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THE 



INDIANA GAZETTEER, 



on 



TOPOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 



OF 



THE STATE OF INDIANA. 



THIRD EDITION— 10,000 COPIES. 



INDIANAPOLIS: 

PUBLISHED BY E. CHAMBERLAWU 
IS 19. 



FS2.+ 

.C442- 



JFrotn Chapman* K Sp aim's Power Press, 

INDIANAPOLIS, INDIANA. 



CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Boundaries, Extent and area, - - - 9 

Natural Divisions, ----- 10 

Face and Peculiarities of the Country, - - 12 

Natural History, - - - - 14 

Lakes and Rivers, - - - - - 19 

Public Lands, ----- 22 

Internal Improvements, - - - - - 25 

Agricultural Productions, - - - 34 

Manufactures and Commerce, - - - - 38 

Climate and Health, ----- 40 

Education, - - - - - - 42 

Political Institutions — Civil Divisions, 64 

Population, - - - - - - 67 

Religious Denominations, ... 68 

Antiquities, - - - - - - 82 

History, - - - - - - 83 

State Institutions, - - - - - 131 

Second Part, containing Topography and Statistics, - - 151 



ENGRAVINGS. 

Page. 
State House, Indianapolis, (Frontispiece.) 

State Bank, Indianapolis, - - - - 134 

Deaf and Dumb Asylum, near Indianapolis, - - - 137 

Asylum for the Blind, Indianapolis, - 142 

Insane Hospital, near Indianapolis, -■-.-.. 146 

State University, Bloomington, - - - - 167 

Wabash College, Crawfordsville, ----- 201 

Court House, Connersville, ----- 222 

Franklln College, Franklin, ----- 231 

Asbury University, Greencastle, - 238 

Hanover College, Hanover, - 243 

First Presbyterian Church, Indianapolis, - 258 

Wesley Chapel, Indianapolis, ----- 260 

Hon. O. H. Smith's Residence, Indianapolis, - - - 263 

Branch Bank, Madison, - - - - - - 296 

Christ Church, Madison, ----- 299 

Residence of A. W. Morris, Esq., Indianapolis, - - - 304 

State Sentinel Building, Indianapolis, - 307 

State Journal Buildings, Indianapolis, - - - - 309 

Masonic Hall, Indianapolis, ----- 328 

Map of Cannelton, Cannelton, - 352 

Cotton Mill, Cannelton, ----- 354 

Hon. A. T. Ellis's Residence, Vincennes, - 412 

Market House, Vincennes, ----- 414 

Market Street, Vincennes, ----- 417 



INTRODUCTION. 

The publisher of this work commenced about two years since to pre- 
pare the materials for it, and he has spared no pains or expense to obtain 
such information as could be relied on. For this purpose he has visited 
many of the counties in person, that he might excite the necessary inte- 
rest, and he has addressed circulars containing numerous interrogatories, 
with blanks for the answers, to the county auditors in all cases, and also 
to many of the leading citizens, and from their replies the substance of 
this Book has been compiled. From the counties of Boone, Bartholomew, 
Decatur, Jennings, Laporte, Ohio, Owen, Perry, Posey, Ripley, Rush, 
Tippecanoe, Union, and some others, full and satisfactory returns were 
made, and had similar reports been made from the other counties, it would 
have been the fault of the compiler if a more useful book had not been 
made. But no returns, whatever, could be had, either for love or money, 
from the counties of Knox, Shelby, or Washington: that from Tipton was 
iost or mislaid before the compiler saw it. 

The articles in reference to the counties and principal towns will not 
be found to correspond in length to their importance, but in no instance 
has the compiler neglected any means within his power to do justice to 
the different places attempted to be described. He has been long a resi- 
dent of the State, and at different, though mostly distant periods, has 
visited nearly every county and town in it; and though at the time he had 
no thought of his present undertaking, he was never a careless observer 
of any thing that concerned the welfare of his fellow citizens. All his 
own recollections he has tasked for this work, and while he regrets its 
many imperfections, the blame of them, he thinks, should fall mostly on 
the citizens of the counties who, when requested repeatedly and when 
compensation was offered them, would not take sufficient interest to com- 
municate correct information. 

There are some circumstances that render it more difficult to prepare a 
good Gazetteer of this State than of almost any other. There have been 
few books written about the State to refer to, rapid improvements have 
been constantly going on, of which little is known, even in the vicinity; 
other improvements are loudly talked of and supposed to be done almost 
before they are commenced, and the real business men meet at no common 
point where they could be consulted and the truth ascertained. Some 
of them go only to Cincinnati, others to Madison, Louisville, New 



viii INTRODUCTION. 

Albany, Evansville, Chicago, Detroit, or Fort Wayne, and almost to no 
other points. They therefore know little of the State, except where their 
immediate business lies. The politicians, the speculators in companies and 
in town lots, and others without pressing business, who assemble at In- 
dianapolis, have time to talk, when they meet there, but the information 
they give is not always the ?nost certain. These matters render it the 
more important that a book like this should be published. It will correct 
some errors, it will lead to inquiries as to others, and the tendency will be 
to aid in forming a State character of which the citizens may be proud. 
Very little may be done at once, but it is important that the movement 
should be onward. The resources of Indiana, if properly developed, 
will make it one of the best States in the Union. It will have no great 
metropolis to attract attention, but it will soon have its scores of cities, 
with from 5,000 to 20,000 inhabitants each, the pride and boast of the vi- 
cinity in which they are located. The compiler has been under the neces- 
sity of modifying many representations, honestly made, from different 
parts of the State, and no doubt many errors still remain. All he can say 
is, that under circumstances needless to detail here, he could do no better, 
and were they known they would be a sufficient apology. 

It may be objected that the sweeping statements as to the richness of the 
soil in whole counties is calculated to deceive, as there must be exceptions. 
As to this it may be replied, that the purchase of all the land in whole 
counties in the central part of the State, soon after it was offered b) 7 the Gov- 
ernment for sale, is proof of the truth of the statement. In other parts of 
the State, where Government lands have been long in the market/ it may 
be presumed that the most of them are but of little value. The reader, 
therefore, will not be deceived. 

It may be said, too, that from the number of preachers of the gospel 
and teachers of schools represented to be found in the various counties, it 
will be supposed there is much more religious and intellectual instruction 
given here than is actually the case. The quality is perhaps the only 
thing in dispute. A part of it is not inferior to any other, but a part, too, 
was correctly described by one who, when receiving furs and skins for his 
salary, was asked " whether it was not poor pay?" " Yes," he said, but 
he " gave poor preaching in return." 

A careful examination of the proof has not always been practicable, and 
there may be errors of the press. The paper for the work, which will be 
seen to be of an excellent quality, was made specially for the purpose by 
Messrs. Robertson & Rinehart, of Delphi. 



INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

PART FIRST, 

GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 

Boundaries and Extent.. .Area.. .Natural Divisions.. .Face of the Country and 
Peculiarities in its Appearance. ...Natural History.. ..Lakes and Rivers.... 
Public Lands.. ..Internal Improvements.. ..Agricultural Productions.... 
Manufactures and Commerce.. ..Climate and Health.... Education... .Politi- 
cal Institutions and Civil Divisions. ...Population. ...Religious Denomina- 
tions.... Antiquities.... History. 

BOUNDARIES, EXTENT AND AREA. 

The State of Indiana is situated between the parallels of 
37 deg. 51 min. and 41 deg. 46 min. north latitude, and be- 
tween 8 deg. 48 min. and 11 deg. 1 min. west longitude 
from Washington. The extreme length from north to 
south is 275 miles, and the greatest breadth from east to 
west is 176 miles. The State is, however, nearly an ob- 
long; the only irregularities being the Ohio River on the 
south, and where the Wabash is the dividing line between 
it and Southern Illinois. The average length is 240 miles, 
the average width 152 miles, making the contents about 
36,500 square miles, or 23,360,000 acres. 

By the Ordinance of Congress, of April 19, 1816, the 
contemplated State was to be " bounded on the east by the 
meridian line which forms the western boundary of the 
State of Ohio, being a north line from the mouth of the 
Miami. On the south by the river Ohio, from the mouth 
of the great Miami to the mouth of the river Wabash ; 
2 



10 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

on the west by a line drawn along the middle of the Wa- 
bash, from its mouth to a point where a due north line 
drawn from the town of Vincennes would last touch the 
north-western shore of said river, and from thence by a 
due north line until the same shall intersect an east and 
west line drawn through a point ten miles north of the 
southern extreme of Lake Michigan; on the north by the 
said east and west line until the same shall intersect the 
first mentioned meridian line which forms the western 
boundary of the State of Ohio." Indiana is therefore 
bounded by Ohio on the east, Kentucky on the south, 
Illinois on the west, and Michigan on the north. 

NATURAL DIVISIONS. 

There is such a marked difference between the parts of 
the State that lie near its principal rivers and their tribu- 
taries, that they constitute its proper natural divisions. 
The Ohio Valley, embracing that of White Water, con- 
tains the counties of Wayne, Fayette, Union, the most of 
the first tier of counties along the Ohio River, and parts 
of Ripley, Scott, Washington, and Orange, which lie in 
the second tier, making about 5000 square miles in all. 
This is a limestone region; it was mostly covered with 
very heavy timber; the soil in the bottoms, hill-tops 
and sides is very rich, but much poorer in the flats 
back of the hills and near the heads of the streams. The 
hills are abrupt and broken, and have an elevation of 
about 400 feet above the Ohio and its numerous small 
tributaries that break through the hills in every direction. 
Many of these streams, in dry weather, show only the 
marks where torrents have disappeared almost as soon 
as the storms which occasioned them. Of this part of 
the State, about two-thirds is good farming land ; the 
other third is either too hilly or the soil too poor for 
profitable cultivation. The poorest part is in the flats at 
the head of the streams. The White River valley ex- 
tends north-west from the Wabash through the centre of 
the State to the Ohio line, containing the principal part 
of twenty-four counties, and covering about 9,000 square 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 11 

miles. It is almost uniformly level and heavily limbered, 
except in parts of the six western counties, in which 
there are a few prairies and barrens, and ranges of 
rugged hills. There is no stone in all the central part of 
this valley, except a few solitary boulders; and at least 
seven-eighths of the whole has a rich soil capable of 
being farmed to much advantage. Most of the streams 
are clear and unfailing, and water power is generally 
abundant where it is wanted. The Wabash Valley, 
covering thirty counties and 12,000 square miles, inter- 
locks with that of White River, and the eastern part 
resembles it. It is equally fertile but more broken, is 
interspersed with small prairies and barrens or oak 
openings, but these have mostly a good soil, except some 
large ones of very little value that cover about a third 
part of the counties of Knox, Sullivan and Clay. For 
100 miles along the centre of this valley there is an 
abundance of water power, but a scarcity in the upper 
and lower part of it. From the river hills on the Ohio 
to the Wabash, is a gradually inclined plane which is 
apparent even to the eye, except when ascending from 
the intervening streams that have been passed. And it 
is not a little curious in crossing the State outwards from 
Madison and other places, to find the water almost from 
the borders of the Ohio wending its way to the Wabash. 
The north part of the State, watered by the two St. 
Josephs and the Kankakee, is very similar in its charac- 
teristics. High, sandy, beautiful prairies interspersed 
with others that are wet and spongy ; extensive, rich, 
burr oak barrens or openings, having some resemblance 
to old orchards; poor, sandy, black oak or pine barrens; 
rich sugar tree and walnut forests; white maple, tama- 
rack and alder swamps; beautiful small lakes and iron 
ore and marl bogs are scattered promiscuously together, 
and present ever changing varieties of prospects to the 
traveller. 

One half of the country can be cultivated to much 
advantage with very little expense, and of the balance, 
one half will be reclaimed and the remainder can nevei 



12 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

be valuable. Clay predominates in the Ohio valley; 
sand and marl in the north part of the State and near 
the Wabash; while clay and occasionally a mixture of 
limestone gravel, is most prevalent in the centre. 

FACE AND PECULIARITIES OF THE COUNTRY. 

About two-thirds of the State is nearly level, and of 
course there is not much variety of appearance presented 
to give interest to the description. 

There are no elevations having any claim to be called 
Mountains. Still there are parts of the State well cal- 
culated to excite attention. That the river hills along 
the Ohio should be about as high as any part of the 
State, and while generally of about the same elevation, 
should still be so diversified in appearance as to have 
very little resemblance to each other, is a subject of 
much interest to curious inquirers. 

Petrifactions of marine animals are found imbedded 
in most of the rocks ; in them and on their sides are 
benches which show that the river has had various eleva- 
tions much above its present bed. The land generally 
falls off slightly descending from the summits of these 
hills, and there are many appearances that even the 
small tributaries of the Ohio, have gradually worn out 
their present beds from near the tops of the hills. 

About five miles below the Falls of the Ohio, com- 
mences a range of hills called the Knobs, still more 
singular in their appearance than the river hills. They 
rise about 500 feet high, are generally from a mile to 
half a mile in width, are covered mostly with small 
pines which grow no where else in this part of the 
State; they are about equal in elevation, each hill sepa- 
rately is small, often covering less than half an acre; 
they unite generally 100 or 200 feet below their summits; 
they extend about fifty miles into the interior, and the 
country behind them at first falls off very little from a 
level; a similar ridge of hills extends into Kentucky from 
the south side of the river opposite. It is not unlikely 
that they were once united and formed an obstruction, 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. io 

the only remains of which at this time are the Falls of 
the Ohio. 

In the counties of Harrison, Washington and Orange, 
is a tract of country called the ban-ens covering 400 or 
500 square miles. The land is nearly destitute of timber, 
but in most places thickly covered with wild plum bushes, 
oak and hickory saplings, or grass. 

For long distances the country would appear nearly 
level but for sink holes as they are called, which resemble 
old and partially filled cellars of various sizes, some of 
them immensely large. Many of these sink holes lead 
to caverns, several of winch have been explored and 
found to be miles in extent. Considerable streams run 
into them and disappear, and Lost River, after running 
near eight miles under ground, comes out again in the 
form of a large spring, at which boats are built and 
loaded for New Orleans. 

On the south-east shore of Lake Michigan, the sand 
has been drifted up by winds so as to form a high mound 
or wall 150 feet in height, and probably 300 or 400 feet 
in width at the base. The sand is kept in place mostly 
by vines and scrubby trees which grow in it, but there 
are many places along it where there is nothing to ob- 
struct, and the drifts of sand appear to be moved about 
like the light snow of winter, by every strong wind. 

Another singular feature in the face of the countrv is. 
that there are no dividing ridges, as there are in other parts 
of the world, from which the waters flow in different direc- 
tions. Before the country was settled there were, a part of 
the year, between the streams, immense swamps, where the 
water, dammed up by fallen timber and matted leaves, lay 
on the ground till the heat of summer caused it to evapo- 
rate, and the land thus situated was then thought to be 
of no value. When cleared up, however, such places 
become dry and make the best of farming land, and 
where there formerly seemed to be a perfect level, there 
is generally found to be a sufficient descent to carry off 
the water readily. At one season of the year, the noble 
forests, the rich green of the foliage, the flowering shrubs 



14 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

and trees, the verdure, scarlet and pink of the prairies, 
entranced the traveller, and he represented the country 
as a paradise. At another season the forests were naked, 
the prairies were brown, and almost an ocean of mud 
was to be waded, and it is no wonder that a very differ- 
ent description was given. Neither of them was just. 

NATURAL HISTORY. 

But little attention has yet been given to the Natural 
History of Indiana. There are probably animals here 
which have not yet been classed: plants which have 
never yet met the eye of the botanist, and the larger 
part of the State has as yet been but imperfectly ex- 
plored by the geologist. The spirit of inquiry is how- 
ever abroad as to these matters. A brief sketch, all that 
the narrow limits of this work will allow, is submitted. 

Of the quadrupeds found in the State, the Buffalo and 
the Elk have disappeared for many years. They must 
have been very numerous formerly from the great abun- 
dance of their bones still found in the vicinity of the 
Salt Licks, and the traces of their "paths" which still 
remain. These were well beaten tracks leading from the 
prairies in the interior, where they fed a portion of the 
year, to the margin of the large rivers where the timber 
protected and the wild cane fed them in winter. The 
Bear, Panther, Wild Cat, Beaver and others, are now 
but seldom met with except in the unsettled parts of the 
State. Wolves are more numerous. But the Deer, 
Opossums, Raccoons and several species of Squirrels, are 
sometimes more numerous than when the country was 
first settled. When nuts and other food they are fond 
of in the forests fail, they migrate to the vicinity of cul- 
tivated fields and supply themselves there, and their 
numbers are sometimes immense. Besides these, the 
Fox, Porcupine, Pole Cat, Ground Hog, Rabbit, Mink, 
Musk Rat, Weasel, Mole, Mouse and Gopher, are found 
in particular localities, but not usually in great numbers. 
In place of the animals that have left us we have gained 
others, by emigration. Rats are not yet found in new 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 15 

parts of the State, but they are becoming very numerous 
in other parts. The usual domestic animals are found 
here, and for some years the horses, cattle, hogs and 
sheep of Indiana, would compare favorably with those 
of any of the neighboring States. In clearing land, 
breaking prairies and hauling freight in muddy roads, 
oxen have been preferred to horses, but the latter are 
now the most generally used on the old farms. A com- 
plete catalogue of the Birds of the State will not be 
attempted. Singing birds were rare a few years since, 
but there is now a variety which has rapidly followed 
the increase of civilization. Not being carniverous, they 
are not usually found except where fields of grain are 
cultivated. Of Birds originally found in this country, 
the most common are the Wild Turkey, Prairie Fowl, 
Partridge or Quail, Pigeons, Geese, Ducks and Cranes. 
All these are sometimes found in immense numbers. A 
place called the Pigeon Roost, in Scott county, was for- 
merly so much resorted to by Pigeons, that for miles 
nearly all the small branches of a thick forest were 
broken off by their alighting in such numbers on them, 
and the ground was covered with their ordure several 
inches in depth for years afterwards. In the south-east 
corner of Marion county there was a similar Pigeon 
Roost, and several others in the State have been men- 
tioned. In the fall of the year it is not uncommon for 
the traveller, on the large prairies in the north-west part 
of the State, to pass in a single hour thousands of Sand 
Hill Cranes, who stand quietly and gaze at him from a 
distance of but a few rods. Pheasants, paroquets, wood- 
peckers, Baltimore birds, red birds, mocking birds, hum- 
ming birds, and indeed most of the birds of the Eastern 
States are found here, but not usually in great numbers. 
Of carniverous birds, the Eagle, the Buzzard, Hawk, 
Crow or Raven, Owl, &c, are occasionally found. Of 
reptiles, the most formidable are rattlesnakes and copper- 
heads, and their bites are sometimes so poisonous as to 
occasion death. In most parts of the State they are now 
very seldom found. The fires on the prairies destroy 



16 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

great numbers, and the hogs running at large are their 
inveterate enemies. The writer travelled along the 
Upper Wabash in 1836, when settlements were sparse, 
and he must have seen hundreds of large snakes in a 
day. Very few can now be found where they were 
once so numerous. The variety of fishes in the State is 
not very great. Those in the south part where the 
streams empty into the Ohio, are the pike, perch, sucker, 
shovel-fish, garr, buffalo, &c, while perch, trout, white- 
fish, &c, are found in the northern lakes and small 
streams that empty into Lake Michigan. 

Of the forest trees in the State, much the most nume- 
rous are oak and beech. They are not only found in 
almost every part of it, but they probably constitute not 
less than two-thirds of the whole number of forest trees. 
Next follow the sugar tree, hickory, ash, walnut, poplar, 
elm, sycamore, cherry, hackberry, linn, coffee tree, honey 
locust and white maple, which are found in almost every 
part of the State, and the writer has attempted to enu- 
merate them in the order in which he supposes they are 
found, as to number. The black locust is abundant near 
the Ohio River, but not found in the interior until it is 
cultivated, but then grows well in dry, rich soil. The 
chestnut is found only in Washington, Jackson, and 
small portions of the adjoining counties. The pine is 
found only on the knobs and near Lake Michigan, and 
the tamarack only in the swamps of the north. The 
cypress, catalpa and pecan are found only in Knox and 
Gibson counties, and the cottonwood is rare except on 
the bottoms of the southern streams. Of the smaller 
trees, the dogwood, pawpaw, spice, plum and thorn 
bushes, the persimmon and crab apples, either by their 
fruits or flowers add to the beauty and interest of the 
forests. Poplar, oak, walnut and sycamore trees are 
frequently found from five to seven feet in diameter, and 
more than 125 feet in height. Many of the forests of 
Indiana are not inferior to any others in grandeur and 
beauty. 

Through the most of the State there is found a variety 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. M 

of indigenous fruits. Wild plums, haws, persimmons, 
pawpaws, wild cherries, mulberries and crab apples are 
found in many of the forests and near the borders of the 
prairies. 

Cranberries are abundant in the north; and wild 
grapes, blackberries, gooseberries and strawberries of 
excellent qualities grow spontaneously and give assu- 
rance, which has been confirmed by experience, that the 
corresponding domestic fruits can be produced by art to 
an indefinite extent. Walnuts, hickory nuts and hazel 
nuts are usually abundant; and generally oak and beech 
mast is found in such quantities as to contribute largely 
both to feeding and fattening hogs. 

It appears by the Reports of Mr. Owen, the State 
Geologist who made exploratory tours through the State 
in 1837 and 1S38, that none of the precious metals will 
ever be found in Indiana, unless in minute portions in 
boulders, or in small quantities in combination with other 
metals, because primitive formations in which productive 
mines of gold and silver are found do not exist in Indiana. 
The only metals that can be expected to be found here 
are iron, lead, antimony, magnesia, zinc, cobalt and 
some varieties of copper and arsenic ores. 

The bituminous coal found in Indiana occupies an area 
of 7,740 square miles in the south-west corner of the 
State. It commences on the Ohio River 80 miles below 
Louisville, thence north-west passing near Putnamville, 
and crossing the Wabash near Independence, 15 miles 
below Lafayette. It is part of the same field which 
embraces eight or ten counties in Kentucky, and the 
most of southern and western Illinois. The bituminous 
coal of Indiana shows very distinctly its vegetable origin. 

Large quantities of argillaceous iron ore and carbonate 
Of iron are found along the eastern margin of the coal 
formation. The best specimens are found on Brouillet's 
Creek, Sugar, Raccoon and Coal Creeks, and on Eel and 
White Rivers in Clay and Greene counties. There are 
also found in the same region fire-clays, potter's clay, 
furnace, hearth stones and slates, &c. The burr stone 



18 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

has been found in Jennings, Madison and Huntington, 
and water-lime in Floyd, Jefferson and Huntington 
counties. 

Several localities afford bog iron ore ; and there is no 
doubt a great abundance of it in St. Joseph, Elkhart, 
Laporte, Marshall, Fulton, Allen, Huntington, Wabash 
and Miami counties. 

In some of the north-east counties of the State, where 
the fertility of the soil is much greater than the external 
sandy appearance indicates, it has been ascertained that 
there is carbonate of lime in the upper soil and marl 
beneath. 

The fertility of the soil of Indiana arises mainly from 
its geological position. Soil is understood to be the most 
productive which is derived from the greatest variety of 
different rocks, for thus only is produced the due mixture 
of gravel, clay and limestone necessary to form a good 
medium of nutritive fluids, whether liquid or aeriform, to 
the roots of plants. 

Indiana is situated near the middle of the great valley 
of North-western America, and far distant from the 
primitive ranges of mountains, and her soil is accordingly 
formed from the destruction of a vast variety of rocks, 
both chrystalline and sedimentary, which have been 
minutely divided and intimately blended together by the 
action of air and water. It has therefore all the ele- 
ments of extraordinary fertility. 

The following shows the thickness of the various strata 
from the top of some of the knobs near New Albany. 
1st. SoillTYeet; 2d. Soft sandstone passing into indura- 
ted clay slate, 15 feet 4 inches; 3d. Good limestone for 
building, 5 feet 8 inches; 4th. Soft sandstone and indu- 
rated clay slate, 259 feet; 5th. Ferruginous slaty clay 
containing large masses of argillaceous iron ore and 
carbonate of iron, 193 feet; 6th. Iron stone, 2 feet; 7th. 
Black bituminous aluminous slate, 104 feet; 8th. Chrys- 
talline limestone, uppermost layer at the Falls, S feet 8 
inches; 9th. Water-lime 14 feet; 10th. Hard semi-chrys- 
talline limestone, 40 feet; whole distance 647 feet 8 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 19 

inches, of which 128 feet 8 inches was below the high 
water mark of the Ohio. 

A section from the cut of the Railroad near Madison 
will give an idea of the thickness and relative position 
of the different strata: 1st. Cliff strata; 2d. Clay or 
marl, 3 feet; 3d. Impure variegated limestone, 35 feet; 
4th. Dark marlite, sometimes called "Hard pan," 27 feet; 
5th. Fossiliferous limestone alternating with clay or 
marl to low water mark of the Ohio, 340 feet; Total 
405 feet. 

There is a section near Coal Creek, Fountain county, 
in which there are no less than six beds of coal: 1st. 
Sandstone; 2d. Good coal, 1 foot 6 inches; 3d. Slaty 
clay, 10 feet; 4th. Good coal, 1 foot 6 inches; 5th. 
Slaty clay, 10 feet; 6th. Shale or variegated marl. 3 feet; 
7th. Good coal, 1 foot 6 inches; Sth. Slaty clay and 
shale, 8 feet; 9th. Slaty clay interspersed with argilla- 
ceous iron ore, 5 feet; 10th. Good coal, 2 feet; 1 lth. 
Fire-clay, white above, dark below, S feet; 12th. Hard 
bituminous limestone, 6 feet; 13th. Coal, 4 feet 6 inches; 
14th. Soft sandstone passing into indurated clay slate, 
15 feet; 15th. Coal beneath the bed of the Wabash, 
thickness not known. 

Section on Hughs's bank Vermillion River: 1st. Shale, 
1 foot 6 inches; 2d. Good coal, 2 feet; 3d. Fire-clay, 1 
foot 6 inches; 4th. Coal, 3 inches; 5th. Fire-clay, 1 foot 
8 inches; 6th. Coal, 4 feet 6 inches. 

On section 22, township 14, range 10, in Vermillion 
county, is a very fine bed of coal, exposed at one place 
8 feet, and is still thicker. 

LAKES AND RIVERS. 

The north-west corner of the State is in Lake Michi- 
gan, 10 miles north of its extreme southern boundary, 
and 36 miles west of where the State line leaves the 
Lake on its eastern shore. The width of the Lake in 
the State averages six miles. Theie are many small 
lakes in the State, but they nearly all lie north of the 
Wabash and within fifty miles of the north line of the 



20 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

State. Several of them have no outlets, but they are gen- 
erally very clear, with sandy shores and bottoms. They 
are mostly but a few acres in extent, though some of 
those near the head of Tippecanoe River and Turkey 
Creek, and near Laporte, cover several hundred acres. 
Mexancukkee Lake in Marshall county, three miles long 
and a mile and a half broad, is a beautiful sheet of water, 
pleasantly situated. Beaver Lake, 6 miles long and 3 
miles wide, covering over 10,000 acres, borders on the 
Kankakee marshes and near the west line of the State, 
All these lakes abound in fish. 

The Ohio River meanders the south-west border of the 
State for 380 miles, though it is only 216 miles in a 
straight line from the mouth of the Miami to that of the 
Wabash. During the whole distance, the only streams 
that empty into the Ohio from the north are small, none 
of them exceeding 30 or 40 yards in width at their 
mouths. Laughery, Indian Kentucky, Silver Creek, In- 
dian Creek, Blue River, Anderson and Big and Little 
Pigeon Creeks are the principal. They are all from 40 
to 50 miles in length. White Water River rises in Ran- 
dolph county, and after receiving a number of branches, 
most of them excellent mill streams, unites with the East 
Fork at Brookville, passes into the State of Ohio near 
Harrison and unites with the Miami at Elizabethtown, 
six miles from its entrance into the Ohio. Its width 
below Brookville is generally about 100 yards, and its 
whole length 100 miles. Patoka is about the same length, 
rising in Orange county and running west through Du- 
bois, Pike and Gibson, into the Wabash. But the waters 
of the Ohio come so near it on the south, and the branch- 
es of White River on the north, that the Patoka drains 
but a narrow tract of country, and it' is therefore small 
for its length. 

The longest branch of White River, the West Fork, 
rises near the Ohio line in Randolph county, and after 
running south-west more than 300 miles empties into 
the Wabash 100 miles above its mouth. The only con- 
siderable tributary from the west is Eel River, 120 miles 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 21 

in length. From the east, 50 miles from the Wabash, 
comes in the East Fork of White River, 225 miles in 
length, whose principal branches are Salt Creek, the 
Muscatitac, Sand Creek, Clifty, Flat Rock and Sugar 
Creek, all which are excellent mill streams. Fall Creek, 
eighty miles in length, empties into the West Fork of 
White River at Indianapolis. 

The Wabash rises in the State of Ohio, runs first 
north, then north-west, then west, then south-west, then 
south, and again south-west, making the whole distance 
about 600 miles, of which over 450 have been navigated 
by steamboats in high water. 

The principal branches of the Wabash from the south 
and east are the Salamony, Mississinnewa, Wild Cat, 
Sugar Creek or Rock River, Raccoon, White River and 
Patoka. On the west and north are the Little Wabash 
and Embarras in Illinois, Vermillion in both States, and 
the Tippecanoe, Eel and Little Rivers altogether in Indi- 
ana. The last is now a short stream, though from ap- 
pearances the St. Joseph, now the principal branch of 
the Maumee, once ran in the bed of Little River, and 
formed the main stream of the Wabash. 

The St. Mary rises in Ohio, runs north-west 100 miles 
to Fort Wayne, there unites with the St. Joseph, which 
comes about the same distance from the north-east and 
they form the Maumee, which then takes a contrary 
direction to Lake Erie. The St. Joseph of Lake Michi- 
gan is a very beautiful stream, but runs only 50 miles in 
Indiana, receiving there from the south-east the Elkhart, 
its principal tributary, 100 miles in length. 

The Kankakee, the principal branch of the Illinois 
River, rises near South Bend and runs very sluggishly 
in the State 100 miles. It receives Yellow River from 
the south-east, 50 miles in length. 

Deep and Calumic Rivers lie near and south of Lake 
Michigan, and in some places are only separated from it 
by banks of sand. It has been thought that an entrance 
might be made through them where they once emptied 
into the Lake, and a good harbor obtained. The sands 



22 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

however drift about so much that to make and maintain 
a good harbor will be very expensive. 

The Iroquois or Pickamink River rises south of the 
Kankakee and runs nearly parallell with it about 50 
miles in the State. 

PUBLIC LANDS. 

The lands in this State originally belonged to various 
Indian tribes, the principal of which were the Dela- 
wares, the Miamies and the Pottawatamies. The latter 
inhabited the northern, and the others the central and 
southern parts of the State. The titles to lands have 
from time to time been procured by treaties with the 
Indians, and they have all passed through the General 
Government, except the French grants near Vincennes 
confirmed to the descendants of the early settlers there, 
and the grants near the Falls of the Ohio made to Clark's 
Regiment by the State of Virginia for their services in 
Indian campaigns in the Revolutionary war. 

In all the new States and Territories, the lands which 
are owned by the General Government are surveyed and 
sold under one general system. In the surveys, Meri- 
dian lines are first established running due north from 
the mouth of some river. These are intersected at right 
angles by lines running east and west, and called Base 
lines. The first principal Meridian is a line running 
due north from the mouth of the Miami, and is in fact 
the east line of the State. The "second principal Meri- 
dian" is a line due north from Little Blue River eighty- 
nine miles west of the former. The only base line 
running through the State crosses it from east to west in 
latitude 38 deg. 30 min., leaving the Ohio twenty-five 
miles above Louisville, and striking the Wabash four 
miles above the mouth of White River. From this base 
line the congressional townships of six miles square are 
numbered north and south, and from the second principal 
meridian, (crossing the base line six miles south of Paoli,) 
all the ranges of townships are numbered east and west 
except the counties of Switzerland, Dearborn, and parts 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 



23 



of Franklin, Union, Wayne, and Randolph. This part 
of the State, attached to the Cincinnati Land Office, was 
surveyed in townships from a base line fifteen miles north 
of the former, and in ranges west of the first principal 
meridian. Townships are subdivided into thirty-six 
equal parts or thirty-six square miles containing 640 
acres each, called sections. These sections are subdivided 
into halves of 320 acres, and quarters of 160 acres each, 
which last are again subdivided into halves of eighty 
acres, and quarters of forty acres each. Fractions are 
parts of sections intersected by streams or confirmed 
claims or reservations, and are of various sizes. 

The following diagram represents townships laid off 
north and south of a base line, and ranges laid off east 
and west of a meridian. 











n 


r 




















5 




















4 


















s 
*5 


3 


















53 


2 












B 


a 


s 


e 


1 


L 


i 


n 


e. 


V 


IV 


III 


II 


I 


1 I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 










15 


2 




















3 




















4 




















5 































« 



24 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

The figures north and south of the base line represent 
the townships in their proper order. The Roman letters 
the Ranges, East and West. 



The Township is laid off into Sec- 
tions, commencing at the north-east 
corner and numbering from the right 
hand to the left, as in the annexed 
diagram : 



6| 5| 4| 3| 2| 1 



7| 8| 9|10|L1|12 



1 8|17116| 15|14|13 
19|20|21|22|23|24 



30|29|2S|27|26|25 



31|32|33|34|35|36 



Besides the lands heretofore mentioned as sold at the 
Cincinnati Land Office, there are offices for the sale of 
United States lands at Jeffersonville, Vincennes, Craw- 
fordsville, Indianapolis, Fort Wayne and Winamac. 

In every land district is a land office where all the. 
public lands belonging to that district are sold. The 
officers of each district are a Register and Receiver, 
appointed by the President of the United States and 
confirmed by the Senate. 

The following exhibits the quantity of land surveyed 
in the State, the quantity sold in the State by the United 
States, the amount for which it was sold, and the quan- 
tity of unsold land still within the bounds of the State, 
together with the disposition of lands in the State other- 
wise than by sale by the United States. 

Lands surveyed in the State, 21,359,707 acres: quan- 
tity sold up to 1st January, 1849, 15,477,628 acres: 
amount received by the United States for lands sold in 
the State, $21,316,079.87: lands reserved for common 
schools, 631,863 acres: donated for State University, 
46,080 acres: granted for internal improvements, 1,609,- 
861 acres: to individuals, &c, 863 acres: for seat of 
government, 2,560 acres: for military bounties late war, 
69,776 acres: for Mexican war, 189,540 acres: saline 
reserves, 24,435 acres: Indian reserves, 126,220 acres: 
grants to companies, &c, 150,000 acres : private claims 
confirmed, 179,8S0 acres: swamp lands, 981,682 acres; 
lands unsold, 3,271,730 acres. 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. '25 

INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS. 

The prairies, rich bottoms, and many parts of the 
State, were so easily prepared for cultivation, at the 
out-set, that a large surplus of agricultural productions 
was found in most parts of the country soon after their 
settlement. At first the surplus was disposed of to other 
new settlers; but they too, in a few years, not only sup- 
plied themselves, but added largely to the stock on' hand. 
A loose and porous soil, wide swamps, streams occasion- 
ally impassable, and in most places very little lime stone 
or gravel to make good roads, offered very little encour- 
agement for their construction, and therefore it appeared 
that many of the products of the farmer were likely to 
become worthless on his hands. 

The understanding that New York, Pennsylvania and 
Ohio, were prosecuting internal improvements success- 
fully, gave a strong impulse to the feeling that something 
must be done in this State, and when to this was added 
the influence of those who hoped to profit by the in- 
creased value of lands and town lots, or who wished to 
be commissioners, engineers or contractors, on public 
works, it became irresistible, and the so called system of 
internal improvements was adopted at the session of 
1835-6, almost without objection, except by those who 
could expect no benefit from it. If attempts had been 
made merely to facilitate communication and the trans- 
portation of surplus produce, and a prudent course had 
been pursued, much good might have been done. The 
resources of one part of the State after another might 
have been developed, and the business and prosperity of 
the whole vastly increased. But instead of this, if all 
the works authorized had been completed, they would 
have cost $30,000,000, and the whole tolls would not 
have paid for repairs the first twenty years. In many 
places public works were commenced where there was 
no surplus of labor or produce, where they did not lead 
to a market, and where the lot speculator was the only 
person who could be profited. Under such circumstances 
3 



26 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

it was idle to look for good results, and it was fortunate 
that the credit of the State failed, before all the indebt- 
edness contemplated had been incurred. 

By the Auditor's Report of 184S, it appears that there 
has been expended as follows: 

For Jeffersonville and Crawfordsville road, - $339,183.78 

For Lafayette and Indianapolis road, .... 73,142.87 

For Wabash Rapids, 14,288.42 

For White Water canal, 1,092,175.13 

For Madison and Indianapolis railroad, .... 1,624,603.05 

For Wabash and Erio canal, east of Tippecanoe, - - 3,055,268.97 

For Wabash and Erie canal, west of Tippecanoe, - - 1,245,290.54 

For Eel River Cross Cut canal, ----- 436,189.88 

For southern division of Central canal, - 575,646.49 

For Wabash and Ohio canal, 9,169.94 

For New Albany and Vincennes road, - 696,516.47 

For northern division of Central canal, - 882,088.93 

For Erie and Michigan canal, - - - - - 160,705.87 

$10,204,273.34 
The following sums appear to have been received for 

tolls: 

Madison and Indianapolis railroad, ----- $85,436.68 

Wabash and Erie canal east, ------ 1,174,611.83 

Wabash and Erie canal west, ------ 526,847.61 

New Albany and Vincennes road, ----- 27,311.34 

Northern division Central canal, ----- 15,008.76 

$1,829,216.22 

Which is about equal to three years interest of their 
cost. The amount expended on the Jeffersonville and 
Crawfordsville, and the Lafayette and Indianapolis roads, 
and on the Wabash rapids, has been abandoned; and all 
the work done on the northern division of the Central 
canal and the Michigan and Erie canal, is useless, except 
a little water power that has been obtained. The White 
Water canal will never yield any return, as it. has been 
granted to a company, and has suffered so much since 
by floods, and the cost of repairs has been so great that 
it will be no object to redeem it. The length of the 
White Water canal from Lawrenceburgh to Cambridge 
City is seventy miles. The estimated cost of construc- 
tion to the State was $ 1,567,470. It was completed by 
the State to Brookville at a cost of $664,665, and the 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 27 

work above was left unfinished. The company chartered 
in 1842 extended the canal fifteen miles, to Laurel, in 
October, 1843; to Connersville, twelve miles further, in 
June, 1845 ; and in October, the same year, it was com- 
pleted to Cambridge city, the entire cost to the company 
being $473,000. The same year a lateral branch was 
constructed from Harrison, thirteen miles above Law- 
renceburgh, to Cincinnati, a distance of twenty-six miles, 
by a company chartered by the State of Ohio. The 
Hagerstown canal, extending seven miles north of Cam- 
bridge, is nearly finished, and the whole distance thence to 
Cincinnati will be ninety miles, or seventy-seven to 
Lawrenceburgh. The high flood of January 1, 1847, 
carried off the aqueduct across Symons's Creek, near 
Cambridge, and that across the West Fork of White 
Water, at Laurel, besides washing immense channels 
round the feeder dams at Cambridge, Connersville, 
Laurel, Brookville, the one four miles below, and that 
at Harrison, and also did much damage along the whole 
line. The expense of making the repairs was estimated 
at $90,000, and during the summer and fall of 1847, 
about $70,000 was expended for this purpose, and navi- 
gation had just commenced again, when another flood 
came on the 9th of November, and most of the repairs 
being incomplete, further damage was done, as estimated, 
to the amount of $80,000. Under these accumulated 
disasters the company, by great exertions, commenced 
operations again, and the whole line was in a condition 
to be used on the 15th of September, 1848, leaving, 
however, repairs to be made which were estimated to 
cost $30,000. 

From these interruptions, there has as yet been no 
opportunity to show what the business of the canal will 
be. The water power, if all put to use, is estimated to 
be worth $25,000 a year, and the fine country through 
which the canal runs, and its high state of improvement, 
promise not less benefit to the company than to the agri- 
cultural, manufacturing, and other industry that finds 
employment there. 



28 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

The Madison and Indianapolis Railroad will proba- 
bly pay the State from two to three per cent per annum, 
after 1852, on the amount expended. The State com- 
menced this work and completed twenty-eight miles, and 
incurred about half the expense of grading and bridging 
the next twenty-eight miles. The heavy work on the 
Madison plane, the high embankments and bridges, and 
deep cuts south of Vernon, occasioned this part of the 
road to cost at the rate of $40,000 a mile. The part 
finished by the company, from Six Mile Creek to Indian- 
apolis, when laid with a fiat bar, cost the company less 
than $8,000 a mile. The business on this road has in- 
creased rapidly as it has been extended. The company 
took possession in February, 1843. The first year the 
average distance run was thirty-three miles, the passen- 
gers twenty-five a day, the receipts $22,110. The next 
year the average distance run was forty-two miles, the 
passengers thirty a day, the receipts $39,031. The year 
ending February 1, 1846, the average distance run was 
fifty-one miles, the passengers fifty a day, the receipts 
$60,053. The next year the distance run was fifty-six 
miles, the passengers seventy a day, the receipts ,f,S3,I22. 
The year ending February 1, 1848, the average distance 
run was seventy-one miles, the passengers 125 a day, and 
the receipts $158,803. The year ending February 1, 
1849, the ^distance run was eighty-six miies, the passen- 
gers 200 a day, and the receipts about $235,000. 

A branch of the Madison and Indianapolis railroad 
has just been completed from Edinburgh to Shelby ville, 
sixteen miles. The ground was so favorable on this 
route that the whole expense of grading and bridging 
was only about $800 a mile. From Shelbyville an arm 
of this road is commenced extending twenty miles, to 
Rushville, and another to Knightstown, twenty-five miles. 
Both the routes are very favorable, and the grading is 
nearly completed. They will soon be ready for use, and 
as they run through a country unsurpassed in fertility by 
any part of the west, they will directly and incidentally 
add much to the wealth and prosperity of the State. 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 29 

The capital to complete them has been mostly supplied 
by the holders of property in the vicinity who are inter- 
ested in their construction. Other branches to run west 
towards Nashville and Martinsville are also in contem- 
plation. As these branches are completed, and other 
roads north and west of Indianapolis shall be brought 
there, before they reach an eastern market by any other 
route, the business of the Madison and Indianapolis rail- 
road will be immensely increased, and even when other 
routes are opened to eastern and southern markets, so 
much business will have been created along the line of 
the road that it will always be profitable and important. 
The nature of the business done on this road and its 
rapid increase are not less encouraging to the citizens of 
the State than to the owners of the stock. There can 
be no doubt that the increase of the value of real prop- 
erty, within five miles of the road, has been more than 
double the cost of its construction. 

The act of Congress making the first grant of lands 
for the construction of the Wabash and Erie Canal 
was passed in the year 1827. The act of the Legislature 
authorizing the commencement of the work was passed 
at the session of 1830-31. A second grant of lands for 
the continuation of the canal from the mouth of the 
Tippecanoe to Terre Haute was passed by Congress in 
February, 1841. A third grant of half of the unsold 
lands in the Vincennes land district for the continuation 
of the canal from Terre Haute to the Ohio River was 
made by Congress in May, 1845. 

The canal was commenced in 1832 and completed to 
Lafayette in 1841: to Covington in 1846: to Coal Creek 
in 1847: and will be finished to Terre Haute in 1849. 
Below Terre Haute it is under contract as far as New- 
bury, in Greene county, fifty-eight miles, forty miles of 
which are nearly completed. The remainder of the line 
from Newbury to Pigeon Dam, in Warrick county, will 
be placed under contract the present year, and the whole 
canal is expected to be finished to Evansville bv the 
vear 1852. 



30 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

The length of the canal in the State of Indiana north 
of Terre Haute is 225 miles: from thence to Evansville 
150 miles: in the whole 375 miles. The length of the 
canal in Ohio is eighty-four miles, making when com- 
pleted, a continuous line of 459 miles. In addition to 
this, it connects with Cincinnati through the Miami canal, 
181 miles long. 

The collectors' offices are at Fort Wayne, Lagro, 
Logansport, Lafayette and Covington, and there will be 
another at Terre Haute when the canal is completed to 
that point. 

The receipts of tolls and water rents on the canal in 1846 were, $105,234.04 

The receipts of tolls and water rents on the canal in 1847 were, 125,982.71 

The receipts of tolls and water rents on the canal in 1848 were, 146,148.90 

The total tonnage in 1847 was, 117,739 

The total tonnage in 1848 was, 157,831 

The miles of transportation in 1847 were, - 475,927 
The miles of transportation in 1848 were, - 

The miles travelled by passengers in 1847 were, - 1,022,160 

The miles travelled by passengers in 1848 were, - 1,357,364 

During the year 1848, the expenditures on the canal 
for superintendence, ordinary repairs, &c, were $34,- 
833.64. The present trustees of the canal are Charles 
Butler, Thomas H. Blake and A. M. Puett, Esqs. 

A company has been incorporated to make a Railroad 
from Terre Haute, through Indianapolis and Richmond, 
to the Ohio line, and $220,000 of stock subscribed mostly 
in Vigo and Putnam counties. The portion of this road 
lying between Terre Haute and Greencastle, thirty-three 
miles, has been put under contract, and the grading and 
masonry of this part of the line will be completed by 
January 1, 1850. The location of the road from Green- 
castle to Indianapolis, thirty-nine miles, is now being 
made, and this part of the line is to be put under contract 
this summer. This road is expected to connect with St. 
Louis on the west, and it will also connect with the 
eastern lines through Ohio, and must become the great 
central thoroughfare of Indiana. It runs through the 
great coal region, embracing the counties of Vigo, Clay, 
and part of Putnam, and will cross the canal contiguous 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 31 

to the great coal beds of the Wabash valley, both north 
and south of Terre Haute. Some of the veins of coal, 
on a level with the road and easy of access, are of a 
superior quality and ten or eleven feet in thickness. 

As the whole country near this route from Ohio to 
Illinois is without exception fertile, the advantages for 
manufacturing and other way business are such as to 
secure the early completion of the road at least so far as 
Indianapolis, and there it will cjnnect with the Madison 
and Indianapolis road, with the Bellefontaine road, and 
the time is not distant when there will also be roads on 
nearly direct lines to Pittsburgh and Cincinnati. 

The Lafayette and Indianapolis Railroad was 
originally embraced in the system of internal improve- 
ments, and was intended to be a part of the railroad 
from the Ohio to the Wabash, Madison being one of the 
termini and Lafayette the other. When the State sys- 
tem broke down, the Madison and Indianapolis road 
became a separate work, and has been completed by a 
company. In January 7, 1S46, the Legislature passed 
an act to provide for the continuation of the Madison 
and Indianapolis road to Lafayette, incorporating a 
company for that purpose. 

The surveys were commenced at Lafayette in January, 
1S48. At this time the grading is under contract to 
Lebanon, thirty-five miles, and it is expected that the 
remaining twenty-eight will soon be placed in the same 
condition; the entire length being sixty-three miles, not 
one mile over a straight line. 

It has been estimated that the whole cost of com- 
pleting the road with a heavy flat bar rail and equipping 
it for use, will be about $550,000, but with an edge rail 
of sixty pounds to the yard, it would be about $800,000. 
The earth work is generally light, the best of oak timber 
is abundant, and there are only three bridges on the 
route of any moment, viz: those at Sugar Creek, Eagle 
Creek, and White River, and most probably the latter 
might be built in conjunction with the Terre Haute 
Road. The grubbing, grading and bridging of the whole 



32 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

route will not exceed $2,500 a mile. The country 
through which the road will run is not surpassed in fer- 
tility of soil by any part of the State. The amount 
already subscribed for stock is believed to be sufficient 
to guaranty the ultimate completion of the road. 
/ The Peru and Indianapolis Railroad is seventy- one 
miles in length, and is thought to be on still more favor- 
able ground for construction, and the country along the 
route is very fertile. It will pass through the county 
seats of all the counties on the route. The grading has 
been nearly completed from Indianapolis to Noblesville, 
twenty-two miles of the distance. The estimate of the 
cost of the whole road with a flat bar rail, is $469,600, 
and the contracts thus far are twenty-two per cent, be- 
low the estimates. 

The Indianapolis and Bellefontaine Railroad, run- 
ning eighty-three miles in the State, up the valleys of 
Fall Creek and White River, from Indianapolis, is in- 
tended to be one of the links of the great central lines 
of railways from the eastern Atlantic cities to St. Louis, 
on the Mississippi River. This link will connect at the 
Ohio line, about ten miles north-east of Winchester, with 
the principal lines that communicate with the great east- 
ern routes, and unite at Indianapolis with the continuous 
line through Terre Haute to St. Louis, while it will be 
intersected by most if not all the northern and southern 
lines of railway in the State. This central line, when 
completed, will not only be of great importance to Indi- 
ana but the whole country, for then at the usual rates of 
running on good roads the traveller, in less than two 
days and a half, may pass from St. Louis to Boston. 

The Indianapolis and Bellefontaine Railroad Company 
was chartered in January, 1S48, and organized in July 
by the election of Oliver H. Smith, President, Austin W. 
Morris, Treasurer, and John II. Cook, Secretary. The 
whole line has been run and found to pass over a route 
well adapted to a cheap construction of the work on a 
low grade, and with few curves. The first section of 
twenty-six miles is under contract, and the remainder 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 33 

will soon be. The estimated cost with the flat bar is 
$6,000 per mile, or $10,000 with a heavy edge rail. 

The New Albany and Salem Railroad, thirty-five 
miles in length, was put under contract in April, 1848, 
the grading is nearly completed, and the superstructure 
is now being placed on it. Locomotives have been pur- - 
chased, the necessary shops erected, and the road will be 
completed and in operation this season. This road will, 
from present appearances, be extended to Bedford at an 
early day, and probably hereafter to Bloomington, and 
not unlikely will meet the railroad from the north-west 
which is about being commenced at Lafayette, in the 
direction of Crawfordsville. 

The Jeffersonville Railroad Company have put 
twenty-seven miles of their route, in the direction of 
Columbus, under contract. From the surveys made, it 
appears that a railroad can be made to Columbus, only 
two miles longer than a straight line, on which the maxi- 
mum grade is only twenty-two feet to the mile, the 
highest point, at twenty-three miles distance, being only 
170 feet above the high water mark of the Ohio. The 
grading of the road for the first twenty-seven miles is, 
by actual contract, to cost only $43,000, or $1,600 a 
mile. This is the only point in the State from which the 
interior can be reached at such moderate grades, as in 
general the river hills of the Ohio must be ascended over 
400 feet before there is any descent towards the interior. 
The stock already subscribed on this route amounts to 
$231, 000, and from the assurances of Mr. Armstrong, 
the efficient President, there is every prospect that this 
road will progress to completion. Its length will be 
about sixty-nine miles. To all the citizens of Indiana 
who pride themselves in the prosperity of the State, it 
must be very gratifying to witness the public spirit and 
enterprise that are creating so many important public 
improvements. They will develop the resources of the 
State, encourage its industry, and as the population has 
increased three fold within the last twenty years, the 
same may also take place in an equal period next to come, 



34 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Many other railroads besides those that have been 
named are projected, and some of them will no doubt 
soon be commenced. The country is favorable for con- 
structing them cheaply, but at this time it is perhaps desi- 
rable that too much should not be attempted at first. 
But they are demanded by the spirit of the age, and as 
one part of the country reaps the benefits they diffuse, 
other cities and places must become competitors for the 
facilities which they afford to travel and business of every 
description. 

When coal can be supplied, at low prices, at Indian- 
apolis, Lafayette, and other towns situated in a country 
where every acre can be cultivated to advantage, we 
can imagine no bounds at which the progress of popula- 
tion and improvement will be arrested. There must 
soon be a railroad leading west through the State, either 
at or north of Fort Wayne, another at Indianapolis, and 
another still south of it. The road from Indianapolis to 
Lafayette will be extended to Chicago, and also to con- 
nect with the road running east through Jacksonville 
and Springfield. 

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIONS. 

The first object of the settlers of a new country is to 
provide the means of subsistence, and for a considerable 
time all the surplus produce is limited to a few articles, 
and usually disposed of to other settlers who come in 
afterwards. Every one, as soon as he is able, provides 
himself with a corn-field, garden or truck-patch, as it 
is generally called, a few swine, which breed rapidly, and 
one or two horses and cows, which make up the sum of 
his substance. Many of the citizens of the State, who 
are now rich, commenced at first in this way, without 
even being able to purchase land. They frequently en- 
tered on the public lands, in which case they were gene- 
rally protected in the improvements they made ; or they 
rented land on improvement leases, by which they were 
to have the use of from ten to twenty acres from seven 
to ten years, and often at the end of that time they were 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 35 

able to buy land for themselves. The wild grass, nutri- 
tious roots, and several kinds of nuts and acorns, were 
so abundant that neither horses, cattle, nor hogs required 
much more corn than was sufficient to prevent their 
straying off; and often the flocks and herds of the set- 
tlers would seem to have been scarcely less numerous 
than those of the patriarchs of old. The tendency of 
this state of things was to produce a surplus of corn, 
beef, pork, &c, and then when any new article was in 
demand, every farmer turned his attention to it, and a 
surplus of that also was soon produced. Low prices at 
length brought regular customers, and now the supply of 
most kinds of produce has become abundant and uni- 
form, and the trader can make his arrangements in ad- 
vance and calculate with much certainty on carrying 
them out, wherever there is any access to a market. 
There are still, however, frequent gluts in the market of 
some kinds of produce; the farmer often doubts as to the 
proper objects on which to expend his labor, and it has 
become very desirable that he should have a greater di- 
versity of crops than he has had hitherto. The soil, even 
when very rich, requires this; and occasionally the wheat 
is killed in winter or by the fly, or the corn or grass suf- 
fers in summer from drought, frost or storms, and to fur- 
nish employment for those who wish to labor during the 
year, it is becoming very important that there should be 
a greater variety of crops on the farms. Hemp was 
tried for a few years, but in most instances, too much 
was attempted at first. Flax, tobacco, fruit, and vari- 
ous seeds from which oil can be manufactured, may be 
cultivated to any extent, and often with much profit. 
Some experiments have been made in beet and corn- 
sugar, the grape, silk, &c, but in general there has been 
too much carelessness to decide whether they may not 
yet be attended to with advantage. 

Corn is the great staple of the State. It is easily cul- 
tivated, and almost every farmer has from 20 to 100 
acres. A single hand can prepare the ground, plant and 
attend to and gather from 20 to 25 acres, according to 



36 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

the state of the ground and character of the season. 
The product is usually from 35 to 75 bushels an acre, 
averaging about 45, though most of the land in the 
State, if properly farmed, would produce one-third more 
than is generally raised. Corn usually sells at from ten 
to thirty cents a bushel, millions of bushels being annu- 
ally sold in the interior to fatten hogs and cattle, at not 
exceeding the former price. It is the main article of food 
for man and stock, and can be cooked in a great variety 
of ways, so as to be equally acceptable at the tables of 
the poor and rich. The cultivation of corn is admirably 
adapted to the climate and soil of the State, and to the 
habits of the farmers. It has a larger portion of rich, 
loamy soil than any other of the Western States. With 
proper cultivation, the corn does not often suffer either 
from cold, deluge, or drought, and our laborers prefer to 
work hard in spring and early summer, when the corn 
most needs it, and then relax exertions in the latter part 
of the season, when they are not required, and the heat 
is more oppressive. The corn raised in Indiana in 1845 
was estimated by the Commissioner of the Patent Office 
at 30,625,000 bushels. As last year the corn crops were 
very large, they cannot have fallen short of 45,000,000 
bushels. 

The cultivation of wheat is much more important 
than that of corn in the north part of the State, but not 
in the others. The amount of wheat estimated by the 
Commissioner of the Patent Office to have been raised 
in the State in lS47,was 7,500,000 bushels. The wheat 
crops do not often average over fifteen bushels an acre, 
though most generally good cultivation would increase 
the amount from 25 to 50 per cent. In Morgan county 
about the year 1831, 244 bushels were produced from 
six bushels of seed sown on rather less than six acres. 
When sown on new prairies, wheat was seldom winter 
killed ; but this has been more frequent of late years on 
the old prairies. If the wheat were sown earlier, and in 
drills, instead of broad-cast, the crop would be more 
certain. The climate of the State is very favorable to 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 37 

domestic animals, especially hogs, cattle, horses and 
sheep. Their food is abundant, the population sparse in 
many places, and land cheap, the most of it being yet 
uninclosed, and affording an immense amount of wild 
pasturage. Hogs are now driven or pork exported from 
every part of the State; but as some of the principal 
markets, Cincinnati, Louisville, and Chicago, are not 
within its limits, it is not possible to make accurate cal- 
culations of the number and value of hogs raised for 
exportation. Mr. Cist, of Cincinnati, estimated the pork 
packing of Indiana for 1847-S, as follows : Wabash 
points, 162,641; White river, 29,000; Madison, 75,000; 
Aurora, 10,000. This does not include any of the hogs 
driven out of the State to market, nor any of the pork 
packed on the White Water Canal, or the Madison and In- 
dianapolis Railroad, all which, with those before enumer- 
ated, must have amounted to at least 550,000. In 1848, 
the number raised for exportation must have been over 
600,000, and the value at least $3,500,000. The hogs in 
in the State, returned by the Census of 1S40, were 1,623,- 
608. The number has probably doubled since that time. 

The best farmers usually procure or provide for having 
a good number of stock hogs and pigs in the spring. 
The course of feeding is sometimes on early rye or in a 
clover field, from the first to the twentieth of June ; then a 
late rye field, which requires no other sowing to be used, 
as the early one, the next year, then oats, and first early 
and then fate corn fields ; so that in this way the hog 
gathers his food, fattens himself, and then walks to the 
market with but little trouble to the farmer. By proper 
attention, they may be made to weigh from 250 to 300 
pounds when they are from eighteen months to two 
years old ; and others, still better attended to, weigh 
from 175 to 250 pounds, net, when they are no more 
than twelve or thirteen months old. 

A different course is pursued in the thinly settled parts 
of the country. Through the most of the year the 
farmer pays no other attention to his hogs than to ascer- 
tain where they range, visit and salt them occasionally, 



38 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

mark the young ones, and shoot or drive up such as have 
become fat on the nuts or mast in the fall of the year. 
If killed at the time, the meat is used for home consump- 
tion, being too oily for foreign markets ; but when they 
can be fed on corn for six or eight weeks, their former 
mode of feeding is no objection. Sometimes immense 
numbers of these hogs are seen far away from any set- 
tlements, as fierce, and when attacked scarcely less dan- 
gerous, than the bear or panther. When full grown, 
wild and unmarked, they are shot as other game with but 
little scruple; but not unfrequently very serious quarrels 
arise as to the alteration of marks and other evidences 
by which an ownership in these animals is claimed. 

In most parts of the State, cattle, horses and sheep are 
raised in great numbers, and of a quality to be in de- 
mand in the best markets. 

The agriculture of the State will always, no doubt, 
be the most important consideration, and we can as yet 
form but very imperfect ideas of the improvements which 
only a few years will produce. Much of this may now 
be seen in the quality of domestic animals, and in fact, 
every species of farming, and every year seems to add 
to the rapidity of the improvements. 

MANUFACTURES AND COMMERCE. 

The manufactures and trade of the State will be spe- 
cially noted in the description of the towns and places 
where they are carried on. Madison, and some of the 
other towns on the Ohio, above the Falls, have much the 
same advantages that are possessed and so successfully 
employed in Cincinnati, for manufactures. In all the 
southwest part of the State, and for 300 miles up the 
Wabash, coal is found in abundance; in the centre and 
north there is sufficient water power, and in the latter 
inexhaustible beds of bog-iron ore, so that whenever 
labor for agriculture ceases to be in demand, it will be 
employed in manufactures. The wheat raised in the 
State is mostly manufactured into flour within its limits, 
though considerable quantities in the south-eastern part 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 39 

are sent to Cincinnati, and still more is sent from the 
north, by the Wabash and Erie Canal and by the lakes, 
to Canada and western New York. The manufactures 
of Iron, Cotton, Paper, Lard Oil, &c, are becoming im- 
portant; but as yet large importations of these articles 
are still made from abroad. The manufacture of whis- 
key is not carried on to any extent in the State, except 
in and near Lawrenceburgh. Though not extensively 
used, the home consumption is supplied most generally 
from abroad. 

There is no commanding position in the State at which 
even a tenth of the whole business will ever centre. 
Madison is at present the most important point; but 
other places on the Ohio river are not much behind it; 
while Indianapolis and Richmond in the interior, Fort 
Wayne, Logansport, Lafayette, and Terre Haute on the 
Wabash and Erie Canal, and South Bend and Michigan 
City in the north, expect soon to equal the present busi- 
ness of Madison. The railroads and other improvements 
now in progress, and the facilities that shall hereafter be 
afforded to the business men of the State, leave yet much 
in doubt as to the points which will, ten years hence, have 
precedence. It is the public convenience and the gene- 
ral good, not State pride, which is to build our cities. 

Pork and flour are at this time the principal articles of 
export from the State; the former from the southern, 
and the latter from the northern part. To these may be 
added horses, mules, fat cattle, com, poultry, butter, and 
most of the agricultural products of the west. The 
Ohio, Wabash, White and St. Joseph Rivers, the Madi- 
son and Indianapolis Railroad, Wabash and Erie and 
White Water Canals, furnish great facilities for trans- 
portation, and when to these are added the railroads now 
in progress, there will be but a small portion which will 
not be easy of access. 

One of the most objectionable features in the trade of 
the State, is the disposition to monopolize, which has 
prevailed too generally of late years in the pork and 
wheat business. The prospect of securing a profit on a 



40 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

large amount of produce is so exciting, that the flour and 
pork trader finds it almost impossible to be moderate in 
his calculations, and the result frequently is that he fails 
altogether, or makes very large profits. In either case, 
the influence on the community is very unfavorable, for 
the farmer sutlers in pocket when the trader fails to pay, 
and in feeling when his profits are enormous. It is much 
to be regretted that those who lend capital to produce 
dealers should not generally limit their accommodations 
to the actual responsibility of the borrower, rather than 
to that of his securities. 

CLIMATE AND HEALTH. 

There are usually in the course of ten years, as many 
days when the thermometer stands at over 100 deg., and 
about as many in which it falls to 15 deg. below zero, 
and it has been still lower though very rarely; but several 
years sometimes pass, in which there is no day warmer 
than 95 deg. above, or colder than 5 deg. below zero. 
Except in some of the sandy parts of the State on the 
lower Wabash, the climate uniformly corresponds to the 
latitude, as there is no elevation of the surface or other 
circumstance to make any special exceptions. 

South of the 39th degree, which passes near Aurora, 
Rockford and Carlisle, ploughing commences early in 
March; gardens are made, oats sown and planting be- 
gun. At the 40th degree, which passes near Crawfords- 
ville and Noblesville, the business of the farmer is com- 
menced at least two weeks later in the spring, and north 
of the 41st, which runs near Fort Wayne and Rochester, 
the opening of spring is still later about ten days, 
though seasons differ a good deal in these respects. Pro- 
bably the weather fluctuates at least nine-tenths of the 
time from the freezing at 32 deg. of Fahrenheit, to 72 
deg., forty degrees above. 

At Cincinnati in 1819, it never rose above 94 deg., nor 
fell below 12 degrees above zero, and the mean heat for 
the year was 56 deg. 8 min. The number of clear days 
in the year has been found in some parts of the west to 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 41 

vary from 200 to 230, the cloudy from 75 to 100, and 
those in which rain or snow falls from 70 to 90. There 
being no mountains in the State either to collect or dis- 
perse the clouds, it is seldom showery. The rains are 
frequently very heavy for a few days and then follow 
perhaps weeks of dry weather. The droughts however, 
do not often begin until the middle of summer, when the 
growing crops are so far advanced that they are seldom 
much injured. 

The climate is in general very favorable to health, ex- 
cept where immigrants from mountainous regions locate 
themselves in the level and fertile bottoms or prairies. 
For many years after the first settlement of these parts of 
the country, there is so much miasma produced by the 
rotting of vegetable matter and the exposure of the allu- 
vion to the sun, that for two or three months in the year 
bilious diseases are common. It is found by experience 
too, that the ranges of hills or Bluffs, on the margin of 
the large bottoms and prairies, are perhaps more un- 
healthy than the situations they overlook. But when 
such places have been long cultivated, the ponds drained 
and putrid vegetation no longer abounds, they acquire a 
general character of healthiness. Such has always been 
the reputation of a large portion of the State, and there 
can be no doubt that at least three-fourths of it are as 
favorable to health as any part of the Union. Long 
lives, good constitutions, and large families brought up 
without ever having recourse to a physician, are com- 
mon; yet by the exposure and imprudence of immi- 
grants and others, there have been many instances of 
such severe sickness and suffering that portions of the 
State are still reckoned unhealthy. Affections of the 
lungs are however rare where those of the liver prevail 
and consumptions which are so common in many parts 
of the Union are here comparatively unknown. 

Much has been said about the milk-sickness, which is 

supposed to prevail occasionally in some parts of the 

State; as yet there has been no satisfactory explanation 

of the causes of this disease. Whether it originates from 

4 



42 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

an unknown vegetable, from springs infected by coming 
in contact with minerals, or from poisonous exhalations 
from the earth of certain districts, is earnestly disputed ; 
but no argument or fact alleged by the supporters of one 
theory, has any weight with those of another. All that 
is certain is, that if there be such a disease it is local and 
more unfrequent as the country is improved. The writer 
lias never seen or heard any trace of it in the central 
part of the State where he resides. Some of ( the coun- 
ties on the eastern and near the western borders are 
thought to be the most affected by it. As the supposi- 
tion that this disease prevails in any neighborhood is cal- 
culated to affect the value of property there, and igno- 
rance and jealousy incline both to understate and over- 
state as to such matters, it is often very difficult to ascer- 
tain the real truth in relation to them. 

There has been a great change in the character of the 
diseases within the last twenty-five years. Formerly, 
the robust and hardy settler and his family feared noth- 
ing but intermitting and bilious fevers, and those only 
from August to October. That season is now much 
more healthy ; but the congestive and typhus fevers are 
sometimes very fatal in winter, and most of the diseases 
common in other States are now occasionally found 
here. 

There can be no doubt that by persons after they are 
acclimated, and by those who are born and brought up 
in the country, there may be as much health enjoyed, 
except where local causes prevent, as in any part of the 
United States. 

EDUCATION. 

The ninth article of the Constitution of the State of In- 
diana, makes it the duty of the General Assembly to " pass 
such laws as shall be calculated to encourage intellectual, 
scientifical and agricultural improvements," and to "pro- 
vide by law for a general system of education, ascending, 
in a regular gradation, from township schools to a State 
University, wherein tuition shall be gratis and equally 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 43 

open to all." These requisitions of the Constitution on 
the Legislature, which the members are bound by oath 
to support, do not leave the establishment of free schools 
to them as a choice, but make it incumbent upon them 
as a duty; and no citizen of the State who for the last 
thirty-three years has known, or ought to have known, 
the injunctions of the Constitution, has any right to ask 
them to be violated. He may leave the State if he 
pleases, but while here, if he attempts to induce his rep- 
resentative to be guilty of perjury, he is an accomplice 
in the crime. 

The tax for a free school system, when properly ap- 
propriated, is, without question, the most important and 
valuable that is ever levied on the citizen, for it is re- 
turned to him four-fold, by creating an intelligent and 
moral community, and thereby increasing the value and 
security of property, and diminishing the expense of crime 
and pauperism. The cost of vicious legislation and absurd 
schemes, which a well informed constituency would not 
endure for a moment, has been five-fold the expense of 
giving a good education to every child in the State; but 
nothing of this kind will be required to effect the objects 
enjoined by the Constitution. The lands donated by 
Congress for a State University, the fines assessed on 
criminals, which are to be applied for the benefit of 
county seminaries, and the thirty-sixth part of the whole 
land in the State reserved in the several townships for 
the use of common schools, would, if well managed, do 
much to maintain a good system; and if to these a suit- 
able tax were added, the whole would be much more 
likely to be well attended to. In many parts of the 
State this is now done, and voluntary contributions are 
obtained in addition, so that with the public funds on 
hand, the means of education are extended to most of 
the youth in the vicinity. The inducements for the best 
emigrants to purchase and settle in such neighborhoods, 
adds so much to the value of real property, that the 
owners might adopt this course even as a speculation. 

It is much to be regretted, however, that in large por- 



44 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

tions of the State a less liberal course has been pursued, 
and by the census of 1840, it appears that one-seventh 
of the whole adult population were at that time unable 
to read, and probably near one-half of those who can 
read, do so very imperfectly. Of the children under 
twenty and over five years of age, amounting at that 
time to 273,784, only 48,1S9 were then attending the 
primary and common schools; 2496 only were attend- 
ing the academies, and 322 the colleges. This would 
make only about eight weeks a year for each, if all at- 
tended a part of the time, and the schools were kept up 
forty weeks in the year. Of course, some children at- 
tend school much more, and others less or none at all, 
so that much too large a portion of the rising generation 
is uneducated. 

The industry and enterprise required even from the 
children of the early settlers, have frequently enabled 
them to become useful and respectable citizens with but 
little instruction from schools. But when the children of 
the second generation, with more leisure and means, are 
left without education, the consequences can scarcely 
fail to be very injurious, and the time has now come 
when every intelligent and patriotic citizen of the State 
has high and important duties to perform in introducing 
such intellectual and moral instruction as will secure to 
future generations the benefits and privileges of our free 
institutions. 

The legislature of the State has provided for the or- 
ganization of the State University at Bloomington, for 
county seminaries in the respective counties, and for the 
organization of common schools, distribution of school 
funds, and raising taxes to build school houses, where 
districts shall choose to do so ; but the regulations have 
been so inefficient that funds have been often wasted; 
there have been no sufficient provisions to secure good 
teachers, and much the best schools in the State are 
those that have been created by private liberality, and 
which derive no benefit from the general law. 

An act was passed by the last legislature to increase 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 45 

and extend the benefits of common schools, by which a 
tax of ten cents on the hundred dollars, a poll tax of 
twenty-five cents, and a tax on Insurance companies, 
may be annually assessed for common school purposes. 
Although the voters of the State, by a large majority, 
voted last year for the establishment of free schools, and 
although the Constitution requires them, yet the law is 
not to take effect except in counties where the majority of 
the voters shall again give their suffrages in its favor. 
There is evidently a great improvement in public opinion 
as to the importance of education ; but the politicians of 
the State are still far behind the spirit of the age. Under 
the present law, it is much to be feared that where its 
benefits are most needed, they will not soon be enjoyed. 

The following is a brief history and description of the 
principal Literary Institutions in the State, so far as they 
could be obtained. 

Indiana University, Bloomington. 

Before the organization of the State government, a 
township of land in Gibson county was granted to the 
Territory for the endowment of a College; about 4000 
acres of this township was sold by the authority of the 
Territorial Legislature, and the proceeds were applied for 
the benefit of the Vincennes University. In 1816, a se- 
cond township of land, lying in Monroe county, was 
granted by Congress to the State, which, with the unsold 
part of the other township, was directed to be held by 
the State in trust for the purpose of establishing a College 
or University. 

In execution of this trust, the legislature appointed a 
Board of Trustees, and authorized them to sell a portion 
of the lands, erect a building, and establish a Seminary, 
which took place in 1824. After some time, a second 
instructor was added, and in 1S29, a College was organ- 
ized under a President and two Professors, who consti- 
tuted the Faculty. In the winter of 1838, the institu- 
tion was chartered as an University, and in 1842, a law 
department was established. 



46 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Meantime, the number of Professors was increased ; a 
Library and Chemical and Philosophical apparatus pro- 
cured, and three additional buildings erected. To defray 
the expense in making these improvements, the remain- 
ing lands were sold and the surplus of the money accru- 
ing from the sale was vested in a fund, amounting to 
about $80,000, which is managed for the University by 
the State. The interest yielded by this fund, and the tui- 
tion fees, have so far sustained the University, though 
the privilege of being instructed gratuitously has been 
granted by the legislature to two students from each 
county that may choose to send them. 

The institution has not the zeal of any particular body 
of Christians to rely on for support, being conducted on 
the most liberal principles. Yet it has steadily advanced 
from one degree of prosperity to another, until it has 
attained its present eminent station of honor and useful- 
ness. 

The present officers of the corporation are, 

David H. Maxwell, President. 
Joseph M. Howe, Treasurer. 
James D. Maxwell, Secretary. 

Faculty. 

Rev. Andrew Wylie, D. D., President and Professor of Moral and 
Mental Philosophy and Belles Lettres. 

Daniel Read, A. M., Professor of Languages. 

Rev. Theophilus A. Wylie, A. M., Professor of Natural Philosophy. 

Rev. Alfred Ryors, A. M., Professor of Mathe7natics and Civil En- 
gineering. 

Hon. David McDonald and Hon. William T. Otto, Professors of 
Law. 

M. M. Campbell, A. M., Principal of the Preparatory Depai-iment. 

The number of students in 1848 were, 

Seniors, --------6 

Juniors, - - - - - - - -12 

Sophomores, ------ -21 

Freshmen, - - - - - - - -20 

Scientific and Irregular, ------ 39 

Preparatory Department, - - - - - - 50 

Law Students, ------- 29 

177 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 47 



The whole number of graduates from 1830 to 1848, 
inclusive, was 115 ; of these fourteen are in the ministry. 

The whole course of study in the College proper occu- 
pies four years. The winter session begins the first Mon- 
day of November and ends the last Wednesday of 
March. The summer session begins the first Monday in 
May and ends the last Wednesday in September. There 
are vacations through the months of October and April. 
Each of the four classes attends three recitations a day. 

The fees in the College proper are $24 a year — in 
the Preparatory department, $17 — in the law depart- 
ment, $20. Students can board and lodge in pri- 
vate families at from $1.25 to $1.50 per week. Bloom- 
ington is beautifully situated ; the neighborhood is favor- 
able to health, and to the promotion of good morals. 

Hanover College. 

This institution is located at Hanover, a pleasant vil- 
lage, with about 300 inhabitants, delightfully situated on 
the Ohio River bluffs. It is six miles below Madison, 
one mile from the river, and occupies a position of great 
beauty and salubrity. 

The College was originally established under the pa- 
tronage of the Presbytery of Indiana, (then including 
also the whole State of Illinois,) and was primarily de- 
signed to raise up ministers of the gospel to supply the 
great and increasing demands of the west. Many of 
the ministers who had come out from the east to what 
was then a wilderness, had either fallen victims to the 
" seasoning," or had returned whence they came, and the 
few disheartened survivors became satisfied that a supply 
could only be obtained by raising them on the ground. 

The institution owes its establishment once and again, 
and much of all its usefulness, to the zeal, energy and 
self-denial of Rev. John Finley Crowe, D. D., the first 
pastor of the Presbyterian Church at Hanover. It was 
first opened by him as a grammar school, January 1st, 
1827, in a log cabin, 16 by 18 feet, with six pupils, all 
sons of elders in the church. One of these is now one 
of the most distinguished scholars in the west, and two 



48 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

others are among the most useful and successful minis- 
ters in Indiana. The number shortly increased to twenty, 
of whom fourteen soon became professors of religion. 
The log college was now too strait, and the stone church 
was occupied until a suitable building could be erected. 
This was effected only by great labor and exertion on 
the part of the teacher and students. Aided by a few 
with money, and by many with contributions of labor 
and materials, an excellent two story brick seminary, 
25 by 40 feet, and worth $1000, was erected in 1828, 
at a cost, in money, of about $400. The succeeding 
winter it was chartered by the legislature under the title 
of Hanover Academy, and the ensuing fall the superin- 
tendence was surrendered by the Presbytery to the 
Synod of Indiana. Prom the beginning the manual 
labor system had prevailed, and the students, with few 
exceptions, had paid a great part of their expense by 
their labor. Hon. Williamson Dunn and Mr. Crowe 
now gave each fifty acres of land, to form a Manual 
Labor Farm; many shops were soon added, and the sys- 
tem was conducted by the Board of Trustees for several 
years on a large scale, and at an ultimate loss of many 
thousands of dollars. 

The object, from the first, being to furnish a supply of 
ministers for the great west, in 1830, Rev. John Mat- 
thews, D. D., of Shephardstown, Virginia, became con- 
nected with Hanover Academy as Professor of Theology. 
Dr. Matthews was very comfortably settled in Virginia, 
and occupied a high position in the church when invited 
to the infant seminary. He gave the matter a conscien- 
tious examination, deliberately made the exchange, and 
from that time to his death, in 1848, he was connected 
with the Indiana Theological Seminary, first at. Hanover, 
then at New Albany. An example more worthy of imi- 
tation on the part of eminent clergymen in the older 
states, than it has received. 

The present College edifice, three stories high, 40 by 
100 feet, was erected in 1S32, and contained, besides a 
chapel, lecture, and other public rooms, a large number 
of dormitories for students — a plan soon abandoned, as 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 49 

much inferior to the present one, of scattering students 
among families. The third story was taken off in 1837, 
on account of severe damage which the edifice received 
from a violent tornado. In the winter of 1832, a col- 
lege charter was obtained from the legislature, against 
strenuous opposition from the friends of the State Uni- 
versity at Bloomington. A similar application had been 
defeated the previous year by the same opposition, from 
a mistaken belief that there was not room for two insti- 
tutions. Hanover College was, therefore, the first De- 
nominational College in the State. 

Rev. James Blythe, D. D., was the first president, and 
held the office from 1833 to September, 1836. Under 
his presidency, the manual labor system was in the full- 
est operation, and the number of students rose in 1835 
to 230, the highest number the College has ever had. 
His successors have been Rev. John Matthews, D. I)., 
pro tern., (1836-37) Rev. Duncan Macauley, D. D., 
(January— August, 1838,) Rev. E. D. McMaster, D. D., 
(1838-43,) Rev. Sylvester Scovel, September, 1846. 
The institution had never been endowed, and by the 
failure of the manual labor system, the commercial dis- 
asters of the country, and the desolating effects of the 
tornado above alluded to, a heavy debt was incurred, 
which ultimately reached $15,000, and caused great em- 
barrassment, until it was liquidated in 1842, by the exer- 
tions of president McMaster. For several years, the 
attendance during the year ranged from sixty to seventy, 
and the institution was only kept up by great privations 
and sacrifices on the part of the Faculty. In December, 
1843, the charter was surrendered to the legislature 
through the influence of president McMaster, and a new 
one obtained for a University at Madison. The institu- 
tion was continued by Dr. Crowe and others, at Hano- 
ver, for a year, under the old academy charter, (revived 
for the purpose by the legislature,) until a new college 
charter was procured, of a more advantageous character 
in some respects, than the old one. By its provisions, the 
College is under the care of the Synod of Indiana, by whom 



50 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

one-half of the trustees are appointed. The number of 
students at this time was about seventy. 

The College continued without a president until No- 
vember, 1846, when Dr. Scovel entered on the duties of 
the office. Shortly after it was visited by a general and 
powerful revival of religion, in which about thirty stu- 
dents were added to the College, and in all about 100 
persons were added to the churches of the village. This 
revival has continued with scarce an intermission, from 
that time, and is now prevailing in the College to a con- 
siderable extent. 

A plan of endowment was speedily adopted, by which 
about $25,000 have been secured, with an encouraging 
prospect of making up the amount to $50,000. A very 
valuable library has also been recently procured by the 
liberality of the friends of the College, and also an excel- 
lent chemical apparatus, and geological cabinet. 

Number of students for the last six years as follows : 

1844, (one session) 

1845, .... 

1846, .... 

The Faculty consists of the following : 

Rev. Sylvester Scovel, D. D., President and Professor of Moral and 

Intellectual Philosophy and Evidences of Christianity. 
Rev. John Finley Crowe, D. D., Vice President, and Professor of 

Logic, Rhetoric, History, and Political Economy. 
S. H. Thomson, M. A., Professor of Mathematics and Natural Science. 
M. Sturgus, M- A., Professor of Greek, Latin, and Alumni Professor of 

English Literature. 
G. M. McLean, M. D., Professor of Chemistry and Natural History. 
A. C. Knox, Adjunct Professor of Greek and Latin, and Teacher of 

German and French. 

The institution is a Presbyterian Church College, and 
conducted on christian principles. All the students are 
required to recite regularly in the Bible, and all the Cal- 
vinists and sons of Calvinistic parents, also, are required 
to recite regularly in the shorter catechism. The Greek 
Testament is also a part of the regular College course. 
Quarterly reports are made to the parents or guardians, 
of every pupil's conduct and progress in study. 

The number of the Alumni is 100 ; of these more than 



72 


1847, - 


- 104 


89 


1848, - 


159 


87 


1849, (propably) - 


- 200 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 51 

one-half are ministers of the gospel, or Theological stu- 
dents, chiefly Presbyterian ; besides a large number who 
pursued their preparatory studies here, but did not gra- 
duate. At least 100 ministers have been trained in this 
institution. 

The present number in attendance is 145. The an- 
nual expenses of a student, exclusive of books and cloth- 
ing, should not exceed $100. A considerable number 
defray a great part of their expenses by their labor. 
The surrounding population is moral and religious. 
There are churches of the Presbyterian and Methodist 
denominations in the village, and Seceder and Associate 
Reformed churches in the immediate neighborhood. 

The sale of intoxicating liquor has always been prohi- 
bited in the township, and cannot be procured nearer than 
six miles. 

Indiana Asbury University. 

The Indiana Annual Conference of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, at its session in 1836, determined to 
found a University. The citizens of different places in 
the State being desirous of obtaining the location of the 
University, subscribed large amounts for this purpose. 
The largest subscription having been procured at Green- 
castle, and also the place being deemed, from its favor- 
able position and acknowledged healthfulness, preferable 
to any other offered, the location was accordingly made 
at this place. 

A large amount was subsequently subscribed, in differ- 
ent parts of the State for purposes of building and en- 
dowment. A considerable part of this was rendered 
worthless by the embarrassments of the times that soon 
followed. For awhile it was doubtful whether the insti- 
tution could soon be permanently founded or not. That 
doubt has passed away in the success of the present en- 
dowment plan. One hundred thousand dollars worth of 
scholarships has been been sold for the permanent endow- 
ment of a Faculty of Instruction. This fund is in pro- 
cess of collection and investment, which it is expected 



52 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

will soon be finished. The University was chartered by 
the legislature at the session of 1836-7. The charter 
was amended at the session of 1846-7. 

The Literary department of the University was opened 
in the summer of 1837, by Professor Nutt. In 1839, 
Rev. M. Simpson was elected the president, to whose 
talented administration, skilful and vigilant management 
at home, and eloquence and industry abroad, is greatly 
owing the present success of the University. In 1848, 
Dr. Simpson was, by the General Conference of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, elected editor of the West- 
ern Christian Advocate, and resigned the presidency. At 
the next meeting of the Board of Trustees, Rev. E. R. 
Ames was elected president, but did not accept the 
office. 

At a called meeting of the Board, November L, 1848, 
the Central Medical College of Indiana was made a part 
of the University, and a Medical Faculty of seven mem- 
bers elected. 

The Literary and Medical Faculties of the University 
at present are as follows: 

Literary Faculty. 

William C. Larrabee, A. M., Professor of Mathematics. 

John Wheeler, A. M., Professor of Latin. 

Charles G. Downey, A. M., Professor of Natural Science. 

Cyrus Nutt, A. M„ Professor of Greek. 

Joseph Tingley, A. B., Tutor. 

Lynch, Tutor. 

Medical Faculty. 

L. Dunlap, M. D., Surgery and Surgical Anatomy. 
J. S. Bobbs, M. D., Anatomy, General and Special. • 

R. Curran, M. D., Physiology and General Pathology. 
T. W. Cowgill, M. D., Theory and Practice of Medicine. 
J. S. Harrison, M. D., Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Medical Ju- 
risprudence. 
G. W. Mears, M. D., Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children. 
C. G. Downey, A. M., Chemistry and Pharmacy. 

Since the first opening of the institution, fifty-nine 
young men have graduated. 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 53 

The number of students in the different years is as 
follows: 



1839, 
1840, 
1841, 
1842, 
1843, 



85 


1844, 


123 


1845, 


134 


1846, 


127 


1847, 


167 


1848, 



177 
161 
171 
237 
295 



Franklin College. 



This College is located at Franklin, Johnson county, 
Indiana. The College buildings are two; one a three 
story brick, eighty feet by forty, and a small frame ap- 
propriated to the junior students. They are situated on 
the east side of the Madison and Indianapolis Railroad, 
on a beautiful eminence, which commands a full view of 
the railroad and the town. The College is within one 
hour's ride of Indianapolis, and four from Madison. It 
was chartered in 1835, under the name of the Indiana 
Baptist Manual Labor Institute; but its name has since 
been changed to that of the Franklin College. The 
number of students in actual attendance will average 
one hundred. 

Its Board of Instruction consists of a President, two 
Professors, a Tutor, and a Principal of the Preparatory 
Department. It is sustained principally by the donations 
of its friends. For a few years past its progress has 
been rapid, but it will be still more so, if the liberality 
and enterprise of its patrons keep pace with the march 
of intellect and the spirit of the age. Its moral and reli- 
gious character is deservedly high, and it offers the 
strongest inducements to all who wish to form good 
habits, and at the same time acquire a sound education. 

St. Gabriel's College, 

At Vincennes, under the control of the Roman Catho- 
lics, has a charter from the State and valuable buildings, 
but is not now in operation. It is expected that it will 
again receive pupils before the end of the year. There is, 
however, at Vincennes, a Theological Seminary, under 



54 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

the care of the Rev. J. B. Chasse, and they have also a 
librarv for the use of their clergy, containing about 
10,000 volumes. 

The University of Notre Dame Du Lac, 

Also under the direction of the Catholics, is near South 
Bend. The Society of Priests, who manage it are called 
Priests of the Holy Cross. 

The terms of tuition in the common branches for 
boarders are $100 per annum ; for half boarders $40. 
For classical course, with the higher branches, $20 more. 
The French, Spanish, German, and Italian, are taught 
for an extra charge of $12. The Priests having charge 
of the institution are Rev. Edward Sorin, Superior; 
Rev. Francis Cointett, Rev. Francis Gouesse, Rev. 
E. Delisle. 

The Sisters of Providence, twenty-six in number, with 
ten novices and ten postulants, have academies for the 
instruction of females at St. Mary's in the Woods, in 
Vigo county, at Vincennes, at Madison, at Fort Wayne, 
at Jasper, and at Terre Haute, and another will soon be 
established at Evansville. 

Friends' Boarding School. 

This institution is situated about, half a mile west of 
Richmond, in Wayne County. It is built of brick, four 
stories high, and is intended to accommodate about 400 
pupils, when completed. About two-fifths of the design 
is finished, which embraces all west of the centre build- 
ing. This part will accommodate eighty pupils, an equal 
number of each sex. There is attached to it a farm of 
130 acres, which affords provisions for the school and 
labor for the young men attending it. The institution is 
devoted exclusively to the education of the children of 
Friends, and all that attend it board in the building. It 
went into operation in the summer of 1847. The course 
of study embraces those sciences which are usually includ- 
ed in a good practical English education, and instruction 
is also given in the Latin, Greek, and French languages. 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 55 

There is belonging to the school a well selected library, 
of more than 700 volumes, and a good Philosophical and 
Chemical apparatus. 

Indiana Medical College. 

The Medical Department of the Laporte University 
was organized in January 1841, and a course of lectures 
given by Drs. G. A. Rose, Daniel Meeker, J. P. Andrew, 
and F. W. Hunt. They commenced with about twelve 
students, and during the ensuing summer a building was 
erected capable of accommodating 150 students. The 
session of 1842 proceeded under the same Faculty, with 
the addition of J. B. Niles, A. M., as Professor of Che- 
mistry, and twenty-seven students. After some changes 
of the Faculty during the next three years, in which, for 
a time, Dr. W. J. Holcombe and Dr. Brow r n, of Kala- 
mazoo occupied chairs, a reorganization was effected in 
1S45, by Drs. Meeker, Richards, Shipman, Knapp, Hard 
and J. B. Niles, Esq., and the present name was assumed. 

At the close of the session of 1846-7, the chair of 
Materia Medica, previously held by Dr. Knapp, was va- 
cated by the trustees, and Dr. E. Deming, of Lafayette, 
appointed ; and Dr. Higby also became one of the 
Faculty. The number of students was 104. Graduates 
twenty-seven. 

The session of 1848-9, commenced under the same 
Faculty, with 100 students. The new College edifice 
has been completed ; large additions have been made to 
the Anatomical Museum, as well as to the Surgical appa- 
ratus, with drawings and other facilities for illustrating 
the demonstrative branches of Medical science. The 
Chemical apparatus is very good, and the experiments 
for illustrating that branch usually performed before the 
classes, are numerous, accurate, and satisfactory. 

An association called the North-western Academy of 
Natural Sciences, was formed in 1846, by the Faculty, 
and other friends of general science. It has already a 
large collection of specimens in Geology, Natural His- 
tory, &c., and a valuable library. 



56 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Wabash College. 

This institution owes its origin to a few friends of sound 
learning, who were among the early settlers of the upper 
Wabash valley. Convinced that the interests of educa- 
tion demanded the establishment of a College in the 
northern half of the State, they matured their plans and 
then made public the long cherished scheme of laying the 
foundation of an institution which should be, to the fu- 
ture generations of this fertile valley, what the older col- 
leges have proved to the communities in which they have 
been located. When it was -founded, there were but 
two colleges in the State, and both of them were in their 
infancy, and in the southern part. It was designed to 
supply the educational wants of the prospectively richest 
and most densely settled portions of Indiana, and was 
located so far from then existing institutions as to show 
that its founders were prompted by no sinister motives 
and sought no conflict with similar enterprises for the 
patronage of their fellow citizens. Aiming at the spe- 
cial advancement of no particular sect or party, either 
in religion or politics, but seeking to promote the moral 
and intellectual culture of the rising generation, the 
founders of Wabash College evinced the purity of 
their motives and the patriotism of their enterprise, by 
associating the institution with the name of the noble 
stream from whose fertile valley its future pupils were to 
be gathered, and by placing it under the control of no 
ecclesiastical association. 

Untrammelled and independent of sectarian dictation, 
they determined that the Bible, both in the original and 
vernacular tongue, should be the text book of morals in 
their institution, and its principles should be daily incul- 
cated as the only true basis of a virtuous character. Con- 
vinced that they would most effectually accomplish their 
object and subserve the best interests of sound learning 
and the real welfare of society, not by encouraging su- 
perficial attainments through the adoption of an abbre- 
viated and deceptive course of study, but by requiring 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 57 

that length of time and extent of intellectual culture 
which would most effectually develop and discipline the 
mental powers, they prescribed such a period and variety 
of preparatory and undergraduate studies, that those who 
completed them, may fearlessly challenge comparison 
with the alumni of any College in the Union. 

With such enlarged and liberal views and generous 
impulses, the trustees of the institution repaired to the 
site selected for the College buildings, and there, in the 
primeval forest, with uplifted hands and pious hearts, 
they commended the infant enterprise to the guidance 
and blessing of Almighty God. Thus were its foundations 
laid with prayer, and its rising walls committed to the 
smiles and protection of a benignant Providence. From 
this expose of the motives and views of its founders, its 
character and destiny may be readily inferred. 

It is situated at Crawfordsville, Montgomery county, 
on the great western mail route from Indianapolis to 
Springfield, Illinois, forty-five miles from the former, and 
twenty-seven miles from Lafayette. Being located at 
the intersection of the above mail route with the railroad 
from New Albany to Lafayette, it possesses every desir- 
able facility for access, and is unsurpassed for beauty of 
site and salubrity of location, there not having been a 
single death among its students for the last ten years, 
and only two during the sixteen years of its operations, 
and both of them by consumption. 

The Preparatory department was opened in Decem- 
ber, 1S33, with twelve students. It was incorporated in 
January, 1834, and organized as a College in the autumn 
of 1S35, by the appointment of Rev. Elihu W. Bald- 
win, President, and John S. Thomson, E. O. Hovey, 
and Caleb Mills, Professors. A large brick edifice, 106 
feet long, forty-eight feet wide, and four stories high, was 
erected in 1836-7, in the midst of a beautiful native 
grove, on the ample grounds appropriated for the Col- 
lege buildings. This edifice was consumed by fire in 
September, 1838, together with the Philosophical appa- 
ratus, the College and Societies' libraries, , of about 3000 
5 



58 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

volumes. Encouraged by the sympathies and proffered 
aid of the patrons of the institution, and the friends of 
learning in different parts of the country, the trustees 
made immediate arrangements to rebuild and repair the 
loss. This was effected in one year, involving an ex- 
pense which its friends, at that period of commercial 
embarrassment, were unable fully to meet, and rendered 
it necessary to effect a loan of $8,000 from the Sinking 
Fund of the State of Indiana. On this loan the trustees 
paid nine per cent, interest, in advance, for three years, 
amounting to $2,160. By special act of the legislature 
of 1841-2, the payment of interest was suspended for 
five years, till the amount, principal and interest, in 
January, 1847, was $10,620. In the summer of 1846, 
a few friends of the institution purchased Indiana State 
bonds, without the knowledge of, or any conference 
with, the trustees of the College, and presented them to 
that body on condition that they would be of any ser- 
vice to them in the settlement of their loan with the 
State. If no advantageous use could be made of them 
in that settlement, they were to be returned to the do- 
nors. The trustees presented a memorial to the legisla- 
ture of 1846-7, requesting the passage of a law autho- 
rizing the Sinking Fund commissioners to receive eight 
one thousand dollar State bonds, with their accumulated 
interest, in part payment of the debt. A bill in accord- 
ance with this memorial was introduced into the Senate, 
passed through its several readings, was thoroughly dis- 
cussed, and passed on the 31st of December, forty-one 
voting for it and nine against it. On the 1st of January, 
it was received in the House, referred to the committee 
on education, went through its several readings, and after 
thorough discussion, was passed by a vote of forty-nine 
to forty-eight. During the pendency of the bill in the 
House, an effort was made to defeat it by an appeal to 
sectarian bigotry and influence. This opposition ac- 
counts for the vote in the House on its final passage, and 
also subsequently led to a motion in the Senate to sus- 
pend the operation of the law for one year. The result 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 59 

of this motion was a thorough and searching investiga- 
tion of the whole subject, which served to demonstrate 
the equity and justice of the provisions of the law, and 
to exhibit the generosity of the trustees in their offer to 
educate, free of charge for tuition, one student from each 
county in the State, for five years, to become a common 
school teacher. The provisions of the law furnish ample 
guaranty, that the Sinking Fund will never lose a cent 
by this mode of settlement, unless the State of Indiana 
repudiates ; for the bonds are held by the commissioners 
as evidence of a subsisting indebtedness of the State to 
that fund, the suplus of which, alone, is applicable to the 
common school fund. The following exhibit of the 
mode of settlement, shows that the trustees paid the 
State of Indiana every dollar of their indebtedness to 
her, either in cash or her own obligations, and then 
made a donation to the cause of common school educa- 
tion in the form of gratuitous instruction of teachers of 
more than $9,000. The College debt was $10,620, which 
was paid with eight State bonds, and the interest on the 
same, amounting to $10,400, and the balance of $220, 
in cash. These simple facts will enable every one to ar- 
rive at a proper estimate of the character of the opposi- 
tion, and ihe source whence it originated. 

The institution is now furnished with a valuable Philo- 
sophical and Chemical apparatus, a rich Mineralogical and 
Geological cabinet, a College library of about 4,000 vol- 
umes, and Societies' libraries of about 1,500, an aggre- 
gate of valuable books seldom found in the possession of 
a new college in so early a period of its history. The 
plan of the building is such that it affords accommoda- 
tions of a very superior character. It contains forty- 
eight suits of rooms for the occupancy of students. Each 
suit consists of one study room, of ample dimensions, 
and two bed rooms, furnished with chairs, table, stove 
and bedsteads for single beds. Provision is made for a 
thorough ventilation of the rooms, which has contri- 
buted in no slight degree to the remarkable health en- 
joyed by the students. 



60 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Commencement and Vacations. — The commencement 
is on the Thursday nearest the 20th of July, follow- 
ed by a vacation of nine weeks, at the expiration of 
which, the college year begins. This is divided into 
three terms of about thirteen weeks each, succeeded 
by a recess of one week at Christmas, and two weeks 
during the first of April, and closed by the long vaca- 
tion. 

College Bills and Other Expenses. — Tuition in the 
Preparatory department is $18.00 per annum, or $6.00 
per term ; and in the College department is $24.00 
per annum, or $8.00 per term. Room rent is $3.00 
per term, and the charge for incidentals is $1.00 per 
term. All these bills are payable in advance, each 
term. Board in private families is from $1.00 to 
$1.25 per week. The expense for board is materially 
lessened by associations for the purpose, also by individ- 
ual self-boarding. The former mode reduces it to an 
average of about eighty cents per week, and the latter to 
fifty cents. Wood and lights will average $3.00 per 
year. Washing is fifty cents per dozen. Text books 
in the collegiate course, when procured from the text- 
book library, will cost about $2.00 per annum. Books 
are procured and sold at cost to students, thereby dimin- 
ishing very materially the expense for the implements of 
study. This expose shows that the annual expense for 
College bills, wood, board, lights, and washing, is less 
than $100. 

The Preparatory and Collegiate departments are un- 
der the sole charge and instruction of the Professors, 
involving an amount of care, time and labor unknown 
in those institutions where the Preparatory department 
is placed under the sole and exclusive care and instruction 
of an individual. It is the intention of the trustees to 
secure an increased attention to the proper training of 
those students, who contemplate engaging as common 
school instructors, either temporarily or permanently. 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 61 

The present draft of from four to six hours per day, they 
are now compelled to make on each of the Professors, 
forbids enlargement in this important department of 
their labors ; but they fervently hope that a generous 
public will not long permit this desire to remain ungra li- 
fted by withholding the means of support for additional 
instruction. 

Some idea of the results of sixteen years' labor may 
be obtained from the following facts gathered from its 
history. Ten classes have been graduated with high 
promise of usefulness in the several professions they have 
entered, or are preparing to enter. There have been 
connected with the institution from its foundation to the 
present time, (May, 1849,) 610 individuals for a longer 
or shorter period. Of these more than 230 were hope- 
fully pious when they left the institution, and more than 
ninety of them became so while connected with it, who 
subsequently became members of Churches of four denom- 
inations. ' Thirty-four are ministers of the gospel of seve- 
ral branches of the church. One hundred and five have 
taught schools. Two are professors in two of our colleges, 
and others are engaged in various departments of instruc- 
tion in our own and other States. The time required to 
complete the preparatory course of study is from two to 
three years. 

The number of students during the past year was 148, 
being a considerable advance on that of any other year, 
showing a gradual and healthful progress, and an in- 
creasing appreciation of the value of a thorough educa- 
tion on the part of the community at large. 

The present members of the Faculty are, 

Rev. Charles White, D. D., President. 
Hon. Henry L. Ellsworth, Lecturer on Agriculture. 
Edmund 0. Hovey, M. A., Professor of Chemistry and Geology. 
William Twining, M. A., Professor of Mathematics, Natural Philoso- 
phy, and Astronomy. 
Caleb Mills, M. A., Professor of Greek. 
Samuel S. Thomson, M. A., Professor of Latin. 



62 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

New Albany Theological Seminary. 

This institution is under the care of seven Synods of 
the Presbyterian Church, (Old School), viz: Indiana, 
Cincinnati, Missouri, Illinois, Northern Indiana, Ken- 
tucky and West Tennessee. It was commenced at Han- 
over, by the Synod of Indiana, in 1S32, and continued 
at that place till 1840, since which time it has been car- 
ried on at New Albany. The first professor, Rev. John 
Matthews, D. D., was elected in 1831, and remained in 
connection with the seminary from the time he entered 
on his duties until his death, which took place in May, 
184S. The Rev. George Bishop, A. M., was elected a 
professor in 1834, and within about two years was re- 
moved by death. After his decease, instruction in his 
department was procured temporarily until 1S39, when 
the Rev. James Wood, D. D., was elected professor, and 
he occupies that position at the present time. In 184S, the 
Rev. Erasmus D. MacMaster, D. D., and the Rev. Daniel 
Stewart, A. M., were elected, and the three gentlemen 
last named constitute the present Faculty. Dr. Wood 
fills the chair of Dogmatic and Ecclesiastical History, 
Church Government, the Sacraments and Pastoral The- 
ology; Dr. MacMaster the chair of Didactic, Casuistic 
and Polemic Theology ; and Professor Stewart the chair 
of the Original Languages of the Sacred Scriptures and 
Oriental Literature. The chair of Biblical Criticism, 
Hermeneutics and Sacred Rhetoric, is to be filled by a 
professor to be nominated by the Synod of Kentucky — 
the right of nomination having been given by the direc- 
tors to that Synod on condition that the Synod raise the 
endowment requisite for his support. Until the chair is 
filled, its duties are discharged by professor Wood. 

Since the foundation of the seminary, 124 candidates 
for the gospel ministry have pursued their professional 
studies within its walls, most of whom are now success- 
fully laboring in the cause of Christ, either as pastors, 
professors and teachers, or missionaries. 

The plan of the Seminary and the course of study are 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 63 

substantially the same as at Princeton. Three years are 
required to complete the course. The Seminary year 
commences on the last Thursday of September, and 
closes on the last Thursday of May. No charge is made 
for tuition, but each student is required to pay $8.00 per 
year to the general expense fund. The price of board 
is §1.50 per week. Other incidental expenses are about 
the same as at other places in the west. 

The library contains upwards of 2,600 volumes, and 
the number is constantly increasing. To these the stu- 
dents have free access, without charge. Rooms are 
likewise provided and furnished with beds and bedding, 
and the gratuitous use of them is granted to the regular 
members of the Seminary. In order to obtain admission 
to the institution as a regular member, the applicant 
must be a candidate for the gospel ministry, and furnish 
satisfactory evidence of his being a communicant in 
some evangelical christian church, and of his having either 
graduated at some college, or gone through a thorough 
course of classical and literary instruction. But any per- 
son who sustains a good moral character is permitted, if 
he desires it, to attend the recitations, lectures, and other 
exercises of the Seminary. 

Thirty-two thousand dollars have been secured to- 
wards endowing the institution. Of this sum $10,000 
was given by Elias Ayres, Esq., of New Albany, de- 
ceased, as a foundation for one professorship. The other 
$22,000 has been raised in Indiana, Ohio, Missouri, Illi- 
nois, and in the east. A small amount has been raised 
in Tennessee, but no general effort has yet been made to 
collect funds for the Seminary in that State. The same 
remark applies to Kentucky, where it is expected the 
entire support of one professor will be obtained as soon 
as a suitable man is nominated, and the requisite exer- 
tions are made to raise the endowment. 

A beautiful and conspicuous site has been purchased, 
overlooking the three cities of New Albany, Louisville, 
and Jeffersonville, and affording a commanding view of 
the falls of the Ohio, and of the river itself for several 



64 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

miles in extent. As soon as sufficient means are obtained 
for this purpose, a commodious building will be erected 
on the new site, the library increased to 10 or 12,000 
volumes, and every facility furnished to render the insti- 
tution as attractive to the student as any seminary in the 
United States. The present site is pleasant, and the ac- 
commodations, as far as they go, inviting. They are 
sufficient for forty students, and will be enlarged imme- 
diately, when more than this number shall enter the 
Seminary. 

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS— CIVIL DIVISIONS. 

By the Constitution of the State of Indiana, the rights 
and privileges usually guarantied in other states to the 
citizens, are to be observed and protected here. The 
powers of the government are to be divided into Legis- 
lative, Executive, and Judiciary, and to be confided to 
separate bodies of magistracy, neither to interfere with 
the other, except when expressly permitted. The Legis- 
lative authority is vested in a General Assembly, consist- 
ing of a Senate and House of Representatives; the 
former is chosen once in three years; it is not to be less 
than one-third, nor more than one-half the number of 
the Representatives, and each Senator must be over 
twenty-five years of age, and have resided two years in 
the district from which he is chosen. The House of 
Representatives is not to exceed one hundred in number. 
Each member must be twenty-one years of age, and 
have resided one year, next preceding his election, in the 
county from which he is chosen. Senators and Repre- 
sentatives are to be apportioned every five years accord- 
ing to the number of voters in their respective districts; 
the election is to take place on the first Monday of Au- 
gust, and the General Assembly is to meet on the first 
Monday of December, annually, unless otherwise directed 
by law. Members of the Legislature can hold no office 
under the General Government, nor any under the State, 
except a militia office, nor can any collector or holder of 
public money have a seat in the Legislature, until he 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 65 

has accounted and paid over all dues. Laws and Reso- 
lutions passed by the Legislature, before taking effect, 
are to be presented to the Governor and approved by 
him, or being disapproved, are to be passed agai-n by a 
majority of all the members elected to both houses. 

The supreme executive power of the State is vested in 
a Governor, chosen every three years, but cannot hold 
office over two terms in succession. He must be at least 
thirty years of age, a citizen of the United States ten 
years, and a resident of the State five years next preced- 
ing his election. He is to nominate the Judges of the 
Supreme Court, to be approved by the Senate; to fill 
vacancies in offices occurring during the recess of the 
Legislature, when they are to choose the officers; and he 
has the full power of pardoning and reprieving crimi- 
nals, and of remitting fines and forfeitures. His salary 
is neither to be increased nor reduced during his term of 
office, and he is to hold no other office at the same time. 

A Lieut. Governor, with the same qualifications as the 
Governor, is to be chosen at the same time, who is 
merely the President of the Senate, except when a va- 
cancy occurs in the office of Governor, when he sup- 
plies it. 

A Secretary of State is to be chosen by the Legisla- 
ture every four years, and an Auditor of public accounts 
and a Treasurer of State every three years. 

All Judges hold their offices seven years. The Presi- 
dent Judges are chosen by the Legislature, and the Asso- 
ciate and Probate, Judges by the people. Clerks of 
Courts and Recorders are chosen by the people for seven 
years, Justices of the Peace for five years, and Sheriffs 
for two years. White male citizens of the United States 
who have resided in the State for a year, may vote in 
the county where they reside. 

The Militia choose their own officers, except that the 
commissioned officers of the respective brigades and divi- 
sions choose their own Brigadier and Major Generals. 

There is to be but one Bank in the State, which shall 



66 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

be denominated the State Bank, and which shall not 
have exceeding a branch for three counties. 

It is made the duty of the General Assembly to pro- 
vide for a general system of education. Ten per cent. 
of the donations for county seats are to be reserved for 
County Libraries, and all fines and forfeitures are appro- 
priated for County Seminaries. Slavery is for ever pro- 
hibited. 

The State is at this time divided into ninety counties, 
and each county is divided into townships, of which 
there are usually from five to fifteen in each county ; the 
subdivisions being made by the county authorities, and 
for the public convenience. Several cities have been 
incorporated in the State, by special charters from the 
legislature, and a large number of towns have also been 
incorporated in the same way, or under the provisions. of 
a general law which authorizes these incorporations, and 
gives them the power, under some restrictions, of making 
their own by-laws. These cities and towns usually in- 
clude but a small part of the civil townships, and the 
residents of the city or town, as the case may be, almost 
uniformly elect their own officers. All these will be 
particularly described under the proper names. The 
State is at present divided into ten Congressional District?, 
which, as they will be changed after the election for the 
year 1849, will not be specially described. 

The judicial districts, or circuits, are also subject to 
change, but the changes hereafter will probably be much 
less frequent. The first circuit consists of the counties 
of Benton, Clinton, Fountain, Montgomery, Tippecanoe 
and Warren ; President Judge, Isaac Naylor; time ex- 
pires 1852. 

The second circuit embraces the counties of Clark, 
Floyd, Harrison, Jackson, Orange, Scott and Washing- 
ton ; William T. Otto, President Judge; time expires 
1852. 

The third circuit embraces the counties of Bartholo- 
mew, Jefferson, Jennings, Ohio and Switzerland ; Court- 
land Gushing, President Judge; time expires 1852. 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 67 

The fourth circuit embraces the counties of Crawford, 
Dubois, Gibson, Perry, Pike, Posey, Spencer, Vander- 
burgh and Warrick ; James Lockhart, President Judge ; 
time expires 1853. 

The fifth circuit consists of the counties of Boone, Ham- 
ilton, Hancock, Hendricks, Johnson, Marion and Shelby; 
William J. Peaslee, President Judge; time expires 1850. 

The sixth circuit embraces the counties of Fayette, 
Henry, Rush, Union and Wayne; J. T. Elliott, President 
Judge ; time expires 1851. 

The seventh circuit embraces the counties of Clay, 
Knox, Parke, Putnam, Vermillion and Vigo; John Law, 
President Judge; time expires 1852. 

The eighth circuit embraces the counties of Carroll, 
Cass, Fulton, Jasper, Miami, Pulaski, Wabash and White ; 
Horace P. Biddle, President Judge; time expires 1854. 

The ninth circuit embraces the counties of Elkhart, 
Kosciusko, Laporte, Lake, Marshall, Porter and St. Jo- 
seph; E. M. Chamberlain, President Judge; time ex- 
pires 1850. 

The tenth circuit embraces the counties of Brown, 
Daviess, Greene, Lawrence, Martin, Monroe, Morgan and 
Owen; David' McDonald, Pres. Judge; time expires 1853. 

The eleventh circuit embraces the counties of Black- 
ford, Delaware, Grant, Howard, Jay, Madison, Randolph 
and Tipton; Jeremiah Smith, President Judge; time ex- 
pires 1853. 

The twelfth circuit consists of the counties of Adams, 
Allen, DeKalb, Huntington, Lagrange, Noble, Steuben, 
Wells, and Whitley; James W. Borden, President Judge ; 
time expires 1855. 

The thirteenth circuit consists of the counties of Dear- 
born, Decatur, Franklin and Ripley; George H. Dunn, 
President Judge; time expires 1854. 

POPULATION. 

The population of the Territory of Indiana in 1S00, was 
4875; in 1S10, 24,520; in 1816, when the Constitution 
was formed, it was estimated at 65,000; in 1820, it was 



68 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

147,178; in 1830, 343,081; in 1840, 685,866; and if 
there was the same relation to the Presidential vote in 1848 
that there was in 1840, the population on the 7th No- 
vember, 1848, was about 916,000; but as the interest 
and excitement were the greatest at the former period, 
the population at this time must be about 1,000,000; and 
at the next census it will be at least 1,060,000. The 
votes for Governor in 1816, were 9,145; at the election 
in 1848, they were 153,462. 

RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS. 

There may be found in Indiana the same religious so- 
cieties that prevail in the other Western States, but it is 
not practicable to obtain correct statistical information 
as to all of them. Great changes are constantly taking 
place by immigrations to and from the State, and by the 
fitful exertions more common, perhaps, in new countries 
than elsewhere, by which new members are induced to 
join the different churches, and for a time feel much inte- 
rest in them ; and then, sometimes, not a few of the new 
converts soon after resume their former habits and feel- 
ings. In many parts of the State, there will be found as 
much permanence in the religious organizations as in any 
other portions of the Union. A few of the early settlers 
determined to establish and maintain the regular preach- 
ing of the gospel, and the spirit they manifested soon 
gave them strength, by additions both at home and from 
abroad. The efforts of the most of these early pioneers 
have been abundantly prospered, both temporarily and 
spiritually, and in general, far beyond their most san- 
guine anticipations. 

When one religious society has increased its means 
of usefulness by building a good church, patronizing a 
high school, or improving the hearts and minds of those 
under its influence, other societies in the vicinity must 
not falter in their benevolent efforts, and the consequence 
is, the tone of moral feeling is elevated, and sectarian 
discord almost ceases to distract the community. Many 
of the patriarchs, who are thus sending down to future 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 69 

generations the impress of their characters, will stand 
high as public benefactors when the results of their la- 
bors are seen hereafter. 

There are also other parts of the State in which there 
is a very great indifference about religious instruction. 
The first settlers, or principal men, were careless on the 
subject, or the leaders of the different denominations spent 
their strength against each other, or the spirit of true re- 
ligion, intended to produce zeal and concert of action for 
good, was wanting, and the consequences have almost 
uniformly been disastrous. 

It requires but little observation in this State to see an 
intimate connection between attention to religious truth 
and worldly prosperity, and the best results are without 
question produced where different denominations, each 
in its appropriate way, are earnest to effect the objects 
of their mission. Thus a community composed of emi- 
grants from various states and countries, and with opin- 
ions, temperaments and habits exceedingly diversified, is 
not unfrequently influenced to act the most efficiently in 
promoting, in different ways, the same great objects. 

( The Methodist Episcopal Church is the most nu- 
merous religious denomination in the State, and there are 
but few parts of it to which their travelling or local 
preachers do not, with more or less frequency, preach 
the gospel. The Indiana conference embraces that part 
of the State lying south of the National road, but includ- 
ing the Central and Western charges at Indianapolis, 
and has 115 Travelling and 290 Local Preachers, 400 
Meeting Houses, 33,262 Church Members, 319 Sabbath 
Schools, 3,030 Officers and Teachers, and 14,901 Scholars. 
The North Indiana Conference, embracing the remainder 
of the State, has 108 Travelling and 25S Local Preach- 
ers, 26,302 Church members, 293 Sabbath Schools, 2,260 
Officers and Teachers, and 12,744 Scholars. The whole 
number of Church Members is now over 60,000. 

The Districts and Preachers in the Indiana Confer- 
ence are as follows: 

Indianapolis District. — E. R. Ames, F. C. Holliday, 



70 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Wm. Morrow, A. H. Sharpe, J. V. R. Miller, James 
Crawford, W. C. Hensley, James Corwin, J. W. Sullivan, 
T. G. Behand, A. B. Nesbit. 

Greensburgh District. — James Havens, E. H. Sabin, 

C. B. Jones, Wm. McGinnis, James Whiteman, G. H. 
McLaughlin, Jacob Miller, Charles Mapes. 

Conner -sville Distinct. — L. W. Berry, H. J. Durbin, 

F. H. Potts, J. L. Winchester, C. H. Kelly, Jacob Myers, 
W. W. Snyder, J. C. King, E. Rutledge, Levi Johnson, 
W. Terrel, Hayden Hays. 

Lawrenceburgh District. — E. G. Wood, C. B. David- 
son, James Jones, B. T. Griffith, J. Bruner, J. R. McRea, 
R. P. Sheldon, W. C. Smith, S. P. Crawford, J. Miller, 
Benj. Coffin, John Wallace, J. W. Doie, W. M. Fraley, 
Agent, &c. 

Madison District. — W. M. Dailey, W. Prescott, G. 
W. Maylick, J. S. Bayless, J. E. Tiffany, J. Crawford, 
Lewis Hurlburt, Seth Smith, Amos Russey, H. S. Tal- 
bott, C. Curran, J. W. Millander, B. R. Prather. 

New Albany District. — John Kearns, James Hill, T. 
H. Rucker, T. » Eddy, J. A. Brouse, M. Miller, E. S. 
Kemp, G. C. Smith, Silas Rawson, A. Wilkenson, George 
Havens, G. Gonzales, J. J. Stallord. 

Vincennes District. — E. Whitten, J. B. Lathrop, D. 
Williamson, Thomas Ray,Z. S. Clifford, E. W. Cadwell, 

G. W. Walker, F. H. Carey, Samuel Weeks. 
Evansville District. — John Kiger, T. A. Goodwin, 

W. V. Daniel, J. W. Julian, C. C. Holliday, M. A. Hes- 
ter, F. A. Hester, J. R. Linderman, T. J. Ryan, R. S. 
Robinson, H. D. Chapman, J. H. Noble, N. F. Tower. 
Putnamville District. — J. Tarkington, L. Forbes, E. 

D. Long, E. W. Bemiss, N. Shumate, J. R. Williams, 
Bruner, John Talbott. 

Bloomington District. — A. Robinson, J. McElroy, B. 
F. Craig, L. Havens, Daniel Mclntyre, J. H. Hamilton, 
S. Tincher, J. W. Powell, J. R. Odell, H. S. Dane, Wm. 
Butt. 

The Districts and Preachers in the North Indiana 
Conference are as follows: 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 71 

Indianapolis District. — R. Hargrave, G. M. Beswick, 
F. M. Richmond, J. Cozar, Wade Posey, O. P. Boydon, 
J. W. Smith, J.F. McAnnally, W. J. Forbes, J. B. John- 
son, J. B. Mershan, Wm. Pentzer. 

Centreville District.— S. T. Gillett, J. C. Smith, C. W. 
Miller, L. Taylor, J. C. Robbins, J. R. Tansey, Miles 
Huffaker, Daniel Demott, J. B. Birt. 

Peru District. — O. V. Lemon, J. S. Donaldson, L. W. 
Munson, J. C. Medsker, M. M. Haun, J. W. Bradshaw, 
James Sparr, Wm. Anderson, A. Skillman, E. Doud, A. 
Carey. 

Logansport District. — J. M. Stallard, W. F. Wheeler, 
J. W. Parrett, George Guild, B. Webster, H. Bradley, J. 
S. Hatfield, R. A. Newton, John Leach, E. A. Hazen, 
E. Hall, M. Johnson. 

Laporte District. — John Daniel, H. C. Benson, J. P. 
Jones, W. G. Stonex, Wm. Hamilton, Abm. Salisbury, 
D. F. Stright, W. P. McMillan, F.Taylor, E. J. Kirk, H. 
B. Hull, J. D. G. Pettijohn. 

Fort Wayne District. — Samuel Brenton, Wm. Wilson, 
T. F. Palmer, A. Bradley, S. Lamb, E. Maynard, J. J. 
Cooper, J. M. Stagg, J. H. Bruce, Wm. Graham, J. R. 
Davis, S. T. Stout, S. C. Cooper, A. Johnson, 

Greencastle District. — W. H. Goode, W. C. Larrabee, 
Cyrus Nutt, B. F. Tefft, J. H. Hull, W. H. Smith, H. 
B. Beers, Enoch Wood, E. S. Preston, T. H. Sinex, Hez- 
ekiah Smith, J. C. Read, Nelson Greene, Jesse Hill, S. 
T. Cooper. 

Crawfordsville District. — James Marsee, M. Mahan, 
A. Beech, H. N. Barnes, J. Colclazier, T. S. Webb, D. B. 
Clary, John Edwards, Enoch Holdstock, Thomas Bartlett, 
James Rickets. 

Lafayette District.— J. L. Smith, G. M. Boyd, B. Wi- 
nans, M. Fannimore, S. N. Campbell, James Johnson, 
Jos. White, N. E. Manville, J. K. Aldrich, J. B. Demott, 
R. D. Robinson, George M. Warner. 

The Regular Baptists are numerous. This denomi- 
nation has, in this State, 42 Associations, 665 Churches, 
275 Preachers, 95 Licentiates, and 27,200 Communicants. 



72 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

In 1812, and for many years subsequent, there was only 
one regular Baptist in this State to every thirty-five of 
the population. Although the sentiments of Alexander 
Campbell and of Parker, were the means, some years 
since, of diminishing this denomination by many thou- 
sands, yet her proportionate increase has kept pace with 
that of the population, and is now even advancing upon 
it. They have a "General Association" for Domestic 
Missionary purposes, which raises about $1,600 per an- 
num for that object, and aids in the support of more 
than thirty Preachers. A large majority of this denomi- 
nation are Missionary Baptists, and the minority is ra- 
pidly diminishing. They also have a Foreign Missionary 
Society — an auxiliary to the American and Foreign Bible 
Society; and an Indian Mission Society for the spread of 
the Gospel among the Aborigines of our country, all of 
which collect more or less funds, annually, for the pro- 
motion of their respective objects. They also have a 
flourishing College at Franklin, Johnson county, twenty 
miles south of Indianapolis, with a President, two Pro- 
fessors, one Tutor, a Principal of the Preparatory de- 
partment, and 120 scholars. 

The Christian Church. — Owing to the fact that this 
denomination of Christians have neither Conferences, 
Associations or Synods, it is found difficult in making up 
their statistics, to do more than approximate to their 
number. We do not pretend to exactitude. Congrega- 
tions 150, Ministers about SO, Communicants about 
30,000. 

The Society of Friends in this State may be esti- 
mated at about 15,000 members, residing in the counties 
of Wayne, Henry, Randolph, Fayette, Rush, Hancock, 
Grant, Hamilton, Morgan, Hendricks, Washington, Jack- 
son, Orange, Parke, Montgomery, Vermillion, Tippeca- 
noe, and more or less in many other counties. They 
have nine Quarterly meetings, about 27 Monthly meet- 
ings, and about 80 Congregations, or meetings for wor- 
ship in the State. The last assemble regularly twice in 
the week and sit together in solemn silence, in case no 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 73 

one should believe himself moved by the Holy Spirit to 
prayer or to address the meeting in the way of the 
ministry. 

Their Yearly Meeting embraces not only all the mem- 
bers in this State as above, but nearly one-half of the 
State of Ohio, and some in other States adjacent. It is 
held annually at White Water, near Richmond, in 
Wayne county, on the Fifth day preceding the First day 
in the Tenth Month, and is a very large congregation, 
continuing about a week, in which all the members who 
choose to attend, may sit. Matters relating to the disci- 
pline, welfare and prosperity of the Church are here con- 
sidered ; and during the meeting, several sessions are 
held especially for public worship. Reports are received 
from all the Quarterly Meetings, now fifteen in number, 
intended to show the state of the Society, in various de- 
partments, as to religion ; also the condition of the 
schools and the progress of education. 

The Society have about 5,000 children in this State, of 
a suitable age to go to school; 52 schools under the care 
of the Society, having about 2,500 scholars, and about 
the same number of children taught in schools not under 
the care of the Society. There are very few, if any, 
who are not receiving some education. 

A boarding school has been recently established near 
Richmond, in which, besides the ordinary subjects, seve- 
ral of the higher branches are taught. 

Internal organizations of committees exist for the en- 
couragement of education and schools — for the relief 
and instruction of the Africans who have had their free- 
dom — and for the civilization and instruction of the 
Shawnese Indians, (amongst whom they have kept up 
schools for a considerable number of years,) all of which 
give an active attention to the subjects under their care. 

The poor of the Society are not permitted to become 
a public expense, but are taken care of by the Society. 

The Hicksites, or other b;anch of the Society of 
Friends, have a repugnance to the term generally ap- 
plied to them. Both Societies claim to hold the same 
6 



74 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

doctrines entertained by the original projectors of the 
Society, or as they term it, " Early Friends." In the 
enumeration of their members they include men, women 
and children, as all children born to members have a birth- 
right. It is supposed the aggregate members of Indiana 
Yearly Meeting is about 20,000. The first Yearly Meet- 
ing of Indiana was held at Whitewater, in the State of 
Indiana, in the year 1821. In the Meeting of 1834, it 
was agreed that it be held alternately at Whitewater, 
(Richmond,) and at Miami, (Waynesville,) in the State 
of Ohio. Such is the language of the Book of Disci- 
pline, reprinted by the Society of Friends, in 1835. By 
the term, "Society of Friends" in this case is meant 
that religious body which originated about the middle of 
the 17th century, under this designation, and not that 
denomination which is sometimes confounded with it, 
but is readily distinguished from it by its acknowledged 
title of " Orthodox " Society of Friends. Indiana Yearly 
Meeting of Friends consists of three Quarterly Meet- 
ings, and about fifteen Monthly Meetings, among the 
largest of which is White Water Monthly Meeting, held 
at Richmond, in Wayne county. This Monthly Meet- 
ing consists of about 2,000 members. The writer has no 
means at command of giving the members belonging to 
the Yearly Meeting, nor to any of its branches except 
the above, the Society having always manifested a disin- 
clination to a parade of numbers. 

The Evangelical Lutheran Church. The Ministers 
of this denomination in this State belong to four distinct 
organizations, to-wit: 1. The Synod of Indiana, embrac- 
ing fourteen Ministers, about forty Churches, with a 
membeiship of about 3,200. 2. The German Synod, of 
Indianapolis, Ministers twelve, Churches twenty, mem- 
bers about 2,000. 3. Members of the Synod of Missouri, 
and adjacent States, Ministers twelve, Churches about 
twenty, members about 2,000. These Ministers have a 
Theological Seminary at Fort Wayne. 4. The Olive 
Branch Synod, organized in October, 1848, Ministers 
six, with four others in the State who will unite at its 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 75 

next session, Churches about twenty, members about 
1,000. Tn addition to the above 4S Ministers, 100 
Churches, and 8,200 members, there are two Ministers not 
in connection with either of the above Synods, and per- 
haps 3,000 members not yet organized into churches, and 
to a great extent destitute of the means of grace, so far 
as their own Church is concerned. 

Universalism has been preached in this State, more 
or less, for twenty years, but not until within six or seven 
has there been much attention paid to organization; and 
at this time it is supposed there are more believers out of 
the churches of this denomination than in them. Within 
a few years, there has been a rapid increase of the adhe- 
rents to that form of Christianity, and it now has un- 
yielding advocates in all parts of the State. There are 
twenty-nine Preachers, fifteen Meeting Houses, fifty-five 
Societies, ten Associations, and one Convention of that 
denomination in the State, and they publish two periodi- 
cals, The Western Olive Branch, Indianapolis, E. Man- 
ford, Editor and Proprietor, and the Independent Uni- 
versalist, Terre Haute, E. M. Knapp, Editor. 

The. Old School branch of the Presbyterian Church 
is composed of two Synods; the Synod of Indiana, and 
the Synod of Northern Indiana. In the Synod of In- 
diana there are six Presbyteries, viz: New Albany, Vin- 
cennes, Madison, Crawfordsville, Indianapolis and White 
Water, in which there are 64 Ministers, 107 Churches, 
and 5650 Communicants. In the Synod of Northern 
Indiana, there are four Presbyteries, Logansport, Michi- 
gan, Lake and Fort Wayne, in which there are 29 Min- 
isters, 61 Churches, and 2175 Communicants. In both 
Synods there are ten Presbyteries, 93 Ministers, 168 
Churches, and 7825 Communicants. 

The New School branch of the Presbyterian Church 
has but one Synod, which includes the whole territory 
embraced in the State, and does not extend beyond it. 
In it there are seven Presbyteries, 75 Ordained Ministers, 
six Licentiates, about 120 Churches, and not less than 
5,000 members. The names of the Presbyteries are Sa- 



76 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

lem, Madison, Crawfordsville, Indianapolis, Logansport, 
Fort Wayne and Evansville. Of the Ordained Minis- 
ters, one is President of Wabash College, four are Pro- 
fessors in the same institution, three are agents of benev- 
olent societies; the remainder, with some few exceptions, 
are engaged exclusively in the duties of the ministry, 
each in connection with one or more congregations, 
either as Pastor or stated supply. 

The Roman Catholic Church in this State is em- 
braced within the Diocese of Vincennes, and at this time is 
under the spiritual jurisdiction of the Right Rev. Mau- 
rice De St. Palais, who was consecrated on the 14th Jan- 
uary last. The Catholic population numbers from 30 
to 40,000 souls. The number of Clergymen employed 
in their ministry is 38. They have charge of 51 churches 
and chapels. The following are their names, together 
with the most important missions which they attend: 

Cathedral of St. Francis Xavier, Vincennes. — Right 
Rev. Maurice De St. Palais, Bishop: Rev. E. Audran, 
Parish Priest; Rev. J. B. Chasse. 

Church of St. Charles, (German). — Very Rev. Conrad 
Schneiderjons. 

St. Simon's, Washington. — Rev. J. McDermott. 

St. Patrick's. — Rev. B. Pierce. 

St. Mary's, Mount Pleasant. — Rev. P. Murphy. 

St. Joseph's, Jasper. — Rev. J. Rundek. 

Ferdinand, fyc. — Rev. W. Doyle. 

St. John the Baptist, Perry Co. — Rev. A. Bessonies. 

Evansville. — Rev. A. Deydrier. 

St. Joseph's, Sf-c, Vanderburgh Co. — Rev. R. Wein- 
zoephlin. 

St. Michael and Madison. — Very Rev. H. Dupontavice. 

Columbus, Sf-c. — Rev. D. Molony. 

Jennings Co., fyc. — A. Munshina. 

New Albany, fyc. — Rev. S. Neyron. 

Lanesville, fyc. — Rev. J. Dion. 

St. John's, New Alsace. — Rev. M. Stahl. 

St. Joseph's, fyc. — Rev. A. Bennet. 

Brookville, fyc. — Rev. M. Engelm. 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 77 

St. Nicholas, Ripley Co. — Rev. Joseph Rudolph. 

St. Andrew's, Richmond. — Rev. A. Carius. 

Indianapolis, fyc. — Rev. John Guiguen. 

St, Mary's, Lafayette, fyc. — Rev. M. Clarke. 

Lagro, fyc. — Rev. J. Ryan. 

Logansport, fyc. — Rev. P. McDermot. 

Fort Wayne, fyc. — Rev. J. Benoit and Rev. E. Faller. 

South Bend, fyc. — Rev. E. Sorin. 

Terre Haute. — Rev. S. P. Lalumiere. 

St, Mary's of the Woods. — Very Rev. John Corbe. 

The country which now comprises the State of In- 
diana, was visited by Jesuit Fathers as early as the end 
of the 17th century. They then established missions 
among the Indians who had been previously the only in- 
habitants of the country, and remnants of these mis- 
sions still exist among the Pottawatamies. Father Mar- 
rest is first known as having worked in this field. Fa- 
ther Marquette is supposed to have been another, the 
one in the north, the other in the south. Another was 
taken prisoner by the Chickasaws along with Morgan 
De Vincennes, in Artaguette's expedition, and both were 
burnt at the stake in 1736. There is, however, not much 
certainty as to the labors of these Jesuit missionaries 
before the year 1749. The records of the Church of St. 
Francis Xavier, at Vincennes, show the existence, at 
that time, of a regular mission, composed of converted 
Indians and French soldiers belonging to a little fort 
called Post Vincennes, under the care of Father Meurin. 
It continued under the care of Priests belonging to the 
same religious society until the year 1770, when their 
names disappear, and the Rev. M. Gibault, a secular 
Priest under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Quebec, 
took charge of the Church. He resided, however, mostly 
at Kaskaskia, in Illinois. This Priest was of considerable 
service to Gen. Clarke, in aiding him to take possession 
of Vincennes, which had been previously held by the 
English. 

In 1810, Bardstown, in Kentucky, being made the See 
of a Bishop, Indiana fell under his jurisdiction, and was 



78 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

supplied with Priests from Kentucky until the year 1834, 
when Vincennes received a Bishop, the Right Rev. Simon 
Gabriel Brute, a native of France, and highly distinguished 
for talents, learning and piety. Until Bishop Brute arrived, 
there were but few Catholics in the State, and generally 
but one or two Priests. Before his death, in July 1839, 
he had supplied his Diocese with Priests, and had estab- 
lished twenty-five Churches. His memory has been held in 
much reverence by his own flock, and all Protestants who 
knew him personally. His successors were the Right 
Rev. Celestine De la Hailandiere and Right Rev. J. Ste- 
phen Bazin, who died on the 23d April, 184S. Under 
the administration of those Bishops the Church continued 
to prosper. 

The missions to the Indians have been the most suc- 
cessful among the Pottawatamies, of whom there were 
about 4,000 in Northern Indiana. The chief village and 
the chief mission was at Chitchakos, near the Tippecanoe 
river. Their conversion dates about 200 years back. 
The Catholic Priests penetrated alone every where, pre- 
ceding even the traders, and announced to the wild in- 
habitants the truths of Christianity. By the spirit of 
self-sacrifice they shared in the toils and hardships of the 
ferocious savage, and thereby gained his friendship. At 
first the efforts to convert the Indians were almost uni- 
versally at the expense of the lives of the Priests. But 
when the Pottawatamies yielded to conviction, as has 
generally been the case with Indians, they were scarcely 
less firm and devoted than the primitive Christians. 
When the Priests left them and they remained for many- 
years destitute of spiritual instruction, they taught each 
other and attempted to preserve the religious influences 
they had enjoyed. When a Priest, who was afterwards 
a Bishop, met one of their Chiefs, he entreated him, if he 
would not visit them, at least to pass through their woods, 
for the very thought of the "man of prayer" having 
been through their country, would, he said, be sufficient 
to remind them of their duties and make them better. 
Even those who remained in heathenism retained a rev- 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 79 

erence for the "black gown" which scarcely admits of 
description. 

Until a Bishop was appointed for Vincennes in 1834, 
they could only be visited occasionally by the Priest of 
that place or by Priests from Detroit. One of Bishop 
Brute's first cares was to visit them himself, and provide 
for their spiritual welfare. The Rev. M. Desseilles, of 
Michigan, provisionally received charge of attending to 
them. The fruits of his labors among them was won- 
derful, for such was the impulse given by the visit of the 
Grand Chief of Prayer, (the Bishop) and such their rev- 
erence for the "Black Gowns," which their fathers had 
transmitted to them, that they determined if the Great 
Master of Life should again send them a clergyman, that 
they would hear his instructions, and they came by hun- 
dreds to demand them and to ask for baptism. Mr. Des- 
seilles baptized the greater part of those who had pie- 
viously been heathens, and died soon after in the exer- 
cise of his glorious mission. The fatigue to which he 
was exposed brought on him sickness that left him al- 
most at the point of death; but feeling that his last mo- 
ments were approaching, he roused himself, met his 
faithful children at the altar f and while attending with 
his dying hands to the last duties enjoined by his Mas- 
ter, expired on its very steps. The good Indians who had 
watched him with anxiety, and had followed him to the 
Church, unwilling to believe that their Father was dead, 
and hoping that he was only asleep, remained in prayer by 
his corpse for four days, when a brother Clergyman, who 
had previously been written to, arrived to perform the 
funeral obsequies. His successor in the mission was the 
Rev. Benjamin Petit, a young Frenchman, who had 
abandoned his country and the profession of law, in 
which he had acquired distinction, to devote his life as a 
Priest. Nothing could exceed the affection they con- 
ceived for him. When he came among them he did not 
know their lan^ua^e. But the ardor of his zeal ena- 
bled him soon to learn it, and wondering at his kindness 
and affability, they said he was not a "black gown" 



80 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

from foreign lands, but a red-skin like themselves. He 
had spent but a few happy months among them when an 
order came from the General Government that the resi- 
due of the tribe should remove to the Indian Territory 
beyond the Mississippi. They had been threatened with 
this calamity before, but had always indulged the hope 
that they would be permitted to stay. They expostu- 
lated in vain ; nothing could change the determination 
of the President. The grief which it caused them seemed 
to turn to despair, and it required all the influence of 
their Priest, Mr. Petit, to induce them to submit peace- 
ably, and they did not consent until he agreed to accom- 
pany them. Their journey was a melancholy one, and 
numerous deaths on the route attested their sufferings. 
When arrived at their place of destination, he left them un- 
der the care of a Priest from the Diocese of St. Louis, but 
the fatigues and trials of the journey exhausted him and 
he died three weeks afterwards. The devotion of Petit 
was, at the time, deeply felt and applauded by many 
Protestants who witnessed his self-sacrificing spirit. 

An interesting instance of the influence of religion and 
of the Missionaries over the Indians occurred about this 
time. The government, aware of their repugnance to 
remove, had determined to employ force, if necessary, 
and accordingly, whilst one of their Chiefs was convers- 
ing in deep grief on the subject of expatriation, at the 
village of Chichipy-outipy, his house and the village was 
suddenly surrounded by soldiers, who summoned him to 
surrender as a prisoner. Taken by surprise, his first 
thoughts were of noble indignation, and that he would 
rather die than submit to be chained as a criminal. He 
bounded like a deer, and seizing his rifle and tomahawk, 
placed himself in a posture of defence; but on perceiv- 
ing the cross that glittered on the breast of the " black 
gown," his anger at once yielded to resignation, he 
dropped his arms and presented his hands to be tied, 
meekly saying, " the Son of God submitted to be bound." 

No regular missions ever existed among the Miamies. 
They were so much addicted to drunkenness that the 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 81 

efforts which were made at several times to convert them, 
produced but little effect. A few of them only were bap- 
tized, and even those were not regular; yet they also had 
much confidence in the Priests, and willingly entrusted 
to their management many of their temporal concerns. 
They also asked a Priest to accompany them on their re- 
moval west. 

In 1840, most of the remaining Pottawatamies had 
emigrated. A few of them lingered, however, and 
finally went to a reserve at Sohegan, forty miles from 
South Bend, where they are attended by the Sisters of 
Notre Dame du Lac. They have books in the Ottowa 
language, teach each other, and cultivate small farms. 

The Protestant Episcopal Church of the State of 
Indiana is under the charge of the Right Rev. Jackson 
Kemper, Bishop of the Diocese. 

The Clergymen of that denomination in the State are, 

Rev. F. C. Brown, Rector Trinity Church, Michigan City. 

Rev. R. B. Claxton, Officiating at Madison. 

Rev. R. B. Croes, Officiating at Terre Haute. 

Rev. J. H. Drummond, Officiating at Leavenworth. 

Rev. T. B. Fairchild, Officiating at Logansport. 

Rev. George Fiske, Officiating at Richmond. 

Rev. E. A. Foster, Officiating at Evansville. 

Rev. B. Halsted, Officiating at Mishawaka. 

Rev. B. B. Killikelly, D. D., Officiating at Delphi. 

Rev. F. H. L. Laird, Officiating at New Albany. 

Rev. J. W. McCullough, D. D., Officiating at Lafayette. 

Rev. S. W. Manny, Officiating at Laporte. 

Rev. Wm. Vaux, Officiating at Vanderburgh County. 

Rev. A. Wylie, D. D., Officiating at Bloomington. 

Rev. C. H. Page, Officiating at Jeffersonville. 

Rev. H. P. Powers, Officiating at Fort Wayne. 

The number of Communicants in 18 Churches which 
made reports to the Convention in 1848, were 509. No 
reports were made from the Churches at Crawfordsville 3 
Lawrenceburgh, Leavenworth, New Albany, New Har- 
mony, and Peru. 

There are several other small religious denominations 
in the State, as to which no correct information has been 
furnished to the compiler. The Cumberland Presbyte- 
rians are numerous and respectable in many of the 



82 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

southern counties of the State. The United Brethren 
have also many religious societies, but they object to 
make any statements as to their numbers. 

ANTIQUITIES. 

Mounds, similar to those in Ohio and other West- 
ern States, are found in considerable numbers in this 
State; but there are none that have attracted much 
attention, except three in the neighborhood of Vin- 
cennes. These, at a distance, resemble immense hay 
stacks, and on being approached, each appears to cover 
about an acre of ground, and to rise gradually to a 
point, probably from eighty to one hundred feet high. 
It is impossible to conceive, at the present day, for what 
object these immense piles were erected. Their situation 
is not such as to lead us to suppose that they were con- 
structed for any purpose connected with war or defence, 
and as they were built without the aid of iron tools, it 
would not be surprising if, among a sparse population, 
their erection required the labor of many years. Hu- 
man bones have been found in such as have been opened, 
and in some of them are strata of earth composing the 
mound which differ from each other and from the earth 
in the immediate vicinity. The different layers of earth 
were about a foot in thickness and between them char- 
coal and ashes were found, in which human bones lay in 
a horizontal position. From these facts it has been con- 
jectured, that when the monuments were erected, it was 
customary to burn the dead and then cover the bones 
with earth, and that probably from time to time this pro- 
cess was repeated, until the mound was finished. Reli- 
gious ceremonies and superstitious rites may also have been 
connected with these works. They are most frequent in 
the vicinity of alluvial bottoms, and where even in early 
times the abundance of game, and other advantages, 
would accommodate the most population. There are 
none of these works which cannot claim a great anti- 
quity, for the trees on them differ in no respect as regards 
age, from those in the venerable forests around. While 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 83 

these memorials of an age long past are so distinct, the 
large establishment of the Jesuits at Ouiatenon, and the 
various military works in the State, formerly so import- 
ant for defence against Indian hostilities, scarcely show 
any remains of what they once were. 

On the bottom of Big Flat Rock, in the north-west 
corner of Decatur county, is a mound about eighty feet 
in diameter, and eight feet high, originally covered with 
trees, like the other forests around. An excavation was 
made into it a few years since. First there was a mix- 
ture of earth, sand, and gravel for one foot; then dark 
earth, charcoal, lime and burnt pebbles were cemented 
together so as to be penetrated with difficulty; then a 
bed of loose sand and gravel, mixed with charcoal; then 
were found the bones of a human being, in a reclining 
position, with a flat stone over the breast and another 
under the scull. Most of the bones were nearly decom- 
posed, but some of them, and a part of the teeth, were 
quite sound. From the size of such of the bones of the 
skeleton as remain, it must have once been of gigantic 
size. A short distance from this mound is a much smaller 
one, which contains a great number of skeletons. 

HISTORY. 

Very few facts that can be relied on are known of the 
tribes of Indians that inhabited this State before it was 
settled by the whites. The mounds, and other monu- 
ments that remain, were constructed so long since, that 
even tradition does not pretend to give any certain in- 
formation respecting the people who made them. For 
many centuries the Indians north of Mexico had been 
divided into small tribes, which frequently changed their 
places of residence, and supported themselves mostly by 
hunting and fishing. They had no domestic animals but 
the dog, though they afterwards added the horse, which 
was a hardy animal of a peculiar description, well 
known at the present day by the name of Indian Pony, 
and they cultivated no grain but corn, and this only to a 
small extent. Their houses were chiefly constructed of 



84 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

limbs of trees, covered with bark, and so frail that even 
where they had large villages, a few years after there 
was very little appearance that any considerable number 
of the human race had ever dwelt there. 

The primitive languages appear to have been few in 
number, yet the dialects were very numerous and varied, 
so much as to show that the tribes in general had but 
little intercourse with each other. Whatever may have 
been their origin, the Indians of America had been so 
long separated from the rest of mankind, that by their 
physical characters they constituted a distinct race. Their 
copper color, black straight hair, beard in tufts, square 
heads, broad faces, well proportioned figures and gene- 
ral contour, are such as to be distinguished at once from 
other races of people on the earth, and the mental, moral 
and physical habits of most of the small tribes have much 
resemblance. 

The Mexicans and some of the larger tribes, such as 
the Mohawks, the Chickasaws, &c, have had their pecu- 
liar characteristics, and the Delawares, Miamies and 
Pottawatamies, long the principal tribes in this State, 
have, in later years, differed a good deal from each other. 
Their connection with the whites, in many respects very 
unfortunate for them, may have occasioned a part of this 
difference. 

Of all the European emigrants who have come to 
America, the French appear to have been the best 
adapted to gain the favor of the natives. They adopted 
at once many of their customs and soon conciliated 
their good will ; but though they avoided many of the 
difficulties in which the unyielding character of the 
Spaniards and English involved them, their colonies, in the 
end, have been far less prosperous. The active, able and 
educated Frenchman rejoiced in a few years of wild ad- 
venture, and hoped then to close his life amid the amuse- 
ments of Paris. If he could not do this, he would gain 
and guide the inclinations of the savages, and though he 
improved them, he ceased to advance with other civi- 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 85 

lized nations, and not unfrequently conformed in many 
things to the habits and customs of savage life. 

The consequence was, that the French settlements on 
the waters of the Mississippi improved but slowly, and 
even in Canada, which became more populous and 
wealthy, the standard of civilization was of a low order. 
The colonies of Spain and England aimed not to fall 
behind the parent country, and they have not, wherever 
opportunities for social or moral improvement have been 
presented to them. 

It was the magnificent scheme of France to secure the 
mouths of the St. Lawrence and Mississippi, and then, 
by chains of fortresses in the interior, control the savages 
and limit the English colonies to the east of the Alle- 
ghany. The points selected, Quebec, Montreal, Fron- 
tinac, Niagara, Pittsburgh, Detroit, Fort Wayne, Vin- 
cennes, Natchez, New Orleans, &c, show the genius and 
ability with which the plan was conceived and prosecuted, 
and it would no doubt have succeeded but for the war 
which terminated in 1763, when Canada, having been 
conquered, was ceded to England. Before this time, 
most probably about the beginning of the Century, se- 
veral points on the Wabash had been occupied, and a 
considerable French settlement had been established at 
Vincennes and another at Ouiatenon. These places had 
no doubt been often visited by the Jesuits who traversed 
the western country, »in exploring and missionary 
tours, in every direction from about the year 1650 
to the end of the century. They passed from the 
lower end of Lake Erie to the waters of the Ohio, and 
then down that river; they went up the Maumee to 
the present site of Fort Wayne, and then by a short 
portage crossed over to the waters of the Wabash; they 
passed round to Lake Michigan, up the St. Joseph, that 
empties into that Lake, and then a portage of only two 
miles took them from the place a here South Bend now 
stands to the navigable water- of the Kankakee, and 
from thence to the Illinois and Mississippi, and still other 
routes by the way of Chicago and Wisconsin were also 
travelled. 



S6 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

From the observations recorded by the Jesuits as they 
traversed these regions, it is evident that they were aware 
of their future importance; but they were few in num- 
ber, they seem to have been limited in means, they were 
seldom allowed to locate themselves permanently, and 
the few Frenchmen who accompanied or followed them 
were engaged only in trade, hunting or trapping, so that 
the tendency of the intercourse with the natives was to 
gain their favor, but otherwise to make but a slight im- 
pression. 

Neither the English nor the Spaniards, during this pe- 
riod, were doing much to increase the prosperity or ad- 
vance the growth of their colonies. The former discour- 
aged all mechanical and manufacturing labor; the latter 
attempted to monopolize all the profits of the mines, and 
both studiously endeavored to prevent all foreign com- 
merce. While this policy prevailed, enough, it would 
seem, was done by France, if the battle at Quebec had 
not been unfortunate, to have secured a far different des- 
tiny to the Mississippi Valley. 

It does not appear from the records of the Catholic 
Church at Vincennes, at what time the French settle- 
ments were made, or the Church established there. As 
early as the year 1749, their records show, however, that 
the Church had been established, and it was then under 
the care of Father Meurin. The earlier records are 
probably at Kaskaskia, where the Priest most generally 
resided. 

It appears that in 1765, on the authority of Croghan's 
Journal, quoted in Dillon's History, the only white popu- 
lation then in the bounds of this State, were eighty or 
ninety families at Yincennes, fourteen at Ouiatenon, and 
nine or ten at the Twightwee Village, near Fort Wayne, 
in all six or eight hundred souls. In 177S, thirteen years 
afterwards, Vincennes had become of considerable im- 
portance; for the Militia in the vicinity, as stated in Gen. 
Clark's memoir, were then about 400. There could not 
have been much regularity in the plan of the town, for 
even within the present century, most of the houses were 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE, 87 

built with but little reference to streets, and numbers of 
them were constructed by setting hewn logs upright in 
the ground, into which the timbers for floors and roofs 
were framed. 

Many of the descendants of the early French settlers 
yet remain in the vicinity. They are industrious and 
economical, but not enterprising, though there are excep- 
tions for some of them. Dubois, Vigo, Lasselle, and 
others, have been among the most useful and respectable 
citizens of the State. 

There are few names among the soldiers of the revo- 
lution, so fertile in heroes, that, for meritorious and ar- 
duous services, can claim to be preferred to that of 
George Rogers Clark. Others were placed in more con- 
spicuous situations, and they did not fail to perform bril- 
liant achievements. Their friends, the public and history 
gave them full credit, and a grateful country remembered 
and repaid their services with offices and honors. But 
the theatre of Gen. Clark's exploits was then a distant 
and unknown region. Other exciting occurrences at the 
time occupied the public mind, and as he was never dis- 
posed to be the herald of his own, fame, so though he 
gained an empire for his country, without any other re- 
sources than his own great mind, his merits are even now 
but imperfectly understood and appreciated. He had 
saerified his private fortune for the public good, and as 
his services were too great to be repaid, they could not 
well be acknowledged, and therefore the remnant of his life 
was spent in poverty. In a new country, rapidly im- 
proving, and amid the hurry and bustle of care and busi- 
ness, when merit and service did not claim their reward, 
they were sure to be neglected. These circumstances 
are mentioned, not as an apology, but in explanation 
why the memory of Gen. Clark has not been honored as it 
deserves. He has longsince gone where neither the praise 
nor censure of this world is of any value; but the pre- 
sent generation owe it to themselves and to those who 
attempt to serve them, that well-deserved honor, how- 
ever long delayed, should at last be awarded. 



88 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Gen. Clark was a native of Albemarle county, Vir- 
ginia, and was born in 1742. From the likeness of him, 
still preserved, his massive features must have exhibited 
strongly the peculiar traits of his character. The fol- 
lowing circumstance that occurred about the year 1786, 
is only one of the many proofs of his firmness, correct 
judgment and fertility of resources in times of danger. 
At the treaty of Fort Finney, near the mouth of the 
Miami, where the troops were only 70 in number, all 
the Indians in council appeared to be peaceable, except 
300 Shawanese, whose Chief made a boisterous speech, 
and then threw on the table, at which sat Gen. Clark 
and Gen. Richard Butler, the commissioners of the 
United States, a belt of black and white wampum, to 
intimate that he gave a challenge of war, while his 
whole tribe applauded him by a terrific whoop. General 
Clark coolly raised his cane and pushed the wampum 
from the table to the floor, then rising as the savages 
muttered their indignation, he trampled the belt under 
his feet, and with a voice of stern authority he bade 
them quit the hall instantly, which they obeyed. Sup- 
posing that Clark would not venture to treat them with 
such contempt unless he had assistance or resources near 
which they knew nothing of, they came the next day and 
made a treaty of peace. If he had faltered in the least, 
the whole party of whites would most probably have 
been butchered on the spot. 

Soon after the commencement of the Revolutionary 
war, Vincennes was occupied by the British from De- 
troit, and a fortification, called Fort Sackville, was erect- 
ed there. From this, various expeditions of the Indians 
and renegade whites were fitted out against the early 
settlers of Kentucky. So much annoyance was expe- 
rienced from this source, that Mr. Clark, then a resident 
of Kentucky, went in person to Virginia for authority 
and aid to attack the British establishments on the Wa- 
bash and Kaskaskia; but neither funds, troops nor am- 
munition were granted to him, except 500 pounds of pow- 
der which was at last obtained with much difficulty, and 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 89 

even this, after being sent by the way of Pittsburgh, did 
not reach Kentucky until some time afterwards, when it 
was brought by Clark in person. The first visit to Vir- 
ginia was made in 1776. A second visit was made the 
next year and, after much delay, Clark was appointed a 
Colonel, a grant was made to him of £1,200, or $4,000, 
of depreciated currency, for the use of the expedition, 
and he received authority to raise men, and an order for 
boats and ammunition at Pittsburgh. As there was then 
a dispute about the boundaries of Pennsylvania and Vir- 
ginia, he found it difficult to raise men in that quarter, 
and as it was necessary to conceal his real objects, lest 
the enemy should be advised of and provide against them, 
his difficulties were thereby much increased. Even when 
he and his friends had raised men on the Holston, and 
other places, and they had collected at the Falls of the 
Ohio, a part of them deserted him when they were in- 
formed of his designs. With his little force, consisting 
of only four companies, commanded by Captains Mont- 
gomery, Bowman, Helm and Harrod, he left his encamp- 
ment, on an Island at the Falls, in boats for Kaskaskia, 
on the 24th June, 1778. By the most prudent manage- 
ment, not less daring than cautious, he succeeded in sur- 
prising Kaskaskia and taking it without loss, and then 
the other French villages in the vicinity. The French 
population, from the most prejudiced and bitter enemies, 
were soon converted into zealous and active friends. By 
their means Vincennes surrendered also, and the French 
settlers there took the oath of allegiance to the United 
States. But after leaving garrisons at Kaskaskia and 
Cahokia, and sending back a part of his troops whose 
time had expired, he could only spare Capt. Helm for 
Vincennes, who, almost without assistance, was to be 
Commandant of the Post and Agent for Indian Affairs 
in the Department of the Wabash. 

Capt. Helm was well qualified for the arduous station, 

and he did much to conciliate the French and Indians of 

the vicinity; but on the 15th December, 1778, Governor 

Hamilton, of Detroit, came down the Wabash with a 

7 



90 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

force of 80 whites and 400 Indians, and Captain Helm, 
being alone in the fort, was compelled to surrender. The 
French who were friendly to the United States were dis- 
armed, the fort was strengthened and mounted with can- 
non, and preparations were made for a campaign in the 
spring, in which Clark and his forces, now become very 
weak, w r ere to be driven from Kaskaskia, and then the 
settlements in Kentucky were to be attacked in detail. 
If Clark had not anticipated this plan, and the force of 
western and southern Indians could have been collected 
as was arranged, it is not unlikely that the Ohio river, if 
not the Alleghany mountains, would have been the west- 
ern boundary of the United States. But seeing the im- 
portance of the emergency, he was at once equal to it. 
He collected his small force of only 170 men, and set 
out from Kaskaskia on the 5th February, 1779, to attack 
the British force, which was sheltered in the fort at Vin- 
cennes. In mid winter, the season uncommonly wet, he 
made his way to the Little Wabash in eight days, with 
no great difficulty, although a large part of the country 
was covered with water. But from that place to Vin- 
cennes, the extensive bottoms, or drowned lands, which 
reached almost from one stream to another, were covered 
with water from three to five feet deep, and day after 
day, for eight days more, these bold and determined men 
waded, except where some of the numerous tributaries 
of the Wabash were to be crossed in hastily constructed 
canoes, or where dry ground, large enough for the en- 
campments at night, could scarcely be found. For the 
three last days the only provision for the whole band 
was a single deer killed by the hunters. While the 
strongest of the party w r ere wading, the w r eaker, and 
those who gave out from time to time, were taken into 
the canoes. Fortunately, the circumstances so unfavor- 
able to Clark and his party, threw Gov. Hamilton and 
the garrison entirely off their guard, and as the French 
were generally friendly to the designs of Clark, the Wa- 
bash then rolling a flood that covered its widest bottoms, 
was crossed, and the fort completely invested before the 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 91 

enemy were aware of his approach. For three days the 
siege continued, and as Clark and his Spartan band had 
placed themselves under cover, they did not suffer an 
embrasure to be opened without firing into it at once and 
driving from the guns every man within. Seven of the 
garrison were severely wounded, and so warmly was the 
firing kept up night and day, that not one of them could 
expose himself at any point without suffering instantly 
from the marksmen without. So important was it to 
obtain possession of the fort before the Indians should 
assemble, or a reinforcement then on its way from De- 
troit, should arrive to aid the besieged, that it would 
have been taken by storm if it had not surrendered. 
This result put an end, for the time, to the Indian hostili- 
ties and to the extensive combination that had been ar- 
ranged for all the Western and South-western Indians to 
sweep from the country all the white settlements west 
of the Alleghany. The capture of the fort was followed 
up on the next day by an expedition up the Wabash, in 
three armed boats, under the command of Capt. Helm, 
Major Bussero, and Major Legras, to intercept a party 
on their way down the river, with provisions and goods 
from Detroit. This also was attended with complete 
success, and property to the value of $33,000 was taken. 
This merchandise, which would have been employed in 
stimulating the Indians to hostilities, was, in part, con- 
verted into the means of gaining their friendship, and 
partly to pay the private soldiers for their fatigues and 
exposure, arduous beyond all precedent. The officers 
received nothing but a few articles of clothing. It was 
Clark's intention to proceed at once and take possession 
of Detroit, which was then held only by a small force, 
and the French inhabitants there were friendly; but to 
secure his prisoners, guard the posts he had taken, and 
provide for conciliating the Indians, left nothing further 
within his power. Soon after this the country from 
Kaskaskia to Vincennes was organized as a part of Vir- 
ginia, under the name of the County of Illinois. 

In 1781, there was a Spanish expedition of sixty-five 



92 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

men from St. Louis, against the St. Joseph, then a British 
post in North Indiana ; but as this point was far in the inte- 
rior, and of no territorial importance, it was supposed to 
be merely an attempt at occupancy that Spain might, at 
a future day, claim some portion of the country east of 
the Mississippi. 

In 1782, Capt. Laughery, with 107 men, from Penn- 
sylvania, in passing down the Ohio river, in boats, to 
join Gen. Clark's forces at Louisville, was enticed on 
shore, near the creek since called by his name, and the 
w r hole party were killed or captured by the Indians. It 
has been stated that a white man, pretending to be in 
distress, was the agent for decoying his countrymen into 
the ambush. 

In 17S3, the State of Virginia, being without funds to 
keep up her army in the west, withdrew Gen. Clark's 
commission, tendering him, however, "thanks for his 
great and singular services," the most of which are not 
here referred to, as they were not rendered within the 
bounds of the State. In the distribution of lands for 
revolutionary services, Col. Clark's regiment were allowed 
150,000 acres north of the Ohio, which they located oppo- 
site the falls, and the town of Clarksville was then founded. 

The same year the State of Virginia relinquished her 
claim to the territory north-west of the Ohio, requiring, 
however, that the grant to Clark's regiment, and the 
rights and privileges of the French settlers near Vin- 
cennes, should be confirmed. From this time, all settle- 
ments on Indian lands, and also private purchases of 
lands from the Indians, were forbidden by Congress. 
Various attempts were made, in the meantime, to nego- 
tiate treaties, and though some of them were successful, 
yet the jealousy of the Indians, and the restless spirit of 
many of the emigrants, did not allow of permanent tran- 
quillity. 

During the years 1785-6, there were frequent skir- 
mishes between the whites and Indians near Vincennes, 
in which a considerable number of lives were lost, and 
in the latter year an expedition, under Gen. Clark, with 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 93 

about a thousand men, was undertaken against Ouiate- 
non, one of the Indian towns near the mouth of the VVea; 
but after advancing as far as Vermillion River, 100 miles 
above Vincennes, the whole party returned without 
effecting any thing. The want of provisions, the insub- 
ordination of the troops, and intemperate habits which 
it is said Gen. Clark indulged in, from the neglect of the 
government to settle his claims, were alleged as the 
causes of the failure of the expedition. 

About this time the difficulties with Spain, then in pos- 
session of Louisiana, in reference to the navigation of 
the Mississippi, became a matter of much interest in the 
west. So hopeless was the prospect of obtaining it ami- 
cably, that many good citizens were disposed to embroil 
the two countries in war. For this purpose, it was sup- 
posed by some, that Gen. Clark proceeded to appropriate 
to public use the goods of Spanish merchants at Vin- 
cennes. 

In 1787, the celebrated Ordinance for the government 
of the Territory north-west of the Ohio, received the sanc- 
tion of Congress, an act of more importance to this State 
and the whole region embraced by the Ohio, the Lake* 
and the Mississippi, than any that was ever adopted by 
that body. The act provided for the immediate legisla- 
tion and government of the country; for its future divi- 
sion, at proper times, into independent States of the Union, 
and that there should never be either slavery or invol- 
untary servitude within its limits. To the author of this 
Ordinance, Nathan Dane, of Beverly, Massachusetts, 
will be for ever due a debt of gratitude, growing in 
amount as the future millions of the country shall, with 
their posterity, enjoy the blessings which have been thus 
secured to them. 

Various attempts to treat with the Wabash Indians 
appear to have been made during the five years previous 
to 1790, but they were all ineffectual. Many skirmishes 
took place during this period, among which was one on 
Grant's creek, now Switzerland county, in which twenty- 
five Kentuckians attacked about sixty Indians, at first 



94 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

with every prospect of success ; but one of the three di- 
visions of the assailants, stopping to plunder the Indian 
camps, they were in the end defeated, and two brothers, 
of the name of Grant, and about half the assailing party, 
were killed. 

In April, 1790, Major Hamtramck, then commanding 
Fort Knox, at Vincennes, sent a French trader, of the 
name of Gamelin, up the Wabash to ascertain the feel- 
ings of the Indians in relation to peace. The prospect 
was not favorable, nor was it probably improved by an 
agent who did not go clothed with any authority from 
government. 

The county of Knox was laid off at this time, and for 
some years embraced what now constitutes the whole 
State. There were then at Vincennes 143 heads of fami- 
lies who had been residents of the place prior to 1783. 
No part of the population in the Territory north-west of 
the Ohio appears to have been embraced in the Census of 
1790. Kentucky, at that time, had a population of 
73,077, and Tennessee of 35,791. The frequent mur- 
ders of whites by the Indians along the Ohio river, and 
the failure of all attempts at negotiation, occasioned the 
expedition of Gen. Harmer, in the autumn of this year, 
against the Indian towns near the head of the Wabash 
and Maumee. A call had been made upon Virginia for 
1,000 militia, upon Pennsylvania for 500, and it was 
expected that 300 more would be assembled at Fort 
Steuben, (Jefferson ville) to aid the troops from Vincennes, 
and 1,200 more were to march from Wheeling and Cin- 
cinnati. With much difficulty, a force of 1,133 militia 
and 320 regulars were collected at Cincinnati, who 
marched thence on the 26th September. They succeed- 
ed in reaching the towns at the head of the Maumee, 
burned the principal town and five other villages, with 
the crops of the Indians, amounting, it was estimated, to 
20,000 bushels of corn; but by carelessness, their pack 
horses were stolen, which prevented their going further ; 
the regulars and militia did not act in concert ; the prin- 
cipal officers were on bad terms with each other, and in 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 95 

two battles, fought on the 19th and 22d October, the lat- 
ter near the present site of Fort Wayne, the loss was 
severe on both sides. The victory was claimed by the 
whites as well as the Indians; but as the former soon 
after retreated, and the latter did not pursue, there was 
not much justice in the claims of either. That so little 
was effected after so much preparation, was, on the 
whole, very unfavorable to the United States. Of their 
troops, 183 were killed and 31 wounded. Major Ham- 
tramck, at the same time, marched from Vincennes as 
far as the mouth of the Vermillion, and destroyed a 
number of the deserted villages, but met with no opposi- 
tion. 

The Indian depredations being still continued, two ex- 
peditions were undertaken, in 1791, against the tribes re- 
siding on the waters of the Wabash. The first, consisting 
of 800 mounted men, commanded by Gen. Scott, of 
Kentucky, crossed the Ohio at the mouth of the Ken- 
tucky river, on the 23d of May. With this force he 
attacked and destroyed the towns at the mouth of the 
Wea, on both sides of the Wabash ; sent a detachment 
eighteen miles to the town of Kith Tipecanonck, or as it 
has since been called, Tippecanoe, and destroyed the 
town. The horses having been disabled by their long 
march, this trip of 36 miles was made on foot by 360 
men, in twelve hours, and the object effected. 

The distance travelled by the army, from the mouth of 
the Kentucky river to the mouth of the Wea, was esti- 
mated by Gen. Scott at 155 miles, which is about the 
exact distance in a straight line, and the nearest route it 
can now be travelled must rather exceed that which is 
stated to have been travelled by the army. Thirty-two 
Indians were killed and fifty-eight prisoners taken, with- 
out the loss of a man, five only having been wounded, 
and the party returned by the way of the Falls of the 
Ohio, after an absence of twenty-three days. 

The Indian depredations still being continued, a second 
expedition was undertaken by Col. Wilkinson against 
the Indian towns on Eel river, which was also successful. 



96 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

He left Cincinnati the first of August, crossed the Wa- 
bash five miles above the present site of Logansport, or 
the mouth of Eel river, then surprised and destroyed the 
Indian towns, losing two of his own party, killing six of 
the Indians, and taking thirty-four prisoners. He then 
proceeded over to the Tippecanoe, and down to Ouiate- 
non, destroying another Indian village, and the large 
fields of corn that had been cultivated after the depar- 
ture of Gen. Scott, and then went by the same route by 
the Falls of the Ohio, making the whole distance, by 
estimate, 451 miles in 21 days. Many a traveller, in 
later times, through the same region, can testify to the 
accuracy of Col. Wilkinson's description of the difficul- 
ties he met with in marching his troops through "bogs 
almost impassable," impervious thickets, wet prairies, 
&c, in the vicinity of the Wabash, Eel river and Tippe- 
canoe. In a wet season, and a trip made in such haste, 
it is no wonder that more than half the horses were dis- 
abled. 

The expedition of St. Clair, in the fall of 1791, was 
even more unfortunate than that of Gen. Harmar; but 
the particulars will not be narrated here, as none of them 
occurred within the bounds of this State. Until the final 
victory obtained by Gen. Wayne, on the Maumee, in 
1794, Kentucky, alone, of all the western states, was in 
any measure safe from Indian depredations. The spirit 
manifested there by Scott, Wilkinson, and others, pro- 
tected that State from danger. Their expeditions, too, 
no doubt, influenced the Wabash Indians to treat with 
Gen. Rufus Putnam, at Vincennes, in 1792, while the 
other western tribes kept aloof from the Commissioners 
of the United States. 

The operations of Gen. Wayne in 1793-4, were also 
almost entirely without the limits of this State, nothing 
being done here but the construction of Fort Wayne, at 
the head of the Maumee, in September and October of 
the latter year. This fort was well situated for exercis- 
ing an important control, which it long continued, over 
the tribes in the vicinity. At the treaty of Greenville, 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 97 

which followed Wayne's victory, the Indians ceded to the 
United States, amongst other lands, the following, which 
now constitute a part of the State. 1st. A tract lying 
south-east of a line from the mouth of Kentucky river, 
running north-east to Fort Recovery, near the head of 
the Wabash, and embracing the present counties of 
Dearborn, Ohio, and parts of Switzerland, Franklin, 
Union and Wayne, and then various tracts at the head of 
the Maumee, the portage of the Wabash, and Ouiatenon. 
All claims to other lands within this State were, at that 
time, relinquished to the Indians, except the 150,000 
acres granted to Clark's regiment, the French grants, 
near Vincennes, and other lands occupied by the French, 
or other whites, to which the Indian title had been extin- 
guished. 

The first Governor of the North-w T est Territory, then 
embracing the country west of Pennsylvania, and 
bounded by the Ohio, the Lakes, and the Mississippi, 
was Gen. Arthur St. Clair, who continued to act as such 
until Ohio was formed into a State Government, which 
took place in 1802. 

The first Legislature which the people of the North- 
west Territory had any part in electing, met at Cincin- 
nati in 1799. From the nominations made by the Rep- 
resentatives, Henry Vanderburgh, of Vincennes, was 
selected by the Governor as one of the five who were to 
constitute the Legislative Council. 

In 1800, there was a division of the district by Con- 
gress, the one retaining the former name was composed 
of the present State of Ohio, a small part of Michigan, 
and a small part of Indiana, being that part in the south- 
east corner which had been ceded to the United States 
by the Indians, in the treaty of Greenville. The other 
district was denominated the Indiana Territory, and em- 
braced all the region west of the former, east of the 
Mississippi, and between the Lakes and the Ohio. The 
population of all this tract of country, by the census of 
1800, was 4,875, of which a small portion, in Clark's 
grant, was of English descent; the remainder mostly of 



98 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

French extraction, and residing at or near Kaskaskia, 
Vincennes and Detroit. 

Previous to the division of the Territory, there had 
been but one Court having cognizance of crimes, for five 
years, in the three western counties, then called St. 
Clair, Knox and Wayne, the first embracing the present 
State of Illinois, the second the most of Indiana, and the 
other the principal part of Michigan. 

In 1801, William H. Harrison was appointed Governor 
of the Indiana Territory, John Gibson, Secretary, and 
Henry Vanderburgh, Thomas T. Davis and John Griffin, 
Judges. The county of Clark was organized the same 
year, to accommodate the citizens then residing on 
Clark's grant. 

In September, IS02, Governor Harrison entered into a 
treaty, at Vincennes, with various Indian tribes, to settle 
the bounds of former cessions of lands near that place. 
This was the first of a series of negotiations which con- 
tinued fir many years, and added so much to the domain 
of the United States. 

The following extract of a letter from Gov. Harrison 
to Mr. Madison, dated, Vincennes, 1802, gives some de- 
tails of one of the land speculations of that period. '• The 
Court established at this place, under the authority of the 
State of Virginia, in the year 1780, assumed to them- 
selves the right of granting lands to every applicant. 
Having exercised this power for some time, without op- 
position, they began to conclude that their right over the 
land was supreme, and that they could, with as much 
propriety, grant to themselves as to others; accordingly, 
an arrangement was made by which the whole country 
to which the Indian title was supposed to be extinguished, 
was divided between the members of the Court, and or- 
ders to that effect were entered on their journal, each 
member absenting himself from the Court on the day the 
order was to be made in his favor, so that it might ap- 
pear to be the act of his fellows only. The authors of 
this ridiculous transaction soon found that no advantage 
could be derived from it, as they could find no purcha- 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 99 

sers, and the idea of holding any part of the land was, 
by the greater part of them abandoned; a few years 
ago, however, the claim was dicovered and a part of it 
purchased by some of those speculators who infest our 
country, and through these people a number of others, 
in different parts of the United States, have become con- 
cerned, some of whom are actually preparing to make 
settlements. The price at which the land is sold enables 
any body to become a purchaser, 1,000 acres being fre- 
quently given for an indifferent horse or a rifle gun." 

As soon as the Governor discovered the character of 
the speculation, and that purchases of large tracts were 
being made, recorded and certified as correct, he at once 
arrested them by forbidding the Recorder and Clerk to 
record or authenticate any such papers. 

The Territory of Louisiana having been purchased of 
France in 1803, was, in the following year, divided, and 
all north of the 33d deg. of latitude was placed under 
the care of the Governor of the Indiana Territory. 
There was, however, no considerable settlements of 
whites in this whole region of country, except in the 
vicinity of St. Louis and New Madrid. 

The treaty of St. Louis, made by Gov. Harrison in 
1804, with the Delawares, Piankeshaws, Kaskaskias, and 
with the Sacs and Foxes, provided for the cession of an 
immense tract of country, from the Ohio to the Wabash, 
and between the Illinois, Mississippi and Fox rivers, in 
all about 50,000,000 acres. Portions of this land, how- 
ever, as much of the other Indian lands, have been from 
time to time claimed by other tribes, and, in general, 
their right also has been subsequently purchased, for it 
has been the policy of the General Government to quiet 
all claims peaceably, as far as possible. 

In 1805, Michigan was made a separate Territory, 
and the same year the first Legislature for the Indiana 
Territory was assembled at Vincennes. Until this time, 
the laws for the government of the Territory were, from 
time to time, as occasion required, adopted and published 
by the Governor and Judges, to be in force until disap- 



100 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

proved by Congress, and all the county officers and mili- 
tia officers, below the grade of General, were appointed 
and commissioned by the Governor. 

The ordinance prohibiting slavery in the Territory was 
not, at first, acceptable to all the people residing in it; 
for in 1796, four of the citizens of Kaskaskia petitioned 
Congress that slavery might be allowed there, but the 
petition was rejected. The subject was brought before 
Congress again in 1803, and reported against by Mr. 
Randolph. It came up again in 1806-7, on the petition 
of the Council and House of Representatives of the In- 
diana Territory, and the lower House of Congress ap- 
pear to have adopted a resolution, suspending in a quali- 
fied manner, the article of the ordinance in relation to 
slavery, for ten years; but the Senate refusing to concur, 
the resolution did not take effect. 

It is apparent, from the early legislation of the Terri- 
tory, that slavery, to some extent, had been covertly in- 
troduced, and that the privilege of holding slaves was 
then regarded favorably by the majority of those in 
power. At the first session of the Territorial Legisla- 
ture, and again at that of 1807, a law was passed to 
authorize bringing Negroes into the Territory, the males 
to be apprenticed until they were thirty-five years old, 
and females until they were thirty-two years old. Chil- 
dren of colored persons, born in the Territory, might 
also be apprenticed until the males were thirty and the 
females twenty-eight years old. At the session of 1806, 
a law was passed authorizing slaves found ten miles from 
home, without permission of their masters, to be taken 
up and whipped twenty-five lashes. 

The practice of apprenticing Negroes, so that they 
could be held in a species of involuntary service, even 
after they ceased to be minors, was not finally relin- 
quished until after the adoption of the State Constitution, 
when the Supreme Court of the State decided these ap- 
prenticeships unconstitutional. See Blackf. Rep. 122. 

The Borough of Vincennes was incorporated in 18C5, 
and the same year an act was passed incorporating Ben- 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 101 

jamin Hovey, Josiah Stevens, and others, to make a 
canal round the Falls of the Ohio, on the Indiana side. 
It was stated to the writer of this article, some thirty 
years since, by a gentleman in every respect credible, 
and who ought to have known the facts, that the name 
of Aaron Burr was used in obtaining this charter, and 
that he was expected to assist in completing the work. 
It is known that Col. Burr was at Jefferson ville, Vin- 
cennes and St. Louis about this time, and that believing 
his objects to be laudable, Davis Floyd, then a member 
of the Legislature, and afterwards a Judge in this State 
and in Florida, as well as many other estimable citizens 
of the western country, were ardent admirers of Col. 
Burr at the outset. In addition to Judge Floyd, Col. R. 
A. New, the first Secretary of State for Indiana, and 
the late A. Ralston, Esq., of Indianapolis, a much re- 
spected citizen, were in the expedition. The former 
once stated that he was present when Burr was first in- 
formed of Wilkinson's disclosures, and his only remark 
was, " what a precious rascal !" On his return from the 
expedition, Judge Floyd, who, it was said, was to have 
been one of Burr's principal officers, was indicted for a 
misdemeanor, and, on being convicted, was sentenced to 
be imprisoned for half an hour. 

At the session of 1805, John Johnson and John Rice 
Jones were appointed to revise the laws of the Territory, 
and their labors resulted in the Code adopted in 1807, 
and printed by Stout and Smoot, of Vincennes, in a 
volume of 540 pages. The matter of that volume, as 
the type was large, would about equal 225 pages of the 
Revised Code of 1843. 

There were then five counties in the Territory, Knox, 
Dearborn and Clark, within the present bounds of this 
State, and St. Clair and Randolph within those of Illi- 
nois. 

In 1807, a Census of the free white males of the Ter- 
ritory, over twenty-one years of age, was taken, by 
which it appears that the number then in Knox county 



102 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

was 1,080, in Clark county 828, and in Dearborn county 
616, in all 2,524, making a population of about 12,000 
within the limits of this State. Of the names returned 
from Knox county, about 200 seem to be of French deV 
rivation. " 

At the session of 1808, the county of Harrison was 
formed, and an apportionment of the Representatives to 
^*he Legislature was made, by which three members were 
/to be elected from the county of Knox, one from the 
county of Harrison, two from the county of Clark, and 
three from Dearborn county, nine in all. . The Territory 
was divided in 1809, and the western part denominated 
Illinois, after the tribe of Indians who had formerly in- 
habited it. The boundary then, as now, was the lower 
Wabash, and a line running north from Vincennes, 
where it last leaves the Wabash. 

About this time, Tecumseh and his brother, the Pro- 
phet, were engaged in extending their influence over va- 
rious tribes of the western Indians, at first professing 
merely to reform their bad habits. They had recently 
removed to the banks of the Tippecanoe, where land had 
been granted to them by the Pottawatamies and Kicka- 
poos. The Prophet, who had beea suspected by Gov. 
Harrison, paid him a visit of two weeks at Vincennes, 
and succeeded in quieting his suspicions; but when they 
met again, the following year, the Governor became con- 
vinced of his treachery, and that through his means and 
the influence of British agents, many of the Indian tribes 
were becoming hostile to the United States. 

In the fall of 1809, Gov. Harrison succeeded in ob- 
taining a further cession of lands on the Wabash, from 
the Delawares, Pottawatamies, and other tribes, who 
claimed them. The Shawanees, however, protested 
against one of the treaties, and Tecumseh availed him- 
self of this occurrence to increase the irritation of the 
Indians against the whites. 
t^ In 1810, the counties of Franklin, Wayne and Jeffer- 
son were formed, each to have one member in the House 



T 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 103 

of Representatives, the two former out of the three pre- 
viously allotted to Dearborn, and the latter out of the 
two allotted to Clark county. 

Many of the laws, records, and other papers relating 
to the early business of the Territory, are not to be found 
in the office of the Secretary of State, where they should 
have been filed. Only four of the manuscript copies of 
the Legislative Journals, (for they were not then printed) 
between 1S05 and 1S16, can now be found, and some of 
the original enrolled laws have been lost or mislaid. 
Whether this has happened in some of the various re- 
movals of these papers, or whether a part of the bundles 
were given over to Illinois when the Territory was di- 
vided, there is nothing to show. If the latter took place, 
there could not have been much discrimination in mak- 
ing the division. 

In searching for old documents, the writer has been 
forcibly reminded of a circumstance that occurred about 
twenty-seven years ago, at Corydon. Some clerk had 
complained of being troubled with useless papers, and a 
committee was appointed, by the House of Representa- 
tives, to select and burn papers of this description. Soon 
after the task assigned to the committee was performed, 
the late Gen. E. Harrison wished to hunt up a paper 
relating to a divorce bill that had been passed, and on 
being told of its fate, he was much irritated, and de- 
nounced the committee as being no more fit for their 
business than hogs for a parlor. 

The plans of Tecurmeh were still advancing and be- 
coming more apparent. In a council held at Vincennes, 
he refused to take a chair, stating that as the "earth was 
his mother, he preferred to repose on her bosom," as he 
threw himself on the ground. Some parts of his speech 
were, at the time, thought to be very eloquent; but when 
Gov. Harrison replied, he became angry, and had not 
Gen. Gibson understood his language, and sent for the 
guard, it was supposed a contest would have commenced, 
and the whites present, not being armed, would have 
been massacred. The council was thus broken up; but 



104 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

as Tecumseh's object might have been doubted, he was 
only commanded to leave Vincennes immediately. 

In December, 1S10, an act passed the Territorial Le- 
gislature to incorporate the "Ohio Steamboat Navigation 
Company," by which Daniel D. Tompkins, Robert R. 
Livingston, Dewit Clinton, Robert Fulton, and Nicholas 
J. Roosevelt, were made a body corporate for the pur- 
pose of navigating the western waters under Fulton and 
Livingston's patent. At the same time, Wm. Prince, 
John Hadden, James Smith, Harvy Heth, Davis Floyd, 
Wm. McFarland, Benj. McCarty, Richard Maxwell and 
Elijah Sparks, were appointed commissioners to select a 
site for the permanent Seat of Government for the Ter- 
ritory ; but it does not appear that their action led to 
any specific result. By the law under which they were 
appointed, it appears that the East Fork of White river 
was then called the Embarras Fork. 

The difficulties with the Indians continued to increase 
in 1811. As there was also a prospect of war with 
Great Britain, at the same time, many of the British 
agents in Canada and the north-west, were active in 
increasing the excitement, so that all the efforts of Gov. 
Harrison to restore good feeling, were fruitless. Tecum- 
seh, indeed, paid him a visit at Vincennes in July; but 
as he came with three hundred followers, and Harrison 
was surrounded also with an armed force, there was no 
disposition to conciliate, and no opportunity to take ad- 
vantage, and though they parted apparently in peace, 
they were still more exasperated against each other. 

When they separated, Tecumseh went south to enlist 
the Creeks, as was supposed, in his cause, and Harrison 
finding that delay only was aimed at, marched slowly up 
the Wabash, determined either to enforce the treaty of 
Greenville, or make some new arrangement that would 
secure the frontiers of the Territory from constant alarm. 

On his way he erected and garrisoned Fort Harrison, 
sixty-five miles from Vincennes and three miles from the 
present site of Terre Haute, and he built a block-house 
for the protection of his boats and baggage, at the cross- 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 105 

ing of the Vermillion, thirty-five miles still further up the 
Wabash. Though repeatedly visited by the Indians on 
his route, their object was not peace, and so apparent 
was their hostility, that the French traders, who for 
years had been intimate with them, were not willing to 
visit them and propose negotiation. This state of things 
continued until the evening of the 6th November, when 
Gov. Harrison with troopsJ^etween 700 and 800 in num- 
ber, encamped [on a little stream called Burnet's creek, 
eight miles from the present site of Lafayette, and 155 
miles from Vincennes. 

" , The encampment was on about three acres of dry 
barrens, on a triangular spot of ground rather larger, 
lying between a wet prairie on the east and Burnet's 
creek on the west, which formed a junction on the 
south at an angle of about fifty degrees. The banks of 
the creek rise abruptly about twenty feet to a level with 
the encampment, and were then and still are covered 
thickly with brush; but the bank towards the prairie, 
and at the point, are not so steep. The place where the 
troops were encamped was thinly covered with oak trees, 
many of them still bearing the marks of the severe con- 
test which took place the morning of the 7th November. 
From the character of the ground, it was natural that both 
the whites and Indians should overshoot each other, and 
that the latter did so, was evident from the marks of the 
bullets, long afterwards apparent, high in the trees. 

The attack commenced at a quarter past four in the 
morning, immediately after the Governor had risen to 
prepare for the business of the day. But a single gun 
was fired by the sentinels, or by the guard, in the direc- 
tion of the attack, but they at once retreated into the 
camp. As the troops were sleeping on their arms, they 
were soon at their stations, though the war-whoop and 
the attack so soon followed the first alarm, that the lines 
were broken in several places, and one of the companies, 
Capt. Robb's, was either driven, or ordered by mistake, 
from its position in the line towards the centre of the 
camp. The want of concert among the Indians, and 
8 



106 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

their irregular mode of warfare, did not allow them to 
take full advantage of their own success, or of the blun- 
ders of their opponents, so that as the resistance was 
very obstinate along the most of the line, they were, in 
the end, obliged to retreat in great haste. Indian war- 
fare has usually been found terrible to a retreating enemy: 
but steady and continued resistance has rarely been over- 
come. The activity of Gov. Harrison, the bravery of 
the regular troops, and the unyielding firmness of most 
of the volunteers kept the enemy at bay until they were 
successfully resisted at all points. A few of them, in- 
deed, broke through the lines and attacked the troops as 
they came out of their tents; but, contending singly, 
they were soon cut down. About forty of them were 
killed on the spot, and their wounded were carried off. 
Of the whites sixty-two were killed or mortally wounded, 
and one hundred and twenty-six others were wounded. 

Among the slain, who were much lamented, were 
Maj. Daviess and Col. Owen, of Kentucky, Capt. Spen- 
cer and his two Lieutenants, McMahan and Berry; 
Capt. Warrick and Col. White, then superintendent of 
the United States' Saline lands, near Shawneetown, 
and Thomas Randolph, Esq., former Attorney General of 
the Territory. The two latter served merely as privates 
on this occasion. 

Of the regular troops, twenty were killed and fifty- 
seven wounded. Among the former was Capt. W. C. 
Baen, acting as Major. After burning the town in the 
vicinity, which had been abandoned by the Indians, the 
army returned to Vincennes, which they reached on the 
17th November. The result of the expedition was 
favorable to the peace of the frontiers, which, for seve- 
ral months after, were not disturbed by incursions of the 
enemy. 

( In the month of October, 1811, the first steamboat 

/ ever built on the western waters, left Pittsburgh for New 

/ Orleans, under the charge of N. J. Roosevelt, one of the 

company that had been incorporated the previous year. 

/ There were then no wood-yards, yet as coal was found 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 107 

on the first part of the route, and also about one hun- 
dred miles below the Falls, the first adventure was suc- 
cessful. The boat, though incapable of much speed, 
seems to have gone down the stream at the rate of about 
eight miles an hour, and met with no special difficulty, 
except a month's detention at Louisville, for high water 
to pass over the Falls. As Steamboats were then rare, 
even in the east, and still less known in the west, many 
strange reports were circulated in relation to the noises, 
then heard for the first time, by the people thinly scat- 
tered through the dense forests near the river. It is said 
that they were accounted for, in some instances, by the 
supposition that a burning Comet had suddenly fallen 
into the river. 

The great Earthquake followed shortly after. On the 
16th of December, and at intervals for two months, the 
whole region of the Mississippi valley was convulsed ; 
lands sunk and became lakes; the beds of lakes were 
raised and became dry land ; rivers changed their chan- 
nels; boats on the river were sunk; much property was 
destroyed and many lives lost. So much of this State 
was then unsettled, that little can be known of the effects 
of the different shocks upon it. Five years after, they 
were visible in several of the good buildings in Louis"- 
ville, and a gentleman now at my side well recollects 
seeing the trees of the forest, in Clark county, in a per- 
fect calm, move and interlock with each other, as if they 
were agitated by a violent tempest. This took place 
about four hundred miles from New Madrid, where the 
effects were the most violent. 

In the meantime, the superstitious, and such as were 
fond of the marvellous, circulated the most incredible 
stories, which, for a time, had their influence. It is 
said that while these feelings prevailed, a Kentucky 
trader, floating down the Ohio, near the mouth of the 
Wabash, in his flat-boat, was hailed from the shore and 
informed that it was not safe to go any further down, for 
a little below the whole river pitched into a terrible hole 
that had lately been made by an earthquake. "Hard at 



108 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

the oars, boys," said the Kentuckian; "let us land and 
inquire more about it." As he approached the shore, he 
concluded to ask the name of his informant, which was 
told him. On hearing the name, he called out to his 
men, "back water, we'll not land; he's the biggest liar 
that ever left Kentuck." 

The war with Great Britain commenced in June, 1812, 
and tended still further to increase the hostility of the 
Indians, by supplying them with the means of more effi- 
cient warfare. At the time of the surrender of Detroit, 
which took place 16th August, 1812, Capt. Heald, the 
commander of Fort Dearborn, at Chicago, was directed 
by Gen. Hull to abandon that post and proceed to Fort 
Wayne, by land. Capt. Wells, of Fort Wayne, was 
sent" as an escort, with a small force of Miami Indians, 
supposed to be friendly. To conciliate the Indians in the 
vicinity, a large number of whom had assembled on the 
occasion, Capt. Heald, previous to his departure, distri- 
buted among them the public stores, except the ammuni- 
tion and whiskey, which were destroyed. This gave 
offence, and he had scarcely set out on his march, with 
fifty-four regulars, twelve militia and fourteen women 
and children, when they were attacked from behind a 
sand bank as they marched, and forty-one of their num- 
ber were killed. The remainder surrendered on promise 
of their lives, having resisted the whole force of five hun- 
dred Indians, of whom fifteen were killed, until they re- 
ceived this assurance. Capt. Wells was among the slain, 
and his body much mutilated, his Indian allies, the 
Miamies, having deserted him at the outset. The Indian 
force, consisting mostly of Pottawatamies, proceeded to 
attack Fort Wayne, and they blockaded it from the 28th 
August to the 16th September, when it was relieved by 
a detachment from the army of Gen. Harrison. This 
station, and that at Fort Harrison, on the Wabash, were 
then the only remaining fortresses in the Indian country. 
The latter, commanded by Capt. Taylor, now the Presi- 
dent of the United States, was attacked during the night 
of the 4th of September, by a large body of Indians, 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 109 

who succeeded in setting fire to the block-housej con- 
taining the stores, and for some time it would seem that 
all efforts at defence must be unavailing. The Captain 
himself had just risen from a severe attack of lever, and 
more than half his men were disabled, or nearly so, from 
sickness. So great was the alarm occasioned by the 
night attack, the screams of several hundred Indians, and 
the fire that threatened to destroy the whole fort, that 
two of the garrison jumped the pickets and attempted to 
escape, and many of the others were so nearly paralyzed 
as to be almost incapable of making any resistance. The 
Captain, however, was every where present, and took 
part in all the labor and danger. Water was brought, 
and the roof thrown off to prevent the extension of the 
fire, and a breast work was erected in the rear of the^ 
block-house, as soon as it was consumed. The attack 
continued for seven hours, until day-light, when the In- 
dians retreated out of the reach of the guns of the fort, 
and commenced killing the horses and stock of the inha- , 
bitants on the prairie. Only two persons were killed in 
the fort ; one of those who attempted to escape was cut 
to pieces a short distance from it, and the other was 
received back in the morning, badly wounded. The In- 
dians continued about the fort for a week after, to take 
any advantage, if an opportunity should occur. All 
communication with Vincennes, by the river, was cut 
off, and it was only after some days that two individuals, 
one of them the late Judge Floyd, were able to pass 
through the Indians by night, escape to the settlements, 
and give notice of the danger. 

The bravery and good conduct of Capt. Taylor, who 
was ably assisted by Dr. Clark, saved the fort, and thus 
protected the country behind it from general devasta- 
tion. 

Almost at the same time that Forts Harrison and . 
Wayne were besieged, an attack was made by Indians, I 
previously friendly, on the Pigeon Roost settlement, 
within the present bounds of Scott county, and twenty- 
four persons, mostly women and children, were massa- 



110 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

cred. The only persons who escaped were a part of the 
family of a Mr. Collins, who defended their house suc- 
cessfully with their rifles, and a Mrs. Beadle and her two 
young children, who at first concealed themselves in a 
sink hole, and when the Indians were engaged in plun- 
dering and burning the houses, escaped on foot six miles, 
to the nearest settlement, and carried the first news of 
the calamity. A large force was soon collected from 
Charlestown and its vicinity, and the Indians were pur- 
sued; but they had escaped over the Muscatitac, and 
though they were then in sight, the waters of the river 
were so high that they could not be pursued further with 
any prospect of advantage. The half-burned and other- 
wise mutilated bodies at the place of the massacre, and 
the still burning houses and furniture, presented such 
features of the horrible as had never before been wit- 
nessed by those who were present. 

The Indian depredations still continuing, Gen. Hop- 
kins, of Kentucky, in October, 1812, led an expedition 
of 2,000 mounted volunteers, from Vincennes, against 
the Kickapoo villages in Illinois, but returned without 
effecting any thing; and in November he led a second 
expedition of 1,250 men, up the east side of the Wabash, 
as far as Tippecanoe, and destroyed the Indian towns 
there, which they had previously evacuated. A company 
of sixty horsemen, under the command of Lieutenant 
Colonels Miller and Wilcox, were, on the 22d Novem- 
ber, drawn into an ambuscade, and eighteen of their 
number killed. The weather having become intensely 
cold, the Indians dispersed, and the expedition returned 
to Vincennes. 

On the 18th of same month, Col. Campbell, with a 
force of 600 men, set out from Franklinton, Ohio, against 
the Indian towns on the Mississinnewa. He succeeded 
in capturing thirty-seven prisoners, killing between thirty 
and forty, and burning three of the villages, in which, 
however, there was very little valuable property. Two 
officers and six privates were killed, and twenty-six 
others wounded. As Tecumseh was said to be near, 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. Ill 

with a large force, Col. Campbell's party returned in 
haste to Ohio. 

These various expeditions were not without good re- 
sults, as several of the tribes submitted to the protection of 
the government, and Tecumseh and the most warlike and 
intractable of the savages, withdrew soon after from the 
Territory, and submitted themselves entirely to the Bri- 
tish control. Richardville,the civil Chief of the Miamies, 
had always been an earnest advocate of peace, and so 
much had his views in this respect offended Tecumseh, 
that his life was repeatedly assailed. ^ 

In 1813, an act passed the Territorial Legislature to \ 
remove the Seat of Government from Vincennes to Co- >f 
rydon, and the next year the counties of Gibson and ^) 
Warrick were organized. 

Gov. Harrison having been appointed, in the fall of 
1812, to command the North-western army, Thomas 
Posey, an officer of the Revolution, and afterwards a 
Brigadier General in Wayne's army, was appointed Go- 
vernor of the Territory. No further interesting military 
occurrences appear to have taken place within the 
bounds of this Slate during the continuance of the war 
with England, which terminated early in the year 
1815. There were occasional skirmishes with the In- 
dians on the frontiers; several individuals were murdered 
by them, and horses were frequently stolen. The militia 
or rangers, as they were called, were often out to scour 
the woods and guard against surprise; every exposed 
neighborhood had its block-house, defended with pickets, 
to retreat to in case of alarm, and never did persons 
exist more resolute to defend themselves in times of dan- 
ger, or more generous to assist the sick or the suffering, 
than could be found along the whole borders of the ex- 
posed settlements of the Territory. In making out their 
accounts against the government, they were, however, 
sometimes accused of keeping in view the wants to be 
supplied, rather than the services they had rendered. 

The administration of justice, in those times, was fre- 
quently of the most primitive character. If an individual 



112 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

or family disturbed the peace of the neighborhood, they 
received a notice to remove by a set time, and if they 
failed to do so, which was not often the case, as they well 
knew the consequences, they were then regulated, as it 
was called. The beech or hickory limb was administered, 
or the cabin roof was quietly removed, and if these did 
not answer, the levelling the whole with the ground did 
not fail to convince them that it was useless to contend 
with public opinion. The proceedings in such cases were 
very unlike those of the mobs collected in cities, for the 
first feeling of a citizen of the west, in those times, was 
at once to join with the weaker party, and to give it up 
only on being convinced that neither justice nor gene- 
rosity required its defence. 

At later periods, and in other parts of the western 
country, there have been, no doubt, great abuses of at- 
tempted regulation; but it is not understood that there 
have been amongst us. In fact, attempts of the kind 
have ceased for many years, except occasionally, when 
an unkind husband is feelingly reminded of his duty to 
his wife. 

The counties of Washington, Perry, Switzerland and 
Posey, were organized in 1814, and the law creating 
Jackson and Orange parsed in 1S15. The increase of 
population and wealth, during the war, was continued, 
though it was not rapid. 

In 1814, it was thought advisable to charter the Bank 
of Vincennes, and the Farmers and Mechanics Bank, of 
Madison. Both these institutions were managed, at first, 
with much prudence. 

The restoration of peace with Great Britain and the 
Indians, in 1815, and the purchase of additional lands 
from the latter, brought a great increase of population to 
the Territory, and an application was made to Congress 
for the privilege of admission into the Union as an inde- 
pendent State. This privilege was granted by an act of 
Congress, passed April 19, 1816, by which the delegates 
to a Convention were to be elected the second Monday 
of May, for the formation of a Constitution. The popu- 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 113 

lation of the Territory was then about 65,000, eighteen 
counties had been organized, and two more, Jackson and 
Orange, provided for. 

Of the state of things in the Territory, previous to the 
formation of the State Constitution, there is very little 
remaining, even to this time, to give us correct ideas. 
Of the first Judges appointed by the President of the 
United States, Henry Vanderburgh, Thomas T.Davis and 
John Griffin, who, with the Governor, made all the laws 
for the Territory until 1806, the two former were dead, 
and the latter, a native of Scotland, had returned to that 
country to take possession of a fortune left to him there. 
Elijah Sparks, also subsequently a Judge, and a candi- 
date for Congress in 1814, was dead. But Judges Park, 
Noble, Holman and Taylor, lived for many years to hold 
distinguished offices in the State; and Judge Scott, a 
Speaker of the House of Representatives, then a Judge 
of the Territory, and afterwards, for fourteen years, a 
Judge of the Supreme Court of the State, is still alive; 
so also is Jesse B. Thomas, the second member of Con- 
gress from the Territory, who was afterwards a Judge 
and Senator in Congress from Illinois. The first mem- 
ber of Congress from the Indiana Territory, was Benja- 
min Parke; then Mr. Thomas; then, from 1810 to 
1816, Jonathan Jennings, who was opposed, at the first 
election, by Thomas Randolph, at the second by Waller 
Taylor, and at the third by Judge Sparks, All these 
men were active and public spirited, and the most of 
them would compare favorably with the leading lawyers 
and politicians of their time. 

In the Convention that formed the Constitution, there 
were four delegates from the county of Wayne, which 
then embraced a part of Union, a part of Randolph, and 
of its present limits only to the Indian boundary, which 
ran east of Centreville. Franklin, which, in addition to 
its present limits, was then composed of a part of Fay- 
ette and Union, had four delegates; Dearborn, embrac- 
ing Ohio county, had three ; Switzerland, one ; Jefferson, 
three; Clark, five; Harrison, five; Washington, five; 



114 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Knox, five; Gibson, four; Perry, Warrick and Posey, 
each one ; forty-one in all. Jonathan Jennings, of Clark 
county, was elected President of the Convention, and 
William Hendricks, of Madison, Secretary. The Con- 
vention continued in session from the 10th to the 29th of 
June, 1816, when the present Constitution was adopted, 
which has continued to this time without alteration. 

Until the close of the Territorial government, more 
than three-fourths of the State was in possession of the 
Indians, or had been so recently purchased as not to have 
been surveyed and exposed to sale. The maps of the 
State, even as late as ISIS, represented the Indian 
boundary as starting from a point in the northern part 
of Jackson county, and running north-east to the Ohio 
line, near Fort Recovery, and north-west to the Wabash, 
a few miles above Terre Haute. Vincennes was then by 
far the most considerable town in the new State, and 
probably its population was not much below its present 
amount, though the improvements were far less valuable 
than they are at this time. The Indian trade was then 
usually considerable; there was generally one or more 
companies of United States troops in Fort Knox at that 
place ; the business of the Land office and the Bank, and 
the inclination of the French to settle in a village rather 
than on farms, brought together a population of near 
2,000. The buildings, however, were mostly arranged 
with but little reference to streets, and the beauty of the 
situation, and the amount of business done there, were 
the only features in its favor. 

Cory don, the Seat of Government, had a good stone 
Court House, built by the Speaker of the Territorial Le- 
gislature, (and a better man the State has never since 
had,) who, it was said, was often called from the ham- 
mer and trowel to the Chair. The other buildings there, 
not exceeding one hundred in number, were either cabins 
or of hewn logs. As the town was but little visited, ex- 
cept during the sessions of the Legislature, there was 
then often a large crowd, while the means of accommo- 
dation were not in proportion. The most important 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 115 

supplies came from Louisville, twenty-five miles distant ; 
but the state of the roads and streams was such that no 
regularity could be relied on. Whenever any thing was 
wanting, the arrival of the wagon from Louisville was 
to supply the deficiency. As this explanation was often 
given, much merriment was excited one morning, by a 
modest boarder's being asked, when he had no plate, knife 
or fork, whether he too "was waiting for the wagon?" 

The sites of New Albany and Madison presented, here 
and there, a few comfortable houses, and perhaps a hun- 
dred cabins, and an equal number of fallen poplar trees, 
from five to six feet in diameter, lying on the ground. 
Jeffersonville and Lawrenceburgh had been longer set- 
tled; but except the then fine residence of Gov. Posey, 
at the former place, still standing, there was no other 
good building in either. Charlestown, Salem, Vevay, Ris- 
ing Sun and Brookville, were then talked of as having 
magnificent prospects for the future, and the drafts on 
the imagination, in relation to them, were very large. 
What ancient citizen of Indiana does not recollect the 
glorification of Salisbury, Palestine, Hindostan, New 
London, and many other places, the sites for which must 
now be sought for in pastures and corn-fields ? 

There were very few large farms in the State in 1816. 
The range, or wild grass, mast and roots, were so abun- 
dant in the woods, that hogs, cattle and horses required 
but little other food, and that was, in general, corn alone. 
It is probable that a single corn-field, of from five to 
twenty acres, constituted at least seven-eighths of the 
farms then cultivated in the State. 

The whole State tax assessed in 1816, was $6,043 36; 
in 1817 it was $12,967 58, both together being only about 
the amount of the State tax assessed on Wayne county 
alone, the present year. The number of acres of land 
taxed in 1817, was about 1,750,000. 

At the election for the first Governor, August, 1816, 
the candidates were Thomas Posey, the Territorial Go- 
vernor, and Jonathan Jennings, the President of the 
Convention and late delegate to Congress. The former 



116 



INDIANA GAZETTEER. 



received 3,936 votes, the latter 5,211, and was elected. 
The contest was very warm in many of the counties. 
Gov. Posey was an amiable man in private life. He 
was a native of Virginia; he had been a Colonel in the 
Revolution in Gen. Wayne's Brigade, and was distin- 
guished in that resolute band at the taking of Stony 
Point, and on many other occasions. He had also been 
a Brigadier General in the north-western army, com- 
manded by Gen. Wayne, but he resigned in the early 
part of the expedition, from the annoyance which the 
quarrels of Generals Wayne and Wilkinson occasioned 
him. 

Jonathan Jennings was of a family in western Penn- 
sylvania, in which there were three other distinguished 
brothers. He came to the State a youth, and as soon as 
his age would allow, was elected a delegate to Congress. 
The emigrants from the eastern and middle States, and 
the Friends, from Carolina, gave him their warm sup- 
port, in the belief that he was more hostile to slavery 
than either his first or his second opponents, Messrs. 
Randolph or Taylor, who were natives of Virginia. 
Gov. Jennings was not fluent as a public speaker ; but 
in private conversation with voters, he seldom or never 
failed to increase the zeal of his friends, and gain those 
who had been previously indifferent. Though he had 
many personal and very bitter enemies, he was easily 
reconciled, and freely extended official patronage to them 
whenever the interests of the State appeared to require 
it. Political ambition was, no doubt, too much his idol ; 
but, in pecuniary matters, he was perfectly disinterested. 
Having been appointed in 1818, in connection with Gov. 
Cass and Judge Parke, a Commissioner to treat with the 
Indians, they succeeded in purchasing all the central part 
of the State, and, with the exception of the Miami, 
Thorntown, and a few other reserves, all the Indian 
lands south of the Wabash. This purchase was very 
important for the State, and sufficiently excused in the 
opinions of a majority of the people, the violation of 
the clause of the Constitution which forbids the Governor 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 117 

of the State to hold "any office under the United States." 
In order to ensure success, the contemplated proceedings 
were at first kept secret, the negotiations were not pro- 
tracted, and the offence, whatever it may have been, 
was wholly inadvertent on the part of the Governor. 
He was, however, much mortified when he learned that 
his conduct had been called in question. He threw his 
commission into the fire, and left it to his enemies, as he 
called them, to sustain their charges. The subject came 
up before the Legislature, whether the Governor had not 
vacated his office, and thereby devolved it on the Lieut. 
Governor, by acting as Commissioner of the United 
States. The Legislature, however, appreciating the mo- 
tives of the Governor, declined any action in the pre- 
mises, and the Lieut. Governor, Christopher Harrison, 
immediately resigned his office. At the August election 
they were competitors, but Mr. Jennings received 9,168 
votes out of 11,256, the whole number given. 

From the year 1816 until 1819, there was much immi- 
gration to the State, health generally prevailed, produce 
bore good prices, and there was every appearance of 
general prosperity. The best mechanics generally re- 
ceived from $1.50 to $2.00 per day, and common labor- 
ers about half that amount. The prices of flour along 
the Ohio river were frequently as high as seven and eight 
dollars a barrel ; corn sold from thirty to fifty cents per 
bushel, and bacon at from ten to fifteen cents per pound. 

The price of the United States land, at this period, 
was two dollars an acre, of which one-fourth was to be 
paid in hand, and the balance in three equal annual in- 
stalments, and a year of grace after the last instalment 
became due, was allowed before a forfeiture was exacted. 
If paid at the end of the four years, interest was exacted 
so that about two dollars an acre was then required. 
Lands, about this time, rose rapidly in price, so that vast 
quantities were purchased of the government by paying 
only the entrance money, or the first fifty cents an acre. 
About the year 1818, Congress commenced passing laws 
to relieve against forfeitures, requiring interest, however, 



118 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

to be added for the delay, and in 1819-20, similar laws 
were passed. 

In 1819, the banking system of the west began to be 
seriously convulsed. During the war, the General Go- 
vernment borrowed money occasionally from the Banks 
of Ohio, and used their paper at all times. The payment 
of the army in the west, and the purchases of provisions 
and clothing for it, required a large circulation, which, as 
specie payments were suspended in all the States south 
of New England, was readily furnished. This held out 
a strong temptation to establish Banks on a fictitious 
capital, which was done to a considerable extent, and 
was not corrected until the restoration of specie pay- 
ments, which was first hastened and then sustained by 
the branches of the Bank of the United States. 

During the war, manufactures had been commenced in 
the eastern and middle States, which employed much of 
the capital and industry that had previously been engaged 
in commerce. This state of things created a demand for 
the produce of the west, until the change of times, soon 
after the peace, and the large importations of foreign 
goods induced many of the manufacturers to relinquish 
the business for a time, and engage again in commerce, 
or emigrate west. The prices of produce were, how- 
ever, kept near the previous rates until after 1819. 

The debt to the United States, for public lands, having 
become altogether beyond the control of legislation, by 
its large amount, by the numbers from whom it was due, 
and the impossibility of paying it, the subject came up 
before Congress in 1821. The plan adopted was as 
favorable to the citizens of the west as, under the cir- 
cumstances, could have been expected. All interest, 
which then amounted to about one-third of the whole 
debt, was released; lands entered, and on which part 
payments had been made, were allowed to be relin- 
quished, and the amount advanced applied to pay in full 
for other lands ; and all lands thereafter were to be sold 
for cash in hand ; but lest it should be thought that the 
improvement of the country would be retarded by sales 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 119 

for cash, instead of on credit, the price of lands was re- 
duced from two dollars to one dollar twenty-five cents 
per acre. The immediate effect, however, was to reduce 
the value of lands already purchased and owned by indi- 
viduals, in about the same proportion ; for the large 
amount of valuable lands then thrown into market by 
the Government, would have done this without any re- 
duction of price, and still more was it calculated to do 
so, when only three-fifths of the former prices were re- 
quired. 

The years 1820, 1S21, and 1822, were attended with 
more general and fatal sickness than has ever been expe- 
rienced, either before or since, in the west. Palestine, 
on the East Fork of White river, then the seat of justice 
of Lawrence county, was nearly depopulated; Vevay, 
JefFersonville, Vincennes, and many other towns, lost 
nearly one-eighth of their inhabitants the first year, and 
probably one-fourth in the three years; and during that 
time, in most neighborhoods, there were but few persons 
who escaped without one or more severe attacks of fever. 
The prevailing diseases were bilious and intermitting 
fevers, the former, in many cases, differing very little 
from the yellow fever of New Orleans. The tendency 
of so much sickness was not to produce neglect or un- 
kindness towards the suffering; but though all business 
was, in a great measure, suspended, no general serious- 
ness prevailed. On the contrary, there was much appa- 
rent levity, such as is rarely witnessed in the chambers 
of death and at the grave. When the sickness first 
commenced, those who drank spirits mostly escaped, and 
it was a matter of frequent boasting among them, that 
they " kept above fever heat." But they were soon after 
attacked much more severely than others, and their taunts 
were then returned with interest. The ague, though of- 
ten a serious matter to the parties concerned, is usually 
a subject of merriment to others. Some were charged 
with being "too lazy to shake;" others were said to 
have "the slows," or the "spring fever lasted the whole 



120 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

year," and as medicine often had very little effect, mirth 
was perhaps the best substitute. 

About the same time, the western Banks had all failed, 
and there was no longer any circulating medium. Even 
cut silver, which was, in general, an attempted division 
of a dollar into five quarters, disappeared. There were 
few Bank failures more discreditable than that of the 
Bank of Vincennes, which had become the State Bank 
of Indiana, with branches at Corydon, Vevay and Brook- 
ville. A large amount of the paper became entirely 
worthless in the hands of the holders, and the General 
Government never obtained but a small portion of about 
$200,000 of its deposits for lands sold. The paper of the 
Farmers and Mechanics Bank, at Madison, was ulti- 
mately redeemed, after passing, at depreciated rates, for 
several years. 

From 1S20 to 1824, the prices of produce were only 
from a third to a fourth of what they had previously 
been, except where extensive new settlements created 
temporary demands. All real property fell in much the 
same, and town property in even a greater proportion. 

The state of things brought about by the reduction of 
the price of public lands, by several unhealthy seasons, 
the failure of immigration to the country, and the total 
derangement of the currency, rendered it almost impos- 
sible to sell property or to pay debts, and was very dis- 
couraging to all the efforts of the industrious and enter- 
prising. . There was, no doubt, much wrong feeling and 
wrong principle that led to the relief laws, and other 
efforts to prevent the collection of debts; yet when pro- 
perty to large amounts was sacrificed for costs merely, 
as was often the case, even the creditors derived no 
benefit. It was for the interest of creditors, generally, 
not less than of debtors, that the latter should not be 
ruined needlessly, and that as many of the former as 
possible, should receive at least a part of their dues. 
About this time, the following circumstances occurred: 
A farm of 200 acres had been sold for $4,000, of which 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 121 

$3,000 was paid in hand, and a mortgage given on the 
property for the $1,000. This sum not being paid, the 
mortgaged premises were taken and sold to the original 
owner for less than half the sum due, and he afterwards 
proceeded to collect the balance, with costs, of the mort- 
gagor. The land would, at any time for the last twenty 
years, have sold at from $30 to $60 an acre. There 
were many even still harder cases which called, at 
least, for such provisions in relation to the sale of real 
property as would be best, on the whole, for all creditors 
and all debtors. The state of public opinion may well 
be imagined, from the fact that many of those who had 
so managed the Banks that they became a fraud on 
community, still retained, to a considerable extent, the 
respect of their fellow citizens. 

By the Census of the State in 1820, the population 
then amounted to 147, 17S. From that time there was 
very little increase for more than three years; but when, 
by industry and economy, the people had accommodated 
themselves to what they thought hard times, courage and 
good feeling returned, and there appeared to be no longer 
any special cause for complaint. 

Gov. Jennings having been chosen to the office of Go- 
vernor two terms, or six years, being all that the Consti- 
tution allows, he was elected to Congress in August, 
1822, and shortly after resigned the office of Governor 
for the small balance of the term. He continued in 
Congress until 1831, when, unfortunately, the habit of 
intemperance had so grown on him that his capacity for 
usefulness was very much impaired. His death followed 
soon after, but he retained to the last the ardent friend- 
ship of large numbers of his fellow citizens. 

In 1820, Commissioners were appointed by the State 
to select the four sections of land donated by Congress 
as a site for the permanent Seat of Government, and the 
spot where Indianapolis now stands was chosen. Until 
that year, there were no settlements of whites within 
fifty miles of the place. The next year, the town was 
laid out, the name of Indianapolis wate given to it, a part 
9 



122 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

of the lots were sold at prices varying from $500 down 
to $30, and a sale was made of the Congress lands in 
the vicinity. Most of these sold at the minimum price, 
but a few tracts near town sold at three, four and five 
dollars an acre. 

At the election of 1822, William Hendricks, who had 
been a member of Congress for the six previous years, 
was elected Governor without opposition, he having re- 
ceived 18,340 votes. He continued in office until Feb- 
ruary, 1825, when he resigned, having been elected to 
the Senate of the United States, to succeed Waller Tay- 
lor, whose term then expired. He was re-elected to the 
same office in 1831. 

Gov. Hendricks was, for many years, by far the most 
popular man in the State. He had been its sole Repre- 
sentative in Congress for six years, elected on each occa- 
sion by large majorities, and no member of that body 
probably, was more attentive to the interests of the State 
he represented, or more industrious in arranging all the 
private or local business intrusted to him. He left no 
letter unanswered, no public office or document did he 
fail to visit or examine on request; with personal man- 
ners very engaging, he long retained his popularity; but 
it sunk at last from his indecision in politics, and the sus- 
picion that selfish objects had obtained controlling influ- 
ence over him. 

For the first five years, the Legislature consisted of a 
Senate of ten, and a House of Representatives of twenty- 
nine members. At the apportionment of 1821, the for- 
mer was increased to sixteen and the latter to forty-three. 
The sessions of the Legislature, at Corydon, usually 
lasted about six weeks, the pay of the members was two 
dollars a day; there were no general party divisions in 
community, and though many matters of policy and 
legislation were warmly and even obstinately contested, 
they very seldom excited any permanent ill feeling. Those 
who had been in earnest opposition one day, were fre- 
quently found soon after contending for the same object. 
Private and local acts of legislation were not so common 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 123 

as they have since been; yet even then, they often inter- 
fered with other important business, for it was very rare 
that subjects of general interest could array in their sup- 
port the warm feelings which private interests frequently 
called forth. A State Road, or a Divorce Bill, of conse- 
quence only to a few constituents, and by its being a bad 
precedent, often contributed to decide the most important 
measures that came before the Legislature. The ques- 
tion whether the Seat of Justice of Wayne county 
should be at Salisbury or Centreville, which was warmly 
contested from 1S17 to 1822, elected Senators of the 
United States, formed new counties, and decided much 
of the important legislation of the State for several 
years. While this subject was pending, the advocates of 
every exciting measure would "go round," as they said, 
" and scare up the Wayne county delegation." One of 
them, who most heartily disliked Divorce Bills, was occa- 
sionally induced, "for a consideration," to vote in their 
favor, though he usually contrived, before the bill was 
through with, either by absence on the final vote, or by 
changing his own vote at that time, to undo the mischief 
he had previously helped forward. 

The negligence with which private legislation was at- 
tended, and the corruption to which it led, may be illus- 
trated by the following circumstances: About the year 
1818, a husband obtained a divorce from his wife on an 
affidavit that she had been seen in bed with another man, 
and covered with the bed clothes. It afterwards appeared 
that she had been held there by violence, in order that a 
partial statement of the facts might be made. A few 
years later, a Senator submitted a petition for a divorce, 
on the ground that the wife had borne a colored child, 
and as he stated that there was no doubt of the fact, a 
bill granting the divorce passed without objection to its 
third reading. Before its final passage, however, the 
Senator rose and said that there was another fact not 
yet stated, which possibly ought to have some influence, 
and this was, that both husband and wife were colored per- 
sons. This, of course, put an end to the bill, as it had 



124 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

been prepared merely to show the absurdity of ex parte 
proceedings in private legislation. 

The Indian murders on Fall Creek, thirty miles north- 
east of Indianapolis, which took place in March, 1824, 
excited much alarm, for a time, in all the new settle- 
ments of the central parts of the State, and many fami- 
lies removed altogether from fear of an Indian war. 
The circumstances, as far as they could be ascertained, 
were as follows : An Indian family of the Shawanese 
tribe, consisting of three men, three women, two half 
grown girls and two young boys, had spent the winter in 
hunting and trapping on Fall creek and White river, and 
had collected so large a quantity of skins and furs as to 
excite the cupidity of some of the whites in the vicinity. 
A man of the name of Harper, in order to create ill 
feeling towards the Indians, took the horses of his neigh- 
bors and concealed them in the woods, and then accused 
the Indians of stealing them. He collected together a 
party, seven in all, Bridges, father and son, Sawyer, 
father and son, Hudson, and to excite them still more, 
made them nearly drunk, and then persuaded them to 
join with him in killing the whole family. For this pur- 
pose, they first went to the Indian camps and asked the 
three men to assist them in hunting stray cattle. The 
Indians consented readily ; but when the whole party had 
gone a short distance, two of them were shot down on 
a signal from Harper, but the third was only slightly 
wounded, and being a fleet runner, he escaped, though 
all who had not previously discharged their guns, fired at 
him as he ran. The party of whites then returned to 
the Indian camps and butchered all the women and chil- 
dren, mutilating them in such a way as they thought 
would induce the belief that other Indians had commit- 
ted the murder. This was supposed to be the case at 
first; but the guilty parties soon after proceeded to di- 
vide the property of the murdered persons among them- 
selves, and this brought out all the facts. They were 
then arrested and committed to jail, but by the assist- 
ance of friends were enabled to escape. All, however, 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 125 

were recaptured but Harper, who, it was afterwards as- 
certained, travelled over eighty miles on foot, in twenty- 
four hours, and he finally escaped, and nothing worthy 
of reliance has ever been heard of him since. Two of 

the party, and young Sawyer, were admitted as 

evidence against the others, and were not tried; but 
Hudson, a very stupid man, and the least guilty of the 
party, was tried and convicted, and executed in the fall, 
and Bridges and Sawyer in the spring following. Young 
Bridges, only sixteen years of age, was also convicted 
and sentenced to be executed; but much sympathy had 
been excited for him, and so generally was it supposed 
that he would be pardoned, that no preparations were 
made for his execution. This did not suit Gov. Ray, 
(who being President of the Senate, had become acting 
Governor in February, 1S25, on the resignation of Gov. 
Hendricks,) and by his directions the grave and coffin 
were prepared, and the young convict brought out as if 
for execution. The acting Governor then, clothed in 
uniform and with a sword in his hand, appeared on a 
stage that had been erected, and in a long speech, resem- 
bling those he usually made in his electioneering tours, 
announced the pardon. A similar ceremony, in pardon- 
ing another person, was performed soon after in Frank- 
lin county. 

In 1S25, the Seat of Government was removed from 
Corydon to Indianapolis. Though the distance was only 
1*25 miles, such was the state of the roads that it required 
about ten days to perform the journey in a wagon. 
Specimens of bad roads that it is thought cannot well 
" be beat," may still be found at some seasons of the 
year ; but the veterans of those days, unless their memo- 
ries deceive them, have seen and experienced more of 
the depth and width of mud holes, than can well be con- 
ceived in this "degenerate age." The writer of this ar- 
ticle, en two occasions, after hours of weary travel, 
found himself, very unwillingly, at his starting place in 
the morning, and his good friends, the present Post-mas- 
ter at Indianapolis and the Auditor of State, after a 



126 INDIANA GAZETTEER, 

day's travel, as they thought, towards Cincinnati, paused 
in wonder at evening, at their own town, which at first 
they supposed was some unknown settlement in the wil- 
derness. A respectable citizen of Ohio having traversed 
this State about that time, was asked, on his return home, 
about his travels, and whether he had been pretty much 
through the State. He said he could not tell with cer- 
tainty, but he thought he had been pretty nearly through 
in some places. 

At the election for Governor, in 1825, the candidates 
were James B. Ray and Isaac Blackford, when the for- 
mer received 13,040, and the latter 10,418 votes. 

The net amount collected for taxes in 1824, was 
$36,010 74, of which five-eighths were from the tax on 
lands, the other three-eighths from a poll tax. The ave- 
rage revenue of the State, for the ensuing seven years, 
did not exceed that of 1S24, for so moderate was the 
expenditure that, as the amount of taxable property in- 
creased, the rates of taxation were reduced. There 
were about three millions of acres from which the land 
tax of 1824 was collected. 

In 1826, a treaty was held on the upper Wabash with 
the Miami and Pottawatamie Indians, at which Gov. 
Cass, Gen. Tipton and Gov. Ray were the Commissioners 
on the part of the United States. The latter solicited 
the appointment; but knowing the difficulties in which a 
similar case had involved Gov. Jennings, he requested 
that no commission, but only a mere letter of authority, 
should be sent him. The land purchased on this occa- 
sion consisted of ten miles in width, on the north line of 
the State, and the small tract lying between the Wabash 
and Eel rivers, the former of the Pottawatamies, and 
the latter of the Miamies. At the instance of Gov. Ray, 
a donation to the State of Indiana, of one section for 
every mile, was obtained from the Indians for the con- 
struction of a road from Lake Michigan to the Ohio 
river. 

The question of the forfeiture of the office of Gover- 
nor by his accepting an appointment under the United 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 127 

State?, again came up before the Legislature; but after 
several days of warm discussion, it terminated as before, 
in their evading it. The Michigan Road, which, by the 
treaty, was to terminate at "some convenient point on 
the Ohio river," to be fixed by the Legislature, was, from 
that time for several years, a bone of contention, and 
the object of much bargain and intrigue; for the citizens 
of every town, from the Miami to the Wabash, could see 
the convenience of its terminating as they wished it. 
Madison was finally selected, but by a circuitous route, so 
that parts of the road have never been much travelled, and 
as in other cases of public works, there was much waste 
in disposing of the lands and in applying the proceeds. 

There were no permanent party divisions in the State 
until the Presidential election in 1828, when the friends 
of Mr. Adams and Gen. Jackson were warmly arrayed 
against each other; but even then the line ivas not drawn 
at the Governor's election that year. James B. Ray, 
who belonged to neither and to both parties, received 
15,141 votes, Dr. Canby, an ardent friend of Gen. Jack- 
son, received 12,315 votes, and H. H. Moore, a friend of 
Mr. Adams, received 10,904 votes. About this period, 
steady industry and economy had paid off most of the 
individual debt of the country; the commencement of the 
National Road in the State again turned the attention of 
emigrants towards it, and pork, flour and other import- 
ant products of the country, were once more in demand 
at fair prices. From 1826 until 1834, there was a con- 
stant though not rapid improvement in prices, which in- 
duced increased industry and enterprise. 

Of the political incidents during the last term of Gov. 
Ray, none attracted much attention but his attempt to 
remodel the Supreme Court of the State, for personal 
objects. 

In 1830, the second term of the Judges expired. Their 
official and private characters were entirely unexception- 
able, and such was the confidence of the public in them, 
that if they had been re-nominated by the Governor, no 
Senator would have ventured to vote against their con- 



128 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

iirmation. Except a similar occurrence since, no other 
Governor of the State, except the two referred to, has 
ever made Judicial appointments which would riot bear 
a rigid scrutiny. In fact, it has seemed to gratify them, 
when occasion presented, to show their approval of 
merit, in selecting even from personal and political op- 
ponents for Judicial offices. 

The incumbents of the Supieme Court had refused to 
exercise any influence in an election for Senator of the 
United States, which was soon after to take place, and 
therefore two of them, Judges Scott and Holman, were 
unceremoniously passed over. The Senate, at first, re- 
jected the nominees, not for any thing personal against 
them, but they finally yielded, as the Governor gave 
them no other option. His motives were, however, so 
apparent, that all popularity which he had previously 
possessed, from that time gradually disappeared, and he 
who always had had " troops of friends," had no longer 
any advocate. Gov. Ray was, however, at one time, a 
brilliant speaker; he occasionally suggested some very 
happy thoughts, and among many wild schemes there 
were some which were calculated to promote the inte- 
rests of the State; and he never retained malice even 
against those he esteemed as his bitter enemies. 

The population of the State in 1830, was 343,031. 

In 1831, although the friends of Gen. Jackson had a 
majority in the State, the parties were not fully arrayed 
against each other at the election of Governor, for Noah 
Noble received 17,959 votes, James G. Read 15,168, and 
Milton Stapp, 4,422 votes, the former and the latter be- 
ing of the same political party. At the election in 1834, 
Messrs. Noble and Read were again opposing candidates, 
but the former received 27,676, and the latter 19,994 votes. 

Gov. Noble was, in many respects, the most remark- 
able man the State has ever produced. Self-taught, 
almost, he readily acquired a capacity for managing all 
kinds of important business; with a very feeble consti- 
tution, he could endure almost any fatigue, and so much 
of an invalid as seldom to be free from pain, and always 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 129 

living on the diet of a hermit, he was never otherwise 
than cheerful, and few persons ever did so much to pro- 
mote good feelings in the society in which he lived. His 
benevolence was not manifested merely by professions, 
but his kind looks and kinder words were always attend- 
ed by the most substantial aid, whenever distress or dif- 
ficulty appealed to his sympathy. As a public officei he 
was far above all merely party or selfish considerations ; 
yet it must be admitted that, like every other Governor, 
he too often pardoned criminals and remitted fines, and 
the highest honor the State could bestow was as nothing 
unless a seat in the Senate of the United States could 
follow. Gov. Noble, too, w r as unfortunate in being, if 
not the father, at least the most efficient promoter of the 
system of Internal Improvements, from which the State 
has suffered so much both in character and resources. 
Messrs. Burr and Evans, the former a Canal Commis- 
sioner and the latter the Speaker of the House of Rep- 
resentatives, were next, after the Governor, the most effi- 
cient advocates of the system; but, in a short time, the 
wliole community, with but few exceptions, appeared to 
be. for a time, nearly deranged on the subject. 

n 1834, the net revenue of the State was $45,945, of 
which less than one per cent, was unpaid at the treasury 
when it became due. 

At the session of the Legislature this year, the State 
Bank of Indiana was chartered, of which many of the 
branches have, up to this time, performed most of their 
appropriate duties to public satisfaction. A good cur- 
renc; has been furnished to the State, as uniform as the 
finamial convulsions of the neighboring States would 
permt, and it has done much to promote general indus- 
try aid enterprise. Were it to be chartered anew, but 
few anendments would be required to render it as per- 
fect a: such institutions can be made. Among these, 
probaliy, it would be well to prohibit the managers from 
being sorrowers, to any considerable extent, to forbid 
large dscounts, that tend to monopoly in business, to 
require long loans, to be for the time considered as so 



130 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

much withdrawal of capital, and more carefully to guard 
against all usurious evasions. 

The history of the State from 1837 to this time, is so 
much within the memory of its citizens, that even a brief 
sketch is scarcely desirable on their account, and the 
effects and results of many measures are as yet unde- 
veloped, so that it is premature, at present, to decide 
upon them. Party spirit is still so warm in relation to 
some subjects, that it will hardly be profitable to discuss 
them. The facts connected with the system of Internal 
Improvements, are mostly set forth under that head in 
the General View of the State, and they need not be 
repeated here. 

At the election for Governor in 1837, a strong effort 
was made by Mr. Dumont, the Anti-Improvement can- 
didate, to limit the public works, or, at least, impose some 
barrier to their ruinous extension ; but he was defeated 
by Gov. Wallace, the advocate of the more liberal police, 
as it was called, by a majority of over nine thousand 
votes. Both the candidates were whigs, for up to this 
time, national politics did not exercise much control 
over the local elections of the State. 

When it was fully ascertained, in 1838-9, that ;he 
public works could no longer be carried on, they should 
have ceased at once, provision having been made that 
the Contractors should be compensated as soon as possi- 
ble for their dues, and also for such damages as ihey 
ought to receive for relinquishing their contracts. From 
the indecision of the State authorities, no arrangeuents 
of the kind were made, and large sums were aftervards 
paid in the Treasury Notes of the State lor work done 
after there was not the slightest prospect that it vould 
be of any public advantage. 

At the election of 1840, Judge Bigger was elected 
Governor by a majority of 8,000 votes over Gen. How- 
ard. This was the first time at which national poli- 
tics had exercised a controlling influence in the (lection 
of Governor. Each party, however, could, wlh pro- 
priety, boast, that no better or abler man was to be 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 



131 



found in its ranks to advocate its cause and sustain its 
principles. 

The population of the State in 1840, amounted to 
685,866, of whom 148,806 were engaged in agriculture, 
20,590 in trades and manufactures, 3,076 in commerce, 
949 in mining and navigation, and 2,257 in the learned 
professions, including engineering. There were 48,189 
•scholars in the primary and common schools, and 38,100 
persons over twenty-one years of age, unable to read and 
write. 

The election in 1843 terminated in the defeat of Gov. 
Bigger, the incumbent, by James Whitcomb, Esq., on 
party grounds, by a majority of 2,000 votes. In 1S45, 
the Judges of the Supreme Court were nominated in refer- 
ence to the political divisions of the country, contrary to 
the wishesof some ofthe dominant party. If the old Judges 
had been re-appointed, there can be no doubt their confir- 
mation by the Senate would have been unanimous, or near- 
ly so. How this subject will be viewed hereafter, it is, of 
course, impossible at present to determine; but it is very 
apparent that numbers of both parties do not wish to give 
up the common objects of their pride and patronage. 

THE STATE INSTITUTIONS, 
Tiut require particular notice, are the following, viz: 
The State Prison, 
Tie State Bank, 

Tue Asylum for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb, 
Tie Hospital' for the Insane, 
Tb Institute for the Education of the Blind; and 
Tift State Library. 

The Indiana State Prison 
Is beautifully situated just below the City of Jefferson ville, 
withinsight of the Falls of the Ohio, and opposite the City 
of Lousville. Its outer wall, which is of brick, thirty 
inches h thickness and twenty-eight feet high, covers an 
area of about four acres, gently undulating to the north. 
In the cmtre of the front, being the south side of the pris- 
' on, is a Urge and beautiful three story brick building, fifty 



132 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

feet square, called the "Guard House," from its being 
used for the guards and officers of the prison. 

The entrance to the prison is through a hall in the 
centre of the Guard house, to an iron grated door which 
opens to the Cell house. This building is 150 feet long, 
and contains 184 cells, each seven feet long, four wide, 
and seven feet high, and the whole building is fire proof. 
On the west line is a Cooper's shop, 150 feet long, forty 
wide and one story high, and a Warehouse 100 feet by 
forty, and one and a half stories high. The north angle 
of the buildings is composed of a store house forty by 
twenty-two feet, and one story high, and a Hospital 137 
feet by forty, two stories high. On the east range is a 
brick building, erected for a hackling house, but now 
used for a dry house. There is also, in this quarter, a 
two story work shop, 396 by 43 feet, in which wagon 
making is carried on, and the dressing of Coopers' stuff, 
and turning lathes, and a grist mill, are in operation, all 
moved by a large engine ; and other extensive machinery 
is also in the process of erection. Upon the wall, at ihe 
north-east and south-west angles, are watch towers, 
where sentinels are placed, during the day, to give the 
alarm in case of danger. 

There were in the Prison, on the 30th November last, 
140 convicts, of which sixty-two were admitted the pre- 
vious year. They are lodged in separate cells at nght, 
each cell being provided with a straw tick, pillow and 
covering suitable to the season, and also with a night tub 
and bucket of fresh water every evening. The food is 
plain, but substantial; constant work, except during 
meal times and on the Sabbath, is required in the day 
time, and perfect silence is maintained, the prisoners 
manifesting all their wants by signs. A ChapUin at- 
tends the Prison, and preaches to the convicts once a 
week, on the Sabbath. The average term for which 
the prisoners are adjudged to be confined, is aboit three 
years. Of the 140 convicts, twenty-seven had no edu- 
cation, twenty could read only, eighty-six could :ead and 
write, six had a good English and one a classical educa- 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 135 

tion; fifty had been intemperate, forty had been mode- 
rate drinkers, and fifty temperate; 124 were whites, and 
sixteen blacks and mulattoes; eighteen were natives of 
Indiana, forty-seven from other western and south-west- 
ern States, thirty-two from the Middle States, twenty- 
six from the southern States, six from New England, and 
eleven were foreigners. There were seven deaths among 
the prisoners during the year ending November 30, 1S48. 
From 1824 to 1830, the average number of prisoners 
was thirty-five; from 1S30 to 1840, it was sixty-two; 
since that time it has averaged 124. 

When the State Prison was located at JefTersonville, 
in 1822, it was then supposed that the labor of the con- 
victs could be beneficially employed in constructing a canal 
round the Falls of the Ohio, on the Indiana side of the river, 
and that object had much influence in determining the 
selection. William Lee is Warden, W. F. Collum, Physi- 
cian, and Charles H. Page Chaplain of the State Prison. 

The State Bank of Indiana, 

Was chartered in 1834, and commenced business in No- 
vember of that year. Its charter will expire in 1859. 

At the last Annual Repor.t, December 9, 1848, the capital 

owned by the State in the Bank amounted to - - $982,404 27 

Capital owned by Individuals, - 1,100,506 30 

Total capital, - $2,082,910 57 



The specie on hand was - 1,273,895 54 

Notes and bills discounted, - 3,438,944 47 

Suspended Debt, State Bonds, and Treasury Notes, - 754,706 91 

Bank Paper, Bank Balances, &c, - 1,148,313 68 

Real Estate, Banking Houses, &c, - - - 382,076 71 



Making a total of means, .... $6,997,937 31 
The amount of dues were, circulation, $3,552,210 00 
Deposits, - 452,624 73 

Due to Banks, and on other claims, - 382,342 67 



4,387,227 40 



Leaving a balance of - - - $2,610,709 91 

Which will pay back to the stockholders their stock, and 
leave for further profits, if all the Bank debts and claims 
are good, $527,799 34. The dividends of profits the 



136 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

last year were 9£ per cent. The office of the State 
Bank is kept at Indianapolis, from which all the notes of 
the Bank are delivered for issuing, signed by the Presi- 
dent of the State Bank, and to be signed by the Cashier 
of the proper Branch. This Bank has ever maintained 
a firm and deserved credit, and it is justly deemed one of 
the best banking institutions in the Union. The control 
of the concern is vested in the Directors of the State 
Bank, which consists of a President and four Directors, 
chosen by the Legislature, and one Director chosen by 
each Branch, thirteen in all. This body meets quarterly, 
makes the dividends, and provides for regular examina- 
tions of the Branches, and limits their business, and may 
suspend them altogether whenever they violate the char- 
ter, or their management is otherwise unsafe either to the 
public or the other branches. 

All the discounting of bills and notes, redemption of 
circulation, and other financial business, is done at the 
Branches. The Branches are responsible for each other, 
and yet do not share each other's profits. In case of the 
failure of any Branch, the individual stock in the Branch 
is first absorbed before the State stock is touched. The 
individual stockholders of each Branch elect all but three 
of their Directors, and these three are appointed by that 
part of the State Board which is chosen by the Legisla- 
ture. The President of the Bank is James Morrison, 
the Cashier, James M. Ray. The Branches are located 
at Indianapolis, Richmond, Lawrenceburgh, Madison, 
New Albany, Evansville, Vincennes, Bedford, Terre 
Haute, Lafayette, Fort Wayne, South Bend and Michi- 
gan City. 

Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb. 

The buildings for this Institution, of which an engrav- 
ing, in part, is annexed, are located a mile east of In- 
dianapolis, in a direct line with Washington street, and 
as the main front, when completed, will be presented to 
the west, it will afford a commanding view of the great 
thoroughfare of the city. The situation is a fine one, in 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 139 

a magnificent grove of native forest trees, and the whole, 
when finished, will appear to much advantage. The ex- 
terior of the building is to be beautifully stuccoed with 
hydraulic cement, and its internal arrangements are not 
surpassed by any similar Asylum in the United States. 
The whole length of the main building, including the 
wings, is 256 feet, and there is a building in the rear con- 
taining school rooms for eight classes, and a chapel. 

The incipient step towards the commencement of this, 
the pioneer of the Indiana Benevolent Institutions, was 
taken at the session of the Legislature of 1S42-3, by 
laying a " tax of two mills on each one hundred dollars 
worth of property in the State, for the purpose of sup- 
porting a Deaf and Dumb Asylum." At the same session, 
an appropriation of $200 was made to James McLean, 
who had been for fifteen months instructing a small 
school in Parke county. In the spring of 1843, William 
Willard, a former mute teacher in the Ohio Asylum, 
though for some time previous out of employment, learn- 
ing of the tax which had been assessed, came to this 
State with a view of commencing a school. This went 
into operation at Indianapolis in October, 1844; and 
during the year had sixteen pupils in attendance. At the 
commencement of its second session, in 1S44, it became 
a State Institution. The greatest attendance at any one 
time, this year, was seventeen. On June 2, 1845, the 
present Superintendent, Mr. James S. Brown, was ap- 
pointed and took charge of the Asylum in October fol- 
lowing. During the session of 1845-6, the attendance 
reached thirty-five. During 1S46-7, the pupils num- 
bered sixty-five; in 1S47-8, eighty-two; and in 1848-9, 
ninety-nine. For the last four years, the increase of 
pupils has been unprecedented ; and for two years past, 
the Legislature and people of Indiana have enjoyed the 
satisfaction of sustaining an Institution educating a 
greater number of mutes, in proportion to the popula- 
tion, than that of any other State in the Union. 

This school has been made entirely free, so far as board 
and tuition are concerned, to the Deaf and Dumb in the 



140 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

State, between the ages of ten and thirty years. This 
was done because the receipts from pay pupils were at 
all times small, scarcely amounting, in value, to the ex- 
tra trouble occasioned the parents of State pupils in ob- 
taining their certificates of poverty in behalf of their 
children; and from the fact that many worthy people 
kept their children from school rather than procure these 
certificates. 

The objects of this Institution are to give to each of 
its pupils a sound education, comprising all those branches 
usually pursued in public schools; and also to furnish to 
those whose parents or themselves may desire it, some 
useful trade. There is also a farm attached to the estab- 
lishment, in the cultivation of which it is designed to 
impart to a portion of the male pupils a knowledge of 
scientific agriculture. 

The revenue of the Asylum is derived from a tax of 
two and a quarter cents on the hundred dollars. Owing 
to a late change in the management, by committing the 
financial department to the Superintendent, such a saving 
has been made as to render an increase of taxation unne- 
cessary, though the buildings are in progress; and, after 
their completion, a considerable reduction can be made 
in the present rate. 

The annual session commences on the first Wednes- 
day of October and closes on the last Wednesday in 
July. Pupils are required to enter at the commencement 
of the session. 

The following are the officers of the Institution. 

Trustees. 

Rev. Phineas D. Gurley, President of the Board. 

L. Dunlap, M. D., Physician of the Asylum. 

Rev. Edward R. Ames. 

Alfred Harrison, Esq. 

Rev. Love H. Jameson, Secretary. 

James S. Brown, A. M., Superintendent. 
Instructors. — William Willard, First Assistant. 
Charles Axtell, Second Assistant. 

,* Third Assistant. 

Mrs. Ellen Bigger, Matron. 

* A vacancy occasioned by the death of Wm. Breg, Jr., May 15, 1849. 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 143 



Indiana Institute for the Education of the Blind. 

This Institution is located at the capital of Indiana, 
occupying a commanding and salubrious site of eight 
acres, in the northern suburbs of the city. 

It is under the fostering care of the State, and was 
founded by Legislative enactment in the year 1847. 

The Institute has for its object the moral, intellectual, 
and physical training of blind youths of both sexes. The 
course of instruction pursued, embraces all the ordinary 
branches of an English education, to which are added 
Vocal and Instrumental Music, and the knowledge of 
some useful handicraft occupation. 

The funds of the Institute are derived from a specific 
tax, levied for the purpose of its support; and, conse- 
quently, no charge is made for the boarding and tuition 
of its pupils, excepting where they are residents of other 
States. 

The following is a brief history of its origin: In the 
spring of 1S44, Mr. James M. Ray, of this city, being 
in attendance at the General Assembly of the Presbyte- 
rian Church, then in session in the City of Louisville, was 
invited, with the rest of that body, to witness an examina- 
tion of the pupils of the Kentucky Institution for the edu- 
cation of the Blind. Convinced, by this examination, of 
the practicability and importance of educating this hith- 
erto neglected class of his fellow beings, he naturally 
desired to see some efforts making in behalf of the Blind 
of his own State; and accordingly invited the Superin- 
tendent of the Kentucky Institution to visit Indianapolis, 
in company with some of his scholars, during the ses- 
sion of the next Legislature, for the purpose of exhibit- 
ing before them the progress they were making in their 
several branches of instruction. This invitation was 
accepted, and so satisfactory was the exhibition, that it 
induced the levying of a tax of two mills upon each one 
hundred dollars worth of taxable property, the revenue 
thus accruing to be applied to the maintenance of seve- 
ral blind pupils in each of the Institutions of Ohio and 



144 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Kentucky, until such time as a school should be established 
in our own State. By the succeeding General Assembly, 
that of 1845-6, Messrs. James M. Ray and George W. 
Mears, together with the then Secretary, Auditor, and 
Treasurer of State, were appointed a Board of Trustees 
to superintend the application of this fund. 

In obedience to the requirements of the act by which 
they were appointed, the Trustees advertised in many of 
the leading papers of the State, their readiness to recieve 
applications in behalf of any blind youths who might 
wish to avail themselves of the opportunity to acquire a 
useful education, at the same time addressing a circular 
to the county officers and other public men throughout 
the State, soliciting their aid and influence in the fur- 
therance of the benevolent objects of the Legislature. 
Finding, however, like all others who have been instru- 
mental in the founding of similar Institutions, that the 
incredulity of the uninformed, and the reluctance of pa- 
rents to intrust their afflicted children to the care of 
strangers, could not be overcome by publications, they 
availed themselves of the proffered services of Wm. H. 
Churchman, who had recently resigned the charge of the 
Tennessee Institution for the Blind, and had also been 
engaged for several years as a teacher in the Ohio Insti- 
tution, acquiring in both of these Institutions much valu- 
able experience with the Blind. Mr. Churchman pro- 
posed to traverse a portion of the State as an agent of 
the Board, hoping, by public lectures and personal inter- 
views with the Blind and their friends, to remove the 
obstacles in the way of their being sent to enjoy the 
benefits of the fund which had been created for the pur- 
pose of their education. 

The mission was crowned with more than anticipated 
success; and upon the report of their agent as to the 
number of Blind persons in the State, the Trustees were 
induced to recommend, in their report to the Legislature 
in 1846-7, the early establishment of an Institution in 
Indiana. This report was followed up by a lecture from 
Mr. Churchman before the General Assembly, accompa- 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 147 

nied with an exhibition of the attainments of several 
pupils from the Ohio Institution ; the result of all of 
which was the enactment of a law, which passed both 
branches of the Legislature without a dissenting voice, 
establishing an Institution to go into operation during 
the year 1847. 

This act appointed Messrs. Calvin Fletcher, George 
W. Mears and James M. Ray, a Board of Trustees to 
direct the organization and management of the contem- 
plated Institute. Mr. Fletcher declining to serve, Mr. 
S. W. Norris became his successor by appointment of 
the Board. 

An appropriation of five thousand dollars was made 
for the procuring of the necessary outfit of household 
furniture, school apparatus, etc., and for aiding in the 
purchase of a suitable site for the erection of permanent 
buildings. 

For the current support of the Institute, and defraying 
in part the cost of buildings, the tax was increased from 
two mills to one cent. 

The Institute was opened for the reception of pupils 
on the first day of October, 1S47, and on the fourth of 
the same month, the school exercises commenced with 
nine pupils. During the first session, which closed on 
the last Wednesday in July, 1848, thirty scholars were 
received, a larger number than has entered any other In- 
stitution for the Blind in the United States during the 
first year of its existence. 

A rented building was necessarily occupied during the 
first year; but in the latter part of September, 1848, 
part of the permanent improvements having been con- 
structed, the Institute was removed to its present location. 

Indiana Hospital for the Insane. 

On the 25th December, 1843, John Evans, M. D., then 
of Attica, and now of Chicago, delivered, before a com- 
mittee of the House of Representatives and the public, 
an address on Insanity, and the expediency of establish- 
ing a State Lunatic Asylum in Indiana. 



148 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

The Legislature thereupon took prompt measures to 
establish a State Hospital for the Insane. 

This Institution is beautifully situated on a fine farm of 
160 acres, near the National Road, and two miles west 
of Indianapolis. For the farm on which the buildings 
are erected, $5,458 have been paid, and there has been 
expended already, for the erection of buildings, $51,611, 
and the estimated cost for completing them is $15,000, 
making the entire cost of buildings, farm and improve- 
ments, when completed, $72,069. 

The present edifice is designed to accommodate 200 
patients, together with the officers and attendants neces- 
sary to take care of them. Nearly 100 rooms are al- 
ready completed and occupied. 

As it is estimated that a large proportion of the recent 
cases of Insanity can be restored to health and returned 
to their friends, shortly after their arrival, and as others 
will be discharged who become incurable yet remain 
harmless, the Institution, when finished, it is hoped, will 
comfortably accommodate all the suitable cases that may 
apply for several years to come. 

When applications are made for the admission of more 
cases than the Hospital can receive, a selection will be 
made as follows: 1st. Recent cases, where the disease 
has been less than one year's standing, shall have the 
preference over others in the county. 2d. Chronic cases 
presenting the most favorable prospect of recovery. 
3d. Those for whom applications have been longest on 
file, other things being equal. 4th. Each county to have 
its just proportion, according to its population, though 
the Commissioners may exercise a sound discretion in 
giving a preference to recent cases of one county over 
chronic cases of another. 

The tax established by law for the Insane will this 
year amount to about $20,000, which, it is supposed, 
will pay $14,000 towards the building, and $6,000 to 
support fifty patients, with the salaries of officers, attend- 
ants, &c. 

The management of the Institution, so far, appears to 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE. 149 

be very creditable to all the parties concerned. The 
building is a noble one; the construction economical, and 
a number of patients, it is understood, have already been 
much benefited. Applications for admission must be 
made to the Superintendent. 

The officers of the Institution are L. Dunlap, M. D., 
J. S. Bobbs, M. D., and James Blake, E. J. Peck, S. 
Major and John Wilkins, Esquires, Commissioners; R. J. 
Patterson, M. D., Superintendent and Physician; John 
Nutt, M. D., Assistant Physician ; James M. Bradshaw, 
Steward; Mrs. Laura Ann Elliott, Matron. 

State Library. 

The first appropriation for a State Library was made 
by the Legislature at the session of 1825, when $50 was 
appropriated for binding, and §30 annually for the pur- 
chase of books. Previous to that time, the only books in the 
Library were Bentham's works, presented by the author, 
through J. Q. Adams, then Minister to London, the laws 
and journals of Congress, and of a few of the States, 
and about twenty volumes of the American State 
Papers. 

There has been a gradual increase of books every year 
since ; but the additions have not been of much value 
until within a few years. Besides duplicates, there are 
now at least 5,000 volumes of books, of which more 
than half are well selected and very valuable, and the 
remainder are generally such as should be found in an 
institution of the kind. 

They are kept in excellent order by the Librarian, and 
every visiter at Indianapolis may spend a portion of his 
time at the State Library with much pleasure and profit. 
A large Law Library, purchased during the last thirty 
years, by the Gentlemen of the Bar, for their own use, is 
in a separate room ; but it is now proposed that this also 
shall be put under the care of the State Librarian. 

There are several other subjects and articles that might 
have been embraced in this General View of the State, that 
must now of necessity be described in the Topographical 



150 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

and Statistical part, as the information relative to them 
was not received by the Compiler in time to be inserted 
as he would have wished. They will, therefore, be found 
under their proper heads in the second part of the Ga- 
zetteer, which is alphabetically arranged. The proceed- 
ings of several of the Railroad Companies recently or- 
ganized, and also of the Wabash Navigation Company, 
can now be referred to only in this way. 



PART SECOND. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS, 

Containing a particular description of all the organized Counties, Cities, 
Towns, Villages, Townships, Water Courses, Prairies, &c, in the State, 
Alphabetically arranged. 

Abington, a southern township in Wayne county, 
which gave 202 votes at the last Presidential election. 

Abington, a village on the west bank of the east fork 
of White Water, in Wayne county, six miles south-east of 
Centreville, and near the south line of the county. 

Aboite, a small river in the west part of Allen county, 
emptying into Little river; not navigable, but affording 
good water power. 

Aboite, a township on the west side of Allen county, 
in T. 30, R. 11, with a population of about 300. 

Adams County is bounded on the east by the State of 
Ohio, on the south by Jay county, on the west by Wells, 
and on the north by Allen county. It is twenty-four 
miles in length, from north to south, and fourteen in 
breadth, and contains 336 square miles. The county 
was organized in the year 1836, though a large tract of 
teriitory lying between Allen and Randolph had been 
previously called Adams county, after the distinguished 
statesman who bore that name; yet no organization had 
taken place. The population of Adams county, in 
1840, was 2,284; at this time it is near 5,600. The face 
of the country is generally level. Near the St. Mary's 
and Wabash, it is undulating, but not hilly. There are 
no barrens in the county, and not exceeding ten sections 
of prairie, all wet, and twenty-five or thirty of river 



152 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

bottoms. The residue is upland, heavily timbered. The 
wet prairies form the sources of the creeks, and from 
several of them water runs into the St. Lawrence, and 
also the Mississippi. The most of them show traces of 
beaver dams. The soil is clay mixed with marl, and ap- 
parently becomes more fertile the longer it is cultivated. 
The timber is oak, hickory, buckeye, ash, beech, elm, 
lynn, walnut, sycamore, poplar and cottonwood. The 
surplus products consist of wheat, corn and hay, and 
horses, cattle and hogs, in considerable numbers, are 
raised for exportation. The county is divided into 
twelve townships, Preble, Root and Union in the north; 
next, St. Mary's, Washington and Kirkland; then French, 
Monroe and Blue Creek; and in the south, Jefferson, 
Wabash and Hartford. 

There are in Adams county, three Lawyers, five Phy- 
sicians, six Ministers of the Gospel, five stores, three 
groceries, six warehouses, one merchant mill, one oil 
mill, one ashery, one tannery, two saddlers, ten shoe- 
makers, seven blacksmiths, two tailors, five cabinet 
makers and twenty carpenters. 

The principal streams are the St. Mary's and Wabash 
rivers, which are about equal in size, and their average 
width is about 160 feet. The former was frequently 
navigated with keel and flat boats; but navigation is now 
obstructed by mill dams. The public buildings in the 
county consist of a Court house and Jail, both of wood, 
fire-proof offices for the Clerk, Recorder, Auditor and 
Treasurer, and one Presbyterian, one Methodist and one 
Roman Catholic Church. The common school districts 
are generally organized and support schools from three 
to ten months in the year. The county of Adams, when 
properly improved, will be a first rate farming region. 

Adams, a township in Allen county, in T. 30, R. 13, 
having a population of about 800. 

Adams, a township in Carroll county, north-western 
part, with a population of about 900. 

Adams, a township in Cass county, north of the Wa- 
bash. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 153 

Adams, a township in the north part of Decatur county, 
with a population of about 2,450. 

Adams, a township in the ^south-east of Madison 
county. 

Adams, a township in the north-west part of Morgan 
county, with a population of about 1,230. 

Adams, a south-eastern township in Parke county, 
w T ith a population of 2,000. 

Adams, a northern township in Ripley county, with a 
population of 1,050. 

Addison, an interior township in Shelby county, in 
which the county seat is situated. 

Airman's Creek, a mill stream in Daviess county, 
which runs south-west about twenty miles into the east 
fork of White river. The current is not sufficiently rapid 
to afford much facilities for machinery. 

Albany, a small town on the Mississinewa, in Dela- 
ware county, ten miles north-east of Muncietown. It 
has a post office, two stores, a Methodist meeting house, 
and six or eight other houses. 

Albany, a township in the county of Floyd, including 
the county seat, and containing a population of about 
8,500. 

Albion, the present county seat of Noble county, laid 
out in 1S47, in the centre of the county, and is now a 
flourishing village. It is situated twenty-six miles north- 
west of Fort Wayne, and 125 miles north-east of Indian- 
apolis. 

Alexandria, a small town containing about thirty 
houses, in Madison county, eleven miles north of Ander- 
son, and forty-seven north-east from Indianapolis. 

Alisonville, a small village in Marion county, east 
side of White river, eleven miles north-east of Indian- 
apolis. It contains a population of about 200. 

Allen County is bounded north by DeKalb and No- 
ble, east by the State of Ohio, south by Adams and 
Wells, and west by Huntington and Whitley counties. 
It contains 672 square miles and was organized in 1824. 
It was named after the late Col. John Allen, a distin- 
11 



154 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

guished Kentucky lawyer, who fell at the battle of the 
River Raisin. Allen county is divided into twenty civil 
townships, commencing on the south line at the south- 
east corner; Monroe, Madison, Marion, Pleasant and 
Lafayette, lie in the first tier; Aboite, Wayne, Adams, 
Jefferson and Van Buren, lie in the second tier; Mau- 
mee, Milan, St. Joseph, Washington and Lake, lie in the 
third tier; and on the north line of the county are Eel 
river, Perry, Cedar creek, Springfield and Scipio. The 
population of the county in 1830, was 1,000; in 1840, 
5,942, and at this time over 13,000. Its principal streams 
are Little river and Aboite, which rise in the western 
part of the county, unite near the county line, and run 
into the Wabash, and the St. Joseph's and St. Mary's, 
both which rise in £)hio and run, the former south-west 
and the latter north-west, until they unite at Fort Wayne 
and form the Maumee, which then runs north-east into 
Lake Erie. All these streams, except Aboite, were for- 
merly navigable in high water; but the erection of dams 
across them, and the construction of the Wabash and 
Erie Canal, has superseded the old mode of navigation. 
Bee creek, in the south-west. Crooked creek, in the east, 
and Cedar creek, in the north, are considerable mill 
streams, and the whole county is well watered. 

The soil is generally of an excellent quality, being a 
sandy loam near the streams, and clay intermixed with 
marl in the interior, and well adapted to the cultivation 
of wheat, rye, corn, oats, grass, &c. The land is gene- 
rally timbered, with occasional wet prairies, easily 
drained. Tn the north-western part of the county are 
many oak openings, or barrens, all very fertile and easily 
brought into cultivation. The most common timber is 
oak, beech, walnut, buckeye, maple, ash, hickory, poplar, 
&c. Within this county were several Indian reserves, 
on one of which lived the famous Indian Chief Richard- 
ville, till his death in 1840. His wealth and influence 
kept other Indians near him, and many of them con- 
tinued to reside here until their final removal west of the 
Mississippi, a few years since. This kept up a large 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 155 

amount of Indian trade, and until lately the agriculture 
of the county was not in a good condition. There is 
now every appearance that Allen will be one of the 
best, as it among the largest, counties in the State. In 
aid of the business on the canal, plank roads are in the 
process of construction in several directions from Fort 
Wayne, and that town will soon be surpassed by no 
others in the State, except Madison and Indianapolis. 

The manufactures of the county consist of four large 
tanneries, one large foundry, one distillery, four brewe- 
ries, eight flouring mills, ten saw mills, one woollen fac- 
tory, and one oil mill. There are in the county thirty 
dry goods stores, twenty grocery stores, thirteen ware- 
houses, three drug stores, and one book store; many of 
the stores very large. There are also twenty Lawyers, 
sixteen Physicians, and twelve Preachers of the Gospel. 
Among the different denominations there are three Pres- 
byterian Churches, one Catholic, two Methodist, one 
Dutch Reformed, one Lutheran, one Christian, one Epis- 
copalian, one African, and one Baptist. The Methodists 
have a good Female High School or College, and the 
Catholics have a school under the charge of the Sisters 
of Providence. The lands in the county returned for 
taxation amount to 357,952 acres. 

Allen, a township in Noble county, containing a pop- 
ulation of 850. 

Allensville, a small town in Switzerland county, 
eleven miles north-east of Vevay, surrounded by a good 
country and very industrious population. 

Alquina, a small town in Fayette county, five miles 
south-east of Connersville. 

America, a small town in Wabash county, twelve 
miles south of Lagros, near the north line of Grant 
county. 

Americus, a small town on the Wabash River, in Tip- 
pecanoe county, ten miles north-east of Lafayette, con- 
taining one dry goods and two grocery stores, and about 
fifty frame dwelling houses. 

Amsterdam, a village on the Ohio river, in Harrison 



156 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

county, near the mouth of Indian creek, sixteen miles 
south-west from Corydon. It contains about twenty 
families, and has a fine country back of it, known as the 
grassy valley. 

Anderson, a river which rises in the west part of 
Crawford county, runs into the south-east corner of Du- 
bois, then into Perry, and then for several miles becomes 
the dividing line between Spencer and Perry, and emp- 
ties into the Ohio near Troy. It is navigated in high 
water by flat-boats for about thirty miles, and it affords 
many valuable mill privileges. 

Anderson, a central township in Madison county, em- 
bracing the county seat. 

Anderson, a township in Perry county, on the west 
side of the county, north of Troy township, and con- 
taining a population of 1,000. 

Anderson, a township in Rush county, south-east part, 
with a population of 1,900. 

Anderson, a south-eastern township in Warrick 
county. 

Anderson, the Seat of Justice of Madison county, 
is situated on a high bluff on the south side of White 
river, thirty-four miles north-east of Indianapolis. It 
was an old Indian town, named after Anderson, a Dela- 
ware chief, who formerly resided there. In 1813, it was 
burnt by a detachment of troops from Kentucky, then 
on an exploring tour. It has a Court House, Jail, fire- 
proof public offices, a good County Seminary, lately 
erected, and a population of about 300, and is now ra- 
pidly improving. Its beautiful situation, the fertile coun- 
try around it, and the construction of the Bellefontaine 
Railroad through it, will make it an important point. A 
Newspaper, called "The Weekly Democrat," is published 
at this place. 

Angola, the County Seat of Steuben county, is situated 
near the centre of the county, twelve miles from the 
north-east corner of the State, 152 miles north-east of 
Indianapolis, and 70 miles west of Toledo. It contains 
eight dry goods stores, and a population of 400, and 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 157 

being situated in a fertile and rapidly improving country, 
will soon be a thriving and prosperous town. 

Annapolis, a flourishing village in Parke county, seven 
miles north-west of Rockville. It is surrounded by well 
cultivated farms. 

Armiesburgh, a small village in the same countv, 
situated on Big Raccoon, near its junction with the 
Wabash. 

Armstrong, a western township in Vanderburgh 
county, containing a population of about 600. 

Arnold's Creek, a small stream in Ohio county, emp- 
tying into the Ohio river two miles below Rising Sun. 
It was named after Col. Arnold, who, soon after the 
Revolutionary war, was enticed into an ambuscade by 
the Indians, and killed by them near this stream. 

Attica, a flourishing village on the south-east bank of 
the Wabash, in Fountain county, beautifully situated, 
containing eleven dry goods stores, two groceries, one 
bakery, five warehouses, about 300 houses, and a popu- 
lation of about 1,200. It is situated on the Wabash and 
Erie Canal, fourteen miles north-east of Covington, 
twenty-five south-west of Lafayette, and seventy-five 
north-west of Indianapolis. The Shawnee and other 
prairies, and, in fact, all the lands in the vicinity, are fer- 
tile and well cultivated, and they furnish an immense 
amount of surplus produce for exportation. The water 
power on Shawnee creek, in the vicinity, is very valu- 
able. 

Auburn, the county seat of De Kalb county, is situ- 
ated two miles south and three west of the centre of the 
county, twenty-two miles north of Fort Wayne, and 
134 north-east of Indianapolis. It was first settled in 
1S36, by W. Park, and now contains about fifty houses, 
all of wood, and 300 inhabitants. The public buildings 
are a Court House, and offices for the Clerk, Recorder 
and Auditor. 

Augusta, a small village in Marion county, on the 
Michigan road, nine miles north-west of Indianapolis. 
It contains about 150 inhabitants. 



158 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

i 

Augusta, formerly the Seat of Justice of Noble county. 
It contains the jail and the public offices for the Recorder, 
Auditor, &c. 

Aurora, a small town in the south-west corner of 
Clinton county. 

Aurora, a beautiful village on the Ohio river, at the 
mouth of Hogan creek, in Dearborn county, containing 
about 1,600 inhabitants. It was laid out in 1819, and 
having a fine country back of it, has for many years ex- 
ported large quantities of produce. It is twenty-six 
miles below Cincinnati, and eighty-six south-east of In- 
dianapolis. It has just suffered very severely from the 
ravages of the Cholera. 

Azalia, a small village, in a very fertile part of Bar- 
tholomew county, east of White river, and ten miles 
south-east of Columbus, on the Brownstown road. Popu- 
lation 250. 

Back Creek, a small but valuable mill stream in Grant 
county, emptying into the Mississinewa north of Ma- 
rion. 

Back Creek, a considerable mill stream, rising in Jack- 
son county, then running into Lawrence, empties into 
Guthrie's creek. 

Bainbribge, a township in the west part of Dubois 
county, containing 340 voters, and a population of about 
1,700. 

Bainbridge, a small village in Putnan county, nine 
miles north of Greencastle. 

Baker, a north-eastern township in Martin county, 
with a population of 600. 

Baker, a southern township in Morgan county, with 
a population of 360. 

Baltimore, a small town on the west side of the 
Wabash, in Warren county, three miles above Coving- 
ton. 

Barker, a township in Jasper county. 

Barr, an eastern township in Daviess county. 

Bartholomew County is bounded north by the town- 
ship line which separates townships ten and eleven, di- 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 159 

viding it from Shelby and Johnson counties. East by 
Decatur and Jennings counties, south by Jennings and 
Jackson, and west by Brown county. The county con- 
tains 405 square miles. Its name was derived from Gen. 
Joseph Bartholomew, long a distinguished citizen of 
Clark county, and a Senator in the State Legislature 
from 1821 to 1S24. The name was given at the instance 
of Gen. Tipton. Gen. Bartholomew was a Lt. Colonel, 
commanding a battalion of infantry at the battle of Tip- 
pecanoe, where he was severely wounded, for which he 
received a pension until his death, which took place 
exactly twenty-nine years afterward-, on the day 
of the Presidential election, 1S40. Gen. Bartholomew 
was a self-taught, modest, brave and honest man, who 
rose from obscurity and obtained distinction solely by his 
merits as a man and a soldier. In all the difficulties 
with the Indians along the frontier, he was always fore- 
most in times of danger. 

The voters of Bartholomew in 1S48, were 2,513, and 
the population a little over 15,000. In 1840 it was 
10,042. The county is divided, for local government, 
into fourteen townships, viz: Nineveh, Union, Harrison, 
Ohio, Wayne, Sand Creek, Rock Creek, Clifty, Clay, 
Haw Creek, Flatrock, German, Columbus and Jackson. 
The east and central part of the county is generally level, 
the west mostly hilly, and particularly so near the Brown 
county line, where the hills resemble broken mountains 
or the spurs of the Alleghanies. They are commonly 
called the "Salt Creek Knobs." At least one-fourth of 
the county is bottom land, on Driftwood or East Fork of 
White river, Clifty and Flat Rock. There is not much 
poor land in the county, though along the extreme mar- 
gins of the bottoms there are a few bogs which are unfit 
for cultivation. The soil in the bottoms and level lands 
is a rich alluvion, mixed with limestone-sand and gravel. 
That part of the county called the " Haw Patch," twelve 
miles long and six wide, is not supassed for beauty and 
fertility by any part of the western country. Between 
Flatrock and Driftwood, there were originally native 



160 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

forests for miles, without any undergrowth, and where 
the tall and thinly scattered walnut, blue ash, and 
sugar trees no more interrupted travellers on horseback 
or in carriages, than would open parks, where the trees 
had been planted and trimmed for the purpose. The 
more hilly part of the county has a clay soil, and the 
timber there is wrfite and black oak, hickory, beech, su- 
gar tree and poplar. In the balance and larger part of 
the county, walnut, sugar, ash, buckeye, haw, pawpaw, 
burr oak and poplar are the most common. Not ex- 
ceeding one-fourth of the land is yet in cultivation. The 
surplus of agricultural products has increased rapidly 
every year since the completion of the Madison and In- 
dianapolis Railroad, and as there is now a good prospect 
of making a Railroad also to Jefferson ville, and extend- 
ing another from Columbus in the direction of Blooming- 
ton, these improvements, in different parts of the county, 
will develop still more its agricultural capabilities, which, 
at no distant time, will yield a surplus of five times the 
present amount. 

There have been exported in a single year from Bar- 
tholomew county, 25,000 hogs, 200,000 bushels of corn, 
6,000 barrels of flour, 20,000 bushels of wheat, and oats, 
hay, beans, barley, rye, hoop-poles, horses, mules and 
beef cattle, in all to the value of at least $500,000: and 
when such articles are in demand, they may and will be 
all largely increased. 

There are in the county ten tanneries, with a capital 
of $17,000, which employ 45 hands and yield 4,800 
sides of sole, and 6,300 of upper leather, annually. 
There is one large distillery, recently erected, nine flour- 
ing mills, moved by water pow r er, six do. saw mills, five 
steam saw mills, four wool carding machines and three 
fulling mills. The mill streams in the county, Driftwood, 
Flatrock and Clifty, admit of a large and very valuable, 
increase of water power, which will be used at no dis- 
tant day. The taxable land amounts to 218,084 acres, 
6,413 have been entered and are not yet taxable, and 
the Congress land still for sale amounts to 34,503 acres, 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 161 

lying almost entirely in the western part of the county. 

It is much to be regretted that education has been but 
little attended to, and that "no certain account can pos- 
sibly be given of the management of the schools." 

Barton, an eastern township in Gibson county, con- 
taining a population of 500. 

Bath, a northern township in Franklin county, con- 
taining a population of 800. 

Baubaugo, a small stream, twenty miles in length, ris- 
ing in the west part of Elkhart county, and running 
north-west into the St. Joseph, near the east line of St. 
Joseph county. 

Baugo, a western township in Elkhart county, con- 
taining a population of 300. 

Beaver, a township in Jasper county. 

Beaver, a small creek, twenty miles in length, rises in 
south-west part of Lawrence, and empties in White river 
in Martin county. 

Beaver, a small creek in Pulaski county. 

Beaver, a lake abounding in fish, in north-west corner 
of Jasper county. This lake is the largest sheet of fresh 
water in the State, except the south end of Lake Michi- 
gan. It covers about 16,000 acres. 

Bean Blossom, a mill stream, forty-five miles in length, 
rises in Brown county, and runs westwardly through 
Monroe, and empties into the West Fork of White river 
near Gosport. It runs in a deep bed, and is navigable 
about twenty miles in high water. 

Bean Blossom, a north-western township in Monroe 
county, containing a population of 1,300. 

Bear Creek, a small stream near the south side of 
Fayette county. 

Bear Creek, a small creek in Perry county, emptying 
into the Ohio, near Rome. 

Bear Creek, a small tributary of the Mississinewa, in 
Randolph county. 

Bear Creek, a small stream emptying into Blue river, 
in Washington county. 

Bedford, the Seat of Justice of Lawrence county, is 



162 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

beautifully situated on the high ground between the East 
Fork of White River and Salt creek three miles from 
the former and two miles from the latter; seventy-five 
miles south-west of Indianapolis, twenty-four south from 
Bloomington, sixty-six north-west from Louisville, and 
forty-eight north from Leavenworth. It was laid out in 
182*6, by John Lowry, S. F. Irwin, Jos. Glover and John 
Owen. Bedford contains thirty brick and 114 frame 
houses, and a population of 700. It has an excellent 
Court House, surpassed by very few in the State ; Presby- 
terian, Baptist and Methodist Churches; a good building 
for a County Seminary, and it has ten stores and two 
groceries. At Bedford is located one of the branches of 
the State Bank. The country around is fertile and 
healthy, and a very prudent and industrious population 
have secured to this town and its vicinity an almost un- 
interrupted course of prosperity. There has, however, 
been less attention paid to education here than in many 
other towns inferior in size and wealth. A newspaper, 
the Bedford Herald, is published here, and exertions are 
now making to continue the Railroad from New Albany 
to Salem, to this place. 

Bee Creek, a small tributary of the Wabash, on the 
north side, in Adams county. 

Beer Creek, a mill stream in Jay county, emptying 
into the Wabash. 

Bell Creek, a mill stream, rising in Henry county, 
runs north into Delaware and falls into Buck creek. 

Belmont, a small town in Noble township, Laporte 
county. 

Belmont, a small town in Craig township, Switzerland 
county. 

Belville, a flourishing village in Hendricks county, 
seven miles south of Danville, on the National road, and 
nineteen from Indianapolis. It contains about fifty houses 
and 300 inhabitants. 

Benton, a town at the crossing of the Elkhart, on the 
Fort Wayne road, seven miles south-east of Goshen. It 
has a population of 200, a large flouring mill, owned by 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 163 

the Messrs. Davis, two stores, two tanneries, two taverns, 
with the usual shops of mechanics, and the Methodists 
and Baptists have neat and commodious churches. 

Benton, a township in Elkhart county, embracing the 
above. 

Benton, a township in Monroe county, with a popula- 
tion of 600. 

Bentonville, a small town in Fayette county, ten 
miles north-west of Connersville. 

Benton County, named after the celebrated T. H. 
Benton, was organized in 1840; it lies on the Illinois 
State line, and is twenty miles from east to west, and 
eighteen from north to south. It contains 360 square 
miles, and is bounded north by Jasper county, east by 
White and Tippecanoe, south by Warren, and west by 
the State of Illinois. The population in 1840 was 150, 
in 1844, 300, and at this time, 800. The county, for 
civil purposes, is divided into three townships, Pine, Oak 
Grove, and Parish Grove. One-fifth of the county only 
is estimated to be timber, one-fifth barrens, and three- 
fifths prairie. The prairies are mostly dry, gently undu- 
lating, and very rich. The timber is mostly oak, walnut, 
ash, sugar tree, hackberry, pawpaw, &c. Big Pine, a 
good mill stream, rises in the east part of the county, 
Little Pine and Sugar creek in the west. The two for- 
mer unite and empty into the Wabash near Williams- 
port; the latter runs west into Illinois. Benton county 
oilers great advantages to the farmer, by its facilities for 
raising stock, and also for wheat, corn, oats, &c, to 
which it is well adapted. There are four schools, one 
store, one Universalist and two Methodist Churches, two 
Physicians, three Preachers, and no Lawyer in the 
county. It is estimated that 4,000 head of cattle, 200 
horses, 2,000 hogs, 50,000 bushels of corn, 10,000 bushels 
of oats, and 10,000 bushels of wheat are annually ex- 
ported, of the value of $50,000. There is a noted mound 
in the north part of the county, usually called Mount 
Nebo. 30,500 acres of land are taxable, and about 
100,000 acres still belong to the United States. 



164 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Ben Davis, a small mill stream in Rush county, a tri- 
butary of Flatrock. 

Bennington, a small town in Pleasant township, Swit- 
zerland county. 

Bethel, a small village in Marion county, on the 
Michigan road, nine miles south-east of Indianapolis. Jt 
contains about twenty-five houses. 

Bethel, a north-western township in Posey county. 

Bethel, a small town in Wayne county, recently laid 
out. 

Bethlehem, a township in Cass county, north of the 
Wabash river, with a population of 600. 

Bethlehem, a township in the upper end of Clark 
count)', on the Ohio river, with a population of 1,000. 

Bethlehem, a small town on the Ohio river, eighteen 
miles below Madison and thirty-two above Louisville, 
with a population of 200. 

Bethlehem, a small village inhabited mostly by 
Friends, in the south-west corner of Hamilton county. 

Big Creek, a mill stream, thirty miles in length, rises 
in Ripley county, runs south west through Jefferson, and 
empties into Graham Fork, near the south line of Jen- 
nings county. 

Big Creek, a mill stream, forty miles in length, rises 
in Vanderburgh county and runs south-west through Po- 
sey, and empties into the Wabash. 

Big Blue, see Blue river. 

Big Cedar Grove, a mill stream in Franklin county, 
rising near Springfield, empties into White water on the 
east side, six miles below Brookville. 

Bigger, a south-eastern township in Jennings county, 
with a population of 450. 

Big Indian, a large mill stream about fifty miles in 
length, rises near the east line of Floyd county, and runs 
south-west by Corydon, into the Ohio river, at Amster- 
dam. 

Big Pine, see Pine Creek. 

Big Raccoon, an excellent mill stream, seventy-five 
miles in length, rises in the south-west corner of Boone 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 165 

county, runs south-west through Montgomery, Putnam 
and Parke, and empties into the Wabash two miles below 
Montezuma. The land along the whole course of this 
creek is not surpassed in fertility by any part of the 
State. The manufacturing privileges are very valuable 
and are now mostly well improved, and this part of the 
State is now very flourishing. 

Big Sandy, a small stream in Spencer county, empty- 
ing into the Ohio eight miles above Rockport. 

Big Vermillion, see Vermillion. 

Billingsville, a small town in the south part of Union 
county, ten miles west of Oxford, five east of Dunlaps- 
ville, and six south of Liberty. 

Black Creek, a small stream in Noble county, that 
runs south-east into De Kalb, and empties into Cedar 
creek. 

Black, an interior township in Posey county. 

Blackford County, named in honor of Judge Black- 
ford, was organized in 1837. It is bounded north by 
Wells, east by Jay, south by Delaware, and west by 
Grant counties, and contains 169 square miles. It is di- 
vided into four civil townships; Harrison in the north- 
east, Jackson in the south-east, Washington in the north- 
west and Licking in the south-west. The population of 
the county is about 2,000. There are five stores in the 
county, one grocery, one warehouse, three lawyers, four 
physicians, seven preachers, five blacksmiths, three gun- 
smiths, three wheelwrights, seven shoemakers, three tai- 
lors and one hatter ; two grist mills and five saw mills. 

The face of the country is mostly level, but in some 
places gently undulating. The soil is best adapted to 
the cultivation of wheat, rye, corn, oats, potatoes, &c, 
and the exports consist of wheat and pork, taken to the 
Wabash and Erie Canal, and cattle, horses and hogs 
driven to other markets. The principal streams in the 
county are the Salamonie and Lick creek, the former a 
first rate mill stream. Except a few wet prairies, the 
country was all originally heavily timbered with oak, 
beech, ash, poplar, sugar tree, walnut, hickory, cherry, 



166 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

&c, and the soil, without any exception, is rich. The pub- 
lic buildings in the county are a well finished brick Court 
House, and Methodist, Baptist and Presbyterian churches, 
and Licking and Harrison townships have each five 
schools. 

The first settlement in the county w r as made by John 
Blount, in 1835. In the winter of 1S36, Abel Baldwin, 
of Vermont, explored the forests and entered land for a 
company of emigrants from that State, and in the au- 
tumn following they removed to the Salamonie, and soon 
after laid off the town of Montpelier, which was named 
after the capital of their native State. Hartford was 
laid off in 1839, and for several years the rival towns 
were competitors for the county seat; but Hartford suc- 
ceeded ultimately. In March, 1842, a hurricane passed 
through the south part of the county, destroying much 
timber, and leaving marks of desolation for many miles. 

There are 96,945 acres of taxable land in the county. 
In the eastern part is the Godfrey Reserve, where this 
war chief of the Miamies long resided, and where some 
of the dwellings of the red men are yet standing. God- 
frey was a noble looking, kind-hearted man, much be- 
loved both by Indians and whites. 

Bloomfield, the County Seat of Green county, is sit- 
ated on high ground, one mile east of White river, eighty 
miles south-west of Indianapolis. It contains a Court 
House, and a population of about 200. 

Bloomfield, a central township in Lagrange county, 
with a population of 800. 

Bloo3Hx\g Grove, a small town in Franklin county, 
eight miles north-west of Brookville, with a population 
of 150. 

Blooming Grove, a northern township in Franklin 
county. 

Bloomingsport, a small town in Randolph, county, 
twelve miles south of Winchester. 

Bloomixgton, a central township in Monroe county, 
with a population of 6,200. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 167 



6TATE: UNIVERSITY BLOOMINGTON. 

Bloomington, the Seat of Justice of Monroe county, 
is beautifully situated on the ridge from which the waters 
run into the East and West Forks of White river, twen- 
ty-four miles from the former and fourteen from the lat- 
ter, at the head of Clear creek, which runs south, and 
near the waters of Bean Blossom which runs north. The 
situation is commanding, healthy; and a fertile, undulat- 
ing country around presents ever changing and most de- 
lightful scenery. Bloomington has 350 houses, of which 
about half are brick, and a population of 1,643. There 
are in the town thirteen stores, one grocery, two drug 
stores, three excellent taverns, nine lawyers, ten physi- 
cians, and the Methodists, Baptists, Christians, Presbyte- 
rians, Reformed Presbyterians, Seceders, Covenanters and 
Lutherans have each their house of worship and preacher. 

The location of the State University at Bloomington, 
and the continued prosperity of that Institution, has con- 



168 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

tributed very much to the growth and prosperity of the 
town and the improvement of the country; and opening 
of new avenues to the place will add still more to its 
importance. The students in the College are sometimes 
near 200, and there is also a well conducted Female 
Academy in town, at which there are usually between 
seventy and eighty scholars in attendance. Contrary to 
all previous expectation, it has been ascertained that 
though a hilly country, a very cheap Railroad, varying 
but little from a straight line, can be made from Bloom- 
ington east to Columbus, there to intersect with the 
Madison and Indianapolis Road; and the Railroad which 
was first attempted only from New Albany to Salem, is 
now being extended to Bedford, and will, at no distant 
day, reach Bloomington from the south. There are 
three printing offices in the town, one of which publishes 
the Herald, another the Christian Record, the other prin- 
cipally job work. The large foundry of Seward & Sons, 
and the spinning, weaving and fulling establishment of 
Heaps & Jones, do quite an extensive business. Bloom- 
ington is fifty-one miles from Indianapolis, twenty-one 
from Martinsville, twenty-four from Bedford, forty from 
Columbus, sixty from Terre Haute and eighty from Lou- 
isville. It was first settled in 1819. Among the earliest 
settlers were Daniel and Jonathan Rogers, George H. 
Johnston and Joshua Lucas. 

Bluffton, the Seat of Justice of Wells county, is sit- 
uated on the Wabash river, near the centre of the county, 
twenty-five miles south of Fort Wayne and 101 north-east 
of Indianapolis. It contains a good Court House, Jail and 
public offices ; Churches for the United Brethren, Presby- 
terians, Methodists and Christians, and a population of 
500. It was first settled in 1838. 

Blue Creek, a small tributary of the St. Mary's, 
south-west side, in Adams county. 

Blue Creek, a township on east side of Adams 
county. 

Blue River, the main stream or principal branch of 
Driftwood or East Fork of White River, and it is usually 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 169 

called by the latter name after it unites with Sugar creek 
in the lower end of Johnson county. It rises in the north- 
east part of Henry county and runs south-west through 
the counties of Henry, Rush, Hancock, Shelby and John- 
son, about eighty miles, for sixty of which there is at 
least one or more good water privileges for every mile. 
The stream is unfailing, and for all that distance is usu- 
ally from thirty to sixty yards in width. The country 
along the whole route is very fertile and beginning to 
be well improved, and this part of the State is now at- 
tracting much attention, both from farmers and manu- 
facturers. 

Blue River, an excellent mill stream, rises in Wash- 
ington county, and winding in a south-western direction, 
forms the dividing line between Harrison and Crawford 
for fifteen miles, then runs south-east into Harrison ten 
miles, then south-west and again becomes the dividing 
line between the counties for ten miles, and empties into 
the Ohio river two miles above Leavenworth. Its whole 
length is about 75 miles. There are now many valuable 
mills erected on it, and still more may be. 

Blue River, a branch of Eel river, thirty miles in 
length, rises in Noble county, then runs south-west into 
Whitley, passes through Blue River Lake and empties into 
Eel river, two miles below Columbia. It is a lasting 
stream. 

Blue Baby Creek, a branch of the last named river, 
in Whitley county. 

Blue River, a south-eastern township in Hancock 
county, with a population of 850. 

Blue River, a western township in Harrison county, 
with a population of 1,500. 

Blue River, a south-eastern and very fertile township 
in Johnson county. 

Blue Grass Run, a small stream in Noble county. 

Bogard, a northern township in Daviess county, with 
a population of 675. 

Boggs Creek, a small stream in Martin county, 
emptying into the East Fork of White river, west side. 
12 



170 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Bono, a small town in Lawrence county, on a high 
bluff, on the south side of White river. It is fifteen 
miles south-east of Bedford, and has a population of 200. 

Bono, a south-eastern township of Lawrence county, 
with a population of 1,110. 

Boone County is bounded north by Clinton, east by 
Hamilton, south by Marion and Hendricks, and west by 
Montgomery. It is twenty-four miles long from east to 
west, and seventeen miles wide, and contains 408 square 
miles. The south-eastern, western and north-western 
portions are agreeably undulating; the interior generally 
level. The county was organized in 1830, and was 
named after the celebrated Daniel Boone, whose love of 
forest life, enterprise and disinterestedness were proto- 
types of much that is still admirable in western manners. 
The population of the county was 622 in 1830, 8,121 in 
1840, and at this time at least 14,000. It is divided into 
eleven civil townships, Marion, Clinton, Washington, 
Sugar Creek, Jefferson, Centre, Union, Eagle, Perry, 
Harrison and Jackson. 

The soil in most parts of the county is a black loam, 
usually several feet in depth, on a stratum of clay, and 
in some places of sand or coarse gravel. It is very fer- 
tile and well adapted for the production of wheat, corn, 
oats, grass, and all kinds of vegetables. There is no part 
of the State where the timber is heavier or of a better 
quality. It is not uncommon to see, on a single acre, 
100 oak trees averaging four feet in diameter, and from 80 
to 120 feet in height. The other forest trees which are 
most common, are ash, walnut, poplar, beech, sugar tree, 
lynh, &c. The only prairies are Smith's, Hagan's and 
Eel, which are small and wet, except a portion of Ha- 
gan's, which is dry and agreeably undulating. They 
may all be drained with a little ditching, and made dry 
enough for tillage. 

The principal kinds of surplus produce are wheat, 
corn, beef, pork, honey, &c, and cattle, hogs, horses and 
mules are driven to market. The annual value of the 
exports is estimated at $150,000, which consist of 100,000 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 171 

bushels of wheat, 5,000 of com, 10,000 hogs, 2,000 cat- 
tle, 200 horses and 150 mules. There are in the county 
twenty-one stores, one licensed grocery, eight lawyers, 
twenty physicians, six Ministers of the Gospel, eighteen 
churches of various denominations, about twenty taverns, 
sixteen saddle and harness makers, twenty shoe-makers, 
thirty carpenters, sixteen cabinet makers, ten coopers, 
five wagon makers, twenty-five blacksmiths, eight tan- 
ners and curriers, five brick layers, two tinneis, one pot- 
ter and six tailors; eight grist mills, ten saw mills, one 
woollen factory, propelled by water, and one steam saw 
mill. All building materials, except rock, are abundant 
and of an excellent quality. 

Boone county is situated on the ridge or what were 
formerly called the dividing swamps between White 
river and the Wabash. It is the source of Eagle creek, 
White Lick and Walnut Fork of Eel river which empty 
into the former, and Big Raccoon and Sugar creek which 
empty into the latter. All these streams are quite large 
and important near their mouths; but they are very slug- 
gish near their sources, and are there not well adapted to 
move machinery, though the former and the latter have 
some very good water privileges, yet still far from suffi- 
cient for public use, especially in dry seasons. 

The heavy timber, level surface and porous soil of 
Boone county were not very attractive to the agricultu- 
rist at the first settlement, and accordingly the pursuit of 
game and the collection of skins, furs and wild honey, 
were reckoned far more important than any kind of 
farming. The only real necessaries for a family were 
then thought to be two rifles, powder and lead, a barrel 
of salt, a camp kettle and a couple of dogs. Deer, tur- 
keys, bears and wolves were abundant, and the latter 
often came into the very door yards of the settler and 
took away his pigs and poultry. The only currency was 
the skins of deer, raccoons, minks and wild honey, and 
even as late as 1S41, the trade in these articles was over 
$5,000 a vear. It is said that in these earlv times a tra- 



172 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

veller from Cincinnati, in company with a resident of the 
county, fell in with a man whose horse was so covered 
and loaded with skins of "varments," as almost to hide 
both horse and rider, and the only information he could 
get was that this was the Collector of the county, re- 
turning to the county seat with his " funds," from one of 
the townships. At any rate, the story found its way 
into the newspapers, and those who gave full credit to 
the statement must have supposed the Collector of Boone 
had an odd set of customers to collect his "poll taxes" 
from. The coon skins, it was said, were for State, the 
deer for county revenue, and the mink for change. 
About the same time it was said that one of the Judges, 
who, for want of other accommodations, had taken his 
luncheon to Court, was supposed at a distance to be 
reading a newspaper, when, on nearer approach, it was 
ascertained that he was only eating a large buckwheat 
pancake. 

There are few if any counties in the State where 
greater alterations have taken place within the last ten 
years; for many of the swamps have disappeared and 
first rate farms may now be found in every neighbor- 
hood. The opening of the Wabash and Erie Canal, and 
the proposed continuation of the Madison and Indianap- 
olis Railroad to Lafayette, which is now in progress, are 
giving life and energy to the industry and enterprise of 
the citizens. 

This county was once the abode and hunting ground 
of the Eel river tribe of the Miami Indians; here were 
their wigwams, their fields, and the graves of their 
fathers and their brave warriors. In 1819, Thorntown 
had a population of 400 Indians and a few French trad- 
ers, and the large reserve at this place was not finally 
purchased until 1828, nor did they remove entirely until 
about 1835. Nearly all traces of this Indian population 
are now obliterated, and except the marks on the trees 
in their sugar camps, nothing they have done remains to 
bear witness of their ever having existed. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 173 

The whole number of acres of taxable land in the 
county is 255,000, and there are no longer any lands of 
the United States or Indian reservations here. 

Boone, a township in Cass county, north of the Wa- 
bash river, with a population of 600. 

Boone, a southern township in Harrison countv, popu- 
lation 1,600. 

Boone, a north-west township in Madison county. 

Boone, a southern township in Porter county, with a 
population of 525. 

Boone, a central township in Warrick county. 

Booneville, the Seat of Justice of Warrick county, is 
situated on elevated table land, near the centre of the 
county, eleven miles from Newburgh, on the Ohio river, 
eighteen miles from Evansville, and 170 south-west of 
Indianapolis. It contains seven stores and a population 
of 300. It was settled in 1817, and was named after 
the Hon. RatlifF Boone, formerly a citizen of the place. 

Boston, a small village in Wayne county, containing 
a population of 150. 

Bourbon, a township in Marshall county, with a popu- 
lation of 260. 

Bowling Green, the Seat of Justice of Clay county, 
situated on the east side of Eel river, sixty miles south- 
west from Indianapolis, twenty-four miles south-east from 
Terre Haute, and sixteen west from Spencer. It was 
laid out in 1825, and contains a brick Court House, a 
county Seminary, two hotels, four stores, 100 houses and 
300 inhabitants. 

Boxleytown, a small village in the north-west part of 
Hamilton county, on the road from Strawtown to Kirk- 
lin, with a population of 125. 

Bradford, a small village in Morgan township, Har- 
rison county. 

Brandywine, a good mill stream rising in Hancock, 
runs nearly forty miles, and empties into Blue river in 
Shelby county. 

Brandywine, a small village on the Michigan road, in 
Shelby county, near the creek of the same name. 



174 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Brandywine, a township in Hancock county, with a 
population of 750. 

Brazil, a small town in Clay county, on the National 
road, sixteen miles east of Terre Haute. 

Brentonsville, a small village in Owen county, four 
miles above Spencer. 

Bridgeport, a small village on the National road, nine 
miles west of Indianapolis. 

Bristol, a pleasant village on the St. Joseph river, in 
Elkhart county, ten miles north of Goshen. It contains 
four stores, two taverns, a large flouring mill, and a pop- 
ulation of 200. The Episcopalians are about erecting a 
handsome church. 

Brockville, a small town in Steuben county, near the 
north-east corner of the State, on the road from Toledo 
to South Bend. It contains a population of 250. 

Brook's Creek, a branch of the Salamonie, in Jay 
county. 

Brookville, the County Seat of Franklin county, so 
called after Jesse Brook Thomas, the original proprietor. 
It is beautifully situated in the forks of White Water, 
seventy miles south-east from Indianapolis, and forty-one 
north-west from Cincinnati. It was first settled in 1S04 
by Lismund Bayse, James Knight, Robert Breckenridge, 
John Test and Amos Butler. Brookville has very great 
manufacturing advantages, and for many years its man- 
ufactures of flour, paper, cotton, &c, have employed 
much capital and a large number of hands. The popu- 
lation is now about 1,200. There are the usual public 
buildings in the town, a County Seminary and two 
Printing Offices. 

Brookville, a central township in Franklin county, 
containing a population of about 5,000. 

Brouillet's Creek, a small mill stream rising in Illi- 
nois, then running south-east into Vermillion county, 
empties into the Wabash near the north line of Vigo. 
It has excellent coal and good iron ore on its banks, in 
the vicinity of water power, which is now being im- 
proved. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 175 

Brown County is bounded north by Johnson, east by 
Bartholomew, south by Jackson and west by Monroe 
counties. It is twenty miles in length from north to 
south, and sixteen miles in breadth, and contains 320 
square miles. It was organized in 1836, and named af- 
ter Gen. Jacob Brown, one of the heroes of the war of 
1812. Brown county is divided into five civil townships, 
Hamblen, Jackson, Van Buren, Johnson and Washing- 
ton. Its population in 1840 was 2,364, and is now about 
4,000. The county is generally hilly, though it is inter- 
spersed with many fertile valleys or bottoms, which con- 
stitute near one-third of the whole surface. The timber 
on the hills is white and chestnut oak and hickory. In 
the bottoms, it is walnut, poplar, sugar, hackberry, 
cherry, buckeye, elm, &c. Corn and hemp grow well 
in the bottoms; wheat, oats, grass, &c, on the hills. 
There are in the county eight tanneries, carrying on bu- 
siness to the amount of $50,000 annually, and employ- 
ing twenty-five hands; five cabinet and two wagon 
shops, five house carpenters, seven shoemakers, seven 
blacksmiths, four stores, five groceries, one lawyer, three 
physicians and eight preachers, and there are eight schools 
with about 160 scholars. The articles exported are prin- 
cipally leather, wheat, pork, hogs, horses, cattle, mules, 
hoop-poles, &c<, to the value of §5100,000 annually. 

There are in the county six churches, one for each of 
the denominations of Presbyterians, Methodists, United 
Brethren, Christian, (or Campbellite) Old Christian, (or 
New Light) and Baptists. About 120,000 acres of land 
in the county still belongs to the United States, the most 
of which is not of much value. 

Brown, a north-eastern township in Hendricks county, 
with a population of 1460. 

Brown, a western township in Martin county, with a 
population of 575. 

Brown, a northern township in Morgan county, with 
a population of 1,550. 

Brown, a central township in Montgomery county, 
with a population of 1,885. 



176 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Brown, a south-eastern township in Ripley county, 
population 1,S50. 

Brown, a township in Washington county. 

Brownsburgh, sometimes called Harrisburgh, a small 
town in Hendricks county, fourteen miles north-west of 
Indianapolis, at the crossing of White Lick, on the Craw- 
fordsville road. It contains about 30 houses and 200 in- 
habitants. 

Brownstown, the County Seat of Jackson county, is 
situated near the centre of the county, one mile south- 
east of the East Fork of White river, seventy miles 
south of Indianapolis, fifty-five miles north of JefFerson- 
ville, forty north-west of Madison, the same distance 
south-east of Bloomington,and twenty-eight east of Bed- 
ford, in latitude 38 deg. 52 min., and in longitude 9 deg. 
west. It contains a Court House, County Seminary, and 
public offices of brick, seventy dwelling houses, and a 
population of 400. It was laid off in 1816, and the 
first settlers were A. C. Craig, Charles Crabb, William 
Williams, William Congleton, William Crenshaw, John 
Milroy and John Ketcham. 

Brownstown, a central township in Jackson county, 
population 2,000. 

Brownsville, a pleasant village in Union county, on 
the East Fork of White Water, thirteen miles south of 
Richmond, four and a half north-west of Liberty, and 
eight north-east of Connersville. It contains eighty-nine 
houses, four of brick, the balance frame, churches for 
the Methodists, Presbyterians and Reformers, three dry 
goods stores, and a population of 340. It has two min- 
isters of the gospel and two physicians. The town was 
laid out in 1816; the first settlers were James Conway, 
John Smith and Elijah Holland. 

Brownsville, a north-west township in Union county, 
with a population of 1,640. 

Brown's Wonder, a small creek in Boone county, a 
tributary of Sugar creek. 

Bruce's Lake, a fine sheet of water covering 500 or 
600 acres, and lying partly in Fulton and partly in Pu- 
laski counties. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 177 

Bruceville, a small village in Knox County, eight 
miles north-east of Vinoennes, in a very fertile region of 
country. 

Brunerstown, a small village on the west side of Put- 
nam county. 

Brushy Prairie, east side of Lagrange county, Spring- 
field township. 

Bryant's Creek, a small stream in Switzerland county, 
running south into the Ohio near Warsaw. 

Bryantsville, a small village in Lawrence county, 
ten miles from Bedford. 

Buck Creek, the principal branch of Richland creek, 
in Greene county. 

Buck Creek, a beautiful stream that takes its rise on 
the west side of Hancock county, then runs into Ma- 
rion, and pursuing a south course, empties into Sugar 
creek, in Shelby county. 

Buck Creek, a good mill stream, thirty miles in length, 
that rises in the east part of Harrison county and emp- 
ties into the Ohio at Mauksport. 

Buck Creek, a first rate mill stream, rising in Henry 
county, runs north-west and empties into the West Fork 
of White river, near Yorktown. 

Buck Creek, a small stream in Marion county, runs 
west into White river, nine miles below Indianapolis. 

Buck Creek, a small stream in Tippecanoe county, 
emptying into the Wabash. 

Buck Creek, a township in Hancock county, with a 
population of 450. 

Buckhart's Creek, a mill stream in Morgan county, 
emptying into White river from the west. 

Buexa Vista, a small village in the north-east corner 
of Monroe county. 

Bull Creek, a small stream in the north part of Clark 
county, running south into the Ohio river. 

Bull Creek, a mill stream in Huntington county, run- 
ning south into Little river. 

Bullskin, a wet prairie in Blackford county. 



178 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Butfcii Creek, a branch of Eel river, in Clay county, 
about twenty miles in length. 

Burlington, a small village on the Michigan road, in 
Carroll county, on the south side of Wild Cat, eighteen 
miles south of Logansport and fifty-two north of Indian- 
apolis. It is beautifully situated in a fertile part of the 
country, and contains about thirty houses. 

Burlington, a small town in Delaware county, on 
Prairie creek, seven miles south-east of Muncietown. It 
contains two stores, a physician, a tavern, a Presbyterian 
Church and twelve families. 

Burlington, a small town in Rush county, on the 
Indianapolis State road, eight miles north-west of 
Rushville. 

Burnet's Creek, a small stream in the north-east cor- 
ner of Carroll county, emptying into the Wabash on the 
north side, near Lockport. 

Burnet's Creek, a mill stream in Morgan county, 
emptying into White river on the west side. 

Burnet's Creek, a mill stream on the west side of the 
Wabash, Tippecanoe county, near which the battle of 
7th November, 1811, was fought. It empties into the 
Wabash four miles above Lafayette. 

Bush Creek, a tributary of the Mississinewa, in Ran- 
dolph county. 

Bussero Creek rises in Vigo county, runs south-west 
through Sullivan and empties into the Wabash in Knox 
county. It is about fifty miles in length, and in high 
water may be navigated with flat-boats for half that dis- 
tance. There are several good mills on this stream. 

Bussero Prairie, a a rich and very fertile prairie, con- 
taining some 12,000 acres, in the north-west part of Knox 
county. A portion of it was formerly well cultivated 
by the Shakers, who had a flourishing village on its bor- 
ders; but they left the State many years since. 

Bussero, a north-western township in Knox county. 

Butler, a south-western township in DeKalb county, 
with a population of 450. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 179 

Butler, a township in Miami county, with a popula- 
tion of 600. 

Buttermilk, the name of a prairie in Sullivan county. 

Butternut, a good mill stream in Jay county, a tribu- 
tary of the Salamonie. 

Byrneville, a small town in Morgan township, Hai- 
rison county. 

Cabin Creek, a small stream in Randolph county, 
rises near Huntsville and runs north-west into White 
river, near Windsor. 

Cain, an eastern township in Fountain county, with a 
population of 1,100. 

Caledonia, a small town on Bussero creek, east side 
of Sullivan county. 

Calf Creek, a small mill stream, running south into 
Little river, on the east side of Huntington county. 

Calumick is a small river that rises on the west side 
of Laporte county, and runs west nearly parallel with 
Lake Michigan through Porter and Lake counties into 
Illinois; then a part of it empties into the Lake fifteen 
miles north-east of Chicago; the other part returns di- 
rectly east, parallel with its former course, and only 
three or four miles north of it, and then connects with 
the Lake at its extreme southern bend. The name was 
derived from Calumet, the Indian "Pipe of Peace." 
The original Indian name of the river was Ken-no-mo- 
konk. 

Cambridge City is on the west side of Wayne county, 
where the National road crosses the White Water Canal, 
nine miles west of Centreville and fifty-two miles east of 
Indianapolis. It is a beautifully situated and flourishing 
village, containing a population of 1,200. The frequent 
interruptions of the Canal business by high floods, has 
heretofore retarded the improvement of this place to 
some extent; but the fertility of the country around, the 
water power and other advantages in the vicinity, can- 
not fail to make it a town of much importance whenever 
the banks of the Canal become so firm as to be secure 
from accident. 



180 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Camden, a pleasant village on the east bank of the 
Salamonie, in Jay county, eleven miles north-west of 
Portland. It was laid out in 1837; Henry Z. Jenkins 
and John D. Jones were the first settlers. It has an 
institution called the Penn Seminary, two stores, and a 
population of 250. 

Camp Creek, a mill stream in Clark county, emptying 
into the Ohio three miles below Bethlehem. 

Camp Creek, a small stream in the south part of Da- 
viess county, emptying into the East Fork of White 
river. 

Camp Creek, a small stream in Jefferson county, run- 
ning past Dupont and emptying into Big creek. 

Campbell's Creek, a small stream in Delaware county. 

Campbell's Creek, a good mill stream in Huntington 
county. 

Campbell, a township in the north-west part of War- 
rick county. 

Cannelton, a post town in Perry county, four miles 
below the mouth of Deer creek and" six above Troy, at 
the mouth of Anderson river. It now contains 600 in- 
habitants; but the indications of its rapid growth are 
evident from the superiority of its position and the rich- 
ness of its beds of coal, fire-clay, building stone, &c. 
During the two last sessions of the Legislature, ten charters, 
with an aggregate capital of several millions of dollars, 
were obtained for manufactories at this point, presenting 
as it does, in the opinion of practical and scientific men, 
advantages for the manufacturing of cotton, iron, hemp, 
wool, glass and stone ware not found in any other place 
in combination. The coal in the hills immediately back 
of the town, is of the best quality, is inexhaustible and 
easy of access, and is underlaid by excellent fire-clay. 
In the same hills, fire-stone and sand-stone, of a superior 
quality for building, are found in great abundance ; and 
near the bank, common clay and sharp white sand in 
large deposites. The vast influence which steam is to 
exert upon the growth of the manufacturing skill and 
industry of the great Western valley, deficient as it is in 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 181 

water power, and the immense importance that will be 
attached to coal for the supply of the fleets of steamers 
that will bear its commerce over its long diverging ave- 
nues of trade, extending from points thousands of miles 
asunder, and requiring voyages equal in length to the 
passage of the Atlantic, will make coal deposits a subject 
of deep interest to the Statesman, and to all who have 
an interest in the prosperity of these favored regions. 
Most bountiful is the supply of mineral wealth to this 
richest seat of nature's munificence, and doubtless will 
equal the most extended use which her other gifts can 
ever demand. 

The following extracts from the report of Mr. Law- 
rence, a practical geologist, will be read with interest, as 
containing an accurate description of that part of the 
great " Illinois Coal field," which touches the Ohio at 
this point. 

"The whole coal field, of which the point I refer to 
forms a part, occupies a portion of five States, extending 
from near Bowlinggreen, Kentucky, to the mouth of 
Rock river, Illinois, and from St. Louis, Missouri, to near 
Bloomington, Iowa, being about 500 miles in length and 
200 wide, containing 70,000 square miles. It is not very 
likely, however, that any considerable part of this vast 
body of coal will be of any practical value to the pre- 
sent generation, but there it will lie, where a wise Provi- 
dence has placed it, a fund of future wealth which no man, 
at this time, can estimate. To the practical miner of the 
present time, the important inquiry is, where in this ex- 
tended field, is the most favorable combination of cir- 
cumstances for the employment of labor and capital in 
mining coal ? Feeling that this subject is every day ac- 
quiring more importance, I have spent much time in the 
study of this great coal field, and I shall confine the rest 
of my remarks to that portion of it which, in my opinion, 
offers superior advantages in respect not only to the 
quality of the coal, but to the facility and cheapness with 
which it can be furnished for use. The point to which I 
allude is Cannelton and its vicinity, on the north bank of 



182 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

the Ohio. The undoubted health, as well as the beauty 
of the location, the abundance and excellent quality of 
the coal, its commanding position on the lower Ohio, 
where navigation is not often interrupted, either by ice 
or low water, renders it a point of uncommon interest. 
The business of mining coal is becoming important, and 
whether viewed as a depot for the supply of fuel for na- 
vigation or domestic purposes, or as a future manufactur- 
ing city, it must be looked upon as a place of much 
future consequence. 

"In order to give a definite idea of the exact position 
of the coal and of the method of mining it, I give the fol- 
lowing description of the strata in a section of five miles 
along the Ohio. The dip, or incline, is to the west or to- 
wards the river at this place, at the rate of about fifty feet 
to the mile. First, or lowest, is a bed of green argillaceous 
shale or slaty clay, containing occasional thin layers of 
argillaceous iron ore. It is destitute of fossils, and its 
thickness as seen higher up the river is about eighty feet. 
Second, is lime-stone, about twenty feet thick, filled with 
small organic remains, &c. Third, is a true conglomerate 
of mill-stone grit, consisting almost entirely of quartz, gra- 
vel and coarse sand, without any visible cement. Its thick- 
ness is thirty-six feet. Fourth, is a fine grained sand- 
stone of remarkable uniformity of texture, and in the 
size of its particles. It has a single stratification, which 
causes it to split readily into square blocks. When first 
quarried, it is very soft and easily worked; but it soon 
hardens, which renders it an excellent and valuable build- 
ing material^and is the same kind of stone, it is stated 
by Dr. Owen, which was used in the construction of 
Melrose Abbey, which is 700 years old, and whose cornices 
are still as sharp and perfect as if they had been carved 
only a few years ago. The thickness of this bed is about 
thirty feet. Fifth, is about fifty feet thick, and consists 
of a confused mixture of sand, shaly matter and iron 
ore. Sixth, is argillaceous shale, including one of the 
most valuable beds of coal found anywhere in our coun- 
try. The whole varis in thickness from about twenty 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. L&o 

to thirty feet. The upper and lower portions are light 
colored, but grow darker towards the centre, until it be- 
comes perfectly black in the middle. On the darkest 
portions of the shale lies the bed of coal, the thickness of 
which varies from three to four, and sometimes about five 
feet. But it is not its thickness that particularly recom- 
mends it; it is its excellent quality, the freedom of the 
mines from water, and its nearness to the river. It 
leaves no cinder in the grate, and only 2.11 per cent, is 
white ashes. It resembles in appearance and burns 
like the Cannel coal, and it has been so called ; but it 
is considered by the best judges as be^nging to the bitu- 
minous variety. Seventh, is sand-stone, about eighty 
feet thick. Above this sand-stone is another bed of coal, 
but too thin to be worked in this vicinity, though it ob- 
tains a workable thickness in other places. Tenth, is 
a bed of impure lime-stone, and eleventh is sand-stone, 
that tops out the hill." 

The section of the coal seam at Carmelton increases 
in thickness in the interior, as where it is cut by the White, 
Eel and Wabash rivers, it is from six to ten feet thick. 
At Cannelton each acre now worked will yield 120,000 
bushels, so that the amount near that place may be said 
to be almost inexhaustible. 

Here, then, in this free and rapidly growing State, on 
the banks of the Ohio, is the power which is already at- 
tracting capital, enterprise and labor. The strong ten- 
dency of accessible coal fields, where the climate is favor- 
able to health and where food is cheap, is to attract a 
dense population. All the important manufacturing 
cities of England are on or near coal regions. The 
100,000 artizans, factors, and others in and about Pitts- 
burgh, are evidence of the same tendency in our own 
country, and it is safe to infer like effects from like 
causes. 

The importance of this coal field to Indiana, the wealth 
that is to be dug out of her hills, so long overlooked, the 
home market that will here be made for our agricultural 
products, the capi'al and population which will be at- 



184 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

tracted from abroad by this affluent combination of man- 
ufacturing advantages, warrant the anticipation that 
Cannelton, at no distant day, may become a large and 
important manufacturing city; nor will it be the only 
one on the lower Ohio and the other rivers penetrating 
the State, which, at navigable points, touch this great 
coal field. There are now about fifty stone and one 
hundred frame houses in Cannelton, and many more. are 
now in the process of erection. The town was first laid 
out in 1835, and settled by colliers under the supervision of 
Rhodes and McLane. Afterwards the American Cannel 
Coal Company took charge of the concern. A more 
particular description of the manufactories in operation 
and in progress will be given under the head of Perry 
county. 

Canton, the coun'y seat of Tipton, for particulars see 
Tipton county. 

Carlisle, the principal town in Sullivan county, is 
situated ten miles south of the County Seat and six miles 
from the Wabash river, twenty-two miles north-east of 
Vincennes and 110 miles south-west of Indianapolis. It 
was laid out in 1814, by James Sproul. The first set- 
tlers were Samuel Ledgerwood and William McFar- 
land. It has a High School, Presbyterian and Methodist 
churches, about 100 houses, and 600 inhabitants. 

Carr, a western township in Jackson county, with a 
population of 900. 

Carroll County was organized in 1828, and contains 
376 square miles. It was named after the venerable 
Charles Carroll, then the sole survivor of those who 
signed the Declaration of Independence. It is bound- 
ed on the north by White and Cass counties, on the east 
by Howard, on the south by Clinton, and on the west by 
Tippecanoe and White. It is divided into thirteen civil 
townships, Deer Creek, Tippecanoe, Jefferson, Adams, 
Rock Creek, Washington, Carrolton, Burlington, Demo- 
crat, Clay, Madison, Monroe and Jackson. The popu- 
lation of the county in 1830 was 1,614, in 1840 it was 
7,819, now it must be about 12,000. The face of the 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 1S5 

country is undulating along the Wabash, Tippecanoe and 
Wild Cat, which are the principal streams; in other 
places it is level. About one-fii'th of the county was 
originally dry prairie, the balance forest, consisting mostly 
of oak, walnut, poplar, beech and sugar tree. The soil 
is generally a rich loam, well adapted to corn, wheat, 
hemp, tobacco, rye, grass, &c, and these with cattle, hogs 
and horses are the principal surplus articles raised for ex- 
portation. There are in the county eighteen stores, ten 
groceries, eight warehouses, seven lawyers, seventeen 
physicians, eighteen preachers, the usual proportion of 
mechanics, twenty-five grist mills, twenty saw mills, one 
woollen factory, one foundry, &c. 

The Wabash, which is usually navigable four or five 
months in the year, and the Wabash and Erie Canal 
which runs through the whole length of the county, fur- 
nish great facilities for trade and the exportation of pro- 
duce, while the large dam across the Wabash at Pitts- 
burgh, and the -other water power in the county on the 
Tippecanoe, Wild Cat and Deer creek, which may be 
used to almost any extent, will, with its rich soil and 
favorable situation, make Carroll one of the most im- 
portant counties of the State. 

There is no land belonging to the United States in the 
county, and the number of acres subject to taxation is 
227,372. 

Carrollton, a township in Carroll county, with a 
population of 550. 

Carter, a northern township in Spencer county, with 
a population of 800. 

Carthage, the second town in size in Rush county, is 
beautifully situated on the east side of Blue river, ten 
miles north-west of Rushville. It has good water power 
and there are excellent mills in the vicinity, and as the 
Shelbyviile and Knightstown Railroad will soon be com- 
pleted through the place, it will become an important 
point. 

Cass County, named after the Hon. Lewis Cass, was 
organized in 1829, and contains 420 square miles. It is 
13 



186 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

bounded north by the counties of Pulaski and Fulton, 
east by Miami, south by Howard and Carroll, and west 
by Carroll and White. It is divided into fifteen town- 
ships, of which Bethlehem, Adams, Clay, Harrison, No- 
ble, Jefferson, Miami, Eel and Boone lie north of the 
Wabash river, and Clinton, Washington, Tipton, Deer 
Creek and Jackson, which lie south of the river. The 
population of the county in 1830, was 1,154; in 1840 it 
was 5,480, and it is now about 10,500. The borders of 
the Wabash and Eel rivers are undulating or hilly, the 
other parts of the county level. All the south part is 
heavily timbered bottoms or table land, the centre is 
mostly bottom or high bluff land, and the north is prin- 
cipally prairie. The latter is best adapted to wheat and 
small grain, the bottoms for corn, and the high timbered 
lands for a fair crop of any kind of grain or grass. 

There are in the county fifteen saw mills, six flouring 
mills, one of which can manufacture 1,000 bushels of 
wheat a day, an extensive saleratus factory, fourteen 
dry goods stores, six grocery and provision stores, seven 
ware-houses, twelve lawyers, nine ministers of the gos- 
pel, twelve physicians, twenty-seven blacksmiths, twenty- 
eight shoemakers, eighteen tailors, eight saddlers, ten 
cabinet makers, fifty carpenters, six wagon makers, four 
tanners, three gunsmiths, two chair makers, two hat- 
ters, &c. 

The Wabash and Eel rivers run swiftly through the 
county, have high banks and solid rock bottoms, and af- 
ford an immense amount of water power that will here- 
after be brought into use. Twelve Mile, Pipe and 
Crooked creeks are also excellent mill streams, with simi- 
lar advantages on a smaller scale. 

Iron ore is found in abundance in the marshes in the 
north part of the couuty, and also in the Logansport 
bluffs. Building stone, of the best quality, is abundant, 
and the Court House, County Seminary, and Old School 
Presbyterian Church, are fine structures built of stone, 
and would appear well in any of the western cities. 
The amount of produce exported from the county an- 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 187 

nually is estimated to be worth $250,000. The articles 
consist of 25,000 barrels flour, 50,000 bushels of wheat 
and corn, pork, oats, potatoes, &c. The amount of tax- 
able land in the county is 200,063 acres. There is yet 
63,500 acres not taxable, comprising that part of the 
Miami Reserve which has been sold within five years, or 
which still belongs to the United States. 

The only lakes in the county are Georgetown Lake, 
near that place, Fletcher's Lake, in the north part of the 
county, and Twin Lake, near the centre. None of them 
exceed a square mile in size. 

In a prairie south-east of Logansport, there is a sprint 
that boils up from the centre of a mound, six feet above 
the level surface of the prairie. Three miles below Lo- 
gansport, is a stream that turns a saw mill on the top of 
a bluff 150 feet high, then pitches down the whole dis- 
tance with but few interruptions. This stream has its 
source only a mile and a half in the rear of the bluff. 
The town of Kenapacomequa, or l'Anguille, the French 
name, or Old Town, was destroyed by Gen. Wilkinson 
in August, 1791, as is heretofore stated in the historical 
part of the General View of the State, stood on the north 
bank of Eel river, six miles north-east of Logansport. 
It was once a considerable town, and extended for two 
miles and a half along the stream. It was then called a 
village of the Kickapoos. 

Cass, an eastern township in Clay county with 370 in- 
habitants. 

Cass, a toSvnship in the south-west corner of Laporte 
county, with a population of 230. 

Cass, a southern township in Ohio county, with a 
population of 1,000. 

Cedar Creek, a mill stream about forty miles in 
length, rises in DeKalb county, runs south into Allen, 
and empties into the Little St. Joseph. 

Cedar Creek, a branch of the Kankakee, in Lake 
county, the outlet of Cedar Lake. 

Cedar Creek, a northern township in Allen county, 
with a population of 700. 



188 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Cedar Lake is situated a little south of the centre of 
Lake county, and is three miles long and three-fourths of 
a mile wide. It abounds with the various kinds of fish 
found in the west. 

Cedar Lake, In Troy township, Whitley county. 

Centre, a township in Boone county, with a popula- 
tion of 1,650. 

Centre, a township in Dearborn county, with a popu- 
lation of 2,250. 

Centre, a township in Delaware county. 

Centre, a township in Grant county, population 2,500. 

Centre, a township in Green county, with a popula- 
tion of 1,275. 

Centre, a township in Hancock county, population 
900. 

Centre, a township in Hendricks county, population 
2,170. 

Centre, a township in Howard county, population 
700. 

Centre, a township in Laporte county, population 
3,070. 

Centre, a township in Marion county, with a popula- 
tion of 8,000. 

Centre, a township in Marshall county, with a popu- 
lation of 1,800. 

Centre, a township in Porter county, with a popula- 
tion of 1,100. 

Centre, a township in Rush county, with a population 
of 1,400. 

Centre, a township in St. Joseph county. 

Centre, a township in Vanderburgh county, with a 
population of 750. 

Centre, a township in Wayne county, population 
3,250. 

Centreville, a small town in Lake county, lying six 
miles north of Crown Point. 

Centreville, a small town in Spencer county, nine 
nine miles north of Rockport. 

Centreville, a small town in Vigo county. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 1S9 

Centreville, the County Seat of Wayne county, is 
situated near the centre of the county, sixty-one miles 
east of Indianapolis and six miles west of Richmond. 
The situation is healthy and pleasant, and all the country 
around is good farming land, highly improved, well wa- 
tered, and mills, machinery, and other facilities are so 
abundant as to render this among the most desirable por- 
tions of the State. The population of Centreville is now 
1,000, and both the public and private buildings indicate 
the taste and wealth of the citizens. 

Celestine, a small town in Dubois county, named 
after the second Bishop of Vincennes. It contains twen- 
ty-five houses, and its inhabitants are principally Catho- 
lics. 

Cesar Creek, a south-western township in Dearborn 
county, has a population of 400. 

Ceylon, a small town in Posey township, Franklin 
county. 

Chambersburgh, a small town in Fountain county, on 
Coal creek, eight miles east of Covington. 

Charlestown, the Seat of Justice of Clark countv, is 
pleasantly situated two miles and a-half from the Ohio 
river, thirteen miles above the Falls and 106 miles south- 
east of Indianapolis. It is surrounded by first rate land 
in a good state of cultivation. The town contains a 
spacious and convenient Court House, a County Semi- 
nary, a Female High School, recently established by the 
Presbytery, both in a good condition ; churches for the 
Episcopal and Reformed Methodists, and for the Baptists 
and Presbyterians; about 200 dwelling houses and a 
population of 1,200. Charlestown was first settled in 
1808. It has been the residence of many distinguished 
men in the State. 

Charlestown, a central township in Clark county, 
with a population of 4,600. 

Charrley's Creek, a small stream in Wabash county. 

Chester, a northerm township in Wabash county. 

Chester, a small town recently laid out in Wayne 
county. 



190 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Chester, a southern township in Wells county. 

Chipwanic, a branch of Tippecanoe river in Fulton 
county. 

Christiana Creek, a mill stream, is the outlet of a 
considerable lake in Michigan, and runs south into the 
St. Joseph, near Elkhart. 

Cicero, a mill stream rising in the north-west corner 
of Hamilton county, empties into White river near No- 
blesville. 

Cicero, a southern township in Tipton county. 

Cicerotown, a small village in Hamilton county, on 
Cicero Creek, six miles north of Noblesville, with a pop- 
ulation of 200. 

Clark County was organized in 1801, and named 
after the celebrated George Rogers Clark, at one time a 
citizen of the county. At that time the boundaries, as 
defined by the Governor, were, "Beginning on the Ohio 
river at the mouth of Blue river, thence up that river to 
the crossing of the Vincennes road, thence in a direct 
line to the nearest point on White river, thence up that 
river to its source and to Fort Recovery, thence on the 
line of the north-west territory to the Ohio at the mouth 
of the Kentucky, thence to the place of beginning." 
Clark now contains about 400 square miles, and is bound- 
ed north by Jefferson and Scott counties, east and south 
by the Ohio river and the county of Floyd, and west by 
the county of Washington. Its population in 1830 was 
10,719; in 1840, 14,595, and at this time about 16,600. 
It is divided, for civil government, into nine townships, 
viz: Chariestown, Jeffersonville, Utica, Wood, Monroe, 
Silver Creek, Owen, New Washington and Bethlehem. 

The surface of the country along the Ohio river, and 
from three to five miles in the interior, is rolling; the 
remainder mostly level, except a chain of "knobs," as 
they are called, which form a semi-circle along the north- 
western and western boundary of the county, and strike 
the Ohio river just below the city of New Albany. 
Only a small portion of the knobs is cultivated, but they 
are crowned with fine timber, among which may be 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 191 

found large quantities of chestnut, oak, and some pine. 
With the exception of the "knobs," all the land in the 
county is susceptible of cultivation. The strip along the 
river, about thirty-five miles in length and from five to 
ten in width, has a lime-stone soil, and though mostly 
rolling, is, when well cultivated, equal in productiveness 
t<3 any bottom lands. The timber here is composed of 
beech, sugar tree, walnut, poplar, sycamore, ash and oak. 
In the northern or back part of the county, the land is 
more inclined to be wet; oak predominates, and the soil 
is well adapted to grass. 

There are no prairies in the county. The farms are 
generally well improved, and have good buildings upon 
them. The surplus products and stock, consisting of 
wheat, corn, hay, horses, mules, cattle and hogs, are 
shipped mostly to the south, often by the farmers them- 
selves, either on flat or steamboats. There are about 
fifty dry goods, provision and drug stores in the county; 
six groceries, twelve lawyers, eighteen physicians, twenty- 
one preachers, two woollen factories, two printing offices, 
sixty-two grist and saw mills, of which about one-third 
are propelled by steam, the others by water, five market 
houses, ten hotels, six divisions of the Sons of Temper- 
ance and twenty-two churches, of which one is Episco- 
palian, and of the others about an equal number are 
Methodists, Baptists and Presbyterians. The schools in 
the county are generally in a prosperous condition and 
highly creditable to the citizens. There are 209,170 
acres of taxable land in the county, and near 50,000 
acres belon£nn£ to the United States, of but little value. 
Iron ore, marble, excellent building rock and hydraulic 
cement are found in abundance. There is a Chalybeate 
spring, much visited and with good accommodations, 
near Jeffersonville, and another spring, called the Buffalo 
Licks, in which salts and sulphur are the principal ingre- 
dients, near Charlestown. 

In 1804, Mr. John Work, from Pennsylvania, settled 
on Fourteen Mile creek, three and a-half miles from 
Charlestown, and finding a situation to answer his pur- 



192 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

pose, he dug a tunnel through a solid lime-stone 314 feet, 
making a mill race six feet deep and five wide, through a 
ridge ninety-four feet below its summit, by which he 
gained a fall of twenty-seven feet. This work was per- 
formed by five men in two years and a half, in which 
they used 650 pounds of gunpowder. The whole ex- 
pense to the owner was $3,300. On this seat valuable 
mills were erected. 

Most of the land within the present limits of the county 
is embraced in what is called the " Illinois Grant." This 
was made by the Legislature of Virginia in 1786, and 
conveyed to certain commissioners 149,000 acres of land 
in trust, to be apportioned according to their rank, to 
Gen. Clark and the officers and men of the regiment 
which he commanded in the expedition to Vincennes and 
Kaskaskia. It was divided into 500 acre tracts and ap- 
portioned accordingly. One thousand acres more, lying 
along the Falls of the Ohio, was also granted at the same 
time for the location of a town to be called Clarksville, 
which flourished for a time, but has since gone to decay. 
The first settlements of any consequence were made from 
1790 up to 1800, in the towns along the river, so that 
the inhabitants, on the first notice of the approach of 
Indians, might escr.pe into Kentucky. 

The first court in the county was held April 7, 1801, 
atSpringville,by Marston G. Clark, Abraham HufF, James 
N. Wood, Thomas Downs, Wm. Goodwin, John Gibson, 
Charles Tuley and Wm. Harrod, who had been appointed 
Justices of the Court of General Quarter Sessions by 
Gov. Harrison- 

Clark, a north-eastern township in Johnson county, 
population 620. 

Clakk, a southern township in Montgomery county, 
population 270. 

Clark's Prairie, named after Wm. Clark, the first 
settler, is in Van Buren township, Daviess county, six- 
teen miles north-east of Washington. It contains about 
1,500 acres, has a clay soil, is very productive, and is 
mostly in cultivation. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 193 

Clarksburgh, a pleasant village in Fugit township, 
Decatur county, ten miles north-east of Greensburgh. It 
contains about 250 inhabitants. 

Clarkstown, a small village in Boone county, plea- 
santly situated fifteen miles north-west of Indianapolis. 

Clarksville, once an important town opposite the 
Falls of the Ohio, has been supplanted in business by 
JefTersonville just above, and New Albany a short dis- 
tance below. 

Clay County, named after the great patriot and 
statesman, was organized in 1825. It lies south of Parke, 
west of Putnam and Owen, north of Green and east of 
Sullivan and Vigo counties. It is thirty miles in length 
from north to south, in the middle sixteen miles, and at 
each end only ten miles wide, containing 360 square 
miles. The county is divided into nine townships, to-wit: 
Lewis, Harrison, Perry, Washington, Posey, Jackson, 
Cass, Van Buren and Dick Johnson. 

The population in 1S30 was 1,616, in 1840 5,567, at 
present it amounts to about 7,000, and it is now rapidly 
increasing by German immigration. Eel river and its 
branches are the only streams of consequence in the 
county. The face of the country is generally level, the 
most of it has a good soil, and the usual kinds of timber 
common in the west predominate in all but the south- 
western part of the county, where there are many clay 
prairies, some dry and others wet. 

There are in the county seven stores, four lawyers, 
twelve physicians, twelve preachers, four grist and saw 
mills, and the usual proportion of the different mechani- 
cal trades. The surplus articles for exportation are 
wheat, hogs, cattle and horses. There is a good Court 
House and County Seminary at Bowlinggreen, and the 
county is divided into school districts, in each of which a 
school is kept a portion of the year. There are numer- 
ous beds of coal, of a good quality and easy of access, 
in the county, and also much iron ore. The completion 
of the Cross Cut Canal in the south part of the county, 
and of the Terre Haute and Indianapolis Railroad in the 



194 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

north, both which are now in progress, will add much to 
the general wealth and prosperity. 

Clay, an eastern township in Bartholomew county, 
with a population of 800. 

Clay, a township in Carroll county, population 450. 

Clay, a township north of the Wabash, in Cass county, 
with a population of 720. 

Clay, a township in Dearborn county, with a popula- 
tion of 800. 

Clay, a western township in Decatur county, with a 
population of 2,800. 

Clay, a south-western township in Hamilton county. 

Clay, a western township in Hendricks county, with 
a population of 850. 

Clay, a tow r nship in Howard county, with a popula- 
tion of 250. 

Clay, a central township in Lagrange county, with a 
population of 300. 

Clay, a southern township in Miami county, with a 
population of 270. 

Clay, a central township in Morgan county, with a 
population of 1,250. 

Clay, an eastern township in Owen county, with a 
population of 900. 

Clay, a western township in Pike county, with a pop- 
ulation of 510. 

Clay, a northern township in St. Joseph county. 

Clay, an interior township in Wayne county, with a 
population of 1,290. 

Clear Creek, a small stream in Huntington county, 
running south into the Wabash, three miles below Hunt- 
ington. 

Clear Creek, a northern township in Huntington 
county, population 500. 

Clear Creek, a beautiful mill stream in Monroe 
county, rising near Bloomington and running south into 
Salt creek. 

Clear Creek, a southern township in Monroe county, 
population 980. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 195 

Clear Creek, a small stream in Vigo, emptying into 
the Wabash from the west. 

Clear Lake, a fine sheet of water near Laporte on 
the north, containing about two sections. 

Clear Spring, a small town in Jackson county, twelve 
miles north-west of Brownstown. 

Clear Spring, a southern township in Lagrange county, 
population 600. 

Cleaveland, a township in Elkhart county, popula- 
tion 325. 

Cleaveland, a south-western township in Whitley 
county. 

Cleaveland, a small town in Tippecanoe county, 
twelve miles south-east of Lafayette. 

Clifty, a fine mill stream about fifty miles in length, 
rises in the south-east corner of Rush, runs through De- 
catur into Bartholomew, and empties into White river 
three miles below Columbus. The Indian name of this 
stream was Es-the-nou-o-ne-ho-neque, or Cliff of Rocks 
River. 

Clifty, an eastern township in Bartholomew county, 
with a population of 900. 

Clifty, a small creek in Green county. 

Clifty, a small creek in Jefferson county, which falls 
into the Ohio one mile below Madison. It is remarkable 
for several cascades, at one of which the water falls over 
100 feet within a short distance. The dark, deep gulf 
and rugged cliffs along this stream, are well worth a visit 
from the curious, and they present much picturesque 
scenery which the painter should examine. 

Clinton County, named after DeWit Clinton, was 
organized in 1830, and is twenty-four miles in length 
from east to west, and seventeen in width. It lies south 
of Carroll, west of Tipton, north of Boone and east of 
Tippecanoe county. It is divided into twelve civil town- 
ships, viz: Jackson, Kirklin, Sugar Creek, Johnston, Ho- 
ney Creek, Warren, Michigan, Owen, Ross, Madison, 
Washington and Perrv. The population in 1830 was 
1,423, in 1840, 7,508, and at present is about 11,000. 



196 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

The face of the country is level, except on the banks of 
the Wild Cat, in the south-west corner. There is no barren 
land in the county. In the south-west part is the Twelve 
Mile or Kirk's prairie, twelve miles in length by about 
four broad. The Two Mile prairie lies on the road from 
Lafayette to Lebanon, and a small wet prairie, called the 
Stony prairie, lies south-west of Jefferson. All the bal- 
ance of the county was a heavy forest of timber, of a 
fine quality and much variety. The soil is mostly allu- 
vial, with a clay bottom. All the grains and grasses 
common in the west, can be produced in abundance. 
There is perhaps no county in the State better adapted 
to the cultivation of hay and for good pasturage, than 
Clinton. The surplus articles produced are cattle, horses, 
hogs and wheat, which are taken either to Logansport or 
Lafayette on the canal, or to the Cincinnati or Indianap- 
olis markets, the value of all which is estimated at 
$200,000, annually. 

There are in the county five lawyers, twenty- three 
physicians, five preachers, the usual proportion of the 
common mechanical trades, four merchant mills, eleven 
water and two steam saw mills, two carding machines, 
and school houses in which schools are kept, a portion of 
the year, in most of the school districts. 

The taxable land in the county amounts to 238,919 
acres. About 4,000 acres still belong to the United 
States, and some 18,000 acres have not yet been entered 
five years, so as to be taxable. 

Clinton, a northern township in Boone county, with 
a population of 950. 

Clinton, a southern township in Cass county, with a 
population of 610. 

Clinton, a northern township in Decatur county, with 
a population of 1,050. 

Clinton, a township in Elkhart county, with a popu- 
tion of 420. 

Clinton, a western township in Laporte county, with 
a population of 710. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 197 

Clinton, a western township in Putnam county, six 
miles square. 

Clinton, a southern township in Clinton county, with 
a population of 1,700. 

Clinton, a well situated town in Vermillion county, 
fourteen miles north of Terre Haute and sixteen south of 
Newport, on the west bank of the Wabash. It was laid 
out in 1824, by Wm. Harris, and is a point from which 
large quantities of produce are exported. A Hall for 
the Sons of Temperance is in course of erection at this 
place. 

Cloverdale, a western township in Putnam county, 
twelve miles long by four wide. 

Cloverland, a small town in Clay county, on the Na- 
tional road, eleven miles east of Terre Haute. 

Coal Creek, a fine mill stream, mostly in Fountain 
county, about forty-five miles in length, empties into the 
Wabash near the north line of Parke. This creek in its 
course waters a large body of as rich land as can be 
found in the State. Many of its valuable water privi- 
leges are improved, and a still larger number will be. 
The best coal bank that has been found in the State is 
near the mouth of this stream, where the Wabash and 
Erie Canal crosses it. 

Coal Creek, a small stream in Vigo county, empty- 
ing into the Wabash on the west side, seven miles above 
Terre Haute. 

Cold Creek, a small mill stream in Hamilton county, 
emptying into White river on the west side, two miles 
above the Marion line. 

Columbia, a north-eastern township in Dubois county, 
population 600. 

Columbia, a southern township in Fayette county, 
population 1,050. 

Columbia, an eastern township in Gibson county, pop- 
ulation 1,0C0. 

Columbia, a small decayed town in Gibson county, 
four miles north of Princeton, on the Patoka. 



198 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Columbia, a north-eastern township in Jennings coun- 
ty, population 650. 

Columbia, a south-eastern township in Martin county, 
population 500. 

Columbia, a central township in Whitley county, pop- 
ulation 500. 

Columbia, the Seat of Justice of Whitley county, is 
situated on the north bank of Blue river, twenty miles 
west of Fort Wayne, twenty east of Warsaw, and 105 
north-east of Indianapolis. It contains seventy houses, 
two of brick, the others frame, and a brick Court House 
has been commenced that will be equal to any in north 
Indiana. The population is about 350. 

Columbus, the Seat of Justice of Bartholomew county, 
is situated on the east bank of the east fork of White 
river, just below the mouth of Flatrock, forty-one miles 
south south-east of Indianapolis, forty-five north-west of 
Madison, forty east of Bloomington, and eighty west of 
Cincinnati. The situation is a very fine one, on high 
ground which overlooks the valleys of White river, Flat- 
rock and Haw creek which nearly surround the town, 
and each of them embraces a large and very fertile body 
of land. Columbus was first settled in 1819, by Luke 
Bonesteel and John Lindsey. For several years at first, 
it was usually visited, each autumn, by bilious and inter- 
mittent fevers, but a fair portion of health is now enjoyed 
here, and the opening of the railroad to Madison, which 
took place in 1844, the active commencement of the 
railroad from Jeffersonville, and the prospects of com- 
pleting a railroad to Bloomington, have awakened such 
industry and enterprise as will make Columbus one of 
the most important points in the State. It has now a 
population of over 1,000, and it is rapidly improving. It 
has an excellent Court House, good churches built by 
the Catholics, Christians, Presbyterians and Methodists, 
about twenty good stores, groceries and ware-houses, 
and 250 other houses. 

Concord, a township in DeKalb county, with a popu- 
lation of 750. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 199 

Concord, a township in Elkhart county, with a popu- 
lation of I, "200. 

Connersville ; for description of which see Fayette 
county. 

Conn's Creek, a small mill stream rising in the west 
part of Rush, runs south into Shelby, and empties into 
Flatrock. 

Cool Spring, a north-western township in Laporte 
county, with a population of 400. 

Cornstalk Creek, a branch of Big Raccoon, in Mont- 
gomery, near to an old Indian village, from which the 
creek has its name. 

Coryuon, the Seat of Justice of Harrison county, and 
the Seat of the State Government until 1S25, is located 
on a level bottom, near the junction of Big and Little 
Indian creeks, 120 miles south of Indianapolis, twenty- 
five miles south-west of Louisville, and twelve from the 
Ohio river. The situation is healthy and romantic, and 
the hills, gradually rising around it, show the town to 
great advantage. The public buildings are a good stone 
Court House, fire proof offices for the county now in 
progress, a County Seminary, Methodist and Presbyte- 
rian Churches. The population is now about 600. The 
proprietor was Harvey Heth. 

Cotton, a northern township in Switzerland county. 

Covington, the Seat of Justice of Fountain county, is 
situated on the east bank of the Wabash, on the Wabash 
aud Erie Canal, where the road from Indianapolis to 
Springfield, Illinois, crosses it, seventy-five miles from the 
former and 140 from the latter. It was laid out in 1826, 
and D. Rawles and J. L. Sloan, Esquires, were the first 
settlers. There are now in Covington fourteen dry goods 
stores, two drug stores, four groceries, two iron stores, 
four ware-houses, ten lawyers, ten physicians, three 
preachers, about 250 houses, of various descriptions, and 
1,000 inhabitants. Since the completion of the Canal in 
1847, the town has had a rapid growth, which will be 
continued. 

Craig, a south-western township in Switzerland county. 



200 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Crawford County, a southern county bordering on 
the Ohio river, lies between Harrison and Perry on the 
river, and Orange and Dubois in the interior, and con- 
tains about 320 square miles. It was organized in 1818, 
and was named after the unfortunate Col. Wm. Craw- 
ford, the land agent of Gen. Washington in the west, 
who was taken prisoner by the Indians and burnt at 
Sandusky, in 1782. Crawford county is divided into 
eight townships, viz: Jennings, Ohio, Whiskey Run, Ster- 
ling, Patoka, Union, Liberty and Boone. The popula- 
tion|in 1830 was 3,184; in 1840, 5,282, and at this time, 
about 6,700. The face of the country is very uneven 
and broken. Near the river the soil is good ; in the inte- 
rior it is much poorer. The best of oak and poplar tim- 
ber is found in great abundance. The principal agricul- 
tural productions are wheat, corn, oats, potatoes, tobacco 
and grass; and the exports consist chiefly of lumber, 
pork, beef cattle, flour, &c, which are annually taken to 
a southern market, to the estimated value of $100,000. 

Coal and iron ore abound in the west part of the 
county, and there is much valuable water power along 
Blue river, where there are now good mills. Near this 
stream, four miles from Leavenworth, is a large cave, 
which attracts the attention of many visiters, and seve- 
ral of them have, as they say, explored it more than two 
miles without reaching its termination. The bottom of 
this cave, as well as several others in the county, were 
covered with chrystalized salts, several inches in thick- 
ness, when they were first visited. 

The Methodists, United Brethren and Christians are 
the most numerous religious denominations, and there 
are usually about fifteen preachers in the county. 

About one-third of the land still belongs to the United 
States, of which a considerable portion would make good 
farming land. 

Crawfordsville, the County Seat of Montgomery, 
was laid out in 1822, by Ambrose Whitlock and Wil- 
liamson Dunn, then the Register and Receiver for that land 
district, to which place, in 1824, the land office was re- 






TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 201 




WABASH COLLEGE CRAWFORDSVILLE. 

moved. The town was named in honor of the Hon. 
Wm. H. Crawford, then Secretary of the Treasury. 

Crawfordsvilleis the site of Wabash College, (of which 
see particular description in first part, under the head of 
education). It has also a prosperous County Seminary and 
a Female Institute of a high order. There are in the 
town about twenty-five stores and groceries, 400 houses 
and 2,000 inhabitants. The public buildings and many 
of the private dwellings are built with much taste. The 
fertility of the soil and the abundant water power of the 
vicinity, its beautiful and healthy situation, and the en- 
ergy and enterprise of its citizens, which have done so 
much for education, and are now prosecuting a railroad 
to Lafayette with much vigor, give assurance that Craw- 
fordsville will be one of the best towns in the State. It 
is about forty-five miles north-west from Indianapolis, on 
the stage road to Springfield, Illinois, thirty south-east of 
Covinston, twenty-eight miles south of Lafavette, and 
14 



202 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

the same distance north of Greencastle,in latitude 40deg. 
2 min. north, and 9 deg. 50 min. west longitude. 

Crooked Creek, a small mill stream in Cass county, 
emptying into the Wabash from the north, eight miles 
below Logansport. 

Crooked Creek, a mill stream rising in the north part 
of Marion county and emptying into White river, west 
side, five miles above Indianapolis. 

Crooked Creek, a mill stream in the east part of 
Spencer county. 

Crooked Creek, a branch of Fawn river, rises in 
Steuben and runs west through Lagrange into the State 
of Michigan. 

Crossplains, a small town in Ripley county, on the 
Vevay State road, ten miles south of Versailles. 

Crown Point, the County Seat of Lake county, was 
first settled in 1835, by Solon Robinson, Esq. It now 
contains three stores, one hotel, Presbyterian and Metho- 
dist churches, a good High School kept by the Rev. Wm. 
Townley, and about thirty-five dwelling houses. This 
town is about 145 miles north-west of Indianapolis and 
thirty south-east of Chicago. 

Croy's Creek, or Cross creek, a small stream in Clay 
county, running south into Eel river, eight miles north of 
Bowling Green. 

Cumberland, a small village in Marion conty, on the 
National road, ten miles east of Indianapolis, containing 
about thirty houses. 

Curry, a northern township in Sullivan county, popu- 
lation 500. 

Cyntiiiana, a small village in the north-east corner of 
Posey county, twenty-two miles north-east of Mount 
Vernon. 

Cypress Creek, a mill stream in Warrick county, 
empties into the Ohio two miles above Newburgh. 

Dallas, a western township in Huntington county, 
population 400. 

Dalton, a small town in the north-west corner of 
Wayne couty. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 203 

Dalton, a north-western township in Wayne county, 
with a population of 800. 

Danville, the County Seat of Hendricks county, was 
named after Daniel Bales, one of the proprietors, and 
was first settled in 1S25, by Nathan Kirk, Levi Jessup, 
James L. Given, James Wood and P. L. Dickens. It is 
situated on elevated ground, near the centre of the 
county, twenty miles west of Indianapolis, thirty south- 
east of Crawfordsville, and twenty north-east of Green- 
castle. It contains a brick Court House and County 
Seminary with about sixty students, 125 dwelling houses 
and a population of 500. 

Darlington, a pleasant village in Montgomery county, 
on the south side of Sugar creek, eight miles north-east 
of Crawfordsville. 

Daviess County, organized in 1817, was named after 
the distinguished lawyer, Joseph Hamilton Daviess, who 
fell in the battle of Tippecanoe. It is bounded on the 
north by Greene, on the east by Martin, on the south by 
the East Fork and on the west by the West Fork of 
White river, and it contains 420 square miles. It is di- 
vided into ten townships, viz: Washington, Steel, Veale, 
Harrison, Reeve, Barr, Van Buren, Madison, Elmore and 
Bogard. The population in 1830 was 4,512; in 1840, 
6,720, and at this time about 10,000. 

Daviess county contains a variety of soil, from a 
sandy to a pure clay, adapted to the growth of the arti- 
cles usually cultivated in the west. The White River 
bottoms have a rich, black loam, in some places slightly 
sandy, which will produce heavy crops of corn, hemp, 
tobacco and small grain, without exhaustion or requiring 
a change of crops. These bottoms were originally hea- 
vily timbered, and along the West Fork are from one to 
two miles wide; on the East Fork about half that width. 
The north-east part of the county is rolling and heavily 
timbered; the north-west part level and interspersed 
with prairies and skirts of timber, the centre is generally 
level, and what is usually called barrens, the south and 
east undulating and with heavy timber. Interspersed 



204 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

with oak, hickory, gum, &c, are occasional districts con- 
taining from 1,000 to 5,000 acres of walnut, hackberry, 
ash and sugar tree timber, and others again of beech 
growth generally, the soil varying as is usual among such 
timber in the west. The principal productions of the 
county are corn, wheat, rye, oats, hay and potatoes, 
which are usually shipped to New Orleans in flat boats. 
The stock raised consists of hogs, cattle and horses; the 
former are slaughtered and sold in Washington to be 
shipped south; the cattle are sold to drovers for the 
Louisville and Cincinnati markets, and are generally 
purchased by persons from other States, so that it is diffi- 
cult to estimate the value of these articles. The falls on 
the West Fork of White river are now offered for sale, 
and when improved, which can be done at a small ex- 
pense, they may propel a large amount of machinery on 
both sides of the river. 

There are in the county fifteen Methodist Churches 
and four Ministers, four Catholic Churches and four offi- 
ciating Clergymen, six Christian Churches and three 
Ministers, five Baptist Churches and one Minister, two 
Presbyterian, one Lutheran and three Cumberland Pres- 
byterian Churches. Common English schools are kept 
up from three to six months in the year, but no higher 
branches are taught. 

The taxable land in the county amounts to 172,000 
acres; 50,000 acres of the vacant land were selected for 
the Canal grant, and about 45,000 acres still belong to 
the United States. The most of this is very poor. 

Daviess, a northern township in Fountain county, pop- 
ulation 700. 

Dearborn County was organized in 1802, and named 
after the soldier and statesman, Gen. Henry Dearborn, 
at that time the Secretary of War. It lies in the south- 
east corner of the State, is bounded east by the Ohio 
river and the State of Ohio, south by Ohio county, west 
by Ripley and north by Franklin, and contains 307 
square miles. In 1830 it had 14,573 inhabitants; in 
1840, 19,327, and at this time only about the same num- 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 205 

ber, as the county of Ohio has since been created from 
its limits. Dearborn county is divided into thirteen civil 
townships, Lawrenceburgh, Harrison, Logan, Miller, 
Centre, Laughery, Manchester, York, Kelso, Jackson, 
Sparta, Clay and Cesar's Creek. 

The bottoms on the Ohio, Miami and White Water, 
about 13,000 acres in all, and the west and north-west 
parts of the county, are level or slightly undulating; 
the rest broken and hilly. The land in the vicinity of 
the rivers and creeks, both in the bottoms and on the 
hills, is a rich, loamy soil, and is not surpassed in the 
amount of its produce; the interior is well adapted to 
hay, wheat, &c. The corn is sold to distillers or fed to 
hogs at home, and much of the wheat made into flour 
by the millers. It is estimated that three distilleries in 
the county make $200,000 worth of whiskey and fatten 
$50,000 worth of pork annually. Of the articles ex- 
ported from the county in a year, it has been ascertained 
that they amounted, in 1847, to 131,318 bushels of wheat, 
152,802 bushels of oats, 11,000 tons of hay, 500 cattle, 
1,500 sheep and 25,000 hogs. To these add the barreled 
pork, flour, whisky, and other articles exported from the 
county, and the whole will amount to $1,500,000 a 
year, though some of the articles, perhaps one-fourth, are 
the products of the interior counties. 

There are in the county sixty stores, forty groceries, 
forty ware-houses, eight grist mills, six saw mills, five 
distilleries, one oil mill, one woollen factory, 460 me- 
chanics, fifteen lawyers, fifteen physicians, fifteen preach- 
ers of the Methodists, Baptists, Presbyterians, Episcopa- 
lians and Catholics. There is a flourishing County Semi- 
nary, established at Wilmington in 1835, with fifty stu- 
dents, a good High School in Lawrenceburgh, with about 
the same number, and common schools are established 
throughout the county. 

There is no land belonging to the United States, or 
which is not taxable, in the county. 

Decatur County, organized in 1821, was named after 
the gallant Commodore Stephen Decatur. It is bounded 



206 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

north by Rush, east by Franklin and Ripley, South by 
Jennings, and west by Bartholomew and Shelby, and it 
contains 400 square miles. Jt is divided into nine town- 
ships, Washington, Fugit, Clinton, Adams, Clay, Jack- 
son, Sand Creek, Marion and Salt Creek. The popula- 
tion in 1830 was 5,854, in 1840 15,553, and at this time 
about 19,000. 

There are no barrens or prairie lands in the county; 
the face of the country is mostly level, with gentle un- 
dulations, though on some of the streams it is hilly ; the 
bottoms are rich, though small ; the soil of the upland is 
generally a rich, black loam, and the timber consists 
principally of ash, poplar, walnut, sugar tree, oak and 
beech. Along the east and south line of the county 
there is some flat, wet land, good for grass, but not 
adapted to grain* The manufacturing establishments 
and mechanical trades of the county are merely suffi- 
cient for home consumption. The staple productions for 
export are hogs, cattle, horses, mules and wheat, and 
they are estimated to amount to $150,000 annually. 
There are in the county thirty-eight stores and groceries, 
twenty grist mills, twenty saw mills, one woollen fac- 
tory, of which all but six are propelled by water, twelve 
lawyers, twenty-three physicians and twenty ministers 
of the gospel. The County Seminary, at Greensburgh, 
is in a prosperous condition with about seventy-five pu- 
pils, and the common school system is in moderately suc- 
cessful operation throughout the county. The following 
is the number of churches of the various denominations: 
four Old School, two New School and one Associate 
Reformed Presbyterian, ten Baptist, ten Methodist, four 
Christian and one Catholic. The county of Decatur and 
its inhabitants, without making any special parade as to 
literature, morals, or enterprise, may be said to be self- 
sharpeners, steadily progressing in a variety of ways, and 
not inferior in respectability to any part of the State. 

The taxable land in the county amounts to 224,847 
acres, and only between 500 and 1,000 acres still belong 
to the United States. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 207 

Decatur, a township in the south-west corner of Ma- 
rion county, with a population of 1,200. 

Decatur, the County Seat of Adams county, on the 
west side of St. Mary's river, in Washington township, 
was first settled in 1837, by Jacob Huffer, Samuel L. 
Kugg and John Reynolds. There are in Decatur seventy 
houses, of which three are brick, twenty-one frame, and 
the residue of logs, with a population of about 400. 
This town is twenty-four miles south-east from Fort 
Wayne, twenty-eight miles north of Portland, ten miles 
west of Willshire, Ohio, and 110 north-east of Indian- 
apolis. 

Decker, a southern township in Knox county. 

Deep River, a branch of the Calumic, in Lake 
county. 

Deer Creek, a fine mill stream, rises in the west part 
of Howard and runs west through Carroll, and empties 
into the Wabash near Delphi. It is about forty miles in 
length. 

Deer Creek, a central township in Carroll county, 
with a population of 2,500. 

Deer Creek, a small stream in Henry county. 

Deer Creek, a small stream in Miami county, south 
of the Wabash. 

Deer Creek, a southern township in Miami county, 
population 300. 

Deer Creek, a small stream in Perry county, runs 
into the Ohio. 

Deer Creek, a southern township in Perry county, 
population 1,000. 

Deer Creek, a fine mill stream in Putnam county, 
runs south-west into Mill creek. 

Deerfield, a pleasant village on the south bank of the 
Mississinewa, in Randolph county, seven miles north of 
Winchester ; first settled in 1S32. 

DeKalb County was organized in 1836, and was 
named in honor of the Baron DeKalb, a German Noble- 
man, who joined the American army during the revolu- 
tion, was made a General, and was killed in the battle of 



208 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Gamden. It is bounded north by Steuben, east by the 
State of Ohio, south by Allen and west by Noble county. 
Its length from east to west is twenty and a half miles, 
from north to south eighteen miles. The following are 
the civil townships, viz: Butler, Jackson, Concord, New- 
ville, Stafford, Wilmington, Union, Richland, Fairfield, 
Smithfield, Franklin and Troy. 

The population of DeKalb county in 1S40 was 1,96S; 
it is now about 6,000. The surface of the country is 
generally undulating, and with the exception of a lew 
wet prairies, covered mostly with heavy timber. The 
St. Joseph runs about, twelve miles through the south- 
east corner of the county, and the other parts of it are well 
watered by Cedar creek and its numerous branches. The 
timber and soil are generally of a very good quality, and 
the latter is well adapted to wheat, com, oats, grass, &c. 
As vet there are no manufacturing establishments of any 
consequence, and though there are twelve saw mills, 
there is but one good grist mill. There are five stores, 
three lawyers, twelve physicians, six preachers, and the 
usual proportion of carpenters, shoemakers, black- 
smiths, &c. 

The home market up to this time has consumed the 
products of the county, but the character of the soil is 
such, that when it is improved, as it soon will be, there 
will be a large surplus of wheat, flour, pork, beef, and 
other articles for exportation. At present, whatever sur- 
plus is exported is taken to Fort Wayne, Toledo, Ohio, 
or Hillsdale, in Michigan. The prevailing religious de- 
nominations are Methodists, Presbyterians, Baptists and 
United Brethren, and there are several others, less, how- 
ever, in number. 

The number of acres of taxable land in the county is 
194,862, and about 30,000 acres still belong to the United 
States. 

Delany's Creek, a small stream in Washington coun- 
ty, that runs north into the Muscakituck. 

Delaware County, organized in 1826, was so named 
from its having been long the home of the largest divi- 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 209 

sion of the Delaware tribe of Indians. It is bounded on 
the north by Grant and Blackford, on the east by Ran- 
dolph, on the south by Henry, and on the west by Madi- 
son, and is nineteen miles east and west and twenty-one 
north and south, containing 399 square miles. There 
are twelve civil townships in the county, to-wit: Union, 
Washington, Delaware, Hamilton, Harrison, Liberty, 
Centre, Mount Pleasant, Perry, Monroe and Salem. In 
1830, the population was 2,372; in 1840, 8,S43, and at 
this time about 12,000. 

The face of the country is mostly level or gently un- 
dulating, even the rivers and creeks not having any con- 
siderable bluffs or hills in their vicinity. In the south- 
west, south-east, and north-west parts of the county and 
near the centre, there are prairies mostly small and not 
exceeding one-twelfth of the county. They are usually 
called wet prairies, yet they are easily made tillable, and 
are excellent for meadow and pasture. The principal 
growth of timber is oak, hickory, poplar, beech, walnut, 
sugar, linn, &c, with an undergrowth of hazel, dog- 
wood, spice, and prickly ash ; but the oak land is more 
extensive than the beech. There are but few acres in 
the county which cannot be well adapted to some farm- 
ing purpose. White river in the centre, the Mississinewa 
in the north, Buck creek, and their numerous tributaries, 
supply the county abundantly with water power, and there 
are already eighteen grist mills and thirty saw mills in the 
county, some of which are not surpassed in the State. 
This county has heretofore been so distant from good 
markets, and the roads so bad a portion of the year, that 
it has improved but slowly the last few years. The In- 
dianapolis and Bellefontaine Railroad, which is now pro- 
gressing rapidly to completion, has already awakened the 
slumbering enterprise of the farmers, and there is now 
every prospect that Delaware will soon be among the 
richest and best counties in the State. 

The taxable land in the county amounts to 249,271 
acres. Muncietown, where the Muncie tribe of the Del- 
awares mostly resided, was on White river, near the pre- 



210 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

sent Seat of Justice, though the Indian town was mostly 
on the north side of the river. Here the prophet brother 
of Tecumseh resided, and here, until it fell by decay a 
few years ago, stood the post at which he caused his ene- 
mies, whites and Indians, to be tortured. David Conner, 
an Indian trader, was the first white man who settled 
here. It was through his influence with the tribe that 
the former use of the post was discontinued during the 
last war. 

Delaware, a northern township in Delaware county. 

Delaware, a central township in Ripley county, with 
a population of 800. 

Delphi, the Seat of Justice of Carroll county, is beau- 
tifully situated on the high banks of Deer creek, on the 
Wabash and Erie Canal, one mile east of the Wabash. 
It was first settled in 1828, by Wm. Wilson, Enoch Cox, 
D. F. Vandeventer, Aaron Dewey, Andrew Wood and 
Jos. Dunham. It is surrounded by a very fertile and 
rapidly improving country, and contains Methodist, Bap- 
tist, Old School Presbyterian, New School Presbyterian 
and Episcopalian Churches, about 150 dwelling houses, 
and 1,000 inhabitants. Delphi is sixty-five miles north- 
west of Indianapolis, twenty-two west of Logansport, 
eighteen east of Lafayette, and twenty-two north of 
Frankfort. 

Democrat, a township in Carroll county, with a popu- 
lation of 550. 

Derby, a small town in Perry county, on the Ohio 
river, at the mouth of Oil creek, ten miles above Rome. 
Its population is about 100. 

Des Moines, or as it is usually called Dismaugh, a 
beautiful lake in the north-east corner of Laporte county. 
The name was given at a very early period, and signi- 
fies "of the Monks," or Lake of the Monks. 

Dewit's Creek, a branch of Guthrie's creek, in Law- 
rence county. 

Dick Johnson, a north-western township in Clay 
county, population 500. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 211 

Dillsborough, a small town in Clay township, Dear- 
born county, fifteen miles south-west of Lawrence- 
burgh. 

Dixon's Lake, in Centre township, Marshall county. 

Doan's Creek rises in the south-east part of Greene 
county, and runs west into White river. 

Domain, a rich, dry prairie in the south part of La- 
porte county, containing about two sections of land. 

Door Prairie, in Laporte county, was named from 
the narrow gap in the timber at Door Village, which is 
a translation of the French name, Laporte. It contains 
in all between seventy and eighty square miles, is proba- 
bly the richest and most beautiful prairie in the State. 

Door Village is located in the gap before referred to, 
four miles south-west of Laporte. 

Dormin, a small prairie in Laporte county. The 
word in Indian means corn. 

Dover, a small town in Kelso township, Dearborn 
county. 

Dover, a new town recently laid out in Wayne 
county. 

Dover Hill, the new County Seat of Martin county, 
situated in Perry township, on the road from Mount 
Pleasant to Bedford, and contains about fifty inhabitants. 
It was laid out in 1S45. 

Drewersbtjrgh, a small town in White Water town- 
ship, Franklin county. 

Driftwood, or the East Fork of White river, is the 
interpretation of the Indian name. In French, it was 
called Embarras. Where Blue river unites with Sugar 
Creek, though not in all cases until after Flatrock comes 
in, it loses its former name, and from thence it is uni- 
formly called the East or Driftwood Fork of White 
river, until it unites with the West Fork about forty 
miles above the entrance of White river into the Wa- 
bash. This stream is navigable only in high water, and 
then flat boats of almost any size can pass down it about 
170 miles without difficulty. For further particulars see the 
article, "Rivers, &c," in the General View of the State. 



212 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Driftwood, a southern township in Jackson county, 
population 700. 

Dry Fork, rises in the east part of Franklin county, 
then passes into the State of Ohio and empties into White 
Water. 

Dublin, a small town on the National road in Wayne 
county, eleven miles west of Centreville. It contains 
about fifty houses and 250 inhabitants. 

Dubois County, named in honor of Toussant Dubois, 
who had charge of the guides and spies in the Tippeca- 
noe campaign, and who for many years was a hospitable, 
patriotic and enterprising citizen and merchant of Vin- 
cennes, was organized in 1818. It is bounded on the 
north by the East Fork of White river, east by Orange 
and Crawford, south by Perry and Spencer, and west by 
Pike, and contains 420 square miles. It is divided into 
six civil townships, viz: Columbia, Harbison, Bainbridge, 
Hall, Patoka and Ferdinand. The population in 1830 
was 1,774, in 1840, 3,632, and at this time about 5,600. 
The north-eastern part of the county is rolling, the other 
portions level, and about one-fifth of the whole is in the 
bottoms of White river, Patoka and other streams. A 
large portion of the county has a very good soil, though 
considerable tracts are of a different description, and it 
is estimated that one-eighth of the county is occasionally 
inundated. There are no prairies in the county, and the 
most common timber is white and black oak, poplar, 
walnut, sugar, beech, hickory, &c, with much under- 
growth of dogwood and spice bush. The principal arti- 
cles exported from the county are hogs, cattle, horses, 
corn, &c. There are in the county fourteen stores and 
groceries, four ware-houses, one brewery, one distillery, 
three lawyers, seven physicians, three preachers, three 
Catholic, five Methodist and two Cumberland Presbyte- 
rian Churches, eight grist and saw mills and two carding 
machines, and there are fifteen blacksmiths, twenty-nine 
cabinet-makers, seventeen house carpenters, five mill- 
wrights and nineteen tailors. 

Coal mines are abundant. White river and Patoka 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 213 

both admit of being navigated three or four months in 
the year, and there is no reason but want of enterprise 
and industry, why Dubois should not be among the rich 
counties of the State. 

Duck Creek, a small stream in Franklin county, run- 
ning south into the West Fork of White Water, eight 
miles above Brookville. 

Duck Creek, a small stream in Henry county. 

Duchein, a sluggish stream in the south part of Knox 
county, which runs south-west into the Wabash, called 
River Duchein. 

Dudley, a township in Henry county. 

Dudleytown, a small town in Washington township, 
Jackson county, eight miles east of Brownstown. 

Dunlapsville is in the south-west part of Union 
county, five miles south-west of Liberty, eight south-east 
of Connersville, and thirteen north of Brookville, on the 
west side of the East Fork of White Water. It was 
laid out in 1817, by John Dunlap, and he, Wm. Nickles 
and J. W. Scott, were the first settlers. It contains 
three stores, six shops for mechanics, a large and well 
finished Presbyterian Church, twenty-five other houses, 
and about 100 inhabitants. 

Dupont, a pleasant and flourishing village on the Rail- 
road in Jefferson county, fourteen miles north-west of 
Madison. It contains about forty houses, the most of 
which have been built within the last three \ears. 

Durkee's Run, a small stream that empties into the 
Wabash in Tippecanoe county. 

Eagle Creek, a fine mill stream rising in Boone 
county, runs south about forty miles, and empties into 
White river on the west side, four miles below Indian- 
apolis. Its Indian name was Lau-a-shinga-paim-honnock, 
or " Middle of the Valley," so called from the beautiful 
bottoms that extend along it, sometimes from two to four 
miles in width. 

Eagle Creek, a tributary of the Kankakee, in the 
eastern part of Lake county. 

Eagle Creek, a small stream in Wabash county. 



214 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Eagle, a south-eastern township in Boone county, 
with a population of 2,000. 

Eagle Village, a pleasant town on the Michigan 
road, in the south-east corner of Boone county, fourteen 
miles north-west of Indianapolis, and the same distance 
south-east of Lebanon. It contains about forty houses. 

East Fork of White Water. See White Water. 

Eberle, a small village in Putnam county, recently 
laid out, at present with only six families. 

Economy, a small village in the north-west part of 
Wayne county, with a population of 400. It is fourteen 
miles north-west of Centreville. 

Eden, a southern township in Lagrange county, with 
a population of 300. 

Edinburgh is a flourishing town, containing about 100 
houses and 490 inhabitants, situated in the south-east 
corner of Johnson county, on the east bank of Blue 
river, and where the Madison and Indianapolis Railroad 
crosses that stream, and the Shelby ville Branch Railroad 
comes in. Edinburgh was settled in 1821, by William 
Hunt, W. R. Hensley, John Adams, Israel Watts, Lewis 
Bishop and Alexander Thompson. It is thirty miles 
south-east of Indianapolis, ten from Franklin, fifty-six 
north-west of Madison, and sixteen south-west of Shel- 
byville. The health of the place was not good for many 
years after its first settlement, but at present there is not 
much complaint in this respect, and Edinburgh, from the 
great fertility of the country around it, and the water 
power in the vicinity, has now become a very important 
point. 

Eel, a township in Cass county, north of the Wabash, 
with a population of 370. 

Eel River, called by the French L'Anguille, which 
means Eel, and by the Indians Sho-a-maque, which 
means "slippery fish," rises in the north-west corner of 
Allen county, and after running about 100 miles south- 
west, empties into the Wabash at Logansport. As it 
has its source in lakes and springs, and runs a rapid 
course, it is not surpassed in the west as a mill stream. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 215 

For at least sixty miles its average width is fifty or sixty 
yards, and the usual depth between one and two feet. 

Eel River, a branch of White river, emptying into it 
at Point Commerce, in Greene county, is about the same 
length and width as the former, though in high water it 
runs much more and in dry seasons much less water. It 
rises in Boone and runs first south-west and then south- 
east through Hendricks, Putnam, Clay and Owen coun- 
ties. 

Eel River, a north-western township in Allen county, 
population 400. 

Eel River, a northern township in Greene county, 
with a population of 525. 

Eel River, a north-west township in Hendricks county, 
with a population of 1,370. 

Eight Mile Creek, runs from the south into White 
river in Randolph county. 

Eli's Creek, a good mill stream in Union county, 
which rises in Fayette and empties into the East Fork of 
White Water. 

Eliza Lake, one of the largest of the many small 
lakes in Porter county. 

Elizabeth, a pleasant village in Harrison county, on 
the South Fork of Buck creek, four miles from the Ohio, 
and twelve south-east of Corydon. It contains 150 in- 
habitants. 

Elizabeth, a small town in Spencer county, twenty- 
three miles north of Rockport. 

Elizabethtown, a small town recently laid out on the 
Railroad, seven miies south-east of Columbus. It con- 
tains about thirty houses and 150 inhabitants. 

Elizabethtown, a small town in Jackson county, on 
the East Fork of White river, four miles north of Browns- 
town. 

Elk Creek, a tributary of the Muscakhuck,, in Wash- 
ington county. 

Elkhart County was organized in 1830, and was 
named after the river Elkhart, which enters the county 
near its south-eastern corner and runs in a north-west 



216 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

course through it into the St. Joseph. It is twenty-two 
and a half miles in length from north to south and twen- 
ty-one in width, and is bounded on the north by the 
State of Michigan, on the east by Lagrange and Noble, 
on the south by Kosciusko, and on the west by Marshall 
and St. Joseph counties. The population in 1S30 was 
935, in 1840, 6,660, and at this time it is about 12,000. 
The following are the names of the civil townships: Elk- 
hart, Benton, Harrison, Baugo, Jefferson, York, Osolo, 
Union, Clinton, Jackson, Concord, Olive, Middlebury, 
Washington, Cleaveland and Locke. 

The face of the country is generally undulating, em- 
bracing every variety of soil and timber, though all but 
a small portion is first rate land. About one-half of the 
county is covered with heavy timber, such as beech, ma- 
ple, walnut, hickory, poplar, oak and cherry ; the re- 
mainder is oak barrens or prairie. There are three 
remarkably fertile prairies, the Elkhart, Two Mile and 
Pleasant Plain. The former stretches south from Go- 
shen six miles, and is from two to four wide; the lat- 
ter are in the vicinity of the St. Joseph river, and are in 
a high state of cultivation. 

The Elkhart and St. Joseph rivers, both which run 
through the county a long distance, are unsurpassed as 
mill streams, and besides these there are a large number 
of creeks that empty into them, which abundantly sup- 
ply every part of the county with water pow r er. A 
number of small lakes are found in the north part of the 
county, from half a mile to three miles in circumference. 
They are generally beautiful sheets of water, and abound 
with fish. Yellow river, a branch of the Kankakee, 
rises in one of them in the south-west corner of the 
county, and runs west to the Mississippi, while the other 
streams eventually take the opposite direction. Wheat and 
corn are the staple products, and from the former some 
30,000 barrels of flour are manufactured annually and 
sent to New York by the way of the St. Joseph and the 
Lakes. Most other grains and grasses are produced in 
abundance. The annual crop of wheat is estimated at 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 217 

300,000 bushels. In the winter of 1846, an accurate ex- 
amination was made as to the products of twenty-three 
farms on Elkhart prairie the previous year, which exhi- 
bited the following result: wheat 18,704 bushels, corn 
24,225, and oats 9,635, or an average of 2,285 bushels 
to a farm, the farms all lying in the same vicinity. 
Were the Buffalo and Mississippi Railroad to be made 
through the county, as is contemplated, the amount of 
grain, as well as hogs, cattle, &c, raised for exportation, 
would be immensely %icreased. 

There are about forty saw mills scattered over the 
county, and seven flouring mills with twenty-five run 
of stones, six carding machines, one oil mill and one 
woollen manufactory. The flour manufactured will com- 
pare favorably with any other in the market. Large 
beds of iron ore are found in the county, some of which 
has been manufactured at Mishawaka and proved of a 
good quality. There are four practising lawyers, twenty - 
>ve physicians, and a still larger number of preachers of 
the gospel in the county, and the usual proportion of the 
different mechanical trades are found here. 

The county contains 268,000 acres of taxable lands, 
and but a few refuse tracts are still owned by the 
United States. Elkhart is destined to be one of the 
richest and most productive counties in the State. The 
fertility of the soil, the manufacturing and commercial 
advantages, and the exemption, in a great measure, hith- 
erto, from visionary speculations, have kept the prices of 
property moderate, and make this a desirable location for 
the emigrant, whether farmer, mechanic or manufacturer. 

Elkhart River is said to derive its name from an 
island at its mouth, which the Indians fancied resembles 
the h art of the Elk. It is a very fine mill stream, hav- 
ing always an abundant supply of water, and for the 
last forty miles above its mouth, its usual breadth is from 
80 to 100 yards. For a more particular description see 
first part under the head " Rivers." 

Elkhart, a flourishing town in the county of the 
same name, situated at the junction of Elkhart and St. 
15 



218 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Joseph rivers, ten miles north-west of Goshen. It con- 
tains a very valuable merchant mill, two saw mills, a 
distillery, an oil mill, six stores, three ware-houses, a drug 
store, one grocery, two taverns, and about 120 houses 
and 500 inhabitants. Most of the produce of the county 
is shipped here, and the town will ultimately be an im- 
portant one. Dr. H. Beardsley was the proprietor. 

Elkhart, a township in Elkhart county, with a popu- 
lation of 1,600. 

Elkhart, a township in Noble pounty, with a popula- 
tion of 775. 

Elkhorn, a mill stream in Wayne county, which 
rises in Ohio and runs west into the East Fork of White 
Water, three miles below Richmond. 

Elliotville, a small town in Monroe county, seven 
miles north-west of Bloomington. 

Elmore, a north-western township in Daviess county. 

English's Prairie, named after John English, the first 
settler, is on the canal, north-west corner of Daviess, a 
high, level and fertile prairie. 

English Prairie, a dry Prairie in Greenfield town- 
ship, Lagrange county. 

Enochsburgh, a small town in Ray township, Frank- 
lin county. 

Enterprise, a small town in Spencer county, on the 
Ohio river, three miles above French Island. 

Erie, a township north of the Wabash, in Miami 
county, with a population of 390. 

Ervin, a township in Howard county, with a popula- 
tion of 500. 

Eugene, a flourishing village in Vermillion county, on 
the south bank of Big Vermillion river, seven miles north 
of Newport and the same distance south of Perryville. 
It was laid out in 1S27, by S. S. Collett, Esq. There is 
a Town Hall and a Masonic Hall at this place, and Lea's 
mill, on the Vermillion, is the principal water mill in the 
county. 

Eugene, a township in Vermillion county, with a pop- 
ulation of 1,700. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 219 

Evansville, was first settled in 1S16, by Hugh 
McGary, and was named after Gen. R. M. Evans, one of 
the original proprietors. It is situated on a high bank of 
the O.iio river, about 200 miles from iis mouth and the 
same distance below Louisville, at a bend four miles far- 
ther north than any part of the liver below, and it is also 
farther north than any part of the river above for near 
sixty miles. It is ISO miles south-west of Indianapolis 
and fifty-six south of Vincennes, and is the point at 
which the Wabash and Erie Canal is to terminate. The 
situation is a fine one, on a slope gently ascending to 
Princeton, twenty-eight miles, and a large portion of the 
business of the south-west part of the State will always 
be done here. The opening of the canal, on the whole 
route to Lake Erie, which is expected to take place in 
about two years, mus vastly increase the importance of 
Evansville. At this time, in connection with Lamasco, 
which is a part of it, in all respects except in name, it 
contains about 1,500 houses, of which one-fourth are 
brick, the others frame, and 5,000 inhabitants. Evans- 
ville is the County Seat of Vanderburgh county, and 
contains the usual buildings for the courts and offices of 
the county, a branch of" the State Bank of Indiana, 
which is a splendid building and cost $30,000, a market 
house, seven hotels and seven fine churches, all but one 
of brick, for the following denominations, viz: Metho- 
dists, Old School Presbyterians, New School Presbyte- 
rians, Episcopalians, Catholics, German Methodists and 
German Lutherans, and it has also two well organized 
fire companies. The annual amount of exports from 
Evansville are about 600,000 bushels of corn, 100,000 
bushels of oats, 1,500 tons of hay, and 1,500,000 pounds 
of pork and bacon. 

Fairbanks, a western township in Sullivan county, 
population 1,000. 

Fairfield, a northern township in Franklin county, 
with a population of 1,200. 

Fairfield, a flourishing village in the above named 
township, on the East Fork of White river, seven miles 
north of Brookvilie, population 500. 



220 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Fairfield, a central township in Tippecanoe county, 
population 7,200. 

Fairplay, a central township in Greene county, with 
a population of 450. 

Fairplay, a small village in Greene county, west side 
of White river, three miles north of Bloomfleld. 

Fairview, a small town in Randolph county, laid out 
in 1836. 

Fall Creek, an interpretation of the Indian name, 
Soo-sooc-pa-ha-loc, or "Spilt Water," so called from the 
Falls near Pendleton, where this stream descends twenty- 
five feet in a mile, and at one place falls about eight feet. 
It rises in Henry and runs south-west through Madison, 
Hamilton and Marion counties, about seventy-five miles, 
into White river, just above Indianapolis. It is one of 
the best mill streams in the State, and many of its water 
privileges are very valuable. 

Fall Creek, a small tributary of the West Fork of 
White Water, coming from the west, four miles below 
Connersville. 

Fall Creek, a south-east township in Hamilton 
county. 

Fall Creek, a north-west township in Henry county. 

Fall Creek, a southern township in Madison county. 

Falmouth, a small town in the north-east corner of 
Union township, Rush county, ten miles north-east of 
Rushville. 

Fawn River, a fine mill stream in the north part of 
Lagrange county, running north-west into the State of 
Michigan, and emptying into the St. Joseph. 

Fayette, an eastern county, organized in 1819, and 
named after Gen. Lafayette, is bounded east by Union, 
south by Franklin, west by Rush, and north by Henry 
and Wayne counties, and contains 211 square miles. 
The population in 1830 was 9,112, in 1S40, 9,837, and 
at this time about 11,000. There are eight civil town- 
ships, viz: Connersville, Jennings, Jackson, Columbia, 
Orange, Harrison, Posey and Waterloo. 

This county is divided nearly in the centre, from north 



222 



INDIANA GAZETTEER. 




TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 223 

to soiUh, by the West Fork of White Water, which feeds 
the canal, and with its tributaries affords an abundant 
supply of water power, at all seasons, for machinery. 
The surface of the country is rolling in the east and 
south, and level or gently undulating in the north and 
west, with a large proportion of bottoms, and every part 
of the county is susceptible of profitable cultivation. 
The dense and majestic growth of the forests, which con- 
sist principally of walnut, poplar, sugar, beech, hickory, 
oak, &c, and the usually abundant crops indicate that 
the quality of the soil is not inferior to that of any part 
of the State, and for the size of the county, there is pro- 
bably no one from which the exports are larger in pro- 
portion. They consist principally of hogs, cattle, horses, 
and grain, though since the completion of the White 
Water Canal, pork, beef and flour are exported on it, in 
large quantities. 

Conxersville, the County Seat of Fayette county, 
was laid out by John Conner in 1817, from whom it took 
its name. It is very pleasantly situated on the White 
Water Valley Canal, having the river on the east and 
south, a beautiful range of hills on the west, from which 
there is a very fine view of the town, and a large scope 
of rich and well cultivated country stretching off to the 
north and east. From its pleasant location, the salubrity 
of its climate, its valuable water privileges, the produc- 
tiveness of the surrounding country, and from the enter- 
prise of its citizens, Connersville bids fair to be one of 
the best towns in eastern Indiana. It has now six law- 
yers, five physicians, four preachers, six teachers, two 
druggists, thirty merchants and 139 mechanics. There 
are in the town seventy brick and 160 frame dwelling 
houses, three churches, one each for Presbyterians, Meth- 
odists and Christians, fourteen stores, five ware-houses, 
one woollen factory, three grist mills, three saw mills, 
and one oil mill. The new Court House, of which the 
preceding engraving represents the east front, is one of 
the most spacious, convenient, and substantial buildings 
of its kind in the State, — all the county officers are loca- 



224 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

ted on the first floor, in good sized office rooms. In 
connection with each office are ample fire-proof rooms 
for the security of their books and papers. The Court 
room, and Juror's rooms, (of which there are four,) are all 
on the upper story. In the rear of the centre building 
there is attached a wing two stories high, in which are 
constructed six dormitories, or cells for prisoners. The 
prisoners can be taken to and from the Court from a rear 
passage by a door entering immediately into the Court 
room. The building was erected in the years 1848 and 
1849, by John Elder, Architect, of Indianapolis, at the 
price of $20,000. The Commissioners who made the 
contract with Mr. Elder for its erection were David 
Moffit, Samuel White, and John Jameson. The popula- 
tion in 1847 was 1,500; it is now about 1,700, and is 
increasing. Connersville is fifty-six miles south-east of 
Indianapolis, twelve south of Cambridge City, eighteen 
north of Brookville, and twelve west of Liberty. The 
taxable land in the county is 129,903 acres; the aggregate 
value of assessed property, $2,292,596. In many respects 
the county of Fayette has no superior in the State. 

Fayette, a northern township in Vigo county, with a 
population of 1,200. 

Fayetteville, a small town in Fayette county, ten 
miles south-west of Connersville. 

Ferdinand, a southern township in Dubois county, 
population 450. 

Ferdinand, a small town in Dubois county, with 
thirty-one houses ; population 150. 

First Creek, a mill stream rising in Martin county 
and running west into Daviess, empties into Slinkard's 
creek. 

Fish Creek, a mill stream, rises in Steuben county 
and runs through the north-east corner of DeKalb south- 
east into the St. Joseph. 

Fish Lake, in Pleasant township, Laporte county, is 
two miles long and one broad. It abounds in fish. 

Fishback, a tributary of Eagle creek, in Boone county. 

Fisher's Run, a small stream in Pulaski county. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. -225 

Fishing Creek, rises in Orange county and runs north 
into White river at Lawrenceport. 

Flat Creek rises near the centre of Pike county and 
runs south-east into Dubois, and empties into Patoka. 

Flat Rock, a large and valuable mill stream, which 
rises in the north-east corner of Henry county, runs 
south-west through Rush, Decatur, Shelby and Bartholo- 
mew, and empties into the East Fork of White river at 
Columbus. Its whole course, with its windings, is about 
100 miles, and the country through which it passes is 
rich and fertile the whole distance, and is now becoming 
as well cultivated and productive as any part of the 
State. The Indian name of this stream was Puck-op-ka. 
Fleenersburgh, a small town in the north-east of 
Monroe county. 

Fletcher's Lake, a beautiful sheet of water in Fulton 
county. 

Flinn, an eastern township in Lawrence county, with 
a population of 1,560. 

Flint Creek, a small stream in Fountain and Tippe- 
canoe counties, that empties into the Wabash near the 
north line of Fountain. There is at the mouth of this 
creek an immense bed of stone, covering several hun- 
dred acres of a species of flint, broken and shattered, 
and to a great extent ready for use. Those on the sur- 
face and for about fourteen inches in depth are, in shape 
and size, like the fragments of stone beaten and prepared 
for Macademizing; but in excavating this bed for the 
canal, it was found that they increased in size as the ex- 
cavation became deeper, though they retained the same 
shape and appearance, but when thrown up and exposed 
to the frost and air, they soon became like those on the 
surface. This bed of stone has a white appearance, and 
has either no covering of earth, or a very slight one, on 
which there grow, only a few scrubby forest trees, and a 
little underbrush. It is a freak of nature which at first 
cannot but strike the beholder as a great curiosity. As 
this bed extends along the canal for some distance, the 
material will no doubt be hereafter transported for the 



226 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

improvement of the streets of Lafayette, and other towns 
along its borders. 

Flint Creek, a small mill stream that empties into 
Little river from the north, at Huntington. 

Flint Lake, a beautiful sheet of water in Porter 
county. 

Florence, a small town in York township, Switzer- 
land county, on the Ohio river, eight miles above Vevay. 

Florida, a township in Parke county, with a popula- 
tion of 1,350. 

Floyd County was organized in 1819, and was named 
after Col. John Floyd, of the distinguished Virginia family 
of that name, who had been killed by the Indians on the 
opposite side of the river. 

It is bounded on the south by the Ohio river, on the 
west by Harrison, on the north by Washington and on 
the east by Clark counties, and contains about 150 square 
miles. It is divided into five civil townships, viz: New 
Albany, Lafavette, Greenville, Georgetown and Frank- 
lin, the population in 1830 was 6,363, in IS40, 9,454, 
and at this time about 13,500. A range of hills called 
"the knobs," from one to three miles in width, runs 
through the county from north to south, coming to the 
Ohio river a short distance below JN'ew Albany. They pre- 
sent a very uneven surface, and are composed of slate, 
clay, soft sand-stone and iron ore. Above the clay and 
ore is a stratum of free-stone, valuable for the purposes 
of building, and on the pinnacles a stratum of lime-stone 
which becomes very thick as the country on the west 
falls off nearly level. East of the "knobs," and in part 
of the country w 7 est, the land is either level or gently un- 
dulating, but the general character of the county is hilly 
and the soil poor, with the exception of some tracts of 
very good land. The timber varies according to the va- 
rieties of soil and surface. Much of it has first rate tim- 
ber, peculiarly excellent for the construction of Steam- 
boats. On the knobs, the white, black and chestnut 
oaks are abundant, and in some places, pine. In the 
west part of the county are poplar, chestnut, beech and 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 227 

sugar tree, and in the bottoms of the Ohio and Silver 
creek, the timber common in similar situations. Much 
of the county is well adapted to the cultivation of corn 
and grass, and to raising hogs, horses, cattle and sheep. 
The principal manufactories are a bagging manufactory, 
which cost originally about $50,000, three foundries and 
steam engine manufactories, on a large scale, one brass 
foundry, and usually from five to ten steamboats are 
built, and twice that number repaired, annually. There 
are in the county eleven grist and nine saw mills, mostly 
propelled by steam, about 130 stores and groceries, four- 
teen lawyers, eighteen physicians, fifteen ministers, two 
printing offices, and at least 500 mechanics and artizans. 
As New Albany, the County Seat, contains more than 
half the population of the county, the reader will turn 
to that for further information. 

The taxable land is S5,69l acres. 

Floyd, an eastern township in Putnam county. 

Fort Wayne, the Seat of Justice of Allen county, is 
beautifully situated on a high bank, opposite to which, on 
the north, the St. Mary's and the St. Joseph, the former 
from the south-east and the latter from the north-east, 
unite and form the Maumee, On the site of this town 
was the old "Twightwee village," or principal seat of 
the Miamies, in their language called Ke-ki-o-que, a place 
of importance a hundred years ago. Here too was old Fort 
Wayne, erected by order of Gen. Wayne, in September, 
1794, and just below this Fort, on the opposite side of 
the Maumee, was fought the disastrous battle of Gen. 
Harmar, on the 22d October, 1790. This place, at one 
time, was called " the French Stores," as it was, for a 
long time, a place of resort for many of their traders, 
and near it was the carrying place from the navigable 
waters of Lake Erie, to those of the W T abash. Fort 
Wayne continued to be a military post until IS 19, and 
until the removal of the Miamies and Pottawatamies 
west of the Mississippi in 1841, it was extensively resort- 
ed to by the Indians for the disposal of their furs, and 
for the purpose of spending their annuities. The popu- 



22S INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

lation of Fort Wayne is at this time about 5,000, and 
the rapid improvement of the country, the successful bu- 
siness of the Wabash and Erie Canal, and the opening of 
plank roads into the interior, which have been commenced 
with much spirit, now rank it among the most important 
towns in the State. A branch of the State Bank is 
located here, which has always been managed with much 
prudence; the Methodists have a flourishing Female Col- 
lege, the Catholics have an Institution under the direc- 
tion of the Sisters of Providence, and there are five 
other good schools in the town. The Methodists, Old 
and New School Presbyterians, Catholics, Baptists, Epis- 
copalians, Lutherans and Africans, have good Churches. 
The stores, ware-houses, and private dwellings are mostly 
in good taste, and there is every prospect that for twenty 
years to come, Fort Wayne will continue to improve 
rapidly. It is situated 112 miles north-east of Indianap- 
olis, in latitude 41 deg. 5 min. and longitude 8 deg. 7 
min. west. 

Fountain County was organized in 1826, and was 
named, at the suggestion of Judge Watts, in honor of 
Maj. Fontaine or Fountain, of Boone county, Kentucky, 
who was killed at the head of the mounted militia, in the 
battle on the Maumee, near Fort Wavne, on the 22d 
October, 1790. 

Fountain county is bounded west and north by the 
Wabash, which separates it from Vermillion and Warren, 
east by Montgomery, and south by Parke, and it con- 
tains about 400 square miles. It is divided into ten civil 
townships, viz: Jackson, Fulton, Wabash, Cain, Van 
Buren, Troy, Richland, Shawnee, Logan and Daviess. 
The population in 1830 was 7,644, in 1840, 11,218, and 
at this time about 13,500. The surface of the country 
is mostly level, though the central and southern parts are 
occasionally undulating, and it is beautifully variegated 
with heavy forests and rich prairies, which latter consti- 
tute about one-fourth of the county. The soil is gene- 
rally a black loam, with a mixture of sand and is very 
productive, and the crops of corn and wheat here are 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 229 

not inferior to those of any part of the State. Clay 
prevails more in the south portion of the county, which 
is best adapted to wheat and grass. The timber here is 
principally poplar, sugar and beech, while in the north, 
oak, walnut and hickory predominate. 

The exports from the county are by the way of the 
Wabash river and the Wabash and Erie Canal. They 
consist of com, oats, wheat, flour, pork, live hogs, cattle 
and horses, and they are not surpassed iu value and im- 
portance by the exports of an)- of the counties which 
have not heretofore possessed superior advantages. 

There are in Fountain county ten flouring mills, 
twenty saw mills, one woollen factory, one brewery, one 
distillery, one foundry, two printing offices, between fifty. 
and sixty stores and groceries, ten lawyers, about twenty- 
five physicians and fifteen preachers, and the usual propor- 
tion of mechanics; coal, iron ore and water pow r er are 
abundant, and there is now every appearance that Foun- 
tain county will soon be one of the best and richest coun- 
ties in the State. 

The taxable land amounts to 245,739 acres, and about 
2,500 acres still belong to the United States. 

Fourteen Mile Creek, a valuable mill stream, rising 
in Scott and Jefferson counties, runs into Clark, and 
empties into the Ohio, fourteen miles above the Falls, 
from which it derives its name. 

Foxgrape, the name of a prairie in Pulaski county. 

Frankfort, the Seat of Justice of Clinton county, is 
situated near the centre of the county, on the west side 
of Prairie Branch. This town was laid out in lS30,and 
the first house was built by Col. S. D. Maxwell, in Au- 
gust of that year, but the population did not increase 
much until 1832. There are in Frankfort eight stores, 
five lawyers, five physicians, and five churches, one for 
each of the following denominations: Old School Pres- 
byterians, Episcopal and Protestant Methodists, Chris- 
tians and Associate Reformed. Frankfort is forty-one 
miles north north-west of Indianapolis, twenty-four east 



230 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

south-east of Lafayette, twenty-six north-east of Craw- 
fordsville, and thirty-seven south-west of Logansport. 

Franklin County, named in honor of Dr. Franklin, 
was organized in 1810, and is bounded east by the State 
of Ohio, south by Dearborn and Ripley, west by Deca- 
tur and Rush, and north by Fayette and Union counties. 
It is about twenty-seven miles in length from east to west, 
and fifteen in breadth, and contains 400 square miles. 
In 1830 the population was 10,199, in 1840, 13,349, and 
at this time about 18,000. It is divided into eleven civil 
townships, to wit: Springfield, Bath, Brookville, White 
Water, Posey, Highland, Ray, Bloominggrove, Fairfield, 
Salt Creek and Laurel. The north-east part of the 
county is level, the central and western rolling, and in 
many places quite hilly. The timber is principally oak, 
sugar, beech, hickory and black walnut. The soil is 
generally good. About one-eighth of the county is bot- 
tom land, lying along White Water and its branches, 
with a very rich soil, well adapted to the growth of corn. 
The high lands are better for wheat and grass, and the 
state of the farming interest is creditable to the county. 

There are twenty flouring mills, thirty-five saw mills, 
one paper mill, one fulling mill, two cotton factories, two 
printing offices, fourteen lawyers, twenty physicians, 
twenty-one ministers of the gospel, a flourishing County 
Seminary, and common school districts are organized in 
every part of the county. There are numerous monu- 
ments of ancient population, such as mounds of earth 
and structures of stone, embedded in the earth and pre- 
pared with apparent skill, so that the deposites of some 
very distant period are found in a remarkable state of 
preservation. 

The abundant water power of Franklin county, the 
facilities for trade by the White Water Canal, its vicinity 
to Cincinnati and generally very fertile soil, are rapidly 
increasing its population and wealth. The taxable land, 
at this time, amounts to 245,631 acres. 

Franklin, a northern township in DeKalb county, 
with a population of 570. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 



231 




FRANKLIN COLLECF.. FRANKLIN. 



Franklin, the County Seat of Johnson county, is 
situated on the north side of Young's creek, just above 
its junction with Hurricane, near the centre of the 
county, on the Madison and Indianapolis Railroad, sixty- 
six miles north-west of Madison and twenty south-east 
of Indianapolis. It was laid out in 1S22, and the first 
settlers were Samuel Herriott, Geo. King, John Smiley 
and W. G. Springer. Franklin is the site of Franklin 
College, a flourishing institution under the control of the 
Baptists; it has four good churches, one for each of the 
denominations of the Old and New School Presbyte- 
rians, Baptists and Methodists; it has a fine building 
erected for a County Seminary, and about 250 houses, 
and a population of 1,750. A plank road is now in pro- 
gress from Franklin to the bluffs of White river, which 
will probably be extended to Mooresville. 

Franklin, a northern township in Putnam county. 

Franklin, an eastern township in Ripley county, pop- 
ulation 1,200. 



232 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Franklin, a south-west township in Floyd county, 
with a population of 700. 

Franklin, an interior township in Harrison county, 
population 1,050. 

Franklin, a south-w r est township in Hendricks county, 
with a population of 900. 

Franklin, a southern township in Henry county. 

Franklin, a central township in Johnson county. 

Franklin, a southern township in Kosciusko county. 

Franklin, a south-east township in Marion county, 
with a population of 1,600. 

Franklin, a north-east township in Montgomery 
county, with a population of 730. 

Franklin, a southern township in Owen county, with 
a population of 950. 

Franklin, a township in Washington county. 

Franklin, a township in Wayne county, with a popu- 
lation of 1,300. 

Fredericksburgh, a small village in the south-east of 
Washington county, north side of Blue river, twelve 
miles south east of Salem. 

Fredonia, the former Seat of Justice of Crawford 
county, on a very high bluff of the Ohio river, at the 
lower end of the Horse Shoe Bend, and four miles below 
Leavenworth. 

French Lick, a western township in Orange county, 
population 1,200. Heie is a spring of mineral water, 
nine miles west of Paoli, which, with the adjacent lands, 
was donated to the State by Congress, on the supposition 
that salt might be manufactured to advantage, but that 
not being found practicable, the lands have been sold 
and it is now thought that the springs will be valuable 
for their medical properties. The quarries of sand rock 
in the vicinity afford excellent material for grind-stones 
and w r het-stones, which at times have been extensively 
manufactured. 

French, a western township in Adams county, with a 
population of 450. 

French Island, a small town on the Ohio river, in 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 233 

Spencer county, at the head of French Island, eleven 
miles by land and twenty by water below Rockport. It 
contains eight houses. 

Fugit, a north-east township in Decatur county, with 
a population of 2,100. 

Fuldah, a small town in Spencer county, on the road 
from Troy to Jasper, ten miles from the Ohio river, set- 
tled by Germans. 

Fulton County, named in honor of Robert Fulton, 
the inventor of the Steamboat, w T as organized in 1836. 
It lies both sides of the Michigan road, south of Mar- 
shall, west of Kosciusko and Miami, north of Cass and 
east of Pulaski counties, and contains 357 square miles. 
Itis divided into eight townships, viz: Tippecanoe, Union, 
Wayne, Richland, Rochester, Liberty, Newcastle and 
Henry. The population in 1S40 was 1,993; at this time 
it amounts to about 5,200. 

A ridge of small, rugged hills, from one to two miles in 
width, extends along the north bank of the Tippecanoe 
through the county. With this exception, the face of the 
country is level or gently undulating. The north-east 
corner and the east side of the county is covered with a 
heavy forest of excellent timber; the balance is barrens 
and prairie, alternately wet and dry, with occasional 
groves of timber. The soil is black and rich in the tim- 
ber lands ; in the barrens it is sandy, but well adapted to 
the growth of wheat and corn. 

There is an abundance of water power in the county 
on the Tippecanoe river, and on Mill, Mud, Owl and 
Chipwannuc creeks, but only a small part of it is used 
at this time. There are two merchant mills, a saw mill 
and a carding machine on Mill creek, and a forge has 
been erected on the Tippecanoe, at the crossing of the 
Michigan road, where large quantities of excellent iron 
ore are found. The quality of the iron ore is very supe- 
rior; it is delivered at the works at very low rates, and 
the manufacture of this article is already becoming im- 
portant to the county. 

There are in the county two lawyers, seven phvsicians 
16 



234 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

and two preachers of the gospel, and the usual proportion 
of merchants and mechanics. The improvement of 
Fulton county has at no* time been rapid, but its advan- 
tages are such that it will steadily continue until it be- 
comes one of the leading counties in the State. 

Fulton, a southern towns-hip in Fountain county, 
with a population of 845. 

Galena, a northern township in Laporte county, with 
a population of 535. 

Galena, or Gallien, a small stream rising in the north 
part of Laporte county, runs north into Michigan, and 
empties into the lake at New Buffalo. 

Garrison's Creek, a mill stream that rises in Fayette 
county, runs south-east into Franklin, and empties into 
the west fork of White Water, on the west side. 

Geneva, a north-west township of Jennings county, 
with a population of 1,100. 

Gentryville, a small town in Spencer county, seven- 
teen miles north of Rockport, on the road to Bloom- 
ington. 

Georgetown, a small town in Cass county, laid out 
by George Cicot, on the canal, eight miles west of Lo- 
gansport. 

Georgetown, a township in Floyd county, with a 
population of 1,050. 

Georgetown, a small town in Floyd county, nine 
miles west of New Albany. 

Georgetown, a small town in Randolph county, laid 
out in 1835. 

German, a northern township in Bartholomew county, 
with a population of 1,100. 

German, a north-eastern township in Marshall county, 
with a population of 295. 

German, a northern township in St. Joseph county. 

German, a western township in Vanderburgh county, 
population 750. 

Germantown, a small village in Wayne county, seven 
miles west of Centreville. 

Gibson County was organized in 1813, and was named 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 235 

in honor of Gen. John Gibson, Secretary of the Treasu- 
ry from 3801 to 1816, and repeatedly acting Governor 
in the absence of Gov. Harrison. He had been taken 
prisoner in early life by the Indians, continued among 
them many years, and was fn miliar with their language 
and usages. It was to him that the celebrated speech of 
Logan was made. Though far advanced in life, he 
would have been still active, but for blindness which 
afflicted him during the latter part of his service. Gibson 
county is bounded west by the Wabash, north by White 
River, east by Pike, and south by Warrick, Vanderburgh 
and Posey counties. It contains about 450 square miles. 
It is divided into eight civil townships, to-wit: Mont- 
gomery, Patoka, Johnson, Columbia, Washington, White 
river, Wabash and Barton. The population in 1S30 
was 5,417; in 1S40, 8,977, and at this time about 11,000. 
The surface of the country is agreeably undulating; a 
small portion of the county is barrens; about one sixth 
is river bottoms on the Wabash, Patoka and White 
rivers; the balance is heavily timbered with walnut, 
beech, sugar, hickory, ash, oak, &c. The soil is generally 
loam and sand, and very productive in corn, wheat, and 
oats, which are taken to a southern market in flat boats. 
Hogs, horses, and cattle are also raised largely for expor- 
tation, to the value of $200,000 annually. There are 
in the county six grist and saw mills propelled by water; 
four steam grist and 4 do. saw mills; about thirty stores 
and groceries, two lawyers, physicians and preachers in 
every neighborhood, and generally good schools. The 
opening of the canal and other advantages for trade 
and agriculture presented to Gibson county, though here- 
tofore too much neglected, must make this an important 
part of the State. 

Gillam, a township in Jasper county. 

Gill, a western township in Sullivan county, popula- 
tion 1,150 

Gill's prairie, in same county. 

Goshen, the Seat of Justice of Elkhart county, was 
first settled in 1831. It is beautifully situated on the 



236 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

east bank of Elkhart river, a mile and a half south-east 
of the centre of the county, 132 miles north of Indian- 
apolis, 60 north-west of Fort Wayne, and 24 south-east 
of South Bend. Goshen contains commodious public 
buildings for the county; Methodist and Presbyterian 
churches; halls for the Masons, Odd Fellows and Sons of 
Temperance; eleven stores, two groceries, four lawyers, 
seven physicians, the usual proportion of shops for me- 
chanics, 125 dwelling houses, and a population of 700, 
which will no doubt continue to increase rapidly. Ad- 
joining the town are the flouring and saw mills of J. H. 
Barnes, which are very little inferior to any in northern 
Indiana. 

Gosport, the principal town in Owen county, is situ- 
ated on the west bank of White river, eight miles above 
Spencer, and forty-four below Indianapolis, on the direct 
road from Bloomington to Greencastle, 16 miles from the 
former and 24 from the latter. The proprietor was 
Ephraim Goss, and the first settlements in the vicinity 
were made in 1S18. Gossport has now a population of 
450, among whom are six merchants, twenty-three me- 
chanics, seven physicians, one attorney and two preach- 
ers. There are three ware houses, two taverns, one mill, 
a carding machine, and two churches in the town. 

Graham Creek, or Graham's Fork, a mill stream, 
rises in Ripley county and runs south-west about seventy 
miles through Jennings, Jefferson, and along the north 
line of Scott, and empties into the Muscackituck. 

Grant County was organized in 1831, and was named 
in honor of Captain Samuel Grant and Moses Grant, 
who were killed in 1789 in a battle with the Indians near 
the creek since called by their name in the N. E. part of 
Switzerland county. Grant county is bounded north by 
Wabash and Huntington, east by Wells and Blackford, 
South by Delaware and Madison, and west by Howard 
and Miami. It is twenty-two miles in length from east 
to west, and nineteen in breadth, and contains 418 square 
miles. It is divided into the following townships, viz: 
Van Buren, Washington, Pleasant, Richland, Centre, 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 237 

Monroe, Jefferson, Union and Liberty. The population 
in 1840 was 4,875 ; at this time it is about 8,000. Except 
along the borders of the Mississinnewa, which are beau- 
tifully rolling, the balance of the county is quite level 
and nearly all originally covered with heavy timber. 
The soil without exception is rich and well adapted to 
the cultivation of all kinds of grain, grass, fruit, &c, 
suited to the climate. There are in the county eighteen 
stores and groceries, fourteen mills propelled by water, 
eight lawyers, eight physicians, six preachers, twelve 
churches, belonging to the Methodists, Presbyterians and 
Friends, or Quakers, and the taxable land amounts to 
162,26S acres. A considerable part of Grant lay in the 
bounds of the Miami Reserve, and has been but recently 
settled; but except in facilities for the transportation of 
produce, there are few parts of the State that are better 
calculated to sustain a dense and prosperous population. 

Grant's Creek, a small mill stream in Switzerland 
county, which runs south into the Ohio river, four miles 
below Rising Sun. 

Grant's Creek, a small stream in Wabash county. 

Granville, a small town in Delaware county, on the 
Mississinnewa, ten miles north of Muncie. It has Metho- 
dist and New Light churches, two stores, one grocery, 
two physicians,, and a population of 125. 

Grassy Fork, and Grassy Creek are tributaries of the 
Muscackituck, in Jackson county. 

Greene County, named after Gen. Greene, of Revo- 
lutionary memory, was organized in 1821. It is bound- 
ed on the north by Clay and Owen, east by Monroe and 
Lawrence, south by Martin and Daviess, and west by 
Sullivan, and is thirty miles in length from east to west, 
and eighteen in width. The civil townships are Richland, 
Plummer, Jackson, Centre, Buck Creek, Highland, Eel 
River, Fairplay, Smith, Wright, Stockton and Washing- 
ton. The population in 1830 was 4,253; in 1840, 8,321, 
and at this time about 11,500. It is estimated that one 
sixth of the county is barrens, one-tenth prairie, one- 
twentieth river bottoms, and the balance upland with 



238 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

timber. The soil is sandy near the river and very rich, 
and portions of the west are sandy; the other parts of 
the county have a clay soil, which varies very much in 
quality. The timber is oak, sugar, walnut, beech, cherry, 
persimmon, &c. ; and the surplus products are wheat, 
corn, pork, and tobacco, which are exported to the 
amount of $100,000 annually. There are in the county 
fifteen stores, besides groceries, which are numerous, ten 
saw and grist mills, five lawyers, ten physicians, eight 
preachers, and seven Baptist, Methodist, and Presbyteri- 
an churches. Coal and iron ore are found in great abun- 
dance, and of good quality. When the canal, which 
passes through the centre of the county, is completed, as 
it will be in 1851, this part of the country will improve 
far beyond what it has ever yet done. 

Greene, a northern township in Hancock county, 
with a population of 900. 

Greene, a township in Howard county, with a popu- 
lation of 450. 

Greene, a central township in Jay county, settled in 
1831, population 425. 

Greene, a southern township in Marshall county, 
population 570. 

Greene, an eastern township in Morgan county, with 
a population of 1,360. 

Greene, an eastern township in Noble county, popula- 
tion 350. 

Greene, a township in Parke countv, with a population 
of 1,350. 

Greene, a north-west township in Randolph county, 
with a population of 900. 

Greene, a southwest township in St. Joseph county. 

Greene, a township in Wayne county, with a popula- 
tion of 1,200. 

Greencastle, the Seat of Justice of Putnam county, 
is beautifully situated near the centre of the county, on 
high table land, one mile east of the Walnut Fork of Eel 
river, in latitude -thirty-nine degrees forty minutes, and 
longitude nine degrees forty-six minutes west. It was 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 



239 




ASBURY UNIVERSITY. GREEN CASTLE. 

laid out in 1822, by Ephraim Dukes and Wesley Clark. 
It is the seat of the Asbury University, a flourishing in- 
stitution under the charge of the Methodists, a county 
Seminary, a female Academy, and other good schools. 
The College, Court House, Churches, and many of the 
private dwellings are built with much taste. There are 
now 210 dwelling houses in Greencastle, and a population 
of about 1,600. The healthy and pleasant situation of 
the town and its vicinity, the fertility of the soil, and 
valuable improvements continually making, attach to it 
much importance and interest through the whole State. 
The Terre Haute and Indianapolis railroad is now under 
contract to this place, and that from Lafayette to Craw- 
fordsville will no doubt in time be extended to it. Green- 
castle is forty miles west south-west of Indianapolis, 
thirty-four north-east of Terre Haute, and twenty-eight 
south of Crawfordsville. 

Greenfield, the County Seat of Hancock, is situated 



240 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

in the centre of the county, near Brandywine creek, 
twenty miles east of Indianapolis. It was first settled 
in 1828, by Meek and Spillman. It contains the Court 
House, county offices, county Seminary, sixty dwelling 
houses and 300 inhabitants. 

Greenfield, a north-east township in Lagrange coun- 
ty, population 600. 

Greenfield, a southern township in Orange county, 
population 700. 

Greensborough, a small town in Henry county, six 
miles south-west of Newcastle, with a population of 250. 

Greensborough, an interior township in Henry county. 

Greentown, a small town in Green township, How- 
ard county. 

Greenville Creek, a branch of Stillwater, rises in 
Randolph county and runs north and then east into the 
State of Ohio. 

Greenwood, a small village near the railroad, in the 
north part of Johnson county. It contains two stores, 
Baptist and Presbyterian churches, thirty houses and 180 
inhabitants. The situation is pleasant, ten miles from 
Indianapolis on the north and Franklin on the south, and 
the condition and morals of the people in the vicinity 
present many inviting residences. 

Gregg, a central township in Morgan county, w T ith a 
population of 600. 

Guilford, a south-east township in Hendricks county, 
with a population of 1,450. 

Guinea Run, or Philip's creek, a branch of the Mus- 
cackituck, in Jackson county. 

Guthrie's Creek, a mill stream rising in Jackson 
county, runs south and then west into Lawrence, and 
empties into the east fork of White river, five miles 
south-east of Bedford. 

Haddon, a south-east township in Sullivan county, 
with a population of 3,750. 

Hagerstown, is a village eleven miles north-west of 
Centreville, in Wayne county, and seven miles north of 
Cambridge City, at the head of the White Water Canal. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 241 

It contains a population of 500, and from its situation 
and the fine country around, is calculated to become an 
important point. 

Halbert, an eastern township in Martin county, with 
a population of 425. 

Halfmoon Spring, a noted place in early times in 
Orange county, on the old French lick road, four miles 
south-east of Paoli. The spring resembles in shape a 
half moon. It rises in a plat of level, rich land, which 
extends some distance from the spring on all sides. It is 
about 100 feet deep, never freezes, and affords w T ater suf- 
ficient to turn a mill. 

Hall's Branch, a small stream in Pulaski county. 

Hall's Creek, a stream in the south part of Dubois, 
running into Patoka. 

Hall, a south-east township in Dubois county, with a 
population of 530. 

Hamblen, a north-east township in Brown county. 

Hamilton County, was organized in 1S23, and was 
named in honor of Alexander Hamilton. It is bounded 
north by Tipton, east by Madison, south by Hancock 
and Marion, and west by Boone and Clinton counties, 
and it contains 400 square miles. It is divided into the 
following townships, viz : Noblesville, Washington, Clay, 
Delaware, Fall Creek, Wayne, and White River. The 
population in 1830 was 1,705, in 1840, 9,855, and at 
this time about 14,000. The face of the country is 
either level or gently undulating, the soil without exception 
good, and every part of the county well adapted to the 
cultivation of either corn, grain or grass. There are along 
White River ;i few dry, rich prairies, and at the heads of 
Cicero and Stony Creeks, a number of wet ones, but 
they are mostly small. The balance of the county is 
timbered land, with a good proportion of oak, poplar, 
walnut, sugar, hickory, and beech. The resources of 
Hamilton county have not heretofore been developed 
in any manner in proportion to their capability, but 
there is now an appearance of more energy and enter- 
prise. The Railroad from Indianapolis to Peru will 



242 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

shortly be completed to Noblesville, twenty-one miles, 
mainly by the citizens of the county, and there is now 
reason to believe that their fine soil, water power, and 
other advantages, will soon be called into requisition. 
It is estimated that 10,000 hogs, 500 cattle, 200 horses, 
and 100 mules are annually exported from the county. 
The value of the exports may soon be five times what 
thev have ever heretofore been. All the lands are taxa- 
ble." 

Hamilton, a small town in Madison township, Clin- 
ton county. 

Hamilton, a township in Delaware county. 

Hamilton, a northern township in Jackson county, 
population 1,100. 

Hamilton, a small town in Steuben county. 

Hamilton, a small town in St. Joseph county, west of 
South Bend, with a population of 150. 

Hamilton, a central township in Sullivan county, with 
a population of 1,250. 

Hammond, a southern township in Spencer county, 
with a population of 675. 

Hancock County, named after John Hancock, was 
organized in 1S28. It is bounded on the north by Ham- 
ilton and Madison, on the east by Henry and Hush, on 
the south by Shelby, and on the west by Marion, and it 
contains 307 square miles. It is divided into the follow- 
ing townships, viz : Blue River, Brandy wine, Brown, 
Buck Creek, Centre, Green, Harrison, Jackson, Jones, 
Sugar Creek, Union, and Vernon. The population in 
1830 was 1,569, in 1840, 7,535, and at this time it is 
about 9,500. 

The surface of the country is generally level, though 
it becomes gently undulating in the vicinity of the 
streams. The timber is of a good quality, such as is 
usually found in the level parts of the State, and the soil 
uniformly rich, though some portions of the county re- 
quire draining before they can be cultivated to advan- 
tage. The staple products are wheat, corn, and grass, 
of which a considerable surplus, as well as of hogs, cat- 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 



243 



tie, and horses, are raised for exportation. The esti- 
mated value of the surplus is $75,000 annually. There 
are in the county twenty stores, eighteen mills, propelled 
by water, one woollen factory, one printing office, five 
lawyers, fourteen physicians, thirteen preachers, and the 
usual proportion of carpenters, smiths, coopers, wheel- 
wrights, &c, and twelve churches, mostly belonging to 
the Methodists and Baptists. 

The taxable land amounts to 192,146 acres. 

Hannas Creek, a beautiful mill stream in Union 
county, running south-west into the East Fork of White 
Water, three miles below Dunlapsville. 




HANOVER COLLEGE. 

Hanover, a beautiful town on the high bluffs of the 
Ohio in Jefferson county, six miles below Madison. It 
was first settled in 18 i0, by the Hon. W. Dunn, who 
was soon after joined by the Rev. J. F. Crowe, D. D. 
Under their auspices a flourishing Literary Institution 
has been built up, and the village for its accommodation 
now contains about 100 houses, and, including students, 



244 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

600 inhabitants. Hanover has just suffered severely 
from a visitation of the cholera, in which the President 
of the College, Dr. Scoville, and several other valuable 
citizens, died suddenly ; but no place on the Ohio has 
usually been more healthy, nor is there any one, where 
more attention has been paid to the cultivation of the 
morals and intellects of the youth. 

Hanover, a southern township in Jefferson county. 

Hanover, a northern township in Shelby county. 

Harbert's Creek, a mill stream in Jefferson county, 
running west to the waters of the Muscackituck. 

Harbison, a north-western township in Dubois county, 
with a population of 750. 

Harmony, a township bordering on the Wabash in 
Posey county, in which is the village of New Harmony. 

Harmony, a south-west township in Union county, 
with a population of 1,050. 

Harris, a north-east township in St. Joseph county. 

Harris's Prairie in the above. 

Harrisburgh, a small town in Fayette county, four 
miles north-west of Connersville. 

Harrisburgh, see Brownsburgh. 

Harrison County, named in honor of William H. 
Harrison, was organized in 1808. It is bounded north 
by Washington, east by Floyd, south-east, south, and 
south-west by the Ohio river which runs on its borders 
for near sixty miles, and west by Crawford county, and 
it contains 478 square miles. Jt is divided into nine civil 
townships, viz : Posey, Taylor, Boone, Heth, Washing- 
ton, Harrison, Franklin, Blue River, and Morgan. The 
population in 1830 was 10,288, in 1840, 12,459, and at 
this time about 14,000. The face of the country, as well 
as the character of the soil, is much diversified in Harri- 
son county. The chain of knobs on the east, the river 
hills and many places along Indian Creek and Blue 
River, present as fine scenery as can be found in any 
part of the State. The bottoms, valleys, and a portion 
of the upland, are fertile and were originally well tim- 
bered, but some of the barrens have many "sink holes" 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 245 

in which are frequently entrances to immense caverns, 
and in places the soil is very thin. The surplus products 
of the county, consisting of corn, wheat, fruit, potatoes, 
and pork, beef, &c, are usually taken away to the south 
by the farmers themselves in flat-boats, and are estimat- 
ed to be worth $250,000 annually. There are in the coun- 
ty eight large flouring mills, and forty saw mills, thirty- 
eight stores, six lawyers, fifteen physicians, three Pres- 
byterian, four Baptist, six United Brethren, two Roman 
Catholic, and two Universalist Churches, besides Metho- 
dist Churches in each of the five principal towns, and 
several others in the country. The County Seminary at 
Corydon is well managed and flourishing, with one hun- 
dred students ; the Friendship Seminary, at Elizabeth, 
is also prosperous, with eighty students ; and the com- 
mon schools are kept in operation in all the districts at 
least three months annually. 

Six miles west of Corydon is Wilson's spring, sixty 
feet in diameter, and though it has been sounded over 400 
feet, no bottom has been found. It rises from a solid rock 
in a level spot of land, and it affords a sufficient amount 
of water to turn a valuable flour mill. Pitman's cave, in 
the same neighborhood, has been explored about two and 
a half miles, and is frequently visited. The descent to 
this cave is about twenty feet perpendicular, it then ex- 
tends off horizontally. 

Harrison, a western township in Bartholomew coun- 
ty, population 600. 

Harrison, a southern township in Boone county, 
population 710. 

Harrison, a north-east township in Blackford county, 
population 550. 

Harrison, a south-east township in Clay county, pop- 
ulation 750. 

Harrison, a township north of Wabash in Cass coun- 
ty, population 750. 

Harrison, a southern township in Daviess county, 
population 795. 

Harrison, a township in Dearborn county, population 
760. 



246 



INDIANA GAZETTEER. 



Harrison, a small town partly, in Dearborn county 
and partly in the State of Ohio, twelve miles north of 
Lawrenceburgh. 

Harrison, a township in Delaware county. 

Harrison, a township in Elkhart county, population 
275. 

Harrison, a northern township in Fayette county, 
population 2,100. 

Harrison, an interior township in Hancock county, 
population 500. 

Harrison, an interior township in Harrison county, 
population 3,800. 

Harrison, a township in Howard countv, population 
550. 

Harrison, a south-east township in Knox county. 

Harrison, a western township in Kosciusko county. 

Harrison, a southern township in Miami county, with 
a population of 150. 

Harrison, a north-east township in Morgan county, 
with a population of 550. 

Harrison, a north-east township in Owen county, 
population 575, containing sixteen and a half square 
miles, first settled in 1819 by Jesse Evans and Samuel 
Bigger. 

Harrison, a township in Pulaski county. 

Harrison, a north-east township in Spencer county, 
population 500. 

Harrison, a north-east township in Union county, 
population 1,400. 

Harrison, a central township in Vigo county, popula- 
tion 4,800. 

Harrison, a township in Wayne countv, population 
950. 

Harrison, an eastern township in Wells county. 

Harrisonville, a small town on Indian Creek, Mar- 
tin county. Near this place are medicinal springs sup- 
posed to be very efficacious, called Trinity Springs. 

Harrisonville, a small town in Tippecanoe county, 
near the battle ground of the 7th November, 1811. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 247 

Harrodsburgh, a small town in Beanblossom town- 
ship, Monroe county. 

Hart, a northern township in Warrick county. 

Hartford, the county seat of Blackford county, was 
laid out in 1S39, and is situated near Lick Creek, a 
branch of the Mississinnewa, seventy-five miles north-east 
of Indianapolis. It contains a good brick Court House, 
and forty other houses, five of which are brick. 

Hartford, a small town in Ohio county, on Laughery 
Creek, six miles north-west of Rising Sun. It contains 
a good brick Methodist Church, about fifty dwelling 
houses, and three hundred inhabitants. It was first 
settled in 1814 by Benj. Walker, John Livingston, and 
others. 

Hartsville, a small town in Bartholomew county, 
with a population of 150, laid out in 1S2S by Andrew 
Calloway. 

Haw Creek, a fine mill stream rising in the south part 
of Shelby, and running south-west about twenty miles 
into the east fork of White river, at Columbus. Along 
this stream is the Haw-patch, which is not surpassed in 
fertility and beauty by any part of the State. 

Haw Creek, a tributary of the east fork of White 
river in Daviess county. 

Haw Creek, a small stream in Montgomery county. 

Hawkins's Prairie contains about 800 acres, and is 
a rich tract of land on the west fork of Wliite river, in 
Daviess county, all under cultivation. 

Haysville, a small town on Patoka river, in Dubois 
county, named after the proprietor, containing two stores, 
a warehouse, a grocery, and a population of 1S8. 

Helt, a township in Vermillion county. 

Heltonsville, a small town in Lawrence county, 
named after the proprietor. 

Hendricks County was organized in 1824, and was 
named for William Hendricks, who at that time was 
Governor of the State. It is bounded on the north by 
Boone, east by Marion, south by Morgan, and west by 
Putnam and Montgomery counties, and being twenty 



248 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

miles square, it contains 400 square miles. Hendricks 
county is divided into ten civil townships, to-wit : Centre, 
Washington, Guilford, Liberty, Franklin, Clay, Marion, 
Eel River, Middle and Brown. The population in 1830 
was 3,967; in 1840, 11,264, and at this time about 15,000. 
The south side and north-west corner of the county are 
undulating, the other parts generally level. More than 
one half the soil is a rich loam, slightly mixed with sand ; 
the balance is clay, interspersed with tracts too wet for 
profitable cultivation on first being cleared ; but when 
drained they become very productive, and there is in 
reality, scarce an acre in the county which may not, 
with but little trouble, be made to produce good crops of 
grain or grass. No better timber is found in any part of 
the State than here. The surplus articles exported are 
wheat, hogs, cattle, and horses, which are estimated to 
be of the value of $200,000 annually. There are in the 
county twenty dry goods stores, two drug stores, eigh- 
teen grist mills, twenty-two saw mills, five woollen facto- 
ries, one printing office, six lawyers, twenty physicians, 
twenty ministers of the gospel, the usual pioportion of 
mechanics, thirty-six churches, a flourishing county Semi- 
nary, and school houses in the common school districts. 
The prevailing religious denominations are Methodists, 
Baptists, Christians, Friends, Presbyterians and Luther- 
ans. The land rated for taxation in the county amounts 
to 242,910 acres. 

Hendricks, a township in Shelby county. 

Henry County, named for the patriot and orator, 
Patrick Henry, was organized in 1821, and is bounded 
on the north by Delaware, east by Randolph and Wayne, 
south by Fayette and Rush, and west by Hancock and 
Madison counties. It contains 385 square miles, and is 
divided into twelve civil townships, to-wit: Wayne, 
Spiceland, Franklin, Dudley, Liberty, Henry, Greensboro, 
Harrison, Stoney Creek, Prairie, Jefferson and Fall Creek. 
The population in 1830 was 6,498; in 1840, 15,128, and 
at this time about 18,000. The face of the country is 
generally undulating, with many large and beautiful level 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 249 

tracts on the east side of the county. With the excep- 
tion of one prairie in the north which gives name to the 
township there, the land was originally covered with good 
timber, such as oak, walnut, ash, poplar, beech and 
sugar, and the soil, with scarce any exception, is of a 
good quality. The land is in a high state of cultivation, 
and the farms well improved. About 30,000 hogs, 2,000 
fat cattle and 1,000 horses are among the products of 
the county annually taken to market, besides wheat and 
flour in large quantities. The water power for manu- 
facturing is abundant and very valuable. Blue river 
runs from near the north-east to the south-west corner 
of the county; Fall creek through the north, and there 
are several other valuable mill streams. There are in 
the county thirty grist mills, fifty saw mills, five oil mills, 
four woollen factories, one printing office, thirty-five 
stores, ten lawyers, twenty physicians, forty Methodist, 
ten Friends, five Presbyterian, three Baptist, one United 
Brethren and two True Wesleyan churches. 

The taxable land in the county amounts to 246,000 
acres. 

Henry, an interior township in the county of the 
same name. 

Henry, a township in Fulton county. 

Hensley, a south-west township in Johnson county, 
with a population of 1,150. 

Highbanks, a small town in Pike county, nine miles 
east of Petersburgh. It is situated on a bluff of White 
river about 100 feet high. 

Highland, a south-west township in Franklin county, 
population 1,900. 

Highland, a north-east township in Greene county, 
population 900. 

Highland, a northern township in Vermillion county, 
population 2,400. 

Highland Creek, a mill stream, a tributary of Blue 
river, in Washington county. 

Hillsborough, a small town on the east fork of Coal 
17 



250 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

creek, in Fountain county, fourteen miles east of Cov- 
ington. It contains about twenty houses. 

Hillsborough, a small town in Wayne county, near 
the Ohio line, nine miles north-east of Richmond, popu- 
lation 150. 

Hindostan, formerly the Seat of Justice of Martin 
county, at the Falls of White river, deserted for its un- 
healthy location. 

Hog Creek, a mill stream in Delaware county. 

Hogan, a mill stream in Dearborn county, rising in 
the west part of the county and running east into the 
Ohio at Aurora. 

Holmes Lake, a sheet of water in Pulaski county. 

Homer, a small town on Salt creek, Jackson county, 
eighteen miles west of Brownstown. 

Honey Creek, a north-east township in Clinton county, 
population 800. 

Honey Creek, a small stream in Henry county. 

Honey Creek, a small stream in Howard county. 

Honey Creek, a mill stream in Miami county. 

Honey Creek, a mill stream in Vigo county, that runs 
south-west into the Wabash, nine miles below Terre 
Haute. 

Honey Creek, a central township in Vigo county, 
with a population of 1,500. 

Hope, a small but well situated town in Bartholomew 
county, twelve miles north-east of Columbus. It is in 
the midst of a beautiful and well improved country, and 
contains a population of 300. 

Howard County, organized in 1S44, was first named 
Richardville, after the Chief of the Miamies of that 
name, but on the death of Gen. T. A. Howard, a distin- 
guished citizen of this State, and at the time Minister to 
Texas, the name was changed. Howard county is 
bounded north by Cass and Miami, east by Grant, south 
by Tipton and Clinton, and west by Clinton and Carroll. 
The contents are 279 square miles, divided into nine 
townships, viz: Centre, Monroe, Irvin, Clay, Harrison, 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 251 

Taylor, Howard, Jackson and Greene. The population 
is at this time about 5,000. The surface of the country 
is either nearly level or slightly undulating; the soil is 
uniformly rich, though in places it will require draining. 
There are a few prairies, inclined to be wet and not of 
much note, but generally the land is covered with heavy 
and mostly valuable timber. When cleared it is well 
adapted to the cultivation of corn, wheat, grass, &c. 
This county, lying entirely in the Miami Reserve, has 
only been settled about six years, but it will soon be 
among the first rate farming counties. It has now 
twelve stores, six grist mills, five saw mills, three law- 
yers, eight physicians, ten ministers of the gospel, three 
Methodist, one Presbyterian, one Baptist, one New Light 
and one Quaker Meeting House, and about thirty me- 
chanics whose trades are most in demand. 

Only a small portion of the county has been purchased 
of the United States five years, so as to be subject to 
taxation. 34,000 acres are canal lands. 

Howard, a township in same county. 

Hudson, a north-east township in Laporte county, 
population 410. 

Huff's Creek, a tributary of the East Fork of White 
river, in Jackson county. 

Huff, a south-east township in Spencer county, popu- 
lation 650. 

Hunley's Creek rises in the southern part of Dubois, 
and runs north-west into Patoka. 

Huntingburgh, a small town in Patoka township, Du- 
bois county, settled in 1836, by Col. J. Geyer, J. T. 
Doune and J. C. Bayles. The population amounts 
to 214. 

Huntersville, a small town in Ray township, Frank- 
lin county. 

Huntington County was organized in 1834, and was 
named in honor of Samuel Huntington, a delegate in the 
Continental Congress from Connecticut, and one of the 
signers of the Declaration of Independence. The name 



252 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

was proposed by Capt. Ellas Murray, then a member of 
the Legislature. 

This county is twenty-four miles in length from north 
to south, and sixteen in breadth, and contains 3S4 square 
miles. It is bounded north by Whitley, east by Allen 
and Wells, south by Wells and Grant, and west by Wa- 
bash county. For civil purposes, Huntington county is 
divided into twelve townships, viz: Jackson, Clear Creek, 
Warren, Dallas, Huntington, Union, Rock Creek, Lan- 
caster, Polk, Wayne, Jefferson and Salamonie. The 
population in 1840 was 1,579; at this time it is about 
6,000. A small portion of the county is hilly, but for 
the most part it is only so far removed from a level or 
gently undulating, as to drain the water off readily and 
leave the ground dry. The soil is clay and sand mixed, 
deep and very fertile, and well adapted to all such agri- 
cultural products as are common to the climate. With 
the exception of a few small prairies, the whole county 
was originally a dense forest of all the usual varieties of 
timber. The staple products exported are wheat, corn, 
beef and pork to the annual value, it is estimated, of 
$50,000. 

There are in the county one merchant mill, seven 
grist mills, ten saw mills, with much unimproved water 
power, ten stores, seven groceries, five ware-houses, three 
lawyers, fourteen physicians, seven clergymen, 105 me- 
chanics of the various trades most in demand, one print- 
ing office, three churches, for the Catholics, Baptists and 
German Reformed, and fifteen schools that will average 
about thirty scholars each. The taxable land amounts to 
212,886 acres; not exceeding a section still belongs to the 
United States, and about 10,000 acres are contained in 
the Indian reserves. The fine soil, situation and water 
power of this county will rapidly advance it in wealth 
and population as soon as the large amount of non-resi- 
dent lands is sold out. 

Huntington, the Seat of Justice of the county of the 
same name, is situated at the mouth of Flint creek, on 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 253 

Little river, two miles above its entrance into the Wa- 
bash. Gen. Tipton was the proprietor and Capt. Murray 
among the first settlers. It contains 150 houses, and a 
population of 700. Huntington is on the Wabash and 
Erie Canal, 100 miles north-east from Indianapolis and 
twenty-four south-west from Fort Wayne. 

Huntington, a central township containing the above, 
population 1,200. 

Huntsville, a small town on Fall creek, Madison 
county, named after families of that name who first set- 
tled it. It is seven miles south-west of Andersontown 
and one mile east of Pendleton. 

Huntsville, a small town in Randolph county, nine 
miles south-w 7 est of Winchester, named for same cause. 

Independence, a town in Warren county, on the west 
bank of the Wabash, nine miles north-east of Williams- 
port. It was laid out in 1S2S, by Zachariah Cicott, on 
his Indian reservation. He and Jacob Haines were the 
first settlers. 

Indian Creek, a fine mill stream rising in Floyd 
county, runs south-west into Harrison and passing diago- 
nally through it, empties into the Ohio river at Amster- 
dam. It is about forty-five miles in length and has much 
good land along its borders. At Corydon it receives 
Little Indian creek, fifteen miles in length. 

Indian Creek rises in the west part of Monroe, runs 
south-west through the counties of Greene, Lawrence 
and Martin, empties into the East Fork of White river, 
near the Sulphur Springs. Its whole length is about 
forty miles. 

Indian Creek, a western township in Lawrence county, 
population 1,110. 

Indian Creek, a mill stream which has its source in 
Johnson county, runs west into Morgan and empties into 
White river three miles below Martinsville. 

Indian Creek, a tributary of Fall Creek from the east, 
in the north-east part of Marion county. 

Indian Creek, a small stream running west into 
White river, near the line of Marion and Johnson. 



254 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Indian Creek, a south-west township in Monroe coun- 
ty, population 1,300. 
..- Indian Creek, a mill stream in Montgomery county. 

Indian Creek, a tributary of White river from the 
west, in the north part of Owen county. 

Indian Creek, a tributary of the Tippecanoe from the 
east, in the south part of Pulaski, and passing through a 
part of White county. 

Indian Creek, a southern township in Pulaski county. 

Indian Creek, a mill stream in Switzerland county, 
rising in the north part of it, runs south into the Ohio 
two miles below Vevay. 

Indian Creek, a tributary of the Wabash in Tippe- 
canoe county. 

Indianapolis, the Seat of Government of the State of 
Indiana, is situated on the east bank of the W r est Fork 
of White river, in latitude 39 deg. 46 min. north, and in 
longitude 9 deg. 3 min. west. The extreme southern 
points of the State, in Spencer and Posey counties, are 
138 miles south, and the line of the State, separating it 
from Michigan, is 137 miles north of Indianapolis. The 
Ohio State line is 73 miles east, and that of Illinois 
75 west of this place, so that the location is central, as 
near as may be. It stands on a beautiful, very fertile 
and extensive plain, just below the mouth of Fall creek, 
one mile south of the centre of Marion county, of which it is 
the Seat of Justice. In the ordinance of Congress authoriz- 
ing the formation of a State Constitution for Indiana, four 
sections or 2,560 acres of land were donated for the per- 
manent Seat of Government. Commissioners on the part 
of the State were appointed in 1820, to make the selec- 
tion, and in 1821 the town was laid out by Alexander 
Ralston, an engineer, under the supervision of Christo- 
pher Harrison, of Salem, acting commissioner, though 
James W. Jones, of Gibson, and Samuel P. Booker, of 
Wayne county, had been joined in the commission; yet, 
from circumstances, they were unable to devote much 
attention to the business. 

The first sale of lots was in October, 1821, when 314 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 255 

lots, central in the old plat of the town, north and south, 
were sold for $35,596 25, $580 were paid for the lot 
north of Washington street, and directly west of the 
Court House square, and $'500 for the lot similarly situ- 
ated west of the State House square. The lots now 
reckoned the most valuable, and which, if not impioved, 
would be valued at from $6,000 to $S,000, then sold at 
from $200 to $300 each. 

Washington, the principal street in town, is 120 feet 
wide, Circle street SO feet, the others 90 feet. The 
alleys from east to west are thirty feet wide, those from 
north to south 15 feet. The lots in the full and regular 
blocks are 67? feet by 195, and contain about one-third 
of an acre. On the diagonal streets and in the central 
blocks touching Circle street, the lots contain about one- 
fourth of an acre each. 

In the year 1S20, when this place was selected for the 
Seat of Government, the whole country, for forty miles, 
in every direction, with the exception of a few unimpor- 
tant prairies, was a dense forest, nor was there any con- 
siderable settlements nearer than Fayette county on the 
east, and Jackson on the south, over fifty miles distant. 
That year, however, many improvements were com- 
menced on Blue river and Flat rock, and Messrs. Pogue, 
McCormick, the Hardings, Dunning, Vanblaricum, 
Mcllvaine, and a few others, removed to the vicinity of 
Indianapolis. The surveys of this and the adjoining 
counties having been com pie led by the General Govern- 
ment in 1821, a sale of the public lands in this district 
was held in July of that year, at which time there were 
about fifty families on the Donation, as the land selected 
for the Seat of Government was then called. In addi- 
tion to the families named above, there still remain of 
the early settlers Messrs. Coe, Henderson, Blake, Ray, 
Yandes, Bates, Morris, Scudder, Fletcher, and the fami- 
lies of Messrs. Walpole, Foote, ixowland, Given, and 
others who have been well known among our busy pop- 
ulation. Among those who took an active part in the 
early improvement of the town, but who have since died, 



256 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

or with their families have removed elsewhere, the names 
of Osborn, Basye, Hawkins, McGeorge and Drs. Scud- 
der and Mitchell, &c, are still kindly remembered. The 
first settlements were made near the river and in the 
north part of the town, where there was no underbrush, 
and a few thinly scattered sugar trees only required to 
be deadened and the land fenced, in order that it might 
be cultivated. 

The moral and intellectual improvement of the youth 
of the town engaged the attention of many of its promi- 
nent citizens at an early period, and up to this time the 
Sabbath Schools of Indianapolis, and also its public and 
private schools are not inferior in efficiency and useful- 
ness to those of any other cities or towns in the Union 
with no greater advantages as to population and resources. 
More than two-thirds of the children, of a proper age, 
have attended the Sabbath Schools regularly, and there 
has not been one in ten who has not been occasionally 
there. This course, pursued now for more than a quar- 
ter of a century, has had beneficial influences beyond all 
calculation, though in a city rapidly increasing in popu- 
lation by emigrants from almost every State in the 
Union and nation in Europe, there must always be 
found much that requires correction and improvement. 

The Presbyterians commenced building a Church in 
1824, but were not able to complete it for more than 
two years, though the whole cost did not exceed $1,200. 
The average attendance of that Church, for five years at 
least, did not exceed 100. 

The Methodists, in 1825, purchased a hewed log house, 
which they afterwards enlarged so that it would hold 
about 200 persons; but the whole cost of house and lot 
did not exceed $300. This, as well as that built by the 
Presbyterians, was used as a school house for several 
years, and it was not until 1829 that they were able to 
complete a better building. At this time, ihe Methodists 
have two well finished Churches, each capable of seating 
at least 1,000 persons, and with the appurtenances, the 
cost of both must have been near $20,000, and they are 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 261 

now building a third Church, west of the canal, of smaller 
size, but still a good building. They have also a small 
Church in West Indianapolis. 

The preceding engraving is a representation of the Cen- 
tral Methodist Episcopal Church in Indianapolis, erected 
during the year 1846. It is a substantial brick edifice, 
sixty-five feet by eighty, with the basement story above 
ground, containing a Lecture Room, Study, Library 
Room, &c. The entrance to the body of the Church is 
from the Vestibule, in front, by two flights of stairs. 
The Church has a front Gallery, two central and two 
side Aisles. The Methodists have four Churches within 
the corporate limits of the City, exclusive of the African 
Methodist Church. The first Church erected by the 
Methodists in Indiana, was a rude log meeting house, 
built about the year 1804, in what is now Clark county. 
The same denomination own at present, within the State, 
about seven hundred Churches. 

The Presbyterians have two Churches, one for each 
branch of that denomination, less spacious than those 
erected by the Methodists, yet very commodious and well 
finished buildings. 

The Baptists are now completing a large Church ; the 
Episcopalians have a good one : there are two German 
Churches, one English Lutheran, one Associate Reformed, 
one Christian, one Roman Catholic, one for the Friends, 
and two for the Africans, making seventeen in all. The 
character and style of the preaching, and the contribu- 
tions for religious and charitable purposes, will compare 
favorably with most others of the same denominations 
in any part of the country. 

On the first of January, 1825, the public offices of the 
State were removed from Cory don to this place, and the 
permanent Seat of Government established here. The 
Legislature continued to hold their sessions in the Court 
House, built at an expense of $14,000, until December, 
1834, when the State House, a fine building 180 feet by 
80, was completed for them at the cost of about $60,000, 



262 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

all which, together with the cost of the Governor's house, 
Treasurer's house and office, was paid for from the money 
realized by the State from the sales of their lots and 
lands donated for the Seat of Government. 

A good Classical school has usually been kept up at 
the County Seminary. The Old School Presbyterians 
have founded a Parochial School, which they intend 
shall be of a high order, the Indianapolis Female Insti- 
tute was for many years very successful in the education 
of young ladies; the St. Mary's Seminary, under the 
control of the Episcopalians is still so, and the citizens 
of Indianapolis, having voted to be taxed for the educa- 
tion of all the children, lots have been purchased by the 
Corporation and buildings will be erected for that pur- 
pose. Many private and common district schools are 
also to be found in most parts of the city. 

The other public buildings are two spacious Market 
houses, six large Hotels, besides the Mansion House, owned 
by Gen. Drake, now rebuilding, a large and splendid 
Masonic Hall now in progress, and the Madison and In- 
dianapolis Railroad Depot, 350 feet by 56. There will 
soon be buildings of a similar character at the points in 
this place where the Railroads from Bellefontaine, Peru, 
Lafayette and Terre Haute are to terminate. Among the 
manufactories in Indianapolis are a paper mill, two flouring 
mills, two saw mills, an oil mill, two carding machines, two 
foundries, with one of which is a machine shop in which 
steam engines are made, a peg and last establishment, 
one do. for planing, in both which sash, doors, &c, are 
made by machinery. 

There are in Indianapolis seventy-six dry goods stores, 
twenty-four groceries, fourteen ware-houses, three book 
stores, four drug stores, 106 shops for mechanics, four 
breweries, twelve school houses, twenty-two three story 
houses, 297 two story do., and 846 houses of one story, 
making 1,165 in all. Of the houses, 164 are -of brick, 
and 1,001 of frame. In 1829, the population was 1,085, 
in 1834, 1,600, in 1840,2,692, and on the 1st of August, 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 263 

1849, 6,504. From 250 to 300 houses will be built dur- 
ing the present year. If West Indianapolis be included, 
the whole population will be 6,750. 

The opening of the Madison and Indianapolis Rail- 
road, w T hich took place on the 1st of October, 1847, has 
given quite an impulse to the improvement and business 
of this city, and now, as there have been four other 
Railroads commenced, viz: the Terre Haute, Lafayette, 
Peru and Bellefontaine, all of which are progressing to- 
wards completion, there is every prospect that, for some 
years, both population and improvement will increase 
rapidly, and it will not be a matter of surprise if, by the 
year I860, there shall be three-fold the present number 
of inhabitants. The introduction of coal, iron ore, and 
other materials and facilities for manufacturing, the 
cheapness with which Railroads can be made here, the 
productiveness of which the whole country is suscepti- 
ble, and its fine climate and heathful situation do not, at 
present, allow us to fix any limits to its capacity for im- 
provement. See Marion county, &c. 

Indian Kentucky, a fine mill stream, about thirty 
miles in length, rises in Ripley, runs south into Jefferson, 
and empties into the Ohio river eight miles above Madi- 
son. About three-fourths of the time this stream fur- 
nishes a good supply of water for mills. 

Iroquois, or Pickamink river, rises in the east part of 
Jasper county, and runs south-west, near fifty miles, into 
the State of Illinois, where it turns north and empties 
into the Kankakee. 

Irwin, a township in Howard county, population 700. 

Jack's Defeat, a mill stream in the west part of .Mon- 
roe county, a tributary of Indian creek. 

Jackson County, named in honor of Gen. Andrew 
Jackson, was organized in 1815. It is bounded north by 
Brown and Bartholomew counties, east by Jennings and 
Scott, south by Washington, and west by Lawrence and 
Monroe, and it contains about 500 square miles. It is 
divided into eleven civil townships, viz: Driftwood, 
Grassv Fork, Brownstown, Washington, Jackson, Red- 
18 



266 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

din^, Vernon, Hamilton, Carr, Owen and Salt Creek. 
The population in 1830 was 4,894, in 1840, 8,961, and 
at this time about 12,000. A range of hills passes 
through the centre of the county from the north-east to 
the south-west, and there is another range of hills or 
knobs in Salt Creek township, in the north-west part of 
the county; but the face of the country, for .the most 
part is either level or gently undulating. The bottoms 
along the different streams are very large and rich, and they 
compose about one-fourth of the whole county. The soil 
is of every variety, sandy clay, loam, &c, and the timber 
is of the best quality on the various soils to which it is 
adapted. The constant increase of the surplus products of 
the county shows that its agriculture is in an improving 
condition .* Pork, beef, corn , flour, wheat, oats, beans, fruit, 
cider, potatoes, plank, staves, &c, are taken to the dif- 
ferent points on the Ohio river in wagons, or to the 
southern markets in flat boats, and they, with hogs, cat- 
tle, horses and mules exported, yield over $200,000 an- 
nually. It is estimated that there are usually 50,000 
acres* in corn, the product of which is over 2,000,000 
bushels. There are in the county eighteen stores, six 
groceries, eighteen grist mills, sixteen saw mills, two 
carding machines, six tanneries, four lawyers, fifteen 
physicians, seventeen preachers, about eighty mechanics 
of the trades most in demand, and twenty churches for 
the Presbyterians, Baptists, Methodists, Friends and Re- 
formers. " The taxable land in Jackson county amounts 
to 234,000 acres, and about 70,000 acres still belong to 
the United States. The situation of this county, the 
soil, water privileges and other advantages it possesses, 
would, if properly improved, rank it among the best 
counties in the State. 

In the north-east corner of the county, in the bed of 
White river, is a solitary boulder of granite, weighing 
several tons. No other rock of any kind is found in the 
vicinity. In the same neighborhood is a large mound, 
about 200 yards in circumference at the base. On this 
spot, in 1812, a marauding party of Indians held a coun- 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 267 

cil to decide whether they should retreat or fight a party 
of 30 men, under Capt. (afterwards Gen.) Tipton, then 
in close pursuit on their trail. Resistance was deter- 
mined on, and they stationed themselves, very advan- 
tageously, on an island, since known by the name of 
Tipton's Island, which was connected to the shore by a 
drift, and in one place only by a single log. Over this 
Tipton rushed with his men, and he being so fortunate as 
to kill the principal Indian, who, at that moment, was 
taking aim at Major Beem, the rest of the Indians fled 
w T ith the loss of most of their men, and without doing 
any injury to the whites. 

Jackson, a south-west township in Bartholomew 
county. 

Jackson, a south-east township in Blackford county, 
population 250. 

Jackson, a south-west township in Boone countv, pop- 
ulation 1,200. 

Jackson, a north-west township in Brown county. 

Jackson, a township in Carroll county, population 
930. 

Jackson, a southern township in Cass county, popula- 
tion 392. 

Jackson, an eastern township in Clay countv, popula- 
tion 600. 

Jackson, a central township in Clinton county, popu- 
lation 2,500. 

Jackson, a township in Dearborn countv, population 
1,155. 

Jackson, a south-west township in Decatur county, 
population 1,225. 

Jackson, a southern township in DeKalb county, pop- 
ulation 475. 

Jackson, a township in Elkhart countv, population 
700. 

Jackson, a south-east township in Fayette county, 
population 1,185. 

Jackson, a southern township in Fountain county, 
population 1,055. 



268 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Jackson, a township in Greene county, population 
950. 

Jackson, a township in Hancock county, population 
1,200. 

Jackson, a township in Howard countv, population 
250. 

Jackson, a north-east township in Huntington county, 
population 500. 

Jackson, an eastern township in Jackson county, pop- 
ulation 680. 

Jackson, a township in Jasper county. 

Jackson, a northern township in Jay county, popula- 
tion 400. 

Jackson, a south-west township in Kosciusko county. 

Jackson, a western township in Madison county. 

Jackson, a southern township in Miami county, popu- 
lation 390. 

Jackson, a south-east township in Morgan county, 
population 1,100. 

Jackson, a western township in Orange county, popu- 
lation 600. 

Jackson, a northern township in Owen county, popu- 
lation 600. 

Jackson, a township in Parke county, population 750. 

Jackson, a northern township in Porter county, popu- 
lation 400. 

Jackson, a north-east township in Putnam county, six 
miles square. 

Jackson, a north-east township in Randolph county, 
population 900. 

Jackson, a northern township in Ripley county, popu- 
lation 800. 

Jackson, an interior township in Rush countv, popula- 
tion 900. 

Jackson, a township in Shelby county. 

Jackson, a northern township in Sullivan county, pop- 
ulation 900. 

Jackson, a south-west township in Tippecanoe county, 
population 950. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 269 

Jackson, a township in Washington county. 

Jackson, a western township in Wayne county, popu- 
lation 4,000. 

Jackson, a south-west township in Wells county. 

Jackson, an eastern township in White county, popu- 
lation 450. 

Jacksonsburgh, a small town in Wayne county, seven 
miles north-west of Centreville. 

Jackson's Lick, a salt spring near the line of Brown 
and Monroe counties, where salt in considerable quanti- 
ties has been made. 

Jacksonville, a small town in Switzerland county, 
seven miles north north-east of Vevay. 

Jake's Creek, a mill stream in Delaware county. 

Jamestown, a small town with about thirty houses 
and 150 inhabitants, in the south-west corner of Boone 
county, on the Indianapolis and Crawfordsville road, 
twenty-nine miles from the former and sixteen from the 
latter place. It is ten miles south-west of Lebanon, and 
has a fine farming country around it. 

Jasper County, named in honor of the humble but 
patriotic Sergeant Jasper, of Carolina, who died in de- 
fence of his country in the war of the revolution, was 
organized in 1S37. It is bounded on the north by the 
Kankakee river, which separates it from Lake and Por- 
ter, on the east by Stark, Pulaski and White, on the 
south by White and Benton counties, and on the west by 
the State of Illinois. Jasper is the largest county in the 
State, and contains about 975 square miles ; but Beaver 
Lake, the Kankakee marshes and the Grand Prairie oc- 
cupy so large a portion of it, that its settlement and im- 
provement have hitherto proceeded slowly. It is divided 
into eight townships, viz: Iroquois, Newton, Marion, Bar- 
ker, Jordan, Beaver and Jackson. The population in 
1S40 was 1,267, it is now about 3,000. 

The face of the country is generally level, and it is 
mostly dry and wet prairies, interspersed with small 
groves of timber, usually called barrens or oak openings. 
Much of the land is very fertile and well adapted to 



270 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

wheat, oats, corn, grass, &c. It is a very fine country 
for grazing, and the settlers are beginning to raise cattle, 
horses, mules and sheep in considerable numbers. Rens- 
sellaer is the county seat, which see for particulars. 

The population of Jasper will most probably never be 
large, but it will no doubt be one of the best stock coun- 
ties in the State. 

The most of the land in the county still belongs to the 
United States, and only a small portion of that which 
has been purchased has yet become taxable. 

Jasper, the Seat of Justice of Dubois county, was 
first settled in 1830, by Dr. McCrillas, Col. Morgan, 
B. B. Edmonson, Z. Dillon and J. McDonald. It has 
five stores, three groceries, two ware-houses, one brewery, 
one distillery, and a population of 532. Jasper is situ- 
ated on the Patoka 120 miles south-west of Indianapolis, 
fifty north-east of Evansville, and forty-four south-east 
of Vincennes. 

Jay County, named in honor of the celebrated patriot 
and statesman, John Jay, was organized in 1836. It is 
bounded north by Wells and Adams, east by the State 
of Ohio, south by Randolph, and west by Delaware and 
Blackford counties. It is twenty-one miles from east to 
west, and eighteen from north to south, containing 378 
square miles. There are twelve civil townships in the 
county, Penn, Jackson, Bear Creek on the north, Knox, 
Greene, Wayne and Noble in the centre tier, and Rich- 
land, Jefferson, Pike and Madison in the south. The 
population in 1840 was 3,863, at this time it is about 
5,000. 

The face of the country is perhaps as level as any part 
of the State, though in places it is gently and beautifully 
undulating. No part of the county has a poor soil, yet 
in many places the land should be cleared and drained 
before it can be called rich and productive. The princi- 
pal forest trees are oak, ash, walnut, hickory and beech, 
the two latter greatly preponderating. When properly 
farmed, good crops of wheat, corn, grass, and the usual 
products of the climate may be raised without difficulty, 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 271 

and it is favorable especially for cattle, horses and hogs. 
The surplus products and articles exported in 1848 were 
estimated at $52,000. There are in the county six grist 
mills, nine saw mills, three manufactories for cordage, 
one do. for tobacco, and three for palm leaf hats, seven 
stores, three lawyers, nine physicians, twenty preachers 
and seventy-six mechanics, of the trades most in demand. 
The Episcopal Methodists have live churches, the Wes- 
leyans one, the New School Presbyterians two, the Bap- 
tists one and the Christians one. At Portland is the Jay 
Seminary, and at Camden the Penn Seminary, and com- 
mon schools have been established in almost all the dis- 
tricts. 

There is one Indian Reserve of four sections, not in 
market, and about 600 acres still belonging to the 
United States; all the other lands in the county are tax- 
able. 

Among the anecdotes of the early settlers of the county 
it is stated that an Indian, on visiting it, said he had 
found one very rich man on the Salamonie. Whether he 
had much land, or money, or many horses, did not ap- 
pear; but he must be rich, as he had five children and 
eleven dogs. 

Jefferson County, named in honor of Thomas Jef- 
ferson, was organized in 1809. It is bounded on the 
north by Ripley, east by Switzerland, south by the Ohio 
river, and south-west and west by Clark, Scott and Jen- 
nings counties and it contains about 375 square miles. 
It is divided into ten civil townships, viz: Madison, Han- 
over, Saluda, Republican in the south, Milton, Smyrna 
and Graham in the centre, and Shelby, Monroe and Lan- 
caster in the north part of the county. The population 
in 1830 was 11,465, in 1S40, 16,614, and at this time 
about 20,000. 

Jefferson county presents a great variety of soil and 
surface. The bottoms on the Ohio and along the prin- 
cipal creeks are a rich loam mixed with sand, and the 
lofty and steep hills near them have also a rich soil. On 
the table land, back of the hills, there is more clay, and 



272 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

still farther in the interior, a considerable portion of the 
land is nearly level, covered mostly with beech timber, 
unfit for corn or grain, and suitable only for grass. Prob- 
ably near one-half of the county is of this character. 

A more particular account of the business, manufac- 
tures, &c, will be given under the head, Madison, which, 
with the township of the same name, contains about half 
of the population of the county; and the reader is re- 
ferred to Hanover and to the subject of Education, in 
the first part of this Book, for an account of that Lite- 
rary Institution. 

There are in 'the county about 120 stores and groce- 
lies, thirty lawyers, forty physicians, forty preachers, 
twenty Methodist, fourteen Baptist, ten Presbyterian 
churches, besides several for the Reformers, Universal- 
ists, &c. 

Hart's Falls, near Hanover, and the Falls of Clifty, 
two and a-half miles north-west of Madison, are well 
worth a visit from the admirers of grand and beautiful 
scenery. The taxable land in the county amounts to 
184,994 acres. 

Jefferson, a south-east township in Adams county, 
with a population of 220. 

Jefferson, an interior township in Allen county, with 
a population of 250. 

Jefferson, a western township in Boone county, pop- 
ulation 930. 

Jefferson, a township in Carroll county, with a popu- 
lation of 550. 

Jefferson, a township in Cass county, with a popula- 
tion. of 750. 

Jefferson, a small town in Clinton county, beautifully 
situated, four miles west of Frankfort and twenty-one 
south-east of Lafayette, on the borders of Kirk's, or the 
Nine Mile Prairie. It was first settled in 1828, by Win. 
Clark, John Ross, Samuel dinger, Abner Baker, Beal 
Dorsey, C. I. Hand, and others. It contains about 200 
inhabitants. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 273 

Jefferson, a township in Elkhart county, population 
600. 

Jefferson, a south-east township in Grant county, 
population 700. 

Jefferson, a northern township in Henry county. 

Jefferson, a southern township in Huntington county, 
population 500. 

Jefferson, a southern township in Jay county, popula- 
tion 450. 

Jefferson, a northern township in Kosciusko county. 

Jefferson, a township in Miami county, on Eel river, 
population 1,150. 

Jefferson, a central township in Morgan county, 
population 950. 

Jefferson, an eastern township in Noble county, pop- 
ulation 650. 

Jefferson, a township in Owen countv, population 
950. 

Jefferson, an eastern township in Pike county, pop- 
ulation 990. 

Jefferson, a south-east township in Putnam county, 
six miles by five. 

Jefferson, the most populous township in Switzerland 
county. 

Jefferson, a township in Tipton county. 

Jefferson, a township in Wayne county, population 
2,050. 

Jefferson, a north-east township in Wells county. 

Jefferson, a south-east township in Whitley county, 
population 250. 

Jeffersonville, the site of old Fort Steuben, is beau- 
tifully situated at the head of the Falls, on the Ohio 
river, in Clark county, on elevated ground, and extends 
up the river where deep water approaches the shore, so 
that boats of all sizes can land near it, at all times, on a 
fine, natural beach. The view, from the town, of the river, 
here about a mile wide, its islands, the Falls, Louisville, 
nearly opposite, and the range of hills or knobs on the west, 
five or six miles distant, presents a variety of beautiful 



274 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

scenery that is not, probably, surpassed in the western coun- 
try. Jefferson ville was laid out, originally, on a plan fur- 
nished by Mr. Jefferson, which resembled a chess board, and 
only the alternate squares were to be built on, the others 
were to be reserved for public grounds. This plan was 
afterwards altered by the authority of the Legislature. 
Jeffersonville is the site of the State Prison ; it is far 
more favorably situated than the opposite side of the 
river for the construction of a canal around the Falls, 
and that subject is again engaging public attention. The 
Railroad into the interior is at this time being success- 
fully prosecuted, and there is now a good prospect that 
the commercial and other advantages of the town will 
be ultimately appreciated. Steamboat building has at 
times been carried on extensively at this place, and the 
completion of the Railroad will vastly increase this and 
much other business. The population is now about 
1,200, and is rapidly increasing. 

Jennings County, named in honor of Jonathan Jen- 
nings, the first Governor of the State, was organized in 
1817, and it contains 375 square miles. It is bounded 
on the north by Bartholomew and Decatur, on the east 
by Ripley, on the south by Scott and Jefferson, and on 
the west by Jackson. It is divided into nine civil town- 
ships, viz: Bigger, Campbell, Columbia, Geneva, Marion, 
Montgomery, Sand Creek, Spencer and Vernon. The 
population in 1S30 was 3,950, in 1840, S,S29, and at 
this time about 10,000. Near the streams, the face of 
the country is hilly and broken, and moderately fertile, 
except in the beech flats, at the head of the streams, 
where it is only fit for grass. There is an abundance of 
excellent timber in the county, of which large quantities 
are sawn and taken on the Railroad to the river; and 
the quarries of limestone are very fine and convenient, 
from which the interior of the State is extensively sup- 
plied with building materials of rock and lime. A mill- 
stone quarry, near Scipio, has also at times been worked 
extensively. 

The agriculture of the county is not such as to afford 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 275 

much surplus produce for market, yet considerable quan- 
tities of various articles are constantly sent off on the 
Railroad. There are in the county thirteen grist mills, 
twenty-nine saw mills, seven of them propelled by steam, 
one woollen factory, eighteen dry goods stores, two drug 
stores, four groceries, three ware-houses, five lawyers, 
twelve physicians, three Presbyterian, two Catholic, 
twenty Baptist, seven Reformers, five Methodist and two 
United Brethren preachers, forty churches, a flourishing 
County Seminary and sixty-five school districts, in which 
schools are taught from three to six months a-year. 

The taxable land amounts to 200,220 acres, about 
25,000 acres belong to the United States, and 15,000 
acres have been sold that are not yet taxable. 

Jennings, a south-east township in Crawford county. 

Jennings, an eastern township in Fayette county, pop- 
ulation 786. 

Jennings, a northern township in Owen county, popu- 
lation 500. 

Jennings, a northern township in Scott countv, popu- 
lation 1,200. 

Jerome, a small town in Greene township, Howard 
county. 

Johnson County, named in honor of the Hon. John 
Johnson, one of the first judges of the Supreme Court of 
the State, was organized in 1823. It is bounded on the 
north by Marion, east by Shelby, south by Bartholomew 
and Brown, and west by Morgan, being twenty miles 
from north to south, and sixteen from east to west. It 
is divided into eight townships, viz: Franklin, Blue River, 
Nineveh, Henslev, Union, White River, Pleasant and 
Clark. The population in 1830 was 4,130, in 1840, 
9,352, and at this time about 11,000. The south-west 
corner of the county is quite hilly, the south and south- 
east pleasantly undulating, the other parts of it mostly 
level; but there is no barren land, and with drainage, 
every acre, not covered by the streams, may be cultivat- 
ed to advantage. The soil is generally a rich, black 
loam, mixed with sand, the timber of a good quality. 



276 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

The agricultural improvements within the last five years, 
are very creditable to the people of the county. The 
following articles were exported in 184S, viz: 142,000 
bushels of corn, 310,000 bushels of wheat, 20,000 do. 
oats, 9,691 hogs, 600 cattle, 149 mules, 161,000 pounds 
bacon, and barley, corn meal, flax seed, tow linen, &c, 
to the value of $3,300, making the whole exports about 
$320,000. 

There are in the county thirty-one stores, six groceries, 
ten ware-houses, seven grist mills, eleven saw mills, six 
of them propelled by water, five carding machines, 155 
mechanics, five lawyers, twenty-one physicians, twenty- 
nine preachers, twenty-two churches, mostly belonging 
to the Baptists, Methodists and Presbyterians. There 
are 680 acres of land belonging to the United States, the 
balance is subject to taxation. 

Johnson, a south-west township in Brown county. 

Johnson, an eastern township in Clinton county, with 
a population of 500. 

Johnson, a southern township in Gibson county, pop- 
ulation 2,500. 

Johnson, a southern township in Knox county. 

Johnson, a southern township in Lagrange county, 
population 600. 

Johnson, a central township in Riplev county, popula- 
tion 2,000. 

Johnson's Fork, a mill stream in Franklin and Dear- 
born, running into White Water from the north-east, 
two miles above Harrison. 

Jones, a township in Hancock county, with a popula- 
tion of 550. 

JoNESBoitoucti, a small town on the south side of the 
Mississinewa, in Grant county, five miles south of Ma- 
rion, population 100. 

Jonesborough, a small town in Centre township, 
Greene county. 

Jordan Creek, a mill stream rising in Owen, runs 
west into Clay and empties into Eel river at Bowling- 
green. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 277 

Jordan, a township in Jasper county. 

Jordan Creek, Vermillion county, runs east into the 
Wabash. 

Kankakee is thought to be a corruption of the Indian 
name, Theakiki, which means low land, and this name 
was formerly applied to the river and marshes now called 
Kankakee. It rises near South Bend, in St. Joseph 
county, and runs south-west about eighty miles, into the 
State of Illinois, where it becomes one of the principal 
tributaries of the Illinois river. It runs sluggishly nearly 
the whole distance, and its surface is generally very little 
below its banks, which, in some places, are merely 
marshes, and at others open into extensive wet prairies, 
affording very fine ranges for cattle. See the article 
"Rivers," in the first part. 

Kankakee, an interior township in Laporte county, 
population 965. 

Kelso, a township in Dearborn county, with a popu- 
lation of 1,350. 

Kent, a small town in Republican township, Jefferson 
county. 

Kickapoo, a fine mill stream in Warren county. 

Killbuck, a mill stream rising in Delaware county, 
runs south-west into Madison, and empties into White 
river near Anderson. It was named in honor of a much 
respected chief of the Delaware Indians. 

Kilmore's Fork, a branch of Wild Cat, in Clinton 
county, running south-west into that stream. 

Kimberlin's Fork, rises in Scott county, and joining 
with Stucker's Fork, runs west into the Muscackituck. 

Kingsbury, a small town in Union township, Laporte 
county, six miles south of Laporte. 

Kingston, a small town in Wells county. 

Kintner's Creek, a mill stream in Wabash county, 
running into the Wabash from the north, five miles be- 
low Wabash, the county seat. 

Kirkland, a western township in Adams county, pop- 
ulation 175. 

Kirklin, a small town on the Michigan road, in the 



278 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

south-east of Clinton, eleven miles from Frankfort, thir- 
ty-one from Indianapolis, and thirty-four from Lafayette. 
It was named after the proprietor, Nathan Kirk. 

Knight, a southern township in Vanderburgh county, 
population 700. 

Knightstown, a flourishing village in the south-west 
corner of Henry, on the west bank of Blue river, thirty- 
two miles east of Indianapolis. It contains a population 
of 700, has a fertile country around it, valuable water 
power in the vicinity, and the Shelbyville and Knights- 
town Railroad, which will be completed in a year, is to 
terminate at this place. 

Knob Creek, a small stream in Floyd county, running 
south into the Ohio. 

Knox County, named in honor of Gen. Henry Knox, 
of the Revolution, and the first Secretary of War, was 
organized in 180*2. It is bounded north by Sullivan and 
Greene, east by the West Fork of White river, which 
separates it from Daviess, south by White river, which 
separates it from Pike and Gibson, and west by the Wa- 
bash, which separates it from Illinois. Its average length 
from north to south is twenty-seven miles, and its aver- 
age breadth is nineteen miles, making the contents about 
513 square miles. Knox county is divided into ten civil 
townships, viz: Bussero, Decker, Harrison, Hunot, John- 
son, Palmyra, Vigo, Vincennes, Washington and Wide- 
ner. The population in 1830 was 6,557, in 1840, 10,657, 
and at this time about 12,000. Most of the county is 
either level or gently rolling, though there are some 
ridges of low hills. There are several prairies, mostly 
near the Wabash, which are very rich and productive; 
the timbered lands, too, which cover the largest part of 
the county, are generally rich, but intermixed with them 
are sandy barrens, and swamps, of little value, except 
that some of the latter are well timbered. The bottoms 
are extensive and very fertile, but they suffer occasion- 
ally from being overflowed. 

Of the surplus products of Old Knox, the corn and 
pork equal in amount, probably, those of any other 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 279 

county in the State, and they both may and will be 
largely increased. Here was the first settlement in the 
State, and m many places there are appearances of 
wealth and improvement much beyond those parts more 
recently settled. In the neighborhood of Yincennes are 
monuments heretofore described, which show that at 
some indefinite period there must have been a large pop- 
ulation here. 

The taxable land in the county amounts to 233,964 
acres. 

Knox, a western township in Jay county, settled in 
1S32, population 700. 

Koromo, the County Seat of Howard county, located 
on the site of an Indian village of the same name, was 
first settled in the autumn of 1S44, by N. R. Lindsey, 
J. Bohan, C. Richmond, J. L. Barritt, J. T. McClintock, 
B. Newhouse, and others. It contains five stores, one 
grocery, fifty dwelling houses, and 250 inhabitants. It 
is fifty miles north of Indianapolis, twenty south of Peru 
and forty-five east of Lafayette. 

Kokomo Creek, a mill stream in Howard county, a 
tributary of Wild Cat. 

Kosciusko County, named after the Polish soldier and 
patriot, who had served in the American army in the 
war of the Revolution, was organized in the year 1S3S. 
It is bounded on the north by Elkhart, east by Noble 
and Whitley, south by Wabash and Miami, and west by 
Fulton and Marshall counties, being twenty-seven miles 
from north to south, and twenty-one from east to west, 
and containing 567 square miles. The civil divisions 
into townships are as follows: Scott, Jefferson, Van 
Buren, Turkey Creek, Tippecanoe, Prairie, Plain, Wash- 
ington, Harrison, Wayne, Franklin, Clay and Jackson. 
The population in 1S40 was 4,170, at this time it exceeds 
11,000. The face of the country is, for the most part, 
gently undulating. About two-thirds of the county are 
covered with good timber, and it has generally a very 
rich soil. One half of the balance is oak openi?igs, with- 
out underbrush, easily cleared, and perhaps half of it 



2S0 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

good for wheat, the remainder less productive. The re- 
maining one-sixth is dry and wet prairie, of which the 
Turkey Creek prairie, comprising an area of ten sections, 
is among the most fertile and beautiful land in the State, 
all in a high state of cultivation. The soil is best adapt- 
ed to wheat, oats and corn, in the order named. There 
were sent to market last year about 1,500 hogs, 40,000 
bushels of wheat, and other articles to the value of about 
$5,000. When properly improved, Kosciusko must be- 
come one of the best counties in the State. Hitherto, its 
recent settlement and distance from markets, has pre- 
vented the production of much surplus. If the Peru and 
Indianapolis Railroad should be extended north, or one 
of the eastern lines pass through this county in coming 
west, the benefits would be felt at once. Near the head 
of Tippecanoe, Turkey creek, and other streams, there 
are quite a number of beautiful lakes, covering, in all, 
probably 25,000 acres. They abound in fish, and sup- 
ply abundant and constant water power on the streams 
that run from them. There are in the county eight grist 
mills, fifteen saw mills, six lawyers, sixteen physicians, 
and preachers either of the Baptist, Methodist, or Pres- 
byterians in most of the neighborhoods. 

The taxable land in the county amounts to 27S,03S 
acres. 

Laconia, a small town in Harrison county, with a 
population of 150. It is situated in Boone township, 
thirteen miles south of Corydon, and two from the Ohio 
river. 

Ladoga, a small town in Clark township, Montgom- 
ery county, ten miles south-east of Crawfordsville. 

Lafayette, the Seat of Justice of Tippecanoe county, 
is situated near the centre of the county, on the east 
bank of the Wabash, and on the Wabash and ErieCanal, 
in latitude 40 deg. 25 min. north, and longitude 9 deg. 
47 min. west. It was first laid out in 1825, by William 
Digby, and among the first settlers were Reuben Kelsey, 
Samuel Sargent, J. Davidson, S. Richardson, Win. Smith, 
J. Stansbury, H. Haydon, R. Mason and Dr. J. Hamilton. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 281 

In the fall of 1826, in addition to the above, there were 
J. Brockman, Mrs. Wyman and Dr. O. L. Clark. Digby 
had bought the town site at the United States land sale, 
at a little more than Congress price, but after the town 
was laid off, and before the county seat was located, he 
sold the entire plat to Messrs. Elston, Wilson, Powers 
and Sargent, the three former residing at Crawfordsville. 
Since that time the progress of improvement in the town 
has been steady and rapid, and it is now reckoned the 
fourth city in the State, in regard to population, and as 
to the wheat and flour business, the first. In 1840 it 
contained 1,700, in 1S43, 2,600, in 1846, 4,500, and at 
this time about 6,000 inhabitants. There are in Lafay- 
ette twenty-seven dry goods stores, nine clothing stores, 
one millinery and fancy store, four hat stores, six drug 
stores, four book stores, nineteen grocery and provision 
stores, three grocery and liquor stores, two boot, shoe and 
leather stores, and twelve ware-houses. There are also 
three printing offices, two paper mills, two packing 
houses, two slaughter houses, two foundries, one tan- 
nery, 1,085 houses, of which 188 are brick and 897 of 
wood. The means for education are a County Seminary, 
in which there are usually 130 students, four select 
schools with 317 scholars, and one district school with 
50 scholars. The other public buildings are a Court 
House, which cost §20,000, a Banking house for the 
Branch of the State Bank, cost, $15,000, and Churches, 
mostly very fine buildings, for the Methodists, Baptists, 
Catholics, Christians, Old and New School Presbyterians, 
Episcopalians, and the Associate Reformed. The situa- 
tion of Lafayette is a very fine one, the ground rising 
gradually from the river, and affording a good view of it 
both above and below, and the neighboring hills present- 
ing much delightful scenery. It is also surrounded by 
an extensive body of land, which is not excelled in fer- 
tility by any part of the western country, and it abounds 
with streams of water which afford much valuable water 
power. For further particulars see Tippecanoe county. 
Lafayette is 61 miles north-west of Indianapolis, fortv- 
19 



282 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

two east of Logansport, twenty-eight north of Craw- 
fordsville, ninety south of Michigan City, 123 south-east 
of Chicago, and 200 east north-east of Springfield, Illi- 
nois. 

Lafayette, a south-west township in Allen county, 
population 260. 

Lafayette, a north-east township in Floyd county, 
population 1,200. 

Lafayette, an interior township in Owen county, 
population 1,000; first settled in 1818, by J. and W. 
Latta. It contains thirty square miles. 

Lagrange County, named after the residence of Gen. 
Lafayette in France, was organized in 1832. It is bound- 
ed north by the State of xMichigan, east by Steuben, 
south by Noble, and west by Elkhart, being twenty-four 
miles from east to west, and sixteen and a-half from 
north to south, and containing 396 square miles. It is 
divided into eleven townships, viz: named from the east 
north tier Greenfield, Lima, Van Buren; middle tier, 
Springfield, Bloomfield, Clay, Newbury; south tier, Mil- 
ford, Johnson, Clear Spring, Eden. The population in 
1840 was 3,664; at this time it is about 8,600. About 
two-thirds of the county is barrens, or oak openings, 
one-tenth is prairie, and the balance thick timber. The 
face of the country is mostly level, though in some places 
it is broken or gently undulating. The soil in the open- 
ings is a sandy loam, in the timber there is a large inter- 
mixture of clay. The former is well adapted to wheat, 
the latter to wheat, corn, grass and oats, and the prai- 
ries to wheat and corn. The surplus products consist of 
wheat, corn and oats; and hogs, cattle and horses are 
driven to Michigan or northern Ohio, for the eastern 
markets, the value of all which is estimated at about 
$200,000 annually. There are in the county six flouring 
mills, twenty saw mills, one woollen factory, four tanne- 
ries, three distilleries, one cupola and one blast furnace, 
two printing offices, each publishing weekly newspapers, 
fifteen stores, two groceries, five lawyers, ten physicians, 
seven preachers, twenty carpenters, five cabinet makers, 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 283 

four chair makers, fifteen blacksmiths, ten shoemakers, 
six wagon makers, twenty coopers and five harness 
makers. 

There are 207,757 acres of taxable land in the county, 
and about 15,000 acres still belonging to the United 
States. 

Lagrange, the present County seat of the county of 
the same name, in Bloomfield township, the geographical 
centre of the county, was first settled in the year 1842. 
It contains three stores, seventy-five dwelling houses, and 
300 inhabitants. 

Lagrange, a small town on the west side of the Wa- 
bash, near the Tippecanoe and Warren line, eleven miles 
south-west of Lafayette. 

Lagro, a flourishing town on the north side of the 
Wabash, opposite the mouth of the Salamonie and six 
miles east of the county seat, first settled in 1835. It 
was named after an Indian Chief who formerly resided 
there. 

Lagro, a central eastern township in Wabash county, 
population 1,600. 

Lake County, organized in 1S37, derives its name 
from its local situation, being bounded north by Lake 
Michigan, east by Porter county, south by the Kankakee 
river, and west by the State of Illinois. Its average 
length from north to south is thirty miles, the width six- 
teen miles, and it contains about 480 square miles. The 
civil divisions into townships are, north, Centre, Win- 
field, West Creek, Cedar Creek and Eagle Creek. The 
population in 1840 was 1,468; at this time it exceeds 
3,000. The north part of the county adjoining the lake, 
for four or five miles inland, appears to be merely sand 
thrown up from the bed of the lake. It is mostly covered 
with dwarf pine and cedar, and the soil is of but little 
value. South of Turkey creek the soil is rich and allu- 
vial, but the central part of the county is better adapted 
to grazing than grain, the soil being a mixture of clay, 
marl and black muck. Farther south there is more sand, 
with a mixture of black loam, easy of cultivation, and 



2S4 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

the various kinds of grain raised in the west are produced 
in abundance; and still farther south, adjoining the Kan- 
kakee, are extensive marshes. 

There are six saw mills in operation in the county, 
and three good flouring mills, with two run of stones 
each, in successful operation on Deep river. About one- 
half the surface of the county is prairie, interspersed 
with groves of various kinds of timber. 

The taxable land in the county amounts to 59,692 
acres. 

Lake, a western township in Allen county, with a 
population of 300. 

Lake Drain, or the Lake so called, is merely an im- 
mense pond, six miles north-west of Rockport, in Spen- 
cer county, which goes dry in dry seasons. 

Laketon, a small town on Eel river, in Wabash 
county. 

Lamasco, named from the first letters of the names of 
Messrs. Law, MacCall and Scott, who were the proprie- 
tors. This town adjoins Evansville, and as the business 
and population of that city increase, Lamasco must also 
rise in importance. See Evansville. 

Lamb's Creek rises in the north part of Morgan coun- 
ty, and falls into White river three miles below Martins- 
ville. 

Lancaster, a northern township in Jefferson county. 

Lancaster, an eastern township in Wells county. 

Lanesville, a small town, with a population of 150, 
on the road from New Albany to Corydon, ten miles 
from each. It has a Methodist Church, and there is in 
progress a new Catholic Chapel there. 

Lanesville, a small town on the Pendleton road, 
eight miles north-east of Indianapolis. 

Laporte County, so called from the French name of 
the large and beautiful prairie which it includes, was or- 
ganized in 1832. It is bounded north by the State of 
Michigan, east by St. Joseph, south by Stark, and west 
by Porter, and it contains 562 square miles. It is divid- 
ed into the following townships, to-wit: Michigan, Spring- 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 285 

field, Galena and Hudson, on the north; Cool Spring, 
Centre, Kankakee and Wills, second tier; New Durham, 
Scipio and Pleasant, third tier; Clinton, Noble and Union, 
fourth tier, and Cass and Van Buren in the south-west 
corner. The population in 1840 was 8,184, and at this 
time it is about 12,500. 

The range of country east and west, from eight to 
twelve miles south-east of Lake Michigan, is timbered 
land and parts of it are somewhat hilly, and the soil is 
mostly thin. The timber there is oak and hickory. The 
level part is covered with beech, poplar, sugar, &c, and 
in the vicinity of the Lake and Michigan City are sand 
hills, covered mostly with pine. The country south of 
the above, for six or eight miles in width, is gently undu- 
lating prairie, interspersed with groves of timber and 
small lakes, which has a very rich soil; still farther south, 
are burr oak barrens, a few dry prairies, and the Kanka- 
kee marshes, of which portions are better for grazing 
than for grain. It is estimated that 188 sections of land 
lie in the different prairies in the county, the principal of 
which are Rolling, Door or Laporte, Stillwell, Domain 
and Hog Prairies, which, with the exception of a few 
wet places, are well adapted to wheat, oats, corn, barley, 
hemp and vines, and garden vegetables of every descrip- 
tion. Fruit succeeds well, and the wet prairies, when 
drained, are well adapted to grass. The burr oak bar- 
rens are very little inferior to the prairies in respect to 
soil. The surplus articles exported are wheat, flour, 
corn, oats, pork, beef, &c, of wdiich there have been at 
least $500,000 annually taken from Michigan City, prin- 
cipally the products of the county. Stock, horses, &c, 
are also driven to Chicago and Detroit. The completion 
of the Railroad between these two points, which will 
pass through this part of the State, will add largely to 
its w 7 ealth and prosperity. 

There are in Laporte county thirteen grist mills, many 
of them merchant mills and among the best in the State, 
twenty-seven saw mills, four carding machines, two 
fulling mills, one large furnace, two printing offices, sixty 



286 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

stores and groceries, sixteen lawyers, twenty-two physi- 
cians and forty-five preachers, and good mechanics of 
the trades most in demand, are found in sufficient num- 
bers. 

The taxable land amounts to 257,000 acres, and in- 
cluding the small lakes, there are 100,000 acres not tax- 
able. 

The writer, who has travelled extensively in the fiat 
woods of Indiana, could never pass over the fine scenery 
and beautiful prospects presented by the prairies, groves 
and lakes of Laporte county, without feelings of wonder 
and admiration; and he has repeatedly, in his excursions, 
encountered entire strangers, who, it seemed, were invol- 
untarily forced to pause and express the pleasure and de- 
light with which they concurred in his sentiments. 

Laporte, the Seat of Justice of the county of the 
same name, is beautifully situated near several small 
lakes on the north and west, and on the borders of the 
Door or Laporte prairie on the south and east. It was 
first settled in 1832, by R. Harris, J. M. Wilson, William 
Hawkins, Geo. Thomas, and others. Gen. W. Wilson 
was the proprietor. It contains a flourishing Medical 
College, (as to which see first part,) an Academy and 
several High Schools, about 350 houses, mostly frame, 
and 2,000 inhabitants. Both the public and private 
buildings are in good taste, and few towns in the west 
have more advantages for a pleasant residence. 

Laughery, a large and valuable mill stream, naviga- 
ble in high water for flat boats near forty miles, rises in 
the south-east corner of Decatur, and running through 
Ripley, Ohio and Dearborn, falls into the Ohio river two 
miles below Aurora. It derives its name from the mas- 
sacre of Capt. Laughery's company by the Indians, as 
stated in the first part of this volume. 

Laughery, a township in Dearborn county, popula- 
tion 1,050. 

Laughery, a northern township in Ripley county, 
population 650. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 287 

Lauramie, a tributary of the south fork of Wild Cat, 
In the south-east of Tippecanoe county. 

Lauramie, a south-east township in Tippecanoe coun- 
ty, population 1,400. 

Laurel, a north-west township in Franklin county, 
with a population of 2,700. 

Laurel City, a flourishing village on the White Wa- 
ter Canal, in the north-west corner of Franklin county, 
laid out by James Conwell. It contains a population of 
600, and is fourteen miles north-west of Brookville, ten 
south of Connersville, and seventeen south-east of Rush- 
ville. 

Lawrence County, named in honor of Capt. James 
Lawrence, of the Frigate Chesapeake, who was killed in 
the battle with the Frigate Shannon, was organized in 
1818. It is bounded on the north by Monroe, east by 
Jackson and Washington, south by Orange, and west by 
Martin and Greene, and it contains 438 square miles. 
The civil townships are Shawswick, Pleasant Run, Per- 
rv, Indian Creek, Spice Vallev, Marion, Bono and Flinn. 
The population in 1S30 was 9,237, in 1840, 11,7S2, and 
at this time about 13,000. 

There is very little level land, except the bottoms on 
the river and creeks, which comprise about one-tenth 
part of the whole county. The rest of the country is 
either rolling, hilly, or very much broken; but the soil is 
mostly of a very good quality, the timber probably not 
surpassed in any part of the State. Lime-stone and ex- 
cellent springs of water are found in abundance. The 
surplus products are corn, wheat, oats, and about 15,000 
hogs, 1,000 fat cattle, and 500 horses and mules are 
exported annually, the value of which is estimated at 
$175,000. 

There are in the county twenty-one grist mills, eigh- 
teen saw mills, one woollen factory, six carding ma- 
chines, forty stores and groceries, one printing office, six 
lawyers, twenty-two physicians, twenty-four preachers, 
and about 400 mechanics of the trades most in demand. 
The extension of the Railroad from New Albany through 



2S8 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

this county, will do much to develope its resources. 
The taxable land amounts to 222,606 acres, and about 
30,000 acres still belong to the United States, while 
about 25,000 acres have been purchased, but not yet 
taxable. 

Lawrence, a north-east township in Marion county, 
population 1,950. 

Lawrenceburgh, the Seat of Justice of Dearborn 
county, is situated on the Ohio river, twenty-two miles 
below Cincinnati, two miles west of the east line of the 
State, and eighty-seven south-east of Indianapolis. It 
contains about 3,000 inhabitants. The large and fertile 
bottoms on the Ohio and Miami, in the vicinity, and the 
rich and well cultivated lands in the interior, and its be- 
ing the outlet of the White Water Canal, furnish an im- 
mense amount of produce for exportation. See Dear- 
born county. 

Lawrenceport, a small town in Lawrence county, on 
the road from Salem to Bedford, nineteen miles from the 
former and eleven from the latter. It contains a popu- 
lation of 200. 

Leatherwood, a good mill stream, rising in the north- 
east corner of Lawrence, runs south-west into White 
river three miles south of Bedford. 

Leatherwood, a mill stream in Parke county, falls 
into Big Rackoon from the north-east, two miles from its 
mouth. 

Lebanon, the County Seat of Boone, is situated on the 
State road from Indianapolis to Lafayette, twenty-six 
miles from the former and thirty-five from the latter. 
The Railroad between the two points will pass near the 
same route. Lebanon was laid out in 1S32, and the first 
settler was A. H. Longley. It now contains eighty dwel- 
ling houses, four of brick and 76 frame, and a population 
of 500. The public buildings in Lebanon are a good 
Court House, a County Seminary, nearly finished, and 
Methodist and Christian Churches. 

Leesburgh, a small but beautifully situated town, on 
the borders of Turkey Creek prairie, in Kosciusko coun- 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 2S9 

ty, six miles north of Warsaw. It contains 250 inha- 
bitants. 

Leesville, a small town in Lawrence county, twelve 
miles east of Bedford, first settled in 1810, by William 
Flinn, Jr., and John Guthrie. It contains a population 
of 200. 

Leopold, a central township in Perry county, popula- 
tion 500. 

Leopold, a small town in the centre of Perry county, 
first settLd by French emigrants in 1S43, population 
100. 

Levenworth, the Seat of Justice of Crawford county, 
is situated on the Ohio, at the Horse Shoe Bend, the 
most northerly point on the river for 60 miles above and 
200 below, in the State. It contains twenty-five brick 
and seventy-five frame dwelling houses, and about 600 
inhabitants. The situation is favorable for business, hav- 
ing a good landing for boats, and commanding the trade 
of an extensive and productive territory in the interior. 
The coal region commences but a little below this place, 
and better timber for a ship yard or manufactories can- 
not be found in the State. The name of the town is 
derived from the proprietors, Messrs. S. M. and Z. Lev- 
enworth. 

Lewis's Creek, a tributary of Flat Rock, in Shelby 
county. 

Lewis's Branch, a small stream in Noble county. 

Lewis, a south-west township in Clay county, popula- 
tion 650. 

Lewisburgh, named from the proprietor, Lewis Boyer, 
is a small town in Cass county, on the canal, eight miles 
east of Logansport. 

Lewisburgh, a small town on Sugar creek, Hancock 
county, eight miles north of Greenfield. 

Lexington, the Seat of Justice of Scott county, is a 
pleasantly situated town, eighteen miles south-west of 
Madison, twenty-nine east of Salem, sixteen north of 
Charleston, and eighty-five south south-east of Indian- 



290 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

apolis. It contains 100 houses, one-half of which are 
brick, the others frame. 

Lexington, a south-east township in Scott county, 
population 2,100. 

Liberty, a northern township in Crawford county. 

Liberty, an eastern township in Delaware county. 

Liberty, a township in Fulton county. 

Liberty, a southern township in Grant county, popu- 
lation 500. 

Liberty, a southern township in Hendricks county, 
population 2,100. 

Liberty, an eastern township in Henry county. 

Liberty, a township in Parke county, with a popula- 
tion of 1,500. 

Liberty, a northern township in Porter county, popu- 
lation 225. 

Liberty, a township in Shelby county. 

Liberty, a south-west township in St. Joseph county. 

Liberty, a western township in Union county, popu- 
lation 1,235. 

Liberty, the Seat of Justice of Union county, is situ- 
ated in the centre of the county, sixty-eight miles east of 
Indianapolis, fourteen south of Richmond, sixteen north 
north-east of Brookville, and forty-six north-west of 
Cincinnati. It contains 110 houses, seventeen of which 
are brick and ninety-three frame, and a population of 
370. The public buildings are a Court House, Jail, Pub- 
lic Offices, a County Seminary, a Market House, a 
Methodist and a Christian Church. There are in the 
town five dry goods stores, one drug store, and twenty- 
one shops for various mechanics. Liberty was first set- 
tled in 1S22, by S. Jennings, C. Burkhalter and E. Burn- 
side. 

Liberty, a central township in Warren county. 

Liberty, a western township in Wells county. 

Liberty, a north-east township in White county, pop- 
ulation 450. 

Liberty Mills, a small village on Eel river, in the 
north-west corner of Wabash county. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 291 

Lick Creek, a tributary of the Mississinewa, in Black- 
ford county. 

Lick Creek, a mill stream in the south part of Madi- 
son county, which runs west and empties into Fall creek 
near the line of Hamilton and Madison. 

Lick Creek, a mill stream in Marion county, which 
runs south-west and falls into White river four miles be- 
low Indianapolis. 

Lick Creek, a considerable mill stream which rises in 
the eastern part of Orange county and runs west into 
Martin, and, uniting with Lost river, it falls into the east 
fork of White river, near the north line of Dubois county. 
It derives its name from the French Lick, a noted spring 
of mineral water on one of its branches. 

Licking, a south-west township in Blackford county, 
population 1,000. 

Ligonier, a small town in the north-west of Noble 
county. 

Lima, originally an Indian village on Pigeon river, in 
Lagrange county, and was the Seat of Justice until 1842. 
It contains 150 houses and 600 inhabitants. It is four 
miles north of the county seat. 

Lima, a northern township in Lagrange county, popu- 
lation 900. 

Lima, a dry and beautiful prairie included in the 
above. 

Limber Lost, a tributary of the Wabash, in Jay coun- 
ty, affording water power. 

Linton, a south-east township in Vigo county, popula- 
tion 750. 

Little River, rises near Fort Wayne and runs south- 
west, and empties into the Wabash two miles below 
Huntington. 

Little Blue, a fine mill stream, w r ith a rich and beau- 
tiful tract of country along its whole course, rises in the 
north part of Rush, and runs south-west into Blue river, 
just above Shelby ville. 

Little Eagle, a tributary of Eagle creek from the 



292 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

north, falls into that stream three miles west of Indian- 
apolis. 

Little Elkhart, a fine mill stream, rises in Lagrange, 
runs north-west into Elkhart, and falls into St. Joseph 
river at Bristol. 

Little Flatrock, a good mill stream which rises near 
the east line of Rush, and runs south-west into Decatur, 
where it unites with the main stream of Flatrock, seven 
miles north-west of Greensburgh. 

Little Indian, a branch of Indian creek from the 
east, with which it unites at Corydon. 

Little Pigeon, a mill stream which rises in the south- 
west corner of Dubois, runs south-west about fifty miles 
into the Ohio, two miles above Newburgh. It forms the 
dividing line between Spencer and Warrick for a long 
distance. 

Little Pine, a mill stream in the east part of Ben- 
ton and Warren, runs south into the Wabash. 

Little Pipe, a mill stream in Miami county. 

Little Rackoon, a fine mill stream, rises in the south- 
west of Montgomery, and runs south into Parke, and 
falls into Big Rackoon near Roseville. 

Little Sandy, the eastern fork of Big Sandy creek, 
in Spencer county. 

Little Shawanee, the southern branch of Shawanee 
creek in Fountain county, with which it unites near Rob 
Roy. 

Little Salt, the southern branch of Salt creek, which 
rises in Jackson and runs north-west through a corner of 
Brown county, and empties into the main stream in 
Monroe. 

Little St. Joseph, or the St. Joseph of Lake Erie, 
runs south-west from the State of Ohio through DeKalb 
and Allen counties to Fort Wayne, where it unites with 
the St. Mary's, and they form the Maumee. 

Little Vermillion, a good mill stream, which rises in 
Illinois and runs south-east into the Wabash near New- 
port, in the county of Vermillion. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 293 

Little White Lick rises in the west part of Marion, 
runs south through a corner of Hendricks into Morgan, 
where it unites with the main stream, two miles below 
Mooresville. 

Little Wild Cat, a branch of the main stream of 
that name, in Howard county. 

Livonia, a small town in Washington county, twelve 
miles west of Salem, and nine east of Paoli. 

Lockport, a small town on the canal, in Carroll coun- 
ty, ten miles north-east of Delphi. 

Locktort, a small town in Vigo county, nine miles 
south-east of Terre Haute. 

Logan, a township in Dearborn county, population 660. 

Logan, a township in the north of Fountain, popula- 
tion 1,515. 

Logan, a southern township in Pike county, popula- 
tion 650. 

Log Lick, a small stream in Switzerland county, run- 
ning south-west into the Ohio six miles above Vevay. 

Logansport, the Seat of Justice of Cass county, is 
situated in the forks of the Wabash and Eel river, in 
latitude 40 deg. 45 min. and in longitude 9 deg. 16 min. 
west. It was first settled in 1829, by G. McBean, J. H. 
Kintner, D. Patrick, James Smith, C. Carter, H. Todd, 
J. and C. Vigus, Gen. J. Tipton, who was the principal 
proprietor, J. B. Duret, and others. The whole number 
of buildings at this time in Logansport is 373, of which 
twenty-nine are of stone, forty-eight of brick, and 296 
of timber. The population is about 2,700. The Court 
House, built of cut stone, is one of the finest buildings in 
the west. Three of the Churches, the Old School Pres- 
byterian, the Episcopalian and the Catholic, are fine 
stone buildings, and the Methodists and New School 
Presbyterians also have good Churches there. 

The favorable situation of Logansport for trade and 
business, the immense amount of water power there, and 
the fertile country in the vicinity, must make it among 
the best towns in the State. While the Miami Reserve, 
lying immediately south of the Wabash, was held by the 



294 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Indians, the town, sustained by the Indian trade, im- 
proved for a time beyond the country; but at this time, 
both are improving rapidly. Logansport is seventy miles 
north of Indianapolis, forty-two east north-east of La- 
fayette, twenty-three south of Rochester, and eighteen 
west of Peru. 

Loon's Creek, a mill stream in Huntington county. 

Lost Creek, a stream in Vigo county, east of Terre 
Haute, which, at times, sinks away in the prairie, from 
which it derives its name. 

Lost Creek, an interior township in Vigo county, 
population 1,000. 

Lost River, rises in Washington county, and takes a 
western course through the north part of Orange, and 
forms a junction with Lick creek, and falls into the east 
fork of White river, near the south line of Martin county. 
This stream, as well as several of its tributaries, sinks 
and runs under ground for considerable distances, and 
then rises again. 

Louisville, a small town in Henry county, on the 
National road at the crossing of Flat Rock, forty-two 
miles east of Indianapolis, population 300. 

Luce, a south-west township in Spencer county, pop- 
ulation 900. 

Ludlow Creek, a stream in Kosciusko county. 

Lynn, a western township in Posey county. 

Lynn, a small town in Baker township, north-east of 
Martin, laid out in 1847. 

Madison County, named in honor of the fourth Presi- 
dent of the United States, James Madison, was organ- 
ized in 1823. It is bounded north by Grant, east by 
Delaware and Henry, south by Hancock, and west by 
Hamilton and Tipton, being thirty-one miles from north 
to south, and fifteen from east to west. It is divided 
into twelve civil townships, viz: Green, Fall Creek, 
Adams, Union, Anderson, Jackson, Pipe Creek, Lafay- 
ette, Richland, Monroe, Boone and Van Buren. The 
population in 1S30 was 2,442, in 1840, 8,874, and at 
this time about 11,500. With the exception of about 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 297 

1,500 acres of wet prairie, between Pendleton and An- 
derson, and a small tract of hilly country along the 
principal streams, the balance of the county is either 
gently undulating or nearly level, and was originally co- 
vered with heavy timber, generally of a good quality. 
About one-fourth of the county is bottom, the other 
three-fourths upland. The soil is various, though mostly 
a clay loam, with a mixture of sand, and very produc- 
tive, and well adapted to wheat, corn, oats and grass. 
It is estimated that 15,000 hogs, 500 fat cattle, and 100 
mules are sent annually from the county. There are in 
it fifteen grist mills, twenty-one saw mills, three woollen 
manufactories, one printing office, ten Methodist and two 
Baptist churches, nine lawyers, twenty physicians, eight 
preachers, and about 300 mechanics employed in the 
various trades needed in a new country. The taxable 
land is 254,419 acres, and not over 3,000 acres still be- 
long to the United States. 

The fine water power of Madison county, not sur- 
passed probably by that of any county in the State, its 
fertile soil, excellent lime-stone and marble which are 
found here easy of access, will all be called into requisi- 
tion on the opening of the Indianapolis and Bellefontaine 
Railroad, and this part of the country will advance 
rapidly in improvement. 

Madison, a southern township in Allen county, popu- 
lation 375. 

Madison, a township in Carroll county, population 
450. 

Madison, a western township in Clinton county, pop- 
lation 650. 

Madison, a south-east township in Jay county, popu- 
lation 450, first settled in 1S33, by B. Goldsmith. 

Madison, the Seat of Justice of Jefferson county, is 
beautifully situated in a valley averaging three-fourths of 
a mile in width and about three miles in length, at a 
northern bend of the Ohio, which is nearest to the cen- 
tre of the State. About half of this valley is from thirty 
to forty feet above the highest floods of the river, and on 
20 



298 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

this stands much the largest and best part of the city. 
Steep and rugged hills, from 400 to 500 feet in height 
appear to surround this valley, except where the river 
winds along, and from their tops, or when seen from be- 
low, the most delightful and romantic scenery is pre- 
sented. Among the first settlers of Madison, in the year 
180S, or soon after, were John Paul, Gov. W. Hen- 
dricks, J. Sering, Messrs. N. & J. Hunt, and others, who 
who have since participated in transacting much impor- 
tant public business. In 1816, when the writer of this 
article first saw Madison, there were not exceeding three 
or four brick and twenty frame houses, and probably 100 
cabins. It improved, however, rapidly for a few }'ears, 
but after the unhealthy seasons and hard times of 1820 
and 1821, the prospects there were very gloomy and the 
business dull until 1S24, when improvements again com- 
menced and have continued to this time, except an inter- 
ruption of near five years between 183S and 1843. In 
1834 the population of Madison was estimated at 2,500, 
in 1840 it was 3,798, and at this time it is over 7,000, 
and with better prospects of increasing than at any for- 
mer period. The public buildings in the City are the 
Court House, Jail and county offices, two large market 
houses the branch of the State Bank, a large Railroad 
Depot, two fine buildings for City Schools, three Metho- 
dist Churches, two Presbyterian, do., one for each branch 
of that denomination, one for the Episcopalians, one for 
the Catholics, all which are excellent buildings, and the 
Baptists, Christians, and other denominations have also 
convenient buildings, making about fifteen in all. 

The new Episcopal Church, on Mulberry street, (Christ 
Church, under the Rectorship of Rev. Dr. Claxton,) is a 
fine specimen of the early English style of Gothic archi- 
tecture with an open timbered ceiling handsomely fin- 
ished, a tower, porch and all the leading characteristics 
of the old English Parish Church. The design was pre- 
pared by W. Russell West, Esq., Architect, and the en- 
graving here given is copied from a picture of the build- 
ing in the Western Art Union, Cincinnati. 




CHRIST CHURCH. MADISON. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 301 

Among the manufactories are Lewis & Crawford's and 
Farnsworth and Honore's foundries and machine shops, 
Gregg's oil mill, Whitney & Hendricks's oil mill and 
woollen factory, King and Ely's cotton factory, Heber- 
hart's, for candles, Lane's, for lard oil, and Page, White 
& Griffin's large and convenient steam flouring mills. 

There are more brick houses, and the dwelling houses 
in Madison are better in quality, in proportion to their 
number, than in any other town in the State, and the 
cost of their construction is, in general, cheaper than in 
other parts of the State. A fine hotel, to cost over 
$30,000, is now building by a company, to atone, in 
some measure, for the deficiency in this respect heretofore. 
Madison is situated in latitude 38 deg. 46 min. north, and 
in longitude S deg. 20 min. west. It is eighty-six miles 
south-east of Indianapolis, fifty, by the river, above Lou- 
isville, and ninety below Cincinnati. 

Madison, a southern township in Jefferson county, in- 
cluding the above. 

Madison, a northern township in Montgomery county, 
population 520. 

Madison, a north-cast township in Morgan county, 
population 950. 

Madison, an interior township in Pike countv, popula- 
tion 570. 

Madison, a western township in Putnam county, six 
miles square. 

Madison, a township in Tipton county. 
Maginica's Creek, a fine mill stream in Huntington 
county. 

Manchester, an interior township in Dearborn coun- 
ty, population 2,700. 

Manchester, a beautiful country village in Dearborn 
county, nine miles north-west of Lawrenceburgh. 

Manchester, a small town on Eel river, Wabash 
county, twelve miles north of Lagro. 

Manhattan, a small town on the National road in 
Putnam county, eight miles south-west of Greencastle, 
population 150. 



302 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Manilla, a small town in Walker township, Rush 
county. 

Manitou, a small lake in Fulton county, covering sev- 
eral hundred acres. It lies one mile east of Rochester. 

Marcellus, a small town in Union township, Rush 
county. 

Maria Creek, a mill stream in Sullivan county, runs 
south-west into Knox, and falls into the Wabash eight 
miles above Vincennes. 

Marion County, in the centre of the State of Indiana, 
named in honor of Gen. Francis Marion, was organized 
in 1822. It is bounded north by Boone and Hamilton, 
east by Hancock and Shelby, south by Johnson and 
Morgan, and west by Hendricks, and being just twenty 
miles square, it contains 400 square miles. It is divided 
into nine civil townships, viz: Lawrence, Washington 
and Pike on the north, Warren, Centre and Wayne 
through the centre, and Franklin, Perry and Decatur in 
the south. The population in 1830 was 7,181, in 1840, 
16,080, and at this time about 24,0G0. In the north part 
of the county, near White river, Fall creek and Eagle 
creek, is a rolling country, beautifully diversified with 
hills, and a small portion of the south-west of the county 
is of the same description ; but the residue, with few ex- 
ceptions, appears to be almost level, though when accu- 
rate surveys are made, as they have been on the Railroad 
lines, there is found to be a considerable ascent from the 
river and creeks. As farms are improved, also, they 
usually become dry, in most seasons, with very little 
draining. One-third of the county, at least, is a kind of 
second bottom. It was originally covered with large 
sugar tree, walnut, ash, white and burr oak, beech and a 
few poplar, without underbrush, and thickly matted with 
wild grass. The soil, here, is black loam, clay and sand, 
intei mixed and based on lime-stone gravel, four or five 
feet beneath the surface. This kind of land lies next to 
the streams, is easily farmed and is very productive in 
corn, wheat, oats, potatoes, vines and fruit, and, in fact, 
all the articles usually raised in the climate. Further 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 305 

back from the streams, the timber is of a poorer quality, 
and the soil is a black muck, based on clay, which though 
at first not well adapted to corn, yet becomes so in most 
seasons, and is especially favorable for grass, and appears 
to improve the longer it is cultivated. 

The agricultural products of the county are abundant, 
and the surplus products exported, consisting of corn, 
wheat, flour, pork, beef, live hogs, horses and mules, are 
estimated to be worth about $300,000 annually; yet the 
farming capabilities are as yet very far from being ascer- 
tained. 

There are in the county twelve grist mills, twenty saw 
mills, three woollen and one cotton factory, besides va- 
rious manufacturing establishments in Indianapolis, which 
see. Two printing offices, issuing weekly newspapers, 
were established here as early as 1822 and 1S23, the one 
by Smith & Bolton, the other by Gregg & Maguire; the 
former was the predecessor of the Sentinel, and the lat- 
ter of the Journal. N. Bolton, of the one firm, is now 
the Register of the Land Office, and D. Maguire, of the 
other, is the Auditor of Public Accounts. Both these 
gentlemen stand high among their political friends and 
the public generally. There are two other printing 
offices in Indianapolis, with one of which the veteran 
printer, John Douglass, is still connected. 

There is so rapid an increase of manufacturing opera- 
tions at Indianapolis, that by the time our book is pub- 
lished, the sketch will be very imperfect. As soon as the 
Terre Haute Railroad brings coal here, the increase of 
manufactures, population and business must be still more 
rapid. There are also about 100 stores, 100 school houses, 
in which schools are kept up a portion of the year, forty 
lawyers, fifty physicians, forty preachers and thirty-six 
churches, of which the Methodists are most numerous; 
then follow Baptists, Christians, Presbyterian s,jLutherans, 
Friends, Episcopalians, Catholics, Seceders, Universalists, 
&c. For the public institutions, &c, see the First Part 
of the Book. The taxable land in the county is 246,127 
acres. 



306 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 






The "State Sentinel" Building. — The accompanying 
engraving is a representation of the State Sentinel Office, 
taken from the north-west. It is copied from a Daguer- 
reotype picture by Dr. Munsell, of Indianapolis. It is 
not a perfect engraving from the Daguerreotype ; but the 
errors are not material. 

The building is of brick, twenty-seven feet front by 
fifty in length, and two stories of eleven and ten feet. 
It is situate so as to have the spare space of the lot on 
each side, for the purpose of light, leaving two alleys of 
over four feet in width on each side. The lower story 
contains the Press, Business and Editors' rooms; the 
Paper and Wash rooms being in a building in the rear. 
The second story is one room entire, lighted by a large 
Dome Light, besides the windows, and makes one of the 
most pleasant, perfect and convenient composing rooms 
in the country. It is built of brick, with heavy walls, 
having a cellar of seven feet in the clear under the whole. 
At the time of its erection, in 1844, there could hardly 
be found a building in the city unoccupied, proper for 
such an office; and it was by dint of persevering indus- 
try that the enterprising proprietors, Messrs. Chapmans, 
were enabled to supercede the old log cabin originally 
occupying the site, by so fine a building. Owing to the 
contiguity and inflammable nature of the wooden build- 
ings on " Main" street at that time, in every eligible ob- 
tainable situation, they concluded to build on Illinois 
street, about half a square north of Washington street. 
The situation is exceedingly pleasant and eligible, espe- 
cially for their business. 

The history of the State Sentinel is too familiar to the 
people of the State of Indiana, to require comment here. 
We will only remark that it was established in 1841, 
having superceded the Indiana Democrat, which estab- 
lishment was purchased by the proprietors of the Senti- 
nel. In 1842 it commenced the publication of the first 
daily paper ever published in Indianapolis. It is now, 
however, published only Semi-weekly (Tri-weekly during 
the session of the Legislature,) and Weekly, each edition 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 311 

on a mammoth sheet. It is in a prosperous condition, 
having a large circulation. 

The establishment, in point of material, is one of the 
most extensive in the west, and has turned out work 
which will favorably compare with that of any of the 
eastern States. Its execution of Blackford's Reports is 
said to be unsurpassed; and its character for doing fine 
work, generally conceded, is good testimony to the skill 
of its enterprising conductors. 

The firm now consists of George A. Chapman, Jacob 
P. Chapman and John S. Spann. 

The Office from which the Indiana State Journal is 
issued, was established in Indianapolis more than twentv- 
six years ago, when the surrounding country was an 
almost unbroken wilderness. The paper originally pub- 
lished at the office was called the " Western Censor and 
Emigrants'' Guide" the first number of which was issued 
in the early part of March, 1S23, and was conducted by 
Douglass Maguire, with the occasional assistance of 
Harvey Gregg, a partner in the office, until the removal 
of the Seat of Government of the State, in January, 
1S25. At this time the paper was enlarged to a super- 
royal size, called the " Indiana Journal" and continued 
by Douglass & Maguire, (with a brief interval as to one 
of them.) up to October 13, 1835, when Mr. Maguire 
sold his interest to S. V. B. Noel, by whom and Mr. 
Douglass it was published until 1S43, when Mr. Noel 
became the sole proprietor. In March, 1S45, Mr. Noel 
retired from the establishment, since which time it has 
been under the control of John D. Defrees, the present 
proprietor. 

The increased circulation of the Journal, and the de- 
mand for job work, have been such as to require large 
additions to the materials of the office. It is now one of 
the most complete establishments in the western country, 
having one of Taylor's Improved Steam Cylinder Presses, 
two hand presses, and a great variety of type. 

The books and pamphlets printed at this establishment 



312 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

will compare favorably, for neatness of execution, with 
those issued from any other press in the west. 

Attached to the Journal Office is an extensive Blank 
Book Manufactory, at which books are bound in good 
style, and blank books of every description required by 
County Officers, Banks and Merchants, promptly fur- 
nished to order. 

Marion, a southern township in Allen county, popula- 
tion 750. 

Marion, a north-east township in Boone county, pop^ 
ulation 920. 

Marion, a south-east township in Decatur county, 
population 1,750. 

Marion, the Seat of Justice of Grant county, is a 
flourishing and well situated town on the west bank of 
the Mississinewa, containing a population of 700. It 
was first settled in 1831, by David Bronson and Martin 
Boots. It is sixty-eight miles north north-east of Indian- 
apolis, forty-eight south-west of Fort Wayne, twenty- 
seven south-east of Peru, and twenty south of Wabash. 

Marion, a western township in Hendricks county, 
population 1,640. 

Marion, a south-west township in Jennings county, 
population 800. 

Marion, a western township in Owen county, first set- 
tled in 1827, by Z. Landreth, N. Biby and H. Stogsdon, 
contains thirty-six square miles, population 700. 

Marion, an eastern township in Putnam county, six 
miles square. 

Marion, a small town in Shelby county, four miles 
north of Shelbyville. 

Mark Creek, a small stream in Rush county. 

Marrs, a south-east township in Posey county. 

Marshall County, named in honor of Chief Justice 
Marshall, was organized in 1836. It is bounded north 
by St. Joseph, east by Elkhart and Kosciusko, south by 
Fulton and west by Stark, which is as yet unorganized, 
and is attached to Marshall for judicial and election pur- 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 313 

poses. Marshall county is twenty one miles square, and 
contains 441 square miles. The civil townships are 
Centre, Union, Green, Tippecanoe, Polk, German, Bour- 
bon and North. The population in 1S40 was 1,651, at 
this time it amounts to about 5,000. The surface of the 
country is generally level, though there are places in 
which it may be called rolling. About one-half the 
county is timbered land, the other half is oak openings, 
or barrens, interspersed with wet and dry prairies, which 
are mostly of a small size, and in their vicinity are several 
small, beautiful lakes. The soil, in the timbered land, is 
generally of the richest description, as it is also in the 
prairies. In the barrens it is thinner, yet more than half 
of them are well adapted to wheat, oats and vines, and 
when farmed for some years, they seem to improve in 
quality. Seven hundred scholars are reported as attend- 
ing the common schools. There are in the county three 
grist mills, eight saw mills, one forge, which turns out 
two tons of iron a week, eight stores, two groceries, five 
lawyers, six physicians, six preachers, and rather a small 
proportion of mechanics. Inexhaustible beds of iron ore, 
and of a good quality, are found, and there is much 
water power which may yet be improved to advantage. 
The large amount of non-resident lands has hitherto re- 
tarded improvements, but Marshall will, at no distant 
day, become one of the best counties in the State. 

The taxable land amounts to 181,154 acres; about 
70,000 acres still belong to the United States. 

Martin County, named in honor of the late Major 
Martin, of Newport, Kentucky, a hospitable and patriotic 
citizen, was organized in 1820. It is bounded north by 
Greene, east by Lawrence and Orange, south by Dubois, 
and west by Daviess. It is about twenty-six miles in 
length by thirteen in breadth, and contains 340 sqaure 
miles. The civil townships are, Baker, McCammon, 
Brown, Micheltree, Halbert, Perry, Rutherford and Co- 
lumbia. The population in 1830 was 2,010, in 1840, 
3,875, and at this time about 5,000. The face of the 
countrv is generallv hilly, and the soil various in quality, 
21 



314 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

but mostly clay. Nine- tenths of the county was origi- 
nally timbered upland, the balance about equally divided 
between river bottoms and barrens. The surplus articles 
raised for exportation are corn, hay, flaxseed, pork and 
beef, and these, with staves, hoop-poles, &c, are shipped 
down the river to the value of about $60,000, annually. 
There are in the county nine grist mills, nine saw mills, 
two lawyers, nine physicians, six preachers, and 126 
mechanics of the trades usually most needed. The tax- 
able land amounts to 156,666 acres, and about 45,000 
acres still belong to the United States. 

There is a large rock, in Perry township, half a mile 
from White river, called the Jug Rock, from its shape. 
It is about twelve feet in diameter at the base, eighteen 
feet through the centre and ten feet at the top, and thirty 
feet high. It has a cap on the top three feet thick and 
eighteen feet in diameter, on which grow several sarvice 
bushes, and when these are in bloom, in the spring, the 
whole resembles an immense flower pot. Trinity Springs, 
near Harrisonville, on Indian creek, are now visited a 
good deal for their medical properties. 

Martindale's Creek, a good mill stream, a branch of 
the west fork of White Water, which rises in Randolph 
and runs south into Wayne, where it joins the main 
stream near Milton. 

Martinsburgii, a small village in Washington county, 
twelve miles south-east of Salem. 

Martinsville, the County Seat of Morgan, was first 
settled in 1822, by Joshua Taylor, Judge Gray, Jacob 
Cutler, G. W. Preston, Dr. Sims, and others. It con- 
tains a population of about 600. Most of the land in 
the vicinity is very fertile, and there is a large produce 
business done there. The town is four miles south of 
the centre of the county, one mile east of White river, 
thirty-one miles south-west of Indianapolis, and twenty 
north of Bloomington. 

Mauksport, a small town on the Ohio, in Harrison 
county, thirteen miles south of Corydon, and forty-two 
below Louisville. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 315 

Maumee, an eastern township in Allen, population 100. 

Maumee River is formed by the junction of the Little 
St. Joseph and the St. Mary's, at Fort Wayne, whence it 
runs north-west about 100 miles into Lake Erie. 

Maxincuckee, a beautiful lake in the south-west cor- 
ner of Marshall county, containing about 3,000 acres. 
Timbered and rolling land approaches it on the north- 
east and east; in other directions are barrens, mostly 
level and rising gently from the lake. It abounds with 
fish, and is much visited by fishing parties at some sea- 
sons of the year. The scenery about it is of a very ro- 
mantic character, and it is well worth a visit from those 
who are curious in such matters. 

Maxville, situated just below the mouth of Anderson 
river, in Spencer county, contains about thirty houses 
and 200 inhabitants. 

McCammon, a township in Martin, population 575. 

McFaden's Creek, a small mill stream in Posey, 
which runs south into the Ohio near Mount Vernon. 

Mechanicsburgh, a small town on Sugar creek, north 
part of Boone county, eight miles north of Lebanon. It 
was first settled in 1836, by Moses Davison. 

Mechanicsburgh, a small town, recently laid out, on 
the Crawfordsville road, ten miles north-west of Indian- 
apolis. 

Medina, a northern township in Warren county. 

Merom, the former Seat of Justice of Sullivan county, 
is situated at the foot and partly up the side of a high 
bluff between it and the Wabash. From this bluff are 
beautiful and extensive views of the country around. 
Merom has not improved, owing, it is alleged, to its un- 
healthy location. 

Metamonong, a mill stream, rises in Pulaski and runs 
south into White, where it joins the Tippecanoe. 

Metamora, a small town in Franklin county, on the 
west fork of White Water, laid out by Messrs. Mounts 
and Holland. It is eight miles west of Brookville, and 
contains a population of 200. 

Miami County, named from the tribe of Indians who 



316 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

once possessed this and the adjoining parts of the State, 
was organized in 1S35. It is bounded north by Fulton 
and Kosciusko, east by Wabash and Grant, south by 
Howard, and west by Cass and Fulton. It contains 384 
square miles. The civil townships are, Peru, Erie, Jeffer- 
son, Richland, Union, Perry, Butler, Washington, Pipe 
Creek, Deer Creek, Clay, Harrison and Jackson. The 
population in 1840 was 3,048; at this time it is about 
10,000. About one-fourth of the county is estimated to 
be bottoms, one-sixth barrens and prairies, and the balance 
heavily timbered uplands. The timber is generally of 
the best quality, the soil rich and well adapted to the 
production of all the articles common to the climate. In 
the vicinity of the Wabash, Mississinewa and Eel rivers, 
there is a good deal of hilly land, not, however, so broken 
as to prevent cultivation ; the rest of the county may be 
called level. The surplus products, consisting of wheat, 
corn, oats, pork, beef, horse?, &c, are estimated at over 
$150,000 annually. Since the purchase and settlement 
of the Miami Reserve, the growth and improvement of 
the countv is becoming more. rapid, and it will soon be 
among the foremost in the State. There are now five 
flouring mills, fifteen saw mills, one fulling mill, two 
carding machines, twenty-two stores and groceries, three 
ware-houses six lawyers, fourteen physicians, twelve 
preachers, and the usual proportion of mechanics. 

In this county was the residence of the celebrated 
Frances Slocum, who was taken from her parents in the 
Wyoming, when she was six years of age, and after- 
wards sold to and intermarried with one of the Miami 
Indians, and finally, after sixty years' search, was disco- 
vered and identified by her friends, but having lost her 
native language, she refused to leave her adopted home 
with the red men of the forest. 

There are 133,300 acres of taxable land in the county, 
and about 100,000 acres yet belong to the United States 
or have been so recently purchased as not to be subject 
to taxation. 

Miciieltree, a township in Martin county, population 
S00. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 317 

Michigan Lake, about 220 square miles of this sheet 
of water, lie in the bounds of Indiana, being ten miles 
of its south end, which is about thirty-seven miles in 
length, and an average width of six miles. 

Michigan, an eastern township in Clinton, population 
900. 

Michigan, a north-west township in Laporte, popula- 
tion 1,230. 

Michigan City, is situated at the mouth of Trail creek, 
on Lake Michigan, twelve miles north-west of Laporte. 
It was first settled in 1831. There are in this place nine 
dry goods stores, one drug store, seven grocery and pro- 
vision stores, one printing office, a branch of the State 
Bank of Indiana, and 900 inhabitants. Michigan City 
has a number of large ware-houses, conveniently situated 
on Trail creek, for the storage and shipment of wheat, 
and had the improvement of the harbor been continued 
as was contemplated, the great emporium of the north- 
ern trade of the State would have been here. At one 
time more than 2,000 acres of land were laid out in 
town lots, houses were thinly scattered over the whole, 
and there were good prospects of its becoming a large 
and nourishing city, where business to the amount of 
millions would be annually transacted. Instead of this, 
vessels can now be loaded and unloaded only from 
Lighters, and in pleasant weather. The losses by the 
owners of lots alone, were no doubt four-fold the ex- 
pense of making a harbor, and to the public the loss of 
wealth, capital and in facilities for business is very large. 

Michigantown, a small town in Clinton, on Michigan 
road, forty miles north of Indianapolis. 

Middle, a northern township in Hendricks, population 
1,640. 

Middle Creek, a mill stream in Floyd, running into 
the Ohio six miles below New Albany. 

Middleborough, a small town in Wayne county. 

Middlebury, in Elkhart county, eleven miles north- 
east of Goshen, has two stores, two distilleries, a fine 
flouring mill, a saw mill, an Academy, Baptist and Methu 
odist Churches, and 200 inhabitants. 



318 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Middlebury, a township in Elkhart, population 1,000. 

Middle Fork, a branch of Wild Cat creek, in Clinton. 

Middle Fork, a tributary of Big creek, in Jefferson 
county, passes under theRailroad ten miles from Madison. 

Middleport, a small town in Elkhart county. 

Middletown, a small town in the north-west corner 
of Henry county. 

Middletown, a small town on the Covington road, 
nine miles north-west of Crawfordsville, population 150. 

Middletown, a small town in Vigo county, fourteen 
miles south of Terre Haute. 

Milan, an interior township in Allen, population 175. 

Milan, a small town in Ripley, eight miles north-west 
of Versailles, on the Aurora and Napoleon road, popu- 
lation 200. 

Milford, a small town on Clifty, in Decatur, eight 
miles west of Greensburgh, population 275. 

Milford, a small town in the north part of Kosciusko. 

Milford, a south-east township in Lagrange, popula- 
tion 400. 

Milford, a small town in the north part of Warren 
county. 

Mill Creek, a tributary of the St. Mary's from the 
west, in Adams county. 

Mill Creek, the outlet of Manitou Lake, in Fulton 
county, is about four miles in length, has much fine water 
power along it, and runs north-west into the Tippecanoe. 

Mill Creek, sometimes called the main branch of 
Eel river, rises in Hendricks, near Danville, and runs 
south-west through Morgan, Putnam, Owen, and again 
into Putnam, where it joins the Walnut Fork of Eel 
river, four miles below the National road and near the 
east line of Clay county. There are two remarkable 
falls on this stream, three-fourths of a mile apart, one of 
them thirty-five feet perpendicular, the other forty-five feet 
within a short distance. They present a grand appear- 
ance when the water is high. 

Mill Creek, a fine mill stream, rises in Fountain, 
runs south-west into Parke, and falls into the Wabash 
near Westport, fifteen miles north-west of Rockville. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 319 

Mill Creek, a mill stream, rises in Fulton and runs 
west into Pulaski, where it joins the Tippecanoe. 

Mill Creek, a mill stream in Wabash county. 

Miller, a township in Dearborn, population 1,160. 

Millersburgh, a small town on the Ohio river, in 
Ohio county. 

Millersburgh, a small town on Eel river, Whitley 
county. 

Milliiousen, a German Catholic village in Decatur, 
nine miles south-east of Greensburgh. 

Millstone Creek empties into the Ohio, in Perry 
county, seven miles west of Rome. 

Millport, a small town on the Muscackituck, in Jack- 
son county, on the Salem road, seven miles from Browns- 
town. 

Milroy, a small town on Little Flatrock, eight miles 
south of Rushville. 

Milltown, a small town on Blue river in Crawford 
county, twelve miles north of Levenworth, population 
150. 

Milton, an eastern township in Jefferson county. 

Milton, a small town in Ohio county, on Laughery 
creek. 

Mishawaka, a nourishing manufacturing town on the St. 
Joseph river, four miles east of South Bend, in St.. Joseph 
county. It was first settled in 1S32, and has retained the 
Indian name that previously belonged to it. Its population 
is now 1,300. It contains two large blast furnaces, two cu- 
pola furnaces, one forge, three saw mills, one woollen fac- 
tory, one oil mill, one merchant mill with six run of burrs, 
and a great variety of shops for machinists and mechanics. 
As there is an immense amount of water power at 
Mishawaka, and excellent iron ore is delivered there at 
little more than the expense of digging, and wood and 
timber are also convenient, it must be one of the best 
manufacturing towns in the State. The enterprise and 
energy of its citizens promise much for the future. Al- 
ready many fine buildings show to much advantage. 

Mississinewa River rises in the State of Ohio, and 
runs north-west through the counties of Randolph, Dela- 



320 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

ware, Grant, Wabash and Miami, and foils into the Wa- 
bash near Peru. 

Monmouth, a small town on the St. Mary's, Root 
township, Adams county. 

Monong, a northern township in White county, popu- 
lation 310. 

Monroe County, named in honor of James Monroe, 
the fifth President of the United States, was organized 
in 1818. It contains 420 square miles, and is bounded 
north by Owen and Morgan, east by Brown and Jackson, 
south by Lawrence, and west by Greene and Owen. The 
civil townships are Bloomington, Perry, Clear Creek, 
Indian Creek, Van Buren, Richland, Beanblossom, Wash- 
ington, Marion, Benton and Salt Creek. The population 
in 1S30 was 6,578, in 1S40, 10,143, and at this time 
about 13,000. The face of the country is mostly hilly, 
though about Bloomington and many other places, it is 
gently rolling. There was originally no prairie or bar- 
rens in the county, and but a small portion of river or 
creek bottoms. The timber is generally of a good qua- 
lity, and such as denotes a fine soil, viz: walnut, sugar, 
ash, oak, poplar, cherry, hickory, beech, &c, and most 
of the county, except where it is too hilly, is as well 
adapted to the usual farming products, and to raising 
cattle, hogs and horses, as any part of the State. There 
are in the county eleven grist mills, twelve saw mills, 
four oil mills, nine carding machines, one foundry, one 
spinning, weaving and fulling machine, three printing 
offices, about twenty stores and groceries, nine lawyers, 
ten physicians, and preachers too tedious to mention. 
In fact, most of the Christian denominations are repre- 
sented here. Salt springs have been found and worked 
to some advantage in the eastern part of the county, and 
iron ore of a good quality in the south-west, where the Vir- 
ginia furnace was built by Mr. R. Ross. See Bloomington 
and the preliminary head, as to the State University, &c. 

Truitt's- grotto is an extensive cavern in which there 
are beautiful rooms of various sixes. It has never been 
fully explored. 

The taxable land in Monroe amounts to 161,933 acres, 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 321 

and about 80,000 acres still belong to the United States. 

Monroe, an interior township in Adams, population 
250. 

Monroe, a south-east township in Allen, population 175. 

Monroe, a township in Carroll, population 600. 

Monroe, a township in Clark, population 1,300. 

Monroe, a township in Delaware. 

Monroe, an eastern township in Grant, population 500. 

Monroe, a township in Howard, population 600. 

Monroe, a northern township in Jefferson. 

Monroe, a north-east township in Madison. 

Monroe, a northern township in Morgan, population 
1,400. 

Monroe, a southern township in Pike, population 740. 

Monroe, a township in Pulaski. 

Monroe, an interior township in Putnam, six miles 
square. 

Monroe, a township in Randolph, population 600. 

Monroe, a township in Washington. 

Monrovia, a small town in Morgan, eleven miles north 
north-west of Martinsville, population 150. 

Montezoia, a flourishing town on the Wabash, in 
Parke county, eight miles west north-west of Rockville. 
The land in the vicinity is very good, and the town has 
an extensive trade. 

Montgomery County, named in honor of Gen. Rich- 
ard Montgomery, was organized in 1823. It contains 
504 square miles, and is bounded north by Tippecanoe, 
east by Clinton, Boone and Hendricks, south by Putnam 
and Parke, and west by Fountain. It has eleven civil 
townships, viz: Clark, Scott, Brown, Walnut, Union, 
Franklin, Wayne, Cole Creek, Sugar Creek, Ripley and 
Madison. The population in 1830 was, 7,376, in 1S40, 
14,43S, and at this time about 18,000. The western 
part of the county, and near the principal streams is 
somewhat hilly and broken, the north and central part 
undulating, and the east and south level. The timber is 
generally of a good quality, and the soil, with scarce any 
exception, rich and well adapted to corn, wheat, grass, 



322 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

fruit, and all the products common to the climate. There 
are several good prairies in the north part of the county, 
now mostly in cultivation, and occasionally barrens or 
oak openings, but two-thirds of the county were origi- 
nally covered with heavy timber. 

The surplus articles annually exported from the county 
are wheat 150,000 bushels, corn 100,000 do., 20,000 
hogs, 3,000 cattle, 400 horses, and 200 mules, estimated 
to be worth $250,000. There are in the county eight 
grist mills, twelve saw mills, three woollen factories, one 
oil mill, thirty-three stores and groceries, thirteen law- 
yers, thirty-six physicians, thirty preachers, thirty-six 
churches, mostly Baptist, Methodist and Presbyterian, 
two printing offices, and the usual proportion of mecha- 
nics. The Wabash College is in this county, as to which 
see first part. The Female Institute and the County 
Seminary are in a good condition, and there are common 
schools in most of the school districts. 

The taxable land in the county amounts to 300,000 
acres. The completion of the Crawfordsville and La- 
fayette Railroad, which has been commenced with much 
spirit, will make Montgomery among the richest and 
best counties in the State. 

Montgomery, a western township in Gibson, popula- 
tion 2,500. 

Montgomery Creek, a mill stream in Henry county. 

Montgomery, a southern township in Jennings, popu- 
lation 1,250. 

Montgomery, an interior township in Owen, popula- 
tion 820. 

Monticello, the County Seat of White, is situated on 
a high bank on the west side of the Tippecanoe, on the 
borders of the Grand Prairie, which here approaches the 
river. The situation is esteemed very healthy, and it 
presents fine views of the boundless prairie on the west, 
and the winding river and its valley on the east and 
south. It contains about fifty houses, and a population 
of 200. Monticello is twenty-five miles north north-east 
of Lafayette, eighty-two north-west of Indianapolis, and 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 323 

sixty-two south of Laporte. The first settlers were 
Wm. Sill, Sam. RefFenberrick, Roland Hughes and Rob. 
Spencer. 

Montpelier, in Blackford county, first settled in 1S39, 
by emigrants from Vermont. It was laid out by Abel 
Baldwin. It is situated on the Salamonie, in the north- 
east part of the county, forty miles south of Fort 
Wayne. 

Moore's Hill, a small town in Sparta township, Dear- 
born county, thirteen miles west north-west of Law- 
renceburgh. 

Mooresville, a flourishing town on White Lick, north 
part of Morgan county, first settled in 1824 by Samuel 
Moore, (from whom it took its name) Asa Bales, J. S. 
Rooker, and others. It is sixteen miles south-west of 
Indianapolis, and fifteen north-east of Martinsville. The 
present population is 550. 

Morgan County, named in honor of Gen. Daniel 
Morgan, was organized in 1822. It contains 453 square 
miles, and is bounded north by Hendricks and Marion, 
east by Johnson, south by Brown and Monroe, and west 
by Owen and Putnam. It contains the following town- 
ships, viz: Washington, Adams, Jefferson, Madison, 
Monroe, Jackson, Harrison, Brown, Clay, Ray, Baker, 
Green and Gregg. The population in 1830 was 5,579, 
in 1840, 10,741, and at this time about 14,000. About 
one-third of the county is river and creek bottoms, the 
soil a sandy loam and of the richest quality. There is 
generally a ridge of hills where these bottoms terminate. 
Back of these the land becomes undulating, and in some 
places level, and in some places too wet for any crop but 
grass. In the south part of the county, adjoining Mon- 
roe, is a very hilly and broken region, yet the timber is 
good and the soil excellent, where it can be cultivated. 
No part of the State is more favorable for agriculture, 
and some of the best farms in it are now found here. 
The principal crop is corn, though wheat, oats, grass, 
and fruit are successfully cultivated, and the spirit of 
progress is now apparent among the farmers, in the erec- 



^4 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

tion of substantial buildings, in planting good orchards 
and vineyards, and in increasing the variety and quality 
of their crops. Though White river is not favorable for 
navigation but a short time each year, yet from twenty- 
five to thirty boats, carrying from fifty to seventy tons, 
are annually sent off freighted with surplus products. 
Other articles are taken to the Madison and Indianapolis 
Railroad, and cattle, horses and mules are driven usually 
to distant markets. In most years, 40,000 bushels of corn, 
60,000 of wheat, 30,000 hogs, 1,000 cattle, 500 horses 
and mules, and many other articles of considerable value 
have been exported from this county, and were there a 
railroad completed to Martinsville or Mooresville, as has 
been proposed, or even the Plank road completed from 
Franklin to the Bluffs, the amount would be largely in- 
creased. 

These are in the county eighteen grist mills, twenty- 
eight saw mills, three carding machines, one fulling mill, 
one printing office, thirty stores and groceries, seven 
lawyers, twenty physicians, thirty preachers, about 300 
mechanics, a flourishing County Seminary, and about 
eighty common schools, which are kept up a portion of 
the year. The religious denominations which have erect- 
ed churches, are as follows: Cumberland Presbyterians 
one, Lutherans one, Baptists five, Reformers or Christians 
ten, Friends three, Methodists fourteen. The taxable 
land in the county is 217,047 acres. 

In the western part of the county is a cavern, from 
the mouth of which leaps a foaming stream that only at 
a few feet distance turns a flouring mill. This cavern 
has been explored about half a mile, but the darkness 
and the myriads of bats that make its gloomy halls their 
abode, render its full exploration a matter of difficulty. 
About two and a-half miles south-east of Martinsville, 
at a ford of the creek, where an Indian trail passed it, 
is a spot called by the Indians "Murder Ground." The 
origin of the name, by their tradition, was, that one of 
their parties having captured several prisoners from Ken- 
tucky, in early times, had escaped with them to this 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 325 

place without being pursued, as they thought. Here 
they left their prisoners bound, and went out to hunt. 
In their absence, a party of Kentuckians came up and 
stationed themselves in ambush, near the prisoners, and 
shot the Indians almost to a man as they returned at 
different times from hunting. 

Morgan, a northern township in Harrison, population 
1,350. 

Morgan, a western township in Owen, first settled in 
1S20 by I. Moore, W. Reynolds and J. Beaman, popula- 
tion 955. 

Morgan, a southern township in Porter, population 
400. 

Morgantown, a village near Indian creek, eleven miles 
south-east of Martinsville, on the road to Edinburgh, 
population 160. 

Morven, a small town on Flatrock, south-east corner 
of Shelby. 

Moscow, a village in Orange township, south-west 
corner of Rush, ten miles from Rushville. 

Mosquito Creek, a good mill stream in the south-east 
part of Harrison, fifteen miles in length. 

Mound, a southern township in Warren county, in- 
cluding a part of Mound Prairie. 

Mount ^Etna, a small town in Lancaster township, 
county of Huntington, south of the Seat of Justice. 

Mount Carmel, a smalltown in Springfield township, 
Franklin county, population 150. 

Mount Holly, a small town in Randolph, laid out in 
1836. 

Mount Pleasant, a township in Delaware. 

Mount Pleasant, the former Seat of Justice of Mar- 
tin county, is situated on the west bank of the east fork 
of White river, on the road ' from New Albany to Vin- 
cennes. It w T as laid out in 1817, population 100. 

Mount Sidney, a small town on the Muscackituck, 
ten miles south-east of Brownstown. 

Mount Sterling, a small town in Switzerland county, 
four miles north of Vevay, 



326 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Mount Tabor, a small town on Beanblossom, in Mon- 
roe, three miles from its mouth, and eleven miles north- 
west of Bloomington. 

Mount Vernon, the Seat of Justice of Posey county, 
was first settled in 1S03, by Andrew McFadin, and the 
site where the town stands was long known by the name 
of McFadin's Bluff. It contains one Baptist, one Metho- 
dist and one Presbyterian Church, substantial buildings 
for the Court House and public offices, two good hotels, 
and about 200 houses and 1,000 inhabitants. It is situ- 
ated on the Ohio river sixteen miles above the mouth of 
the Wabash, twenty-two miles west south-west of Evans- 
ville, and about 200 south-west of Indianapolis. 

Mount Meridian, a small town on the National road, 
in Putnam county, eight miles south-east of Greencastle, 
and thirty-four west south-west of Indianapolis. 

Mud Creek, a tributary of Sugar creek, in Boone 
county. 

Mud Creek, in Daviess county, runs south-west into 
the east fork of White river. 

Mud Creek, a mill stream in Fulton, rises near the 
south-east corner of the county, and runs south-west 
into the Tippecanoe. 

Mud Creek, a branch of Wild cat in Howard county. 

Mud Creek, a branch of Eel river, in Morgan county. 

Mud Lake, a small sheet of water in the western part 
of same county. 

Mud Creek, a small stream in Pulaski county. 

Mud Creek, a tributary of the Mississinewa, in Ran- 
dolph county. 

Mud Creek, a small stream in Rush county. 

Muncie Creek, a small stream in Delaware county. 

Muncie, originally an Indian town called Muncey- 
town, or Outainink, was the residence of the Munsees, one 
of the divisions of the Delaware tribe of Indians. See 
Delaware county, of which it is the Seat of Justice. The 
present town is, however, on the south side of White 
river, opposite to the Indian town, which was on the 
north. The situation is a very fine one, and the popula- 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS- 329 

tion over 800, and rapidly increasing. The country 
around it has a very rich soil, and is beginning to be well 
improved, and the Bellefontaine Railroad, now in pro- 
gress, which is to run through it, will make Muncie an 
important point. It is fifty-eight miles north-east of In- 
dianapolis, twenty-three west of Winchester, and fifty 
south of Huntington, on the Wabash and Erie Canal. 

Muscackitlxk, called in Indian Mesh-caque-tuck, or 
Pond River, from its many stagnant places in low water, 
rises in Ripley and runs south-west ard then west, .re- 
ceiving many tributaries, and falls into the east fork of 
White river near the west lines of Washington and Jack- 
son counties. Its course is generally very crooked. One 
of its branches rises within less than two miles of the 
Ohio, near Hanover, six miles below Madison. 

Mutton Creek, a tributary of the Muscackituck, in 
Jackson county. 

A discription of the Masonic Hall. — The building is 
63 feet front on Washington street by 110 feet deep on 
Tennessee street, and three stories high. It is built in 
the Grecian Doric order of architecture, with a Portico 
in front 11 feet deep, extending across the entire front. 
The Entablature is supported by six Doric columns, four 
feet three inches in diameter, and 33 feet high; said 
columns commencing on a platform on a level with the 
second story floor. The sides and back end are finished 
with Pilasters or Antae the same height of the columns, 
four feet face and projecting nine inches, and the whole 
building crowned with a heavy Doric Entablature. The 
roof is covered with composition, and the whole external 
surface of the walls is covered with Stucco, in imitation 
of cut stone, giving the building the appearance of a 
cut stone edifice. The first or basement story, is 11 feet 
high in the clear, and is divided into three store rooms 
17 feet wide by 107 feet deep, and a passage and stair- 
way six feet wide. The second story is in one large 
room for a Public Hall, 54 feet by 96 feet, and 20 feet 
high, finished with a paneled ceiling, and cornice around 
the room in a good, neat style; the entrance to said 
22 



330 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

room is from the front, on Washington street, with a 
private entrance from the back end. The windows on 
the front end extend to the floor and open out on the 
Portico, and those on the west side, on Tennessee street, 
also extend to the floor and open out to a handsome 
Balcony, enclosed with neat iron railing. The third 
story is appropriated exclusively to Masonic purposes, 
and consists of a Lodge room 37 by 60 feet, and a Chap- 
ter room 26 by 60 feet, the ceilings 19 feet high. There 
are also several other rooms of different sizes, which 
are used for various purposes in the labors of the 
craft, and also an Encampment room 32 by 50 feet, and 
1 1 feet high. 

The building was designed by J. Willis, Architect, of 
this city. The lot on which it is erected is 63 feet front 
by 350 feet deep. The entire cost of lot and building is 
about $20,000. 

Masons. — Having presented to the public the beautiful 
and correct likeness of the Grand Masonic Hall, of In- 
diana, as it will appear when it shall have been fully com- 
pleted, a building not less ornamental and useful to the 
city, than creditable to the numerous and respectable 
body to which it belongs, it may not seem inappropriate 
that some notice should be given of the society itself. 

The first Lodges were established in Indiana by order 
of the Grand Lodges of Kentucky and Ohio — at what 
precise time is not within our reach to ascertain. It is 
found, however, by the early records of the Order, that 
prior to December, 1817, the Grand Lodge of Kentucky 
had established Lodges at Vincennes, Lawrenceburgh, 
Rising Sun, Madison, Charleston, Salem andCorydon; 
and the Grand Lodge of Ohio established one at Brook- 
ville, as No. 41. The representatives from these Lodges 
met December 3d, 1817, at Corydon, for the purpose of 
determining upon the expediency of receding from the 
Mother Grand Lodges and forming themselves into a 
separate and independent Grand Lodge. This measure 
was brought about, no doubt, in consequence of the State 
having just organized into a State Government. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 



33 i 



The representatives were as follows: Gen. Washing- 
ton Johnson, James Dill, Abel C. Pepper, Henry P. 
Thornton, Joseph Bartholomew, John Miller, Stephen C. 
Stevens, Christopher Harrison, Davis Floyd, and Alexan- 
der Buckner. 

At this convention a separate organization was agreed 
upon, and the Grand Lodges of Kentucky and Ohio re- 
spectfully addressed, and their concurrence requested. 

In 1818, there were 5 lodges and 195 members. 



In 1823, 


25 


M 


548 


In 1828, 


28 


(1 


654 


In 1838, 


15 


it 


513 


In 1842, 


20 


« 


589 


In 1843, 


30 


04 


596 


In 1844, 


36 


« 


608 


In 1845, 


43 


U 


907 


In 1846, 


51 


(( 


991 


In 1847, 


54 


(i 


1477 


In 1848, 


75 


a 


1851 


In 1849, 


92 


M 


2472 



The order is rapidly increasing and numbers among 
its membership many of the best men of the day. Its 
avowed object is benevolence, and it is believed to have 
been instrumental in doing good, especially to the 
"household of faith." 

Its Grand Masters, in the order in which they served, 
are as as follows: 

In 1818, Alexander Buckner; in 1S19, Alexander A. 
Meek; in 1820, John Tipton; in 1821-2, John Sheets; 
in 1823-4, Jonathan Jennings; in 1825, Marston G. 
Clark; in 1826, Isaac Howk; in 1827, Elihu Stout; in 
1828, John Tipton; in 1829, Abel C. Pepper; in 1830, 
Philip Mason; in 1831, William Sheets; in 1832, Wood- 
bridge Parker; in 1833, Philip Mason; in 1834, Daniel 
Kelso; in 1835, John B. Martin; in 1836, James L. Ho- 
gan; in 1837, Caleb B. Smith; in 1838 to 1844, Philip 
Mason; in 1845,Isaac Bartlett; in 1846, Johnson Watts; 
in 1847 to 1849, Elizur Deming. 

Napoleon, a small town in the north part of Ripley 



332 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

county, ten miles north of Versailles, with a population 
of 200. It was first settled in 1819, by Wm. Wilson 
and D. E. Hendricks. It is situated at the junction of 
the Michigan and Lawrenceburgh and Indianapolis State 
road, thirty miles north-west of Lawrenceburgh, thirty- 
three north of Madison, and fifty-seven south-east of In- 
dianapolis. 

Nashville, the Countv Seat of Brown, was first set- 
tled in 1S37, by W. S. Roberts, P. C. Parker, A. McGee, 
J. D. Kennedy, H. Jackson, and others. It contains 
thirty houses and 150 inhabitants. Nashville is forty 
miles south of Indianapolis, twenty west of Columbus, 
and the same distance east of Bloomington. 

Nashville, a small town in Brown township, Han- 
cock county, thirteen miles north-east of Greenfield. 

Natches, a small town on the New Albany and Vin- 
cennes road, south-east corner of Martin county, popu- 
lation 40. 

Neal's Creek, a mill stream in Jefferson county. 

Nebraska, a pleasantly situated town on the Ohio, in 
the south-west part of Crawford county, with a popula- 
tion of 150. 

Nettle Creek, a good mill stream, a tributary of 
White Water, in the north-west part of Wayne county. 

Nettle Creek, a south-west township in Randolph, 
population 1,100. 

Nevins, a north-east township in Vigo, population 700. 

New Albany, either the first or second town, as to 
population, in the State, and the Seat of Justice of Floyd 
county, is beautifully situated on the Ohio, two miles be- 
low the Falls, in lat. 38 deg. IS min. north, and longi- 
tude S deg. 49 min. west. It was laid out in the summer 
of 1813, by Joel, Nathaniel and Abner Scribner, with 
wide streets, running nearly east and west, parallel with 
the river, and others crossing them at right angles, the 
most of which have been well McAdamized, and the 
side-walks paved. In 1834, the population of New Al- 
bany was estimated at 2,500, in 1S40, it was 4,226, and 
at this time it is over 7000. The number of houses is 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 333 

about 1,200, of which one-fourth are brick. Steamboat 
building and repairing is carried on to a large extent 
there, and in the different kinds of mechanical business 
connected with it, about 500 hands are constantly em- 
ployed. There are in the city three iron foundries and 
machine shops, on a large scale, for the manufacture of 
steam engines and other machinery, one brass foundry, 
one patent bagging factory for the manufacture of hempen 
cloths, which cost $50,000, a marine railway, which cost 
$40,000. There are also in New Albany two printing 
offices, a branch of the State Bank, about 120 stores and 
groceries, two Methodist, two Presbyterian, one Catholic, 
one Christian, one Episcopalian, one Lutheran and three 
Baptist Churches, and the means to facilitate the instruc- 
tion of the young and the communication of knowledge, 
are highly creditable to the public spirit and liberality of 
the citizens. Anderson's Collegiate Institute, chartered 
by the Legislature, the Old School Presbyterian Theo- 
logical Seminary, two large District schools, built at the 
public expense, at a cost of $12,000, a City school, en- 
dowed by the original proprietors, and a large number 
of private schools are in operation, and all generally 
well conducted. The Railroad to Salem, and intended 
to be carried still further, will soon add largely to the 
business and prosperity of New Albany. The enter- 
prise, industry, morality and public spirit which have 
heretofore contributed so much to its growth, will not 
fail to carry it onward hereafter. 

New Amsterdam, see Amsterdam. 

Newbern, a small town on the east bank of Clifty, in 
Bartholomew county, nine miles east of Columbus, pop- 
ulation 200. 

New Bethel is on the Michigan road, nine miles south- 
east of Indianapolis. It contains about twenty houses, a 
Baptist church, and 100 inhabitants. 

New Brunswick, a small town in Clay, fifteen miles 
south-west of Bowlinggreen. 

Newburgii, a nourishing and well situated town on 
the Ohio, in Warrick county, thirteen miles above Evans- 



334 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

ville, and eleven south-west of Boonville. It was settled 
in ihe year 1817, by Michael Sprinkle, and for some 
years was called Sprinklesburgh. It now contains a 
population of 500. 

Newbury, a small town on the east bank of White 
river, in Greene county, ten miles south-west of Bloom- 
field. 

Newbury, a western township in Lagrange, popula- 
tion 250. 

New Carlisle, a small town in St. Joseph county, on 
the Michigan road, fourteen miles west of South Bend, 
papulation 100. 

Newcastle, the S at of Justice of Henry county, and 
near the centre, was first settled by Charles Jamison. It 
contains a County Seminary, a good Court House, and 
other public offices, 100 houses, many of them well built, 
and a population of 500. It is forty-seven miles north- 
east of Indianapolis, and twenty south of Muncie. 

New Columbus, a small town on Fall creek, Madison 
county, six miles south of Anderson. 

New Corydon, a small town in Jav county, popula- 
tion 100, first settled in 1839, by J. B. 'Gillespie. 

New Durham, a western township in Laporte, popu- 
lation 760. 

New Durham, a small town in same, seven miles south- 
west of Laporte. 

New Garden, a north-east township in Wayne, popu- 
lation 1,350. 

New Harmony, a town on the Wabash; 50 miles from 
its mouth, in Posey county, and 15 miles north of Mount 
Vernon, first settled in 1814, by Frederick Rapp and 
a German colony then just from western Pennsylvania. 
Mr. Rapp and his company continued here eleven years, 
having purchased about 17,000 acres of land, much of it 
of an excellent quality. They cleared an immense farm, 
planted fine orchards and vineyards, erected mills and 
manufactures, and built about 200 neat and comfortable 
houses in their town, among which were two churches. 
One of them was then much the largest in the State, and had 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 335 

a fine organ. The compiler of this work, visited New 
Harmony in December, 1S23, and he was strongly im- 
pressed with the order, neatness and comfort which every 
where prevailed, and the results that industry, prudence 
and talent had produced within so short a time. Mr. 
Rapp was indeed a patriarch, who, by means of religious 
influence, was able to direct and efficiently sustain the 
combined efforts of his society. In 1825, the celebrated 
Robert Owen purchased the town and a considerable 
part of the land, for the purpose of making an experi- 
ment of his social system, and Mr. Rapp and his company 
returned to Pennsylvania. Mr. Owen's experiment was 
a complete failure. Some fifteen years after his first 
visit, the compiler of this article saw New Harmony 
again. It then appeared to be much changed, and exhi- 
bited many marks of decay. It is said to be in a good 
condition at this time, and to have a population of 800. 

New Lancastfr, a small town in Huntington county, 
ten miles south of Huntington on the east bank of the 
Salamonie. 

New London, a small town in Howard county. 

New Marion, a small town on the Michigan road, in 
Ripley county, eight miles south-west of Versailles, pop- 
ulation 250. 

Newmarket is situated on the Ohio river, in Harrison 
county, thirty-five miles below the Falls. Large quan- 
tities of produce are shipped to the south from this point. 
Its population is 225. 

New Maysville, a small town in Floyd township, 
Putnam county, twelve miles north-east of Greencastle. 

Newport, the Seat of Justice of Vermillion county, 
is situated on the south bank of Little Vermillion, two 
miles from its mouth, seventy-five miles west from In- 
dianapolis, sixteen miles north of Clinton, and fourteen 
south of Perrysville. It was laid out in 1835, by S. S. 
Collett, and contains a population of 250. 

Newport, a flourishing village in Wayne county, ele- 
ven miles north-east of Centreville, population 400. 



336 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

New Providence, in the west part of Clark county, 
on the New Albany and Salem Railroad, population 250. 

Newry, a small town on the Muscackituck, Vernon 
township, Jackson county, fifteen miles east of Browns- 
town. 

New Salem, a small town in Rush, seven miles south- 
east of Rushville. 

New Salisbury, a small town in Morgan township, 
Harrison county, eight miles north of Corydon. 

Newton, a township in Jasper county. 

Newtown, a pleasant village in Fountain county, 
fourteen miles north-east of Covington. It contains 
about fifty houses and 300 inhabitants. It lies in the 
borders of the Shawanee prairie, and has some of the 
best land in the State about it. 

New Trenton, a small town in Franklin county, 
eleven miles south-east of Brookville, population 150. 

Newville, a south-east township in DeKalb county, 
population 260. 

Newville, a small town in Wells county. 

New Washington, a pleasant village in Clark county, 
12 miles north-east of Charlestown and seven from the 
Ohio, population 300. It contains a flourishing Academy. 

New Washington, an eastern township in Clark, pop- 
ulation 1,300. 

New Winchester, a small town in Hendricks, seven 
miles west of Danville. 

Niles, a northern township in Delaware county. 

Nineveh Creeks mill stream, rising in Johnson, runs 
south-east into Bartholomew, and falls into Blue river 
eight miles above Columbus. 

Nineveh, a north-west township in Bartholomew, 
population S00. 

Nineveh,^ southern township in Johnson, population 
1,3S0. 

Noble County, named in honor of Noah Noble, Go- 
vernor of the State from 1831 to 1837, was organized 
in 1836. It contains 432 square miles, and is bounded 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 337 

north by Lagrange, east by DeKalb, south by Allen and 
Whitley, and west by Kosciusko and Elkhart. The civil 
townships are Washington, Sparta, Perry, Elkhart, York, 
Noble, Green, Jefferson, Orange, Wayne, Allen and 
Swan. The population in 1840 was 2,702, at this time 
it is about 8,000. 

The face of the country is considerably diversified, 
portions of it being nearly level, and other parts some- 
what rolling or hilly. About one-half is heavy timber, 
the balance, with the exception of one prairie of 4,000 
acres, and several small ones, is barrens or oak openings. 
The soil is mostly a black loam, mixed with sand, and there 
is very little clay. In places, small, wet prairies are inter- 
mixed with small lakes and rolling gravelly barrens, and 
the soil is poor; but generally the soil is rich, and well 
adapted to wheat, oats and corn, and in the timbered 
land, to grass. The surplus articles sold are wheat, hogs, 
cattle, &c, the two former taken to Fort Wayne, and 
the latter sold to drovers, all heretofore to the amount of 
about $50,000 a-year ; but this amount will soon be 
largely increased. 

There are in the county three grist mills, fourteen saw 
mills, fourteen stores, four groceries, three lawyers, eigh- 
teen physicians, twenty-one preachers, and about 150 
mechanics of the trades most in demand. Iron ore is 
found in large quantities and of an excellent quality, and 
about three tons of good bar iron a day are manufac- 
tured at a forge at Rochester, in the north-west part of 
the county. Good schools are kept up in most of the 
common school districts into which the whole county is 
divided. 

The taxable land amounts to 236,000 acres, and about 
30,000 still belong to the United States. 

Noble, a township in Cass county, population 750. 

Noble, an interior township in Laporte, population 
765. 

Noble, an eastern township in Rush, population 1,900. 

Noble, a township in Shelby. 



338 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Noblesville, the Seat of Justice of Hamilton county, 
first settled in 1824, is situated on an extensive and fer- 
tile plain, on the east bank of White river. It contains 
a fine County Seminary, recently erected, one Methodist, 
one Christian, and one Presbyterian enure 1 *, seven stores, 
two hotels, and 700 inhabitants. The work now pro- 
gressing on the Peru and Indianapolis Railroad, which 
will soon be completed to Noblesville, is giving conse- 
quence to the town, and it is again beginning to flourish. 
It is twenty-one miles north north-east of Indianapolis, 
and fitty south of Peru. 

Noblesville, a central township in Hamilton. 

Noland's Fork, a fine mill stream in Randolph, runs 
south through the centre of Wayne, and empties into the 
west fork of White Water in the north part of Fayette, 
near Waterloo. 

North, a township in Marshall, population 270. 

North East, a township in Orange, population 1,200. 

Northfield, a small town on the Mic igan load, in 
Boone county, ten miles east of Lebanon and nineteen 
north north-west of Indianapolis. It was first settled in 
1830, by Hiram McQuitty, population 150. 

North Fork, of Muscackituck, rises in Decatur and 
joins with South Fork at Vernon. 

North Liberty, a small town in Miami county, north 
side of Eel river, ten miles north-east of Peru. 

North Madison is situated at the head of the plain, 
two miles from Madison, and contains the principal 
workshops for the Railroad, sixty houses, and 400 inha- 
bitants. 

Nor.hport, in Orange township, Noble county, is 
situated on the north fork of Elkhart, where the State 
commenced erecting a feeder dam for the Wabash and 
Michigan Canal. 

North Salem, a small town in Hendricks county, ten 
miles north-west of Danville. 

North West, a township in Orange, population 1,000. 
- North Western, the name of a prairie in Pulaski 
county. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 339 

Norton's Creek, runs south-east into the Wabash in 
Vermillion county. 

Nottingham, a south-east township in Wells county. 

Numa, a small village in Parke county, on the canal 
line, eleven miles north of Terre Haute. 

Oak Grove, a southern township in Benton, popula- 
tion 400. 

Ogen's Creek, a mill stream in Wabash county. 

Ohio County, named after the river on whose borders 
it is situated, was organized in 1844. It is bounded on 
the north by Dearborn, on the east by the Ohio, on the 
south by Switzerland, and west by Ripley. It is the 
smallest county in the State, and contains only ninety 
square miles. The civil townships are four in number, 
viz: Randolph, Union, Cass and Pike. The population 
is, at this time, about 6,000. The face of the country, 
with the exception of some large and fine bottoms on 
the Ohio and Laughery, is very hilly, yet in general not 
so uneven that it cannot be cultivated. The soil is uni- 
formly good ; on the bottoms, hill sides and tops, well 
adapted to corn, wheat, oats, &c, and in the interior 
especially so, to grass. Beech, walnut, ash and sugar 
predominate near the streams; oak and hickory in other 
places. About half the county has been cleared and is 
in cultivation, and the most of it is well farmed. The 
surplus articles exported are taken to a southern market 
mostly, and consist of hogs, cattle, horses, sheep, mules, 
flour, hay, and all kinds of marketing, and their value is 
estimated to amount to $250,000 annually. 

There are in the county six grist mills, propelled by 
water, two do. by steam, eleven saw mills, one cotton 
manufactory employing about 100 hands, one woollen do., 
one iron foundry and finishing shop, two large distille- 
ries, one printing office, twenty-five stores, twelve gro- 
ceries, ten ware-houses, six lawyers, ten physicians, fif- 
teen preachers, and about 275 mechanics, principally 
carpenters, coopers, shoemakers, and other trades most 
in demand. The products of the manufactories are esti- 
mated at $110,000 a year. The Methodists have good 



340 



INDIANA GAZETTEER. 



churches in Rising Sun and Hartford, and others in 
the country. The New and Old School Presbyterians 
also have churches in Rising Sun, and the former, one in 
Cass township. The Universalists have one in town, and 
the Reformed Baptists also one, with another in Union 
township. The taxable land in the county amounts to 
50,000 acres. 

This county, after a long contest, was formed, no 
doubt, in violation of the constitution ; but the conveni- 
ence of the public, from local situation, appearing to re- 
quire it, it has been submitted to. 

Ohio, a south-west township in Bartholomew, popula- 
tion 1,000. 

Ohio, a southern township in Crawford. 

Ohio, a southern township in Spencer, population 
2,000. 

Ohio, a south-west township in Warrick. 

Ohio and Mississippi Railroad Company. On the 
14th of February, 1S48, the Legislature of this State 
granted a Charter of incorporation, by which some of 
the most respectable citizens of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois 
and Missouri, were authorized to construct a Railroad on 
the route from Cincinnati to St. Louis, so far as this 
State is concerned, and when the right of way in the 
adjoining States should be granted, the Road might then 
be continued through them. The Charter is a liberal 
one; the Company has been organized under its provi- 
sions, and the route proposed is to pass through the coun- 
ties of Dearborn, Ripley, Jennings, Jackson, Lawrence, 
Martin, Daviess and Knox, a distance of 153 miles in a 
straight line, or probably the necessary curves would re- 
quire at least 165 miles. It was confidently expected 
that the City of Cincinnati would subscribe §1,000,000 
in stock, St. Louis $500,000, and the counties and peo- 
ple along the line $1,000,000, which it is estimated would 
pay half the expense of the whole work. Were this 
done, the balance of the stock might doubtless be raised, 
and a work of immense importance not only to the west 
but to the Union, would be completed. The President 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 341 

of the Company is Abner T. Ellis; Secretary, Benjamin 
M. Thomas, and Treasurer, John Ross. The line has 
been run by Professor Mitchell, of Cincinnati, and the 
route reported practicable. The Legislature of Illinois 
has not yet confirmed the charter, but it will without 
doubt do so. 

Oil, a north-east township in Perry, population 500. 

Oil Creek, a mill stream in Perry county, runs south 
into the Ohio ten miles above Rome. 

Oldenburgh, a small town in Ray township, Franklin 
county, population 300. 

Olive, a township in Elkhart, population 200. 

Olive, a western township in St. Joseph county. 

Ontario, a flourishing village on Pigeon river, La- 
grange county, with 100 frame houses, and 400 inhabi- 
tants. 

Orange County, organized in 1S16, was named from 
the county in North Carolina in which many of the prin- 
cipal citizens had previously resided. It is bounded north 
by Lawrence, east by Washington and Crawford, south 
by Crawford, and west by Dubois and Martin, and being 
twenty miles square, contains 400 square miles. It is 
divided into nine townships, viz: North East, Stamper's 
Creek, South East, Orleans, Greenfield, Paoli, French 
Lick, Jackson and North West. The population in 1S30 
was 7,909, in 1840, 9,602, and at this time about 12,000. 
The south part of the county is hilly, and abounds with 
fine springs of water, the north undulating. About one- 
fifth of the county is bottom land with a rich soil, and 
an equal amount is barrens. The balance is uplands, 
and was originally well timbered with oak, hickory, pop- 
lar, ash, walnut, cherry, sugar and beech, and the soil 
well adapted to corn, wheat, rye, oats, &c. 

The surplus articles annually exported are corn 30,000 
bushels, 20,000 do. of wheat/ 20,000 do. of oats, 6,000 
hogs, 1,000 cattle, 1,200 horses, and 300 mules, estimated 
to be worth $150,000. 

There are in the county thirteen grist and saw mills 
propelled by water, three do. propelled by steam, three 



342 



INDIANA GAZETTEER. 



carding machines, eight tanneries, eighteen stores, five 
groceries, one printing office, two lawyers, thirteen phy- 
sicians, twenty-five preachers, 126 mechanics, of trades 
most needed, one County Seminary and seventy district 
schools, in which 4,200 children are instructed about 
three months in the year. 

There are many sinks or caverns in the county, which 
has lime-stone mostly for its base, where many of the 
springs and streams fall into the earth and there find sub- 
terraneous passages, until they unite with larger streams 
or reappear with larger and stronger currents. See Lost 
river and Half Moon spring, which are specimens. 

The taxable land in the county amounts to 200,000 
acres, and about 50,000 have been selected for the Canal 
Grant. 

Orange, a south-west township in Fayette, population 
1,250. 

Orange, an eastern township in Noble, population 700. 

Orange, a south-west township in Rush, population 
2,000. 

Orland, a thriving village in the north-west corner of 
Steuben county, on Crooked creek, ten miles north-west 
of Angola. The population is about 300. 

Orleans, a pleasant village, with a beautiful country 
around it, in the north part of Orange county, eight 
miles north of Paoli. It contains 85 houses. 

Ossian, a small town in Wells county. 

Oswego, a small town at the outlet of Tippecanoe 
lake, in Kosciusko county, six miles north-east of War- 
saw. It contains a population of 250. 

Otter Creek, a western township in Ripley, popula- 
tion 550. 

Otter Villagf, a small town in the west part of 
Ripley. 

Otter Creek, a mill stream, rises in the north part of 
Clay, and runs west through the north of Vigo into the 
Wabash. 

Otter Creek, a northern township in Vigo, popula- 
tion 1,000. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 343 

Ouiatenon, or Wea Town, an old Indian town and 
Mission, eight miles below Lafayette. When destroyed 
by Gen. Scott in 1791, it contained 70 houses, some of 
them well built and furnished, a large Mission house, two 
stores, a smith's shop, &c. 

Owen County, organized in 1S19, was named in honor 
of Col. Abraham Owen, of Kentucky, who was killed in 
the battle of Tippecanoe, while serving as a volunteer 
aid to Gen. Harrison. It is bounded north by Putnam, 
east by Morgan and Monroe, south by Greene, and west 
by Clay, and contains 396 square miles. The civil divi- 
sions into townships are Harrison, Wayne and Clay in 
the east, Franklin and Jefferson on the south, Marion 
and Morgan on the west, Jackson, Jennings and Taylor 
on the north, and Montgomery, Washington and La- 
fayette in the interior. The population in 1830 was 
4,060, in 1840, 8,359, and at this time about 12,000. 
With the exception of the bottoms of White river, which 
in general are large and fertile, and a few tracts of level, 
wet land, when drained, well adapted to grass, the bal- 
ance of the county is undulating or rolling, a medium 
between the hilly region farther east and the level coun- 
try on the north, west and south. The upland portion 
is generally a rich, clay soil, and well adapted to corn, 
wheat, oats, grass, and other articles common to the cli- 
mate. The timber is mostly of a good quality. Iron 
ore and coal are found in abundance in the southern and 
western part of the county. The former is known to 
the manufacturer by the name of " liver ore," is destitute 
of manganese, and contains 44| per cent, of pure metal. 
This ore is very easy of access. 

The surplus articles exported in 184S, were, 24,534 
hogs, 57,760 bushels of wheat, 1S,000 do. of corn, 
which, with tobacco and other articles of marketing, 
make the whole amount about the value of $200,000. 

There are in Owen county about twenty grist mills, 
twenty-one saw mills, four carding machines, one print- 
ing office, fifteen stores, two groceries, five lawyers, four- 



344 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

teen physicians, thirteen preachers, nine Christian, seven 
Baptist, six Methodist and two Presbyterian churches, 
and eighty-four mechanics of the trades most in demand. 

The falls of Eel river furnish the best water power, 
and are among the most remarkable curiosities in the 
State. They are three-fourths of a mile apart, the upper 
fall is 45 feet within a short distance, the lower fall is 35 
feet perpendicular. The proprietors of these falls, though 
they have often talked of making large improvements 
there, h ive as yet done but little. Iron ore is abundant 
in the vicinity. It is much to be regretted that such fa- 
cilities for valuable and important improvements should 
not attract the attention to which they have such claims. 

The taxable land in the county amounts to 165,768 
acres, 19,000 acres have been selected for Canal lands. 

The first settlement in Owen county was made about 
the beginning of 1817, by John Dunn, Philip Hart, David 
Thomas and Samuel Bigger. The first church organized 
and the first meeting house and mill built was in 1S19. 
Previous to that time, grain was sent about sixty miles 
to be ground. As a memorial of old customs, it appears 
that at the sale of lots for the County Seat in 1821, the 
county board allowed $9 87| for whiskey to treat the 
bidders. Now there is no one authorized to retail spi- 
rits, a majority of the citizens having decided not to 
allow licenses. 

Owen, a township in Clark, population 900. 

Owen, an interior township in Clinton, population 
650. 

Owen, a western township in Jackson, population 
1,050. 

Owensville, a small town in Gibson county, nine 
miles south-west of Princeton. 

Owl Creek, a mill stream in Fulton county. 

Owl Prairie, so called from its being contiguous to 
the camp and hunting ground of a Delaware chief of 
that name. It is situated in Daviess county, sixteen miles 
north of Washington, and is a high, level, and fertile 
tract of land containing 1,500 or 2,000 acres. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 345 

Oxford, the County Seat of Benton county, is situated 
on the road from Lafayette to Chicago, 20 miles from 
the former and 110 from the latter, and 20 north of 
Williamsport. It was first settled in 1S47, by H. T. 
Howard. 

Ox Fork, a mill stream in the west part of Scott 
county, running north into Stacker's Fork. 

Odd Fellows. — This remarkable Society, though it 
was introduced into this State at a late period, has ra- 
pidly increased in numbers. 

The first subordinate lodge was established at New 
Albany, by virtue of a charter granted by the Grand 
Lodge of the United States, on the 9th October, 1835, 
upon the petition of "Joseph Barclay and others." This 
lodge, though very successful for a few years, — reporting 
for the years 1836-7 a revenue of $1,013 84, — subse- 
quently became extinct. Other subordinate lodges were 
also established under the authority of the Grand Lodge 
of the United States. 

On the 17th May, 1837, (New Albany Lodge, No. 1, 

Monroe Lodge, No. 2, of Madison, and Lodge, 

No. — , having petitioned for the same), a charter for a 
State Grand Lodge was granted by the Grand Lodge of 
the United States, which was instituted at New Albany, 
on the 14th August, 1837. The Grand Lodge of the 
State was removed to Madison in 1842, and to Indian- 
apolis in January, 1846, at which latter place its sessions 
are now held on the third Tuesdays in July and January. 

By the report of the State Grand Lodge to the Grand 
Lodge of the United States for the year ending Septem- 
ber, 1839, it appears that the total number of subordi- 
nate lodges was four, total number of contributing mem- 
bers 208; total revenues $2,235 21. 

By the proceedings of the State Grand Lodge, July 
session, 1849, it appears that the number of subordinate 
lodges had increased to sixty; number of contributing 
members 2,665; total revenues $17,762 12; (the report 
to the Grand Lodge of the United States for the year 
ending June 30, 1849, states these revenues at $31,202 
23 



346 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

73.) Amount paid for relief of 269 brothers, $3,263 34 ; 
for education of orphans $142 13; for burying the dead 
$505 00; total relief, $4,180 47. 

The Grand Masters, and their terms of service, are as 
follows: 

In 1S37-S, Joseph Barclay or Barkley; in 1838-9, 
Richard D.Evans; in 1839-40, William Ford; in 1840-1, 
Christian Bucher; in 1841-2, John Neal; in 1842-3, 
James W. Hinds; in 1S43-4, Noah H. Cobb; in 1844-5, 
William Cross; in 1845-6, John H. Taylor; in 1846-7, 
Joel B. McFarland; in 1847-8, John Green; in 1848-9, 
Philander B. Brown; in 1849-50, Job B. Eldredge. 

The Encampment branch of this order has also begun 
to flourish, under the auspices of the Grand Encamp- 
ment, established at Indianapolis, on the 10th January, 
1847. 

According to reports to Grand Encampment for the 
year ending June, 1849, the number of subordinate En- 
campments was 17; number of members, 340; total 
revenue, $1,277 44; total relief, $207 00. 

Paint Creek, a tributary of Deer creek, in Carroll 
county. 

Palestine, a small town on Sugar creek, in Hancock 
county. 

Palestine, a small town in the south-west of Monroe, 
on Indian creek. 

Palmyra, a small town in Morgan township, Harrison 
county. 

Palmyra, a small town in Rush, nine miles south-east 
of Rushville. 

Paoli, the Seat of Justice of Orange county, was first 
settled in 1816. It is situated near the centre of the 
county, on the turnpike from New Albany to Vincennes, 
forty miles from the former, sixty-four from the latter, 
and 100 nearly south of Indianapolis. It contains ex- 
cellent county' buildings, a County Seminary, a Metho- 
dist and a Presbyterian Church, 150 houses, of which 
live only are brick, and 400 inhabitants. 

Parish Grove, a western township in Benton county, 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 347 

population 250. This township derives its name from 
that of the grove in the Grand prairie at a distance from 
any other timber, which has long been a noted landmark 
for travellers. 

Paris, a pleasant village, near the south line of Jen- 
nings county, eleven miles south of Vernon, and seven- 
teen north-west of Madison. It contains 48 houses and 
about 250 inhabitants. 

Paris, a small town in the north part of Posey county. 

Parke Count v, organized in 1S21, was named in 
honor of Benjamin Parke, the first member of Congress 
for the Territory, and afterwards a Territorial and then 
a District Judge. It is bounded north by Fountain arid 
Montgomery, east by Putnam, south by Clay and Vigo, 
and west by the Wabash, and it contains about 440 
square miles. The civil townships are Adams, Washing- 
ton, Sugar Creek, Liberty, Reserve, Wabash, Florida, 
Rackoon, Union, Jackson and Green. The population 
in 1S30 was 7,534, in 1840, 13,499, and at this time 
about 18,000. At least two-thirds of the county is either 
level or slightly undulating, the balance is more undulat- 
ing, and in places swells into hills, which usually have no 
great elevation. There are several small, rich prairies, 
with well timbered lands adjacent, and there are some 
sandy and poor barrens, but more than three-fourths of 
the county was originally covered with fine forests of 
oak, walnut, sugar, beech, ash and hickory. The soil is 
mostly a black loam with a mixture of sand, easily cul- 
tivated, and equal in fertility to any part of the west. 
To this also add the fine water power that may be had 
on Sugar and Rackoon creeks, and their numerous 
branches, the beds of coal and iron ore, and the location 
on the Wabash river and the Wabash and Erie Canal, 
and this may, in most respects, be esteemed the best 
county in the State. The surplus articles exported in a 
year, have been found to be 100,000 bushels of corn, 
50,000 do. wheat, 20,000 do oats, 20,000 barrels of flour, 
20,000 hogs, 3,000 head of cattle, and 200 horses and 



348 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

mules, estimated to be worth over $300,000, and all the 
product of the county. 

There are in the county twenty grist mills, twenty- 
four saw mills six carding machines, thirty-one stores, 
six groceries, two printing offices, seven lawyers, twenty- 
five physicians, twenty-five preachers and 275 mechanics. 
There is a County Seminary at Rockville with fifty stu- 
dents, and a Female Seminary with forty, and of 6,252 
children between 5 and 21 years of age, 5,200 attend 
school from three to six months in the year. The pre- 
vailing religious denominations are Presbyterians, Meth- 
odists, Baptists and Christians. 

The taxable land amounts to 261,438 acres; 9,320 
acres more have been purchased but are not yet taxable, 
and 7,610 acres still belong to the United States. 

Parkersburgh, a small town in Montgomery county, 
twelve miles south of Crawfordsville. 

P atoka River rises in the southern part of Orange, 
and runs west through Crawford, Dubois, Pike and Gib- 
son, and falls into the Wabash just below the mouth of 
White river. It is about 100 miles in length, is 50 yards 
wide, and is navigable in high water over 60 miles. 

Patoka, a north-west township in Crawford. 

Patoka, a south-west township in Dubois, population 
1,400. 

Patoka, a central township in Gibson, population 
2,750. 

Patoka, a township in Pike, with a population of 730. 

Pawpaw, a mill stream in Wabash county, runs west 
into Miami, and falls into Eel river. 

Paynesville, a small town on the National road, in 
Wayne county. 

Pendleton, a flourishing village at the Falls of Fall 
creek, in Madison county, named after the proprietor, 
was first settled in 1826 ; a mill, however, had been 
built on the school section, at the Falls, previously. Jt 
now contains 75 houses and a population of 400. There 
are very fine quarries of lime-stone, and also marble, in 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 349 

the vicinity, the water power is valuable, the country 
around is fertile, beautifully undulating and healthy, and 
the opening of the Bellefontaine Railroad, which will 
soon be completed to this place, will make it an important 
point. 

Penn, a north-west township in Jay county, popula- 
tion 700, first settled in 1834, by Moses Hamilton. 

Penn, an eastern township in St. Joseph county- 

Pennsylvaniaburgh, a small town in the north part 
of Ripley. 

Perry County, organized in 1814, was named in ho- 
nor of the gallant Commodore Oliver H.Perry. It con- 
tains about 400 square miles, and is bounded north bv 
Dubois and Crawford, east by Crawford and the Ohio 
river, south by the Ohio, and west by Spencer and Du- 
bois. The civil townships are Troy, Deer Creek, Ander- 
son, Clark, Tobin, Union, Oil and Leopold. The popu- 
lation in 1S30 was 3,37S, in 1840, 4,655, and at this 
time about 8,000. With the exception of about 20,000 
acres of bottom land along the Ohio and x \nderson, and 
some tracts of wet beech lands at the heads of the 
streams, the balance of the county is very hilly. On the 
bottoms and a portion of the hill sides and tops, the soil 
is rich, but much the largest part of the county is what 
is usually denominated poor land, though there is but a 
small part of it which may not, with careful farming, be 
made productive. The timber is generally of an excellent 
quality, and the best of oak and poplar are found on the 
hills; and in the bottoms, sugar, beech, ash and walnut. 
The surplus articles exported are corn, hay, pork and 
various kinds of marketing supplied mostly by the river 
bottoms, for as yet very little surplus is brought from the 
interior. The trade in wood and coal for the steamboats 
on the Ohio is becoming large, and employs a great many 
hands. 

There are in the county seventeen grist and saw mills, 
twenty-five stores, ten groceries, fifteen ware-houses, five 
lawyers, fourteen physicians, twenty preachers and 250 
mechanics. There are eleven churches, of which five are 



350 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Baptist, two Methodist, three Catholic, and one Unita- 
rian. The taxable land in the county amounts to 
75,665 acres, while the remaining 179,000 acres has 
either been too recently purchased to be taxed, or has 
been selected for Canal lands, or still belongs to the 
United States, which is the case with the most of it. 

In the first settlement of Perry, the business of hunt- 
ing engaged the attention of many of the people, to pro- 
cure even their necessary food, and on occasions, the 
women were not less fearless and efficient than the other 
sex. Among the incidents that occurred in the early 
history of the county, is the following: John Archibald 
and his wife, having succeeded in treeing a bear, cut 
down the tree, which unfortunately fell on the husband, 
broke his leg, and held him fast to the ground. In the 
hurry of the moment the wife never noticed the accident, 
but she and the dogs pursued the bear for a mile or two, 
when he was brought to bay and she came up and killed 
him. For the first time she then missed her husband, 
and hastily returning relieved him from his unpleasant 
situation. Mr. A. is still alive, though he never obtained 
the perfect use of his limbs again. 

The abundant and easily accessible veins of coal in 
Perry county, which, with other facilities, are described 
under the head " Cannelton," early attracted the atten- 
tion of capitalists to the expediency of establishing man- 
factories thereon a large scale, and the Indiana Pottery, 
for making Queensware, was built up near Troy some 
twelve years ago, at a heavy expense. Workmen were 
brought from England, who became unmanageable here, 
and faithless or incompetent agents rendered the effort a 
failure in a great measure; but the company are not yet 
discouraged, and they still expect to prosecute the busi- 
ness with success. 

The American Cannel Coal Company, with a capital 
of $500,000, was incorporated in 1836. This Company 
proceeded to purchase 7,000 acres of land, of which 5,000 
acres are coal lands. They commenced the working 
of coal, and last year employed eighty miners, and sold 






TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 353 

at the bank over 400,000 bushels of coal. They laid out 
the town, the site of which is on a bend of the Ohio, and 
embraces over 1,000 acres between the river and the 
coal hills. Lots of from two to four acres, above the 
highest floods, have been laid out for cotton and other 
mills, from which railroads will be made to the coal and 
also to the landing, which is a very fine one. In pro- 
viding for the growth of the town and the encourage- 
ment of manufactures, the rent for coal of only one cent 
per bushel for twenty-five years will be charged, w T hile 
the cost for digging is only two cents per bushel. The 
inducements for building up a large manufacturing town 
are power, ample, cheap and certain; cheap food; faci- 
lities for transportation; nearness to the market to be 
supplied and the materials to be manufactured; healthy 
situation, with the best and cheapest building materials. 
The legislature of Indiana have also granted twelve char- 
ters of the most liberal character, for manufacturing es- 
tablishments, and two of these, the Cannelton Cotton 
Mill, and the Indiana Cotton Mill, have been organ- 
ized and will soon be in operation. The former will 
contain 10,500 spindles, and corresponding machinery 
for making sheetings, and will employ about 375 opera- 
tives. The factory will be of stone 272 feet long, 65 
feet wide, and four stories high. This building, with the 
ware-house, superintendent's house, and twenty-five 
boarding houses for operatives, all now in progress, will 
occupy a lot of eight acres on the bank of the Ohio, 
where the navigation is rarely interrupted, and within 
one-third of a mile of an inexhaustible and rich coal 
bed. 

The Indiana Cotton Mill is to contain, at present, 
2,000 spindles, and will make coarse tickings and cotton 
flannel. Gen. C. T. James, of Providence, Rhode Island, 
is the Contractor for these works, and A. McGregor, of 
Newport, Rhode Island, the Engineer. The machinery 
will be of the most perfect kind, from the establishment 
of W. Mason & Co., Taunton, Mass. 

This enterprise is intended to be but the beginning of a 



354 



INDIANA GAZETTEER. 



movement which may result in giving the control of the 
price of cotton to the country, where it is produced. It 
may, too, operate as a check to over production, by giv- 
ing cotton planters other means of investment besides 
lands and slaves, and it may result in changing the cha- 
racter of the present cotton manufacturing districts of the 
world, for the coal districts in the vicinity, and the fertile 
and healthy regions around, present opportunities for the 
increase of manufactures to an unlimited extent. The 
wealth of Indiana may eventually be concentrated in 
this part of the State, which was so long overlooked by 
emigrants. The present improvements at Cannelton owe 
their origin to Gen. Seth Hunt, of N. H., a man of sin- 
gular intelligence and energy, who, in connection with 
Messrs. Hobart,Williams and Russell, then wealthy capital- 
ists of Boston, formed the American Cannel Coal Company, 
purchased the lands, and procured several entries to be 
opened to the coal strata. If the respective companies 
do not calculate on too large profits, and relying on 
these, neglect the system, attention and economy which 
manufacturing establishments every where require, they 
will scarcely fail of success. It is this neglect which has 
occasioned so many failures in the efforts to build up 
manufactories in the west. 

Perry, a northern township in Allen, population 675. 

Perry, a northern township in Boone, population 620. 

Perry, a western township in Clay, population 625. 

Perry, a south-west township in Clinton, population 
800. 

Perry, a township in Delaware. 

Perry, a north-west township in Lawrence, popula- 
tion 1,800. 

Perry, a southern township in Marion, population 
2,200. 

Perry, a western township in Martin, population 
1,200. 

Perry, a northern township in Miami, population 930. 

Perry, a southern township in Monroe, population 
1,050. 



Mil 




TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 357 

Perry, a western township in Noble, population 
1,200. 

Perry, an eastern township in Tippecanoe, popula- 
tion 700. 

Perry, a western township in Vanderburgh, popula- 
tion 500. 

Perry, a north-west township in Wayne, population 

soo. 

Perrysburgh, a small town in the north-west part of 
Miami county. 

Perrysville, the largest town in Vermillion county, 
is situated on the west bank of the Wabash, fourteen 
miles north of Newport. It was laid out in the year 
1825, by James Blair. It contains a steam mill, two 
churches, and is a good business point from its connec- 
tion with a rich country back of it, and with the Wa- 
bash and Erie Canal, from which there is a side cut to 
this place. 

Peru, the Seat of Justice of Miami county, is situated 
near the centre of the county, on the north bank of the 
Wabash and on the Wabash and Erie Canal, 68 miles 
north of Indianapolis, 60 west south-west of Fort 
Wayne, and the same distance east north-east of La- 
fayette. It was laid out in 1825, by the late Judge 
Hood. It now contains six churches, one each for the 
Methodists, Baptists, Episcopalians, Catholics, Old School 
and New School Presbyterians, over 200 houses and about 
1,500 inhabitants. The fine country around Peru, and 
the enterprise of its citizens, which is doing much to 
complete the Railroad from Indianapolis to this place, 
must make it an important point. 

Pete Cornstalk, a small stream in Howard county. 

Petersburgh, the Seat of Justice of Pike county, is 
situated one mile south of White river, and four and 
a half miles below the junction of the east and west 
forks. It was laid out in 1817, and named after Peter 
Brenton, who made the principal donation for the pur- 
pose of obtaining the County Seat. The first settlers 
were John Mclntire, Thomas C Stewart, Peter Brenton, 



358 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Thomas Mead, Thomas Case, John Finn, and others. It 
contains seven stores, two groceries, three taverns, two 
churches, 100 dwelling houses, of which five only are 
brick, and a population of 450. The situation is a very fine 
one, on an oval, elevated plain, on the east side of Pride's 
creek, and the country around is very fertile. Peters- 
burgh is 110 miles south-west of Indianapolis, 20 south- 
east of Vincennes, and 19 north-east of Princeton. 

Phelp's Branch, a small stream in Pulaski county. 

Philadelphia, a small town on the National road, at 
the crossing of Sugar creek, in Hancock county, four 
and a-half miles west of Greenfield. 

Philomath, a small town in the north-west corner of 
Union county, laid out in 1833, by J. Kidwell and J. 
Adams, where they attempted for several years to sus- 
tain a Universalist College and Press, for the dissemina- 
tion of their sentiments. The attempt proved a failure, 
for the Press has been removed, and the College aban- 
doned. 

Pierson, the name of a township and prairie in Pu- 
laski county. 

Pigeon Creek, or Big Pigeon, as it is often called, is a 
considerable water course and valuable mill stream, 
which rises near Princeton, runs south then south-west 
through Gibson, Warrick and Vanderburgh, and falls into 
the Ohio at Evansville. 

Pigeon, a southern township in Vanderburgh, popula- 
tion 5,500. 

Pigeon River, rises in Steuben county, and runs west 
north-west through Lagrange into Michigan, where it 
falls into the St. Joseph. It is a valuable mill stream, 
and being fed from small lakes, has a sufficient supply of 
water at all times. Its course is serpentine, and it is not 
navigable. 

Pigeon Roost, a creek tributary to Stucker's fork, in 
Scott county, and a settlement near it, where a massacre 
by the Indians took place in 1812. See History in first 
part. 

Pike County, organized in 1817, was named in honor 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 359 

of Gen. Z. M. Pike, who fell at the capture of York, 
April 27, 1813. It is bounded norlh by White river, 
which separates it from Knox and Daviess, east by Du- 
bois, south by Warrick and Gibson, and west by Gibson, 
and it contains 337 square miles. The civil townships 
are Jefferson, Washington, Madison, Clay, Patoka, Mon- 
roe and Logan. The population in 1S30 was 2,464, in 
1840, 4,769, and at this time about 6,500. The face of 
the country is either level or gently rolling. In the west- 
ern part of the county the soil is generally a rich, dark 
loam, with a mixture of sand, and the large bottoms, 
which compose about one-sixth of the county, are as fer- 
tile as any part of the State, and probably no larger 
crops of corn are raised in any part of the west. Wal- 
nut, hickory, peccan, poplar, cottonwood, ash and elm 
are the prevailing timber. In the eastern part of the 
county there is more sand, the soil is much poorer, and 
the prevailing timber is oak, hickory, gum, sassafras and 
dogwood. The surplus products are corn, wheat, oats, 
pork, beef, horses, the annual value of which is estimated 
at $150,000. 

There are in the county five saw mills, six grist mills, 
one carding machine, sixteen stores and groceries, three 
lawyers, ten physicians, eight preachers, two Methodist, 
one Cumberland Presbyterian and three Baptist Churches, 
and two others which are used in common by different 
denominations. The different mechanics are blacksmiths 
five, carpenters thirteen, masons four, coopers four, wa- 
gon-makers four, tanners three, saddlers two, millwrights 
two, carders and tinners one each. There is a great 
abundance of good coal in the county. Water power 
for mills is deficient, but both White river and Patoka 
may at times be navigated, and the Canal, which will 
soon be completed, ought to encourage great and rapid 
improvements. 

The lands subject to taxation amount to S8,900 acres, 
and 123,000 acres still belong to the United States. 

Two miles south-west from Petersburgh is a mound 
apparently artificial, which is about 70 feet in height, 20 



3C0 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

or 30 feet across the top, and so steep that wagons can 
with difficulty ascend it. It is apparently an Indian 
place of burial, for human bones in great abundance are 
found here. It is now used by the whites for a burying 
ground. 

Pike, a north-west township in Marion, population 
2,000. 

Pike, a western township in Ohio county, population 
550. 

Pike, a central township in Warren. 

Pike Creek, a mill stream in Delaware county. 

Pine, a north east township in Benton, population 
300. 

Pine Lake, a beautiful sheet of water one mile north- 
west of Laporte, two and a-half miles in length, and one 
and a-half in breadth. 

Pine Creek rises in the north part of Marshall and 
runs north-west into the Kankakee. 

Pine Creek, an excellent mill stream in Warren coun- 
ty, rises in Benton and runs south into the Wabash op- 
posite to Attica. It has high banks covered with pine 
and cedar, and abounding with coal, and its numerous 
rapids furnish many good sites for water works. 

Pine, a northern township in Warren. 

Pipe Creek, an excellent mill stream, with a rapid 
current and good banks, rises in Miami and runs north- 
west into the Wabash seven miles above Logansport, in 
Cass county. 

Pipe Creek, a mill stream, rises in the north part of 
Madison and runs south-west into Hamilton, and falls 
into White river a short distance west of the county 
line. 

Pipe Creek, a western township in Madison. 

Pittsborough, a small town in Hendricks, eight miles 
north-east of Danville, and 19 north-west of Indianapo- 
lis. It was named from the County Seat of Chatham, 
N. C, fi*om which the proprietor emigrated. 

Pittsburgh, a small town on the west bank of the 
Wabash, at the feeder dam in Carroll county. It is well 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 361 

situated for manufactures, and contains a foundry, a 
woollen manufactory, and several valuable mills. 

Plain, an interior township in Kosciusko. 

Plainfield, a small town in Hendricks county, on 
the National road, at the crossing of White Lick. 

Platt's Creek, in the south part of Dubois, runs west 
into the Patoka. 

Pleasant, a southern township in Allen, population 
260. 

Pleasant, a northern township in Grant, population 
650. 

Pleasant, a northern township in Johnson, population 
800. 

Pleasant, an eastern township in Laporte, population 
715. 

Pleasant, a southern township in Porter, population 
300. 

Pleasant, a north-west township in Switzerland 
county. 

Pleasant Garden, a small town on the National road 
in Putnam county, nine miles south-west of Greencastle. 

Pleasant Hill, a beautifully situated town with about 
40 houses, 13 miles north-west of Crawfordsville, on the 
road to Attica. 

Pleasant Run, a north-east township in Lawrence, 
population 1,320. 

Pleasant Run rises in the east part of Marion, and 
runs south-west into White river, three miles below In- 
dianapolis. 

Pleasantville, a small town in Carr township, Jack- 
son county, 12 miles west of Brownstown. 

Plum Creek, a small stream in Switzerland county, 
that falls into the Ohio two miles above Vevay. 

Plummer, an eastern township in Greene, population 
1,750. 

Plymouth, the Seat of Justice of Marshall county, is 

pleasantly situated on the north bank of Yellow river, 

25 miles from its junction with the Kankakee, and on 

the Michigan road 42 miles north of Logansport, and 24 

24 



362 



INDIANA GAZETTEER. 



south of South Bend. Tt was first settled in 1834, by 
Grove Pomroy, M. Coe and U. Metcalf. It now con- 
tains good county buildings, seven stores and groceries, 
one Presbyterian Church, 51 houses and 300 inhabitants; 
and as the county, which has naturally great advantages, 
improves, Plymouth must become an important town. 

Point, a township in Posey, which includes the tongue 
of land between the Wabash and the Ohio just above 
their junction. It is the most southern point in the 
State. 

Point Commerce, a small town in the north part of 
Greene, at the junction of Eel and White rivers, popu- 
lation 150. 

Poison Creek, a good mill stream in Perry county, 
running south into the Ohio four miles above Rome. Its 
name is derived from the prevalence of the Milk-Sick- 
ness in its vicinity. 

Polk, a south-west township in Huntington, popula- 
tion 300. 

Polk, a north-west township in Marshall, population 
225. 

Portage, a northern township in Porter, population 
200. 

Portage, a central township in St. Joseph, also the 
name of a fine prairie in same county, containing about 
7,000 acres. 

Porter County, organized in 1836, was named in 
honor of Commodore David Porter, of the United States 
Navy. It is bounded north by Lake Michigan, east by 
Laporte, south by the Kankakee, which separates it from 
Jasper, and west by Lake county. Its average length is 
35 miles, and the breadth 15 miles. The names of the 
several townships are Westchester, Jackson, Liberty and 
Portage, in the north; Washington, Centre, Union and 
Porter, in the centre ; and Pleasant, Morgan and Boone, 
in the south. The population in 1840 was 2,162; it is at 
this time about 5,000. The surface of the country is 
gently undulating. About one-fourth of the county is 
timbered with oak, walnut, poplar, pine, maple, butternut 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 363 

and beech, one-third barrens, and the remainder prairie 
and bottom land. Except near Lake Michigan and the 
marshes of the Kankakee, the general character of the 
soil is good, and best adapted to wheat, oats, corn and 
grazing. 

There are in the county three grist mills, eight saw 
mills, one carding and one fulling mill, a printing office, 
four lawyers, ten physicians, nine preachers, and the 
usual proportion of carpenters, blacksmiths, wagon- 
makers, tailors, shoemakers, &c. There are several 
small lakes in the county, among which are Flint, Spec- 
tacle and Eliza Lakes. The taxable land amounts to 
155,380 acres. 

Porter, a central township in Porter county, popula- 
tion 650. 

Portland, a small town in Fountain county, on the 
east bank of the Wabash, seven miles north of Cov- 



ington. 



Portland, the County Seat of Jay, is situated on the 
north side of the Salamonie, near the centre of the 
county. It was first settled in June, 1837, by H. H. 
Cuppy, C. Hanna, D. W. McNeil, and others. It con- 
tains 60 houses and a population of 300. It is 95 miles 
north-east of Indianapolis, 45 north of Richmond, and 
50 south of Fort Wayne. 

Portland, a small town in Hancock, on the National 
road, eight miles east of Greenfield. 

Port Royal, a small town at the bluffs of White 
river, in the north-east corner of Morgan, 14 miles north- 
east of Martinsville. 

Port Mitchell, the former Seat of Justice of Noble 
county, is situated in York township, on the south branch 
of Elkhart river. It has good mill privileges, and con- 
tains a population of 200. 

Posey County, organized in 1814, was named in ho- 
nor of Gen. Thomas Posey,- who was appointed Gover- 
nor of the Indiana Territory to succeed Gen. Harrison. 
It is the extreme south-west county in the State, con- 
taining about 420 square miles, and is bounded on the 



364 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

north by Gibson, on the east by Vanderburgh, on the 
south by the Ohio, and on the west by the Wabash. 
Posey is divided into the following townships, viz: Point, 
Black, Marrs, Robinson, Lynn, Harmony, Bethel, Smith 
and Robb. The population in 1830 was 6,883, in 1840, 
9,683, and at this time about 13,000. The surface of 
the country on the Ohio and Wabash, with the exception 
of tha bluffs commencing at Mount Vernon and extend- 
ing four miles below, is flat bottom land, subject to yearly 
overflows, varying from a half to two miles in width. 
The bottom near New Harmony is about three miles 
wide. The interior of the country is undulating or roll- 
ing, and some parts are comparatively hilly, but upon 
the whole, lies remarkably well, for all agricultural pur- 
poses. The only prairie in the county is about three 
miles in length and one in breadth, and there are, pro- 
perly speaking, no barrens, though the soil is thin in 
places, and near the junction of the rivers there are so 
many ponds and so much low ground that it cannot be 
improved to advantage. The bottom lands comprise 
about a sixth, and the forest lands three-fifths of the 
whole. The soil, in the bottoms, is a rich, sandy loam, 
formed from the deposit of the rivers; that in the inte- 
rior is mostly a dark, rich loam, resting upon a yellow 
clay formation. It is best adapted to corn and grass, 
though fine crops of wheat, oats, &c, are annually raised 
in various portions of the county. The timber is mostly 
of a good quality, consisting of the different kinds of oak, 
walnut, poplar, cherry, ash, pecan, hickory, beech and 
sugar, and coal is found in abundance. The surplus ar- 
ticles exported are estimated at $350,000 annually, and 
they consist of about 2,000,000 lbs. of pork, 600,000 bushels 
of corn, live stock, and such other agricultural products 
as are common in the west. 

There are in the county 28 mills, four distilleries doing 
a large business, two printing offices, a well managed 
County Seminary, district schools in most of the districts, 
nine lawyers, 18 physicians, 10 preachers, and the usual 
proportion of mechanics. Working Men's Institutes 






TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 365 

have been established at Mount Vernon and New Har- 
mony. The latter is liberally endowed and has a fine 
library. Lectures upon scientific subjects are delivered 
at stated times to the members, and occasionally to the 
public generally. Mr. McClure and the Owen family 
have done much to promote the prosperity of this society. 
The taxable land amounts to 195,807 acres. 

About two miles above Mount Vernon, on the river 
bluff, are several mounds covering from one-fourth to 
one acre each, and from 15 to 60 feet in height, which, 
when opened, are found to contain human bones, and In- 
dian pipes and weapons. On the Wabash, 12 miles from 
its mouth, is a mound called the "Bone Bank, in which 
have been found Indian vases, urns, and detached bones 
of the Mastodon, or some animal of immense size. 
Three miles above Mount Vernon and two from the 
Ohio, is a causeway over two miles in length and several 
feet in height, now used as a part of the public highway, 
which is evidently the work of a generation long since 
passed away. Some suppose it to have been designed 
for a fortification, and the formation favors the opinion. 
At any rate, it must have required much time and im- 
mense labor for its construction. 

There is a large amount of bottom lands on the Ohio 
and Wabash, which are so low that they have been con- 
sidered of little value, but the most of them will here- 
after be dyked and become very valuable, and at no dis- 
tant day, Posey will be one of the richest counties in the 
state. 

Posey, a western township in Clay, population 900. 

Posey, a north-west township in Fayette, population 
1,250. 

Posey, a northern township in Franklin, population 
1,100. 

Posey, a south-east township in Harrison, population 
1,300. 

Posey, a western township in Rush, population 900. 

Posey, an eastern township in Switzerland. 

Posey, a township in Washington. 



366 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Poseyvilee, a small town in Robb township, Posey 
county, near the Gibson line, population 100. 

Potato Creek, a mill stream in Montgomery county. 

Potato Creek, a mill stream in the southern part of 
St. Joseph, runs west into the Kankakee. 

Pottawatamies, the name of a tribe of Indians which 
once inhabited the north part of the State. The name 
is said to be derived from the Indian word Puttawah, 
which means "the inflation of the cheek in the act of 
blowing a fire," and "rai," which means Nation, or "fire 
makers," so called from their building a council fire oft 
meeting with the Miamies in 174S. 

Prairie Creek, a tributary of Sugar creek, in Boone 
county, runs north-west near Thorntown. 

Prairie Creek, a mill stream in Daviess county, rises 
near the eastern part and runs westerly into the west 
fork of White river. 

Prairie Creek, a tributary of White river from the 
south, in the east part of Delaware county. 

Prairie Creek, a small stream in Howard county. 

Prairie, a township in Kosciusko. 

Prairie Creek, a mill stream in the south part of 
Vigo. 

Prairie Creek, a southern township in Vigo, popula- 
tion 1,000. 

Prairie, a south-east township in White, population 
650. 

Prairieton, a small village in Vigo, pleasantly situ- 
ated on the borders of Honey Creek prairie, seven miles 
south south-west of Terre Haute. 

Prairieville, a small town in Clinton county, 10 miles 
south-west of Frankfort, on the State road from Indian- 
apolis to Lafayette. 

Preble, a north-west township in Adams, population 
625. 

Pretty Prairie, the name of small prairies in Black- 
ford, Lagrange and Tippecanoe counties. 

Princeton, the County Seat of Gibson, named after 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 367 

the Hon. Wm. Prince, was first settled late in 1812 or 
the first of 1813, by Gen. Evans, Judge Prince, Bazil 
Brown, Gen. Wilson, Col. Hargrove, Major Robb and 
the Messrs. Jones, Stockwells and Shannons. It now 
contains 12 stores, two groceries, good county buildings, 
a Seminary for boys and another for girls, five churches, 
one each for the Covenanters, Presbyterians, Cumberland 
Presbyterians, Associate Reformed and Methodists. The 
population is about 800. The situation is a very fine 
one, and the country around generally first rate farming 
land. Princeton is situated in latitude 38 deg. 31 min. 
north, and in longitude 10 deg. 30 min. west, being 28 
miles north of Evansville, the same distance south of 
Vincennes, and 150 south-west of Indianapolis. 

Princeton, a western township in White, population 
200. 

Pulaski County, organized in 1839, was named after 
the celebrated Polish soldier, Count Pulaski, who failing 
to sustain the independence of his own country, came to 
this, during the revolutionary war, was appointed a Bri- 
gadier General, and fell mortally wounded in the attack 
on Savannah in 1779. It is bounded north by Stark, 
east by Fulton, south by Cass and White, and west by 
Jasper, and contains 432 square miles, being 24 miles 
from east to west and 18 from north to south. The civil 
townships are Monroe, Beaver, Tippecanoe, Harrison, 
Whitepost, Van Buren, Indian Creek and Salem. The 
population in 1840 was 561. It is at this time about 
2,500. The surface of the country is mostly level, 
though in several parts of the county there are ridges of 
low, sandy hills. About one-half the county is prairie, 
the other half barrens or oak openings, though portions 
of it have a very heavy growth of the various species of 
oak timber. A few of the bottoms of the Tippecanoe 
and other streams have small groves of walnut, sugar 
and white maple, and the soil is found to be well adapted 
to the growth of most kinds of fruit trees; but in early 
times, the traveller saw no forest trees but oak and hick- 
ory, and these were either thinly scattered over the bar- 



368 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

rens, looking like the remnants of old orchards, or col- 
lected in beautiful groves, in which every tree could be 
made into rails. An arm of the Grand Prairie extends 
several miles into the south-west corner of the county. 
The other principal prairies are Fox Grape, Drye, North 
Western, Oliver's, and Pearson's. The wet prairies are 
favorable for grazing, and when drained will produce 
large crops of grass, the diy prairies and barrens are 
mostly black loam, mixed with sand, and occasionally a 
good deal of marl, and are well adapted to wheat, oats, 
vines and corn. The surplus products at present are 
wheat and oats, which, with live hogs and fat cattle, are 
taken either to Chicago or lo Logansport to market. 
The wheat is estimated at 15,000 bushels, hogs 1,000, 
cattle 1,000, horses 100, worth about $25,000 annually. 

There are in the county three grist, mills, three saw 
mills, two dry goods stores, one grocery, one lawyer, 
three physicians, one Methodist and three Christian 
preachers. The taxable land in the county amounts to 
43,697 acres. Near Winamac, the Seat of Justice, was 
the residence of the Indian chief of that name. Here 
still are the fields where the Indians cultivated their corn 
and the caves where they concealed it, and in this neigh- 
borhood were the squaws and children under the care of 
Winamac during the battle of Tippecanoe. 

Putnam County, named in honor of Gen. Israel Put- 
nam of the revolution, was organized in 1822. It is 
bounded on the north by Montgomery, on the east by 
Hendricks and Morgan, on the south by Owen and Clay, 
and on the west by Clay and Parke. It is 27 miles in 
length from north to south, and 18 miles in breadth, and 
contains 486 square miles. The civil townships are 
Russel, Franklin, Jackson, Clinton, Monroe, Floyd, Madi- 
son, Greencastle, Marion, Washington, Warren, Jeffer- 
son and Cloverdale, of which the first nine contain 36 
square miles each, Warren and Jefferson 30, Washing- 
ton 54, and Cloverdale 48. The population in 1830 was 
8,195, in 1840. 16,843, and at this time about 21,000. 

The surface of the countrv in the northern and east- 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 369 

em parts of the county is either level or slightly undu- 
lating, and until it is cleared up and improved inclines to 
be wet. In the centre and south-west it is more rolling, 
and in the vicinity of the streams is in places quite hilly; 
yet but few of the hills are too steep to be cultivated. 
The prevailing timber is beech, sugar, walnut, ash, oak 
and poplar. The soil is in general a black loam, but in 
some parts clayey and calcareous. It is well adapted to 
wheat, grass, corn, fruit, hemp, and most articles usually 
farmed in the west, and perhaps no body of land of 
equal extent in the State is superior to Putnam county, 
taking into consideration all its advantages of timber, 
soil, springs of water, quarries of lime-stone, running 
streams, and healthy situation. The hogs driven to 
market in 1848 were ascertained to be 18,698, which, 
with bacon, flour, wheat, fat cattle, horses, mules, and 
other articles taken to market would make the value of 
the exports at least $250,000 a year. 

There are in the county 21 saw and grist mills in con- 
junction, 17 of the former and eight of the latter sepa- 
rate, seven carding machines, 43 stores, seven groceries, 
two distilleries, nine lawyers, 34 physicians, 44 preachers, 
214 mechanics of the trades most in demand, 29 Metho- 
dist, 15 Baptist, 12 Christian and five Presbyterian 
Churches. 

As to Education, see Asbury University in the first 
part of this Book, and Greencastle. 

The taxable land in the county amounts to 286,000 
acres. 

Putxamville, a pleasantly situated town on the Na- 
tional road, in Putnam county, 40 miles from Indianapo- 
lis, 30 from Terre Haute, and five south of Greencastle. 
It was laid out in 1831, by James Townsend, and con- 
tains about 50 houses and 300 inhabitants. 

Quercus Grove, a small town in Switzerland county, 
12 miles north-east of Vevay, sometimes called the 
"Bark Works." It was first settled in 1816, by Daniel 
D.Smith, and others, who commenced grinding and pack- 
ing oak bark in hogsheads to send to England for color- 



370 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

ing matter. The experiment proved a failure, and was 
soon abandoned. 

Quigley's Branch, a small stream in Pulaski county. 

Rackoon, or Big Rackoon, a fine mill stream which 
rises in the south-west corner of Boone, and runs through 
Montgomery, Putnam and Parke into the Wabash. Its 
whole length is about 70 miles, and the country watered 
by it is not surpassed in fertility of soil, quality of tim- 
ber, and beauty of situation, by any part of the State. 
Fifteen miles from its mouth, it receives Little Rackoon 
from the north, which is about 30 miles in length, and is 
also a valuable mill stream. T»he flouring mills on Big 
Rackoon, at Armiesburgh, Roseville, the Portland mills, 
and Crosby's & Mulligan's mills, are among the best in 
the State. 

Rackoon, a township in Parke, population 1,200. 

Rackoon Creek, rises in Monroe, runs west into Owen, 
and falls into White river near the south line of the 
county. There are four grist and four saw mills on this 
stream in Owen county. 

Rainesville, named after the proprietor, Isaac Raines, 
is a small town in Warren county, on Big Pine creek, 12 
miles north of west from Williamsport. 

Randolph County, organized in 1818, is said to have 
been named, at the request of the settlers, after the 
county in North Carolina from which they had emigrated, 
though it is said also that the name was given in honor 
of Thomas Randolph, Esq., Attorney General of the 
Territory, who was killed in the battle of Tippecanoe. 
It is bounded north by Jay, east by the State of Ohio, 
south by Wayne, and west by Henry and Delaware. It 
contains about 450 square miles. The civil townships 
are White River, Jackson, Ward, Green, Monroe, Stony 
Creek, Nettle Creek, West River, Washington, Green's 
Fork and Wayne. The population in 1830 was 3,912, 
in 1840, 10,392, and at this time about 14,000. The 
surface of the country is nearly level, and portions of it 
are, at times, wet and marshy, so that it would seem to 
be low, though in reality it must be about the highest 






1 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 371 



land in the State, for in or near Randolph county, the 
head waters of the Big Miami, White Water, Blue river, 
White river, the Mississinewa, the Salamonie, Wabash, 
and St. Mary's, all running in different directions, take 
their rise. 

There are no barrens and but few prairies, all which 
are wet, in the county. The timber is of an average 
quality, the soil well adapted to be farmed in grass and 
small grain, and parts of the county are suitable for 
corn. 

There are in the county 14 grist mills, 20 saw mills, 
propelled by water and three by steam, five carding ma- 
chines, one printing office, the usual proportion of me- 
chanics and professional men, and two Baptist and eight 
Methodist churches. 

The taxable land amounts to 280,000 acres. There 
is to be seen on the land of W. M. Way, near Winchester, 
a regular built earth wall, enclosing about 20 acres of 
land, with a high mound in the centre, and the appear- 
ance of a gate at the south-west corner. 

Randolph, a south-east township in Ohio county, pop- 
ulation 4,000. 

Randolph, a southern township in Tippecanoe, popu- 
lation 1,300. 

Rattlesnake Greek, a mill stream in Owen county, 
with two grist and three saw mills on it. It falls into 
White river from the north, four miles below Spencer. 

Rattlesnake Creek, a mill stream in Carroll county, 
running into the Wabash opposite to Tipton's port. 

Ray, a western township in Franklin, population 
1,050. 

Ray, a south-west township in Morgan, population 
950. 

Raysville, a small town on the National road, west 
side of Blue river, in Henry county. It has fine and 
well improved water power in its vicinity ; population 
200. 

Redding, a northern township in Jackson, population 
1,700. 



372 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Reddington, a small town in Jackson county, 16 
miles north-east of Brownstown, and nine south-west of 
Scipio. 

Redwood, a mill stream in Warren county, that falls 
into the Wabash from the north, nine miles below Wil- 
liamsport. 

Reeve, a south-east township in Daviess, population 
750. 

Renssellaer, the County Seat of Jasper, is situated at 
the rapids of the Iroquois, on the south-west side, in 
Sec. 30, T. 29, R. 6., being about 40 miles north north- 
west of Lafayette. It contains three stores, two physi- 
cians, one lawyer and 15 dwelling houses. 

Republican, a western township in Jefferson county. 

Reserve, a township in Parke, population 2,100. 

Richland, a western township in DeKalb, population 
400. 

Richland, a northern township in Fountain, popula- 
tion 2,000. 

Richland, a township in Fulton. 

Richland, a north-west township in Grant, population 
400. 

Richland, a township in Greene, population 1,600. 

Richland, a south-west township in Jay, first settled 
in 1835, by Josiah Wade, population 480. 

Richland, a township in Madison county. 

Richland, a township on Eel river, in Miami county, 
population 1,000. 

Richland, a western township in Monroe, population 
1,350. 

Richland Creek, a mill stream which rises in Mon- 
roe and runs south-west through Greene, and falls into 
White river below Bloomfield. 

Richland, a western township in Whitley, population 
450. 

Richmond, the principal town in Wayne county, is 
situated on the east bank of the east fork of White Wa- 
ter, on the National road, four miles from the Ohio line, 
64 north-west of Cincinnati, six east of Centreville, and 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 373 

68 east of Indianapolis. It was first settled in 1816, and 
the proprietors were John Smith and Jeremiah Cox. In 
May, 1833, Richmond contained 236 families and a pop- 
ulation of 1,740. In 1840, the population amounted to 
2,070; at this time it is about 3,000. In Wayne town- 
ship, which includes Richmond, and mostly in or near 
the town are 12 flouring mills, 11 saw mills, three oil 
mills, three cotton factories, four do. for the manufacture 
of woollen goods, one paper mill doing a large business, 
six carding machines, all propelled by water, also two 
extensive foundries, and the manufacture of threshing 
machines, carriages of all descriptions, and various kinds 
of farming utensils is carried on extensively at Richmond, 
so as to supply all the wants of a large and well im- 
proved tract of country. No town in the State employs 
more mechanical and manufacturing labor. There are 
in the town two printing offices, two fire companies and 
engines, a branch of the State Bank, about 500 dwelling 
houses, two large meeting houses for the Friends, 
where they hold their annual meetings, two churches for 
the Presbyterians, one for Episcopalians, one Methodist, 
one Catholic, one Lutheran, and one for colored people. 

The Friends' Boarding School in the vicinity, under 
the control of the Orthodox Friends, is a flourishing in- 
stitution, where all the branches of a collegiate education 
are taught. The late Dr. Ithamar Warner donated for 
public use a brick building 70 feet long, 21 wide, and 
three stories high, which is occupied by the moral and 
literary societies of the place, and John Smith, one of the 
proprietors, gave also, for public use, an acre of ground 
and a brick building. 

Riley, a township in Vigo, population 900. 

Ripley County, organized in 1818, was named in 
honor of Gen. E. W. Ripley, a distingushed officer of 
the war of 1812. It is bounded north by Decatur and 
Franklin, east by Dearborn and Ohio, south by Switzer- 
land and Jefferson, and west by Jennings, and it con- 
tains about 440 square miles. It is divided into the fol- 
lowing townships, Adams, Laughery, Jackson, Otter 



374 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Creek, Delaware, Franklin, Washington, Johnson, Shel- 
by and Brown. The population in 1830 was 3,957, in 
1840, 10,392, and at this time about 13,000. The gene- 
ral surface of the country may be called level, except 
in the vicinity of the water courses, where the hills are 
abrupt and high. The bottom lands along Laughery and 
other streams are rich, but they are generally small; the 
uplands, when dry, usually produce well, and much of 
them is based on beds of blue lime-stone, but large tracts 
incline to be wet, and are adapted to grass only. The 
surplus products are wheat, hay, hops, &c, which are 
taken to the river towns for a market, and hogs, cattle, 
sheep and horses, which are either sold at home or driven 
to Cincinnati or Madison. 

There are in the county 14 grist mills, five of which 
are propelled by steam, the others by water, 29 sawmills, 

11 of which are propelled by steam, 30 stores, 17 groce- 
ries, two printing offices, 12 lawyers, five botanical and 

12 other physicians, 21 ministers of the gospel, one Uni- 
versalist, 13 Methodist, 11 Baptist and three Christian 
churches. 

The taxable land amounts to 252,202 acres, and about 
2,500 acres still belong to the United States. 

Ripley Creek, a mill stream in Ripley county, which 
runs into Laughery 10 miles north of Versailles. 

Ripley, a township in Montgomery, population 1,050. 

Ripley, a north-west township in Rush, population 1 ,600. 

Rising Sun, the Seat of Justice of Ohio county, is 
beautifully situated on a high bank of the Ohio, 14 miles 
by water below Lawrenceburgh, 50 above Madison, and 
96 south-east of Indianapolis. It was first settled in 
1814, by C. A. Craft, John James, A. C. Pepper, Henry 
Wiest, J. A. Walton, N. Clark, P. Athearn, S. Hatha- 
way, Samuel Jelley, Hugh Espey, &c. Rising Sun con- 
tains about 400 dwelling houses, of which one half are 
brick, the others frame, and 2,500 inhabitants. The pub- 
lic buildings are spacious and convenient churches, one 
each for the Methodists, New and Old School Presbyte- 
rians, Reformed Baptists and Universalists, good county 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 375 

buildings, market house, and an incorporated Academy 
in which 100 students usually attend. The manufactures 
of Rising Sun are carried on to an extent highly creditable 
to the enterprise of its citizens. They consist of a large 
cotton factory, usually employing 100 hands, one wool- 
len factory, one iron foundry and finishing shop, and 
one large distillery. The value of the manufactured ar- 
ticles is estimated at $90,000 annually. 

Robb, a northern township in Posey county. 

Robinson, an eastern township in Posey. 

Rob Roy, a small town in Fountain county, 12 miles 
north-east of Covington, on the south bank of Shawanee 
creek. It is pleasantly situated and has very valuable 
water power in its vicinity. 

Rochester, the Seat of Justice of Fulton county, is 
situated on the Michigan road, on the south bank of 
Mill creek, 22 miles north of Logansport and 44 south 
of South Bend. It was laid out in 1S35, by A. Cham- 
berlin and L. N. Bozarth. It contains three stores, two 
taverns, two neat churches, an Odd Fellows' Hall, ex- 
cellent county buildings, 60 dwelling houses and 300 in- 
habitants. The situation is fine, the land near it is good, 
and Mill creek affords valuable water power, both in and 
adjoining the town, and Rochester must become an im- 
portant point. 

Rochester, a small town in Highland township, Frank- 
lin county. 

Rochester, a small town in the north-west corner of 
Noble county, on Elkhart river. It has excellent water 
power, a large manufactory of iron, at which about three 
tons per day are made; population 100. 

Rock Creek, a south-east township in Bartholomew, 
population 900. 

Rock Creek, a fine mill stream in Carroll, which rises 
in Cass, and runs north-west into the Wabash ten miles 
above Delphi. 

Rock Creek, a mill stream in Huntington county. 

Rock Creek, a south-east township in Huntington, 
population 400. 



376 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Rock Creek, a mill stream in Warren, runs south into 
the Wabash, six miles below Williamsport. . 

Rock Creek, a western township in Wells county. 

Rock Run, a mill stream which falls into the Elkhart 
from the east, near Goshen. 

Rockford, a flourishing village in Jackson county, on 
the east bank of White river, 11 miles north-east of 
Brownstown. The rapids of the river at this place af- 
ford valuable water power, and the land in the vicinity 
being among the most fertile in the State, an immense 
amount of produce is shipped from this place. The 
completion of the Jeffersonville Railroad to this point 
will vastly increase its importance; population at this 
time 200. 

Rockport, the Seat of Justice of Spencer county, is 
situated on a high bluff on the Ohio river, 140 miles 
south south-west of .Indianapolis, 50 by water above 
Evansville, and 150 below Louisville. It derived its 
name from the hanging rock, known to boatmen as the 
"Lady Washington Rock." It contains good county 
buildings, a Countv Seminary, in which there are usually 
30 students, a Methodist Church 80 feet by 40, 200 
houses, only seven of which are brick, and 600 inhabit- 
ants. 

Rockville, the County Seat of Parke, is situated on 
elevated ground near the centre of the county, eight 
miles from the Wabash and 60 directly west of Indian- 
apolis. It is surrounded by an extensive tract of rich 
and beautifully rolling land, now generally in a high state 
of improvement, and some of the best farms in the State 
are in this vicinity. Rockville was first settled in 
1823, by Gen. Patterson and Judge McCall. It contains 
a flourishing County Seminary, a Female Seminary, two 
printing offices, publishing weekly newspapers, five 
churches, one each for the New School Presbyterians, 
Old do., Methodists, Baptists, and Christians and 1,000 
inhabitants. 

Rolling Prairie, a beautiful tract of land containing 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 377 

near 30 sections, in the east part of Laporte county. 
The name was derived from its undulating surface. 

Rome, the Seat of Justice of Perry county, is situated on 
the Ohio river, 126milessouthand20 west of Indianapolis, 
and about 100 miles below Louisville, and the same distance 
above Evansville. It w r as first settled in lSli, and con- 
tains in all 170 houses, of which only 20 are brick. The 
public buildings are a Court House, Jail, and County 
Seminary. 

Root, a northern township in Adams, population 
1,100. 

Roseville, a small town in Parke county, on Rackoon 
creek, 10 miles south-west of Rockviile. It has a fine 
flouring mill and saw mill. 

Ross, a north-west township in Clinton, population 
1,100. 

Rossburgh, a small town in Decatur county, nine 
miles east of Greensburgh. 

Rossville. a small town in Clinton, 10£ miles north- 
west of Frankfort. 

Royal Centre, a small town in Boone township, Cass 
county. 

Royalton, a small town near the south line of Boone, 
on the Indianapolis and .Lafayette State road, 14 miles 
from the former and 48 from the latter. 

Rush County, organized in 1822, was named in honor 
of Dr. Benjamin Rush, at the suggestion of Dr. Laugh- 
lin. It is bounded north by Hancock and Heniy east 
by Fayette and Franklin, south by Decatur, and west 
by Shelby and Hancock. It is 23 miles in length from 
north to south, and 18 in breadth, and contains 414 
square miles. The civil townships are Ripley, Posey, 
Walker, Orange, Anderson, Rushville, Jackson, Centre, 
Washington, Union, Noble and Richland. The popula- 
tion in 1830 was 9,918, in 1840, 16,456, and at this time 
it is about 21,000. 

The surface of the country is either nearly level, or 
moderately rolling, though there are hills along the prin- 
cipal streams, which in general are neither hi^h nor ab- 
25 



378 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

rupt. There are no prairies or barrens, or in fact any 
poor land in the county; about one-twentieth is river 
and creek bottoms. The soil is principally loam bedded 
on clay, with a mixture of sand, and it produces abun- 
dantly all the kinds of grain, grass and vegetables com- 
mon to the climate, and no part of the State, of equal 
extent, is superior in quality of soil, to the county of 
Rush. The land was originally heavily timbered with 
poplar, walnut, oak, ash, sugar, beech and hickory. The 
surplus products taken to market are 35,000 hogs, 6,000 
cattle, 1,200 horses, 500 mules, 30,000 barrels of flour, 
100,000 bushels of wheat, and oats, corn and various 
other articles, estimated to be of the annual value of 
$600,000. The canal in the valley of Whitewater, run- 
ning eight miles east of the county, has done much to 
increase improvements, but there are now in progress 
two railroads, one from Shelby ville to Rushville, the 
other from Shelbyville to Knightstown, both which will 
be completed in a few months, and will add largely to 
the wealth and prosperity of this part of the State. 
There are in Rush county 15 grist mills, 20 saw mills, 
five carding machines, two printing offices, 41 stores, 
four groceries, three flourishing Academies, one the 
County Seminary at Rushville, one at Farmington, four 
miles east, and one at Richland, eight miles south-east, 
and schools are kept up in nearly every district from 
three to twelve months in the year. There are eight 
Presbyterian chucrhes, eight Methodist Episcopal, five 
Baptist, 7 Reformers, one True Wesleyan, and one Radi- 
cal Methodist church. There are also in the county 10 
lawyers, 21 physicians, 20 preachers, 200 carpenters, 50 
brick and stone masons, 20 plasterers, 25 saddlers, 50 
tailors, 20 painters, 100 blacksmiths, 50 cabinet makers, 
40 wagon makers, 10 coach makers, 20 millwrights, 100 
weavers, 25 carders, 50 millers, 25 sawyers, 50 coopers, 
15 wheelwrights, 20 chair makers, 60 shoe and boot 
makers, 10 printers, three potters, 20 pump makers, five 
gunsmiths, four silversmiths, three tinners, 25 tanners, 15 
hatters, 20 engineers, and 35 milliners and mantuamakers, 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 379 

about 1,100 in all. Excellent county buildings to cost 
$12,000 are now in progress. The taxable land amounts 
to 251,645 acres. 

Rush Creek, a small mill stream in the northwest 
part of Washington county. 

Rushville, the county seat of Rush, is situated near 
the centre of the county on the northwest bank of Flat 
Rock, forty miles southeast of Indianapolis, seventeen 
west of Connersville, and seventy north-west of Cincin- 
nati. It was settled in 1821, by Drs. H. G. Sexton and 
W. Laughlin, Joseph Nicholas, Stephen Sims and others. 
It contains twenty-one stores, twenty-two mechanics' 
shops, in addition to thirty carpenters and masons, eigh- 
teen professional gentlemen, one merchant mill, two saw 
mills, large and convenient churches for the Presby- 
terians, Baptists and Methodists, 222 dwelling houses, 
and about 1,000 inhabitants. 

Rushville, an interior township in Rush, population 
2,900. 

Russel, a north-west township in Putnam, six miles 
square. 

Russelville, a small town in the north-west corner 
of Putnam, seventeen miles from Greencastle. 

Russiaville, a small town in Clinton, nine miles north 
of Frankfort. 

Rutherford, a south-west township in Martin, popu- 
lation 425. 

Salamonie River rises in the south-east corner of Jay 
county, and runs north-west through Blackford, Wells, 
Huntington and Wabash, and falls into the Wabash 
River opposite to Lagro. Though at the junction it is 
only about half the length of the Wabash, it is about as 
wide and usually discharges about the same quantity of 
water. It is an excellent mill stream but is not naviga- 
ble. 

Salem, a township in Delaware county. 

Salem, a township in Pulaski. 

Salem, the seat of justice of Washington county, is 
beautifully situated in the centre of the county, on roll- 



3S0 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

ing ground near the head waters of Blue River, ninety 
miles south of Indianapolis, forty miles west and eight 
south of Madison, and thirty-four north-west of New- 
Albany, with which a Railroad, to connect it, is about 
being completed. This town suffered severely with the 
cholera in 1832, and for several years it did not improve, 
but the moral, literary and enterprising character of its 
citizens has been such as to make it one of the most 
pleasant residences in the State, and important improve- 
ments have again commenced. The population is now 
about 1,500. Salem was the residence of Judge Parke, 
Christopher Harrison, J. H. Farnham and Gen. Depauw, 
who during their lives possessed a large share of public 
confidence, and contributed much to the promotion of 
beneficial influences. 

Salt Creek rises in the east part of Brown, runs west 
into Monroe, then south-west through Lawrence, into 
the East Fork of White River. It is navigable in high 
water near thirty miles. It has several good mill seats, 
and near it are salt springs, which have been worked to 
advantage. 

Salt Creek, a tributary of White Water from the 
west, running through a part of Decatur and Franklin 
counties. 

Salt Creek, an eastern township in Decatur, popu- 
lation 1,050. 

Salt Creek, a western township in Franklin, popula- 
tion 750. 

Salt Creek, a north-west township in Jackson, pop- 
ulation 940. 

Salt Creek, an eastern township in Monroe, popu- 
lation 900. 

Salt Creek, a tributary of White River from the 
south in Randolph county. 

Saluda, a western township in Jefferson county and 
the name of a Creek in the same quarter, that falls into 
the Ohio. 

Sand Creek in Indian, Laque-ka-ou-e-nek, which means 
"water running through sand," rises in the centre of De- 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 381 

catur, runs south-west through Jennings, and falls into 
the East Fork of White River, forming for the last four 
miles the boundary between Bartholomew and Jackson. 
It is about fifty miles in length, and for more than half 
the distance is a good mill stream. 

Sand Creek, a southern township in Bartholomew, 
population 750. 

Sand Creek, a southern township in Decatur, popu- 
lation 2,100. 

Sand Creek, a northern township in Jennings, popu- 
lation 650. 

Sandersville, a small town in Vanderburgh, ten 
miles north of Evansville. 

Scipio, a north east township in Allen, population 140. 

Scipio, a small town in Fjanklin county, eleven miles 
east of Brookville, 

Scipio, an interior township in Laporte, population 
815. 

Scipio, on the east bank of Sand Creek, on the Madison 
and Indianapolis Railroad, in Jennings county, nine 
miles north-west of Vernon, contains about 200 inhabi- 
tants. It has a neat Catholic church, and much produce 
is exported from this point. 

Scotland, a small town in Greene county, ten miles 
south of Bloomfield, population 100. 

Scott County, organized in 1820, was named in 
honor of Gen. Charles Scott, a distinguished officer in 
the army of the Revolution, then in the Indian wars, 
and afterwards Governor of Kentucky. It is bounded 
north by Jackson and Jennings, east by Jefferson, south 
by Clark, and west by Washington, and the contents are 
about 200 square miles. 

The civil townships are Lexington, Vienna and Jen- 
nings. The population in 1830, was 3,097 ; in 1840, 
4,242, and at this time about 5,500. The eastern part 
of the county has the best soil and is either undulating 
or rolling ; farther west there are beech and oak fiats, 
which are adapted only to grass ; a small part of the 
west lies in the knobs and is very hilly. The prevailing 



382 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

timber is beech, oak, hickory and gum. The surplus 
products are wheat, oats, corn, hay, beef, pork, and vari- 
ous kinds of marketing, which are sent either to the 
Ohio River or to Louisville, and the agricultural im- 
provements are such as to be creditable to the citizens. 
There are in the county eight grist mills, ten saw mills, 
two carding machines, ten stores, three groceries, four 
lawyers, live physicians, and six preachers of the gospel, 
and there is a sufficient number of mechanics for the or- 
dinary wants of the people. Good building materials are 
abundant. In the vicinity of Lexington are numerous 
salt springs, which supply small quantities of very salt 
water. At one of them a well was bored thirty years 
since to the depth of 700 feet, but a sufficient quantity of 
water could not be obtained to manufacture salt to ad- 
vantage. 

The taxable land amounts to 92,255 acres. There are 
about 30,000 acres of land in the county of very little 
value, which still belongs to the United States, though 
the Railroad will now create a demand for its timber. 

Scott, a north-west township in Kosciusko. 

Scott, a southern township in Montgomery, popula- 
tion 1,100. 

Scott, an eastern township in Vanderburgh, popula- 
tion 750. 

Shankytank, a small stream in Rush county. 

Shappel's Creek, a mill stream in Wabash county. 

Shavetail, a mill stream in Delaware county. 

Siiawanee Creek, rises in the north-east corner of 
Montgomery county, and runs west through Fountain 
into the Wabash, 10 miles above Covington. It is an 
excellent and unfailing mill stream, running rapidly and 
never rising very high, and the mills erected on it, and 
water power that may still be used, will compare favor- 
ably with any part of the State. 

Shawanee, a large and rich prairie, now mostly under 
cultivation, near the creek before named. The soil is 
favorable for wheat, corn and grass. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 3S3 

Shawanee, a township in Fountain county, popula- 
tion 1,370. 

Shawswick, a central township in Lawrence, popula- 
tion 2,700. 

Sheffield, an eastern township in Tippecanoe, popu- 
lation 1,900. 

Shelby County, organized in 1822, was named in 
honor of Isaac Shelby, an officer of distinction in the 
Revolutionary war and in that of 1812, and also Gover- 
nor of Kentucky. It is bounded north by Hancock, 
east by Rush and Decatur, south by Decatur and Bar- 
tholomew, and west by Johnson and Marion. It is 24 
miles in length from north to south, and 17 wide, and 
contains 408 square miles. It is divided into the follow- 
ing townships, viz: Jackson, Washington, Noble, Liberty, 
Addison, Hendricks, Sugar Creek, Brandy wine, Marion, 
Union, Hanover, Van Buren and Moral. The popula- 
tion in 1830 was 6,294, in 1840, 12,004, and at this time 
about 16,000. The county was originally level forest 
land, with bottoms along the streams from half a mile to 
two miles in width, where there is generally an elevation 
of from 20 to 40 feet. The soil in the bottoms is a rich, 
dark loam, with a mixture of sand. On the upland 
there is more clay, covered with a dark muck, and mostly 
requiring to be drained before it can be cultivated to ad- 
vantage. The timber most common in the bottoms is 
walnut, ash, hackberry, &c; on the uplands, beech, oak 
and hickory are predominant. Shelby is becoming a 
first rate farming county. It has an abundance of water 
power, and the Railroads now in progress through it 
must make it one of the best counties in the State. The 
taxable land amounts to 254,541 acres. 

Shelby, a north-east township in Jefferson. 

Shelby, a southern township in Ripley, population 
2,000. 

Shelby, a north-west township in Tippecanoe, popu- 
lation 700. 

Shelbyville, the Seat of Justice of Shelby county, is 
pleasantly situated on the south-east bank of Blue river, 



3S4 



INDIANA GAZETTEER. 



26 miles south-east of Indianapolis and 63 north-west of 
Lawrenceburgh, 65 north north-west of Madison and 16 
north north-east of Edinburgh. It has 182 dwelling 
bouses, of which 166 are frame, and 16 of brick; there 
are 134 one story houses, 46 two story, and two three 
story houses, 11 stores and groceries, 22 mechanics' shops, 
two churches and two mills. The population is now 
about 900, but the completion of the Railroad to Edin- 
burgh, and its extension to Rushville and Knightstown, 
which is now in progress, give assurance that the town 
will now increase rapidly in business and population. 

Silver Creek, a mill stream which rises in the north 
part of Clark county, and runs south into the Ohio one 
mile above New Albany. It is the dividing line between 
Clark and Floyd for about seven miles from its mouth. 

Silver Creek, a w r estern township in Clark, popula- 
tion 800. 

Silver Creek, an excellent mill stream in Union coun- 
ty, which falls into the east fork of White Water from 
the north-east, opposite to Dunlapsville. 

Silver Creek, a tributary of Eel river from the north- 
west, in Wabash county. 

Silver Lake is situated on the north side of Eel river, 
in Wabash county. It is a beautful sheet of water, and 
at its outlet there is an excellent mill privilege, on which 
a good saw mill is in operation, and a flouring mill in 
progress. 

Sixmile Creek, a tributary of the Muscackituck from 
the north, in the west part of Jennings county. 

Slate Creek falls into the east fork of White river in 
the south-east corner of Daviess. 

Slinkard's Creek, a mill stream in the south part of 
Greene county, falls into the west fork of White river 
from the east. 

Smith, a north-west township in Greene, population 
700. 

Smith, a north-east township of Posey. 

Smith, a north-east township in Whitley, population 
450. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 385 

Smitiifield, a northern township in DeKalb, popula- 
tion 365. 

Smitiifield is in Delaware county, on the north bank 
of White river, six miles east of Muncie. It contains a 
grist and saw mill, a Methodist church, a store, several 
mechanics' shops and a population of about 100. 

Smother's Creek, a tributary of the west fork of 
White river from the north-east, in Daviess county. 

Smyrna, a small town in Decatur, eight miles south- 
east of Greensburgh. 

Smyrna, a central township in Jefferson county. 

Solomon's Creek, a small stream in Elkhart county. 

Somerset, a small town on the Mississinewa, in VVa- 
bash county, on the Peru and Marion State road. 

Sons of Temperance. — This order had its origin in the 
City of New York, in the year 1842. 

The various temperance organizations which had pre- 
viously existed having, to a great extent, performed their 
missions, it was deemed necessary, in the judgment of its 
founders, to embody in a more permanent and efficient 
form the friends of the cause, by an organization found- 
ed upon the principles of total abstinence from all intoxi- 
cating drinks as a beverage, and to incorporate such ele- 
ments of power, and objects of benevolence, as would 
secure its permanency and extend its usefulness. 

With this object in view, 16 active and experienced 
temperance men met in Teetotalers Hall, in New York, 
on the 29th day of September, A. D. 1842, when a con- 
stitution was adopted, and other preliminary measures 
were taken to commence active operations. So soon 
as the form and principles of the order had been agreed 
upon by its founders, it was presented to the public 
and received with much enthusiasm by many friends 
of the cause, and was hailed as being admirably adapted 
to the wants of the temperance community. 

Under the authority of this first division, many others 
were organized in neighboring cities, and as the parent, 
it became the head of the Order, from which has grown 
up the present very extensive and powerful organization, 



386 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

numbering, in North America, one National Division, 
35 Grand Divisions, 4,398 Subordinate Divisions, and 
about 250,000 members. 

On the 15th of November, 1845, the first division was 
organized in this State, under a charter granted by the 
National Division, and located at Brookville, under the 
title of "Indiana Division, No. 1.," which was authorized 
and empowered to grant charters for the organization of 
new divisions in the State, by which nine additional di- 
visions were created, when it became lawful and neces- 
sary to organize a Grand Division. 

On the 21st of March, 1846, the charter for this Grand 
Division was granted by the National Division, and on 
the 2d day of May ensuing, it was duly instituted at 
Brookville by J. C. Vaughn, then acting as G. W. P. of 
the State of Ohio. 

Annual meetings have subsequently been held at In- 
dianapolis, the chartered locality. E. H. Barry and C. 
F. Clarkson of Brookville, L. J. Adams of Madison, and 
William Hannaman of Indianapolis, have each, in the 
precedence named, filled the chair of G. W. Patriarch. 

The following statement will exhibit the progress of 
the Order, under National jurisdiction, according to the 
reports presented to the National Division at its last ses- 
sion, viz: 

Initiated during the year, 111,520 members. 

Cash received, 1 "- - - $716,583 09 
Paid for benefits, - - 200,886 68 
Cash on hand, - - - 336,614 68 
The quarterly returns from the Subordinate Divisions 
of Indiana, for the quarter ending June 30, 1849, show 
the following condition of the Order up to that period, 
viz: 

Number of members, - 11,592 

Receipts for quarter ending June 30, '49, $12,045 15 

Paid for benefits, .... 3,779 61 

Cash on hand, 20,294 27 

Number of Divisions, 283. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 387 

Cadets of Temperance. — The Juvenile Order of Ca- 
dets of Temperance has for its object the organization of 
the youth of the land, between the ages of 12 and 17, 
into temperance societies, which shall be adapted, in their 
spirit and exercises, to the age and comprehension of 
those whom they are designed to embrace. The or- 
ganization, its features and ceremonies, bears great re- 
semblance to the Order of Sons of Temperance, and is 
partly under the control of the latter body. The first 
section of Cadets within the borders of the State of In- 
diana, was instituted at Vincennes, on the 3d day of 
June, 1847, under a charter from the Grand Section of 
Pennsylvania, then exercising the functions of supreme 
head of the Order in the United States. This was fol- 
lowed by the organization of Marion Section, No. 2, at 
Indianapolis, on the 3d of July following. Up to June 
of the following year, eleven other Sections had been 
organized, all of which obtained their charters from 
Pennsylvania. On the 14th day of June, 1848, the 
Grand Section of Indiana was organized at Indianapolis 
with power to issue charters for the subordinate Sec- 
tions, and perform all other acts previously pertaining to 
the Grand Section of Pennsylvania, so far as relates to 
the State of Indiana. Since that period, the progress of 
the Order has been extremely rapid. From the time of 
the introduction of the Order in the State, up to the 
present period, seventy -four Sections have been organiz- 
ed, four of which have since surrendered their charters; 
so that there are now seventy Sections in successful ope- 
ration in this State. The aggregate membership in these 
Sections is estimated at 2,500. The Grand Section as- 
sembles annually at Indianapolis, in the month of Octo- 
ber. 

A. W. Morris, of Indianapolis, was the first Grand 
Patron, and J. W. Duzan, of the same place, was the 
first Grand Secretary. The present Grand Patron is 
Rev. B. T. Kavanaugh, and the Grand Secretary, is 
Henry Ohr, both of Indianapolis. 

South Bend, the Seat of Justice of St. Joseph county, 



388 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

takes its name from its situation on the river St. Joseph, 
where, from a western course, it turns north, and after 
running six miles, passes into the State of Michigan 35 
miles before it reaches the lake. The settlement of South 
Bend commenced in the spring of 1831, though it had 
been previously an Indian trading post. L. M. Taylor 
and A. Coquillard were among the first settlers. There 
are now in town over 300 houses, mostly frame, and 
1,600 inhabitants. The public buildings are four church- 
es, a County Seminary, good county buildings, and a 
branch of the State Bank. There are also two merchant 
mills which can make 150 barrels of flour each, per day, 
one woollen factory, with a capital of 10,000 to be in- 
creased to $50,000, an oil mill that manufactures 80 gal- 
lons a day, two establishments for building threshing 
machines, three saw mills, one edge tool factory, a ma- 
chine shop, a carding machine, an establishment for mak- 
ing pegs, lasts, vaneering, lath, &c, all which are pro- 
pelled by water power created by a dam in the St. Jo- 
seph. South Bend is now improving more rapidly than 
at any former period, and its fine situation, excellent 
water power and the enterprise of its citizens, give assu- 
rance that it will be among the largest towns in northern 
Indiana. 

South East, a township in Orange, population 1,300. 

South Fork, a branch of Wild Cat, in Clinton and 
Tippecanoe counties, which falls into the main stream 
nine miles from its mouth. It is a valuable mill stream. 

South Fork of Muscackituck, a mill stream that rises 
near Napoleon, and joins with the north fork at Vernon. 

Southport, a small town recently laid out on the 
Madison and Indianapolis Railroad, six miles south of 
Indianapolis. It contains Presbyterian and Methodist 
churches, both neat buildings. 

Sparrow creek, a tributary of the Mississinewa, in 
Randolph county. 

Sparta, a township in Dearborn, population 1,800. 

Sparta, a western township in Noble, population 560. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 3S9 

Sparta nburgh, a small town in the south-east corner 
of Randolph, first settled in 1831. 

Spencer County, organized in 1818, was named in 
honor of Capt. Spier Spencer, of Harrison county, who 
fell in the battle of Tippecanoe. It is bounded north by 
Dubois, east by Perry, south by the Ohio river, and west 
by Warrick, and it contains 410 square miles. The civil 
townships are Luce, Ohio, Grass, Jackson, Hammond, 
Huff, Harrison and Carter. The population in lS30was 
3,187, in 1S40, 6,305, and at this time about 9,000. 

The south part of the county is level, the middle un- 
dulating, and the north-eastern hilly. The soil for the 
most part is a rich black loam with an under soil of yel- 
low clay mixed with sand, 'hough in places steep hills or 
extensive flats do not encourage agricultural improve- 
ments. The prevailing timber is oak, hickory, ash, pop- 
lar, black gum, walnut, sugar, beech, and sassafras, with 
an undergrowth of dogwood, spice and pawpaw. Large 
crops of corn are raised on the extensive river bottoms, 
and in the interior, corn, wheat, rye, oats, grass and to- 
bacco. There are in the county eight grist mills, eight 
saw mills, thirty stores, ten groceries, five warehouses, 
one printing office, three lawyers, nine physicians, fif- 
teen preachers, and quite a small proportion of mechan- 
ics. The surplus produce, consisting of corn, wheat, 
hay, oats, tobacco, hogs, cattle and horses, is estimated, 
to be worth $150,000 annually. There is a great abun- 
dance of stone coal found in the county. The taxable 
land amounts to 156,159 acres. 

Spencer, a western township in Jennings, population 
1,100. 

Spencer, the seat of justice of Owen county, is situ- 
ated on the west bank of White River, fifty-four miles 
south-w r est of Indianapolis, forty east south-east of Terre 
Haute, thirty south of Greencastle, and sixteen west of 
Bloomington. It was first settled in 1820, by John 
Dunn, Philip Hart, and Richard Beem. It contains a 
Methodist Church, a Christian Church, four stores, three 
warehouses, eight mechanics' shops, and a population of 



390 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

about 300. The country around Spencer is so fertile, 
and its situation so favorable, that it must ere long in- 
crease in size and importance. 

Spiceland, a southern township in Henry county. 

Spice Valley, a south-western township in Law- 
rence, population 1,000. 

Spring Creek, a tributary of Sugar Creek in the 
north part of Boone county. 

Spring Creek, runs south-east into the Wabash in 
the north part of Vermillion. 

Spring Creek, rises in Parke, and runs south-west 
into the Wabash near the north line of Vigo. 

Spring Creek, rises in the north part of Whitley, and 
runs south into Eel River, one mile above Springfield. 

Springfield, a northern township in Allen, popula- 
tion 265. 

Springfield, an eastern township in Franklin, popu- 
lation 2,100. 

Springfield, a small town in Clay township in Hen- 
dricks county. 

Springfield, an eastern township in Lagrange, popu- 
lation 700. 

Springfield, a northern township in Laporte, popula- 
tion 750. 

Springfield, the former seat of justice of Posey coun- 
ty, seven miles north of Mount Vernon. 

Springfield, a small town in Whitley county, on the 
north bank of Eel River, ten miles south-west of Colum- 
bia. It was first settled in 1837, by Joseph Parrot, and 
others. 

Springiiill, a small town in Decatur, eight miles 
north-east of Greensburgh. 

Springville, a pleasant town in Lawrence county, 
nine miles north-west of Bedford, so called from a large 
spring in the town. It was first settled in 1816, by Sam- 
uel Owens, James Garton, and John Gray. It contains 
fifty houses, and 250 inhabitants. 

Squirrel Creek, a tributary of Eel River from the 
north in Miami county. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 391 

Stafford, a south-west township in Greene, popula- 
tion 400. 

Stamper's Creek, an eastern township in Orange, 
population 800. 

Stanford, a small town in the south-east of Monroe. 

Starke County, so named from Gen. John Starke, 
the victor in the battle of Bennington, has never been 
organized. It contains about 320 square miles, and is 
situated mostly in the marshes of the Kankakee south of 
Laporte, west of Marshall, north of Pulaski, and east of 
Jasper. There is but a small portion of the county that 
will be valuable, except for raising stock. It is attached 
to Marshall for civil' and election purposes. The popu- 
lation in 1840,, was 149. It is now about 450. 

Steel's Prairie, named from Ninian Steel, the first 
settler, contains about 1,000 acres all in cultivation, is a 
sandy, level tract of land in the western part of Daviess 
county. 

Steele, a western township in Daviess, population 
450. 

Sterling, a northern township in Crawford. 

Steuben County, organized in 1837, was named in 
honor of Baron Steuben, a Prussian officer of distinc- 
tion, who joined the army during the Revolutionary 
war, and was a very efficient disciplinarian. It lies in 
the north-east corner of the State, being bounded north 
and east by Michigan and Ohio, south by De Kalb, and 
west by Lagrange, and it contains about 330 square 
miles. The civil townships are Millgrove, Jamestown, 
and Brockville, in the north ; Jackson, Pleasant, and 
York, central tier ; and Salem, Steuben, Otsego, and 
Richland, in the south, commencing on the west in each 
case. The population in 1840, was 2,578 ; at this time 
it is about 6,000. About one half the county is timber- 
ed land, one-third is oak openings or barrens, and one- 
sixth praiiie. The timber and prairie land is in general 
equal in quality to any in the State. The barrens have 
a poorer soil. The principal surplus product is wheat, 
of which 200,000 bushels have been exported in a year. 



392 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

There are in the county nineteen saw mills, five flouring 
mills, the most of which make first rate flour; fifteen 
dry goods stores, five groceries, four lawyers, five physi- 
cians. School districts have been laid out, and houses 
built in the most of them, where schools are taught a 
portion of the year. The taxable land amounts to 169,- 
7/ acres. 

Steuben County was first settled in 1833, by emi- 
grants from Ohio, who located on Jackson prairie. The 
increase of population and improvement has been stead- 
ily progressing since that time. Its beautifully diversi- 
fied woodlands, oak openings, and prairies, interspersed 
with small clear lakes, present a great variety of fine 
scenery, which is not surpassed in any part of the west. 

Steuben, a southern township in Steuben county, pop- 
ulation 525. 

Steuben, a western township in Warren. 

Stilesville, named after Jeremiah Stiles, the proprie- 
tor, is situated on the east bank of Mill Creek on the 
National Road, twenty-seven miles south-west of Indian- 
apolis. It is a pleasant village containing about 300 in- 
habitants. 

Stillwell Prairie, a rich tract of land in the south 
part of Laporte county, containing about twenty sec- 
tions. 

St. Johns, a small town in Lake county, in the centre 
of a German Catholic settlement, six miles north-west of 
Crownpoint, where they have erected a Chapel. 

St. Joseph County, so called from the river which 
passes through it, was organized in 1830. It is bounded 
north by the State of Michigan, east by Elkhart, south 
by Marshall, and west by Laporte, and it contains 477 
square miles. The civil townships are Olive, Warren, 
German, Portage, Green, Liberty, Madison, Penn, Cen- 
tre, Clay, and Harris. The population in 1830, was 287; 
in 1840, 6,425; and at this time about 12,000. Except 
in the vicinity of the river, where the land is pleasantly 
rolling, the balance of the county is only so far from a 
level as to afford good drainage. About one-half is bar- 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 393 

rens, or oak openings, one-third heavy timber, and the 
other one-sixth is either wet or dry prairie. The soil in 
the timber and prairies is equal in quality to any part of 
the State, and in the hickory and burr oak barrens the 
soil turns black and seems to become richer the longer it 
is farmed. Wheat has been the principal crop, though 
corn, oats, grass, fruit, vines, &c, are cultivated to ad- 
vantage. For manufactures see South Bend and Misha- 
waka, where the principal establishments are carried on; 
and as to education, see the Notre Dame Catholic Col- 
lege in the first part of this Book. 

There are in the county five grist mills, ten saw mills, 
two oil mills, two woollen factories, 11 general assort- 
ment stores, two drug stores, three ware-houses, one 
printing office, eight lawyers, ten physicians, six preach- 
ers of the gospel, and 218,623 acres of taxable land. 

Iron ore of a good quality is found in great abund- 
ance near Mishawakaand other parts of the county, and 
marl, useful either for lime or as manure, may be found 
in great quantities in most of the marshes, and occasion- 
ally in the timbered land. 

St. Joseph will eventually be one of the richest and 
most important counties of the State. Its fine soil, 
abundant water power, valuable ores, the facility with 
which good roads can be made, and the advantages of 
the river navigation, are such as to encourage rapid im- 
provements. 

St. Joseph River, or the Big St. Joseph, rises in the 
State of Michigan, runs south-west into the State of In- 
diana, then north-west into the State of Michigan again, 
and into the lake. Its course in this State is about 50 
miles, and its width usually 100 yards. It is navigable 
at least half the year. 

St. Joseph, or Little St. Joseph river, rises in the south- 
east part of Michigan, runs south-west through the north- 
west corner of Ohio into this State, and unites with the 
St. Mary's at Fort Wayne, where the two streams form 
the Maumee, which then returns nearly in an opposite 
direction to the former course, towards Lake Erie. 
26 



394 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

St. Joseph, a township in Allen county, population 
525. 

St. Louis, a small town near Haw Creek, 11 miles 
north-east of Columbus, population 75. 

St. Louis, a small town on the Ohio river, in Perry 
county, one mile above Cannelton, population 150. 

St. Mary's River, rises in the State of Ohio, runs 
north-west through Adams and Allen to Fort Wayne, 
where it joins the St. Joseph and forms the Maumee. 

St. Mary's, an eastern township in Adams, population 
550. 

Stockton, a township in Greene, population 600. 

St. Omar, a pleasant village on the Michigan road, in 
Decatur county, nine miles north-west of Greensburgh, 
population 350. 

Stone Lake lies one mile west of Laporte, and covers 
about 600 acres. 

Stony Creek, a fine mill stream that rises in Madison, 
runs south-west into Hamilton, and falls into White 
river two miles below Noblesville. 

Stony Creek rises in the north-cast corner of Henry, 
runs north into Delaware and then into Randolph, 
where it falls into White river near the west line of the 
county. 

Stony Creek, a north-east township in Henry. 

Stony Creek, a western township in Randolph, popu- 
lation 1,000. 

Stott's Creek, a mill stream that rises in Johnson, 
and runs west through Morgan into White river, eight 
miles above Martinsville. 

St. Petersburgh, a small town in Pulaski, laid out 
in 1848. 

Strait Creek, a tributary of Patoka from the south- 
east, in Dubois county. 

Strawtown, a beautifully situated village on the south- 
east bank of White river, six miles above Noblesville, 
with a population of 200. It was once a flourishing In- 
dian town, and its name is derived from a house in it 
thatched with straw. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 395 

Stucker's Fork, a southern branch of the Muscacki- 
tuck, and the principal mill stream in Scott countv. 

Sugar Creek rises in Benton and runs west into Illi- 
nois, where it falls into Iroquois river. 

Sugar Creek, or Rock river, rises in the south-east of 
Clinton and runs west and south-west through Boone, 
Montgomery and Parke, falls into the Wabash five miles 
above Montezuma. Its whole course is about 100 miles. 

Sugar Creek, a north-west township in Boone, popu- 
lation 1,650. 

Sugar Creek, a south-east township in Clinton, popu- 
lation 450. 

Sugar Creek, a small stream in the south-cast corner 
of Daviess. 

Sugar Creek, a fine mill stream, rises in Henry and 
runs south-west through Hancock, Shelby and Johnson, 
falls into Blue river near the south line of the countv, 
one and a-half miles below Edinburgh. 

Sugar Creek, a south-west township in Hancock, 
population 500. 

Sugar Creek falls into White river from the south, at 
Lawrenceport. 

Sugar Creek, a nprth-east township in Montgomery, 
population 550. 

Sugar Creek, a north-east township in Parke, popu- 
lation 1,300. 

Sugar Creek, a western township in Shelby, popula- 
tion 750. 

Sugar Creek, a western township in Vigo, population 
1,200. 

Sugar Creek rises in Illinois and runs south-east into 
the Wabash, two miles below Terre Haute. 

Sugar Lands, a fertile tract of country in Daviess 
county, containing about 20,000 acres, lying north and 
north-west of Washington, named from the prevailing 
growth of timber. 

Sullivan County, organized in 1817, was named in 
honor of Daniel Sullivan, who was killed by the Indians 
on the road from Vincennes to Louisville, while carrying 



396 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

an express, in the public service, between those places. 
It is bounded north by Vigo, east by Clay and Greene, 
south by Knox, and west by the Wabash, and it con- 
tains 430 square miles. The civil townships are Gill, 
Turman and Fairbanks, on the Wabash; Curry, in the 
north; Hamilton, in the centre; Jackson, in the north- 
east, and Haddon in the south-east. The population in 
1830 was 4,696, in 1840, 8,315, and at this time about 
10,500. The surface of the country is mostly level. 
About one-twentieth of the county is river bottom, one- 
sixth is prairie and barrens, the balance is uplands, tim- 
bered principally with oak, walnut, poplar, ash, pecan, 
beech and sugar. The soil on the barrens is mostly 
poor; on the prairie and timbered land it is rich and 
well adapted to corn, wheat and grass. The surplus 
products shipped down the Wabash and Bussero creek 
are corn 150,000 bushels, wheat 20,000, oats 10,000, hay 
100 tons, and 10,000 hogs, 1,500 cattle, and 600 horses 
and mules, estimated at $150,000 annually. 

There are in the county 11 grist mills, nine saw mills, 
four carding machines, 16 stores, four lawyers, 17 physi- 
cians, 20 preachers, 20 blacksmiths, 30 carpenters/ 10 
coopers, five saddlers, 17 shoemakers, 11 Methodist, three 
Presbyterian, two Baptist and three Reformers' churches. 

The taxable land amounts to 168,129 acres, and about 
70,000 acres still belong to the United States, of which at 
least half is of a very poor quality. 

The first settlement in the county was made near Car- 
lisle, in 1803, by Capt. Wm. Price, and next year came 
the Ledgerwoods, Holders, Purcells, Haddons, Barrier, 
&c. Coal is found in abundance, and Sullivan ought to 
be among the richest counties in the State. 

Sullivan, the Seat of Justice of the county of the 
same name was laid out in 1842. It contains the Court 
House, Jail, County Seminary, Churches for the Metho- 
dists and Reformers, and 400 inhabitants. It is 10 miles 
north of Carlisle and 30 south of Terre Haute. 

Swan, a south-east township in Noble, population 
560. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 397 

Swan Pond, a small lake near Washington, in Daviess 
county, one and a-half miles long and half a mile wide. 
It abounds with fish. It is fed by springs, and in high 
water by White river. 

Switzerland County, organized in 1S14, derives its 
name from a settlement of Swiss, who came within the 
bounds of the present county in 1802, and commenced 
the cultivation of the grape there. It is bounded north 
by Ripley and Ohio counties, east and south by the Ohio 
river, and west by Jefferson, and it contains about 225 
square miles. The civil townships are Craig, Jefferson, 
York and Posey, on the Ohio, Cotton in the north, and 
Pleasant in the north-west. The population in 1830 
was 7,111, in 1840, 9,920, and at this time is about 14,000. 
As the Ohio river borders on the county 36 miles, there 
are many large and fine bottoms which are mostly rich 
and well cultivated. Back of these for an average dis- 
tance of three miles, the river hills rise from 400 to 500 
feet, and are interrupted at short distances by precipi- 
tous ravines. The timber and soil are, however, of a 
superior quality, and where the hills are not too steep to 
be farmed, first rate crops are produced. Farther back 
from the river the ravines disappear, and a high table 
land is reached, more clayey, yet well adapted to grass 
and small grain, and with proper cultivation, suited to 
any crop common to the climate. There are some of 
the best farms in the State in Switzerland, and every 
year large quantities of produce are shipped to the south 
from the numerous landings on the river. 

There are in the county 10 grist mills, 15 saw mills, 
of which about half are propelled by steam the others by 
water, 40 stores, 20 groceries, 20 ware-houses, one print- 
ing office, 10 lawyers, 30 physicians, 25 preachers, and 
the usual proportion of mechanics. In the towns there 
are 12 Methodist churches, two for the Presbyterians, 
two for the Baptists, and one for the Universalians, be- 
sides others in the country. The taxable land amounts to 
143,016 acres. There is none yet belonging to the 
United States. 



398 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

John James Dufour was the enterprising leader of the 
Swiss Colony before referred to. By his indefatigable 
exertions, a grant of land was procured from the United 
States to him and his little colony on a long credit, and 
by this means about 200 acres of land was procured for 
each of the original settlers. They were industrious and 
prudent, and they and their posterity have generally been 
prosperous. See Vevay. 

Sycamore Creek, a mill stream in Morgan county, 
runs south into White river near Martinsville. 

Tanners' Creek rises in the north part of Dearborn 
and runs south-east into the Ohio river near Lawrence- 
burgh. By following the bed of this creek, an easy access 
for a railroad may be had to the table land in the interior 
of the State. 

Taylor, a southern township in Harrison, population 
S50. 

Taylor, an eastern township in Howard, population 
300. 

Taylor, a northern township in Owen, first settled in 
1818, by B. Truax, A. Cormack, D. Hartsock, and J. 
Lockridge, population 600, contains 15 square miles. 

Templeton's Creek, a tributary of the East Fork of 
White Water, in Franklin county, from the north-east. 

Terre Haute, the seat of justice of Vigo county, 
situated on a high bank of the Wabash, from 50 to 60 
feet above the river, and 15 or 20 feet above Fort Harrison 
Prairie in the rear of the town. The name in French 
means high land, and the situation is a very pleasant one, 
presenting fine views of the bottoms across the river, and 
of the rich and well cultivated prairie on the east, 15 
miles long and three wide. The site of Terre Haute was 
purchased at the sale of lands in 1816, and the town laid 
out by an association of five individuals, viz: Messrs. C. 
and T. Bullitt of Louisville, J. Lindley of Paoli, Gen. 
Lasselle of Vincennes, and Maj. Markle of Ft. Harrison. 
The population in 1830 was 600, in 1834 it was estima- 
ted at 900, and it is now about 3,500. Among the public 
buildings are spacious and .convenient churches, for the 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 399 

Methodists, Congregationalists, Presbyterians, Episcopa- 
lians, Catholics, Baptists, Universalists, and Lutherans, 
a fine court-house, a town hall, a branch of the State 
Bank, a large and well finished county seminary, and 
several spacious and well kept hotels, and the dwelling 
houses amount to over 600, of which about one-half are 
brick, and many are built with much taste. The retail 
stores and groceries are about 60 in number, and at least 
30,000 hogs are annually slaughtered and packed at Terre 
Haute. The Wabash and Erie canal is now completed 
to the town, and the railroad progressing with much 
spirit towards Indianapolis and Richmond will add much 
to its business and importance. 

Tiiorntown, a pleasant village in Boone county, nine 
miles north-west of Lebanon, on the rail-road route from 
Lafayette to Indianapolis, 26 miles from the former and 
36 from the latter. It was an Indian town in the centre 
of the Thorntown or 10 mile reservation, first settled by 
the whites in 1830. The population is now about 400. 
It has four churches, one each for the N. S. Presbyterians, 
O. S. Presbyterians, iMethodists, and Christians. The 
water power on Sugar and Prairie creeks, and the fine 
soil in the vicinity must make Thorntown an important 
point. 

Thorn Creek, a northern township in Whitley, popu- 
lation 300. It contains three lakes, covering near 1,000 
acres of land, known as the Thorn Creek lakes. 

Tippecanoe County, organized in 1826, was named 
from the river of that name, and is bounded north by 
White and Carroll, east by Carroll and Clinton, south by 
Montgomery, and west by Fountain, Warren, and Ben- 
ton. It is 24 miles long from north to south, and 21 
wide, and contains 504 square miles. The civil town- 
ships are Washington, Perry, Sheffield, and Laurimie on 
the east, Tippecanoe, Wabash, Fairfield, and Randolph 
through the centre, and Shelby, Wayne, and Jackson in 
the west. The population in 1830 was 7,167, in 1840, 
13,724, and at this time about 21,000. 

The surface of the county in most parts of it is com- 



400 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

paratively level. There are however along the Wabash 
and its tributaries many ranges of hills from 50 to 200 
feet in height, that spread out into table lands and present 
much beautiful scenery. About 150,000 acres, or nearly 
one-half the county, is prairie. Nearly one-tenth or 
2S,000 acres is bottom land, and the balance is timbered 
upland, mostly of a good quality. The soil of the prairie 
consists of a rich, black loam, from two to four feet in 
depth, on a substratum of clay. The Wea plains and 
Pretty prairie are however exceptions, for there the soil 
is light and sandy, based on a bed of sand and gravel of 
great depth. Some of the oak barrens have an inferior 
quality of soil, but generally in the timbered lands it is 
of an excellent quality. Agriculture is in a flourishing 
condition. The prairies are mostly dry; many of them 
are beautifully undulating. They are easily put into 
cultivation, and adapted to the use of labor saving ma- 
chines, for planting, mowing, reaping, raking, &c, and 
large crops are raised with but little comparative trouble, 
and the opening of the canal and improvement of the 
navigation of the Wabash have created a regular demand 
for the staples of the county, such as wheat, corn, oats, 
pork, beef, &c. The surplus articles exported in a year, 
of which about four-fifths come from this county, have 
been estimated at $1,073,000. They consisted of pork, 
15,199 bbls; flour, 30,365; whiskey, 3,113; bacon, lard, 
and bulk pork, 864,486 lbs.; wool, 71,706 lbs.; 810 tons of 
hemp, hay and miscellaneous freight; 377,900 bushels of 
wheat, 874,106 of corn, 32,350 of oats, 16,599 of rye, 
flaxseed, &c, 1,200 head of cattle, 300 sheep, and 325 
horses and mules. 

There are in the county 13 merchant mills, six grist 
mills, 20 saw mills, four woolen factories, two paper 
mills, three printing offices, two foundries, 84 stores, 14 
warehouses, two packing houses, two slaughtering houses,, 
28 lawyers, 53 plysicians, 37 preachers of the gospel, 190 
carpenters, 53 masons and plasterers, 25 cabinet makers, 
52 coopers, eight boat builders, 20 wagon makers, wheel- 
wrights, and turners, three millwrights, 13 printers and 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 401 

book binders, 64 shoemakers and sadlers, 60 blacksmiths 
and coppersmiths, 20 tailors, and 55 other mechanics of 
various trades. See Lafayette. 

The taxable land in the county amounts to 305,425 
acres. The situation, size, rich soil, abundant water pow- 
er, and other natural advantages of Tippecanoe county, 
together with the enterprise of its citizens, will insure its 
being in most respects the most important county in the 
State. The canal can now bring coal. The railroads to 
Indianapolis and Crawfordsville, rapidly progressing, will 
vastly increase the business and wealth of the county ; 
and other important railroads, both north and west, will 
doubtless be commenced and completed at not a distant 
day. This county has been the theatre of many inter- 
esting events. It seems to have been the favorite resi- 
dence of many of the Indian tribes, and their largest 
towns, the Jesuit Missions, the best cultivated fields, and 
most important improvements were here. 

Tippecanoe Lake, a sheet of water abounding in fish, 
at the head of the river, three miles long and two wide, 
partly in Whitley and partly in Noble. 

Tippecanoe, a western township in Carroll, population 
1250. 

Tippecanoe River rises in the lake of that name, and 
pursues a western direction about 60 milles in a straight 
line, then south 50 miles, and falls into the Wabash nine 
miles above Lafayette. As its course is very crooked its 
whole length must be at least 220 miles. It has its source 
in numerous lakes, so that the supply of water is constant. 
For at least 150 miles the width is 60 yards, and the 
current lively and three feet deep at all seasons. It was 
early called Keth-tippe-ce-nunk, which, it is said, means 
"Buffalo Fish." 

Th'pecanoe, a north-west township in Fulton. 

Tippecanoe, an eastern township in Kosciusko. 

Tippecanoe, a south-east township in Marshall, popu- 
lation 275. 

Tippecanoe, a township in Pulaski. 

Tippecanoe, a northern township in county of same 
name, population 1600. 



402 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Tipton County, organized in 1844, was named i 



in 



honor of Gen. John Tipton, a distinguished citizen of the 
State, and a Senator in Congress from 1832 until his 
death in 1839. It is bounded north by Howard, east by 
Grant and Madison, south by Hamilton, and west by 
Clinton, and it contains 260 square miles. The civil 
townships are Madison, Jefferson, Cicero, Prairie, and 
Wild Cat. The population is at this time about 3,000. 
The face of the country is level, the soil excellent, and 
the timber of a superior quality. The water privileges 
will not be good, as this county is on a plain from which 
the streams rise and run south into White river, west 
into the lower Wabash, and north into the upper Wabash 
and the Mississinewa. 

Tipton county constituted a part of the Miami reser- 
vation, and has only recently come into market and been 
offered for sale. It is now settling with great rapidity. 
The taxable land amounts 53,253 acres. 

Tipton, the county seat of Tipton county, first called 
Canton, was laid out in 1845 by Newton J. Jackson. It 
is situated on a branch of Cicero creek on the railroad 
from Peru to Indianapolis. It contains at this time about 
35 houses and a population of 200, and is rapidly im- 
proving. 

Tipton, an interior township in Cass, population 550. 

Tiptonsport, a small town in Carroll county on the 
east bank of the Wabash, six miles north of Delphi. 

Tobinsport, a small town on the Ohio river in Perry 
county, 11 miles below Rome, population 50. 

Treaty Creek, a mill stream in Wabash county. 

Trout Creek, a mill stream in Elkhart county. 

Troy, a north-east township in DeKalb, population 
220. 

Troy, a western township in Fountain, population 
2,500. 

Troy, a south-west township in Perrv, population 
1,300. 

Troy, a pleasant village on the Ohio in Perry county, 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 403 

at the mouth of Anderson river, first settled in 1811. 
The population is 250. 

Troy, a north-west township in Whitley, population 
650. 

Truitt's Grotto, a cavern in Monroe county that 
attracts the attention of visiters. 

Turkey Creek, a valuable mill stream that rises in 
Kosciusko and runs north into the Elkhart at Waterloo. 

Turkey Creek, a north-east township in Kosciusko. 

Turkey Lake, the head of Turkey creek, is a body of 
water near 12 miles in length, and covering about 5,000 
acres, in the north-east corner of Kosciusko. There is 
a very valuable water privilege at the outlet, at which 
improvements have been commenced, but they may be 
immensely increased. 

Turkey Creek Prairies, in the same county, and 
comprising about 6,000 acres, all in cultivation, are 
thought to be about the richest tracts of land in the 
State. 

Turman's Creek, a mill stream in Sullivan county that 
runs south-west into the Wabash, six miles above Me- 
rom. Its current is sluggish, and it is navigable in high 
water. 

Turman, a western township in Sullivan, population 
1200. 

Turman's Prairie is in the north-west part of Sullivan 
county. 

Turtle Creek runs south into the Wabash four miles 
below Merom. 

Twelve Mile or Kirk's Prairie is about 12 miles in 
length and averages four in breadth, in Clinton county, 
a rich body of land. 

Twin Creek, in Washington county, runs north-west 
into White river four miles above Bono. 

Twin Lakes, in Marshall county west of Plymouth, on 
the outlet of which are iron works. 

Twin Lakes, small sheets of water near the centre of 
Cass county. 

Union County, organized in 1821, derived its name 



404 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

from the hope that it would harmonize the difficulties 
that existed in relation to the county seats, in Wayne 
and Fayette. It is bounded north by Wayne, east by the 
State of Ohio, south by Franklin, and west by Fayette. 
Union county is 14 miles from north to south, and 12 
miles wide. The civil townships are Centre, Union, 
Harmony, Liberty, Brownsville, and Harrison. The 
population in 1830 was 7,957, in 1840 8,027, and at this 
time about 8,500. The eastern part of the county is 
level, the western undulating or hilly, about one-eighth 
is bottom, the other seven-eighths timbered upland, on 
which beech, sugar-tree, poplar, oak, walnut, ash, and 
hickory were originally the most common forest trees. 
The soil is uniformly good and well adapted to corn, 
wheat, oats, grass, &c; and hogs, cattle, sheep and horses 
are raised on almost every farm beyond the demand for 
home consumption. The annual value of the surplus 
exported is estimated at $200,000. There are in the 
county 16 grist mills, 21 saw mills, two oil mills, four 
woolen factories, 25 stores, two lawyers, 10 physicians, 
11 ministers of the gospel, 10 Methodist churches, three 
for Presbyterians, two for Christians, two for Baptists, 
two for the Reformers, two for the Friends, one for the 
Associate Reformed, and one for Universalists. At least 
40 common schools are kept up six months in the year, 
at which from 1,200 to 1,500 scholars attend, and the 
school houses are mostly comfortable buildings. 

The county seminary at Liberty is flourishing, and all 
the branches preparatory to a college education are 
taught there. The taxable land amounts to 104,293 
acres. 

Union, a north-east township in Adams, population 
300. 

Union, a western township in Bartholomew, popula- 
tion 600. 

Union, an eastern township in Boone, population 1,350. 

Union, a western township in Crawford. 

Union, a northern township in Delaware. 

Union, a central township in DeKalb, population 550. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 405 

Union, a southern township in Elkhart, population 
360. 

Union, a small town in Brookville township, Franklin 
county. 

Union, a western township in Fulton. 

Union, a southern township in Grant, population 600. 

Union, an interior township in Hancock, population 
4S0. 

Union, an eastern township in Huntington, population 
200. 

Union, a western township in Johnson, population 
1,200. 

Union, a south-east township in Laporte, population 
S15. 

Union, an eastern township in Madison. 

Union, a south-west township in Marshall, population 
280. 

Union, a northern township in Miami, population 850. 

Union, an interior township in Montgomery, popula- 
tion 5,800. 

Union, a northern township in Ohio county, popula- 
tion 1,000. 

Union, an eastern township in Parke, population 1,250. 

Union, an interior township in Perry, population 1,000. 

Union, a western township in Porter, population 450. 

Union, an eastern township in Rush, population 1,800. 

Union, an eastern township in Shelby. 

Union, a southern township in St. Joseph. 

Union, a south-east township in Union, population 
1,512. 

Union, a southern township in Vanderburgh, popula- 
tion 750. 

Union, an eastern township in White, population 900. 

Union Mills, a small town on Pigeon river, Lagrange 
county. 

Uniontown, a small town in Wells county. 

Utica, a pleasant village on the Ohio river in Clark 
county, eight miles south of Charlestown and seven miles 
above the falls, population 300. 



406 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Utica, a south-east township in Clark, population 

1,500. 

Valonia, a small town in Jackson count} 7 , four miles 
south of Brownstown, laid out in 1810 by John McAfee, 
Thomas Ewing, and J. B. Durham. This was among 
the most exposed settlements during the late war, and 
the houses generally were prepared for defence in case of 
attacks from the Indians. The settlers were frequently 
called on to serve in the ranging service, and they never 
failed to be ready at the first summons. 

Valparaiso, the county seat of Porter, was first set- 
tled in 1836. It contains the court house, jail, three 
taverns, and Methodist and Presbyterian churches. It 
is 22 miles west south-west from Laporte, 22 south-west 
from Michigan City, 162 north-west from Indianapolis, 
and 50 south-east from Chicago. 

Van Buren, an unorganized township in Allen. 

Van Buren, a south-east township in Brown. 

Van Buren, a north-east township in Clay, population 
700. 

Van Buren, an eastern township in Daviess, popula- 
tion 650. 

Van Buren, a central township in Fountain, popula- 
tion 1,275. 

Van Buren, a north-east township in Grant, popula- 
tion 350. 

Van Buren, a northern township in Kosciusko. 

Van Buren, a north-west township in Lagrange, pop- 
ulation 600. 

Van Buren, a southern township in Laporte, popula- 
tion 105. 

Van Buren, a township in Madison. 

Van Buren, a western township in Monroe, population 
L300. 

Van Buren, a south-east township in Pulaski. 

Vanderburgh County, organized in 1818, was named 
in honor of Henry Vanderburgh, who had been a captain 
in the Revolution, a member of the Legislative Council 
of the North West Territory, and a judge of the first 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 407 

court ever formed in the Indiana Territory. It is bounded 
north by Gibson, east by Warrick, south by the Ohio 
river, and west by Posey, and it contains 240 square 
miles. The civil townships are Pigeon, Knight, Scott, 
Armstrong, Perry, Union, Centre, and German. The 
population in 1830 was 2,610, in 1840 6,250, and at this 
time it is near 12,000. 

About one-fifth part of the county is river bottoms, 
which have a very rich soil. A small portion of the resi- 
due is hilly, but it has mostly an undulating or rolling 
surface, and the soil is not of a rich quality. The bot- 
toms supply immense quantities of corn for exportation, 
estimated at 600,000 bushels annually, from Evansville 
alone; and wheat, oats, hay, various kinds of marketing, 
and hogs, cattle, and horses are exported from the county 
to the value of $750,000 annually, though other interior 
counties contribute largely to this amount. The trade 
of Evansville is very large, and will be immensely in- 
creased by the completion of the Wabash and Erie 
canal, which will take place in about two years, and 
will then afford an interior navigation of 459 miles. There 
are in Vanderburgh county 10 grist and saw mills, of 
which four only are propelled by water, about 1C0 stores, 
groceries, and warehouses, three printing offices, at each 
of which are issued daily papers, 15 lawyers, 16 physi- 
cians, 13 preachers of the gospel, and a great variety of 
mechanical and manufacturing laborers, encouraged by 
the abundance of coal in the vicinity, and the demand of 
a large region of productive country which comes here 
for its supply. In attempting to bore for salt water nenr 
Evansville a valuable medicinal spring has been dis- 
covered, which is now much visited by valetudinarians. 
Vanderbugh county has 31 district and six private schools, 
at which 2,767 students attend. The taxable land amounts 
to 137,019 acres. 

Veal's Creek runs west into the west fork of White 
river in the south west part of Daviess county. 

Veale, a south-west township in Daviess, population 
840. 



408 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Vermillion County, organized in 1824, derives its 
name from Vermillion river, that flows through it. It is 
bounded north by Warren, east by the Wabash, which 
separates it from Fountain and Parke, South by Vigo, 
and west by the State of Illinois. It is 37 miles in length 
and averages seven in breadth, and contains about 260 
square miles. The civil townships are Highland, Eugene, 
Vermillion, Helt, and Clinton. The population in 1830 
was 5,706, in 1840,8,274, and at this time about 11,000. 
One-fourth of the county is prairie, the surface of the 
country is high and generally level, except near the 
streams. The soil is generally excellent, and some of 
the best farms in the State are to be found here. Among 
the surplus articles exported are 25,000 hogs, 200,000 
bushels of corn, 40,000 of wheat 100,000 of oats, and 
hay, staves, hoop-poles, and various kinds of marketing, 
which, with cattle and horses, amount in all to about 
$300,000 annually. There are usually 250 flat boats 
built, loaded and sent off every year. There are in the 
county five large flouring mills, three propelled by steam 
and two by water, besides other smaller ones, 17 dry 
good stores, one drug store, five liquor stores, five lawyers, 
23 physicians, 14 preachers of the gospel, one printing 
office, two distilleries, and schools in most of the districts 
a portion of the year. Coal is abundant in the county, 
and extensive beds of iron ore are found in the region of 
the "Indiana Furnace" on Brouillet's Creek. The taxable 
land amounts to 152,652 acres. 

Vermillion River, or Big Vermillion, rises in Illinois 
and runs into the Wabash near Eugene. It may be nav- 
igated in high water to Danville, 30 miles, where the 
north, middle, and south forks unite, each of which is 
from 50 to 60 miles in length. 

Vermillion River, or Little Vermillion, also rises in 
Illinois, and falls into the Wabash near Newport. It is 
a good mill stream. 

Vermillion, the middlle township in the county of the 
same name, extends from the Wabash to the State line, 
population 2,000. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 409 

Vermont, a small town on Wild Cat, in Howard 
county. 

Vernon, a north-west township in Hancock, popula- 
tion 650. 

Vernon, The Seat of Justice of Jennings county, was 
laid out in 1S15, by Col. John Vawter, and the first set- 
tlers were himself and Achilles Vawter. It is situated 
on the Madison and Indianapolis Railroad, 22 miles from 
the former and 66 from the latter, opposite the junction 
of the north and south Forks of Muscackituck. The 
former stream nearly encircles the town, leaving only a 
narrow neck on the north-west. The situation is ro- 
mantic and beautiful. Vernon has 35 brick, and 65 
frame houses, and 520 inhabitants. 

Vernon, a central township in Jennings, population 
2,250. 

Vernon, a south-east township in Jackson, population 
700. 

Vernon, a western township in Washington. 

Versailles, the County Seat of Ripley, is siuated on 
a high bluff of Laughery, 70 miles south-east of Indian- 
apolis, 27 north of Vevay, and 26 north-east of Madi- 
son. It was first settled in 1818 by J. Bentley, C. Good- 
rich, J. Lindsay, C. Gverturf, J. Hunter, W. Skeene, Dr. 
Fox, M. S. Craig and others. It contains 27 brick and 
38 frame houses, and a population of 350. 

Vevay, the Seat of Justice of Switzerland county, is 
situated on a beautiful bottom on the Ohio river, 70 miles 
below Cincinnati and the same distance above Louisville, 
and 96 south-east of Indianapolis. It constitutes a part of 
the tract of land sold on credit by the United States to 
the Swiss settlement, in 1802, for the cultivation of the 
vine. The town was laid out in 1813, by the brothers 
J. J., J. F. and Daniel Dufour, and received the name of 
a town in Switzerland from the vicinity of which they 
had emigrated. Vevay now contains over 200 houses, 
many of them built with much taste, and 1,200 inhabitants. 

Vienna, a small town in Rush county, eight miles east 
of Rushville. 
27 



410 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Vienna, a small town in Scott county, eight miles 
west from Lexington, population 100. 

Vienna, a south-west township in Scott, population 
1,350. 

Vigo County, organized in ISIS, was named in honor 
of Col. Francis Vigo, originally a Sardinian, the efficient 
friend of Gen. Clark in the capture of Vincennes, and 
afterwards a most worthy and hospitable citizen there. 
It is bounded north by Vermillion and Parke, east by 
Clay, south by Sullivan, and west by the State of Illi- 
nois. It contains about 410 square miles. The civil 
townships are Harrison, Sugar Creek, Prairie Creek, 
Otter Creek, Linton, Nevins, Pierson, Fayette, Honey 
Creek, Lost Creek and Riley. The population in 1830 
was 5,737, in 1S40, 12,076, and at this time it is about 
16,500. 

The surface of the country is either level or gently 
undulating, and consists principally of very fine timbered 
lands, interspersed with beautiful prairies, mostly small, 
though three of them, Fort Harrison, Honey Creek and 
Otter Creek, contain from 10,000 to 20,000 acres each, 
and are all in a good state of cultivation. With the ex- 
ception of a few poor barrens, the whole county is rich 
land, and when properly farmed, produces large crops of 
corn, wheat, oats, grass, and all such articles as are 
adapted to the climate. 

It is estimated that the surplus pork raised for exporta- 
tion in the county amounts to $150,000 annually, the 
grain $70,000, caUle $20,000, besides a large amount of 
other articles. 

There are in Vigo county 12 grist mills, IS saw mills, 
40 large retail stores, 20 others with limited assortments, 
three printing offices, a recently erected Seminary for a 
male and female school of a high order, churches for the 
Congregationalists, Methodists, Presbyterians, Episcopa- 
lians, Baptists, Lutherans, Universalists and Roman 
Catholics, and there are 15 lawyers, 20 physicians, and 
25 preachers of the gospel, and the usual proportion of 
mechanics. Coal is found in abundance, and of a good 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 415 

quality. Freestone is found on the banks of the river 
and of some of the smaller streams, and limestone in 
the timbered lands, but there are no stone on the prai- 
ries. The fine soil and situation of the county, the open- 
ing of the Wabash and Erie Canal, and of the eastern 
and western railroad through it, both of which are now 
progressing with much spirit, the enterprise of its citizens 
and other advantages possessed there, must, at no distant 
day, make Vigo one of the most important points in the 
west. 220,200 acres of land are assessed for taxation. 

Village Creek, a mill stream in Fayette county, runs 
into the west fork of White Water from the east. 

Vincennes, the Seat of Justice of Knox county, is 
situated on the east bank of the Wabash in north latitude 
38 deg. 42 min. and in west longitude 10 deg. 28 min., 
and is 120 miles south-west of Indianapolis, 56 north of 
Evansville, 60 south of Terre Haute, 160 east of St. 
Louis, 110 west north-west of Louisville, and 168 in a 
straight line west south-west of Cincinnati. 

There is more of historical interest about this place 
than in relation to any other in the State, and in fact its 
history comprises that of the Indiana Territory mainly, 
until the removal of the Seat of Government to Cory- 
don in 1813. It was first known when a Piankeshaw 
village by the name Chippe Coke, or Brushwood. It 
was then called Post St. Vincent, or Au Post, or Vin- 
senne, and finally Vincennes. This name was given as 
early as 1749, in honor of F. M. De Vinsenne, a brave 
and gallant French officer, who fell in a battle with the 
Chickasaws in the year 1736. See the first part under 
the head History, as to early proceedings in Vincennes. 
In 1798, the population was all of French extraction ex- 
cept twelve families, and though now they are much in 
the minority, their numbers are still considerable, and 
many of them are respectable and prosperous. 

The situation of Vincennes is very fine, and a large 
portion of the country around it is very fertile. The 
Roman Catholics are numerous in the vicinity, the Cathe- 
dral is spacious and well finished, and the Bishop hav- 



416 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

ing charge of the State as a Diocess, takes his title from 
Yincennes. The Presbyterians, Methodists, Episcopalians, 
Christians and Africans have also flourishing churches. 
One of the branches of the State Bank is located at Vin- 
cennes. The City Hall is a commodious building. There 
are in the town about 400 houses and 2,000 inhabitants, 
and the prospects are now more favorable for its steady 
growth and permanent prosperity than at any time for 
many years past. Two of the citizens, D. S. Bonner and 
H. I). Wheeler have now for about 20 years been exten- 
sively engaged in manufactures, sometimes with much 
success, and occasionally encountering difficulties, but 
never discouraged. 

The unpretending but energetic devotion to business 
and encouragement of industry by such persons is wor- 
thy of all praise. There are two printing offices in Vin- 
cennes which publish Weekly Newspapers. One of 
them, the Western Sun, was conducted by E. Stout for 
about 40 years, and until the last five years. See the 
articles in the first part of this Book as to the Catholics 
and as to Colleges, and also the heads Ohio and Missis- 
sippi Raifroad, and "Wabash Navigation Company. In 
regard to both these matters, the citizens of Vincennes 
appear not only able to talk, but willing to act. 

Vincennes, a western township in Knox, embracing 
the county seat. 

Wabash Navigation Company. This company was 
chartered by acts of the Legislatures of Indiana and Illi- 
nois, the former passed in 1846 and the latter in 1847, 
by which liberal provisions were granted by the two 
States to a company that might be organized for improv- 
ing the navigation of the Wabash, and for the use of the 
hydraulic power to be obtained by the improvement. 
Stock books were accordingly opened in May, 1847, and 
$74,350 of stock was subscribed as follows: at Vin- 
cennes $49,550, Terre Haute $1,000, Lafayette $2,600, 
Mt. Carmel $10,700, Lawrenceville $4,250, Palestine 
$2,500, York $3,750. The Company has been organized 
and the work is progressing rapidly towards completion. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 419 

The officers are A. T. Ellis, President, Wm. Burtch, 
Tho. Bishop, H. D. Wheeler, Joshua Beal, Samuel Wise 
and J. G. Bowman, Directors; John Ross, Secretary and 
Treasurer, and Sylvanus Lothrop, Engineer. The ob- 
ject of the Company is first to surmount the difficulties 
in the way of Steamboat navigation at Grand Rapids, 
Hanging Rock, Ramsey's Ripple and Little Rock, where 
an aggregate fall of ten feet, over a substratum of sand- 
stone rock, produces, in low water, strong ripples or slight 
falls, and by imparting an increased velocity to the cur- 
rent, has worn away the banks and enlarged the water 
way, so as to reduce the depth far below the requirements 
of navigation. A dam of 11 feet and a lock 250 feet long 
and 50 wide will, with the use of machinery contrived lor 
the purpose, enable large Steamboats to pass through in 
about five minutes. When this work is completed, a 
few other points in the Wabash will require to be deep- 
ened at an expense estimated not to exceed $10,000, and 
that stream will then be equal to the Upper Ohio in a 
low stage of water. This work will contribute largely 
to develop the resources of the Wabash valley, a tract of 
country susceptible of vast and varied improvements. 
The water power, when the dam is erected, must, if pro- 
perly improved, be of immense value. 

Wabash River, rises in the State of Ohio, where its 
tributaries interlock with those of the Miami and St. 
Mary's. It runs first north, then north-west, then west, 
and then south-west, until it falls into the Ohio 140 miles 
from its entrance into the Mississippi. Its whole length 
exceeds 500 miles, and there is but a very small portion 
of the distance that does not present an inviting soil to 
the agriculturist. Its principal tributaries from the south 
and east are the Salamonie, Mississinewa, Deer Creek, 
Wild Cat, Coal Creek, Sugar Creek, Rackoon, White 
River, and Patoka. From the north and west come 
Little, Eel, Tippecanoe, Vermillion, Embarras and Little 
Wabash rivers, besides several smaller streams. 

The name in French was Ouabache, and this stream 
appears to have been discovered before the Oh'o, and in 



420 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

maps before the year 1730; the Ohio at its mouth was 
called the Ouabache. Settlements were made at a very 
early period at Vincennes and at the mouth of the Wea 
or Ouiatenon, where the Jesuits had their missions and 
schools, and the bark canoes of the Indians and French,, 
at certain seasons of the year, passed from Lake Erie to 
the Mississippi, by the way of the Maumee, a short port- 
age to Little river and the Wabash. 

Wabash County, organized in 1835 7 was named from 
its situation on the principal river in the State. It is 
bounded north by Kosciusko, east by Whitley and Hunt- 
ington, south by Grant and Miami and west by Miami,, 
and it contains 426 square miles. The civil townships 
are Chester and Pleasant in the north, Lagro and Noble 
in the centre, and Liberty and Watts in the south. The 
population in 1840 was 2,756; at this time it is esti- 
mated at about 14,000. 

There are no high or steep hills in the county, though 
the land is rolling or undulating near the Mississinewa, 
Salamonie, Wabash and Eel rivers, and their numerous 
branches. At the heads of the streams the land is gene- 
rally level, and there are many large bottoms on the 
sivers of the same character; but as a whole, the face of 
the country of Wabash county is very pleasantly diver-* 
sified. North of Eel river are about 40 sections of bar- 
rens, intermixed with small prairies; the bottoms are at 
least 75 sections, the balance is heavy timbered forest 
land. The settlements in general are so recent that the 
surplus products exported give but little evidence of what 
the county is capable of producing. They have not 
heretofore exceeded $65,000 a year. Within five years 
they will probably be five-fold that amount. 

There are in the county seven grist mills, 13 saw mills, 
31 stores, eight groceries, 10 ware-houses, one printing 
office, nine lawyers, 21 physicians, 12 preachers, II 
churches, of which three belong to the Methodists, two 
to the Christians, three to the Baptists, two to the Pres- 
byterians, and one to the Catholics. The mechanics are 
60 carpenters, 40 shoemakers, 12 Blacksmiths, 15 tailors, 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 421 

eight cabinet-makers, four chair-makers, two wheel- 
wrights, three mill-wrights and three wagon-makers. 
The taxable land amounts to 217,029 acres. 

Wabash, the Seat of Justice of the county of the 
same name, is situated on the north bank of the river, 90 
miles north-east of Indianapolis, 48 south-west of Fort 
Wayne, and 32 east of Logansport. It was first settled 
in 1835. The situation is very pleasant, partly on the 
first and partly on the second bottom, elevated near 40 
feet above the first. It contains about 200 houses of 
which one-fourth are brick, and 1,000 inhabitants. 

Wabash, a southern township in Adams, population 
375. 

Wabash, a western township in Fountain, population 
1,250. 

Wabash, a western township in Gibson, population 
350. 

Wabash, a north-east township in Jay, first settled in 
1830 by O. Perry, population 300. 

Wabash, a western township in Parke, population 
1,050. 

Wabash, an interior township in Tippecanoe, popula- 
tion 1,100. 

Walker, a western township in Rush, population 
1,200. 

Walnut Fork of Eel river, rises in the south-west 
part of Boone, runs through Putnam and joins Mill 
creek, or the main branch of Eel, in Clay county. 

Walnut Fork, a large tributary of Sugar creek from 
the east, that falls into it near Crawfordsville. 

Walnut, an eastern township in Montgomery, popu- 
lation 1,050. 

Warren County, organized in 1828, was named in 
honor of Gen. Joseph Warren, of the revolution, who 
fell in the battle of Bunker's Hill. It is bounded north 
by Benton, east and south-east by Tippecanoe and Foun- 
tain, south by Vermillion, and west by the State of Illi- 
nois, and it contains about 360 square miles. The civil 
townships are Medina and Pine in the north, Mound and 



422 



INDIANA GAZETTEER. 



Steuben in the south, and Warren, Washington, Liberty, 
and Pike in the centre. The population in 1830 was 
2,834, in 1840, 5,646, and at this time is about 8,000. 

On the river there is an average width of bottom for 
half a mile, then come the bluffs from 60 to 200 feet in 
height, very much broken and precipitous, then follows a 
gently ascending and undulating surface to the Illinois 
line. The strip of timber along the river averages six 
miles in width, being much the heaviest near the river, 
and it runs out into points on the prairies along the bor- 
ders of the creeks, and there are also occasional groves 
in the prairies. At least half the county is prairie, con- 
sisting of arms of the Grand prairie, which have uni- 
formly a rich, loamy soil, generally sandy. About half 
the timbered land is either so hilly or so poor, as not to 
be profitable for farming; the balance of the timber land 
has a rich soil. 

The surplus products are wheat, corn, oats and grass, 
and pork, beef cattle, horses and m ules estimated to be worth 
$200,000 annually, and this amount must soon be largely 
increased. There are in the county 13 saw mills, six 
grist mills, three woollen factories, 14 stores, six ware- 
nouses, two groceries, five lawyers, 13 physicians, 14 
preachers of the gospel, 25 carpenters, 45 blacksmiths, 
15 saddlers, eight shoemakers, 25 tanners, 14 wagon- 
makers and eight cabinet-makers. There are also nine 
churches, of which four belong to the Methodists, two to 
the United Brethren, one to the Campbellites, one to the 
Baptists, and one to the Newlights. 

The taxable land in the county amounts to 179,893 
acres, and about 30,000 acres still belong to the United 
States. 

Near Williamsport is a remarkable fall. The water 
of Fall Branch is precipitated over a perpendicular rock 
70 feet, into a wild glen, surrounded with steep rocks, 
pine trees, &c. A pathway appears to have been made 
by some convulsion of nature, by which persons can de- 
scend in single file to a platform halfway down the pre- 
cipice, and there have a good view of the scene. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 423 

There is a Chalybeate spring in a deep ravine below 
Williamsport, much resorted to by invalids. The Grand 
prairie, and much other wild and romantic scenery within 
on hour's ride, must make this place very pleasant as an 
occasional residence. Schoonover's Hotel also affords 
other inducements. 

Warren, a northern township in Clinton, population 
750. 

Warren, a north-west township in Huntington, popu- 
tion 300. 

Warren, a small town on the Salamonie, in Hunting- 
ton county, 15 miles south of the county seat; popula- 
tion 150. 

Warren, an eastern township in Marion, population 
2,000. 

Warren, an interior township in Putnam. 

Warren, a small town in the north-west of St. Joseph 
county. 

Warren, an eastern township in the county of same 
name. 

Warrenton, a small town in Johnson township, Gib- 
son county. 

Warrington, nine miles north-east of Greenfield, in 
Hancock county. 

Warrick County was organized in 1813, and was 
named in honor of Capt. Jacob Warrick, a brave sol- 
dier and much respected citizen, who fell at the head 
of his company, in the battle of Tippecanoe. It is 
bounded north by Gibson and Pike, east by Spencer, 
south by the Ohio river, and west by Vanderburgh and 
Gibson. The contents are nearly 400 square miles. 
The civil townships are Boone, Ohio, Skelton, Anderson, 
Owen, Hart and Campbell. The population in 1S30 
was 2,973, in 1840, 6,321, and at this time near 10,000. 
The face of the country is mostly rolling or undulating, 
though there is a range of hills back of the river bot- 
toms, and there are large tracts of flat, wet land at the 
head of Pigeon and other creeks with which the county 
is watered. The soil of the bottoms, many of which 



424 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

are large, is very rich, and immense crops of corn are 
produced there. Much of the upland is of a good qua- 
lity, and more tobacco is raised in the county than in 
any other in the State, and the average crops of wheat, 
corn, oats, hay, are such as to afford annually a large 
surplus for exportation. 

Coal is found in abundance, but as yet it has not been 
used to much extent. The streams run sluggishly and 
afford but a small amount of water power. 

There are in the county five grist mills, three of which 
are propelled by steam, three steam saw mills, 30 stores 
and groceries, four lawyers, eight preachers and nine 
churches, of which six belong to the Methodists, two to 
the Cumberland Presbyterians, and one to the Congrega- 
tionalists. The Delany Academy, at Newburgh, has 
about 60 students, and schools are taught in most of the 
districts during winter, and in a portion of them through- 
out the year. 

The taxable land amounts to 144,630 acres, and near 
100,000 acres still belong to the United States. The 
largest portion of this, however, must be of but little 
value. 

Warsaw, the County Seat of Kosciusko, is beautifully 
situated on Tippecanoe river and near two of the fine 
lakes of which there are so many in that county. It 
contains good county buildings, two commodious churches 
and a population of 400. Warsaw is 110 miles east of 
north from Indianapolis, 38 north of west from Fort 
Wayne, and 40 north-east of Logansport. 

Washington County, organized in 1813, is bounded 
north by Jackson, east by Scott and Clark, south by 
Harrison and Crawford, and on the west by Orange and 
Lawrence. It contains about 510 square miles. The 
civil townships are Monroe and Gibson in the north, 
Franklin in the east, Washington central, Jackson in the 
south, and Posey, Vernon and Brown in the west. The 
population in 1830 was 13,072, in 1840, 15 ; 269, and at 
this time about 18,000. 
The county of Washington presents more variety of 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 425 

surface and soil than any other part of the State of equal 
size. The range of hills called the Knobs, described in 
the first part of this Book, passes along the east line of 
Washington, separating it from Clark and Scott, until 
they lose themselves in the bluffs of the Muscackituck 
and White river. In the south are extensive barrens, 
parts of which are thickly matted, almost, with brush 
and grubs ; other parts have wild grass only, and other 
parts are curiously diversified with sink holes, varying 
in shape and size, but all showing the cavernous nature 
of the earth underneath. In other parts of the county 
are swelling ridges ever changing their features as you 
advance along them, presenting beautiful groves of wal- 
nut, sugar tree or chestnut, and having a fine clay soil 
on a limestone basis. 

From 1820 to 1S30, the writer of this article occa- 
sionally passed through different parts of Washington 
county, and he still retains in his memory a vivid im- 
pression of the beauty of its scenery, the apparent 
healthiness of situation, and the taste and elegance with 
which many of the farms were laid out and improve- 
ments made, and he has no doubt that many beneficial 
changes in these matters have since taken place. He is 
aware, too, from general information, that manufactures 
have been established, that railroad schemes are agitated, 
that much that deserves praise has been done to promote 
education, and that the Presbyterians, Methodists, Friends, 
and other religious denominations, have enlarged their 
spheres of influence and activity; but he has been fur- 
nished with no statistics on these or any other subjects 
so far as Washington county is concerned, although his 
employer has attempted through various sources, ten 
times and again, to procure this information. The good 
people of Washington, Knox and Shelby, who are alike 
in this respect, seem to be too busy to answer inquiries. 

The taxable land amounts to 264,673 acres, and there 
must be still near 50,000 acres belonging to the United 
States, the most of which is probably very poor land. 
28 



426 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Washington, an interior township in Adams, popula- 
tion 700. 

Washington, an interior township in Allen, popula- 
tion 900. 

Washington, a north-west township in Blackford, 
population 350. 

Washington, a northern township in Boone, popula- 
tion 1,600. 

Washington, the central township in Brown. 

Washington, a township in Carroll, population 350. 

Washington, a southern township in Cass, pop. 5S0. 

Washington, an eastern township in Clay, population 
1,800. 

Washington, a western township in Clinton, popula- 
tion 1,000. 

Washington, a western township in Daviess, popula- 
tion 3,200. 

Washington, the Seat of Justice of Daviess county, 
is well situated, four miles east of White river, on the 
road from New Albany to Vincennes, 84 miles from the 
former and 20 from the latter, and 106 miles south-west 
of Indianapolis. The country around is fertile, rolling 
and pleasant. Washington was laid out in 1817, by 
Emanuel Vantrees and Peter Wilkins. It contains 20 
stores and groceries, 50 shops for various mechanics, 
three churches, three clergymen, four lawyers and eight 
physicians, good county buildings, the land office for the 
canal lands, and 1,400 inhabitants. 

Washington, the central township in Decatur, popu- 
lation 4,500. 

Washington, a north-west township in Delaware. 

Washington, a township in Elkhart, population 700, 

Washington, a northern township in Gibson, popula- 
tion 700. 

Washington, a northern township in Grant, popula- 
tion 750. 

Washington, a central township in Greene, population 
325. 

Washington, a western township in Hamilton. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 427 

Washington, a southern township in Harrison, popu- 
lation 1,100. 

Washington, an eastern township in Hendricks, popu- 
lation 1,370. 

Washington, an interior township in Jackson, popula- 
tion 900. 

Washington, a township in Kosciusko. 

Washington, a north-east township in Knox. 

Washington, a northern township in Marion, popula- 
tion 2,400. 

Washington, a southern township in Miami, popula- 
tion 850. 

Washington, a northern township in Monroe, popula- 
tion 960. 

Washington, a central township in Morgan, popula- 
tion 2,700. 

Washington, a south-west township in Noble, popula- 
tion 560. 

Washington, an interior township in Owen, popula- 
tion 1,550. 

Washington, an interior township in Parke, popula- 
tion 1,200. 

Washington, a northern township in Pike, population 
1,300. 

Washington, an eastern township in Porter, popula- 
tion 500. 

Washington, a south-west township in Putnam, con- 
tains 54 square miles. 

Washington, a southern township in Randolph, popu- 
lation 1,350. 

Washington, an eastern township in Ripley, popula- 
tion 900. 

Washington, a north-east township in Rush, popula- 
tion 1,500. 

Washington, a north-east township in Tippecanoe, 
population 1,050. 

Washington, an interior township in Warren. 

Washington, a central township in Washington. 

Washington, a south-west township in Wayne, popu- 
tion 2,700. 



428 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Washington, a southern township in Whitley, popu- 
lation 310. 

Watts, a southern township in Wabash, population 
400. 

Waterford, a manufacturing town in Elkhart county, 
on the river, two and half miles above Goshen, popula- 
tion 150. The Messrs. Hawks have a large flouring mill 
here, and there is also a distillery, saw mill, and carding 
machine. 

Waterloo, a north-east township in Favette, popula- 
tion 950. 

Waterloo, a small town east side of west fork of 
White Water, in same county. 

Waveland, a pleasant village in the south-west cor- 
ner of Montgomery county, 14 miles from Crawfords- 
ville, population 200. 

Waverly, a small town in the north-east corner of 
Morgan, on the east bank of White river at the feeder 
dam, 14 miles from Martinsville and 17 from Indian- 
apolis. 

Wayne County, organized in 1810, was named in 
honor of Gen. Anthony Wayne. It contains 400 square 
miles and is bounded north by Randolph, east by the 
State of Ohio, south by Union and Fayette, and west 
by Fayette and Henry. It is divided into 14 civil town- 
ships, viz. Wayne, Centre, Jackson, Boston, Washington, 
New Garden, Franklin, Jefferson, Clay, Abington, Dal- 
ton, Green, Harrison and Perry. The population in 
1830 was 23,344, in 1840, 23,290, and at this time it ex- 
ceeds 30,000. The south-east part of the county is 
somewhat hilly, but the most of the land is pleasantly 
rolling. The two forks of White Water, fed by numerous 
branches, pass through the whole county from north to 
south, and supply abundant water power to every part 
of it. Between these streams, usually from one to four 
miles apart, the land swells gradually, so that from the 
summits in each direction the most delightful prospects 
are everywhere presented. The forests have disappeared 
except such as have been reserved for timber, and at 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS 429 

least three-fifths of the county is in cultivation. The 
soil is generally a rich loam, bedded on clay, with a light 
mixture of sand and lime-stone commonly beneath, and 
is well adapted to wheat, corn and grass, and in fact, the 
abundance and variety of its productions are such that 
it can challenge competition with any part of the west. 
The natural advantages have been so well improved by 
skill and industry, that Wayne county is generally re- 
garded as a model for imitation to the farmers in other 
parts of the State. On many of the best farms it is 
customary to have one-fifth in wheat, an equal amount 
in oats, one-fourth in corn, and the balance in grass, 
principally clover. The surplus articles exported are 
flour, pork, beef, and marketing of various kinds sent to 
Cincinnati mostly, and horses, mules and cattle driven off, 
and their value has been estimated to amount to $400,000 
annually. There are on the east fork of White Water 
and its tributaries, 19 flouring mills, 21 saw mills, four 
woollen factories, two cotton factories, four oil mills, one 
paper mill, one peg factory, one foundry and several 
turning and carding machines, all driven by water, and 
there is about an equal amount of machinery on the 
other streams in the county. The manufacturing of 
carriages, wagons, and a great variety of machinery and 
farming utensils is carried on extensively at Richmond 
and other places, so as to supply the neighboring coun- 
ties; but it is not easy to for;n any correct estimate of 
their value. Among the establishments for education 
are the Friends' Boarding School, near Richmond, already 
described in first part of this Book, the " White Water 
School," organized by the Friends, in the suburbs of 
Richmond, which has about 60 students, the White Wa- 
ter Female College and White Water Academy, at Cen- 
treville, under the care of the Methodist Conference, 
which now has funds to place it on a permanent basis, 
and there are about 100 school districts in the county, in 
each of which there arc school houses. There are five 
printing offices in the county, each issuing weekly papers. 
The taxable land amounts to 253,483 acres. In exca- 



430 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

vating the cut for the National road through the bluffs 
on the west side of White Water, near Richmond, an 
excavation was found in the lime-stone rock across the 
road at nearly right angles, which had all the appear- 
ances of being a work of art. In depth and width it 
resembled a canal of the present day; its sides had the 
same shape, and appeared to have been washed by water 
for a long period. 

The tax paid by Wayne county annually exceeds that 
paid by 14 of the smaller counties. 

Wayne, an interior township in Allen, population 
6,000. 

Wayne, a southern township in Bartholomew, popula- 
tion 1,200. 

Wayne, a township in Fulton. 

Wayne, an eastern township in Hamilton. 

Wayne, a southern township in Henry. 

Wayne, a south-west township in Huntington, popula- 
tion 300. 

Wayne, a township in Kosciusko. 

Wayne, a western township in Marion, population 
2,600. 

Wayne, a township in Montgomery, population 1,000. 

Wayne, an eastern township in Noble, population 
570. 

Wayne, a north-east township in Owen, containing 18 
square miles, population 1,300, first settled in 1818, by 
A. Alexander, D. Lukinbill, J. Sandy and E. Goss. 

Wayne, a township in Randolph, population 1,000. 

Wayne, a western township in Tippecanoe, population 
2,200. 

Wayne, an eastern township in Wayne, population 
5,500. 

Wea Creek rises near the south line of Tippecanoe 
county, and runs nearly north into the Wabash, four 
miles below Lafayette. It is an excellent and never fail- 
ing mill stream. 

Wea Prairie, or Wea Plains, cover more than a 
township of excellent land just below r the mouth of the 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 431 

creek. Or the opposite side of the river was the Indian 
town, Ouiatenon, and the site of the Jesuit missions, once 
so flourishing. Here, too, were the most extensive im- 
provements ever made by the Indians in the State, of 
which scarce a trace now remains. For richness of soil 
and beauty of natural situation, no place in the State, or 
perhaps in the west, can compare with the Wea plains. 

Wells County was named in honor of Capt. Wm. 
H.' Wells, of Fort Wayne, who was killed by the In- 
dians on the 15th August, 1S12, near Chicago, in an at- 
tempt to escort the garrison of Fort Dearborn to Fort 
Wayne. It was organized in 1837, and is bounded 
north by Allen, east by Adams, south by Jay and Black- 
ford and west by Grant and Huntington. It contains 
37"2 square miles. The civil townships are Jefferson, 
Lancaster, Harrison and Nottingham in the east, Chester 
in the south, and Union, Rock Creek, Liberty and Jack- 
son in the west. The population in 1840 was 1,S22, it 
is at this time about 4,500. 

The land is either nearly level or gently undulating, 
the soil uniformly good, the timber oak, walnut, ash, 
hickory, beech and sugar. With the exception of a few 
wet prairies and swamps that require to be drained, the 
whole county may be farmed to advantage in all the 
usual products of the climate. The settlements are 
mostly so recent that as yet no great amount of surplus 
is exported, but Fort Wayne is the principal market. 
There are in the county three grist mills, five saw mills, 
one woollen factory, one printing office, six stores, four 
groceries, two lawyers, six physicians, ten preachers of 
the gospel, the usual proportion of mechanics, and one 
church each for the Methodists, Presbyterians, United 
Brethren and Christians. 

The taxable land amounts to 199,637 acres, and there 
are about 4,000 acres of Indian Reserves and United 
States land in the county. 

Wesaw, a tributary of Eel river from the north, in 
Miami county. Wesaw, an Indian chief, once resided 
near its mouth. 



432 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

West Cheek, a mill stream in Lake county, runs south 
into the Kankakee. 

West River, also called the west fork of White Wa- 
ter, rises in Randolph, where it goes by the former name, 
and runs through Wayne, Fayette and Franklin, where 
it goes by the latter name. See White Water. 

West Chester, a northern township in Porter, popu- 
lation 200. 

West Franklin, a small town on the Ohio, in Posey 
county, 12 miles above Mount Vernon. 

West Hamilton, a small town in Laporte county, five 
miles north-east of the county seat. 

West Lebanon, a small village in Warren county, six 
miles south-west of Williamsport. 

West Point, a pleasant village in the timber border- 
ing on the Wea prairie, 10 miles south-west of Lafayette. 
It contains 60 houses and about 350 inhabitants. 

West Point, a western township in White, population 
100. 

Westport, a small town on Sand creek, in Decatur 
county, 14 miles south of Greensburgh, population 150. 

Westport, a small town on the east bank of the Wa- 
bash, in Parke county, 15 miles north-west of Rockville. 

West Union, a small village in same county, on the 
canal, eight miles north-west of Rockville. 

West Union, a small village in Fayette county, six 
miles south of Connersville. 

Wheeling, a small town on the south bank of the 
Mississinewa, in Delaware county, 13 miles north-west 
of Muncie. 

Whiskey Run, a small mill stream in Crawford coun- 
ty, runs south-east into Blue river. 

Whiskey Run, a north-east township in Crawford. 

White County, organized in 1834, was named in 
honor of Col. Isaac W r hite, of Gallatin county, Illinois, 
who volunteered his services, as a private, in the Tippe- 
canoe campaign and fell at the side of Major Daviess in 
the battle. White county is bounded north by Jasper 
and Pulaski, east by Cass and Carroll, south by Tippe- 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 4^> 

canoe, and west by Benton and Jasper. It contains 504 
square miles. The civil townships are Prairie, Big 
Creek, Monon, Union, Liberty, Jackson, Princeton and 
West Point. The population in 1S40 was 1,S32; it now 
exceeds 4,000. 

About two-thirds of the county are prairie, mostly 
arms of the Grand Prairie. All of it has a rich soil, and 
at least one-half is dry and gently undulating, easily 
farmed and not inferior to any land in the same latitude 
for producing good crops of wheat, corn, rye, oats, roots 
and fruit; and grass grows well in the flat prairies where 
there is less sand mixed with the soil. Nearly one-half 
of them arc of this character, and no part of the State 
is better adapted for raising stock thin this kind of prai- 
rie. The west and south-west parts of the county have 
no other timber but such as grows in strips along the 
streams, which are generally from two to four miles apart 
in the prairies. The north and north-east parts are in- 
terspersed with prairie and timber which is generally of 
a good quality for fencing. The soil in the timber has 
more sand and is not so rich, yet it produces good crops 
of wheat. The surplus products consist of wheat, flour, 
beef and pork, which are sent to the canal ; and hogs, 
cattle, horses and mules, which are driven off to different 
markets. 

There is a grist mill and saw mill on Monon creek, and 
two large flouring mills, a saw mill, a fulling mill, and a 
carding machine on the Tippecanoe, which is the princi- 
pal and a very valuable mill stream, and a company has 
been incorporated for making a dam at Monticello, 
where a large amount of water power will be created. 
There are four stores and groceries in the county, one 
church erected and another in progress, one lawyer, two 
preachers and four physicians. The prevailing religious 
denominations are Methodists, New and Old School 
Presbyterians, Christians and Reformers. 

The taxable land amounts to 96,000 acres, and about 
200,000 acres still belong to the United States. Iron ore 
is found in abundance. The immense water power on 



434 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

Tippecanoe river, and fine soil of the county, must make 
White an important part of the State at not a distant day. 
At present, the husiness of raising stock has not attract- 
ed sufficient attention to secure the necessary capital to 
carry it on to advantage, and mechanical labor is scarce, 
as the mechanics have hitherto located themselves in the 
towns along the canal. 

White Creek, a mill stream that rises in Brown 
and Bartholomew, runs south into Jackson, and falls into 
the east fork of White river, near the centre of the 
county. 

White Lick, a fine mill stream that rises in Boone, 
runs south through Hendricks and Morgan, and falls into 
White river seven miles above Martinsville. Near the 
mouth of this stream are quarries of excellent freestone. 

White Lick Knobb, a solitary hill near the mouth of 
White Lick, that presents fine views of the surrounding 
country. Near its base is the deer lick from which the 
creek has its name. 

White River, the principal tributary of the Wabash, 
into which it falls 100 miles by water and 60 by land 
above its mouth, waters all the central part of the State 
by its numerous branches. The west fork rises in Ran- 
dolph county, near the Ohio line, and in high water flat 
boats have descended it from near Winchester. It pur- 
sues a south-west direction by Muncie, Andersontown, 
Noblesville, Indianapolis, Martinsville, Gosport, Spencer 
and Point Commerce, and receives from the west Kill- 
buck, Pipe, Cicero, Eagle and White Lick creeks, and 
Eel river, and from the east Buck, Fall and Indian creeks, 
all considerable streams. The east fork of White river 
rises in Henry county, not far from the source of the 
other branch, though its head waters are called Blue 
river and Flatrock, and it is only after they unite, near 
Co umbus, that the name of the East or Driftwood Fork of 
White river is assumed. Clifty and Sand creeks, the 
Muscackituck and Lost rivers from the east, and Salt 
creek from the west, are the principal branches. When 
the forks unite, White river for 40 miles is very little in- 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 435 

ferior in size to the Wabash, except in high floods, when 
the latter rolls much the largest torrent. 

White River, a northern township in Gibson, popu- 
lation 800. 

White River, a north-east township in Hamilton. 

White River, a north-west township in Johnson, pop- 
ulation 1,200. 

White River, a central township in Randolph, popu- 
lation 2,500. 

White Post, a western township in Pulaski. 

White Water, the principal stream in the south-east 
part of the State, rises in Randolph and, with its numer- 
ous branches, furnishes a large amount of water power 
for Wayne, Fayette, Union, Franklin and Dearborn 
counties, and is the only feeder for the White Water Valley 
Canal. See Rivers and Internal Improvements in first 
part of this Book. It falls into the Miami in the State 
of Ohio, six miles from its mouth, and the last 15 miles 
of its course is in that State. 

Whitley County, organized in 1S42, was named in 
honor of Col. William Whitley, of Lincoln county, Ken- 
tucky, one of the bravest and most generous of the early 
pioneers of that State, who, after being a successful 
leader in many daring expeditions, fell at last, at the age 
of 64, in the battle of the Thames, where he had volun- 
teered to serve as a private. Whitley county is 18 miles 
square, and is bounded north by Noble, east by Allen, 
south by Huntington, and west by Wabash and Kosciusko. 
The civil townships are Cleaveland, Richland, Troy, 
Thorn Creek, Columbia, Smith, Washington and Jeffer- 
son. The population in lS40was 1,237; it is now about 
4,500. 

The south part of the county is level, the middle and 
north undulating or hilly; one-ninth of the county is 
bottom land, one-seventh barrens, the remainder is forest 
intermixed with wet prairies, mostly small. The timber 
is of almost every variety found in the State; the soil 
generally a sandy loam, well adapted to the usual agri- 
cultural products. Fort Wayne is the market for the 



436 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 

surplus grain, &c, to which about the value of $12,000 
has been sent annually. 

There are in the county five grist mills, eight sawmills, 
two carding machines, eight store?, one grocery, three 
lawyers, eight physicians, and 114 mechanics of the 
trades most in demand. There are also nine Episcopal 
and four Protestant Methodist churches, five Lutheran, 
two Old School and one New School Presbyterian* three 
Baptist, two United Brethren, one Winebrinner and one 
Allbright church. 

The taxable land amounts to 184,169 acres, and about 
18,000 acres still belong to the United States. 

Wild Cat, an excellent mill stream that rises in Tip- 
ton and Howard counties, and runs nearly west into the 
Wabash, four miles above Lafayette. Its whole length 
is about 75 miles. A dam near its mouth turns its water 
into the Wabash and Erie Canal, for which it is the prin- 
cipal feeder for near 50 miles. 

Wild Cat, a township in Tipton county. 

William's Creek, a mill stream in Fayette county 
that falls into the west fork of White Water from the 
north-west, three miles below Connersville. 

William's Creek runs south into White river, seven 
miles north of Indianapolis. 

Williamsburgh, a pleasant village on Nineveh creek, 
in Johnson county, eight miles south of Franklin, popu- 
lation 120. 

Williamsburgh, a pleasant town on Green's Fork, 
Wayne county, 10 miles north of Centreville, population 
400.* 

Williamsport, the Seat of Justice of Warren county, 
is situated on the west bank of the Wabash, 13 miles 
above Covington, 25 below Lafayette, and 75 north- 
west of Indianapolis. It was first settled in 1S29, by 
Wm. Harrison, J. J. McAlilly, James H. Buell and 
Thomas Gilbert. It contains about 100 houses and 400 
inhabitants, and is a place where much important busi- 
ness is transacted. 

Williamstqwn, a small village on the National road, 



TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 437 

in Clay county, 13 miles from Terre Haute, 57 from In- 
dianapolis, and 14 north-west of Bowlinggreen. 

Williamstown, a small town on the south line of 
Rush county, 11 miles south of Rushville. 

Wills, an eastern township in Laporte, population 
535. 

Wilmington, formerly the County Seat of Dearborn, 
is three miles west of Aurora and six south-west of Law- 
renceburgh. It contains the County Seminary, estab- 
lished in 1S35, with usually 50 students, and has a num- 
ber of good private residences. 

Wilmington, a central township in DeKalb, popula- 
tion 450. 

Winamack, the Seat of Justice of Pulaski county, is 
situated on the north-west bank of Tippecanoe, 100 
miles north-west of Indianapolis, 25 west of Rochester, 
and 50 north-east of Lafayette. It was first settled in 
1S39, by John Pearson and David Harris. The popula- 
tion is now about 200. The land offices for the north- 
west Land District are located here. The situation is 
pleasant and the country around fertile. It was named 
from an Indian chief. 

Winchester, the County Seat of Randolph, is situated 
on the south side of White river, near the centre of the 
county, 75 miles east north-east of Indianapolis, 25 north 
of Centreville, and 10 west of the State line. It was 
first settled in 1819, and now contains 151 houses, of 
which 11 are brick, the others frame. The population is 
about 750. The opening of the Bellefontaine and In- 
dianapolis Railroad through it will afford inducements 
for its rapid improvement. 

Windsor, a small town in same county, ten miles west 
of Winchester, first settled in 1832. 

Winslow, a small but thrifty and growing town in 
Pike county, on the Patoka, nine miles south of Peters- 
burgh. It has two stores, a grocery and tavern. 

Wolf Creek, a tributary of Sugar creek, in Boone 
county. 

Wolf Creek, a tributary of Bear creek, in Jay county. 



438 



INDIANA GAZETTEER. 



Wolf Creek, a mill stream in Marshall county, that 
runs north-west into Yellow river. 

Wolf Lake, a fine sheet of water in Noble county, 
the head of one of the branches of the Elkhart river. 
It is also the name of a small town on the bank of the lake. 

Wood, a western township in Clark, population 1,500. 

Wooster, a small town in Jennings township, Scott 
county, laid out in 1846. 

Wright, a township in Greene, population 525. 

Wydner, a northern township in Knox. 

Yellow Creek, a mill stream in Adams county, run- 
ning north-east into the St. Mary's two miles below De- 
catur. 

Yellow Creek runs north into Elkhart river, six miles 
below Goshen. 

Yellow River rises in the north-west part of Kosci- 
usko, and runs a western course through Marshall and 
Stark into the Kankakee at English Lake. It has some 
good mill sites on it, but its course in general is not rapid, 
and in high water it may be navigated 30 or 40 miles. 
Its whole length is about 60 miles, and its average width 
below Plymouth is 30 yards. 

York, a township in Dearborn, population 750. 

York Creek, a mill stream in Delaware county. 

York, a township in Elkhart, population 325. 

York, a western township in Noble, population 700. 

York, a south-east township in Switzerland. 

Yorktown, a flourishing village in Delaware county, 
at the junction of Buck creek and White river, six miles 
south-west from Muncie. It contains valuable mills, two 
stores, Methodist and Old School Presbyterian churches, 
and a population of about 200. 

Young's Creek, a mill stream in Johnson county, rises 
six miles north-west of Franklin and runs south-east into 
Sugar Creek. Its whole length is about 25 miles. 

Zanesville, a small town in Wells county, recently 
laid out. 

Zenas, a small town on the north fork of Muscackituck, 
in Jennings county, 12 miles north-east of Vernon. 



M 

TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 439 

TABLE, Showing the amount of Taxable Land in each 
County, and the tax actually raised in 1848. 



Counties. 


Taxable Land — Acres. 


State Tax Paid, 


Adams. 


193.024 




Allen, 


358,780 


$6,721 34 


Bartholomew, - 


234,736 


5,720 87 


Benton, 


29,941 


426 74 


Blackford, 


! 6,945 


990 08 


Boone, 


252,876 


4,324 98 


Brown, 


38,362 


1,003 19 


Carroll, 


229,254 


4,037 60 


Cass, 


2C0.679 


4,415 63 


Clarke, 


209,170 


5,416 44 


Clay, 


158,251 


2,545 08 


Clinton, - 


237,527 


4.144 76 


Crawford, - 


83,470 


1,614 26 


Daviess, - 


171,874 


3,761 43 


Dearborn, 


193,482 


10.394 51 


Decatur 


204,721 


6,838 09 


DeKalb, . 


196,510 


2,046 44 


Delaware, - 


243,322 


4,652 91 


Dubois, 


102,460 


1,649 60 


Elkhart, - 


273,266 


4,624 43 


Fayette, - 


134,020 


7,341 68 


Floyd, 


85,691 


5,823 43 


Fountain, - 


246,076 


6,520 75 


Franklin, - 


226,631 


9,869 63 


Fulton, 


126,106 


1,621 78 


Gibson, 


213,272 


4,767 15 


Grant, 


163,853 


2,920 63 


Green, 


175,140 


3,332,39 


Hamilton, - 


246,204 


4,780 32 


Hancock, - 


190,641 


3,264 39 


Harrison, - 


268,559 


5,123 27 


Hendricks, 


244,186 


6,770 90 


Henry, 


243,146 


9,137 84 


Howard, - 


37,144 


1,078 06 


Huntington, 


220,725 


3,645 61 


Jackson, - 


203,482 


3,515 87 


Jasper, 


38,155 


614 19 


Jay. - 


232,770 


2,612 53 


Jefferson, - 


184,193 


11,093 64 


Jennings, - 


200,460 


3,165 22 


Johnson, - 


189,800 


6,385 09 


Knox, 


233,964 


5,481 36 


Kosciusko, 


278,038 


3,540 19 


Lagrange, - 


225,554 


3,063 62 


Lake, 


59,692 


866 47 


Laporte, - 


254,976 


5,532 62 


Lawrence, 


222,606 


6,055 90 


Madison, - 


254,879 


4,891 02 


Marion, 


2-10,676 


12,239 17 


Marshall, - 


186,360 


1,597 22 


Martin, 


62,689 


1,130 83 


Miami, 


133.824 


3,099 24 


Monroe, - 


155,342 


4,758 63 



410 INDIANA GAZETTEER. 



Montgomery, 

Morgan, - 

Noble, 

Ohio, - 

Orange, 

Owen, 

Parke, 

Perry, 

Pike, -. 

Porter, 

Posey, 

Pulaski, - 

Putnam, - 

Randolph, - 

Ripley, 

Scott, 

Shelby, - 

Spencer, 

Steuben, - 

St. Joseph, 

Sullivan, - 

Switzerland, 

Tippecanoe, 

Tipton, 

Union, 

Vanderburgh, 

Vermillion, 

Vigo, 

Wabash, - 

Warren, - 

Warrick, - 

Washington, 

Wavue, 

Weils, 

White, 

Whitley, - 



317,579' 


9,950 00 


217.047 


6,496 74 


225.::66 


2,450 73 


53,586 


2,517 88 


170,022 


5,299 75 


165,768 


3,952 84 


261,438 


8,138 43 


75,665 


1,793 63 


89,082 


2,087 47 


133,029 


1,789 10 


195,807 


4,934 97 


41,842 


437 00 


285,437 


7,771 22 


269,772 


3.771 25 


258,863 


4.373 58 


94,166 


1,924 53 


254,541 


6,526 21 




for 1847, 3,551 15 


169.077 


1,575 32 


218.623 


4,651 71 


168,129 


2,901 32 


143,016 


3.696 76 


305,425 


9,6 i3 63 


53,235 


763 33 


104,296 


4.141 69 


137,019 


5.516 27 


152,562 


5.094 68 


220,200 


8.962 67 


215,703 


4,581 47 


176.209 


1,284 C8 


114,630 


3.194 11 


264.673 


8.405 01 


253,483 


17,690 01 


199.637 


2,224 85 


92,479 


1,579 53 


181,477 


1,944 00 



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