southeast of Park- 
wood post office, on the highest point of the 
western one of two hills of about the same 
heisrht and one mile apart, on land owned by 
Thomas Watt. 

Hood. — In Young township, about one mile 
east of Elders Ridge post office, on the highest 
point of a bare round-top hill owned by 
Calvin Hood. 

Tabernacle. — About one and a half miles 
southeast of Clarksburg post office and about 
six miles by road northeast of Saltsburg, on 
the highest part of a bare, cultivated, round- 
top hill owned by the heirs of S. W. Cole- 


Precise-level lines have been run over the 
Elders Ridge quadrangle, and elevations are 
based on and adjusted between bench marks 

established by spirit leveling. All bench 
marks are referred to an aluminum tablet 
in the foundation of the "Seventh Avenue 
Hotel" at Pittsburg marked "738 Pittsburg 
1899," the elevation of which is accepted as 
738.384 feet above mean sea level, and are 
stamped with the letters "Pittsburg" in ad- 
dition to their figures of elevation. 



The highest point in this quadrangle is 
Watt hill, in Armstrong township, Indiana 
county. Its top is 1.620 feet above sea level, 
or nearly 300 feet higher than the road cor- 
ners at Parkwood. The point of least eleva- 
tion is on the Kiskiminetas river below Sa- 
lina, where the level of the water is about 800 
feet above tide. Crooked creek has nearly the 
same elevation where it leaves the quadrangle 
a few miles to the north. 

Throughout this quadrangle the surface is 
hilly. For this reason roads find better grades 
along the valleys than on the higher land, al- 
though some highways on the divides have 
easy grades for several miles. Because a 
large portion of the surface of the region is 
underlain by the rocks of one formation — and 
they vary but little from place to place — there 
is not much change in the character of the 
surface relief. 


The drainage system of this quadrangle is 
developed to the extent that streams penetrate 
all parts of the area. The main streams are 
still cutting rapidly and not building exten- 
sive flood plains. As is the case throughout 
much of western Pennsylvania, they are liable 
to floods, due to occasional hea^^^ precipitation 
and to stripping of the former foi'est. 

All the drainage is tributary to the Alle- 
gheny river. The streams are so small that 
none is navigable, even for rowboats, except 
on short stretches. The largest is the Kis- 
kiminetas river, which is fonned by the .iunc- 
tion of the Conemaugh and Loyalhanna at 
Saltsburg, about three miles south of the 
border of the quadrangle The Kiskiminetas 
crosses the southwest corner, flowing due north 
for two miles, and then west at a right angle 
past Avanmore and Salina, about five and a 
half miles in all. It empties into the Alle- 
gheny near Freeport. 

The main tributary of the Kiskiminetas in 



the region under disenssiou is Blacklegs creek, 
which has its rise in the country about West 
Lebanon and Parkwood, and flows in a direct 
course to its mouth, one and three-quarters 
miles south of Edri, near the American 
Sheet Steel Company's plant. Big, Marshall, 
Hooper, Whisky and Harper runs are the 
principal branches of Blacklegs creek. 

Crooked creek is the second largest stream. 
It flows west across the northern half of the 
quadrangle in a course which its name de- 
scribes. From Shelocta to Southbend, a vil- 
lage located almost in lie center of the quad- 
rangle, the stream flows through an open val- 
ley ; but from Southbend to the western border 
it cuts a good-sized gorge, making steep rocky 
bluffs, in some places over 250 feet high. 


Of the thirty or more hamlets in the El- 
ders Ridge quadrangle, only a little more than 
half are on the banks of streams in the val- 
leys; the others are on the uplands. The 
reason for the location of some of these settle- 
ments is apparent. The location of West Leb- 
anon on the top of a hill 1,300 feet above 
sea level may have had its origin in the open- 
ing of a 7-foot bed of coal (Pittsburg) in the 
ravines which head around the hill. The 
principal occupation in this quadrangle is ag- 
riculture and grazing. 

Roads for the most part are along the 
stream valleys, where the grade is easy. The 
longest stretches of stream-grade roads are 
along Blacklegs creek above Girty, Plum creek 
and Cherry run. Ridge roads are common 
and in some cases good. The road from West 
Lebanon to Spring Cliurch is conspicuous on 
the topographic map for its directness and 
comparative levelness. 

Crooked creek carries a sufficient volume of 
water to furnish power for a number of mills. 
It falls 130 feet from Shelocta to Cochran 
Mills, a distance of nearly eighteen miles as 
the stream flows; this furnishes enough head 
for water power at frequent intervals. Black- 
legs creek has been dammed near its mouth, 
where the grade is so low that the stream is 
ponded for some distance. 



The rocks of the Elders Ridge qiiadrangle 
are bent into a number of nearly parallel 
wrinkles or folds which have a northeast- 

southwest trend. In describing these folds 
the upward-bending arch is called an anticline 
and the downward-bending trough is called 
a syncline. The axis of a fold is that line 
which at every point occupies the highest 
part of the anticline or the lowest pai-t of the 
syncline, and from which the strata dip in an 
anticline or toward which they dip in a syn- 


There are in current use two methods of 
representing geologic .structure. The first and 
most obvious method is by means of cross sec- 
tions which show the various strata as they 
would appear if cut by vertical planes en- 
tirely across the quadrangle. This method is 
effective only where the dip of the rocks is 
perceptible to the eye. In the Elders Ridge 
quadrangle the rocks dip so gently that the 
anticlines and synclines would not be very 
apparent on such sections; besides, the sec- 
tions illustrate the structure only along cer- 
tain lines and do not give the shape of the 
arches and basins, and these are of the great- 
est importance in the commercial develop- 
ment of the field, as regards both the mining 
of coal and the exploitation for oil and gas. 

The second method has been used in deline- 
ating the bituminous coal field of western 
Pennsylvania. It consists in the representa- 
tion of the surface of some particular stratum 
which is known through its wide exposure 
in outcrop, its exploitation by mines, its 
relation to some other bed above it, or the 
records of wells drilled for oil and gas. The 
defonned surface of the key stratum is then 
represented by means of contour lines which 
show the form and size of the folds into which 
it has been thrown and its altitude above sea 
level at practically all points within the quad- 

In this quadrangle the Upper Freeport coal 
bed is a widely outcropping and well-known 
stratum and is used by drillers in some fields 
as a key rock in determining the position of 
the oil and gas bearing sands. The floor of 
this bed has been selected as the surface upon 
which to represent the geologic structure of 
the quadrangle. 

Where the Upper Freeport coal shows in 
natural outcrop its altitude has been deter- 
mined at many points. Where it occurs below 
the surface its existence and position are 
known through the records of the gas wells 
of the region. After its altitude has been 
determined at a great many places, points of 


equal altitude are connected by contour lines ; 
as, for example, all points having an altitude 
of 900 feet above sea level are connected by a 
line, which then becomes the 900-foot con- 
tour line. Similarly, all points having an al- 
titude of 950 feet are connected by the 950- 
foot contour line, and in like manner con- 
tour lines are drawn covering the entire ter- 
ritory at vertical distances of 50 feet. These 
lines are printed on the economic geologj' 
map, and they show, first, the horizontal con- 
tour of the troughs and arches; second, the 
relative and also the actual dip of the beds, 
and third, the approximate height of the Up- 
per Freeport coal above .sea level at any point. 

The depth of the reference stratum below 
the surface at any point is obtained by sub- 
tracting its elevation, as shown by the struc- 
ture contour lines, from the- elevation of the 
surface at the same point. Suppose, for in- 
stance, the position of the Upper Freeport 
coal is desired at Parkwood. The elevation 
of the surface at the road corners is 1.325 
feet, and the 800-foot structure contour line 
passes through the place. The Upper Free- 
port coal, therefore, is here about 1.325 minus 
800 feet, or about 525 feet, below the surface. 

As a rule these structure contours are gen- 
ei-alized. and are only approximately correct. 
They art liable to error from several condi- 
tions. Being estimated on tlie assumption 
that over small areas the rocks maintain a 
uniform thickness, the position of a contour 
will be in error by the amount by which the 
actual thickness varies from the calculated 
thickness. It is well known that in some 
places the interval between two easily deter- 
mined strata will vary by many feet in a 
short distance. Such cases make the deter- 
mination of the position of the reference 
stratum difficult when it lies some hundreds 
of feet below the surface. In parts of the 
bituminous coal regions of Penns.ylvania, how- 
ever, records obtained in drilling for gas and 
oil give the changes in the inteiwal. and thus 
control the determination of structure and 
the position of the reference stratum. 


The general structural features of the El- 
ders Ridge quadrangle have the same south- 
west-northeast strike that characterizes the 
whole Appalachian province. The strongest 
features are three anticlines and two syn- 
clines. These axes are named from localities 
where they are strongly developed, or from 

places near which they pass. The iirst of 
these in this cpadrangle, taking them in the 
order in which they occur from east to west, 
is the Jacksonville anticline, which passes near 
Lewisville and Jacksonville (Kent post office). 
The next is the Elders Ridge syncline, which 
brings the Pittsburg coal down so that it 
lies in the hills under several square miles of 
this territory. The Roaring run anticline par- 
allels this syncline on the west for a short 
distance, but is broken up in the middle of the 
quadrangle. On the west of the Roaring run 
anticline is a basin which is not strongly de- 
veloped on Crooked creek, but becomes more 
pronounced to the north and may be known 
as the Apollo syncline. 

Where the Upper Freeport coal is com- 
pletely hidden beneath the surface, its posi- 
tion is calculated from higher beds in sight at 
the surface, with the assumption that inter- 
vals between members are fairly constant. 
In a few parts of the quadrangle the depth of 
the coal below the surface is known from deep- 
well records. The occurrence of the Pittsburg 
coal in the midst of the Elders Ridge syncline 
and midway between the outcrops of the Free- 
port coal on Aultmans and Roaring runs gives 
good control on the position of the latter bed 
beneath the surfa'ce in the southern half of 
the quadrangle. The interval between these 
two coal beds varies from 630 to 700 feet in 
this part of the State. The accuracy of this 
measurement is verified close to the axis of 
this basin by the record of a well drilled at 
water level near the mouth of Blacklegs creek 
and close under the outcrop of the Pittsburg 
coal. The mouth of the well is about 320 feet 
below the Pittsburg coal, and the Upper Free- 
port coal was found at a depth of 324 feet, 
giving a thickness of 644 feet for the Cone- 
maugh formation at this point. The deter- 
mination of the position of the reference 
stratum throughout the entire quadrangle is 
believed to be accurate within a contour in- 
terval, and in those portions where the upper 
Freeport coal is exposed at the surface for 
long distances the variation from reality will 
probably be not more than 20 feet. Besides 
representing the depth of the reference 
stratum below the surface or its elevation 
above mean sea level, the contour lines show 
with some degree of accuracy the relation of 
the various slopes to each other and the ap- 
proximate grades which may be expected if 
at any time mining operations are prosecuted 
upon this coal bed. 

Jacksonville Anticlinf.—The structural 
fold, which is a strong feature in the south- 



east corner of this quadrangle, reaches its 
greatest elevation in the vicinity of the vil- 
lage of Jacksonville and takes its name from 
that place. To the south it crosses the Cone- 
maugh river about two miles east of Salts- 
burg and maintains a southwest course for 
some miles, gradually losing strength as it 
continues into Westmoreland county. To the 
north the crest of this anticline can" be traced 
but a short distance beyond the boundary of 
this quadrangle; in fact, it is vei-y incon- 
spicuous on Curry run and gives place to the 
McKee run anticline, which is offset a short 
distance to the east. The Freeport coal on 
the crest of this anticline in the vicinity of 
Jacksonville is about 1,280 feet above' sea 
level. From here it falls rapidly to the west, 
so that the Pittsburg coal, which is strati- 
gi-aphically from 600 to 700 feet above it, 
is found at the same elevation above tide on 
the west side of the valley of Blacklegs creek. 

Elders Ridge Synelinc— The Elders Ridge 
sjTicline was described and accurately 
located by the Second Geological Survey of 
Pennsylvania under the name Lisbon-West 
Lebanon syncline. This name, however, has 
been abandoned for the shorter one, which 
is taken from a small village in the center of 
this basin and located almost on the axis. 
The Elders Ridge s.yneline is traced across 
Indiana county from Plum creek, dipping 
gradually to the south. Where the axis en- 
ters the Elder's Ridge quadrangle, three miles 
east of Sheloeta, the reference stratum is 900 
feet above sea level. From here it falls gradu- 
ally to a point between Elders Ridge and 
Big run, where the Upper Freeport coal is 
not more than 400 feet above sea level. The 
axis rises from Big run to the south fully 150 
feet before it reaches the southern edge of 
the quadrangle. The Elders Ridge syncline 
crosses the Kiskiminetas river near Edri, and 
pursues a comparatively direct course north- 
east through Elders Ridge near the academy, 
passes one half mile west of West Lebanon, 
and in the valley of Gobblers run turns 
sharply to the east, so that it lies fully a mile 
south of Sheloeta. It is by reason of this syn- 
cline that the small area of Pittsburg coal is 
found on the hills. Westward from this axis 
the rocks rise more rapidly than to the east, 
and the Upper Freeport coal appears again 
on Roaring riin and Crooked creek. From the 
description it will be seen that the Elders 
Ridge syncline is a canoe-shaped basin, and 
within the limits of this quadrangle is shallow 
at both ends and deepens toward the middle. 

Dutch Run Anticline. — North of the Elders 

Ridge syncline and east of the Roaring run 
anticline in Indiana county there is a low 
structural fold which has enough strength to 
raise the Upper Freeport coal just above 
water level along the lower courses of Dutch 
run and Plum creek. The axis of this fold 
crosses the south branch of Plum creek three- 
fourths of a mile east of the Armstrong-In- 
diana county line and crosses Dutch run 
aliout the same distance west of Advance. It 
pursues a direct course to Plum creek, paral- 
leling Dutch run for three miles, and crosses 
the former stream a mile above its mouth. 

This axis was called the Roaring run an- 
ticline untler the misapprehension, that the 
fold extended from Plum creek to Crooked 
creek and was a part of the axis seen on 
Roaring run. The records of a number of 
wells obtained in this territory after the 
Indiana folio had been completed showed that 
tlie axis terminates two miles north of Idaho. 

Although this fold is nearly parallel with 
the northeast portion of the Elders Ridge 
syncline and falls in line with that part of 
the Roaring run anticline which lies south 
of Crooked creek, it cannot be considered as 
a part or a spur of the latter fold, for the 
reason that the axis of the Dutch run anti- 
cline plunges toward the much higher flank 
of the Roaring run anticline. This name, 
Dutch run, is taken from the stream which 
the anticline mostly follows. 


All of the rocks seen at the surface in this 
ciuadrangle belong to the Pennsylvanian se- 
ries of the Carboniferous system. Three for- 
mations are present — the Allegheny, Cone- 
maugh and Mouongahela. These are, respec- 
tively, the Lower Productive, Lower Barren 
and Upper Productive measures. The Alle- 
gheny formation is exposed along Roaring 
run. Crooked creek. Plum creek, Dutch^run, 
and Aultmans run^a small portion of the 
whole surface. The Monougahela formation 
underlies a belt of country about nine miles 
long and three miles wide between the Kis- 
kiminetas river and West Lebanon. The 
rocks underlying the remainder and by far 
the largest poi'tion of the sui'face belong to 
the Conemaugh formation. More than 1,100 
feet of stratified .rocks are exposed at the 
surface in this quadrangle. They are divided 
among the formations as follows : Allegheny, 
240 ; Conemaugh, 650 ; Monongahela, 216. 



Coal is the most important of the mineral 
resources of the Elders Ridge quadrangle. 
Two beds of workable thickness are exten- 
sively exposed. These are the Upper Free- 
port and the Pittsburg. A third bed, the 
Lower Freeport, which is usuallj' thin, has a 
local importance in some places where it 
thickens considerably. Sevei'al other beds too 
thin to be of economic importance are present. 
These coals are in the Allegheny and Monon- 
gahela formations, and lie between the Van- 
port and Benwood limestones. Although 
eight or nine seams ocei;r in this interval, it 
must not be assumed that they are everywhere 
present or are alwaj's of the same thickness. 
The generalized sections so often published 
are meant to show onl.y their relative posi- 
tions. It .should be understood that these 
beds vary in position with relation to other 
beds and that their thicknesses are not con- 
stant. The description will begin with the 
lowest coal exposed in the area and end with 
the highest. No mention will be made of the 
Gallitzin and Redstone coals, which are mere 
streaks where seen and undoubtedly are small 
throughout the quadrangle. 

It may be well here to define certain terms 
in common use. An opening is a small exca- 
vation which reveals the coal in place and the 
thickness of the bed. A coal bank is a small 
mine in which a few men, from one to ten, are 
employed, and in which the coal is mined and 
brought out to the scaffold without the use of 
machinery. A coal mine employs enough men 
to require a mine boss, probably uses machines 
for undercutting the coal, and hauls by means 
other than hand. Coalpit is a term applied 
without discrimination to openings, banks and 


Whether this seam is present throughout 
the Elders Ridge quadrangle is questionable. 
In the vicinity of Jacksonville, Conemaugh 
township, the Jacksonville anticline raises the 
Allegheny formation high above water level, 
so that the horizon of the Lower Freeport 
coal is exposed for a number of miles. The 
coal is not more than 20 inches thick on Reeds 
run. and it is probably less than 2 feet thick 
at the head of Neal ran. The bed has been 
opened on the east hillside three fourths of 
a mile north of Jacksonville and found to be 
only 2 feet thick. This is probably the normal 
occurrence for this part of the county. Near 

the mouth of Neal run, however, the Lower 
Freeport has an unusual development. It 
has been mined near the schoolhouse two miles 
north of Jacksonville by I\Ir. Clark Neal and 
ilr. William H. ]Martin. In both these banks, 
which are nearly opposite each other on the 
same run, the Lower Freeport coal measures 

5 feet, 2 inches. The bed is very even and 
does not carry a large per cent of sulphur, but 
is considerably intermixed with thin bands of 
earthy material which in places gives it a 
large percentage of ash. It is the presence of 
this impurity that gives it its great firmness, 
causing it to come from the mine in large 
blocks. The coal has a dull luster generally, 
but shows numerous bright pitchy bands. 
The lower bench, which is 20 inches thick, is 
harder than the rest. It is overlain by 8 
inches of a softer coal which is excellent for 
blacksmithing purposes. The coal has been 
mined on this run continuously for nearly 
sixty years. In the first hollow south of Neal 
run the same bed has been mined on the Mar- 
shall farm close to the axis of the Jackson- 
-ville anticline, the seam measuring 4 feet, 

6 inches thick. 

It is believed by some people in the vicinity 
that the Lower Freeport seam maintains a 
thickness of from 4 to 5 feet throughout a 
considerable area in this part of Indiana 
county, but this is readily disproved by an 
examination of the outcrops in the immediate 
vicinity "of the coal banks above mentioned. 
It is possible that the bed attains the same 
thickness at other points where it is hidden 
beneath the surface, but it is ciuite certain 
that the development on Neal run is veiy local, 
and will extend less than a mile in any di- 

A coal i-eported to be 5 feet thick in the 
Stahl well is at the proper horizon for the 
Lower Freeport. It is a clrarn-drill measure- 
ment, however, and therefore unreliable. The 
bed is not known on Conemaugh river a few 
miles south of this well. 


The "foui'-foot coal," as it is called, has 
an extensive exposure in this quadrangle. 
Its outcrop is to be found in all four corners 
and well in toward the middle of the area. 
By far the longest line of outcrops is in the 
northwest quarter of the quadrangle, where 
the coal is above water level on every ti-ibu- 
tary of Crooked creek. The average thick- 
ness of the bed is probably a little under 4 
feet, and the coal is everywhere somewhat 



slaty aud sulphurous. The areas in which 
the coal outcrops are so detached that they 
may well be described separately. 

Southeast Quarter. — The Upper Freeport 
coal is brought to the surface in the southeast 
corner of the quadrangle by the Jacksonville 
anticline. The axis of this fold in the geologic 
structure crosses the Conemaugh river half 
way between Saltsburg and Tunuelton with a 
strong northeast trend. It turns northward 
near Lewisville and passes one mile west of 
Jacksonville, pursuing a course nearly parallel 
with Eeeds run, and disappearing soon after 
entering the Indiana quadrangle near Tan- 
nery. The coal is exposed along the whole 
length of Coal run, and on Aultmans run 
northward from the mouth of Coal run to 
the headwaters of Neal and Reeds runs. The 
bed has been opened at short intervals north 
and south of Jacksonville and shows a thick- 
ness ranging from 3 feet, 6 inches to 4 feet, 
7 inches. An average thickness for the coal 
in this vicinity is 4 feet. 

In an opening at the western head of Coal 
run the bed was seen 4 feet, 7 inches thick, 
while on the northern branch of the same 
stream near the road forks, one mile due 
west from Jacksonville, the coal seen in a new 
test pit measured 3 feet, 6 inches. On Ault- 
mans run the bed is 4 feet thick on the fol- 
lowing farms: McKee, Pails, Jacks, Means, 
McFarland, Evans and Mclntyre. It meas- 
ures 3 feet, 11 inches on the Clawson farm 
and at a point two miles northeast of Jackson- 
ville on a tributary of Aultmans run ; 3 feet, 
10 inches at George Dickey's farm; and 3 
feet, 10 inches to 4 feet in the A. W. Robin- 
son bank and the abandoned workings near 
the head of Reeds run. Near the mouth of 
Reeds run, where the Lower Freeport coal has 
an unusual development, the Upper Freeport, 
60 feet above it, is from 4 feet to 4 feet, 3 
inches thick. 

The Upper Freeport coal with its underly- 
ing limestone is also exposed for more than 
a mile at the upper end of Marshall run, in 
which distance it rises 170 feet on the flank of 
the Jacksonville anticline. There are a num- 
ber of openings on the coal in this ravine, but 
they were so badly caved that no measure- 
ments of the coal could be made. 

It is known that the Upper Freeport coal 
is thin in the southern central part of Young 
township, where it lies deep below the surface. 
Soutluvest Quarter.— The Elders Ridge 
syncline carries the Upper Freeport coal sev- 
eral hundred feet below the surface. Well 
records show that at the mouth of Black- 

legs creek it is 320 feet and at the mouth of 
LongVun 2.50 feet below water level. If the 
inteiwal between the Pittsburg and Upper 
Freeport coals remains the same as on the 
river, the latter coal should be about 800 feet 
below the village of Elders Ridge. 

Northeast Quarter. — On the south branch 
of Plum creek the Upper Freeport coal is 
exposed just above water level for three miles 
by the uplift of the Dutch run anticline. One 
mile of this outcrop is on the Elders Ridge 
quadrangle and the other two extend up to 
Willet on the Indiana quadrangle. The coal 
on this stream measures from 2 feet, 10 inches 
to 3 feet, 6 inches in thickness. 


Occurrence. — The northernmost remnant of 
the Pittsburg coal seam, which underlies about 
two thousand square miles in the southwest- 
ern part of Pennsylvania, is in the Elders 
Ridge quadrangle. This remnant is a small 
area which lies along the Armstrong-Indiana 
county line and is detached from the main 
body of the seam. 

E.Ttent. — Geographically the limits of the 
Elders Ridge coal field are clearly defined. 
It is bounded on the north by Gobblers run, 
on the east by Blacklegs creek, on the south 
by Kiskiminetas river, and on the west by 
Long run. It is about ten miles long and 
three miles wide, with the long axis in a 
northeast-southwest direction. This belt of 
coal is divided transversely into three large 
blocks by the valley of Whisky run and Big 
run, which have cut through the horizon of 
the coal and expose long lines of outcrop on 
both sides of the streams. The middle one of 
these three blocks, which lies between Olivet 
and Clarksburg, is the largest, and the north- 
ernmost is the smallest. All three have irregu- 
lar outlines. There are a number of outliers 
of a few acres in extent on the northern and 
western sides of the field. Roughly estimated, 
there are about 14 square miles of coal in this 
area, or between 8,500 and 9,000 acres. The 
coal has been mined out from 600 or 700 acres. 
The thickness of the bed will average close 
to 7 feet. 

Structure of the Pittsburg Coal. — This coal 
field lies in a structural basin known as the 
Elders Ridge syncline. It crosses the river 
above Edri, passes close to the Foster mine, 
a few rods east of the Robert Fritz bank, and 
through Elders Ridge near the academy. It 
enters the northern block between the W. B. 
Davis and John D. Hart heirs' Ijanks, passes 



west of West Lebanon, and leaves the field 
near Ilolsten Brothers' baiik. The beginning 
of the sharp deflection to the east, which takes 
the axis to Crooked creek, nearly two miles 
east of Shelocta. is shown north of the coal 
banks on the Hugh Blakely and Madison 
Craig farms. All of the coal on the east side 
of this syncline rises toward Blacklegs creek, 
and all on the west toward Long run. The 
basin is deeper in the vicinity of Elders 
Ridge than at Edri or West Lebanon, so 
that the structural shapQ of the field is a 
broad canoe-like fold, with the rocks dipping 
from all sides toward the center. The dip 
is gentle, being just enough to aid the oper- 
ations of the miner. 

A large number of openings have been made 
on the outcrop of the coal. Many of these 
were abandoned after a small ciuantity of coal 
had been taken out, and have been closed for 
years. Other banks to the number of ten or 
twelve are kept open and are operated by one 
or two men throughout the greater part of 
the year. Among these country banks are 
those of Ilolsten Brothers, iMadison Craig, 
Wilson Blakely, John D. Hart. Harry Hart. 
Robert Fritz, Samuel White, MeComb, Thomas 
Hart and John Hart. These small banks sup- 
ply fuel for only a narrow belt of farms, be- 
cause the Upper Freeport coal is mined on 
Roaring run and on Crooked creek below 
South bend less than two miles west of this 
field, and both the Upper and Lower Free- 
port coals are mined to the east not more than 
three miles from Blacklegs creek. 

The Foster mine is owned by the Saltsburg 
Coal Company and was reopened in the fall 
of 1903 after standing idle a number of years. 
The coal is hauled down the run and around 
the face of the river bluff to the tipple on the 
railroad by a narrow-gage steam locomotive. 
In December, 1904, this mine was producing 
750 tons per day. At the Edri mine, which 
is situated on the hill east of the station of 
that name, the cars are brought out by mules, 
and lowered about 200 feet to a tipple on a 
spur from the railroad. A double-track grav- 
ity incline is the method for lowering and 
raising cars. About fifty men are employed 
and the daily output is 200 tons. This mine 
is operated by the Edri Coal Company. 

The Bowman Coal jMining Company, S. J. 
Robinson, superintendent, operates a mine 
near the southern extremity of the field on the 
hill about three fourths of a mile south of 
Edri. The company employs sixty men and 
ships from 200 to 250 tons daily. Mules are 
used for hauling the coal from the breast out 

to the brow of the hill, where it is lowered by 
an incline to a railroad tipple. 

The Conemaugh Coal Companv, of Blairs- 
ville. Pa., F. :\I. Graff, superintendent, in 1903 
opened a mine a half mile east of the Bowman 
Company mine. There were one hundred men 
on the pay roll in December, 1904, and thev 
were getting about 7,000 tons per month. Al- 
most 1.000 feet of heading per month were 
being driven in the fall of 1904, and it is ex- 
pected that an additional capacity of 1.000 
tons will soon be developed. A large tipple 
has been built over a railroad spur at the 
sheet-steel mill and ears are handled on the 
incline by steam power. 

The Pittsburg Gas Coal Company has 
started a new coal town on Harper run, about 
one and a half miles south of Elders Ridge. 
This company began operations in the sum- 
mer of 1903 by building a dam across the 
run, erecting power houses, and starting six 
headings on the coal. Three of these head- 
ings are on the east side of the run and have 
natural drainage. The other three, on the 
west side of the run, are down the dip of the 
rocks, so a heading is being run almost due 
west to Big run to give natural drainage to 
all the workings in that part of the mine. 
Electric haulage and all modern improve- 
ments, both inside and outside, are used at 
this mine. 

The company erected 350 to 400 houses on 
its town site, known as Iselin. In ^ilarch, 1905, 
according to John Reeds, assistant general 
manager, the town had a population of 2,000, 
and the company was employing 400 men and 
producing 1,850 tons of coal daily. Now 
there are 1,600 nu-n and the dailv production 
is 6,000 tons. 

The Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburg rail- 
way has been extended from Creekside, In- 
diana county, to Iselin. It began hauling coal 
from this mine in August, 1904. 

ThicJcness of the Pittsburg Coal— The Pitts- 
burg coal bed in the Elders Ridge field is 
slaty and much parted in some places; in 
others it is clean and almost unbroken. It 
varies in thickness, including its partings and 
roof coal, from 7 to 10 feet. Generally the 
roof coal is not taken, being so much parted 
by thin bands of shale that it has little value. 
I\Ioreover the shales over the roof coal are 
so soft and friable that the coal has to be left 
to support them. The bed has been opened 
at a great many places in this basin, but there 
are hardl.v more than twentv localities where 
accurate measurements of the seam can easily 


be made. A few measurements are given in 
detail to show the character of the seam. 

Northern Block. — That portion of the El- 
ders Ridge field which lies east of Whisky 
run is the smallest of the three blocks into 
which the field is divided. The small outliers 
of a few acres in extent which are seen near 
West Lebanon are the most northern rem- 
nants of the great Pittsburg coal bed. Be- 
yond this point the bed would be carried above 
the present surface by the rising axis of the 
Elders Ridge syncline if projected beyond 
the outcrop. 

About two thirds of a mile north of West 
Lebanon Holsten Brothers own a coal bank 
which was opened many years ago, but has 
been worked actively only since 1900. The 
coal dips southeast and is practically free 
from partings and horsebacks. The section 
is as follows: 

Section at Holsten Brothers coal bank 

Ft. in. 

Coal 2 2 

Shale and coal 4 

Coal 2 5 

Shale y. 

Coal _2 ^ 

Total 7 11/2 

In a small outlier of the coal, a short dis- 
tance east of West Lebanon, Wilson Blakely 

owns a bank. The coal in this bank shows the 
following thickness. 

Section at Wilson Blakley coal bank 

Ft. in. 

Coal 1 8 

Shale 11 

Coal 3 11 

Shale 1 

Coal (seen) 1 3 

Total 7 10 

In the fall of 1903 this bank was delivering 
2,500 bushels a month to the steam shovels 
working on the Buffalo, Rochester and Pitts- 
burg railroad cut near Parkwood, and the 
Madison Craig bank was working on a similar 

These northern banks in the Elders Ridge 
field furnish a large part of the local supply 
in the Crooked creek valley. Being compact 
and hard, the Pittsburg coal comes out of the 
mine in firm blocks, which in spite of their 
impurities are preferred by the farmers for 
use in stoves and grates to the softer coal from 
the Upper Freeport seam as mined on 
Crooked creek. 


Great changes have taken place in our sys- but naked rocks. The mills were not expected 

tern of weather since the settlement of the to do any grinding after the latter end of 

western country, yet these changes have been ]May, excepting for a- short time after a thun- 

so gradual that it is no very easy task to dergust; our most prudent housekeepers, 

recollect or describe them. At the first set- therefore, took care to have their summer 

tlement of the country the summers were stock of flour ground in the months of March 

much cooler than at present. For many years and April. If this stock was expended too 

we scarcely ever had a single warm night soon there were no resources but those of the 

during the whole summer. The evenings were hominy block or handmill. It was a frequent 

cool and the mornings frequently uucomfort- sajang among our farmers that three good 

ably cold. The coldness of the nights was due rains were sufficient to make a crop of corn, 

to the deep shade of the lofty trees which if they happened at the proper times. The 

everj-vvhere covered the ground. In addition want of rain was compensated in some de- 

to this, the surface of the earth was still fur- gree by heavy dews, which were then more 

ther shaded by large crops of wild grass and common than of late, owing to the shaded con- ■ 

weeds, which prevented it from becoming dition of the earth, which prevented it from 

heated by the raj-s of the sun during the day. becoming either warm or dry, by the rays 

At sundown the air began to become damp of the sun, even during the warmest weather. 

and cool, and continued to increase .in cold- Frost and snow set in much earlier in former 

ness until warmed by the simshine of the day. times than of late. The corn in this district 

This wild herbage afforded pasture for our of the country was mostly frostbitten by Sep- 

cattle and horses from spring till the onset of tember 22d. Siich early frosts of equal sever- 

winter. To enable the owner to find his ity have not happened for some time past, 

beasts, the leader of each flock of cattle, horses Hunting snows usually commenced about the 

and sheep was fumished with a bell sus- middle of October. November was regarded 

pended to the neck by a leathern or iron as a winter month, as the winter frequently 

collar. Bells, therefore, constituted a con- set in with severity during that month, and 

siderable article of traffic in early times. sometimes in the early part. 

One distressing circumstance resulted from For a long time after the settlement of the 
the wild herbage of our wilderness. It pro- country there was an abundance of snow in 
dueed innumerable swarms of gnats, mos- comparison to the amount we iisually have 
quitoes and horseflies. These distressing in- now. It was no unusual thing to have snows 
sects gave such annoyance to man and beast, from one to three feet in depth, and of long 
that they may justly be ranked among the continuance. The people became tired of see- 
early plagues of the country. During that ing the monotonous aspect of the country so 
part of the season in which they were pre- long covered with deep snow, and "longed to 
valent, they made the cattle poor and lessened see the ground bare once more." The labor 
the amount of their milk. It was customary of opening roads through those deep snows, 
to build large fires of old logs about the forts, which fell in a single night, to the barn, 
the smoke of which kept the flies from the spring, smokehouse and corncrib, and espe- 
cattle, which soon learned to change their cially that of getting wood, was in the high- 
position with every change of wind, so as to est degree disagreeable. A tree, when fallen, 
keep themselves constantly in the smoke. was literally buried in the snow, so that the 

Our summers in early times were mostly driver of the horses had to plunge the whole 

very dry. The beds of our large creeks, ex- length of his arms into it to get the log chain 

cepting in the deep holes, presented nothing around the butt of the tree to haul it home. 




Tlie depth of the snows, the extreme cold and 
length of our winters, were indeed distressing 
to the first settlers, who were but poorly pro- 
vided with clothing, and whose cabins were 
mostly very open and uncomfortable. Get- 
ting wood, making fires, feeding the stock, and 
going to mill, were considered sufScient em- 
ployment for any family, and truly those lab- 
ors left them little time for anything else. 

As our roads, in early times, did not admit 
of the use of sleighs, the only sport they had 
in the time of deep snow was that of racing 
about on the crust of its surface. This was 
formed by a slight thaw succeeded by a severe 
frost. On this crust they could travel over 
logs, brush and, owing to great drifts of snow 
in many places, over the highest fences. 
These crusts were often fatal to the deer. 
Wolves, dogs and men could pursue them 
without breaking through the crust. The 
deer, on the contrary, when pursued, owing 
to the smallness of their hoofs, always broke 
through it unless it was vincommonly hard. 
The hunters never killed the deer in the dead 
of winter, as their skins and flesh were then 
of little value. Taking advantage of them in 
the time of a crust they held to be a dishonor- 
able practice, and always relieved them from 
the pursuit of dogs and wolves whenever it fell 
in their way to do so. Foreigners, however, 
who were not in the habit of hunting, often 
pursued and caught them on the crust for 
the sake of informing their friends in the old 
country by letter that they had killed a deer. 

The spring of the year in former times was 
pretty much as at present. It commonly be- 
gan with an open spell of weather during the 
latter part of February, denominated by some 
pawwawing days, and by others weather 
breeders. The month of Slareh was com- 
monly stormy and disagreeable throughout. 
It was a common saying that spring must not 
be expected until the borrowed days, that is, 
the first three days of April, were over. Sugar 
was often made in the early part of April. It 
sometimes happened that a great part of 
April was but little better than March, with 
regard to storms and rain, snow, and a cold 
chilling air. One year there were forty frosts 
noticed after the first day of April, yet the 
fruit was not wholly destroyed that year. 
During these days they never failed having 
cold, stormy weather, with more or less frost. 

On the whole, although the same variable 
system of weather continues, our springs were 
formerly somewhat colder, and accompanied 
with more snow than they are now, but the 
change, in these respects, is no way favorable 

to vegetation, as our latest springs are uni- 
formly followed by the most fruitful seasons. 
It is a law of the vegetable world that the 
longer the vegetative principle is delayed, the 
more rapid when put in motion. Hence those 
northern countries which have but a short 
summer, and no spring, are among the most 
fruitful countries in the world. In Russia, 
Sweden and Denmark, the transition from 
winter to summer occupies but a very few 
days ; yet a failure of a crop in these countries 
is but a rare occurrence ; while in our lati- 
tudes vegetation prematurely put in motion, 
and then often checked "by the laggering 
rear of winter's frost," frequently fails of at- 
taining its ultimate perfection. 

From this history of the system of the 
weather of our early times, it appears that our 
seasons have already undergone great and im- 
portant changes. Our summers are much 
warmer, our falls much milder and longer, 
and our winters shorter by at least one month, 
and accompanied with much less snow and 
cold than formerly. What causes have ef- 
fected these changes in our system of weather, 
and what may we reasonably suppose will be 
the ultimate extent of this revolution, already 
so apparent, in our system of weather? 

In all countries the population of a desert 
by civilized and agrici;ltural people has had a 
great effect on its climate. 

Italy, which is now a warm country, with 
very mild winters, was, in the time of Horace 
and Virgil, as cold and as subject to deep 
snows as the western country was at its first 
settlement. Philosophy has attributed the 
change of the seasons in that country to the 
clearing of its own forests, together with 
those of France to the north, and those of 
Germany to the east and north of Italy. The 
same cause has produced the same effect in 
our country. Every acre of cultivated land 
must increase the heat of our summer by aug- 
menting the extent of the surface of the 
ground denuded of its timber, so as to be 
acted upon and heated by the rays of the 

The future prospect of the weather through- 
out the whole extent of the western country 
is not verj' flattering. The thermometer in 
the hottest parts of our summer months al- 
ready ranges from ninety to one hundred de- 
grees. A frightful degree of heat for a coun- 
try as yet not half cleared of its native tim- 
ber! When we consider the great extent of 
the valley of the Mississippi, so remote from 
any sea to furnish its cooling breezes, without 
mountains to collect the vapors, augment and 


diversify the winds, and watered only by a 
few rivers, which in the summer are dimin- 
ished to a small amount of water, we have all 
the data for the unpleasant conclusion that 
the climate of the western regions will ulti- 
mately become intensely hot and subject to 
distressing calms and droughts of long con- 

Already we begin to feel the effects of the 
increase of the heat of the summer in the nox- 
ious eflluvia of the stagnant water of the 
ponds and low grounds along the rivers. 
These fruitful sources of pestilential exhal- 
ations have converted large tracts of our coun- 
try into regions of sickness and death, while 
the excessive heat and dryness of our settle- 
ments, remote from the large watercourses, 
have been accompanied by endemic dysen- 
teries in their most mortal forms. Thus the 
most fortunate regions of the earth have draw- 
backs from their advantages which serve in 
some degree to balance the condition of their 
inhabitants with that of people of countries 
less gifted by nature in point of soil, climate 
and situation. 

The conflict for equilibrium lietween the 
rarefied air of the South and the dense at- 
mosphere of the North will maintain the 
changeable state of weather in this country-, 
as there is no mountainous barrier between us 
and the northern regions of our continent. 


As this remarkable phenomenon occurred 
at a time when the population of the county 
was very limited, there are few persons now 
living here, or elsewhere for that matter, who 
can give a correct description of it. As it 
was a "thing of terror" to many of the people 
in those days, and for years was a topic of 
discussion, we append extracts from papers, 
books, etc., to show its appearance at other 
points, as the same characteristic obscuration 
extended throughout the boundaries of Ven- 
ango county, the eclipse being calculated to 
be total in such parts of New York, New Eng- 
land, Ohio and Pennsylvania as were situated 
between 41° 35' and 43° 5' north latitude. 

Gen. Simon DeAYitt. of Albany, in giving an 
account of the eclipse, observed : ' ' Fortun- 
ately on the morning of that day, the atmos- 
phere was very clear. The eclipse began at 
9 hours, 5 minutes. 12 seconds. A. M. : the 
beginning of the total obscuration was 11 
hours. 8 minutes. 6 seconds : the end of total 
darkness. 11 hours. 12 minutes, 11 seconds; 
and of the eclipse, 12 hours. 33 minutes, 8 

seconds; length of total eclipse, 4 minutes, 
5 seconds." 

At Pittsburg many were troubled as to 
whether or no the end of all things had come. 
Some hitherto hardened sinners besought the 
Almighty to forgive them their past trans- 
gressions. Sermons were preached on the 
Sunday previous (15th), and the text, "re- 
pent ye, for the kingdom of heaven is at 
hand," used on that occasion with peculiar 
prophetic fervor, was duly appreciated on the 
morrow. This occasion, like many others, il- 
lustrated the old saying : 

When tlie devil was sick, the devil a monk would be. 
But when the devil got well, devil a. monk was he. 

At Philadelphia, a total obscurity suddenly 
turned the day into night. Business ceased, 
and the sounds of merriment and bustle of 
the crowded streets were hushed. 

In the city of New York, a sudden and dis- 
mal gloom overspread the face of nature ; the 
tliermometer indicated a fall of the quick- 
silver of eighteen degrees, and the atmosphere 
was sensibly cooler. Not a cloud was to be 

An old settler, speaking in regard to this 
subject, said: "I thought the day of judg- 
ment was at hand and I was scared. The 
chickens went to roost, and everything was as 
still as night." Another remarked, "I was 
working on the mountain, and all of a sudden 
it became so dark that I could not see my way 
down the ravine. I waited and waited, it 
seemed to me a whole day, before the sun 
shone again." 

A Cooperstown (N. Y.) writer saj-s : "The 
atmosphere at this place on IMonday last was 
serene and pure. The sun was majestically 
bright, until fifty minutes past nine o'clock 
A. M.. when a little dark spot was visible 
about forty-five degrees to the right of the 
zenith. Tlie shade increased until fifteen min- 
utes past ten, when stars began to appear, and 
the atmosphere exhibited a gloomy shade. At 
twelve minutes past eleven, the sun was wholly 
obscured, exhibiting the appearance of a black 
globe, or screen, with light behind it, the rays 
only of which were visible, and which were too 
feeble to occasion sufficient light to form a 
shade. ]Many stars now appeared, though 
less numerous than are usually seen in clear 
evenings. There was now 'darkness visible.' 
a sort of blackish, unnatural twilight. The 
fowls retired to their roosts, and the 'doves 
to their windows.' The birds were mute, ex- 
cept the poor whip-poor-will, whose notes par- 
tially cheered the gloom. The dew descended, 



and nature seemed clad iu a sad, sombre and 
something like a sable livery. 

"At fourteen minutes past eleven, a little 
bright point appeared to the left of the sun's 
nadir, similar to the focus of a glass when 
reflecting the rays of the sun. Suddenly a 
segment of the circle of that glorious orb 
emerged, and seemed to say 'sit lux' and was 
obeyed immediately, 'lux fuit,' as quick as 
thought. A small pin could be discovered on 
the ground. A more wonderful and pleasing 
phenomenon can hardly be conceived. The 
doves left their retirement; the whip-poor- 
will's melody ceased; and the face of nature 
again smiled. But some stars were still vis- 
ible, and Venus displayed her beauty until 
twelve o'clock. At forty minutes past twelve, 
the sun shone in full splendor, and in turn 
eclipsed the moon and all other heavenly 
luminaries by its glorious effulgence." 

Rev. Dr. Nott, president of Union College, 
in his account says : "At the instant the last 
ray was intercepted and the obscuration be- 
came total, a tremulous undulating shadow, 
a kind of indescribable, alternate prevalence 
and intermixture of light and shade, struck 
the earth, and played on its surface which 
gave to the most stable objects the semblance 
of agitation. It seemed as though the moon 
rode unsteadily in her orbit; and the earth 
seemed to tremble on its axis. The deception 
was so complete that I felt instinctively, and 
in spite of the instincts of my reason to the 
contrary, a tottering motion. Some who were 
present, I observed took hold of whatever was 
near them for support, while others leaned 
forward, and insensibly flung themselves into 
an attitude which indicated that they found 
it difficult to stand 

"The scenes described at the commence- 
ment of the total obscuration reappeared when 
the first rays of the sun were reappearing; 
the same apparent agitation of the surface of 
the earth ; the same apparent struggle between 
light and darkness; the same separation be- 
tween light and shade into distinct and alter- 
nate arches, and the same motion reversed; 
for now the arches of light seemed to crowd 
those of shade inward; and the whole move- 
ment was from the horizon towards the center, 
which continued about the same time, and dis- 
appeared in about the' same manner, as above 



The year 1816 is memorable for extreme 
cold weather. There were frosts in every 
month, and the harvest of wheat and potatoes 
was nearly a failure. The corn crop was 
destroyed at each planting, and a general 
gloom settled over the community. The 
farmers wore overcoats in the harvest field, 
and the weather was decidedly cool during 
the year. The snow was unusually deep in 
the winter of 1815-16, and for nearly three 
months the river was closed by ice. The 
flood of the spring, in height and destructive 
power, was nearly equal to that of 1806. 

a prophecy in 1835 * 

The Approaching Comet 

Lieutenant R. Morrison, of the Royal Navy, 
has published a most interesting work upon 
this magnificent phenomenon which is ex- 
pected to be seen in the course of the year 
1835, between the months of May and August, 
in the constellation of Ursa Major. Lieuten- 
ant Morrison states that it will be far more 
splendid than the one of 1811 ; some writers 
affirm that "it will afford a degree of light 
equal to a full moon, that its tail will extend 
over 40 degrees," and when the head of the 
comet reaches the meridian its tail will sweep 
the horizon. 

The author says : 

"Relying on the correction of our princi- 
ple of cometary influence, we venture to pre- 
dict that the summer of 1835 will be remarked 
for its intense heat, which may be expected 
to destroy the harvest in some parts of the 
world. That year will be noted for earth- 
quakes and volcanoes, and other similar phe- 
nomena. The end of 1835, or early in 1836, 
may be expected to be remai-kable for some 
one or more extensive earthquakes, because 
the frequent internal changes which the com- 
bustion creates, must necessarily produce a 
derangement of electricity. And while the 
comet is near the earth, overcharged with 

' From the Fain 


electricity, if there be any internal cavity of 
the earth deficient of that fluid, it will rush 
into the earth at that spot. This we take to 
have been the cause in 1456 near Naples, when 
the sudden rendings of the earth destroyed 
40,000 human beings." 


W. B. Wehrle 


The summer of 1S36 was nearly as cold as 
that of 1816. There were frosts in every 
month in the year; there were one hundred 
and seventy-eight days of east wind and rain, 
and the only summer weather occurred in the 
first fourteen days of September, when the 
mercury in the thermometer ranged up to 
ninety degrees. 


The great frosts of June 5th and 12th, 1859, 
are worthy of mention. "The wheat and rye 
were just in blossom, and there was every 
prospect of a bountiful harvest. But these 
frosts smote the fields as with the besom of 
destruction. The evening before, nature 
smiled, like Eden almost, with beauty and the 
prospect of plenty ; but on the Sabbath morn- 
ing the fields were blasted, as though the 
breath of the Sirocco had swept over them. 
A deep and heavy gloom settled over the com- 
munity. The question of bread became ex- 
ceedingly practical, and the fear arose that 
multitudes of our citizens would be obliged 
to leave their homes for a warmer sky and a 
more genial atmosphere. But the danger 
over. Corn was plenty in 'Egypt,' 
were found for purchasing it, and the 
next year brought good crops. ' ' 

Jan. 14 59 Jan. 10 6 

Fpb. 17 60 Feb. 11 10 

March 13 67 March 16. . .3'/> 

April 27 79 April 3 14 

May 28 9S May 5 26 

June 11 96 June 15 46 

July 4 103 July 18 46 

Aug. 10 99 Aug. 20 43 

Sept. 2 & 8 88 Sept. 14 37 

Oct. 4 79 Oct. 29 23 

Nov. 11 68 Xov. 13 11 

Dec. 10 68 Dec. 5 11 

Total Precipitation for 1911.. 


Jan. 1 51 Jan. 13. 

Feb. 26 50 Feb. 10. 

March 19 . . . 


March 3.., 



April 15... 


April 20.. 

. .21 


May 28.... 


May 14... 



June 29 


June 8 



July 3 


July 28... 

. .48 


Aug. 13.... 


Aug. 28 . . . 



Sept. 10 


Sept. 30.. 

Oct. 6 


Oct. 37.... 

. .27 


Nov. 6 


Nov. 29 . . . 

. .18 


Dec. 6 


Dec. 13... 




Total Precipitation for 1912.. 56.87 

The average annual rainfall in Indiana 
county is from 45 inches to 48 inches. 

Prom the first of July, 1912, to the close 
of the year there were only fifty-seven clear 
days. On June 16th 3.17 inches of rain fell. 


The reader need not expect that this chap- 
ter will contain a list of all the beasts and 
birds which were tenants of the western wild- 
erness at the time of its first settlement. We 
shall only briefly notice a few of those classes 
which have totally or partially disappeared 
from the country, together with those which 
have emigrated here with our population. 
This enumeration, so far as it goes, will serve 
to make a distinction for the natural his- 
torian, between those beasts and birds which 
are naturally tenants of the wilderness and 
refuse the society of man, and those which 
follow his footsteps from one region to an- 
other, and although partially wild yet subsist 
in part upon his labors. 

The buffalo and elk have entirely disap- 
peared from this section of the country. Of 
the bear and deer, but very few remain. The 
wolves, formerly so numerous and so destruc- 
tive to the cattle, are now seldom heard of in 
our older settlements. It may seem strange 
that this ferocious and cunning animal, so 
long the scourge of the mountainous districts 
of Europe, should have so suddenly disap- 
peared from our infant country. The saga- 
city of the wolves bids defiance to the most 
consummate craft of the hunters, many of 
whom, throughout life, never obtained a single 
chance to shoot at one of them. Sometimes, 
indeed, they outwitted them by pitfalls and 
steel traps ; but no great number were killed 
by either of these means ; nor had the price 
set upon their scalps by the State Legislatures 
any great effect in diminishing their number 
and depredations. By what means then did 
their destruction happen ? On this subject we 
will hazard the opinion that a greater num- 
ber of them were destroyed by hydrophobia 
than by all other means put together. An 
animal so ferocious as a wolf, under the in- 
fluence of madness, bites evei-ything he can 
reach. Of course the companions of his own 
den and thicket are the first victims of his 
rage. Hence, a single wolf would be the 
means of destroying the whole number of his 

fellows, in his immediate neighborhood at 
least. In the advanced state of the disease 
these animals lose their native wildness, leave 
their dens and thickets and seek the flocks 
and herds about farmhouses, and in some in- 
stances have attempted to enter the houses 
themselves for the purpose of doing mischief. 

The buzzards, or vultures, grey and bald 
eagles, ravens, or, as they were generally 
called, corbies, were very numerous here in 
former times. It was no uncommon thing to 
see from fifty to one hundred of them perched 
on the trees over a single carcass of carrion. 
All these large carnivorous birds have nearly 
disappeared from our settlements. 

The wild turkey, which used to be so abun- 
dant as to supply no inconsiderable portion 
of provision for the first settlers, is 'now 
rarely seen. 

The different kinds of woodpeckers still re- 
main in the country, with the exception of the 
largest of that genius of birds, the woodcock, 
which is now very scarce. 

The black and grey squirrels still remain in 
the country. These beautiful but desti-uctive 
little animals gave great annoyance to the 
first settlers by devouring large quantities of 
their corn in the fields before it was fit for 
gathering. There is something singular in 
the history of the squirrels. Sometimes in the 
course of a few years they become so numer- 
ous as to threaten the destruction of whole 
crops; when, as if by common consent, they 
liegin an emigration from west to east, cross- 
ing the river in countless numbers. At the 
lieginning of their march they are very fat, 
and furnish an agreeable article of diet; but 
towards its conclusion they become sickly and 
poor, with large worms attached to their 
skins. After this emigration they are scarce 
for some years, then multiply, > emigrate and 
perish as before. The cause of this phenome- 
non is unknown. It cannot be for the want 
of food, for the districts of countries which 
they leave are often as fruitful as those to 
which thev direct their course, or more so. 




The terrible panther, as well as the wild 
cat, has also taken leave of ns. 

Thus, in far less time than it cost the Jews 
to rid themselves of the serpents and beasts 
of prey which infested the "hill country of 
Judea," we have freed ourselves from those 
which belonged to our countiy. Our flocks 
and herds are safe from their annoyance, and 
our children are not torn to pieces by a "she 
bear out of the wood. ' ' 

In return for the beasts and birds which 
have left us, \ye have gained an equal num- 
ber from the Atlantic side of the mountains 
which were unknown at the first settlement 
of the country. 

Our mornings and evenings are now en- 
livened with the matins and vespers of a 
great variety of singing birds, which have 
slowly followed the emigration from the otlier 
side of the mountain. 

The honey bees are not natives of this 
country, but they always keep a little iu ad- 
vance of the white population, "^"e formerly 
had some professed bee hunters; but the 
amount of honey obtained from the woods was 
never considerable, owing to the want of a 
sufficient quantity of flowers to furnish it. 

Crows and blackbirds have of late become 
very plenty. They were not natives of the 

Rats, which were not known here for sev- 
eral years after the settlement of the country, 
took possession of it. in its whole extent, in 
one winter season. Children of twelve years 
old and under, having never heard their 
names, were much surprised at finding a new 
kind of mice, as they called them, with smooth 

Opossums were late comers into the coun- 
try. Fox squirrels have but a very few years 
ago made their appearance on this side of 
the mountains. 

Thus our countiy has exchanged its thinly 
scattered population of savages for a dense 
population of civilized inhabitants, and its 
wild beasts and large carnivorous fowls for 
domesticated animals and fowls, and others 
which although wild are inotfensive in their 
habits, and live at least partially on the labors 
of man. 

The following information was obtained in 
an investigation made by Mr. "\Y. E. Cl.vde 
Todd, the ornithologist of Carnegie Museum, 
Pittsburg, Pa., who spent four days, June 22 
to June 25. 1892, in Indiana county. His 
stopping place was a farmhouse two miles east 
of the village of Twolick on Twolick creek, a 
few miles south of the town of Indiana, and 

near Chestnut Ridge, This ridge is the most 
western range of the Appalachian chain iu 
Pennsylvania, entering the State from the 
south about the middle of the southern boun- 
dary of Fayette county and terminating a 
short distance east of the place of his ob- 
servations. At this point it becomes nothing 
more -than a series of broken ranges of hills 
which to the northward finally disappear into 
the general level. The elevation of this part 
according to the contour map of the United 
States_ Geological survey is 1.500 feet, but 
there is good reason for believing that to the 
southward the ridge attains a height of 2,000 
feet, since the town of Ligonier, situated east 
of the range in Westmoreland county is 
known to be 1,748 feet above tide. 

He found this locality poorer in conifers 
than tlie Buifalo creek region which he had 
visited, and was told that they predominated 
only in the northern and eastern parts of the 
county. Pine Flats, fourteen miles east of In- 
diana, being said to be the western limit of 
their abundance here. No pines were dis- 
covered and the hemlock was confined to the 
bottomlands of the Twolick and Yellow creeks 
and even there they occurred only at intervals. 
However, where it was found, it was very 
often to the almost complete exclusion of other 
forest trees. Progress through such gloomy 
tracts of woods would have been practically 
out of the question had it not been for an oc- 
casional cattle path or a small stream flowing 
through the midst, so dense were the thickets 
of laurel and rhododendron beneath. This 
growth, as well as that of the hemlock, often 
extended a short distance up the adjoining 
hillsides, especially if they were steep and had 
a northerly exposure, though the laurel in 
places composed thickets by itself, while the 
rhododendron was not found outside the shade 
of the liendoeks. 

These tracts of hemlock forest in the creek 
bottoms, with their undergrowth of laurel 
and rhododendron interspersed with small 
pools of stagnant water, were far more prolific 
in bird life than the hills and uplands above, 
although of so limited extent in comparison. 
Black-throated Blue, Black and Yellow Black- 
l)ui-nian. and Blue Yellow-backed Warblers, 
were the characteristic birds of such cool and 
shad.v recesses, within which they were abun- 
dant, but outside of which they were not 
found. Several other species were more or 
less common also in such situations. 

The high hills in which Chestnut Ridge ter- 
minates are clothed from base to summit with 
a deciduous forest of which oaks of several 


species and chestnut are the most prominent 
trees. The latter seemed to be more abundant 
near and on the summit than lower down. 
Black-throated Green Warblers were numer- 
ous throughout this woodland, where about 
the only other birds found to any extent were 
the Red-eyed Vireo, Golden-crowned Thrush, 
Black-and-white Warbler, Wood Thrush; and 
White-breasted Nuthatch, but none of these 
was nearly so common as the species which 
were confined to the hemlocks. At some points 
where the original forest had been cut and 
second growth and tracts of bushes and scrub 
had taken its place, the Chestnut-sided Warb- 
ler, Yellow-breasted Chat, Brown Thrasher 
and Cat Bird were found as well as a single 
individual of the Cerulean Warbler, which 
species was otherwise observed only in the 
open woods of the uplands outside of Chest- 
nut Ridge. The cultivated districts were 
found almost altogether in these uplands, the 
birds of whose orchards, fields and woods did 
not differ materially from those found in like 
situations in Beaver county. 

In considering the faunal relations of the 
locality he found that three species occur 
which are usually considered to belong to the 
Canadian fauna, namely, Dendroica caerules- 
cens, Dendroica maculosa, and Dendroica 
blackburniae. It is a noteworthy fact that all 
these birds, which are abundant here in suit- 
able situations, are rather uncommon in the 
Buffalo creek region. 

Sixty-four species were observed during his 
stay, of which the following is a list. 

Spotted Sand-piper. — Common at certain 
favorable points along Twolick creek, but 
observed also about marshy spots in the up- 

BoB-VTHiTE. — Quite abundant in the upland 
meadows and grain fields. 

Ruffed Grouse. — Met with but once, in 
the laurel and rhododendron thicket of Yel- 
low creek bottom. 

Wild Turkey. — On the last day of his 
stay, a wild turkey hen, accompanied by three 
young, less than a %veek old, appeared near 
the house. It is quite possible that there were 
more young, but these were all that could be 
found. They were captured and taken into 
the barn, with the object of decoying the 
parent inside and capturing her also. She 
refused to enter, however, but presently flew 
to the roof, and afterwards lingered about for 
some time, and doubtless was in the vicinity 
when he arrived on the scene, but he was pre- 
vented from making a search by lack of time. 
Wild turkeys were tolerably common in this 

county and did considerable damage in the 
grain fields; on several occasions nests with 
eggs are said to have been found. 

Mourning Dove. — • Common everywhere 
except in the deep woods. 

Sharp-shinned Hawk. — One observed near 
the summit of Chestnut Ridge. 

Red-tailed Hawk. — A pair seeen circling 
over the summit of Chestnut Ridge. 

Yellow-billed Cuckoo. — Observed but 

Belted Kingfisher. — Pound along Yellow 
creek on one occasion. From the lack of banks 
suitable for nesting purposes, it is judged it 
was not numerous. 

Downy Woodpecker. — Found in the for- 

Red-headed Woodpecker. — One individual 
noticed in the upland, between Twolick and 
Homer City. 

Whip-poor-will. — Several were heard. 

Chimney Swift. — Seen but once. 

Ruby-throated Hummingbird. — An indi- 
vidual observed along Twolick creek, at the 

Kingbird. — Common. Found in orchards 
and at some points along the streams. 

Crooked Flycatcher. — Not common. 

Phoebe-bird. — Common. 

Wood Pierce. — Common in the deciduous 

Acadian Flycatcher. — This species was 
fairly abundant throughout the forests of 
the creek bottoms and was often found higher 
up along courses of smaller streams. 

Least Flycatcher. — A single pair was ob- 
served in the trees surrounding the house 
where I was staying. 

Blue Jay. — A few observed. 

Crow. — Abundant. 

CowBiRD.^A small party was noticed in 
an upland pasture between Twolick and 
Homer City. 

Red-winged Blackbird. — Found commonly 
in and about the upland streams. 

Meadow Lark. — Not uncommon in the up- 

Baltimore Oriole. — Two or three were 
found in orchards about the houses. 

Crow Blackbird. — Found in the same sit- 
uation as the last species, but more common. 

American Goldfinch. — Numerous every- 
where except in the forest. 

Vesper Sparrow. — Common in the pastures 
and along the roadsides. 

Grasshopper Sparrow. — One pair was met 
with frequenting a pasture field across the 
road from the house. 



Chipping Sparrow. — Common and familiar 
as usual. 

Field Sparrow. — Numerous in waste past- 
ures and in the bushy growth along fences. 

Song Sparrow. — Abundant. Found in its 
usual haunts. 

TowHEE. — Common in briery thickets and 
on the edges of the woods. 

Cardinal. — Several pairs were found, all 
in second growth and bushy thickets, both in 
creek bottoms and on the hillsides. 

Rose-breasted Grosbeak. — The rose-breast- 
ed gi-osbeak is one of the most abundant birds 
of this region. It does not affect the oak woods 
of Chestnut Ridge nor yet the denser parts 
of the hemlock forests but prefers the rich 
woods that border this last, as well as the up- 
land woods near streams and tracts of second 
groAvth interspersed. 

Indigo Bunting. — This bird was found 
commonly in its usual haunt of bushy, briery 
thickets along the edges of the woods. 

Scarlet Tanager. — Another very abun- 
dant species specially partial to the hemlock. 
Cliff Swallow. — Observed about farm 
buildings, but not so numerous as the nest 

Barn Swallow. — Abundant about farm 

Red-eyed Vireo. — Very abundant through- 
out the woodland in the bottoms and on the 

Warbijng Vireo. — One pair was noticed in 
an orchard surrounding a farmhouse. 

Black-and-white Warbler. — This species 
was one of the very few that were uniformly 
common in the hemlocks in the second growth 
and in the oak forests of Chestnut creek. 

Golden-wixged Warbler. — But one ob- 
served on the edge of the woods on the bank 
of Twolick creek. 

Parula Warbler. — Very common in the 
hemlocks, where its humming note could be 
heard continually. It usually kept high up in 
the very tops of the ti'ees. 

Yellow Warbler. — Found mostly in the 
orchards about farmhouses : two nests, one 
containing young, were discovered in a growth 
of willows fringing Twolick creek just behind 
the village. 

Black-throated Blue Warbler. — This 
warbler was confined to the hemlock forests 
of the creek bottoms, where it was abundant 
and in full song, haunting the dense laurel 
and rhododendron thicket beneath, thougli 
sometimes mounting to the trees. 

Magnolia Warbler. — Equally abundant 

with the last species and, like it, confined to 
the hemlocks and uudergi-owth below, where 
its sprightly song was constantlj' heard. 

Cerulean Warbler. — Much to my surprise, 
I found the Cerulean Warbler quite common 
and musical in the dry, open woods of the up- 
lands, though the only specimen secured was 
taken in a tract of dense second growth on a 
creek hillside. 

Chestnut-sided Warbler. — Only two in- 
dividuals noted, both males in full song, ob- 
observed in a shrubby patch of briers, bushes 
and young trees, fringing a forest on a creek 
hillside. There is reason to believe that species 
was more common than it appeared to be. 

Blackburnian Warbler. — Another of the 
relatively northern species found exclusively 
in the conifers of the creek bottom, where its 
flaming breast flashed in and out of the hem- 

Black-throated Green Warbler. — This 
bird would be expected to occur most common- 
ly in the hemlock forest, and though it actually 
was found on the edges of this to some extent, 
it was more numerous throughout the high 
oak and chestnut woods that cover Chestnut 
Ridge from base to summit, always keeping 
high in the treetops. 

0\'enbird. — A very common species found 
throughout all kinds of woodlands. 

Louisiana Water Thrush. — A single pair 
recorded as frequenting a small stream flow- 
ing through the laurels and rhododendron 
gi'owth in the hemlock forest of Yellow creek 

JMartland Yellowthroat. — Quite common 
at intervals in the waste ground along the 
banks of Twolick creek. 

Yellow-breasted Chat. — A few pairs of 
this distinctly southern species were noticed 
in the thickets to which it is always so partial. 

Catbird. — Common in briery thickets. 

Brown Thresher. — One pair accompanied 
by their young were seen in a thicket. 

White-breasted Nuthatch. — Rather com- 
mon throughout the woodland. 

Tufted Titmouse. — A pair observed on one 
occasion in the yard around the dwelling. 

Black-capped Chickadee. — Two noticed 
with the pair of Tufted Titmice mentioned 
above, and later another accompanied by their 
now almost full-fledged young. 

Wood Thrush. — Common throughout the 
the woodland. 

Robin. — Abundant as usual. 

Blue Bird. — Several observed in an upland 
pasture on one occasion. 


Among the plagues of the Jews, at the time 
of their settlement in the land of Canaan, 
that of the serpents, which abounded in that 
country, was not the last. In like manner 
the early settlers of this country were much 
annoyed by serpents. Of the poisonous kinds 
they had but two, the rattlesnake and the 
copperhead, both of which were very numerous 
in every section of the country, but especially 
the rattlesnake. There were also different 
kinds of blacksnakes, but these last were not 
poisonous. The bite of the rattlesnake was 
frequently mortal, always extremely painful; 
that of the copperhead not much less so. 

Let the reader imagine the situation of our 
first settlers with regard to those poisonous 
reptiles, when informed that a harvest day 
seldom passed in which the laborers did not 
meet with some of them. The reaper busily 
employed with his sickle was suddenly alarmed 
by the whiz of a rattlesnake at his feet; he 
instantly retreated, got a club, and giving 
the snake a blow or two finished the execution 
by striking the point of the sickle through its 
head and holding it up to the view of the com- 
pany. It was then thrown aside by the root 
of a tree, or in a bunch of bushes, and labor 
recommenced. This often happened a half 
dozen times in a single day. This was not the 
worst. Owing to the heavy dews and the 
growth of rank weeds among the small grain, 
it was necessary to let the grain lie in grips 
a day or more before it was bound up. The 
rattlesnake often hid themselves under these 
handfuls of grain, and hence it often happened 
that they were taken up in the arms of those 
who were employed in gathering and binding 
them. Even if the laborer happened to be an 
old man stiffened with toil and rheumatism 
he dropped all and sprang away with the 
agility of a boy of sixteen, and however brave 
in other respects it was some time before the 
tremor of his limbs and the palpitation of his 
heart wore off. 

Terrible as the serpents were to men, they 
were still more so to women, to whose lot it 

generally fell to pull the flax. The flax patch 
was commonly near the grain fields. While 
the men were reaping the grain, the women 
were pulling the flax. The rattlesnakes were 
often met with among the flax. When this 
happened the women screamed with all 
their might. A race then took place among 
the younger reapers to decide who should 
have the honor of killing the snake. In 
the race each one picked up a club, and the 
first to reach the serpent instantly dispatched 
it. This was a little piece of chivalry 
with which the girls were well pleased. 
Very few women had the hardihood to attack 
and kill a rattlesnake. At the sight of one 
they always gave a loud shriek, as if conscious 
of being the weaker vessel ; in similar circum- 
stances a man never does this, as he has no 
one to depend upon for protection but himself. 
Some women were so overcome with terror at 
the sight of a rattlesnake as to become almost 
incapable of moving. 

Every season, for a long time, a number of 
people were bitten by these poisonous reptiles. 
Some of them died; those who escaped death 
generally suffered a long and painful confine- 
ment, which left some in an infirm state of 
health for the rest of their lives. 

In the fall these reptiles congregate in cav- 
ities among the rocks, where it is said that 
they remain in a dormant state during the 
winter. These dens were common all over the 
country, and many of them well known to the 
people, who much dreaded the egress of their 
poisonous inhabitants in the spring of the 
year, not only on account of themselves, but 
also on account of their cattle, many of which 
were killed by the bites of the snakes. 

A rare piece of sport among the children 
on a warm day in the spring of the year, when 
they knew the snakes to be out among the 
leaves sunning themselves, was " to encircle 
the den, which included several acres of 
ground, parting the leaves to prevent the fire 
from spreading through the woods, and then 
setting fire to the dry leaves inside the circle 


In a short time the snakes would be jumping 
and writhing in the blaze of the leaves. After 
the burning was over they collected a con- 
siderable pile of burnt snakes. 

In an attempt to destroy a den of snakes 
in the Allegheny mountains, by the time the 
settlers had killed about ninety of them they 
became so sickened by the stench of serpents 
that they were obliged to quit the work, al- 
though there were still a great number of them 
in view. Another attempt to demolish a snake 
den took place in the State of Iowa. The 
snakes had chosen one of the old Indian 
graves, composed mainly of stone for their 
residence. They gave such annoyance in that 
neighborhood that the settlers assembled for 
the purpose of destroying the den. In doing 
so they found several hundreds of snakes, to- 
gether with a vast quantity of the bones of 
those which through a long series of years had 
perished in the den. These were intermingled 
with the bones of those human beings for 
whose sepulture the mound had been erected. 

Do these reptiles possess that power of fas- 
cination which has so frequently Ijeen ascribed 
to them? I have never witnessed an instance 
of the exercise of this power. I have several 
times seen birds flying about them, approach- 
ing close to their heads, and uttering noises 
which seemed to indicate the greatest distress ; 
but on examination always found that the 
strange conduct of the bird was owing to the 
approach of the snake to the nest containing 
its young. That such eases as those are often 
mistaken for instances of the exercise of the 
power of fascination is quite certain ; never- 
theless that this power exists, there can be no 
doubt. The greater number of the early set- 
tlers say that they have been witnesses of the 
exercise of this power, and their testimony 
is worthy of credit. It seems from some re- 
ports worthy of belief that even mankind, as 
well as birds and beasts, are subject to this 
fascinating power of the serpents. 

This power of fascination is indeed a strange 
phenomenon. According to the usual muni- 
ficence of nature, the poor miserable snake, 
which inherits the hatred of all animated 
nature, ought yet to have some means of pro- 
curing subsistence as well as of defense. He 
has no teeth or claws to aid him in catching his 
prey, nor feet to assist him in flight or pursuit. 
His poison, however, enables him to take re- 
venge for the hatred entertained against him, 
and his power of charming procures him a 
scanty supply of provision. But what is this 
power of fascination? Is there any physical 
agency in it? It must be admitted that there 

is some physical agency employed in this mat- 
ter, although we may not be able to ascertain 
what It is. If there be no such agency em- 
ployed in fascination by serpents, it must be 
eifected by a power similar to that which 
superstition ascribes to charms, amulets, spells 
and incantations, a power wholly imaginary, 
unknown to the laws of nature, and which 
philosophy totally rejects as utterly impos- 
sible. On this subject we hazard the opinion 
that the charm under consideration is eifected 
by means of an intoxicating odor which the 
serpent has the power of emitting. 

That the rattlesnake has the power of giv- 
ing out a very offensive vapor I know by ex- 
perience, having often smelt it on warm sunny 
days, especially after a shower of rain, when 
plowing in the field. This often happened 
when I did not see any snake; but it alwavs 
excited a painful apprehension that I should 
speedily meet with one. A person once ac- 
customed to the odor of a serpent can never 
mistake it for anything else. 

I have heard it said, although I cannot 
vouch for the truth of it, that a snake, when 
in the act of charming, appears, by the alter- 
nate expansion and depression of "its sides, to 
be engaged in the act of blowing with all' its 

I think it in every way probable that in 
every instance of fascination the position of 
the snake is to the windward of the victim 
of its charm. But why should this intoxicat- 
ing odor draw its victim to the source whence 
It issues ? Here I must plead ignorance, to be 
sure ; but does anything more happen to the 
bird or beast in this case than happens to man 
in consequence of the use of those intoxicating 
gases, or fluids, furnished by the art of chem- 
istry ? 

A person affected by the exhilarating gas 
clings to the jar and sucks the pipe after he 
has inhaled its whole contents ; and is not the 
madness occasioned by inhaling this gas equal 
to that which takes place in the bird or squir- 
rel when under the influence of the charm of 
the serpent? The victims of this serpentine 
fascination scream and run, or flutter about 
awhile, and then resign themselves to their 
fate. In like manner the person who inhales 
the gas is instantly deprived of reason, be- 
comes frantic, and acts the madman ; but 
should he continue to inhale this gas, even 
for a short time, death would be the conse- 
quence. The same observation may be made 
with regard to alcohol, the basis of ardent 
spirits, the liabit of using which induces a 



repetition of the intoxicating draught until, settler at night knew not where to set his foot 

in spite of every consideration of honor, duty without danger of being assailed by the fangs 

and interest, the indulgence ends in slow but of a serpent. Even his cabin was not secure 

inevitable suicide. from the invasion of snakes. In the daytime, 

The reader has perhaps never seen one of if in the woods, he knew not in what bunch of 

the poisonous reptiles which so much annoyed weeds or grass he might provoke a rattlesnake 

his forefathers ; but in gratitude he ought to by the tread of his foot, or from behind what 

reflect on the appaling dangers attendant on tree or log he might be met by the bullet or 

the settlement of his native country. The first tomahawk of an Indian. 


After having described the western wilder- 
ness, an account of its native fruits cannot be 
improper. To the botanist and agriculturist 
this history cannot fail of being acceptable. 
To the former it will serve to show the great 
improvement which cultivation has made upon 
the indigenous fruits of the forest. To the 
latter it will point out what plants may yet 
be cultivated with success, although hitherto 
neglected. For instance, should he inquire 
whether this country is calculated by nature 
for the cultivation of the vine, he has only to 
ask whether the country in its original state 
produced the fruit of the vine. Those early 
settlers who profited by the indication with 
regard to the cultivation of the apple tree, 
furnished by the growth of the crab apple in 
the country, derived great advantage from 
their correct philosophy, in the high price of 
their fruit, while those who neglected this 
indication, and delayed planting their trees 
until they witnessed the growth of fruit on the 
trees of their neighbors, were left several years 
in the rear in this respect. 

In giving the history of our native fruits I 
shall follow the order which they ripened from 
spring until winter, our manner of gathering 
them, with some remarks on the present state 
of those of them which still remain in the 

The first fruit which ripened in the country 
was the wild strawberry. It grew on poor 
land, on which there was no timber. There 
were many such places of small extent, on 
the points of hills along the creeks. They were 
denominated "bald knobs." The fruit was 
small, and much sourer than the cultivated 
strawberry. It was not abundant in any 

The service trees were the first in bloom in 
the spring. Their beautiful little flowers 

made a fine appearance through the woods, 
in the month of April. The berries were ripe 
in June. They are sweet, with a very slight 
mixture of acidity, and a very agreeable 
flavor. The service trees grew abundantly 
along the small watercourses, and more thinly 
over the hills at a distance from them. A few 
of these trees still remain, but their fruit is 
mostly devoured by the great number of small 
birds which have accompanied the population 
of the country. The time for gathering the 
service hemes, as well as other fruits, was 
Sunday, and in large companies, under the 
protection of warriors in arms. In doing 
this a great number of the trees were cut 
down, so that our crop of them was lessened 
eveiy year. This fruit may be considered 
as lost to the country, for although the trees 
might be cultivated in gardens, the berries 
would all be devoured by the small birds be- 
fore they would be fully ripe. 

Blackberries grew in abundance in those 
places where, shortly before the settlement 
of the country, the timber had been blown 
down by hurricanes. These places we called 
the "fallen timber." When ripe, which was 
in the time of harvest, the children and young 
people resorted to the fallen timber in large 
companies, under a guard, for the purpose of 
gathering the berries, of which tarts were 
often made for the harvest table. The fallen 
timber, owing to a new gi-owth of trees, no 
longer produces those berries, but enough of 
them are to be had along the fences on most 
of our farm. 

Wild raspberries of an agreeable flavor were 
found in many places, but not plentifully any- 

Gooseberries of a small size, and very full 
of thorns, but of an agreeable taste, grew in 
some places in the woods. The amount of them 



was but small. "Whatever may be the reason, 
this fruit does not succeed well when trans- 
planted into gardens, where they flower 
abundantly, but shed the berries before they 
become ripe. 

Wortleberries were never abundant in this 
section of the country, but they were so in 
many places in the mountains. 

Wild plums were abundant in rich land. 
They were of various colors and sizes, and 
many of them of an excellent flavor. The wild 
plums of late j'ears have, like our damson 
plums, fallen oflf pi-ematurely. The beetle bug, 
or cureulio, an insect unknown to the country 
at its first settlement, bat now numerous 
everywhere, perforates the green fruit for the 
deposition of its egg. This occasions a flow 
of juice of the fruit, so that it becomes gummy 
and falls ofE. 

An indifferent kind of frait, called buck- 
berries, used to grow on small shrubs on poor 
ridges. This fruit has nearly vanished from 
the settled parts of the country. 

Our fall fruits were winter and fall grapes ; 
the foi-mer grew in the bottom land. They 
were sour, of little value, and seldom used. 
The fall grapes grew on high grounds, par- 
ticularly in the fallen timber land. Of these 
grapes we had several varieties, and some of 
them large and of excellent flavor. "We still 
have the wild grapes, but not in such abun- 
dance as formerly. In process of time they 
will disappear from the country. 

Black haws gi-ew on large bushes along the 
moist bottoms of small watercourses. They 
grew in large clusters, and ripened with the 
first frosts in the fall. Children were very 
fond of them. Red haws grew on white thorn 
bushes. They were of various kinds. The 
sugar haws, which are small, grow in large 
clusters, and when ripe and free from worm, 
and semi-transparent, were most esteemed. 
The berries when ripe are large, and make 
a fine appearance, and being almost free from 
worms the children are very fond of eating 

"Wild cheiTies were abundant in many 
places. To most people they are very agree- 
able fruit. They are now becoming scarce. 

Pawpaws were plenty along the great water- 
courses and on the rich hills. Some people are 
fond of eating them. Scarcely any beast will 
touch them ; even the omnivorous hog never 
eats them. It is said that raccoons are fond 
of them. They are still plenty in manj' places. 

The crab apple was very abundant along 
the smaller watercourses. The foilase of the 
tree which bears this fruit is like that of the 

domestic apple tree, but not so large. The 
tree itself is smaller, of a slower growth than 
the orchard tree, and the wood of a much 
firmer texture. It blossoms a little later than 
our orchards, and when in bloom makes a noble 
appearance, and fills the surrounding air with 
a delicious fragrance. The crab appears to 
be a tree of great longevity. Sour as the crab 
apples were, the children were fond of eating 
them, especially when in the winter season 
they could find them under the leaves, where, 
defended by the frost, they acquired a fine 
golden color, a fragrant smell, and lost much 
of their sourness. One or more of these in- 
digenous apple trees ought to be planted in 
every orchard, in honor of their native tenancy 
of our forests, as well as for the convenience 
of our ladies, who are very fond of them for 
preserves, but are sometimes unable to pro- 
cure them. 

Of hickory nuts we had a great variety; 
some of the larger shellbark nuts, with the 
exception of the thickness of their shells, were 
little inferior to the English walnut. Of white 
walnuts, we generally had a great abundance ; 
of black walnuts, many varieties as to size 
and amount of kernel. Hazel and chestnuts 
were plenty in many places. 

Thus a munificent providence had furnished 
this region of the earth with the greater num- 
ber of fruits which are to be found in the old 
world: but owing to the want of cultivation, 
they were -inferior in size and flavor to the 
same kinds of fruit in Europe. 

It may not amiss to notice in this place the 
changes which have taken place in the growth 
and bearing of some of our fruit trees since 
the settlement of the country. 

Peach trees were planted at an early period. 
For some time a crop of peaches once in three 
or four years was as much as was expected. 
After some time these trees became so far 
naturalized to the climate as to bear almost 
every year. The same observation applies, 
although in a less degree, to the apple trees 
which were first planted in the country. Their 
fruit was frequently wholly killed by the frost. 
This has not happened for mpuy years past. 
The pear and heart cherry trees, althou?h 
they blossomed abundantlv, bore but little 
fruit for many years; but in process of time 
they afforded abundant crops. Such was the 
effect of their becoming naturalized to our 

The peach and pear trees did very well 
until the year 1806. when a lonsr succession of 
rainy seasons commenced, during which the 
trees overgrew themselves, and the falls being 



warm and rainy they contiuued their growth 
until the onset of winter. Their branches 
were then full of sap, and as water occupies 
a greater space when frozen than when fluid, 
the freezing of the water they contained 
burst the texture of their wood, and rendered 
it unfit for the transmission of sap the next 
season. This fact leads to the conclusion that 
those soft-wooded fruit trees ought to be 
planted in the highest situations, and poorest 
land, where they will ha-s'e the slowest possible 
growth. The few dry seasons we have had 
latterly have, in some measure, restored the 
peach trees. If such seasons should continue 
for any length of time, the peaches and pears 
will again become plenty. 

If annual plants, as well as trees, possess 
the faculty of becoming naturalized to soils 
and climates remote from those in which they 
are indigenous, what great advantages may 
we not reasonably anticipate for the future 
prosperity of our country, from this import- 
ant law of the vegetable world ? If, by a slow 
progress from south to north, the period of the 
growth of a plant may be shortened to th'ree 
fourths, or even less than that, of the time of 
its growth in the south, the sugar cane, already 
transplanted from the islands of the AVest 
Indies to the shores of the Mississippi, may 
slowly travel up that river and its branches 
to latitudes far north of any region which has 

heretofore witnessed its growth. The cotton 
plant and coffee tree, in all probability, will 
take the same course. 

The conclusions of philosophy, with regard 
to the future, are prophetic, when correctly 
drawn from the unerring test of experience. 
In the prospect here presented of the practic- 
ability of naturalizing the plants of the south 
to the temperate latitudes far north of their 
native region, it is only saying that what 
has happened to one plant may under similar 
treatment happen to another. For example. 
How widely different is the large squaw corn, 
in its size and the period of its growth, from 
the Mandan corn? The latter ripens under 
the fortieth degree of north latitude ; and yet 
the squaw and Mandan corn are not even 
different species, but only varieties of the 
same plant. The squaw corn might travel 
slowly to the north, and ultimately dwindle 
down into Slandan corn ; while the Mandan 
corn, by being transplanted to the south, in- 
creases in size and lengthens the period of its 

These observations have been made to show 
that the independence of our country may be 
vastly augumented by a proper attention to 
the laws of nature with regard to the vege- 
table world, so that we may hereafter ciiltivate 
within our own country the precious fruits 
even of the tropical regions. 


Indiana, a western county, was created by 
Act of Assembly of 1803 out of parts of West- 
moreland and Lycoming counties. That part 
south of the Purchase Line was taken from 
Westmoreland county and that north of Pur- 
chase Line was taken from Lycoming county. 
The Act in substance is as follows : 

' ' That those parts of the counties of West- 
moreland and Lycoming included within the 
following boundaries, viz. : Beginning at the 
corner of Armstrong county on the Kiskim- 
inetas river, thence up said river to the Cone- 
raaugh river, thence to the line of Somerset 
county (now Cambria county), thence a 
straight line to the Canoe place (now Cherry- 
tree), on the west bank of the Susquehanna 
river; thence a north course along Potter's 
district line twelve miles; thence a due west 
course to Armstrong county line ; thence along 

said line to place of beginning; the same is 
hereby erected into a separate county to be 
henceforth called Indiana county, and the 
place for holding the courts of justice in and 
for said county shall be fixed by the legisla- 
ture at any place at a distance not greater 
than four miles from the center of said county, 
and the governor is hereby empowered and re- 
quired to appoint three commissioners, any 
two of whom shall run, ascertain, and plainly 
mark so much of the boundary lines of Indiana 
county as is hereafter described, before the 
first day of October next. The commissioners 
shall receive as a full compensation for their 
services therein the sum of two dollars for 
every mile so run and marked, to be paid out 
of tile moneys raised for the use of the said 
county of Indiana." 

The Act provides that the said commission- 



ers shall also ascertain and particnlarly de- 
scribe the center of said county and make a 
report to the trustees hereinafter named to 
make proposals for the convej'ance of lands 
for county uses, and the commissioners shall 
be allowed a reasonable compensation for 
their services. The commissioners' first order 
book shows that on November 10, 1803, an 
order was issued to Thomas Allison, Michael 
Campbell and Joseph McCartney for $230.40 
for ranning the boundary line and ascertain- 
ing the center of said county. The Act pro- 
vides that for the present convenience of the 
inhabitants of the said county of Indiana an 
enumeration of the taxable inhabitants of 
the county shall be made and it shall be other- 
wise directed by law, the said county shall 
be annexed to the county of Westmoreland 
and the authority of the judges thereof shall 
extend over the county of Indiana. 

William Jack. James Parr and John Pome- 
roy of Westmoreland county were appointed 
as trustees for the county of Indiana with 
full authority to receive proposals which shall 
or may be accepted of under the same trusts 
and for the sole use and benefits of the said 
county. As soon as it shall appear by an 
enumeration of the taxable inhabitants within 
the county of Indiana, the county according 
to the ratio which shall then be established 
for apportioning the representation among 
the several counties of this Commonwealth 
shall be entitled to a separate representation, 
hold the courts of justice at such place as 
may be fixed by the Legislature and choose 
their county officers in like manner as the 
other counties may or can do. 

It is further enacted that the commission- 
ers of the county of Westmoreland shall have 
power and are authorized to assess and levy 
county rates for county uses and purposes 
in the county of Indiana, and the treasurer 
of Westmoreland shall open an account for 
Indiana county from which such rates and 
levies shall be raised and collected, and shall 
pay out of the moneys raised all the expenses 
of assessing, levying and collecting the same 
therein, together with the expenses- of run- 
ning the boundary lines of Indiana county, 
and the expenses of ignoramus bills and other 
costs of prosecution chargeable to the county 
which shall be exhibited against persons re- 
siding within the county and also all rewards 
for wolf scalps and animals of pi-ey destroyed 
in said county, for which a reward is or shall 
be given by law. and the remainder shall be 
applied to and for the use of the county of 
Indiana; and that all the county taxes as- 

sessed for the current year by the commis- 
sioners of Westmoreland and Lycoming 
counties shall be for the use of the county in 
which such sum is assessed. 

The commissioners appointed to establish 
the place for holding the courts of justice in 
the county of Indiana performed their duties 
and reported the same to the Legislature of 
the State which in General Assembly met, 
appointed Charles Campbell. Randall Laugh- 
lin and John Wilson trustees for the county 
of Indiana, and authorized them to survey 
250 acres of land, agreeable to a description 
given of the situation and boundary thereof 
in the grant and obligation of Alexander 
Craig for George Clymer, made by him to 
the present Legislature for the use of the 
county of Indiana ; and the trustees were 
authorized to lay out a convenient lot or lots 
not exceeding four acres, whereon the public 
buildings for the county of Indiana should be 
erected : and the residue of the said 250 acres 
was to be laid out in town lots and out lots 
in such manner and with such streets, not 
more than one hundred nor less than seventy 
feet wide, and lanes and alleys for the public 
use, as the trustees shall direct. The town 
lots were not to contain more than two thirds 
of an acre and the out lots not more than 
three acres. The streets, lanes and alleys 
were to be and remain highways forever. 
The town lots and out lots were to be sold by 
the trustees by public auction at such time 
as they might judge most advantageous to 
the county. The trustees were to advertise 
the sale of lots three times, at least, in one 
or more of the newspapers of Pittsburg, Wash- 
ington, Greensburg, Lancaster and Philadel- 
phia, two months before the day appointed 
for such sale, and before the advertisements 
were published the trustees wei'e to submit a 
map or draft of the town and out lots to the 
secretary of the Commonwealth to be de- 
posited in his office, and with the money aris- 
ing from the sale of the lots the trustees were 
to proceed to erect a courthouse, jail and 
necessary public buildings for the use of the 
county. The trustees were then reciuired to 
receive a deed or deeds of conveyance in fee 
simple from Alexander Craig for George 
Clymer and have the deed or deeds recorded 
in the office for recording deeds in the county 
of Westmoreland, and when trustees had so 
done they were to make and grant sufficient 
deeds in fee simple for the lots sold. 

Within one year after the courts of law 
and board of commissioners were established, 



the trustees were to surrender and convey to 
the county commissioners all trusts vested in 
them, and the commissioners were empowered 
to perform the several duties which remained 
to be done as fully and effectively as the 
trustees could do. The trustees were to re- 
ceive $1.33 for each day employed in the ner- 
formanee of the duties of the aforesaid trust, 
together with all expenses necessarilv in- 
curred for assistance in laying out lots, streets, 
lanes and alleys. The same was to be paid 
by the treasurer of Westmoreland county out 
of the taxes levied on the county of Indiana. 
The trustees were required to file a draft of 
the survey in the office of the recorder of 
deeds for Westmoreland county. 

On March 10, 1806, an Act was passed to 
organize the provisional county of Indiana, 
and in substance was as follows: 

"That after the first Monday in November 
next, the inhabitants were to enjoy all and 
singularly the jurisdiction, powers, rights, 
liberties and privileges within the same which 
the inhabitants of other counties in this State 
enjoyed by the constitution and laws of this 

All actions of trespass and ejectment for 
the trials of titles of land, actions of trespass, 
quare clausum fregit, for entry into any 
lands or tenements within the county of Indi- 
ana, which at the time of passing of this act 
or before the first Monday in November next, 
commenced in the court of Common Pleas or 
Circuit court of Westmoreland county, and 
which on the first Monday of November are 
still pending and undetermined, shall be 
transferred to the court of Common Pleas or 
Circuit court of Indiana county, there to be 
tiled according to law in the same manner 
on the first Monday of November next. 

The prothonotary of Westmoreland county 
was required to make out within thirty days 
a docket containing a statement of all such 
actions then pending and \indetermined, in 
the said county of Westmoreland, and to de- 
liver to the prothonotary of Indiana county, 
who was to pay the prothonotary of West- 
moreland county for every action contained 
in said docket the usual fees allowed for sim- 
ilar services, which were to be reimbursed 
to him by the county of Indiana. 

The sheriff, coroner and other public officers 
of Westmoreland county were to continue to 
exercise the duties of their respective offices 
within the county of Indiana as heretofore 
until the first Monday of November next. 

The commissioners of Indiana county were 
authorized to erect a courthouse, prison and 

other public buildings for the safe keeping of 
records and other public papers, on the public 
grounds appropriated for the purpose. The 
county commissioners were authorized to pro- 
cure a house in or near Indiana town, as con- 
venient as will admit at the least expense, in 
which the courts of the county shall be held 
until the courthouse can be erected. If no such 
building could be found, the commissioners 
were to have the power to erect temporary 
buildings for that purpose. 

The general election was to be held the 
second Tuesday of October next to choose two 
fit persons for sheriff', two for coroners, and 
three for commissioners in Indiana county. 
This Act provided that Jefferson county 
should be annexed to Indiana county, and 
that the commissioners of Indiana county 
were to have control over Jefferson county. 

Indiana county was first represented in 
the General Assembly of Pennsylvania by 
James McComb, who was assemblyman from 
1803 to 1808, and James Brady, who was 
State senator from 1803 to 1815. 

The first president judge of Indiana county 
was Hon. John Young, of Greensburg, who 
served from 1806 to 1836; the first associate 
judges were James Smith and Charles Camp- 
bell; the first prothonotary and clerk of the 
courts was James McLain, who served from 
1806 to 1818; the first sheriff was Thomas 
McCartney, who served from 1806 to 1809. 
The first county commissioners were William 
Clarke, James Johnston and Alexander Mc- 
Lain; the first clerks to the commissioners 
were Alex. Johnston, for trustees of county, 

1804, Paul ^Morrison, for trustees of county, 

1805, James Riddle, for commissioners, 1806; 
and the first coroner was Samuel Young, who 
served from 1806 to 1809. 

Indiana county is bounded on the north 
by Jefferson county, on the east by Clearfield 
and Cambria counties, on the south by West- 
moreland county, and on the west by Arm- 
strong countv. It lies between 40° 23' and 
40° 56' north latitude, and 1° 49' and 20° 
14' west longitude from Washington city. 

The Conemaugh river (called Kiskiminetas 
from its junction with Loyalhanna creek) 
flows along the entire southern boundary of 
the county from east to west. The west 
branch of "the Susquehanna river touches the 
county on the northeast. Some of the spurs 
of the Allegheny mountains run into the 
county on the northeast. Laurel Hill is on the 
east. " Chestnut Ridge enters on the south and 
runs in a northerly direction about half the 
length of the county. The dividing ridge or 



watershed in the northeastern part of the 
county divides the waters of the Susquehanna, 
that flow into Chesapeake bay, from the 
streams emptying into the Conemaugh and 
Allegheny rivers flowing southward, finally 
reaching the Gulf of Mexico. The lowest part 
of this watei-shed is 1,300 feet above tide- 
water. The county is well watered by numer- 
ous small streams and creeks — the largest of 
them, Blacklick, Yellow creek, Twolick and 
Blacklegs, emptying into the Conemaugh; 
Crooked creek. Plum creek, Little Mahoning 
and Canoe, into the Allegheny; Cushion and 
Cush creek into the Susequehanna. The 
streams flowing into the Conemaugh have a 
fall of from twenty to thirty feet to the mile ; 
those flowing into the Allegheny from ten to 
fifteen feet to the mile: and those into the 
Susquehanna from thirty-five to forty feet to 
the mile. Inundations are very rare. Owing 
to the rolling character of the surface, there is 
little marsh land. The western division of 
the Pennsylvania canal, once passing through 
the Conemaugh valley, is now discontinued. 
The amount of lockage was about two hun- 
dred and fifty feet. The area of the county 
is 775 square miles. The average altitude of 
the county is 1,300 feet above tide. The sur- 
face is rolling, cut into small valleys and 
hills b3' the numerous small streams. The 
principal eminences are called "round tops." 
which rise from 300 to 500 feet above the 
general surface of the county. Doty's round 
top, on the line of Grant and Canoe townships, 
is said to be the highest point in the county. 
Oak's Point, highest peak of the Chestnut 
Ridge, is 1.200 feet above the Conemaugh 
river. In about one fourth of the county (the 
eastern part) the timber is principally white 
pine, spruce and hemlock. The balance of 
the county is covered with white oak, black 
oak, chestnut oak, red oak, poplar, chestnut, 
hickory, sugar maple, walnut, cheriy, locust, 
cucumber, birch etc. 

The principal minerals are bituminous coal, 
salt, iron ore and limestone. Gas is found in 
the vicinity of Willet. Washington township. 
The soil in the eastern part of the county is 
loam and sand as far as the pine timber 
extends. In the balance of the coimty, the 
soil is loam and slate, \\ath clay admixture 
in spots. The subsoil is clay and slate. The 
subjacent rock in the lowland is a pecu- 
liar hard-blue, micaceous sandstone. In the 
higher tablelands it is variegated, blue and 
red. In the Conemaugh valley there are sev- 
eral salt wells from which have been manu- 

factured a very good quality of salt. Several 
springs in the county are thought to possess 
medicinal cjualities. The water used for 
domestic purposes in the towns and villages 
is obtained from wells at the depth of from 
fifteen to thirty feet. There are a few wells 
in Indiana and Blairsville bored to the depth 
of two thousand feet or more. 

About five sixths of the county is arable 
land, large portions thereof highly fertile, pro- 
ducing grass. Indian corn and all the cereals. 
The water privileges are extensive and the 
climate is healthful. 


1810 and 1910 

The census of 1840 showed the following 
in Indiana county: Number of horses and 
mules, 6,524; neat cattle, 18,199; sheep, 35,- 
894 ; swine, 24,377 ; bushels of wheat, 195,254 ; 
barley, 297 : oats, 356,046 ; lye, 78,021 ; buck- 
wheat, 80,806 ; corn, 171,018 ; pounds of wool, 
51,193 ; pounds of hops. 605 ; pounds of wax, 
2,693; bushels of potatoes, 103,807; tons of 
hay, 25,193; tons of hemp and flax, 3%; 
pounds of sugar made. 12.282; value of the 
poultry, .$8,343; dairy, products, $33,739; 
products of the orchard, $5,908 ; homemade or 
family goods, $30,053. Three commission 
houses with a capital of $7,500; 69 retail dry 
goods, gi-ocery and other stores, with a capital 
of $171,116; value of machinery manufac- 
tured, $5,650 ; value of bricks and lime, $2,415 ; 
number of fulling mills, five; number of 
woolen manufacturers, five; value of manu- 
factured goods, $2,700. sixteen men employed, 
and the "capital invested, $7,250 ; value of 
hats and caps manufactured, $1,990, persons 
employed, six, and capital invested, $2,405; 
number of tanneries, twenty-six, sides of sole 
leather tanned, 1,739, upper leather tanned, 
3,472, number of men employed, forty-one, 
capital invested, $18,905; number of dis- 
tilleries, seven, gallons produced, 5,750; the 
number of breweries, one, gallons produced, 
1,400, men employed, ten, capital invested, 
$1,635 ; value of carriages and wagons manu- 
factured, $4,708, men employed, twenty, cap- 
ital invested, $2,952 ; number of flouring mills, 
three, barrels of flour manufactured, 2,750; 
number of gi-ist-mills. fifty-one; sawmills, 
seventy- four ; value of manufactures, $25,- 
450, number of men employed, 123, capital 
invested, $80,070. The number of wooden 
houses built, seven, men employed, twenty, 
the value of constructing or building, $3,050. 


Total capital invested in manufactories, 

The census of 1910 shows the following in 
Indiana county: 

Number or 

quantity Value 

Land area, acres 5:i0.560 

Population, total 1910 66,210 

Farmers, native 4.304 

Farmers, foreign-born, white. 150 

Farmers, negro and other non- 
white 5 

Farms operated by owners... 3,533 $14,758,386 

Farms operated by tenants ... 863 4,260,093 

Farms operated by managers. 64 584,610 

Total number of farms 4,459 19,603,989 

Total farm acreage 432,977 13,957,939 

Average acreage per farm .... 97.1 

Improved acreage 315,480 

Woodland acreage 96,679 

Other unimproved land 20,818 

Average improved acreage per 

farm 70.8 

Buildings 6,645,050 

Implements and machinery 1,168,451 

Domestic animals, etc.: 

Cattle 22,748 634,580 

Horses 10,470 1,351,196 

Mules 486 63,936 

Swine 20,581 144,874 

Sheep 16,069 ■ 65,888 

Poultry 203,601 116,394 

Bees (colonies) 4,067 20,448 

Field Crops: 

Corn acres .... 25,796 

bushels.. 740,879 518,615 

Oats '. . . . acres. . . . 25,453 

bushels.. 536,411 336,885 

Wheat acres .... 17.045 

bushels.. 330,951 198,856 

Buckwheat acres.... 20,303 

bushels.. 356,631 178,315 

Rye acres .... 8,960 

bushels.. 90,631 63,435 

Potatoes acres 4,116 

bushels.. 398,097 218,953 

Hay and f orage .. acres ... . 48,918 

tons 42,882 600,348 


All that part of Westmoreland county 
north of the Conemaugh river, was called 
Wheatfield, and the first assesment was made 
in 1779. Armstrong was formed from "Wheat- 
field in 1785 ; Banks from Canoe township in 
1868 ; Blacklick from Armstrong township in 
1807; Brushvalley from Wheatfield in 1835; 
Buffington from Pine township in 1867 ; Bur- 
rell from Blacklick townsliip in 1853 ; Canoe 
from ^Montgomery township in 1847; Center 
from Armstrong in 1807; Cherryhill from 
Green and Brushvalle.y in 1834; Conemaugh 
from Armstrong in 1803 ; Grant from Mont- 
gomery in 1868 ; Green from Wheatfield in 

1816. Mahoning was formed from that part 
of the county taken from Lycoming county 
in 1803. The first assessment is dated in 1807. 
East Mahoning was formed from Mahoning in 
1846, West Mahoning from Mahoning in 1846, 
North Mahoning from Mahoning in 1846, 
and South Mahoning from ]\Iahoning in 1846. 
Montgomery from Mahoning in 1834, Pine 
from Wheatfield in 1850 ; Rayne from Wash- 
ington and Green in 1845 ; Washington from 
Armstrong in 1807 ; East Wheatfield from 
Wheatfield township in 1859; West Wheat- 
field from Wheatfield in 1859; White was 
formed from three miles around the borough 
of Indiana in 1843; Young from Blacklick 
and Conemaugh in 1830. 

It will thus be seen that from Wheatfield 
the sixteen townships south of the Purchase 
Line were formed. That part of Indiana 
county which lies north of Purchase Line was 
taken from Lycoming county, and in 1807 
was called Mahoning. From IMahoning the 
eight townships north of the Purchase Line 
were formed. 


The boroughs of Indiana county were in- 
corporated as follows: Armagh, April 10, 
1834; Blairsville, March 25, 1825; Cherry- 
tree, April 30, 1855; Clymer, February 29, 
1908; Creekside, June 5, 1905; Glen Camp- 
bell, Sept. 27, 1894; Homer City, Sept. 26, 
1872 ; Indiana, March 28, 1816 ; Jacksonville, 
September 29, 1852; Marion Center, March 
28, 1868; Mechanicsburg, January 2, 1857; 
Plumville, December 6, 1909; Saltsburg. 
April 16, 1838; Shelocta, April 15, 1851; 
Smicksburg, June 28, 1854. 


1785. — "The election for that portion of 
Westmoreland county north of the Cone- 
maugh river being the first district shall be 
held at the dwelling house of Samuel 

1792. — "The freemen of the first district of 
Westmoreland county shall hold their elec- 
tion at the house of William Neal." 

1802. — "The electors residing within 
Wheatfield and Fairfield townships. West- 
moreland county, shall hold their general elec- 
tion at the house of Richard Dimsey, in the 
town of Armagh." 

1807. — "Armstrong, Washington and Cen- 
ter townships, in the county of Indiana, be 
and the same hereby erected into a separate 
election district and the electors of the town- 
ship aforesaid shall hold their general elec- 



tions at the house now occupied by Peter 
Sutton in the town of Indiana or at such other 
house in town as the commissioners of said 
county shall direct. Blacklick township at 
the liouse of Patrick McGee. Conemaugh 
township at the house of John Marshall. IMa- 
honing township at the hoi;se of James 
Brady, Sr." 

1808. — "Armstrong township at the house 
of David McCuUough." 


In 1805 the assessment book for Wheatfield 
township showed that land was assessed from 
25 cents to $4 per acre; horses, $20; oxen, 
$12 ; and cows, $8. All occupations and single 
freemen were assessed at $10. The title to 
land was mostly patent or warrant. A dis- 
tillery owned by James Campbell, a shoe- 
maker, assessed for $9.50, and a grist-mill 
owned by William Clark was assessed at $120. 
At that time few persons owned more than 
one horse and one cow. ]\Iany did not own 
either. William Boals. a single man. owned 
four horses and six cows. We find many 
persons owning large tracts of land. Robert 
Weir owned one thousand acres assessed at 
25 cents per acre. In Wheatfield township. 

there were 15,655 acres of unseated land as- 
sessed at 371/2 cents per acre. In 1809 the 
county conuuissioners placed a rate of one 
third of a cent on the dollar on the assessed 
valuation of taxable property in Wheatfield 

The following is the list of taxes paid on 
unseated lands to Joseph McCartney, treas- 
urer of Indiana county, in 1807: Armstrong 
township, county tax, $188.34, road tax, 
$103.88 ; Wheatfield township county tax 
$99.70, road tax, $13.59; Conemaugh ' town- 
ship, county tax, $11.17, road tax, .$8.61; Ma- 
honing township, countv tax, $93.64, road tax, 

In 1840 Indiana county had a total popu- 
lation of 20,784. Of this number, twenty-five 
persons were employed in mining; 4,5.36 in 
agriculture; 127 in commerce; 815 in manu- 
factures and trades; five in navigatitDn of the 
ocean ; 104 in navigation of canals, lakes and 
rivers; ninety in learned professions and as 
engineers; twenty-eight were drawing pen- 
sions for Revolutionarj- or other military 
services: seven were deaf and dumb, three 
were blind, twelve insane and idiots, at priv- 
ate charge, two deaf and dumb colored ; three 
colored insane. 


Party organization in the government of a 
country exists in proportion to the recogni- 
tion of freedom of thought and action among 
the people of that country. Where this free- 
dom is denied, political activity has nothing 
upon which to rest. We are not surprised at 
the absence of party organization in countries 
like Russia or Turkey. In fact its growth in 
modern Europe is a thing of recent times. 

Its conception rests upon difference of 
opinion freely expressed. No matter how 
great this difference is, it is of no importance 
without freedom of expression. Only where 
emancipation of opinion is enjoyed do parties 
flourish. The sifting of Europe to secure the 
planting of America came about through the 
struggle for emancipation. It resulted in the 
selection of a rare people for the beginning 
of a great civilization. The restrictions of 
governmental decrees on the freedom of the 
intellect, the clipping of the wings of the 
mind bj' a short-sighted policy, based upon 

the theory that the most direct route to great- 
ness was by the suppression of political and 
religious heresy, were the chief occasions for 
the alarming exodus of some of the best brain 
and heart of the Old World to the virgin soil 
of the New. 

The very first amendment to the Federal 
constitution declared that Congress shall have 
no power to make any law abridging the free- 
dom of the press or of speech, or respecting 
the establishment of any religion, or prevent- 
ing the people to peacefully assemble to 
petition the government for the redress of 
grievances. In this sense the American polit- 
ical party is unique. This constitutional pro- 
tection furnished the most fertile soil for 
party growth. In this soil at one time or other 
almost every theory that has occupied the 
mind of a citizen has been planted, and has 
sprouted, some to grow and others to wither. 

The observer of the development of political 
institutions in America will be able to detect 


at least two forms of political theory. The 
one expresses itself in the tendency toward 
centralization in government; the other to- 
ward decentralization. In the government of 
Greece the pendulum swung to the side of 
self-government of the free cities, thus deny- 
ing the needed central authority over them 
in matters of general concern which de- 
feated all desires for uniformity in adminis- 
tration. The government became loose in its 
parts and was wrecked upon the rocks of 
anarchy. Rome employed a different policy, 
which swung the pendulum to the opposite 
extreme. In the Roman regime there was a 
recognition of the principle of local self- 
government, but there was no affiliation be- 
tween these local governments and the Imper- 
ial governments; hence the tendency toward 
disregard for the local need and rights, which 
led to usurpation of power and the ultimate 
rise and fall of the monarchy. England, after 
the struggle of the centuries for the recogni- 
tion of the principle of self-government, took 
the longest step toward the solution of the 
problem. For centuries the power in that 
country was in the crown. Then for a less 
duration it was in the lords. In modern Eng- 
land the power is in the people, represented 
in the commons. 

The American Revolution, which secured 
not only the recognition of the principle in 
question, hut entire independence of the 
Colonies, shifted the struggle of the two 
political theories from the Old to the New 

The situation of the Colonies, the partial 
recognition of local government, the character 
of the colonists, the wide separation and great 
variety of interests — all conspired to educate 
the people in an appreciation of the value of 
local government. The Revolution and, espe- 
ciallyrthe chain of courses leading to it, were 
the "occasion for a conflict of theories. The 
self-governing impulse had flowed out into 
the great charter of human liberties, the 
Declaration of Independence, and had de- 
clared to all the world that the people were 
endowed Avith the inalienable rights of life, 
liberty and the pursuit of happiness. 

The Revolution left the Colonists in undis- 
puted possession of the right of self-govern- 
ment. It detached the last vestige of monar- 
chial government and left the Colonies to 
create some substitute. The old school of 
thinkers contended for coercive power in the 
head; the other jealously guarded the rights 
of the several parts. The former insisted that 

the experience of the past decade proved the 
imbecility of a government without such cen- 
tral authority, while the latter pointed to the 
regime under George III, and insisted that 
it proved that all our woes dated from the 
exercise of the very powers contended for by 
the friends of centralization. This contention 
separated the people into two factions; the 
one making the Nation the chief repository of 
strength and welfare of the people, the other 
making the States that repository. Thus was 
created party division over the old question 
which engaged the best thought of the race. 

Perhaps the real exponent of the central 
theory of government was Alexander Hamil- 
ton, of New York, and the leading exponent 
of the looser theory was Thomas Jefferson, of 
Virginia. The greatest single performance of 
Washington as the first president was his 
inauguration of the two theories as well as 
of determination. Heredity helped furnish 
the seed, and environment assisted in prepar- 
ing the soil. 

The party system was a natural outgrowth 
of conditions. The very motive which 
prompted the earliest settlements insured a 
distinct political system. The oppression 
from which the fathers fled prompted that 
freedom of speech and of worship. While 
religious differences gave life to various de- 
nominations, and political differences per- 
mitted separate political parties, the spirit of 
democracy was sufficient that between demo- 
cracy and aristocracy the latter had no 
footing. The nearest approach was the pre- 
Revolutionary division, the Tory versus the 
Whig. While democracy was supreme in the 
New World, its very suggestion implied 
variety of method. 

The rational basis for party division in 
this country is the contention between liberty 
and authority. Leaders have arisen who stood 
as the exponents of these principles in the 
American system. Parties have been orga- 
nized upon these principles as fundamental. 
In this party contention, each factor has re- 
vealed both its strength and its weakness, and 
in obedience to the law of the suiwival of the 
fittest the resultant of the struggle is a system 
which incorporates both elements as co- 
ordinate. Upon these two fundamental ele- 
ments, liberty and authority, the structure of 
the American system has been erected. 

For one hundred and twenty-four yeare 
the party system has been maturing. Prom 
1789 to isoi the Federalist party had control 
of the machinery of the government. During 


much of this time aggressive opposition was 
ofifered by the Anti-federalist, better known 
as the Republican, party. From 1801 to 1845 
the Republican party, later called the Demo- 
cratic party, held control, with the possible 
single exception of the .vounger Adams, 
1825-29. While he was a Republican Adams 
differed from his party upon the construction 
of the constitution. Yet as a Republican he 
had conducted the foreign relations depart- 
ment of Monroe's cabinet, of which he was 
regarded the most distinguished member. 
Harrison's inauguration in 1841 was the in- 
troduction of the Whig party to power, but 
the death of Harrison on April 4, 1841, and 
the inaugui-ation of Tyler limited the Whig 
control to a single month. Tyler broke with 
his party on the bank question, and returned 
to his former Democratic allegiance. In 1845 
Polk's inauguration permitted the Democrats 
to continue their policy. In 1849 the election 
of Taylor gave the country its only Whig 
administration. Taylor died in office, but his 
policy was continued with Pierce and Bu- 
chanan down to 1861. In the latter year 
Lincoln inaugurated the Republican rule 
which continued without interruption for 
twenty-four years. It then gave way to the 
Democratic party under Cleveland. After 
four years the Republicans returned to power 
under the second Harrison, who after four 
years again gave way to the Democrats under 
Cleveland. After four years, Cleveland gave 
way to the Republicans under McKinley. 

The Federalist party controlled the govern- 
ment twelve years, the old Republican party 
twenty-four years, the National Republican 
party under John Q. Adams four years, the 
Democratic party, including the Tyler regime, 
thirty-six years, the Whig four j-ears, the 
Republican party forty-four years, ending 
with Taft in 1913. During this period of 
one hundred and twenty-four years the gov- 
ernment has been administered, at one time 
or another, by six different parties, if the 
parties are distinguished by name; if by 
political theory, only two have been in con- 
trol. The old Republican and the modern 
Democratic party held the same theory of 
government, and should be identified in name 
as well as in principle. The Federalist, the 
National Republican, the Whig and the Re- 
publican all advocated similar principles, and 
should be regarded the same party with dif- 


ferent names. Taking the view of parties, the 
one has stood from the beginning for strong 
central government, the other for local self- 
government. The one employed the broad or 
loose construction of the constitution, the 
other the narrow or strict construction. Dur- 
ing the one hundred and twenty-four years of 
national existence the Democratic party has 
conducted the affairs of the nation sixty 
years, and the Republican party sixty-four 
years. The Democratic party has been in 
power since March 4, 1913. 

To the Federalist party the country owes 
the organization of the government and the 
inauguration of the government's politics. 
Under Washington and Hamilton the finances 
were provided, a high credit was established, 
neutrality was announced which has been 
consistently followed to this day, a strong 
and vigorous foreign policy was outlined. To 
the old Republican party the country is in- 
debted for much of its liberties, for freedom 
of speech, of the press, of worship and the 
right of petition. To it also the States owe 
the largest recognition of local self-govern- 
ment, and also the first step of marvelous 
expansion which the' country has experienced 
in the one hundred and twenty-four years of 
national existence. To the National Republi- 
can party the country owes the fostering of 
the constructive policy in the establishment 
of internal improvements, the defense of a 
system of national banks, and the adoption 
of the policy of protection of American in- 
dustries. To the Whig party it owes a con- 
tinued fostering of these principles. To the 
Democratic party is due the continued de- 
fense of the cardinal principles of the old 
Republican party. The work of expansion 
begun by that party in the purchase of 
Louisiana and Florida was continued by it 
in the annexation of Texas, the occupation of 
Oregon, the prosecution of the Mexican war 
with the consequent accession of the vast 
Southwest. One of its fundamental principles 
is the protection of the many against the few. 
It therefore declaims against special privileges 
and abuses of corporate wealth. Its platform 
is the welfare of the many and special priv- 
ilege to none. To the Republican party the 
country owes the abolition of slavery and the 
citizenship of the negro. To it, mainly is due 
tlie prosecution of the war and the preserva- 
tion of the Union. It was during the period 



of its incuiubeiiey that new applications of 
electricity were made, various products of the 
mine were improved, such as steel, and a 
vast impulse in transportation was exper- 
ienced, as well as a commercial awakening 
such as the world never saw before. 

Of the third parties which have existed at 
one time or another in the life of the nation 
not one lived to pass from the stage of the 
third party to that of first, or even second, in 
national aiiairs. 

In this county a majority of the promi- 
nent men were Federalists, but the Anti-Fed- 
eralists (Democrats) had a slight preponder- 
ance, notwithstanding the fact that the Fed- 
eralists had the advantage of a newspaper, 
The American, the publication of which was 
commenced in 1814 by James McCahan. In 
1815 the printing office was located on the 
A. N. Taylor lot. It was destroyed by fire, 
the first fire which occurred in Indiana. The 
paper was soon established on better footing 
than before, for all the people, in accord with 
the spirit of the times, subscribed for the 
paper and gave it their patronage. The pub- 
lication of the first Democratic paper in the 
county was commenced in 1821, by Alexander 
Taylor and C. H. Wheelock. under the name 
of the Indiana and ./< I)', rson Whig. 

In 1826 the Ann rifun cslablishment was 
purchased by A. T. ^Muorhcad, Sr., and his 
father, James Moorhead, was installed as edi- 
tor and publisher. The printing office at that 
time was located on Water street, in the build- 
ing afterwards occupied by Michael Job. In 
the year 1826 the alleged abduction of Wil- 
liam Morgan by the Masonic fraternity oc- 
curred at Batavia, N. Y., in consequence of 
which the most intense excitement was preva- 
lent throughout the western parts of New 
York and Pennsylvania, and eastern Ohio; 
and a new political party sprung into ex- 
istence under the name of Anti-masons, which 
embraced within its folds such prominent 
men of the day as John Q. Adams, of Massa- 
chusetts, Thurlow Weed, William H. Seward. 
Francis Granger, and Horace Greeley, of 
New York ; Thaddeus Stevens, Nevil B. Craig, 
and Charles Ogle, of Pennsylvania. The 
new party became powerful in a number of 
the States. In 1832 the Anti-masons earned 
the electoral votes of Vermont. The warfare 
was exceedingly bitter. The doors of the 
lodges were closed and their meetings sus- 
pended. James Moorhead at once gave ad- 
hesion to this party, and with all his energy 
as man and publisher sought to advance the 

policy and doctrines of the new party; and 
the American became an Anti-masonic for- 
warder. As early as 1827 the Anti-mason 
party was organized in Indiana county. Soon 
the whig, then published by John MeCrea, 
also unfurled the Anti-masonic banner. In 
about 1826, John McCrea, who had served his 
apprenticeship in the office of the Whig, pur- 
chased the establishment, and continued the 
publication. Soon thereafter, probably in the 
latter part of 1827, or early in 1828, the Amer- 
ican was merged into the Whig, under Mc- 
Crea, James JMoorhead and the former pub- 
lisher of the American, shortly thereafter re- 
moving to Ashtabula county, Ohio. This new 
party to a great extent disrupted the old par- 
ties in our county, and was the dominant 
party here till 1840, when the Anti-masonic 
party of the State and everywhere became 
merged in the Whig party, which hitherto, in 
this State, was chiefly confined to Philadel- 
phia and some of our eastern counties. By 
this time the Anti-masons generally had come 
to the conclusion that a pure moral question 
disconnected from the financial and material 
interest of the country was not a suitable 
foundation for a successful political party. 

In 1832, Jolm Taylor purchased the W}iig 
office from John McCrea and gave the paper 
the name of the Free Press, conducted it in 
the interest of Anti-masonry, and as the ex- 
ponent of the progress and development of 
the county. 

In 1833, or possibly in 1834, the Inquirer, 
a Democratic journal, was commenced by 
Fergus Cannon. Its publication was con- 
tinued for several years. It was printed in 
the room used as the office of the "Kline 
House." This paper probably passed into 
the hands of Mui-phy & Woodward. Aug- 
ustus Dunn, for a time, was the editor and 
writer, though his name did not appear as 
such in the paper. 

In 1840 the Liberal party, better kndwn 
perhaps as the Abolition party, had its rise. 
That a portion of mankind should be held in 
fetters by another portion of the human fam- 
ily was repugnant to the feelings of philan- 
thropic people everywhere, and now that the 
issue was brought forward in the politics of 
the country James Moorhead, the old Anti- 
mason warrior, again stepped forward in the 
interest of human rights and began the pub- 
lication of the Clarion of Freedom in 1840. 
Most earnestly, in season and out of season, 
did Mr. Moorhead combat the doctrine of 
slavery, until in 1854 when the Know-nothing 



epidemic broke out. The Know-nothing party 
was so called because of the custom of its 
members in replying to all inquiries relative 
to the doings in their orders, ' ' I don 't know. ' ' 
It swallowed up the Whig party, which was 
the ruling party hei'e, and greatly demoral- 
ized the Democratic party. The Republican 
party, in 1856, swallowed up the Know-noth- 
ings and still further weakened the Demo- 

There is always present in the countiy a 
considerable party which believes in the "soft 
money" theory. This party can see no ra- 
tional basis for the claim of intrinsic values. 
To it money may be anything that the gov- 
ernment which issues it calls money. A piece 
of paper with the government's stamp upon 
it is money, as truly as the gold or silver 
coins with the government's stamp. The 
utility of such money has been tested in times 
of emergency. Its advocates refer to the vari- 
ous periods when the government through 
necessity has been compelled to adopt their 
theory. This they declare is proof of their 
contention. These advocates are found in 
every country and at all times. 

In this country, as in others, the "soft 
money" theory is uniformly offered as the 
remedy for industrial stagnation. When- 
ever business is disturbed and hard times 
are promised, the "soft money" advocate is 
on hand with his stock of argument that he 
has what the country needs. His position 
invariably appeals to the debtor class and 
wins its support. All nations have at one 
time or other of their existence passed 
through this stage. 

The first step towards a partisan organiza- 
tion was in November, 1874, when a Green- 
back convention met in Indianapolis and 
adopted a platform of principles. A few 
months after the formal organization of the 
Greenback labor party in Indiana county the 
members of that party exerted themselves to 
secure the establishment of a newspaper de- 
voted to the exposition of their political views 
and opinions, and the first number was issued 
on September 20, 1878. The intention was to 
run the paper until the close of the campaign 
in the following November. But when the 
returns of that election came in and the as- 
tonishing result was announced it was re- 
solved that its publication should be discon- 
tinued. The paper was called the Indiana 

National, and its founder and publisher was 
Frank Smith, who for many years was con- 
nected with the Indiana Messenger. 

The Prohibition party held its first na- 
tional convention in September. 1869. It was 
not called for the purpose of noniinating a 
candidate for office, but to inaugurate a na- 
tional temperance movement. The question 
of the use of intoxicating liquors has more or 
less agitated the people for many years. The 
first public temperance society in this coun- 
try was organized in 1826. At that time the 
use of intoxicating beverages was so common 
among all classes of people that total ab- 
stinence was not essential to membership. 
Ten years later a national convention of tem- 
perance workers declared for total abstinence. 
The adherents were ridiculed and derisively 
nicknamed "teetotalers." Four years later 
the movement was stimidated by the oi-ganiza- 
tion of the famous Washingtonian Society in 
the city of Baltimore. This organization was 
started by half a dozen men who had been 
addicted "to the habit of drunkenness. The 
first national nominating convention of the 
Prohibition party was held in 1872. It nom- 
inated James Black of Pennsylvania for presi- 
dent. The party polled 5,608 votes in the 
election. In 1884 there were two conventions, 
both claiming to be of the Prohibition 
party. The one was held in Chicago. Its plat- 
form was a patch quilt. It denounced secret 
societies and was similar to the old Anti- 
masonic party. The other convention was 
held in Pittsburg, under the name of the Pro- 
hibition Home ^ Protection party. It de- 
nounced both the old parties for their atti- 
tude upon the liquor business. In 1896 the 
party divided upon the money question into 
the Narrow Gangers and the Broad Gangers. 
The latter insisted upon making its fight in- 
clude the money question in the interest of the 
free coinage of silver. It thus appears that 
the Prohibition movement has failed thus far 
to enlist the temperance element of the coun- 
try. . 

In 1891 a People s party was organized, 
composed of the adherents of the principles 
of the Greenback party, the Union Labor 
party, the United Labor party, and the Farm- 
ers' Alliance. This new organization adopted 
a platform declaring for the free coinage of 
silver. It polled 1,040,886 votes. It is the 
only third party to control the electoral vote 



of any State since the war of the Rebellion, 
and that in one election only. 

In 1900 the followers of Eugene Debs 
organized for political action. They held a 
convention and nominated Debs as their can- 
didate for president. Electoral tickets were 
voted for in thirty-two States. In 1904 the 
same candidate was nominated and received 
more than four times as many votes. The 
vote was larger than that of both the Pro- 
hibition and the People's parties. 

In 1896 the campaign between the Repub- 
lican and DiMiiiirr.-itii' i)arties was conducted 
npon the silvn' (imslioii. Prior to this date 
efforts had liccii mailc to commit the Demo- 
cratic party to the free coinage of silver. Mr. 
Cleveland, then the controlling personality 
of the party, backed by the Eastern States, 
prevented the partj^ from taking such posi- 
tion. By 1896, through the almost united 
"West and South the Democratic convention 
adopted a platform declaring against mono- 
metallism and in favor of bimetallism, that 
is, against the use of but one standard in 
favor of a double standard. It declared that 
both gold and silver were the money of the 
constitution, and the act of 1873, which made 
gold the standard, was a crime against the 
people of the United States. It pronounced 
in favor of the "free and unlimited coinage 
of silver and gold at the present legal ratio 
of sixteen to one without waiting for the aid 
or consent of any other nation." 

The Republican party in its national con- 
vention declared in favor of "sound money." 
It pronounced against the free coinage of sil- 
ver, except by international agi'eement, and 

pledged itself to maintain the gold standard 
until such agreement could be reached. 

Upon this issue was conducted the whirl- 
wind campaign that has gone into history as 
the Bryan Silver campaign. Aside from the 
Hard Cider campaign of 1840, it was the 
most exciting and spectacular campaign in 
the history of American politics. It resulted 
in a contest between the Eastern and Cen- 
tral States on the one side, and the Western 
and Southern States on the other. In 1900 
the issue was again fought, between the two 
parties, led by the same candidate. The re- 
sults indicated that the silver issue had lost 
its hold upon the voter. 

A number of third parties have sprung up 
in the country, but none of them has been 
able to take first place or even second. In 
1900 the Prohibition party had 335 votes, 
Socialist party 50. and People's party 29. 

In 1911 the Keystone party came into ex- 
istence. Its supporters were those who were 
dissatisfied with the two old parties and raised 
the cry that the old parties were run by 
"bosses." The Keystone party made an 
earnest effort to elect county officers, but 
failed. In 1912 the sentiment for Roosevelt 
becanie very strong in the county and most 
of the advocates of the Keystone party sup- 
ported the Washington party, which polled 
a majority for Roosevelt, but the Republican 
party elected its candidates for State and 
county offices. 

The Prohibition candidate, Chaffin, had 695 
votes, the Socialist candidate, Debs, had 524 
votes, the Democratic candidate, Wilson, had 
1,590 votes, and the Republican candidate, 
Taft, had 1.720 votes. 



MEMBERS OF THE ASSEMBLY — REPRESENTATIVES Laird : 1902, A. F. Cooper. S. J. Smith ; 1906, 

]M. C. Watsou; J910, James T. Henry; 1912, 
1803 to 1808, James MeComb ; 1808 to 1809, M. C. Watson. 
James Sloan; 1809 to 1815, James McComb; 
1815 to 1816 David Reed ; 1816 to 1818, James 
M. Kelly, Joshua Lewis; 1818 to 1819, James 
M. Kelly, Samuel Houston; 1819 to 1820, 1803 to 1815, James Brady; 1815 to 1819, 
Robert Orr, Jr., Samuel Houston; 1820 to John Reed; 1819 to 1822, Henrv Allshouse ; 
1822, Robert Orr, Jr., Robert Mitchell; 1823 1822 to 1825, Robert Orr, Jr.; 1825 to 1830, 
to 1824, John Taylor, Joseph Rankin; 1825 to Eben S. Kellv; 1830 to 1835, Robert Mech- 
1826, David La'wsou, Joseph Rankin: 1826 Hng; 1834 to'l838. Meek Kelly; 1839, Find- 
to 1827, David Lawson, Thomas Johnston; ley Patterson; 1841 to 1844. William Bigler, 

1827 to 1828, David Lawson, Joseph Rankin; 

1828 to 1829, Robert Mitchell, Joseph Rankin ; 

1829 to 1830. David Lawson, Joseph Rankin ; 

of Clearfield; 1847, William F. Johnston; 
1850, Augustus Drum; 1851 to 1853, C. 
Myers; 1854 to 1856, Samuel S. Jamison; 

1830 to 1831, Robert Mitchell: 1831 to 1833, 1863. Harrv White; 1864 to 1865, Thomas 

William Houston; 1833 to 1834. James M. St. Clair; 1866 to 1874, Harry White; 1877 

Stewart; 1834 to 1836, William Banks; 1836 to 1879. Thomas St. Clair; 1884, George W. 

to 1838, James Tavlor; 1838 to 1839, William Wood; 1892, James G. Mitchell; 1900, John 

MeCaran, Jr.: 1839, Allen N. Work; 1840 to S. Fisher; 1908, T. M. Kurtz. 

1841, John Cummins; 1842 to 1843, John 

McEwen; 1844 to 1845, John McFarland; 

1846 to 1847. William C. McKnight ; 1848 to 

1851. William Evans; 1852 to 1855. Alex. 

McConnell; 1856 to 1857, R. B. Moorhead; 

1858. John Bruce; 1859 to 1860, A. W. Tay- 


1840. Albert G. Marchand, Westmoreland 
county, Democrat ; 1842 to 1844, Joseph Buf- 
fingto'n, Armstrong county. Whig; 1846, Alex- 

lor; 1861 to 1862, James Alexander; 1862 to ander Irwin, Clearfield county. Whig; 1848 
1863, Richard Graham; 1863 to 1864, J. W. to 1850, Alfred Gilmore, Butler county, 
Houston; 1865 to 1866, George E. Smith; Democrat; 1852, Augustus Drum, Indiana 
1867, W. C. Gordon. A. W. Kimmell; 1868, county. Democrat ; 1854 to 1860, John Covode, 
W. C. Gordon; 1868, R. H. McConniek; Westmoreland county. Republican; 1862 to 
1869 to 1870, D. M. Marshall; 1871, Thomas 1864, J. L. Dawson, Fayette county, Demo- 
McMullin, H. K. Sloan; 1872, Thomas Mc- crat; 1866, John Covode, Westmoreland 
Mullin; 1873 to 1874, Daniel Raniey ; 1875, county. Republican; 1868 to 1870, H. D. Fos- 
A. W. Kimmell, J. K. Thompson : 1876, ter. Westmoreland county. Democrat : 1872, 
A. W. Kimmell, J. K. Thompson; 1877, A. W. Taylor, Indiana county. Republican; 
H. Fulton, Jacob Creps; 1878, A. H. Fulton, 1874, George A. Jenks, Jefferson county, 
Jacob Creps; 1879. A. H. Fulton, John Hill; Democrat: 1876 to 1878, Harry White, In- 
1882, William C. Brown, John Lowry ; 1884, diana county. Republican ; 187S to 1884, Alex- 
John P. Elkin, John Lowrv ; 1886, John P. ander White, Jefferson county. Republican; 
Elkin. S. J. Craighead; 1888, E. E. Allen, 1884 to 1886, James T. Maffet, Clarion coun- 
Dr. William Hosack ; 1890. Noah Seanor, Dr. ty, Republican ; 1886 to 1888. Samuel A. 
John W. ]\Iorrow: 1892, Noah Seanor, Dr. Craig. Jefferson county. Republican; 1888 
William Hosack ; 1894, Noah Seanor, John Mc- to 1890, George F. Huff", Westmoreland 
Gaughey : 1S96, John McGaughey, Dr. John county. Republican : 1890 to 1892, Daniel B. 
W. Morrow; 1898, H. J. Thompson, M. K. Heiner, Armstrong county, Republicaji; 




1892 to 1896, Edward E. Robbins, Westmore- 
land eouuty, Republican; 1896 to 1898, Sum- 
mers M. Jack, Indiana county. Republican; 
1898 to 1902, William 0. Smith, Jefferson 
county. Republican; 1902 to 1906, Joseph G. 
Beale, Armstrong county, Republican ; 1906 
to 1908, J. N. Langham, Indiana county. Re- 
publican, the present incumbent. 


Hon. John Young, of Greensburg, West- 
moreland county, 1806 to 1836 ; Hon, Thomas 
White, of Indiana, Indiana county, 1836 to 
1847 ; Hon. Jeremiah M. Burrell, of Greens- 
burg, June, 1847, to March, 1848 ; Hon. John 
C. Knox, of Tioga county, June, 1848, to De- 
cember, 1850; Hon. Jeremiah M. Burrell, of 
Greensburg, December, 1851, December, 1855 ; 
Hon. Joseph Buffington, of Kittanning, Arm- 
strong county, June, 1855, to April, 1871; 
Hon. James A. Logan, of Greensburg, June, 
1871, to January, 1875; Hon. John P. Blair, 
of Indiana, January, 1875, to January, 1885 ; 
Hon. Harrv White, of Indiana, January, 
1885 to 1905 ; Hon. S. J. Telford, of Indiana, 
January, 1905, to present time. 


1839 ; Robert Craig, December, 1839, to 1845 ; 
Alexander W. Taylor, 1845 to 1851; N. B. 
Loughry, 1851 to 1854; John Myers, 1854 to 
1857; J. R. Porter, Jr., 1857 to I860; E. P. 
Hildebrand, 1860 to 1866 ; John Lowry, 1866 
to 1872 ; A. C. Boyle, 1872 to 1882 ; William 
Daugherty, 1882 to 1888 ; John A. Scott, 1888 
to 1894; J. Elder Peelor, 1894 to 1900; W. R. 
Calhoun, 1900 to 1906; A. L. Gilbert, 1906 
to August, 1908 (died), John C. Wells was 
appointed by the judge to fill out the term; 
John C. Wells, 1909, to present time. 


James Speer, 1821 to 1824; W. Douglass, 
1836 to 1839, and January 4, 1839, to Feb- 
niary 11, 1839 ; Isaac M. Watt, 1839 to 1842, 
and January, 1847, to December, 1847 ; Wil- 
liam McClaran, 1842 to 1845, and 1845 to 
1847 ; David Peelor, December, 1847, to 1853 ; 
John H. Lichteberger, 1853 to 1862; A. L. 
McCluskey, 1862 to 1868 ; W. R. Black. 1868 
to 1874 ; David R. Lewis, 1874 to 1880 ; Ben- 
.iamin F. McCluskey, 1880 to 1884; John A. 
Findley, 1884 to 1890 ; James McGregor, 1890 
to 1896; James N. Stewart, 1896 to 1902; 
Horace M. Lowry, 1902 to 1908 ; J. Blair Sut- 
ton, 1908 to present time. 

1806, James Smith, Charles Campbell; 
1818, Joshua Lewis (succeeded Smith) ; 1828, 
John Taylor; 1829. Andrew Brown; 1830, 
Samuel Moorhead, Jr. ; 1836 Robert Mitchell, 
M. D. ; 1842, Meek Kelly, James IMcKennon ; 
1843, John Cunningham; 1845, Fergus Can- 
non; 1846, Joseph Thompson; 1849, James 
M. Stewart, M. D. ; 1851 to 1856, Peter Dilts, 
Sr.; 1851 to 1861; Isaac M. Watt; 1856 to 
1866, John K. Thompson, :\I. D. ; 1861 to 
1866, Peter Sutton; 1866 to 1871, T. B. Al- 
lison; 1866 to 1871, Joseph Campbell; 1871 
to 1876, Peter Dilts, Jr.; 1871 to February, 
1874, James S. Nesbit (resigned) ; February, 
1874, to January 1, 1875, William Irwin. 


James McLain, 1806 to 1818, also register 
and recorder; John Taylor, 1818 to 1821, also 
register and recorder; James IMcCahan, 1821 
to 1824; Alexander Taylor, 1824 to 1828, 
also register and recorder; William Banks, 
1828 to 1833, also register and clerk; R. B. 
McCabe, 1833 to 1836, also register and re- 
corder; Thomas Laughlin, 1836 to 1839, and 
January 4, 1839, to February 11, 1839 ; Fer- 
gus Cannon, February, 1839, to December, 


Thomas McCartney, 1806 to 1809 ; Thomas 
Sutton, 1809 to 1812; Robert Robinson, 1812 
to 1815 ; Thomas Sutton, 1815 to 1818 ; James 
Elliott, 1818 to 1821 ; Henry Kinter, 1821 to 
1824 ; Clemence McGara, 1824 to 1827 ; James 
Gordon, 1827 to 1830; James Taylor, 1830 
to 1833 ; Joseph Loughry, 1833 to 1836 ; James 
Kier, 1836 to 1839 ; William Evans, 1839 to 
1842; David Ralston, 1842 to 1845; Simeon 
Truby, 1845 to 1848 ; Gawin Sutton, 1848 to 
1851; John Mullen, 1851 to 1854; John Mont- 
gomery, 1854 to 1857 ; Joseph R. Smith, 1857 
to I860; A. P. Thompson, 1860 to 1863; 
James R. Dougherty, 1863 to 1S66; Jacob 
Creps, 1866 to 1869; Henderson C. Howard, 
1869 to 1872; James R. Dougherty, 1872 to 
1875 ; William C. Brown, 1875 to 1878 ; Dan- 
iel Ansley, 1878 to 1882, January 1st; Mar- 
tin F. Jamison, 1882 to 1885; James Mc- 
Gregor, 1885 to 1888; D. C. Mack, 1888 to 
1891 ; H. P. Lewis, 1891 to 1894 ; D. C. Mack, 
1894 to 1897; T. S. Neal, 1897 to 1900; D. E. 
Thompson, 1900 to 1903; Josiah Neal, 1903 
to 1906; Jacob Wettling, 1906 to 1909; H. 
Wallace Thomas. 1909 to 1912; George H. 
Jeffries, 1912 to present time. 




The first record of the criminal courts that 
we find is that of the June session of 1817. 
Thomas Blair's name appears as the prose- 
cuting attorney for the Commonwealth. No 
evidence as to when he received his appoint- 
ment or was sworn in. He seems to have held 
the office until 

March 9, 1819, when William H. Brackin- 
ridge, Esq.. was sworn as deputy attorney 
for the United States for Indiana county, and 
also as deputy attorney general for the State 
of Pennsylvania. 

September 13, 1819, Henry Shippen, Esq., 
produced a deputation from Thomas Ser- 
geant, Esq., attorney general of the Com- 
monwealth, appointing him deputy attorney 
general for the county of Indiana, and was 
sworn according to law. 

Thomas White seems to have been the in- 
cumbent of the office, but there is no record 
of his commission. 

March 25, 1822, W. R. Smith, Esq., prose- 
cuting attorney, not appearing, Mr. Canon 
was appointed by the court. He was also 
appointed at the June session. Smith receipts 
for fees at September session, 1822, from De- 
cember session, 1822. Thomas White receipts 
attorney general fees, but this is the only 
evidence that he held the office. 

March 23, 1821, Ephraim Carpenter, Esq., 
was sworn in as prosecuting attorney for the 
Commonwealth, being deputized by Fred 
Smith, attorney general of the Commonwealth. 
He seems to have held office continually up to 
1836, but there is no record of his reappoint- 
ment or his taking the oath of office. 

William Banks, Esq., was sworn as deputy 
attornev general for Indiana eountv March 
28, 1836. 

Augustus Drum, Esq., was sworn in as dep- 
uty prosecuting attorne.y for the county of 
Indiana on the 25th of March, 1839. 

Thomas C. McDonald, Esq., was appointed 
prosecuting attorney by the court at the June 
session, 1842. Also at the September and 
December sessions of the same year and March 
session, 1843. 

June 26, 1843, Thomas Sutton. Esq.. pre- 
sents his credentials as deputy attorney for 
this county and is sworn accordingly. 

September 25. 1844, court appoints Thomas 
C. McDowell to prosecute on behalf of the 

And now, to-wit, :\Iareh 24, 1845. John Pot- 
ter, Esq., comes into court and presents his 

commission as prosecuting attorney of tliis 
county and is sworn accordingly. 

June 22, 1846, Ephraim Carpenter, Esq., 
appointed prosecuting attorney for the Com- 
monwealth this session. 

September 28, 1846, the court appoints 
Pliny Kelly, Esq., to prosecute for the Com- 

At December session, Ephraim Carpenter 
receipts for fees, but there is no other evi- 
dence of his appointment. 

March 22, 1847, Ephraim Carpenter ap- 
pointed by the court as prosecuting attorney ; 
also at June and September sessions of same 

December 27, 1847, commission from Ben- 
jamin Chafney, attorne.y general for the 
Commonwealth, appointed Orville H. Brown, 
Esq., deputy attorney general for the county, 
read and oath of office administered. 

March 27, 1848, Ephraim Carpenter ap- 
pointed to prosecute for Commonwealth the 
present session. 

June 26, 1848, commission by Benjamin 
Chafney, attorney general, appointed Eph- 
raim Carpenter, Esq., deputy attorney gen- 
eral for Indiana county, read in open court. 

September 25, 1848, Alex. Taylor sworn as 
deputy attorney general of Indiana county. 


Edmund Paige, 1850 to 1853; Henry B. 
Woods. 1856 to 1859 ; John Lowry, 1862 ; Dan- 
iel S. Porter, 1856 to 1868 ; William R. Alli- 
son, 1871; Samuel Cunningham, 1874; M. C. 
Watson, 1877 : Summers :\I. Jack, 1883 ; John 
:\L Leech, 1889 : John L. Getty, 1895 ; W. M. 
Mahan. 1898; George J. Feit, 1901; W. F. 
Elkin, 1907, present officer. 


1867, I. M. Watt; 1867, Robert Crawford; 
1870, A. L. McCluskey; 1870. James Bailey; 
1873, James P. Carter ; 1873, John Robertson ; 
1876, W. H. Coleman ; 1876, Francis Laird ; 
1879, William Shields; 1879, Nathaniel Nes- 
bit: 1879, Andrew Shields, Nathaniel Nesbit; 
1885, George W. DeLancy, John Elder; 1888, 
James S. Haslett. A. Y. Barclav; 1894. James 
L. Langham, James M. :\Iillen ; 1897. J. Scott 
ilcGaughev, Lemon B. Kinsev ; 1900. J. Scott 
McGaughev, Jackson McMillen : 1903, Wil- 
liam B. Lang, James H. Blose ; 1906, W. F. 
George, John K. ilcElhoes; 1908, Harry 
Bryan, Sylvester C. Thompson ; 1912, Harry 
Bryan, B. F. Lydiek. 


AUDITORS Brink; 1859, Charles N. Swoyer, elected but 
died before taking office ; 1859, William Earl, 
1839, Abraham Davis; 1840, Thomas appointed; 1861, James Moorhead; 1863, W. 
Laughliu; 1841, Alexander White; 1842, H. Coleman; 1865, John A. Stewart; 1867, 
Thompson McCrea, for two years; 1842, Pul- George AV. McHem-y; 1869, Noah Lohr; 1871, 
lerton Woods ; 1843, John Clark ; 1844, John James M. Sutton ; 1873, George H. Johnston ; 
McNiel; 1845, Robert Elder; 1846, James H. 1875, John Ebey; 1878, John Trubv; 1882, 
Young; 1847, Edmund Paige, Sr. ; 1848, John John T. Gibson; 1885, T. C. Ramey; 1888, D. 
Pollock; 1849, Isaac Kinter; 1850, Cornelius A. Lukehart; 1891, G. H. Ogden; 1894, Sam- 
Lowe; 1851, James C. Dill; 1852, Elijah Cris- uel Nesbit; 1897, Phil M. Sutton; 1900, D. 
well; 1853, Abraham Wolf; 1854, J. H. Al- w. Simpson; 1903, Harrison Seanor; 1906. 
lison ; 1855, William Riddle ; 1856, Samuel W. i. R. ]\IcMasters ; 1909, J. C. Leasure ; 1912, 
Drips; 1857, Robert Hughes; 1858, Josiah J. Willis Wilson, to present time. 
Shields ; 1859, John L. Work, three years ; 

1859, Hugh Cunningham, two years; 1860, commissioners 
Samuel Wilson ; 1861, John Brink ; 1862, John commissioners 
Wachob ; 1863, Thomas R. Lukehart ; 1864, William Clarke, 1806 to 1807 ; James John- 
Samuel H. Thompson, three years; 1864, ston, Alexander McLain, 1806; William 
John Brink, one year ; 1865, Samuel McCart- Clarke, Alexander McLean, 1808 ; William 
ney ; 1865, William S. Davidson ; 1868, Joseph Clarke, Rev. John Jamieson, 1809 ; James Mc- 
Griffith ; 1868, R. H. Armstrong, two years ; Knight, Rev. John Jamieson, Robert Robison. 
1869, A. J. Hamilton ; 1870, Samuel M. Haz- 1810 ; Robert Robison, Joshua Lewis. Rev. 
lett; 1871, H. P. Lewis; 1872, James Ansley; John Jamieson, 1811; Robert Robison. 
1873, Joseph Griffith ; 1874, W. G. Stewart ; Joshua Lewis. Joseph Moorhead. 1812 ; Fran- 
1875, J. H. Dix; 1875, John G. Robertson; eis Boals, Joshua Lewis. Joseph Moorhead. 
1875, J. Gamble Fleming ; 1878, Jacob S. 1813 ; Joseph Moorhead, Francis Boals, Alex- 
Stuchell, J. K. McElhoes; 1882, Jacob S. ander McLain, 1814; Alexander McLain, 
Stuchell, Francis Harbison, Jr., D. R. Jen- Francis Boals, Gawin Sutton, 1815; Gawin 
kins; 1885, M. D. Shields, J. M. Hart, S. B. Sutton. Alexander McLain, Thomas Sharp, 
Work; 1888, J. Clark Weamer, Joseph Hoi- 1816; Gawin Sutton, Thomas Sharp, John 
sopple, D. H. Tomb ; 1891, J. W. Wiggins, C. Smith, 1817 ; Thomas Sharp, John Smith. 
Hart, J. J. Thompson; 1894, J. T. Davis, Thomas Laughlin, 1818; Thomas Laughlin, 
James G. Walker, John Barber; 1897, W. John Smith, Joseph Henderson, 1819; Wil- 
F. George, George J. Feit, John F. Barclay; Ham Clarke. John Smith, Joseph Henderson, 
1900, W. F. Walker, J. L. Peterman, Harry 1820; Joseph Henderson. William Clarke, 
W. Fee; 1903, A. W. Ewing, Charles A. Clemenee McGara, 1821; Clemence McGara. 
Nichol, H. S. Buchanan; 1906. Charles A. Stewart Davis. William Clarke. 1822, Stew- 
Nichol, R. E. Roberts, H. S. Buchanan ; art Davis. Clemence McGara. Alexander Pat- 
1909, S. S. Gibson, R. J. Wood. Adam P. Low- tison. 1823; Alexander Pattison. James Gor- 
ry, S. S. Gibson, dying, and James Speedy don. Stewart Davis, 1824; James Gordon, 
being appointed to serve the last year of his James Todd, W. W. Caldwell, 1826 ; Peter 
term; 1912, R. J. Wood, James Speedy, Dilts. W. W. Caldwell, James Todd, 1827; 
Frank E. Groft. Samuel Trimble, Peter Dilts, James Todd, 

1828 ; Samuel Trimble, Peter Dilts, Archibald 
TREASURERS Johnston, 1829; Samuel Trimble, Archibald 
Johnston, Gawin Sutton, 1830; Gawin Sut- 
1811-12. James McKnight ; 1813. Thomas ton. William Leard, 1833 ; James Lewis, Alex- 
Sutton; 1815-16. John Taylor; 1817-18. Wil- ander McMullin. 1834; James McComb, Wil- 
liam Lucas; 1820-21. William Douglass; 1822- liam Laird. Alexander McMullin. 1835; 
23, Alexander Taylor; 1824 to 1826, William James McComb, James Lapsley, John Cum- 
Trimble; 1827 to" 1829, William Lucas; 1830 mins. 1836; John Cummins. James Lapsley. 
to 1832, Blanev Adair; 1833 to 1835, James Joseph McMasters. 1837; William Smith, 
Todd; 1836 to 1838. I. M. Watt; 1839-41, W. John Cummins, Joseph McMasters?, 1838; 
W. Caldwell; 1842, William Bruce; 1843, W. William Smith. Philip Rice. James Rhea, 
Douglass; 1845. William W. Caldwell; 1847. 1839; John Dick took his seat October 20th. 
Samuel R. Rankin; 1849. William W. Cald- in lieu of Smith; Philip Rice, James Rhea, 
well; 1851. James Hood; 1853. Garvin Sut- John Dick. 1840; Philip Rice. James Rhea, 
ton; 1855. Thomas McCandless; 1857. John John Dick, 1841; Charles Campbell took his 



seat November 2d, in lieu of Dick : James 
Rhea, John Dick and Charles Campbell, 18-42; 
Thomas Stewart took his seat October 24th, 
in lieu of Rhea; John Dick, Charles Camp- 
hell. Thomas Stewart, 1843 ; John A. Jamison 
took his seat October 23d. in lieu of Dick; 
Charles Campbell, Thomas Stewart, John A. 
Jamison, 1844; Alex. T. ]\Ioorhead took his 
seat in lieu of Stewart ; Charles Campbell, 
John A. Jamison, Alex. T. Jloorhead, 1845 ; 
Abraham Davis. November 3d. took his seat 
in lieu of Campbell; John T. Jamison. Ales. 
T. Moorhead. Abraham Davis. 1846 ; Novem- 
ber 2d. Thomas Walker took his seat in lieu 
of Jamison : Alex. T. Moorhead, Abraham 
Davis. Thomas Walker, 1847; October 25th, 
Jacob Gamble took Moorhead 's seat; Abraham 
Davis. Thomas Walker. Jacob Gamble. 1848 ; 
October 14th, Thomas Gibson took Abraham 
Davis's seat; Thomas Walker, Jacob Gam- 
ble. Thomas Gibson. 1849 ; October 15th, John 
Lytle took Walker's seat; Jacob Gamble, 
Thomas Gibson. John Lytle, 1850; John 
Sliields took Gamble's place October 21st; 
Thomas Gibson, John Lytle. John Shields. 
1851 ; November 3d, Samuel H. Johnston took 
Gibson's place; John Lytle, John Shields. 
Samuel H. Johnston. 1852"; October 25th, Rob- 
ert H. Armstrong took Lytle 's place: John 
Shields. Samuel H. Johnston. Robert H. Arm- 
strong. 1853; November 1st. Moses T. Work 
took Shield's place; Samuel H. Johnston. 
Robert H. Armstrong, Moses T. Work. 1854; 
George Lowman. 1855 ; October 17th. John 
Gourley took Armstrong's place; Moses T. 
Work. George Lowman, John Gourley, 1856 ; 
David Henderson took Work's place October 
29th ; George Lowman, John Gourley. David 
Henderson. 1857 ; Thomas Davis took Low- 
man's place November 3d: John Gourley, 
David Henderson. Thomas Davis, 1858 ; A. 
L. McCluskey took Gourley 's place October 
25th; David Henderson. Thomas Davis. A. 
L. ^McCluskey, 1859; October 26th. William 
Johnston took Hendei*son's place; Thomas 
Davis. A. L. McCluskey, William Johnston. 
I860; October 15th, Samuel Irwin took 
Davis' place; A. L. McCluskey. William 
Johnston. Samuel Irwin, 1861 ; Andrew 
Shields took ilcCluskey's place November 
12th ; William Johnston, Samuel Irwin, An- 
drew Shields, 1862; Samuel Irwin. Andrew 
Shields. S. A. Allison. 1863 ; Andrew Shields, 
S. A. Allison, W. C. McCrea. 1864; S. A. Al- 
lison. W. C. McCrea. W. G. Stewart, 1865; 
W. C. :McCrea. W. G. Stewart, R. Adams. 
1866 : W. G. Stewart, R. Adams, G. Shryoek, 
1867 ; Robert Adams. George Shryoek, Elliott 

Ferguson, 1868; George Shryoek, Elliott Fer- 
guson, James T. Van Horn, 1869; Elliott 
Ferguson. James T. Van Horn, John S. Flem- 
ing, 1870 ; James T. Van Horn, John S. Flem- 
ing. Jacob Darr. 1871 ; John S. Fleming. 
Jacob Darr. James M. Work, 1872; Jacob 
Dan-, James M. Work, George W. Boaden- 
hamer. 1873; James M. Work; George W. 
Boadenhamer, Samuel G. Miller. 1874 ; George 
W. Boadenhamer, Samuel G. Miller, Francis 
Mabon. 1875 ; Jeremiah Lomison. Frederick 
Cameron. Frederick Buterbaugh. 1876-78 ; 
John G. Robinson. A. P. Thompson, William 
Daugherty. 1879-80; William Daugherty, 
John G. Robinson, Absalom Thompson, 1879 ; 
James Johnson, William ilabon, Jr.. Jere- 
miah Wakefield. 1882; A. W. Steele, R. N. 
ilcCombs. Jeremiah Wakefield. 1885 ; J. Wil- 
son Shields. J. M. Marshall. D. C. Kennedv. 
1888 ; John C. Cameron. A. C. Rankin, A. H. 
Braughler. 1891 ; Adam Black. Clarence Hart, 
Robert McElhoes, 1894; Hiram Stuchell, M. 
H. Henry. C. F. Murray, 1897 ; James K. 
Dick, T. P. Stephens, Peter Freeh, 1900; 
Columbus ilcCoy. Johnson Moorhead. John 
A. Campbell. 1903 ; Cyrus Stouffer. George L. 
Shaffer, W. L. Neal, 1906; J. U. Marshall. D. 
T. Neil. A. F. Bowman. 1909 ; E. M. Ansley. 
Jolm Bennett. J. il. Wakefield, holding office 
at present time. 


Alex. Johnson, for trustees of eount.y, 1804 ; 
Paul Morrison, for trustees of county, 1805 ; 
James Riddle, for commissioners, 1806 ; James 
McKnight. 1807; Daniel Stauard, James 
M. Biddle. 1808; Daniel Stanard, 1809-10; 
James McKnight. 1811 ; James M. Kellv. 
1812-13; John Wilson, James Coulter, 1814; 
John Wilson, John Taylor, 1815 ; Gawin Sut- 
ton, John Taylor, 1816; Daniel Stanard, 
Stewart Davis. 1817; Stewart Davis, 1818 to 
1820 ; Robert Young, 1822-23 ; Ephraim Car- 
penter. 1824; Stewart Davis. 1825; William 
Banks. 1826 to 1828 ; John Johnston, 1829 to 
1832; William Banks, 1833; Joseph J. 
Young. 1824 to 1837; William M. Stewart, 
I. M. Watt. John Mvers. 1838; Robert M 
Gibson. 1839 to 1840 ; A. W. Taylor, 1841 to 
1847; Edward Paige, 1848; J. H. Lichtber- 
ger. 1849 to 1852; George Shrvock. 1852 to 
1864; W. R. Black, 1865 to 1869; James B. 
Work. 1870 ; W. H. Coleman. 1871-72 ; D. R. 
Lewis. 1878-74; J. T. Gibson. 1875 to 1878; 
J. P. St. Clair. 1879-82 ; J. J. Lewis. 1883 to 
1885; J. H. Stewart 1886 to 1888; Frank 
Empfield. 1889 to 1896; J. A. Grossman, 



1897 to 1899; J. W. Neal, 1900 to 1902; G. Edmund Paige, 1871 to 1886; John R. Cald- 
W. Earle, 1903 to 1908; Walter H. Ayers, well, 1886 to 1895; D. L. Moorehead, 1895 
1909 — to present time. to 1911; Hiram Smith, 1912 to present time. 


The district survej'ore, whose services ex- 
tended over that part of Indiana county, 
north of the old Purchase Line, were : James 
Hamilton, John Brodhead, James Johnston, 
James Potter and William P. Brady. 

Those serving within the limits of the pur- 
chase of 1768 were: Joshua Elder, John 
Moore, Joseph L. Findlay, Eonieu Williams, 
James Ross, Thomas Allison and Alexander 

Their successors were : John Taylor, 1815, 
also served as surveyor general; Robert 
Young, 1818; Alexander Taylor, Jr., 1819; 
Meek Kelly, 1821; John Taylor, 1825 to 
1827 ; Meek Kelly, 1830 to 1833 ; Robert Mc- 
Gee, 1834 ; William Evans, 1836 ; Robert Mc- 
Gee, 1839; Thompson McCrea. 1850; David 
Peelor, 1856 ; William Evans, 1859 ; Edmond 
Paige, 1862; Thompson McCrea, 1865 to 1868; 

Samuel Young, 1806 ; Joseph Turner, 1809 ; 
William Shields, 1812; James Loughrey, 
1815; William Douglas, 1818; Peter Sutton, 
Jr., 1821; James E. Cooper, 1824; Samuel 
George, 1827 to 1830; Samuel McCartney, 
1833-36; William Henry, 1839; John Me- 
Quilkin, 1842 ; James Hood, 1845 ; Samuel 
Trimble, 1848; James McLain, 1851; J. W. 
ilabon, 1854; J. A. Jamison, 1857; J. I. 
Kelly, 1860; William Shields, 1863; Joseph 
Gilbert, 1868; John Clawson, 1869; Wil- 
liam H. Coleman, 1872; Samuel A. Smith, 
1875; Irvin McFarland, 1878; John W. 
Books, 1882; Dr. N. F. Erenfield, 1885; Dr. 
N. F. Erenfield, 1888; W. T. Miller, 1891; 
W. T. Miller, 1894; Dr. M. M. Davis, 1897; 
Dr. M. M. Davis, 1900; Dr. M. M. Davis, 
1903; Dr. W. D. Gates, 1906; Dr. James S. 
Hammers, 1909 ; Dr. H. B. Buterbaugh, 1912, 
in office at present time. 



The history of every generation centers in Newmarket, Cross Roads, Malvern Hill, Sec- 
a few great names and its principal events end Bull Run, South Mountain, Anti'etam, 
are directed by a few great men. If we would Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, Bristoe Station 
get a correct knowledge of the history of any and Mine Run, and the three veterans also 
period or people, we must look at this history were in the battles of the Wilderness, Spott- 
from the standpoint of those who directed its sylvania, North Anna and Bethesda, and sub- 
great movements. We get the most accurate sequent cami^aigns of the war. 
knowledge of history when we study biog- It is presumable that men who passed 
raphies of great men. If we would know through all of this service were wounded 
the history of this country, we must study sometime, and while our roll does not show 
the lives of Washington, Lincoln and other it we have the evidence of their service in 
great men who were national leaders in great tlie hard-fought battles of the war ; and 
national crises. If we would understand the though they had not sought honor or fame — 
history of the military movements during the they are none the less deserving of the warm- 
war of the Rebellion, we must study the est gratitude of all good people. Some of 
biographies of Grant, Sherman, Thomas and the bravest and best of men fill "unknown" 
other great military leaders. Nevertheless, graves. All that was required of the soldier 
if we study history only in this way we are was to perform well the part assigned him, 
in danger of losing sight of the fact that these and the order of the general was of value 
men were but the leaders and not the army, only when enforced by the soldiers in the 
Our country was not saved by the courage, ranks, so the honor or fame of the one can- 
skill and self-sacrifice of a few great com- not be separated from the duty and bravery 
manders alone, but by the courageous, patient of the other, and around the transparent light 
patriotism of private soldiers, field and line of leadership of the general-in-chief let us 
officers who faced the greatest dangers and weave a garland of duties and sufferings of 
made the greatest sacrifices with the least the private soldier. 

hope of reward. It would not be possible to 40th Pennsylvania Volunteers, 11th Re- 
make a record of all the brave acts of these serves. — Of this justly celebrated regiment 
brave men; we may not be able even to call Indiana county furnished the men, officers 
the roll of the men who took an honorable and all, for Companies B and E, over thirty 
part in the great war of the Rebellion, but men for Company A, fifteen for Company D, 
there should be a clear, concise and complete thirty-five or more for Company I. These 
history of every organization which took part, were among the early companies formed in 
and the great Commonwealth of Pennsylvania the county and were made up largely of 
did well when it made some provision for pre- hardy sons of farmers and lumbermen, 
paring and preserving such a history. The regiment was organized at Pittsburg, 

Pa.. Thomas F. Gallagher, colonel; James R. 
INDIANA COUNTY IN THE WAR OF 1861 Portcr, lieutenant colonel: and Samuel M. 

HISTORY OF REGIMENTS OR COMPANIES Jackson, major. Of these Lieutenant Colonel 

Porter was ot Indiana county, but he resigned Pemisylvania Volunteers, 9th Re- before the regiment went into active service 
serves. — This regiment embraced a few Indi- and the county was not represented by a field 
ana county men, a roll of whom we give in a officer until the appointment of Capt. D. S. 
general list. Mr. Joseph P. Robinson tells us Porter as lieutenant colonel, in May, 1863. 
that the county was represented in the battles On the 24th of July the regiment pro- 
of Drainsville, Mechanicsville, Gaines' Mill, ceeded to Harrisburg and was furnished arms 




by tlie State ; reached Baltimore the next day 
and Washington on the 26th; was mustered 
into the United States service the 29th and 
30th, and soon after went into camp at 
Tennallj-town. The arms of the State were 
exchanged for those furnished by the goy- 
vernraent and camp duty drill and detail 
work on the defenses of Washington ensued. 

In September the regiment had its initia- 
tion to the destructive features of the war 
in receiving a few shots from a Rebel bat- 
tery at Great Palls, on the Potomac. 

During the stay at winter camp the men 
seemed anxious for the more active campaign 
work and a friend visiting the regiment re- 
marked it. Colonel Gallagher is reported to 
have said to some of the men that before the 
war closed they would be fully as anxious to 
avoid the fight, and did say to the friend, in 
substance, this : "I expect a severe war. You 
see here a thousand men ; I think there will 
not five hundred of these return home." 
Prophetic words and how true they were! 
At the reunion in 1879 the invitations to sur- 
vivors did not exceed three hundred. The 
invitations included recruits of 1862, 1863 
and 1864, as well as original men. 

Early in the spring of 1862 the regiment 
moved to the vicinity of Fairfax cemetery, 
having participated in the cold and weary 
marches in the rain in the first movement to- 
wards Manassas. The reserve division was 
assigned to the First Corps and moved to 
Catlett station and thence to Falmouth ; then 
detached from its corps, ordered to the Pen- 
insula and attached to Gen. John Fitz 
Porter 's corps, on the 25th of June, reaching 
the Chickahominy river, where it was or- 
dered on picket duty in immediate presence 
of the enemy, on the next day receiving fire 
from Rebel "battery, while some portions of 
the Union line were hotly engaged in what is 
known as the battle of Mechanicsville, and 
covered the rear of its brigade in the retro- 
grade movement that ensued. On the next 
day at Gaines' Mill, the regiment, except 
Company B, Captain Porter, was hotly en- 
gaged with orders to hold the line at all haz- 
ards, which it did until all but one regiment 
on both flanks had fallen back. Then, too 
late for safety, it with the New Jersey regi- 
ment attempted to do so, but the Confederates 
had them nearly surrounded by an impetuous 
charge, encircling tliem so that a half hun- 
dred only escaped, the balance alive surrend- 
ering. To have attempted to fight it out 
would have been madness inexcusable. There 
was a weary march to Richmond in the night, 

and after being exhibited to the citizens of 
Richmond the men were transferred to sandy, 
shadeless. Belle Isle until exchanged and sent 
to join the army at Harrison's Landing. In 
the meantime. Captain Porter gathered the 
scattered men of the regiment and with Com- 
pany B formed two companies, placing one 
under command of Lieut. Hannibal K. Sloan, 
and these two companies represented the reg- 
iment in the battle at Charles City Cross 
Roads. They tell an incident of the night 
before the battle there. They were instructed 
that a gap must be left for a Rebel force to 
pass through, and it did seem to pass directly 
through the Union line. This was most prob- 
ably true — in the fact of passing by in the 
intricate winding of the roads near White 
Oak Swamp the Confederates may have 
passed round a detached force without dis- 
covering it. It is further stated that some 
of the Union men, not fully aware of the con- 
dition of affairs, came near discovering them- 
selves to the enemy. These facts are from 
those who were on the ground. 

The battle of Charles City Cross Roads was 
a teiTible one for the remnant of the reg- 
iment. They went in with 106 muskets, and 
in the loss in wounded, killed and prisoners 
came out with about fifty men. Corporal 
Charles Shambaugh of Company B captured 
a battle flag from the enemy and Serg. H. C. 
Howard had a lively bayonet fight. 

The regiment, reduced in numbers by loss 
in dead, wounded, sick and detail for guards 
at Craney Island hospital, was moved by way 
of Falmouth, Kelly's Ford and Warrenton to 
Gaines' Mill, was attached again to Mc- 
Dowell's corps, and participated in the sec- 
ond Bull Run eompaign, and on the 29th and 
30th of August was hotly engaged with the 
enemy, on the evening of the 30th receiving 
a destructive fire from the enemy on the 
flank, being compelled to fall back. Many 
brave men fell. Lieutenant Coder, of Com- 
pany E, was wounded. The loss in the regi- 
ment was about seventy. The reserve corps 
now moved into Maryland under the com- 
mand of Gen. George G. Meade and the next 
engagement of the regiment was at South 
Mountain, charging up those rough and 
ragged heights under a terrible fire from the 
well-posted enemy with varied success and 
terrible loss. The attack ended in success and 
the enemy was finally driven from the posi- 
tion in confusion. Colonel Gallagher was 
wounded: and of Indiana county officers, 
Capt. Nathaniel Nesbit was mortally wounded, 
and Quartermaster H. A. Torrence severely 



wounded ; Colonel Sergeant Hazlett of Com- 
pany E fell severely wounded. A few days 
later the regiment was again engaged, at the 
battle of Antietam. Its loss here was not so 
great as at some other battles, but it did the 
duty assigned it bravely and creditably. 
Thomas S. Moore, private of Company B, 
mortally wounded, deserves special mention 
for bravery. After the battle of Antietam 
the regiment lay for some time near Sharps- 
burg, Aid., thence moved towards Fredericks- 
burg, Va., suffering in the movement all the 
misery described in the sketch of other regi- 
ments on the same march; was recruited in 
strength by the return of the detail from 
Craney Island hospital. 

The crossing of the Rappahannock below 
Fredericksburg was effected on December 
13th. The reserves under General Meade, 
attached to Reynolds' corps, were sent for- 
ward on the left, and after suffering a severe 
tire from Rebel batteries were ordered to move 
forward on the enemy's works. By excellent 
maneuvering, under a deadly fire, the result 
desired seemed accomplished, the 11th having 
pushed forward to the enemy's reserve, find- 
ing them with arms stacked and completely 
surprised. The reserve men have always as- 
sumed that supports hurried forward at this 
critical time would have assured victory to the 
Union army. 'Compelled to fall back, the 
11th lost heavily. The Confederate reserve 
force was hurried forward and a large por- 
tion of the 11th killed, wounded or taken 
prisoners. The regiment had done its work 
too well for its own safety. Captain Coder 
is said to have gone into the engagement with 
thirty-one men of Company E, and came out 
with only Privates Fritz and Myers. Private 
Fritz afterwards carried the regimental 
colors. The loss to the already decimated 
regiment was over one hundred men. Priv- 
ates William Conner, mortally wounded, and 
James H. Trimble, killed, are especially men- 
tioned by Colonel Porter for their bravery. 

Before we note the further work of the 
regiment, we call attention to changes in 
Indiana county officers. In Company B, 
Capt. D. S. Porter was promoted to lieuten- 
ant colonel; Lieut. H. K. Sloan promoted to 
captain ; and the summer and the fall cam- 
paign included the promotion of Archibald 
Stewart to first lieutenant and John S. Sutor 
to second lieutenant. Sergeant McCandless 
had been promoted quartermaster sergeant; 
Davis, discharged ; Fair, mortally wounded ; 
Weaver, promoted to first lieutenant in the 
135th Pennsylvania Volunteers; Kulms. 

killed: and II. C. Howard, promoted to first 

In Company D, William C. Coleman, [n'o- 
moted to first sergeant. 

In Company E, Capt. Nathaniel Nesbit had 
died of wounds and Lieutenant Coder pro- 
moted to captain ; Richard il. Birkman, now 
second lieutenant, was advanced to first lieu- 
tenant ; J. P. R. Commiskey had been com- 
missioned second lieutenant. Company D, 
105th Pennsylvania Volunteers, was killed at 
Fair Oaks ; Charles W. Herring was now first 
sergeant of Company E. 

In Company I, David Berry had lieen pro- 
moted to second lieutenant. 

These were deserved promotions and the 
survivors of Company D speak in glowing 
terms of praise of Captain Sloan, not only 
for bravery as leader but for sociability witli 
the men of his command. 

Having now anticipated the summer and 
fall campaign in the record of promotions, we 
return to note that in the latter part of the 
winter and the spring of 1863 the regiment 
was assigned to duty within the defenses of 
Washington. The ob.iect of this transfer was 
the recuperation so much needed by the men, 
who were worn down by excessive duty at the 

During the march into JIaryland and 
Pennsylvania, in June, 1863. the Reserves 
again joined the Arm.y of the Potomac at 
Frederick, Aid., and with it entered the ter- 
rible struggle on Pennsylvania soil. On July 
2d, to the left of Cemeteiw Hill and near 
Little Round Top, the regiment became en- 
gaged, driving a largely superior force of 
Rebels ; finally charging down the slope to the 
right front of Little Round Top, supported 
by the brigade, and routing the enemy in 
the immediate front. The next day it was 
again called into the severe struggle with the 
foe, who this time chose to take the aggressive. 
The loss in the regiment at the battle of 
Gettj'sburg was over forty men, among them 
Lieut. Col. D. S. Porter, wounded. 

In the subsecjuent movements to the Rappa- 
hannock, Rapidan, the retrograde to Centre- 
ville and return to the vicinity of Culpeper, 
the regiment was engaged at Bristoe Station 
and at Rappahannock Station, suffering but 
slight loss. 

In the Mine Run campaign the regiment 
became engaged at New Hope Church, suffer- 
ing some loss, and in this short campaign, in 
common with others, endured intense suft'er- 
ing. In the winter of 1863-64 the regiment 
encamped and did duty on the line of the 



Orange & Alexandria railroad, and while 
there Lieutenant Colonel Porter resigned. 

Crossing the Rapidan on the night of May 
3, 1864, the regiment entered the Wilderness, 
becoming engaged with the enemy on the even- 
ing of the 4th. The 7th Reserves were almost 
wholly captm-ed and the 11th barely escaped 
it, suffering serious loss in getting a junction 
formed with the Union lines. It participated 
in the engagements of the 5th and 6th, and 
again at Spottsylvania, 9th to 14th of May, 
Private William B. Elliott of Company B 
capturing a battle flag of the enemy. At 
North Anna the company waded the river 
under a hot fire of shell from Confederate 
batteries and in the subsequent engagement, 
in a decoy movement to entice the Rebels to 
advance and become subject to the lire of 
the massed and well posted reserve division, 
the 11th occupied the weak decoy line and 
in the maneuvering did creditable work, suf- 
fering considerable loss. Captain Coder, of 
Company E, now commanded the regiment. 
Colonel Jackson having command of the bri- 
gade. With the hard-fought battle of Be- 
thesda Church ended the term of service of 
the men, and they bid adieu to the service 
honored for bravery and patriotic duty. 

For meritorious duty the president, in 
1865, brevetted Lieut. D. S. Porter, colonel; 
Capt. H. K. Sloan, major; Capt. Daniel R. 
Coder, major; Lieut. Richard M. Birkman, 
continuing in service with the 190th Penn- 
' sylvania Volunteers, was promoted to captain 
of Company A, June 1864, and brevet major, 
April, 1865 ; Sergt. William C. Coleman was 
also commissioned first lieutenant. Company 
I, 190th Pennsylvania Volunteers. The vet- 
erans and recruits were all transferred to the 
newly formed 190th Regiment and passed 
through the battles and duties of the closing 
campaign of the war. Lieut. John S. Sutor 
was promoted to captain of Company K. 

We deem it proper in this connection to 
follow these men. The 190th and 191st Regi- 
ments were formed of veterans and recruits 
of the Pennsylvania Reserve Volunteer regi- 
ments. The 190th was composed of men of 
the 10th, 11th, 12th and 13th Reserve regi- 
ments. After those whose terms of service 
had expired were gone, these hastily formed 
regiments were immediately sent to the front 
at Cold Harbor and were engaged with the 
foe, and in the movements towards the James 
river were attacked and had a severe fight at 
Charles City, lasting the entire day. 

The imperfect company records of the 
190th cause us to fail in o])taining the record 

of some members of the 11th transferred to 
it, and others were transferred to it while 
prisoners in Confederate hands. Both of 
these regiments were engaged at Petersburg 
in the series of fights from June 15th to 30th, 
losing heavily. The loss in ofScers was es- 
pecially severe. Almost the entire regiment 
was surrounded and captured at Weidon 
railroad, August 19, 1864, and suffered un- 
told hardships during a captivity lasting till 
the spring of 1865 and almost to the time of 
Lee's surrender. 

The few men left in the spring of 1865, 
gathered together from detached duty and 
elsewhere, participated in the final campaign 
at Hatcher's Run, Gravely Run and Five 
Forks, and were warmly engaged at the two 
last named places. They were moving for- 
ward with detachments of "Bucktails" and 
others, in the skirmish line on the "double 
quick," when the order to cease firing was 
received and they discovered the white flag 
indicative of the surrender of General Lee. 

41st Pennsylvania Volunteers, 12th Re- 
serves. — This regiment was organized in July, 
1861. One company was recruited in Indiana 
county by Capt. A. J. Bolar, assisted by the 
citizens of the village of Armagh. It was 
among the first companies recruited in the 
county for three years' service. The regi- 
ment remained at Camp Curtin till August 
10th, where it was mustered into the United 
States service and sent to Tennallytown, near 
Washington, where it was assigned to the 3d 
Brigade of the reserves. In October the regi- 
ment was moved to the Virginia side of the 
Potomac and went into winter quarters at 
Camp Pierpoint. On Dec. 20th it participated 
in the engagement at Drainsville, Va., where 
for a considerable time the regiment was ex- 
posed to a severe fire from Confederate bat- 
teries without being able to return the fire, 
a very trying position for veteran troops and 
more so for men first under fire. The 12th 
was ordered to advance and take the battery 
in its front, but the Confederates fled before 
the advance, leaving the field to the Union 

In March, 1863, it was in the movement to- 
wards Manassas, experiencing all the discom- 
forts others did in this event. 

Omitting the routine duties of camp life, 
we next note that the 12th was detached from 
its brigade and ordered on guard of the 
Orange & Alexandria railroad. On the way 
to join the brigade, which in the meantime 
had moved to Falmouth, Va., the regiment 
was annoyed by guerrillas, whose 



almost always seemed to be to murder strag- 
glers from the main body. Company C and 
Captain Bolar's company, H, were ordered 
to the rear and burned the farmhouse where 
the guerrillas made their headquarters, but 
the villains escaped before these companies 
reached the place. The Reserve Corps was 
now ordered to the Peninsula to join Mc- 
Clellan, the 12th debarking at White House, 
Va., May 14, 1863, and by the 18th was on 
duty on advance picket at the Chickahominy 
river, next day moving to Ellerson's Mills, 
on Beaver Dam creek. On May 25th it was 
sent on picket duty on the line from IMeadow- 
bridge to Ellerson's Mills, remaining until 
next day, in the latter part of this time re- 
porting every hour to headquarters the move- 
ments of the enemy in front. When called 
in. it was assigned position on extreme left 
at the Mills. At three o'clock the battle 
opened at Mechanicsville. and the 12th held 
its position against all odds, hurling back 
each advance of the foe. During the night 
the Union forces, except the 12th, were with- 
drawn and it was to withdraw at daylight. 
The enemj' discovering the condition attacked 
again, the 12th becoming more desperately 
engaged, if possible, than on the day before, 
but retired in good order leaving the Con- 
federates, as their only trophy, the occu- 
pancy of the position. Tired and hungiy, the 
regiment moved direct to the battleground 
at Gaines' Mill, and was placed on the front, 
in support of Griffin's battery, which during 
the day it gallantly supported at desperate 
cost of blood and life, successfully repelling 
the charges on the battery so, this day, the 
12th may be said to have fought two distinct 
battles, first at Mechanicsville and next at 
Gaines' Mill. The next day, without food or 
water, it marched in guard of reserve artil- 
lery nearly eighteen miles. The reader will 
allow us the diversion here to say the asser- 
ton "no water" is literally true in regard to 
the whole army ; men would march on buoyed 
up by the hope of water somewhere ahead, to 
find only stagnant pools in swamps in which 
were the bodies of dead horses. Men and 
horses suflfered beyond description for want 
of water to quench the feverish thirst. 

We quote from Colonel Taggart's report: 
"The White Oak creek which we crossed 
about noon, June 29th, was a complete quag- 
mire, from the thousands of horses, teams 
and artillery which were continually passing, 
and water to drink was not to be had. Some 
of the men became almost delirious from 
thirst, and once, when I halted for a rest for 

a few minutes, I discovered them drinking 
from a stagnant puddle in which was the 
putrid carcass of a dead horse. ... I 
promised them good water at White Oak 
Swamp, . . . but as we arrived there we 
found it utterly unfit to drink." At night 
they found good water in a small stream, the 
next day reddened by their blood, for the next 
day the battle of Charles City Cross Roads 
was fought. The 12th was divided into de- 
tachments, and separated some distance, also 
widely separated from the balance of the 
division. The Rebels attacked in solid charge 
and in a few moments it was a hand to hand 
confiiet, with one detachment, and it was com- 
pelled to fall back. The other detachment 
held its ground for a time, but the battery 
it was supporting, in its hurry to get away 
drove through the line in hot haste regard- 
less of the men in its support, trampling some 
of them underfoot in this mad dash to the 
rear. The regiment rallied in a body and 
continued in the fight till the close, that night 
moving to Malvern Hill. The reserve coi-ps, 
being almost out of ammunition (some por- 
tions averaging but three rounds to the man), 
was held in reserve mostly. Still it partici- 
pated as reserve, and some portions were in 
close proximity to the terrible onslaught of 
the evening of the day, moving to Harrison's 
Landing and subsequently to the south side 
of the James to guard against night attacks 
of Rebel artillery, which on one or two oc- 
casions had annoyed the camps at the landing. 

From the Peninsula the 12th was moved to 
Falmouth, Va., thence to Bull Run battle- 
grounds, where it did creditable work, the 
first day being moved frequently under fire 
without opportunity of returning it, but on 
the second day not only served on skirmish 
line, and in the grand charge of the division, 
but late in the day was in line to receive and 
repel with tei-rible fire the charge of the Con- 
federates upon the Union left flank; after- 
wards moving to the support of troops on the 
right. Those in front at this point giving 
way, again the 12th was brought into action, 
holding its ground until ordered to fall back, 
and form a new position. It then marched 
into Maryland and occupied the center of the 
line in storming the heights at South Moun- 
tain, and on the 16th and 17th of September 
engaged the enemy on the bloody field of 
Antietam, where its loss, especially in 
wounded, was heavy. 

We next follow it to Fredericksburg, De- 
cember 13th. where on the right of Lee's 
fortified position, the reserve corps made a 



desperate fight, turning the position of the 
enemy, and driving it froiu a portion of 
its works. Supports not being sent forward 
in time, the reserves reluctantly left the posi- 
tion taken at terrible cost of life. 

The reserve corps, being much reduced in 
numbers, was ordered to the defenses at 
Washington, where it remained until Lee's 
invasion of Penns.vlvania, when it again 
joined the Army of the Potomac. The 12th 
reached the battleground at Gettysburg July 
2nd, and was moved into position just as Gen- 
eral Sickles' corps was being forced back. 
Moving at once into position under fire 
from Confederate sharpshooters, the regi- 
ment hastily constructed cover of stone and 
such material as could be had, thus partly 
protecting it from the fire of the enemy. 

At night it was moved into position on 
Round Top, and in the night constructed a 
stone wall for defensive breastworks, which 
it occupied most of the day, July 3d, not be- 
ing pressed forward in the charges made to- 
wards the center. 

We next find the regiment engaged at Bris- 
toe Station, and again in the advance on 
Rappahannock Station, thence moving for- 
ward with the army to Brandy Station. 

In the campaign against the Rebel posi- 
tion at Mine Run, it became engaged near 
New Hope Church. 

After the return from Mine Run campaign, 
it was again sent to guard Orange & Alex- 
andria railroad, where, on account of sneak- 
ing, cowardly and murderous guerrillas, it 
was necessary to build blockhouses for the 
protection of its guards. 

Returning to the army again it moved in 
the Wilderness campaign, being engaged in 
the Wilderness, Spottsylvania and Potomac 
river, near North Anna river and Bethesda 
Church, the fight at Bethesda Church occur- 
ring on the last daj' of its three years ' of serv- 
ice. In the meantime, Captain Bolar, who 
had been wounded and taken prisoner at the 
Fredericksburg battle, had returned, being 
promoted to major of the regiment. Com- 
pany H lost a good many soldiers and citi- 
zens in killed, and others bear the marks of 
wounds on their bodies. We sum the battle 
record as follows: Drainsville, Mechanics- 
ville, Gaines' Mill, Charles City Cross Roads, 
Malvern Hill (slightly). Bull Run, South 
Mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Gettys- 
burg, Bristoe Station. Rappahannock Station, 
-Mine Run, Wilderness, Spottsvylania, Jeri- 
cho, Ford and Bethesda Church. 

"Honor to the brave!" 

43d Pennsylvanm Volunteers, 1st Light Ar- 
tillery, 14th Reserves. — Indiana county had 
thirty men in this regiment, one in Battery 
A, three in F, the balance in Battery G. Of 
those in Battery G, five were detached for duty 
with the 5th United States Artillery, Battery 
L, and were attached to Averill's cavaliy di- 
vision, participating in all the engagements, 
and many of the skirmishes beginning at 
Snicker's Gap, July 18, 1864. 

William J. Fuller was killed at Winchester, 
July 24, 1864; was struck by a piece of shell 
on the left breast, tearing away almost the 
entire side and shoulder ; was still alive when 
last seen, but as it was the "skedaddle" from 
Winchester he fell into the hands of the Con- 
federates and without a doubt fills an un- 
known patriot's grave on the blood-stained 
plains of Winchester. The balance of the 
men of Battery G were never called into en- 
gagement, and the duties were the routine 
usual in fortifications, where for most of the 
time they were stationed, near Washington, 
D. C, Point of Rocks, and Maryland Heights, 
sei'ving, armed with muskets, while at Point 
of Rocks, five months. 

The three who served in Battery F were 
with Grant in the campaign of 1864, before 
Richmond and Petersburg, and Ricketts' bat- 
tery being so well and favorably known in 
history and by fireside we need no more than 
mention it. 

The one in Battery A, who lost his life, 
was a good soldier; he had his leg so badly 
mangled by a piece of shell as to cause ampu- 
tation, which resulted in death. Our quota- 
tions are notes of Dr. W. S. Shields, of Mar- 
ion, whose name appears in the roll of Bat- 
tery G. 

46th Pennsylvania Volunteers. — The 46th 
Pennsylvania Volunteers, after the enlist- 
ment of Indiana county men, whose names 
we give, soon moved to the Western Army, 
under the immediate command of General 
Joseph Hooker, and in his 20th Army Corps, 
skirmished with the enemy near Dalton, Tenn., 
and was in the line attacked by General John- 
ston at Resaca in his effort to break the Union 
lines. The regiment held its position and re- 
pelled the charge of the enemy. Under fire 
from the enemy, the regiment's temporary 
breastworks served as a partial protection, 
and the regiment's loss was slight. In the 
days subsequent to the battle, the regiment 
was in several skirmishes, and it was almost 
a continual skirmish on some part of the line, 
the principal ones in which the regiment was 



engaged being at Pumpkin Vine Creek and 
New Hope Church. It was in the repulse of 
Gen. Hood's attack on McKnight's brigade at 
Gulp's Farm, inflicting severe loss upon the 
enemy. The loss in the regiment in this en- 
gagement was near fifty men, killed and 
wounded. It also participated in the fights 
at Dallas, Pine Knob, Kenesaw Mountain and 
Marietta, Captain Stolzenbaeh, of Company 
C, in one of these engagements having his 
hand shot off. The 46th regiment occupied 
an exposed position at the battle of Peach 
Tree Creek, before Atlanta, suffering severe 
loss, making a successful charge upon the 
enemy's lines. It was among the first regi- 
ments into the city, suffering some loss in 
the capture of the place, the occupancy of 
which was still disputed by the enemy. It 
then marched northward, foraging for its 
supplies, until it reached Savannah. In the 
subsequent marches through North and South 
Carolina, the company had some skirmishes 
with the enemy, with which its active work 

55th Bcgimenf, Pennsylvania Volun- 
ieers. — The 55th Regiment, Pennsylvania Vol- 
unteers, was recruited in the summer and fall 
of 1861 by Col. Richard White, under au- 
thority of Governor Curtin. The regiment 
was made up of companies from different sec- 
tions of the State, Company F, Captain Nes- 
bit. from Indiana county. In November, 
1861, it left Camp Curtin for the field of ac- 
tion with thirty-eight officers and seven hun- 
dred and fifty men. It was stationed at Fort- 
ress Monroe till December 8, 1861. when it 
was ordered to Port Royal, S. C, and from 
there to Hilton Head, doing genei'al guard 
duty till February, 1862, when it was ordered 
to Edisto Island, where it served in detach- 
ments at various points, widely separated. 
While on this island an attack was made on 
Companies E and F by a Confederate force 
variously estimated, probably five hundred 
strong. Company E retiring, the heat of the 
fight fell on Company F. Lieutenant ]McEl- 
haney and eleven men were captured in the 
commencement of the assault, and were 
brought up and exposed to the fire of their 
own men, a devilish act. only to be thought 
of by demons. Corporal Cunningham was 
killed when the others were captured. The 
remainder of the company checked the ad- 
vance of the enemy, but were compelled to 
withdraw in the face of the largely superior 
force of Confederates, losing everything at 
the post except their guns. In escaping, 
some swam the river, while others improvised 

a ferry by making a raft of such nuiterial as 
could be got hold of, and formed a rope by 
fastening gun straps together. They still 
had to wade and swim nearly one mile in 
overflowed swamp, reaching the main body 
of the regiment with guns fllled with mud, 
clothes covered with the same, some without 
hats, and in a pitiful plight every way. 
Lieutenant McElhaney was kept prisoner for 
one year. 

On October 21, 1862, the regiment was in 
the movement up Broad river, landing at 
]\Iackey's Point ixnder cover of gunboats. An 
advance was made at Pocotaligo bridge, the 
ob.ject of which seems to have been the de- 
struction of part of the Charleston & Savan- 
nah railroad. 

On the 22d, it met and drove the enemy at 
Caston, and again at Framptou, driving the 
Rebels across Pocotaligo bridge, which they 
burned in 'their retreat. A fight of several 
hours occurred here, the Union force with- 
drawing when nearly out of ammunition, the 
Confederates i-eceiving support from Charles- 
ton and Savannah by trains every two hours. 
The 55th lost about thirty killed and wounded. 
Company F having but a slight proportion of 
the loss. 

The regiment was next stationed at Beau- 
fort, S. C, for more than a year, seiwing as 
heavy artillery in the forts and picketing 
Port Royal feriy, ten miles away. Captain 
Nesbit was in command at Port Royal ferry 
for two or three months, having two guns 
and supports for the same. 

On January 1, 1864, the larger part of the 
regiment enlisted, and on returning from fur- 
lough brought recruits, increasing the regi- 
ment to nearly one thousand, five hundred 
men. In April it was ordered to Gloucester 
Point, Va., where it joined the 10th Army 
Corps, and thence to Bennuda Hundred, to 
operate against Richmond. While here, at 
one time, the regiment was armed with axes 
and put to work to fell timber in front of 
the works, with Captain Nesbit in command 
of the choppers. The Confederates kept up 
a constant fire by artillery and sharpshooters, 
getting so hot the officer of the day ordered 
tlie men back within the works, when Gen- 
eral Butler in person ordered them out again. 
Tliey bravely returned to their work, and 
after the work of the day was over went on 
skirmish line on the front, remaining two or 
tliree days. 

On the 9th of ]\Iay. Ames" division moved 
out and destroyed a portion of the Richmond 
& Petersburg' railroad, the 55th regiment 



claiming to have been in this movement as 
early as the 8th of Maj-. In all the movements 
following this towards Petersburg, at Swift 
creek, in the change of direction towards 
Richmond at Proctor's creek and Drury's 
Bluft', the regiment participated, fighting al- 
most constantly from May 8th to 16th. At 
Proctor's creek. May 16th, the 55th held its 
ground firmly until nearly surrounded, when 
a forlorn hope charge was made by three com- 
panies of the regiment, led by Colonel White. 
They found the enemy too strong for them, 
and Colonel White, having his horse shot un- 
der him, was taken prisoner with some of his 
men in the effort to fall back, or rather fight 
out of their surroundings, the loss to the regi- 
ment in the eight days being fifteen officers 
and three hundred men, the colonel captured, 
lieutenant colonel wounded and captured, 
s«rgeon and adjutant captured. Captain 
Shearer then took command of tl>e regiment, 
falling back .to Bermuda Hundred. 

On May 20th, the regiment was attacked 
when in support of the picket line, and here 
again held its position until the line on both 
sides fell back, and it had to fall back to es- 
cape capture. Lieutenant Adair and a por- 
tion of Company F were cut off from the 
regiment, and for two hours were supposed to 
be taken prisoners, but fought their way out 
before night. 

The regiment was next in detached force 
sent to General Grant, before Richmond, then 
moving on Cold Harbor. It reached Cold 
Harbor June 1st, and iunnediately moved 
to the front, participating in the constant 
fight of days at that point. 

On June 3d, the regiment charged on the 
Confederate works en masse, taking the first 
line of works and almost reached the second 
when the line gave way and the regiment was 
ordered to fall back. In the meantime Cap- 
tain Shearer had fallen wounded and Cap- 
tain Nesbit assumed command. 

When the order came to fall back, it was 
mistaken by the regiment for order to lie 
down. A portion of the regiment, with Cap- 
tain Nesbit, lay down immediately under the 
Confederate works, and the portion that fell 
back was rallied by Captain Hill, who, in the 
face of a terrible fire from the enemy's line 
of works, took the flag of the regiment and 
mounting the line of works already taken, 
with it in his hand, called on his men to rally. 
The men in front with Nesbit were getting 
back to detachments, creeping back most of 
the way to escape the terrible fire they would 
have had to suffer if they got upon their feet. 

Captain Nesbit was wounded while getting 
his regiment to change position in the pits, 
exposing himself to the fire of the enemy in 
so doing. Captain Hill then took command. 
The 55th remained deployed in the pits as rear 
guard, while the division withdrew from the 
works a few days later, and when it withdrew 
went via the Pamunky, York and James rivers 
to Point of Rocks, Va., and on the 15th was 
in assault upon the enemy's works at Peters- 
burg, some of which were taken with sixteen 
guns and three hundred prisoners ; the loss 
on our side was about six hundred men. Next 
morning the 55th was ordered forward as 
skirmishers, getting close up to the enemy's 
lines, the detachment under Lieutenant Adair 
using all its ammunition and begging for 
more, the men holding the position for some 
time with ammunition carried to them by 
drummer boys in their caps. This is prob- 
ably true with regard to the whole regiment, 
but it is not certain that all the regiment was 
on the skirmish line. 

A day or two later the regiment was again 
ordered' f(i cli.i !■<;■(' the line and in this charge 
lost sevcri'ly, ils loss being estimated at three 
officers aiid ri^iity men. 

On Septeiiihcr 28th, in the night, the regi- 
ment ei'ossed the James river and moved to 
the support of troops that stormed Fort Har- 
rison on the 29th, and in the afternoon was 
detailed to storm a portion of the enemy's 
works beyond, supported by other regiments. 
It advanced over a quarter of a mile of open 
ground to Chapin's Farm, subject to a con- 
centrated fire from the enemy's works, dis- 
abling so large a proportion of the already 
decimated ranks it was compelled to fall back, 
leaving the dead and wounded in the hands 
of the enemy. Lieutenant Adair and Cap- 
tain O'Neil fell mortally wounded; the loss 
in killed, wounded and missing was one half 
of the force in the charge. 

In December, by consolidation of the 10th 
and 18th Army Corps, the 55th was assigned 
to the 4th Brigade, 1st Division, 24th Corps, 
and on December 10th was attacked feebly 
by Confederate cavalry at Signal Hill. The 
regiment was under cover and easily repulsed 
the attack. 

The latter part of -March, 1865, the regi- 
ment crossed the James river, marched to 
Hatcher's Run, Va., and was on the skirmish 
line in the general advance of March 31st, at 
that point, losing in killed and wounded about 
twenty men. It was next engaged in the 
charge on Fort Baldwin, being the first regi- 
ment to occupy it, suffering only slight loss. 



To understand fully the term slight loss 
as we apply it to old regiments of the Armies 
of the Potomac and Virginia, the reader of 
their history must bear in mind that the 
number of men was small; the 55th at this 
time possibly did not have more than two 
hundred effective men. 

The regiment served in the closing move- 
ments, and afterwards in detachments under 
orders from the Freedmen's Bureau till Aug- 
ust 30, 1865. 

Of Colonel Richard White, whom we may 
claim for Indiana county, his men say of him 
he was a kind man, a good soldier, an ex- 
cellent drill officer, and a commander who, at 
all hazards and without regard to popularity, 
insisted upon his men getting good clothing, 
the best rations the government could furnish ; 
all they wanted in reason, that could be ob- 

Company B, 56 fh Pennsylvania Volun- 
teers. — In response to the call for three hun- 
dred thousand men to serve for three years, 
or during the war, a company under the name 
of Blairsville Guards, led by Captain William 
Melntire, left the railroad depot at Blairs- 
ville October 24, 1861, for Camp Curtin, 
Harrisburg. Previous to this, two companies 
had gone from Blairsville and vicinity, and 
many citizens entertained the opinion that 
the community had been drained of its fight- 
ing material ; so that the third effort to raise 
more men had less of enthusiasm in it than 
the former two, yet not less of the spirit of 
sincere devotion to the flag. 

In about two months from the first signa- 
ture, sixty men had expressed their willing- 
ness to go, and impatiently awaited the order 
to rendezvous. The day of departure drew 
on.- From early dawn till the evening of 
October 23d, squads of men were constantly 
arriving in town, and found entertainment 
in the homes of the hospitable citizens, or 
were lodged for the night at the hotels. By 
daylight next morning the town was all astir, 
as busy hands and anxious hearts pi-epared 
the last article of comfort for the soldier, or 
crowded the streets to drown their suppressed 
sorrow in the excitement of the hour. At the 
request of Robert Hummil, Esq.. the com- 
pany assembled in the United Presbyterian 
Church for religious sei-vices, conducted by 
Revs. William Connor and George Hill, after 
which the line was formed i^i front of the 
drill room, on Main street, and every man 
that desired it was presented a copy of the 
New Testament. From here they marched 
to the cars at the depot, where with tearful 

eyes and straggling cheers, the farewell was 
given, and the "boys were off for the war." 
Fifty-four of the sixty men were accepted 
and mustered into the United States service, 
attached to the 56th Regiment, Pennsylvania 
Volunteers, Colonel S. A. Meredith command- 
ing, and given the second position of honor. 
Company B. During its stay in Camp Cur- 
tin, from time to time recruits arrived, until 
the company roll contained about eighty-five 
names. William Melntire, of Saltsburg, was 
tendered the captaincy, solely on account of 
supposed military knowledge acquired from 
service in the Mexican war. The entire labor 
of recruiting the company was borne by J. A. 
Cunningham, and the necessary funds fur- 
nished by the firm in which he was a part- 

On ]March 8, 1862, the regiment left Camp 
Curtin for Washington City, encamping a 
short time on Meridian Hill, thence moving 
to Fort Runnion. An earthwork was thrown 
up to pi'otect Long Bridge. The few days 
spent here were fully occupied with practice 
on heavy artillery to the great dissatisfac- 
tion of the men. They insisted all the while 
that they did not come out to train siege guns 
under the very shadow of the Capitol, when 
the post of danger was in the front. In army 
parlance, "the company was spoiling for a 

April 4th found the regiment, with other 
troops, aboard transports, steaming down the 
Potomac to Budd's ferry, on the Maryland 
side. April 24th it crossed the Acquia creek, 
in Virginia, and was assigned to the duty of 
guarding the railroad from this point to Fred- 
ericksburg. This was not dangerous work, 
as the whiz of the Rebel bullet never was 
heard, yet the deadlier malaria prostrated 
many of the men with sickness and laid num- 
bers in the grave. 

On August 9th the regiment was attached 
to the 2d Brigade (General Abner Double- 
day's), 1st Division (General King's), in 
command of General McDowell, forming part 
of the Army of Virginia defending Washing- 
ton City. Early in this month the scattered 
forces of the Army of Virginia centered at 
Cedar ]\Iountain, where General Pope gave 
battle to Stonewall Jackson. 

King's division arrived too late to take par+ 
in the battle, which resulted in Jackson's 
withdrawing his forces in the direction of 
Gordonville to unite with General Lee's 
army, now moving toward Washington. In 
turn, Pope's army withdrew to the north bank 
of the Rappahannock, hotly pursued by the 



enemy. Here Company B heard for the first 
time the shriek of Confederate shell, and 
realized as never before the loss of individ- 
uality in war. Almost daily, artillery duels 
were fought with the enemy, as our forces 
stubbornly resisted his advance in order that 
time might be gained for the Army of the 
Potomac to free itself from the Peninsula 
and take position between the Confederates 
and Washington. 

On August 28th, the 56th regiment had its 
maiden battle. As King's division was march- 
ing along at the close of the day toward Cen- 
treville, unconscious of danger, the first in- 
timation of the presence of the enemy was a 
shower of shells from a masked battery to the 
left of the road. At the command of the 
general, "bring the van forward at a double 
quick," the insolent battery was stormed, the 
fire of concealed Confederate infantry drawn 
and the almost hand to hand conflict opened. 
The strife was short but terrible, the loss 
heavy on both sides on account of the close- 
ness of the battle lines. Fortunately for us, 
night threw her friendly mantle over the 
bloody scene and hid from view the weakness 
of our forces. The Rebel guns ceased firing 
first. Cheer after cheer rose from our ranks, 
the "claim of victory," and the battle of 
Gainesville was ended. 

The examination of prisoners showed that 
we had fallen in with Jackson's entire army, 
and the boldness with which we had accepted 
this challenge of battle led the enemy to think 
it was contending with Pope's main body. 
Our forces left the field during the night, 
and daylight next morning found them at 
Manassas Junction, the experience of the night 
lingering like a bloody dream. The second 
Bull Run battle opened on this day (29th of 
August), and the 56th regiment was called 
into action, as well as on the following day, 
to cover the retreat. From this until the end 
of the war its fortune was joined to that of 
the Army of the Potomac, taking part in most 
of its battles, rejoicing in its victories and 
sharing in its defeats, so that we will not at- 
tempt a recital of the many marches of the 
56th, its cheerful evenings around the camp- 
fires or its awful visions of the dread battle- 
field strewn with the slain, but will close this 
sketch with an extract from a letter of Briga- 
dier General Cutter, (commanding 1st Di- 
\ision, 1st Corps, at the Battle of Gettysburg, 
Pa.), to Governor Curtin. He says: "It was 
my fortune to be in the advance on the morn- 
ing of July 1, 1863. When we came upon 
the ground in front of the enemy. Colonel 

Hoffman's regiment (56th) got into position 
a moment sooner than the others, the enemy 
now advancing within easy musket range. 
The atmosphere being a little thick, I took 
out my glass to examine the enemy. Being 
a few paces in the rear of Colonel Hoffman, 
he turned to me and enquired, 'Is that the 
enemy?' My reply was, 'Yes.' Turning to 
his men he commanded, ' Ready, right oblique, 
aim, fire!' and the Battle of Gettysburg was 
opened. The fire was followed by other regi- 
ments instantly; still that battle on the soil 
of Pennsylvania was opened by her own sons, 
and it is just that it should become a matter 
of history. I desire to say to your Excel- 
lency that the 56th is one of the very best 
regiments in the service, and I hope you will 
cause proper measures to be taken to give 
that regiment the credit which is its due, of 
having opened that memorable battle." 

From the foregoing it will be seen that 
Indiana county's sons had part in the honor 
of opening the battle that hurled the proud 
Confederate army south, never to return. 
Company B went into this fight with two com- 
missioned officers and twenty-four men. Let 
the list of killed and wounded answer whether 
they were faithful to duty or not. 

The 56tli Regiment, Pennsylvania Volun- 
teers participated in the following named 
battles of the Anny of the Potomac. Organi- 
zation from year 1861; commencement 1862, 
up to 1865 : Rappahannock Station, Va., 
August 23, 1862; General Pope. Sulphur 
Springs, Va., August 25, 1862 ; Pope. Gaines- 
ville, Va., August 28, 1862 ; Pope. Groveton, 
Va., August 29, 1862 ; Pope. Manassas, Va., 
August 30-31, 1862, Pope. South Moun- 
tain, Md., September 14, 1862; General Mc- 
Clellan. Antietam, Md., September 17, 1862 ; 
McClellan. Union, Va., November 1, 2, 3, 4, 
1862; McClellan. Fredericksburg, Va., De- 
cember 12, 13, 14, 15 ; General Burnside. 
Chancellorsville, Va., April 27, 28, 29, 30, 
1863; General Hooker. Beverly Ford, Va., 
June 9, 1863 ; Hooker. Gettysburg, Pa., July 
1, 2, 3, 4, 1863 ; General Meade. Mine Run, 
Va., November 27, 28, 29, 30, 1863; Meade. 
Wilderness, Va., May 6, 7, 1864; Meade. 
Laurel Hill, Va., May 8, 9, 10, 1864; Meade. 
Spottsvlvania, Va., May 11, 1'2, 13, 14, 15, 
1864; iVIeade. North Anna, Va., May 23, 24, 
25, 26, 27, 1864; Meade. York River, Va., 
May 28, 1864;' Meade. Cold Harbor, Va., 
June 1, 2, 3, 4; Petersburg, Va., June 17 to 
June 25, 1864 ; Meade. Weldon Railroad, Va., 
August 18, 19, 20, 21, 1864; Meade. Dab- 
nf>v's Mills, Va- February 5, 1865; Boyd- 



town Plank Road, February 6, 1865; Squir- 
rel Level, Va., February 7, 1865; Hatcher's 
Run. Va., Februaiy 10, 11, 1865; Rowanty 
Creek. Va., March 31, 1865 ; Five Forks. Va., 
April 1, 1865; Sutherland's S. S. R. R., Va., 
April 2, 1865; Surrender of General Lee, 
April 9, 1865. 

Company A, 61st Pennsylvania Volun- 
fcrrs. — This company was organized in July, 
1861, by the iinion of two companies re- 
cruited for three months' service, one by 
John Pollock, in East Mahoning, North Ma- 
honing. i\Iontgomery and Canoe townships, 
the other by Jacob Ct'eps, in Rayne, Green 
and East ]\Iahoning; the two embracing the 
villages of Covode, IMarchand, Georgeville, 
Richmond. Decker's Point, Taylorsville, Dix- 
onville, Kellysburg, Kintersburg and Marion 
Centei'. The call for three years caused man.y 
to withdraw, and a union of the remnant of 
two companies was effected at Decker's Point, 
ilarion from thenceforth became the general 
headquarters for recruiting, where the com- 
pany was fully organized in July, 1861, by 
the election of Jacob Creps, captain; John 
Pollock, first lieutenant: G. W. Brady, sec- 
ond lieutenant; Frank M. Brown, first ser- 
geant, and a full complement of minor of- 

The request of 0. H. Rippey, of Pittsburg, 
to join his regiment was granted by a vote 
of the company. The citizens gathered at 
Marion Center in immense procession to ac- 
company the soldiers to Indiana ; the citizens 
of Kintersburg gave a free dinner, and those 
of Indiana free lodging for the night. The 
men went by rail in box ears to Pittsburg, 
and quartered in Camp Wilkins, and were 
mustered into the United States service Aug- 
ust 21, 1861. 

By order of the Secretary of War, about 
September 1st the partly filled regiment was 
ordered to the front, only three companies, 
viz.. Creps'. Gerard's and Foulk's, beins: 

The following history of this command is 
from notes by J. 'SI. Walker : 

We were stopped at Harrisburg on the 
plea of "no transportation." and sent to 
Camp Curtin to await it. An effort was made 
to break up the regiment; Captain Foulk's 
company was bought off, and Company A as- 
signed to another regiment. Captain Creps 
and Gerard objected to the assignment, as 
well as to all offers for purchase. Company 
A insisting that Captain Creps should sac- 
redly keep its pledge to Colonel Rippey. 
Then all cooking utensils were taken from 

us. and orders were issued to strip us of our 
uniforms, which had been furnished by the 
State, the post commander instructing the 
post ciuartei-master to give us no rations, ex- 
cept upon requisition in the name of the regi- 
ment to which we had been assigned. 

Anticipating trouble, we had sent our old 
clothing home, and of course retained the uni- 
form. Captain Creps furnished security for 
the government price of the rations until 
the matter could be settled, as it was in part 
by Colonel Rippey, upon his arrival, agree- 
ing that the State should have the credit of 
his regiment, and he, in consideration there- 
for, should have his regiment filled ; an agi-ee- 
ment for some reason never fulfilled by the 
State on its part. In conseciuence of this little 
unpleasantness, the companies not so fortunate 
in the matter of uniforms, suffered for want of 
clothing, men going on picket duty at Camp 
Advance, Va., without shirts or pants, being 
wrapped in blankets secured around them with 
their gun straps, their own clothes worn out in 
building Fort Lyons, and the government not 
yet able to uniform and fully equip its army. 

After those rejected in examination were 
sent home, and two transferred to Company 
B, the company went to the fi'out with 101 
officers and men, going into camp south of 
Alexandria, Va., subject to orders of General 
Jamison, and spent the fall of 1861 alternat- 
ing between drill and detail work on Fort 
Lyons, being moved February 19, 1862, to 
Queen's farm, north of Washington, D. C, 
and attached to Graham's brigade, Buell's di- 
vision. Key's (4th) armj' corps. 

Great anxiety prevailed on account of an 
order to disband all regiments not number- 
ing eight hundred men. Colonel Birney, in 
the interest of a brigadier general's com- 
mission, agreed to allow four companies of a 
regiment to be transferred to the 61st, and 
this transfer also included the commissions 
of both the lieutenant colonel and major for 
the regiment. Still further to make matters 
smooth at Han-isburg, he required the post 
savings fund of the 61st. The signing of the 
order for this fund being refused by Captain 
Creps. Acting Lieutenant Colonel, closed final- 
ly all chance for promotion for him during 
the war. and he remained senior captain of 
the regiment for three years, often command- 
ing the regiment, but the combined vote of 
the line officers was not sufficient to gain him 

On March 10, 1862, we marched to Pros- 
pect Hill, Va., on the way to Manassas, but 
learning that the Confederates had evacuated 



their works, leaving only wooden guns, we 
turned our faces towards camp again, passing 
two days and nights near Chain Bridge, on 
short rations, clothes wet through, no shelter, 
fire would not burn, and we did not under- 
stand soldiering very well at that time, so 
that, to the company, it was one of the meni- 
orable events of the war. 

March 26, 1862, we went on board the old 
rotten steamer "Wilson Small," arriving at 
Hampton, Va., on the evening of the next 
day. This was one of the perils of the serv- 
ice, and fair weather probably our only sal- 
vation. The steamer was so worthless and 
overloaded we had to so divide as to balance 
the vessel ; the captain of it finally prohibited 
our moving around any, and cursed us when 
we tried to stretch our cramped limbs, so we 
sat still, trusting the Lord for fair weather to 
reach Fortress Monroe. The cragy old boat 
sunk shortly after we landed, and we hoped 
it would never be resurrected from its watery 

The next stopping place for any length of 
time was at Warwick C. H., Va., April 6, 
where we were first fired on by Confederate 
artillery, April 15th, and the occasional sing 
of the sharpshooter's bullet introduced us to 
that so prominent feature of warfare on the 
Eebel side during the war; and they finally 
got so good range of our camp that we moved 
to a more sheltered place. Here we lived 
three days without rations, nine miles of 
corduroy road having to be built before we 
could be supplied. However, we could get 
fair drinking water by digging a hole eighteen 
inches deep, anywhere, but the offal of the 
camps was buried at about the same depth, 
and it required strong faith to accept the 
theory there advanced that a few inches of 
earth as a filter purified the water. The 
pickets of the 61st regiment were first into 
the Confederates' deserted works on our 
front May 4, 1862; our regiment taking its 
place in the line of march reached Williams- 
burg too late to be engaged there, but was 
pushed forward on advance picket near New 
Kent Court House, March 14th. We reached 
the Chickahominy river at Bottom's Bridge, 
May 21st, and Companies A and H crossed 
— the first troops over — and picketed the 
front while the pioneer corps bridged the 

On the 29th and 30th of May, we occupied 
a position at Fair Oaks Station, the enemy 
in front and an overflowing river with the 
bridges swept away in our rear. We were 
attacked May 31st, by a large force of Rebels, 

and fought until our ammunition was spent, 
clubbing muskets and fighting. A skirmish 
line was pushed forward on our right flank 
and rear. Notes taken on the field place 
Company A's loss in killed and wounded at 
thirty-four. In the wounded list were Cap- 
tain Creps and Lieutenants Pollock and 
Brady, Lieutenant Pollock fighting hand to 
hand after being wounded. He died a few 
days afterwards and Indiana county lost a 
brave soldier and useful citizen. Captain 
Creps, being but slightly wounded, took com- 
mand again next morning. General Key's re- 
port says of the regiment : " It fought with ex- 
traordinary bravery and the casualties in the 
61st amount to 263 and are heavier than any 
other regiment in Conch's division. The 61st 
withdrew in detachments, some of which 
came again into action near my head- 
quarters." The real loss of the regiment 
was 280. • 

June 27, 1862, Companies A and H were 
ordered to establish a picket line on the left 
of Seven Pines, where we were attacked by 
the full battle line of the enemy. Being de- 
ployed in open ranks, we retired with but one 
man wounded and a few bullet holes in our 
clothes. For the first and only time during 
the war, we were called cowards, and then 
by the colonel of the 55th New York regi- 
ment that ran away in a body at Fair Oaks 
a few days before, and now attempted to do 
what we failed to do but could not succeed, 
and a full brigade was ordered forward which 
with guns and shovels fought and fortified, 

June 28, 1862, we moved in a line of march 
in McClellan's retreat toward the James 
river, encountering some Confederate cavalry 
at Charles City Cross Roads, but soon routed 
them without any serious casualties in the 
company ; and reached the James river on the 
30th, returning to Malvern Hill in the even- 
ing. We moved in support of the batteries 
early in the morning of July 1st, losing one 
in the company mortally wounded, another 
slightly, in getting into position, where our 
protection was secured somewhat by lying in 
an old road worn in the sand a few inches 
lower than the surface ground on the side 
next the enemy. Here for several hours an 
almost continuous fire of shot and shell fell 
around us, shells bursting but a few feet from 
our heads and fragments falling beyond us. 
Case shot were little used then and without 
them it was impossible to dislodge us. To- 
wards evening, with other troops, we made 
a flank movement down a muddy and woody 



i-aviiie oil the right, at right angle with the 
batteries, creeping into position on our hands 
and knees, coming out on the flank of the 
Confederates as they charged on our batteries, 
doing a work of carnage to their "close col- 
umn" en masse troops that defies any de- 
scription. But few of them were left to tell 
the tale. We remained on the field meeting 
another weaker charge, and alternating with 
the batteries lying down while they fired close 
over us, and charging while they ceased, un- 
til the field seemed completely deserted by 
the foe at eight P. M. Our loss was compara- 
tively small. Company A's casualties not ex- 
ceeding eight, and the regiment's loss thirty- 
four. The bad aim of the enemy has credit 
for this, as nearly every volley fired was too 
low, raising a cloud of dust twenty feet in 
front of us. 

July 2, 1862, we moved to Harrison's 
Landing in deep mud and stopped where we 
could neither sit nor lie down, but after sev- 
eral hours of suffering got to a better place 
in the woods and the sound of the pioneer's 
axe was heard. "With the exception of one 
recoiinoiter to Malvern Hill, and an occasional 
shell thrown from the south side of the James, 
we had quiet. At this point Captain Creps, 
to relieve himself of an unpleasant duty, 
asked the company to elect a second lieuten- 
ant, which resulted in the election of Isaac 
M. Price, a corporal, an action of which the 
company may well be proud, for none ever 
questioned his ability or bravery. 

August 16, 1862, we left Harrison's Land- 
ing for Yorktown, which we reached on the 
20th, our knapsacks, sent by steamer on the 
11th, reaching us the 24th. We were detained 
at Yorktown ostensibly to level down forts, 
but "the boys" will remember the oyster, 
lobster and clam fishing. 

August 28th, we went on board the bark 
"Metropolis," in tow of the "City of 
Richmond," and started up the bay 
that night in a driving storm. Our bark 
very nearly ran down the steamer, which was 
also loaded with troops. "The boys" had 
got almost proof against cholera morbus, but 
didn't know how to flank seasickness and 
were captured. 

Ofl: Occoquan creek we were ordered to 
proceed to Alexandria and from there we 
were ordered to the army near Fairfax Court 
House, arriving on the morning of September 
2d, where we learned of the disaster to our 
troops at Bull Run. 

We were then ordered on the rear guard, 
retiring slowly to Alexandria ; thence we 

went by steamer to Kingstown, to George- 
town, crossing the south side of the aqueduct 
bridge in the night; next morning, Septem- 
ber 4th, recrossing at Chain Bridge, we 
marched to a point above Great Falls, where 
we were posted as guards along the river 
and crossings. 

_ September 14th, we moved by way of Rock- 
ville and South Mountain, reaching battle- 
field at Antietam on the evening of Septem- 
ber 17th, and next morning, the front towards 
Sharpsburg, we skirmished with the enemy, 
continuing all day, losing some wounded. We 
pushed forward and past Sharpsburg on the 
morning of the 19th, and finding the enemy 
across the river there, we retraced our steps 
and moved up the river to Williamsport, 
where in skirmish with the Rebel rear guard 
we lost John A. Work, killed. We then went 
iiito camp near Downsville, Md., and aliout 
this time were transfei-red to the 6th Army 

On October 19th, we made a reconnoissance 
to Hancock, Md., marching in one day twen- 
ty-eight miles, returning to our old camp 
again. It was on this march we first met 
General Kilpatrick, then a colonel, whose 
boyish face we were loath to believe was that 
of the dashing cavalryman of such notoriety. 
October 31st, we left Downsville and 
marched to Harper's Ferry, thence down 
the Louden valley and via Thoroughfare Gap 
to New Baltimore, Va., guarding trains No- 
vember 6th and 7th, in a disagi-eeable snow- 
storm. We remained at this point until we 
received the farewell visit of General Mc- 
Clellan, when we moved forward again, reach- 
ing Belle Plains, Va., in the midst of a driv- 
ing snowstorm, December .5th. We suffered 
intensely on the night of the 6th, our blank- 
ets, not very dry, freezing stifi", where not in 
contact with our bodies. 

On December 12, 1862, we crossed the Rap- 
pahannock below Fredericksburg, and that 
and the next day lay under the artillery fire 
till quite late on the second day, when we 
moved to the front on the left, our movement 
opposed by artillery and desultory infantrs- 
fire, neither inflicting much loss. ' The next 
two days were spent in maneuvering and 
there could not have been much ground be- 
tween the river and hills we were not marched 
over, the enemy sorely vexed trying to keep 
range of us in all our movements. This was 
our share of the first Fredericksburg, but 
thousands fell elsewhere on the field in a vain 
endeavor to storm the Confederate strong- 



The next move was in the historical "mud 
march," fair at the start, but rain came in 
dashes, filling the sand and overflowing the 
streams — wagons sunk in to the axles, and 
mules buried in mud and water. Yet Com- 
pany A was never caught straggling any- 
where when moving towards the foe and re- 
ported in good shape, except muddy and wet, 
at the appointed camp near the United States 
ford, on the evening of the 20th of Decem- 
ber. Many regiments were discouraged by 
this unfortunate march so soon after the ter- 
rible repulse at Fredericksburg, and it is 
doubtful whether they could have fought if 
called into action. The entire object of this 
march failing, the regiment returned to 
■ camp and was transferred to "Light Di- 
vision, "Gth Corps. ' ' 

"We then proceeded to make dugouts in the 
hillside near Belle Plains, although under 
marching orders all the time, and fixed up 
the best we could for the winter. The sur- 
vivors of the regiment yet wear the green 
cross of the Light Division over the white 
one when wearing the corps badge. During 
the winter a bakery was built, and we ate 
"soft bread" the first time in eleven months. 
Company A had received to this time twenty 
pairs of brothers; we name a few and refer 
you to the company roll: J. A. and H. V. 
Stewart; L. and 1. V. Brady; E. W. and R. 
W. Fairbank; I. N. and David Price; and of 
which but one remained to tell the tale at 
the close of the war, and he almost helpless. 

On the night of April 20, 1863, Company 
A, with others, carried the shallops or pon- 
toon boats from the heights to Franklin's 
crossing, one mile, and were to man the boats, 
row across, and drive the enemy's pickets 
from their pits. The order was counter- 
manded on account of fatigue of the men. 
After many moves we found ourselves at day- 
light, Sunday morning. May 3d, in the city 
of Fredericksburg, preparing to charge the 
heights above it, the 61st to go out double 
quick, left in front, and form line by file left 
on the charge after getting across the canal 
on the street bridge. Conflicting orders were 
given by the lieutenant in command of left 
company, doubling his men at the end of the 
bridge. In this double quick movement, the 
moving column ran into them, and for a few 
fatal seconds, under a terrible fire of grape 
and canister, there was confusion. Captain 
Creps and Lieutenant Price, of Company A, 
both ran forward to assist in getting all right 
again, for all were anxious to get forward 
out of range of the artillery. The Captain 

got pushed off the bridge into the canal, wad- 
ing out on the other side with his long boots 
full of mud and water, and took command 
of the regiment when Commander Spear fell. 
This momentary delay righted, Company A 
crossed and was over the enemy's works al- 
most as soon as any of the troops, capturing 
most of the Confederates in the works it 
sealed. The loss was reported as ninety-nine 
men in the regiment, seventy probably having 
fallen in that charge, but the fight continuing, 
in the effort to reach Hooker's force at Chan- 
cellorsville, more men being wounded, the 
actual loss of the charge cannot be given. 
On the evening of the 4th, in the effort to 
reach Bank's ford after a detour from the 
main force to hold Stonewall Jackson's force 
at bay at a certain point, the 61st was fired 
into by our own batteries, the first shell kill- 
ing five men. Captain Creps ordered the 
regiment to seek cover in a stream bed in the 
mud and water, and ran forward in the face 
of the battery, three charges being fired be- 
fore he reached it and stopped its dreadful 
work. The remnant of the regiment crossed 
at Bank's ford. The light division was so cut 
up in the two days' fight that it was dis- 
banded and the 61st assigned to the second 

June 7, 1863, we once more crossed to the 
south side of the river and reconnoitered 
about the enemy's works, but no engagement 
ensued and we withdrew, Lee by this time 
moving northward, west of our entire force. 
This was our third and last crossing of the 
Rappahannock near Fredericksburg. 

June 14th, marched northward, going thir- 
ty-two hours without sleep, only reaching 
Dumfi-ies in that time, being so often de- 
layed ; thence to Fairfax C. H., forming line 
of" battle near Centreville; the enemy with- 
drawing, we marched by Manassas to Bristoe 
Station, where, for five days, the small force 
there seemed to be entirely separated from 
all the army, and in suspense we awaited 
the sound of gun or arrival of mail. Leav- 
ing on the 26th, we made a forced march via 
Drainsville, Va., Edwards Ferry, Poolesville, 
Md., Newmarket and IMount Airy Station, 
to a point near Manchester, Md., one day 
making thirty-six miles. We were ordered 
forward to join the forces at Gettysburg on 
the evening of July 1st, but passed a sleep- 
less night in getting fairly under way and 
marched thirty-six miles July 2d, reaching 
the field before night, and were immediately 
pushed forward in line of battle ; after which, 
in dividing the 2d Division, 6th Corps, into 



details for weak points, our brigade was as- 
signed to duty as flank guard to the right of 
Brook river, and while skirmishing was kept 
up all day along our line, our loss was slight. 
R. W. Dilts of Company A was taken prisoner 
on skirmish line. We occupied a post of 
honor and usually a very dangerous one, but 
not so at Gettysburg, as there was no attempt 
made to turn either flank. The enemy falling 
back we followed closel.v in an almost con- 
tinuous skirmish with them on the road we 
went until we reached "Waynesboro. After 
crossing Antietam creek, they made a decided 
stand, attempting several times to destroy 
the bridge in their rear. The good people 
of Waynesboro handed us food as we marched 
through their streets and encouraged us by 
their many deeds of kindness in the twenty- 
four houi-s we remained near their town. 

For a few days more ensued marches and 
skirmishes near Hagerstown and Funkstown, 
until the last squad of Confederates was 
driven across the Potomac. July 4th, when we 
marched b.v way of Harper's Ferry and down 
the Virginia valleys again. In the days sub- 
sequent to the Gettysburg battle on the march 
we lost more men from sunstroke than 
wounded, the heat being our most terrible 

July 23d, we were attacked by a squad of 
cavalry while we were guarding supply trains 
near White Plains, Va.. with occasional re- 
lief served as train guard to camp near War- 
renton, Va. This was our long turn at this 
kind of duty, and the boys of Company A 
did not admire it. preferring the battle line 
to managing mule trains and Confederate 
guerrillas. In camp near White Sulphur 
Springs the company was recruited very 
much by new men and return of sick and 
wounded, and had an inspection each Sun- 
day, the Lord willing. One inspection here 
was by the colonel of the 7th llaine Volun- 
teers, a regular army officer, and he kept us 
standing in line three hours. 

September 16th, left Sulphur Springs, 
marching to Culpeper C. H., Va., and here 
turned out at "present arms" to receive our 
warm friends and comrades, the Vermont 
brigade, as they returned from an expedi- 
tion North to quell riots gotten up in behalf 
of and to further the interest of Jefferson 
Davis, Esq., & Co. Went on advance picket 
October 5th, at railroad bridge at Rapidan, 
where for once, sharpshooting ceased and we 
conversed with the enemy. Retired to Rap- 
pahannock Station night of October 10th. 
crossing the river closely pressed by the en- 

emy, but returned and recrossed the river 
in support of cavalry which drove the enemy 
back beyond Brandy Station. At midnight 
of the 11th they attacked us again and we 
slowly retired, crossing the river again be- 
fore daylight. Our march continued north- 
ward through the day and night, making 
three days and nights without rest or sleep, 
except that obtained under arms. We moved 
on in much the same style, sei-ving in rear 
guard or on skinuish line and marching al- 
ternately, without daring to unpack our 
knapsacks, till we reached Gainesville, Va.. 
October 19th. Resting one night we about 
faced and marched to New Baltimore, where 
we were moved to the front, where the cav- 
alry fight had just ended, placed on skirmish 
lines; but the enemy withdrew and we were 
called in again and sent on like duty at War- 
renton. This was probably the longest con- 
tinued duty of this kind we ever did, and 
weary, hungry and without food, we re- 
ported to our brigade, from which for sev- 
eral days we had been detached. 

November 7, 1863, we marched to Rappa- 
hannock Station; found Rebels in some force 
on this side of the river. The company par- 
ticipated both in driving in their skirmish 
lines and in the subsequent charge upon the 
fort, losing some wounded. 

The Rebels retreated to the Rapidan and 
we went into camp near Brandy Station and 
from that place moved on the Jline Run cam- 
paign, suffering more in three days than pen 
or words can ever tell. Crossing the Rapidan 
at Jacob's ford, we had a little brush with 
the enemy where we seemed to be sent in sup- 
port of a portion of the 3d Corps; then by 
movement to left and thence to Mine Run, 
and in the night were formed for charge on 
the enem,y's lines; but morning discovered 
to us a frozen, icy stream, dams on it and a 
formidable abattis beyond, which with the 
severe cold and freezing to death of wounded 
pickets who had got hurt in crossing the 
stream were sufficient to defer the charge. 
We formed in circles and ran continuous 
races to keep from freezing, getting no real 
rest day or night until we recrossed the Rapi- 

The latter part of February and March 
1, 1864, we were in reeonnoitering party with 
Custer's cavalrj- to Freeburg ]Mills. the cav- 
alry pushing forward almost to Charlottes- 

During the winter several members of Com- 
pany A reenlisted for the war and the com- 
pany received recruits enough to fill it up ; 



Indiana county furnishing the men. The 
morale of the company was always good and 
an inducement to friends to see that it was 
kept recruited with good men. 

May 4, 1864, we crossed the Rapidan and 
on the 5th at noon engaged the enemy in the 
Wilderness and continued till night, driving 
them from their position and holding them. 
On the morning of the 6th the fight was re- 
newed without relief, ammunition being for- 
warded to the lines. During the day we 
were relieved from front and formed in re- 
serve line. At sunset the Confederates mus- 
tered tlieir force for a charge, and in the dusk 
of evening pushed forward, flanking the 3d 
Division, and thus compelling our brigade 
of the 2d Division to fall back and partly 
change front, which could not occur in that 
dense woods, without somewhat scattering 
our men, who soon rallied, and Company A 
with others deployed, this deployed line 
checking the advance of the Confederates in 
the flank, our troops resting nearly on the 
old ground at nine p. m. Company A's loss 
in the two days was heavy — among others 
Lieutenant Brown, mortally wounded. 

On the night of INIay 8th. in getting into 
position near Spottsylvania C. H., Com- 
panies A and I ran into a Confederate force 
trying to move to their rear in the open space 
between the lines and a hand to hand fight 
ensued in which Sergt. L. Brady was killed 
and several others wounded. The day and 
night of the 9th was sub.iect to heavy artil- 
lery fire, one shot killing five men in the regi- 

May 10th, was a day of continuous fighting 
with a charge on the enemy's works in the 
evening, where our regiment captured a bat- 
tery and a line of pits. Company A's loss 
for the day was slight. The regiment rested 
on the 11th and dried its wet clothing and 
prepared for the fatal 12th of May where in 
an effort to hold the ground thus far taken 
from the enemy it was fought over repeatedly, 
each in turn having possession of the works, 
our regiment in one charge losing ninety 
men. Firing never ceased all day and the 
regiment remained in the works over night 
and part of the 13th, and on the 14th we 
moved to the left of Spottsylvania where, on 
Sunday, we had prayer instead of inspection. 
On the 17th we moved back to the right, 
passed Alsop farm and a little to the right 
of the battleground, and advanced on the 
enemy's line on the morning of the 18th, but 
retired under cover from the artillery fire, 
finding the enemy strongly fortified. Our 

regiment's loss here was nine wounded and 
one killed. We inmiediately moved back to 
the left again and then followed almost contin- 
uous active work — in skirmish May 26th, then 
train guard, in skirmish on the 28th, severe 
skirmish again beyond North Anna river, 
]\Iay 31st. Being at this point on the ex- 
treme right, we became rear guard again to 
Cold Harbor, coming in too late to participate 
in the day's fight of June 1st, but we pushed 
to the front, in the evening. The evening of 
June 3d were were in the general engagement 
along the line being covered by breastworks 
our loss was slight; by June 5th the works 
were extended till the opposing forces were 
but a hundred yai-ds apart and in the con- 
tinued rattle of musketry along the line 
Lieutenant Price was wounded. We have 
spoken of his bravery before, but let us re- 
cord here, when told his wound was so serious 
he must go to the hospital, he cried with 
grief at being separated from his company. 
He gave his life for his country, ancl our 
flattering words affect him not. The regiment 
retired from the immediate front at Cold 
Harbor June 6th, the loss to that time in the 
campaign being, according to Bates' History, 
Pennsylvania Volunteers: "In killed, wound- 
ed and missing, about thirty officers and four 
hundred enlisted men." 

The regiment now moved towards the 
James river, crossing familiar ground of the 
campaign of 1862, and on this march some 
of Company A had no rest or sleep for three 
days and nights except under arms by the 
wayside, a few moments at a time. We 
crossed the James river with the rear of the 
supply train on the night of June 16th reach- 
ing the vicinity of Petersburg on the 17th, 
weary and footsore, yet we moved to the 
front near the Appomattox river. The next 
day we supported some colored troops that 
stormed the pits and small forts in our front, 
which we occupied under fire from skirmishes 
till midnight, June 21st, when we moved a 
few miles to the left, where our skirmish line 
was left to expend all its ammunition and 
fall back, losing considerable ground before 
support was got forward. While the regi- 
ment's loss was slight, we felt very severely 
the loss to the 4th Vermont, which was cap- 
tured almost entire in the dense thickets in 
our front and near the Weldon railroad. 
There was a feeling akin to brotherhood ex- 
isting between the 61st and the "Vermont 

June 29th, hearing the sound of Wilson's 
guns in the rear of the enemy, wo were jnished 



forward to Ream's Station, but too late to 
help them. Captured a few Confederates 
scattered in the woods, recapturing a few of 
AVilson's cavalrymen, buried some of his dead, 
gathered up some "contrabands" hidden in 
the woods, and brought in some caissons 
abandoned by both sides; also tore up three 
or four miles of railroad track, burning the 
ties and heating and bending the rails. 

Jul.y 9th, embarked at City Point and 
landed at Washington, D. C, July 11th, when 
we were told that the Confederates were men- 
acing the defences of Washington, militiamen 
and citizens holding them back. Flags and 
banners were flung to the breeze, kerchiefs 
waved by the ladies, and cheers rose from 
groujjs on the sidewalks, as our veteran 6th 
Corps advance moved out of Seventh street 
in our usual "arms at will" and forced march 
style, and soon occupied ground within the 
line of forts. On the 12th moved out and 
found the enemy in considerable force in 
front of Fort Stephens. The Confederate 
outposts called to each other, "The Arm3- of 
the Potomac" so loud as to be heard by our 
company. The fight was sharp, the loss to 
Company A three killed, six wounded, and 
this loss, considering our reduced numbers at 
this time, was heavy, for very few of the 
wounded in the summer's campaign had yet 
returned to the company. Horace A. Ellis. 
of Company A, 7th Wisconsin, in hospital 
recovering from wounds, got a gun and went 
into the battle by the side of his brothers 
Asaph and John of whom John Ellis was 

In pursuit of the enemy we crossed the 
Potomac at White's ford, wading it — water 
some places to our belts, and at Lessburg, Va., 
found Confederate guerrillas secreted in the 
houses. These murderers were the most con- 
temptible of all men. and the annoyance to 
soldiers in the ranks. The fact is that some 
of our conunanders sacredly guarded their 
property with Union troops as we marched 
up and down the valleys, until circumstances 
compelled the scorching they afterwards got. 
Company A, of the 61st regiment rarely found 
a man of Union proclivities in these Virginia 
valleys. They were easily recognized if only 
suspected of being Union men, for the Con- 
federates drove off their stock. Finding the 
enemy's rear guard at Sniker's Gap and 
Early safe in the Shenandoah valley, we re- 
traced our steps to Leesburg, and thence to 
Fort Gaines, D. C, on July 23d. 

Julj' 26th, marched through Mar.yland to 
Harper's Ferry, Va., and after much man- 

euvering, "making history," it was called 
then, the troops finally got to Fredericksburg, 
Md. It could scarcely be called marching, 
for all seemed to tinaily get to doing about 
as they pleased, and armj^ curses heaped upon 
the imaginable head of General Wright, who 
was generally far enough ahead to be out of 
danger. Men fell by scores from the effects 
of sunstroke, unable to march, and not half 
enough ambulances to carry the sick ; not over 
one hundred men of our brigade stacked 
arms when halt was ordered at Frederick, 
^Id., on the evening of July 30th. These 
are days of hardships that will never be for- 
gotten while soldiers live to tell the story. 
The well-founded complaints of the men fin- 
ally wrested from the commanding officer an 
order respecting the subsequent marches, 
whicli being enforced by the men themselves 
made matters much better. The boys of 61st 
will likelj- never forget the first morning's 
march after the order was issued, when tlie 
regulation hour by the order had come for 
breakfast, how they stopped in a field, when 
almost to a wood ; the hour had come and they 
meant to enforce the order, and after that an 
aid came back to inform us of the hour. 

August 3d, we started for Shenandoah 
valley again, coming up with a Confederate 
force at Cedar Creek, Va., they having by 
this time got the harvest pretty well off in the 
valley. General Early being as good a harvester 
as the Confederates ever had. Had quite a 
severe skirmish with the Confederates here 
August 13th, driving them to Strasburg, 
when it seemed about time for us to retro- 
grade, and we reached Charlestown on the 

August 21st. 1864. the last day of the three- 
years service for the first hundred men of the 
company — we copy notes taken on the field: 
"We were very much surprised this morning 
by the Confederates coming down on our 
pickets on the pike and driving them back. 
Our regiment was chosen from our brigade 
to go to their support. Regiments followed 
each other until three from our brigade were 
on the line, our regiment engaged with the 
enemy. Are losing a good many men. Lieu- 
tenant Price wounded again, we fear mor- 
tally. The regiment remains in the line at 
noon, and ammunition is being taken to it. 
We have lost four officers at noon. The regi- 
ment is being relieved at dark. Two more of 
Company A wounded but not forced to leave 
the field. Regiment's loss four killed and 
eighteen wounded." At one o'clock on the 
morning of August 22d. those whose term of 



enlistment had expired received orders to 
inarch from the line of battle, and the regi- 
ment was ordered back at daylight. Thus 
ended the three years of sei-vice. We re- 
mained with the company and regiment till 
September 3d, when others' time expired; 
and on that day, near Berryville, Va., we 
took leave of the regiment, Company A, about 
tifteen, and probably seventy in the regiment. 
Were supplied with one hundred rounds of 
ammunition, if need be to fight our way to 
Harper's Ferry. Were mustered out at Har- 
risburg September 7th, and reached Indiana 
September 9, 1864. 

The veterans and recruits, nearly all vet- 
erans in service now, retained the name and 
place in the battalion, receiving by consolida- 
tion the veterans of Company H, few in num- 
ber, and we would note here that Company 
A was the only one in the regiment that kept 
recruited as the war progressed, consequently 
formed a large part in the battalion which 
was engaged in the fight at Opequan Creek, 
September 19th. Was in the storming of 
Fisher's Hill, September 22d, and also in the 
engagement at Cedar Creek, October 19, 
1864, and "for gallantry in this engagement 
was highly complimented by the command- 
ing general." 

It was then moved back to Petersburg, was 
recruited to the proportions of a regiment 
again by the addition of companies of one-year 
men and March 25, 1865, was in the attack 
and storming of the Confederates' outworks 
and in the front of the assault upon the main 
works at four o'clock next morning, in both 
cases successful. Pushing forward after the 
retreating forces, the regiment took during 
the day "two Confederate colors, a wagon 
train, fifty-two men, sixteen hoi-ses, and three 
brass twelve pounders with caissons." 

On the morning of April 3, 1865, the regi- 
ment "fired its last shot at the enemy," and 
its active service ceased. 

Many of the survivors of Company A live 
in Indiana county, and, we believe without 
exception, are respectable and useful citi- 
zens. The name of Dr. George R. Lewis, of 
Indiana, Pa., belongs in this history. He 
served as surgeon of the regiment from Sep- 
tember, 1863, to the close of the war, having 
been promoted from assistant surgeon of the 
54th Pennsylvania Volunteers. 

Battles and principal skirmishes: Battles 
—Fair Oaks, Va., May 31, 1862 ; Malvern Hill, 
Va., July 1, 1862; Fredericksburg, Va., May 
3 and 4, 1863 ; Wilderness, Va., May 5 and 6, 
1864; Spottsylvania, Va., May 10 to 12, 1864; 

Cold Harbor, Va,, June 1 to 5, 1864; Fort 
Stephens, D. C, July 12, 1864; Opequan 
Creek, Va., September 19, 1864; Fisher's 
Hill, Va., September 22, 1864; Cedar Creek, 
Va., October 19, 1864; Petersburg, March 
25 and 26, 1865. Skirmishes— Seven Pines, 
June 27, 1862; Charles City Cross Roads, 
June 29, 1862; Sharpsburg, Md., September 
18, 1862: Williamsport, Md., September 20, 
1862; Frederickburg, Va., December 13, 
1862; Gettysburg, Pa., July 3, 1863; White 
Plains, Va., July 23, 1863; Brandy Station, 
October 11, 1863: near Jacob's ford, Decem- 
ber, 1863; Spottsylvania, May 8, 1864; Spott- 
sylvania, May 18, 1864; Po River, May 26, 
1864; North" Anna river. May 31, 1864; 
Petersburg, June 18, 1864; Weldon Railroad, 
June 21, 1864; Cedar Creek, August 13, 
1864; Charlestown, Va., August 21, 1864; 
Cedar Creek, August, 1864; skirmish April 
3, 1865. 

G7th Bcgimcnt, Pennsylvania Volunteers. 
— This regiment was recruited under orders 
of the secretary of war, authorizing J. F. 
Staunton to recruit a regiment. The larger 
part of the regiment was recruited in the 
eastern part of the State, with a portion from 
AVestmoreland, Indiana, Jefferson and Clar- 
ion counties. 

The officers of the regiment were: J. F. 
Staunton, colonel; Horace B. Burnham, lieu- 
tenant colonel ; Harry White, major ; John F. 
Young, ad.jutant, and Robert Barr, svirgeon, 
the three last named all of Indiana county. 

In April, 1862, it went into service at An- 
napolis. Md., doing duty as railroad guards; 
afterwards furnishing guards for camp 
parole. The number of men from Indiana 
county being small, Sergt. W. H. Fairbank 
was sent as recruiting officer to the county, 
where, under direction of Maj. Harry White, 
he recruited about one hundred men, which 
were distributed in seven companies of the 

In February, 1863, it moved to Harper's 
Ferry, thence to Berryville, Va., where it 
joined Milroy's force in the Shenandoah val- 
ley, after which for a time its duty was 
guard duty at the passes from the Shenan- 
doah to the Virginia valleys, and twic/C rec- 
onnoitered as far as Upperville, Va. To- 
wards the first of April, 1863. it was stationed 
at Berryville with the brigade to which it was 
attached from that time till June, engaged 
in the attempt to prevent the cavalry raids 
of the Confederates Jones, Imboden and Mos- 
by, who frequently attempted raids into 
^Maryland and Pennsylvania. 



Gen. R. H. Milroy at this time commanded 
the force in the valley, consisting of about 
ten thousand men, under orders from Gen- 
eral Schenck, at Baltimore, as department 

The bulk of Lee's army quietly slipped 
away from the lines at Fredericksburg and 
moved northward. So well did he elude any 
vigilance there might have been on the part of 
General Hooker that the first intimation Gen- 
eral Milroy had of the movement was the 
presence of Confederate troops in large num- 
bers pressing into the valley by the gaps 
connecting with the A'irginia valleys. Even 
then he might have retreated, but it seems 
was loath to believe an extensive movement 
northward could be made without him being 
apprised of the fact by Hooker or Halleck. 

At a signal from Winchester, the troops 
near Berryville started for that place, but 
found their way already occupied by the ad- 
vance of the Confederate force moving in 
rear of tlie position at Winchester. The 67th 
regiment made a detour to escape an attack, 
marching thirty miles to join Milroy, reach- 
ing him at ten o'clock p. Ji. After a short 
rest it was ordered into the pits surrounding 
Star Fort, one and a half miles northwest of 
Winchester. Advancing at noon to the relief 
of the 87th Pennsylvania Volunteers, in the 
suburbs of the town, it held that position 
under a hot fire till night, when it was or- 
dered back to the fort. 

General Milroy, finding his force sur- 
rounded, determined to strike some point in 
force and cut a way through. Spiking his 
guns, drawing his powder, and leaving his 
trains, he got his troops under way before 
daylight. Four miles out the ^Martinsburg 
road, he met the enemy in force. The 67th 
Pennsylvania Volunteers, and 6th ^Maryland, 
were deployed to the right, and were not in 
the charge. After awaiting orders for awhile 
and receiving none, they attempted a detour 
to the right to pass left flank of the enemy, 
but ran into a strong force where, in an un- 
equal contest, they fought gallantly but to 
no purpose. Being completely oveipowered, 
they scattered, some of the officers and men 
escaping, but a large proportion were taken 
prisoners, among them ^laj. Harry White; 
the 6th Maryland escaping in the meantime 
by a further detour to the right. Of the por- 
tion taken prisoners, the men were released 
in from two to three months, but their officers 
were detained about one year. I\raj. Harry 
White, then a member of the State Senate, 
and that body a tie on all questions of im- 

portance without his vote, was subjected to 
greater indignities, hardships were imposed 
upon him in prison, and bloodhounds put 
upon his track in an attempted escape. Those 
escaping reached Hai-per's Ferry and joined 
the remnant of Milroy 's force, where the reg- 
iment was reorganized and assisted in forti- 
fying Maryland Heights, and afterwards, 
when these fortifications were dismantled, 
guarded the removal of the ordnance to 
Waslungton. where they received the news of 
the victory of our arms at Gettysburg, and 
the fall of Vicksburg. The regiment then 
joined the Army of the Potomac near Fred- 
erick, 'Sid., and was assigned to duty with the 
3d Army Corps. 

On the 11th of October the paroled men, 
now exchanged, joined the regiment, which 
then participated in the remaining movements 
of the fall campaign, going into winter quar- 
ters near Brandy Station. Va. During the 
winter of 1863-64 most all eligible reenlisted, 
and about 350 of them were furloughed in a 
body, taking their arms with them, the re- 
mainder being attached to the 138th Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers, for duty until their re- 
turn, seiwing in the campaign of the spring 
of 1864. in the Wilderness, before Spottsyl- 
vania. and in the march towards Richmond 
and Petersburg, thus passing through one of 
the most terrible campaigns of the war, in 
which verj' few regiments served without 
heavy losses. 

The veterans returned to Belle Plains, Va., 
at the expiration of furlough; remained on 
duty there a week, thence to Fredericksburg, 
and to Port Royal, where Colonel Staunton 
was placed in command of the post, it being 
at that time a base of supplies. The next 
duty was at White House Landing, in guard 
of Sheridan's supply train while he was on 
a raid in some force to Lynchburg, Va. While 
there they were attacked by rebel Confederate 
cavalry. June 13th, which did not make a 
direct assault upon them, but brought a bat- 
teiy to bear upon their position. Under a 
severe fire from the battery and skirmishers 
they succeeded in removing the wagon train 
to the south side of the Pamunky. Sheri- 
dan's arrival, just in time, probably saved 
them another visit to Confederate prison pens. 
On the 15th of June they started to the wagon 
train on the James river, and with the ex- 
ception of a skinnish with Confederate caval- 
ry at White Oak Swamp reached Petersburg, 
Va., without further trouble, where they were 
joined by the detachment serving -tt-ith the 
i38th Pennsvlvania. In the meantime, the 



division to which the 67th belonged was trans- 
ferred to the 6th Army Corps and partici- 
pated in the movement to the Weldon railroad 
in the attempt to reach and relieve Wilson's 

Returning to Baltimore, the 67th quartered 
at the relay house until it moved to join the 
6th Corps, and participated in the marches 
up and down the valleys of Maryland and 
northern Virginia in the campaign of the 
summer, all of which availed little to the 
country but entailed hardships that men can- 
not forget. Captain BaiTy commanded the 
regiment at this time, the command devolv- 
ing upon Adjt. Gen. Young of Indiana 
county in September, 1864. 

The regiment was in the engagement of 
September 19th, at the crossing of Opequan 
creek in the taking of Winchester. Being on 
the extreme right of the 6th Coi-ps, and a 
space left between it on the left of the 19th 
Corps which was widened by the 19th not 
getting forward so rapidly as the 6th, the 
Rebels interposed a force in the gap, striking 
the 67th on the flank when it was in the act 
of wheeling off a Confederate battei-y already 
captured. Men are now living who remem- 
ber having hold of the battery, trying to take 
it away by hand, when compelled to forsake 
it and run to prevent capture. The regiment 
soon rallied again and its third division was 
first to reach the heights at Winchester, from 
which it had tried to fight its way out one 
year before. The regiment's loss in this 
fight was heavy. The companies were mostly 
led by sergeants who served as captains, 
doing commissioned officers work on ser- 
geants' pay, not being able to get promotion 
on accoiint of their superiors in prison hold- 
ing their rank ; hence the usual incentive was 
lacking, loyalty alone governing their actions, 
which deserves special attention. 

At Fisher's Hill, September 22, 1864, the 
regiment pushed forward close under the 
enemy's works, sheltering as best it could 
until the flank charge was made by the 8th 
Corps, when it joined in the general advance 
in the storming of the Confederate position, 
joining in the pursuit of the scattered foe, 
striking the rear guard at Harrisburg, where 
the regiment was sent on the skirmish line 
in the evening: but by the morning the 
enemy had disappeared. Returning to Cedar 
Creek, it was in camp, some of the men sleep- 
ing, when the attack was made on our lines, 
October 19th. Yet the regiment formed, as 
indeed the entire 6th Corps, all of which 
formed as well as possible and kept up a lim- 

ning fight until the arrival of Sheridan on the 
field, when in the general advance it fuUv 
maintained its credit, suffering considerable 
loss of men. 

At the close of the fall campaign the regi- 
ment returned to Petersburg. Major Young 
resigning, the command devolved upon Capt. 
John C. Carpenter, of Indiana county. The 
regiment participated in the stoi-ming of the 
strongholds at Petersburg in the spring of 
1865 and the subsequent movement against 
these armies; then moved towards Danville, 
N. C, where General Johnson still had a 
strong Rebel force ; and with this its active 
work ended. The regiment returned to Wash- 
ington and was mustered out July 14, 1865. 

In the months of March and April, 1865, 
one full company of one-year men was en- 
listed in Indiana county for the regiment, 
reaching it after its active service was over. 
The company was assigned as Company B, 
taking the place of old Company B, which 
had been consolidated with Company E. It 
was a fine body of men, many of whom had 
seen service before and all of whom enlisted 
during the days of the siege of Richmond and 
Petersburg and deserve mention in connec- 
tion with the regiment. 

74th Begiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers. 
— This regiment for the three-year service 
was organized at Pittsburg and was composed 
entirel.v of Germans. In the fall of 1864, 
after the three-year men were discharged, 
the regiment, composed of veterans and re- 
cruits, was assigned to duty in West Virginia 
and seven new companies assigned to it who 
enlisted for one year. One of these, which 
in Bates' History of Pennsylvania Volun- 
teers is accredited to Indiana and Westmore- 
land counties, we find was recraited and or- 
ganized in Indiana county, Gawin A. McClain, 
captain, John Kinter and John Me Williams, 
lieutenants, and was mustered into service 
March 11, 1865. Captain McClain was dis- 
charged May 8th and Lieutenant Kinter 
being pro-captain, in the county it is best 
known as "Captain Kinter 's company." 

Another company accredited to Pittsburg 
was largely made up of Indiana county men, 
the balance nearly all Jefferson county men, 
John G. Wilson, captain. Captain Wilson 
was discharged May 8th and Peter C. Spen- 
cer of Indiana county made pro-captain. 
Captain Spencer was formerly of the 105th 
Pennsylvania Volunteers, and P. E. Horn, 
second lieutenant, had served three years in 
the 61st Pennsylvania Volunteers. This com- 
pany was mustered out March 1 to 15, 1865. 



These eompauies served as guard ou the 
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, upou which 
raids had frequently been made by Confed- 
erate guerrillas, remaining ou duty in this 
capacity or in guarding government supplies 
as long as their services were needed, and 
were discharged August 29, 1865. We cannot 
think that the Confederates would have done 
much injury to this road or its branches ex- 
cept so far as it would be an injury at the 
expense of the government, but the guard 
was more for the purpose of securing safety 
to Northern passengers and government 
stores being sent over the road. 

7Sth Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteer 
Infantry. — This regiment was organized in 
response to the president's call for 300,000 
men for three years. By an order of the 
secretary of war, Camp Orr, on the north- 
eastern bank of the Allegheny river, about 
two miles above Kittanning, was authorized 
as a rendezvous for the organization of 
troops. There was at first a question as to 
whether the encampments of State troops 
should be under control of the United States 
government or under the control of the 
( 'ommonwealth ; but it was finally decided 
that they were to be under the con- 
trol of the Commonwealth. Wealthy citizens 
of Kittanning furnished the money to sustain 
tlie encampment. It was called Camp Orr 
in honor of Gen. Robert Orr and was located 
on the fair grounds and on a farm belonging 
to the Gilpin and Johnston heirs. William 
Sirwell was placed in command of the en- 
campment and afterwards became colonel of 
tlie 78th regiment. The first company came 
into camp on the 14th of August. 1861, and 
by the 17th of September all the companies 
were in camp and temporarily organized. 

Company A was recruited in Indiana 
( ounty under the direction of William Cum- 
mins and others. An old military organiza- 
tion had been in existence at Chambersville 
for a number of years and a majority of this 
organization responded to the president's call 
for troops, enlisting for three years or during 
the war. These, with other enlisted men, 
assembled at Chambersville, Indiana county, 
on the 27th day August, 1861. and were given 
a farewell banquet by the citizens of the com- 
munity. It was a beautiful day and seemed 
much like an ordinary Fourth of July cele- 
bration. Uniform soldiers mai'ching to mar- 
tial music with their streaming banners were 
the center of attraction. The company was 
composed mostly of farmers and the .sons of 
farmers, descendants of pioneers, who had 

erected homes and carved for themselves and 
their families an honorable destiny in the 
northwestern part of Indiana county. The 
great majority were unmarried young men 
and the average was not above twenty-one 

Living amid the quiet and peaceful sur- 
roundings of these better days, secure in our 
comfortable homes, we can hardly realize 
what it meant for such a company of young 
men to leave home for the tented" field. All 
sought to be cheerful, hopeful and happy, 
but there was a deep undertone of anxiety 
and sadness. Husbands and wives, brothers 
and sisters, parents and sons, felt that they 
might be bidding a final farewell to each 
other, for there was a possibility if not a prob- 
ability that they should never again meet 
each other on earth. The future was uncer- 
tain and seemed very ominous. The clouds 
of war portended a most terrific storm. 
The martial music, the streaming banners and 
the patriotic enthusiasm could hardly sup- 
press the sobs of grief or hide the dark fore- 

The company marched or was transported 
to Indiana, and thence by way of Elderton 
to Camp Orr. An organization was effected 
at Camp Orr with William Cummins as cap- 
tain, John Marlin as first lieutenant, W. R. 
ilaize as second lieutenant, James Miller, 
Evan Lewis, William Garrett, Daniel Both- 
ell and J. T. Gibson as sergeants, with Wil- 
liam W. Bell, David Blue, William Thomas. 
George Adams, David A. Rankin, James A. 
Carroll, William Fleming and John M. Brown 
as corporals. 

Company D was recruited at Cherrytree, 
on the Susquehanna river in the northeastern 
part of Indiana county, by Michael Forbes 
and others. It was made up of lumbermen, 
farmers and mechanics, with an average age 
of about twenty-two yeai-s. The company 
entered Camp Orr September 6th, and was 
organized with jMiehael Forbes as captain ; 
Robert H. McCormiek, first lieutenant ; Wil- 
liam J. Nugent, second lieutenant ; Adam C. 
Braughler, Thomas M. Bell, Leonard D. IIol- 
lister, Joseph L. Buterbaugh and David 
Barkey, sergeants; and Isaac Kearn, Lewis 
D. Shaw, Samuel Irwin. Abraham C. Wike, 
George Langdon, Betherel Johnston and 
John Shetters. corporals. 

Companies B, F, G, I and K were recruited 
in Armstrong county; Company C and Com- 
pany E were recruited in Clarion county; 
Company H was recruited in Butler county. 
Wlien ordered to the front in Octoljer, 



1861, it was attached to McCook's division. 
Army of the Cumberland, and during its 
term of service was in the Western Army. 
In the several camps at Nolan Station, south 
of Nolan creek, Mansfordsville and Green 
river, its duties were drill and preparation 
for future service. When the campaign of 
the spring of 1862 was commenced, the 78th 
was ordered to Nashville, Tenn., and for a 
time guarded the railroad from Nashville to 
Columbia. On the 12th of IMay it joined an 
expedition against the Confederate cavalry 
which escaped across the Tennessee river, and 
the regiment returned to its old quarters. 
Its next duty was to guard on the Tennessee 
& Albermarle railroad, and next as rear guard 
to Buell's army in its northern movement 
to intercept the Confederate General Bragg, 
who was moving into Kentucky; and during 
Buell 's movement into Kentucky the regiment 
remained at Nashville, Tenn., besieged by 
Confederate forces. On the 26th of October 
General Rosecrans' forces reached Nash\'ille 
and the garrison could again hear from com- 
rades elsewhere. For a month more the reg- 
iment guarded Nashville, or did camp duty 
near, until the campaign against Bragg 's 
Confederate forces was commenced. 

At Stone River the regiment was hotly en- 
gaged, Negley's entire division fighting more 
than their number. Company A lost heavily, 
and the slight loss in Company D is accounted 
for by the position it occupied in the line. 
The regiment was engaged in the fight part 
of two days, and did credit to itself and its 
leaders, losing in killed and wounded 190 
men. After the battle the regiment did pro- 
vost guard duty at Murfreesboro until the 
spring of 1863. 

In June, 1863, the regiment participated 
in driving the Confedei-ates from Tullahoma 
across the Cumberland mountains and across 
the Tennessee river, but without any serious 

It was next in the movement across the 
Tennessee river in August, and thence across 
the mountain range, encountering many dif- 
ficulties, especially in getting down to Look- 
out valley, when bridge building over gorges 
had to be done as it progi'essed. 

After foraging supplies for itself and 
others in the valley, it proceeded over Look- 
out Mountain and Missionary Ridge into the 
Chickamauga valley. Here a detachment of 
the regiment was attacked, and held a largely 
superior force in cheek until supports came 
up. In General Rosecrans' withdrawal 
towards Chattanooga it became engaged Sep- 

tember 19th and 20th. At Chattanooga for 
one month it was constantly annoyed by shot 
and shell from the enemy's batteries, finally 
participating in the struggle which drove the 
enemy from Lookout ]\Iountain, afterwards 
assisting in fortifying the heights on the 
mountain itself, provisions being carried to 
the men on pack mules. 

In the campaign of 1864 it was engaged at 
Tunnel Hill, Buzzard's Roost Gap, Reseca, 
Dallas, New Hope Church, and Kenesaw 
Mountain ; thence moved to Chattanooga and 
guarded railroad supply trains for the army. 
It was then first ordered to Tullahoma, and 
next to Athens, Ala., but both orders being 
countermanded did again march to Nashville. 
Assisting in the affray of the 27th at Pulaski, 
it again returned to Nashville, thence to 
Franklin, and as mounted infantry served a 
short time under General Rousseau in south- 
ern Tennessee, returning to Nashville a few 
days after its term of service expired. 

The opinion prevails in some places that 
the average soldier is reckless, profane and 
less careful of the rights of his fellow men 
than the average citizen at home. A member 
of the 78th regiment says that he has been 
intimately associated with soldiers and with 
men in all the various professions and avoca- 
tions of life, and wishes to bear this testi- 
mony : ' ' The average soldier of the 78th regi- 
ment did not have as much culture as the 
average professional or business man with 
whom I have come in contact ; he did not say 
as much about religion as the average man 
with whom I have been most intimately 
associated; he could not boast of his bank 
account, but he had as much real manliood 
as anyone whose friendship I have ever en- 
joyed. There is something about ordinary 
business — there is something about all the 
contentions of commercial, social and politi- 
cal life — that has a great tendency to make 
a man selfish, not to say mean, and unmanly. 
One business man feels perfectly free to let 
another take the worst of the bargain and bear 
more than his share of the burden of any 
business enterprise, while he gets more than 
his own share of the benefit. One Christian 
is often found very willing that other Chris- 
tians should bear all the burdens, reproach 
and self-sacrifice of carr.ying on Christian 
work and contending against wrong-doing, 
while he is willing to take all the honors, 
whether deserved or undeserved. I have even 
found ministers of the gospel who didn 't think 
it necessary to bear one another's burdens. 
In contrast with this, it may be truthfully 



said that the soldiers of the 7Sth regiment 
generally moved on a higher plane and main- 
tained a higher code of morals. No good 
soldier would ask or expect his comrades to 
face dangers or endure hardships or bear bur- 
dens that he was unwilling to accept for him- 
self. The officer or soldier who was unwilling 
to take his full share of the dangers and bur- 
dens soon came to be reckoned unmanly and 
cowardly. Soldiers had the highest regard 
for their enemies whom they met on the 
battlefield, but they had the greatest possible 
contempt for shirkers, and cowards and 
traitore, in their own rank. I have known 
men in social, business and even in church en- 
terprises to encourage their men to go for- 
ward in arduous and dangerous undertakings, 
and when their representatives were bearing 
the brunt of the battle they would begin to 
fire on them from the rear. I never saw 
anything of this kind on the part of a soldier 
in the 78th regiment. At the end of the three 
years' service we knew each other better, and 
we could depend on each other more con- 
fidentially, than we could when we first en- 
tered the army. AYhile we sincerely hope 
that the time may soon come when there will 
be no bloody battlefields and no need of sol- 
diers, it must be confessed that military life 
in active service has a good tendency to 
develop in most men a verj- iyj>e of real 

The regiment was mustered out of the 
United States service at Kittanning by 
Lieutenant Ward, of the United States army, 
on the 4th day of November, and was paid 
on the 5th of November, 1864. The soldiers 
and officers of the regiment then returned to 
their respective homes and took up at once 
the active duties of home life. It is not 
necessary to say that they were still deeply 
interested in everything that concerned the 
progress of the army, in conquering the Re- 
bellion. Most of them expected to enter again 
into service for their country if they should 
be needed, and some of them did reenlist. 

103d Pcnmijlvania Volunteers. — This un- 
fortunate regiment was recruited in the coun- 
ties of Clarion. Butler, Armstrong, Allegheny 
and Indiana. Company G was almost all from 
Indiana county. Enlisted in the fall of 1861, 
and winter of 1861-62, at a time when the 
Federal government was hard pressed to arm 
and uniform its troops, the regiment suffered 
for want of proper clothinsr. Being sent to 
the front in the spring of 1862. its first sei-v- 
ice was in the miasmatic swamps of the Pen- 
insula, and it experienced greater ' suffering 

than regiments more used to hardships by 
liaving wintered in camps at the front. It 
participated in the battle at Williamsburg, 
Ya., during the retreat of the Confederates 
toward Richmond, and came out of the fight 
with credit ; captured a Confederate flag dur- 
ing the engagement, changing position under 
fire without break, going on advance picket 
for the night after the close of the battle. 

The regiment was among the first troops 
at Seven Pines, on the Richmond road, after 
crossing the Chickahominy river, and for a 
few days was engaged in constructing tem- 
porary breastworks. Part of the regiment 
Mas on picket in front of Seven Pines, on the 
Richmond road, after crossing the Chicka- 
liominy river, and for a few days was engaged 
in constructing temporary breastworks. Part 
was on picket in front of Seven Pines, May 
31, 1862, when the enemy advanced in force 
on that point and Fair Oaks Station, and the 
regiment soon became engaged in support 
of the picket line, where it did creditable 
work, falling back slowly until, it is claimed, 
the Union guns, in attempting to get range 
of the Confederate lines, fired into its ranks, 
wlien it scattered, falling back to earthworks, 
afterwards getting into the works in detach- 
ments, where it remained till night. This 
regiment, with others of Casey's division, fell 
into disrepute here, which in the cooler judg- 
ment of the survivors of the war, who have 
had many years to reflect, may now be deemed 
unjust. Much was expected of General Casey, 
and but little performed, but his men were not 
well drilled (the enemy being in strong force, 
as was fully demonstrated by the bloody field 
of Fair Oaks) other regiments, not of Casey's 
division, failed later in the day, and we can- 
not help but believe that the plan all through 
the early part of the war, of fighting a brigade 
or a division at a time, was a fatal mistake. 
* * * The loss in disabled and killed in 
tlie 103d was heavy, and speaks in its defense 
at this place. The regiment participated in 
the battle at Malvern Hill, and served on rear 
guard in the further retreat to Harrison's 

Leaving the Peninsula at the same time 
with McClellan's army, by special order Wes- 
sel's brigade was sent to Norfolk, thus sep- 
arating from the Army of the Potomac. It 
was next moved to Suffolk, and assisted in 
fortifying the place; also, built winter quar- 
ters, which were left on December 5, 1862, 
when the brigade moved to Newbern, N. C, 
where it joined the forces under General Fos- 
ter; a little later the regiment, in the move- 



iiieiit towards the iuterior, had a slight 
skirmish at Southwest creek, and supported 
a battery in the attack upon Kinston. 

The i03d regiment was then ordered to 
cross the swamp in front and charge the 
enemy's works. Getting through the swamp 
as best it could, in mud and water, under a 
heavy fire from Confederate batteries, the 
regiment formed on the opposite side and gal- 
lantly charged and captured the enemy's 
works in its front, capturing almost an en- 
tire regiment of infantry. Other regiments 
were hastily brought forward and the Con- 
federates driven from the entire field. 

The regiment then returned to Newbern, 
and was stationed in barracks at the Neuse 
river, where it remained for the winter. 

In the spring of 1863 it was moved to Ply- 
mouth, N. C. on the Roanoke river, which 
place it assisted in fortifying, and afterwards 
occupied, the available force at that point be- 
ing only about 1,600 men in the spring of 
1864. The Confederates in the meantime con- 
structed the ram "Albemarle," which was 
run past Plymouth in the night without dis- 
covery. It immediately attacked and de- 
stroyed the gunboats of the Union in the 
river, and then directed its fire on the little 
garrison. At the same time a land force of 
7,000 to 8,000 men moved upon the works. 
The garrison fought through the day against 
hope, and on the next day, April 20th, was 
compelled to surrender. Then ensued suffer- 
ing and starvation of which but few are now 
left to tell the tale. 

Bates says : ' ' The officers were immediately 
separated from the men. not again to be 
united, the latter being sent to Anderspn- 
ville to starve and die by scores; the former 
to Macon, Ga., and subsequently those of the 
highest grade, including Colonel Lehman, to 
Charleston, S. C, where they were placed 
under the fire of the powerful Union bat- 
teries, then engaged in bombarding the city." 
The wounded were left in the hands of the 
enemy, and most of them died. Of about 
four hundred men and officers of the 103d 
taken prisoners, 132 died at Andersonville, 
seven more at Florence — some by the way in 
transfer to the coast, others on the way to 
Camp Parole, while a very few reached home 
on furlough eventually to die of disease 
caused by starvation. Indiana county 
mourned her loved brave who were thus in- 
humanly put to death. 

The proof is evident that we can be gen- 
erous as well as brave, in fact that the lives 
of these murderers were spared by a gov- 

ernment representing the widows and orphans 
of the brave men whose lives were thus pit- 
ilessly crushed by concerted plan. When 
a brother fell by the enemy's bullet, we ac- 
cepted it as a result of war, but when fiends 
like Wirtz were put in charge of our loved 
ones, with orders to starve them into a con- 
dition to unfit them for further service, be- 
fore exchanging for well-fed Confederate 
prisoners, and we see the evidence that he 
did his work so well, it adds poison to the 
dart already so keenly felt by the bereaved 

In preparing a roster of Indiana county 
soldiers, we noticed the numbers of some of 
the graves are about 11,000, which indicates 
that just that many wei-e starved to death be- 
fore their turn came. 

On June 25, 1865, eighty-one men were 
mustered out of service, the remainder of that 
regiment once numbering over one thousand. 
A few had been mustered out by expiration 
of term, but nearly all had reenlisted for the 

105th Pennsylvania Volunteers. — This reg- 
iment was recruited by Capt. Amor A. Mc- 
Knight, of Jefferson county, imder permis- 
sion granted by the Secretary of War. Cap- 
tain :McKnight had served in the three months ' 
volunteers, as captain of Company I, 8th Reg- 
iment, Pennsylvania Volunteers. The regi- 
ment was organized at Pittsburg, Pa., Sep- 
tember 9, 1861, then nine companies, of which 
B, G, H and I were almost wholly from Jef- 
ferson county J C, Clarion county; D, Clear- 
field county; A, Jefferson and Indiana coun- 
ties ; F, Indiana county ; and K, Indiana 
county. The first organization being a mili- 
tia company, it was recruited to the required 
number from Westmoreland, Clearfield and 
Jefferson. Company E was obtained from 
Colonel Leasure's "Roundhead" regiment, 
after both regiments had gone to the front. 
This company was almost wholly from West- 
moreland county. 

During the winter of 1861-62 the regiment 
encamped south of Alexandria, Va., and the 
time was spent in drill and detail work on 
forts with an occasional visit to the vicinity 
of Pohick Church on picket duty, or in ex- 
pectancy of meeting the foe, for frequent 
alarms were manifest on this portion of the 
line; a detachment of the 105th receiving 
and returning the fire of Rebel pickets here 
on one occasion. 

In March, 1862, the regiment moved by 
transport to the Peniii^ula, and suffered 
all that those miasmatic swamps produced of 



sickness, aud many brave men fell victims to 
the climate. 

During the siege at Yorktown, it was sub- 
jected freciuently to fire from Rebel batteries, 
and after the evacuation by the Rebels the 
regiment reached the battle line at Williams- 
burg, in time to relieve other wornout and 
weary engaged forces, and was the first to 
occupy the city, and its flag was triumphantly 
flung to the breeze on the courthouse. 

It crossed the Chickahorainy river May 
23d, and moved to the Richmond & York River 
railroad, remaining until the 29th, when it 
was moved to the railroad bridge, but on 
the 31st was pushed forward to the line 
of battle left of Fair Oaks Station, and front 
of Seven Pines. The seven companies first 
on the ground were ordered to charge upon 
the enemy, who now had possession of Casey 's 
camp. Meeting the enemy at the edge of the 
camp, the 105th. on its portion of the line, 
drove the Confederates back through the 
camp and into the woods beyond, but the 
right of the line being forced back, the regi- 
ment experienced difficulty in withdrawing, 
and waded out through the swamp. Com- 
panies A and I. reaching the field a little 
later, were ordered into service on the left 
of the 57th Pennsylvania Volunteers, hold- 
ing their portion of the line until ordered to 
withdraw. Amongst others who fell was 
brave Lieutenant Cummiskey of Indiana. 
This battle, survivors tell us, was one of the 
most terrible of the war to this regiment. 
It was a day of losses to the Pennsylvania 
regiments, and we refer to the 23d. 61st. 63d, 
and others. In some histories of the war. the 
105th scarcely gets justice, but this may be 
accounted for by the manner in which they 
are written. In speaking of army corps. 
Keys' corps suffered two thirds of the loss, 
or 4,000 men out of a force of 12,000. while 
the general loss to Heintzelman's corps was 
not great ; yet the 105th regiment sustained 
a loss as great as some regiments of Keys' 
corps. Headley makes the loss to the 105th 
over 250 officers and men. but by comparing 
the best reports obtainable we place the loss 
in killed, wounded and missing near 200. 
The regiment dearly earned its blood-bought 
laurels, but from this time to the end of the 
war it never once flinched when called upon 
to meet the foe. 

It was attacked again June 25th. when on 
picket duty, losing two killed and six 
wounded, and in the retreat to Harrison's 
Landing participated in the engagement at 

White Oak Swamp, but was not in the imme- 
diate front. 

June 30th it was engaged all dav in the 
battle of Charles City Cross Roads, hotly 
engaged most of the afternoon, losing fifty- 
six in killed and wounded ; and again at Mal- 
vern Hill. July 1st, it lost one half of the 
entire available force of the regiment in 
killed, wounded and missing, in that fierce 
and terrible battle in which the bravery of 
our troops was equaled by the daring and 
terrible charges of the enemy. Yet our own 
arms were truly victorious, and the Union 
forces withdrew from the field the victors. 

Resting at Harrison's Landing till August 
14th, the regiment proceeded to Yorktown, 
thence to Alexandria, and on August 22d to 
guard the railroad from Manassas to Cat- 
lett's Station. Portions of the regiment bare- 
ly escaped capture. Companies E and K had 
but scarcely left Bristoe Station when Gen- 
eral Jackson's column reached it. capturing 
Captain Consor and his company (4). Com- 
panies E and K. returning towards Bristoe 
to reconnoiter, ran into the Confederate force, 
and the shrewdness of Sergeant Keiflim prob- 
ably saved them from capture, for. when chal- 
lenged, his repl.v, ' ' First brigade of Kearney 's 
division." was efi'eetive. The officers giving 
loud commands indicative of an advance of 
a full regiment, 'quietly ordered a retreat. 
The next day the regiment was in support of 
batteries. The morning light had discovered 
to them 10.000 of the enemy in battle array, 
which, members of Company K say to us, was 
one of the grand sights of the war. The 
movements of the Rebels could be distinctly 
seen, aud tlie danger for the time .seemed to 
be forgotten in the interest in the panorama. 
The next engagement was that of Companies 
B and G. a detachment of the 87th N. Y. V.. 
and a few pieces of artillery, when on guard 
at ilanassas. Captain Craig and a portion 
of his command were captured after a brief 
struggle in the darkness of the night. 

The entire regiment was brought into bat- 
tle at Bull Run. August 29th. lying all day 
under a heavy artillery fire, until five o'clock 
p. M.. when it was advanced to the front, 
stubbornly fighting, gaining and losing by 
turns, and finally forced to retire. Still hope- 
ful of ultimate success, it stopped at the rail- 
road and renewed the fight. The Rebels in- 
terposed a force rearward, causing confusion 
in the ranks for a time, but the regiment 
reformed in the face of all this, and a second 
retreat was ordered. The loss was gi-eat. 
Some wlio fi^ll have never been accounted for. 



and are supposed to have yielded up their 
lives on this bloody field. It was still further 
engaged on the 30th, under artillery fire, a 
terrible ordeal for infantry. There seems 
nothing in war so despicable as to be subject 
to a destructive fire that cannot be returned 
for lack of range. Under cover of darkness 
a retreat was effected, and the next day the 
regiment went into position near Fairfax 
C. H., where it participated in the fight of 
the day, in a raging storm, at Chantilly, 
and deployed as skirmishers on the line at 

The regiment was now withdrawn to the 
defenses at Washington for recuperation, and 
did not participate in the Maryland cam- 

After the Antietam battle, the regiment 
participated in the subsequent marches up 
and down the Virginia valleys, and at the 
battle of Fredericksburg, December 13," 1862, 
it was moved forward to support the Penn- 
sylvania reserves then engaged, but was too 
late to retrieve the disaster of the day to 
those noble regiments. It was moved for- 
ward in close proximity to the Rebel works, 
and for forty-two hours laid exposed to the 
fire of the Rebel sharpshooters and artillery, 
suffering a loss of three officers and eleven 
men. We stop here to note the fact that the 
Rebels here positively refused to allow the 
wounded and dying to be removed under flag 
of truce, until many had died of exposure 
and lack of attendance. Excusers and apolo- 
gists for the Rebels have never given any 
valid reason for this, and here we began to 
realize how these Southern demons proposed 
to conduct the war, this being but the begin- 
ning of hellish acts of cruelty and inhumanity, 
which survivors of the war can never fully 
condone. And what a striking contrast the 
tender care bestowed upon their dying left 
on the field at Antietam! After this the 
regiment had its share of the discomforts of 
the "mud march," and for the winter en- 
camped near Potomac creek. Virginia. 

At Chaneellorsville, May 1, 1863, the regi- 
ment with its brigade formed in battle line 
near Chancellor House, receiving a severe 
shelling, and next day went on skii-mish line, 
and on the 3d of May became hotly engaged 
with the foe, in the afternoon charging upon 
the works the 11th Corps and hastily evac- 
uated the day before. The first line was taken 
and held till the men were out of ammuni- 
tion, when it fell back to Chancellor House. 
In leading the charge. Colonel IMcKnight fell ; 
Captain Kirk, of Company F. of Indiana 

county, was killed instantly; the loss of of- 
ficers and men seventy-seven. After this bat- 
tle the Kearney badge of honor was conferred 
upon the commissioned officers, and those 
non-commissioned officers especially men- 
tioned for bravery. Whether selecting a few 
in a regiment where all were brave was wise 
or not we cannot .judge, but we know that 
the recipients of the badge afterwards did 
honor to themselves, the donors, and their 
counties. Among those of Indiana county 
the lot fell to Sergt. Robert Doty, afterwards 
killed at Gettysburg, Pa. ; James Sylvis, pro- 
moted to second Lieutenant of Company B, 
and George J. Reed, who died of wounds re- 
ceived in the Wilderness, Va. Of Jefferson 
county, among others was Sergt. A. H. Mit- 
chell, who came home captain of his company, 
and after the war was for many years a resi- 
dent of Indiana county. 

At Gettysburg, on Pennsylvania's soil, the 
regiment won new laurels, if such could add. 
to its honor. It fought on the line of the 
Emmitsburg road, losing heavily, yet retir- 
ing in good order, the loss to the regiment 
being over one-half its number. Sergeant 
Doty, of Company F, was killed in the early 
part of the engagement by a sharpshooter 
(as supposed) while the regiment was in sup- 
port of the skirmish line. During the en- 
gagement Lieutenant McHenry, of Company 
K, was wounded and disabled for further 
service. We would gladly mention others if 
space permitted, but we quote Colonel Craig, 
who said: "The 105th never fought better 
than at Gettysburg," and this was great 
praise, for of the battle at Fair Oaks Head- 
ley's history says : "Napoleon's veterans never 
stood firmer under a devastating fire." Fol- 
lowing this battle. General Sickles having lost 
a leg, and became disabled for service, the 
2d and 3d Corps were consolidated, and the 
3d Corps ceased as a distinctive organiza- 

After Lee was driven South, in the retro- 
grade to Centerville, Va., the regiment became 
engaged with the Rebel cavalry at Auburn, 
Va., September 13, 1862. In the movement 
southward again, had a slight skirmish at 
Kelly's Ford, and a sharp one at Locust 
Grove ; thence moved to Mine Run, and suf- 
fered the extreme cold and fatigue of that 
short but terrible campaign, and during the 
winter of 1863-6'4 nearly all the available 
force of the regiment reenlisted for the war, 
and the regiment was furloughed in a body. 

May 4, 1864, it crossed the Rapidan, and 
entered upon the Wilderness campaign, 



passing over the field of Chancellorsville of 
one year before. The men found the bones 
of their comrades exposed to the elements, 
for the Rebels had never buried them, only 
throwing a little dirt or rubbish over the 
bodies where thej' lay, the skull of Captain 
Kirk protruding from his sepulcher, and 
some of his bones exposed to the air. His 
remains were recognized by distinctive marks. 
It is hard to write these things of ' ' Southern 
chivahy, " but all manly virtues seemed to 
have left the breasts of leaders and followers, 
and even now, when cooler judgment should 
rule, many of them glory most in what w'as 
most to their shame- On the evening of the 
5th of i\Iay, the regiment became engaged in 
the "Wilderness, having a severe battle, losing 
the colonel, badly wounded, and lieutenant 
colonel mortall.v wounded, and many brave 
officers of the line dead or w^ounded; among 
the latter we name Lieutenant William Kim- 
ple and James S.ylvis. Again, on the 6th, the 
regiment was moved front and participated 
in the terrible struggle of the day, where 
none could tell the turn of battle except by 
.sound, and on the 7th was in reconuoitering 
force, to ascertain the Rebel position. The 
remnant of the 63d Pennsylvania Volunteers 
was now assigned to duty with the 105th, and 
on the 9th, at the Potomac river, the regiment 
was severel.v shelled by the enemy, and after- 
wards, during the progress of the battle of 
days before Spottsylvania, was in the success- 
ful charge led by General Hancock on the 
enemy's works, Lieut. A. H. Mitchell, of 
Company A, capturing the flag of the 18th 
North Carolina Regiment: Corporal Kendig, 
of Company A, 63d, capturing the flag of an- 
other North Carolina regiment. The color 
bearer of the 105th being disabled, Serg. John 
W. Smith, of Company F, was appointed color 
bearer, and was killed at Petersburg a month 

The regiment participated in the battles 
from May 9th to 18th, and in the subsequent 
movements reached the North Anna at Tay- 
lor's bridge, and charging on the enemy 
without firing drove him. capturing some of 
the works, and held the position until night; 
thence by way of Hanovertown on the Pa- 
munky river. Salem Church, and Tolopotomy 
creek to Cold Harbor, taking position in gen- 
eral line at a point near the ilechanicsville 
road, and having part in the series of battles 
at Cold Harbor'; It is told of William W. 
Hazlett and Charles Gill, of Company F, 
that during Hancock's charge of the Con- 
federate line they were taken prisoners. Be- 

ing stripped of all except clothing they were 
ordered to the rear. Picking up guns in the 
rear somewhere they started for the Union 
lines, encountering a company of Confed- 
erates between the two picket lines. By a 
little ruse on their part they succeeded in 
inducing the company to ground arms, and 
the two boys marched them prisoners to Gen- 
eral Hancock's headquarters. The General 
afterwards granted them a furlough of thir- 
ty-five days, but Gill in the meantime had 
been wounded and captured, his leg ampu- 
tated, and could not take advantage of the 
merited favor. Hazlett was of Georgeville, 
Indiana county, and Gill of Meadville, Penn- 

The 105th performed an active part in the 
battles before Petersburg, Va., June 16th to 
30th, and we give the summing up of its 
losses in the summer campaign by quoting 
from the history of the 105th Regiment, Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers: "During the months 
of May and June the regiment lost three 
commissioned officers, killed, fifteen wounded 
and one missing ; sixty-one enlisted men killed, 
168 wounded and twenty missing; total 268. 
When they started in the campaign they had 
331 guns and twenty-one officers; at this 
date, July 4th, they had 121 guns, the entire 
force. The list of killed did not include those 
who died after being sent to Northern hos- 
pitals. " 

In July, 1864, by additions in recruits for- 
warded by Governor Curtin, the regiment 
was enabled to hold its organization, and the 
63d Pennsylvania Volunteers, by its own 
choice, was consolidated with it in preference 
to all others, having served in the same brig- 
ade for three years, and as a part of the regi- 
ment for the spring and summer. Thus the 
brave and reliable 63d ceased to exist as an 
independent organization. 

We cannot follow the regiment in the ardu- 
ous work and duties of the siege of Peters- 
burg more than to say that it was frequently 
engaged with the enemy, in each instance 
keeping up its well-earned reputntion for 
bravery and efficiency. 

In the closing campaign of the war at 
Hatcher's Run and Sailor's Creek it did ex- 
cellent service in the battles, and in the cap- 
ture of men, ordnance and supplies after the 
assault and victory at the latter place. By 
this time William Kimple had by a series of 
promotions become captain of Company F, 
and in like manner Milton W. Adair captain, 
and John M. Bruce first lieutenant, of Com- 



pany K; all three of these men had enlisted 
as privates in 1861. 

loSth Pennsylvania Volunteers. — This regi- 
ment was organized and mustered for nine 
months' service in the latter part of August, 
1862. James R. Porter, of Indiana county, 
was appointed colonel, and the staff officers 
partly from the three ludiaiin county com- 
panies, A, D and I, connniUKh'd liy Capts. 
Samuel T. Nicholson, John G. Wilson and 
John A. Kinter. 

The term of service expired at a time when 
drilled and effective men were needed at the 
front, and were relieved of service when in 
presence of the enemy which liad twice de- 
feated the Union forces in the attempt to 
effect a permanent lodgment south of the 
Rappahannock. A number of the men of 
the Indiana county companies, after a short 
visit to their homes, reenlisted in the 
regiment of the three-year men at the 
front, and we find their names in the 40th, 
41st, 55th, 61st. 67th. 78th and 105th regi- 
ments; also in the 4th and 14th Cavalry; 
those remaining going into the 206th regiment 
for one year's seiwice, or assigned to the 67th 
and 74th regiments, and we find it almost im- 
possible to glean out of all this list the re- 
maining ones. We presume that the same 
statement is true in regard to Companies F 
and G from Westmoreland and B from Jef- 
ferson counties, for most all of the list of 
regiments we named received recruits largely 
from these counties. 

The regiment was composed of excellent 
men, and with the patriotic spirit evidenced, 
no doubt desired to make a more effective 
record, but General Wadsworth, iipon its ar- 
rival at Washington, assigned it to duty in 
detachments as provost guard, prison guard, 
and kindred duties, till April, 1863, when it 
joined the forces on the Rappahannock near 
Fredericksburg, and was assigned to duty 
with the 1st Brigade, 3d Division, 1st Army 

April 29, 1863, the regiment had an intro- 
duction to genuine warfare in a sort of long 
range duel with sharpshooters on the op- 
posite bank of the Rappahannock ; by a brisk 
tire preventing them from picking off our 
gunners at the batteries in position near the 
river. During the day the regiment lost some 
wounded. It remained in support of the bat- 
teries until ordered to join Hooker's force 
at Chancellorsville, where it participated, los- 
ing a few men prisoners when on duty as 
skirmishers in front of its brigade, but did 
not become ens 

This regiment did all duty required of it 
at any time, and many of the men after- 
wards served in the harcl-fought battles of the 
Wilderness, Spottsylvania C. H., Cold Har- 
bor and Petersbiirg, in all of which some of 
the above named regiments were hotly en- 
gaged. Quite a number of cripples and dis- 
abled ones can refer to the 135th regiment as 
the preparatory school through which they 

Company E, liSth Pennsylvania Volun- 
teers. — This company was recruited in In- 
diana county by John F. Sutton, assisted 
by J. H. Benford, but was partly made up of 
men from Jefferson and Armstrong counties' 
Sutton had somo military experience, having 
enlisted foi' 1lnv.' months' service in the 19th 
Ohio Volunlccis. i)arlieii3ating in the defeat 
of the Rebels at Rich Mountain, W. Va., and 
also in driving them from Beverly. He had 
also assisted in recruiting Company G, 103d 
Pennsylvania Volunteers. The company was 
fully organized and mustered into service 
September 2. 1862, and assigned to the 148th 
Pennsylvania Volunteers, Col. James A. Bea- 
ver, of Center county. Charles Stewart, cap- 
tain of the company, was wounded at Chan- 
cellorsville and resigned, Lieut. John F. 
Sutton succeeding to the captaincy. 

The three companies from Indiana, Jeffer- 
son and Clarion formed a very effective force 
in the regiment, and did work for which 
Pennsylvania's history gives no credit, but it 
is our business to write of Indiana county 
soldiers, and we therefore correct errors only 
as far as Indiana county men are concerned. 

The tirst battle was at Chancellorsville May 
1, 2 and 3, 1863, a terrible initiation, but it 
came out of that unfortunate battle with 
honors gained by bravery and duty; the loss 
in the regiment was 125 killed and wounded. 

We omit the routine of marches, which 
were similar to those already written in the 
61st, 40th and others, until we reach the field 
at Gettysburg, July 2. 1863, where the 148th 
occupied a position in what was called the 
"wheatfield," near "Round Top." Here for 
one hour the regiment was engaged in a deadly 
contest, and again on the 3d came into action 
in the general attack along the lines. No 
pen can describe the scene at Gettysburg — 
author and artist both have failed, and the 
name Gettysburg indicates daring, bravery 
and slaughter we cannot portray. 

In the advance down the valleys of Vir- 
ginia again, the regiment participated in all 
movements of the 2d Corps, to which it was 



In October, during the retreat of the Army 
of the Potomac to Drainsville, the 148th was 
in the engagement near Aiiburn ^Mills and 
Bristoe Station. Upon the advance again to 
south of the Rappahannock, it participated 
in the Mine Run campaign, one of short du- 
ration, but memorable on account of suffer- 

May 3, 1864, the regiment crossed the Rapi- 
dan, stopping on the ground fought over just 
one year before. Lieut. James M. Sutton sleep- 
ing on the same spot upon which he had 
slept one year before. During the two first 
days in the "Wilderness the regiment was not 
eailed into action on the front, acting only 
as supports to the troops engaged on the night 
of the 7th, within range of the enemy "s rifles, 
and was finally pushed forward on the skir- 
mish line. In the thicket of brush, which all 
so well remember, it was very difficult in 
some instances to tell friend from foe, and 
here Lieut. J. M. Sutton, with Privates D- 
Sutton and William ]\I. Hallowell. were or- 
dered to discover the position. Creeping for- 
ward on their hands and knees to find who 
was in front, they could distinctly hear the 
Confederates talking. In further reeon- 
noissance they discovered a line proving to 
be a New- York regiment, also in trouble, hav- 
ing no connection on the right. The two 
then joined, forming a line and closing the 
gap. This incident is but one of many such 
that occurred in troops getting into position 
in the woods in midnight darkness. On the 
night of the 8th the regiment, while on picket, 
got divided bj* a mistaken order none have 
ever been able to account for. and it again 
became the duty of Lieutenant Sutton to 
discover their position. In the light of the 
great fire of the Confederates' burning 
breastworks, it was a dangerous mission, and 
in the terrible rumbling of two moving armies 
a difficult one. Halted at one point, whether 
by friend or foe he knew not, he promptly 
answered, giving the name of the regiment 
when he found a detachment of a regiment, 
in command of a lieutenant, lost, and formed 
in hollow square, for protection from assault 
on any quarter. After much difficulty all 
was righted, and the movement continued 
towards the Po river. Such were the nights 
in the Wilderness, never to be forgotten by 
the participants. 

Crossing the Po river on the 9th. the 148th 
drove the force of the enemy from the hill 
beyond, suffering some loss, and on the 10th 
was in the terrible fight best known as Spott- 
sylvania. The Confederates drove in their 

skirmishers with serious loss, and tlie regiment 
was finally compelled to fall back on its bri- 
gade, having lost 200 officers and men. Lieut. 
James M. Sutton was wounded, losing a 
leg. Again in the terrible carnage of the 12th 
the 148th was engaged, being in the successful 
charge of the morning upon the enemy's first 
line of works, and in the after struggle at 
the second line, losing twenty killed, and the 
usual proportion of wounded. 

It then participated in the series of marches, 
skirmishes and battles on the line from the 
Wilderness to Petersburg; at Cold Harbor 
being in charge on the enemy's works, which 
was successful at the time, but could not be 
held, the entire line falling back and fortify- 
ing another line. For a further history of ' 
this we refer to sketch of the 55th Pennsyl- 
vania Volunteers. The work of Pennsylvania 
regiments in the Army of the Potomac is so' 
inseparably connected, we ask the reader to 
read all as though he read the history of one. 

On the evening of June 16th the regiment, 
with others, was repulsed in a charge in the 
enemy's works at Petereburg, but the contest 
was kept up the 17th and 18th, until the 
enemy abandoned a portion of his works. 
From the 15th to the 30th it was continuous 
duty and fight, and on the 27th of July at 
Deep Bottom, north of the James river; again, 
on August 25th. in a terrible engagement at 
Reams Station, when the Rebels made a des- 
perate attack, compelling the division to fall 
back. Colonel Beaver was here wounded for 
the third time, losing a leg, and Capt. J. F. 
Sutton commanded the regiment for some 
time at Fort Steadman. 

The 148th was now armed with Spencer re- 
peating rifles. General Hancock designating 
the regiment for this special honor in its di- 

On the 27th of October a detachment of 
the 148th of 100 men was ordered to take a 
portion of the enemy's works. Captain Sut- 
ton was asked to command the storming party, 
but having just returned from two days' 
picket in the swamps he could not run, hav- 
ing stood in the water of the swamps until 
his knees were stiffened. The work was un- 
dertaken by Capt. J. Z. Brown, a gallant 
officer. The enemy's works were scaled, and 
more men captured than there were in the 
assault, including four commissioned officers. 
The enemy now moved forward on him, com- 
pelling him to retire. 

We now quote from Bates' History. Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers, correcting the quotation : 
"Upon the opening of the spring campaign 



of 1865, the regiment moved with the brigade 
ou the 25th of March, and participated in the 
action at Hatcher's Run, and on the 31st at 
Adams' Farm. On the 2d of April it moved 
five miles through the enemy's lines, and came 
upon the South Side railroad at Sutherland 's 
Station, the first division in advance, where 
the Rebel forces were posted and determined 
to stand. The 2d Brigade led, supported by 
the 4th, and as it approached the enemy's 
well-chosen position he opened a terrible fire 
which checked its advance, killing and wound- 
ing large numbers. Seeing the disaster Gen- 
eral Miles detached the 148th and, deployed 
as skirmishers, he ordered it to advance. With 
Captain Sutton in command of the regiment, 
it moved resolutely forward, and by a skill- 
fully executed maneuver, fianked the enemy's 
works and opened a well-directed and enfilad- 
ing fire from the repeating rifles. Stunned 
by the suddenness and severity of the blow, 
nearly an entire brigade threw down its arras 
and surrendered. Major Ulmer of the 4th 
North Carolina surrendering his sword and 
pistol to Captain Sutton. On the following 
day Cxcneral Miles issued an order commend- 
ing the gallant conduct of the regiment, an- 
nouncing the result of the charge to be 700 
prisoners, two pieces of artillery and two 
flags." Its last battle was at FarmviUe, 
April 7th, but it participated in all the clos- 
ing movements of the campaign, including 
Lee's surrender. 

At muster out, June 3d, 1865, Captain 
Sutton was the only officer with the regiment 
who had mustered into service with it in 
1862, and he was commander of the regiment 
from i\Iarch 28, 1865, to the close of its duties. 

We now close with its battle record, in- 
cluding skirmishes and assaults upon it by 
the foe, so far as we have been able to gather 
the record: Chancellorsville, May 1 to 3, 
1863 ; Haymarket, July 25, 1863 ; Gettysburg, 
Pa., July 2 and 3, 1863 : Auburn and Bristoe 
Station, October 14, 1863; Kelly's Ford, No- 
vember 7, 1863; Mine Run, November 30, 
1863; Wilderness, May 4 to 7, 1864; Po 
River and Spottsylvania, May 9 to 14, 1864; 
Cold Harbor, June 3 to 10, 1864 ; Petersburg, 
June 15 to 30, 1864; Deep Bottom, July 27, 
1864; Reams Station. August 25, 1864; sec- 
ond Deep Bottom, August 14 to 20, 1864; 
charge on works at Petersburg, October 27, 
1864; Hatcher's Run, Adams' Farm, Suther- 
land Station, and Farmville, March 21 to 
April 7. 1864; and Lee's surrender. 

One hundred and thirty-seven men at mus- 
ter out represented the old regiment, with a 

few more serving as commissioned officers not 
included in the count. 

159th Pennsylvania Volunteers — 14th Cav- 
alry. — There were probably more Indiana 
county men in this cavalry regiment than in 
any other one, and while it is a great task 
to write the work of an active cavalry regi- 
ment for three j'ears of service, we try to 
note a few things in which Indiana county 
men participated, and prefer to let the boys 
tell their own story. Up to 1879 there was a 
very incomplete record of the men of this 
famous fighting regiment. In Company K 
alone we find the names of seven men in suc- 
cession marked by Bates "not accounted 
for," who were all killed, or died in the serv- 
ice. The death rate among Indiana county 
men were not large, however. 

The larger part of the men of this county 
went into service in 1862, at the time the regi- 
ment was organized, and passed through the 
most active service of the war. 

In May, 1863, the regiment was attached 
to Averill's mounted force in West Virginia, 
and in detachments served in Philippi, Bev- 
erly and Webster; and later, in a body at 
Philippi, had a smart skirmish with Con- 
federates surrounding the post at Beverly, 
July 2d, forcing them to withdraw, and again 
at Huttonville, on the 4th. At this time the 
battle of Gettysburg was reported in progress, 
and the cavalry division was ordered to join 
the cavalry of the Potomac. This was not 
accomplished till Lee's army was safely across 
the river into Virginia. In pushing forward 
in pursuit the Rebels were encountered near 
Martinsburg, on the 15th. 

During the month of August the regiment 
was in a continuous series of skirmishes and 
battles, at one time, near the Greenbrier 
White Sulphur Springs, fighting dismounted, 
repelled the infantry charges — in this alone 
losing eighty men. 

In November, 1863, the regiment was in 
the Droop Mountain raid, engaged the enemy, 
fighting on foot, and drove them from their 

Again, December 8th, the regiment moved 
on the raid to the Virginia & Tennessee rail- 
road, where heavy damage was inflicted by 
the destruction of bridges (railroad), Rebel 
stores, etc., and in the retreat occurred an 
incident the survivors of the war frequently 
refer to as one of the memorable events of 
their service. At Jackson river the 14th Cav- 
alry, being in the rear with trains which it 
was almost impossible to move, got separated 
from the main force and was surrounded by 



the Confederates. Under a flag of truce a 
surrender was demanded, but the men cor- 
ralled the train and set fire to it. The com- 
mand swam the river and drew the guns 
with them across, cheered bj^ the Confederates 
while crossing. While the colonel seemed 
to be in a study what to do, walking back and 
forth with arms folded, waiting a further 
communication on terms of surrender, a pri- 
vate called from the ranks, "death in prefer- 
ence to Libby prison," which was echoed by 
a hundred voices, which decided the matter. 
Their ammunition was all drowned, so the 
order was given to sling their carbines and 
draw their sabres, and a break was made for 
freedom. We quote the words of one who 
was in this desperate charge : ' ' We selected 
Jackson's cavalry, and broke for them — they 
thought they had us, and were so surprised 
they fled in every direction, and we fairly 
flew through; our pieces of artillery seemed 
to scarcely touch the ground as the.y went, 
and before the Confederates recovered from 
their surprise we were almost out of range." 
From the same soldier we gain the informa- 
tion that at Craig's creek the cold was so in- 
tense as to freeze their horses' manes "stiff 
like a board," and we cj[uote from Averill's 
report: "I was obliged to swim my command, 
and drag my artillery with ropes across 
Craig's creek seven times in twenty-four 
hours. ' ' 

The 14th, in its retreat, encountered more 
frozen streams ; the horses being smooth shod, 
they were compelled to walk most of the 
time for three days. A few already crippled 
tried to ride, and we know of some yet living 
who were yet further injured by their horses 
falling with them. The loss to the i-egiment 
in this third raid was about fifty. From 
Bates' History we quote: "In recognition 
of the great service which the command had 
performed, the war department ordered the 
issue of a complete suit of clothing to each 
member of the command as a gift from the 
government." From one of the men we 
quote: "Our shoes were worn out so much 
our toes stuck out to the cold, and several 
had their feet frozen badly." Averill's of- 
ficial report says, "my command has marched, 
climbed, slidden, and swam three hundred 
and forty-five miles since the 8th inst." 

During the winter of 1863-64, while suj)- 
posed to be in winter quarters, having a gen- 
eral headquarters at ]\Iartinsburg. W. Va., it 
was kept on duty much of the time, and early 
in the spring of 1864 it moved forward in 
another raid upon the Virginia & Tennessee 

railroad. On ]\Iay 10th, at Cove Gap, in a 
fight with the enemy, it lost fifty men killed 
and wounded, besides losses in minor skir- 

The regiment was next in the campaign 
under General Hunter, as part of the regi- 
ment was engaged at New Market, and again 
at Piedmont, dismounting and charging 
earthworks when advantage was to be gained 
by it. 

It particiiDated in the fight at Lexington, 
June 12th, and skirmished nearly all day 
June 13th, and again at Lynchburg on the 
15th. Again on the 17th at Liberty, in a 
shari) fight for several houi's, it succeeded in 
holding a large Confederate force in check 
while the forces under Averill and Crook 
were retiring to the Kanawha. The loss here 
was about twenty-four, and the regiment 
suffered a further loss of eight men near 
Salem in a charge by Schoonmaker's brigade, 
to recover guns taken in an unexpected 
charge Jjy Rosser's Confederate cavalry. 

We now pass to the time of Early's raid 
into Maryland in July, when the 14th had 
part in the attack at Winchester, July 20th, 
which was successful; but a few days later 
the whole force was compelled to fall back 
to Hagerstown, Md. After the burning of 
Chambei"sburg, Pa., the 14th was in the chase 
of the Confederates into West Virginia, and 
at Moorefield had a shari> fight, losing thirty- 
five men, in this fight having the satisfaction 
of completely routing the enemy. 

Its next movements were in connection 
with the army under Sheridan in the valley, 
participating in all movements, being highly 
complimented for gallantry, especially at 
Winchester, Cedar Creek, Harrisonburg, 
Wier's Cave and Front Royal. 

The winter of 1864-65 was a disastrous 
one, the regiment losing heavily at both j\Iill- 
wood and Ashby's Gap. We would be glad 
to add a complete battle record to this, but 
it was in almost continuous fighting for two 
years over so great an area, we do not see 
that we can do justice to it, but we do know 
that while the children of the sui-vivors live 
the heroic deeds of the 14th Cavalry will be 
fireside stories to be remembered by the gen- 
eration to come. Captain Duff, of Armstrong 
county, under whom the Indiana county boys 
mostly served, has a warm place in their 
hearts, and we have heai-d Lieutenant Mc- 
Laughlin of this county highly commended. 

177th Pennsylvania Volunteers. — This regi- 
ment was organized in the fall of 1862, for 
nine months' sei-vice. having Company K 



credited to Indiana county, recruited mostly 
in that portion of the county adjoining the 
Cambria county line, and there were also men 
of this county in other companies. Hugh J. 
Brady, of Indiana county, was appointed 
lieutenant colonel. 

The more complete individual record of 
these men will be found in regiments in 
three-year and one-year service, and the his- 
tory of them would. in a measure be a repe- 
tition of accounts given of the men of the 
135th regiment. 

In December, 1862, the regiment was foi'- 
warded from Camp Curtin by way of Wash- 
ington, D. C, to Newport News, and after- 
wards to Suffolk, reporting to General Viele, 
on the east bank of Nansemond river, where 
it was put to work at clearing away the for- 
est on the west bank of the river. 

In January, 1863, while a strong recon- 
noissance was being made to the Blackwater, 
the 177th was left to guard the works at Suf- 
folk and was attacked by a body of Rebel 
cavalry. This occurrence caused a strict vig- 
ilance on the part of the men, and General 
Corcoran returning to the works in the night 
attempting to pass without giving the count- 
ersign, "came near losing his life." The 
General afterwards complimented them for 
good conduct. In March, 1863, it was sent 
to Norfolk and ordered on duty at Deep Creek 
with Colonel Wiestling, of the 177th. iu com- 
mand of the post. The duty here seems to 
have been as guard to prevent the carrying of 
mails to the South, as this business had been 
carried on much to the detriment of the Union 

The 177th regiment has the credit of break- 
ing up the mail routes capturing a number 
of carriers, and considerable mail matter ; 
also destroyed a large number of Rebel boats 
in the i-iver, engaged in a sort of piratical 
business and blockade running, conveying 
goods to the South. 

It was transferred to the Army of the 
Potomac, then in Maryland, in July, 1863, 
and assigned to the 12th Army Corps, but 
before it was called upon to do duty in biattle 
line the enemy had retreated to Virginia 
again, but remained on ^larylaud Heights 
until ordered to Ilarrisburg, to be mustered 
out of service. 

So far as we have lieen able to gather in- 
formation, there were no deaths of Indiana 
county men, though the regiment suffered 
much from sickness, both at Suffolk and Deep 

The record shows a large percentage of de- 

sertions, nearly all from Harrisburg — these 
records may be unjust. The record would 
indicate that the men came home from Har- 
risburg, and failed to return ixntil it had 
i-emoved to the front, where they found dif- 
ficulties in the way of reaching it again, and 
never reported. 

206th Pennsylvania Volunteers. — This regi- 
ment was organized at Pittsburg, Pa., Sep- 
tember 8, 1864, by the election of Hugh J. 
Brady, of Indiana county, colonel ; John T. 
Fulton, of Westmoreland county, lieutenant 
colonel, and Josiah B. Ferguson, of Indiana 
county, major. Colonel Brady had consider- 
able military experience, having served in the 
Mexican' war as major of the 10th Regiment, 
Pennsylvania Militia, in the emergency call 
of 1862, was lieutenant colonel of the 177th 
regiment for nine months' service, 1862-63. 
Companies A, C, D, F, G, H and I were 
recruited in Indiana county. Company B in 
Jefferson county, and E and K in Westmore- 
land county. 

Most all the field and line officers had seen 
service in other regiments, and the greater 
part of the men who served in the 135th Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers' nine months' service of 
1862-63, now returned to service again in 
this regiment. 

Proceeding to the front, it was attached 
to the 18th Corps, near Bermuda Hundred, 
but soon after moved to the north side of 
the James river, and was assigned to duty 
with the engineer corps and built Fort Brady, 
north of Dutch Gap. In the latter part of 
October it was assigned to the 3d Brigade, 
1st Division, 10th Corps, and went into win- 
ter ciuarters, its duties principally drill and 
routine camp duty. 

Upon the reorganization of the army corps 
the 206th was assigned to the 24th Corps, 
and continued on duty with the Array of the 
James, under General Ord. 

When the spring campaign opened the 
206th was ordered to remain in camp, doing 
provost duty, and was thus partially pre- 
vented from participating in the historical 
events of the general assault upon the lines 
of the enemy; yet, upon the evacuation of 
Richmond, the 206th was the first to enter 
the city, a thing desired much by veterans 
in service long before. Some of the men com- 
posing the 206th had participated in the Pen- 
insular campaign under McClellan, when the 
most ardent desire was to enter Richmond 
in triumph. 

For a time the regiment did provost duty 
in the citv, and afterwards, for a short time. 



performed the same duty at Lynchburg. The 
record of the regiment is not a bloody one, 
and to the writer of this sketch, and prob- 
ably many others, it is a relief to write or 
speak of at least one company or regiment 
whose bodies do not lie buried in Southern 

The men did the dut.y assigned them, and 
in this stand on equality with their comrades 
in arms. The regiment had its place in the 
army and is entitled to share in the honor 
that crowned the L'nion arms in the cam- 
paign of 1865. It lived to see the result 
thousands died to accomplish, and to be the 
first to fling to the breeze in the Rebel capi- 
tal the stars and stripes of the L'nion. 

Militia of Indiana County, 1S61 to 1865. — 
The militia organizations of the county in 
1861 were Init few and not much interest 
manifested ; but such as they were, they 
formed the liasis of organization of some of 
the companies of men recruited in 1861 for 
three years' service. 

In 1862, M'hen General Lee, after defeating 
our armies at Bull Run, moved northward 
into Maryland, the southern counties of. 
Pennsylvania were in danger of invasion, 
and Governor Curtin issued a call for the 
people to arm (September 4, 1862), and a 
little later issued a general order calling for 
volunteers to organize and arm for defense of 
the State (September 10, 1862) ; immediately 
following this with a call for 50,000 men (Sep- 
tember 11, 1862). promising the men they 
should be held for service only for the emer- 
gency, and should be mustered out as soon 
as, in the opinion of the executive, it would 
be prudent to do so. 

The call was heralded throughout Indiana 
county, and so early as the 10th, the day the 
Governor called for actual enrollment of men, 
there were several companies ready to move. 
One company, Capt. Lawrence S. Cautrell. 
Lieuts. John Hill and Joseph K. Conner, get- 
ting transportation, was assigned to the 10th 
regiment as Company H. The other com- 
panies followed as fast as transportation 
could be procured, and by the 15th four more 
companies were to the front, assigned to the 
23d regiment. Colonel Wiestling. These 
companies were Company B, Capt. Eph'raim 
Davis. Lieuts. William B. JIarshall and James 
E. Coulter; Company H, Capt. Thomas R. 
McComb, Lieuts. Josiah Work and J. B. 
Hunds; Company I, Capt. Samuel J. Craig- 
head, Lieuts. Alexander Hazlett and Robert 
Anderson ; Company K, Capt. George E. 
Smith, Lieuts. John Gibson and Josiah M. 

Ansley. Hugh J. Brady, of North Mahon- 
ing township, was appointed major of this 

Another company was recruited in the 
vicinity of Saltsburg, Capt. Hail Clark; 
Lieuts. Andrew D. Ferguson and William H. 
Junkins, but not assigned to any regiment. 

These companies, forming almost a regi- 
ment of men, were all gathered together in the 
interim between September 4th and 12th, 
eight days. There were men in some if not 
all of these companies who had already seen 
service in the early campaigns of the war, 
and while they were not called upon to eon- 
tend with the foe in deadly strife, the up- 
rising of an army in the space of a week in 
the State of Pennsylvania had an encourag- 
ing effect upon the weary troops of the Army 
of the Potomac, we .iudge equally dishearten- 
ing to the rank and file of the Confederate 
forces beaten and driven back from the bloody 
field of Antietam. 

These militia forces were disbanded upon 
the retreat of the invading foe, but their ser- 
vices to the State and nation were not yet 
ended, as we shall see. Colonel Weistling at 
once proceeded to organize a regiment, se- 
curing as many of the men of the 23d militia 
regiment as could go, and by the 20th of 
November the oi-ganization of the 177th Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers, for nine months' service, 
was effected. Maj. H. J. Brady, of Indiana 
county. Lieutenant colonel of the regiment; 
of this we give history elsewhere. (See 177th 
Pennsylvania Volunteers.) 

In the spring of 1863 Lee, repulsing our 
attacks upon his stronghold at Fredericks- 
burg, planned a second invasion of Maryland 
and Pennsylvania, the blow being most direct- 
ly struck at Pennsylvania, and as introduc- 
tory to the action of our citizens at this mem- 
orable time, we should recall the fact that 
much discontent was felt at the North, and 
opponents of the war were at work with a 
will, adding fuel to the fire of discontent, and 
disapproval of the war. Lee was for several 
days in advance of the Union ai-my, finding 
no considerable force in his way. Capturing 
a portion of General Milroy's force at Win- 
chester, and compelling the balance to seek 
safety in the works of Maryland Heights, 
opposite Harper's Ferry, he triumpantly 
marched into Pennsylvania. The only small 
force in the way at all was that under General 
Couch, with headquarters at Harrisburg, Pa., 
and General Brooks' small force on the bor- 
der of western Penns.ylvania, and extending 
to Ohio. The general government, seeing the 


danger, called for troops from the nearest 
States, asking of Pennsylvania 50,000 men. 
The people were disheartened by Confeder- 
ates successes South, and diversions in their 
favor in the North, and responded slowly, 
no considerable force of militia being organ- 
ized until Lee's army, 100,000 strong, was on 
Pennsylvania soil, levying contributions of 
money and material upon its defenseless 
towns, asking the town of York, Pa., alone, 
for $100,000 in cash ; and $28,000 was actually 
paid, besides food and clothing furnished. 

Very few regiments from Pennsylvania 
were organized until the decisive battle of 
Gettysburg was fought, July 1st to 3d, yet 
we shall see that Indiana county "came to 
the front" with a will, for we find it had 
eight companies mustered into service as ear- 
ly as July 3d to 8th, and followed this with 
six more "before July 23d. There was some 
dissatisfaction on the part of some troops on 
account of being mustered into United States 
service, and Governor Curtis, being called 
upon, assured the troops that they would be 
discharged as soon as danger to the State was 
averted, and more than this gave them the 
choice to elect to serve six months, or during 
the emergency. We do not learn that there 
was much demur among Indiana county men, 
the first companies all being sworn into United 
States service 'on the plighted word of Gover- 
nor Curtin that they would not be detained 
beyond the exigency calling them to arms. 

The 54th regiment. Colonel Gallagher, of 
Westmoreland county, was mustered July 4th, 
with Thomas K. Weaver, of Indiana county, 
lieutenant colonel. Company A, Capt. Joseph 
K. Weaver, ■nith Lieuts. John Hill and J. K. 
Anderson, was nearly all from Indiana 
county: Company D, Capt. John H. Devers, 
Lieuts. Byron Porter and Josiah Henderson, 
all from Indiana county; Company E, Capt. 
Nelson Henry, Lieuts. D. A. Ralston and 
James Patton, largely of Indiana county; 
Company H, Capt. (Rev.) Samuel Hender- 
son, Lieuts. Robert Smith and David Reed, 
all of Indiana county. 

The 57th regiment was mustered in by 
companies July 3d to 8th, and organized by 
electing Jomes R. Porter, of Indiana county, 
colonel. Company A, Capt. William R. Ford, 
Lieuts. Robert A. Henderson (pi-ovost adju- 
tant) and Alexander Craig; Company C, 
Capt. Hugh Weir, Lieuts. James B. Sansom 
(editor Democrat) and James Fleming (color 
company) ; Company E, Capt. Joseph Persh- 
ing, Lieuts. James P. McClelland and Hugh 
Pershing: Company F, Capt. George E. 

Smith, Lieuts. Robert N. McCombs and Wil- 
liam C. Gordon ; all of Indiana county. 
, The nexl six companies wei'e organized 
into an independent battalion, under John 
C. Lininger, of Indiana county, as lieutenant 
colonel, including three other companies, the 
first. Company B, under command of Charles 
]\IcClain, from Jefferson county, partly made 
up of Indiana county men; the second. Com- 
pany C, Capt. William Neel, Lieuts. Thomas 
K. Hastings and W. C. Brown, was made up 
very largely from Indiana county, the bal- 
ance from Jefferson county; the third, Com- 
pany H, Capt. Charles W. Whistler, mostly 
from Westmoreland county. 

The other companies. A, D, E, F, G, and I, 
we claim as Indiana county companies. Com- 
pany A, Capt. Thomas J. Moore, Lieuts. 
Daniel C. Davis and Marion M. Davis; Com- 
pany D, Capt. John W. Coleman, Lieuts. 
George W. Wilson and William T. Jackson; 
Company E, Capt. William P. Altemus, 
Lieuts. William W. Altemus and George R. 
Bolar; Company F, Capt. Daniel Tincom, 
Lieuts. Samuel W. Campbell and 0. S. Mc- 
Henry ; Company G, Capt. Robert L. Ritchie, 
Lieuts. Benjamin F. Speedy and Daniel 
Latshaw (in this company probably enough 
men to balance what we allow Jefferson 
county, in Captain Neel's company) ; Com- 
pany I, Lieut. William B. Marshall. This 
battalion was elected to serve for six months, 
and was so mustered into the United States 

We will follow each in a brief description 
of its duties. The 54th and 57th regiments 
were both assigned to the command of Gen. 
T. H. Brooks, and rendezvoused in the neigh- 
borhood of Pittsburg, Pa. The rebel cavalry 
leader, Gen. John H. Morgan then on a raid 
through Indiana and Ohio, had by this time 
got so far North as to make his escape some- 
what doubtful, and the more so after Lee had 
been driven back defeated into Virginia. The 
54th, Colonel Gallagher, and 57th, Colonel 
Portei', were both moved down into Ohio, 
and posted at fords of the Ohio river, by 
some of which Morgan had hoped to make 
good his escape, the gunboats having effect- 
ually stopped him from crossing the river 
lower down, and he was also closely pursued 
by a land force iinder Generals Shackelford 
and Hobson. Attempts to cross over were 
made at several points, and some 500 of his 
men had effected a crossing at different points 
on the river. These, with the loss of 600 in 
prisoners in the engagement at the ford 
above Pomeroy, had reduced his force very 



much, and made his chances for escape still 
less; and, with the loss in prisoners at Belle- 
ville, left him with scarcely 1,000 men. 

In the race for life, it was feared Morgan 
would cross, but the 57th regiment, by a quick 
movement of some three miles, reached the 
place, and being first on the ground Colonel 
Porter so disposed his men that any force 
attempting a passage to the river must have 
done so under a concentrated fire of the regi- 
ment, on a space where not over six abreast 
could have formed to charge the obstructed 
path. Morgan then tried the position of the 
54th regiment, Colonel Gallagher, but found 
it impracticable also. 

The Ohio militia in the meantime were 
pressing the Rebel chieftain closely, as also 
Shackelford and Hobson in his rear. Being 
thus closely pursued and eavironed, he sur- 
rendered to General Shackelford, and the 
work and duties of the Penn.sylvania regi- 
ments over, they were soon disbanded. 

The independent battalion under Colonel 
Lininger was retained in service over seven 
months, doing duty on railroad guard and 
at crossings on the upper Potomac river, with 
headquarters at Green Spring Run, W. Va. 
It is to the credit of these hastily summoned 
together troops for States defense that there 
was a willingness to move out of the State 
when necessary for the welfare of the country, 
aiKl there is no doubt but the militia force 
mustered at this time had a wholesome etfeet 
upon the general result; and had it been in 
the field promptly at the call of the president, 
might have added very materially to the 
amount of material captured from Lee in his 
retreat, for there was but a small force in 
the army of the Potomac in fit condition to 
follow and harass General Lee in his retreat. 
Couch's militia, as well as Crook's, may have 
been laughed at as worthless, but we must 
not forget "what Washington, Gates and 
Jackson severally did with militia; but, 
though they had only been held in reserve 
or set to guarding trains, their presence 
would have had a wholesome effect," and we 
do know they did good service in the cam- 
paign, those in the west rendering effectual 
help in the capture of ilorgan and his troop- 
ers, and those in the east disputing every foot 
in the advance of Lee's detached forces; and 
on looking over the field we believe would 
have prevented the crossing of the Susque- 
hanna, even if 'Lee had not ordered his de- 
tached force under General Early to return 
to the main body for the struggle with the 
Army of the Potomac at Gettysburg. 

Many of the men in these Indiana county 
companies of 1S63 had seen hard service be- 
fore, having been discharged from regiments 
in the Army of the Potomac for wounds re- 
ceived in action, and had now so far recovered 
as to be able for duty on a short term : others, 
to whom this service was the beginning, en- 
listed in regiments and went to the front, 
and proved by future service that they had 
soldierly qualifications. 

Militia of 1S64 — There were two companies 
largely made up of Indiana county men. 
The first was mustered into service in July, 
1864, and disbanded in the latter part of 
November, 1864; captain. J. G. Wilson; 
lieutenants, Samuel McHeury and Peter C. 
Spencer. Captain Wilson and Lieutenant 
Spencer afterwards recruited a company for 
one year's service assigned to the 74th Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers, and Lieutenant I\IcHenry 
and others recruited a company for one year 
service, assigned to the 67th Pennsylvania 

The second company was mustered into 
service November 3. 1864, and served till 
August, 1865; captain, Joseph K. Weaver; 
lieutenants, Anthony Ewing and John W. 

These did general guard duty whenever 
required, and were regularly mustered into 
the L'nited States service. Captain Wilson's 
company doing duty on the Baltimore & Ohio 

United States Signal Corps. — During the 
months of January and Februaiy, 1864, there 
were enlisted in Indiana county about fifty 
men for the LTnited States signal service for 
three years, under order No. 417 of the war 
department. The men served in every de- 
partment of the army from Virginia to Texas ; 
those serving with the Army of the Potomac, 
and middle division, being discharged in 
August, 1865 ; those in Texas serving longer. 

The signal towers on the front were often 
shelled by Rebel batteries, and the occupants 
had narrow escapes, and the position of the 
men were an unenviable one. The tower at 
Point of Rocks, Va., was 125 feet high: one 
on the James river 130 feet high; and one 
at Weldon railroad 158 feet high. The one 
at Cobb's hill, near Point of Rocks, Va., was 
arranged with windlass and a platform, raised 
or lowered by this means. At one time the 
men stepped on the platform a little too soon 
for the man at the windlass, and the crank 
slipping from his hand the platform feU a 
distance of one hundred feet, with A. S. 
Thompson and J. S. Wyneoop on it. The rain 


had swelled the woodwork of the hoisting 
apparatus, so that at a distance of twenty or 
thirty feet from the ground a friction ensued 
which so cheeked the force of the fall that 
they landed without any serious damage ex- 
cept a scare, from which they did not recover 
easily, making it difficult for some time, for 
them to occupy the tower. 

At the outpost station at Cedar Creek, \ a.. 
October 19, 1864, when the Rebels attacked 
and surprised Sheridan's force, but two out 
of the six signal men occupying the station 
escaped with their lives; one of the survivors 
was of this county. 





Company C— Kirkpatrick, J. F.. second 
lieutenant, wounded at Gaines' Mill, Va. ; re- 
signed Nov. 25, '62. Carson, D. R., July 1, 
'61; killed at Bull Run, Va., Aug. 30, '62. 
Hart W. B.. July 1, '61; served thi-ee years. 
Daughertv. R. J.', July 20, '61 : died at Har- 
rison 's Landing, Va., July, '62. Portser, 
Israel. July 20, '61 ; served three years. Port- 
ser, Labanna, July 20, '61, corporal; served 
three years. Robinson, R. M., July 1, '61; 
discharged Jan. 25. '62. Stewart, Samuel, 
July 20, '61; wounded; served three years. 
Thompson, William E., May 1, '61; dis. Dec. 
6, '61. 

Company F.— Robinson, Joseph F., cor- 
poral, July 17, '61 ; veteran ; served through 
the war. Young. Samuel C, corporal, July 

6, '61 ; served three years. Chapman, Henry, 
private, Julv 9, '61 ; killed at Antietam, Md., 
Sept. 17, '62. Cline, David, July 6, '61; 
wounded at South Moimtain, Md. and killed 
at Antietam, Sept. 17, '62, (Bates says killed 
at Fredericksburg, Va.). Detwiler, William, 
July 17, '61 ; served three years. Long, Wil- 
liam J., July 1, '61; served three years. 
Moore, Adani. July 6, '61 ; served three years. 
McPherson. Hiram A., July 15, '61, veteran, 
served through the war. McCormick, David 
B., July 7, '61 ; died at Smoketo^vn. Md.. Oct. 

7, '62. * McKee, James, July 17, '61 ; died at 
Washinerton, D. C. Aug. 31, '61. Painter, 
Ashford. July 6, '61 ; transferred to Battery 
C, 5th U. S'. Artillery, Nov., '62. Painter, 
Linas, July 6, '61: trans, to Battery C, 5th 
U. S. Artillery, Nov., '62. Smiley. David, 
July 13, '61. vet. ; died while home on vet. 
furlough. Feb.. '64. 


Field and Staff. — James R. Porter, lieu- 
tenant colonel (see Company B). Daniel S. 
Porter, lieutenant colonel (see Company B). 
Hugh A. Torrence, quartermaster (see Com- 
pany E). 

Co)npany A. — Books, George W., June 25, 
"61, corporal, wounded, discharged Dec. 23, 
'62. Books, Samuel, Sept. 19, '62, wounded; 
trans, to 190th P. V. ; dis. June 1, 1865. 
Boring, Jacob S.. Julj' 11, '61; veteran; 
trans, to 190th P. V.; dis. on surgeon's cer- 
tificate Jan. 6, '65. Books, J. W., Sept. 19, 
'62; dis. by special order same year. Bar- 
inger, John R. ; Sept. 19, '62; dis. Jan. 5, '64. 
Baringer, William, June 25, '61 ; died Dec. 
9, '61. Camp, John L., June 25, '61 ; killed 
at Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, '62. Dunim, 
Thomas P., June 25, '61; dis. April 8, '62. 
Davis, Benjamin, Sept. 19, '62 ; wounded ; 
trans, to 190th P. V. ; dis. Jan. 24, '65. Dun- 
lap, William, Sept. 19, '62; trans, to 190th 
P. V. Helman, LawTenee, June 25, '61 ; mus- 
tered out with company. Helman, Daniel, 
June 25, '61 ; killed at Gaines' Mill, June 27, 
'62. McCreary, John 0., June 25, '61 ; mus- 
tered out with company. McCreary, Wil- 
liam, No. 1, Sept. 19, '62; dis. March 3, 1863. 
McCreary, James S., June 25, '61 ; vet. ; trans, 
to 190th P. v.; absent sick at muster out. 
McCreary, William, No. 2, Feb. 16, '64; cap- 
tured ; trans, to 190th P. V. ; died at Florence- 
S. C, Nov., '64. Makin, John A., Aug. 29, 
'62; trans, to 190th P. V.; dis. June 1, '65. 
Mardis. Jacob L., Aug. 29, '62; trans, to 
190th P. V. ; captured ; died at Anderson- 
yille prison pen, July, '64 ; burial record Aug. 
9, '64. Moore, John, June 25, '61 ; dis. March 
20, '63. Moore, Camp, June 25, '61; dis. 
April 11, '62; died Sept. 11, '62; buried at 
Point Lookout, Md. Miller, William, June 
25, '61 ; dis. Dec. 22, '62. McCreary, Joshua 
L., June 25, '61 ; died at Point Lookout, Au?. 
17, '62. Patrick, Dallas, Sept. 19, '62 ; trans, 
to 190th P. v.; prisoner from Aug. 19, '64, 
to Feb. 28, '65; dis. June 6. '65. Powell, 
William K., June 25. '61 ; mustered out with 
the company. Rummell, James P., Sept. 19, 
'62; died at Wind :\Iill Point. Va., Jan. 20, 
'63. Ruth, Leonidas, Sept. 19, '62; died at 
Belle Plain, Va., Nov. 6, '62. Ruth. Edmund 
S., Sept. 19, '62; trans, to veteran reserve 
corps. Smyers, Philip, Sept. 19, '62; trans, 
to 190th P. V. ; dis. by general order June 1, 
'65. Shoepf, John, Sept. 22, '62; trans, to 
190th P. V. Woodford. Andrew, June 25, 
'61 ; mustered out with the company. Wood- 



ford. Powers. June 25, '61 ; mustered out with 
the companj". "Wise, John, June 25, '61 ; died 
at Washington, Nov. 28. '61. Wareham, 
Henry H., June 25. '61; trans, to veteran 
reserve corps, came home sick and died. 

Company B. — James R. Porter, captain, 
June 10. '61; promoted to lieutenant colonel 
July 2. '61 : resigned Oct. 24, '61. Daniel 
S. Porter, first lieutenant, June 10, '61 ; pro- 
moted captain July 2, '61 ; lieutenant colonel 
May 14, '63; resigned March 10. '64; bre- 
vetted colonel March 13, '65; wounded at 
Gettysburg. Pa., July 3, "63. Hannibal K. 
Sloan, second lieutenant. June 10, '61 ; pro- 
moted first lieutenant July 2. '61 ; captain 
Aug. 17, "63 ; to brevet major March 13, '65 ; 
mustered out with company June 13, '64. 
Archibald Stewart. June 10. '61; promoted 
second lieutenant July 2, '61: to first lieu- 
tenant Aug. 17, '63 ; wounded May 5. '64, and 
died of wounds May 20. '64. John S. Sutor, 
June 10, '61 ; promoted fi-om sergeant to first 
sergeant ; to second lieutenant Sept. 22, '63 : 
to brevet captain March 13, '65; tranferred 
to 190th P. v.. May 31, '64. T. j\I. McCand- 
less, first sergeant, June 10. '61 ; promoted 
quartermaster sergeant Sept. 1, '61 -. mustered 
out at expiration of term. Ephraim Davis, 
June 10. "61 ; promoted from corporal to ser- 
geant ; dis. May 31. "62. Richard H. Fair, 
June 10. '61 ; promoted from sergeant May 
1, '62 : died July 14. '62. of wounds received 
at Gaines' Jlill. Thomas R. Weaver, June 
10. '61 : promoted from sergeant July 15, '62, 
to second lieutenant 135th P. V.. Dec. 16. '62. 
William D. Kuhns. June 10. '61 ; promoted 
from sergeant to first sergeant : wounded 
at Antietam Sept. 17. '62; killed at Fred- 
ericksburg. Dec. 13, '62. Henderson C. How- 
ard. June 10. '61 : promoted from corporal 
to sergeant July 15. "62; to first sergeant 
Sept. 22, '63; wounded and prisoner at sec- 
ond Bull Run; mustered out with company 
June 13. "64. receiving three wounds; paroled. 
James L. O 'Neil, sergeant. June 10, '61 ; 
promoted to sergeant July 1. '61 ; prisoner 
at the Wilderness ]May 5. '64; never heard 
from. Samuel McCutcheon. June 10. '61 ; 
promoted June 1. '62; dis. Dec. 18, "62. 
Benjamin F. Laughlin. sergeant, June 10. 
'61 ; promoted from corporal to sergeant ; 
wounded at Fredericksburg. Dec. 13. '62 ; 
wounded at Wilderness. Ya. ; mustered out 
with company June 13. '64. John W. Hum- 
phrey, sergeant. June 10. '61 ; promoted to 
corporal and sergeant ; mustered out with 
company; good record. Gawin A. IMcClain. 
sergeant, June 10. '61 ; promoted to corporal 

and sergeant; wounded at Bull Run Aug. 
30, '62; wounded at Fredericksburg Dec. 13. 
'62; mustered out with company. ]\Iichael 
O'Neil. sergeant, June 10, '62; died at Rich- 
mond. Va., Feb. 27, '65. John j\l. Johnston, 
corporal. June 10, '61 ; promoted to corporal ; 
died at Fredericksburg. Va., Dec.»14. '62, of 
wounds received Dec. 13, '62. William M. 
Cummins, corporal. June 10, '61 ; promoted 
to corporal;' dis. Dec. 23. '61, for disability. 
Charles Shambaugh, corporal, June 10, '61; 
wounded at Bull Run, Aug. 30. '62 ; leg am- 
putated; captured a battle flag from the en- 
emy at Charles City Cross Roads; dis. Oct. 
13, '62. George W. Stewart, corporal. June 
10. '61; wounded at Antietam. Sept. 17. '62; 
dis. March 24. '63. Theodore Henderson, 
corporal, June 10, 61 : wounded at Fredericks- 
burg. Dec. 13, "62; trans, to veteran reserve 
corps. July 1, "63; promoted to corpoi-al. 
James W. Howearth. wounded at Antietam, 
Sept. 17, '62: at Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, 
'62, trans, to veteran reserve corps Sept. 1, 
'63. Constantine I\lorton, corporal, June 10, 
'61; wounded at Charles City Cross Roads, 
June 30, '62; at Bull Run. Aug. 29, '62; at 
Antietam, Sept. 17. '62; mustered out with 
company. Henry Prothero, corporal, June 
10, '61 ; good record ; mustered out with com- 
pany. George Spaulding, corporal, June 10, 
'61;' wounded at Fredericksburg, Sept. 13. 
'62; promoted to corporal; prisoner May 5, 
'64. to Dee. 11. '64; dis. Dec. 17. '64. John 
M. Shields, corporal. June 10, '61 ; promoted 
to corporal ; good record ; mustered out -with 
company. J. J. Oatman, corporal. June 10. 
'61 ; woimded ; prisoner at Charles City Cross 
Roads. June 30, '62 ; wounded at Fredericks- 
burg, Dec. 13. '62; at Gettysburg, July 2, 
'63 ; promoted to corporal ; mustered out ^vith 
company. Daniel Laughner, musician, June 
10, '61; promoted principal musician; dis. 
Dec. 12, '62. John F. McLain. musician. June 
10, '61 ; appointed regimental postmaster. 
James N. Adams, private. June 10, '61 ; good 
record, mustered out with company. E. E. 
Allen, private, June 10. '61 ; promoted to cor- 
poral ; prisoner May 30. '64. to Feb. 22. '65; 
dis. Feb. 28. '65. Joshua A. Allison, private. 
Oct. 5. '62 ; wounded at Fredericksburg. Dec. 
13. '62 ; trans, to veteran reserve corps. Wil- 
liam Atkinson, private, June 10. "61 : died 
at Georgetown. D. C. March 29. '62, of fever. 
Oscar Bush, private. June 10. "61; died at 
Gettysburg. Pa., mustered out with company. 
A. F. Bartlebaugh, private. June 10. 61: 
killed at Charles City Cross Roads, Va. John 
Berger. private. June 10, "61 ; served in sev- 


eral battles and afterwards deserted. John 
R. Campbell, June 10, '61 ; mustered out with 
company. W. H. H. Coleman, June 10, '61; 
promoted couunissary sergeant, mustered out 
with company. Thomas J\I. Coleman, June 
10, '61 ; dis. Feb. 3, '63, for disability. Sam- 
uel Carbough, June 10, '61; wounded and 
prisoner at Charles City Cross Roads, 
wounded at Fredericksburg, and dis. April 
6, '63. Harrison Connor, June 10, '61 ; 
wounded and prisoner at Charles City Cross 
Roads, and dis. Jan. 9, '63. Edwin Ches- 
ley, June 10, '61 ; wounded at Fredericks- 
burg, dis. May 7, '63. Jacob L. Craig, June 
10, '61; wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., 
trans, to veteran reserve corps. "William A. 
Compton, Sept. 19, '62; good record; trans, 
to 190th Pennsylvania Volunteers, dis. by 
general ordei-, June 1, '65. William Conner, 
June 10, '61 ; prisoner at Charles City Cross 
Roads, Va., wolmded at Fredericksburg, and 
died of woimds. :Moses B. Charles, June 10, 
'61; killed at Gaines' Mill, Va., June 27, '62. 
James Devlin, June 10, '61; wounded at 
Fredericksburg, Va. ; mustered out with com- 
pany. E. J. Devinney, June 10, '61 ; record 
good, mustered out with company. Hiram 
N. Dumm, June 10, '61 ; wounded at Gettys- 
burg, mustei-ed out with company. Johnston 
Davis, June 10, '61 ; teamster, mustered out 
with company. John R. Devlin, June 10, 
'61 ; wounded at Fredericksburg, trans, to 
veteran reseiwe corps. James W. Davis, June 
10, '61; wounded at Bull Run, and deserted 
from convalescent camp. Alexander G. Eak- 
man, June 10, '61; wounded at Gettysburg, 
mustered out with company. William B. 
Elliott, June 10, '61 ; captured a battle flag 
at Spottsylvania, mustered out with company. 
William H. Empfield, June 10, '61 ; Avoianded 
at Bull Run, and dis. Oct. 20, '62. David 
Pyock. June 10, '61 ; record good, mustered 
out with company. H. W. Fetterman, June 
10, '61 ; killed at Charles City Cross Roads, 
June 30, '62. J. T. Gibson, Feb. 23, '64; 
musician, trans, to 190th P. V., dis. by G. 0. 
June 24, '65. James Glenn, June 10, '61 ; 
wounded and taken prisoner at Charles City 
Cross Roads, and died at Richmond, Va., July 
14, '62. John J. Gromley, Sept. 9, '62; trans. 
to 190th P. V. Joseph Huffman, June 10. '61 ; 
regimental butcher and served in three bat- 
tles; mustered out with company. W. M. J. 
Harbison, June 10, '61 ; wounded at Bull 
Run and Wilderness, Va. Frank Harbison, 
June 10, '61 ; wounded at Bull Run and at 
Bethesda Church, Va. Solomon Ilarman, 
June 10, '61; prisoner at Charles City Cross 

Roads; wounded, leg off; mustered out with 
company. William M. Hazlett, June 10, '61 ; 
wounded at Charles City Cross Roads; mus- 
tered out with company. Samuel B. Har- 
rison, June 10, '61 ; dis. July 8, '62. William 
Hill, July 11, '61; wounded at Bull Run; 
dis. Jan. 12, '63. Thomas B. Hood, June 10, 
'61 ; dis. Jan. 29, '63, for disability. John 
L. Hall, June 10, '61; veteran, good record; 
trans, to 190th P. V. Samuel B. Hall, Jan. 
7, '64; trans, to 190th P. V. David Hoover, 
Sept. 8, '61 ; good record ; trans, to 190th P. 
v., captured; died at Salisbury, N. C, Nov. 
30, '64. Jethro W. Hill, June 10, '61 ; killed 
at Charles City Cross Roads, June 30, '62. 
William Henry, June 10, '61 ; killed at Spott- 
svlvania C. H., Va., May 8, '64. Henry C. 
Hazlett, June 10, '61 ; killed at Charles City 
Cross Roads, June 30, '62. David Hauser, 
died at City Point, Va., July 4, '64. George 
W. Johnson, dis. Dec. 26, ''63. William T. 
Kinter, July 11, '61 ; trans, to veteran re- 
serve corps; dis. at expiration of term. Wil- 
liam Kunkle, July 11, '61 ; wounded at Get- 
tysburg, Pa. ; trans, to veteran reserve corps. 
John G. Kimberlin, June 10, '61 ; wounded at 
South Mountain, Md., and died of wounds. 
George W. Lowman, June 10, '61; wounded 
at Bristoe Station, Va., arm amputated; dis. 
Feb. 15, '64. Allison Lowman, Sept. 19, '62 ; 
good record; trans, to 190th P. V.; dis. by 
general order, June 1, '65. Jacob N. Lay- 
man, July 10, '61 ; wounded and captured at 
Charles City Cross Roads, Va. ; trans, to vet- 
eran reserve corps. Samuel Lowman, June 
10, '61 ; died from wounds received at Charles 
City Cross Roads, Va., June 30, '62. J. M. 
Laughrey, June 10, '61 ; died Sept. 8, '62, of 
wounds received at Bull Run, Va., Aug. 29, 
'62. William Laughrey, June 10, '61 ; killed 
at South Mountain, Md., Sept. 14, '62. Lewis, 
John, June 10, '61 ; wounded at Charles City 
Cross Roads, Va., and killed at Fredericks- 
burg, Va., Dec. 13, '62. Mack, W. H. H., 
June 10, '61 ; good record ; mustered out with 
company. McCurdy, John G., June 10, '61 ; 
captured at Wilderness May 5, '64. McDon- 
ald, William P., June 10, '61 ; prisoner May 
5, '64, to Dec. 6, '64 ; mustered out with com- 
pany. McHenry, Oliver S.. June 10, '61; 
dis." June 21, '62. McCurdy, Samuel R., 
Sept. 8, '61 ; trans, from Company D to Com- 
pany B ; dis. June 4, '62. McKelvey, Thomas 
H., April 4, '62; dis. on surgeon's certificate. 
McGuire, Joseph H., July 10, '61; vet.; 
wounded and prisoner at Charles City Cross 
Roads, Va. ; trans, to 190th P. V. Mitchell, 
Robert M., July 12, '61 ; died at Washington, 



D. C, Jlav 31, '62, of fever. Moore, Thomas 
S., June lb, '61 ; died Sept. 18, '62, of wounds 
received at Antietam, Md., Sept. 17, "62. 
Powell, Henry, Aug. 29, '62; killed at Bris- 
toe Station, Va., Oct. 14, '63. Ra.y, Hugh, 
June 10, '61 ; discharged Jan. 7, '69, for dis- 
ability. Ray, Samuel, July 10, '61; vet.; 
good record"; trans, to 190th P. V.; prisoner 
May 3, '64, to April 15, '65; mustered out 
witii company. Richardson, William, March 
21, '62; vet."; trans, to 190th P. V. Smith, 
John L., June 10, '61; deserted Sept., '62; 
returned March, '63 ; mustered out with com- 
pany. Shick, Samiiel, June 10, '61; good 
record; mustered out with company. Stew- 
art. John W.. June 10, '61 ; dis. Dec. 5, '61. 
Sheffler, Uriah, June 10, '61; wounded at 
Charles City Cross Roads, Va., June 30, '62. 
and dis. Oct. 6, '62. Sherman, Robert F., 
June 10, '61; wounded at South Mountain. 
Md., Sept. 14, '62. and dis. Shadrach, Wil- 
liam, June 10, '61 ; dis. May 6. '63, for dis- 
ability. Smith, Marshall S., June 10, '61; 
promoted to sergeant major; mustered out 
with regiment. Smith, John A., July 11, '61 ; 
vet. ; good record ; trans, to 190th P. V. ; mus- 
tered out with company. Stork, William, 
June 10, '61 ; trans, to veteran reserve corps. 
Stephens, James, Sept. 19, '62; wounded at 
Fredericksburg Dec. 13, '62; trans, to 190th 
P. V. Henry Stuchel, July 11, '61; killed 
at South aiountain, Md., Sept. 14, "62. 
George Trimble, June 10, '61: dis. Dec. 30, 
'62. William K. Thomas, June 10, "61: 
wounded at South ]Mountain, jMd., Sept. 14. 
'62, and at Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, '62. 
trans, to veteran reserve corps. James H. 
Trimble, June 10, '61; killed at Fredericks- 
burg, Dec. 13, '62. John Wagner, June 10. 
'61 ; wounded at Charles City Cross Roads, 
arm amputated and dis., date unknown. 
James Wineman. July 17, '61 ; wounded and 
prisoner at Charles City Cross Roads, died 
at Richmond, Va., July 11, '62. Frank T. 
Yoiuig, June 10, '61 : promoted second lieu- 
tenant Company G, 67th Pennsylvania A'ol- 
unteers, Nov. 5, '62, and mustered out at ex- 
piration of time, enlisted in United States 
regular army, served two years, returned to 
Indiana and died. 

Company D. — William C. Coleman, first 
sergeant, Sept. 8. '61 ; veteran : promoted 
from private to corporal, to tii'St sergeant ; 
transferred to 190th P. V., and promoted to 
first lieutenant: served through the war; 
wounded three times. Peter Bedilliou (or 
Redilier), July 16, '61; died Jan. 17, '62. 
James G. Devinney, private. Sept. 21, "61; 

discharged May 9, '62. Israel Gibson, March 
17. "64; trais. to 190th P. V..; died in Rebel 
prison. ^lark Gilpatrick, March 17, '64; 
trans, to 190th P. V. Samuel F. Hazlett, 
Sept. 10, '61; dis. Nov. 21, '62. Joseph B. 
Hazlett, March 3, '62; trans, to veteran re- 
serve corps. Oscar C. Hoyt, Sept. 21, '61; 
died in hospital. James H. McComb, Feb. 
9, "64 ; trans, to 190th P. V. ; taken prisoner 
and died. William R. McNeal, Sept. 8, '61 ; 
died Oct. 25, '62, of wounds received at sec- 
ond Bull Run. James Robertson, Feb. 16, 
'64; trans, to 190th P. V. Andrew Shauk, 
Sept. 8, '61 ; vet. ; trans, to 190th P. V. ; mus- 
tered out with regiment. William M. Shear- 
er, Sept. 8, '61; dis. Aug. 27, '62, and died. 
Thompson, (Samuel F?) Smith, Sept. 8, '61; 
dis. Aug. 1, '62, and died. John Shauk, Feb. 
26, '64; vet.; trans, to 190th P. V. James 
(or .John S.) Stanley, March 31. "64; trans, 
to 190th P. V. 

Company E. — Nathaniel Nesbit, captain, 
June 21, '61; died Sept. 21, '62, of wounds 
received at South Mountain, Md. Daniel R. 
Coder, lirst lieutenant, June 21, '61; pro- 
moted to captain, April 18, '63, to brevet 
major, March 13, '65, wounded at Bull Run, 
Aug. 30, '62; mustered out with- company, 
June 3, '67. Hugh A. Torrence, second lieu- 
tenant, June 21, "61; promoted regimental 
quartermaster, July 2, '61; brevet captain, 
:\Iarch 13, '65 ; wounded at South ^Mountain ; 
mustered out with regiment. Richard M. 
Biskman, first sergeant, June 21, '61 ; pro- 
moted to second lieutenant. May 13, '62; to 
first lieutenant, April 10, '63 ; transferred to 
190th P. .v.; brevet major, April 9, '65; 
mustered out with the company. J. P. R. 
Cumraisky, first lieutenant, June 21, '61 ; 
promoted to first sergeant, promoted to first 
lieutenant Company D, 105th P. V., Jan. 13, 
'62; killed at Fair Oaks, Va., May 31, '62.- 
Charles W. Herring, sergeant, June 11, '62; 
promoted first sergeant, mustered out with 
company. James C. ilarshall, sergeant, June 
21, '61: died of wounds received in action. 
James L. Hazlett, sergeant, June 21, '61; 
wounded at South ^Mountain, Md., and died 
at home from effects of wounds. Theodore L. 
^Marshall, sergeant, June 21. "61; promoted 
from corporal, wounded, discharged June 9. 
"63. John C. Doran, sergeant. June 21, "61 ; 
promoted from corjDoral, wounded at South 
Mountain, Md., mustered out with the com- 
pany. Edward T. Means, sergeant, June 21, 
"61 ; promoted to sergeant, wounded at Frede- 
ricksburg, mustered out with company, and 
died since from the effects of wounds. Wil- 



liam II. II. Lyons, sergeant, June 21, '61 ; 
promoted corporal and sergea*nt, mustered 
out with company. John Uucapher, sergeant, 
June 21, '61 ; promoted to sergeant, mustered 
out with company. Williani H. H. Edricks, 
corpoi-al, June 21, '61; wounded at Mechan- 
iesville, Va., taken prisoner and died at Rich- 
mond, Va., Jan. 9, '63. Robert S. McCall, 
corporal, June 21, '61; trans, to veteran re- 
serve corps. James A. Sliort, corporal, June 
21, '61 ; promoted to corporal, died of wounds 
received at Gaines' Mill, June 26, '62. Sam- 
uel Spires, corporal, June 21, '61; promoted 
corporal, dis. on sergeant's eertiticate. George 
K. Nesbit, corporal, June 21, '61; promoted 
to corporal, died Oct. 14, '61. J. L. McPar- 
land, corpora], June 21, '61 ; died from 
wounds received at Gaines' Mill, June 27, 
'62. Robert McGuire. corporal, June 21, '61 ; 
died from wounds received at Gaines' Mill, 
June 27, '62. John C Rugh, corpoi-al, 
Sept. 9. '61 ; promoted to corporal, trans, to 
190th P. v., June 1. '64. Samuel H. Coon, 
corporal, Sept. 9, '61 ; promoted to cor- 
poral, trans, to 190th P. V., June 1, '64, dis. 
at expiration of time. James J. Fritz, cor- 
poral, June 21. '61 ; veteran ; captured at 
Wilderness, Va., trans, to 190th P. V., June 
1, '64, wounded at Gettysburg. James W. 
McGinley. corporal, July 15, '61 ; mustered 
out with company. W. H. H. Bell, musician, 
June 21, '61; dis. Feb. 5, '63. Robert B. 
Carrol, musician, July 15, '61 ; color bearer 
at South ]\Iountain until relieved by Sergeant 
Hazlett: mustered out with company. John 
P. Bell, private, June 21, '61 ; mustered out 
with company. John Brinks, June 21, '61 ; 
mustered out with companv. John C. Bark- 
ley. June 21, '61; dis. Jan. 8, '63. T. H. 
Butterfield, Sept. 21, '61 ; promoted to hos- 
pital steward Nov. 1, '63. James. M. Brown, 
July 25, '61: killed at Charle.s City Cross 
Roads, June 30, '62; William Carlisle, June 
21, '61 ; wounded at Wilderness, May 6, '64. 
J. M. Clawson, Juue 21, '61 ; dis. May 17, '63. 
William Connor, Sept. 22, '61 ; prisoner at 
Wilderness; trans, to 190th P. V. June 1, 
'64. Thompson Cramer, Sept. 12, '62; 
wounded at Frederieksville : trans, to 190th 
P. V. June 1, '64. Thomas Carson, Sept. 9, 
'61; killed at Gaines' Mill, Va., June 27, '62. 
Robert W. Cathcart, June 21, '61 ; killed af 
South Mountain, Md., Sept. 14, '62. Alfred 
Canada, July 29, '61; died Sept. 29, '62. 
Martin Doran, Feb. 10, '62 ; dis. Feb. 10, '63 ; 
reenlisted in United States Regular army; 
killed at Wilderness, Va. Gillis D. Dunlap, 
Sept. 12, '62 : wounded at Fredericksburg, 

Bristoe Station, and once afterward; trans, 
to 190th P. v., June 1, '64. Samuel W. 
Davis, June 21, '61; trans, to Company I.; 
dis. Feb. 10, '63. William H. li. Doak, July 
15, '61; died of wounds received at Gaines' 
Mill, Va. John Dunkle, Sept. 12, '62; died 
of wounds, date unknown. Joseph W. Elder, 
July 15, '61 ; mustered out with company. 
John W. Ewing, teamster, June 21, '61 ; 
mustered out with company. Joseph B. Eak- 
nian, June 21, '61 ; mustered out with com- 
pany. Henry Eshbaugh, June 21, '61 ; mus- 
tered out with company. James M. English, 
]\Iarch 1, '62 ; dis. Jan. 30, '63. Abram Esh- 
elman. Dee. 9, '63 ; trans, to 190th P. V. June 
1, '64. Boyd E. Ewing, June 21, '61; died 
Oct. 31, '61. William T. Ewing, June 21, 
'61; died May 16, '62. Sol. S. Edwards, 
June 21, '61; killed at Gaines' Mill, Va., 
June 27, "62. Aug. A. Ferguson, June 22, 
'61 ; trans, to 10th United States Infantry. 
Scott M. Ferguson, June 21, '61 ; killed at 
South IMountain, ild., Sept. 14, '62. William 
C.'Foy, June 21, '61; died of wounds received 
at Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, '62. Joshua L. 
Gray, June 21, '61 ; mustered out with com- 
pany. Joshua A. Groft, June 21, '61 ; 
wounded ; dis. May 18, '63. George C. Gwin- 
ner, June 21, '61 ; dis. Jan. 13, '63. James 
Gourley. June 21, '61; dis: Nov. 24, '63. 
Samuel i\I. Garris, March 1, '62; wounded at 
Fredericksburg; dis. on surgeon's certificate. 
Robert Gordon, June 21, '61 ; dis. July 15, 
'63. David Griffin, Sept. 12. '62; trans, to 
190th P. V. June 1, '64; died in Anderson- 
ville prison. Lemuel C. Harold, June 21, 
'61 ; mustered out with company. Nicholas 
P. Hughes, June 21, '61; dis. May 20, '63; 
Sal. Hatch. June 21. '61; killed at Gaines' 
Mill, June 27, '62. John D. Hart, Sept. 9, 
'61 ; died of wounds received at Gaines' Mill, 
June 27, '62. Thomas J. Jenkins, June 21, 
'61 ; killed at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 
'62. Jacob Kimple, July 25, '61 ; wounded at 
Gaines' Mill and South Mountain; mustered 
out with company. Jacob Libengood, June 
21. '61; wounded in action and dis. Dec. 17, 
'62. George W. Miller, June 21, '61; mus- 
tered out with company. Robert Makin, July 
15, '61 ; mustered out with company. Alex 
C. Miller, June 21, '61 ; mustered out with 
company. Robert McKeen, June 21, '61; on 
detached service with artillery; mustered out 
with company. Thomas J. Moses, June 21, 
'61; prisoner May 5, '64, to Feb. 27, '65. 
John C. Myers, June 21, '61; mustered out 
with company. James S. McGuire, June, 21, 
'61 : mustered out with company. Uriah 


Marsh, July 15, "61; mustered out with eom- Cum pan ij /.—David Berry, second lieutei<- 
pany. James J. Marshall, July 15, "61 ; mus- ant, June 17, '61 ; promoted first lieutenant 
tered out with company. William MePhil- April 10, "63; mustered out with company 
imy, July 25, '61; dis. Dec. 7, '61. A. W. ilitehel R. Brown, corporal June 17 '61- 
MeCuUough, June 21, '61 (Lutheran min- killed at Fredericksburt;-, Dec. 13, '62. 'aIbx- 
ister now) ; dis. May 11, '62. James S. auder Bruce, private, July 9, '61 • prisoner 
Moorhead, July 29, '62; dis. date unknown. May 10, '64; died in Audersonville prison 
James E. Meaner, June 21, '61; dis. Aug. pen, Oct. 23, '64; grave No. 11329 John 
23, '62. G. R. McElhaney, July 15, '61; Brandon, Sept. 10. '61; killed 'at Gaines' 
dis. Feb. 2, '63. John N. McKelvey, June Mill, June 27, '62. ' Washington Cun-y July 
21, '61 ; dis. Oct. 16, '63. John N. Means, 29, '61 ; dis. Aug. 30, '61. Francis Cruise 
June 21, '61; dis. date unknown. Nelson June 17, '61; absent without leave Nov o' 
McCormick, June 21, '61; dis. May 10, '63. '62. Thomas K. Crusaw, Sept. 21, ''61; dis' 
Norman L. Moore, trans, to veteran reserve Oct. 12, '62. Joseph J. Davis, June 17,' '61 ; 
corps July, '63. Samuel A. MeLain, June sergeant; promoted to first lieutenant of Com- 
21, '61; killed at Gaines' Mill, June 27, pany E, 177th P. V., Nov 21 '61 Samuel 
'62. G. M. McFarland, July 21, '61; killed w. Davis, June 21, '61; dis.' Feb. 10 '63 
at Gaines' Mill, June 27, '62. Louis McFar- Cyrus Eakman, June 17, '61; corporal •' mus- 
land, July 29, '61; killed at Games' Mill, tered out with company. John A. Flick'inger 
June 27, '62. 'William H. Mangaw, June 21, July i^ '61- trans, to U. S. regular army Nov' 
'61; died March 21. '64, at Alexandria, Va. 9, '62. John Grumbling. July 1, '61; pro- 
William S. Marshall, June 21, '61; died at moted to sergeant; transferred to veteran 
Point Lookout, ild., Sept. 14, '62. W. E. reserve corps, Oct. 3, '63. John A. Hill, June 
McCausland, June 21, '61 ; died July 8, '62, 17, '61; sergeant; promoted to sergeant 
at Philadelphia, Pa. John McPhilimy, July major ; killed at Fredericksburg, Dec 13 '62 
25, '61 ; killed at Fredericksburg Dec. 13. '62. Henry A. Harkins, June 17, '61 ; promoted 
Andrew R. Mitchell, June 21, '61; wounded corporal and sergeant: wounded and prisoner 
and prisoner at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, at Wilderness, May 5, '64, to Dec. 6, '64 ; 
'62; died at Richmond, Va., Jan. 9, '63. dis. Dec. 12, '64. "Joseph Henderson, ' June 
Robert A. Park, June 21, '61; wounded at 17, '61; mustered out with company.' John 
Antietam Sept. 17, '62. Jacob Pehel, June A. Hendricks, June 17, '61 ; dis. Dee. 5, '62. 
21, '61; dis. Dec. 12, '61. Samuel Russell, William S. (or L) Hamilton, June 17,' '61 • 
Sept. 12, '62 ; wounded at Fredericksburg ; missing in action at Wilderness, May 5, '64 '; 
trans, to 190th P. V. June 1, '64. Archibild supposed to have died in Andersonville 
C. Rankin, Feb. 20, '62; killed at Gaines' prison. William Hosack, Sept. 10, '61; cap- 
Mill June 27, '62. Cornelius B. Riddle, June tured at Wilderness; absent at muster out. 
21, '61 ; killed at Fredericksburg Dec. 13. '62. David R. Jenkins, June 17, '61 ; corporal : 
Daniel S. Spires. June 21, '61 ; mustered out dis. Feb. 4, '63. Lemuel W. Jenkins, June 
with company. Harrison D. Sacket, Feb. 24, 17, '61 ; corporal ; mustered out with coni- 
'62; dis. Sept. 16, '62. Samuel 51. Shields, pany. George Jones, Feb. 2, '64; trans, to 
June 21, '61; wounded at South Mountain 190th P. V. ; wounded at Wilderness; missing 
and dis. James M. Shearer, Jan. 13, '62 ; dis. at muster out. John King, July 18, '61 ; 
Jan. 19, '63. John W. Smith. Sept. 9, '61 ; absent without leave, Aug. 25, '62. David 
dis. Feb. 7, '63. James Simpson, June 21, Kinkaid, June 17, '61; sergeant; dis. Feb. 
'61, wounded at Fredericksburg; dis. March 10, '63. John L. Kuhn. July 9, '61; missing 
24, '63. Oliver H. Scott. June 21, '61 ; in action at Bethesda Church, May' 30, '64^^ 
wounded: trans, to vet. reserve corps, '63. William Kelley, Jime 17, '61; killed at 
John P. Snowden, June 21, 61; trans, to Gaines' Mill, June 27, '62. Henry Mundorf, 
veteran reserve corps, '63. Josiah Sloan, June 17, '61 ; killed at Bethesda Church, May 
March. 3, '62; trans, to 190th P. V. June 1, 30, '64. Benjamin C. McDowell, Feb. 3, '62; 
'64. James N. Simpson, June 21, '61; trans, to 190th P. V.; captured and died in 
wounded at South Mountain Sept. 14, '62; Andersonville prison. James W. McMasters, 
died Sept. 24, '62. Robert P. Sutor, June 21, June 17, '61; corporal: vet.; trans, to 190tli 
'61; died at Smoketown, Md., Oct. 19, '62. P. V. Huston Munshower, Aug. 24, '62; dis. 
Ira G. West, June 21, 61; trans, to naval Jan. 2. '63. Peter Palmer. Feb. 2, '64; vet.; 
service. George Watkins, June 21, '61; died trans, to 190th P. V. Absolom Palmer, Jan. 
Oct. 22, '61. Arm.strong A. Wilev. June 21; 2. '62; dis. June 4. '62. Thomas S. Ruther- 
killed at Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, '62. ford, Sept. 17, '61 ; dis. June 9, '62. William 


Spires, June 17. '61 ; mustered out from hos- discharged. William W. Altemus, July 24, 

pital. Lawson Spires, June 17, '61 -. mus- '61 ; wounded at South Mountain and dis. 

tered out with company. Joseph Sides, June Franklin R. Barr, July 24, '61 ; mustered out 

17, '61 ; trans, to veteran reserve corps. John with company. William Bracken, July 24, 

w'ilkins, July 1. '61 : died at Alexandria, Va., "61; mustered out with company. Poster 

Oct. 27, '62. Bracken, July 24, '61; dis. June 20, '62. 

Thomas Barr, July 24, '61 ; dis. date unkuown. 

41ST PENNSYLVANi.v VOLUNTEERS— 12tii Enoch Benson, July 24, '61; died from 

RFSERVES wounds received at Antietam, Sept. 17, '62. 

David W. Barkley, July 24, '61 ; killed at 

Company H.—A. J. Bolar, captain. July Fredericksburg, Dee. 13, '62. George C. 
24, '61; promoted to major, July 8, '62; Cribbs, July 24, '61; mustered out with 
wounded and prisoner at Fredericksburg; company. John C. Cameron, July 24, '61; 
discharged on account of wounds irccived in mustered out with company. William W. 
action, June 30, '64. Samuel M. KIdcr. cap- Canipbell, July 24, '61; veteran; trans, 
tain, July 24, '61; promotcdto first licuteu- to lltOth P. V. Timothy Connelly, July 
ant, Aug. 20, '61, to captain, July 8, '62; 24, '61; dis. Oct. 15, '62. John J. Cross- 
mustered out with company. James S. Kelly, mire, July 24, '61 ; trans, to 51st Regi- 
first lieutenant, July 24, '61; resigned Aug. ment, P. V., Oct. 29, "61. John W. Camp- 
3, '63. William II. II. Kern, first lieutenant, bell, July 24, '61 ; died Aug. 22, '61. Thomp- 
j'uly 24, '61; promoted .to first lieutenant, son Dick, July 24, '61; mustered out with 
July 8, '62; dis. April 28, '64. Thomas H. company. Samuel W. Drips, July 24, '61; 
Dix, sergeant, July 24. '61 ; promoted to ser- vet. ; trans, to 190th P. V. ; commissioned 
geant; wounded May 8, '64; mustered out captain — not mustered. Ezekiel Davis, Feb. 
with company. John Bills, sergeant, July 25, '64; trans, to 190th Pa. V. Andrew J. 
24. '61; promoted to corporal and sergeant; Duncan, July 24, '61; died of wounds re- 
mustered out with company. James Irwin, ceived at Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, '62. Sam- 
sergeant, July 24, '61 ; promoted to sei-geant ; uel W. Evans, July 24, '61 ; mustered out 
mustered out with company. John Evans, with company. Robert C. Edelblute, Feb. 
sergeant, July 24, '61 ; promoted to hospital 25, '62 ; wounded at South Mountain and dis. 
steward,' mustered out with regiment. M. T. John C. Fulton, July 24, '61 ; mustered out 
Moorhead, sergeant, July 24, '61 ; dis. Oct. with company. Joseph Faloon, July 24, '61 ; 
31, '62. W. R. Bracken, sergeant, July 24, mustered out with company. Samuel J. 
'61 ; wounded and prisoner at Charles City Ferguson, July 24, '61 ; vet. ; trans, to 190th 
Cross Roads, Va. ; died of wounds. John P. P. V. William Grumbling, July 24, '61 ; 
Griffith, sergeant, July 24, '61; promoted to mustered out with company. David L. 
sergeant ; killed at Fredericksburg, Dee. 13, Ginter, Oct. 16, '61 ; vet. ; trans, to 190th P. 
'62. James D. Love, corporal, July 24, '61 ; V. Jedediah Grover, July 24, '61 ; dis. Dec. 
wounded at Bull Run; prisoner from Dec. 28, '61. William H. Gamble, July 24, '61; 
13, '62, to May 8, '63 : mustered out with dis. Dec. 30, '61. J. Grumbling, July 24, '61 ; 
company. Andrew Ken-, corporal, July 24, dis. Dec. 31, '62. Alexander N. Hart, July 24, 
'61- mustered out with company. John H. '61; mustered out with company. J. D. 
Brown corporal, July 24, '61 ; promoted to Hilderbrand, July 24, '61 ; prisoner Dec. 13, 
corporal ; mustered out with company. Sam- '62, to May 17, '63 ; wounded at Spottsyl- 
uel H. McNutt, corporal, July 24, '61; pro- vania; mustered out with company. Joseph 
moted to corporal ; mustered out with com- D. Henderson, July 24, '61 ; dis. Dec. 5, '62. 
pany Samuel Johnson, corporal, July 24, William M. Hadden, March 14, '62 r dis. 
'61; transferred to veteran reserve corps, April 1, '63. Thomas Hogan, July 24, '61; 
mustered out at expiration of term. Samuel served two years and deserted. William Jun- 
Cunningham, corporal, July 24, '61 ; wounded kins, July 24, '61 ; mustered out with com- 
at Bull Run, and discharged (attorney at pany. John Lawson, July 24, '61 ; wounded 
Indiana Pa ) . John C. Lardin, corporal, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; mustered out from 
July 24, '61; dis. Dec. 13, '62. George W. hospital. James McDonald, July 24, '61; 
Robertson, corporal, July 24, '61; wounded mustered out with company. M. McLaugh- 
at Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, '62, and dis. lin, July 24, '61; mustered out with com- 
Henry W. L. Drips, musician, March 8, '62 ; pany. Henry Merritts, July 24, '61 ; wounded 
trans, to 190th P. V. William Altemus, July May 8, '64 ; absent sick at muster out. Sam- 
24 '61 : wounded at Mechaniesville, Va., and uel :McClaran, July 24, '61 ; vet. ; trans, to 


190th P. V. James McClune, vet.; trans, to mustered out with company. James E. 

190th P. V. ; came home sick and died. Joseph Thomas, July 24, '61 ; died at Camp Pierre- 
Mintzer, July 24, '61 ; vet. ; trans, to 190th " pont, Va., March 21, '62. Abel B. Wilson, 

P. V. Benjamin May, July 24, '61 ; dis. Dee. July 24, '61 ; mustered out with company. 

23, '61, Archibald Miller, July 24, '61 ; John W. Williams, July 24, '61 ; vet. ; trans, 
dis. Oct. 15, '62. William ]\Iintzer, July 24, to 190th P. V. Henry Waltermeyer, July 24, 
'61. dis. April 12, '63. George Merritts, '61 ; vet. ; trans, to 190th P. V. ' Andrew 
July 24, '61; dis. Oct. 8, '62 (dead). Cal- Wolf, July 24, '61; vet.; trans, to 190th P. 
vin Martin, June 15, '61 ; vet. ; trans, to 190th V. Joseph Williams, July 24, '61 ; wounded 
P. V. William Myers, June 24, '61 ; pro- at Bull Run, Aug. 30, '62, and dis. William 
moted to sergeant major, to first lieutenant Waltemeyer, Feb. 13, '64; trans, to 190th 
Company I, to brevet captain March 13, '65 ; P. V. 

mustered out with company Alexander R. 43^, Pennsylvania volunteers-Ist light 
McMullen, July 24, 61 ; killed at Chares artillery-14th reserves 

City Cross Roads, June 30, 62. Stotler 

Mintzer, March 4, '62; died July 6, '62, of Battery A," Easton's."— Levi Adams, Feb. 
wounds received at Charles City Cross Roads. 17^ '64; wounded, and died near Chapin's 
George Martin, July 24, '61 ; killed at Spott- farm, Va., Sept. 30, '64. 
sylvania C. H., Va., May 12, '64. Stewart Battery F, "'Ricketts'."~Charles F. Far- 
Meredith, July 24, '61; died May 16. '64. of ren, Feb. 22, '64; mustered out with battery; 
wounds received at Spottsylvania C. H., Va. jjed since. John Myers, Feb. 16, '64; mus- 
William Makin, Feb. 18, '62 ; killed at Bull tered out with battery. William Wissinger, 
Run, Aug. 30, '62. Francis C. Overdorf, July :March 8, '64; mustered out with battery. 

24, '61; dis. Sept. 24, '61. Harvey Overdorf, Battery G, "West's."— Thomas C. Baker, 
July 24, '61; killed at Charles City Cross Peb. 22, '64; Edward Boring, Feb. 16. '64; 
Roads. David C. Overdorf, July 24, '61; Reuben S. Boring, Feb. 16, '64: George S. 
killed at Antietam, Md., Sept. 17, '62. Buchanan, Feb. 9, '64 ; Andrew Carney, Feb. 
Thomas Painter, July 24, '61 ; wounded at 22, '64 ; James B. Elder, Feb. 17, '64 ; Frank 
Antietam, Sept. 17. '62, and dis. Henry r. Fleck, Feb. 24. '64; George Freek, Feb. 
Painter, July 24, '61; trans, to 190th P. V. 17^ '64; Solomon Fulmer, Feb. 17, '64; miis- 
Archibald M. Rogers, July 24, '61 ; wounded tered out with battery. William J. Fuller, 
at Bull Run ; mustered out with company. Peb. 20, '64 ; veteran ; on detached duty with 
Bennett Rhodes, July 24, '61 ; mustered out 5th U. S. Artillery, Batterv L ; was killed at 
with company. Jeremiah A. Rhodes, July Winchester, Va., " July 24," '64. James W. 
24, '61 ; mustered out with company. Alex- Hopkins, Feb. 24, '64 "; promoted to corporal ; 
ander Ream, July 24, '61 : dis. Oct. 23. '62. mustered out with battery. David Hancock. 
William Ream, Aug. 26, '62 ; trans, to 190th peb. 25, '64 ; mustered out with battery. Cas- 
P. V. William Reckord, July 24, '61 ; killed gjus c. Harrison, Feb. 22, '64 ; mustered out 
at Wilderness, Va. Robert B. Stewart, July May 23, '65. A. G. Kettering, March 5, '64; 
24, '61 ; mustered out with company. Wil- mustered out with battery. Isaac F. Kitner, 
liam B. Soniers, July 24, '61 ; wounded at Peb. 17, '64 ; mustered out with battery ; died 
Fredericksburg, Dee. 13, '62; absent sick at since. Daniel Long, Feb. 10, '62; Henry Mc- 
muster out. David Simpson, July 24, '61 ; Dermitt, Feb. 9, '64 ; William R. Myers, Feb. 
wounded at Fredericksburg and dis. James ig, '64; Josephus Osboni, Feb. 17, '64; 
S. Stewart, July 24, '61 ; wounded at Antie- Robert W. Rowe. Feb. 8, '64 ; mustered out 
tarn, IMd.. and dis. Edward Stephens. July with battery. W. S. Shields, Feb. 22, '64; 
24, '61 : dis. Feb. 25, '62. George W. Stout- mustered out with battery ; was physician at 
eagle, June 15, '61 ; vet. ; trans, to 190th P. Jlarion. John D. Snyder, Feb. 17, '64. Or- 
V. Berd B. Sherman, July 24, '61; vet.; bmdo Snyder. Feb. "25, '64: mustered out 
trans, to 190th P. V.; died in Andersonville v ith battery. Daniel D. Smith, Feb 24, '64; 
prison. Robert Stunkerd, July 24, '61 ; died at vet. ; died at Harper's Ferry, June, '65. John 
Georgetown, D. C, Oct. 13, '64. Henry Shu- a. Vanhorn, Feb. 24, '64. Andrew Wissinger, 
man, March 19, '62 ; killed at South Mountain, Peb. 24, '64; mustered out with battery. 
Md., Sept. 14, '62. Oliver Sproul, July 24, 

'61 ; killed at South Mountain, Sept. 14, '62. 46th Pennsylvania volunteers 
John Swarts, July 24, '61 ; vet. ; killed at Wil- 
derness, Va. James F. Tomb. July 24, '61; James T. Adair, Aug. 4, '63; promoted to 
prisoner, Dec. 13, '62. to May 17, '63 ; first lieutenant and assistant surgeon of 77th 


Pennsylvania Volunteers. John Barkey, J. Pettieord, corporal, Sept. 30, '61 ; vet.,; 

July 13, '63: mustered out with regiment, promoted sergeant; absent; sick at muster 

John Ballentine, July 14, '63; mustered out out. Curtis McCornish, corporal, Sept. 30, 

vith regiment. Joseph Clingenberger, July '61 ; vet. ; promoted sergeant, second lieuten- 

30, '63 ; mustered out with regiment. James ant, first lieutenant ; wounded at Cold Harbor, 

Duncan, July 13, '63; discharged by general Va. ; mustered out with company. Isaac 

order May 26, '65. James Frederick, July Wilks, Sept. 19, '61 ; died at Beaufort, S. C, 

13, '63 ; mustered out with regiment. George Dec. 25, '62. William Cunningham, corporal. 

Grove, July 13, '63 ; mustered out with regi- Oct. 21, '61 ; killed at Edisto Island, S. C, 

ment. Andrew Hancock, July 14, '63 ; mus- March 29, '62. John D. Glass, corporal, Sept. 

tered out with regiment. William Hancock, 26, '61 ; vet. ; promoted sergeant ; mustered 

July 14, '63 ; mustered out with regiment, out with company. John Houston, corporal, 

Armstrong Henderson, July 14, '63 ; mus- Sept. 26, '61 ; vet. ; promoted commissioned 

tered out with regiment. Adam (or Elijah) sergeant, second lieutenant and first lieuten- 

Hefner, Aug. 11, '63; mustered out with ant; resigned March 19, '65. George W. 

regiment. George Kroft, July 14, '63 ; had Stoops, corporal, Nov. 7, '61 ; discharged May, 

feet frozen on picket duty ; toes amputated. '62. C. S. JMcCrea, musician, Oct. 14, '61 ; 

Dennis McSweeney, Jiily 13, '63 ; wounded at vet. ; mustered out with company. Mathias 

Decard Station, Tenn. ; mustered out with Altemus, private. April 8, '65; mustered out 

regiment. James (or John) Mclntire, July with company. Matthew Askim, Oct. 24, '62; 

13, '63 ; served to June 20, '65. Matthew T. died in hospital. P. W. Prindenbach, Feb. 
Eankin, July 13, '63 ; mustered out with 11, '64 ; mustered out with company. Barna- 
regiment. William T. Smith, July 13, '63; bus B. Black, Feb. 20, '64 ; mustered out with 
promoted to corporal ; mustered out with company. Taylor Bryan, Feb. 9, '64 ; dis. 
regiment. William Stivison, July 13, '63 ; by G. 0. May 13. '65. Joshua Browm, Sept. 
mustered out with regiment. Robert K. 19, '61 ; trans, to United States regular army. 
Stuchel, July 13, '63; mustered out with regi- J. H. Bridenbach, Feb. 13, '64; trans to vet- 
ment. J. Watt Smith, July 14, '63 ; dis. by eran reserve corps ; dis. Aug. 28, '65. William 
general order, June' 8, 1865. Jacob Strong, Cummins, Oct. 25, '61 ; vet. ; mustered out 
Feb. 27, '64; mustered out with regiment, with company. John S. Coy, Oct. 14, '62; 
Washington Wilhelm, July 13, '63 ; mus- mustered out with company. Abraham S. 
tered out with regiment. James S. Nesbit, Coy, Oct. 9, '61 ; vet. ; captured ; mustei-ed 
captain, Dec. 4, '61 ; wounded at Cold Har- out with company. Samuel Campbell, Oct. 
bor, Va., dis. by special order, Sept. 28,- '64. 15, '61 ; vet. ; absent sick at muster out. Wil- 
John McElhany, first lieutenant, Sept. 19, liam Cochran, Aug. 24, '62 ; wounded in ac- 
'61; captured at Edisto Island, prisoner one tion at Chapin's Farm; mustered out from 
year, resigned Feb. 6, '63. William W. Stew- hospital. Robert Crytzer, Sept. 19, '61 ; vet. ; 
art, second lieutenant, Sept. 19, '61 ; pro- captured ; mustered out with company. Wil- 
moted first lieutenant, March 26, '63 ; re- liam L. Craig, Jan. 9, '65 ; mustered out from 
signed Sept. 30, '63. Blaney Adair, first hospital. Westley Cameron, Oct. 14, '61 ; 
sergeant, Sept. 19, '61 ; promoted second lieu- trans, to United States regular army. Nich- 
tenant, March 11, '63, to first lieutenant, olas Cramer, Sept. 19, '61 ; vet. ; killed at 
April 5. '64, to captain, Sept. 19, "64 — not Petersburg, Va. Nicholas Cameron, Sept. 
mustered ; killed at Chapin's Farm, Sept. 29, 19, '61 ; vet. ; captured ; killed at Cold Harbor, 
'64. R. E. McCrea, sergeant, enlisted Oct. June 3, '64. Daniel Clawson, Feb. 2, '64; 

14, '61 ; dis. Sept. 6, '62. Matthew Longrey, wounded at Cold Harbor, June 3, '64, and 
sergeant, Oct. 7, '61 ; promoted first sergeant, died June 23, '64. Abraham D. Coy, June 
March 11, '63, commissioned captain, May 12, 8, '63 ; died in hospital. Bphraim Cramer, 
'65 — not mustered; wounded in action, arm Sept. 19, '61; vet.; captured; died in Ander- 
amputated. Jacob L. Shank, sergeant, Sept. sonville prison ; grave No. 9,134. John Craig, 
30, '61 ; veteran ; Mounded at Cold harbor ; Sept. 19, '61 ; promoted coi-poral ; wounded 
mustered out with company. John Kelly, ser- at Cold Harbor, Va. ; mustered out with com- 
geant, Sept. 17, '61; trans, to United States pany; veteran. Anderson Carbaugh, Sept. 
regular army. Samuel Moorhead, corporal, 19, '61 ; promoted corporal ; killed at Cold 
Sept. 30, '61 ; vet. ; promoted sergeant, then Harbor. Frank Davis, Sept. 19, '61 ; vet. ; 
commissioned sergeant, then second lieuten- mustered out with company. John W. Dick, 
ant, commissioned captain, March 21, '65; Sept. 15, '62; dis. June 26, '63. Samuel D. 
killed at Petersburg, April 2, '65. William Devlin, Aug. 21, '62; wounded at Cold Har- 


bor; dis. by general order, . J ime 11, '65. Ben- vet.; mustered out with company. Andrew 
jamin F. Devinney, Feb. 11, '64; not on Lydiek, Oct. 7, '61; vet.; mustered out with 
muster out roll. Thomas J. Davis, Sept. company. Jackson Lemon, Sept. 19, '61 • 
19, '61 ; promoted corporal ; died at Fortress vet. ; mustered out with company. ' Noah 
Monroe, Nov. 27, "61. Joseph Everett, Aug. Lohr, Feb. 12, '64; wounded at Cold Harbor 
21, '62; wounded; dis. on surgeon's cer- and at Petersburg; leg amputated. John 
tifieate. Samuel B. Eekmau, Feb. 10, '64; Lydiek, Sept. 30, '61; killed at Petersburg, 
mortally wounded at Cold Harbor, Va., June David Long, March 28. "62 ; died at Hilton 
3, '64. Isaac Empfield, Sept. 19, '61; died Head, Aug. 1, '62. William H. Long, Sept. 
Dec. 8, '63. John Fetterman, Oct. 7, '61 ; 30, '61 ; vet. ; promoted corporal and sergeant ; 
vet. ; wounded at Cold Harbor; mustered out mustered out with company. John Mont- 
with company. Andrew Farren, Oct. 9, '61 ; gomery, Sept. 19, "61 ; vet ; mustered out 
captured at Edisto Island ; on detached duty with company. "William MeDermott, Feb. 13, 
at muster-out. Noah Fisher, Nov. 5, '61 ; cap- '64; mustered out from hospital. Edward D.' 
tured; trans, to United States regular army. JIurphy, Feb. 9, "64; Joseph Muller, Feb. 1, 
James Fowler, Sept. 29, '61; dis. July 26, '64; William S. :McClain, Feb. 18, '64; Wil- 
1862 (by company roll book). Moses Fry, liam B. ilyers, Feb. 18. '64; Henry Myers, 
Feb. 9, '64; died near Petersburg, Va. Feb. 22, '64; mustered out with company! 
Henry Fetterman, Sept. 26, '61 ; died Oct. H. Munshower, Feb. 10, '64 ; dis. by general 
26, '63. Solomon Fetterman, Oct. 26, '62; order. May 15, '65. George Milliron, Feb. 
killed at Chapin's Farm, Va. John Foust, 26, '64; dis. by general order. May 31, '65. 
Sept. 19, '61; vet.; promoted to corporal and John A. ]McGee, Feb. 12, '64; vet.;' trans, to 
sergeant; mustered out with company. Dan- veteran reserve corps. Stephen ^Marker, Oct. 
iel George, Oct. 25, '61; vet.; wounded at 14, '61; vet.; killed at Chapin's Farm, Va. 
Petersburg; mustered out from hospital. David Myers, Sept. 30, '61; vet.; promoted 
John D. Glass, Sept. 19, '61 ; vet. ; mustered to corporal and sergeant ; mustered out with 
out with company. John H. Green, Feb. 22, company. Nelson McCornish, Aug. 24, '62; 
'64; mustered out with company. William dis. by general order, June 11, '65. Robert 
R. George, Oct. 24, '61 ; vet. ; promoted cor- E. MeCrea, Nov. 5, "61 ; dis. Sept. 6, '63. 
poral and sergeant; mustered out with com- John Martin, Sept. 19, '61; promoted cor- 
pany. Charles W. Gibson, Aug. 24, '62; poral; died at Fortress ]\Ionroe. Samuel 
promoted to corporal ; dis. by general order Overdortt', Oct. 25, '61 ; vet. ; wounded at 
June 11, '65. A. Hendrickson, Feb. 15, '64; Petersburg; mustered out with company, 
mustered out with company. George J. Had- Isaac Overdorff, Oct. 28, '61 ; vet. ; mustered 
den, Feb. 10. '64; mustered out with com- out with company. Alexander Ow, Feb. 18, 
pany. Joseph Houston, Feb. 24, "64; wounded '64; mustered out with company. Frank 
at Petersburg and dis. from hospital. Thomas Overdorff, Feb. 13, '64; captured; dis. on 
Hamilton, Aug. 25, '62 ; killed at Petersburg, surgeon's certificate. Harrison Overdorff, 
John Howearth, Sept. 30, '61 ; vet. ; promoted Oct. 12, '61 ; vet. ; promoted to corporal ; mus- 
to corporal ; wounded at Drury 's Bluff ; mus- tered out with company. Joseph Pittman, 
tered out with company. Eli Isenberg, Feb. Oct. 14, '61 ; vet. ; .mustered out with com- 
18, '64 ; wounded at Cold Harbor ; trans, to pany. Nathan S. Parson. Oct. 7, '61 ; vet. ; 
veteran reserve corps ; dis. Sept. 15, '65 ; was mustered out with company. William Powell, 
in the six months' service of 1863. John Jan. 4, '65; mustered out w-ith company. 
Jacoby, Feb. 10, '64 ; mustered out with com- William P. Patterson, Sept. 19, '61 ; prisoner 
pany. J. T. Jamison, Feb. 12, '64: dis. by four months; mustered out at expiration of 
general order, June 18, '65. Joshua Jones, term. Jacob Replogle, Oct. 28, '61 ; mus- 
Feb. 6, '64; missing at Cold Harbor June tered out with company. Josiah Risinger, 
16, '64. William King, Feb. 15, '64; mus- Oct. 14, '62; dis. by general order. June 2, 
tered out with company. David S. Kerr, Feb. '65. James H. Roberts, Sept. 27, '62; trans. 
18, '64 ; wounded ; mustered out \vith com- to veteran reserve corps. Edward Roser, 
pany. John Keller, Aug. 8, '62; killed at Sept. 19, '61; died ilarch 16, '64. Joseph 
Cold Harbor, June 3, '64. Samuel King, Feb. Reed, Oct. 15, '61 ; vet. ; killed at Petersburg, 
10. '64; mortally wounded at Cold Harbor, Va. Daniel Shank, Oct. 24. '61; vet.: pro- 
June 3, '64. Dominiek Kenned.v, Sept. 19, moted corporal; mustered out with company. 
'61 ; vet. : promoted corporal ; died at Sauls- Jacob Shank. Oct. 24. '61 ; vet. ; wounded at 
bury, S. C. : captured; company record says Chapin's Farm and Petersburg; mustered out 
he was killed. William Lydiek, Sept. 30, '61 ; with company. Thomas Simp.son, Sept. 19, 


'61 ; vet. ; John Steffy. Oct. 9, '61 ; vet. ; cap- 56th Pennsylvania volunteers 
tured; Samuel R. Shank, Oct. 27. '62; Tobias p , .„ , -, r , a 
Stiles Oct. 23, '62; Abraham Steffy, Feb. ^ f'f'»P«7,,f; (All mustered as enlisted, 
20 '64; David Simpson. Feb. 19, '64; vet.; ^sept. 25, 1861).-Willard Mclntire, captain; 
Frederick Sprankle, Feb. 18, '64; Josiah discharged on surgeon s certificate of dis- 
Stake Feb. 18, 164; Louis W. Smith, Feb. 18, ability, Oct. 15, 62. Jesse A. Cunningham, 
'64- Michael D. Sprowle, April 11, '65; first lieutenant; promoted to captain; dis. 
wounded at Chapin's Pann and Petersburg; Nov. 6 63 on surgeon s certificate of per- 
mustered out with company. Jeremiah Stake, manent disability. David Davis, second heu- 
Feb. 18, '64; wounded; dis. on surgeon's tenant; resigned May 18, 62. Samuel Mc- 
certificate. William A. Stewart, Aug. 21, Cune, first sergeant; promoted to second 
'62- dis by general order, June 11. '65. lieutenant and first lieutenant; dis. March 4, 
Henry Strong, Oct. 17, '62; wounded at Cold '63. Thomas D. Cunningham, second ser- 
Harbor; dis. on surgeon's certificate. H. S. pant; promoted from sergeant to second 
Swarts Feb 22 '64; wounded; arm ampu- lieutenant and first lieu tenant; dis. on ac- 
tated. 'Isaac Slippy, Oct. 31, '61; vet.; dis. count of wounds received m action, July 1 
on surgeon's certificate. Daniel Strong, Sept. '63. Albert A. Kuhn, third sergeant; died 
13, '62; dis. by general order, June 11, '65. from wounds received m action at second Bull 
Levi Shank, Sept. 13. '62; dis. by general Run, Aug. 30, 62. Joseph P Lmtner, fourth 
order, June 11. '65. William Stout, Oct. 20, sergeant ; dis. Nov 11, 62, from wounds re- 
'62; died at Beaufort, S. C, Sept. 29, '63. ceived Aug 28, at Gainesville, Va James 
David Snyder, Feb. 19, '64; wounded at Speedy, fifth sergeant ; veteran ; killed m ac- 
Petersburg and died from wounds received, tion at Hatcher s Run. Feb. 7, 65. Privates 
John Strain, Feb. 9, '64; killed at Chapin's -^If^d R. Anderson, wounded Aug. 28, 
Farm. John C. Smith, Feb. 18. '64; pro- 62; at Gainesville^ dis. on account of dis- 
moted principal musician; mustered out with ability Absalom Brown, ransferred to bri- 
regiment. Alfred Slippy, Sept. 19, '61 ; vet. ; |ade band; mustered Avithband^ WiUiam 
promoted to coi-poral; mustered out with Brown, wounded Nov 30, 63 at Mine Run; 
company. John Sebring, Sept. 13, '62; pro- -Jis. &ept 25 64, at expiration of service 
moted principal musician; mustered out with Joseph Blakely, wounded Aug. 28 62 at 
William W. Templeton, Feb. 18, '64; mus- Gainesville ; dis. on account of disability, Oct. 
tered out mth company. L. L. Thompson, 14- 62. Archibald C. Brown Pro-oted to 
Nov. 5, '61 ; captured; trans, to United States color sergeant^ Dec^ 1, 61; died at Washing- 
regular army. John L. Taylor, Oct. 12, '61; ton March 30, 62. Samuel Bushman, dis. 
vet. ; promoted corporal, sergeant and second ^ept. 24 64 by expiration of term of service, 
lieutenant; mustered out with company. Geor-e Clark, died in camp hospital, near 
George S. Willett, Sept. 19, '61; vet.; mus- Fredericksburg, June 15, 62 Darnel S. 
tered out with company. L. L. Thompson, Brush vet. ; wounded June 18, 64 at Peters- 
Oct. 14, '61; vet.; mustered out with com- burg (arm amputated); dis^/eb. 22 65. 
pany. Robert Wilson, Sept. 19, '61; vet.; George Clawson, dis. Jan. 7 6d, at 1 ork. Pa. 
mustered out with company. Thomas B. James W Compton died at Findly hospital, 
Wilson, Feb. 20, '64; mustered out with com- Washms-ton City, Feb 17, 63 ;Toseph J. 
pany. George Waltemire, Feb. 13, '64; mus- Crate, dis. March 18. 63; disability John 
tered out from hospital. George Walters. W Crusan wounded in action at Gettysburg, 
Oct. 21. '62; wounded in action and absent J"Iy 1; 63; died Aug. 10, 63 from wound, 
at muster-out. William W. Wolf, Feb. 18. John E. Cunningham, wounded April 29, 63, 
,^, X J ^ -ii c'„,...,„i at Chancellorsville ; promoted first lieuten- 
64; mustered out with company. Samuel ^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ j^^;^ ' , ^^ ^ork River 
Wolf, April 11 '6o; mustered out mth com- j^^j,,.^^^^ ^^^ q^^ 24, '64. on account of 
pany. David Waltemire, Sept. 19 61 ; dis. ^^^^^^^ Samuel H. Charlton, trans, to vet- 
June 26, '63. James M. Watt, l^eb. 18, 64; ^^^^ reserve corps; dis. on expiration of term 
dis. by general order, June 8, '65. James B. ^f service. Harvey Dixon, died at hospital, 
Work, Feb. 18, '64; dis. on surgeon's cer- Washington, D. C, March 23, '64. Anthony 
tificate. George Wike, Oct. 28, '62; dis. on Earheart, wounded July 1. '63, at Gettys- 
surgeoii's certificate, date unknown. Daniel bure; dis. Nov. 14, '64, on expiration of term 
Waltemire, Oct. 9, '61 ; vet. ; died of wounds of service. William H. Evans. Matthew H. 
received at Petersburg. Joseph C. Young, Fails, wounded Aug. 29, '62, at Bull Run; 
Feb. 1, '64; mustered out with company. dis. Feb. 9, '63, on surgeon's certificate. 



Henry Fox, wounded July 1, '63, at Gettys- 
burg ; dis. Sept. 24, '64, on expiration of term 
of service. Sylvester G. Gettys, dis. on sur- 
geon's certificate, Jan. 28, '63. John D. 
Gordon, promoted to second lieutenant; killed 
at Gettysburg .July 1, '63. Washington Ham- 
mil, died in hospital at Fredericksburg, June 
29, '62. John F. Henderson, wounded July 
1, '63, at Gettysburg; dis. May 5, '64, on 
surgeon's certificate of disability. Morgan 
R. Hunter, wounded April 29, '63, at Chan- 
cellorsville ; dis. on expiration of term of serv- 
ice. Jacob Hicks, taken prisoner Aug. 28, 
'62; dis. Feb. 23. '63. George H. Johnston, 
promoted sergeant; wounded April 30, '63, 
at Ghancellorsville ; arm amputated; dis. July 
20, '63. Richard Kelley, wounded Aug. 29, 
'62, at Bull Run. James Kelley, wounded at 
Chancelloi-sville, April 29, '63; leg ampu- 
tated at hip joint; dis. Dec. 7, '63. Robert 
Kelley, killed at Gettysburg, July 1, '63. 
John Kerr, died April 4, '63, in hospital, at 
Washington City. James E. Lant, dis. Nov. 
1, '64, expiration of term of service. Chris- 
tian Ling, wounded July 1, '63, at Gettys- 
burg; died from wounds July 18, '63. George 
Marker, dis. May 19, '62, on account of dis- 
ability. James S. Matson, wounded Aug. 28, 
'62, at Gainesville; dis. Feb. 20. '63, on ac- 
count of disability. James A. IMiller, dis. Feb. 
9, '63, on account of disability. James Mc- 
Crea, wouuded May 25, '64, at North Anna 
River, Va. ; died from wound, May 26. '64. 
Hu^li McFadden, killed at Weldon Railroad, 
Va., Aug. 18, '64. John Martin, dis. Feb. 9, 
'63. James McFarlaud, dis. Dec. 5, '62. 
Robert Miller, vet. ; died in hospital Dec. 30, 
'64, at Beverly, N. J. James ^l. Neil, dis. I\Iay 
25, '62. William F. Patch, vet. ; wounded at 
Laurel Hill, Va., ilay 10. '64; died from 
wound, Jlay 26, '64, in Washington City. 
John C. Reid, killed at Bull Run, Aug. 30, 
'62. William Richardson, dis. Sept. 28, '64, 
on account of expiration of service. Charles 
Seigfried, trans, to veteran resei-^-e corps, 
Oct. 24. '63. James S. Stimmel, died Jan. 24, 
'62. in Blairsville. John W. Triece, wounded 
at South Mountain, Sept. 14, '62; died May 
6, '64. at battle of Wilderness. John Walker, 
dis. Dec. 5, '62, on account of disability. 
Richard Wallace, wounded Aug. 28, '62, at 
Gainesville, Va. ; dis. March 6, '63, on account 
of wound. David Weir, dis. Feb. 4, '63, on 
account of disability. Hugh Wiley, dis. on 
expiration of term of service, Oct. 28, '64. 
Lawrence Kesler. dis. in 1863. Theodore M. 
Cprnev, promoted drum major ;. mustered out 
with band, Jan. 9, '65 ; vet. Frederick C. 

Black. James Repine. Benjamin F. Eai-- 
heart, wounded at Gettysburg, July 1, '63 ; dis. 
on account of wound. Theo. A. Earhart, vet. ; 
wounded Aug. 28, '62, at Gaines\'ille, Va. ; 
dis. I\Iarch 2, '65. Joseph G. ilarshall, dis. 
on expiration of term of service, Sept. 24, 
'64. George Uncapher, mustered out at 
expiration of term of service, Sept. 24, 
'64. Robert Ewing, died July 25, '62, in 
hospital near Fredericksburg, Va. David L. 
McPhilemy, dis. March 25, '63, on account 
of disability. Wallace Elric, wounded July 
1, '63, at Gettysburg, Pa., dis. Sept. 25, '64, 
at expiration of term. George U. Reid, dis. 
June 4, '63, on surgeon's certificate of dis- 
ability. James Lancy, wounded May 8, '64, 
at Laurel Hill, Va., died in hospital, May 9, 
"64, from wounds. John A. Black, promoted 
second lieutenant, first lieutenant," captain, 
major, lieutenant colonel; wounded July 1, 
'63, at Gettysburg, Pa.; wounded at North 
Anna River, May 23, '64; dis. July 5, '65. 
Westley Brubaker, vet.; promoted sergeant 
May 5, '65 ; mustered out with regiment July 
5, '65. William Clark, vet. ; wounded June 
18, '64, at Petersburg, Va.; mustered out with 
regiment, July 5, '65. Daniel W. Dougherty, 
vet. : promoted sergeant, first lieutenant ; mus- 
tered out with regiment, July 5. '65. David 
Frew, vet. ; taken prisoner July 1, '63, at 
Gettj'sburg; mustered out \ritli regiment. 
Johnston Lawson, vet. ; taken prisoner July 
1, '63, at Gettysburg: taken again at Spott- 
sylvania, and sent to Andersonville prison; 
mustered out with regiment, July 5, '65. 
Richard Neil, vet. ; wounded Aug. 28, Gaines- 
ville, Va. ; mustered oiit with regiment. July 
5, 65 ; vet. Samuel Nesbit, vet. ; wounded at 
York River railroad, ]\Iay 25, '64; promoted 
sergeant: wounded at Hatcher's Run, Va. ; 
Feb. 5, 65 ; mustered out with regiment July 
5, '65. Heniy O'Neil, vet.; promoted first 
sergeant; second lieutenant; mustered out 
v^iWi regiment, July 5, '65. John J. Rankin, 
vet.; wounded Aug. 28, '62, at Gainesville, 
Va. ; wounded May 9. '64, at Wilderness ; 
promoted sergeant, second lieutenant ; mus- 
tered out with regiment, July 5, '65. Wil- 
liam H. Richardson, vet. ; wounded at Bull 
Run, Aug. 30, '62; wounded :\Iay 10, '61, at 
the Wilderness, mustered out with regiment, 
July 5, '65. Joshua Swartz, vet. ; wounded 
at Laurel Hill, Va., J\Iay 10, '64; mustered 
out with regiment, Juh- 5, '65. Stewart 
Trimble, vet. ; wounded at Laurel Hill, Va., 
May 10, '64 ; mustered out with regiment, July 
5, '65. Samuel McKisson, vet. ; taken pris- 
oner at Gainesville, Va., Aug. 28, '62; mus- 


tered out with regiment, July 5, '65. John ^Vlteband, wounded at Fredericksburg and 

Z. Earheart, vet. ; taken prisoner at Gettys- trans, to veteran reserve corps. Thomas An- 

burg. Pa., July 1, '63 ; wounded June 18, '64, derson, wounded at Pair Oaks and dis. John 

at Petersburg; promoted color sergeant, Oct. C. Armor, vet.; wounded at Wilderness; pro- 

10, '64; mustered out with regiment, July 5, moted commissary sergeant Sept. 4, '64; 

'65. John McClaran, vet.; wounded at Pe- served through the -war. J. ]\I. Brewer, 

tersburg, Va., June 17, '64 ; mustered out with wounded at Pair Oaks and dis. C. M. Brewer, 

regiment, July 5, '65. dis. June, '62. Hugh Brady, wounded at 

Pair Oaks aud dis. Isaac V. Brady, wounded 

61sT PENNSYLVANIA VOLUNTEERS at Fair Oaks ; killed at Wilderness May 6, 

'64. Daniel H. Bee, wounded at Fort 
Company A. — George R. Lewis, surgeon; Stephens, D. C. ; leg amputated. J. K. Black, 
promoted from assistant surgeon of 54th vet. ; served to close of war. Samuel Ban-, 
Pennsylvania Volunteers, Sept. 18, '63; mus- died in hospital near Providence, R. I. Eli 
tered out with regiment June 28, '65. Jacob J. Campbell, wounded at Rappahannock Sta- 
Creps, captain; wounded at Fair Oaks and tion; mustered out at expiration of term. C. 
Bansford; mustered out at expiration of W. Cessna, killed at Fair Oaks j\Iay 31, '62. 
term. John Pollock, first lieutenant ; wounded J. M. Chambers, vet., promoted sergeant, then 
at Fair Oaks and died at Portsmouth, Va. first sergeant ; served through the war. Zach. 
George W. Brady, second lieutenant ; wounded T. Chambers, vet. ; promoted corporal and 
at Fair Oaks and resigned. Frank M. sergeant; served through the war. Robert 
Brown, first sergeant, promoted to first lieu- Cravan, dis. '62. Robert Craig, died near 
tenant; wounded in Wilderness and died of Alexandria, Va., November, '62. J. L. 
wounds. Frank Donahue, sergeant ; wounded Crawford, wounded at Pair Oaks and dis. 
at Fredericksburg ; mustered out at expira- J. C. Cameron, dis. ;' date not known. Marion 
tion of term. William L. Buchanan, sergeant ; M. Davis, wounded at Fair Oaks and dis. 
promoted first sergeant ; wounded at Port Abram Davis, vet. ; wounded at Spottsylvania ; 
Stephens, arm amputated. B. P. Rowland, promoted second lieutenant of Company G, 
sergeant;' wounded at Fair Oaks; prisoner '65; served through the war. E. D. Day- 
three months ; killed at Spottsylvania. A. T. raond, died April, '62. Peter W. Dilts, pro- 
Brewer, sergeant ; wounded at Fair Oaks ; moted corporal ; taken prisoner on skirmish 
served three years. W. A. S. Work, corporal ; line at Gettysburg, Pa. ; mustered out at ex- 
wounded at Fair Oaks ; mustered out at ex- piration of term. William S. Derby, wounded 
piration of term. T. H. Brewer, coi*poral; at Malvern Hill; mustered out at expiration 
wounded at Antietam and discharged. Wil- of term. James Donahue, wounded at Pair 
liam Weaver, corporal ; wounded at Pair Oaks, Oaks and dis. Orlando A. Ellis, vet. ; 
and died of wounds. James ]M. Ayers, cor- wounded at Fair Oaks; prisoner three 
poral; wounded in Wilderness, and mustered months; wounded at Fredericksburg May 3, 
out at expiration of term. Andrew Pearce, '63; wounded at Wilderness; arm ampu- 
corporal; wounded at Pair Oaks, and dis. tated. Asaph A. Ellis, vet.; served through 
Lemuel Brady, corporal ; wounded at Pair the war. William Donahue, wounded at Pair 
Oaks; promoted sersreant; wounded at Fred- Oaks, died on the field. E. W. Pairbank, 
ericksburg May 3, '63 ; killed at Spottsylvania, killed at Fair Oaks May 31. '62. R. W. 
May 8, '64; best tactician in the regiment; Fairbank, killed at Fort Stephens July 12, 
drill sergeant. Isaac N. Price, corporal ; pro- '64. Perry E. Horn, wounded at Wilder- 
moted second lieutenant; wounded at Cold ness; mustered out at expiration of term; 
Harbor, and mortally wounded at Charles- afterwards second lieutenant Company B, 74th 
town, Va., last day of three years' service. P. V., in one year's service. John Herbison, 
Israel Grey, corporal; promoted to sergeant; wounded at Spottsylvania and dis. Alex, 
wounded at Fredericksburg, :May 3. '63; Harman, wounded at Wilderness and died 
wounded at Spottsylvania; promoted ser- of wounds at Philadelphia. Peter S. Justice, 
geant-major; mustered out expiration of term, wounded at Spottsylvania and dis. T. W. 
John Snyder, muscian and regimental post- Kinter, wounded at Fair Oaks; never found 
master: mustered out at expiration of term, or heard from. William Johnston, cannot 
A. B. Allison, private ; died near Alexandria, get record ; mustered out from hospital. 
Va., Feb. 11, '62. J. E. Allison, wounded Robert Jamison, died near Alexandria, Va., 
at Fair Oaks,' and at Wilderness May 6, '64 ; Jan. 10, '62. Peter Keel, promoted corporal ; 
mustered out expiration of term. Fulbert wounded, think at Port Stephens. Thomas 



Lemon, wounded at Seven Pines; taken pris- 
oner at Savage Station ; wounded at Spottsyl- 
vania, ilay 10, '64, again May 12, and died at 
Fredericksburg, Va. Davis A. Lnkehart, vet. ; 
womided at Fair Oaks and Fredericksburg; 
promoted corporal ; wounded at Spottsylvania ; 
promoted second lieutenant, lirst lieutenant 
and captain, serving to close of war. Frank 
L. Lydiek, taken prisoner at Bank's Ford: 
paroled ; served three years. A. B. McQuown, 
killed at Fair Oaks. W. L. McQuown, dis. 
June, '62. Alexander Moore, wounded at 
Fort Stephens, foot amputated, died, sent 
home; buried at (xilgal, Indiana county. 
Thomas Moore, •woundiHl at Fair Oaks, 
mustered out at fXi)iration of terra. D. 
McCullough, dis. August, '62. G. B. :Mott, 
wounded at Fair Oaks; killed at Fredericks- 
burg, :\lay 3, "6:3. William H. Mott. vet- 
eran : wounded ; promoted sergeant, served 
through the war. A. P. Nefif, dis. June, 
'62. Benj. Neal, killed at Fair Oaks. J. 
S. Neal, wounded at Fredericksburg, May 
3, '63. and trans, to veteran reserve corps. 
Hugh S. Pollock, wounded at Wilderness; 
mustered out at hospital. David Price, died 
at Point Lookout, Md., August. '62. J. T. 
Pearce. wounded liy accidental discharge of 
pistol in hands of comrade and dis. John 
W. Row, trans, to Company B. promoted ser- 
geant ; mustered out at expiration of term. 
David Riddle, wounded at Malvern Hill and 
died in hospital. Joseph Rager. vet. ; wounded 
at Fair Oaks and at Spottsylvania ; promoted 
corporal. Luther Richards, wounded at Fair 
Oaks; j^romoted corporal: wounded at Spott- 
sylvania. H. V. Stewart, wounded at Fair 
Oaks: promoted corporal; taken prisoner at 
Bank's Ford; paroled, killed at Wilderness, 
May 5, "64. J. H. Stewart, vet. ; wounded 
at Spottsylvania; killed at Petersburg. Wil- 
liam H. Stanley, wounded at Fort Stephens, 
mustered out at expiration of term. Henry 
Sylvis, killed at Fredericksburg, ]May 3, '63. 
John Short, killed at Fair Oaks, May 31, '62. 
James Short, good record, mustered out at 
expiration of term. John R. Stumpf, 
wounded at Spottsylvania ; mustered out from 
hospital. A. J. Stuchel, killed at Fredericks- 
burg, ]May 3, 1863. William Smith, vet.: 
wounded at Wilderness : absent at muster-out 
of regiment. J. A. Streams, promoted cor- 
poral, wounded at Spottsylvania. mustered 
out at expiration of term. James S. Smith, 
dis. August, '62. Israel D. Spencer, vet. ; 
wounded at Fair Oaks, first Cedar creek and 
Ys'ilderness: dis. Nathaniel S. Tozer, vet.: 
promoted to sergeant : served through the war. 

Thomas Tozer, dis. in the fall of '61. 
Thomas C. Thnmpson. promoted corporal; 
wounded at Wilderness. John P. Thomas, 
detailed for work at regimental hospital; mus- 
tered out at expiration of term. George R. 
Walker, transferred to Company B ; killed in 
Wilderness. Calvin J. Work, promoted cor- 
poral; killed at Spottsvlvania. J. A. Work, 
killed at Willi:inis|i,,rt. Md., Sept. 20, '62. 
Harvey J. Work, wounded at Fair Oaks and 
Fort Stephens; mustered out at expiration of 
term. Samuel Wissenger, mustered out at 
expiration of term. William Wissenger, 
wounded at Jlalvern Hill and dis. George 
F. Weaver, wounded at Spottsylvania and 
dis. Alexander Walker, wounded at Fair 
Oaks and dis. Johnston Walker, wounded by 
accident and died in hospital. James T. 
Work, teamster; mustered out at expiration 
of term. 

Company B. — W^illiam A. Allison, Aug. 22, 
'62; promoted sergeant of Companv F, Nov. 
1, '64. Christian Albright, July" 14. '63; 
wounded at Cedar Creek, Sept. 19, '64. G. 
Aikens, July 14, '63 ; killed at Spottsylvania, 
May 12, '64. Joseph Burton, July 16, '63; 
wounded and taken prisoner at Spottsylvania. 
John H. Beekley, July 16, '63; served to 
close of war. D. B. Brewer, August, '62 ; 
mustered out June 20, '65. J. E. Brewer, 
August, '62 ; wounded at Spottsylvania ; dis. 
by G. 0., June 3, '65. J. H. Brown, August, 
'62; wounded at W^ilderaess, dis. by special 
order, June 20, '65. John S. Baker, Feb. 
15, '65; dis. by G. 0., June 15, '65. Samuel 
Barnett, Februaiy, '64; wounded at Wilder- 
ness; served to the close of the war. Philip 
Bowen, Feb. 25, "64 ; killed at Fort Stephens. 
July 12, '64. John D. Brown, Feb. 25. '64; 
mustered out June 20, '65. Samuel Brogan, 
Oct. 31, '64 ; mustered out with company. A. 
S. Crawford, August, '62; dis. January. 
"63. Peter F. Custer, Feb. 18, '64: miis- 
tered out with company. George Coy, March 
3, '65; mustered out with company. Joseph 
T. Dodson, September, '62; mustered out 
June 20, '65. George Duff, Oct. 12, '64; dis. 
by G. O. aiay 30, '65. Andrew Dick, Feb. 
25, '64; wounded at Spottsylvania; trans, to 
veteran reserve corps. John N. Dick, Feb. 
25, '64 ; trans, to veteran reserve corps. John 
Ellis. Feb. 25, '64; killed at Fort Stephens, 
July 12. '64. William Filmore, July 14, 
'63 ; promoted to corporal ; served to the close 
of the war. Samuel Gibson, Feb. 25, '64: 
nuistered out with company. Charles Hart, 
Feb. 25, '64; died at Alexandria, June 11. 
"64. Daniel Helman, Feb. 2, '64; wounded 



at Spottsylvauia ; trans, to veteran reserve 
coi-ps. Joseph Hoover, Feb. 25, '64 ; wounded 
at Wilderness; mustered out with company. 
Alexander Howe, Feb. 25, '64; wounded at 
Wilderness; mustered out with company. 
Jacob K. Helman, Feb. 2, '64; wounded at 
Wilderness; dis. June 5, '65. John Hazlett, 
March 3, '65; mustered out with company. 
John Harper, Nov. 26, '62; wounded at Wil- 
derness, i\Iay 5, '64. William H. Hewitt, 
April 4, '64; mustered out with company. 
Isaac S. Helman, Feb. 19, '64; promoted to 
corporal ; mustered out with company. Alex- 
ander Jamison, Sept. 1, '62; dis. June 20, 
'65. James T. Jamison, Feb. 25, '64; miss- 
ing at Spottsylvania. J. C. Johnston, Feb. 
25, '64; wounded severely at Spottsylvania 
and dis. John L. Kaufman, Oct. 26, '64; 
died at City Point, April 25, '65. John R. 
Keel, Aug. 21, '62 ; dis. May 30, '65. George 
A. Kurts, Aug. 21, '62; wounded at Wilder- 
ness and dis. Irwin Lydick, Feb. 25, '64; 
wounded at Spottsylvania. Daniel Loughrey, 
Feb. 15, '65; mustered out with company. 
Josiah Lockard, Feb. 23, "64; missing at 
Spottsylvania, May 12, '64. Nathaniel W. 
Lemon, Feb. 23, '64 ; died March 8, '65. Mar- 
tin Moot, Aug. 21, '62 ; killed at Wilderness. 
J. McPherson, September, '62; wounded at 
first Cedar Creek and Spottsylvania; dis. 
June 20, '65. Samuel McMannus, Feb. 25, 
'64 ; wounded at Wilderness and died at Alex- 
andria, June 1, '64. John McCuUough, 
Feb. 25, '64 ; wounded at Spottsylvania, Va. ; 
dis. June 9, '65. Amos A. Miller, Feb. 21, 
'64; wounded at Wilderness. John C. Mat- 
thews, Feb. 14, '64; wounded at Cedar 
Creek; promoted to sergeant and corporal; 
mustered out with company. S. W. McCoy, 
Feb. 2, '64 ; wounded at Fort Stephens ; mus- 
tered out M'ith company. Daniel Mock, Feb. 
2, '64; mustered out with company. Jacob 
Mangus, Sept. 2, '64 ; dis. June 20, '65. Sam- 
uel L. Meyers ; mustered out with company. N. 
S. North, August, '62 ; wounded at Fredericks- 
burg May 3, '63 ; served to close of war. Wil- 
liam Ober, Feb. 14, '64; promoted corporal; 
mustered out with company. F. M. Patterson, 
July 14, '63 ; promoted sergeant Company G, 
Nov. 1, '64. Daniel Palmer, Feb. 15, '65; 
mustered out with company. T. J. Postle- 
thwait, Aug. 21. '62; dis. June 20, '65. Daniel 
Replogle, Jan. 25, '64; died same year. Ed- 
ward J. Robinson, Aug. 2, '62 ; promoted ser- 
geant Company F, Nov. 1, '64. Peter Stoy, 
Feb. 4, '64 ; wounded Oct. 19, '64. S. Swarts- 
walter, July 13, '63 ; wounded at Spottsylvania 
and Petersburg. Christopher Stuchel, October, 

'61 ; dis. August, '62 ; became blind. John 
A. Stewart, July 21, '62; wounded near 
Bank's Ford, taken prisoner, lost one arm 
and part of other hand at Spottsylvania, May 
12, '64; was in hands of Rebels eight days. 
Jonathan Stahl, Feb. 3, '64; wounded in 
Wilderness campaign. William B. Stahl, Jan. 
29, '64; wounded at Spottsylvania; promoted 
corporal; mustered out with company. Ed- 
ward Smith, April 7, '64; mustered out with 
company. William Smith, Feb. 13, '64 ; vet. ; 
wounded at Wilderness and absent at muster 
out. John Titterington, Feb. 25, '64; taken 
prisoner in Wilderness ; health and mind both 
impaired by starvation in Andersonville prison 
pen. Aaron Titterington, Feb. 25, '64; son 
of John ; left at Cold Harbor sick, had permit 
for City Point in ambulance ; was lost. Robert 
Torrens, Sept. 1, '64; dis. June 20, '65. R. 
N. Work, February, '64 ; killed at Wilderness. 
J. M. Webster, October, '61 ; absent without 
leave, December, '62. John T. Warden, Sept. 
10, '62 ; promoted corporal ; dis. June 20, '65. 
Simeon B. Wigle, July 16, '63; wounded at 
Wilderness; mustered out with company. 
Simon Weaver, July 14, '63; wounded at 
Spottsylvania; mustei'ed out with company. 

Note. — The veterans of Company H also 
served in Company A from Sept. 4, '64, to the 
close of the war; they were excellent men. 
There may be a half dozen names in above 
list not of Indiana county. The names known 
not to l)e of the county are striken out. 


Company B. — Jlustered March 1 to 15, '65, 
for one year's service. Peter C. Spencer, first 
lieutenant, promoted to captain; had served 
in the 106th P. V. Perry E. Horn, second 
lieutenant ; had served in the 61st P. V. Ezra 
Neff, first sergeant; Jackson McMillen, ser- 
geant; Daniel Good, corporal; William 
Harklerood, corporal. Privates — Samuel C. 
Brown, Alexander Colkitt, William M. Col- 
kitt, John W. Compton, Samuel Crawford, 
Frank Flickenger, John Gall (or Gaul), 
James M. Hadden, Luther Henneigh, Nelson 
T. Hicks, Charles M. Hicks, Samuel P. Hoover, 
Samuel M. Jordan, Samuel Knox, James 
Knox, D. M. ]\IcCullough, John C. Peffer, 
John C. Pifer, John Pearce, Peter Pearce, 
James B. Rankin, John Rankin, Henry Rater, 
George Simpson, Jacob Sink, James R. Shields, 
Adam Shields, Frederick Walker, John 
Walker, John M. Weston, Conrad Zener. 


Company F. — ]\Iustered for one year's serv- 
ice March 1 to 6, '65; mustered out Aug. 29, 
'65. Gawin A. McClain, captain, discharged 
May 8, '65 (see Company B, 11th Pennsyl- 
vania Reser\'es). John Kinter, captain, pro- 
moted from fii-st lieutenant. John McWil- 
liams, first lieutenant, promoted from second 
lieutenant. IMatthew S. Ray, second lieuten- 
ant, promoted from first sergeant. John W. 
Shields, promoted from first sergeant. Peter 
Freck (or Freeh), sergeant. Andrew J. 
Stumpf, sergeant. Thomas S. ]\IcClain, ser- 
geant. William H. Kinter, sergeant. William 
C. Dilts, sergeant. Alexander Walker, cor- 
poral (61st P. v.). William P. Rowe, cor- 
poral. Samuel AVissinger, corporal. William 
Thompson, coi-poral. D. T. Faith (105th P. 
v.), corporal. Han-ison H. Shields, corporal. 
John G. Barr, corporal. Henry L. Kinter, 
musician. Henry K. Shields, musician. 
Privates — John S. Agev. Thomas Ander- 
son (died at Beverly, W' Va., May 19, '65), 
Samuel Bethel, Alexander Blue, Jonathan 
W. Brown. John Brown, of D, Wm. M. 
Buterbaugh, G. M. Buterbaugh, Jonathan 
Buterbaugh, Lewis Buterbaugh, Solomon 
Buterbaugh, James Baker, Thos. Baringer, 
John L. Baringer, David H. Brady, Samuel 
Clawson, William Craig. Henry Craig, Wil- 
liam A. Conner, William Degarmin, Samuel 
Donahue. Geo. Donahue. James A. Dickey, 
Charles W. Davison, Samuel M. Fails, William 
Faith, John Faith, John W. Findley, Morton 
J. Fleming, Samuel Gibson. Robert Galbraith, 
Robert C. Hopkins, Albert Howe, Andrew 
Harman, George W. Hanna, John Hunter, 
William H. Harrison, Andrew Hoover, Joseph 
Johnson, Thomas A. Johnston, Archibald 
Kinter, Alexander Kimmel, John Lowman, 
Thomas C. Laiighrey, John K. Lightcap, John 
S. Longwell, Samuel JIunshower, H. ilun- 
shower. Henry !M. Meyei-s. Da^^d Meyei-s. 
Isaac Meyers, Abraham Moore, Robert I\I. 
Morris, John McQuown. Thomas H. Mc- 
Quown. William ilcQuown, ~S1. ilcGlaughliu, 
W. ilcGlaughlin, John JMcCunn, James 
McLeister, R, C. McGaughrey. John IVIcCoy. 
Alex. McMillen, James McMillen, H. K. ilc- 
Callister, Andrew S. JMcCall. James W. 
McHenry. Frederick Pfieffer. William H. H. 
Price (died at Clarksburg. W. Va.. April 24, 
'65). Augustus Pease. William "SI. Ray, jMyers 
J. Rhodes, John J. Rowe. Daniel H. Rowe, 
Nicholas B. Short. David A. Short. John 
Shaffer, Hiram Stuchel. Silvester Swauger, 
Caleb Snyder, Henry Weiss. 


Compaujj C. — Tobias Rosensteel, Sept. 12, 
'61 : promoted second lieutenant Dec. 14, '64, 
first lieutenant July 1, '65 ; not mustered out 
with company. Gillis B. Cribbs, Feb. 27, '64; 
veteran; mustered out with company. John 
G. Doty, Feb. 10, '64 ; mustered out with com- 
pany. " Robert Y. Elder, Aug. 31, '64; dis. 
by general order May 15, '65. William J. 
Henry, mustered out with company. Sam- 
uel Frederick, mustered out with company. 
John G. Frederick, Feb. 3, '64; mustered out 
with company. James Kilgore, Feb. 17, '64; 
mustered out with company. W. G. Miller, 
Feb. 26. '64; mustered out with company. 
Isaac Miller, Feb. 24. '64; mustered out with 
company. John jMcGuire, Jan. 1, '64; vet.; 
sergeant; mustered out with company. Nel- 
son Miller, ilareh 14, '64; mustered out with 
company. James ]McKelvey, Feb. 28, '64; 
vet. ; corporal ; mustered out with company. 
James A. IMiller, Jan. 20, '64; mustered out 
with company. John A. McNeil, Feb. 29, '64 ; 
mustered out with company. Elias jMoore, 
Sept. 17, '64; dis. bv aeneral order jMay 15, 
'65. Theodore Marshall, Feb. 25, '64; vet.; 
mustered out with company. John Rosbor- 
ough. Feb. 16, "64; mustered out ^\'ith com- 
pany. Daniel L. Rosenthell, Feb. 11, '64; 
vet.*; mustered out ^nth company. Jacob A. 
Scott. Sept. 12, '61; dis. on surgeon's certifi- 
cate. Alex. Templeton. Jan. 11. '64; vet.; 
killed in action IMay 11. '64. 

Company D.— John :\I. Black, Feb. 26. '64; 
mustered out with company. Benjamin Cabel, 
Feb. 4, '64 ; vet. ; mustered out with company. 
Daniel F. Dick, Feb. 26. "64; wounded; died 
at Washington. D. C. May 16, '65. Samuel 
H. Johnston, March 13, "62 ; amount of service 
not known. J. N. Haskinson, Sept. 16. "61 ; 
mustered out at expiration of term. Isaac 
Johns. 3Iarch 31. "64; dis. by general order 
:March 8, '65. Phillip Lichenfelt, Sept. 16, 
"61; prisoner from October. '63, to August, 
"64 ; mustered out at expiration of term. John 
T. Lutz, Feb. 26. '64; killed in action June 
11. "64. Isaac J. Robb. March 12, "62: pris- 
oner October. '63, to August. '64; mustered 
out at expiration of term; William J. Ray, 
Feb. 15, '64; mustered out with company. 
David A. Stephens. Feb. 26. '64: died in the 
service. Samuel Trimble. Feb. 26. "64 ; killed 
in action June 26, '64. Eli.iah Taylor, ]March 
21. "64; mustered out with company. David 
J. Wakefield. Jr.. Feb. 24, "64 ; mustered out 



with company. Henry C. Wakefield, Feb. 24, 
'64 ; mustered out with company. 

Company E. — Abraham S. Martin, Aug. 16, 
'61; sergeant; mustered out at expiration of 
term, and commissioned second lieutenant, 
1st U. S. Infantry, September, "64. Mark 
Ray, Feb. 26, '64; mustered out with com- 
pany. Nelson M. Thompson, Feb. 26, '64; 
veteran ; wounded at Deep Bottom ; mustered 
out with company. Sylvester Thompson, Feb. 
22, '65; mustered out with company. 

67th pennsylvani.a. volun 

Harry White, Oct. 31, '61, major; prisoner 
from June 15, '63, to Sept. 29. '64; commis- 
sioned lieutenant colonel Oct. 31, '64, colonel 
Jan. 28, '65 — not mustered; promoted to 
brevet brigadier general March 2, '65, after 
discharge. Feb. 22, '65. John C. Carpenter, 
May 8, '62 ; second lieutenant Company E ; 
promoted captain Company K Feb. 3, '63 ; 
captured ; commissioned major May 1, '65, 
lieutenant colonel May 15, '65 — not mustered; 
mustered out June 7. '65, expiration of term ; 
after^vards mustered as colonel June 10, '65, 
and again mustered out with the regiment 
July 24, '65. John F. Young, March 15, '62; 
commissioned major Oct. 31, '64 — not mus- 
tered; promoted brevet captain March 13, '65, 
but had resigned March 12, '65. Robert Barr, 
Nov. 8. '61 ; surgeon; mustered out at expira- 
tion of term ; promoted surgeon in chief of 
3d brigade, 3d Division, 3d Corps, and to sur- 
geon in chief of 3d Division, 6th Army Corps. 
William A. Rager, May 2, '62 ; vet. ; sergeant ; 
promoted first lieutenant April 21, '65; mus- 
tered out with regiment. George W. Sloan, 
April 10, '63 ; promoted from private of Com- 
pany K to hospital steward ; sergeant : pro- 
moted first lieutenant of Companv F ilay 16, 
'65. William Kellar, March 11, '62; 'pro- 
moted from first sergeant to second lieutenant 
May 4, '65 : mustered out with the company 
July 14, '65. Robert T. Comwell, Sept. 16, 
'62 ; captain Company B ; trans, to Company 
I; mustered out Oct. 25, '64. Alexander 
Adams, October, '62 ; Company Ct ; dis. June 
2, '65. Robert Adams, Aug. 28, '62; F; pro- 
moted corporal; mustered out with company. 
J. R. Adams, Aug. 28, '62 ; F ; dis. by general 
order June 20, '65. Jonathan W. Ayers, Sept. 
10. '62: E: died at Annapolis, Md., Sept. 25, 
'62; burial record Nov. 17, '62. W. R. Black, 
Oct. 9, '62; G; prisoner from June 15 to 
July 25, '63: wounded at Sailor's Creek, Va., 
April 6, '65; leg amputated; commissioned 
first lieutenant — not mustered ; mustered out 

from hospital. James Bash, '62 ; old Com- 
pany B ; was lost, thought to be killed ; never 
heard from. Solomon Brown, Oct. 29, '62 ; K ; 
promoted corporal; mustered out with com- 
pany. Jacob Brown, Nov. 4, '62 ; K ; mustered 
out with company. William Black, Nov. 4, 
"62 ; K ; mustered out with company. Abram 
Bennett, Nov. 4, '62 ; K ; captured ; died in 
Andersonville prison Aug. 20, '64. John R: 
Bryan, Aug. 28, '62 ; F ; promoted corporal ; 
dis. by general order June 20, '65. David 
Barry, Aug. 28, '62; F; dis. on surgeon's cer- 
tificate April 3, '65. Samuel A. Brown, Aug. 

28, '62 ; F ; dis. by general order June 20, '65. 
William Buchanan, Feb. 23, '65 ; K ; mustered 
out with company. Jacob C. Bash, Nov. 18, 
'64 ; G ; drafted in West Virginia ; mustered 
out with company. John Barber, April 29, 
'62 ; E ; dis. by general order June 2, '65. 
John S. Colgan, Sept. 20, '62 ; E ; wounded at 
Cedar Creek; trans, to veteran reserve corps. 
Samuel Clawson; F: lost at Cold Harbor. 
Samuel W. Curry, Oct. 9, '62 ; G ; dis. on sur- 
geon 's certificate September, '63. John R. 
Carnahan, Oct. 29, '62 ; K ; mustered out with 
company. James Crawford, Feb. 15, '62 ; E ; 
vet. ; mustered out with company. Elias 
Cramer, Feb. 27, '62 ; E ; vet. ; mustered out 
with company. Thomas Dehaven, Nov. 8, '61 ; 
G; died at Annapolis, Md., July 28, '63. 
Robert Dyarmin, April 5, '62 ; B ; vet. ; de- 
serted after serving over three years. Thomas 
A. Douglas. Aug. 28, '62 ; F ; dis. by general 
order June 20, '65. Joseph J. Duncan, Oct. 

29, "62; K; mustered out with company. 
Alexander Duncan, March 31, '62; E; vet.; 
dis. by special order Aug. 10, '64. Jas. W. 
Davidson, F ; died at Berryville. Edward 
Dyarmin, April 5, '62 ; E ; vet. ; deserted after 
serving over three years. John Ebey, March 
12, '62; E; corporal; vet.; wounded at Cedar 
Creek Oct. 19, '64 ; leg amputated. Levi Esch, 
Feb. 28, '62 ; E ; vet. William H. Fairbank, 
March 12. '62; first sergeant; E; commis- 
sioned lieutenant — not mustered; recruiting 
officer for three months; mustered out at ex- 
piration of term. Hiram Ferrier, Oct. 9, '62 ; 
G; discharged on surgeon's certificate Feb. 
5, '65. John Ferrier, Aug. 28. '62; H; dis. 
by general order, June 20, '65. John S. Flem- 
ing, Oct. 29, '62 ; K ; wounded at Cedar Creek, 
Oct. 19. '64; mustered out with company. 
Henry Fisher, Aug. 28, '62; F: dis. by gen- 
eral order. June 20, '65. George Fisher, Aug. 
28. '62; F; dis. by general order, June 20, 
'65. Jacob Fisher". Aug. 28, '62; F; dis. by 
general order, June 20, '65. John Fry, Aug. 
28, '62: F. : dis. by general order, June 20, 


'65. Edward Petterman, April 5, '62 ; E ; order, June 15, '65. R. T. :MeCouaughy, Oct. 
mustered out at expiration of term. John 9, '62 ; F ; mustered out with company. Har- 
Fetterman, April 5, '62; E; mustered out at man McAfoos, Oct. 9, '62; G; missing at 
expiration of term. Amos Graham, Sept. 20, Wilderness, JMay 6, '64 ; never heard from 
'62 ; E ; trans, to veteran reserve corps. George :\Iechling-, Oct. 9, '62 ; G ; died at Fair- 
Robert Gamble, March 31, '62; E; trans, to fax. Fairfax Co., Va., Aug.' 25' '63. James 
invalid corps ; killed by accident at Kingston, Mahan, Aug. 28, "62 ; F ; dii?'. by general 
N. Y. James R. Gailey, Aug. 28, '62; F; order, June 20. '65. Thomas McClure, Aug. 
woimded April 5, '65. Andrew C. Glass, Feb. 28, '62; F; dis. by general order, June 20 
6, '62; F; served three years. James W. '65. Albert Miller, Feb. 28. '62*; E- ve^. • 
Graham, Sept. 10, '62; F; dis. by general promoted corporal; mustered out with com- 
order, June 20, '65. John Graham, Nov. 4. pany. James ^Murphy, Feb. 28, '62 ; E ; vet. • 
'62; K; mustered out with company. Adam promoted corporal; mustered out with' eom- 
Grumbiing. Feb. 27, '62; E; vet.; promoted pan.v. Daniel Marker. March 31, '62; E; 
corporal ; mustered out with company. John veteran ; mustered out with company. James 
M. Hadden. Aug. 28, '62 ; F ; dis. by general Michaels, Jlarch 29, '62 ; B ; vet. : mus- 
order, June 20. '65. Chistopher Hill, April tered out with company. John Michaels, Aug. 
5, '62 ; E ; promoted corporal ; vet. ; mus- 28, '62 ; E ; dis. by general order. June 2, '65. 
tered out with company. Abraham Hill, Feb. Samuel I\Iumman, Sept. 20. '62 ; E ; dis. by 
25, '62 ; E ; vet. ; mustered out with company, general order, June 20, '65. William P. 
William H. Henry, March 12, '62; E; served .Miller, Aug. 28, '62; E; died at Annapolis! 
nearly three years. Samuel Irwin, Aug. 28, Md., Sept. 18, '62. John H. Nupp, Oct. 9," 
'62 ; F ; promoted corporal ; wounded at Win- '62 ; G ; killed at Wildeniess, May 6. '64! 
Chester, Sept. 19, '64; arm amputated. George Henry Overderff, died at Annapolis. Daniel 
W. Hill, April 5, '62 ; E ; killed at Winchester, Orner, Nov. 4, '62 ; K ; promoted to corporal ; 
Va., Sept. 19, '64. Leonard Huey, F; killed mustered out with company. Reuben Over- 
in Shenandoah valley. Jacob Kookenbrod; dorff, April 5, '62; E; dis. June 18, '62. 
Nov. 4, '62 ; K ; mustered out with company. Robert Oit, Oct. 9, '62 ; G ; mustered out with 
Westley Kinter, October, '62 ; died in Rebel company. Samuel D. Patterson, Aug. 28, '62 ; 
prison. Benjamin Lloyd, Nov. 27, '62; K; F; prisoner from June, '64, to April,' '65; 
captured; died at Andersonville September, mustered out June 13, '65. ]\Ioses Richie' 
'64. John B. Lucas, Aug. 28, '62; F; dis. by March 12, '62; E; mustered out at expiration 
general order, June 20, '65. William Long, of term. John M. Rumbach. Oct. 9, '62; 
Oct. 9, '62; G; died in Andersonville Rebel H; mustered out with company. Amar- 
prison. John Lance, Nov. 4, '62; K; mus- iah H. Reed, Oct. 9, '62; G; dis. by general 
tered out with company. Johnson J. Miller, order, June 26, '65. Jacob Replogle, Oct. 9, 
musician, Sept. 10, '62; G; dis. by general '62; G; trans, to vet. reserve corps April 1,' 
order, June 20, '65. David Mentzer. private, '65; dis. by general order, July 31, '65.' 
Nov. 4. '62; K; died November, '64; burial Charles M. Reinhart. Aug. 4, '62; E; dis. by 
record Nov. 28, '63. John Miller, Nov. 4, '62; general order. May 18, '65. Charles' Riddle, 
K; discharged on surgeon's certificate. Wil- '62; first B; taken prisoner; paroled came 
Ham R. Miller, Aug. 28, '62; H; wounded at home and died of fever. Clark D. Rowland, 
Winchester, Va. ; dis. on surgeon's certificate '62; dis.; date unknown. Isaac Skiles, Nov.' 
;\Iay 11, '65. William R. Miller, Aug. 28, '62; 4, '62; K; mustered out with company. W. 
F; wounded in Shenandoah valley and died. S. Swarts, March 24, '62; old company B; dis. 
William L. Mahan. Oct. 23, '62; K; mustered April 29, '64. George W. Sutton, Feb. 28. 
out with company. Israel Moore. Feb. 23, '62; E; vet.; mustered out ^^-ith company! 
'65 ; K ; mustered out with company. William Jonas Sylvis, Sept. 20, '62 ; E ; trans, to vet. 
J. Miller, Oct. 9, '62 ; G ; absent without leave, reserve coi-ps. Jacob Sterner, Oct. 9, '62 ; G ; 
Oct. 6, '64. James Moore, Oct. 9, '62; K; dis. died at home, June 16, '64. James S. Striek- 
by general order, July 11, '65. Marshall ler, Oct. 9, '62; H; dis. on surgeon's certifi- 
McDermott, Oct. 30, '62; K; wounded; mus- cate, 13. '64. John W. Snyder, Aug. 28, '62; 
tered out with company. Daniel ^Miller, Oct. F; dis. on surgeon's certificate, JIarch. '65. 
9, "62 ; G ; mustered out with company. Uriah Sebastian Sickenberger, Aug. 28, '62 ; P ; dis. 
;Moore, Oct. 9, '62; G; mustered out with com- by general order, June 20. '65. Thomas P. 
pany. John C. ilarcle, Oct. 9, '62 ; G ; trans. Stephens, Aug. 28, '62 ; F ; dis. by G. 0., June 
to veteran reserve corps; dis. July 25, '65. 20, '65. Jeremiah S. Sebriug. Oct. 29. '62; 
Amos S. Miller, Oct. 9, '62 ; G ; dis. by general K ; wounded ; trans, to vet. reserve corps, 


then commissioned lieutenant in a colored reg- inon Kile, David A. Keefanyer, Samuel 

iment. John Sylvis, Sept. 20, '62 ; E ; pro- Lytle, William C. Lowry, William Lowi-y, 

moted sergeant; dis. by general order, June Anthony Lowman, Jacob J. N. Lott, John 

20, '65. John H. Shaffer, Feb. 24, '62; E; Loughrey, David Man'gus, Thomas Martin, 

vet.; promoted corporal; mustered out with William S. McHenry, Clinton D. McKee, 

company. William H. Sterner, Sept. 20, '62; George McComb, William M. McCreery (died 

E ; promoted corporal ; dis. by G. 0., June 20, July 2, '65), Jeremiah P. Nesbit, Richard 

'65. Adam Titterington, Oct. 29, '62 ; K ; mus- Owens, David Pollock, Frederick Pfaff, John 

tered out with company. R. T. Templeton, S. Plymer (died Aug. 21, '65), George Ray, 

Aug. 28, '62 ; H ; dis. by G. 0., June 20, '65. Augustus Reed, Matthew Rankin, Robert A. 

George L. Vanhorn, Oct. 9, '62 ; G ; mustered Robertson, Hugh M. Reed, James H. Sturapf, 

out with company. Alexander P. Watson, William H. Smith, Madison A. Smith, M. B. 

Aug. 28, '62 ; F ; dis. by general order, June Stomiller, Samuel F. Speedy, George Stahl, 

20, '65. George W. Wilson, Nov. 4, '62 ; K ; Bennett W. Vanhorn, M. B. Wyncoop, Robert 

dis. by G. 0., May 15, '65. Allen N. Work, C. Wyncoop, Jacob R. Warner, Joseph M. 

Oct. 9, '62; G; died at home, Feb. 17, '64. Wilson, William M. Wilson, Joseph C. Wea- 

Robert D. Williams, Aug. 18, '62 ; F ; dis. by mer, Henry Wentz, Daniel M. Zorger. 
G. 0., June 20, '65. W. N. Woolweaver, April 

20, '62 ; E ; mustered out at expiration of 78th Pennsylvania volunteers 

term. Franklin Wissinger, May 29, '62 ; E ; 

trans, to veteran reserve corps ; mustered out Adam Lowry, quartermaster, Oct. 18, '61 ; 
at expiration of term. Alexander Wilson, died at Chattanooga, Tenn., Sept. 28, '63. 
Nov. 4, '62 ; K ; captured ; died July 14, '64, Company A. — Except where other dates are 
at Richmond, of wounds received in action, given for recniits, this company was mustered 
John Warner, Feb. 4, '62 ; F ; dis. '62. Wil- into service Oct. 12, '61. The veterans and 
liam Young, Nov. 4, '62 ; K ; promoted to recruits were mustered out Sept. 11, '65. Wil- 
commissary sergeant, Aug. 31, '63. liam Cummings, captain, Aug. 2, '61 ; wound- 
Company B. — One year enlistment. Samuel ed at Stone River; promoted from first lieu- 
McHenry, captain ; commissioned major June tenant ; mustered out at expiration of term. 
14^ '65 — not mustered. Nathan Z. Seitz, first David A. Rankin, veteran ; promoted from cor- 
lieutenant; commissioned captain June 14, poral to sergeant, to second lieutenant, to eap- 
'65 — not mustered. Dallas Sutton, second tain; mustered out Sept. 11, '65. William R. 
lieutenant ; commissioned first lieutenant June Maize, first lieutenant, Aug. 26, '61 ; wounded 
14, '65 — not mustered. John T. Kinter, first at Stone River; mustered out at expiration of 
sergeant; commissioned second lievitenant term; afterward lieutenant in United States 
June 14, '65 — not mustered. John O'Neil, regular army. John M. Fleming, first lieu- 
sergeant ; Francis Latimer, sergeant ; Joseph tenant, July 20, '63 ; promoted from sergeant 
M. Bell, sergeant; George W. Duncan, ser- to second lieutenant, to first lieutenant; mus- 
geant; Nelson O'Neil, corporal; Thomas C. tered out with company. Evan Lewis, second 
Lytle, corporal ; Silas W. Work, corporal ; lieutenant ; promoted from sergeant, mustered 
John H. Fyock, corporal; Michael Donnelly, out at expiration of term. James M. Miller, 
corporal; Archibald McGaughey, corporal; first sergeant; mustered out at expiration of 
James L. Rhodes, corporal (died July 2, '65) ; term. Samuel L. Smith, first sergeant; vet. ; 
Alexander St. Clair, corporal (dis. June 19, promoted to first sergeant, to second lieuten- 
'65); Daniel D. Fitzhugh, corporal; Nathan ant; not mustered; mustered out with com- 
C. Giddings, corporal; promoted to hospital pany. J. T. Gibson, sergeant; wounded at 
steward. Privates — William Blose. Samuel D. New Hope Church ; dis. Dec. 28, '64. Samuel 
Bell, Isaac Beck, Alexander Brown, Wm. Fleming, sergeant; promoted from musician; 
Boyles, Chai-les Boyles, Matliias Conrath, mustered out at expiration of term. David 
Washington Cook, Porter Clawson, Henry Blue, sergeant; promoted from corporal; 
Cooper, Thomas Carpenter, John C. Crosby, mustered out at expiration of term. James 
Jacob M. Claudy, James E. Dickson, H. Robinson, sergeant; vet.; mustered out 
James Dixon, Marshall T. Dick, John with company. John R. Stewart, sergeant; 
0. Drawbaugh, James M. English, Daniel vet. ; promoted from corporal ; mustered out 
Fyock, George H. Fleming, Walter Gassate, with company. William A. Miller, sergeant; 
John Goodermuth, John C. Harwick, Peter vet.; promoted from corporal; mustered out 
Henry, Charles Hibbard, J. H. Halderman, with company. William Thomas, corporal; 
James P. Johnston, John H. Kimmel, Solo- mustered out at expiration of term. George 



Adams, corporal; wounded in action; mus- 
tered out at expiration of term. Wil- 
liam Fleming, corporal; mustered out at 
expiration of term. John Stauffer, corporal; 
promoted to corporal ; mustered out at expii-a- 
tion of term. Archibald McBrier, corporal; 
promoted to corporal ; mustered out with com- 
pany. John Lukehart, corporal ; vet. ; mus- 
tered out with company. John Miller, cor- 
poral, Sept. 20, '62 ; trans, to veteran reserve 
corps, June, '64. George E. Foy, corporal ; 
promoted to corporal ; captured ; died at Rich- 
mond, Nov. 19, '63. John M. Brown, trans, 
to veteran reserve corps. John F. Rankin, 
musician ; mustered out at expiration of term. 
Jackson Armstrong, private, Aug. 28, '62 ; dis. 
by general order, June, '65. John L. Adams ; 
trans, to signal corps. Charles R. Aden ; died 
at Chattanooga, Tenn.. of wounds received at 
New Hope Church, Ga. Theodore J. Ballen- 
tine; mustered out at expiration of term. 
Nathaniel S. Bryan; mustered out at expira- 
tion of term. Andrew J. Belts ; mustered out 
at expiration of term. Daniel Beyers; mus- 
tered out at expiration of term. James 
Buchanan ; mustered out at expiration of tei*m. 
John Bothel, March 2, '65 ; mustered out with 
company. Henry P. Brinker, March 14, '65 ; 
mustered oiit with company. Daniel Bothel; 
dis. March 21, '63. William W. Bell; dis. 
March 23, '63. George W. Brink, Aug. 1, '64 ; 
dis. by general order, June 19, '65. Leander 
Baylor; .joined U. S. regular army, 4th Cav- 
alry. Dee. 1, '62; wounded at Rome, Ga. ; 
mustered out at expiration of term. George 
P. Currie : mustered out at expiration of term. 
John 0. Campbell; mustered out with com- 
pany. William Cochran; died of wounds re- 
ceived at Stone River, Tenn. John Conway, 
dis. June 28, '62. James Campbell, dis. March 
23. '63. David Clowes, Sept. 10, '62; dis. by 
general order, June 19, '65. James Carroll, 
died of wounds received at Stone River, Tenn. 
James Carnahan, Aug. 28, '62 ; died at Stone 
River, Tenn., Feb. 11, '63. Joseph M. Crooks, 
died at Louisville, Ky., Jan. 5, '62. William 
H. Dickie, trans, to signal corps. John Devlin, 
died at Camp Negley, Ky., Dec. 4. '61. James 
R. Devlin, died at Nashville, Tenn.. Dec. 4, 
'62. Thomas M. Fleming, mi;stered out at 
expiration of term. Richard B. Fleming, Aug. 
16. '64 ; dis. by general order, June 19. '65. 
Clay D. Ferguson, March 31, '64; dis. by 
general order, June 19, '64. William K. Gib- 
son, wounded in action; mustered out at ex- 
piration of term. Andrew Gibson, Marcli 31, 
'64; mustered out with company. Reuben 
George, March 28, '62; dis. by general order. 

June 19, '65. Martin Gable, March 31, '64; 
mustered out with company. James A. Guth- 
rie, wounded and died at Stone River, Tenn., 
Jan. 23, '63. James D. Guthrie, Aug. 25, '62 ; 
dis. by general order, June 19, '65. James 
Hall, mustered out at expii-ation of term. 
Andrew J. Hannan, March 31, '64; mustered 
out with company. John Hefflefinger, dis. 
Dee. 19, '62, and died at home soon after. 
George Helman, died at Louisville, Ky., Dec. 
31, '61. Philip Harman, prisoner Sept. 20, 
'63, to Dec. 10, '64 ; dis. March 15, '65. John 
A. Hufhan, died at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 13, 
'64. Robert Jewett, mustered out at expira- 
tion of, term. Porter Kelley, mustered out at 
expiration of term. R. B. Kilpatrick, mus- 
tered out at expiration of term. J. H. Kil- 
patrick, mustered out at expiration of term. 
Henry Kanouf, Jan. 5, '64; trans, to veteran 
resei've corps and dis. Oct. 4, '65. Philip 
Kunkle, Sept. 10, '62; dis. by general order, 
jTine 19, '65. Thomas C. Kerr, killed at New 
Hope Church, Ga., May 27, '64. Thompson 
Kelley, wounded at Stone River, Tenn., and 
died at Louisville, Ky., April 6, '63. Josiah 
Lewis, mustered out at expiration of term. 
Josiah P. Lewis, mustered out at expiration of 
term. William T. Lewis, mustered out at ex- 
piration of term. John Lewis, Aug. 5, '62; 
dis. by general order, June 19, '65. Samuel 
Lewis, dis. by general order, June 19, '65. 
Westley Lossen, trans, to United States signal 
coi-ps. James Little, killed at New Hope 
Church, Ga., May 27, '64. John C. Lewis; 
died at Louisville, Ky., Dee. 15, '63. Franklin 
Marlin; dis. Feb. 20, '64. Scott M. Miller, 
Feb. 7, '65 ; dis. by general order. May 29, '65. 
Ebenezer Mahan, killed at New Hope Church, 
Ga., May 27, '64. G. W. McGaughey, mus- 
tered out at expiration of term. Daniel Mc- 
■\Iillen, Sept. 10, '62, mustered out Avith com- 
pany. Eli McCall, Jan. 3, '62 : mustered out 
at expiration of term. Eli McPherson, March 
4, '62; mustered out at expiration of tei-m. 
Peter McSweeney, Aug. 28. '62 ; dis. by gen- 
eral order. May 27, '65. ' R. H. McHenry, 
trans, to signal corps. J. J. Palmer, mustered 
out at expiration of term. George C. Palmer, 
trans, to 4th U. S. Cavalry, and died at New 
Orleans (the Palmers wei-e step-sons of John 
Lucas, of Armstrong township, wiio also had 
five sons who served in the Union army, two 
of them wounded in service). David K. Ran- 
kin, mustered out at expiration of term. 
Israel Repine, mustered out at expiration of 
term. John Replogle, Feb. 1. '64: vet.; mus- 
tered out with company. William H. Ruffner, 
Jlareh 3, '64; mustered out with company; 



now a resident of this county. Isaac Rowland, 
dis. June 28, '63. Jolui K. Stear, mustered out 
at expiration of term. John Shetler, mus- 
tered out at expiration of term. Charles C. 
Simpson, mustered out at expiration of term. 
Alex. K. Stewart, March 31, '64; mustered out 
with company. Samuel Smith, Sept. 3, '63; 
mustered out with company. Joseph Shields, 
dis. Aug. 6, '63. Christian Stewart, Aug. 6, 
'64; dis. by general order, June 19, '65. Peter 
Small, Sept. 10, '62; dis. by general order, 
June 19, '65. Peter Spencer, Sept. 15, '64; 
dis. by general order, June 19, '65. John 
Shaffer, Sept. 14, 1864 ; dis. by general order, 
June 19, '65. John C. Shaffer Sept. 14, '64; 
dis. by general order, June 19, '65. William 
Sowers, March 21, '65. James Thorn, Aug. 
19, '62 (James Thorn, a Tennessee lad twelve 
years old, enlisted in this Indiana county com- 
pany; was very brave and daring; sui-vivors 
of the company think the government com- 
missioned him or gave him some appointment ; 
after the war the Rebels caught and hanged 
him). Joseph Uncapher, mustered out at ex- 
piration of term. Abraham Wallace, March 
28, '64; vet.; dis. Sept. 19, '64. Jeremiah 
Wagoner, died at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 27, 

Compamj P.— Mustered in Oct. 12, '61, ex- 
cept where otherwise noted. Michael Forbes, 
captain; resigned January, '63. Robert H. 
McCormick, first lieutenant ; promoted captain 
April 16, '63 ; served three years. William J. 
Nugent, second lieutenant; promoted first 
lieutenant April 16, '63; served three years. 
A. C. Braughler, first sergeant; promoted 
second lieutenant April 16, '63 ; served three 
years. John W. Ross, sergeant; promoted 
first sergeant April 16, '63 ; served three years. 
Joseph L. Buterbaugh, sergeant; dis. June 9, 
'62. William W. Hamilton, sergeant; dis. 
Jan. 14, '63. David Barkey, sergeant, trans, 
to veteran reserve corps Jan. 30, '64. Lewis 
Z. Shaw, sergeant ; died at Stone River, Tenn., 
May 29, '63. Thompson M. Bell, sergeant; 
died at Stone River, Tenn., March 20, '63. 
Jacob Durnmeyer, corporal; served three 
years. Cyrus Daugherty. corporal; served 
three years. Thomas T. Hill, corporal ; served 
three years. Bartholomew Fleming, corporal ; 
died "at Murfreesboro, Tenn.. 'May 1, '63. 
Leonard A. Hallister, musician; served three 
years. David S. Ake, private; served three 
years. Jonathan Anderson, injured in ser- 
vice; dis. Jan. 20, '63. Aaron Burnheimer, 
served three years. Samuel Bartlebaugh, 
served three years. Mathias Bartlebaugh. 
dis. April 29, '63; Jeremiah Cook, wounded 

at Stone River; trans, to veteran reserve 
corps. Albert Daugherty, served three years. 
William Duncan served three years. William 
S. Douthett, Sept. 20, '62 ; died at Nashville, 
Tenn., Feb. 25, '63. John W. Dougherty, 
dis. for disability. Frederick Fuller, served 
three years. Francis S. Fairman, dis. Oct. 17, 
'64. Samuel L. Fairman, died at Camp Wood, 
Ky., Jan. 2, '62. Robert J. Fairman, Sept. 
20, '62; wounded and died at Stone River, 
Tenn., April 7, '63. John Fuller, died at 
Louisville, March 21, '62. George Ginter, 
served three years. George Goss, died at 
Louisville, May 25, '62. John Hudson, served 
three years. John C. Irwin, captured; died 
in Andersonville prison. Samuel Irwin, dis. 
June 8, '63. Bethuel Johnson, dis. Oct. 28, 
'62, at Nashville. Charles B. Kerr, served 
three years. Andrew Kelley, died at Camp 
Hambright, Ky., Feb. 23, 1862. John Lancy, 
served three years. Christopher H. Lute, 
served three years. Alexander Lydick, trans, 
to veteran reserve coi-ps. Joseph M. Lowry, 
promoted commissary sergeant ; served three 
years. Archibald JIcLaughlin, died at Louis- 
ville, Ky., December, '61. Thomas Mc- 
Laughlin, died at Camp Wood, Ky., June 24, 
'62. Harrison McLaughlin, died at Nash- 
ville, Tenn., Feb. 4, '63. Obadiah McLaugh- 
lin, died at Mumfordsville, Ky., March 4, '64. 
Franklin Nupp, served three years. Cyrus 
Nupp, served three years. Jacob C. NefP, 
wounded at Stone River; served three years. 
Austin Rankin, served three years. George 
W. Rowley, died at Camp Hambright, Ky., 
Feb. 22, '62. James Rowland, trans, to vet- 
eran reserve corps; dis. for disability. Sam- 
uel Stahl (1st), served three years. Wil- 
liam Stiffler, served three years. John C. 
Stephens, served three years. John Shetler, 
dis. June 23, '62. Samuel Stahl (2d), trans, 
to United States regular army, Dee. 1, '62, 
and was lost at Selma, Ala. Samuel Stuchel, 
died at Louisville, Ky., Dec. 16, '61. James 
I\L Thomas, served three years. Silas F. 
Templeton. served three years. J. A. Wool- 
weaver, served three years. Jacob Wise, 
served three years. Banks Woodford, served 
three years. Robert M. Walker, served three 
year. Abraham B. Wike, trans, to veteran 
reserve corps, Dec. 12, '63. John Yeasrer, 
Sept. 12, '62; died at Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 
1, '63. 

Company G.—J. L. Myers, Oct. 12, '61; 
served three years. 

Me7i mustered for one year's service. — 
Company P, Solomon Black, Jacob Clouse, 
William' W. Elder, Alex. L. Gaston, Samuel 



Groft, Jam%s Kelley. Company D, Taylor 
Potts. CompaBy H, William Klingensmith. 
Company G. William A. Stuchel. Joseph 
Lydick. Scott Miller. Company I, John Gor- 
don. Company C, Daniel Switzer. Com- 
pany G, J. A. Cessna, died in service; Henry 

103d pennsylvanla. volunteers 

Company G. — ]\Iustered in Jan. 10, '62, 
except where otherwise noted. John Stuchel, 
captain, resigned April 15. '63. James J. 
Morrow, captain, Dec. 1, '61, veteran; pro- 
moted from second to first lieutenant, Jan- 
uary, '63, to captain July 1, '63 ; mustered 
out with company. William H. Irwin, first 
lieutenant, vet., promoted to adjutant, Nov. 
29, '62; mustered out with company. Wil- 
liam C. Bell, first sergeant, vet., promoted to 
first sei-geant, commissioned second lieuten- 
ant : prisoner from April 20, 1864. to March 
1, '65; mustered out with company. Robert 
Whitacre, sergeant, vet., promoted to ser- 
geant ; prisoner from April 30, '64, to March 
1, '65; mustered out with company. George 
Baker, sergeant, vet. ; promoted to sergeant ; 
prisoner from April 20, '64. to March 1. '65; 
mustered out with company. John Black, 
sergeant, vet. ; promoted to sergeant ; pris- 
oner from April 20, '64, to Dec. 1, '64: ab- 
sent on furlough at muster out. Andrew 
Shaukel, vet., promoted to sergeant ; prisoner 
from April 20, '64, to Dec. 1, '64; absent on 
furlough at muster out. John Clark, ser- 
geant, vet., captured April 20, '64; died at 
Florence, S. C, Feb. 1, '65. Joseph W. 
Pearce, sergeant ; dis. date unknown. Thomas 
Moore, Sept. 7, '61 ; trans, to veteran resen-e 
corps. William J. Stuchel; dis. date un- 
known. William ]\IcGary, corporal, vet. ; 
promoted to corporal; prisoner from April 
20, '64, to Dec. 7, '64; absent with leave at 
muster out. William flyers, dis. date un- 
known. Samuel Barr, corporal ; vet. ; pris- 
oner April 20. '64; died at Andersonville, 
Ga., July 7, '64. Jacob Weaver, corporal, 
Sept. 7, '61 ; died, date unknown. Christopher 
Stuchel, corporal, killed (date unkno-mi). 
Samuel Spencer, died at Beaufort. N. C, Dec. 
23, '63. Heniy K. Barrett, musician, died 
at Harrison's Landing, Ya.. July, '62. 
George W. Anthony, private : vet. ; captured 
at Plymouth. N. C.. April 20. '64. John 
Adams, vet. ; captured at Plymouth, N. C, 
April 20. '64. Jacob Anthony ; dis. ; date 
unknown. George W. Brink ; dis. ; date un- 

known. John F. Bruner. Dec. 7, '61 ; vet. ; 
prisoner. April 20, '64, to Dec. 7, '64 ; absent 
on furlough at muster-out. Frank Brothers, 
dis. ; date unknown. Samuel Bagley, dis. ; 
date unknown. Henry H. Bell, promoted to 
sergeant major, Jan. 10, '62; dis. on sur- 
geon's certificate, '62. Peter Barr, Oct. 22, 
'62 ; prisoner, April 20, '64 ; died at Ander- 
sonville, Ga.. Sept. 7. '64. George W. 
Bruner, vet. ; prisoner, April 20, '64. to Dec. 
7. '64; absent on furlough at muster out. 
William O. Black, vet. ; prisoner, April 20, 
'64; died at Anderaonville, Ga., July 18, '64. 
William Carson, vet. ; prisoner. April 20, '64. 
to Dec. 7. '64; mustered out with company. 
James Dunlap, vet. ; prisoner, April 20, '64, 
to Feb. 26. '65 ; absent on furlough at muster- 
out. James Frederick, Dec. 1, '61 ; dis. on 
writ of habeas corpus, Jan. 3, '62. George 
M. Fee, vet. ; prisoner, April 20, '64 ; died at 
Andersonville, Ga., Aug. 16, '64. Daniel 
Fee. died, date unknown. George M. Gour- 
ley, vet. ; prisoner, April 20, '64, to Dec. 7. 
'64; absent on furlough at muster-out. Dan- 
iel Greek, mu-stered out at expiration of term. 
Washington Hazlett. dis., date unknown. 
James Hopkins, dis., date unknown. Thomas 
Jurat, mustered out at expiration of term. 
Isaac Kuhn, died at Beaufort, N. C, March 
21, '64. David W. Lawrence. Thomas J. 
Laughlin. Sept. 7. "61 ; vet. : promoted to 
commissary sergeant; captured at Plymouth. 
N. C, April 20, '65; died on the way from 
Andersonville, Ga., to Florence, S. C. John 
^Miller, vet. ; prisoner, April 20, '64, to April 
1, 65; dis. July 1, '65. Alexander Maul, dis., 
unknown. Robert ilontgomery, dis., date 
unknown. AVilliam McCullough, dis., date un- 
known. Andrew McCullough, dis., date 
unknown. William C. McCluskey, vet. ; 
captured at Plymouth, N. C; died at 
Florence, S. C. or on the way from Ander- 
sonville, Ga. Martin Neff, dis., date un- 
known. George C. Peirce, dis., date un- 
known. Moses T. Steel, vet. ; prisoner April 
10, '64, to Dec. 7, '64 ; absent on furlough at 
muster-out. John Spencer, dis., date un- 
known. Jesse C. Stephens, died June 28, '62. 
John M. Trimble, dis., date unknown. An- 
drew Whitacre, Feb. 24, '64; mustered out 
with company. Jethro Warner, dis., date un- 
known. Joiin F. Weaver, vet.; prisoner 
April 20, "64; died at Florence. S. C, Jan. 
25, '65. Henry Wyant. vet. : prisoner April 
20, '64; died at Andersonville, June 15. '64. 
David White, died, date unknown. 



Coynpany A. — A. II. Mitchell, captain, 
Sept. 9, '61 ; resident of Indiana county since 
the war; promoted from sergeant to first ser- 
geant, to first lieutenant, to captain May 7, 
'64 ; not mustered ; wounded at Spottsylvania, 
and discharged for wounds received at 
Petersburg, Jime 16, '64; received Kearney 
badge for bravery. Joseph Cummiskey, ser- 
geant, Sept. 9, '61, veteran; promoted to 
corporal and sergeanf; mustered out with 
company. Westley P. Hoover, sergeant, Sept. 
9, '61 ; promoted corporal and sergeant ; mus- 
tered out at expiration of term. William J. 
Mogle, coi-poral, Sept. 8, '62; promoted to 
corporal ; wounded at Petersburg, Va. ; mus- 
tered out with company. John ]\IcHem-y, 
corporal, Sept. 9, '61 ; vet., promoted to coi*- 
poral; wounded, mustered out with company. 
Henry Weaver, corporal; April 3, '62; vet, 
promoted to corporal ; mustered out with com- 
pany. Henry Aul, private, Sept. 9, '61; 
teamster, vet. ; mustered out with company. 
Hardman Altebrand, Sept. 9, '61 ; wounded 
at Gettysbui-g and Petersburg; mustered out 
at expiration of term. Samuel W. Brewer, 
Sept. 9, '61, dis. Dec. 24, '61. Isaac Bower- 
sock, Sept. 9, '61; vet., killed in action Aug. 
'64, near Petersburg. John Chambers, Feb. 
9, '64; mustered out with company. Jona- 
than Chambers, Feb. 9, '64; killed in action 
Aug. 21, '64 ; buried at Petersburg, Va. John 
W. Cary, Sept. 9, '61; died at Philadelphia 
Aug. 15, '62. David Cochran, Sept. 9, '61; 
vet., wounded at Gettysbiu-g, Pa. ; mustered 
out with company. John A. Dehaven, Sept. 
9, '61; dis. June 22, '63. John Henneigh, 
Sept. 9, '61; trans, to veteran reserve corps. 
Robert A. Jordan, Sept. 9, '61; vet., mus- 
tered out with company. Robert M. Jordan, 
March 3, '64 ; wounded, and dis. on surgeon 's 
certificate May 11, '65. John Jordan, Sept. 
9, '61; dis. Jan. 22, '63. John L. Mabon, 
Sept. 12, '61; dis. April 24, '62. James 
Mogle, Sept. 8, '62; wounded; dis. by gen- 
eral order, June 2, '65. John Odell, Aug. 2, 
'64; mustered out with company. William 
Painter, Sept. 9, '61 ; vet. ; wounded and cap- 
tured at Boydtown Plank Road, Va. ; mus- 
tered out with companJ^ Henry Sutler, 
Sept. 9, '61, vet. ; killed at Boydto^vn Plank 
Road, Va. Jacob Sutter, Sept. 8, '62, died 
Dec. 20, '62. Berry C. Smith, Feb. 6, '64; 
wounded at Wilderness; mustered out with 
companj^ Peter Walker, Sept. 9, '61 ; dis. 
Jan. 12, '62; served a time in United States 
regular army. Philip Wining, Sept. 9, '61, 

vet.; wounded at Wilderness; tr*ns. to vet- 
eran reserve corps. 

Company G. — Jacob Harshberger, Oct. 25, 
'61 ; dis. March 27, '63. David Keller, Aug. 
28, '61, vet. ; promoted corporal ; mustered 
out with company. Perry Brink, Oct. 25, 
'61; dis. Jan. 19, '64. John Snyder, Oct. 
25, '61 ; killed at Charles City Cross Roads, 
June 30, '62. 

Company D. — James Silvis, Aug. 28, '61; 
promoted from sergeant to firet sergeant, to 
second lieutenant July 1, '61; discharged 
Aug. 6, '64, received the Kearney badge for 
bravery. J. P. R. Cummiskey, first lieuten- 
ant; killed at Fair Oaks, Va. 

Company I. — Mathias Manner, Oct. 5, '61 ; 
promoted to sergeant; killed at Wilderness, 
May 5, '64. 

Company F. — Robert Kirk, captain, Sept. 
9, '61 ; wounded at Fair Oaks and Bull Run ; 
killed at Chancellorsville. William Kimple, 
captain, Sept. 17, '61 ; promoted to corporal, 
sergeant, first sergeant, second lieutenant and 
captain ; mustered out with company. David 
Ratcliff, second lieutenant, Oct. 25, '61 ; re- 
signed Dec. '61. Ogg Neil, second lieutenant, 
Feb. 19, '62; veteran; promoted to corporal, 
sergeant, first sergeant, second lieutenant, 
June 8, '65. William T. Stewart, first ser- 
geant, September, '61, vet.; promoted to cor- 
poral, sergeant, first sergeant; mustered out 
with company. Jacob L. Smith, first ser- 
geant, Sept. 9, '61; promoted from sergeant; 
killed at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, '63. 
William W. Hazlett, sergeant, Sept. 17, '61, 
vet. ; promoted corporal and sergeant ; mus- 
tered out with companj^ John M. Brewer, 
sergeant, Feb. 28, '64, vet. ; promoted to cor- 
poral and sergeant; mustered out with com- 
pany. S. H. Pounds, sergeant, Feb. 17, '62; 
promoted corporal and sergeant; wounded; 
mustered out with company. Robert Doty, 
sergeant, Sept. 9, '61 ; promoted corporal and 
sergeant; killed at Gettysburg; received 
Kearney badge for bravery. John W. Smith, 
sergeant, Sept. 9, '61, vet. ; j^romoted corporal 
and sergeant; killed at Petersburg, June 18, 
'64. Samuel Adamson, sergeant, Sept. 9, '61 ; 
died May 20, '63, of wounds received in ac- 
tion. Jonathan Brindle, sergeant, Oct. 25, 
'61; wounded, transferred to veteran reserve 
corps. Joshua Pearce, corporal, Sept. 9, '61 ; 
vet. ; pi-omoted to corporal ; mustered out with 
compan}^ Joseph Taylor, corporal, Sept. 9, 
'61, vet.; promoted to corporal; mustered out 
with companv. William H. Hazlett, corporal, 
Sept. 17, '61, vet. ; promoted to comoral ; 
mustered out with company. John N. " " 


corporal, Feb. 28. "64 ; promoted to corporal ; :\Iaynard, Sept. 9, '61 ; missing in action at 

mustered out with company. Ira F. Mott, Wilderness, ilay 5, '64. Robert Jleilanus, 

corporal, Sept. 3, '61; vet., promoted to cor- Oct. 26, '61; died at Han-ison's Landing, Va.| 

poral ; killed at Wilderness, Va., May 5, '64. July 10, '62. William T. Neil, May 7, '62 ; 

George R. Hall, corporal. Sept, 7, '61; vet,; dis, Aug, 6, '62, David R, Porter," Jaii, 11^ 

dis. on surgeon's certificate, Oct. 12, '64. '64; died at Philadelphia, Feb,' 13, '65. 

Thomas Neil, corporal, Oct. 19, '61, vet,; James R, Pounds, Oct. 25, '61; missing in 

wounded, dis. on surgeon's certificate March action at Gettysburg, Pa.. July 2. '63, and 

4, '65. Ii-n-in R. Nicodemus, corporal. May never heard from, James W, Shaffer, March 

7, '62; wounded; mustered out at expiration 19, '62; vet; mustered out with company, 

of term, John N, Vanhorn, corporal, Oct, George Shields, Sept. 8, '62; served four 

25, '61 ; dis. Feb, 6, '63, Jonathan Ayei-s, months, deserted and retui-ned November, 
Feb. 25, '64; missing in action at Boydtown "64; mustered out with company, David 
Plank Road, Va,, Oct. 27, '64. Jas. Aul, Simpson, Feb, 14, '64; dis, by general order, 
Oct. 25, '61 ; trans, to veteran reserve corps ; June 27, '65, Da-vid L, Simpson, Sept. 9, 
William W. Brilhart, Feb. 10, '64 ; wounded '61 ; killed at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 
at Petersburg, Va. ; mustered out with com- '63, Peter C, Spencer, Oct, 25. '61 ; dis, Dec, 
pany, John H, Bush, Feb, 28, '64 ; and Jacob 31, '62 ; afterward first lieutenant of Com- 
L, Bee, Feb, 11, '64, wounded; absent sick at pany D, 78th P, V,, one year's service; pro- 
muster-out, Thomas Brickel, mustered out moted to captain, John Stewart, Oct, 25, 
at expiration of term, Samuel Cochran, '65; dis, Jan. 30, '63, David C. Simpson, 
Sept. 9, '61; deserted and returned; dis. at Feb. 14, '64; dis. by general order, June 2, 
expiration of term. William A, Chambers, '65, Samuel W, Walker, Feb, 18. '64; mus- 
April 30, '62 ; trans, to veteran reserve corps, tered out with company, David Willard, 
William H, Dickson, Feb. 14, '64; absent on Sept, 3, '61; vet,; killed at Wilderness, Va., 
furlough at muster-out, Jonathan Doty, May 5, '64, John P. Williamson, Oct. 26, 
Sept. 9, '61; mustered out at expiration of '61; captured; died 1862. David K. Wil- 
term. Chauncy A. Ellis, Oct. 25, '61; good Hams, Oct. 26, '62; trans, to' veteran reserv-e 
record; mustered out at expiration of term, corps, 

John M. Fleming, Sept, 17, '61. vet, : mus- Company K. — Mustered in Oct, 23, '61, ex- 

tered out with company, Samuel Frv. Oct, cept where otherwise noted. Henry Altman, 

26, '61 : wounded in action and dis, Jan. 2. captain ; resigned Dee, 1, '61 ; recommis- 
'63. John F, Fulraer, Sept, 9, '61 : mus- .sioned first lieutenant ; resigned Jan, 15, '62. 
tered out at expiration of term. Samuel D. Samuel McHenry, Jr., captain; promoted 
Fulmer, Sept. 9, '61 ; wounded in action and from sergeant to first sergeant, to second 
dis. Aug. 24, '64. Joseph Graham. Feb. 23. lieutenant, to captain March 26, '63 ; wounded 
"65 ; mustered out with company. George W. at Chancellorsville, and discharged for 
Hoover, Oct. 25, '61 ; wounded in action and wounds received at Gettj'sburg, July 2, '63. 
died at Fortress Monroe, June 4, '62. Ben- Milton W, Adair, captain, veteran; promoted 
.iamin B, Hall, Feb. 29. '64; captured and to corporal, to sergeant, to first sergeant, to 
died at Andersonville, July 17, '64. James first lieutenant, to captain ]\Iay 15, '65; 
Hopkins, Sept, 9, '62; served one year and wounded; mustered out with company, J, 
deserted, H. H, Hallowell, Oct. 26, '61 ; il. Bruce, first lieutenant, vet. ; promoted to 
served two years and deserted, Simon D. coi-poral, to sergeant, to first sergeant, to first 
Hugus, Sept, 9, '61; dis, IMarch 14, '62. lieutenant May 15. '65; wounded near Cold 
John C. Hallowell, Oct, 26, '61 ; dis, Nov, 1, Harbor, ilay 30, '64 ; mustered out with eom- 
'62, Thomas M, Hawk, Oct. 26, '61 ; dis. Dec. panv. Daniel S. Drum, second lieutenant ; 
24, '62, Samuel Hanna, Sept, 9, '61; trans, resigned Nov, 22, '61. Vincent A. Keiflin, 
to 1st U, S, Cavalry, January, '63. George first sergeant, vet.; promoted to sergeant, to 
K, Hoover, Oct, 26, '61 : trans, to veteran re- first sergeant ; died of wounds received at 
serve corps, October, '63 ; IMethodist minister Gettysburg, Pa. ; buried in Catholic cemetery, 
in Illinois, Daniel Johnston, Oct, 25, '61 ; Indiana, Pa, John McGaughey, sergeant, 
killed at Bull Run, Aug. 29, '62. Robert J. vet, ; promoted to sergeant ; wounded at Fair 
Jewert, Feb. 16, '62, vet, ; wounded in action Oaks, Va., Gettysburg, Pa., and Wilderness, 
and died at Washington, D. C, June 4. '64, Va, ; mustered out with company. Robert 
Robert S. Loughrey, Feb. 24, '64; mustered T. Pattison, sergeant: killed at Fair Oaks, 
out with company, William C. Martin, Sept. Va.. May 31, '62. George J. Reed, sergeant, 
17, '61, vet.: died Jan. 6. '65. George W, Dec, 31, '61; vet, died Aug, 2, '64, of 


wounds received at Wilderness, Va. ; re- vate, Company I. John K. Anderson, quarter- 

eeived Kearney badge for bravery. John master sergeant, promoted from musician, 

Shivler, corporal, vet. ; promoted to corporal ; Company D. 

wounded near Appomattox C. H., Va., mus- Company A. — Mustered Aug. 14, '62; mus- 
tered out with company. Daniel Shomber, tered out, May 24, '63. Samuel T. Nichol- 
eorporal, vet. ; promoted to cori^oral ; good son, captain ; Benjamin P. Speedy, first lieu- 
record; mustered out with company. J. M. tenant; Robert L. Ritchie, second" lieutenant; 
Torrence, corporal, vet.; promoted to cor- Elisha L. Devinney, first sergeant; J. Stewart 
poral ; wounded ; mustered out with company. Thompson, sergeant ; H. H. McCreight, ser- 
Calvin S. Adair, coi-poral, killed at Fair Oaks, geant ; John A. Dickey, sergeant ; Mathias 
Va., May 31, '62. Martin L. Smith, cor- Drake, sergeant; William D. Fleming, cor- 
poral; dis. on surgeon's certificate Feb. 14, poral; Theo. Stonrod, corporal; Samuel E. 
'63. William S. McLain, musician; dis. on Couch, corporal; Samuel A. Shields, cor- 
writ of habeas corpus September, '62. Robert poral ; John A. Walker, corporal ; John Wis- 
S. Beatty, private; dis. Dec. 26, '62. John singer, corporal; William M. Cribbs, cor- 
C. Bothel, wounded at Fair Oaks, Va., May poral; William L. Johnston, corporal; Wil- 
31, '62; trans, to veteran reserve corps Sept. liam S. McLain, musician; A. H. Armstrong, 
1, '63. Zach. Chambers, dis. on writ of musician. Privates — William A. Anderson, 
habeas corpus Feb. 10, '62. Hugh C. Cra van, William Armstrong (died March 7, '63), 
died at Camp Jameson, Va., Jan. 22, '62. Robert F. Armstrong (died Dec. 17, '62), 
Alpheus B. Clark, wounded at Gettysburg, Washington Allen (died Dec. 12, '62), 
Pa., July 2, '62, and dis. James M. Cannon, George Bothell, John Bell, William Barnett, 
mustered out at expiration of tei-m. Martin John Bothell, Calvin Bartley, William 
Davis, Feb. 8, '64, died May 18, '64. of Beatty, William Blakeley, Alex. "Buterbaugh 
wounds received at Wilderness, Va. James (died March 28, '63), Washington Cook, Gil- 
K. Deemer, Oct. 23, '61, dis. Dec. 17, '62. lis D. Cribbs, Jacob Cribbs. Samuel Cril)bs, 
David T. Faith, March 18, '62, .dis. August John A. Cribbs, Joseph S. Carr, Robert Con- 
14, '62. Michael Faith, Oct. 23, '61, dis. nor, George H. Cribbs, Daniel Clawson (died 
March 19, '62. Frank Grimes, died May 21, Oct. 3, '62), John Downey, Alex. R. Davis, 
'62, of wounds received at Chancellorsville, William M. Dodds, John T. Drake, Martin 
Va. Joel A. Ginter, dis. Feb. 6, '63. Samuel Davis, D. F. Dickinson, John Davis (dis- 
T. Hays, dis. Aug. 9, '62. James Hall, charged on surgeon's certificate; died; buried 
wounded, trans, to veteran reserve corps, at Washington, D. C), Joseph S. Fry, Jacob 
Solomon Keck, vet., good record, mustered Fry, Richard B. Fleming, William S. Gibson, 
out with company. Jos. Klingenberger, dis. William G. Hotham, William Henderson, 
July 14, '62 (see 46th P. V.). John Kelley, John W. Henderson, Findley Hall, David 
dis. Jan. 18, '62. Samuel A. Lydiek, wounded Hall, George T. Hamilton, John M. Hosack, 
at Bull Run August, '62, and dis. James George M. Hildebrand, Isaac Hefaefinger, 
McElhose, dis. June 14, '62. George W. Me- William Hanna, Alex. Irwin, John Isenberg, 
Henry, wounded at Gettysburg, leg ampu- Robert Johnston, Joseph I\I. Johnston (dis. 
tated. James H. Peelor, wounded at Fair April 9, '63), Heni-y Knauf, Michael Kunkle, 
Oaks, Va., May 31, ■62, and dis. James Thomas C. Lytle, John M. Long, Henry Long, 
Pease, dis. Dec. 29, '62. Samuel Rhoads, dis. Michael Miller, Henry Myers, John H. Miller, 
Oct. 22, '62. James S. Switzer, died at York- George McLaughlin, William Mclntire, Sam- 
town, Va., April, 1862. James J. Shields, uel A. McNutt, William McNeal, John R. 
died of wounds received at Fair Oaks, Va., McAdoo, Ross McCoy, Samuel G. IMcCurdy 
May 31, '62. Marshall Shields, dis. Aug. 9, ((jjg March 6, '63), Nelson O'Neal, David 
'62 George J Snyder, wounded at Fair q^.^^ j^^ ^ Painter. Robert :M. Reed, Ma- 
Oaks Va., May 31, .62, and dis. John Swan- ^^^-^^ ^ j^^^^^ j^j^^^^ Rosborough. James G. 

?ir w?; wtL'^ '^1'T '°'?q ^^5^^^"^' Rankin, Daniel Rosensteel, Joseph C. Repine. 

64. Henry Wming, dis. Jan. 29, 63. ^^^^^.^.^ ^ g^.^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ g g^.^,^ g^^^^j 

1 or A. Smith, Charles Spare, Daniel Strasler, Jos. 

135th PENNSYLVANIA VOLUNTEERS „, A ■ j Oi T r> c- 

Sharp, David Steveson, James R, Spenee, 
Nine months' service Nelson M. Thompson (see 2d Cav.) ; Lewis M. 
James R. Porter, colonel, Aug. 26, '62; Thomas. James M. Thompson, John Titter- 
mustered out with regiment. Je,sse Thomas, ington (see 61st P. V.) ; John L. Thomas, 
commissioned sergeant, promoted from pri- John J. Taylor (dis. March 6, '63) ; Andrew 


Wissinger, Alex. Weamer. Benjamin Walker, Hiram Titterington, John A. Vanhorn, John 

James W. Wiggins (dis. Jan. 8, '63). S. Work, Robert H. Williams, James J. Work, 

Company D. — Mustered Aug. 14. '62; Robert N. Work (see 61st Pa. V.), John A. 

mustered out May 24, '63. John G. Wilson, Work, Phineas A. AVork, Stewart J. Wvn- 

eaptain ; Joseph K. Weaver, first lieutenant ; coop, James T. Welsh. 

Thomas J. Moore, second lieutenant; Shep- Company I. — Mustered Aug. 15, '62; mus- 
herd M. Hawkins, first sergeant; Eli W. tered out ;\Iay 24, '63. John A. Kinter, cap- 
Brady, sergeant; Samuel L. Graham, ser- tain; William W. Adams, first lieutenant; 
geant; Clarence Hart, sergeant; Hugh il. George R. Bolar. second lieutenant; Samuel 
Thomas, sergeant, dis. Nov. 6, '61; Con- W. Campbell, first sergeant; William R. 
rad Peiffer (or Piper) sergeant, promoted Loughrey, sergeant; Sylvester C. Thompson, 
to sergeant; Alfred Miirray, coi-poral; Mc- sergeant; Christ. Grumbling, sergeant; John 
Lain Sutton, corporal ; Daniel Rhea, cor- McElhoes. sergeant ; promoted to sergeant ; 
poral; Robert 0. McGinty, corporal; John- Peter Craig Kinter, sergeant; died Oct. 18, 
stone E. Walter, corporal; John R. Brick- '62; John H. Miller, corporal; H. B. Camp- 
ley, corporal ; George W. Lafferty, corporal ; bell, corporal ; James Dick, corporal ; John 
John M. Lemon, corporal ; Albert H. Hess, Todd Kinter, corporal ; Daniel Belford, cor- 
musician ; John A. Hunter, musician ; John poral ; Andrew M. Duncan, corporal ; Samuel 
K. Anderson, musician; promoted to quar- B. Harrison, corporal; Garvin S. Hise, cor- 
termaster sergeant. Privates — Joseph W. poral; Henry M. Kinter, _ musician ; James 
Adams, Isaac Akeright. John Aul, John P. ]\I. Watt, musician. Privates — Isaac S. Al- 
Barber, William Bee. Charles Bender. Wil- corn, George Ballentine, Joshua Burkey, 
liam G. Beatty. J. G. Buchanan (wounded Samuel Bathurst, Leander Bush, James 
at Chancellorsville) ; Solomon Conrath, Wil- Bothel, Adam Blaok, Andrew Burkey (dis. 
liam Colwell, William L. Craig, George W. Oct. 30, '62), William W. Campbell," Find- 
Colkitt, David N. Conrath, D. A. Clawson, ley Campbell, William W. Crissman, William 
John C. Cochran (died at Belle Plain, Va.), Coho, Matthew Cochran, John C. Cochran, 
Augustus H. Darby. James Duncan, William Findley Carney, John M. Campbell, Daniel 
F. Dexter, Emanuel Earhart (died at Belle Crissman, Abraham Crissman, John Dodson, 
Plain. Feb. 22, '63), Theo. S. Fleming, Levi James E. Dilts, Foster W. Davis, James Elder 
H. Fulton. James H. Frederick, Francis M. (dis. Dec. 30, '61), Alexander Faloon, en- 
Fleck, Samuel Frampton, Martin V, Fry listed in '65 again; Samuel Fleming, Peter 
(dis. Nov. 5, '62), Thomas M. Guthrie, Freeh, Daniel Fitshons (or Fitshugh), Wil- 
Thomas A, Hopkins, Alexander Hughes, liam Fleming, Franklin Geesey, Samuel S. 
Robert C. Hopkins, William M. Hamil, An- Hileman, Isaac S. Helman (see 61st P, V.), 
drew K. Hist, David Hilty, Andrew Horrell, John Harman, Francis Herlinger, Lewis M. 
Alexander Hopkins (dis. Feb. 11, "63), Jen- Johnston, John Kinter, Heni-y Kelley, 
nings Hefflefinger (died Nov. 5, '62), Samuel Thomas Landers, John W. Lomison, David 
V, Johns. John S. Johnston, Archer R. Jones, Mardis, Daniel ililler, John K. Myers, ]\Iat- 
Reuben Kuhns, John Kelle.v, John B. Keely. hew Markey, James Mahan, James Moose, 
Thomas G. Kelley, James W. Kelley, James [Morris C. Moore, George W. Mitchell, Ed- 
M. Laughrey, Sampson Love, John W. Lea- ward D. Mui-phy, John N. jMeCormick, Joseph 
sure, Daniel A. Laughrey, Abraham Leasure, McGaughey, William H. ilcCallister, Hugh 
Theo. S. Marshall. Eli.iah W. ^Moore, John H. Pershing, Richard W, Porter, George 
C. Matthews, George Morrison, Robert Mc- Peffer, Isaac T. Pearce (dis. Nov. 24, '62), 
Clanahan, Steele ^McGinity, William A. Mc- George W. Reed. Matthew S. Ray, William 
Henry, Oliver S. McHenry, James ]\I. ]\Ic- Row, George W. Rhude, Mark Ray (see 4th 
Kelvev, William H. McQuown, William H. Cavalry), George Roush, Hiram Rager (dis. 
MeCreeiy, Elisha B. McGara, William :\I. Nov. 24, '62), Thomas C. Ramey (dis. Jan. 24, 
McGaughev. William K. McClellan, John C. '63), Harrison Spires, Abraham Smith, Peter 
McClellan (dis. Nov. 26, '62), John MeWil- Strausbaugh, William A. Stiffey. Samuel E. 
liams (died Nov. 13, '62). Hugh R. Pollock Shroek. John C. Stuchel. Samuel D. Stiffey, 
(died at Indiana. Pa., on the wav home from David F. Stewart. Jacob Sensebaugh. Nat. 
the army), David R. Pringle. David Pollock. W. Stewart, Henry Y. Steer. W. H. B. 
Nelson McD. Piper, John J. Rodkey, Robert Sprankle, Alfred Shaffer, J. L. Straus- 
M. Ross, Daniel Replogle, John R. Robinson, baugh, William W, Stewart, James A. 
Samuel Stahl, Robert A. Steel, Andrew J. Stephens, Samuel Trimble, Jesse Thomas 
Stumpf, John il. Stuchel (dis. Feb. 11, '63), (promoted to commissary sergeant), Samuel 



Wolf, William T. Wilson, Thomas Wilson, 
John P. Wineman, Mathias Yaney. 

Note. — Many of these men served in other 
regiments. A few of the men named may 
not have belonged to Indiana county. We 
find it impossible, without great labor, to 
separate the list. Those who reenlisted in 
three-year regiments will find their credit in 
them. We find the list of one-year men in 
67th, 74th, 78th and 206th, which embraces 
most of them, and we give this list that those 
who served but nine months get their credit, 
and those who served more get this credit also. 


Three years' service 
Company E. — Mustered Sept. 2, '62. John 
F. Sutton, captain; promoted from first lieu- 
tenant, Nov. 15, '63; wounded at Gettys- 
burg, Pa., and Wilderness, Va. ; mustered 
out with company. George Hamilton, second 
lieutenant; resigned June 1, '63; was in first 
thi-ee months' service; served in navy one 
year. James M. Sutton, second lieutenant; 
color sergeant from August to November, 
'63; promoted to first sergeant, to second 
lieutenant Jan. 13, '64; wounded at Po river 
May 10, '64 ; leg amputated ; dis. Nov. 8, '64. 
John L. Mabon, sergeant ; vet. ; promoted to 
corporal and sergeant; mustered out with 
company. William Byers, corporal; pro- 
moted to corporal ; good soldier ; mustered out 
with company. Robert P. Thompson, cor- 
poral; promoted to corporal; captured at 
Ream's Station, Va., and died at Salisbury, 
N. C, Dec. 8, '64. Joseph Hallowell, cor- 
poral; promoted to corporal; good soldier; 
mustered out with company. Matthew G. 
Allison, corporal; promoted to corporal; 
died May 19, '64, of wounds received at 
Spottsylvania May 12, '64. Isaiah L. Wells, 
corporal; promoted to corporal; died at 
Philadelphia Feb. 26, '63. James Bear, pri- 
vate, dis. June 30, '63 ; died soon after. John 
A. Cunningham, wounded in thigh at Po 
River, May 10, '64. H. Clingeuberger, dis. 
Aug. 3, '63. James Aden, died at Morris- 
ville, Va., Aug. 17, '63. Thomas Garrett, 
wounded at Spottsylvania jMay 12, '64. 
George Groft, wounded at Gettysburg July 
2, '63; dis. May 29, '65. John S. Harman, 
prisoner near Petersburg June 22, '64; mus- 
tered out with company. William M. Hallo- 
well, good soldier; mustered out with com- 
pany. Henry Homer, wounded at Gettys- 
burg July 2, '63 ; trans, to veteran reserve 
corps. John Harmau, died at Washington, 

D. C, Aug. 17, '63. Lewis H. Irwin, died at 
Washington, D. C, Sept. 18, '64. Jacob 
Jamison, wounded at Spottsylvania, May 12, 
'64; arm amputated; dis. Oct. 7, '64. John 
Kunkle, died of wounds received at Gettys- 
burg, July 2, '63. Thomas R. Lukehart, 
wounded at Gettysburg, July 2, '63; trans, 
to veteran reserve corps; dis. June 1, '65. 
David F. Lukehart, died at Washington, of 
wounds received at Po river. May 10, '64. 
William Landers, died at Point of Rocks, Va., 
of wounds received at Five Forks, Va., March 
31, '62. John C. Moorhead, orderly at brig- 
adier headquarters; mustered out with com- 
pany. John Meekans, wounded at Cold Har- 
l)or, Va., June 3, '64; foot amputated; dis. 
May 29, '65. Thomas McElwee, wounded at 
Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, '63; mustered out 
with the company. William P. Oberlin, dis. 
by general order, June 5, '65. Samuel Pilson, 
wounded at Po river. May 10, '64; dis. 
by general order, June 5, '65. William 
Pringle, died Aug. 24, '64. Joseph Rising, 
prisoner at Petersbui-g, Va., Oct. 27, '64; 
mustered out with company. John G. Row- 
land, captured at Ream's Station, Va., died 
at Salisbury, N. C, Feb. 1, '65. Malchiah 
Rhodes, Sept. 22, '62; wounded at Gettys- 
burg, Pa., July 2, '63; mustered out with 
company. Hezekiah C. Reed, trans, to vet- 
eran reserve corps; dis. June 30, '65. John 

B. Shall, prisoner Aug. 25, '64; to March 1, 
'65 ; dis. June 22, '65. Edward Sweeny, dis. 
May 29, '63. Joseph C. Speedy, wounded at 
Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, '63; dis. April 28, 
'64. Joseph L. Sutton, died at Falmouth, 
Va., May 25, '63. George D. Welsh, captured 
at Ream's Station, Va., died at Salisbury, N. 

C, Feb. 6, '65. Lewis A. Welsh, mustered 
out with company. Miles Wyncoop, mus- 
tered out with company. John S. Wyncoop, 
died at Fredericksburg, Va., of wounds re- 
ceived at Po river. May 10, '64. James K. 
Wells, wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 
'63 ; dis. Jan. 25, '64. John S. Weamer, died 
at Coekeysville, Md., Nov. 30, '62. Clark 
Whitacre, died at Alexandria, Va., by com- 
pany record June 20, '63, State record, July 
7, '63, burial record, June 28, '63. 



Company 7i.— J. B. IMcLaughlin, first 
lieutenant, Nov. 23, '62 ; promoted to corporal, 
sergeant, second lieutenant, and to first lieu- 
tenant, June 8, '65; mustered out with com- 
pany. J. A. Austed, Nov. 23, '62. Alex. H. 


Armstrong, Aug. 24, "64. Alex. Ballentine, sergeant nia.jor; Jesse Thomas, quartermaster 
Feb. 23, '64; mustered out with company, sergeant; Peter K. Jamison, commissary ser- 
George Bothel. Feb. 23, '64. David C. Bothell, geant ; John il. Shields, hospital steward, 
vet.; mustered out with company. Samuel Company A. — Clustered for one year's ser- 
W. Briggs, Nov. 14, '62 ; dis. by general order, vice, Aug. 26, '64 ; mustered out" June 26, 
June 6, '65. James M. Briggs, Nov. 23, '62 ; '65. Thomas J. Moore, captain ; Robert Cra- 
promoted to company quartermaster sergeant, van, first lieutenant ; John N. Vaughom, 
John Byers, Feb. 23, '64; mustered out with second lieutenant; John Smith Work, first 
company. James il. Chambers, Feb. 29, '64, sergeant, died at Point of Rocks, Va., Jan. 
wounded ; dis. by general order. May 23, '65. 8, '65 ; Robert J. Hopkins, promoted to first 
Jeremiah C. Cooper, Nov. 23, '62 ; drowned sergeant ; Aaron W. Steele, promoted to ser- 
in the Potomac and buried at Mount Olive geant; Conrad Peiffer, sergeant; William H. 
cemetery, Md. John Do'\\'uey, Aug. 24, '64; Work, sergeant; George Roush, promoted to 
dis. by general order June 9, '65. John Feit, sergeant ; John W. Lea.sure, corporal ; Joseph 
Nov. 23, '62; mustered out at expiration of Ruffner, corporal; Daniel Snyder, promoted 
term. Joseph S. Frj^, Feb. 23, '64; promoted to corporal; Edward H. Ruffner. corporal; 
corporal ; vet. ; mustered out with company. Daniel T. Baylor, corporal ; William Bee, 
Jacob Fry, reported for this regiment. Daniel promoted to corporal ; William Bowers, pro- 
A. George, Nov. 23, '62; killed at White Sul- moted to corporal; Edwin Chesley, promoted 
phur Springs, Ya., Aiig. 26, '63. Andrew J. to corporal; Ephraim Lydick, corporal, died 
Harman, Nov. 23, '62. David Johnston, Nov. 11, '64; Norman Park, musician; Fred- 
Nov. 23, '62 ; served a term .as regimental erick Smith, musician. Privates — Jacob 
commissary sergeant. James S. Kelly, ser- Arthurs, George Arthurs, Thomas Arthurs, 
geant ; Nov. 23, '62. James 'M. Johnston, Feb. George S. A. Boyer, Jacob Boyer, John ISl. 
23, '64; trans, to veteran reserve corps. Bates. Leonard Bates, William H. Bee, Jacob 
Robert Johnston, Feb. 23, '64 ; vet. ; mustered Bee, George W. Bowers, Jacob C. Brilhart, 
out with company. John A. Johnston, Nov. Thomas Cravan, Benjamin ]\L Campbell 
23, '62. Morrow Lytle, Nov. 23, '62; died (died at Fortress Monroe, Va.. Dec. 25, '64); 
in service. Robert Lytle, Nov. 23, '62. H. John Doty, James C. Dilts, James Daugherty, 
P. Lewis, Nov. 23, '62; promoted to corporal. S. L. Frampton, Joseph Fishei-, Samuel R. 
James M. IMiller, Nov. 23, '62. Silas Jliller, Fisher. Harrison Friedlv, Thomas Ferrier, 
Nov. 23, '62. John Miller, Nov. 23, '62 ; died Alex. Gonnan, George M. Crumley, Hugh 
in service. William (or Wilson) Morrow, cor- Hopkins, George Hess, James Hazlett, Alfred 
poral. John W. Matthews, Nov. 23, '62. A. Johnston, Joseph Kennan, Thomas Kerr, 
David IMartin, reported to be of this regi- George W. Livengood, Joshua Lydiek, Wil- 
ment. Benjamin F. ilcCreight, Feb. 4, '64; liam Lydick, George Lewis, Andrew Lemrick, 
mustered out ^nth company. William H. David C. Leasure, Joseph L. Langham, Fred- 
Repine, Feb. 29, '64, mustered out with com- erick 'Slock. Martin Myers, William ]\IeGara, 
pany. Henry F. Russell, March 3, '64; pro- J. A. McMannes, John McBrier. Samuel S. 
moted to corporal; mustered out with com- ilcCreary. John K. ]\IcElhose, ilartiu ~Slc- 
pany. Joseph Ross, Nov. 23, '62. Alex. M. Jlillen, John O'Harra, Harrison O'Harra, 
Speedy. Nov. 23, '62 ; mustered out with com- Andrew Pollock, John T. Park, George W. 
pany. Martin V. Smith, Feb. 23, '64; vet.; Painter, Le^ad D. Palmer (died May 29, "65), 
mustered out with company. LTriali Sheffler. J. Oscar Richardson. Andrew H. Ruft'ner, . 
Feb. 23, '64 ; vet. ; mustered out with com- David il. Ruffner. John Rowley, Augustus 
pany. David Stivison, Feb. 4, '64 ; killed at G. Rishel. R. Jewell Richardson. William H. 
Winchester. Frank M. Smith, Feb. 27, '64; Roush (died Feb. 11, '65). :\rilton Shields, 
mustered out with company. Thomas W. Clark G. Shields. Daniel S. Smith. Andrew J. 
Thompson, Nov. 23, '62. Andrew Wissinger, Smith, Ephraim Steft'y, Samuel Snyder, John 
Feb. 23. '64; vet.: mustered out with com- Snyder, ]\Iilton Stuchel. Tobias Snyder, 
pany. Le\'i S. Wissenger, Nov. 23, '62. Henry M. Thing, Daniel Thomas. Robert 
James A. Walker, Aug. 24, '64. Trusal (or Truzel), Charles H. White, Har- 

man Waddle, George W. Wright, David B. 
206th pexxstlvaxia volunteers Work. 

Company C. — Mustered in for one year, 

Hugh J. Brady, colonel; Josiah B. Fer- Aug. 27, '64; mustered out June 26, '65. 

guson, major; James L. Crawford, adjutant; William C. Brown, captain; Samuel W. 

John Lowry, quartermaster; Hugh Brady, Brewer, first lieutenant; James B. Hinds, 


second litnitenant ; Charles W. Brewer, first musician : died Feb. 28, 73; Robert H. Ful- 
sergeant ; Andrew Pearee, sergeant ; James ton, promoted to principal musician ; Daniel 
E. Dilts, sergeant ; William L. ]McQuown, Repine, musician ; James Wilson, musician, 
sergeant; David S. Downey, sergeant; John Privates — William C. Anderson (died Nov. 
McHenr.y, corporal; Thomas H. Ewing, cor- 23, '64), William A. Anderson, Charles D. 
poral; Abraham C. Pearee, corporal; Frank- Atkinson, James ^I. Altman, Albert W. Arm- 
lin Long, corporal; Patrick ]McGranner, cor- strong, John W. Bennett, Franklin Byers, 
poral; John M. Ilazlett, corporal; Joseph David A. lirown, Joseph R. Brown, Richard 
Shaffer, corporal ; Thomas P. North, corporal. A. Clawson. A. H. Calhoun, Lemuel L. Fair, 
Privates— Robert B. Adams, Clark D. Alii- Dan. M. Fair, William H. Pink, James Goe, 
son (died at Point of Rocks, Va., Oct. 4, '64), J. W. Harbison, David J\I. Henderson, Wil- 
David Black, Archibald S. Barclay, Samuel liam J. Henderson, Josiah B. Huston, John 
S. Beck, Joseph G. Baun, John Bennett, F. Hartsock, Thomas J. Hill, George W. Hill, 
Isaac S. Bennett, Henry Bennett, John Peter Harkins, Josc>i)li A. Jnlmston, William 
Bishop, William Barber. James Bruce, Johnston, Isaac S. Kliii-viisinith, James Kier, 
George Barrett, Michael Borts (died Nov. John Kelly, Timothy C. La\t(in, John B. Me- 
24, '64), Benjamin Baird (on Clearfield Intire, John L. iMclnliii', Ilu-rh J. Mclntire, 
county line), Alex. S. Crawford, Joseph Hugh Mclntire, Jr.. Alcx.indfr McCracken, 
Carey, Joseph Coy, William C. Downey, George D. Miller, William .Miller, John Miller, 
John M. Dilts, Timothy T. Duck, Henry Def- Hugh McGee. William McCabria, William 
enderfer, Samuel Frampton, James Graham, McConnell, Robert McConnell, James M. 
George M. Gromley, David G. Gorman, Marshall, Solomon Mitchell, Thomas C. Ma- 
Samuel S. Gamble (died Dec. 1, '64), George her, James Neil. David Nesbit, John A. Pat- 
S. Heneigh, James Hanna, John Hickor, terson, James E. Palmer, Charles Palmer, 
Robert C. Huey, Samuel C. Hazlett, John George Pease. Richard Porter, Charles M. 
Hill, Thomas Lunger, John Lunger. Obadiah Reed, Ben.jamin F. Reed, James Richardson, 
Lockard, Robert Martin, Thad. C. ]\Iogle, William J. Siegfried, Daniel Smith, William 
George Moot, Joseph Mauk (or Mock), Wil- Smith, William Stewart, Porter Stilsel, John 
liam H. jMeComb, Addison J. McComb, Cori- A. Aaron, Robert Scott. Lewis Spires, James 
den J. McComb, David W. IMcMillen, Isaiah M. Shannon, James Thompson. John G. 
McCuUough (killed at Fort Brady, Va., Oct. Thompson, Andrew L. Wiggins, Joliu Walker, 
8, '64), Abraham Nicodemus, Joseph P. James Wilkins (died Nov. 29, '64), Milton 
North, Henry C. Peffer, W. P. Postlewait, Wylie (died at Point of Rocks, Va., Dec. 24, 
John F. Peiffer, David G. Peiffer, Samuel '64). 

Pearee, John Rinn, Jacob Rish, William Company F. — Mustered for one year. Aug. 
Riddle, James M. Rifenberick. George W. 26 to Sept. 3, '64 ; mustered out June 26, '65, 
Shorthill, Joseph Shields, David Stiver, John A. Kinter, captain; William W. Bell, 
Daniel Stiver. John F. Smith, William Sut- first lieutenant, captured, dis. June 5, '65; 
ter, James Toy, James D. Taylor, William William T. Kinter, second lieutenant; Wil- 
M. Urey, John Varner, William H. White, liam Duncan, first sergeant, promoted from 
Alfred N. Walker, Sharp Wright, Porter private; Samuel B. Harrison, second ser- 
Wright, John A. Winebark, Martin Wine- geant, promoted from private; John Bothel, 
bark. third sergeant, promoted to corporal and ser- 
Company D. — Mustered for one year, Aug. geant ; D. J. Flickenger, fourth sergeant, pro- 
23 to Sept. 3, '64; mustered out June 26, moted to corporal and sergeant; James E. 
'65. William C. Gordon, captain; Joseph Riddle, fifth sergeant, promoted from pri- 
Atkinson, first lieutenant: John H. Miller, vate ; George Rank, first corporal; William 
second lieutenant; William C. Blakely, first Smith, second corporal, March 12, '65, died 
sergeant; Robert T. McCrea, second sergeant; at Rock Hospital, Va., June 26. '65; Steel 
Matbew H. Fails, third sergeant ; Nathaniel McGinty. second corporal ; Mathew Harbison, 
Davis, fourth sergeant; Edward McGuire, third corporal; William Black, fourth cor- 
fifth sergeant; John C. Pattison, first cor- poral; William St. Clair, fifth corporal; 
poral; William Ferguson, second corporal; James A. McAllister, sixth corporal; Byran 
Robert Thompson, third corporal; Henry McSweeney, seventh corporal; Solomon Con- 
Knee, fourth corporal : John Richardson, fifth rath, eighth corporal ; John P. H. Shields, 
corporal; W^illiam Ramsey, sixth corporal; musician; Thomas S. Thompson, musician. 
Alex. R.Davis, seventh corporal; John Gib- Privates — Nicholas Altimus, Ellis Adams, 
son, eighth corporal ; Alex. Brown, principal William Bracken, D. J. Broughler, Thomas 


D. Brady, William Barkey, William Beatty Fry, William Frior. John Giftord, Isaac 

(died July 2, '65, at Camp Reynolds, Pitts- Griffith, John C. Goddard, Abrani Hale, 

burg, the day he was discharged), Henry Bar- Robert ^l. Hazlett, Henry Hess. W. N. Hilde- 

key, Hugh Brady (promoted to sergeant brand, Samuel Huey, 'George W. Henry, 

major) , Henry K. Biss, Joseph Bell, Austin Robert John, James John. Henry A. Kiuter] 

Cooper, Philander Churchhill, George W. James Kelley, George A. Kanarr, George w! 

Croyle (died Sept. 30, '64, at Point of Rocks, Kelley, David B. Lute, Alexander Lytle^ Cal- 

Ta.), Andrew Groft, Israel Conrath, Samuel vin Lytle, James J. Lawson, Robert Lowry, 

Clark, Gawin Drummond. Westley Drum- Adam Lower, James il. Mon-ison, Robert P.' 

mond, Andronicus Dnimmond, Joseph Dona- Mears, Jacob Mardis, John [McBroom, An- 

hue, David H. Dunmire, Jonathan Edwards, drew McQuistow; Robert ilcCurdy, James J. 

Albert Gouts. Sol. J. Hankison. James Haz- McAfoos, ]\Iatthew Oliver, David J. Palmer 

lett, Alex. Hazlett, Daniel Heneigh, Wil- Thomas W. Rhea, George Rish. Robert Reed| 

liam Harbridge. David Hamilton, Samuel John C. Stuckel, Joseph Springer, Sol. D. 

J. Hellman, P. K. Jamison (promoted Shaffer, Michael Stiles, David K. Stestle, 

to commissary sergeant), Robert Kelly, Daniel Spicher, John W. Stewart, David Iv! 

Moses Kanarr, Aaron Kanarr, John Dowi-y Stiles, William C. Taylor, James Thompson, 

(promoted (luartermaster sergeant), W. William U. Thompson,' Augustus Urius, James 
C. Little, John W. Lewis, Tobias Long,< Williard, Andrew Wilson, David P. Weaver. 

James Laney, David ilcCardle, Mathias, Note. — There are a few names in this com- 

Myers, ]\Iiles ^IcSweeny. George MuUer, J. D. pany that may be of adjoining counties — not 

McAfoose, George Mobly, William McGinity, man.v. 

William P. Meanor, Jeremiah Peterman, Company B".— Mustered into service for 
Jacob Peterman, James L. Park, William one year, Aug. 29 to 31, '64; mustered out 
Ruffner, J. G. Stewart, Jacob S. Stuchell, June 26, '65. This company was almost all 
George H. Snyder, Robert Small, James from Indiana county, and we have not been 
Spence, William H. Shields, Georgian Slos- able to get the names from adjoining counties 
son, Alfred Sterner, Samuel Stewart (wound- stricken out. Jo.seph C. Greer, captain; Wil- 
ed at Hatcher's Run, Va., April 1, '63, absent liam P. Altimus, first lieutenant; John W. 
in hospital at muster out), William Shields, McElheney, second lieutenant; William B. 
John :M. Shields (promoted to hospital stew- Hoskinson, first sergeant; Thomas B. Hood, 
ard), Fred. Smith (trans, to Company A), sergeant; David Cunningham, sergeant; 
William Stuchell (died at White Hill, Pa., John Harris, sergeant; John A, Dickey, ser- 
Oct. 31, '64), Robert M. Thomas, John H. geant: David S. Altmau, corporal; Hugh C. 
Thomas, Jesse Thomas (promoted to quarter- MeCullum, corporal; Thomas Dick, corporal; 
master sergeant), Jefferson Wright, Henry Joseph T. Brantlinger, corporal ; Adam Sides, 
Winecoop, Absalom Woodward, Shem White, corporal ; Thomas S. ilcKisson, coi-poral ; 
Company G. — Miistei-ed Aug. 20 to Sept. John M. Campbell, corporal; Daniel Miller, 
6, '64, for one year; mustered out June 26, Jr., corporal. Privates — Samuel S. Ams- 
'65. Robert N. McComb, captain ; John C. baugh, George F. Bowers, D. W. Brantlinger, 
Lardin, fii-st lieutenant; Daniel Ramey, sec- John H. Bowers, William T. Calhoun, Sam- 
ond lieutenant. Marsh G. Sanders, first ser- uel Calhoun. James Campbell, Samuel Cline, 
geant; W^ilsftn Cramer, sergeant; Jacob P. J. B. Cunningham, William Cummins, Wil- 
Uber, sergeant; Samuel X. McClellan, ser- liam H. Campbell. John H. Cline, William 
geant; ^Morris C. I\Ioore, sergeant: Wallace H. Cunningham, David L. Deyarmin, Wil- 
Skiles, corporal ; Joseph W. Long, corporal ; liam T. Deyarmin, Andrew W. Evans, John 
James A. Jliller, corporal; Wilfiam Shiles, S. Evans, John A. Findley, William Flem- 
corporal ; Robert N. Elriek, corporal ; Andrew ing, Findley Fetterman, Henry Fritz, George 
McCleary, corporal ; Thomas Daren, corporal ; S. Galley, George Grumbling, George Hile- 
dis. by general order; James G. Shields, cor- man, Joseph S. Kerr, Francis Killen. F. M. 
poral, dis. May 26, '65 ; F. F. Marshall, cor- Lichtenfels, James F. Lowman, David Low- 
poral, dis. May 30. '65 ; Christ G. Lose, cor- man, Alexander Morgan, John R. Mullen, 
poral ; J. F. Cunningham, musician ; John F. Robert ]Maek, David Mack, John Mack. John 
Pearce, musician. Pi-ivates — Noah Byer, H. Miller, Andrew ilarsh. James S. ^lullen, 
Dillman Caho, Samuel Carney, Henry Cay, Jeremiah W. ilikesell. Samuel McNutt, John 
Thomas W. Coleman, John K. Dick. Stephen C. McNutt, Joseph McCracken, Patterson Mc- 
Daymond, James R. Ewing, James Fleming, Adoo (died Jan. 12, '65, buried at City Point, 
Samuel Fulkimore, Samuel Fisher, John Va.), Aaron Pennross, Samuel P. Palmer, 


Silas J. Penross, William Palmer, Dennis united states signal service 
Pedicord, Edward P. Palmer, Henry Pen- -n n t> t-dt^i, t- t 
rose, Elijah T. Penrose, Samuel Reed, Josiah ^ Tl^o^as Bell Rev. J P Barber, Linus L. 
B. Riffle. William Robinson, John Shaffer, Barber Johnston Baird EL. Buterbaugh, 
Andrew Sharp, Adam J. Sides, William Stills, &amiiel Cribbs John Cnbbs, Christ. Car- 
Michael Stormer, John E. Swarts. John St. baugh David W. Davis, John C. Devmney 
Clair, George A. Wood, Henry H. Wood, nineteen months), James G. Devinney 
John Wagner. George Walbock, Levi Wal- (nineteen months), James Dickson Joseph 
bock, Josiah Wolf, Jacob Wagner. f^ (nineteen months) John S^ Hastings 
Company Z.-Mustered for one year's serv- (over t.vo years) McCartney Hildebrand, 
ice, Aug. 30 and 31, '64; mustered out, June Samuel Hazlett, Reuben Kuhns ElhottM. 
26 '65 Josiah B. Ferguson, captain, pro- Lydick, (eighteen months), Porter Mc- 
moted to major; William W. Nesbit, first Caran (nineteen monhs) Jackson McMillen, 
lieutenant, promoted to captain; Arthur T. William McAdoo Johu McAdoo Ross Me- 
Steams, first lieutenant, promoted from ser- S^^^^.^^^Y "^^^^^^ Steele Me Gimty, Sidney 
geant; Samuel J. Conrad, second lieutenant, Marl™ (two years) Robert A. Park, Ben- 
promoted from first sergeant; George M. .lamm Park J. A. Pearce (Livermore), 
Stephens, first sergeant; James Fowler, ser- J^^omas C. Ramey, R. M. Reed (eighteen 
geant; William H. H. Adams, sergeant; Wil- months), Thomas G Rowe (nineteen months) 
liam A. Steffey, sergeant: Charles Walbach, Henry Shambaugh Edward Shambaugh 
sergeant, Matthew W. Lowman, corporal; (killed m service) R. G Sutton John Sut- 
Samuel Pittman, corporal; William H. Orr, ^^'. /'^^'^^ *^- f'TlSi^ ^ ^wf*^' 
corporal; J. M. Bartkbaugh, corporal. David Shepherd, Archibald S Stewart (had 
Oliver Reed, corporal; Alexander Stuchel, served in volunteers six months; died Ma^ch 
corporal; John Bennett, corporal; William 18, '65, during Sherman's march), J. Wil- 
W. Campbell, corporal. Privates-Ephraim son Thompson, Archy S^ Thompson, James 
Adams, Adam Altemus, Isaiah Bartlebaugh, M- Thompson, George H. Warren D. B. 
A. L. Bartlebaugh, Frederick Boyer, Hen- Weaver, James S. Wyncoop, Lucien J. Young 
derson Bracken: Samuel Bowers, Jacob (now dead), James A. Imghng. 
Bowers, Levi R. Brallier, Abraham H. Brown, 

John M. Byers (died at Hampton, Va., Dec. miscellaneous list 
28, '64), William Cameron, Philip Cramer, 

Michael Cramer, Henry Cramer, Andrew J. W. P. Altman, first sergeant, Company A, 

Campbell, Dan. Conrad, Oliver Clark, E. H. 19th U. S. Infantry, three years. J. S. 

Daugherty (see 7th Cav.), James Dias, Amond, '63; G, 2d Battalion, six months' 

Thomas C. Dias, Jacob Fyock, George service. Henry Altman, '62 ; K, 177th P. V. 

Pamwalt, John Fisher, John Fetterman, nine months' service. Thomas W. Anderson 

John D.' Findley, John Frits, George '62; captain of Company K, 177th P. V., dis 

W. Fouiks, James B. Graham, W. H. charged for disability. W. W. Alsbach, De 

H George, Zach. T. Hatch, Nathaniel Hart- cember, '61 ; sergeant Company K, 84th P. 

man Samuel Harbridge, George Hess, Ed- V., dis. Feb. 7, '63. George W. Altman, April 

ward Irwin, John Irwin, Samuel E. James, 3. '62; I, 55th P. V., died June 23, '64, of 

Robert T. Kidd, Henry Keller, William wounds received at Cold Harbor, Va. Thomas 

Lower Jacob Ly'dick, Jacob Mangus, Wil- Adams, '61; K, 84th P. V., died of wounds 

liam Mills, Emanuel Miller, William L. Mc- received at Port Republic, Va. David F. 

Peeters Ham B. McFeeters, Patrick McVey, Brown, June 1, '64; dis. May 3, '65. Ralston 

Jacob McDonald, James McCracken, Frank J. Barr March 17, '64; 1st P. V (old 11th) ; 

McKelvey, (wounded at Petersburg, Va.), ^'•^'^-A ^rV^^^ ^i' J"";' if'Tii, ?' ^^^■ 

Samuel A McKelvey, Christ. C. McCornish D^vid Bagley, C, 1st P^ V. (old 11th) died 

7n- J TH 1 orT ,^c : n-4. T> • 4- -XT ^ T „^^. of wouuds received at Bethesda Church, \a. 

(died Feb. 27, 65, at City Point, Va.), Jacob ^achariah Books, in three and nine months' 

Overdorff, Zach. T. Overdorff, Isaac Over- ^^^^j^g Washington Butler. Sept. 23, '64: 

doi-ff, John Patterson, Henry Reynolds, John ^^^^^^^ service, dis. June 30, '65. Albert C. 

Reynolds, John H. Rogers, Nelson Stephens, Beatty, Sept. 3, '61 ; C, 15th U. S. Infantry, 

Westley Stephens, William A. Stephens, ^ig. Sept. '64. Edgar Beatty, Sept. 3, '61 : 

George Stewart, John Swank (wounded at c, 15th U. S. Infantry, died at Louisville, 

Petersburg, Va.), Thomas Underwood, Wil- Ky., March 22, '63. Joseph Brentlinger, '62; 

liam Underwood. K, 177th P. V., nine months' ser\ice. M. L. 


Bracken, '62; second lieutenant of Company 
K, 177tli P. v., nine months' service; pro- 
moted from first sergeant. J. M. Bartle- 
baugh, '62; K. 177tli P. V., nine months' serv- 
ice. Henry A. Burkhart, '62; E, 177th P. 
v., nine months' service. George W. Burk- 
hart, '62; E, 177th Pennsjdvania Volunteers, 
nine mouths' service. "Wilson Cusick, '62, E, 
177th Pa. Volunteers, nine months' service. 
Arthur Casedy, July 4, '61, D, 62d Pa. Vol- 
unteers ; wounded at Gettysburg, July 2, '63 ; 
arm amputated. John Clawson (or Cleuson), 
'62; 177th Pa. Volunteers; died March 6, '63. 
"William Cunningham, '62; second lieutenant. 
Company E, 177th Pa. Volunteers, nine 
months' service. Elias E. Coffman, '62; cor- 
poral, E, 177th Pa. Volunteers, nine months' 
service. Jo.seph Chapman, '62; E, 177th Pa. 
Volunteers, nine months' service. Ritner 
Cramer, '62; E, 177th Pa. Volunteers, nine 
months' service. Porter Campbell, '62; K, 
177th Pa. Volunteers, nine months' service. 
Ross Classen, '62 ; corporal. K, 177th Pa. Vol- 
unteers, nine months' service. B. F. Camp- 
bell, '63; E, 2d Battalion, sis months' serv- 
ice. James G. Cogan, served in 37th Iowa 
Volunteei-s three years. Craig Carney, 63d 
Pa. Volunteers, transferred to 105th Pa. 
Volunteers; served to close of war. Thomas 
Coleman, 16th United States Infantry, three 
years. George W. Coleman, Dec. 7, '61 ; vet- 
eran, K, 84th Pa. Volunteers; wounded and 
captured at Chancellorsville ; wounded at 
Petersburg. David Daugherty, June 1, '64; 
101st Pa. Volunteers; discharged bj' general 
order. May 3, '65. Everett H. Daugherty, 
Dec. 16, '61; 7th Pa. Cavalry; dis. August, 
'63; nine months in 206th Pa. Volunteers. 
William Dougherty, Dec. 2, '61 ; vet. ; G, 101st 
Pa. Volunteers; severely wounded in head at 
Plymouth, N. C. (became countv commis- 
sioner). John D. Elder, July 24, '61, D, 62d 
Pa. ; promoted from first sergeant to second 
lieutenant; killed at Malvern Hill. July 1, 
'62. John Ferguson, '62, E, 177th P."v. ; 
nine months' service. Da^dd Faloon, Febru- 
avy, '65; served to June, '65, close of war. 
R. E. Finley, May 17, '64, D, 1st Pa. Vols, 
(old 11th) ; mustered out with company. H. 
J. Fulmer, 2d Virginia Cavalry, four years; 
resident of this county since the war. Samuel 
Faloon, nine months' service. F. E. Goodell. 
60th JIass. Vols. : resident of Indiana county 
since the war. James Gorman, December, '61, 
K, 84th Pa. Vols. : wounded and captured at 
Chancellorsville, Va. G. "W. Hood. '63. six 
months' service. "W. J. Hefflenfinger. '62, E, 
177th P. v.; nine months' service. Barthol- 

omew Hadden, '62, E, 167th P. V.; nine 
mouths' seiwiee. James Harbison, Jlarch 24, 
'64, C, Pa. Vols. ; wounded at "Wilderness ; 
prisoner at "Weldon Railroad; died at Salis- 
bury, N. C, Nov. 25, '64. Jacob S. Haines, 
October, '61; vet.; sergeant, M, 2d Pennsyl- 
vania Cavalry ; dis. June, '65. John H. Hill, 
Aug. 29, '64; 88th Pennsylvania Volunteers; 
dis. by general order June 10, '65. Henry 
Hargrave, Sept. 12, '61; Durell's independ- 
ent batteiy D; seiwed three years. Robert 
Harbridge, Dec. 7, '61 ; corporal, K, 84th 
Pennsylvania Volunteers, vet.; mustered out 
June 29, '65. David B. Henry, Sept. 20, '61 ; 
corporal, I, 55t.h Pennsylvania Volunteers; 
vet; mustered out Aug. 30, '65. David Ir- 
win, B, 79th P. v., vet.; promoted first ser- 
geant; served through the war; now resident 
of this county. Benjamin H. Jamison, six 
months' service, '64. Samuel H. Johnston, in 
4th Cavalry short time, then assistant provost 
marshal for Indiana county. Henry Keller, 
E, 177th Pennsylvania Volunteers, first ser- 
geant; nine months' service. David Kelley, 
'62, E, 177th Pennsylvania Volunteers; niue 
months' service. Daniel Killin, '62, captain 
company K, 177th Pennsylvania Volunteers; 
nine months' service; promoted from first 
lieutenant. Clark Knott, about 1860 ; United 
States regular army ; dis. '79. Michael Keith, 
I, 54th Pennsylvania Volunteers. Adam 
Keith, Jan. 1, '64 ; vet. ; I, 54th Pennsylvania 
Volunteers; mustered out with company. 
George J. Keller, on special provost duty in 
21st district over two years. Jacob Kanarr, 
June 1. '64; 101st Pa. Vols.; dis. by general 
order May 3, '65. Moses Livingston, E, 5th 
Heavy Artillery; Indiana county since the 
war. Noah Livingston, E, 5th Heavy Artil- 
lery; Indiana comity since the war. Nelson 
Laughrey, '62, 177th P. V., nine months' 
service. Alexander Lowman, '62, sergeant, 
K, 177th P. v., nine months' service; pro- 
moted from corporal. James L. Lydick, '61, 
K, 84th P. v.; wounded at Chancellorsville, 
Va., May 3, '63; ai-m amputated. Robert L. 
Lydick, Dec. 7, '61 ; vet. ; company K, 84th 
P. v.; wounded; trans, to veteran reserve 
corps, January, '65. Jacob S. Miller. Dec. 21, 
'61 ; company K, 84th P. V. ; vet. ; prisoner 
from October, '64, to March, '65. John 
Marks, Dec. 5, '61 ; K, 84th P, V. ; vet. ; mus- 
tered out June 29, '65. J. T. Mahan. six 
months' service, '64. Samuel Mock, '62; E, 
177th P. v.; nine months' service. John 
Morton, '62; E. 177th P, V.; nine months' 
service. Andrew Morton. '62; K, 177th 
P. v.; nine months' service. Joeepli 


Maloy, '62; E, 177th P. V.; nine months' service. George Snyder, '62, E, 177th P. V.; 

service. David Mack, '62; K, 177th P. nine months' service. Archibald A. Stewart, 

v.; nine months' service. Edward Mill- '62, E, 177th P. V.; nine months' service, 

iken, first lieutenant Company K, 177th Joseph H. Steele, '62, ^, 177th P. V.; nine 

P. v.; nine months' service; promoted from months' service. Allison Shields, March 17, 

second lieutenant. John S. ilelntire, '62; K, "64, C, 1st P. V. (old 11th) ; captured Aug. 

177th P. v.; nine months' service. Adam 19, '64, died at Salisbury, N. C. Jacob 

Moore, July 6, '61; F, 38th Regiment, 9th Strassler, March 17, '64, C, 1st P. V. (old 

Reserves, three years; mustered out at ex- 11th) ; wounded at Wilderness, Va., captured 

piration of term. A. H. McWilliams, June Aug. 19, '64, died at Salisbury, N. C. James 

19, '61; sergeant, B, 39th Regiment, 10th Speaker, P. R. V. C; trans, to 190th P. V. 

Reserves; served three years. William May, George Syberts (or Sybert), July 6, '61, com- 

15th U. S. Infantry ; became lieutenant, pany F, P. V. ; wounded at Antietam, Md. ; 

Robert A. McAdoo, June 1, '64; 101 P. V.; dis. July 20, '64. Henry Shankle, June 1, 

dis. by general order, May 3, '65. Samuel H. '64, 101st P. V. ; dis. by general order. May 

Moore, G, 3d P. V.; three months' service; 3, '65. John B. Shankle, Dec. 7, '61, K, 84th 

died at Harrisburg, Pa. William Moore, P. V. ; vet. ; wounded at Wilderness and at 

Nov. 3, '62 ; K, 177th P. V. ; nine months. Deep Bottom, Va. ; died March 6, '65. John 

David IMcCurdy, October, '61 ; corporal com- A. Shankle, March 31, '64, K, 84th P. V. 

pany M, 2d Pa. Cav. ; dis. October, '62. James A. Siebald, 40th P. V. 11th reserve, died May 

A. McQuown, March 16, '64; C, 1st P. V. 16, '64. R. J. Tomb, M. D., assistant surgeon 
(old 11th); wounded at Wilderness, Va. ; 2d Battalion, six months; surgeon of 193d 
dis. May 31, '65. L. W. IVIcHenry, March Pennsylvania Volunteers, and fall of 1864 
15, '64; C, 1st P. V. (old 11th) ; wounded at and to close of war acting assistant surgeon 
Wilderness; captured Aug. 19, '64; died at United States regular army. B. B. Tiffany, 
Salisbury, N. C. William Miller, C, 1st P. first sergeant, E, 36th Massachusetts Volun- 
V. (supposition only) ; dis. for disability, teers; resident of Indiana county since the 
Benjamin May, 15th U. S. Infantry. Wil- war. John Teeter, C, 84th Pennsylvania Vol- 
liam McClaran, chief clerk provost marshal's unteers, a resident of the county. John Wag- 
office, 21st district, Pennsylvania. James oner, '62; K, 177th Pennsylvania Volunteers, 
McCauley; in cavalry; badly wounded; nine months' service. John C. Wakefield, 
wounded again on special duty for provost '62; K, 177th Pennsylvania Volunteers, nine 
marshal, 21st district, Pennsylvania. Sam- months' seiwice. James F. Wiley, Dec. 17, 
uel McLaughlin, K, 84th P. V. ; dis. March '63 ; vet. ; 2d Pennsylvania Cavalry ; served 
9, '63. William McAfoos, '61, I, 84th P. V. ; to close of war. Samuel A. Walker, Aug. 1, 
dis. Jan. 9, '63. John Neal. '62, E, 177th '63; 13th Pennsylvania Cavalry, served to 
P. v.; nine months' service. David Orts, A, close of war. John F. Weaver, March 31, 
135th P. v.; nine months' service, and in 5th '64; 84th Pennsylvania Volunteers: mus- 
Heavy Artillerj'. Edward 'Neil, Oct. 4, '64, tered out June 29, 1865. John Woodward, 
88th P. V. ; promoted to corporal, mustered '61 ; I, 84th Pennsylvania Volunteers. Joseph 

out with company. Pollock, July 25, '61, J. Young, Sept. 6, '66 ; 7th U. S. Cavalry ; 

62d P. V. ; served three years, non-resident of promoted to sergeant ; wounded at Sheridan 

this county. Theodore Pardee, '61, I, 84th City, Kan., in fight with Indians; served 

P. v.; drowned at Hancock, Md. Joseph five years. Robert Young, '63; six months' 

Rhea, '62, E, 177th P. V.; nine months' serv- service. James T. Young, '64; six months' 

ice. David Risinger, '62, E, 177th P. V. ; nine service. Albert Young, '62; 177th Pennsyl- 

months' service. Samuel Ray, '66, 7th U. S. vania Volunteers; died at Suffolk, Va., Jan. 

Cavalry; promoted corporal; dis. in 1870. 21, '63. Augustus Yuckenberg, '62; E, 

B. D. Rochester, '63, A, 2d Battalion; six 177th Pennsjdvania Volunteers; nine months' 
months' service. Augustus Row, commis- service. 

sioner of enrollment, 21st district, Pennsyl- 
vania, during the war. Robert L. Rodkey, grand army of the republic 
Dec. 7, '61, K, 84th P. V. ; wounded and cap- 
tured at Chancellorsville, Va.. mustered out Post No. 28, Indiana, Pa. — The post was 
June 29, '65. Samuel J. Rodkey, Feb. 22, formed June 28, 1878, and the following were 
'64, K, 84th P. v.; mustered out June 29, the charter members: D. S. Porter, Co. B, 
'65. J. A. C. Ruffner, corporal. A, 1st Bat- 11th Reserve ; B. B. Tiffany, Co. E, 36th Mass. 
talion, Pennsylvania Cavalry; six months' Inf.; William R. Loughry, Co. I, 135th Pa. 



Inf. ; Alex. H. Mitchell, Co. A, 105tli Pa. Inf. 
James B. Work, Co. P, 55th Pa. Inf. ; D. F. 
Heasley, Co. H. 136th Pa. Inf.; Albert H. 
White, Co. F. 7Sth Pa. Inf. ; John T. Gibson, 
Co. A. 190th Pa. Inf. ; M. J. Shannon, Co. D, 
206th Pa. Inf. ; Josepli J. Young, Co. F. 55th 
Pa. Inf. ; Richard :\I. Birkman, Co. A, 190th 
Pa. Inf. ; John IMcGaughey, Co. K, 105th Pa. 
Inf. ; James :M. Sutton, Co. E, 148th Pa. Inf. ; 
John H. Hill, Co. K, 88th Pa. Inf. : William 

D. Cherry, Co. E, 206th Pa. Inf.; Arehy S. 
Thompson. Signal Corps; E. E. Allen, Co. 
B, 11th Reserves: Thomas C. Ramev. Siarnal 
Corps ; Robert Barr, 67th Pa. Inf. The only 
survivors are B. B. Titfanv, Wm. R. Loughry, 
Joseph J. Young, John H. Hill and T. C. 

The present members of the post are : B. 
B. Tiffany, Co. E, 36th Mass. Inf.; William 
R. Loughry, Co. I, 135th Pa. Inf. ; Joseph J. 
Young. Co. F. 55th Pa. Inf. ; John H. Hill, 
Co. K. 88th Pa. Inf.; T. C. Ramey. Signal 
Corps ; George R. Lewis, 54th Pa. Inf. ; A. C. 
Braughler, Co. D, 78th Pa. Inf.; Joseph 
Faloon, Co. H, 12th Reserves ; John N. Banks, 
Co. I. 126th Pa. Inf.; John P. H. Shields, 
Co. F, 206th Pa. Inf.; Charles Sharabaugh, 
Co. B. 11th Pa. Reserves; James M. 'Slar- 
shall, Co. F, 17th Pa. Inf., M., and Co. D, 
206th Pa. Inf. : John M. Bruce, Co. K. 105th 
Pa. Inf.; Charles Kirchner, Co. C, 4th Pa. 
Cavalry : William T. Wilson, Co. I, 135th Pa. 
Inf. ; Samuel Cunningham, Co. H, 12th Pa. 
Reserves; Henderson C. Howard. Co. B, 11th 
Pa. Reserves; John Laney, Co. D, 78th Pa. 
Inf.; E. M. Lvdick, Signal Corps; George 
W. McHenrv. Co. K, 105th Pa. Inf. ; William 
W. Brilhart, Co. F. 105th Pa. Inf.: Harry 
White, major, 67th Pa. Inf.; John H. Rod- 
kev, Co. I. 2d Battalion; Edward Oneal, Co. 

E. SSth Pa. Inf. : Isaac Beck, Co. B. 67th Pa. 
Inf. : Aron W. Lang, Co. B., 103d Pa. Inf. ; 
George W. Roof. Co. P, 78th Pa. Inf. ; John 
Freeh, Co. A. 88th Pa. Inf. : L. S. Wassinger, 
Co. K, 14th Pa. Cavalry; John R. Devlin, Co. 
B. 11th Pa. Reserves: William Kimple. Co. 

F. 105th Pa. Inf.. captain: J. D. :\IcKalip. 
Co. F. Independent Battalion: William L. 
Buchanan, Co. A, 61st Pa. Inf.; William A. 
St. Clair. Co. F, 206th Pa. Inf. ; Jacob Harsh- 
berger, Co. G. 105th Pa. Inf. ; John :McAdoo. 
Signal Corps; S. G. Barnes. Co. K, 7th Pa. 
Cavalrv: Joseph Risinsrer. Co. E. 148th Pa. 
Inf.; Leonard A. Hollister. Co. D, 78th Pa. 
Inf. ; James S. Hilberrv, Co. B, 78th Pa. Inf. ; 
George Hamilton. Co. E. 148th Pa. Inf.: G. 
B. Roof. Independent Co. : David R. Pringle. 
Co. D. 135th Pa. Inf.: S. C. Kenedy, Co. I, 

123d Pa. Inf.; J. Wils Thompson, Signal 
Corps; Henry Clingenberger, Co. E, 148th 
Pa. Inf. : David Osty, Co. A, 135th Pa. Inf. ; 
James Campbell, Co. H. 206th Pa. Inf. ; Wil- 
liam Hoosack, Co. I, 11th Pa. Reserves ; J. A. 
C. Rufifner, Co. A. 1st Pa. Cavalry; Joe M. 
Peirce, Co. A. 3d Heavv Artillerv: J. M. 
Laughlin, Co. K, 23d Pa". Inf., M. ! John S. 
Hastings, Signal Corps; Samuel A. Douglass, 
Co. H, 3d Battalion : Hugh P. Lewis, Co. K, 
14th Pa. Cavalrv; Xoah Seanor, Co. F, 28th 
Pa. Inf. ; Daniel W. Young, Co. A, 6th Vet- 
eran Reserve Corps; J. W. Harbison, Co. D, 
206th Pa. Inf. ; William H. :\Iyers, Co. F. 2d 
Battalion: Findlav Carnev. Co. I, 135th Pa. 
Inf: J. Sloan Asrev, Co. F, 74th Pa. Inf.; 
John S. Johnston, Co. D, 135th Pa. Inf.; 
George W. Wheeler. Co. D, 3d Pa. Inf. ; A. 
B. Bennett, Co. E, 67th Pa. Inf. : Adam Black, 
Co. I. 135th Pa. Inf. : Noah Livingston, Co. 
H. 2d Battalion; Lewis IM. Thomas, Co. A, 
135th Pa. Inf.; William C. Downev. Co. C, 
2d Battalion ; John M. ^McAdoo, Co. A. 135th 
Pa. Inf.; T. S. Neil, Co. C, 2d Battalion; 
John R. Sturapf, Co. A. 61st Pa. Inf. ; J. 0. 
DeLanev, Co. M., 5th Hea\^' Artillery; John 
A. Bennett, Co. I, 206th Pa. Inf. ; John Stew- 
art Thompson, Co. A, 135th Pa. Inf. ; Thomas 
J. Postlewait, Co. A, 61st Pa. Inf. ; William 
Devarmin, Co. F, 74th Pa. Inf.; James Mc- 
Henrv. Co. F. 74th Pa. Inf.; Thomas P. 
Stephens, Co. F. 67th Pa. Inf. : John Jacoby. 
Co. 3, Independent Battalion ; Abraham Bow- 
man, Co. B, 20th Pa. Inf. ; Samuel V. Dye, 
Co. A. 132d Pa. Inf.: Robert N. Craig, Co. 

A. 89th Pa. Inf. ; William B. Stahl, Co. A, 
61st Pa. Inf. ; Samuel Crawford. Co. B. 74th 
Pa. Inf.: D. M. Ruffner, Co. A, 206th Pa. 
Inf.; J. M. Imbrie, Co. E, 23d Ohio Inf.; 
J. C. Speedy, Co. E, 148th Pa. Inf. ; Samuel 
]Mundshower, Co. F, 74th Pa. Inf.; James 

B. Evans, Co. B, 17th Ohio Inf.; Alexander 
McCracken, Co. P, 57th Pa. Inf., il. : David 
Martin, Co. K, 14th Pa. Cavalry: William 

C. :\ritehell. Co. B. 1st Battalion: Augustus 
Pease. Co. F, 74th Pa. Inf. ; Wm. P. Grosse, 
Co. A. 14th New Jersev; John S. Amond. Co. 
B. 2d Battalion: Joseph H. Fulton. Co. G, 
63d Pa. Inf. : G. A. McLain, Co. B. 11th Pa. 
Reserves; Smith M. Parker. Co. E, 144th New 
York: William D. Bash. Co. B. 10th W. Va. : 
George Jluller, Co. P. 206th Pa. Inf. ; Jacob 
Kulp: John Brown. Co. B. 4th New Jersey. 

Fincllc)) Patch Post. No. 137, BJairsviUr, 
Pa. — Charter members as mustered in June 
20. 1881: William H. Healy. M. H. Fails, 
Henrv F. Rugg. Samuel Earhart. R. S. Davis, 
James C. Davis, Clark Knott, T. P. Dixon, 


Samuel Stratteu, Reuben Axe, John Taylor, Kerr, William Irwin, Henry Fritz, W. H. H. 

E. M. Evans, M. C. Trimble, R. Thompson, Coleman, David Shepherd, William li. Dickie, 

Joseph Nelson, J. F. Altman, J. S. Campbell, Aaron Hendrickson, William S. Greer. 

John T. Gray, Joseph Atkinson, Joseph M. The total membership from the beginning 

Cribbs, Thomas G. Rowe, William Clark, to the present has been sixty. The following 

William H. Stitt, Morris Lewis, Joseph Moor- still survive, so far as known : Israel Kunkle, 

head, J. C. Burke, John Wynn, H. A. Tor- Harrison Mundshower, Luman Gilbert, John 

ranee, Thompson Adams. The survivors are : K. Myers, Jedidiah Grover, Samuel Sheflfler, 

T. P. Dixon, Reuben Axe, E. M. Evans, J. F. Josep'h W. Uncapher, Henry M. Myers, S. H. 

Altman, John T. Gray, Joseph Atkinson, Drenning, William Philips, John A. Kerr, 

Joseph M. Cribbs, Thomas G. Rowe, William William H. Dickie, John H. Devers, James 

H. Stitt and Joseph Moorhead. Hagins, Isaac Griffith, John Laney, John C. 

The fifty members on the roll and in Mills, John S. Evans, William Plummer. 

good standing now are: Reuben Axe, E. M. Some have removed, and it is not known 

Evans, Joseph M. Cribbs, William H. Stitt, whether they survive or not. 

Joseph Moorhead, S. D. Stiffey, T. D. Cun- The present members of the post are as 

ningham, J. P. Lintner, Isaac Hicks, Samuel follows: William Philips, James Hagins, 

A. Crawford, Washington Butler. James E. John Laney, S. H. Drenning, Luman Gilbert, 

Kelly, George W. Cribbs, David Muir, John John A. Kerr, John S. Evans, John C. Mills, 

C. Doran, John R. Curry, John T. Fry, John Israel Kunkle, Samuel Sheffler, John K. 

Mclntii-e, Daniel MeCadden, T. C. Watson, Myers. 

Chas. L. Tittle, Porter Clawson, George Cost^ 'Cherrytree Post. No. 40, G. A. R., of 
Hiram Rhodes, Isiah Kimball, Cyrus Stouf- Cherrytree. — The following members have 
fer, Thomas A. Baird, Marshall Dodds, James been enrolled since the organization of the 
E. Murray, Wm. B. Jellison, James M. Alt- post: D. S. Ake, Jacob Arthurs, William 
man, Cyrus Kirtland, Fred Jellison. James Ayers, Adam Bowers, Edward Boring, David 
Rosborough, John S. Melntire. H. H. Mun- Barkey, Henry Barkey, John C. Bliss, Wil- 
shower, Theopholis Graham, Daniel Henry, Ham Bower, A. Byers, Zachariah Books, Isaiah 
James D. Layton, Daniel Harkins, Peter P. N. Bartelbaugh, Adam Beck, John C. Biss, 
Lefever, Robert Donaldson, William Meyer, William Barkey, Robert Conner, Harry Con- 
Geo. W. Lamberson, William Walter, Rush ner, A. S. Coy, John Cunningham, Austin 
Morgan, Joshua Richards, James Willard, Cooper, John S. Colgen, J. S. Creery, W. H. 
William H. Campbell, J. H. Devers. Campbell, David Cardell, John Dehaven, 
Total number of names on roster, 182. William Duncan, D. F. Dunbar, C. C. Dun- 
Present officers : John C. Curry, com- kle, A. B. Day, J. D. Dunlap, Jonathan Doty, 
mander; J. C. Doran, senior \ace commander; Dr. N. J. Evans, Jacob Ferrier, David Ful- 
T. A. Baird, junior vice commander; H. ton, Cyrus Fronk, Josiah Fronk, W. T. 
Rhodes, officer of the day ; H. H. jMunshower, Fagen, G. W. Gooderham, Isaac Goss, An- 
0. G. ; Marshall Dodds, chaplain ; W. H. Stitt, drew Glass, John Garman. Samuel Good, H. 
quartermaster: T. C. Watson, adjutant. B. Hawes. William Holen, J. T. Harkness, 
3Iaj. A. J. Bolar Post, No. 533, G. A. B., Robert Harbridge, E. Isenburg, Abraham 
Homer City, was organized August 16, 1886, Keim, John Kerr, Robert Kannan, Samuel 
by comrades from the Findley Patch Post, Kerr, Jerry Keith, Adam Keith, Levi Keith, 
of Blairsville, and Post No. 28, of Indiana, j j ^eith, Michael Keith, J. R. Kulp, 
The principal origmaters were Dr. John r^j^^mas Kerr, Edward King, Alex Lesley, 
Evans and ex-County Treasurer George H. j^^^^ ^ ^ydick, A. C. Loveless, David Libby, 
Ogden. The thirty-six charter members were mTT i t-.-it -m-jT 
as follows: Dr. John Evans, G. H. Ogden, T" J- loveless, Daniel Long, David Lang- 
Israel H. Kunkle, William A. McNutt don, Sam Lammer, George Lealement, Sam- 
Thomas Varner, James W. Kerr, Nelson ^^el Longeneker S. S Langham, Jacob R. 
O'Neil, Joseph Shank, Harrison Mund- Lute, George Myer, I. K. Myers, G. W. 
shower, William Lucas. JMartin Mvers, Lu- Mogle, Simon McDonnell. Henry McDermott, 
man Gilbert, John K. flyers. Jonathan Ed- William McDonnell. A. T. Marthers, Michael 
wards. David Risinger. Abram Wallace, Sam- McAnulty, Isaac Mauk, Gideon Mock, Cyrus 
uel Nowry, Jedidiah Grover, James K. IMichaels, Oring Michaels, Adam Moore, Wil- 
Deemer, Samuel Sheffier, Levi Fritz, Stephen liam Miller, Joseph Jliller, John A. Magee, 
Sawder, Joseph W. Uncapher, Henry M. David A. McCordell. W. J. Nugent, H. 
Myers, S. H. Drenning, Samuel E. Harris, O'Harra, Daniel Pittman. A. D. Powell, G. 
William Philips, S. M. McHenry, John A. W. Prowell, Jackson Petticord, Thomas 


Roger, David M. Ruffner, A. H. Rnffner, T. John Pollock Post, No. 219, G. A. R., 

J. Robison, Ed. Rummel, J. W. Reariek, Marion Center. — Organized Augnist 20, 1881, 

David Reifsnider, William Reed, J. E. Rora- with twenty-one charter members: James 

baugh, William Rugels. C. T. Smyley, John Frederick, A. S. McCall, Milton StucheU, 

Stouffer, B. C. Smith, Henry Shankel, Philip L. A. Hollister, H. P. Lewis, E. B. McGara, 

Smyers, Joseph Stiffler. John Sebring, J. C. A. AY. Lang, B. D. Rochester, C. A. Ellis, J. 

Stewart, Philip Stiffler, G. H. Stewart, Dan- C. Brown, D. H. Bee, L. N. Park, A. S. Mc- 

iel Spieher, J. B. Stall. Jonathan Stall, Wil- Ginity, B. F. Laughlin, F. S. Chambers, J. A. 

liam Taylor, R, A. Vanetta, Jeff Wright. G. Stewart, James L. Park, John L Neal ' J H 

W. Walker, D. P. Weaver, J. W. Whited. Work, J. M. Byers, W. S. Shields. Com- 

John C. Whited. mander, W. S. Shields; adjutant, L. A. Hol- 

The present members of the post are: Wil- lister. One hundred have been mustered in 

liam Ayers, Adam Back, Edward Boring, I. since. Ten chai-ter members have died, and 

N. Bartelbaugh, Adam Bowers. Robert Con- about forty others; now fourteen in good 

ner, W. H. Campbell, W. T. Fagen, Samuel standing, il. T. Steeland is commander; N. 

Good, H. B. Hawes, Edward King, Jerry W. Stewart, adjutant; A. S. McGinity, quar- 

Keith, Levi Keith, Alex Lesley, Sam. Long- termaster. 

eneker, S. S. Langham, Simon McDonnell, Lieut. Frank M. Brown Post, No. 266, G. 

I. K. Myers, Thomas Roger, Philip Stiffler, Jl. R., Rochester Mills. 

John Sebring, Henry Shankel, J. W. Whited. James L. O'Neil Post, No. 537, G. A. R., 

William Armstrong Post, No. 303, G. A. R., Cookport. 

Shelocta. — William Armstrong Post was or- Foster Roiinson Post, No. 36, G. A. R,, 

ganized May 28. 1889, the charter members Saltsbiirg. 

being William Robinson. James Armstrong, Richmond Post, No. , G. A. R. 

Amos T. Anthony, Joseph Alshouse, William 

H. Ruffner, Isaac Heffelfinger, Robert Arm- ^msT reunion— Indiana countt's honor 

strong, Samuel Bothel, William L. Calhoun, ™ the G-^llant Pennsylvania re- 

William T. Calhoun, Alexander .Campbell. serves— gr.wd banquet at normal 

David W. Davis, S. G. McCurdy, Jacob Fry, school— list of veterans 

Joseph Fry Thomas .M. Fleming Samuel [From the Daii,, BUule, Indiana, Pa.] 

Lytle, Joseph A. Sharp, Jloses ililler and „, , ^, „_^, j, o x , r-ionn-. 

Loben Russell. Thev were mustered in Dec. Thursday, the 25th of September [1879] 

31, 1889, by Comrade Henry Hargrave, of ^y.^1 ^^ever be forgotten by the citizens of In- 

T-.1J ^ -n i o 1 T X .n ^ 4. diaua county — will ever find a bright re- 

Elderton Post. Samuel Lytle was the first ,,embrance in the hearts of the old veterans 

post commander, William Robinson adjutant, ^f ^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^-^^^ Pennsylvania Redment 

The following is a complete list of the mem- 3^,1 visitors who were present at the first re- 

bership of the post: Robert Armstrong (de- union services at Indiana, 

ceased), Thomas M.Fleming. David W. Davis, Early Thursday morning our street pre- 

Amos T. Anthony (deceased), John R. Cox sented a lively appearance, houses were be- 

(deceased), S. G. McCurdy (deceased), ing decorated, flags flung to the breezes and 

Joseph Alshouse (deceased), Samuel Bothel arches and words of welcome greeting the eye 

(deceased). William Robinson. William L. on every side. 

Calhoun. Alexander Campbell (deceased), At the Kinter House crossing, a large arch 
Francis Faith (deceased), Loben. Russell, hacl been erected. At courthouse square, 
James Armstrong (deceased), Samuel Lvtle arches were stretched across with appropriate 
(deceased), Joseph A. ShaiT (deceased), mottoes, while at the American House cross- 
Joseph :\rcGanghey, William T. Calhoun, mf. fronting the depot, another large arch. 
Moses Miller (deceased), Jacob Fry (de- ^^^h the words Welcome lltli Regiment 
ceased), John Russell, Alexander S. Craw- ^- ^- ^- ^ stretched across it greeted 
J, 'j -,N r^ T-- /J J^ your eye. We have not space to enter much 
ford (deceased), George King (deceased), .^^^ ^^^^.^ ^^^^^ .^ ^^ ^,^^^^ ^^^ decorations 
John M. Walker, W. H. McCreiglit (de- ^.^^.^ ^^g^^f^^i ^^^ appropriate, and numerous 
ceased), John R. Devlin. Henry Sheaffer, enough to show that the patriotic hearts of 
John H. Brown, Wilham Ramsey (deceased), Indiana's citizens still held in grateful es- 
Isaac Heffelfinger (deceased), Jacob Sihns, teem and veneration Her Soldier Boys. 
Enoch Gillam — thirty-two members on the Owing to the accident on Branch road, and 
descriptive book, eighteen dead, fourteen the long detention of the train containing 
living. The members have scattered, so that the band and the larger delegation of old 
now there are only seven active members, veterans, the route of procession and various 



routine business had to be curtailed. Wlien 
the shrill whistle of the locomotive was heard, 
the cheers that rent the air from the masses 
assembled were perfectly deafening. The 
procession was formed in the following order : 

Gen. T. F. Gallagher, Chief Marshal. 

Aids— Capts. A. H. Mitchell, J. S. Nesbit. 

Committee of Reception. 

Invited Guests. 

Altoona City Band. 

11 Regiment P. R. V. C. Commanded bj' General 

S. M. Jackson. 

Co. "D," Capt. Wm. D. Wilson. 

Co. "F," Lieut. A. C. Braughler. 

West Indiana Fire Company. 

Indiana Fire Company. 

Soldiers and Citizens. 

The route was from Depot down Phila- 
delphia street to Sixth street; south to 
Church; east to Fifth street; north to Phila- 
delphia : west to the court house. The pro- 
cession was a very fine one, and was an inter- 
esting feature iu the day's doings. 

Here General White made the address of 
welcome, which was responded to by Gen. T. 
F. Gallagher. 

An adjournment for dinner was then 
made, and we know the boys must have ap- 
preciated this part of the programme as it 
was almost five o'clock, and some of them 
had not tasted food since early breakfast. 

At six-thirty, the boys had reassembled at 
the courthouse, where the meeting was called 
to order by the election of Gen. T. F. Galla- 
gher as chairman, Colonel Jackson and Cap- 
tain Louden vice presidents, and Col. R. Lit- 
singer and Maj. R. M. Birkman, secretaries. 
Then the reunion services proper were gone 
through with, which consisted first — Oration 
of the day, by Capt. George W. Fleeger. This 
was truly a grand, noble, patriotic and flowery 
outburst of a gallant soldier, recounting the 
scenes and actions of the days agone, when 
the dark clouds of rebellion, blood and car- 
nage were upon us. Captain Fleeger ac- 
quited himself nobly in this effort, and was 
continually interrupted with storms of ap- 

History of the 11th Reserves, Col. Robert 
McCoy. As the hour fixed for banqueting 
had now almost approached. Colonel McCoy 
was compelled to pass by page after page 
of his histor>', which called forth a motion 
to have the same published for the benefit of 
the survivors of the 11th, which was unan- 
imously carried. This, we understand, will be 
done in a very short space of time. 

Then Colonel Danks favored the bovs, after 

repeated calls, with a song, which was rap- 
turously received. The meeting then ad- 
journed, and the procession was again formed 
in front of the courthouse, when, headed by 
the Altoona citj^ band, they wended their way 
to the normal school, where the banquet was 
prepared for them by the ladies of Indiana. 

The scene on reaching the normal grounds 
was really a beautiful one. Chinese lanterns 
lit up the long walks from the entrance gate 
fronting Second street to the steps of the 
building, and as the wind swayed the varie- 
gated lamps to and fro the whole aspect was 
one of enchantment, and gave token of the 
good cheer within. 

When the doors of the spacious dining 
room of the normal school were thrown open, 
what a sight greeted the eyes of the gallant 
boys! The many gas jets, sparkling Chinese 
lights everywhere, handsome festoons drop- 
ping down in beautiful confusion over the 
well filled tables, flags, the names of all the 
engagements of importance which the regi- 
ment participated in placed along the walls, 
bouquets, large ones, on all the tables and 
charming ladies to attend the wants of the 
hungry luimanity gathered there. 

Indeed, the normal dining hall presented 
an appearance of enchantment on this mem- 
orable evening of the first reunion to the llth 
Reserves, and gazing around upon everything, 
one recalled to mind all the fairy tales and 
places of enchantment read of in early child- 

The banquet set by the fair ladies of 
Indiana was superb, and they are certainly 
deserving of all praise for the manner they 
got up and managed this affair. We had in- 
tended printing the menu, but when we came 
to putting it together, we found we would 
have to take up the space of about a column 
alone, in this line. We will only say, there- 
fore, that everything necessary to satisfy the 
wants of the inner man was there — not for- 
getting B. B. Allen's box of genuine hard- 
tack, which was generously distributed all 
around the different tables. The ladies vied 
with each other in their attentions to the old 
soldiers and visiting comrades, and we will 
just here insert a remark we heard let drop 
from the lips of an old battle-scarred veteran 
— "that they had the darndest (the old sol- 
diers never — well, hardly ever swear, you 
know), finest, good looking and best hearted 
set of ladies in Indiana that he had ever seen 
or ran across." And "them's our sentiments, 
too," as the boys say. 

After all had partaken heartily of the royal 
feast, the finisliing point of the reunion cere- 



monies was goue through with by the follow- 
ing toasts being proposed and answered in 
the following order: 

"Our Old Regiment" — Responded to by 
Col. S. M. Jackson, of Apollo, in a few well 
chosen and patriotic remarks. 

"Our Regiment's Friends" — Responded to 
by Sheriff J. R. Smith, very feeliugl.v and 

■'The Pennsj'lvania Reserves" — Rev. J. 
Day Brownlee, of the Sth Reserves, responded 
to this. "Well, you all know the gentleman, 
and can form an idea of what he had to say, 
and he said it so nicely and feelingly, too. 

Then Rev. Col. Danks. being vociferously 
called upon, recited the "Superiority of the 
Blue," and sang that glorious old song, 
"Glory Hallelujah," the audience all join- 
ing in the chorus. 

"Our Educational Institutions, and espec- 
ially the Normal School at Indiana" — Dr. 
French, of the normal. The Doctor made an 
elegant response, and was handsomely ap- 
plauded on his conclusion. 

"Our Dead Comrades" — Dirge, by the 
Altoona City Band. 

"The Ministry of Peace" — Rev. Theo. Hen- 
derson, of Brookville. This was a very tine 
effort, and the speaker was greeted with great 

"The Press" — Responded to by M. J. Shan- 

■"Our Comrades of the Army of the Poto- 
mac" — Col. Chill Hazzard. This was the 
gem of the evening — brimful of whit, spice 
and story. The colonel made several "happy 
hits." and was roundly applauded when he 

"To the ladies" — Response by Col. Robert 
JlcCoy. The Colonel paid a handsome tribute 
to the female sex, and concluded neatly by 
giving the ladies who were instrumental in 
getting up the banc[uet, and so handsomely 
entertaining the boys of the 11th, a veiy nice 
"send off." 

Then the Altoona City Band favored the 
audience with another choice selection, and 
the fii-st reunion of the 11th Pennsylvania 
Reserves was concluded. 

This reunion will long be talked of in In- 
diana and immediate vicinity, and that our 
good people here will always cherish kind 
remembrances of the gallant old 11th Regi- 
ment, and the 2.5th of September, 1879, the 
boys may be sure to count upon. 

The members of the various committees of 
the reserves, notably the executive committee 
—Col. D. S. Porter! ilaj. R. M. Birkman and 
Capt. H. K. Sloan — and the citizens' com- 

mittee and our ladies, worked like beavers 
to make this reunion a success, which it was 
in every particular. Any one acquainted with 
the patriotism, spirit, enterprise and good 
will of the ladies of our place knows that 
whatever they undertake proves successful, 
and in this affair they added new laurels to 
their already famous endeavors. 

Those who would cavil or iind fault at any 
little omissions, or think they were not hon- 
ored in an especial manner more than anyone 
else, considering the arduous task devolving 
upon all of them in an affair of this kind, 
and the consequent hurry and bustle and 
worry of the committees, are not worthy of 
the name of good citizens. It was impossible 
to entertain everyone, to extend invitations 
to all, and the good sense of our people under- 
stands all this. 

We think, on the whole, Indiana can be 
I^roud of her first reunion, and we know the 
old vets, say it was boss, and that is all we 
care to know, so they were pleased. 

That God, in His infinite mercy, may bless 
us all, unite us more closely together in peace 
and unity, and ever keep alive the fire of 
patriotism and love of country in us, is the 
heartfelt prayer of the editor of the Blade. 

Below we give a list of the members of the 
organization present on [Monday. 

Company A. — ;Maj. Robert Litzinger, com- 
manding. Thomas Jones, Thompson Carney, 
Dallas Patrick, John Scanlan, William Sech- 
ler, Benjamin Davis, Edgar Evans, Phillip 
Smyers, John Shoff, William Wagner, Thomas 
Dunn, Phillip Jones, John Maken, William 
Miller, Col. Robert Litzinger. This gentle- 
man was the first captain of Company A; 
was afterward captain of Company C, and 
retired from service with the rank of major. 

Company B. — Capt. H. K. Sloan, com- 
manding. Col. D. S. Porter, Edward Ches- 
ley, Samuel Shick, J. G. McCurdy, John Wag- 
oner, James Stephens, John L. Hall, Uriah 
Shefifler, Harry Coleman, T. il. Coleman, B. 
F. Laughlin, Henry Prothero, George Stew- 
art, William Cummins, H. C. Howard, B. E. 
Allen, Thomas Hood, James W. Howearth, 
John Devlin, James Devlin, G. A. I\IcClain, 
Rev. Theo. Henderson, Johnston Davis, E. J. 
Devinney, Charles Shambaugh, Harry Con- 
ner, William Hill, John T. Gibson, Dr. J. J. 
Oatman, W. T. Kinter. 

Company C. — Capt. .Samuel Louden, com- 
manding. Capt. G. W. Fleeger. Lieut. John 
H. Sutton, John T. Kelly, :\I. Ileekert, 
George A. Black, Samuel Cook. J. W. Camp- 
bell, John H. Meeder, J. S. Campbell, Robert 
Krause, Samuel Miller, F. II. I\Ionie, D. H. 



Russell, Thomas P. Lardin, George Rotlimire, 
S. P. Shryock. 

Company P.— Lieut. William C. Colemau, 
commanding. James McClelland, Alex. Ken- 
nedy James K. Moore, D. McDonald, J. B. 
Hazlett, S. T. Hazlett, E. Nixon, J. G. De- 
vinney, D. W. Graham, G. W. Huselton. 
Joseph Robertson, L. W. Graham. 

Company E.—U. M. Birkman, command- 
ing. W. H. H. Lyons, John Uncapher, Rob- 
ert Carroll, William Conner, Thompson Cra- 
mer, Gillis Dunlap, John Ewing, Joseph 
Elder Samuel Garris, Jacob Kiraple, J. S. 
Moorhead. A. W. McCullough, Nelson Mc- 
Cormick, James Meanor, George IMiller, John 
Rugh, Daniel Spires, James Simpson, J. W. 

Company i^.— Lieut. W. F. Springer, com- 
manding. G. W. Kerner, T. B. Whaley, 
Jacob Prettyman, Joseph Marshall. 

Company Z7.— Capt. L. Johnston, com- 
manding. J. A. Fulton M. C Caudei^, 
Jacob Earnest, Daniel Carr, Adam Hutt, 
Mariam Carnahan, Samuel Crawford, John 

Company 7.— Capt. E. Waugaman, com- 
manding. Lieut. D. Berry, Lieut. J. D. Wal- 
kinshaw. David Jenkins, Robert Hammond, 
James Robertson, William McRobinson, J. A. 
Hendricks, Samuel Stogdon, William Wagle, 
Daniel Harkins. William Pike, C. Hashman, 
C. Eakman, T. C. Layton, William Hosack, 
C. Cunningham, Thomas Graham, George 
McCormick, Israel Watterman. 

Company IT.— Benj. McClelland, P. A. 
Foster, J. P. Miller, E. Birk, John Ingle, 
William Knapp. 

Band.— SergX. Maj. William Hughes, com- 
manding. Robert Davis, Smith, Alex. 

Wagle, J. B. Hunter, Jas. Daugherty. 


5th Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteer /w- 
f(j„;,.,,_Pursuant to General Orders No. 7, 
AGO dated April 25, 1898, the 5th Reei- 
ment Infantry, N. G. P., on April 27, 1898, 
left the respective home stations and pro- 
ceeded by rail to Mount Gretna, Pa., arriving 
early on "the morning of April 28th, being the 
first infantry organization in the division to 
reach the point of mobilization. The total 
strength of the regiment when it reported 
for duty was thirty-seven officers and 4»^ 
enlisted men, a total of 520. 

On May 11, 1898, the regiment was mus- 
tered into the service of the United States 

by Maj. W. A. Thompson, U. S. A., and com- 
prised thirty-seven officers and 604 enlisted 
men. Pursuant to telegraphic orders from the 
war department the regiment broke camp at 
Mount Gretna on the morning of May 17, 
1898, and at twelve-thirty p. m. started by 
rail for Chickamauga Park, Ga., on the after- 
noon of May 19th at five p. m. bivouacked for 
the night on Snodgrass Hill, and on the morn- 
ing of May 20th marched three miles and 
went into camp along the Alexander Bridge 
road. The regiment was assigned to the 1st 
Brigade, 3d Division, 1st Army Corps. On 
June 20th Ma.js. John P. Kennedy and Rob- 
ert C. McNamara were detailed to recruit the 
companies of their respective battalions to 
106 men, the full complement, being readily 
secured and all the recruits having reported 
by July 4, 1898. 

Orders were received on June 29, 1898, 
to recruit a third battalion of four companies 
of 106 each. The work of recruiting and mus- 
tering the additional battalion was pbced in 
charge of Capt. Hugh S. Taylor, Company 
B. Within three weeks all the companies had 
been mustered in, and had reported for duty 
at Camp Georse H. Thomas. Company T was 
recruited at Somerset ; Company K at Wells- 
boro ; Company L at Clearfield, and Comnany 
M at Gettysburg. Lieut. Col. Rufus C. Elder 
was placed in command of the 1st Battalion; 
Ma.i. John P. Kennedy, formerly of the 1st 
Battalion, was assigned to the command of 
the 2d Battalion, and Ma.i. Robert C. Mc- 
Namara, formerlv of the 2d Battalion, to 
command of the '3d. On August 12, 1898, 
the regiment moved about a half mile nearer 
Battlefield Station, and escaped along the 
Brotherton road. Here there was good drain- 
age and high ground. On the afternoon of 
the 22d, the regiment left Rossville and trav- 
eled by rail to Camp Hamilton, near Lexing- 
ton, Ky., a distance of two hundred and fifty 
miles, the first battalion reaehins its destina- 
tion on the 23d of Ausrust, and the other bat- 
talions on the 24th. The camp at Lexington 
was all that could be desired for health or 
beautiful surroundings. 

On September 17, 1898, the regiment was 
granted a thirty days' furlough, and eaeh 
company was directed to- proceed to its home 
station. The headquarters of the reeiment 
were established in Altoona, Pa. After the 
expiration of the furlough, ten days were 
given for muster out, and this time was after- 
wards increased an additional twenty days 
to give the regiment an opportunity to par- 


ticipate in the Peace Jubilee at Philadelphia, 
on October 27, 1898. The regiment was 
finally mustered out November 7, 1898. 


Company Z)— Captain, Absalom W. Smith ; 
first lieutenant, George W. Wakefield ; second 
lieutenant, W. C. McKee; Zenea B. Adams, 
Oliver C. Akins, James R. Baker, Benjamin 
R. Barton, John K. Brallier, Edward G. 
Bridge, Robert D. Brown, W. D. Calback, 
George W. Campbell, Oscar P. Cummings, 
Jesse S. Currj-, Edward E. Dixon, Robert S. 
Douds, Edwin D. Dunlap, Andrew B. Erb, 
Harvey Fails, William H. Fennell, Oliver S. 
Fisher, Jacob Fritz, James H. George, Cal- 
vin S. Gerhard, Harry Harkcom, Joseph A. 
Hill, Augustus E. Huston, John W. Iseman, J. 
Arthur Jenkins, Richard Jenkins, Edwin T. 
Jones, Harry J. Kelly, Paul E. Kiebler, Harry 
S. Kink, Lewis E. Landerkin, Charles F. Liv- 
ingston, Rome V. IMcLaran, W^illiam ilc- 
Featers, William P. McJunkin, Ira B. IMike- 
sell, Thomas B. Miller, Robert J. Monroe, 
Logan R. Moore, Arthur L. Nesbit, William 
0. Patrick, Harry C. Patterson; Reese B. 
Pearce, Joseph A. Pierce, William A. Portser, 
Jr., Walter A. Reed, William G. Reed, Hall 
S. Rowe, John W. Shadle. Clarence E. Shaffer, 
Clarence S. Shearer, Harrv W. Stuchell, 
Harry Stumpf, Leroy Taylor, Oliver T. Wal- 
ton, Jlilton Wangaman, Edward W. Weaver. 
Benton H. Weimer, Charles C. Wilcox. Hugh 
R. Wilev, Scott A. Wiley, George H. Wilson, 
J. W. Woodend. 

Company F — Captain, W. M. Mahan; first 
lieutenant, Samuel H. Hughes ; second lieuten- 
ant, W. F. Elkin ; Frank G. Agey, Telford M. 
Anderson, Walter H. Ayers, Harry M. Bar- 
rett, Tosse S. Bell, Joseph A. Blakely, Charles 
A. Brady, Myrl W. Brady. Burt A. Brown, 
Joseph B. Buchanan, Andrew H, Burnhimer, 
Joseph Burford, David M. Campbell. Lee 
Campbell, James A. Cathcart, Harry S. Claw- 
son, Paul Coleman, William E. Coleman. Wil- 
liam S. Coleman. Louis L. Cramer, David N. 
Daugherty, Harry W. Earhart, Harry W. 
Fee, George J. Feit. James A. Fleming, David 
H. George, John W. Gorman, James S. Ham- 
mers. Zenas E. Harmon. Roy S. Hazlett. Don 
J. Hill, Charles E. Huey, Joseph N. Huston. 
James P. Jack, William F, Jamison, James 
S. Kaufman. John M. Kerr, Steel H. Kerr, 
Irwin H. Knupp, Orren 0. Knupp, Charles 
L. Kunkle. Benjamin W. Lambing, Harl B. 
Langham. Robert IM. Langham, Iddo il. 
Lewis. Charles B. Lindsay, Frank C. Lohr, 
Benjamin 0. Marsh, George 31. :Marshall, 


John R. .^larshall, Charles D. McComish, 
Ralph C. McComish, Robert W. McCoy, Man- 
uel McCrady, David McHenry, Frank W. 
McLaughlin, John A. McLaughlin, Stephen 
H. :Mohney, Alexander R. Moorhead, Hugh 
jM. Moorhead, Albertus L. Mvers, Mack M 
Palmer, John K. Parks, John M. Pierce, Har- 
old N. Prothero, Ralph Radcliff, Charles B 
Repme, Harry H. Rhodes, William H. Rich- 
ardson, Lewis Ruffner, Arthur J. Russell, 
James B. Sansom, Wesley Shannon, William 
Shaffer, Wilmer A. Sharp, Ralph Shilling 
William F. Stonebreaker, Harry B. Streams^ 
Valentine Stuby, iliehael F. Sweeney, Roy- 
den J. Taylor, Charles B. Thomas, Benton R. 
Thomas, Israel T. Walker, Harry W. Wat- 
son, John E. Weaver. Lewis B. Wetzel, Lewis 
A. Wheeler, Joseph C. White, William V. 
Wilhelm, Lawrence 0. Williams. Samuel T. 
Wingert, John D. Wilson. 

Joseph A. Blakley, corporal of Company 
F, residence Indiana, Pa. (N. G. P.) ; enrolled 
April 27, 1898; mustered into service May 
11, 1898; died at Sternberg Hospital, Camp 
Thomas. Ga., August 25, 1898. He was the 
only one of his company that died in service. 
Harold N. Prothero, private of Company 
F, residence Indiana, Pa. (N. G. P.); en- 
rolled April 27, 1898; mustered into service 
May 11, 1898 ; transferred to Reserve Ambu- 
lance Corps June 27, 1898, through special 

David McHenry, of Company F, 5th Regi- 
ment of Pennsylvania Volunteers, also served 
in the Philippine Islands. 

Edward F. Hamilton, Indiana, Pa. was 
sergeant in Company A of the 1st Regiment 
of West Virginia Volunteers. 

George Bennett. Cookport, Pa., was a pri- 
vate in Company F of the 1st Regiment of 
West Virginia Volunteers. 

Harry 31. Stewart, private of Company 
C. of the 5th Regiment, Indiana, Pa. (N. G. 
P.); enrolled April 27, 1898; mustered into 
service Mav 11, 1898; transferred to Hos- 
pital Corps June 23, 1898. 

David I\I. Caldwell, batallion adjutant, 
residence, Indiana, Pa. (N. G. P.) ; enrolled 
April 27. 1897; mustered into service May 
11, 1898 ; mustered out with companv Novem- 
ber 7, 1898. 

G. A. Feidt, private of Company E, of the 
5th regiment, residence Indiana, Pa. ; enrolled 
June 21, 1898; mustered into ser^^ce June 
21. 1898 : mustered out with company Novem- 
ber 7, 1898. 

Charles H. Somerville, private of Company 
B. of the 5th Regiment, residence BlairsvUle, 
Pa. (N. G. P.) ; enrolled 1898; mustered into 



service May 11, 1898; mustered out of service 
with company November 7, 1898. 

Herbert C. Davis, private of Company F, 
of the 14th Regiment, residence Indiana, Pa. ; 
enrolled May 10, 1898 ; mustered into service 
May 12, 1898; mustered out with company 
February 28, 1899. 

Joseph R. McFarland, private of Company 
L, of the 16th Regiment; residence Flora, 
Pa.; enrolled July 14, 1898; mustered into 
service July 15, 1898; mustered out with 
company December 28, 1898. 

Alexander M. Stewart, Jr., private of Light 
Battery A, which was in the first volunteer 
organization mustered into the United States 
service from the State of Pennsylvania ; resi- 
dence Indiana Pa. ; enrolled May 5, 1898 ; 
mustered into service May 6, 1898 ; mustered 
out with Battery November 9, 1898. They 
established camp in Porto Rico August 10, 
1898 ; on August 30, 1898, they were ordered 
home— started September 3, 1898. 

The 28th and 47th Regiments, Volunteer 
Infantry, of the United States Army, were 
organized for the Philippine service in July, 
1899, to serve for two years, and were dis- 
charged June 30, 1901. They were sent to 
the Philippines for the pacification of the 
islands, arriving there in December, 1899. 
The 28th was first stationed on the Island of 
Luzon, later on the Island of :Mindanao. The 
47th was stationed on the southern part of 
the Island of Luzon after taking part in Gen- 
eral Kobbe's expedition to open up the hemp 
ports on that part of the island. 

The following persons from Indiana county 
entered the service in the Philippines: Wil- 
liam F. Jamison, private of Company C, of 
the 28th Regiment of Infantry, United States 
Volunteers ; residence Indiana Pa. ; enlisted 
July 10, 1899. mustered out May 1, 1901. 
Engaged in the battle of Putol, January 7, 
1900; engagement at Ponto Bana, November 
2, 1900 ; skirmishes at Pesezdos, Marines, June 
8, 1900; at Calquitor, December 2, 1900; in 
General Wheaton's expedition to Northern 
Mindanao, December 31, 1900, to March 11, 
1901. He reenlisted, as a private of the Hos- 
pital Corps of the United States Army, De- 
cember 14, 1901, and served for three years. 
His record reads : Character, excellent ; serv- 
ice, honest and faithful. 

Charles C. McLain, captain of Company 
B, of the 47th Regiment of Infantry, United 
States Volunteers; residence Indiana, Pa.; 
mustered into service Aug. 17. 1899: mus- 
tered out June 30, 1899 ; received a medal for 
service on which is inscribed "Philippine 

War United States Army for service on Phil- 
ippine Insurrection, 1899." 

Harry George, quartermaster sergeant of 
Company G of the 47th Regiment of In- 
fantry, United States Volunteers' residence 
Blairsville, Pa., received a medal for service, 
same as one above mentioned. 

Lewis A. Wheeler, Indiana, Pa., who served 
as first sergeant in Company F, of the 5th 
Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers, was also 
first sergeant in Company K of the 47th Regi- 
ment of Infantry, United States Volunteers. 

Frank Smith and Herbert Fleming, Ind 
ana, Pa., and James Fetterman and Frank 
Fleming, of Green township, Indiana Co., Pa. 
were privates in Company L of 47th Regi 
ment of Infantry, United States Volunteers 

William Tait. Ernest, Pa., was a private 
in Company B, 28th Infantry, U. S. Vols. 
John M. Sprankle, private company F, 14th 
Pa. Vols. 

Louis E. Schueker, Rochester Mills, Pa. ; 
private in Company L of the 16th Pennsyl- 
vania Volunteers; served in Porto Rico and 
afterwards was a commissioned officer in the 



There were Indiana county men in at least 
three companies of this regiment. In Com- 
pany B, "American Highlanders," Capt. 
John W. Geary, since major general of vol- 
unteers and governor of Pennsylvania; in 
Company D, Capt. James Murray, of Ebens- 
burg; and in Company E. 

Captain Geary was elected lieutenant col- 
onel at Pittsburg, and after the death of 
Colonel Roberts, at Tuculaya, IMexico, was 
elected colonel of the regiment. This regi- 
ment did faithful service under General 

At Vera Cruz and Cerro Gordo the larger 
portion of the regiment was engaged, those 
not engaged having been detained on account 
of smallpox, and were not allowed to proceed 
with the regiment. These were assigned to 
duty as train guard, and an interesting in- 
cident of train guard work was related by the 
survivors. At El Hoya Pass (probably the 
same as Paso de Ovejos) they were attacked 
by a strong force of Mexicans, and detached 
companies were ordered on skirmish line, 
driving the ]\Iexicans five miles. It so hap- 
pened that Company B, 1st Regiment, Com- 
pany B. 2d Regiment, Company B, Dragoons, 
were all in the chase, and it was exceeding 
rough country; it was sometimes difficult 



(o understand orders, so when Company B 
was ordered to execute a movement all the' 
Company Bs were inclined to obey at one 
time, causing considerable confusion. 

In the affray at Contreras the stronghold 
could not be reached without exposure to a 
destructive fire, except by a circuitous route 
up a ravine through chaparral and cactus; 
through this they went, often creeping to 
prevent their clothes being torn off by sharp 
thorns. Divested of all except their clothes 
and guns, they silently and cautiously crept 
through this supposed impassable approach, 
taking the garrison by surprise. It would 
seem that the Mexicans were surprised at all 
points, for instead of an enemy menacing 
their front at daylight, they too late discov- 
ered that the Americans had built a wagon 
road around the supposed impassable heights 
of Cerro Gordo. It was a night of terror pre- 
paring for the assault, but the battle of the 
morning lasted but seventeen minutes. 

This regiment also participated in the ter- 
I'ible storming of the fortress at Chapultepec, 
and taking of the City of Mexico. 

Several Indiana county men lost their lives 
during the ^Mexican war. Daniel Kuhns was 
killed at the gates of the City of ^Mexico, 
and James Kelley, "William ]\Iatthews, and 
Mathias Palmer died there. Hugh J. Brady 
enlisted when only seventeen years old, and 
Pliny Kelly, a young and slender man, was 
refused twice, and going to Pittsburg got ac- 
cepted by the Duquesne Grays, and stood the 
service much better than stouter looking men ; 
in the war of 1861 to 1865 he enlisted again, 
in California. William Campbell came home 
worn down, and lived but a short time. 


William Matthews, Company B, 2d Pa. 
Vols. ; died in Mexico. Mathias Palmer, Com- 
pany B, 2d Pa. Vols.: died in Mexico. John 
T. Tincom, Company B. 2d Pa. Vols. ; pro- 
moted to drum ma.ior. Henrv Schnetberg, 
corporal. Company B, 2d Pa. Vols. : now resi- 
dent of Indiana county. Jacob Kuhn, Com- 
panv E, 2d Pa. Vols. Hugh J. Brady, Com- 
panv E, 2d Pa. Vols.; colonel of the 206th 
Pa. " Vols, in the war of 1861-65. George 
Hutchison, Company D, 2d Pa. Vols. Joseph 
Mardis, Company D, 2d Pa. Vols. Samuel 
D. Killen. Company D. 2d Pa. Vols. David 
Buchanan. Companv D, 2d Pa. Vols. Samuel 
C. Moorhead, 2d Pa. Vols. William Camp- 
bell, 2d Pa. Vols.: died at home soon after 

the war. David Kuhns, 2d Pa. Vols. ; killed 
at the gates of the City of :\Iexico. Kirtland 
Keely. John Shoef. William Todd. Simon 
Wise. James Kelley, died in Mexico. Wil- 
liam Hood, of Bairdstown, 2d Pa. Vols. 
Pliny Kelly, also served in war of 1861-65 
in California battalion, 2d ^Massachusetts 


[By Alexander McMuUen, who, after the 
war, located in Center township. From 
Chambersburg "Repository" of 1820.] 

During the late war, on or about the 20th 
of Februaiy, 1814, a draft was ordered by 
Simon Snyder, then governor of this State. 

Col. James Feuton* appointed to com- 
mand the detachment, and Robert Bull, lieu- 
tenant colonel. My brother James, being of 
the first class in a company of militia, was 
drafted for sis months. He was twenty-pne 
years of age, and of a delicate constitution. 
It was thought by a council of the family and 
friends that it would not do for him to go. 
I\Iy father was at that time an advocate and 
partisan for the measures of government, 
and he then saw the evils of the war. I was 
about two years older, and more robust than 
my brother, and offered myself, to which my 
parents with some reluctance consented. 
There were two companies of drafts under 
command of Capts. Samuel Gordon and 
Jacob Stake, and our company of volunteers, 
under Capt. Samuel Dunn. These were all 
under command of ila.j. James Wood. Wil- 
liam McClelland, brigade inspector, was to 
furnish the tents and rations for these com- 
panies, but from some cause they were de- 
tained, and we remained there for three 
days, amid a continual scene of dissipation. 
The tents arriving, we commenced our march 
for Lake Erie on Monday, the 4th. On the 
16th we arrived at Pittsburg, and crossing 
the Allegheny river, encamped on the plains 
in view of that 'city. The Cumberland men. 
coming the next day, encamped on Grant's 
hill. Here we received six dollars, for three 
months' pay in advance, from the State. The 
Legislature had granted this in addition to 
the United States' pay, making together ten 
dollars a month. After a stay of three days 
we commenced our march for Erie, then a 

* Colonel Fenton commanded for a time the drafted 
men from Westmoreland and Indiana counties. The 
incidents in this sketch apply also to the troops from 
the aforenamed counties. 



small town, where we arrived after traveling 
through a deep snow and swampy roads, for 
ten days, with no better beds than hemlock 
branches and an Indian blanket for cover. 
We arrived in tolerable good health and fine 
spirits on the evening of the last day of 
March, and encamped on a hill east of the 
village, in view of Lake Erie. An old block- 
house stood between us and the lake, and a 
new one nearly finished beside it, with four 
pieces of brass cannon, belonging to the State, 
making us safe from the enemy on that side. 
The Cumberland volunteers and the drafts 
from York and Adams arrived, and the reg- 
iment was organized into ten companies of 
one hundred men each. In a few days dis- 
satisfaction began to appear in several com- 
panies, owing to the quality of the provis- 
ions. The flour was mouldy and the beef 
and pork unfit to be eaten. 

Desertions began to be frequent, but being 
followed and brought back they were placed 
in the guardhouse, and generally punished by 
being marched in front of the regiment to the 
tune of Rogue's march. 

About the 20th, Major Martin, with a bat- 
talion of regillars, took his station at the 
blockhouses. He was an officer of possessing 
appearance, but of intemperate habits. About 
this time he made a call on Genton's regi- 
ment for volunteers to go with him to Put- 
in-Bay, to bring the shattered vessels of 
Perry's fleet, and a battalion of regulars, 
commanded by Colonel Campbell. He was 
furnished with about three hundred men, and 
set sail for Put-in-Bay in the fleet that had 
been anchored at Erie during the winter pre- 
ceding. In about ten days they returned, in 
consec|uence of bad weather. 

Our men, who had not been accustomed to 
nautical life, wei-e glad to get their feet on 
solid ground once more. Campbell now took 
the command of the regulars, who were con- 
siderably reinforced, and in the course of a 
few days planned an expedition to Long 
Point, in Canada. He wanted as many vol- 
unteers from Fenton's regiment as he could 
get. Fenton agreed to go himself, and more 
than one half of his men. We embarked in 
the fleet in the evening, and set sail at dark. 
The weather was hazy, with very little wind, 
and the next morning we were still in sight, 
and not veiy far from the American shore. 
About eight o'clock the wind favored us, and 
towards sunset our fleet cast anchor at Long 
Point. The landing of the troops now com- 
menced. A party of British light horsemen 
waited on the bank till the men came within 

a short distance of the shore, then fired a 
volley and galloped ofl:'. We remained on the 
shore of the lake during the night without 
any disturbance. The next morning a scout- 
ing party crossed a creek which emptied into 
the lake at this place, and had not proceeded 
far before they were fired upon by a party of 
Canadians. The fire was returned, and we 
took up the line of march for Dover, a small 
village about three miles from the lake. The 
situation of this village was pleasant, the 
houses generally frame, near a beautiful 
creek, with a fine log fulling-mill, gristmill 
and sawmill. The inhabitants had prin- 
cipally left town on our approach. We were 
then placed in line of battle; the artillery in 
the center, the regulars on the right, a re- 
serve in the rear, and a company, I suppose 
of observation, some distance off. An order 
from Campbell, to set fire to the houses, was 
now executed, by men detailed from all the 
companies. A scene of destruction and 
plunder now ensued which beggars all de- 
scription. In a short time the houses, mills 
and barns were consumed, and a beautiful 
village, which the sun shone on in splendor 
that morning, was before two o'clock a heap 
of ruins. The women and children had re- 
mained in the village, and were permitted to 
carry out the valuable part of their movable 
property. A party of sailors, appointed to 
man the artillery, killed the hogs in the 
streets, and severing them in the middle car- 
ried off the hind parts, while the head and 
shoulders were left in the street. 

The line of march was now taken up the 
lake. The army halted about a mile from the 
lake, at the house of a respectable looking 
German, and as it had been ascertained that 
the British had no force of any consequence 
in that neighborhood, the men were per- 
mitted to stroll from the ranks. A short dis- 
tance from this house was a pasture lot, in 
which grazed a fine English cow. Some of 
us who were farmers had a curiosity to ex- 
amine this fine animal more closely. This 
drew a small group together, when a private 
of Gordon's company fired his musket and 
broke both her fore legs. The farmer and his 
family said nothing, afraid, I suppose, their 
own turn would come next, and the officers, 
taken up in examining some Canadian pris- 
oners, paid but little attention to it. 

The sun was setting as the troops were re- 
embarked, and shortly after dark we set sail, 
expecting to awake in the harbor of Erie; 
but judge of our surprise in the morning to . 
find that we were not more than a mile from 



the Canadian shore, and four miles from 
where we started the evening- before. The 
sails were lowered, the fleet stopped, and 
boats manned for the shore. A troop of horse 
formed on the shore appeared determined to 
oppose our landing, but the turning of a long 
thirty-two pounder on board the "Poi-cupine" 
gunboat, to bear on them, made them gallop 
off, without firing a gun. There was a grist- 
mill and sawmill, to which our troops set fire. 
Orders were then given to re-embark, and 
the fleet set sail for Erie, where we arrived 
the next evening at dark, generally disgusted 
at the conduct of Campbell. When we came 
back to the camp we found that a number of 
men belonging to several companies had de- 
serted, taking advantage of the absence of the 
officers. A short time after this a mutiny 
was set on foot by some designing men, who 
made the soldiers believe that the field officers 
and contractors were swindling them by buy- 
ing up bad provisions at a low price, and that 
good could be bought if the officers wanted it. 
Another reason was, they had now been in the 
service nearly three months, and had re- 
ceived but sis dollars from the State, and as 
we expected in a few days to march to Buf- 
falo, and be under the United States officers, 
they were told that unless they stood out for 
their rights then, there would be no use of 
doing it at Buffalo. 

A paper was drawn up and signed by a 
number, who were resolved not to start with- 
out two months' pay. The officers, for some 
reason, appeared very little concerned about 
it. The morning came to start for Buffalo. 
Preparations were made by those who were 
not in the conspiracy, to start and leave the 
mutineers, if they were too strong to be forced 
off. The mutineers had loaded their mus- 
kets, and had supplied themselves with cart- 
ridges, apparently determined not to strike a 
tent without money. The regiment had been 
formed, roll called, and wagons all ready to 
load. Orders were given to strike the tents. 
About one half were struck. The remainder 
stood, the owners beside them with loaded 
muskets. Colonel Fenton began to remon- 
strate, but they treated all he said with in- 
difference. The adjutant, Thomas Doe, stand- 
ing beside him, indignant at such conduct, 
wanted the Colonel to use force, but he de- 
clined, and at Doe's request gave him leave 
to quell the disturbance. The first company, 
a finely unifonned company of infantry from 
Carlisle, had been active in the mutiny, but 
their tents fell before the drawn sword of the 
adjutant, and men who appeared detemiined 

to die on the spot now .shrunk like children 
before one man. The rest followed their ex- 
ample, and in less than an hour the leaders of 
the mutiny were placed in the blockhouse in 
irons, and the regiment was on its way to 

This march was a very pleasant one — the 
vegetation was coming on with great vigor, 
and the country was fast being settled by 
respectable and intelligent looking men from 
the Eastern States. After a march of eight 
days we arrived on the banks of the Buffalo 
creek, where we were met by a fine looking 
band of musicians, who escorted us to the 
village. This village had been burnt the 
winter before by the British and Indians. 
The inhabitants were generally living in sheds 
of frame and lined with rough boards, a tem- 
porary protection from the inclemency of the 
weather. West of town, and between it and 
the lake, was the encampment of the grand 
army, said to be 2,500 strong. These were 
commanded by IMaj. Gen. Jacob Brown. A 
regiment of artillery on the northeast. We 
encamped on the left of the regulars, in a 
piece of bushy ground which was soon cleared 
off. making it a beautiful spot, with a fine 
spring, close to the encampment. 

Regulations new to us, and verj^ strict, were 
now adopted. We arose at four o'clock (re- 
veille beat), and answered to our names. We 
had fifteen minutes to prepare for drill, which 
generally lasted one hour. Breakfast being 
over, the regiment was formed, roll again 
called, guards detailed, and the regiment dis- 
missed for a short time. The sergeants' drill 
came next, which generally lasted till eleven 
o'clock. At two, the Adjutant General 
drilled the regiment, which were then dis- 
missed till nine, when the roll was again 
called and we retired to rest. The time 
passed away in this manner ; constant exercise, 
wholesome provisions and strict discipline 
soon made our regiment have another ap- 

On the evening of the third day of July, the 
regulars left their camp, and marched down 
to the Niagara river, crossed during the night, 
and surrounded Fort Erie, which surren- 
dered the next day. There was but one bat- 
talion in the fort, and two companies of ar- 
tilleiy. These were brought to Buffalo, and 
from thence to Greenbush, in the State of 
New York, escorted by Captain Alexander's 
company of infantry. We crossed on the 5th ; 
some out of each company refused to go ; and 
some of their comrades were detailed to bring 
them by force, which we found to be no easy 



matter, as they had taken possession of an 
old battery, and stood in their own defense. 
They were about eighty strong. A treaty was 
now commenced, and about twenty of them, 
with their leader, agreed to come over; the 
rest we left, our commander wisely consider- 
ing them of little consequence. 

In the morning we marched for Chippewa. 
The regulars had started the day before. 
About two o'clock we halted about two miles 
from the creek, where a large body of Indians 
of different tribes were preparing to go out 
on a scouting expedition. One of their chiefs, 
in a speech which for gesture and strength 
of lungs I had never heard equalled, was pre- 
paring them for bloody deeds. Volunteers 
were now called for from Porter's brigade. 
The Indians had started towards a pine wood, 
back of the fields, where we then halted. 
Having lost my sleep the night before, I had, 
like a simpleton, lent my musket to Lieuten- 
ant Dick, and laying down in a fence comer 
fell fast asleep. In a few minutes the sharp 
crack of the Indians' rifles waked me, the 
noise increased by the quick discharges of 
cannon and musketry. I was so much con- 
fused that I scarce knew what I was doing. 
I ran to Major Wood, who was forming, and 
asked them what they were doing. 

"Fighting!" was the enswer. "Fall into 
ranks ! ' ' 

I now felt my situation— without gun or 
cartridge box. I ran to the bank of the river, 
where a boat was lying, which had brought 
the baggage down the river, and solicited a 
gun, which after some difficulty I obtained, 
and soon joined our company. Just at this 
time I saw the Indians and some of the vol- 
unteei-s flying across the fields towards us. 
They had received a warmer reception than 
they had expected. 

Shortly after they crossed into the woods 
they came on a party of Canadians (Indians) 
and militia, who fired on them. The fire was 
returned, and the Canadians fled towards the 
bridge, our volunteers in full pursuit. A 
number of the Canadian Indians and their 
militia lost their lives in this running fight. 
Approaching the bridge they met the British 
army. A retreat now commenced, with the 
Canadians and some British regulars in full 
pursuit. In this retreat, Robert McClelland, 
a very respectable man of our company, lost 
his life. Almost all the companies of our 
regiment lost some men. 

By the time the regiment came in view of 
the Chippewa creek, the battle was over and 
the British retreating across the bridge. A 

number of killed and wounded lay on the 
plains where the armies had fought. We 
marched past them towards the bridge, 
saluted every few minutes by the cannon balls 
from the British works at Chippewa, which 
to us militia was a new but not a very pleas- 
ant sight. 

After keeping us a considerable time 
formed in front, and exposed to the cannon 
of the British works, we were marched back 
to our camp. That evening we were joined 
by a company of Canadian volunteers, who 
had entered the service of the United States. 

The next morning the dead of both armies 
were bui-ied. The killed and wounded 
amounted to six or seven hundred, of which 
the greater part belonged to the British. Col. 
Robert Ball, second in command, Major Gal- 
loway and Captain White were taken pris- 
oners, besides a number of privates. 

About twelve o'clock, a number of men of 
different companies were detailed to take the 
prisoners, who were all wounded, up the 
Niagara, in boats to Buffalo. I was one of 
this party. The navigation of this stream, 
up the river, is very difficult and laborious. 
It was dark by the time we had got eight 
miles, and as we were very tired we landed 
opposite a house on the shore to rest till morn- 
ing. The owner had left this when the army 
came down the river. 

As some of the men were slightly hurt, and 
we in an enemy's country, a sentinel was sent 
to watch the boat. About midnight, my turn 
came. The moon gave but little light, and 
the prisoners and our men all laying quiet, 
when the sound of footsteps within a lew 
paces startled me. I turned hastily around, 
and saw a large Indian, who, when he saw my 
musket presented, called out, "don't shoot." 
He proved to be one of our own side, on his 
road to join the army. 

The next day we arrived at Buffalo, where 
we were detained for eight days, when we 
returned to join the army, who were en- 
camped at Queenstown, below the falls of 

The river at this town is narrow, and very 
deep, and an eddy of backwater renders it an 
easy place to land boats. The houses were 
large and handsome. Above the town was a 
steep hill called Queensto.wn mountain, on 
the top of which was a fort, where the vol- 
unteers and Indians were encamped. The 
New York volunteers having joined us we 
were formed into a brigade, commanded by 
Gen. Peter B. Porter. After a march to the 
neighborhood of Fort George, where we re- 



mained two days, we returned to our former 
camp at Queenstowu. 

On our march up the river, when we came 
in view of Queenstown Heights, we discovered 
a number of the Canadian militia, who had 
taken possession of our former encampment. 
On our approach they began to move off. We 
pursued them for some miles. Being on a 
flanking party with others, our route was 
principally through the woods. We returned 
in the evening with eight prisoners, most of 
them being otfieers. 

Nest day we marched to Chippewa and 
encamped. There was preparation making 
to march to Burlington Heights, but on the 
evening of the 25th of July intelligence was 
brought that the enemy were in pursuit of 
us. and coming up the river below the falls. 
Gen. Scott ]\Ioorhead, with his brigade, went 
to meet them, and gave them battle about 
three miles from the camp. The second bri- 
gade of regulars, under General Ripley, has- 
tened to his support, and the contest became 
warm and bloody. The enemy's artillery be- 
ing taken about the time we of Porter's bri- 
gade an-ived on the battleground, the enemy, 
reinforced, came down the hill directly in 
front of us. The brigade was just formed 
into line, when I heard the voice of Porter 
saying to us. "show yourselves men, and as- 
sist your brethren," when showers of musket 
balls came over our heads like a sweeping 
hailstorm. We returned the fire from the 
whole line of the brigade. The firing was 
now kept up from both sides with great spirit, 
but it was soon evident that there was a great 
advantage on our side. The ground the Brit- 
ish occupied was considerably elevated, which 
exposed them to the elevation that a musket 
■\nll take in going any considerable distance, 
while their balls were passing high in the air 
over our heads. At length the call fi-om the 
officers to cease firing and march forward was 
obeyed. I had twenty rounds of cartridges 
in my box when I went to the battleground, 
and when the firing ceased, on examining my 
box, I found that the last was in my musket. 
Cartridges and flints were now hastily distrib- 
uted along the line, and our brave brigade, 
blackened with powder, marched forward to- 
ward the top of the hill to drive the enemy 
from his position there. In our march we 
passed over the dead and dying, who were 
literall.v in heaps, especially where the Brit- 
ish had stood during the battle. 

When we arrived at the top of the hill, we 
came to a thicket where an old fence had 
been. Crossing this disordered the line con- 

siderably, and when through it, we found our- 
selves within a few rods of the British, who 
■were strongly reinforced and turning to meet 
us. A deathlike silence for a few moments 
prevailed, and both armies stood still. One 
of the British officers asked, in a hoarse voice, 
if we had surrendered. There was no answer 
to this question. He asked again. Lieuten- 
ant Dick told him that we merer would sur- 
render. The Canadian company on our right 
began to falter, and firing irregularly, the 
whole bod.v fled back over the British fenc, 
they complimenting us with a shower of 
musket balls. 

A number were killed, and others were 
wounded in this tumultuous retreat. Run- 
ning about fifteen or twenty rods we thought 
ourselves out of danger, and several of us, at 
the request of the officers, stopped and were 
formed into line. 

Colonel Nichols had joined us that eve- 
ning with a regiment of regulars from ilis- 
souri, who had been kept as a reserve, who. 
by skillful maneuvers, placed themselves be- 
tween us and the British, and kept up a de- 
structive fire on the British, who soon fell 
back and the firing ceased. A murmur ran 
through the ranks of the volunteer com- 
panies, who were contending for places in 
the rear, and the groans of dying was all that 
was heard for some minutes. 

The shattered remains of the brigade be- 
ing formed, we were marched to the right of 
the line, and near the edge of the precipice 
of the Niagara falls. The cannon that had 
been taken from the British was at this place. 
We were formed in order of battle. 

This time to me was one of the most trying 
moments of my life. Being warm during 
the engagement, I had opened my vest and 
shirt collar, and now the night air chilled 
me — Death, the common lot of all mankind, 
is generally feared the nearer he approaches 
us. I felt my situation to be an awful one, 
and I did sincerely wish that the British 
army, who were on the hill in view of us, 
might not come down to commence the en- 
gagement again. The British arm.v retiring, 
nur company with others, were ordered to 
haul the cannon taken from the British, and 
tumble it over the precipice. We hauled one 
and sent it over the precipice into the river. 

We then went back and were ordered to 
haul another, but tired out. and half dead for 
want of water, the most of our faces scorched 
with powder, we refused to do any more, and 
our officers led us back to places in the line. 

A retrograde march back to the camp now 



commenced, the volunteers in front and the 
regulars ini the rear to cover the retreat. 
When we arrived at the camp, a number of 
men who had run off from its during the en- 
gagement came back, and wished to fall into 
ranks, but were ordered off by Lieutenant 
Patton, who now had command of the com- 
pany. The next thing was to make a speech 
to us. 

He began by saying that he was surprised 
at us for not standing our groimd at the 
brush fence. If the whole brigade had fled 
(as they actually did) Gordon's company 
should have remained iirm. 

This was too much; we believing that we 
had done all that men could do, and this our 
thanks ! We broke loose on him with a volley 
of insulting language. He standing in front 
of us, with a smile, told us that we were dis- 
missed, and might go to the river and get 
drunk on water. 

I now learned that ten of our company were 
wounded. There was a number of men killed 
in every company except ours. Thomas Poe, 
adjutant of the regiment, was mortally 
wounded. He was my full cousin, a man of 
fine talents, a brave and meritorious officer, 
and treated us like brothers. 

The next morning a scene of distress pre- 
sented itself to my view, which I hope I may 
never witness again. I started early to see 
Thomas Poe, hearing that he was dying in a 
house at Chippewa, a short distance from our 
camp. Calling at several of the tents, as I 
passed along, nearly all of them contained 
one or more wounded men, their clothes cov- 
ered with blood, and they suffering se- 
verely. John JlcClay, the quartermaster, 
was wounded by a musket ball, which cut him 
across the fore part of the head, and cracked 
his skull. He was lying on his back, his face 
in a gore of blood. The strange vnld look, 
and deep groan he gave, just as I entered, 
drew a smile from me, so accustomed men 
become to blood, that they feel but little 
sympathy for their fellows. 

Coming to the house at Chippewa, I found 
Thomas Poe lying on a blanket. He reached 
his hand to me and told me that he was mor- 
tally, wounded ; that he had but a few moments 
to live, and told me that he wished to be 
buried on the American side of the river. 

The army was at this time on its march, 
and passed the house, going to attack the 
British. I had no wish to go with them, as I 
had become fully satisfied the previous day, 
and the officers telling me to stay and attend 
Poe. I stood in the door and with sorrow 

watched the shattered remains of only twenty- 
five out of the hundred that had left Frank- 
lin county, as with slow and melancholy steps 
they were returning to the scene of action. 
In a short time the whole body returned, as 
it was found that the British were strongly 
reinforced, and were preparing to attack us. 
Our troops had suffered severely the night 
before, especially one regiment that the eve- 
ning before had paraded four hundred men, 
now had but eighty-eight. Added to this. 
Major General Brown, the commander, and 
Brigadier General Scott, who commanded 
the first brigade, were both wounded, and the 
provisions were also destroyed. Lieutenant 
Campbell, a number of the regulars and my- 
self carried the wounded Thomas Poe to the 
crossing place. Boats were waiting here to 
take the wounded across the river. Carrying 
him nearly a mile across a plain, in the mid- 
dle of the 25th of July, appeared to exhaust 
what little strength he had left. I put him 
in a boat, in care of Lieutenant Dick and his 
Avaiter. He shook hands with me for the last 
time. He said to me in a weak voice, "Alex- 
ander, you will never see me again in this 
world. ' ' He expired in a few minutes. Thus 
fell one who had but few equals. 

Landing the remaining part of the wounded 
now commenced, and there was at least forty 
two-horse wagons loaded with these unfor- 
tunate men. Their sufferings in this mode of 
conveyance appeared to be dreadful, and 
their groans distressing. I was now attacked 
with a high fever and violent headache, and 
had to give up my musket and knapsack and 
take a seat in the wagon, but the jolting al- 
most deranged me. I then attempted to walk, 
but finding my strength failing, and being 
behind our regiment, I lay down in front of 
a house in despair, not caring what became 
of me. The regulars passing at this time one 
of their officers, seeing me, assisted me to rise, 
and made one of his soldiers support me for a 
short distance. I then felt better, and able 
to walk without support. It was now dark. 
We came to a wash house opposite the village 
of Black Rock, and I went into it. The night 
was cloudy, and appearance of a storm. 
There were a number of stragglers from dif- 
ferent companies and we all lay down on the 
fioor, and I soon fell asleep, but an affray 
of the regulars with some men soon ordered 
us out. He sent some of his men to conduct 
me to the meadov.' where our company was. 
He gave me my blanket, and I was compelled 
to lie down in a high fever, just as the rain 
to come down in torrents. This, of all 



nights I had ever spent, was the most dread- 

In the morning I found myself lying in 
the water two inches deep. I was so weak 
that I could scarcely walk. The day before, 
I had given mj' messmates my canteen, which 
was full of French brandy, ily first thoiight 
was to get it, and determined to drink as 
much of it as I could, but fortunately for me 
m.v comradi;s had disposed of it themselves. 

I now went with company to Fort Erie. 
This was a small fort of sods, in which were 
several men at work, digging and carrying 
sods to raise the fort higher, and repair 

My messmates insisted on me going across 
the river until I got better. An application 
was made to General Porter, and I crossed 
to the United States, after having been in 
Canada nearly two months. 

I went to the hospital, and Lieutenant Dick, 
Peter Keefer, William Edwards and myself 
got a tent by ourselves. Some time passed, 
when the British crossed the river, and at- 
tacked a small body of Kentucky riflemen. 

The main body being at Fort Erie, we left 
Buffalo and went about two miles to an In- 
dian town, belonging to the Seneca Indians, 
who liad removed to another about two miles 
from this, which also belonged to them. The 
situation of the first mentioned village was 
pleasant, the houses of one story, and in a 
straight line, about sixteen feet square, with 
a porch in front the length of the house. A 
beautiful meadow, orchard, and small fields 
of wheat surrounded the village. There ap- 
peared to be about twelve acres of cleared 
land. The Indians had left this village a short 
time before, in consequence of some of their 
people catching the smallpox; they, suppos- 
ing that it belonged to the village, left it with 
all their furniture, and rush mats, which was 
their bedding. 

Sta.ving here one night and part of a day, 
we learned that the danger was over. The 
British, 1.100 strong, attempted to cross a 
small creek. The riflemen had thrown up a 
breastwork of logs within point blank shot of 
the ford, and being excellent marksmen and 
retired veterans, the British found it no easy 
matter to cross the creek, and after several 
ineffectual efforts, re-embarked, after ha\'ing 
lost three hundred killed and wounded. The 
rifle regiment lost but few, being protected 
bv their breastwork. 

My companions now left me. The phy- 
sician said my disease was dumb ague. I had 
high fever through the night, but during the 

day was able to walk about though very 

The hospital was intended for the sick and 
wounded of Porter's brigade. The superin- 
tendent and his assistant were from the 
Pennsylvania regiment. I suppose there 
might have been sixty of us here generally, 
though I never saw the list. There was one 
who had charge of the medicine chest, and 
like all quacks was, in his own opinion, an 
excellent physician. Dr. Mady, the surgeon 
of the Pennsylvania regiment, generally at- 
tended us once a day, examined the patients, 
and left his directions vdth the Irishman who 
gave each one his portion of medicine, but 
he soon began to enlarge, and took the liberty 
of differing from his employer, and as he 
distributed he gave what he thought would 
effect a cure. Going to him one morning for 
Peruvian bark, he felt my pulse and began to 
talk very gravely of giving me something 
else. I told him I would go by the direct