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INDIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 1954-55 



-A REVIEW 



EDITED BY 
A. GHOSH 

Director General of Archaeology in India 





DEPARTMENT OF ARCHAEOLOGY 

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA 

NEW DELHI 

1955 



D 



'r 







OF 







PREFACE 

The first number of this annual Review was published last year, when the circum- 
stances leading to its genesis were fully explained. While it may be recalled that it was 
primarily intended to be a report for the tenth meeting of the Central Advisory 
Board of Archaeology, it also fulfilled its wider function of acquainting the interested 
public with the progress of archaeology in the country. The present number covers 
practically the same field and follows the same arrangement as its predecessor. 

My thanks are due to my colleagues in the Circles and Branches constituting the 
Department for their reports, which have supplied material for the major portion of this 
Review, and to those at Headquarters for their help in its preparation and printing. I 
am also grateful to the Archaeological Officers of the States of Hyderabad, Madhya Bharat, 
Mysore, Rajasthan, Saurashtra and Travancore-Cochin for the material supplied by them, 
which have been utilized as necessary. Dr. H. D. Sankalia, Shri K. G. Goswami, Dr. 
Moreshwar G. Dikshit, Shri G. R. Sharma and Shri Vijayakanta Mishra have immensely 
obliged me by supplying reports and illustrations relating to the valuable excavations 
carried out by them. 

NEW DELHI A. GHOSH 

The ist August 1955 




v\ 



VV'T, 
>" -I 



CONTENTS 



i. General 



2. Excavations . . 



3 Epigraphy . 



4. Preservation of monuments 



5. Archaeological chemistry 



6, Museums and exhibitions 



7. Archaeological gardens . , 

8. Important discoveries 



9, Treasure-trove 



10. Publications . . 



PAGE 
i 

5 

2? 
32 



52 
57 
5S 
63 
65 



INDIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 1954 55 



A REVIEW 



I. GENERAL 

As many as twenty excavations, thirteen of them by the Union Department of 
Archaeology, one by a State Department and the remaining six by universities and learned 
institutions, were undertaken in different parts of the country during the year under 
review. Not all of them were conducted on large scales; nevertheless, the number itself 
is sufficiently encouraging. 

Most of the excavations were rich in results, and some were of far-reaching signi- 
ficance, The last lingering doubts as to whether the Harappa culture had really extended 
as far south as the interior of the Kathiawad peninsula were dispelled by the discovery of 
|ive Indus seals, together with an assemblage of other typical Harappan objects, 
at the mound of Lothal at Saragwala in District Ahmedabad. A renewed excavation at 
Rangpur, another Harappa site, 30 miles to the south-west of Lothal, definitely established 
the co-occurrence of the buff ware and red ware, a fact fully confirmed at Lothal. Further- 
more, the existence of a later culture at Rangpur, into which the Harappa merges, 
opens up new possibilities for a restudy of the problems relating to the disappearance of 
the Harappan folk. 

The second Harappa cemetery, the first being at the type-site itself, was excavated 
at Rupar, while a late phase of that culture was identified at the neighbouring site at Bara. 
Further work at similar sites will be helpful in clarifying the differentiae of this phase. 

Next to nothing was known about the protohistoric and early historical archaeology 
of central India and the northern Deccan only five years back. Persistent fieldwork has 
now brought to light a distinct sequence of cultures in this region from a chalcolithic age, 
separated from the palaeolithic by an undefined length of time, down to the period when 
the Northern Black Polished Ware came into vogue. This year's work at Nevasa, on 
the Pravara, a tributary of the Godavari, and at Prakash, on the Tapti, added to our know- 
ledge of this far-flung chalcolithic culture, chiefly characterized by microliths and a 
painted red pottery and sometimes by neolithic artefacts. The accumulated material is 
now sufficient for an intensive study of the regional variations of this culture. 

Previous excavations at Maheswar and Rangpur had shown that a black-and-red 
pottery, technically allied to the 'megalithic' pottery of south India (though the genetic 
relationship between the two and their typological similarities remain unestablished) 



INDIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 1954-55 A REVIEW 

formed an important link between the protohistoric and historical periods in western and 
central India. This year, Ahar, near Udaipur in Rajasthan, where this ware occurs in 
abundance, was systematically excavated and a chronological variation in the ware no- 
ticed. The zone of the ware is not far removed from the fringes of the horizon of 
the Painted Grey Ware, and the location of a site containing both will go a long way in 
interlocking the early cultures of northern, western and central Jndia. 

The excavation of the Buddhist establishment of Ghoshitarama at Kausambi was 
completed, and the remains of the adjacent eastern gateway of the city were exposed. The 
elaborate plan of the latter added to the existing data on ancient Indian fortifications. 
Significant facts about the nature, extent and destruction of the Mauryan palace at Patali- 
putra were brought to light by the current work at Kumrahar. The excavation at Tarn- 
luk in West Bengal, where the earliest occupation was found to be neolithic in character 
and which was seen to have imported or produced the rouletted ware during the period of 
Indo-Roman contacts, is, it is hoped, the beginning of a planned campaign of systematic 
work in east India. 

A cemetery with urn-burials, without any stone circles or covering slabs but still affi- 
liated to the full-fledged megaliths by the presence of the Black-and-red Ware, was exca- 
vated at Amirthamangalam in the lateritic zone of Chingleput District. Whether the com- 
parative simplicity of the burials represented here has any chronological relevance 
in the sequence of south Indian burial-monuments remains to be seen. 

Following the decision of undertaking an intensive and extensive programme of 
excavation of the famous Buddhist remains in the Nagarjunakonda valley, prior to its sub- 
mergence under deep water as a result of an elaborate irrigation-project, excavation, com- 
menced here on a large scale at different spots, laid bare a few monasteries, stupas and 
temples, one of which was a hill-edifice dedicated to Hariri. Another Buddhist establishment 
was exposed at Sirpur in Madhya Pradesh along with a large number of sculptures 
and other objects, including bronzes and an inscription of the eighth century ruler 
Balarjuna, 



In the field of epigraphy the outstanding discovery of the year was a version of the 
Minor Rock-edict of Asoka, who is here mentioned by name, at Gujarra in Vindhya Pradesh, 
Among the other new records mention may be made of: a Kushan inscription from near 
Mathura, which narrows down the gulf between the hitherto-known dates of Huvishka 
and Vasudeva to four years only; an inscription from Orissa which proclaims the Sailod- 
bhava Madhavavarman II as the performer of anasvamedha; anAjivaka inscription from 
Kanchipuranij most probably belonging to the reign of the Pallava Narasimhavarman II ; 
an inscription from Indragarh, Madhya Bharat, introducing a Rashtrakuta ruler Nannapa, 
in whose times a Pasupata teacher built a Siva temple j an inscription from Tanj ore Dis- 
trict, recording the deaths of two generals of the Chola Rajendra II in a battle; three re- 
cords of the reign of the Yadava Singhana, all from Anantapur District, referring to a 



GENERAL 



guild of agriculturists; a prasasti from the Kamakshi temple at Kanchipuram, which 
describes the relationship subsisting between the Hoysala long Ballala III ^ and the 
southern powers; and a number of Persian inscriptions from Kathiawad, important 
for the medieval history of Gujarat and for the study of the contemporary social 
conditions. 



A vast number of monuments were, as usual, attended to this year. Out of them 
special mention may be made of the following. An intensive programme of repairs, includ- 
ing the improvement of the precincts, to the tomb of Abdur Rahim Khau-i-Khanan at 
New Delhi was framed and is now being executed. The intrados of the upper dome of the 
Taj Mahal was replastered to effect the periodical extraction of salt from the thick shell of 
brickwork, of which the dome is constituted. The work of providing internal tie-rods to 
hold together the outer and inner walls of the Dargah of Sheikh Salim Chishti at Fateh- 
pur Sikri proceeded according to plan. 

The temple-group at Khajuraho continued to receive attention, and steps are 
being taken to 'dress and turf the compounds of the temples to remove their barren 
look. 

The problem of rendering safe the surviving minar of the Dharara Mosque at Bana- 
ras received urgent attention, and a committee of experts was formed to advise on its 
preservation. 

Extensive work continued in the Sun temple at Konarak to implement the recommen- 
dations of the Konarak Temple Committee. Repairs to the earthquake-damages at the 
Sibdol temple at Sibsagar, Assam, are in progress : this year the fa?ade was largely 
re- veneered with properly bonded stones of size, and the golden pinnacle was reset in its 
original position on the top of the i2o-ft. high sikhara. 

Of the monuments in Hyderabad State the maintenance of which has now devolved 
on the Union Department of Archaeology, the caves at Ajanta, Ellora, Pitalkhora and 
Aurangabad, the temple at Hanamkonda, the forts at Golconda and Warangal and Bibi-ka- 
Maqbara at Aurangabad were attended to with great care. So were the monuments in 
Mysore, e.g., the temples at Halebid, Mosale, Belavadi and Sringeri and Tipu Sultan's 
palace at Bangalore. 

The reinforcement of the groyne-wall at the Shore temple at Mahabalipuram was 
completed this year. The removal of later accretions in the compound of the Brihadisvara 
temple at Gangaikoiidacholapuram has given an altered appearance to its precincts. 

Special attention was bestowed on some of the rock-cut caves in Bombay State. The 
gunite-layer on the roof of the main cave at Elephanta, no longer fulfilling its function, was 
removed for a careful observation of the sources of water-percolation before its renewal. 

The programme of putting in order the monuments in the long-neglected Chitor 
fort in Rajasthan was further carried out, work being for the present restricted to the Jaina 
temple Sringar Chauri, Banbir's wall, Rana Kumbha's palace and Mira Bai's temple. 
The consolidation of the masonry in these monuments is infusing new life into them, and 



INDIAN ARCHAEOLOGY M4-55-A REVIEW 

the extensive clearance of masses of debris is not only imparting to them a fresh look but 
is bringing out unsuspected features in their construction, 

The monuments at Mandu in Madhya Bharat received attention as before, A fallen 
bastion in the fort at Raiseu, Bhopal, was rebuilt with old material, 



# * * * 



The work of the application of chemical methods for the amelioration of the natu- 
ral decay of monuments and for the preservation of mural paintings has enormously 
increased of late, This year the Lingaraja temple at Bhuvaneswar, the sculptures at 
Khajuraho, the Main Stupa at Sanchi and the sculptures and inscriptions in the Karla and 

T\\ * 

ifnaja caves were among the monuments which were chemically cleaned and preserved, 
The painted surfaces at a large number of monuments, including the caves at Ajanta, Ellora, 
Bagh : Badami and SittannavasaUnd medieval and late monuments, as at Fatehpur Sikri, 
Sikandara and Baroda, were treated. The Chemical Branch also undertook researches in 
different directions, including soil-analysis and geochronology, 



The Department of Archaeology has had till now practically no contacts outside the 
limits of India, which is no doubt as surprising as it is regrettable, when the ancient rela- 
tions of India with her neighbouring countries, all of them deeply permeated by her cul- 
tural forces, are recalled, This year's exhibition of Buddhist art and antiquities at Ran- 
goon, organized by the Department with objects from its own collections and from other 
museums, must, therefore, be regarded as a unique event in its annals, 



2. EXCAVATIONS 1 

NEVASA, DISTRICT AHMEDNAGAR. 2 The excavation conducted by Dr. H. D. San- 
kalia and Shri S. B. Deo of the Deccan College Post-graduate and Research Institute 
under the auspices of the University of Poona at the yo-ft. high mound, locally known as 
'Lad-Mod' on the south bank of the Pravara river, was wrought with important and 
far-reaching results, inasmuch as it provided for the first time a fairly complete sequence of 
cultures (fig. 2), viz., the palaeolithic in two stages, neolithic-chalcolithic, early his- 
torical, Roman-Satavahana and early Muslim (Bahmani). 

The earliest occupation was represented in the three layers of gravel, which contained 
two types of lithic industries. One, probably the earlier, was a handaxe-industry on trap 
rock. It was typologically Acheulian (pi. I). The second industry consisted of compara- 
tively small cores, flakes, scrapers, blades and burins of jasper, carnelian and other fine- 
grained stones (pis. II and III). Of the five fossil-bone specimens, one found in situ in 
the hard cemented gravel (the first bed from the bottom) was, according to the Geological 
Survey of India, a fragmentary left mandible of Bos namadicus with M2, P4 and PS. 
It is interesting to note that Bos namadicus had previously been reported from the Narmada 
gravels of the Middle Pleistocene. It is thus most probable that the larger palaeoliths 
from the basal beds would be equally old, whereas the smaller tools from the middle and 
upper gravels, of an altogether different technique, would belong to the Upper Pleistocene. 

Overlying these gravel-beds was a sterile layer of sandy silt, about 20 ft. thick, which 
seemed to be the last phase of the aggradation of the river. Immediately above this 
layer was the black soil, the cradle of the chalcolithic culture. From this black soil 
upwards the occupation-debris was nearly 30 ft. thick, falling into five distinct cul- 
tural phases. 

The first phase was characterized by the presence of polished pointed-butt axes of 
Lrap rock with lenticular section (pi. IV A) and microliths of chalcedony made by the 
special method called 'the crested ridge and ripple-marked core technique'. The 
latter included flakes, ripple-marked cores, crested-ridge flakes, serrated two-and one- 
;dged knives, parallel-sided blades, triangles, trapezes, crescents and scrapers. Besides, 
polished stone axes of trap, round sling-stones of quartz and hammer-stones of trap and 
luartz were also found. The use of metal was attested to by the discovery of a copper or 
Dronze bead, a hook and a chisel. 

Excepting huge storage-jars and burial-urns, pottery was painted usually in black on 
i fine red or dark chocolate surface. It was generally wheel-made, of thin section, well- 
ired and with a red slip on both the sides. The most common shapes were bowls with 



1 See fig. i. 

2 Information from Dr, H. D. Sankalia. 



INDIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 1954-55 A REVIB\\ 



INDIA 

SITES EXCAATED 

IN 
1954-55 



f(\ f )''A'V7'aiKV 




EXCAVATIONS 

concave rim and rounded base and spouted vessels with flaring rim, angular shoulder, 
rounded base and long side-spout or drinking tube painted along its length or at its 
edge. With the single exception of a sherd preserving the painted hind part of a dog-like 
animal (pi. V A;, the designs on the pots were essentially geometric and were extremely 
limited in variety, consisting of hatched squares, triangles, rhomboids, intersecting circles 
and angular or oblique lines. A few beads of carnelian, chalcedony, bloodstone, faience 
and steatite, the last of the tubular and segmented type, gave some idea of the ornaments 
of the period. 

The authors of this chalcolithic culture lived in huts with square or rectangular plans 
as suggested by the alignment of post-holes with a flooring of either gravel mixed with lime 
or burnt black soil and lime. Their burial was of the fractional type (pis. IV B and V B). 
After partial cremation or exposure of the body, the bones were placed in a hand-made urn, 
which was covered by another urn and then laid in a north -south direction. The culture 
has been dated to about 1000 B.C. on the basis of its affinity with the Stone Axe 
Culture of Brahmagiri in Mysore on the one hand and the microlithic blade-industry of 
Navda Toli in Central India on the other. 

After this the site was deserted for a time, the break being indicated by the lime and 
hemp flooring of the next phase sealing off the earlier debris. This second phase ushered 
in the early historical period. Houses were made as before with uncut timber, though 
bricks now came into use for flooring, walls and wells and tiles for roofs. The general use 
of iron was suggested by the occurrence of sickles, axes, plough-shares and leaf-shaped 
daggers or spear-heads. The common pottery was of ordinary red ware, while the spe- 
cialized industry was the black-and-red ware. Of the Northern Black Polished Ware 
only one sherd was found. The beads were of various shapes and materials including 
clay, glass, paste, faience, steatite and semi-precious stones. The occurrence of wheat 
and pulses shows the earliest use of these grains in the Deccan. Numerous coins of potin, 
lead and copper of the Satavahana rulers help to date this phase to a period between 
the third century B ,c. arid the first century A.D. 

The third phase was only a continuation of the second one, as it was not altogether 
different from the latter. Its most important feature was the gradual disappearance of 
the black-and-red ware and the emergence of the fine Red Polished Ware with sherds 
of the imported Mediterranean amphora. The occurrence of the latter indicated trade 
with the Roman world, the effect thereof being reflected in the construction of houses, 
which were now built on an extremely well-laid foundation. In the Red Polished Ware 
a few sherds appeared to be definitely Samian in character. The Roman contact was also 
suggested by the presence of fine, translucent, light blue glass bangles, beads and an imi- 
tation (in lead) or original coin of Tiberius. The other features of the preceding phase, in- 
cluding Satavahana coins, continued in this phase as well. For distinguishing it from the 
preceding one this phase is called IndoRoman or Roman-Satavahana. 

The fourth phase, characterized by the presence of fine art-objects, viz., a small 
kaolin head of a boy, called the 'Smiling Boy of Nevasa' (pi. V C) and a minutely- 
carved terracotta Nandi, was a short-lived one. The manufacture of shell bangles was 
a flourishing cottage-industry in this period. 



INDIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 1954-55 A REVIEW 




EXCAVATIONS 

The fifth phase, notable for the industry of fine polychrome glass bangles, is dated 
with the help of the coins of the Bahmani period. 

RUPAR, DISTRICT AMEALA. The Excavations Branch under Dr. Y. D. Sharma con- 
tinued its operations at Rupar, concentrating mainly on the excavation of a part of the 
cemetery of the Harappa period, which had come to light in previous years. The 
cemetery, now a low mound, lies about 160 ft. to the west of the main habitation. 
The results were important, as previously all information regarding the burial-practice of 
the Harappans had almost solely been derived from cemetery R 37 at Harappa. The 
cemetery-area at Rupar had been considerably disturbed by the later occupants of the 
site, mainly by the users of the Painted Grey Ware. Most of the skeletons were so 
much knocked about that they were available only in parts (pi. VI), and some seemed to 
have been totally removed, not necessarily out of deliberate volition but merely in the 
course of digging pits for diverse needs. However, some of the burials were sufficiently 
intact to give an adequate idea of the method of burial. 

The grave-pits, the earlier ones dug into the natural soil, varied in dimensions. On 
an average they measured 8 ft. by 3 ft. and were 2 ft. deep. The body was laid in the 
pit generally with the head towards the north-west. One of the excavated skeletons, how- 
ever, lay north-south. While a few of the burials contained no funerary goods, most of 
them had an assemblage of pots at the head, feet and on the sides of the body. Normally, 
vessels were placed on the same level as the body, but one burial revealed a departure. 
Here the pots were arranged and then covered with earth. The body was placed last 
and the pit finally sealed. During the primary filling with eafth, some of the pots 
got dislocated from their position and were thus found lying below the body 
(pi. VII). 

Among the exposed burials the number of pots varied from two to twenty-six 
(pi. VIII A). Personal ornaments found in the graves included bangles of faience and 
shell, a copper ring and some beads (pi. VIII B). Most of these ornaments were not 
found in their original position, but a faience bangle was still on the left wrist of the wearer 
(pi. VI), while another skeleton had a copper ring on the middle finger of the right 
hand. It may be recalled that at Harappa a copper ring was found on the right ring-finger 
of a skeleton. The beads were mostly found loose in the burials. The grave-pit was 
filled with the excavated earth flush with the ground-surface. 

The wide brick wall of Period III (circa 600-200 B.C.) discovered last year was further 
pursued and turned out to be the retaining wall of a large tank fed by rain-water through a 
brick-built inlet (pi. IX). 

BARA AND SALAURA, DISTRICT AMBALA. The Excavations Branch also undertook 
limited excavations at the mounds at the villages of Bara and Salaura, adjacent to each other, 
about 5 miles south of Rupar. The object was to investigate if further evidence could be 
had to confirm the gap between the end of the Harappa culture and the arrival of the 
Painted Grey Ware people that was evident at Rupar. The excavations confirmed this gap 
by evidence of an indirect kind (fig. 3). 

While at Bara the entire mound was found built up of the accumulations of late 



INDIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 1954-55 A 






10 



EXCAVATIONS 

Harappa times, at Salaura, about 300 yards to its east, the earliest occupation started with 
the Painted Grey Ware. Above the Painted Grey Ware levels there were deposits of two 
different periods, the lower one datable approximately to Kushan times and the upper 
one to the medieval period. Bara was poor in structures, and Salaura revealed structures 
only in the medieval horizons. 

The excavation at Bara, however, threw important light on the course that the 
Harappa culture had taken on the upper Sutlej. Apparently the arrival of the Harappans on 
the Sutlej was a continuous process ; they came in wave after wave, the subsequent incomers 
bringing new ideas and ceramic traditions. At Rupar, two main phases were indicated in 
the deposits of the Harappa culture: the lower one represented a late phase of the mature 
Harappa culture, while the upper one offered certain new traditions in ceramics. For 
instance, while the typical Indus goblet with pointed bottom was already rare in the lower 
Harappa levels, in the upper levels it was almost absent. Terracotta cakes also became 
scarce in the upper deposits, where, however, certain characteristic incised designs on 
pottery, the source of which is still uncertain, began to appear. The entire accumulation at 
Bara, on the other hand, showed this late phase, and the accumulations being about 15 ft. 
thick it is reasonable to surmise that Bara was still occupied when Rupar had been 
deserted by the Harappans, for here the Indus goblet was represented only in lower levels, 
and that too by hardly half-a-dozen sherds. Terracotta cakes were equally rare. There was, 
however, a diversity in slips and paintings (pis. X and XI A), not to be met with in lower 
levels at Rupar. Some of the pottery-shapes were also new, and the practice of decorat- 
ing pots by horizontal or wavy incised lines and other patterns was quite prominent, 
although this decoration seemed to be confined to large water-jars and cooking vessels 
(pi. XI B). This tradition has not been recorded at Harappa and Mohenjo-daro but is abun- 
dantly represented at the Harappa sites in Bikaner. 

RANGPUR, DISTRICT JHALAWAR. As a result of the excavation conducted at this 
place in 1953-54^ definite evidence of Harappan affinity in the material equipment of the 
culture of its lower levels had been found. The occurrence of buff ware along with red 
ware, however, needed further investigation. Excavation was, therefore, resumed this 
year by Shri S. R. Rao of the Western Circle. 

Further evidence was available to show that Rangpur had been a. Harappa settlement 
with a long life. A number of animal-motifs, such as bull, peacock (pi. XII A) and deer, 
were found painted on pottery. A mud-brick fortification-wall, 6 ft. 3 in. thick, was 
noticed in the earliest period. Further above, but still belonging to the same culture, 
were found drains and mud-brick structures in three different levels. With the discovery 
of Indus seals at Lothal, another Harappa settlement 30 miles north-east of Rangpur, 
where pottery identical with the Rangpur red and buff wares was found (below, p. 12), no 
doubt now lingers that Rangpur was a Harappa settlement. The excavation confirmed 
the earlier report that the buff ware was coeval with the red ware. 

Another important contribution of this excavation was that it provided for the first 
time a continuous cultural sequence from the Harappa to the period prior to the Northern 
Black Polished Ware with hardly any break. Unlike Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, the 
Harappa culture here died a natural death; for it gradually deteriorated and transformed 

11 



INDIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 1954-55 A REVIEW 

itself into the subsequent culture, characterized by the use of a lustrous red pottery. The 
culture of this transition-period, while maintaining its individuality in its preference for 
vessels of smaller size with a shining red surface (pi. XII B) borrowed freely from the 
degiadcd Harappa culture the technique of paring pottery and continued to use certain 
Haiappan ceramic types. Gradually the thick fabric gave place to a thin one and painting 
in light black over light led slip to deep black on pink and deep red. 

As regards shapes, the typical Harappan types underwent a gradual change, and new 
ones came into vogue. The black-and-red ware painted in white or black, made familiar 
at Maheswar and Ahar (in levels earlier than those of the N. B. P. Ware at the former 
place), was noticed in the topmost level of this post-Harappa culture, of which crude 
microliths and terracotta animal-figurines were other features. 

LOTHAL, DISTRICT AHMEDABAD. The surface-finds in the form of pottery, chert i 
blades, beads, terracotta cakes and bricks of Harappan size indicated the rich potentiality ' 
of the extensive mound (1900 ft. long, 1000 ft. wide and 20 ft. high) known as Lothal in ; 
the village of Saragwala. In order to determine whether it was a full-fledged Harappa , 
settlement, in which case it would further indicate the southern extension of the zone of 
the Harappa culture, the place was subjected to intensive excavation by the Western 
Circle under Shri S. R, Rao, as a result of which three phases of that culture came 
to light. The earliest phase, represented by a 4 to 5 ft. thick debris with fragments of 
red 'and buff ware pots, appeared to have been washed away by a flood. The second phase 
was marked by a clay rampart, 8 ft. high and more than 16 ft. thick. The last and most 
important phase was a settlement made over the rampart after the latter had been greatly 
damaged by floods. Like Rangpur the drains were built of burnt bricks, while the other 
structures were of mud-bricks (pi. XIII). 

The discoveiy of steatite bangles, bowls and ear-rings, hundreds of beads (pi. XIV) of 
steatite, faience, agate, camelian and gold, chert blades (pi. XV A), copper arrow-heads and 
weights exactly similar to those found at the Harappa sites and, above all, Indus seals and' 
searings (pi. XV B), bearing the characteristic script and motifs like unicorn and including ; - 
terracotta pieces with seal-impressions, dismissed once for all the last shreds of doubt as to 
the southern extension of the Harappa culture. As at Rangpur, the pottery was usually of: 
thick fabric, was either red or buff and included beakers, goblets, troughs, dishes -on- i 
stand, knobbed vessels with flaring sides, lamps and perforated jars (pi. XVI), The paint- \ 
ing, normally in light black over red and, in the case of buff wares, in chocolate, consisted : 
mostly of linear designs (pi. XVII A). \ 

A huge earthern jar covered by a stone with a course of bricks all round it was found! 
to contain a few pieces of bone, a copper bangle and a copper arrow-head and might 
have been a burial (pi. XVII B), ' \ 

The excavation at Lothal has established that the Harappa culture did not confine i 
itself to north-Vest India but extended all over Saurashtra and as far south as the northern ' 
reaches of Bombay State (also below, p. 59). When completed, this excavation, supple-' 
mented by that at Rangpur, is likely to go a long way in filling the gap in west Indian^ 
archaeology by establishing a continuous sequence from the Harappa to the pre-Buddhist \ 
period and throw light on the circumstances leading to the end of the Harappa civilization j 

12 



EXCAVATIONS 

PRAKASH, DISTRICT WEST KHANDESH. With the aim of finding out the nature of 
the chalcolithic phase of western India and assigning to it a relative chronology based on 
a stratified sequence, excavation was undertaken by the South-western Circle under 
Shri B. K. Thapar at the yo-ft, high mound at Prakash at the confluence of the rivers Tapti 
and Gomai (pi. XVIII). 

Excavation here exposed 5 5 -ft. deep occupational strata (pi. XIX) belonging to four 
cultural periods. The earliest settlers (first millennium B.C.) used microliths (pi. XX A). 
The use of copper, though known, was extremely scarce. The principal ceramic indus- 
try of this people comprised a distinctive painted red ware with designs executed in black 
on red-slipped surface; the designs consisted mainly of hatched diamonds, horizontal 
or oblique bands, criss-cross and wavy lines, ladder-pattern and also animal-motifs 
(pi. XX B). In association with this industry was found a burnished grey ware of thinner 
fabric, occasionally having faint linear designs in white. Some of the sherds with thicker 
and coarser fabric in dull grey ware seemed to be treated with an ochre-paint mainly 
on the rim-portions. Beads of shell-paste and semi-precious stones were also obtained 
from this period. 

Period II (circa fifth-first centuries B.C.), which began after a lapse of time, as 
indicated by a thin deposit of gravel at the site, represented a full-fledged iron-using cul- 
ture characterized by the use of the well-defined black-and-red ware in association with 
iron objects. The occurrence of sherds of the distinctive Northern Black Polished Ware 
towards the later part of this Period indicated intercourse with sites of comparable date 
in the Ganga-Yamuna valley and also provided a firm datum for fixing the chronology. 
Below the lowest occurrence of the Northern Black Polished Ware was a 14 to 15 ft. thick 
deposit yielding the black-and-red ware. Soakage-jars (pi. XXI A) and a ring- well found 
in this Period throw some light on the system of drainage prevalent in those days. 
Noteworthy finds in this Period included beads of semi-precious stones, glass and 
terracotta and bone objects (pi. XXII). 

The succeeding Period, dating from about the first century B.C. to the fourth cen- 
tury A.D., was marked by the presence of the Red Polished Ware in the well-known sprinkler- 
form, which is found widely distributed in western and central India. Notable anti- 
quities of this Period comprised exquisitely-decorated shell bangles (pi. XXI B), terracotta 
figurines and copper objects, including antimony-rods and a bell with an iron tongue. Part 
of a brick structure was also encountered in the upper levels of this Period. 

The last occupational Period (after the fifth century A.D.) yielded a non-descript 
class of pottery both in black and in red-slipped ware, showing a predilection for grooved 
shoulders and carinated forms. Painted glass bangles and a tiny image of Ganesa formed 
the typical finds of this period, 

PUR AN A QILA, NEW DELHI. With a view to ascertaining the antiquity of the site 
and finding out if it was identifiable with Indraprastha of old, a trial-excavation was 
carried out by Shri B. B. Lai of the North-western Circle. 

The excavation revealed that the site had been under occupation round about 1000 
B.C., when the people used distinctive bowls and dishes of the Painted Grey Ware. The 
metal chiefly used was copper, of which sickles, nail-parers, antimony-rods, etc., were found, 

13 



INDIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 1954-55 A REVIEW 

By the sixth century B.C. the Northern Black Polished Ware had come into use. 
Houses were now constructed of kiln-burnt bricks, and terracotta ring-wells were used 
for soakage of refuse-water (pi. XXIII). Copper was supplemented by iron, and a system 
of coinage (punch-marked and cast copper coins) came into being. 

Thereafter, the site came successively under the sway of the rulers of Mathura in the 
second century B.C., the Yaudheyas in the first century A.D. and the Kushans in the second- 
third centuries A.D. (pi. XXIV A). The pottery now used was dull red, with a variety of 
stamped designs (pi. XXIV B). Among other objects, particular interest attaches to the 
excellently-moulded terracotta figurines in the Sunga style from the early levels of this 
period. 

The excavation could not be completed, and thus it is not possible to say how much 
later than the Kushan period the site continued under occupation. 

AHAR, DISTRICT UDAIPUR. 1 The village of Ahar, about 3 furlongs from the Udaipur 
Railway Station, is known in medieval inscriptions as Aghatapura. It was the capital of 
Guhila kings, the ancestors of the Ranas of Mewar, before they migrated to Chitor. 
Close to it, on the bank of the rivulet, also called Ahar, lies a mound locally known 
as Dhulkot. A trial-excavation had been undertaken here by the Rajasthan Archaeological 
Department in 1952. However, from the single trench then excavated, the sequence of 
cultures was not clear. Excavation was, therefore, resumed here this year. 

The occupational deposit of over 30 ft. represented two main cultures separated by a 
break The first occupation started over a thin sandy deposit of natural soil underlain 
by rock-beds of the Aravalli system. Its characteristic industry was a black-and-red ware, 
the like of which has in recent years been found at several sites in central and western 
India. The ware had a long life at Ahar, occupying that it did a thickness of nearly 20 ft 
and could be divided into three phases. In the lowest phase the texture- and fabric 

SJ W T We l e ra u oar f ' ^ the pots were P Ushe d on the exterior only. In the 
middle phase they became finer and were polished both inside and outside A lame 
number of them were also painted, usually in white but sometimes in black, with patterns 
of parallel Tines and dots In the final phase a devolution in the ware appears to have s? 
^SfZ^Z^^!* ln * a slipped surface" 






from ^ Chief Sup 5rinKndent of Arctarology Md Mwmms> 

14 



EXCAVATIONS 

The continuous occupation of the site over a long period was also evidenced from 
several building levels. The houses were built either of stone or of mud-bricks, and they 
were roofed with earth laid on bamboos and wattles. There was evidence that entire 
houses sometimes crumbled down owing to fire. Houses in the top levels of the lower 
culture were provided with earthen bins for storage and fire-places for cooking (pi. XXV). 

As the beginning of the black-and-red ware m central India is dated to circa 500 B.C. 
or earlier, we may assume that the lower culture of Ahar went back to that period. The 
upper culture was probably contemporaneous with Kushan times, 

MATHURA. The importance of Mathura in early history, the rich literary tradition 
behind it and, above all, the valuable collection of coins, terracottas, inscriptions and 
stone sculptures recovered from the surface and from sporadic digs pre-eminently point 
it out as a most promising site for systematic excavation. The presence of the Northern 
Black Polished Ware and the recent discovery of the Painted Grey Ware at the vast 
Katra mound, which represents a large part of the ancient urban settlement, provided 
additional incentives. Furthermore, an exploratory survey revealed the existence of two 
rings of mud-ramparts, the first elliptical in shape and the second quadrangular and com- 
prised within the first, as if signifying a citadel. The small-scale excavation of this year 
was the joint effort of Shri M. Venkataramayya of the Northern Circle and Shri Ballabh 
Saran of the Headquarters office. 

A small trench was laid about 500 ft, to the north of the superimposed mosque of 
Aurangzeb. Overlying the natural soil, of compact clay and kankar bands, at a depth of 
42 ft., where the area under excavation was very limited, were found a few sherds of hand- 
made pottery. Within the narrow space of the trench no Painted Grey Ware was found, 
but the first 6 ft. over the natural soil were equally devoid of the N. B. P. Ware and 
contained only types in plain grey and polished black wares found at Hastinapura. The 
other finds were terracotta discs, balls, beads and a boat-shaped bird and perforated 
pottery. On the basis of analogous finds from other sites the Period may be ascribed to 
the sixth century B.C. 

The second Period was characterized by the use of the N. B. P. Ware and was divi- 
sible into three sub-periods. The earliest of them yielded remnants of bamboo-and- 
reed huts with scanty baked bricks, bone needles or styli, camelian amulets and beads and 
figurines of Mother-Goddess in grey and animals, including a dog, in red terracotta. 
Three ring-wells also belonged to this sub-period. In the middle sub-period were 
found square copper coins, gadrooned and cylindrical terracotta beads, ear-ornaments, 
etched carnelian beads, copper antimony-rods, grey terracotta figurines of Mother-Goddess 
with applied girdles (pi. XXVI A ., top left) and elephant-figurines with lozenge-shaped 
eyes and bodies decorated with punched, stamped or notched circlets and enormous tusks 
(cf. pi. XXVII B). The last sub-period saw a vigorous building-activity in baked 
bricks, three phases of a coppersmith's furnace and workshop, with several moulds, copper 
coins and beads of shell, glass and crystal. The terracotta female figurines (pi. XXVI B) 
with gorgeous head-dresses and monkeys with three legs, possibly serving some religious 
purpose, were mostly in red but sometimes in grey. Usually one side of the figurines was 

15 



INDIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 1954-55 A REVIEW 

moulded. Though no plan of any house was found in the small area, there were well laid- 
out walls, drains and ring-wells (pi. XXVIII). The period came to a close about the 
second century B.C. 

There was then a temporary desertion of the site, during which the last ring-wells 
were completely sealed. The third Period was notable for various types of beads in crystal, 
agate, carnelian, lapis lazuli, faience, jasper and shell, bone dice, copper coins including 
those of the Kushans, stone caskets and a turquoise-blue glazed finial. 

The terracotta figurines of dwarfs and grotesques of the fourth Period (pi. XXVII A), 
showing the use of double moulds, were identical to those found at Ahichchhatra in 
levels datable to A,D. 100-350. 

Period V ended about the sixth century, as indicated by the existence of terracotta 
sealings and coins of the early and late Gupta periods, a Naigamesa figurine and several 
terracotta figurines of horse-and elephant-riders characteristic of that age. 

RAJGIR, DISTRICT PATNA. Renewed excavation at the site of Jivakamravana undei 
Dr. D.R. Patil of the Mid-eastern Circle exposed a few more buildings, of which anothej 
elliptical structure, running parallel to the one found last year, with two large halls of un- 
common dimensions and plan, is worth noting (fig. 4; pi. XXIX). The pottery was o 
the same crude red ware as had been found last year. Some iron nails, terracotta ball: 
and animal-figurines formed the other finds. 

A few trial-trenches were sunk in the high lands near Maniyar Math with a view u 
finding out the stratigraphical sequence relating to the introduction and disappearance o 
the Northern Black Polished Ware at Rajgir. They, however, failed to yield any sub 
stantial evidence, for the N. B. P. Ware, associated with black and fine red wares, persistcc 
from the third layer down to the natural rock. Remains of a residential building buil 
of rubble in mud and datable to the earliest post-N. B. P. Ware level were unearthcc 
along with a ring-well and a circular masonry well. The other antiquities included iroi 
nails, terracotta figurines and copper coins. 

KAUSAMBI, DISTRICT ALLAHABAD.' The University of Allahabad under Shri G R 
Sharma continued its operations at Kausambi this year as well, the main objectives bein. 
the completion of the excavation at the Ghoshitarama monastery and the excavatio 
of the rampart and the eastern gateway. 

By extending operations towards the western and southern sides of the previous 

Thnr 1 ^ t0 % ^ 3lmOSt ^ fuU Plan f this sector <* 'h P e mona 
The plan m this part was dormnated by a massive stupa, roughly square on plan 

doubly-recessed corners, surrounded by chapels for monks Mde the i 
exposed a number of smaller stupas and a small shrine of Hariti, The 



1 Information from Shri G R. Sharma. 



EXCAVATIONS 



JIVAKAMRAVANA RAJG1R : 1954-55 



Of 



SCHEMATIC PLAN 

io o xo 4 P , -=ty-_,--jM ff 

' 5 O Jo J o ^ rffs 



10 



E HCLO5URE 




INDIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 1954-55 A REVIEW 

varied in different periods from 13 ft. 6 in. to 9 ft. 6 in. Available evidence shows that it 
had been built either in the reign of Bhadramagha or his successors towards the close 
of the second century A.D. and continued in existence till the third quarter of the 
sixth century. 

A distinctive feature of the eastern gateway was the presence of a curtain in the 
form of a mud-bund, 305 ft. in length and 72 ft. in average width j between it and the 
rampart was a passage 25 ft. wide. Beyond the curtain and separated from it by 
a 3oo-ft, wide moat were two small mounds serving as watch-towers. 

Though only a portion of the northern side of the gateway was laid bare this year, 
this, together with the observation of certain brick-robbings, was sufficient to allow 
a few inferences about the plan of the gateway. The northern wall, 262 ft. in length 
and in width ranging from 5 ft. 4 in. to 6 ft, 6 in. in different sub-periods, its southern 
face remaining in the same plumb throughout, and the extensively-robbed western wall, 
traced to a length of 44 ft., beyond which it had been washed away by a deep rain-gully, 
met each other at right angles. A third wall, the existence of which was revealed in recent 
brick-robbings, was noticed to start with the other end of the curtain and run across the 
rampart. It appeared likely, therefore, that these three walls represented the three sides 
of the gate, the curtain completing the system at the exterior. 

The rampart had at least three clear stages of repairs subsequent to its original 
construction (pi. XXXI). While there was no clear evidence that the brick flanks of the 
gateway were coeval with the rampart, it was definite that they were integral with the 
second stage of the rampart, which was separated from the first stage by a long gap of time. 
In the third stage both the rampart and the gateway flank were heightened, but it is not 
certain whether the latter also underwent modifications along with the fourth stage of the 
rampart. 

The excavation yielded a large number of coin-moulds and sealings, mentioning the 
names of certain kings which help in reconstructing the history of Kausambi in the sixth 
centuiy. Of the sealings, there was one of Hunaraja (pi. XXXII B), identified with 
Toramana, whose seal had been discovered earlier. The names of other two kings, 
Dhruvadatta (pi. XXXII C) and Sivadatta or Sarvadatta, introduce to history a new 
rating dynasty, which, on palaeographical grounds, should be placed towards the second 
quarter of the sixth century and might have gained power after the withdrawal of the 
Hunas. 

Of the other interesting antiquities unearthed this year one was the fragment of a 
richly-decorated purnaghata and another terracotta plaque representing a warrior driven 
on a chariot of four horses (pi, XXXII A). The former contained the representa- 
tions of winged yakshis issuing out of a rich foliage of lotus-flowers and leaves 
(pi. XXXIII). Other finds included a number of sculptures, terracotta figurines, beady, 
tools and weapons. 

KUMRAHAE, DISTRICT PATNA.* In continuation of the work done in 1951-52, the 
area of the Mauryan pillared hall received attention again this year. The previous 

1 Information from Shri Vijayakanta Mishra. 

18 



EXCAVATIONS 

work had been sufficient to disprove Spooner's theory that the pillars had sunk into the 
unplumbed depths of the earth. This year a few trenches were laid to the south of the 
excavated area with interesting results. The ashy layer, the result of the conflagration 
which had destroyed the wooden superstructure of the hall, was encountered in the 
trenches nearest the excavated area but was absent in those further south;, thus indicating 
the southern extent of the hall. It was clear that the hall had all told eightyfour pillars 
(of which seventytwo had been located by Spooner), i. e., eighty in the main hall and 
four at the entrance, located at the southern face of the hall, where three stone fragments 
of what looked like bases of Mauryan capitals were also found. At a depth of 18 ft. were 
discovered wooden bases (pi. XXXIV A) for the pillars, intended to distribute their load. 
It was also demonstrated that there had been a canal coming from the east in the 
same alignment as the wooden platforms found by Spooner (so that they seemed to 
have been designed to remain under water) and flanking the southern limit of 
the palace. 

The excavation also yielded evidence about the date of the destruction of the hall. 
As the ashy deposit was found superimposed by layers belonging to the Sunga period, 
the hall must have been destroyed about the middle of the second century B.C. Fragments 
of its shattered pillars were found all over Kumrahar in association with other antiquities 
belonging to 100 B.C. to A.D. 100. 

According to the excavator, the collective evidence shows that the ashy layer, 7 ft. 
below ground-level, was the floor of the hall, the Mauryan level being 4 ft. lower. The 
pillars, to judge from the available data, were 31 ft. high, the lowest 5 ft. of which were 
buried underground, so that they held the roof at a height of 22 ft. above the floor. 

In the trenches laid near the western graveyards were encountered rooms of the 
monastic type belonging to two structural periods, the earlier one being of circa 100 B.C. 
to A.D. 100 and the later one of circa A.D. 100 to 300. 

Excavation to the west of the Arogya-vihara (pis. XXXIV B and XXXV A) also led to 
interesting discoveries. Built over the remains of earlier structures an apsidal building 
with the foundation of a circular stupa was exposed at a depth of about 4 ft. When the 
apsidal structure with its stupa collapsed, a new stupa, square on plan and apparently 
with a circumambulation-path, was built to its east at a distance of 18 ft. from the centre 
of the previous stupa. The stucco gandharvas^ mithuna-figures and Buddha-figures, 
found in the previous excavations, now seemed to have belonged to the faQade of this 
Gupta chaitya-hall with a square stupa as the object of worship. The excavation in this 
area is not yet complete. 

TAMLUK, DISTRICT MIDNAPUR. Identified with the ancient Tamralipti, famous in 
literature as a great emporium and a seat of learning, Tamluk has long been known to 
archaeologists from its yield of coins, terracottas and pottery, some of unusual shapes, 
either from the surface or from haphazard diggings. The place was taken up for ex- 
cavation this year by the Eastern Circle under Shri M. N. Deshpande, partly in response 
to a public demand but primarily to find out its archaeological potentiality and cultural 
sequence. Operations at seven different places revealed that the town, had been in 
occupation from the neolithic to modern times with occasional breaks. 

19 



INDIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 1954-55 A 

Period I, characterized by neolithic celts and an ill-fired pottery, was scanti^ 
represented. 

The cultural equipment of Period II (third-second centuries B.C.) consisted of beaut*" 
ful and typical terracotta figurines (pi. XXXIX), cast copper coins and a pottery beariJ* 
close affinity to that of contemporary northern India. 

In Period III (circa first-second centuries A.D.) Tamluk seems to have shared with 
other ports on the Indian coasts trade-contacts with the Roman world, as witnessed by 
a sprinkler and the profuse occurrence of the rouleited ware (pi. XXXVII), both believed l 
be ultimately originating from Rome. A brick-built stepped tank exposed in one trench 
and a ring-well and a soak-pit in another belonged to this period (pi. XXXVI). Banded 
agate beads were also associated with this Period. 

Period IV, which was not very well represented, produced some beautiful terracottas 
of the third-fourth centuries, showing Kushan and Gupta influence (pi. XXXVIII B> 
Mention may be made of a superb terracotta figurine (only the lower part found), which 
was characterized by a graceful modelling and transparent drapery of the early Gupta 
period. 

The subsequent history is rather difficult to reconstruct. The place appears to 
have lost its earlier importance, and whatever evidence could have been pieced together 
has been destroyed by disturbances caused by the digging of water-tanks. Sporadic 
finds of sculptures of thePala and Sena periods by the local people in the course of dig- 
ging tanks throw some light on this otherwise dark period. 

The remains of the last phase (eighteenth-nineteenth centuries) were represented by 
the topmost deposits, contemporary with a number of brick structures constructed by 
local Rajas and salt-factory owners. 

^ AMIRTHAMANGALAM, DISTRICT CHINGLEPUT. The excavation at Amirthamangalarn 
m the latentic zone of Chingleput District, where urn-burials occur without any obvious 
megalithic appendage, was carried out by the Southern Circle under Shri N. R. Banerjcc 
as a complement to the excavation of megalithic monuments at Sanur in the granitic zone 
of the same District. The objective was to find out the mode of burial and how far it re- 
sembled or differed in nature from the urn-burials surrounded by stone circles that are met 
with m the region. 

The location of the urn-burials on a lateritic plateau, surrounded at the fringe by u 
number of rain-fed ancient irrigation-tanks, conforms to the general principle of the situa- 
tion of megaliths elsewhere in the District. The exposed and damaged urns (pi. XL) 
at this extensive site, numbering about two hundred and fifty, displayed a large variety - 
of sizes and shapes ranging from oval to nearly globular. All were hand-made, thick, of 
coarse granular fabric and pale red colour and had rolled rims with or without additional 
decorations below and either pedunculated bottoms, which pinned them into the earth or 
heeled solid bottoms, flat at the lower end, varying in diameter from 4 in to n in 
f Excavation of a few urns (pis. XLI and XXII B) showed that they were each placed 
in an adequate pit cut into the lateritic gravel and, wherever necessary, even into the 
underlying lateritic bed-rock. The skeletal material, consisting of a selection of uncal- 
cined, disarticulated and excavated bones, including the skull, long bon.es> loosened teeth 



20 



EXCAVATIONS 




INDIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 1954-55-A REVIEW 

* ^ hmtom fol XLII A) Over the skeletal deposit 
and fnements of ribs, was deposited at tne ootcuu w ^ ^ .^^ ob j ecls were 

wer^ placed a few (three or four) pots m J 1 ^" d covered with dome-shaped 

uUo P la^in S ide.Theun^tto^d^4c^^^ ^ and 



hv an overlving iaver of loose gravelly earth (fig. 5). . 

' On the whole, these burials appear to be simpler than the elaborate megalithic burials. 
The absence of the stone circle, the comparative paucity of pottery and iron objects 
and the smaller quantity of skeletal material, all suggest a less sophisticated mode of dis- 
posal of the dead, Whether they indicate a form earlier than the full-fledged megaliths 
or are a degenerate form thereof requires further investigation. 

XAGARJVXAKOXDA. As a result of intensive excavation since October 1954, seven 
important sites were opened up, revealing to view structural remains, mostly viharas, 
(pi. XLIII A), stupas, an assembly-ball, a closed bath and two temples, one of them of 
Hariti, belonging 3 generally speaking, to two or three structural periods. 

Site III revealed a monastery with an open courtyard, an inscribed potsherd found 
therein giving its name as Nakatara ('superior to heaven'). Also found here was an in- 
scribed pilaster dated in the tenth regnal year of the Ikshvaku king Virapurushadatta and 
referring to some munificence for the benefit of the Buddhist and other faiths, 

Site VI revealed a monastic unit with the mahachaitya on the west, two votive stupas 
o>n the east and a vihara of four cells on each side. The mahachaitya was of chipped and 
cut rubble. A number of broken images of Buddha and a few sanitary jars and bowls 
were found in the monastery, suggesting that it dealt with stores such as of pottery 
and images. 

Adjoining Site VI was exposed another mahachaitya^ typically Atidhra, with ayaka- 
platforms and with a diameter of 48 ft. On plan it was a wheel with a cylindrical hub and 
ten speke-like arms (pi. XLIV B), Its outer facing including the a>a&2-plalfoms had 
an excellent plaster finish, 2 in, thick. 

The next site, VIIA, was the most important of the recent excavations. It revealed 
a temple of Hariti juxtaposed on the contours of the hill. To reach the temple one had to 
go up the Ml through a quadrangle, 54 ft. 6 in, x 45 ft., with arrangements on its 
four *!des for a brick gallery, edged withCuddapah slabs. At its south-west comer was 
a stone bench for visitors to assemble and wash their feet (pi. XLV B) The water used 
for ^hmg was carried away by a drain provided nearby. A circular abacus-part of a 

|^M!^^ 

flanked by m, h^er room,, was an image of Hariti fa 



with her legs hanging down. The decorative features of the image would warrant the 
fourth or fifth century as the possible date of the temple. Also was found in this area 
an inscribed pillar referring to the putting up of a perpetual lamp (akhaya-nim) on the 
occasion of some utsava or festival (pi. XLVI B). A large number of ivory bangles were 
recovered in front of the Hariti shrine. 

The existence of the Hariti temple explained another structure behind it. a 
temple of gigantic proportions, that had two structural phases, both post-Ikshvaku 
(pi. XLIII B). The earlier construction was the sanctum, near which was a drain 
for taking away the abhisheka-watzr. This early shrine was closed at a later stage and 
widened on its east into a mandapa with arrangement of steps in front and with the differ- 
ence that the image in its new orientation faced east instead of west. A circumambulatory 
passage went round the early structure, the walls of which, on the outside, contained 
niches for holding the images. Whether it was apsidal on plan or not awaits further 
excavation. 

Site V yielded a very interesting mahachaitya in the shape of a wheel, 27 ft. in diameter, 
wkh four spokes meeting a circular hub (pi. XLIV A). An interesting feature was that it 
stood on another circular chaitya> in an orientation which would suggest that the latter 
was an earlier chatty a. An inscribed pillar, found in the vicinity, recorded a donation by a 
sramcma, who was a kufaputra (of high family), with the noble desire that it should be a 
gift for all Brahmanas. 

Storage-jars, vessels for carrying food, ceremonial pots and begging bowls, all denot- 
ing monastic use, were found at different sites. A vessel showing a female figure in place 
of the spout was of special interest. Among the decorative designs on the pottery 
were spirals, swastikas, hatches, solar symbols, criss-crosses, rosettes, plaited courses, 
rainbows, chevrons, beads, crosses, scallops, herring-bones and conventional foliage. 

The finds, which included limestone and terracotta objects (pis. XLVI A and XLVII), 
discovered so far related to dates ranging between the second and perhaps the fifth 
centuries. 

TILDAH, DISTRICT MiDNAPUR. 1 A trial-excavation conducted by the University of 
Calcutta under the leadership of Shri K. G. Goswami at Chandpur mound in the village of 
Tildah brought to light brick-built structures of two phases, the earlier one originating in 
the Gupta period. The limited area taken up for excavation did not permit any definite 
idea about the plan or purpose of these structures. Besides pottery, the finds consisted 
chiefly of terracottas (pi. XXXV B and C), of which a fairly large number were encountered. 
Of these, the majority belonged to the Gupta and post-Gupta periods. Of the pre-Gupta 
finds, mention may be made of a terracotta figurine, reminiscent of Kushan art in dress and 
technique and a sherd of the Northern Black Polished Ware. 

KOTTURU, DISTRICT VISAKHAPATNAM. The South-eastern Circle under Shri R. C. 
Kar undertook an excavation at one of the five mounds, near the village of Kotturu, 
situated on the left bank of the Sarada river on the southern slopes of the Panchadarla hill. 
Excavation has so far revealed two structural phases, the later one, constructed of large 



1 Information from Shri K. G. Goswami. 

23 



MDtAtf ARCHAEOLOGY 1954-55 A 

but fragmentary bricks, forming part of a Buddhist vihara-comptex. Remains of an earlie 
building phase, the nature of which still remains to be determined, were met with at ty 
northern end of the mound. The pottery was primarily of dull red ware, but sherds gf 
bright red and trrey wares were also encountered. The work will be continued nes 
year, 

SIRPI-R, DISTRICT R AI PUR. ' Under the auspices of the University of Saugar and witt 
ilnandnl assistance from the Government of Madhya Pradesh, Dr. Moreshwar G. DiksM 
excavated two prominent mounds situated about a mile to the south of the well-know 
Lak^hmana temple. The first site yielded the remains of two large Buddhist monasteries 
adjacent to each other, styled respectively as the Main Temple and the Lower Monasteij 
(Titf- 6). The second site was found to contain the ruins of several small structures in- 
eluding vihams. 

The Main Temple (pi. XLVIII) was rectangular on plan, with an elaborately -carved 
gateway to the north beyond the porch, flanked on either side by tall dvarapalas and wirhi 
/arge number of Yakshas along the side-walls of the porch. The temple combined a happj 
blending of certain architectural features common to both a temple and a monasteif, 
Equipped with a porch, a sabhamandapa resting on sixteen massive stone pillars and \ 
shrine, it exhibited the essentials of a temple, while in the arrangement of a row of eel 
around the central courtyard it followed the familiar monastic plan. The shrine in tk 
central cell in the back row contained a colossal image of Buddha, about 6* ft. in height 
seated on a smhasana in the bhumisparsa-mudra (pi. XLIX A). On the right of the im& ' 
stood a life-size figure of Padmapani. The door of the shrine was adorned with a tai 
hgure of Ganga. According to an inscription the structure was built by one BhiUi 
Anandaprabhu m the reign of Balarjuna in about the first quarter of the eighth century 

* oau P fldon ** * ^o hundred years, after which t , 

e Saiva faith, who effected eaten* '- 



f 



oT ^ I"" ^ ^ reSites folk > wcd **** 
of all these arusans The imptenca 

tools, including.S^ra ^5? 'f t ^J Pt ^ ed a C mplete set of the ^^smith^ 
stone wi th ^^^^*^*^.> a tri P d i even the toud 
locally, and ;imongst them mention m?^ , br0nZe ima ^ es were undoubtedly mad 
guld and having tfc ^J^K^T^ *?* ^ f Buddha ^ d 
with copper totoimJth^ the ^ ^ere cover. 

c^f^ process, the sand in t^^rl^^- whidl k werc madc ^ A 
strength ol the number of images found in 7h adheril ig to the metal On. tb 

dLScovered previously at Sirpu^T a h^rd it ^nT^T aS als those 

- -, M0 ; shwar G a can b 



XCAVAT10NS 




cfl 



vo 

o 



INDIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 1954-55 A REVIE 

independent school of craftsmen flourished here, and their workmanship was greai 
influenced by late Gupta plastic tradition. A circular copper plaque engraved with 
Buddhist text ;pl XLIX Cj deserves mention. 

The three monasteries at the second site were built on the plan of a large centi 
hall surrounded by a network of cells, one of which was invariably meant for the shrir 
and generally a ^pacii ms otone-paved courtyard. The walls were made of bricks with sto 
foundations.' A large jar, either placed in the central hall or in the open courtyard, f 
the provision of water, was a usual feature. One of the monasteries seemed to ha 
been a nunnery as shown by the occurrence of a large number of shell and glass banglt 
In the basement, of an undo ground chamber in one of the rooms in this monaste 
was found an exquisitely-carved miniature stupa in crystal and a gilt vajra. A number 
seals with Buddhist texts were found in a courtyard (pi. XLIX B). 

The Saivite intrusion in these monasteries was indicated by the discovery of cru< 
plaques of Gaiii^a, Mahishamardini, Siva-Parvati, etc. 

The potten. from the monasteries was the usual red ware variety, utilitarian 
character and without any sophisticated forms. 

KAIUAK, DISLRICT DARBHANGA. 1 Trial-excavation was done by the K. P. Jayaswi 
Research Institute at Karian, supposed to be the birth-place of the philosopher Udayan! 
chary a, and three structural periods, belonging to circa 900-1800, were found. Thesil 
has suffered exiensnely from the floods of the river Bagmati, and except common ant 
quities, e.g., beads, terracottas, iron objects, copper antimony-rods, etc.., nothing wort 
noting was obtained. 

BHATI:SDA FORT, The Bhatinda Municipality had sought permission of the D< 
partment to build a water-reservoir at an elevated point within the fort. Before grantiD 
permission, it was considered desirable to carry out some trial-diggings in the area so i 
to ascertain the antiquity of the underlying strata. Accordingly, a small trench was dii 
down to a depth of about 50 ft. below surface by Shri Raghbir Singh on behalf of tf 
North-western Circle. The natural soil was, however, not reached. On the basis of ti 
pottery- recovered trom the excavation it was found that the site went back to the earl 
medieval tunes (rcu twelfth-thirteenth centuries). Of great interest was a mud-brie 

' ^ TlTf ^^ (? } ln the 10Wer lVels - The mud-brick wall wa 
to a depth of about 37 ft. without reaching the bottom 



frcm Shri Vijayakanta Mishra 

26 



3. EPIGRAPHY 

A. SANSKRITIC AND DRAVIDIAN INSCRIPTIONS 

The Epigraphical Branch of the Department examined seventeen copper-plate 
charters and secured impressions of over three hundred stone inscriptions, besides Arabic 
and Persian inscriptions mentioned below (p. 30). Some of the important records are 
noted here. 

INSCRIPTION OF ASOKA. A new version of the Minor Rock-edict of Asoka in the 
village of Gujarra in Datia District of Vindhya Pradesh (pi. L) is the outstanding 
epigraphical discovery of the year. Its importance lies in the fact that it is the second of the 
many records of the emperor so far discovered that mentions Asoka as his personal name, 
the first being the Rock-edict at Maski. There are some passages in the present inscrip- 
tion which are not found in any other version of the Minor Rock-edict. 

EARLY PRAKRIT RECORDS. A fragmentary inscription, originally discovered at the 
ancient site of Palikhera at Mathura and now preserved in the local museum, purports to 
record the setting up of an image of Sakyamuni (i.e. Buddha) and the construction of a shrine 
for it by a person named Guhasena. The record refers to the reign of the Kushan emperor 
Vasudeva and cites the year 64 of the Kanishka era, thus narrowing down the wide gap of 
fourteen years between the earliest known date of this king and the latest known date of his 
predecessor Huvishka to four years only. Of some fragmentary inscriptions discovered in 
the course of excavation at Nagarjunakonda, one refers to a kulaputra (nobleman) and another 
to the grant of an akkaya-nim (a perpetual endowment). Another Brahmi inscription from 
Kondavite near Borivli in Bombay State records a gift to a vihara made by a Brahmana. 

GRANT OF CHANDAVARMAN. Among the copper-plate charters examined during the 
year, this set of three plates is the earliest. It is engraved in the southern alphabet of the 
fifth century, the language being Prakrit. The record registers a grant of the village 
Garikatuka as an agrahara by king Chandavarman of the Salankayana dynasty. 

Two INSCRIPTIONS OF THE SAILODBHAVAS OF KONGODA. These are two copper-plate 
charters, one of Sainyabhita Madhavavarman II Srinivasa (circa 610-665) ^d the other 
of Manabhita Dharmaraja (circa 695-730). The former was discovered at Purushottam- 
pur, District Puri, Orissa, and is dated in the thirteenth regnal year of the king. Since he is 
described in the charter as the performer of asvamedha and other sacrifices, he seems to 
have become independent of the yoke of the Gauda emperor Sasanka some time after 619., 
the date of Ganjam plates, but before the thirteenth year of his reign as suggested by the 
present record. The second Sailodbhava record comes from Chandeswar and states that it 
was issued from Kontalayivasaka by Dharmaraja, the grandson of Sainyabhita Madhava- 
varman II Srinivasa, in the eighteenth year of his reign. 

27j 



INDIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 1954-55 A REVIEW 

P.-.i LAVA INSCRIPTION. This record from Kanchtpwam, engraved in characters of 
^!-jut thj eighth century, is dated in the eighteenth year of the reign of king Narasingap- 
F n irai\jr and refers to the activities of the Ajivakas and to a temple of Arivar (i.e. the 
Arh.it From the characteristic epithet pottaraiyar borne by the king and from the 
F~c\ v n_,nu: of the record,, the king appears to be identical with Narasimhavarrnan II 
Rti;,>iimha. 

THE IE. RECORDS OF THE RASHTRAKUTAS. An epigraph from Indragarh in Madhya 
Bharu, : dated Malava (Vikrama) samvat 767 (A.D. 710), introduces one Nannappa, son of 
Ij&jir^Ta. as a ruier in the Rashtrakuta family. It records the construction of a temple 
^ J:cu:^d to the god Siva by Danarasi, who is described as a teacher of the Pasupata school 
and a Ui ; , Jple of Vinitarasi. The second record is a copper-plate grant of the emperor 
tziviinJj Hi of the Malkhed branch of this family and is dated Saka 726 (AD 
^4 The king is stated to hare issued the charter from his victorious military camp on 
c-icbonkoi the river Tungabhadra. A third record, also of this branch of the Rashtra- 
jKura iam-ly. is a stone inscription from Kopbal, District Raichur, Hyderabad State It 
ocfcngs to the reign of king Indra III and cites the Saka year 811 (A.D. 889), as corres- 




***** 

T " the ^ of 

at J uru mbada in Nalayadi, 

of Pc Mng ade Ttw^;^ "^ Uptee P f the 
made by Vmava-Saffa ?, ^ V' oha ren T ed th grant which had been 

e a, Ramesv JiSSTS^ ^WS*^"' 1111 " 511 (68l - 96) ' whm he 
r ord from %^-Af Jj^"^" " J* * * *^SB. Another 






Rajadhiraja 



EPIGRAPHY 

TWO 1 COPPER-PLATE CHARTERS OF THE CHAULUKYA BfflMA I. The Paliad 

(District Gohilwad, Saurashtra) plates of this king, issued from Akasikagrama,, register the 
royal grant of a piece of land in favour of a vasatika at Bayada in Vikrama-samvat 1112 (A.D. 
I0 55)> while the Bhadresar (Kutch) plates, dated 1117 (A.D, 1060), record a similar grant of 
a village in Kachchha-mandala to the Brahmana Govinda hailing from Prasannapura. The 
Kayastha Vatesvara, son of Kanchana, was the drafter of both the charters and the Maha- 
sandhivigrahika Bhogaditya their executor. 

FIVE RECORDS OF THE YADAVA SiNGHANA. Three of these inscriptions come from 
the villages ofMedikurti and Kodumurti (District Anantapur). All of them refer to the reign 
of Singhana; two are dated in Saka 1143 (A.D, 1221} and 1149 (A.D. 1227) respectively, 
while the date of the third one also falls in about the same period. They mention the 
gods Chittirameli-Desamesvaradeva, Chitramedisrimal-Lalitesvaradeva and the Sihana- 
pati Vyapakadeva and also refer to the guild called Chitrameli, which seems to have been 
formed by agriculturists. Significantly enough, the slabs on which these records are 
engraved also bear the sketches of a plough (meli) together with other figures such as a 
bull, serpent, drum, purnakumbha, etc. Another inscription of the king comes from 
Prakash, District West Khandesh, and refers to the installation of a temple for Vikramarka. 
One more fragmentary inscription of the same monarch^ dated Saka 1165 (A.D. 1243), 
comes from Aurangabad, Hyderabad State. 

INSCRIPTION OF HARIHARA I. This record comes from Atdkalagudu* District 
Kurnool, and is one of the few early inscriptions of king Harihara I of Vijayanagara. It 
records that Kameya Nayaka, having consecrated the god Mulasthana Mallinathadeva, 
made an endowment of lands and cows to the god for the merit of his overlord, the Maha- 
pradhana Machappa Vodeya, brother-in-law of the king. He is stated to have been ruling 
over 'Sindavadi 12' with Adavani as his capital. The record is dated Saka 1268 (A.D. 1346). 

PRINCE OF WALES MUSEUM PLATES OF JAITRASIMHA. This record, dated Vikrama- 
samvat 1347 (A.D. 1290) belongs to king Jaitrasimha of the Vaijavapayana family and fur- 
nishes his genealogy for four generations. It records the royal gift of the village of Takari 
in the region of Nandapadra on the banks of the Narmada. 

VALLALA-PRASASTI. This is engraved on the left wall of the Rishigopura of the 
Kamakshi temple at Kanchipuram. The poet Chakravarti, who composed the record, 
calls it Vallalaguna-stava and gives in it an account of the relations that existed between 
the Hoysala king Ballala HI and the contemporary southern powers. 

MISCELLANEOUS INSCRIPTIONS. Some of the other inscriptions examined during the 
year may be noticed here in a chronological order. A brick inscription from the Ratnagiri 
Hills, District Guttack, Orissa, containing a record of four lines in east Indian characters 
of the seventh century, seems to refer to the installation of a Jaina image and points to the 
existence of an early Jaina establishment on these hills, which are famous for their Bud- 
dhist ruins. An inscription in the Nagesvara temple at Narrium, District Kurnool, engraved 
in archaic Telugu characters of the eighth century, records the consecration of the god 



1 Information from the Superintendent of Archaeology, Saurashtra. 

29 



INDIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 1954-55 A REVIEW 

Takshakesvara-Bhatara by Nagachandasvami Tippena Periya of the Samkhya gotra. An 
epitaph from Mcdikurn, District Anantapur, records gifts of land made by Jagadala 
Bhogarasadeva Maharaja in Saka 1159 (A.D. 1237), and another fnmMmgtdla, District 
Xellore, assignable to the twelfth century, mentions the Telugu Choda chief Tirukalati 
Devachoda-Mahaiaja with the epithet Tcnkanaditya. An inscription from Sholapur, dated 
Saka 1575 (A.I>. 1653), belongs to Muhammad Adil Shah of Bijapur. Another recordfrom 
Adorn, District Bclian, refers to the death of the Maharaja Anupasimha of the Rathoda 
frmily and his wives in Saka 1620 and Vikrama-ttwrntf 1755 ( A - D - 1698). 

INSCRIPTIONS FROM TRAVANCORE-CocHiN. 1 The inscriptions in the temples^at Kerala- 
puram, Suchindrarn, Kanyakumari and Tiruvattar were examined. A Tamil inscription 
in the Siva temple at Keralapuram belongs to the king Vira Udayamarttaiidavarma Tinivati 
Vira-PanJyadeva of the fourteenth century and relates to the grant of certain taxes to the 
temple of Virakeralesvaram. Another Tamil inscription in the same temple, dated Kollam 
782. records that king Vira-ravi Ravivarman rebuilt the temple of Virakeralesvaram, A 
third record., also from the same temple, states that one Aiyan Aiyan of Parakkotu set up 
the two pillars containing the sculptures of Cheraman Perumal and Sundaramurti Nayanar 
in the Kollam year 782. A record from the Krishna shrine at Keralapuram, dated Kollam 
887, refers to the gift of certain lands by a private individual to the temple during the reign 
of Ravi Ravivarman Chiravaymutta Tampiran. Four mutilated Tamil inscriptions from the 
Sthannathasvamin temple at Suchindram in the Vatteluttu script belong to the period of 
Parakesarivarman, Rajaraja, Kesarivarman and Cholantalaikonda Vira-Pandya respectively 
and record gifts of sheep and lands for perpetual lamps and offerings. The Guhanatha- 
sviiinin temple at Kanyakumari contains an inscription belonging to the thirtyfirst year of 
Parakesarivarman Rajendra and recording the gift of fifty sheep for a perpetual lamp by one 
Alnnarkadan, alias Natuvunilai Danmachchetti, of Manalur on the bank of the Vaigai. An 
incomplete inscription from the same temple belongs to the Chola king Rajakesarivarman 
Rajadhiraja and mentions Rajarajan-salai and its salabhoga the village of Manarkuti. The 
revival of an old arrangement for the supply of salt required for the Sri-Vallabhapperum- 
chalai, alias Rajarajapperumchalai, from the salt-pans of Manarkuti is recorded in another 
inscription from the same temple. An inscription from the Adikesavaperumal temple 
at Tiruvattar, in the Vatteluttu script, belongs to the king Vira Udayarnarttandavarman of 
the twelfth century and records the gift of land for services in the temple. The last 
one is a Tamil record dated Kollam 778 and states that the Orraikkal-mandapa was 
constructed by king Vira-ravi Ravivarman. 

B. ARABIC AND PERSIAN INSCRIPTIONS 

One hundred and sixty-five Arabic and Persian inscriptions were collected and 
examined. Some of the most important ones are recorded here. 

INSCRIPTION OF QUTBU'D DIN MUBARAK SHAH OF THE KHALJI DYNASTY This in- 
scription, from Dholka, District Ahmedabad, is the only inscription of this king and the 

1 Information from the Government of Travancore-Cochin. 

30 



EPIGRAPHY 

second one of his dynasty, the first being that of Alau'd Din Khaiji, discovered so far in 
Gujarat. 

TWO INSCRIPTIONS OF NUSRAT SHAH TUGHLUQ. Both dated A.H. 797 (A.D. 1394-95), 

one is from Mangrol, District Sorath, and the other from Ghogha, District Amreli. These 
are the only inscriptions of the king so far known to exist. The one from Ghogha is very 
important, as it gives the title of the king, which was not hitherto known. 

FOUR INSCRIPTIONS OF FiRUZ SHAH TUGHLUQ. Respectively from Una, District 
Sorath;, and Dholka, District Ahmedabad, and two from Patan, District Mehsana, the 
first is important inasmuch as it gives the name and title of the famous noble Zafar Khan 
Farsi, sometime governor of Gujarat. The second mentions Sharafu'd Din Bahman 
Zafar Khani as sarpardadar ('chief curtain-bearer'). The last two are the earliest records 
in Persian discovered at Patan so far and mention Amir-i-Miran Hasan and Husain 
respectively. 

FOUR INSCRIPTIONS OF ZAFAR KHAN OF GUJARAT. - Discovered at Kapadwanj, 
District Kaira, Baroda and Patan, they refer to Zafar Khan, son of Wajihu'l Mulk, 
who later on assumed sovereignty of Gujarat, and belong to his pre- as well as 
post-kingship period. One of the former group is dated Ramadan 806 (March 
A.D. 1404), barely a month after the death of Muhammad Shah I; that Zafar Khan did not 
assume royal titles then (and for some years to come) is further proved by this epigraph. 
The two inscriptions of his kingship period bear A.H. 812 (A.D. 1409-10) and A.H. 813 
(A.D. 1410-11) respectively, so that we now have inscriptions relating to every year of his 
reign. 

Two INSCRIPTIONS FROM MANGROL. One record, dated A.H. 805 (A.D. 1402-03), 
mentions Malik Shah Badr as ordering the remission of marriage-tax then levied on a 
particular community. The second one casually mentions prince Path Khan's expedition 
to Qala-i-Girnar during the reign of Sultan Ahmad I and his order for the removal of a 
certain duty imposed by local authorities, 

INSCRIPTIONS FROM JUNAGARH. One of the records, belonging to Mahmud I Begda, 
mentions the conquest of the Girnar fort (also called here Mustafabad) and the construc- 
tion of the Jami mosque, by which is probably meant the one in Uparkot. Two small 
epigraphs, not noticed so far, mention Hindu sculptors who were responsible for the 
execution of the elaborately-carved central prayer-niche and the carving of the inscriptional 
tablet (another new inscription of Muzaffar II) and were awarded some land as a gift for the 
work. 

LATER M.UGHUL INSCRIPTIONS. An inscription from Patan, District Mehsana, 
mentions Nawwab Mahabat Khan's encounter with Duda Koli, a turbulent chief. 



31 



4. PRESERVATION OF MONUMENTS 

A. MONUMENTS OF NATIONAL IMPORTANCE 
NORTH-WESTERN CIRCLE 

Delhi 

TOMB OF ABDUR RAHIM RHAN-I-KHANAN, NEW DELHI. The tomb of Abdur Rahim 
Khan-i-Khanan, the son of Bairam Khan, prime minister of Akbar, and a notable lumi- 
nary in Hindi literature, had been extensively stripped, at the time of Safdarjang, of 
a large number of veneer-stones of marble and sandstone for the decoration of the 
latter's tomb. To arrest the further decay of the floors on the terrace and inside and to 
make the tomb structurally sound, urgent structural repairs, such as grouting the cracks 
and holes and pointing the joints in masonry, were initiated. 

TOMB OF GHIYASU'D DIN TUGHLUQ, TUGHLAKABAD. The roof of this unique citadel- 
tomb had been leaking. The affected parts were thoroughly grouted with cement and 
sand-mortar and the roof re-laid with lime-cement concrete. 

SULTAN GHARI, MALAKPITR KOHL Minor damages caused by miscreants some time 
back to this tomb, one of the earliest Islamic tombs in India, were made good, the grave- 
platforms inside the crypt were repaired, and the floor in the courtyard was restored at 
places. 

KOTLA FIRUZ SHAH, NEW DELHI. In this monument, which had served as 
accommodation for the refugees after the Partition, special repairs had been going on, 
In the current year the gaps in the southern wall were closed and the gaping open joints 
in the masonry grouted. 

ADILABAD CAUSEWAY, TUGHLAKABAD. The decayed parts of this Tughluq monument 
received consolidation. A water-channel with a flanking arched recess was discovered 
during clearance. 

Uttar Pradesh 

EXCAVATED ASVAMEDHA SITES NEAR KALSI, DISTRICT DEHRA DUN. Two of the 
rr"f "" ? d , in ^3;54 * consolidated with cement, sand and mortar 

^th^H 0mi m ^ ^ ^ bSen eXCaV3ted ' S0 that the bricks did * get dislodged 
nor the mud-core washed away. 

Panjab 

MONUMENTS IN KANGRA DisTRicT.-The outstanding works consisted 
grouung to the rubble masonry of the inner citadd-walfand ^ 

32 



PRESERVATION OF MONUMENTS 

hanging masonry in the hammam in Kangra fort; grouting of the joints in the Baijnath 
temple> grouting at the rock-cut temples at Masur', and provision of lightning-conductors 
to the Basheswar Mahadeva temple at Bajaura, Gauri Sankar temple at Naggar and the 
temple at Dasal. 

PEPSU 

PINJORE MONUMENTS, DISTRICT KANDAGHAT. Large-scale repairs to these monuments 
included the resetting of several sections of the compound-walls and of broken chhajjas 
in the Rang Mahal and water-tightening of its roof and plastering of the walls of the 
main gateway. 

Rajasthan 

EXCAVATED REMAINS AT RANG MAHAL, DISTRICT GANGANAGAR. The excavated 
trench at this early historical site was provided with barbed-wire fencing, and proper 
arrangements were made for the drainage of rain-water from the excavated area. 

NORTHERN CIRCLE 

Uttar Pradesh 

TAJ MAHAL, AGRA. The important works undertaken at the Taj Mahal were repairs 
to the fa9ades of the mausoleum and the chhatri at the south-east corner of the enclosure- 
wall near the Gausala and the replastering of the inner surface of the upper dome as re- 
:ommended by the Taj Advisory Committee and of the plinth of the dalans in the fore- 
court. 

FORT AT AGRA. Four marble brackets supporting the chhajja-stonQS of the Diwan-i- 
Khas, which had sagged, were dismantled and reset in special lime-mortar after the brac- 
kets had been secured with strong clamps. 

MONUMENTS AT FATEHPUR SIKRI, DISTRICT AGRA. The work of repairing the inner 
[acing of the city-walls, taken up last year, was continued this year. Two patches of walls, 
measuring 26 ft. and 38 ft., were rebuilt during the year. In the Dargah of Sheikh Salim 
"hishti, twentyfive more tie-rods, each 40 ft. long, were fixed on the roof to bind the 
parapets after drilling holes through the facing stones and ^Maya-stones. The broken and 
decayed stones were replaced by new ones. A start was made to restore the missing 
pieces of mother-of-pearl on the baldachin over the grave of Sheikh Salim Chishti (pi. LI). 
AJong with this, resetting loose inlay-pieces and substituting the missing ones in the 
plinth were also taken in hand. The marble facing stones that had fractured due to the 
rusting of iron clamps and dowels are being chiselled off, and new marble bidis 
'patch-work) are being inserted. 

MONUMENTS AT KHUSROBAGH, ALLAHABAD. At the tomb of Eibi Tambolan some 
jnportant work was carried out, such as the provision of dasa stones with a foundation 
in lime over a lime-concrete bed all round the platform of the tomb and the 

33 



INDIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 1954-55 A REVIEW 

, n ~nt bv new ones of broken, missing and decayed stones in its stone pavement. 
Th^-ideioints and cracks in the main arch, thespandril and the fa ade on the south side 
of tW <Jfaiw gateway were grouted, while ordinary joints were treated with recessed 
n iST The southern fagade, together with the bastions of the gate, was re- 
plastered after the removal of old and decayed plaster. The broken stone lotus over the 
!outh-c,ist turret of the gate was repaired. 

EXCAVATED REMAINS AT KAUSAMBI, DISTRICT ALLAHABAD.-Important works of con- 
nation undertaken at the excavated remains at the Ghoshitarama site included the 
dismantling of the topmost courses of the walls and their resetting in cement and sand to 
make them watertight. The wall-tops were covered with sifted earth. 

Rafasthan 

DELG PALACES, DISTRICT BHARATPUR. Though these monuments were taken over in 
1953, their complete control has not so far been transferred to the^ Department. The 
immediate necessity was to attend to the entrances which had been without gates. Of the 
three such entrances, two were provided with collapsible gates. Besides, the work of ex- 
tracting iron rings, which had been abundantly used all over under the brackets ofchfiajja- 
stones* and elsewhere and have been responsible for considerable damage, is conti- 
nuing 

Vindhya Pradesh 

TEMPLES AT KHAJURAHO, DISTRICT CHHATARPUR. The work of pointing and grouting 
all over the temple-fag ade and the spires of the Kandariya temple, together with the 
replacement of the brickwork and lime-patches, inserted about a hundred years back, 
by stones of the original design was taken up and is progressing satisfactorily. 

MID-EASTERN CIRCLE 

Bihar 

EXCWATED REMAINS AT NALANDA, DISTRICT PATNA. Numerous salt-eaten patches 
of brickwork were repaired, and the area west of the Site no. 3 was made tidy. De- 
cayed lime-concrete at Site no. g was replaced, and extensive improvements were 
carried out to the main approach-road and to the pathways all over the site. 

EXCAVATED REMAINS AT KUMRAHAR, PATNA. -The site was cleared of rank vegetation- 
growth, 

BARABAR CAVES, DISTRICT GAYA. A good approach to the site was provided in 
addition to repairs to the masonry and rock-cut steps to the caves. 

MONUMENTS AT RAJGIR, DISTRICT PATNA. Breaches in the ancient fortification-wall 
near the Banganga were repaired (pi. LII), and the masonry of the northern wall of the 
New Fort was conserved. The frontage of the So-nbhandar caves was also improved by 
the levelling up of the untidy area, 

34 



'RESERVATION OF MONUMENTS 

FORT AT ROHTAS, DISTRICT SHAHABAD. The terraced roofs of the sixteenth-century 
palaces in the fort had become spongy and leaky. Reterracing was done to the roofs of the 
Elephant Gate, Maids* Quarters and the building near Phul Mahal, Similarly, the da- 
maged or sunkpn floors and aprons were renewed and repairs to the platform near the 
Darbar hall done in addition to other petty items of work. 

SHAH MAKHDUM DAULAT'S TOMB, MANER, DISTRICT PATNA. The important work 
here consisted of taking out decayed stone panels and replacing them by new ones 
of the same design as original ones. 

s fi Uttar Pradesh 

EXCAVATED REMAINS AT SARNATH, DISTRICT BANARAS. The network of pathways at 
this important excavated site was considerably improved and the area near the main 
approach levelled and dressed up after the removal of the high dump of spoil-earth block- 
ing the site from view from the roadside. Further, the tops of walls of the Main Shrine 
and the Dharmarajika Stupa were made watertight. The Chaukhandi Stupa was pro- 
vided with barbed-wire fencing. 

DHARARA MOSQUE, BANARAS. The most important problem of conservation at 
Banaras is the one relating to the surviving minor of the mosque built by Aurangzeb in 
1670. Out of the two original minars, one collapsed in 1949, and the existing one was 
observed to be out of plumb and thus apprehended to be a possible source of danger to 
the people of the locality. The Government of India therefore appointed an expert 
committee to suggest measures for its proper preservation. Necessary steps are 
being taken to implement the recommendations of this committee. 

EXCAVATED REMAINS AT KASIA, DISTRICT DEORIA At the Ramabhar Stupa the 
main work consisted of the extensive clearance of jungle and vegetation. At the site 
called Matha Kuar-ka Kot the salt-eaten fabric of the main stupa and the monasteries 
was underpinned and the approaches improved after levelling up the site. 

EASTERN CIRCLE 

West Bengal 

ExcAVATEE*N>iTE AT BANGARH, DISTRICT WEST DiNAjPUR. The wall-tops were made 
watertight, and earth-filling, including dressing and levelling in the ditches of the exposed 
site, was effected for drainage. 

BAISGAZI WALL, GAUR, DISTRICT MALDA. The fallen portions of this huge wall, en- 
closing the mound of a palace built in the middle of the fifteenth century, were rebuilt 

with Gaur bricks and trees that had taken roots in the structure removed. 

i ? 

Orissa 

SUN-TEMPLE, KONARAK, DISTRICT PURL This famous temple has been undergoing 
special repairs since 1952-53 in pursuance of the recommendations of the Konarak 
Temple Committee. During this year attention was concentrated on the clearance of 

35 



INDIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 1954-55 A REVIEW 

sand from the compound. The work of the rectification of slopes by chiselling the 
stones on the fast and second terraces of the jagmohm was also completed. Rusted-out 
iron damps were removed and replaced by copper ones. 

The Committee, in one of its recommendations dealing with the question of humidity 
in the sand-filling inside thejagmohan, suggested that, in order to improve the ventilation 
of the interior, vents on each of the four sides, each of the size of 3 ft. square, should be 
connected at different levels and doors provided outside to prevent the ingress of moist 
air during- monsoon. An attempt was made to implement this suggestion: to start with, 
a vent on the east side was opened and carried out to a depth of 20 ft. into the core; but 
as difficulty was encountered in removing from inside the boulders which had been used 
in filling the work had to be suspended pending a further study of the question. 

The joints of the first and second terraces of the jagmohan were raked out as a pre- 
liminary to rhe work of watertightening by pointing and grouting. 

The question of using ironite as a waterproofing medium has been receiving atten- 
tion.. As on experimental measure four samples of terracing were laid out using different 
proportions of ironite, and their effect is under observation. The proportion found most 
suitable will be finally adopted. 

CHAUSATH VOGINI TEMPLE, HIRAPUR, DISTRICT PURL This recently-protected 
temple, one of the few Chausath Yogini temples found in India, was conserved. The 
walls, which had been out of plumb and in danger of collapse, were reconstructed in 
the old style using new stones only wherever necessary. 

MUKTESVARA 1EMPLE, BmjvANESWAR, DISTRICT PURL The cracks in the unique toraw 
in the courtyaid of this ninth-century temple, one of the best examples of Orissan archi- 
tecture, were grouted. 

Assam 

SIBDOL TEMPLED SiBSAGAR. The main work in Assam was at the Sibdol temple at 
Sibsagjr, built by Rani Ambika in 1734, the fabric of which had been badly shaken by the 
earthquake of 1950 During this year the missing amalakas of the main temple and the 
mtndapa were rebuilt in brick in their original style. It was also possible to repair locally 
the golden pinnacle which had fallen down from the top of the sikhara and 1 had been lying 
so long unattended to for want of skilled craftsmen. The damaged portions were made 
good by careful beating, joining with copper rivets and fixing a copper-sheet lining in 
patches on its inner side. It was then polished and lifted to its original position at a height 
of 120 ft. by means of a special scaffolding and a crab-winch. The loose masonry of 
the damaged ta.ade was completely dismantled and renewed with new stor^ T of th 
required ,ize quamed at Kohima (pi. LIII). Proper bond with the firm core behind was 
provided b> means of copper clamps embedded in cement-conrrer P n -nT Demi r f 
none of Ae im^bUxto or piUars was in good condln"' h?d Before 'ot 
replacea by new ones m such a way that the original style was noUost In ^the touth wes 
comer some of the images found in a good condition were cafu% is^S^ " d res 
in their original position. w-uu> uibmamiea ana reset 



36 



PRESERVATION OF MONUMENTS 

SOUTH-EASTERN CIRCLE 

Andhra 

VlRABHADRASVAMI TEMPLE, LEPAKSHI, DISTRICT ANANTAPUR. The conservation 

effected in this temple included making the threshold even by providing new stones and 
repairing the damaged lime-concrete floor in. the circumambulatory path in the 
garbhagriha. 

MONOLITHIC BASAVANNA, LEPAKSHI. The work of constructing a 4-ft. high com- 
pound-wall round the monolithic bull in neat cut-stone masonry of proportions in keep- 
ing with the gigantic statue of the Nandi in place of the old dilapidated wall was taken 
up. 

FORT AT GOOTY, DISTRICT ANANTAPUR. The fallen side-walls of the flanking veran- 
dahs of the gateways were reconstructed, and the bastions were replastered to stop the 
rain-water running into the core of the fort-wall. 

ATTIRALA PARASURAMA TEMPLE, POLI, DISTRICT CUDDAPAH. The work included 
the reconstruction of the cut-stone masonry of the rear-walls, levelling of the site and 
provision of gravelled approaches to the temple. 

FORT AT SIDDHAVATTAM, DISTRICT GuDDAPAH. The work done at the Sidhout fort 
consisted of the construction of parapet-walls of the culvert in front of the main gate- 
way, levelling of the ground, gravelling of the approaches and waterproofing of the roof 
of the terrace of the second closed gateway. 

INSCRIBED PILLAR, IPURU, DISTRICT GUNTUR. The window-frames, which had been 
eaten away by white-ants, were replaced and the walls re-plastered. 

BUDDHIST REMAINS AT RAMATIRTHAM, DISTRICT VISAKHAPATNAM. The monument 
comprises a number of chaityagrihas, monastic cells, etc., constructed on three ledges 
running along the face of a hill about 800 ft. in height, with a dilapidated retaining wall on 
the lower side. The reconstruction of the retaining wall and the clearance of debris were 
the main work here. 

Hyderabad 

GOLCONDA FORT, DISTRICT HYDERABAD. Pathways were laid out and gravelled with 
sufficient provision for side- and cross-drainage. The front yard of the fort (pi. LIV) was 
levelled in terraces, and slopes were revetted with dry-stone packing. Many of the 
disturbed steps were reset in position. The tops of the walls and structures were water- 
tightened with rubble stones in lime-mortar mixed with cement. The metal spouts on 
the roof of the main gate were replaced by well-dressed stone ones. Leading drains were 
formed at die top of the terrace to avoid the dripping of rain,- water along the face of the 
walls. The loose joints in Ramadas Kota passage by the side of the Tarmati mosque and 
tlie Akkanna Madanna were pointed with lime-mortar with a small quantity of cement. 
The walls in Shahi Mahals and Akkanna Madanna were underpinned. 

CHAR MINAR, HYDERABAD. The top plaster of the leaky roof of the monument 

37 



INDIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 1954-55 A REVIEW 



vv.i- removed to a depth of iV in., since it had developed cracks and the mortar had 
di: : r,u;;rvtteJ. The cracks were cleaned, and fresh cement-mortar was injected into 
thi.m The drainage-outlets were opened and their joints watertightened and grouted 



n 



TKtrjAAN'D-PlLLARED TEMPLE, HANAA1KONDA, DISTRICT WARANGAL. The front 

*fa of this twelfth-century temple, with its pillars and plan in the shape of a lotus, is 
'vcn iluridated condition with a sunk outer periphery. A huge masonry platfornij 
.; -i^r ^.:retion, was removed to expose the original base of the mandapa. The gaps 
bc:r lLC i> rhc jambs of the doorways and the walls, in the facing stones of the 
rruii* v,v!> ..nd in the walls of the eastern gateway were bonded with masonry in lime- 
iTn-rr^r mrad with cement. The top of the sarai, a detached structure in the north-west 
c-rr^r ui the temple-compound, was relaid with sttrkhi-coacrets and watertightened. 

FC.TI AT WARANGAL. This fort, the seat of the Kakatiya dynasty of the tenth to the 
t^irt^nrh centuries, contains an outer fortification pierced with gateways at the four car- 
-in xi p, :n ^. an jnner fortification, mostly of masonry, with similar gateways and several 
temple,' A h vc-j ear programme to execute extensive repairs to the monument has been 

j* f (^ -T' fiv V empkS W6re exp sed by the removal of the accumulated 
^^ rom their base and surroundings. One of the temples, called Tammmayaeudi 
wHbii the tort, uhKh had been lying in a dilapidated condition due to gaps forTed Tirfthe' 

T7' r taken up for , repairs : the gaps w - e ^ ^ ** top If 

the aatarala was watertightened. 

Madhya Pradesh 



in 
The 



S a P s 






e to the p^olation of rain-water was 
jvimed and th e doors 



ness in the cellar 
TCr ^ false 



SOUTHERN CIRCLE 
Madras 

the ^S/^of the A ^n^tr a^TT^ ^ ^ ^^ - d 
Comply days, was suitably pa ted to forna f mlrh ^^e' in the early East India 
thew!n matchmg bac Vound to Dibits displayed 

_ __ m v 

The dry-stone revetment- 



38 



PRESERVATION OF MONUMENTS 

walls on the foreshore of the temple were pointed to prevent seepage of sea-water. The 
work of reinforcement of the groyne-wall in front of the temple was completed by the 
State Public Works Department. 

MONUMENTS AT GINGEE, DISTRICT SOUTH ARGOT. The kalyanamandapa in the 
Lower Forty the main part of which rises to seven storeys, revealed, on excavation of the 
enclosed open courtyard in the middle, the existence of a stepped tank with a 
central pavilion and elaborate arrangements for the inlet and outlet of water. In addi- 
tion to the clearance of this tank, the flat leaky roof of the surrounding cloister was 
thoroughly watertightened. The Chettikulam, a large tank with enormous masonry steps 
on two of its sides, was taken up for repairs. The dislodged steps were reset, and a 
strong abutment was built up on the outside. The loose layers over the terrace of the 
Rajagiri audience-chamber were removed and the top relaid and plastered to render the 
monument watertight. Similar work was carried out at the top of the kalyanamandapa 
in the Krishnagiri fort. 

BRIHADISVARA TEMPLE, TANJORE. In continuation of the work done on the main 
vimana in previous years, the mahamandapa and mukhamandapa^ both of them closed 
structures, were rendered bat-roof. 

BRIHADISVARA TEMPLE, GANGAIKONDAGHOLAPURAM, DISTRICT TIRUCHIRAPALLI. The 
stone vimana of the temple was watertightened. The open courtyard around the main 
structure, littered with heaps of abandoned stone and debris of the last century, was com- 
pletely cleared (pi. LV). As a result of clearance and further excavation, undertaken in 
order to reduce the surrounding ground to the original Chola level and restore the old 
drainage-arrangement, the remnants of the cloister (pi. LVI) and sub-shrines, running 
round the inside of the compound-wall, and the plinth of an independent temple to the 
south of the main shrine were exposed to view, thereby making it possible to visualize 
the original plan of the entire temple-complex. The exposed structures were suitably 
conserved and the original drainage-system revived. 

FORT VELLORE, DISTRICT NORTH ARGOT, The linear and transverse cracks in the 
brickwork battlements of the stone fort-wall were grouted and watertightened. 

JAINA CAVE-TEMPLE, TiRUMALAi, DISTRICT NORTH ARGOT. This cave-temple is partly 
a natural cavern and partly a brickwork structure. As the roof of the structural part had 
become leaky, spelling harm to the paintings inside, it was made thoroughly waterproof. 

KARUPPANNASWAMI ROCK WITH SCULPTURES, UTTAMAPALAIYAM, DISTRICT MADTJ- 
RAI. The frieze of Jaina sculptures with accompanying inscriptions in Vatteluttu 
had to be protected against the damages of sun and rain by the provision of a chhajja-roof 
supported on pillars over a masonry parapet-wall in front of the deep turn below. 

JAINA STATUE OF GOMMATESVARA, KARKAL, DISTRICT SOUTH KANARA. The roof 
ofihemahadvara in front of the statue of Gommatesvara was repaired by the restoration 
of the original arrangement of stone roof-structure, peculiar to the heavy-monsoon area 
of the west coast, after divesting it of later accretions in the form of repairs. 

39. 



INDIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 1954-55 A REVIEW 

Mysore 

AXANTASAYAXAGUDI, HospET, DISTRICT BELLARY. -An approach to the eastern 
was provided after the acquisition of the intervening land and eviction of the 
[vu^es and hutments thereon. The process of the clearance of encroachments, which 
had bt-en m piogiess for the past nine years, is now complete. The uneven earthen 
ilooi of the large mukhamandapa in front of the shrine was levelled and finished in 
concrete 

Rnxs AT HAMPI, DISTRICT BELLARY. The ground round the Lotus Mahal and other 
-trucrures inside the Zenana Enclosure was cleared and levelled, preliminary to the laying 
of patches of turf and flower-beds wherever desirable. 

TEMPLES AT HALEBID, DISTRICT HASSAN. The twin temple of Hoysalesvara andSan- 
Talesvmu one of the most outstanding Hoysala monuments, had its entire leaky roof dis- 
mantled and rclaid. The area round the temple was also cleared of vegetation and the 
unJulating gtound levelled. The scattered sculptures and carved stones were sorted 
out with a view to exhibiting them in a proposed sculpture-shed 

TEMPLES AT MOSALE, DISTRICT HASSAN. A large gaping hole, resulting from the 
loss of a roof-slab, over the navaranga in the Nagesvara temple was closed up and 
the terrace relaid. In the adjoining Chennakesava temple, similar water tighten- 
ing of the roof of the navamnga and the superstructure of the vimana, including 
the renting of the dislodged mahapadma and kalasa components, were carried out. 

TIPU SULTAN'S PALACE, BANGALORE. The essential repairs to this monument con- 
sisted of relaying and water-tightening the entire roof of the first floor and repairs to 
the skylights in order to safeguard the remnants of the painting and the old timberwork 
inside, 

YJRA NARAYAKA TEMPLE, BELAVADI, DISTRICT CHIKMAGALUR. The two large holes 
over the roof of the navaranga, resulting from the breakage of the soapstone covering 
slabs, \vere dosed up and the entire terrace of the navaranga repaired, after the removal 
ot earth and loose plaster which had been put up in earlier times by way of repairs The 
three umanas ot the temple were also watertightehed. Similar roof-repairs were done 
over the uppange conesponding to the mahadvara of the temple. 

VlDYASANKARA TEMPLE, SRINGERI, DISTRICT CHlKMAGALUR.-This Stone temple, 

located in a region of very heavy rainfall, had a leaky roof, worsened by the entirely porous 
and soaked condition of the bricks-mortar roof laid over the original stone roof consist- 
ing ot a system of channel and hood-stone suited to monuments in that area. The second 
root **> entirely ^ removed, the dislodged channels and hoods reset in position 
cracks and openings grouted, thus restoring the original arrangement with very good 
^ * also extended to the various tiers of the vimana 



The interior of the hollow vimana and sukhaxasi was cleared of debris 
" S Watertightened and the ori ^ inai drailia ^ inside them restored 



a 



40 



PRESERVATION OF MONUMENTS 

Travancore-C ochin 

ST. FRANCIS CHURCH, COCHIN. The exposed doors and windows of this, the oldest 
European church in India, were painted as a protection against rain and corrosive sea-air. 
The blistered surface of the walls inside, caused by efflorescence and proximity to the 
sea., was cleaned and the interior distempered. 

MATTANCHERY PALACE, DISTRICT TRICHUR. The attic over the painted walls of the 
chambers, with accumulated dust and debris, was cleared to prevent the infiltration of 
dust etc., harmful to the paintings that are being preserved. To minimize the corro- 
sion and damage, the woodwork of the windows and doors was repainted. 

Former French Settlements 

The protected arid other monuments in Pondicherry, Karaikal and Mahe were 
inspected and proposals formulated for their maintenance and protection as necessary. 

SOUTH-WESTERN CIRCLE 

Hyderabad 

AJANTA CAVES;, DISTRICT AURANGABAD. With the construction of the tail-end of drain 

5, the programme of provision of surface-drains at the top of the caves, as recommended 
in 1948 by the Ajanta Committee, was completed. All decomposed and spongy earth 
along with loose boulders and disintegrated portions of the rock above caves 15 to 17 
was removed for determining the source of leakage and rilling up the cracks. In caves 

6, 14 and 15 the missing door-jambs of cells and pillars were repaired in reinforced concrete 
to match the adjacent rock-surface. The vertically-cracked pillars in cave 23 were 
secured with flat iron bands embedded in cement. Expanded-metal door-frames and other 
fixtures were provided at some of the cells flanking the front verandahs of the caves. 
Portions of a few sculptures were carefully and artistically mended. 

ELLORA CAVES, DISTRICT AURANGABAD. The bases of pillars and the floors in some 
of the caves were improved. The spongy portions were scraped off and the surface 
finished in reinforced concrete to match the original. Pot-holes were filled in cave n. 
The retaining wall at the top of cave 16 was treated with recessed cement-painting. 
In addition } the drainage and the approaches were much improved. A concrete path was 
laid out in front of caves I to 6. The disintegrated door-jambs were restored in one of 
the caves. All woodwork and pipe-railings were painted to the tint of the rock. 

PITALKHORA CAVES, DISTRICT AURANGABAD. The caves, wliich had been blocked 
up with boulders and debris, were cleared. The fallen and collapsed parts of the rock 
lying in front were removed and the area levelled up. 

BIBI-KA-MAQBARA, AURANGABAD. This beautiful tomb, enshrining the remains of 
Aurangzeb's queen, was repaired by re-laying in cement-concrete the cracked and leaking 
terraces of the northern baradari and the mosque. The flaking lime-plaster on the but- 
tresses was renewed, and the honeycomb brickwork flanking the approaches to the main 
tomb was replaced in patches. 

41 



INDIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 1954-55 A REVIEW 

CAVES AT AURANGABAD. The foremost problem here was the provision of surface- 
drains to stop water dripping along the fagades of the caves. Some of the loose boulders 
were removed and open cracks partly filled. In addition, steps were provided and a 
parapet-wall constructed as a measure of safety. 

MONUMENTS AT GULBARGA. Approaches to the Haft Gumbad and the mosque in 
the fort were impioved. 

Bombay 

ELEPHANTA CAVES, DISTRICT KOLABA. For the last few years leakage had been 
recorded in many parts of cave i. A close examination of the problem revealed that the 
gimite-Iayer spread on the top of the cave in 1940 had become ineffective. It was, there- 
fore, removed under expert advice. The retaining walls flanking the courtyard in front of 
cave i were constructed in rubble-masonry to hold back the falling sides. 

KONDAVITE CAVES, DISTRICT BOMBAY SUBURBAN. These caves, long neglected owing 
to the difficulty of access, were attended to this year. The missing portions of the columns , 
jambs and steps were restored in reinforced concrete matching the original colour. Other 
works included cement-concrete flooring to some of the caves. 

JOGESHWARI CAVE, BOMBAY. This Brahtnanical cave is in an advanced stage of dis- 
integration, and not much can be done to save it. To divert rain-water from entering 
the courtyard of the cave, a rubble-masonry wall was constructed at its top. 

PORTUGUESE FORT, BASSEIN, DISTRICT THANA.-The south-west bastion was repaired 
by waterughtenmg the tops and renewing the masonry for steps, side-walls, etc The 
open joints were pointed in lime-mortar at places where the mortar had fallen as a result 
of decay, 

PANDIMNA CAVES, PATHARDI, DISTRICT NASiK.-The tops of the leaking caves were 
thoroughly exammed aad cement-concrete laid on the affected area. The missing pillars 
m caves 4, 12 and 14 were restored in reinforced concrete to match the original To 
avoui the scouring action of rain-water pre-cast gutters were provided. 

FARAH BAGH PALACE, AHMEDNAGAS.-TOS monument is in a dilapidated condition 
and requires large-scale conservation-measures. Initially, however the pedSoff 

T V? * ^Vn* tr! 
^^ 



^^,%ZZ^S "- f - -T*. 

K 

ceUsl^eTtae^Tve^ '^S&g*** f "* P^on-walls of the 
- """ 



f "* P^on-walls of the 
kerb-watt and iron railings weeded ^tTwat """* "" 



42 



PRESERVATION OF MONUMENTS 

MONUMENTS AT JUNNAR, DISTRICT POONA. The three groups of caves, viz. Manmodi, 
Ganesa Lena and Tulja Lena, and the Shivneri fort, received attention, and necessary 
repairs, like the pointing of open joints and clearance of debris and vegetation etc., were 
carried out. 

ASAR MAHAL, BIJAPUR, This monument, originally built to serve as a palace of jus- 
tice in 1646, contains paintings in some of its rooms. As it was desirable to save them 
Tom any damage, the profusely-leaking roof of the hall with a wooden ceiling was 
attended to by the filling of the cracks on the terrace and the making of the roof water- 
proof. The worn-out portions of the wooden beams were strengthened by the fixing of 
flat-iron braces along the row of joints. 

KAMAL BASTI TEMPLE, BELGAUM. As a safeguard against any settling of foundations, 
cement-concrete, 4 in. thick and 5 ft. wide, was provided all round the temple. 

WESTERN CIRCLE 

Rajasthan 

CHITOR FORT, DISTRICT CHITORGARH. Large-scale work continued at the monu- 

nents situated within the fort. The fallen facade of Navlakha Bhandar was replaced 

>y a concrete roof. The enormous inner fortification-wall^ as thick as 18 ft., constructed 

>y Banbir, was underpinned at places and consolidated as a whole. Sringar Chauri, a 

aina temple, can now be viewed from all the sides, since even the sides covered by 

Banbir's wall were exposed this year (pi. LVII). The doorframe, which had gone out of 

>lumb, was reset in position. In the course of clearing the debris in Rana Kumbha' 1 's 

>alace (pis. LVIII and LIX) several interesting structural details were brought to light : 

hitherto-unknown main entrance by the side of the Diwan-i-Am, leading to the-Suraj 

jokhara, was discovered; it was also noticed that the palace proper stood on a series of 

aults with groined arches, which must have been in use, for one of them contained an 

nage of Gajalakshmi in a niche. The overhanging dome on the palace was taken up for 

epairs. The fallen wall on the eastern side is being rebuilt in accordance with its original 

schnique to a sufficient height, so that it can support the damaged dome. The stumps 

f walls brought to light after clearance were raised in height so as to show the alignment 

nd the lay-out of the apartments in Zanana Mahal. The flooring of the temple, popularly 

nown as Mira Bai's temple, was repaired. Mira BaVs palace received attention by way 

f watertightem'ng the tops of walls and filling up cracks. At important monuments boards 

iving their short history and special features were put up and the approach-roads 

^paired. 

Bombay 

BABA LAULI'S MOSQUE, AHMEDABAD. During the heavy flood of 1950 the north-west 
ortion of this fifteenth-century mosque had been washed away, and it became necessary 
> reconstruct the portion to save it from further damage. While the foundations were 
sing exposed, it was noticed that the crosswalls between the pillars and the outer walls 
.id a foundation less deep thiin the main walls. In order to add to their strength the 

43 



INDIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 1954-55 A REVIEW 

>hallov. foundations were deepened to a uniform depth. The plinth-walls were thci 1 
ru<-ed in ashlar masonry with a core of brickwork inside. 



LK MIVARS, CHAAIPANEK, DISTRICT PANCH MAHALS. The two brick miners were 
underpinned and the walls rendered watertight. 

Saurashtra 

ROCK-CUT CAVES, TALAJA, DISTRICT GOHILWAD, Some of the caves were cleared 
of the enormous mass of debris lying on their floors and restored to their original levels. 

ROCK-CUT CA\ES, JUNTAGARH. These caves., locally known as Bava Pyara, were stmi- 
lari> cleared of accumulations. 

A50KAX ROCK-EDICT, JuNAGARH. The openings in the roof of the structure over 
ihe inscription were coraed with glass-panes. 

CENTRAL CIRCLE 

Bhopal 

RAISEN FORT. The shell-wall of the fallen Ratnavali Burj was restored to a height 
of 20 ft. with courted rubble-masonry in time-mortar over a foundation rebuilt solidly in 
cement-mortar. Care was taken to maintain the original batter and offsets and to leave 
weepholes at suitable intervals. Other works included the improvement of the steps of 
the Bhopal gate- resetting of the sHded masonry of the Dhabi ta,ik and Ram Tat', 
and extensive clearance of vegetation and silt and repairs to the masonry steps of the 
Madagan tank. ^ 

Madhya Bharat 
AT MANDU, DISTRICT DHAR.-Mandu was taken up for large-scale 

of ved Xte T e j " ngle - d ' -P^P of the approach-roads and^nder- 

com P OUIld -walIs were constructed around Gada 

P*^ Ea di ' ^ t0 ^ WCSt f the dhar^ala 
bv he eea on of ^ * a ! xtt3 *& in Gad ^ Shah's palace were protected 

' With Ae old desi ^' ^e side-wails 

and its 



extensivelv r 

loped fhe decele a lTn ff P t y rcstMed > u and the easting garden was further deve- 
reconcreted 'and S^L^^ ^ d ^ d **** near Champa Baodi 
^he vaults of the ^^^^T^^ ^T ttected W "W" 1 
marble facade of HoshaL ShahV^mh n ng f m SS and lichen frO1 ^ the 



PRESERVATION OF MONUMENTS 

hitherto kept untidy. Voids in the plinth were filled with lime-concrete in Teli-ka-Mandir 
in Gwalior fort, cracked lintels were supported with masonry pillars in ths out-houses of 
Mansingfts palace, and extensive debris was cleared from the precincts of the Jaina 
colossi. 

TOMB OF ABU'L FAZL, ANTRI, DISTRICT GWALIOR. The repairs of this neglected 
tomb were attended to, and a trilingual historical notice giving the life-history of Abu'l 
Fazl was put up. 

Madhya Pradesh 

BHONSLA NAGARKHANA, NAGPUR. The decayed concrete of the terrace was replaced 
by new lime-concrete, and the stone masonry was underpinned at places. 

HAWAKHANA BASTION, AKOLA. The south-east bastion, which had fallen down 
some years ago endangering the safety of the Hawakhana and the adjoining walls, was 
restored from its foundation to a height of 6 ft. and its core filled up. 

TOMB OF SHAH SHUJA AT BURHANPUR, DISTRICT NIMAR. The shattered portions of 
the plinth of the tomb were rebuilt to match its original ornate design. 

GAWILGARH FORT, CHIKALDA, DISTRICT AMRAOTI. Besides extensive jungle-clearance 
the stepped path was improved, and the collapsed masonry of the room attached to the 
second gate was restored. 

RAHATGARH FORT, DISTRICT SAGAR. -The exposed tops of walls were made water- 
tight, cracks in the terrace filled and broken ends of plaster edged a off at the Moti Mahal. 

GARHPAHRA FORT, DISTRICT SAGAR. A damaged pillar was grouted with liquid lime 
and broken ends' of plaster edged off at the Shish Mahal. In addition, vegetation growing 
near the monuments was cleaned, and loose steps leading to the hill were reset with 
cement-mortar. 

B, STATE-MAINTAINED MONUMENTS 

HYDERABAD STATE 1 

Apart from the usual maintenance and upkeep of the monuments, the following 
special works carried out during the year deserve mention : (i) clearance and repairs 
to Uchappa -Mutt, Anegundi, District Raichur, and erection of four masonry pillars for 
supporting the old roof; (2) clearance of vegetation from the main temple, Ghanpur., 
District Warangal, and its twentyfour subsidiary shrines; (3) petty repairs and clearance 
of vegetation from the old Kakatiya Saivite temples at Pangal, District Nalgonda; 
(4) putting up of boundary-stones round the prehistoric sites in District Nalgonda; (5) 
general clearance and maintenance of monuments at Hyderabad and Golconda; (6) general 
clearance and maintenance of the fortifications and old buildings inside the fort at 
Kalyani, District Bidar, and construction of foot-paths to archaeological sites in the 
locality; (7) clearance of vegetation from the Siva temple at Naravanpur, District Bidar; 

1 Information from the Director of Archaeology, Hyderabad State. 

45 



INDIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 1954-55 A REVIEW 

#0 removal of rank vegetation from the fort-walls at Devarkonda, District Nalgonda, 
and repairs to steps leading to the citadel ; and (9) clearance of rank vegetation and 
debt is and construction of drains and platform lound the monolithic pillar at Charthana, 
District Parbhani 

A-IADHYA BHARAT STATE I 

Minor repairs were carried out at the chhatri of the Rani of Jhansi at Gwalior. The 
platform representing The main memorial of the Rani was treated with doga wash, the 
iron railing on all four sides was repainted with black varnish, and bajri was spread on the 
approach-avenues. The rugged and broken surface of the floors inside the Gujari Mahal 
at Gwalior was repaired with cement and bajri. 

MYSORE STATE 2 

The work of reconstruction of the Mahadvara tower of the Ranganathasvami temple 
at Aiagadi made considerable progress and is likely to be completed in the near future. 
A few important citizens of Saligrama and Chik-Hanasoge have formed a committee with 
the object of making arrangements for the renovation of the Adinatha Basti at Chikhana- 
soge, an ^eleventh-century monument. Urgent repairs to the Madhavarayasvami temple 
.Belur, Kesava temple, Ambuga, and Venkatammanasvami temple, Bangalore City, were 
completed. The Bhaktavatsala shrine, Belgola, Srirangapatna taluk, the only monu- 
ment in the State with a circular plan, is in a highly dilapidated condition, and it is neces- 
sary to arrange for its preservation. As a first step towards the preservation of the mural 
paintings in the State, photographic records were made of the best-preserved portions 

Ce g " PamtmSS m 



ibi, and Tirumallesvara 

RAJASTHAN STATE" 

ruunmnHRir, and ** ^ Mandore, Osian, 

- ** 

SAUKASHTRA STATE 
The following monuments received attention- 



gateways, a pa , ace converted ^0 mosque ste^L,k = hltectu ^ I edffices ' * * 




State. 
* Inrormauon from the Phirf T . Arch a e o3ogj-, Mysore State 

' 



Ra) , sthan Smte . 



PRESERVATION OF MONUMENTS 

well built by the maid-servants of king Ranavaghan, two fallen walls on the west and south 
sides "were re-erected. At the Navaghan well, a rock-cut well having a round passage down 
to the water-level, the trees all round were removed and cracked walls strengthened. 
Vegetation covering the fort-wall was removed from the front portion of the fort to a 
length of 300 ft. and height of 80 ft. 

\ 

VIKIA VAV, PACHHATAR, DISTRICT HALAR The step-well, built by Jethavas of 
Ghumli probably in the thirteenth century, had been covered with trees and filled up with 
silt at different levels of its four porches. The vegetation was removed, silt cleared from 
the porches and the fifth and sixth storeys exposed. The well was re-excavated to the 
water-level. 

Protection notice-boards were provided at twenty monuments. 



47 



$. ARCHAEOLOGICAL 

A, PRESERVATION OF MONUMENTS 

LlNGARAJA TEMPLE, BHUVANESWAR, DISTRICT PURI.-The four sides of thi 

wwna from the plinth right up to the level of the jagmohan were freed of moss and lichen, 
and the surface thus cleaned was subjected to fungicidal treatment to check algal growth, 

MARYAM ZAMANI'S HOUSE, FATEHPUR SIKRI, DISTRICT AGRA. The darkened 
varnish obliterating the wall-paintings in Maryam Zamani's house was removed along with 
age-old accretions, and the painted designs were brought out in their original colours. 
Colour-photographs of some of the painted panels were prepared. 

SUNHERI MAHAL, SIKANDARA, DISTRICT AGRA. The extensive wall-paintings inside 
the Sunheri Mahal at Sikandara show extensive flaking, and the details of the Designs arc 
invisible over large areas of the painted surface. Chemical treatment of the paintings pro- 
duced very satisfactory results. 

ITIMADU'D-DAULAH, DISTRICT AGRA. Extensive wall-paintings decorating the walls 
and ceiling of this monument were taken up for chemical treatment and several panels suc- 
cessfully treated and preserved. 

SCULPTURES AT KHAJURAHO, DISTRICT CHHATARPUR. The fungicidal treatment of 
the sculptures at Khajuraho with a very dilute solution of zinc silicoflouride produced 
encouraging results and completely eradicated the algal growth. 

BAGH CAVES, DISTRICT DHAR.~~ The paintings in the caves have undergone exten- 
sive decay on account of heavy accretions of smoke, tarry and oily matter and the action of 
hot gases on the pigments. The painted surface presents a blistered and baked appear- 
ance, aad large areas are bereft of details of designs on account of the extensive flaking of 
pigments. As a result of chemical preservation of a number of panels in the verandah of 
cave 2, it was possible to remove the age-old accretions without affecting the pigments 
(pi. LX B). 

MAIN STUPA AT SANCHI, BHOPAL. The railing round the Main Stupa was 
taken up for chemical treatment and was freed of moss and lichen and subjected to 
fungicidal treatment. 

TAMBEKARVVADA, BARODA. As a result of intensive treatment all the painted panels 
in a small chamber of this monument were preserved and photographed in black and 
white as well as in colour (pi. LXI). 

KARLA AND BHAJA CAVES, DISTRICT POONA. The sculptures and inscriptions in the 
caves at Karla and Bhaja, some of which had been subjected to elaborate chemical treat- 
ment in the previous year, were again, taken up this year. 

48 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY 

CAVES AT BADAMI AND ASAR MAHAL, BIJAPUK. The sixth-century paintings in the 
rock-cut caves at Bad ami and the medieval wall-paintings in Asar Mahal, Bijapur, received 
elaborate treatment. Most of the fragmentary remains of the paintings at Badami were 
chemically conserved, and several panels of the paintings in the Bijapnr monument were 
completely treated. 

MAHAKALI TEMPLE, CHANDA. -The seventeenth-century wall-paintings inside the 
temple continued to receive attention (pi. LX A). They were photographically recorded 
according to plan, and several sketches and drawings of the treated panels were 
prepared. 

AjANTA CAVES, DISTRICT AlJRANGABAD. Caves I, 2, 6, J, 9, IO, II, 16, 17, 19, 2O, 

21 > 22 and 26 contain wall-paintings. Out of these, cave n was taken up for initial 
experimentation. The superficial accretions on the paintings, like dust, dirt, cobwebs, 
insect-nests, insect-cocoons and insect-wax, were removed mechanically by gentle 
brushing and through the use of organic solvents. Such accretions as soot, lichen 
and moss were cleared with rectified spirit containing a few drops of ammonia. The 
shellac-coating applied previously was removed with rectified spirit. The ceiling of the 
outer verandah was also cleared of accretions. The shellac-varnish was removed in caves 
7, 16 and 17, so as to make the microfilming of the paintings possible. 

ELIORA CAVES, DISTRICT AURANGABAD. Out of thirtytwo caves, two, viz. 16 and 
33 j contain paintings. The unnumbered Ganesa Lena group, higher up the hillock, 
also has some paintings. The ceiling of the Lankesvara in Kailasa (cave 16) is covered 
over with soot and oil, which have become cemented to the surface. Experiments were 
done towards their elimination and some paintings brought to light. 

CAVES AT AURANGABAD. Caves 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8, out of nine caves, contain paintings, 
The paintings were cleared of accretions in the usual way. The edges of the paint-film 
and the painted stuccos were properly secured with thick vinyl acetate solution and suitably 
tinted plaster of Paris. The painted surface was given a preservative coating of vinyl 
acetate. 

VlRABHADRASVAMI TEMPLE, LEPAKSHI, DISTRICT ANANTAPUR. Work Continued at 

this monument, and the painted surface was given a preservative coating of vinyl acetate. 
The edges of the loose paint-film were consolidated with a solution of vinyl acetate, and the 
edges of the loose painted stucco were filletted with suitably tinted plaster of Paris. 

CHENNAKESAVAPERUMAL TEMPLE, SOMAPALLE, DISTRICT CHITTOOR. The paintings 
occur 011 the ceilings of the mahamandapa and the ardhamandapa. The loose paint- 
film and painted stucco were consolidated and secured in the usual way. 

JAINA TEMPLE, TiRUMALAi, DISTRICT NORTH ARGOT. The paintings occur on the 
ceilings and cells formed by walls under an overhanging cliff. In addition to the usual 
accretions found on paintings, visitors had inked some of the outlines of the paintings 
in blue. The ac'cretions were removed with the help of organic solvents and paintings 
cletmed and preserved. Ink-stains were removed by the application of a weak aqueous 
solution of oxalic acid. 



INDIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 1954-55 A REVIEW 

MATTANCHGRI PALACE, COCHIN. The paintings are confined to the ground and first 
fksoi s of the palace and are in the form of panels on the walls. The paintings were cleared of 
accretions The ink-stains on some of them were removed with oxalic acid. The painted 
surfaces weie cleaned, consolidated and preserved, and the edges of the paint-film and 
the painted stucco were secured. 

BRIHADISVARA TEMPLE, TANJORH, Some of the sixteenth-century Nayaka paintings 
were removed, and the earlier Chola layer was exposed, cleaned, consolidated, preserved 
and made fit foi photography. The edges of the loose paint-film were secured with vinyl 
acetate solution, and the edges of the loose painted stucco were Melted with plaster of 
Paris. 

SJTTA\N T AVASAL CAVE, DISTRICT TIRUCHIRAPALLI. The* paintings at Sittamiavasal 
v\erc photographed in colour and cleaned. 

B. TREATMENT OF ANTIQUITIES AND MUSEUM-EXHIBITS 

The laboatoiy of the Museums Branch treated, preserved and restored a large 
number of copper, bronze, silver, iron, wood, ivory and bone objects belonging to the 
Central Asian Antiquities Museum, the site-museums, the National Museum of India, the 
Gandhi Memorial Museum and some State Museums and antiquities from the excavations 
at Rupar and Kausambi. The chemical treatment of nearly eighty silk, cotton and paper 
paintings belonging to the Central Asian Antiquities Museum and the National Museum 
was completed. 

More than fifty panels of wall-paintings of the Central Asian collection were pre- 
served. Their pigments had become loose and were flaking off; the ground and the plaster 
were brittle and crumbling. The treatment consisted of fixing the larger loose fragments 
with plaster of Paris on the back after the removal of dust from the painted side. The small 
pieces on the painted side were reset with a fixative. The complete fragment was then 
made into a rectangular block about $ in. thick with plaster of Paris, and the 
painted side, when dry, was finally coated with a preservative. 

The miniature paintings in the Baburnama belonging to the National Museum, 
numbering one hundred and forcyfour, were photographed in colour and about two bun- 
dled and fifty colour-transparencies were prepared. The work of comparing the 
h r eT?, C 7 I Oriein f and thir catalo ^S> ^dexing and labelling will soon 

cheSh H; J ^ tone ptures at Sarnath ' covered with lichen * mould > wcrc 

chemically cleaned The restoration of the large terracotta Ganga and the Yamuna images, 

s ta ken in 
was completely restored. 

C. RESEARCH 



and r SIm GEmS '~ IU CaoaegiatL with the chemical 

Xperiments were conducted in the laboratory of 

d h evising r/ ble r hods for deaiing with the 

d h^ ^F t0 ^ P gS ' m ^ previous 

were developed, whereby it became possible to remove the vornish- 



50. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY 

coat without disturbing the original pigments affecting their colour-values. Soap-solution 
was tried for the removal of srnoke, but as soap contains some free non- volatile alkali, its use 
was not found to be free from objection, as the residue left after cleaning might produce 
undesirable after-effects on the painted surface. In the course of investigation it was found 
that judicious mixtures of water, rectified spirit and organic detergents as well as mixtures 
of organic solvents, such as rectified spirit, absolute alcohol, etc., were very effective in 
removing smoke and tarry matter in addition to yellow shellac-varnish from the painted 
surface. Organic detergents such as Gemax, Teepol, Tergitol, etc., were also experimented 
with. The experiments led to the development of very effective cleansing reagents for deal- 
ing with yellow varnish, smoke and tarry matter which disfigure the paintings at Ajanta, 
Ellora and Bagh. It is proposed to apply these methods and materials on an experimental 
basis to the paintings at these and other sites with a view to evolving suitable techniques 
for their preservation. 

Experiments with bleached shellac-solution, when utilized for the preservation of 
paintings, showed that it was likely to undergo change and become yellow with age. 
Films of this solution were also been found susceptible to cracking and darkening due to 
exposure to heat and light. 

POTTERY. Several samples of potsherds were chemically examined and analysed 
for the Deccan College Post-graduate and Research Institute, Poona, and the South- 
western Circle of the Department. Samples of glass bangles from the excavation at 
Hastinapura were also examined and analysed, and it was found that in the Painted Grey 
Ware period the manufacture and working of glass had been fully understood. 

Attention was also directed to the study of ceramic material, such as glazed pottery, 
glass beads, bangles, etc., collected at Kopia in Basti District. Glazed pottery from Saiyid- 
pur Bhitri and Rohtak is also being examined. The results of this investigation await 
completion. 

SOIL- ANALYSIS AND GEOCHRONOLOGY. The examination of the soil-samples from 
the Bahadarabad excavation was completed and the results' analysed. Similar samples 
from the excavation at Rupar were also subjected to mechanical analysis, petrographic 
examination and chemical analysis. 

MISCELLANEOUS ANALYSES. Chemical analysis of thirtyfour samples of metallic 
and other antiquities and analysis for t.ie identification of several commercial pre- 
parations were also carried out. 



51 



6. MUSEUMS AND EXHIBITIONS 

A. NATIONAL MUSEUM, NEW DELHI 

The National Museum continued to develop under the Department of Archaeology 
with the addition of an Assistant Superintendent and a Deputy Keeper to the staff. Besides 
the provision of decent pedestals for sculptures, considerable improvement was effected m 
display in the galleries. Paper and card-board labels were and are being generally 
replaced by plastic and wooden bilingual ones painted in white, and a better type of lamp- 
shades was provided. 

Two exhibitions of excavated antiquities were held during the year, one on the 
occasion of the meeting of the Central Advisory Board of Archaeology, held on the i8th 
September 1954, and the other in connexion with the meeting of the Central Education 
Advisory Committee, held on the isth January 1955. A special exhibition of Chinese 
objects presented to the Prime Minister on the occasion of his visit to China was also 
organized. 

The Guide Lecturers continued to deliver lectures twice a week on approved subjects, 
besides taking round distinguished visitors. 

Valuable additions, consisting of manuscripts, corns, paintings and textiles, were 
made to the collection. Noteworthy amongst them were a few punch-marked coins, three 
Indo-Greek coins, thirteen gold Gupta coins including one archer type of Chandragupta 
II and one horseman-type of Kumaragupta I, a gold coin of Sasanka, one coin of 
Anantavarman Chodaganga and a number of Indo-Muslim coins, including about thirty 
of the Mughuls. Out of one thousand and ninetyseven coins received during the year 
eightysix were treasure-trove finds; twelve were presented by the Government of Bom- 
bay and the rest by the Government of Uttar Pradesh. Two manuscripts of the Shah- 
namali) several rare copies of the Quran, an original farman and nishan of Shah Jahan and 
Shah Shujah respectively and an illustrated copy of the Udyoga-parvan, dated 1691, deserve 
mention. Over three thousand five hundred manuscripts in Arabic and Persian were also 
purchased from His Highness the Nawab of Tonk. The Prime Minister graciously presented 
a number of objects received by him, such as the replica of a pillar of Asoka in gold and 
silver, a sword with an exquisitely-carved hilt presented to him at Bali, a wooden bust of 
Mahatma Gandhi, a beautiful silver tea-set presented by Madame Ali Sastroamidjojo of 
Indonesia and an embroidered silk bag belonging to Lord Curzon. Other presentations 
included a siierwani of jamewar presented by Nawab Sir Nizamat Jung Bahadur of 
Hyderabad, a bronze figure of Tara of the Pala school, a stone slab showing the Dasavatara 
on one side and Vishnu attended by Lakshmi and Sarasvati on the other, an exquisite 
figure of Ganga of the Sena period, a few Gupta terracotta heads, a couple of torsos and 
a few representative specimens of terracotta art of the Mughul period, all presented by 
Shri P. C. Paul of Mahanad, District Hooghly, West Bengal. 

51 



MUSEUMS AND EXHIBITIONS 

A number of inscriptions in fragments and a few medieval sculptures from such 
places as Chitorgarh and Nagari in Rajasthan were also received on loan from the 
Department of Archaeology. 

The proposal of housing the National Museum in a building of its own received 
considerable attention during the year. 

B. INDIAN MUSEUM, CALCUTTA 

During the year the collection of the Archaeological Section, Indian Museum, Cal- 
cutta, was enriched by many acquisitions, including seven sculptures and seventythree 
coins. Among the former were three stone sculptures, viz., a fragmentary sculpture 
of the Gandhara school, presented by Dr. S. K. Chatterjee, Calcutta, an image of Bhairava 
(eleventh-twelfth century) from Domohanai, District Jalpaiguri, presented by the Deputy 
Commissioner of the District and another of Vishnu as Kurmavatara (end of the 
twelfth century) from Mahanad, District Hooghly, presented by Shri P. C. Paul. 

The other four sculptures were of bronze, one each of Lakshmi-Narasirnha, Vishnu, 
Venugopala and Ambika, all purchased. The images of Narasimha and Venugopala appear 
to be late Western Chalukya in date, while the Vishnu image is of the Pratihara period and 
that of Ambika of early medieval age. 

Among other acquired objects were a manuscript on Hindu samskaras and puri- 
ficatory rites written in Bengali characters of about seventeenth century and a 
miniature edition of the Khorde Avesta written in Gujarati (nineteenth century) from 
Bombay. 

Of the seventythree acquired coins, nineteen were Hindu coins, eight of Vigrahapala, 
five of Adivaraha and six medieval drammas (obliterated) of uncertain variety. The rest 
comprised three coins of Alau'd Din Muhammad Shah, five coins of Akbar, three coins of 
Jahangir, nineteen coins of Shah Jahan, eight coins of Aurangzeb, three coins of 
Farrukhsiyar, one coin of Muhammad Shah, one coin of Muhammad Shah II, three 
coins of Shah Alam II and eight coins of Orchha State. 

Trilingual labels were furnished for all the important sculptures displayed in the 
verandah of the ground floor of the Museum. Further work in this line is in progress. 

C. CENTRAL ASIAN ANTIQUITIES MUSEUM, NEW DELHI 

The Central Asian Antiquities Museum was further developed this year by the pro- 
vision of greater exhibition-space and the display of further antiquities from the reserve- 
collection. Temporary loans of excavated antiquities were made for short-period exhibi- 
tions organized by the Karnataka Sangha in New Delhi and by the Musee Guimet in Paris. 
Antiquities from the reserve-collection were also made available to research scholars for 
reference and study. The work of arranging the reserve-collections and published material 
is in progress. 

D. OTHER DEPARTMENTAL MUSEUMS 

DELHI FORT MUSEUM. Further additions to the galleries were made by exhibiting 
more paintings, firmans etc from the reserve-collection. 

53. 



INDIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 1954-55 A REVIEW 

SARNATH MUSEUM. The opening of another gallery by re-arranging the reserve- 
collections is in progress, and the provision of bilingual labels in Hindi and English is 
nearing completion. 

NALANDA MUSEUM. A torso of a large-size stone image of Trailokyavijaya trampling 
on Siva and Parvati was removed from the site and added to the Museum. 

FORT ST. GEORGE MUSEUM, MADRAS. Eleven large oil-paintings, four colour-prints 
and two flower-vases, presented by Shri Sri Prakash, Governor of Madras, were included 
in the galleries. Thirteen coins were also added to the numismatic section. The arms and 
weapons section was re-organized to accommodate the recent acquisitions in the 
Museum. 

NAGARJUNAKONDA MUSEUM. The re-arrangement of the north and south wings of 
the Museum was completed. 

AMARAVATI MUSEUM. The re-arrangement of the sculpture-shed is progressing satis- 
factorily. 

KONDAPUR MUSEUM, A consolidated accession-register of antiquities in the Museum 
is nearing completion. 

SANCHI MUSEUM. A Vishnu image of the Gupta period and the head of an image 
of Siva of the tenth century, both found in the surroundings of the Museum, were added 
to the galleries. The preparation of an accession-register of antiquities is nearly completed, 
and sieps were taken to re-organize the galleries within the limited space. 

HAMPI MUSEUM. About three hundred sculptures so far collected from the ruins 
of the Hampi site were arranged in the Guards' Quarters, an ancient monument at the site, 
which now houses the nucleus of the Museum. 

JARDINE MUSEUM, KHAJURAHO.-- Steps are being taken to classify and arrange the 
sculptures in this open-air Museum. Plans are afoot to provide a suitable building for 
the Museum, so that the sculptures, many of which were recently cleaned and treated 
(above, p. 48) do not deteriorate by exposure. 

E. MUSEUMS IN STATES 

HYDERABAD MUSEUM.' One thousand four hundred and thirtytwo corns were ac- 
quired, of which seven were purchased, nine were received as presents from the Bombay 
and Uttar Pradesh Governments and the rest were treasure-trove acquisitions. More 
than two hundred paintings, textiles, arms and weapons were also acquired. The Museum 
took part in the exhibitions held in connexion with the AU-Kannada Literary and Cultural 
Festival, New Delhi, the Marathwada Sahitya Parishad, Latur, the Educational and Library 
Conference, Nalgonda, and the Central Flood Relief Fund, Gulbarga. 

MUSEUMS IN RAJASTHAN. S About a hundred paintings of the Rajput school and some 
typical costumes of Rajasthan were acquired for the Jaipur Museum. South Indian 
textile-pieces with needlework were added to the collection of the Alwar Museum. 

1 Information from the Curator of the Hyderabad Museum. 

2 Information from the Chief Superintendent of Archaeology and Museums, Rajasthan, 

54 



MUSEUMS AND EXHIBITIONS 

The Bharatpur Museum was enriched by the addition of a number of images from Bayana 
and about two dozen paintings of the Jodhpur, Pahari and Mughul schools. The Sardar 
Museum at Jodhpur acquired a few medieval sculptures from Khed and Kiradu, portrait- 
paintings of the rulers of Mewar and musical instruments of Rajasthan. Typical Hadoti 
costumes, along with a number of paintings of the Hadoti school, were added to the Kotah 
Museum. 

MUSEUMS IN SAURASHTRA. 1 Thzjamnagar Museum took part in the Jamnagar Nayi 
Talim Pradarsan at Sanosara and the exhibition held in connexion with the Indian History 
Congress at Ahmedabad. In the Rajkot Museum the listing of the Gupta coins was in 
progress. This Museum and the Bhavnagar Museum participated in several exhibitions. 
The Prabhas Patan Museum obtained nearly fifty sculptures, three inscriptions and a 
broken Shah inscription from Panch Bibi tomb and two inscriptions dated respectively in 
Vikrzma-samvat 1451 and 1657, from the neighbouring are is and collected pottery from 
the Somnath temple-area and from Shah-no-Timbo. 

MUSEUMS IN MYSORE. 2 The collection in the Museum of Antiquities, Chitaldrug, was 
considerably augmented. A large number of ancient coins, mostly Satavahana, were 
acquired. A square punch-marked coin of silver, stated to be a surface-find from Chandra- 
vallij is significant. The State Department of Archaeology participated in the exhibition 
of the All-Kannada Literary and Cultural Festival at New Delhi. 

MUSEUMS IN MADHYA BHARAT. S Thirtytwo paintings representing the Mughul and 
Kangra schools were purchased for the Gwalior Museum. 

K EXHIBITION OF BUDDHIST ART AND ANTIQUITIES IN RANGOON 

An important event of the year was the organization by the Department of Archaeology 
of an exhibition of Buddhist art and antiquities in Rangoon in response to an invitation from 
the Government of Burma. Antiquities, mainly comprising stone and bronze sculptures, 
terracottas, manuscripts, paintings, photographs, etc., were collected from the Departmental 
Museums and the Indian Museum and those at Mathura, Patna, Madras and Hydera- 
bad, which readily responded to the call for co-operation. The exhibition was opened by 
the Prime Minister of Burma on the 29th January 1955 and continued for fifty days, during 
which no less than a lakh and a half persons visited it. Illustrated catalogues were printed 
in English and Burmese, and a series of lectures on Buddhism and Buddhist art in India 
and Burma was arranged. 

G. OTHER EXHIBITIONS 

Besides the above, the Department of Archaeology organized and participated in 
the following exhibitions : 

The South-eastern Circle arranged an exhibition of antiquities at Rajahmundry in 
April 1954 on the occasion of the Ramanavami celebrations. 

1 Information from the Saurashtra Government. 

2 Information from the Director of Archaeology, Mysore. 

3 Information from the Director of Archaeology, Madhya Bharat. 

55 



INDIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 1954-55 A REVIEW 

Two exhibitions were held by the Western Circle at Ahmedabad and Baroda on 
the occasions of the Indian History Congress and Indian Science Congress respectively. 

The Mid-eastern Circle partook in the exhibition held at Patna during the All-India 
Educational Conference. Photographs, drawings and maps illustrating the history of Patna 
and photographs of the important monuments in the Circle were displayed. 

The Southern Circle participated in the Government-sponsored museum and archaeo- 
logy section of an exhibition in Madras, which coincided with the session of the Indian 
National Congress in January 1955. Photographic enlargements illustrating the evolution 
of south Indian temples and colour-prints and colour-transparencies of the Tanjore and 
Sittannavasal paintings formed a chief attraction of the exhibition. 

The Epigraphical Branch lent impressions of a number of inscriptions showing the 
development of south Indian scripts and a few photographs of south Indian temples and 
sculptures to the same exhibition. At the request of the Physics and Soil Mechanics Officer, 
Madras, the Branch also supplied for exhibition impressions of a few inscriptions referring 
to irrigation-works in south India. 

The Chemical Branch displayed a few photographs of the paintings at Tambekarwada, 
Baroda, showing the effective results of the chemical treatment of the paintings, at the 
exhibitions held hi connexion with the sessions of the Indian History Congress and the 
Indian Science Congress respectively at Ahmedabad and Baroda. 



7. ARCHAEOLOGICAL GARDENS 

DELHI. The re-organization of the archaeological gardens in and around Delhi, which 
started in 1950 with the transfer of their control from the Central Public Works Department 
to the Department of Archaeology, is now almost complete. Over three thousand rooted 
plants were raised from the stock-plants at the central nursery in the Central Asian Anti- 
quities Museum premises by vegetative propagations! methods of cutting, layering, sucker- 
ing, grafting and budding. Over a lakh of flower-seedlings were raised from seeds and were 
partly distributed to different gardens and partly planted in nursery-beds for seeding in 
the next year. A small orchard with hardy fruit-kinds was planted at the rear plot of the 
Humayun's tomb. An area of 5-08 acres in different gardens was re-grassed during the 
year. The gardens were maintained in good condition by judicious manuring, watering, 
irimming and other seasonal horticultural operations and looked very attractive during the 
season. 

AGRA. The long-standing proposal of taking over the archaeological gardens at Agra 
at last materialized during the year. The actual transfer of charge took place on the rst 
August 1954, when a branch of the Garden Section was established at Agra. The anti- 
cipated difficulties by way of a common water-supply and a common nursery were well- 
nigh solved by the construction of a large water-reservoir and the earmarking of one of the 
existing reservoirs for the exclusive requirements of the Taj gardens and by a temporary 
division of the Khan-i-Alam nursery-facilities till the U. P. Government established a 
nursery for their own use. After the assumption of charge a large number of over- 
crowding trees in the gardens were severely pruned to enframe the monuments suitably. 
A workshop was opened for the repair of garden-implements, and an electric motor-pump 
was installed at the new reservoir to pump water to the Taj gardens. 

OTHER GARDENS. Except minor gardens and those attached to Bibi-ka-Maqbara, 
Aurangabad, and to Tipu Sultan's palace, Bangalore, all the important gardens attached 
to monuments of national importance, such as the ones at Pinjore, PEPSU, and Daria 
Daulat, etc., at Srirangapatna, Mysore, continued to be maintained by the respective State 
Governments on an agency-basis. Officers of the Garden Section of the Department 
inspected a large number of gardens, gave advice and prepared plans about their im- 
provement. There are proposals for laying out suitable parks at Khajuraho, Sarnath, 
Mandu and other places. 

RAJASTHAN. 1 The Rajasthan Government attended to the garden attached to the 
Amber palaces but could not maintain that at Mohan Ban, situated on a raised platform 
outside those palaces by the side of the Maotha lake, due to lack of water-facilities. 



1 Information from the Chief Superinteiidetlt of Archaeology and Museums, Rajasthan, 

57 



8. IMPORTANT DISCOVERIES 

PALAEOLITHIC SITES IN RAJASTHAN. Shri S. R. Rao found six more palaeolithic sites 
in District Chitorgarh. Apart from a large number of tools found in the beds of the 
rivers Gambhiri, Berach and Charnbal at places like Chitorgarh, Nagari and Sonita, the 
rivers Bamani and Ruparel and the nallas of Dodha and Parsoli yielded considerable 
numbers of palaeoliths. South Rajasthan seems to have been a pivotal region where 
both the Sohan industry of Panjab and the Madras handaxe industry met. The sequence 
of cultures noticed in Gujarat, viz. the occurrence of microliths on the river-banks 
and of palaeoliths in the river-beds, was confirmed in Rajasthan. Some tools were found 
at Bichare in the Parsoli nalla, which joins the river Bamani. Handaxes and cleavers 
were the main types. A few implements were picked up at Haripura, situated on the 
Bamani, a tributary of the Chambal, from the 5-ft. thick conglomerate-bed. Rathanjm, 
an important site near Nimbahera, situated on the Gambhiri, yielded a large number of 
handaxes, besides cleavers and choppers. The palaeolithic site of Sigoh, also near Nimba- 
hera, ison the bank of the Kadamli. It was here that microliths of chalcedony and agate 
were found in the loessic mounds on the river-bank. Lunates, triangles and points were 
some of the typical tools. Tajpura, on the Ruparel, was found to be a rich site with a large 
number of cleavers but a very few handaxes. Tools were recovered from the gravel-beds 
below and above the conglomerate-bed. The site at Dhangadman, situated on the Pipla- 
ka-nalla, yielded a few implements, consisting of pebble tools, Abbevilleo-Acheulian hand- 
axes, late Acheulian handaxes, and Levalloisian flakes. 

STONE AGE SITES ON THE SIRSA. The river Sirsa, originating near Pinjore in Simla 
Hills, flows between those hills and the Siwaliks and joins the Sutlej a few miles above 
Rupar. At several sites along this river 3 such as Dher Majra, Dhang, Dadhi and 
Merhanmla, a number of quartzitic palaeoliths, mainly choppers, scrapers and flakes 
(pi. LXII) 3 were discovered by Dr. Y. D. Sharma. Typologically the implements 
represented a late Sohan ttadition. 

STONE AGE SITES ON THE SOHAN. In the Siwaliks in Hoshiarpur District also some 
palaeoliths were picked up by the same officer from the river Sohan (not to be confused 
with the homonymous river near Rawalpindi, a tributary of the Indus, which has given its 
name to the Panjab palaeolithic industry). A ridgy water-shed near Daulatpur divides tte 
valley into two basins, so that the waters in the northern basin fall into the Beas and thos< 
of the southern discharge into the Sutlej, both the streams going by the name of Sohan 
The implements (pi. LXII) were found about a mile north of Daulatpur on the Beai 
branch of the river and also showed affinity with the late Sohan tradition. The existence o 1 
such artefacts in the Sirsa and Sohan valleys considerably enlarges the area of the Sohai 
industry. 

53 



IMPORTANT DISCOVERIES .>'- 

\<--- .. . - 

MICROLITHIC SITES IN EAST KHANDESH. Dr. B. B. Lai -made * 'further 'collection of 
microlithic tools and cores of chalcedony, quartz, chert and jasper at the back of the Chandika 
Devi temple at Patan, augmenting the collection made by him last year from a hillock ro 
the north of the temple. The present collection included a nicely-worked awl (borer) 
and two tanged 'arrow-heads of chalcedony. Arrow-heads are of rare occurrence in the 
Indian microlithic series. 

FUKTHER MICROLITHS FROM HosHANGABAD. A very large number of microliths, con- 
sisting of blades, points, triangles., lunates, etc., most of them showing geometric shapes, 
were collected by the same officer from the rock-shelters at Adhamgarh Quarry, supplement- 
ing bis last year's collection. 

HARAPPA AND OTHER EARLY SETTLEMENTS ON THE SIRS A. A few Harappa and other 
early settlements on the upper Sutlej were reported last year. Similar settlements on. the 
Sirsa were located this year by Dr. Sharma. On the right bank of the river, below its 
junction witl^the Chikni Nadi, close to the village of Dhang, 12 miles from Rupar, was 
found the typical pottery of the Harappans. Further south, at Merhanwala, 13 miles from 
Nalagarh, the same pottery was encountered. These sites lay on the river-terraces and 
flat surfaces on the hills and indicated that the Harappans had not stopped at Rupar but 
had proceeded further north into the hills along the valleys of smaller rivers. On this 
stretch the Painted Grey Ware was also noticed at two places, at Manguwal on the Chikni 
Nadi and at Baddi. f 

HARAPPA AND OTHER EARLY SETTLEMENTS IN GUJARAT. Two Harappan sites, at Phala 
and Kota in District Halar, three microlithic sites, at Sherdi in the same District and 
Beran and Keshav, both in District Sorath, were discovered by the Superintendent of 
Archaeology in Saurashtra. 1 Shri S. R. Rao found a few more Harappa sites. Kaero Timbo, 
Goni Timbo, Samadhiala and Chashiana, all situated within a radius of five miles from Rang- 
pur, established that Rangpur had been a large settlement with small villages around. 
The sites of Lothal (under excavation, above, p. 12) and Kana Sutaria, 25 miles south of 
Ahmedabad, were among the sites plotted on the map (fig. 7) as a result of exploration. 

The bearing of the excavations at Rangpur and Lotbal and the explorations in Sau- 
rashtra undertaken in recent years on the movement of the Harappa folk in the Gujarat 
peninsula may be summed up here. The Harappa sites in Gujarat now number about 
twenty, most of which are concentrated near the coast. Shri Rao feels that this indicates 
a maritime route followed by the Harappans in their southward movement. The central 
part of Saurashtra, being a hilly tract, is an inhospitable region ; so is the narrow strip of 
land connecting the peninsula with the mainland, being partly semi-desert and partly 
a salt-waste difficult to cross. Hence the Harappans seem to have^taken a sea-route and 
landed first at the ports situated on the mouths of rivers, where they made temporary 
settlements, and to have moved further interior along the river-banks, so as to have larger 
settlements with assured water-supply as at Rangpur., Lothal and Gop. It is significant 
that not a single Harappa site was found in north Saurashtra; yet it is in this region that 
such sites were to be expected had the Harappans followed a land-route from Sind. 

1 Information from that officer. 



INDIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 1954-55 A REVIEW 



HARAPPA CULTURE 

IN 

WEST INDIA 



OF /l/\/LES 

?o o ?a 40 60 BO foa 



STATION Of S1ARAPPA CULTURE 
& irATlON OPIIAKAPPA AND POYT-, 

HAIJAPPA CULTURES. 
D yWCWjf/WV roWJY 



MOHENJO - DARO 



JHANGAR t II v 

* \.CHANHUDARO 

\ 
J 




PIG. 7 
GO 



IMPORTANT DISCOVERIES 

ROCK-ENGRAVINGS IN CHOTA NAGPUR. 1 Rock-engravings were found by Shri Vijaya- 
kanta Mishra at Dhobadiha in Sadr Sub-Division, District Chaibasa, on twelve rocks 
of different sizes, throwing light on the naga cult. 

FURTHER PAINTED GREY WARE SITES. Shri B. B. Lai discovered the Painted Grey 
Ware at Bairat, identified with Viratanagara of the Mahabhamta, and Bijwa, respectively 
in Districts Jaipur and Alwar, and at Bhadasa, Malab and Gohana, all in District Gurgaon. 

ANCIENT SITE AT HATHRAS, DISTRICT ALIGARH. Sherds of the Painted Grey and 
Northern Black Polished Wares were found by Dr. K. N. Pun at Oila Hathras. The top of 
the mound is occupied by late medieval and modern constructions, which have considerably 
disturbed the site; a closer examination may, however, be fruitful. 

EARLY SITES IN HYDERABAD. 2 Eight prehistoric sites within a range of 40 miles 
south of Hyderabad and a site belonging to the protohistoric and Andhra periods at Ter, 
District Osmanabad, were discovered by the Hyderabad Archaeological Department. 

N. B. P. WARE FROM BmAR. 3 Two sites with the Northern Black Polished Ware, 
respectively at Baligarh near Khajauli, District Darbhanga, and Dharhara near Banmanki, 
District Purnea, were found by Shri Vijayakanta Mishra. Besides, terracottas of the 
second-first century B.C. were also collected. 

PUNCH-MARKED AND OTHER COINS FROM BIHAR. A hoard of more than a hundred 
punch-marked coins was unearthed by Shri Mishra at Chakmmdas, Vaisali, District 
Muzaffarpur. A number of cast coin?, punch-marked coins and a coin of Pratapaditya 
of Kashmir were also found by him at Pirnagara, District Monghyr. 

RED POLISHED WARE IN SAURASHTRA. 4 The Superintendent of Archaeology in 
Saurashtra discovered additional Red Polished Ware sites at Kolavad, District Halar, and 
Arena, Boricha, Sutrapada and Bhadaria, all in District Scrath. 

BUDDHIST ANTIQUITIES IN ANDHRA. At the top of the hill Yegurnalli Tatakonda, at a 
distance of 3 miles from Vangalapudi, District East Godavari, a fairly well-preserved 
brick stupa, measuring about 600 ft. in circumference at the base and 13 ft. in height, was 
located by Shri A. S. Gadre. The bricks measured 17 X 10 X 3 to 4 in. At Lingaraju- 
palem near Dharmavaram, District Anantapur, the same officer found a pillar carved with 
the representation of a Buddhist stupa with the umbrella etc. At a distance of 1-3- miles 
from the village he foimd a mound, 6 acres in area, locally known as the Rakasi-metta, 
obviously the site of a large Buddhist vihara. A stone dharma-chakra, with a decorated 
border having alternating triratna and leaf-motif, its diameter 3 fit. 4 in. and tenon 6f in. 
in length and 7 in. in breadth, was discovered here. 

ANCIENT SITES IN KARNATAK. Following the information received from the Director, 
Kannada Research Institute, Dharwar, Shri B. K. Thapar visited three ancient sites. 
At Herakal, 7 miles to the north of Baghalkot, he found plenty of the 'Andhra 3 ware and a 



1 Information from Shri Vijayakanta Mishra. 

2 Information from the Assistant Director of Archaeology, Hyderabad 

3 Information about this and the next item from Shri Vijayakanta Mishra. 

4 Information from the Superintendent of Archaeology, Saurashtra. 



INDIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 1954-55 A REVIEW 

few pieces of the Red Polished and Black-and-red Wares. The site at Ittagi, District 
Dharwar, lying on the Tungabhadra, was noticed to contain the 'Andhra' and the *mega- 
lithic' Black-and-red Wares. From the third site, Pattadakd, District Bijapur, about a 
mile to the south-west of the present village along the bank of the Malaprabha, the objects 
collected by him included sherds of greyish black ware with grooves on the rim and the 
body, characteristic of the early medieval period, and some sherds of non-descript black- 
slipped ware. The settlement was probably contemporary with the famous early Chalukya 
temples of the place. 

SCULPTURES AND OTHER ANTIQUITIES IN MADHYA BHARAT. 1 An ancient site, 2 
miles north-east of Bhanpura, District Mandasor, and close to the foot of the extensive 
tableland called Pathar in Vindhya Pradesh, was found to be rich in remains like sculp- 
tures, ruined habitations and fortification-walls. The adjacent tableland is also thickly 
studded with numerous antiquities discovered at such localities as Navh, Kethuli, Taksake- 
swar, Hmglagarh, Chainpur> etc, A Vishnu image of the tenth-eleventh century was found 
at Sheopur, District Mandasor. 

SCULPTURES AND OTHER ANTIQUITIES IN HYDERABAD. 2 At Charthana, District 
Parbhanij clearance exposed to view remains of an underground Jaina temple, twentyfour 
Jaina images, carved pillars, etc. Several old sculptures and inscriptions were discovered 
at Madharam, District Nalgonda, at Patancheru, District Medak, and near Gandtpet, Dis- 
trict Hyderabad. About one hundred sculptures and inscriptions were recovered at and 
around Kalyani> District Bidar. 

SCULPTURES IN SAUKASHTRA. S Nearly fifty sculptures were recovered from the 
area around Prabhas Patan and from the old mosque and other buildings in the same 
locality. They included representations of Vishnu and Siva and architectural pieces. 

SCULPTURES FROM RAJASTHAN. 4 Several sculptures from Abaneri and an image of 
three-legged Bhairava from Kiradu> with an inscription in Vikmma-samvat 1916 specially 
mentioning it as a tnpada-muni, were brought to light. 

1 Information from the Director of Archaeology, Madhya Bhaiat. 

z Information from the Assistant Director of Archaeology, Hyderabad. 

a Information from the Superintendent of Archaeology, Saurashtra. 

4 Information from the Chief Superintendent of Archaeology and Museums, 



9. TREASURE-TROVE 

Following are some of the important treasure-troves brought to the notice of the 
Department. It is very likely that the information is incomplete, for some discoveries 
may not have been reported. Of the reports received, those lacking in particulars have 
been excluded. * 

KSHATRAPA COINS FROM GoNDARMAU, BHOPAL. A hoard of fiftyone silver coins of the 
Western Kshatrapas was reported from Gondarmau, 7 miles north-west of the town of 
Bhopal. The hoard consisted of five coins of the Mahakshatrapa Vijayasena, six coins of 
the Mahakshatrapa Rudrasena II, seventeen coins of Bhartridaman both as Kshatrapa 
and Mahakshatrapa, ten coins of the Kshatrapa Visvasena, three coins of the Kshatrapa 
Rudrasimha II and one coin of the Mahakshatrapa Svami-Rudrasena III, the attribution 
of the remaining nine coins being uncertain. All the coins were dated, the legible dates 
ranging from Saka 157 to 270 (A.D. 235 to 348). Like the Uparkot and Sarvania hoards, this 
hoard also appears to have been buried al the end of the earlier reign-period of the Maha- 
kshatrapa Svami-Rudrasena III, whose coins are the latest to be represented in these hoards. 

GUPTA COINS FROM BHANDARA, DISTRICT CHANDA. Twelve gold coins of Mahendra- 
ditya and Prasannamaira were reported, 

INDO-SASSANIAN COINS FROM SIRSA, DISTRICT DRUG. A hoard of one hundred and 
thirtynine copper Indo-Sassanian coins was found together with a necklace of debased gold 
in an earthen pot. 

COINS FROM KHOKRA KOT, DISTRICT ROHTAK. One hundred and seventyeight 
copper coins, found in a village 5 miles from Khokra Kot, were presented to the Depart- 
ment by the finder and are now being cleaned. 

KALACHURI COINS FROM BASARWA, DISTRICT AZAMGARH. Twentytwo gold coins of the 
Kalachuri Gangeya with four pieces of silver ornaments and a cowrie~sho\l were recovered. 

KALACHURI COINS FROM RATANPUR, DISTRICT PURL Ten gold coins, two of Ratna- 
deva and eight of Prithvideva, were recorded. 

CHAHAMANA COINS FROM ISARDA, DISTRICT SAWAIMADHOPUR. Twentyfive copper 
coins were found. 

JAINA BRONZE AT MEU, DISTRICT MEHSANA. One of the bronzes recovered from 
this place was a chaturvimsatika-patta, similar to the one found previously at Akota, Baroda. 

JAINA IMAGES FROM CAMBAY. Fortyone marble images of the Tirthankaras, some of 
them inscribed, were found. The earliest date on one of them was samvat 1397. They 
were handed over to the Jaina community for worship. 

JAINA IMAGES FROM DISTRICT MEHSANA. Marble images of the Tirthankaras were 
found at Vasai and Dharnoj. 

63 



INDIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 1954-55 A REVIEW 
VlJAYANAGARA COINS FROM GOLLAPALLI, DISTRICT KRISHNA. Of the fifty gold 

coins, one was a half-pagoda of Devaraya (probably Devaraya I, 1406-10), thirtyseven 
were half-pagodas of Krishnaraya (1509-1529), three more were probably of the same 
ruler, one was a Gandikonda pagoda of Ramaraya (circa 1565), three were of the Ganda- 
bheninda type, of which one had the legend Ramachandraraya (?), and the remaining five 
were unidentified. 

COINS FROM PUTHUDY THAVALAM, DEVIKULAM TALUK, TRAVANCORE. A Collection 

of thirtyfive sold vasi panams was recorded. 

PAGODAS AND OTHER COINS IN MADRAS. Of the finds Brought to the notice of the 
Madras Government, a collection of twentyeight coins, including one swami-pagoda and 
twentytwo old star-pagodas of the East India Company, from Singampunan, District 
Ramanathapuram, and one rupee of William IV, 1835, fr m Soachaniin the same District 
deserve mention. 

MUGHUL COINS IN EAST U. P. Eight coins of Akbar, five of Jahangir, eleven of Shah 
Jahan and seven of Aurangzeb, all of silver, were found at Pumina, District Basti. Two 
coins of Shah Jahan, four of Aurangzeb and a worn-out coin, all of the same metal, were 
received from Muhammadabad sub-treasury, District Azamgarh. From Bankasia, Dis- 
trict Basti, came two silver coins of Nasiru'd Din Mahmud I and twenty one coins of the 
same metal of Alau'd Din Muhammad Shah of Delhi. 

MUGHUL COINS FROM KAOLAS, DISTRICT NANDED. A hoard of forty silver coins (1709- 
1806) was found. 

MUGHUL COINS FROM BHASE, DISTRICT AURANGABAD. A hoard of one hundred and 
one silver coins (1628-1748) was reported. 

MUGHUL COINS FROM GOLAPNAGARI, DISTRICT AURANGABAD. A hoard of nineteen 
silver coins (1658-1707) was recovered. 

LATE MUGHUL COINS FROM MALREDDIPALLI, DISTRICT ANANTAPUR. Four silver 
coins and some gold ornaments constituted the find. Of the coins one was of Alamgir 
II, issued by the East India Company for the Madras Presidency, and three were of Shah 
Alam, issued by the French Company. 

COINS OF SHAH ALAM FROM LUDHIANA. Thirteen silver coins were discovered. 

BRONZE-FINDS IN MADRAS. The following may be recorded: four Durga images, 
one Prasanna Ganapati and one Karuppannasvami from Pudukudi South, District 
Tanjore; a Parvati from Kayavur in the same District; a Bhudevi and a Devi from Nedu- 
vasal, also in the same District ; and a standing Ganesa, a Nataraja, Vinadhara Dakshina- 
murti and two Parvati images from Puthur East, District Salem. 

MISCELLANEOUS FINDS IN HYDERABAD. The total number of coins discovered in 
Hyderabad was over one thousand and four hundred, all of published types representing 
nine dynasties. In addition, a gold sankha and chakra of fine workmanship and a 
medallion-like gold ear-ring with a star in the middle, a specimen of delicate filigree- work, 
was found. 



io, PUBLICATIONS 

A. DEPARTMENTAL PUBLICATIONS 

ANCIENT INDIA. During the year, no. 8 (1952) of Ancient India was published. 
The next three numbers, 9, io and n fi953, 1954 and 1955) are in the printing stage and 
are expected to be published by September 1955. With this, the regrettable arrears in the 
publication ot this Bulletin will be cleared. It may be added that no. 9 is designed to be a 
Special Number, to commemorate the completion of fifty years of the Archaeological 
Survey of India. 

GUIDE-BOOKS. Mahabalipuram was reprinted,, and Agra Fort is in an advanced proof- 
stage. The re-printing of Guide to Sanchi by Sir John Marshall is in the final stage of 
printing. 

MEMOIRS OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA. No. 72, The Inscriptions of 
Chamba by B. Ch. Chhabra, is passing through the press. No. 73, Sanskrit Literature and 
An Mirrors of Indian Culture by C. Sivaramamurti, was published during the year. A 
memoir entitled The Great Temple of Tanjorc its Sculptures and Paintings has been taken 
in hand by T. N. Ramachandran, it is to contain a large number of reproductions in colour 
of the paintings in the temple and of dance-poses. 

CORPUS INSCRIPTIONUM INDICARUM. The overdue publication of the fourth volume 
of the series, Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi Era by V. V. Mirashi, is being expedited, 
and the volume is likely to be available ere long. The material for the revised edition of 
the third volume. Inscriptions of the Guptas by D. R. Bhandarkar, is being made press- 
ready. A portion of the material for the second part of the second volume, Early Brahmi 
Inscriptions, entrusted to Heinrich Liiders long ago, has been received from Professor 
Ernst Waldschmidt of Gottingen. Steps are being taken to have it printed. 

EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. Paris ii and iii of volume XXIX were issued during the year, 
while parts iv, v, vi and vii of the same volume and part i of the next were passed for 
final printing. Part viii of volume XXVII and part ii of volume XXX are in the press. 

ANNUAL REPORTS ON SOUTH INDIAN EPIGRAPHY. The Reports for 1943-44 and 1944- 
45 were passed for printing. 

ANNUAL REPORTS ON INDIAN EPIGRAPHY. The Report for 1947-48 was passed for 
printing, while those for 1948-49, 1949-50 and 1950-51 are in the press. Earnest efforts 
are being made to bring the series up to date. 

EPIGRAPHIA INDO-MOSLEMICA. The number for 1949 and 1950 of this two-yearly 
journal was published during the year. The next numbers of the journal will be known 
as Epigraphia Indica Arabic and Persian Supplement, of which those for 1951 and 1952 
and for 1953 and 1954 are in the press. 

65 



INDIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 1954-55 A REVIEW 

PICTURE-POSTCARDS. The following sets of picture-postcards were reprinted: 
Sarnath, Elephanta, Western Indian Caves (Karla, Bhaja and Bedsa), Kanheri and Bijapur. 
Other sets are awaiting reprint, and new sets, including one of the Ajanta paintings in 
colour, are in hand. 

B. OTHER PUBLICATIONS 

The Hyderabad Government published the fourth part (text and plates) of Ajanta. 
A Hindi version of the Guide-book to Ajanta by Shri Ram Sharma was issued. Other pub- 
lications, Neurgaon Inscriptions by P. Sreenivasachar, Corpus of Inscriptions in the Kannada 
Districts of Hyderabad by P. B. Desai, Corpus of Inscriptions in the Telangana District of 
Hyderabad by P. Sreenivasacharj a new edition of Asokan Edict at Maski (Hyderabad 
Archaeological Series) by D. C. Sircar and Bulletin of the Hyderabad Archaeological Depart- 
ment for 1951 are in different stages of printing. A monograph on the punch-marked 
coins and a catalogue of the Satavahana coins in the Hyderabad Museum are being pre- 
pared for the press. 

The Travancore-Cochin Government are taking steps to see through the publica- 
tion of the tenth volume of the Travancore Archaeological Series. 

The Rajasthan Government published six booklets in their 'As Stones Speak' series. 



66 

GIPND LS 68 Div. of Arch. 12-9-55 a.OOO. 



PLATE I 




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PLATE II 








lecnntque. 



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PLATO V 






B 



Nevasa : A, sherd painted with a dog in black, Phase I; B, a burial-urn wick a chiltPs skeleton and 
bowls inside, Phase I,- C, kaolin head of a smiling boy, Phase IV. See page 7 



vl 




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PLATE VII 




A 



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B 

Rupar, a Harappan burial: A, skeleton with associated pottery in situ, and 
pottery after the removal of skeleton* See pag e p 



PLATE VIII 





Rupar A., pottery, and B, bangles and beads from Harappan bitnals. See page 



PLATE IX 




Rupar ; retaining wall of a tank with its brick-built inlet, Pericd III. See page 9 



PLATE X 




PLATE XI 




o 
-I 




a 







PLATE XII 





Rangpur, painted pottery 



B 

A a from Harappan, and E, from past-Harappan levels. 
See pages ji and 12 



PLATE xiii 





Lothal : mud-brick structures of the Harappa period. See page 13 



PLATE XIV 






B ^ 

Lotfial, objects of the Harappa period : A, steatite ornaments, B, steatite, faience and shell bcad> 

and Cj, agate and carnehan beads. See page 12 



PLATE XV 





B 

Lothal ; A, chert blades, and B, typical Harappa seals and sealings. See page 12 




1 



R 
O 



s 

e. 

I 






PLATE XVII 





B 
Lethal ; A, painted sherds, and B, jar possibly funerary, with bricks around. Seepage 12 



PLATE XVIII 




I 



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PLATE XIX 




Pf abash : general view of a deep cutting. See page 13 



PLATE XX 




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PLATE XXV 




PLATE XXVI 




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s 



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PLATE XXVII 




A 




B 



Mathura, terracotta figurines : A, from Period III, and B, from Period II. See pages 15 and 16 



PLATE XXVIII 




vo 



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X- _ _ 



XXIX 




PLATE XXX 




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Katuatnbi: eastern gateway complex, stowing three stages of the defences and the northern 

flank (in the foreground). See 



PLATE XXXII 





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PLATE XXXIII 




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PLATE XXXIV 





Kurm ahar : 



B 

A, wooden platform in the palace-area, and B, circular brick platform and other 
structures in the ntonasterv-area. See ttaee IQ 



P LATE XXXV 




A. Kttmrahar .- circular structure within a building in the monastery-area. See page 





B 



3 and C. Tildah ; terracotta figurines. See page 23 



PLATE XXXVI 




IP 



4 

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1 

>i: 
1 








PLATE XXXVII 




Tomluli ; rotiletted ware, Period III. See Page so 



PLATE xxxvm 





B 



A, inscribed and stamped sherds, and B, terracotta figurines, Period IV, See page 20 



PLATE XXXIX 



Tamluk : terracotta figurines, Period II. Seepage 20 



PLATE XL 




skeletal and pottety contents of a broken burial-urn o/ the roadside. See page 20 



PLATE XL! 




A 




: A, a bunal-wn with Ud, and B } the same, after the removal of the 

See page 20 



PLATE XLII 




A 




B 

Amirthamangalam : A, the same urn as on pi. XLI, showing skeletal and pottery contents 
B, a damaged biivial-urn with a pedunculated bottom. See pages 20 and 22 



PLATE XLIII 





filagarjtniakonda : 



B 

A, monastery in Site I, and B, shrine-chamber of two periods in Site VII. 
See pages 22 and 23 



PLATE XLW 





Nagarjunakonda : 



B 

A 3 mahachaitya in Site V, built upon an earlier one, and B, maJiachaitya adjoining 
Site VI. See pages 22 and 23 




A 




B 



Nagarjunakonda : part-views of the quadrangle at the foot of the Hariti temple. See page 22 



PLATE XLVI 




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1J 

s 

I 



^ 01 

^ I 

O . 

$ 

^3 CO 




2? 

I^k. F^4 

a ^ 
? 

<3 60 

Q I 

. .a 



PLATE LII 




A 




B 

Rajgii, fortification-wall with bastion near the Banganga : 

B, after repairs. See page 34 



A, before repairs, and 



LIII 




PLATE LIV 





B 

Golconda fort t A 3 before repairs, and ~B, during repairs. See page 37 



PLATE LV 




j ^sU^ 
a VA^LJ: 

"l 

-3A 

-j-i3^? 




B 



facholapwam, Brihadisvara temple ; A } &e/ore clearance, and B ; a/rer c/earwce s of accretions 

in the compound. See page %y 



PLATE LVI 





B 



Gangaikondacholapurani) douUe-sioreyed cloister in Brihadisvara temple ; A, before repairs, and B, 

after repairs. See page 3$ 



PLATE LVII 





Chitor fort, Sringar Ghaun temple : A, fee/ore repairs, and B, /ier repairs. See page 43 



PLATE LVII1 





B 



Rana Kumbha's palace and Diwan-i-Am : 

See page 43 



j ie/ore repairs, and B, ^_/f?r repairs 



PLATE LIX 





Chiior fort, interior of Rana Kumbha's palace : A, before repairs, and B, after repairs. See page 



PLATE LX 




A. Chanda : a mural painting in Mahakali temple., showing chemical treatment (the upper left 

half represents the uncleaned portion). See page 49 




B. Bagk caves 



a mural painting, showing chemical treatment (the right half represents the 
Portion). See page 48 



PLATE LXI 




I 



At* 4 I . ._ 



n 



s 
(3 





I 



1 




I 



h 

.a 

"s> 



1 



PIATE LXTI 




Palaeoiiths ; from the Sn ia and Sohan basins. See page 58