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Indian Corn Culture 



By CHARLES S. PLUMB, B. Sc. 

DIRECTOR INDIANA AGRICULTURAL 
EXPERIMENT STATION. 



ILLUSXRATED 



CHICAGO: 

breeder's gazette print. 

1895. 



Copyright, 1895, 

BY THE J. H. SANDERS PUB. CO. 

(All rights reserved.) 



PREFACE. 



Ill 1828 William Cobbett, a rather eccentric 
yet famous Englishman who for a time resided 
in America, loublished in London ''A Treatise 
on Cobbett's Corn." Thirty-eight years later, 
in 1866, Edward Enfield published in New 
York a book on "Indian Corn; Its Value, Cul- 
ture and Uses," These are the only volumes 
in the English language, within the knowledge 
of the writer, that have been written as hand- 
books on Indian corn for farmers. Since these 
books were issued much valuftble information 
has accumulated concerning the corn plant, 
and it is due. to this fact that this volume was 
written. In America this cereal is grown 
more extensively than is any other, and its 
great food value for man and beast is fully 
recognized. 

For a large amount of the present knowledge 
we have of Indian corn we are indebted to the 
researches conducted at the agricultural ex- 



4 PREFACE. 

periment stations. This volume is rather in 
the nature of a compilation of such informa- 
tion as seems to the writer might be of service 
to American corn-growers. It is not a special 
account of the author's experience in growing 
this crop, but rather of the results of many 
cultivators. No attempt has been made to go 
into general details when it has seemed un- 
necessary, and some subjects have been lightly 
touched upon as unimportant. But if the 
volume as a whole shall be of material service 
to our corn-growers it will have served its 

purpose. 

CHARLES S. PLUMB. 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

I. Historical, Notes 7 

II. Botanical Characteristics 12 

III. Varieties and Their Adaptation 20 

IV. The Seed 48 

V. Manures and Fertilizers 58 

VI. Tillage 71 

VII. Planting 83 

VIII. Harvesting 99 

IX. Rotation of Crops 121 

X. Insects 126 

XI. Diseases 147 

XII. Chemical Composition and Digestibility. 154 

XIII. The Feeding of Live Stock IGl 

XIV. Soiling 184 

XV. Silos and Silage 192 

XVI. Statistics 205 

XVII. Miscellaneous 21.3 

XVIII. Literature on Indian Corn 234 



CHAPTER I. 



HISTORICAL. 

Indian corn, the Zea mays of botanists, is un- 
questionably native to America. Before the 
discovery of this country by Columbus this 
cereal was unknown in Europe, Asia or Africa. 
Maize was undoubtedly grown by the inhabit- 
ants of North, Central and South America in 
IDrehistoric times. Mounds that were erected 
prior to the time of the American Indian, of 
which he has no tradition, that have been ex- 
plored in recent years, have contained corncobs 
and charred kernels. In mounds excavated at 
Madisonville, 0., in 1879, remains of maize were 
found in quantities. In the caves occupied by 
the early Cliff Dwellers in the southwestern 
United States, ears of corn have been frequently 
discovered. In South America Darwin found 
on the coast of Peru, "heads of maize, together 
with eighteen species of recent sea shells, em- 
bedded in a beach which had been upraised at 
least eighty-five feet above the level of the sea.'"'' 

* Animals and Plants under Domestication, New York, 
1890, I, p. 338. 

(7) 



O INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

Eaj's of Indian corn are occasionally found 
in vessels placed in ancient Indian tombs or 
mounds in Chili, Peru and Central America. 
The Smithsonian Institute at Washington has 
numerous interesting specimens of corn, ex- 
humed from mounds and tombs, that must be 
very ancient. One specimen was discovered 
deposited in an earthen vessel eleven feet under 
ground in a grave with a mummy, near Ari- 
quipe, Peru.=^ Marcay refers to corn found in 
Aymara Indian tombs in South America, that, 
from the material accompanying it, must belong 
to a period long before the Spanish conquest.f 
Among the ruins of Peru are stone carvings of 
ears of corn, executed centuries ago, before the 
discovery by Europeans. 

Original Home. — The original home of In- 
dian corn is thought by some to be Central 
America or Mexico, south of the twenty-second 
degree of north latitude.^ In 1888 Prof. Duges 
collected at Moro Leon, north of Lake Cuitzco, 
Mexico, several corn plants which have been 
termed wild maize, and considered by some to 
be the original parent of Indian corn. Plants 
from this source were grown at the Cambridge, 



* Report United States Department of Agriculture, 1870 
p. 420. 

t Travels in South America, I, p. 69. 

J Maize: A botanical and economical study, by John W. 
Harshberger, 1893, p. 202. 



HISTORICAL. 



9 



Mass., botanical gardens, at Philadelphia and 
at Ithaca, N. Y. 

The Indians of Mexico and the southwestern 
United States have for centuries grown corn 
very similar in general conformation to that 
found in the mounds of ancient times, which is 
quite unlike that grown in the northern corn 
belt. This corn is soft or starchy, of color rang- 
ing from white to pink, blue and other shades, 
has a large cob, and round, smooth topped 
kernels of fair size. Says Sturtevant:* 

"Centeotl, in Mexico, was goddess of maize, and hence of 
agriculture, and was known, according to Clavigero, by the 
title, among others, of Tonacajohua, 'she who sustains us.' 
Sahagrun writes of the seventy-eight chapels of the great 
Temple of Mexico, that the forty-fifth edifice was called 
Cinteupan, and therein was a statue of the god of maize." 

Indians as corn-growers.— The early Amer- 
ican explorers discovered the Indians cultivat- 
ing fields of maize. Delafield tells usf that 
"when Cartier visited Hochelaga, now called 
Montreal, in 1535, that town was situated in 
the midst of extensive cornfields." Champlain 
in 1603 found cornfields eastward from the 
Kennebec river. In 1621, Squanto, an Indian, 
showed the Puritans how to plant and care for 
maize, and some twenty acres were planted and 
successfully grown.J At the time of the Pequot 

* American Naturalist, March, 1885, p. 226. 
t Transactions New York State agricultural society, 1850, 
p. 386. 

J Harshberger; Maize: A botanical study, etc., p. 131. 



10 



INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



war in 1637 the English destroyed over two 
hundred acres of corn planted by the Indians. 
The Puritans in King Philii3's war, in 1675, took 
"what he had worth, spoiled the rest, and also 
took possession of one thousand acres of corn, 
which was harvested by the English."* Wher- 
ever the early explorers or voyagers went they 
found either fields of Indian corn or the Indians 
using the grain for food. Capt. John Smith, in 
his "Indians of Virginia," tells of the methods 
of planting at that time (160S). Cabeea de Vaca 
found an abundance of maize near Tampa Bay, 
Florida, in 1528.t In 1679 La Salle, when on a 
trip through the Great Lakes and across Illinois, 
found large quantities of stored corn in a vil- 
lage of Illinois Indians and took about forty 
bushels of it.J Columbus in 1498 writes to 
Ferdinand and Isabella of the maize plant and 
of fields eighteen miles long. The early ex- 
plorers also noted maize as an important article 
of food for man in Yucatan, Nicaragua, and 
Mexico. 

Harsliberger's conclusions. — In his impor- 
tant historical study of maize, Ilarshberger 
says:§ 

"The evidence of archaeology, history, ethnology, and 
philology, which points to central and southern Mexico as 

* Harshberger; Maize: A botanical study, etc., p. 131. 
t Torrey Botanical Club Bulletin, VI, p. 86. 
J Harshberger; Maize: A botanical study, etc., p. 135. 
I Ibid., p. 151. 



HISTORICAL. 



11 



the original home of maize, is supported by botany and 
meteorology. All of the plants closely related to maize are 
Mexican. It is an accepted evolutionary principle that sev- 
eral species of the same genus, or genera of the same tribe, 
though dispersed to the most distant quarters of the globe, 
must originally have proceeded from the same source, as they 
are descended from the same progenitors. It is also obvious 
that the individuals of the same species, though now in dis- 
tant regions, must have proceeded from one spot, where their 
parents were first produced; for it is incredible that individ- 
uals, identically the same, should have been produced from 
parents specifically distinct. Applying these principles to 
maize, we reach the conclusion that maize was originally 
Mexican. * * * The evidence to the pi^esent date (1893) 
places the original home of our American cereal, maize, in 
central Mexico." 



12 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



CHAPTER II. 



BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS. 

Indian corn is known by botanists as Zea 
mays. It belongs to the grass family and is an 
annual plant. It is classed as an endogenous 
plant for the reason that it increases in height 
and diameter of stem by internal growth. 

The root is of two classes, primary and sec- 
ondar}^ The former is fine and fibrous, and 
in the field the plant produces a large mass of 
these roots. No long tap root is developed; 
consequently, as with the grasses generally, the 
roots branch out in all directions rather near 
the surface. For this reason shallow cultiva- 
tion of the growing crop is advocated, as break- 
ing the roots is deemed an injury to the grow- 
ing plant. 

In interesting experiments conducted by 
Prof. F. H. King at the Wisconsin experiment 
station"^ upon the development of corn roots 
in natural soils under the conditions of field cul- 
tivation, he washed out plants at different stages 

* Ninth annual report Wisconsin experiment station, 1892, 
p. 112. 



BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS. 13 

of growth. Forty-two clays after planting, 
when the plants were 18 inches high, the roots 
of two hills met and passed each other in the 
center between rows 42 inches apart, and had 
penetrated to a depth of 18 inches. The sur- 
face roots sloped gently downward toward the 
center, where those nearest to the surface were 
some eight inches deep. At the, last cultiva- 
tion, when the plants were nearly three feet 
high, the roots occupied the entire soil to a 
depth of two feet, with the surface roots six 
inches below the center between the rows. At 
tassel time the roots fully occupied the upper 
three feet of soil in the entire field, and in the 
center between the rows the surface roots were 
still higher, a few being scarcely five inches 
deep. At maturity the roots were found pene- 
trating to a depth exceeding four feet and 
within four inches of the surface in the center 
between rows. In connection with this study 
Prof. King estimates that the plants on a well- 
tilled acre are required to pump from below 
during growth from 300 to 400 tons of water. 
The wonderful feeding power of the corn roots 
is shown in this striking development and ac- 
tivity. 

After the corn plant becomes well established 
and has nearly reached its full height the sec- 
ondary roots come from the stem near the 
ground. They first appear as nodules from 



14 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

which develop the root tips, which proceed to 
make a downward growth into tlie soil. After 
penetrating slightly below the surface a mass 
of fibrous roots is produced from this buried 
portion. These roots assist in maintaining the 
erect position of the plant, as well as in secur- 
ing nourishment and moisture. Generally the 
depth of the x^lanting does not influence the 
depth of the rooth growth. 

The stem (or culm) of Indian corn, varies in 
height from 18 inches to 18 feet, according to 
the Variety and conditions of growth. Sturte- 
vant even notes one variety in South America 
attaining a height of 24 feet. The stem consists 
of a number of smooth sections (internodes), 
joined together by short joints (nodes). The 
mature stem has a pithy interior with a thin 
covering of harder material. 

In a study made by the writer on the rate 
of growth of the corn plant, at the New York 
experiment station it was noted that the in- 
crease ranged from three to 18| inches per week 
in gain. The most rapid development occurred 
when the plants were about five weeks old. 
Under specially favorable conditions a growth 
of five inches has been recorded in one day. 

The leaves grow from the joints, there being 
a leaf at each one. For a greater part of the 
stem, the lower part of the leaf (sheath) is 
wrapped about the stem from one joint almost 



BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS. 15 

to the next. In a study of the corn plant at 
the Iowa experiment station,* the number of 
leaves on a stalk varied with field corn from 12 
to 18, with a width of blade from 3| to 5J in- 
ches. Microscopical examination of a number 
of varieties showed considerable difference in 
the thickness of the leaf structure and in the 
amount of green coloring matter present. At 
the Missouri station. Prof. Schweitzer measured 
the leaf surface of a vigorous plant of average 
development.! "The total surface of the twelve 
living leaves on one side was 1,633.73 square 
inches, which doubled for both sides, and add- 
ing the area of the outside of the sheaths, 
makes the total external leaf surface of this 
plant 3,480 square inches, or 24 square feet." 
Schweitzer considers the leaves the chief source 
of production of organic matter, and while 16 
or 18 may be produced in our climate, the lower 
ones die off before maturity, and activity is 
confined to perhaps twelve. 

The flower is of two kinds, male and female. 
The former is known as the tassel, and is situ- 
ated at the tip of the stem in the form of a 
branching head (panicle), while the latter is lo- 
cated in between the sheaths of leaf and stem, 



* Iowa agricultural college experiment station. Bulletin 
No. 2, September, 18S8. 

t Missouri agricultural experiment station. Bulletin No. 
5, February, 1889. 





16 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

and consists of a mass of fine hairs called silk, 
enclosed iu the husks of the ears to be. The 
tassel contains many small flowers (see Fig. 1), 

and each of these 
produces a large 
amount of pollen or 
dust for fertilizing 
the female flowers. 
This pollen is from 
the anthers of the 
floW'Crs, and accord- 
ing to Harshberger* 
as many as 2,500 
are formed in a 

Fig. 1.— The stem at left Is a branch of the • i j.i j 

male panicle, BhowlDgspikelels. Tbecenter SlUglC antlier, aUCl 
fipure Is of a pair of these splkelets re- ^^r\ r\r\r\ 

moved. The fleure at the rlpht is one of 1 S (lOO ()()() arft fflVCn 
the male splkclete opened, showing two au,\juu,vuu cti c givcii 
flowers inside. (After Uarehberger.) ^g .(.|^g nUmbCr pi'O- 

duced by each plant, there being 7,200 stamens 
to a panicle. 

The female (pistillate) flowers being located 
below the male (staminate), the pollen of the 
male is blown about in the air and falls onto 
the silks which protrude from the enclosing 
husks, and fertilizes them. Each silk extends 
back into the husk and to the seat of what will 
become a kernel of corn if fully fertilized. The 
content of this husk is an embryo ear of corn. 
The portion of the silk exposed is somewhat 
hairy without, and is a hollow tube within. 

* Maize: A botanical study, etc., p. 85, 



BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS. 



17 



(The awl shaped figure in Fig. 2, with ovule at 
base.) The pollen develops down into this tube 
and fertilizes this embryo 
seed (ovule) at its base on 
the little cob. The small, 
rough point seen on the 
round or flat head of a 
kernel of corn is the point 
where this silk was at- 
tached to it. 

The kernel or seed.— 
While but one botanical 

FIG. 2.-A longitudinal section of species of 001*11 IS Cultl" 
n portion of an ear with femnle , i ,i • i 

spikelois in a hardenea deprfs- yatcd, thlS OUe maV 06 
slon of cob, Tvlth ovary, glumes ' -^ 

and puleis. (After UarBhberger.) (-|^^-Jg(J ^^-^^q f]yg grOUpS 

or races. Each race is characterized by nu- 
merous varieties, and these freely cross-fertilize, 





so that two or three types of seed may be found 
on the same ear. This race difference, so far 
as the writer knows, was first pointed out by 
Dr. E. L. Sturtevant.* These races may be de- 
scribed as follows, and the relative differences 

* Maize: An attempt at classification. By E. Lewis Stur- 
tevant, M. D., Rocliestev, N. Y., 1884, p. 10; illustrated. 
% 



18 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

between them clearly seen by splitting the 
kernels. In Fig. 3 the shaded parts of kernel 
above the base represent hard or corneous mat- 
ter; the white parts starchy matter. 

Pop corn. — The substance of the center ker- 
nel is hard and flinty (corneous) all through, 
excepting at the germ end, no white, soft 
starchy substance being present. See a in 
Fig. 3. 

Flint corn. — The corneous matter surrounds 
the sides and top of the kernel, so that it is en- 
closed in a hard, flinty coat, with soft starchy 
substance in the central part. The kernel is 
usually about as broad as long, and rounding 
and smooth over the top. Flint corn is some- 
what smaller than dent, and is best suited to 
New England and the northern line of corn 
growing. See h in Fig. 3. 

Dent corn. — The sides of the kernels consist 
of corneous matter with the central part filled 
with soft material, even to the dented or con- 
tracted rough top. This contraction is due to 
shrinking of the softer part of the kernel in 
ripening. The kernel in many varieties is 
slender or wedge form. Nearly all the corn 
grown in the great corn belt of the Central 
West belongs to this race. See c in Fig. 3. 

Sweet corn. — The kernels consist of translu- 
cent, horny material, which contain consider- 
able sugar (glucose) instead of starch, T.he 



BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS. 19 

kernels in most varieties are quite wrinkled or 
twisted and are distinctly wedge shape. See d 
in Fig. 3. 

Soft corn. — Excepting the germ the entire 
kernel is starchy and soft in character and has 
somewdiat the form of the flints. This race is 
more commonly grown in the sub-tropical corn 
regions, as the far Southwest and in Mexico. 
This is the early form of corn as grown l^y the 
Indians. See e in Fig. 3. 

Pod corn. — Additional to the above another 
form is found, which is rather uncommon. Pod 
or husk corn is a variety in which each kernel 
is enclosed in a small husk, while the aggrega- 
tion of kernels, which may form a long or short 
ear, is enclosed in large external husks on a 
simple cob, as with common ears. Flint and 
dent corn may exist iu this variety. Pod-corn 
seed when planted will usually give a crop of 
both podded and unpodded ears. 

Classified by seed. — Each known variety of 
Indian corn may be easily classified with one 
of the so-called races, according to its seed. 
However, if two or more races are grown near 
by there will no doubt be ears composed of a 
mixture of each class, especially if the flowers 
develop at the same time. 



20 INDIAN OOEN CULTURE. 



CHAPTER III. 



VARIETIES AND THEIR ADAPTATION. 

Indian corn is easily cross-fertilized, accident- 
ally or artificially, and as a result many so- 
called new varieties have been introduced in 
the past. As a rule but few have remained in 
general public favor for a long term of years, 
as it is difficult to find a variety that will adapt 
itself to a wide geographical range and climatic 
and soil variations. 

Selecting a variety. — In selecting a variety 
two things necessarily should receive considera- 
tion: first, the capacity to mature a crop in a 
given locality, and secondl}'', productiveness in 
grain, or grain and forage. In this work it 
seems best to discuss this subject in two ways: 
first, to describe a numl3er of standard varieties, 
and secondly, to give a list of varieties adapted 
to different States, covering a .wide territory. 
The descriptions of varieties are gleaned from 
various sources, but unless otherwise indicated, 
are mainly on the basis of the published inves- 
tigations of Dr. E. L. Sturtevant (our l^est au- 
thority on varieties) in the New York State ex- 



VARIETIES AND THEIR ADAPTATION. 



21 



periment station reports, and the bulletins of 
the Illinois agricultural experiment station. 
The references of varieties to the several States 
is as a result of the tests made by the various 
agricultural experiment stations, unless other- 
wise specified. 

Tested varieties. — The following varieties 
have been w^ell-tested in this country, some of 
them for many years, and it is believed that 
from this list one can make a most satisfactory 
selection for almost any part of the United 
States or Canada. The reader is here re- 
minded that some of the varieties, if grown in 
the West or South, may be larger than is here 
indicated in the descriptions. 

Dent varieties.— ^f/fn;?s' Early: Ears six to 




Fig. 4— Adams' Earlv. 



seven inches long, about If inches in diameter, 
slightly or strongly tapering, rounding at the 
butt; 12 to 16 rowed, the rows often slightly 



22 



INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



spirally or irregular!}^ arranged. Kernels 
slightly deeper than broad; white above, horny 
white below, long dimple dented or creased. 
Cob large, white. Plant 5^ to 6A feet tall. A 
favorite in the South for table use in place of 
sweet corn. 

Blount's Prolific: Eai's 6 to 8 inches long, and 
If to 1| inches in diameter. Ear stalk rather 
small. Mostly eight rowed. Kernels very 
angular in outline^ rather deep, white at top, 
glossy white below, crease dented. Cob small 
and Avhite. Plant 7 to 8 feet high, bearing its 
upper ears about 54 inches from the ground, 
often 4 to 8 on a stalk, the lower ears shorter 
and more pointed than the upper. A very 
popular and productive variety in some local- 
ities in the South and has been Avidely grown. 
Originated by Prof. A. E. Blount in Tennessee. 

Boone Co White: Ears long and uniform from 
butt to tip. Kernels white, deep, thick; cob 
white. Stalks of medium height, thick, strong. 
Very productive. Medium late. Originated by 
James Riley, Boone Co., Ind., about 1880. Pro- 
ductive and popular as a bread corn. AVell 
adapted to the central West. 

Burrill S Whitman or B. S W.: Ears 8 to 9 
inches long, 2 to 2.4 inches in diameter. Cobs 
white, small. Ears roughish, tapering; butt 
and tip evenly rounded and well filled; 14 to 16 
rowed. Kernels white, broad, wedge shape. 



VARIETIES AND THEIR ADAPTATION. 



23 



stalks grow about 10 to 11 feet high on rich 
soils. A favorite variety for silage, but is too 
late to mature seed properly in the North 
■where early frosts occur. 

Chester Co. Mmmnoih: Ears 7 to 11 inches 
long, 24 to 2| inches in diameter; smooth; 
slightly tapering, rounded evenly at butt and 




FIG. 5— Chester Co. Mammoth. 



tip; 18 to 30 rowed; cob red, large. Kernels 
yellow, deep, narrow, thick, crease dented. 
Plants tall. Matures late. Mr. E. S. Carman 
says:* "We have never raised larger ears of 
Chester County Mammoth corn than during the 
IDast season. We have lots of ears 11 inches 

*Rural New Yorker, Dec. 13, 1884, p. 832. 



24 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

long, with 18 rows bearing 900 large kernels." 
Originated in Chester Co., Pa. 

'Dungan's White Prolific: Originated by S. W. 
Dungan of Johnson Co.. Ind. An ear sent the 
writer by Mr. Dungan, as his "ideal," was 10| 
inches long, 2 J inches in diameter, cylindrical, 
smooth, compact, 16 rowed. Kernels white, 
crease dented, deep, broad, thick. Cob white, 
medium size. The plant as grown at Lafay- 
ette, Ind., is large and vigorous, being a very 
desirable variety for silage. This is an excel- 
lent bread corn, is very productive, but too late 
for the northern line of the great corn belt. 
Well adapted to Southern Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Kentucky, etc. 

Farmer^ s Favorite: Ears 8 to 11 inches long, 
2 to 2J inches in diameter, slightly tapering, 14 
to 18 rowed, smooth. Cob red, of medium size. 
Kernels wedge shaped, deeper than broad, yel- 
low. Plants of medium height. Also known 
as Golden Dent. 

Golden Beauty: Ears 9 to 10 inches long, 
about 2| inches in diameter; smooth, nearly 
cylindrical; cob white, large, does not cover 
well at tip. Kernels yellow, wedge shaped. 
Rows 16 to 20. Plant of medium height. Me- 
dium late. 

Learning: Ears 7 to 10 inches long, ij to 2 J 
inches in diameter; smooth, slightly tapering, 
often pointed at tip; cob red, large, 18 to 22 



VARIETIES AND THEIR ADAPTATION. 25 

rowed. Kernels yellow to orange above, orange 
below, dented, corners often rounded, deep, 
thick. Plant grows 8 to 10 feet high. Matures 




Fig. 0.— Leaming. 



medium early. One of the most popular dents, 
adapted to a wide range of territory, and classed 
as very productive. Originated by J. S. Learn- 
ing, Clinton Co., 0. 

Maryland White Gourd Seed: Ear 7 to 8 
inches long, about 2^ inches in diameter, taper- 
ing, 16 rowed; cob white. Kernels white, long^ 
dimple dented. Plants grow to height of about 
10 feet. Matures late. 

Pride of the North: Ears 6 to 8 inches long, 
two inches in diameter, rough, 12 to 18 rowed; 
cobs red, small. Kernels broadly wedge shaped, 
crease dented. Plants of medium height, ma- 



26 



INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



turing early. Resembles Wisconsin Yellow 
dent. It is claimed* that this variety was 
originated in Fayette Co., 0., about 1813, where 




Fig. 7.— Pride of the North. 



it has been known for many years as Clarridge 
Corn. 
. QUeen of the Prairie: Ears 6 to 8 inches long 
and about If inch in diameter, slightly taper- 
ing; cob small, red, 16 to 18 rowed. Kernels 
yellow, flat, deeply dented. Plant about 9 feet 
tall. Matures medium early. 

Filey's Favorite: Ears 8 to 9 inches long, 
about 2^ inches in diameter, nearly cylindrical, 
butt and tip well filled, 16 to 22 rowed; cob 
red, small. Kernels yellow, narrow, wedge 
shape, deep. Plants of medium size, strong, 
productive. Mr. James Riley of Boone Co., Ind., 
originated this corn about 1880, by cross fertil- 



• J. C. in Farmers' Review, April 23, 1890. 



VARIETIES AND THEIR ADAPTATION. 27 

izing Golden Yellow and Pride of the North. 
One of the best Yellow dents and has been suc- 
cessfully grown over a wide range of territory. 
Smedley: Ears 7 to 9| inches long, about two 
inches in diameter, slightly tapering, butt and 
tip well filled, 10 to 12 rowed; cob red, small. 
Kernels light orange, deep, broad at top, dent- 
ed. Plants of medium size, maturing early. 

Wisconsin Yellow: Ears 7 to 8 inches long, 
about two inches in diameter, tapering, butt 
and tip rounding evenly and well filled, mostly 
18 rowed; cob red, medium size. Ketnels 
orange yellow, small, deep, dimple dented. 
Plants of medium size, early. A well known 
yellow dent, especially for the northern lati- 
tude of the corn belt where dents will 
succeed. 
Flint varieties.— Ca««c?a, also known 
as Early Canada: 
Ears 8 to 10 inches 
long, about 1^ inch 
in diameter, blunt- 
ly rounded at tip, 
mostly 8 -rowed ; 
cob white, small 
Kernels rather 
FIG.8.-CAKADA. large, deep golden 

orange color. Plant about six feet tall. 
Matures early. 

Canada Twelve-Rowed; also Landreth's 




28 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

Earliest Yelhiv: Ears 7 to 10 inches long, about 
1^ inch in diameter, tip well filled; cob medium 
to large. Kernels small to medium, golden 
orange in color. Plants attain G| to 7 feet. A 
very old variety adapted to the northern line 
of the corn belt, as is also Canada. 

Compton^s Early; also Comioton's Swyrise: 
Ears 9 to 9i inches long and about If inch in 
diameter, pointed at tip; cob large, white. 
Kernels medium size, light golden orange color. 
Plants about seven feet tall. A productive, 
good variety, widely grown. 

Button: Ears 9 to 10 inches long and about 
If inch in diameter, with rounded tip; cob 
small, 12 rowed. Kernels large, golden orange. 
Plants 6 to 7 feet high. Was first brought into 
notice by Mr. Salmon Dutton, Cavendish, Vt., 
abo|it 1818. "The ears of corn from which it 
waloriginally selected on an average were from 
8 to' 12 inches long and contained from 12 to 18 
row's.""'^' A very productive and popular variety 
in the Northeast. A form of this known as 
Early Dutton has been extensively grown. S. 
W. Jewett saysf it is ''descended from seed I 
obtained from Jesse Buel, selecting it myself 
from his corn crib, at Albany, about 1839." 

Eight Boived Yellow; also Long Yellow: Ears 



* Transactions New York State Agricultural Society, 
1853, p. 334. 
t Country Gentleman, May 8, 1834. 



VARIETIES AND THEIR ADAPTATION. 



29 



10 to 11 inches long, about 1| inch in' diameter, 
slender, slightly tapering, mostly eight rowed. 
Kernels not large, deep golden orange. 

King Philip; also Improved King Philip, 
Eight Boned Brown, Eight Bowed Copper Col- 
ored, Eight Bowed Yellow: Ears 8 to 10 inches 
long, about • U inch in diameter, resembling 
Canada in all other respects except color, 




Fia. 9. -King Philip. 



which is copper red. Plant 8 to 9 feet high. 
Named after the celebrated Indian chief of the 
Wampanoags, from which tribe it is said^" the 
seeds were ol)tained. Sturtevant, however, 
says that this variety was originated by Mr. 
John Brown, Long Island, Lake Winnipiseogee, 

* Transactions New York State agricultural society, 1853, 
p. 333. 



30 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

N. H.* This is a hardy variety, adapted to the 
northern corn latitudes, and is one of the very 
best and most popular Hint varieties. 

Longfelloiv : Ears 9 to 10| inches long, with 
tendency to expansion at butt, tapering toward 
the well-filled pointed tip; mostly six rowed; 
cob white and small, kernels deep, yellow- 




FlQ. 10.— LONGFELLOW. 

orange, large, well rounded. Plants about 7 
feet tall. Gregory, in his seed catalogue for 
1886 states that ^'it is the result of careful se- 
lection in a family of Massachusetts farmers for 
45 years." A most popular and productive va- 
riety, well adapted to New England. 

Neio England Eight Bowed: This is the Can- 
ada or Early Canada of many, and it has many 

* New York agricultural experiment station report, 1884, 
p. 166. 



VARIETIES AND THEIR ADAPTATION. 31 

local names. It answers to the general char- 
acter of the Canada variety. Enfield says:* 
"From this corn the King Philip and some 
other improved sorts have probahly been de- 
rived." 

Rhode Island White Flint: Ears 5 to 6 inches 
long and about 1^ inch in diameter, well cov- 
ered at tip, eight rowed, small cob, often red 
tinged in the interior. Kernels white, very 
large and hard. Plants about 7 feet high. 

Rural Thoroughbred Flint: Ears 11 to 12 
inches long and about 2 inches in diameter, al- 
ways tapering owing to the space between the 
pairs of rows toward the butt; mostly eight 
rowed; cob large. Kernels dingy white, large. 
Plant 7 to 8 feet high and a vigorous grower. 
A very late variety, the chief merit of which is 
in its production of green forage. Introduced 
by E. S. Carman, editor Rural Neiv-Yorher. 

Waiishakmn: Ears 8 J to 9 inches long, 1 J inch 
in diameter, filling completely and roundly at 
tip; cob small, white; mostly eight rowed. 
Kernels deep golden orange, rather large 
flatly rounded, very close set, plants 7 to 9 
feet high, leafy, very productive. Originated 
by Sturtevant Bros., South Framingham, Mass. 
"The originals were quite staple varieties of a 
mixed Canada and New England Eight Rowed 

* Indian Corn. New York, 1866, p. 61. 



32 



INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



type, which Avere allowed to hj^briclize in 1875, 
and the ears resulting selected to the desired 
type. In 1877 and 1878, at the period of 




Fig. 11.— waushakum. 



bloom, all the tassels from stalks not showing- 
one large ear, and from all imperfect or off 
type plants, w^ere removed, thus insuring the 
fertilization of the ears from prolific and typal 
plants."* An unexcelled yellow variety. 

IVhite Flint: Ears 9 to 11 inches long, 1-| 
inch in diameter, tapering slightl}'^, tip usually 
not very well filled; cob medium size; mostly 
8 rowed. Kernels dingy white, medium size. 
A very popular, common variety in the North- 
eastern States. 



*E. L. Sturtevant: Report New York State agricultural 
experiment station, 1881. 



VARIETIES AND THEIR ADAPTATION. 



33 



Sweet varieties.— -B/ac/i- Mexican; also known 
as Black Sugar and Slate Siveet: Ears 6 to 8 
inches long and about l^ inch in diameter, 
cylindrical, tip rarely well filled; cob white, 




LACK MEXICAN. 



small, 8 rowed. Kernels slate-black, broad, 
crinkled, compactly set, tender and sweet when 
ripe. Plants about 6 feet tall. A medium 
early, of the best quality, that has been known 
for many years. 

Cory; also known as Earlj/ Cory, Cory Early 
Sugar, Extra Early Cory, La Crosse, Earliest 
Rockford Market: Ear 4 to 6 inches long, about 
l^inch in diameter, cylindrical, well filled at 
tip. Kernels whitish, large, broader than deep, 
crinkled or smooth. Plants small — about five 
feet tall. One of the very earliest varieties, 
ripening in about 55 days. Quality fair. In- 
troduced in 1885 and has been very popular as 
an early sort. 

3 



34 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

Croshy^s Early; also Exira Early Crosby and 
Crony's Early Twelve Rowed: Ears 6 to 7 inches 
long, about 1| inch in diameter, slightly pointed 
toward tip, 12 rowed ; cob white. Kernels white, 
flatly rounded, crimped, of fine quality. Plant 
^ to 6 feet tall. Introduced about 1860. One 
of the best, and secd»nd early. 

Egyptian; also known as Washington Market: 
Ears 6 to 7 inches long and about If inch in 
diameter, tapering, 12 to 16 rowed; cob medium 
size, white. Kernels amber colored, deep, broad, 
crimped and slightly wrinkled, sweet and ten- 
der, said to be superior for canning. Plant tall 
and prolific. Late. Introduced about 1878. 

• Ilickox; also Tlickox Improved: Ears 8 to 10 
inches long and about If inch in diameter; 8 to 
12 rowed; cob white. Kernels whitish, slightly 
rounded, nearly as deep as broad, large, crimped, 
tender. Plants 6 to 7 feet tall. A favorite late 
variety, introduced about 1883. 

Marhlehead; or Early Marhlehead: Ears 6 to 
6| inches long, usually larger toward butt, about 
If inch in diameter, usually eight rowed; cob 
reddish. Kernels broadly rounded, crinkled, 
red or reddish flesh color, very sweet. Plant 
about 4A feet tall. Introduced about 1878, and 
originated by selection from Narragansett, 
which it closely resembles. One of the earliest 
varieties. 

Minnesota; also Early Minnesota or Ford's 



VARIETIES AND THEIR ADAPTATION. 



35 



Early: Ears 5 to 6 inches long, H inch in di- 
ameter, rather blunt at tip, eight rowed" cob 
white. Kernels large, a little pointed, rounded, 
crinkled, closely set in. Plant about 4| feet 
tall, bearing ears about 10 inches above ground. 
Very early. Introduced about 1874, and thought 
to be derived from the Narragansett. 

Moore's Early; also Moore's Early Concord, 
Moore's Concord, Early Concord: Ears 6 to 8 in- 
ches long, IJ to 2 inches in diameter, rather 
pointed toward tip, 12 rowed; cob white. Ker- 
nels white, very flatly rounded, not closely set 
on dry ear, of delicate flavor. Plant 6 to 11 
feet tall, bearing ears about twelve inches from 




Fig. 13.— Marblehead. 



the -ground. A good second early. Originated 
in 1865 by J. B. Moore of Concord, Mass., by 
crossing Crosby's Early and Burr's Improved. 

Narragansetf; also Early Narragansett: Ears 
6 to 7 inches long, about If inch in diameter, 
cylindrical, tip round pointed, usually eight 



36 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

rowed; col) reddish. Kernels vary in color 
from light flesh to dark red. Plants grow about 
five feet tall, bearing ears 8 to 14 inches above 
ground. A standard, early, sweet, desirable 
variety that has been grown many years, being 
described by Burr in 1865.* 

Ne Plus Ultra: Ears 6 to 7 inches long, about 
If inch in diameter towards butt where it is 
strongly rounded, and from near which it nota- 
bly tapers to the tip; irregularly 12 to 14 rowed; 
cob white. Kernels white, very narrow at base, 
crimped and wrinkled, thin and translucent, 
separating readily from the cob. Plants 5 to 6 
feet high, bearing ears 18 to 20 inches above 
ground. Late, but of excellent quality. Intro- 
duced about 1882, 

Pee and Kay; also Western Queen, Maule's 
XX Sugar: Ears 6 to 8 inches long. If to 2 
inches in diameter, cob white. Kernels white, 
flatly rounded over the top, crinkled or crimped, 
thick, nearly as deep as broad, very sweet. 
Plants 5 to 6 feet high, ears 16 to 18 inches 
above ground. Second early. Popular with 
farmers and market gardeners. 

StoivelVs Evergreen: Ears 7 to 8 inches long, 
about 2^ inches in greatest diameter, often 
sharply tapering, and then again nearly cylin- 
drical, rarely filled at tip, 16 rowed; cob white. 

*The Field and Garden Vegetables of America, 1865. p. 
586. 



VARIETIES AND THEIR ADAPTATION. 



37 



Kernels white, wrinkled, narrow and deep, 
loose, shedding readily from the dry ear. Plants 
7^ to 8 feet tall, bearing ears about 30 inches 
above ground. Foliage abundant. Late. Very 
tender and sugary, a standard of first qualitv. 
At Polk's cannery, at Greenwood, Ind., the 
lai'i?est establishment of its kind in the United 




Fig. 14.— Stowell's evebgreen, 

States, no other variety of sweet corn is used. 
Has been grown many years, and is referred to 
by Burr in 1865." 

^quantum: Ears 6 to 7 inches long, about 2 
inches in diameter at the butt, strongly taper- 
ing to a tip that is seldom well filled, 12 to 14 
rowed; cob white. Kernels white, large, 
crimped, nearly as broad as deep, not crowded. 

* Field aad Garden Vegetables. 



38 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

Plant 6 to 6A feet tall, bearing ears about 24 
inches above ground. Standard medium ma- 
turing. Introduced about 1883. 

Triumph: Ears 8 to 9 inches long, about U 
inch in diameter, slender, tapering evenly and 
strongly in the lower half, 8 and 10 rowed; cob 
white. Kernels white, large, broadly rounded, 




Fig. 15.— EGYPTIAN. 

almost tiat, very frequently quite open between 
the pairs of rows, crinkled and crimped. Plant 
6 to 7 feet tall, bearing ears about 30 inches 
above the ground. Introduced in 1874. 

Sweet corn for succession.— Mr. E. S. Carman 
recommends"''' the following as the best kinds of 
sweet corn for succession. For first early, 
either Cory or Northern Pedigree. Next, 
Shakers' Early, Perry's Hybrid or Stabler's 
Early. Then Moore's Concord, Triumph or 
Hickox. Last, Stowell's Evergreen, Mammoth 
or Egyptian. 

* Rural New Yorker, Feb. 25, 18S&. 




VARIETIES AND THEIR ADAPTATION. 39 

Pop varieties. — Egyptian; also White Rice: 
Ears 4 to 7 inches long and IJ to 1^ inch in 
diameter, strongly tapering, many rowed; cob 
white. Kernel white, large, of rice form. Plant 
about 5 feet high, bearing ears about 30 inches 
above ground. Productive. 

Dwarf Golden is the smallest variety of corn 
grown, the plant usually being about 18 inches 
high. Sometimes individual 
plants produce five tiny per- 
fect ears to a stalk. 

New England; also Non- .^^ io^x> 
pareil: Ear 6 to 8 inches ^ ^^I 
long, about one inch in di- fig. is.-dwarfgoldex. 
ameter, eight rowed , cob white. Kernels glossy, 
rounded, white or yellow according to variety. 
Plants 5 to 6 feet high, bearing ears about 16 
inches above ground. A standard variety, ri- 
pening in good season and productive. 

Pearl: Ears 4 to 5 
inches long and | to 1 
inch in diameter, near- 
ly cylindrical, 14 to 18 
rowed; cob white. Va- 
rieties occur which are 
white, lemon, red or 
yJz, FIG. iT.-waiTE PEARL, purple. Kemcls fiat, 
much compressed, deeper than broad, triangu- 
lar, very flinty. A standard, productive variety 
which has been known for many years. 




40 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

Rice: Ears 5 to 7 inches long, 1^ to If inch 
in cliametsr, strongly tapering, 14 to 20 rowed; 
cob white. Kernels white or red, pointed into 
a sort of short spine which is somewhat erect. 
Plant 6 to 7 feet high, with ear 3 to 5 feet above 
ground. Very productive. 

Adaptability of varieties. — Some varieties 
seem particularly adapted to a wide range of 
conditions, while others are less so. A few va- 
rieties are given here, as having been grown in 
the States in which they are listed, and with a 
degree of success such as will justify their cul- 
ture. Most of the tests were made at or under 
the supervision of an agricultural experiment 
station, from the publications of which much 
of the data is secured. Where the information 
is apparently reliable the varieties are named 
f)-om most to least productive. 

AlahamU. At Uniontown: Mosby's Prolihc, 
Lee County Field, Blount's Prolific, Head's 
Field, Madison County Red, Welborn's Con- 
science, Lloyd's Stock and Strawberry yielded 
in order given in 1890. At Auburn, in 1891: 
Experiment Station Yellow, Clayton Bread, 
Lindsay's Horsetooth and Hunnicutt. Bulletin 
52 of the Alalmma station (January, 1894,) rec- 
ommends Clark's Early, Mastodon (yellow), 
Early Eclipse (yellow), Gentry's Early Market 
(white), and Lnproved Golden Dent as the best 
early varieties. 



VARIETIES AND THEIR ADAPTATION. 



41 



Arkansas. At Fayetteville: Welborn's Con- 
science, Common Yellow, Allen's Mammoth, 
Mastodon Yellow, Golden Dent, Golden Beauty 
and Hickory King. (Bulletin 22, December, 
1892, Arkansas experiment station.) 

Colorado. At Fort Collins: Prof. A. E. Blount 
says in bulletin 2, Colorado experiment station, 
December, 18S7, that Pride of tlie North and 
Yellow Flint have proved most valuable. The 
former is the best. 

Georgia. At Experiment: Shannon's Yellow, 
Ledl)etter, Shaw's Improved, Shannon's White, 
Southern AVhite, Huffman's, Higgins', Patter- 
son's, Tennessee Yellow, Peek's Premium. (Bul- 
letins 15 and 23 Georgia experiment station;) 

Indiana. At La Fayette: The following table 
gives the average yield of varieties tested for 
live years at the experiment station at Purdue 
University, from 1888 to 1892 inclusive. The 
1893 yield was so badly influenced by dry 
weather as to be unfit for comparison: 



VARIETY. 


Yield 
in bu. 


Ave. M. 
days ma- 
ture. 


Per cent, 
ears to 
stalk. 


Color 
grain. 


Puvdue Yellow 

White Prolific 

Boone Co. White 

Riley's Favorite 


69.3 
76.7 
72.3 
69.9 
61.7 
59.7 


112 
125 
126 
123 
115 
125 


51.4 

43. 

43.2 

47.7 
44.3 
43.1 


Yellow. 
White. 
White. 
Yellow. 
Yellow. 


Chester Co. Mammoth 


Yellow. 



The following are tests of 1892, with average 



42 



INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



yields of varieties tested more than one year: 



Legal Tendei" 

Golden Beauty 

Piasa Queen 

Mastodon 

Big Buckeye 

Iroquois 

Haben's Golden 

Hickory King 

Red Cob Ensilage 

Southern Red Cob 

Burrill & Whitman 

Munn's Early . . . 

Champaign Co. Prolific. 

Wisconsin White 

Ivory Dent 



Yield per 


Days to 


ave. bu. 


mature. 


46.2 


105 


62. 


130 


74.5 


122 


53. 


117 


62.4 


119 


85.7 


118 


64.7 


117 


44.6 


131 


62.6 


129 


79. 


118 


73.2 


138 


64.1 


110 


68.9 


110 


43.8 


106 


86.2 


124 



Color 
grain. 



Yellow. 

Yellow. 

Yellow. 

Yellow. 

Yellow. 

Yellow. 

Yellow. 

White. 

White. 

White. 

White. 

Yellow. 

Yellow. 

White. 

White. 



Illinois. At Champaign: The following table 
gives the results of five years up to and includ- 
ing 1892. The season of 1893 was so dry that 
the results have little value in this comparison. 
The yield is of air-dried corn in bushels. This 
table is from Imlletin 25, for April, 1893, of the 
Illinois experiment station: 



VARIETY. 



Champion AVhite Pearl. . 

Learning 

Burr's White 

Helm's Improved 

Clark's Iroquois 

Stewart's Irapr'd Yellow. 

Riley's Favorite 

Fisk's Yellow 

Legal Tender 

Murdock 

Edmonds 



ISSS. 



70. 

86.6 

85.9 

84.8 

68.5 

91.2 

83.7 

76.6 

84.2 

80.3 

81.1 



JSS9. 



94.8 
80.6 
75.7 
102.6 
81.9 
68.7 
66.3 
79.5 
68.7 
65. 
66.1 



1S90. 

74.9 

69.4 

67.7 

51.1 

59. 

54.7 

55.9 

61.7 

60. 

61.6 

53.3 



1S91. 



76.5 

67.3 

67.7 

39. 

65.4 

58.4 

58.6 

57.4 

56.8 

59.8 

56.1 



65. 

70.1 

64.2 

79.2 

72.9 

74.4 

74.1 

60.1 

60.3 

57.6 

58.4 



Aver- 
age. 



76.2 

74.8 

72.2 

71.3 

69.5 

69.5 

67.7 

67.1 

66. 

64.9 



VAR*IETIES AND THEIR ADAPTATION. 43 

In comparing the average yields of white and 
yellow varieties for 1892, the white yielded 66.3 
bu. and the yellow 66.2 bu. — practically the 
same. 

loica^' Stouffer, Iowa Yellow Dent, Iowa 
White Dent, Pride of the North, Chester Co. 
Mammoth, Clark's Early Mastodon, Leaming, 
Champion White Pearl, Iowa Gold Mine. 

Kansas. At Manhattan: ''In a comparison 
of 140 varieties, the following 10 gave the best 
yields, in the order named: Mammoth White 
Dent, Hartman's Early White, Silver's Mam- 
moth Yellow, Mammoth Ivory Dent, North 
Star, Piasa Queen, Leaming, Pride of Kansas, 
Legal Tender, Large Golden Dent, the yields 
rpaiging from 80 to 91.5 bu. per acre. Those 
found to be excellent ensilage varieties were 
Hiawasse Mammoth, Little Red Cob, Mosby's 
Prolific and Parish White." (Bulletin 30, De- 
cember, 1891, Kansas agricultural experiment 
station). 

Kentuclnj. At Lexington: Mammoth White 
Surprise, Boone Co. White, Runnell's White, 
Golden Beauty, Munn's Early, Riley's Favorite. 
All these are recommended by "Rusticus" in 
Ohio Farmer, Oct. 23, 1886. 

Louisiana. At Baton Rouge: Mosby's Prolific^ 
McQuade's, Golden Dent Gourd Seed, Young's 
Hybrid, Blount's Prolific, White St. Charles, 



■ Orange Jiidd Farmer, ]\Iareh 5, 1892. 



44 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

Learning, Hickory King, Champion White Pearl. 
(Bulletin 7, 2ncl ser., Louisiana experiment 
station.) At Calhoun (Northern Louisiana): 
Calhoun Red Cob, Mosby's Prolific, Welborn's 
Conscience, Virginia White Gourd Seed, Mary- 
land White, Brazilian Flour, Learning, St. 
Charles' Favorite Dent, Blount's Prolific. (Bul- 
letin 21, Louisiana experiment station, 1893.) 

Mississippi. At Agricultural College: Mosby, 
Price, Golden Dent, St. Charles, Eclipse. (Bul- 
letin 33, Mississippi experiment station, 1895.) 

Missouri. At Columbia: Logan, Chester Co. 
Mammoth, Riley's Favorite, Red Cob Gourd, 
Pride of the North, Golden Beauty, Golden 
Dent, Piasa King, Blount's Prolific, Leaming, 
Hickory King, Farmers' Favorite, Queen of the 
Prairie. (Bulletin 14, Missouri experiment 
station, 1891.) 

Nebraska. At Lincoln: Riley's Favorite. Gold- 
en Beauty, Mammoth Cuban, Brazilian Flour, 
Early California and White Giant Normandy 
Avere the best yielders of the field corns. Of 
the sweet varieties, Cory ripened in 104 days, 
Honey and Breck's Premier in 111, Moore's 
Early Concord in 114 and Egyptian and Stowell's 
Evergreen in 120 days. (Bulletin 6, March, 1889, 
Nebraska experiment station.) 

New York. At Geneva: Of flints, Waushakum, 
Longfellow, Thoroughbred White, Common 
White, CompLon's. Of dents^ Queen of the 



VARIETIES AND THEIR ADAPTATION. 45 

Prairie, Pride of the North, Learning, Chester 
Co. Mammoth, Adams' Early and Illinois White. 

Ohio. At Columbus: Learning, Blount's White 
Prolific, Big Buckeye, Riley's Favorite, Ed- 
munds' Premium Dent, Pi'ide of the North, 
Queen of the Prairie, Wisconsin Yellow Dent. 
(Bulletin 1, Vol. IV, January, 1891.) 

Oregon. At Corvallis: King Philip, Early 
Yellow Canada, Queen of the North, matured. 
Leaming, Queen of Prairie, Golden Dent, Ches- 
ter Co. Mammoth, Blount's Prolific, Thorough- 
bred White Flint and Hickory King, did not 
mature, at the Oregon experiment station. 
(Bulletin 4, January, 1890.) 

Pennsylvania. At State College: Of flints 
Longfellow, King Philip, Waushakum, Im- 
proved Eight Rowed and Canada. Of dents, 
Hickory King, Golden Beauty, Piasa Queen, 
Golden Dent, Leaming, Queen of the Prairie, 
Pride of the North. (Annual Report Pennsyl- 
vania experiment station, 1890.) 

Bhode Isleind. "Potter's Excelsior (or Squan- 
tuin) in its purity is the best table corn grown.'"*' 

South Dakota. At Brookings: Of dents. Gold 
Coin, Queen of the North, Pride of the North, 
Dakota Dent, Davis' White Dent, Hughson's 
Dent, Dakota King, Prince Albert, Minnesota 
King, Loveland's. Of flints, Smut Nose, Man- 

*J. S. Sprague, Pro^-idence Co., R. I., in New England 
Homestead, March 21, 1885. 



4G INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

dan Indian, Canada, Squaw, Pride of Dakota, 
Compton's Ea^ly, King Philip. 

Tennessee. At Knoxville: Of dents, Adams' 
Early (for table), Golden Beauty, Maryland 
White Gourd Seed, Shannon's Big Tennessee 
White, Shannon's Yellow, Southern Horse- 
tooth. Shannon's corn succeeds in the State 
quite generally. 

Wisconsin. At Madison: Of 13 varieties of 
dent tested, "only three were found sufficiently 
early to depend upon for a general crop, viz.: 
Pride of the North, JSTorth Star Golden Dent 
and Queen of the North." Of flints, King 
Philip and Sibley's White Flint are best. (Bul- 
letin 17, November, 1888, Wisconsin experi- 
ment station.) 

Wyoming. For Northern Wyoming, Minne- 
sota King, Pride of the North, Mandan, Ninety 
Day aud Flint, are recommended by Joe Harper 
of Banner. For Northeastern Wyoming, Yellow 
Dent, Pride of the North, Squaw and Mandan. 
For Eastern Wyoming, Angel of Midnight, 
Early Mastodon, Pride of the North and 
Whitely Dent. (Bulletin 5, February, 1892, 
Wyoming experiment station.) 

Canada. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, is too far 
North to grow corn for the grain, excepting in 
a limited way. Of many tests made at the 
Central Experimental Farm, but few passed the 
milk state, and in many cases the ears were 



VARIETIES AND THEIR ADAPTATION. 47 

scarcely formed. The following varieties 
ripened: Flints, Adams' Extra Early, Golden 
Dew Drop, Mitchell's Extra Early, Self Husk- 
ing, King Philip, Angel of Midnight, Canada 
Yellow, Longfellow, Landreth's Early Summer 
Yellow, Pearce's Prolific and Smut Nose nearly 
ripened. Sweet, Crosby, Extra Early Cory 
Foi-d's Early, Marblehead Earlj^, Pee and Kay, 
and Talbot's First and Best; Hickox, Living- 
ston's Evergreen, Landreth's Early Market, 
Northern Pedigree Sweet, Potter's Excelsior, 
Perry's Hybrid Early and Shaker's Early nearly 
ripened. Tests were made of silage corn, and 
the yields per acre ranged from 14 to 30 tons. 
The following are recommended by Director 
Saunders, as the most productive in the order 
named: Thoroughbred White Flint, Long 
White Flint, Long Yellow Flint, Yellow Dut- 
ton, Large White Flint, Pearce's Prolific and 
Longfellow. Excepting Long White Flint, all 
matured enough to make excellent silage. 
(Bull. 12, Central Experimental Farm, June,'91.) 
Richard Gibson of Delaware, Ont., highly rec- 
ommends the Butler Co. Dent.* He says: "For 
the silo, it grows just as much forage in propor- 
tion to corn as is profitable; and for the crib, 
more bushels of shelled corn to bushels of ears 
than any corn I have yet grown." He thinks 
it superior to Longfellow in earliness and yield. 

* Farmers' Advocate^ May 15, 1895. 



48 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



CHAPTER IV. 



THE SEED. 

Upon the quality of the seed planted in a 
considerable measure depends the character of 
the crop. Seed to be good should be speciall}^ 
selected and preserved under conditions favor- 
a,ble to prompt, strong germination. As numer- 
ous factors of importance relate to the seed 
and its planting, they will be briefly considered 
in this chapter under the following titles: 

Germination temperature. 

Method of selecting seed. 

Method of preserving seed. 

Relative value of butt, center and tip 
kernels. 

Size of seed. 

Type of ear. 

Judging corn: a scale of points. 

Germination temperature.— Seeds of differ- 
ent classes of corn do not germinate with equal 
rapidity under the same conditions. Corn from 
a hot climate, such as the soft varieties, will 
not germinate at a,s low a temperature as will 
that grown in cooler latitudes, as for example, 
the flints. Sturtevant made an extensive study 



THE SEED. 



49 



of germination temperatures for corn at the 
New York experiment station.* These germi- 
nation tests wei-e conducted in boxes where 
the temperature was uniformly under control. 
Seeds of dent corn germinated at as low a tem- 
perature as 43.4 deg. F., after 233 hours, prob- 
ably the lowest temperature recorded for this 
seed up to this time. In reporting upon the 
general results of his trials in 1884, Sturtevant 
says:t 

"First, all the kernels of an ear do not germinate with 
equal ease or with the same increment of temperature; 
second, that there is a difference in the time and temperature 
required between some of the agricultural species of maize; 
third, that the dent corns germinate at a temperature of 
47.6 deg. F., or slightly below; flints at a temperature of 47.8 
deg. F., or slightly below; pops and softs ditto; while sweets 
required 48.5 deg. F., or slightly below; fourth, that the 
increment of temperature required in our trials was far 
greater for the sweets than for the other agricultural species.' 

Under the same conditions of temperature, 
the dents germinate first, flints second, pops 
and softs next and sweets last, the range being 
from 168, to 228 hours. 

As observed farther on in the chapter on 
planting a soil temperature of from 50 to 60 deg. 
F., will justify planting. While the seed may 
germinate at below this, the chances are that 
it will decay, or the young plants make a most 



* New York agricultural experiment station. Report 1884, 
p. 118, and report 1SS5, p. 64. 
fmd.,VP- 123-124. 



50 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

unsatisfactory growth. It would not even be 
especially advisable to plant when the surface 
soil has a temperature of 50 deg. F., unless quite 
w^arni weather could be expected. 

Method of selecting seed.— There are two 
common methods of selecting seed: one to pick 
out desirable ears in the crib, the other to select 
during husking. Either method is better than 
none at all, but the best plan it seejns to the 
writer is as follows: Select a number of ears 
of the most desirable type and plant this seed 
in a field by itself, if possible where the plants 
from it will not be impregnated by the pollen 
from other corn. Carefully cut out all inferior 
stalks and ears, and grow only selected plants 
such as will produce the best ears. From these 
plants select the seed ears to repeat the oper- 
ation the next year, thus gradually developing 
a uniform, high type ear and kernel. This 
small patch of corn will soon become available 
as the yearly source of seed. It is assumed, of 
course, that the person who adopts this mode 
of selection will practice the best of culture. 
Where this system is intelligently followed 
there is no need for corn to deteriorate in 
quality from year to year. 

Preserving seed.— The best method of pre- 
serving seed corn knowai to the writer is that 
l^racticed by Mr. James Riley of Boone Co., 
Ind. A small building is located on a hillside, 



THE SEED. 51 

SO that one can drive up to the end of it on a 
level with the second floor. The corn is un- 
loaded on this floor, which extends the length 
of the house. This only serves as a sort of 
platform, with an opening entirely along each 
side about six feet wide, which is the top of the 
crib. Below this floor is a stove near the cen- 
ter of one end of the building, with pipe run- 
ning the length of the house. A fire is kept in 
this stove and the corn placed overhead is 
thoroughly dried, after which it is shoveled 
into the cribs on each side, which extend to the 
floor below, where it is ready for sacking and 
shipping. The most favorable conditions for 
preserving seed are thus insured. This method 
can be practiced on a smaller scale with ease 
by hanging the seed corn on the wall of a room 
back of the stove, where a fire is kept from har- 
vesting to planting time. The seed should be 
kept perfectly dry, and selections from the crib 
in the spring may be unsatisfactory. 

The old method of braiding a number of ears 
together at husking time and hanging them up 
on the side of the barn is better than selecting 
from the crib in the spring. A dry attic or 
inside of barn is a better place than the out- 
side exposure. At Purdue we find it satisfac- 
tory to put seed corn on the ear in common 
brown coffee sacks, which are hung from the 
vafters to cure, away from rats and mice. 



52 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

Some years ago I collected samples of seed 
corn from 16 counties in Tennessee, and tested 
their germination quality. The vitality of the 
seed was strong. Nearly all of this seed was 
grown by men wdio took ^Dains to keep it in 
dry, well-ventilated places. There was no es- 
sential difference in germination between ears 
stored with and w^ithout the husk. 

In an article on "Seed corn"* Josiah Russell 
of Iowa says: "If the corn is not ahsolufely dry 
when gathered we put the ears for seed in a 
plastered upper chamber of the house through 
which a stovepipe goes to the chimney, or we 
make use of the smoke house. In either case 
the corn is laid in tiers on lath nailed to 2x4 
uprights, one row of corn to each lath, or rather 
a lath at each end of the corn rows. * * * 
It takes two, laths to hold one row of ears 
side by side. * * * The smoke-house plan 
we like best of all, and think the smoke we put 
in at times during the winter renders the corn 
objectionable to the ground squirrels in the 
spring." 

The relative value of butt, center and tip 
kernels does, not materially differ. As a rule 
farmers select the central kernels on the ears, 
rejecting the small or irregular tip and butt ker- 
nels. At the New York experiment station the 
writer assisted in conducting elaborate experi- 

*l{ural New Yorlcer, Aug. 25, 1888. 



THE SEED. 



58 



ments comparing the results from seed from 
different parts of the ear.* In these experi- 
ments, extending from 1882 to 1885, the results 
slightly favored the tip kernels. The follow- 
ing table gives the results: 

YIELD PER ACRE IN BUSHELS. 





1S82. 


1883. 


1884. 


1885. 


Average. 


Butt seed. 


62.9 
62.5 
6i.7 


63.8 
54.5 
57.1 


54.7 
56.1 
56.3 


54.9 
57.6 
56.3 


56.6 


Central seed ... 


57.6 


Tip seed 


58.6 







At the Ohio experiment station the average 
yields per acre for four years were, butt, 66.9; 
central, 62.8, and tip 64.8 bu. per acre.f 

At the Kansas station the relative productive- 
ness was first from tip, second from butfc and 
third from central kernels.^ 

There is not sufficient evidence at hand to 
justify the rejection of either butt or tip ker- 
nels, provided they are of good vitality, in 
favor of the kernels from the center of the ear. 

The size of the seed planted, on the basis of 
the evidence given above, would not seem to 
play any special part in productiveness of crop. 
If the size did affect the yield we should expect 



*Ne\v York agricultural experiment station; report 1884, 
p. 90, 1885, p. 38. 

t Ohio agricultural experiment station. Report for 1886, 
p. 126. 

X Kansas agricultural experiment station. Bulletin 45, De- 
cember, 1893. 



54 



INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



the large central kernels on the ear to produce 
larger crops than would the tip kernels. In his 
experiments Sturtevant planted selections of 
largest and smallest seed from ears of Wau- 
shakum corn.''' There was not much difference 
in the yield from seed of each lot. The results 
were as follows: 





Nurahei ears. 


Bushels ears. 


Average 
weight of 
ears in oz. 




Good. 


Poor. 


Good. 


Poor. 


Large seed 

Small seed 


14,360 
14,390 


1,630 
1,950 


69.7 
67.9 


2.1 
2.1 


6.21 
6.04 



The selection of large seed would tend toward 
the ultimate production of a larger ear and 
seed. This is true, as based on the general law 
that like produces like. In a discussion before 
the Society for the Promotion of Agricultural 
Science "On a New Factor in the Improvement 
of Crops," Dr. J. C. Arthur gave it as a general 
law that "large seeds produce stronger plants 
with a greater capacity for reproduction than 
small seeds of the same kind."f If, however, 
the best method of selection is practiced, as 
outlined in the first part of this chapter, it will 
not be essential to cast aside the small kernels 
found on selected ears. 

A type of ear should alwaj^s be noted in the 

*New York State agricultural experiment station, report 
for 1885, p. 42. 
t Agricultural Science, VII, VIII and IX, p. 340. 



THE SEED. 55 

crop grown, which should be a pronounced 
feature. Coarseness ought to be avoided, A 
very large cob does not accompany great pro- 
ductiveness. The ear stalks should not be too 
large and long. Prof. Morrow recommends: * 

"For Central Illinois a comparatively low, short- join ted, 
thickish stalk, with the ears borne low on short shanks; the 
ear about nine inches long, 2 to 2i inches in diameter; nearly 
uniform in thickness throughout, with 16 to 20 rows well 
filled out at each end, and with but little space between the 
rows; the kernels rather thick, solid, and as deep as may be 
and of any color preferred, as this has little to do with 
value." 

For the dent corns in general the recom- 
mendation may well be applied. Mr. A. W. 
Cheever, a Massachusetts farmer of wide repu- 
tation, describes his ideal ear of flint corn as 
follows: t 

"Ear not much lai'ger at butt end than at tip end; would 
avoid corn with very tapering ears; also those with rows 
having spaces toward the butts. The corn should fill the 
ear full all over and be crowded hard in the rows. The more 
kernels to the inch of row the better." 

It may be asserted with perfect safety that 
Cheever's description would apply equally well 
to sweet corn. The number of rows to the ear 
is largely a matter of choice. 

As a rule, a desirable type for all varieties 
means small to medium size of cob, cylindrical 
ears well covered with kernels at tip and butt, 

* Farmers'' Review, March 23, 1888. 
\Orange Judd Farmer, Sept, 22, 1888= 



50 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

rows compact, with no wasted spaces between, 
and kernels deeper than bi-oad. Early maturity 
of a variety is also quite essential in the North- 
ern States. 

Judging corn: A scale of points.— If corn 
exhibited at fairs or expositions could be judged 
on the basis of a scale of points, it would no 
doubt oftentimes result in greater justice in 
decisions of judges. This of course applies to 
a consideration of the individual ear only and 
not to the plant, its adaptability, productive- 
ness, etc. It has no more value than a scale of 
points in judging butter, where the breed of 
cow and her profitable character are not con- 
sidered. 

Yet a score card may be of service. In 18S6, 
in the great corn exhibit at the Exposition at 
Chicago, the five expert judges worked some 
days in preparing a scale of points to guide 
them in their decisions. Mr. Orange Judd, who 
took great interest in the Indian corn plant, on 
the basis of much study of this question pub- 
lished the following scale of points for tempo- 
rary use at the Illinois State fair at Peoria in 
1891.* It is here reproduced in the belief that 
it may be helpful to others in preparing a score 
card to be used for a similar purpose: 

* Orange Judd Farvier, Oct. 10, 189], and Nov. 23, 1S93. 



THE SEED. 57 

SCALE OP POINTS FOR INDIAN CORN. 

Perfection. 

A. Shape of ear 10 points. 

B. Purity or trueness to type 10 points. 

C. Filling- out at both ends 15 points. 

D. Ripeness (indicating earliness) 10 points. 

E. Perfection and uniformity of kernels 15 points. 

P. Length of ear (for kind and locality) 5 points. 

G. Circumference of ear (for kind and locality).. . . 5 points 

H. Small spaces between rows 5 points. 

J. Depth and shape of kernels 15 points. 

K. Per cent of grain and cob 10 points. 

Total 100 points. 

This scale is not entirely satisfactory. It 
would be difficult to mark point B, as it is 
assumed that the judge is passing on a variety, 
and the question of purity he could not answer. 
Point D is also a weak one, as the earliness 
could not be determined by the degree of ripe- 
ness. In judging K the corn should be per- 
fectly dry, else the comparisons would not be 
fair. In any event, such a score card could 
only be used in scoring exhibits on a mercan- 
tile basis, and not a variety one. Not enough 
is known about variety characteristics to per- 
mit this fairly. 

At the present time the method of judging 
in vogue is considered unsatisfactory, and an 
effort is being made to establish the use of the 
score card. It is to be hoped that a scale of 
points will be adopted such as will give satis- 
lion and be generally used. 



58 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



CHAPTER V. 



MANURES AND FERTILIZERS. 

Ifc is a generally recognized fact that to re- 
move a crop from the soil is to take from it a 
certain amount of fertility or plant food. If 
this practice is continued without returning 
this food in some form to the soil it becomes 
much impoverished and less and less produc- 
tive. 

Fertilizers necessary. — A crop of 50 bushels 
of Indian corn and 8,000 lbs. of cornstalks per 
acre will remove from the soil 79.8 lbs. nitro- 
gen, 55.2 lbs. phosphoric acid and 87.6 lbs. 
potash.* To remove such a crop is a heavy 
drain on the soil fertility, and to purchase in 
the markets the amounts of nitrogen, phos- 
phoric acid and potash removed by it would 
cost about $20. In the great corn-growing 
region of the country, however, a large amount 
of land is annually planted which contains so 
much available plant food that the farmer 
does not feel justified in placing artificial ferti- 

* Science in Farming, 1882, p. 153= 



MANURES AND FERTILIZERS. 59 

lizers upon it, although stable manure is some- 
times used. Deep, black prairie soils of the 
new West do not as yet need additional plant 
food, although the time is soon comiug when 
they will. Again there are alluvial river 
bottoms subject to annual overflows which so 
enrich them that artificial fertilization is un- 
necessary, for such bottoms grow large, fine 
crops of corn year after year. In the Eastern, 
Middle, and Southern States, however, soils 
have become impoverished by constant crop- 
ping, and each year enough plant food should 
be returned to them to keep them highly pro- 
ductive. 

It is safe to say that the only way to deter- 
mine certainly what manure or fertilizer is 
best suited to one's land is to experiment on it 
on a simple, practical basis. 

Stable manure is always a standard material 
for enriching the land, and it is suited to the 
needs of all classes of crops and all kinds of 
soils. Its effect is more lasting than the read- 
ily soluble commercial fertilizer. Since 1883 
an experiment has been in progress at the ex- 
periment station at Purdue University to de- 
termine how long stable manure will continue 
to affect the yield of succeeding crops. The 
plat set apart for this experiment has been pro- 
ducing corn continuous!}^ since 1879. To cer- 
tain plats in the series fresh horse manure was 



60 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

applied in 1883 and again in 1884, amounting 
for the two years to about 50 tons per acre. 
No manure has been used in this experiment 
before or since the two years named. The av- 
erage results of the 11 years of cropping have 
shown a yearly gain of 10.42 bu. of corn per 
acre for the manured plats over those unma- 
nured. 

In other experiments at Purdue, in charge of 
Prof. Latta who conducted the preceding one, 
fresh horse manure has always given greater 
returns from its application than artificial fer- 
tilizei's, singly or in combination. Both six 
and nine tons of the manure per acre gave 
larger yields than where fertilizers were used 
under any circumstances. 

At the Connecticut station for four years a 
comparison has been made of the influence of 
cow manure, hog manure, and fertilizer-chem- 
icals upon a corn crop grown continuously on 
the same land.* The yields from plats given 
cow and hog manure in excess of the exhaus- 
tion by cropping have been essentially the same 
during the four years, averaging, however, 
slightly in favor of the hog manure. The fer- 
tilizer plat, which received more nitrogen, 
phosphoric acid and potash than the crop re- 
moved, gave about four-fifths as much dry 

* Connecticut State agricultural experiment station. Re- 
port for 1893, p. 286. 



MANURES AND FERTILIZERS. 61 

matter as did the manured plat, while the un- 
maiiured plat gave about three-fifths that of 
the manured. A liberal manuring increased 
the albuminoids in the crop; in the Irernels 
there was a marked increase in the protein 
and nitrogen-free extract. 

At the Missouri station barn-yard manure 
(solid and liquid together) increased the yield.* 
At the Texas station, on poor, shallow, upland 
"post oak" subsoil of stiff clay, cow manure 
gave most profitable returns, though bone meal 
produced the largest increase in yield, f 

Artificial fertilizers have been largely used 
with profit in this country, notably South and 
East. It would be useless, however, to recom- 
mend to the farmer the use of anything but a 
complete fertilizer for corn, not knowing the 
soil conditions or the adaptability of a given 
farm to this cereal. If the soil is deficient in 
nitrogen, potash or phosphoric acid, the b^st 
way to do Avill be to try some special fertilizers 
containing these ingredients, and so determine 
just what the land needs most. It will be safe, 
however, unless in exceptional circumstances, 
to use plenty of stable manure for the cornfield 
and then supplement this with a dressing of 
fertilizer. 

* Missouri agricultural experiment station, Bulletin No. 

t Texas agricultural experiment station, i^eport for 1889, 
p. 11. 



62 INDIAN COKN CULTURE. 

Experiments with fertilizers.— It is inter- 
esting, however, to note some of the results 
from using fertilizers experimentally oh corn. 
Much of this work has been done with great 
care, and may be suggestive, if not having a 
direct application. 

In 1881 Prof. W. 0. Atwater, in an address 
before the Connecticut State board of agricul- 
ture, reported on the effects of fertilizing 
materials upon corn grown in 73 experiments 
on sandy or sandy loam soil, extending over the 
years 1878, 1879 and 1880. In these experi- 
ments, "phosphoric acid took the leading place 
often, potash occasionally, and nitrogen very 
rarely." Prof. Atwater considers the experi- 
ments numerous and decisive enough to war- 
rant the inference that, as corn is commonly 
grown, nitrogenous fertilizers in any quantitj'' 
would rarely be profitable. 

For several years past fertilizer experiments. 
on corn have been conducted by the Storrs' 
(Connecticut) experiment station, under the 
direction of Prof. C. S. Phelps. "The crops 
grown on light soils were in nearly all cases 
greatly increased by the use of potash or nitro- 
gen, or both, while in only one case was there 
any considerable increase from the use of phos- 
phoric acid." On the heavy soils phosphoric 
acid gave by far the best results. "The experi- 
ments thus far made indicate that for corn, 



MANURES AND FERTILIZERS, 63 

ou the lighter soils of the State, fertilizers con- 
taining a large proportion of potash are needed 
to give the best results," while fertilizers with 
relatively large proportions of phosphoric acid 
produce the best results on heavy, clayey soils.* 

At the Massachusetts State experiment sta- 
tion for souie years a series of 10 plats of one- 
tenth acre each in size have been grown to 
corn and treated with one or two special arti- 
cles of plant food, or else left un manured. In 
1888 those plats receiving a dressing in which 
potash was the dominant ingredient gave ma- 
terially increased yields of grain over the nitro- 
gen plats, though a combination of 97 lbs. of 
sulphate of potash and magnesia and 100 lbs. 
of dissolved boneblack gave the best yield. 

In experiments conducted over the State of 
Massachusetts in 10 different counties^ by Prof. 
W. P. Brooks' of the agricultural college, while 
it was shown that soils differ widely in their 
requirements, it w^as also demonstrated that 
potash more often proves beneficial or much 
more largely beneficial than either nitrogen or 
phosphoric acid.f Potash as a rule most largely 
increases the yield of both grain and stover, 
but its effect upon stover production is greater 
than upon grain production. 

* Storrs' agricultural experiment station. Report of 1892, 
p. 67. 
t Experiment Station Record, III, p. 165. 



04: INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

At the Georgia station nitrogen experiments 
were couducted upon 25 plats of 3-40tli acre 
each. In general the results indicated that 
"nitrogenous manure increased the yield of 
corn covered b}^ the experiments; that nitrogen 
alone, regardless of the source, was more effec- 
tive in increasing the yield of corn than either 
phosphoric acid or potash, or both combined; 
but that when a large amount of fertilizer 
was to be applied to corn it was best to add all 
three of the elements."" In the genei-al ferti- 
lizer experiments of this station in 1893 nitro- 
gen Avas the most effective fertilizer used, and 
it was concluded that at present prices of com- 
mercial fertilizers they could not be used with 
profit.! 

At the Ohio station in 1890 and 1891 some 
increase has followed the use of nitrogen in 
every case, but in 1888 there is no evidence 
that nitrogen, whether used alone or in com- 
bination with phosphoric acid, has produced 
any increase in crop beyond the limits of prob- 
able variation in the soil itself. "Experiments 
were conducted on five private fai-ms in five 
counties, in which it was shown that (1) nitrate 
of soda in combination with dissolved bone- 
black or muriate of potash, one or both, has 

* Georgia agricultural experiment station, Bulletin 15, 
December, 1891. 

t Georgia station, Bulletin 23, December, 1893. 



MANURES AND FERTILIZERS. 65 

produced an increase of crop in 46 out of 48 
trials; and (2) in no case has tlie increase in 
crop been sufficient to pay cost of fertilizer." * 
This work is supplemented by further work 
along the same line.f Twenty-one separate 
experiments w-ere made on soils vaiying widely 
in character and located in different parts of 
the State, and extending over at least six years. 
As a result of this work Director Thorne con- 
cludes: 

"At present prices of cereal crops and of fertilizing ma- 
terials, respectively, the profitable production of corn, wheat 
and oats upon chemical or commercial fertilizers, or upon 
bai'n-yard manure, if its cost be proportionate to that of the 
chemical constituents of fertility found in commercial fer- 
tilizers, is a hopeless undertaking-, unless these crops be 
grown in a systematic rotation with clover or a similar 
nitrogen-storing crop; and the poorer the soil in natural fer- 
tility the smaller the probability of profitable crop produc- 
tion by means of artificial fertilizers." 

At the Kentucky station, on land rich in 
phosphoric acid, a mixture of muriate of potash 
and nitrate of soda in the proportion of one 
part of the former to two of the latter gave the 
best yields of grain, viz.: an increase of 39 
bushels per acre over where no fertilizer w^as 
applied. Coml)inations of nitrogen and phos- 
phoric acid, or single applications of either, 
gave practically a less yield than where no 

*Ohio agricultural experiment station, Bulletin 3, Vol. V, 
March, 1892. 

\IUd., Bulletin 53, March 1894. 
5 



66 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

fertilizer was applied, while combinations of 
potash and nitrogen, or potash alone, gave good 
yields.* 

At the Virginia station phosphoric acid gen- 
erally increased the yield. A full application 
of this cost but one-half as much as the potash 
and one-sixth as much as the nitrogen.f Fur- 
ther, where phosphoric acid was applied there 
was a larger j)roportion of the corn to fodder 
than in the other yields. In no instance did 
the nitrogen application give a gain equal to 
its cost. 

The Rhode Island station, on the basis of 
several experiments, advises the use of about 
45 lbs. nitrogen, 75 lbs. potash and 54 lbs. phos- 
phoric acid per acre. J 

Summary of experiments. — A careful ex- 
amination of the experiments in supplying fer- 
tility to the corn crop conducted by the differ- 
ent agricultural experiment stations shows, 
as might have been expected, much difference 
in the results secured. Wherever used stable 
or barn-yard manure was productive of good 
results. Combinations of nitrogen, potash and 
phosphoric acid gave satisfactory yields in 

* Kentucky agricultural experiment station. Bulletin No. 
33. 

t Virginia agricultural experiment station. Bulletin .31. 
August, 1893. 

J Handbook of experiment station work. Washington. 
1893, p. S6. 



MANURES AND FERTILIZERS. 67 

many cases, but generally the cost of these was 
too much to make their use profitable. The 
value of phosphoric acid was especially shown 
in tests in Alabama, Louisiana, Pennsylvania 
and Vermont; that of nitrogen in Georgia, 
Massachusetts (local), New York and North 
Louisiana; that of potash in Kentucky, New 
Hampshire, New Jersey and Massachusetts 
(general). 

Cotton seed crushed, or cotton-seed meal is 
generally considered to be a most desirable 
nitrogen fertilizer. This used singly or in con- 
nection with artificial fertilizer is recommended 
for the corn crop. The meal may be sowed 
broadcast before XDlanting and harrowed in, 
while the crushed seeds may be plowed under, 
as with stable manure. However, it would be 
better husbandry to feed the cotton seed or 
meal to live stock and use the manure, which 
will contain about all the fertility of the orig- 
inal grain. 

Sea weeds, fish scrap or dead fish, night 
soil and other substances are used for manur- 
ing corn lands in a limited way. Refuse fish 
makes a good nitrogenous manure, and along 
the coast in places is extensively used. 

Green manure offers a valuable means of 
improving the soil for corn-growing in localities 
where the land has been long cultivated. This 
is for the reason that those crops best adapted 



68 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

for this purpose, such as the clovers in the 
North and the cowpea in the South, increase 
the soil fertility by returning to it additional 
plant food secured from the atmosphere or soil. 
The clover plant, it has been demonstrated, 
adds materially to the fertility of the surface 
soil by securing nitrogen from the atmosphere 
and holding it, and also by absorbing and hold- 
ing nitric acid from below the cultivated sur- 
face, so that clover iDlowed under decidedly 
increases soil fertility. In the Southern States 
the cowpea plowed under is a recognized reno- 
vator of -woi-n-out lands. 

According to Sir J.B.Lawes," "the leguminous 
(clovers, peas, beans, etc) are the only plants 
which can be said distinctly to enrich the sur- 
face soil when plowed in, and I may mention 
that in a case where a crop of red clover was 
grown by us, and twice mown for hay, the in- 
crease of nitrogen in the surface soil was suffi- 
cient to be measurable by analysis when com- 
pared with another part of the field where the 
grain crop was grown." 

Green manure is especially valuable on light 
soils or heavy impoverished clay land. The 
crop should be plowed in at about the time of 
well-advanced bloom, before seed formation. 

The plowing under of sod or stubble is in a 
measure a form of green manuring, for much 

* The Country Gentleman, March 12, 1885. 



MANURES AND FERTILIZERS. 69 

sod land is plowed after the green growth has 
got well started. Those persons who have 
grown a crop of corn on land in clover or 
timothy the previous season have noted the in- 
creased yields from It, if the weather conditions 
were satisfactory and the tillage good. 

The manurial value of feeding stuffs, as 
indicated by the amount of nitrogen, phosphoric 
acid and potash i^resent, is shown in the follow- 
ing table, abstracted from a more complete 
table published by Dr. E. H. Jenkins, chemist 
of the Connecticut agricultural experiment 
station.* The nitrogen is estimated at 17 cents, 
the phosphoric acid 6 cents and the potash at 
4i cents per pound. The prices for these sub- 
stances, however, varies from time to time 
according to market supply and demand: 

AVERAGE NUMBER POUNDS NITROGEN, PHOSPHORIC ACID 
AND POTASH IN ONE TON AMERICAN FEEDING STUFFS, 
AND VALUE PER TON FOR MANURE OF SUCH FOODS. 

PllOS. 

^ /• 7 1 Nitro- phoric 

Green JOdaer. gen. aclcl. Polas/i. Valve. 

Maize fodder 4 8 2.2 7.8 $1.28 

Maize silage 4.8 2.2 7.0 1.25 

Rye fodder 8.4 4.8 12.6 2.23 

Sorghum 4.0 1.1 3.7 .91 

Clover 13.0 2.6 13.0 2.93 

Cowpea vines 8.6 3.4 6.0 1.92 

Dry fodder. 

Clover 36.6 13.2 14.0 8.88 

Meadow hay 38.2 8.6 52.0 8.37 

Timothy 19.2 7.2 29.6 4.95 

Cornstalks 13.2 7.8 17 2 3.44 

* New England Homestead, Dec. 25, 1886, p. 457. 



70 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



Dry fodder. ^T 

Buckwheat straw 12.4 

Oat straw 10.8 

Rye sti^aw 14.6 

Wheat straw 16.0 

Cowpea vines 50.2 

Roots. 

Carrots •. 4.0 

Sugar beets 5.8 

Globe mangolds 5.4 

Grain and other seeds. 

Barley 39.6 

Buckwheat 32.0 

Cotton seed kernels 09 . 6 

Cowpea seed 66.4 

Indian corn 33.8 

Oats 36.2 

Rye 34.0 

Wheat 38.0 

Mill 2'>')'oducts, hy-imiducis and refuse. 

Malt sprouts 73.4 

Cotton seed_ meal 134.6 

Linseed meal 106.0 

Indian corn meal 29.0 

Indian corn bran 22.2 

Indian corn and cob meal. 22.9 

Indian corn cob 8.0 

Hominy mesl 30.8 

Gxuten meal 94.8 

Rye bran 48 . 8 

Wheat middlings 41 .4 

Wheat bran 47 . 4 



plioric 






actd. 


I'olash. 


Value. 


12.3 


42.2 


$4.64 


5.6 


32.6 


3.56 


7.4 


20.2 


3.66 


4.2 


17.4 


3.71 


8.2 


28.0 


9.91 


2.2 


6.0 


1.06 


0.6 


3.6 


1.15 


0.4 


9.0 


1.32 


13.4 


7.6 


7.76 


15.6 


11.8 


6.88 


34.4 


22.8 


19.96 


20.2 


20.2 


13.36 


14.2 


8.0 


6.94 


16.0 


11.6 


7.61 


16.0 


10.6 


7.19 


18.4 


10.2 


8.00 


29.2 


33.0 


15.63 


60.6 


35.8 


28.04 


38.8 


28.2 


21.55 


12.8 


8.0 


6.04 


9.8 


9.4 


4.76 


10.9 


9.2 


4.96 


4.4 


14.0 


2.22 


23.9 


12.3 


7.20 


9.0 


12 


16.71 


27.8 


18.0 


9.83 


25.2 


13.4 


9.11 


60.2 


32.0 


13.03 



TILLAGE. 



71 



CHAPTER VI. 



TILLAGE. 

The subject of tillage includes plowing, har- 
rowing, and cultivating, and each will be con- 
sidered by itself in the order given. It may be 
accepted as true that as a rule the more thor- 
oughly the soil is prepared before planting the 
more satisfactory will be the crop returns. Too 
many farmers plow, harrow, and cultivate in- 
differently. The ground should be thoroughly 
pulverized before the seed is planted. This 
cannot be unless the plow is held back until 
the ground is in shape to handle reasonably 
well with both plow and harrow. 

Plowing.— For three successive years an ex- 
periment has been continued at the Indiana 
experiment station on deep and shallow plow- 
ing for corn. The soil is a dark, compact loam, 
with a deep layer of gravel about two feet be- 
low the surface. The usual practice at the 
station is for corn to follow on clover stubble, 
which is plowed in the spring after the clover 
has started growth. This corn was grown on 
plats permanently located for that work, which 



72 



INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



is to continue for a term of years. Where the 
plowing was 10 and 12 inches deep a subsoil 
plow followed after the common plow and 
loosened to the necessary depth. The results 
of this work, as given by Prof. W. C, Latta," 
are as follows: 

BUSHELS PER ACRE FROM DEEP AND SHALLOW PLOWING. 



Depth of plowing. 


1S91. 


1S92. 


1S93. 


Average of 
3 years. 




49.3 
49.1 
49.8 
49.6 
46.7 


52.9 
58.9 
60.0 
59.7 
61.4 


16.1 
13.6 
17.1 
17.0 
17.5 


39.48 




40.54 




42.28 


10 inches 


41.76 


12 inches 


42.01 







Excessive drouth in 1893 accounts for the low 
yields of that year. The deeper plowings gave 
the best returns, with that of eight inches 
slightly in the lead. 

According to the tenth census of the United 
States,! on the basis of the question, "How 
deep is the soil usually plowed for corn?" the 
great majority of the answers from the leading 
corn-producing States were from six to eight 
inches, some being as low as five and a very 
few as high as nine. In a further consider- 
ation of this subject Prof. Brewer says: J "In 

* Bulletin 50, Vol. V, Purdue University agricultural ex- 
periment station, April, 1894. 

t Tenth Census of the United States. Report of the Pro- 
ductions of Agriculture, Washington, 1883, p. 98, 

I lUd. 



TILLAGE. 73 

States of gravelly or loamy soils, where the 
yield is rarely high but is rather certain, and 
where corn follows clover, it is the custom 
with many excellent farmers in planting on 
such sod to plow shallow, not more than three, 
three and one-half or four inches deep, but in 
the after-cultivation to idIow the corn in sum- 
mer very deep." On heavy, cold sod land, 
plowing a depth of five to six inches will no 
doubt be more satisfactory than at a greater 
one. On light, easily broken soil, the plow 
may run deeper to advantage. Under circum- 
stances where drouth may occur somewhat 
better results may be looked for from the deep 
plowing. 

Harrowing. — Having the land properly 
plowed, it should be reduced to a fine tilth by 
the use of the harrow. On sod land a disk or 
cutaway harrow can be most efficiently used to 
tear and pulverize the overturned turf. This 
may be followed by a smoothing harrow that 
will prepare a smooth, fine seed bed. If lumps 
or clods occur that do not easily break under 
the harrow they should he broken either with 
a roller or plank drag. Three oak planks, each 
about six feet long, ten inches wide and two 
inches thick, chained on lap edges like weather 
boarding, and drawn broadside over the field, 
will rapidly crush obnoxious clods. 

Cultivating.— Even l^efore the corn plant 



74 



INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



has appeared above the surface it may be de- 
sirable to cultivate (or lightly harrow), espe- 
cially if warm rains have occurred and the 
weeds are vegetating fast. Too much stress 




cannot be laid upon clean, thorough cultiva- 
tion of the growing crop. The soil should be 
kept well stirred in time of drouth, and at all 
times frequently enough to keep the weeds in 



TILLAGE. 



75 



subjection. The farmer cannot afford to grow 
a crop of weeds on the land with his corn, for 



i 




not only will they feed on the food which the 
corn should eat, but they will pump off needed 
soil moisture in time of drouth and interfere 



76 



INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



with the economical handling of the crop at 
harvest. 

The frequency of cultivation will mainly 
depend upon the conditions of soil moisture 




and weed growth. If drouth prevails stirring 
the soil will conserve its moisture. If weeds 



TILLAGE. 



77 



occur they should be eradicated. For five 
years Prof. G. E. Morrow conducted a series of 
experiments at the Illinois experiment station 
upon the influence of frequency of cultivation 
upon the corn crop. The average results for 
the five years ending 1893 are as follows:* 

Kind of cultivation. Yield in busliels. 

Not cultivated; scraped with lioe (two plats) 68.3 

Shallow, ordinarily frequent 70.3 

Deep, ordinarily frequent 66.7 

Shallow, frequent 72.8 

Deep, frequent 64.5 

Tha general results thus favor frequent shal- 
low cultivation, though the increased yield will 
warrant the employment of but little extra 
time over that of ordinary frequency. 

At Purdue University we ordinarily plan for 
at least five cultivations during the season. 

At the Kansas experiment station quite a 
number of plats of corn have been submitted 
to frequent cultivation tests. The average re- 
sults of three years' trials, as given by Prof. C. 
C. (jeorgeson, are as follows.f 



Times cultivated. 


Times cultivated during season. 


Yield in 


1S91. 


1S93. 


1S93. 


bushels. 


Twice a week 

Once a week 

Once in two weeks. 


9 
6 


11 

6 
3 


14 

7 
4 


40.3 
41.3 
40.9 



* Bulletin No. 31, March, 1894, Illinois agricultui^al experi- 
ment station, p. 355. 

t Bulletin 45, December, 1893, Kansas agricultural experi- 
ment station, p. 131. 



78 



INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



There is no gain found in frequent cultiva- 
tion, but instead a slight loss. This loss may 
be due to excessive root-pruning. Where corn 
was cultivated, however, once in three and 
once in four weeks a material loss in yield oc- 
curred. It would appear that three to four 




Fig. 21.— Standard KiDiNO Cl'ltivator With Six shovels. 

cultivations a season, according to circum- 
stances, might be recommended as a general 
rule. 

Depth of cultivation should be shallow 
rather than deep. The roots of the corn plant, 
while penetrating several feet below the top of 
the ground, are essentially surface feeders. At 



TILLAGE. 



79 



a depth of three inches for a radius of two feet 
about the plant may be found a great number 




of fine roots. It is not desirable to cut these 
roots more than possible, consequent!}^ the cul- 
tivation must necessarily be shallow. 



so 



INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



At the Purdue University experiment station 
Prof. Latta has found the average results of 
cultivating corn for six years, at depths of one, 
two, and three inches, to have been decidedly 
in favor of shallow culture, the average yields 
being 5 LOG bu. for one inch, 50.09 for two, and 
48.73 bu. for three inches.-' By referring back 
to the report on frequency of cultivation at the 
Uliuois station it will bo noted that the shallow 
gave an increase of four Imshels per acre over 
that of the deep in l)oth ordinary and frequent 




cultivation. Figs. 22, 23 and 24 show three in- 
teresting forms of cnlivators specially made for 
shallow culture. 

The root-pruning of corn directly beais 
upon the subject of depth of cultivation. Some 
years ago attention was directed to this subject. 
In 1882, at the New York experiment station, 
root-pruning of corn was compared with that 
not root-pruned, by Dr. E. L. Sturtevant, with 

* Bulletin 50, Vol. V, April, 1894, Purdue University agri- 
cultural experiment station, p. 48. 



TILLAGE. 



81 



contradictory results.''' This work was carried 
on more extensively in 1883, and the pruning 




Ava 



,s found to be detrimental to the plant and 



*New York agricultural experiment station. Report for 
1882, p. 53. • 
6 



82 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

yield."" Of seven comparisons all but one were 
very much adverse to pruning. 

At the Minnesota station Prof. W. M. Hays 
found-}- that the root-pruned plats averaged 
nearly three bushels of corn and 800 lbs, of 
fodder less x^er acre than the plats not root- 
pruned. Another year root-pruning was found 
to diminish the yield of grain 13A bushels per 
acre. 

A number of years of comparison of root- 
pruned with unpruned corn at the Illinois sta- 
tion, by Prof. Gr. E. Morrow, has shown a gen- 
eral injury from the root-pruning. J In 1893 
the yield per acre was 100.3 bu. for the un- 
pruned as against 78.8 bu. for the pruned— a 
very material difference. 

The above results show the necessity for 
shallow cultivation and the injurious results of 
breaking off the surface corn roots. Set the 
cultivator so that the teeth will run shallow. 
The weeds may be easily destroj^ed by cultivat- 
ing at a depth of about an inch if the w^ork is 
done in reasonable season. 



* New York agricultural experiment station. Report for 
1883, p. 134. 

t Bulletins Nos. 6 and 11, Minnesota agricultural experi- 
ment station. 

I Bulletin No. 31, March, 1894, Illinois agricultural exper- 
iment station, p. 357. 



PLANTING. 



83 



CHAPTER VII. 



PLANTma. 

In planting a seed numerous factors must be 
considered as having an important bearing on 
the quality and quantity of the crop. These 
factors will be considered under the following 
headings: 

Time of planting. 

Rate or distance apart of planting. 

Drills vs. hills. 

Depth of planting. 

Listing. 

Time of planting. — Necessarily two impor- 
tant conditions influence the date of planting 
corn, viz.: geographical location and tempera- 
ture of soil. Brewer says* that the most com- 
mon rule observed as to time of planting is 
that derived from the Indians on the settle- 
ment of. New England and the Middle States, 
to "plant corn when the leaves of the white 
oak are as big as a squirrel's foot," or as 
another saying states it, "as big as a squirrel's 

* Tenth Census. Report on the Productions of Agricul- 
ture, Washington, 1883, p. 98. 



84 



INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



foot or mouse's ear." There is considerable 
significance in this in fact, as the oak is tardy 
in showing its leaves until 
the ground has had its spring 
warming. Corn not only re- 
quires a warm air tempera- 
ture to grow well in, but 
the soil must be reasonably 
warm. A temperature of 
the soil to a depth of one 
inch of fi-om 50 to 60 deg. 
Fahr. will justify planting. 
In the great corn belt plant- 
ing begins about May 1 and 
often extends over the en- 
tire month. If the ground 
is ready it is not wise to 
hurry the seed into the 
ground too soon, as the vi- 
tality of the seed or young 
plant may be seriously im- 
paired by being exposed to 
cold rains which often fol- """^~ 
low stretches of w^arm April 
weather. The fo llowing ^^" 
table show^s the results of 
early and late planting con- 
ducted by Prof. Latta at the Purdue University 
experiment station* The experiment began 

* Bulletin No. 50, p. 45, Purdue University agricultural 
esperiment etatioru 




PLANTING. 85 

in 1888, and excepting 1891 has been continued 
ever since. The yields for May 1 and May 
28-30 are averages for four years; those for 
May 15-16 for three j^ears; the others for five: 

Date pZajiied. Yield in bushels. 

Ma^l 4G.64 

May 8-11 45.56 

May 15-16 36.18 

May 21-22 41.41 

May 28-30 35.75 

At the Illinois experiment station Prof. Mor- 
row found,* as the average of six years' work, 







Fig. 26.— FARMERS' Favorite one-Hohse corn Drill. 

the largest yield (62.3 bu.) to come from corn 
planted from May 4 to 9, although there is but 
a slight falling off below these dates for plant- 
ings ranging from April 27 to May 2 and May 
11 to 16. 
At the Ohio station the largest yields are 

* Bulletin 31, Illinois agricultural experiment station, 
March, 1894, p. 352, 



86 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

given from plantings made from May 13 to 
15.* 

In the Southern States planting begins sev- 
eral weeks earlier than in the Northern ones, 
and with a much louger season for maturity, 
so that time of planting is not of so great sig- 
nificance, as for example in Wisconsin, where 
some varieties will not mature at all, while 
others will barely mature before killing frosts. 
Every one will have to be his own judge for his 
special conditions, but it will be well to watcli 
for the young oak leaves and note the tempera- 
ture of the soil. 

Rate or distance apart of planting. — It may 
be accepted as true that where corn is grown 
for the grain each plant should have an oppor- 
tunity for its fullest development. With soil 
of the same character and fertility it would not 
be best to plant an acre of the same corn in 
New York and Tennessee under equal condi- 
tions as regards quantity of seed. A less amount 
would do where the plants grew large and ro- 
bust; consequently we find a person in one 
latitude growing one or two stalks in a place, 
while in another locality, with less favorable 
conditions, three or four stalks are grown. 

At the Georgia station, in tests as to distance 
of corn grown in hills, 5x4 feet apart gave the 

* Annual report Ohio agricultural experiment station for 
1888, p. 80. 



PLANTING. 87 

largest yield per acre. In reporting on this 
test Director Redding says: "The season of 
1890 may be considered as about an average 
one, and therefore the results of this experi- 
ment may be taken as indicating that a dis- 
tance of 5x4 (or 2,184 stalks to the acre) is not 
too great for such land.'"^' 

In South Carolina in experiments conducted 
at Spartansburg, Columbia and Darlington on 
distance apart of planting, the hills ranged from 
5x3 to 6x3 feet, and the drills from five to six 
feet apart. These experiments indicated that 




Fig. 27.— farmers' Favorite one-Horse Front rank Corn Drill. 

"it made little difference whether the rows 
were five feet or six feet apart or the checks 
5x3 feet or 6x3 feet."t 

At the New York experiment station numer- 
ous experiments with Waushakum corn, ex- 



* Bulletin No. 10, December, 1890, Georgia agricultural 
experiment station. 

t Second annual report South Carolina experiment sta- 
tions, 1889, p. 252. 



88 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

tending over four years, gave the most satis- 
factory yields where four to five stalks grew in 
hills 42 by 44 inches apart.* 

At the Illinois station elaborate experiments 
with dent corn have been carried on since 1888 
on number of kernels planted per hill and the 
distance apart of the hills. As a general thing 
the largest yields occurred from planting four 
kernels in a hill, and the average yield of 69.5 
bu. of air-dry corn was the greatest amount se- 
cured, and this bj^ putting four seeds in hills 
four feet apart.f 

At the Purdue Univei'sity station the rela- 
tion of thickness of planting to yield has been 
studied for eight years.:|: The average results 
of this work show no material difference in 
yields where stalks are practically 11, 12 or 14 
inches apart, but for distances exceeding this 
there is a gradual falling off in yield. 

In an interesting article on "Distance apart 
in planting corn," D. S. B. of Hartford, N. Y., 
says:§ 

"The distance, after years of experiments on average soils 
is, in my opinion, 33 inches or six to the rod. This with 
good tools renders cultivation easy and rapid, and with thi'ee 

* Annual reports New York agricultural experiment sta- 
tion for 1882, 1883, 1884, 1885. 

t Illinois agricultural experiment station Bulletin 31, 
March, 1894, p. 354. 

X Purdue University agricultural experiment station, Bul- 
letin 50, April, 1894, p. 46. 

§ Country Gentleman.Mavch IS, 1886. 



PLANTING. OV 

or foui- stalks in the hill covers the ground thoroughly, 
smothering, to a certain degree, weeds in the latter part of 
the season, and yielding maximum crops of grain and fodder. 
On some soils, with plenty of manure, 30 inches have given 
the best results, but not so invariably as 33 inches. At the 
latter distance the ears will be as sound and well developed 
as at a greater, but not so long; at the same time there will 
be a larger number, making the yield the same. The fodder 
is much superior to that grown at greater distance, stock 
consuming it with little waste, as it is fully developed ^nd if 
cut at the proper time and properly cured makes superior 
feed for cows." 

This probably applies to flint corn.. For the 
large western dent corn this distance is too 
close. 

If corn is to be planted in hills, in the North 
as a rule 36x42 inches will prove satisfactory 
for the large varieties; and if in drills, one 
kernel every foot in drills 42 inches apart. In 
the South these distances may be increased to 
suit conditions. 

Drills vs. hills.— Experimental work thus far 
conducted indicates that it makes but little 
difference, so far as yield is concerned, whether 
corn is grown in drills or in hills. Cleaner cul- 
tivation can be maintained with the hill sys- 
tem, as the soil may be stirred on all sides of 
the group of plants. A field of drilled corn, 
however, by going up and down between the 
rows, can be kept creditably free of weeds and 
may require less labor in hoeing than will that 
planted in hills. In New England and the 



90 



INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



Middle States most of the corn is grown in 
hills, but in the Central AVest and South the 
drill sj^stem is largely practiced. 




Morrow and Gardner"^ in 1893 grew seven 
half-acre plats of corn in hills and drills, and 

* Illinois agricultural experiment station. Bulletin 31, 
March, 1894. 



PLANTING. 



91 



found practically no difference in yields. This 
is in accordance with previous experience. 

At the Connecticut State experiment station 
corn was planted in drills four feet apart, with 
plants 10 inches apart in the row, and in hills 
48 by 40 inches four plants to the hill, and 48 
by 20 inches two plants per hill.* The drilled 
corn gave about six per cent more dry matter 
and a larger yield of each food ingredient. The 
composition of the grain was about the same, 
whether hill or drill grown. 

At the South Carolina stations, as already 
noted, it made no practical difference in yield 
whether the corn was planted in hills or drills. 




Fig. 29.— Challenge Corn Planter, 



Where land is fairly level, and the corn crop 
is an item of special importance on the farm. 



* Annual report for ^^ 
experiment station, p. 183 



1890 Connecticut State agricultural 



92 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

on well-prepared land the drill system will be 
most economical in rapidity of planting and 
cultivating. This means, of course, that a 
modern horse corn-planter shall be used. 

Depth of planting.— On warm, light soil, the 
seed should be planted deeper than where it 
is cold and retentive. The process of vegeta- 
tion is slower on cold than warm land, as the 
temperature is lower at the same depth below 
the surface. In summer if a drouth occurs the 
greater depth of planting on the light soil is 
beneficial to the growing crop. If a low river 
bottom is the corn field, shallow planting will 
do, as crops rarely suffer from lack of moisture 
in such a location. Generally speaking the 
writer believes one and a half inch a satisfactory 
depth to plant the seed. 

As bearing on this subject, the following 
table of results of experiments on depth of 
planting, conducted at the Ohio and Illinois ex- 
periment stations, is of interest." The Ohio 
experiments are average results of six years' 
work (1S83-1SS8) and those of Illinois of five 
years' duration (1SSS-1S93): 



* Bulletin No. 31, Illinois station, Mai*ch, 1894, and seventh 
annual report of Ohio station, for year 1888, p. 81. 



PLANTING. 



93 



YIELD IN BUSHELS PER ACRE FROM CORN PLANTED AT 
DIFFERENT DEPTHS. 



Year. 


Depth x>lanied in inches. 


Station. 


J. 


S. 


S. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


1883 


86.3 
36.9 
72.5 
58.9 
33.7 
96,2 


60.8 
37.4 
64.8 
41.3 
32.9 
93.0 


50.7 
41.6 
62.5 
32.3 

28.1 












1 884 




1885 




1880 




1887 

1888 


Ohio. 


Average 


64.0 


55.0 


43.0 












1888 

1889 

1890 

1892 

1893 


109.7 
83.0 

77.8 
05.8 
51.3 


84.4 
83.0 

72.8 
64.7 

48.7 


100.8 
51.0 
70.3 
62.7 
40.7 


88.0 
87.0 
58.4 
70.3 
40.0 


73.1 
81.0 
62.3 
56.5 
33.4 


60.3 
92.0 
60.3 

58.5 
29.0 


40 '.5 


■ Illinois. 


Average 


77.5 


71.5 


05.1 


68.8 


61.2 


60.0 


40.5 





At the Ohio station it is to be noted that the 
shallow plantings gave decidedly the best re- 
turns, and at the Illinois station the same prac- 
tically holds true. It is important to note, 
however, that the Ohio "corn planted three 
and four inches deep seemed to retain its vital- 
ity longer than that planted at less depth. The 
roots of the deep-planted corn were found, as 
we should naturally expect, much deeper in the 
soil than where the corn was planted more 
shallow; hence their opportunity to secure food 
and moisture was materially enhanced." The 
experiments in both States were conducted on 
deep, retentive soils. 



94 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

Listing.— The listing process is peculiarly a 
Western one, practiced on the big corn fields 
of Iowa, Kansas, N'ebraska, and the other great 
corn-growing States west of the Mississippi. In 
1886 the Farmers' Review published* a number 
of articles on listing, one of which, by Nelson 
Cowles of Dakota City, Neb., is so clear in ex- 
plaining the process that it is inserted here in 
the main: 

"The listing plow consists of a double share and mold 
board, or a right and left-hand plow, so joined together as to 




Fig. 30.— Listing Ploav. 

turn the soil both ways from a common center. Attached to 
the plow is a small subsoiler which loosens the soil in the 
bottom of the furrow. There are two classes of the different 
makes of listers, the single and the combined. When the 
single lister is used a common Hoosier drill follows the plow 
in the furrow and plants the corn. In the combined imple- 
ment a drill is attached directly to the plow, thereby saving 
the labor of an extra man and horse, and if the implement is 
properly constructed woi"ks equally as well. 

"There are methods of listing corn known as 'single' and 
'double' listing. In the single method work is not com- 



Farmers' Review, April 21, 1886. 



PLANTING. 95 

menced until planting time, when the lister is used in the 
hollows oi" middles between the old corn rows, or else on fall- 
plowed land, where the lister is run through the field from 
three to four feet apart, according to the soil, kind of corn 
planted, and judgment of the operator. The single method 
seems better adapted to sections of uncertain rainfall, being 
only one-half the labor of the double plow, which is as fol- 
lows: As soon as the stalks are cleared from the field in the 
spring, the listing plow, with di'ill I'emoved, is put at work 
splitting the old corn rows, thus filling the middles and form- 
ing a new i-idge therein. This preparation gives drainage 
and opens the soil to the warming influence of the sun. Then 
when planting time comes the drill is attached and the new 
ridge is divided, and the corn planted in the furrow thus 
made, the drill dropping the corn, one kernel in a place, from 
8 to 20 inches apart, as the operator may choose. By this 
plan more thorough tillage is secured. * * * 

"In cultivating after the corn is up the field is gone over 
with a planker, or what is far better, a smoothing harrow, 
which smoother the ridge and prepares the ground for the 
cultivatoi", which is used with but one shovel on each side of 
the row the first time and both shovels afterwards." 

Concerning the merits of listing there is 
much diversity of opinion. At the Kansas ex- 
periment station this practice has been com- 
mended on the basis of experimental returns.* 
Four plats listed, compared with four given 
surface planting, showed a small gain for the 
former — about four per cent. At the Minne- 
sota station results somewhat unfavorable to 
listing were secured in ISSS.f Fi-ancis Mc- 



* Kansas agricultural experiment station. Report for 
1889, p. 19. 

t Minnesota agricultural experiment station. Bulletin 
No. 5, 1SS8. 



INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 




PLANTING. 



97 



Kenzie, in the Farmers' Revieiv (April 21, 1886), 
states that he believes listing is of doubtful 
utility excepting in very sandy land where the 
rainfall is deficient. On ordinary prairie land 
he prefers the standard method. Another 
writer in this same journal expresses no faith 
in listing where there is abundant moisture 
and heavy soil. Prof. Georgeson of K-ansas 
says : "*' 

"Deep planting by the use of the lister is undoubtedly the 
best means to tide ovei* a drouth. Here in Kansas, where 
the rainfall is somewhat uncertain, the majority of the farm- 
ers list their corn, and in a dry season listed coi'n frequently 
yields a fair crop when surface-planted corn is ft failure. The 
roots of listed corn are not so near the surface and they there- 
fore do not feel the drouth so severely. For this same rea- 
son listed corn can be cultivated deeper with impunity. But 
the lister cannot be used to advantage everywhere, espe- 
cially whei'e the rainfall is usually sufficient to supply the 
needs of the crop. In such regions listed corn would be 
liable to be drowned out unless the soil was well drained: 
Again, on stiff clays listing cannot be practiced with the 
same advantage as it can on the black prairie mold." 

Mr. J. M. Boomer of Kansas says in the 
Breeder's Gazette (Feb. 13, 1895,) that he has 
l)een listing corn for fifteen years, and nine- 
tenths of the corn in his neighborhood is listed. 
He plants with a single-horse drill, dropping 
the kernels 15 inches apart. He prefers a sin- 
gle drill to a double one, because if the rows 
are not just the right distance apart the two- 

* Indiana Farmer, June 30, 1894. 
T 



98 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

horse drill does not drop in the middle of the 
furrow as a single one will. A man and a boy 
with four horses will list and plant seven acres 
per day. He prefers listing to plowing the 
ground and planting on top, as it is more easily 
done, the land is more easily cultivated, and 
consequently it is cheaper to raise it in this 
way. The corn stands the drouth better, does 
not blow down like top-planted corn, and yields 
more per acre. 

The advantages claimed for this process are: 
(1) economy of labor, (2) more thorough tillage, 

(3) ability of the crop to withstand drouth, and 

(4) increase of crop. 



HARVESTING. 99 



CHAPTER VIII. 



HARVESTING. 

The general results of investigation indicate 
that when the kernel on the ear has become 
glazed or hard on the surface, even though 
somewhat soft within, it contains as much nu- 
triment as it will possess at any time. Further 
ripening does not seem to materially affect the 
grain composition. 

Time for cutting. — In experiments at the 
Iowa station* five plats were cut at periods 
varying from Sept. 17 to Oct. 13. Plat I was 
cut when the kernels were "in the dough," not 
quite all dented, and leaves green; plat II, ker- 
nels well dented and leaves just beginning to 
dry; plat III. kernels ripened and blades about 
half dry; plat IV, kernels thoroughly ripened 
and blades and husk rapidly drying up; plat 
V, blades and husk nearly all dry. There was 
no noteworthy difference in crude protein in 
the dry matter between the first and last cut- 

* Bulletin 23, Iowa agricultural experiment station, 1893, 
pp. 874-880. 



100 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

ting. The widest variation in per cent of car- 
boh3'drates was less than one per cent, while 
there was a slight increase in fat from first to 
last cutting. In any case the feeding value of 
the corn does not seem to be affected. As might 
have been expected, the corn-fodder was in- 
jured in quality by delaying cutting after the 
grain was mature. There was a depreciation 
in crude protein in the fodder from 8.47 in plat 
I, to 4.05 per cent in plat V, and this loss in- 
creased from week to week. Fodder that was 
left uncut in the field till December w[is ma- 
terially damaged. There was also a great loss 
in fat, this per cent falling from 1.11 to 0.29 
per cent. There was something of an increase 
in crude fiber and carbohydrates, but this would 
not affect the loss of the more important food 
components. The largest amounts of dry mat- 
ter from an acre, 6,782 lbs. in fodder and ker- 
nels combined, was secured from the second 
cutting. 

Among the conclusions reached, as based on 
this study, are the following: 

"(1) The stover of a crop of corn seems to reach the high- 
est yield and the bsst condition for feeding at the stage of 
growth indicated by a well-dented kernel and the first dry- 
ing of the blades. (2) The grain of a crop of corn seems to 
reach the higlicst yield and the best condition for utility at 
the stage of growth indicated by a well-ripened ear and halT- 
dried blade, and the best time for securing the crop with 
reference to the highest utility of both corn and stover would 
be found at a stage of ripening between the above." 



HARVESTING. 101 

These general results and conclusions are 
such as have been accepted on the basis of pre- 
vious investigations. At the Kansas station 
corn cut in the milk stage (Aug, 20) yielded 
35.5 bu. grain and 2.4 tons of fodder per acre; 
in the dough (Aug. 28), 51 bu. grain and 2.4 
tons fodder; when ripe (Sept. 18), 74 bu. grain 
and 2.7 tons fodder.* These results agree with 
work at that station for the three years in suc- 
cession. 

Cutting for silage. — Where corn is cut for 
silage the crop should be harvested when well 
glazed or dented. At the Minnesota station, 
where corn grown for silage was cut from Sept. 
4 to 24, the dry matter in a dent variety in- 
creased from 11.4 to 19.7 per cent, and in a 
sweet variety from 9.1 to 13.3 per cent.f At 
the New York State station the dry matter per 
acre in B. & W. corn cut for silage Sept. 11 was 
5,004 lbs., and on Sept. 29, 5,660 lbs. In 1889, 
with King Philip corn, there was an increase 
in the total amount of dry matter and in the 
nutritive value of its constituents as the crop 
approached maturity.:|: At the Cornell Uni- 
versity station similar returns were secured 



* Kansas agricultural experiment station, Bulletin No. 30. 

t Minnesota agricultural experiment station, Bulletin 
No. 7. 

t New York State agricultural experimen t stal ion. Se vent h 
iiunual report, ]8S9, p. 88. 



102 



INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



from Pride of the North com." The Wiscon- 
sin station recommends the cutting of flint 
varieties for sihige when just past 
glazing and dent varieties when "well 
dented."! In an interesting experi- 
ment at the Pennsylvania station by 
Hunt and Caldwell, to ascertain the 
food value of corn-fodder cut at dif- 
ferent stages of ripeness, of three cut- 
tings (Sept. 1 and 2, Sept. 25 and Oct. 
7 and 8), the best results came from 
that cut Sept. 25. Cows fed on me- 
dium mature corn-fodder produced 
the largest quantity of butter-fat at 
the least cost, the late-cut fodder gave 
the next best returns, while the early- 
cut made the poorest showing.^ 

Methods of cutting. — At the pi-es- 
ent day most of the corn cut for the 
silo or for shocking is cut by hand 
with a corn knife. In the West a 
popular knife has a straight blade 
(see Fig. 32) about 20 inches long, 
two inches wide, and rather heavy on 
the back. In the East a knife wath slightly- 

*Cornell University agricultural experiment station, Bul- 
letin No. 16. 

t Wisconsin agricultural experiment station. Annual re- 
port for 1889, p. 126. 

JPennsylvania State college experiment station. Report 
for 1892, pp. 3+-43. 



HARVESTING. 103 

curved blade, set in the end of a short handle, 
blade and handle forming an obtuse angle, 
makes a favorite hand knife. Some people 
use a grass hook or sickle from preference. 
The straight-bladed corn knife is unsurpassed 
for rapid and effective hand work. 

Corn-harvesting macliinery.— Within a few 
years machines have been devised for cutting 
corn by horse power. One method has lieen to 
haul between two rows a drag with wings on 
one or both sides, to which knives are attached. 
The Buckeye machine (Fig. 33) is one of the 
most approved types of this class. It is carried 
on four wheels and is pulled by one horse. In 
the center of the machine is a tripod with a 
seat on which two men may sit, one on each 
end and back to back, each facing a row of corn 
and grasping the stalks as cut. When not in 
use the wings with knives may be laid up 
against the tripod. The knives adjust to leave 
stubble 6 to 14 inches long as desired. 

The self-binding form of the harvester, how- 
ever, promises to be the important one of the 
future. In the Bural New Yorker of June 20, 
1891, Prof. I. P. Roberts of Cornell University 
described amachine he devised for cutting and 
binding corn. This machine was improved by 
D. M. Osborn & Co. Since then a number of 
firms have placed self-binders on the market. 
The Doering Harvester Co. construct a machine 



104 



INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 




FIG 33.— Buckeye Coun liakvester. 



^ r .<-»^. 



m/ 















-fe^g;^. 



FIG. 33a.— The McCormick Corx Binder. 



HARVESTING. 



105 



which runs on two 38-iiich wheels. Two wide 
gatherer arms embrace a row of corn and guide 
the stalks to the point where they are cut while 
standing upright, being pressed against a long, 
sharp slanting knife. The corn is seized by 
the strong fingers of a rotary ledger plate and 
pressed against a long beveled knife. As soon 
as the corn is cut it is taken up by gatherer 
chains and laid on the binding deck, tassels 
backward and bound and discharged, the bun- 
dles being tossed off lengthwise between the 
wheels. 

The McCormick Harvesting Co. also make a 
self-binder (see Fig. 33 a) that is being used 
with much success. The stalks are cut off near 
the ground and carried in a vertical position to 
a modified form of the common self-binder, 
where they are bound in bundles with the 
butts square and in good shape for shocking. 
The bundles are thrown off to one side. Ordi- 
nary binding twine is used. The machine is 
adjustaljle to short or tall corn and may be 
tilted np or down to pick up sprawling stalks. 
The McCormick and Osborn machines in a trial 
at the Indiana experiment station did very sat- 
isfactory work. 

There has within the past year been a large 
sale of these self-binders. The Deering Co. 
state that they are unable to supply the de- 
mand, and the McCormicks have sold more than 



106 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

1G,000 machines since making their exhibit at 
the Columbian Exposition. 

Where corn culture is engaged in to an ex- 
tensive degree the self-binding harvester is a 
great labor-saving machine, while where less 
corn is grown the sijnpler knife harvester can 
be used to advantage. 

In hauling silage corn or fodder a low-down 
wagon is a great improvement over the high 
wiieels. Fig. 34, re-engraved from the Count nj 
Gentleman, represents a method of cariying a 
load close to the ground. It is made by insert- 
ing a reach 20 feet long, made of a round pole 




bending down with a foot curve. Closely under 
the axles two stiff timbers over 20 feet long are 
chained to the axles, and cross pieces 7 feet 
long are spiked on them to support the two 
broad l)oai-ds or planks which are outside the 
wheels. A platform is thus formed 7 feet wide, 
over 14 feet long, only a foot above ground. 
Small wheels may also be bought for common 
axles, replacing high wheels. 

Shocking the corn. — The number of hills 
or amount of rows which may be placed in one 
shock to best advantage depends upon the 
class of corn, whether large or small. If grown 



HARVESTING. 



107 



in hills, and of mediuni-sizecl plants, ten hills 
square (100 hills) Avill make a good shock. Of 
smaller corn, 144 hills may be pat into a shock; 
while of very large corn 81 hills makes a plenty. 
Yet there is a difference of opinion on this sub- 
ject and many place over 100 hills of fairly 
large corn in one shock. However, a medium- 
sized shock cures out more rapidly than a large 
one and the ear becomes fit for storing at an 
earlier date. 

Where corn is grown in drill rows about 40 
feet each of eight rows will give material 
enough for a good shock. A medium-sized 
shock should have a circumference at its base 
of al)out 25 feet. Anything much over that 
might be termed a large shock. 

Where wheat is to be sown in the corn rows 
the shocks should be larger and further apart. 
Under such circumstances they should be as 
lai'ge and as far apart as economy of labor in 
construction will permit. Waldo F. Brown, 
in writing of his new method of shocking on 
wheat seeded corn land, says:"^' 

"We cut the corn and put 10 rows in a shock row, but only 
eight hills the other way, and in a few days when the corn 
has dried out so as to reduce the weight about one-half we 
carry one shock from each side and set around the middle 
one, which gives us 240 hills to a shock and makes our shock 
rows 30 I'ods apart. We do this handling in the morning 
when the dew makes the fodder tough to handle, and as the 

* Farmers' Bevieiv, Sept. 26, 18S8. 



IDS INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

fodder is partly cured we can make the shocks this large 
without danger of their moulding. If wheat is not sown I 
prefer 100-hill shocks and husk them as soon as cured." 

Careful shocking necessary. — In shocking 
it is important that the shock be set erect and 
held firmly in place until husking, so as to keep 
the contents dry from rain and not retard 
proper curing of both fodder and grain. A 
shock that has been blown over and well 
soaked with water is materially damaged. If 
the shock is properly placed about one uncut 
hill, or two hills with plants bent part way 




Fig. 35.— Corn Uoksk. 

over and twisted together, it should not blow 
down. Care should be taken to place an equal 
amount of stallvs on each side of the shock. If 
the central hill is cut a corn horse may be used 
to advantage. This is made by taking a piece 
of timber 2x4 inches by 12 feet, on one end of 
which are nailed two legs about three and one- 
half feet long. An inch hole is bored about 
five feet from the raised end, through which is 
loosely inserted, horizontally, a round cross 
piece. An old broomstick will do nicel.y. 
Charles E. Benton, writing of the corn horse, 



HARVESTING. 109 

sa3^s:'^• "Where thej^ [the legs] join the main 
piece, as shown at a in Fig. 35, 1 have nailed on 
some light strips in such a way as to form a 
little cage or box in which corn ties are carried, 
each one with its string snngly wound on its 
block.'*' The stalks are placed against the corn 
horse, when the cross stick forms four corners, 
and the shock is built here. When it is com- 
pleted the cross stick is pulled out, after which 
the horse is withdrawn. 

Tying the shocks. — After the shock is formed 
it is tied near the top. A rope with a pulley 
on one end may be used to advantage for draw- 
ing the cornstalks together tightly near the 
top, aftei- which the tie may be placed on the 
shock. Rye straw cut in the blooui makes ex- 
cellent tie bands. Cornstalks themselves are 
too l)rittle. Binding twine is strong enough, 
but may be cut by mice. Tarred twine is 
strong and is not cut by mice, and may be 
rapidly tied so as not to slip. When economy 
is to be considered rye straw is about as satis- 
factory a cheap tie as can be secured. In 
Western New York willow twigs are popular 
bands. 

Stacking.— To stack to best advantage, or to 
handle on tlie wagon or elsewhere, the corn 
should be placed in small bundles and tied at 
the center after curing in the shock. If string 

'''American Agriculturist, Sept. 1, 1894. 



110 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

is to be used for binding it will expedite work 
to cut it into suitable lengths before getting 
into the field. 

The stack should be located in a convenient 
and well-drained place and have a foundation 
of straw, rails or boards, to keep the fodder 
dry. The base of the stack should have a di- 
ameter slightly less than the length of two 
bundles of stalks laid end to end. The butt 
ends of the stalks should form the exteri.or of 
the stack and the center should always be from 
two to three feet higher than the outside for 
that layer of corn. The diameter in well-made 
stacks slightly increases up to a height of six 
or eight feet, after which it may contract until 
topped off. As the stack is built bundles are 
laid crosswise over each layer about and at the 
center and over the ends of the bundles form- 
ing the outer layers, to keep the whole well 
bound together and to maintain a sufficient 
slope to the stalks forming the outer circum- 
ference of the stack. When the top is to be 
formed the stalks may be gradually drawn in 
and all the bundles placed in layers sloping 
from center to without, so as to furnish good 
protection for the fodder below. Sometimes 
the stalks are laid up to a pole five or six feet 
long, inserted in the top of stack, to which the 
bundles may be fastened. Such a covering is 
not easily displaced by the wind. 



HARVESTING. Ill 

Small stacks are preferable to large ones — 
from 50 to 100 shocks to each one. Such a size 
can be handled to better advantage than a large 
one, whether the fodder is fed in field or 
stable. 

Pulled fodder is especially prepared in the 
South, This operation is well described by 
"H." in the Coiintrij Gentleman of Feb. 5, 1885: 

"There are usually two stalks in a hill of corn; the blades 
are gathered as high as the operator can reach, from both 
stalks, and thrust between them to remain until dry enough 
to bind into bundles, which are as large as the blades will 
reach around and tie. This tying is done very late in the 
evening after the dew begins to fall, when the corn blades, 
thoroughly dry, are just moist enough not to crumble. The 
fodder has then to be packed [-carried] by hand, either to the 
ends of the rows, where it can be hauled to the barn, or if 
the rows are very long, to some central point to be stacked, 
not in loose leaves, but in bundles." 

This method of securing fodder is becoming 
less and less practiced in the South. The cost 
of fodder so secured is too great and valuable 
faod material is lost in the stalks left in the 
field. As a practical business matter the 
Southern farmer should cut his corn within six 
inches of the ground and cure it in the shock, 
as is done elsewhere. The practice of topping 
corn is equally as undesirable as pulling. 

Husking. — In the eastern United States 
where the weather is somewhat uncertain in 
the fall, and snow comes earl.y, the corn is usu- 
ally husked as soon as dry enough. The ears 



112 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

are often pulled irom st;ilks with husks on and 
carried to the barn, where they may be husked 
at leisure, or stalks with ears on are placed in 
shelter, with the husking to follow later. In 
the great corn-growing States, where less rain 
occurs in the fall than in the East, held husk- 
ing is more easily accomplished. Where the 
corn is not cut and shocked, deep box wagons 
drive through the immense fields when the 
corn is well dried, and the ears are pulled from 




Fig aij.— Finger Husking Pi\. 

the husks and thrown into the wagon and con- 
veyed directly to crib or market. Where the 
corn is shocked, after curiug the ear is husked 
and usually thrown into heaps in between the 
rows, or into wagons, and the stalks placed back 
into the shock. Several average-sized shocks 
of husked stalks are generally combined to 
make one very large one. 

Dispensing with husking —In an article in 
the Rvral Neio-Yorher published about 1SS8 
Prof. Sanborn favors dispensing with the husk- 
ing process, on the basis that it involves a three- 
fold cost, viz.: 

"First, labor, which is a variable amount, depending upon 



HARVESTING. 



113 



whether the fodder is saved and the method by which it is 
saved. If the fodder is not saved the ccst will be three 
cents a bushel for husking and cribbing, and on the assump- 
tion that corn sells for 30 cents a bushel, * * * then the 
food must be 10 per cent more effective simply to repay us 
for the cost. If the fodder is saved the cost of husking will 
be doubled and 20 per cent will have to be added to the 
efficacy of the food to balance the cost of the process, and 
more must be expected if a profit is to be received. The 
second additional cost will be the loss of leaves, as the result 
of husking in the field after the fodder is partly dried. This 
loss is a material one and involves the most digestible part 
of the food. It is difficult to estimate the value of this cost, 
but when added to the third loss, or the risk of the influence 
of rain with its leaching effect on the fodder through neces- 
sary delay in housing the fodder while husking the corn, it 
is safe to say that $1 per acre is involved, or two to three 
cents a bushel of corn.'" 




FIG. 37— Hand husking pin. 



There are conditions on the farm where it 
would be wise to profit by the above arguments, 
especially where steers are to be fed in the feed 
lot, to be followed by hogs, or where the entire 
cured plant is to be run through the feed cut- 



114 



INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



ter. However, where grain is to be sold in the 
market, and certain classes of feeding are to be 
done, husking is necessary. 




Husking machines.— For several years husk- 
ing machines have been manufactured that do 



HARVESTING. 



115 



a very satisfactory class of work. These are 
quite expensive and are usually owned by 
parties who go from place to place husking the 
crop at so much per bushel and shredding or 
cutting the fodder at the same time. The Key- 
stone husker and shredder (Fig. 38) and the St. 
Albans shredder (Fig. 39) are two of the prom- 
inent shredders on the market, and the manu- 
facturers of the Keystone thus explain its 
operations: 

"The stalks are fed to the machine with the ears of corn 
on. The feed rollers crush the stalks thoroughly and pass 
them on to the knives, which cut them into fodder, or to the 
shredder head, which tears the fodder into fine shreds, leav- 
ing it in very much the same condition as hay. The fodder 
elevator then carries it to the mow of the barn or to the shed 
or stack. The feed rollers do not crush the ears of corn, but 
simply snap them off the stalks. The ears drop to the husk- 
ing rollers beneath the feeding platform, where the husks 
and silks are taken off. The husks and silks are passed out 
with the fodder and the eai's of corn drop to an elevator 
which delivers them to the wagon or crib." 

This machine is a great invention, and in 
large corn-growing districts should be an im- 
portant factor in the economy of handling and 
saving the crop. The husking is done as well 
as is usually done by hand. 

Shredding. — The shredded fodder will keep 
satisfactorily in the mow if well dried when 
put in, but if it is damp it wall mold. Care 
should be taken to avoid shredding damp fod- 
der. This material is very valuable for feed 



116 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

and is being regularly sold on the market. At 
Lafayette, Ind., the writer has purchased it at 
the feed store for $5 per ton, while in some 
other places it fetches $8. In view of the fact 
that so much corn-fodder goes to waste in the 
field the shredders offer a valuable medium of 
rescuing it and placing it on the market in a 
desirable form for economical feeding. Says 
the Breeder's Gazette (Aug. 15, 1894): ''That 
the invention of the shredder opens up a mar- 
ket for an almost unlimited quantity of fodder, 
shredded and baled (see Fig. 40), for city trade, 
is beyond all question. It will soon be quoted 
regularly in city feed stores * * '" and we 
are informed that a bright, well-cured quality 
of shredded fodder has sold in bales at city feed 
stores at $8 per ton." 

Testimony concerning shredded fodder. — 
During the spring of 1895 the Breedei-'s Gazette 
published many interesting letters from exten- 
sive corn growers and stockmen who have 
shredded their dry corn fodder. The universal 
testimony seems favorable to this method of 
preparing the dry plant for feeding. The shred- 
ded material may be stacked in the lot, after 
the manner of stacking hay, though it is prefer- 
able to place it under shelter. 

The following evidence is abstracted from 
the various communications in the Gazette as 
presenting valuable information on a compar- 



HARVESTING. 



117 



atively new iirocess of preparing rough food: 
Wullf Bros, of Nebraska say: "Corn to be 
shredded ought to be cut jnst as soon as it is 




out of milk, and it Avill shred and handle the 
best if it is left iu the field. It keeps all right 
if ricked outside Avith shed roof over it, but it 
will heat and mould if not bone dry if it is x^ut 



118 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

in barn and in great bulk." H. L. Buscliling of 
Missouri thinks that if entirely dry when shred- 
ded it will not mould if put in barn in great 
bulk. With him the shredder has given entire 
satisfaction. Samuel Senneff of Illinois writes: 
"I have stacked it outside and it kept well. It 
packed so solid the water did not run into it. 
I would prefer having it under roof, for it is 
easier to handle during the winter storms." In 
reply to the question, "Is it not likely to mould 
and spoil if put in great bulk?" Mr. Senneff 
says: "It will not if it is fully cured and dry 
when shredded. I have put the fodder from 
40 acres in a barn and it has kept well. I am 
now feeding to my stock fodder which was cut 
last October and it is bright and dry." G. H. 
Robinson of Vermont cuts his corn when ripe, 
shocks it and lets it stand till the fodder is dry. 
Then he husks it, after which the stalks are 
drawn to the barn, shredded, and placed in the 
mow. He has never had any mould or spoil, 
and the larger quantity he gets together the 
better it keeps. 

The complaints of this shredded material be- 
ing spoiled by moulding are very rare, and it is 
generally agreed that if the stalks are fairly 
dry when shredded they will not spoil in the 
heap. While heating sometimes occurs, in the 
experience of the writers the effects do not ap- 
pear detrimental. In no case is a record given 



RAK VESTING. 119 

I 



of spoiifaneous coiiiijustioii occnrriiig from 
• )vri--li(>al iiig. 

'J'lie indications aro that the shredding of dry 




cofn-fodder will liecoinoa popular and econom- 
ical method of preparing it for winter feeding. 



120 INDIAN CORN ClJl/rURE. 

The shrucMors liainlle from three to ten acres 
of corn a day, according to size of machine and 
character of crop. The prices of shi-edders are 
listed at |S0 to $180, and of huskersand shred- 
ders C()nil)ined at $l.')0 to $400. 

Threshing corn is frecpiently practiced where 
threshing machines are common and the crop 
is large. A common threshing machine is used. 
VV. J. Bingham of South Dakota says:* 

"I huvc threshed it for the past five years, more or less, 
using a Westinghouse Separator. It is just as easy to thresh 
as wheat. Leave the cylinder the same as for wheat, and 
take out all the concave teetli but one single row, putting in 
blank concaves or boards to fill out. Run the macliine about 
half as fast as for threshing wheat; tliis will crack the corn 
some but will not hurt it for feeding purposes. I think tliis 
is a superior way of handling corn, especially where you use 
a binder and bind corn the same as wheat. The fodder is 
almost equal to that cut by a fodder cutter, and will kt.ei) 
here in Dakota in stack without being covered with anything, 
but where they have more rain top with marsh hay and it 
will keep all winter." 

Where threshing is practiced the corn niust 
be vveil dried in the held, else the grain will 
heat in the bin or i)ile. 

* Breeder's Gazette, Oct. 10, 1S9J. 



ROTATION OF CROPS. 121 



CHAPTER IX. 



ROTATION OF CROPS. 

Numerous factors demonstrate the necessity 
of growing different crojjs on the same land 
during a period of years. Agricultural plants 
differ in their root development and conse- 
quently in their feeding capacity. The clover 
plant is a vigorous feeder and sends its roots 
over quite a range of territory^ while the sugar 
beet develops its roots to a much more limited 
extent. 

Rotation rests the land.— We know that 
rotating crops rests the land for some reasons 
which cannot be entirely explained. Farmers 
know that red clover can be grown satisfac- 
torily only a year or two on the same field, 
when the land becomes what is commonly 
termed "clover sick." Says Sir J. B. Lawes:* 

"Land will also become sick of any other leguminous ci'op 
if grown too often; but it is a most singular fact that where 
one leguminous crop ceases to grow another will thrive. We 
had a remarkable instance of this in one of our fields which 
was bean sick, and as all our endeavors to grow this crop 
were in vain we at last decided to give up the attempt, and 



* Country Gentleman^ March 12, 1885. 



122 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

in place of the beans we sowed barley and red clover together. 
The result was that the red clover sown with the barley was 
so luxuriant as greatly to interfere with its gi'owth, and this 
too upon land where we had been tidying to grow beans with- 
out manure for 30 years. In spite of our having grown a 
leguminous crop something had accumulated in the soil 
which was more favorable to the growth of another legu- 
minous plant than to that of a cereal crop." 

Plants also differ in use of ingredients of soil 
fertility. Tobacco is notably a potash feeder, 
while the clovers use comparatively more 
nitrogen than phosphoric acid or potash. This 
being the case, one kind of plant food might 
be accumulating in the soil while a crop was 
being grown upon it which made only a sliglit 
drain upon that particular element. If no ma- 
nure was put upon the land it is plain, in view 
of these facts, that the land could be cropped 
to better advantage by the rotation system 
than by continuously growiug the same class of 
plants on it. 

An important factor in rotation also bears 
on the plant food left in the roots of the crop 
last removed from the field. Gulley states'*' 
that when either red clover or cowpeas are 
grown on land of average fertility in the South 
after cutting off the crop for hay the stubble 
and roots on an acre of soil contain as much 
nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash that may 
become available to the next crop as a dressing 



* First Lessons in Agriculture, 1892, p. 85. 



ROTATION OF CROPS. 123 

of 300 to 600 lbs. of cotton-seed meal, or 500 
lbs. of a standard fertilizer. 

Importance of rotation recognized.— In the 
rotation S3^stem the fact must not be lost sight 
of tha.t the soil may be kept free of weeds to 
the best advantage. Grass land, followed by a 
hoed crop, permits clean cultivation. 

The importance of rotation is recognized to- 
day by the practical farmer, even though he 
may not understand the ^Drinciples underlying 
the practice. 

In experiments at the Purdue University 
station very notable gains are shown in favor 
of rotation as applied to Indian corn. 

An experiment was begun in 18S0 to com- 
pare different systems of cropping without 
using manures. On one series of plats grain is 
grown in succession year after year, or two 
crops alternating with each other, these crops 
being corn, oats, wheat. On another series of 
plats the same crops have been grown in rota- 
tion with clover or timothy. The yields of 
corn on the two series for 1893, and the average 
yields for the last six years, as given by Prof. 
W. C. Latta, are as follows : * 

1893. A verage for 6 years. 

Crops grown in rotation 22.2 bu. 31.99 bu. 

Grain crops only grown 15.1 bu. 27.46 bu. 

Gain from rotation 7.1 bu. 4.53 bu. 

* Purdue University agricultural experiment station, Bul- 
letin 50, April, 1894. 



124 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

As no manure was used the yields are natur- 
ally small, but the balance in favor of the ro- 
tation is a large percentage. 

For 18 years rotation tests have been con- 
ducted on corn at the Illinois station." Where 
corn, oats and clover were grown in rotation a 
decided gain in yield of corn was secured over 
those plats which did not receive a dressing of 
commercial fertilizer, that were not in rotation. 

Systems of rotation. — There are numerous 
rotations inchiding corn which are satisfactory. 
On the Purdue University farm a rotation of 
corn, oats, wheat, clover sown on wheat in 
early spring of third year, and cropped fourth 
and fifth years, proves quite satisfactory. To 
favor large cropping stable manure is well dis- 
tributed over the clover stubble before it is 
plowed in. The corn has a fertile field and its 
cultivation cleans it of weeds in good shape for 
the crops which follow that receive no hoeing. 
The oat plant is a gross feeder, and following 
after the corn it finds the ground well enriched 
with the available food in the roots and stubble 
and the manure previously applied. 

For the Southern States where red clover 
will grow, Gulley recommendsf the following 
five-year rotation: Corn; clover on corn stub- 

* Illinois agricultural experiment station, Bulletin No. 
30, p. 357. 

t First Lessons in Agriculture, 1892, p. 86. 



ROTATION OP CROPS. 125 

ble in spring; clover; oats followed by cow- 
peas the same year; cotton. Either the cotton 
or oats may be left out, and a four-year rota- 
tion be adopted. 

To secure the most economical and profit- 
able cropping of the farm the practice of a 
judicious rotation is absolutely essential. This 
fact can easily be demonstrated in noting the 
practice of successful farmers. 



126 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



CHAPTER X. 



INSECTS. 

The iDiu'iDOse of this chapter is to describe 
briefly some of the more injurious insects affect- 
ing the corn plant or its seed and to suggest 
remedies with which to suppress them. The 
descriptions and remedies are those given by 
economic entomologists of high standing, and 
more especially by Prof. F. M. AVebster, ento- 
mologist of the Ohio experiment station; Dr. J. 
A. Lintner, New York State entomologist, and 
Prof. S. A. Forbes, Illinois State entomologist. 
From a valuable paper by Webster on " Insects 
Affecting the Corn Crop" ''• numerous important 
descriptive abstracts were made. The State 
reports of Forbes and Lintner were also freely 
used. 

Injuring seed after planting. — The seed corn 
fly {Phorhia fusicejjs, Zetty). This is a yellow- 
ish-white, footless maggot, about one-fourth 
inch long, blunt at posterior and pointed at 
anterior end. It feeds on the substance of the 

* Report Indiana State Board of Agriculture, 1885, pp. 
180-216. 



INSECTS. 127 

swollen kernel in the ground. It has not proved 
very destructive. A tarring of the seed before 
planting will doubtless keep off the maggot. 

Wire worms {Elateriche). These are the larvae 
(grubs) of the common snapping beetles, of 
which there are many species. These worms 
(Fig. 41) are greatly 
abundant only in new- 
ly-plowed meadows. fig. 4i.-wihh wokm. 
They eat into and destroy the kernels of corn 
or eat off the germinating shoot or roots. 
Lintner says the best preventive in infested 
fields is starving out by crops 
of buckwheat or iDeas."*' Fall 
plowing of sod land is thought 
desirable by mau^y farmers, the 
grubs being disturbed and 
frozen out. Fig. 42 is of the False wire worm 
(lulus). 

Affecting the roots.— Corn jjlant louse (Aphis 
maidis, Fitch). Small, pale green lice, covered 
with a whitish mealy substance, feed below, the 
surface on the juices of the corn root. Large 
numbers of these will be found about the roots 
of one plant. Later in the season great num- 
bers of dull black and green aphis are found on 
the leaves, husks and tassels of the plant, which 
are the same insects in a different stage of de- 

* Eighth repoi-t on the injurious and other insects of the 
State of New York for the year 1891, p. 283. 




128 



INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



velopment. Ants are nearly alwaj^s found 
associated with the aphis, they feeding on a 
liquid known as honey-dew, which exudes from 
the body of the louse. There seems to be no 




Fig. 43.— Corn-Leap Plant Louse, Ap/iis mdidis, Forbes. A. winged female. 
£. Wingless female that gives birili to young. C Pupa. (After Forbes.) 

effective method at present known for destroy- 
ing these lice on a practical basis. 

Corn root ivorm (Diahrotica longicornis, Say). 
The developed beetle is green or yellowish- 
green, about a quarter of an inch long, and re- 
sembling in form the striped squash beetle. 
From the latter part of July till the blossom- 
ing period is past the beetle feeds on the pollen 
and silk. When ready to lay her eggs the 
female descends to the ground about the roots 
of the corn and deposits a considerable number 
of minute white eggs. From these the next 



INSECTS. 



129 



spring hatch out minute, active j^vubs, which 
begin to feed at once on the corn roots, if a new 
crop has been planted on old ground. The 
worms follow these small roots to larger ones, 
into which they burrow, often to the base of 
the plant. AVhen full grown the worms are 
nearly white, a trifle less than half an inch 
long and about the size of ordinary wheat 
straw just below the head. AVhen they reach 
full growth the worms leave the root, crawl to 
one side in the soil, make a cell there, and 
transform into Avhite pupa (grub stage), which 
soon changes into the beetle form. 

This insect has done great damage in our 
corn fields, especially in the Central AVest. In 
18S5 Prof. Webster noted damage to the corn 
crop of Moses Fowler of Lafayette, Ind., 
amounting to 15 per cent of the entire crop on 
10,000 acres— a total loss of about $16,000. --^ 

A rotation of crops is a satisfactory method 
for preventing damage from this insect, as has 
been demonstrated on a large scale. Wheat or 
oats jnay be substituted for the corn crop, as 
this insect cannot secure food from their roots, 
they being too woody and tough. The first 
crop of corn on grass or clover sod is not usu- 
ally injured by this pest, although numerous 
cases have occurred where the corn was injured 
on clover sod. 



^Report Indiana Board of Agriculture for 1885, p. 188. 



130 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

White grub {Lachnosterua fiisca, Frohl). This 
is the larva of the common brown May beetle 
or June bug. The beetles deposit small, whit- 
ish eggs about the roots of grass which in about 
a month hatch into small, brown-headed grubs 
that feed on the roots about them. During the 
second year the grubs work near the surface 
and reach their full growth during the spring 
of the third or fourth year. They are most 
abundant in old grass lands, and when this is 
plowed for one or two seasons may work great 
damage to the corn which may be planted on it. 
This is a difiicult insect to exterminate.- Fall 
plowing is no doubt advantageous. Pasturing 
land in the late summer and fall with pigs will 
be a means of getting rid of many, then plow- 
ing during the late fall or spring. 

Affecting the stalk.— C?<7^ worms. Cut worms 
are of numerous kinds, all of which belong to 
one special group — the 
]<[octuid(i\ The follow- 
ing are characteristics 
common to nearly all 
the species, according to 
Lintner.* 

FIG. H -GLASSV CHT WORM. Larva ^hCU f ul 1 grO WU, CUt 

otnadenaclevasutmx. (After Uiley.) ^yoj-j^ig mCaSUre frOUl 

an inch and a fourth to nearly two inches in 

* Eighth report on the injurious and other insects of the 
State of New York for the year ls91, p. 281. 




INSECTS. 131 

length. They have 16 feet, of which the three 
anterior pairs (true legs) are pointed, and the 
five remaining pairs (prolegs) stout, blunt, and 
armed with minute hooks for clasping. In 
form they are stout, tapering slightly toward 
the extremities. In appearance they are usu- 
ally dull colored, greasy looking, dingy brown, 
gray or greenish, with some light and dark 
longitudinal lines, and sometimes W'ith oblique 
dashes. They have a large, shining, red or red- 
dish-brown head. The first ring or collar bears 
a darker-colored, shining, horny plate, as does 
also the last one, known as the anal pkite. The 
body is never hairy, but the several rings have 
upon each six or eight small, blackish dots or 
humps, from each of 
which a short hair is 
given out. 

The cut worms do 
most of their feeding at 
night, daring the day 
in Fig. 44. (After Kiiey.) bciug hiddcn beucath 
stones, sticks and rubbish. Some cut worms 
feed on the parts of the young plant- above 
ground and some below. 

The parents of cut worms are moths. These 
deposit their eggs on a plant near by the feed- 
ing ground as a rule, although they are also 
placed on fruit trees. The eggs soon hatch, 
when the young worms drop to the ground 




Fig. 45.— moth op Cut Worm shown 



132 



INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



and enter it, where they feed. Later they go 
deeper into the soil and remain there over 
winter. In spring they come to the top soil 
again and feed. In a few weeks they become 
full-grown worms, when they make cells in the 
soil, in which they locate and where they 
undergo a change to pupa, and soon after de- 
velop into the moth. 




FiQ 46.— Moth OF Dingy Cutworm a gratis subgotliica. (After lUey ) 

About 12 kinds of cut worms are especially 
prevalent on corn. On new sod ground the cut 
worm is most frequently found. 

Numerous methods have been tried to pre- 
vent the ravages of cut worms, but as a rule 
they are more or less unsatisfactory. Lintner 
recommends the use of a tablespoonful of salt 
scattered over each hill of corn.''^ He says this 
method has been used with considerable suc- 
cess. The explanation of this protection is 
that the salt dissolves and is taken up by the 
roots into circulation and makes the food un- 
palatable to the worms. It appears to the 

* Eighth report, etc, p. 239. 



INSECTS. 



133 



writer that great care should be used in apply- 
ing this salt, as too much will certainly kill the 
young plants. Li ntner also notes" that a gen- 
tleman who soaked his corn in copperas water 
before planting was not troubled hy the worms. 
A bushel of coi-n is placed in a tub and covered 
with water, and a pound or pound and a half 
of copperas water added^ which has been dis- 
solved in warm water. 
This is stirred among 
the seed, which are al- 
lowed to soak 24 to 30 
hours. 

Prof. J. B. Smith 
recommends the use 
of kainit (a potash 
salt) to prevent cut- 
worm ravages.-}- Ex- 
periments of his gave 
favorable results. The 

Fig 47.— Gueasyou BlackCut Woum, ■< • • i i i n i 

Agrotis ypsHon, H.itt. a, cut worm; Kainit SllOUlU be 
h, head of worm from front; c, moth. 

(After Kiiey.) broadcastcd over the 

field just before planting, as in spreading fer- 
tilizer, for such it also is. Riley, Fletcher and 
others have recommended the poisoning of 
green grass or clover and placing it in bunches 
about the fields. The cut worm will be killed 




* Eighth report, etc., p. 239. 

t Bulletin 75, Now Jersey agricultural experiment station, 
Nov 7, 1890. 



134 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

by eating the poisoned grass. This should be 
done just at nightfall. 

Stalk hover {Gortyna nitela, Guen). A full- 
grown worm is a little over an inch long, l^luish- 
brown above, with three wdiite lines on the 
back, the central one continuous, the others 
interrupted for a considerable space at the 
middle.-'^ This worm is the product of eggs 
laid by a moth on grass or early-planted grain. 
When the eggs hatch the w'orm crawls down 




± 2 

FIG 48.— STALK BouER, <?o;-<y7ia?ii7eto, Guen. 7, moth; 2, worm. (After Rlley.) 

into the stem of the plant. To prevent their 
ravages, Webster recommends f one ounce of 
pyrethrum powder in two gallons of water, or 
one part crude carbolic acid to 100 parts water. 
Spray or sprinkle the young plants so this 
liquid will run down among the unfolded 
leaves. 

Chinch hug {Blissus leucopterus, Say). This is 
a true bug that is about three-twentieths of an 
inch long and one-third its length in breadth. 

*F M.Webster: Bulletin 3, Purdue University, April, 
1885. 

t Report Indiana State Board of Agriculture, 1885, p. 192. 



INSECTS. 



135 



The body is black and slightly hairy as seen 
under a microscope. The wing covers are 
white with a sub-triangular black spot in the 
middle of the outer margin of each and a few 
black veins upon their middle. The feet, claws 
and enlarged ends of the antennae are black, 
while elsewhere the antenna3 and legs are dull 
3^ellow. 

The chinch bag deposits at least two sets of 
eggs, one in the fall upon the crown or the 
roots of plants, and another in spring. The 
eggs are very minute and one 
bug deposits about 500 at inter- 
vals extending over several 
weeks. The eggs hatch in al)out 
two weeks. At first the larva 
is pale yellow, but changes to 
red, except the two anterior 
segments of the body, and the 
T legs, which are yellowish. After 

FIG. 49 -ADm.T CHINCH thc first uioult it becomes bright 
sa'^y^'fAfterKueyT"*' rcd wltli a pale baud across the 
middle of the body. After the second moult 
the wing pads begin to show and the general 
color gets darker, with the pale band still con- 
spicuous. A third moult develops the pupa 
with distinct wing pads, the anterior portions 
being dark brown and the abdominal portions 
grayish, except the tip, which is brown. It 
takes from five to seven weeks to change from 




136 



INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



the egg to the perfect insect where winter does 
not interfere."' 

When winter comes the insects seek shelter 
under sticks, stones, leaves and rubbish of all 
sorts. 

This is one of the most destructive insects, 
especially as applied to wheat and oats, and 
also; though in a lesser degree, to corn. Mr. L. 




FIG 50.— Young of Chinch Hug; a and 6, etrga: c, youne; e. larva after first 
moult; /, larva after second moult; ijr, pupa; A, leg of pupa: i, beak. (After 
Ktley.) 

0. Howard, now United States Entomologist, 
in 1887 estimated the losses from chinch bugs 
in nine States to be $60,000,000. Walsh, in 
1864, estimated the loss in Illinois for that year 
caused by this bug to be $73,000,000, while 
Shinier claimed that during the same year 
three-fourths of the wheat and one-half of the 
corn of the Mississippi valley w^as destroyed by 
it, involving a loss of $100,000,000.1 

* Abstracted from an article oil the chinch bug- in the 
second report of the New York State Entomologist for 1885. 

t Second i-eport New York State Entomologist, 1885, p. 
166. 



INSECTS. 



137 



Many different methods have heen attempted 
to prevent the ravages of this insect, but 
each one is more or less unsatisfactory. The 
area grown to wheat should l)e diminished. 
All trash about infested fields should be as 
fully burned as possible in fall^ winter or 
spring. Insecticides may be used to advantage. 
Kerosene emulsion, diluted to about five per 
cent, is perhaps the most effective insecticide. 
To make the emulsion take one-half pound of 
common soap and dissolve in one gallon of hot 
water, after which add to the boiling mixture 
two gallons of kerosene and churn the mixture 
violently for about five minutes with a hand 
force pump. This may be diluted with water 
to make 30 gallons for use. This seems to be 
about the best of the insecticides for chinch 
bugs. 

For some years past experiments have been 
conducted to propagate among chinch bugs a 
fatal disease. A large amount of work has 
been done. by Prof. F, H. Snow of Kansas Uni- 
versity in this direction. A peculiar fungi be- 
iug placed in contact with the bug soon causes 
its death. Healthy bugs may be inoculated 
with the disease and set at liberty in the in- 
fested fields and may spread the disease with 
such great rapidity as to practically annihilate 
the bugs. A perfect epidemic of the disease 
occurs. This fungus may be propagated and 



138 



INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



distributed over the country, as done by Prof. 
Snow, and used to inoculate bugs where neces- 
sar}^ The work of Snow has been most en- 
coui-aging.* 

Clean cultivation is most essential in any 
case, and Forbes recommends heavy fertiliza- 
tion of lands as an additional safeguard.j 

Cor7i bill bugs (Si^licuoiihorus). There are a 
number of forms of these bugs which are known 
as snout beetles or bill bugs. They are all 
medium-sized, dark-colored insects. AVith most 




Fig b\.— Con^ Bii.Ij Bug, Sphenophorusrobiistus.Uotn. n. larva; 6, pupa; 
c, beetle, back, view; rf, beetle, side view. (After Riley.) 

species the adult insects sink the beak into the 
stem of the young corn plant and make small 
cavities in it into which the eggs are deposited, 
where they hatch later on. 

One of the most destructive corn -bill bugs is 
Sphenojphorus ochereiis, Lee. Its depredations 
are mainly confined to recently reclaimed 
swamp lands. Webster, in discussing the life 

* First, second, third and fourth annual reports Director 
[Jniversity of Kansas experiment station, 1891, 1892, 1893, 
1894. 

t Sixteenth report State Entomologist of Illinois for 1890. 



INSECTS, 139 

history of this pest,* from which the following 
information is secured, says: ''There is the best 
of evidence that this pest has for several years 
been working serious injury to the corn crop 
planted on recently-drained swamp lands in 
Indiana, hundreds of acres being thus de- 
stroyed," 

The larva is white with brown head, the lat- 
ter small, body becoming very robust posteri- 
orly, so much so that it appears to be fully 
two-thirds a,s broad as long, and very much 
wrinkled. The feet are lacking. The adult is 
black beneath, but varying in color above from 
pale ochreous to plumbeous and cinereous. 
Length one-half to nearly three-fourths inch. 
The insect passes the winter in the adult form, 
and in spring feeds on the tender parts of stems 
of reeds and rushes, and later on on the same 
parts of the young corn. In late May or June 
the female burrows into the earth and deposits 
her eggs in or about the bulbous roots of a 
species of reed. The larvse burrow in these 
bulbs, which are often the size of a hen's egg 
and very hard, and transform to the adult in- 
sect therein, appearing on the rushes, reeds or 
corn in August or September. This species 
will probably never breed in the roots of corn. 

To get rid of this species the best method 
will be to drain the land thoroughly and get 

Hnmt Life, Vol. II, p. 132. 



140 



INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



rid of the plants it breeds in by burning or cul- 
tivating them out. Fall plowing lias been tried, 
but I am not informed with what success. 

If the stubble is burned in spring some 
beetles of the other species may be destroyed. 
An application of paris green to the young 
plants may be of benefit by preventing injuries. 

Affecting the ear. — Corn worm (Heliothis 
armiger, Hubn.). This is also known in the 
South as the boll worm, as it injures the cotton 




m 





-i C^^^ - 




KiG. 52.— The ConN Wokm fTeliotliis mmiger, Hubn. o, 6, eggs: c, larva; 
(/, pupa In cocoon; e,/, moth. (After Rlley.) 

boll. The adult insect is a medium-sized, 
heavj^-bodied moth, with yellowish-gray or 
clayey-yellow fore wings, tinged wdth light 
olive-green, marked with lines of darker green 



INSECTS. 141 

and dark brown or black. The hind wings are 
of "a paler shade, with a broad, blackish outer 
band enclosing a pale spot toward .the apical 
portion. 

Comstock states that there are five broods of 
this insect in a season in the South, while in 
the latitude of ]\iissouri. Southern Illinois and 
Virginia, Riley thinks there are but three. 

The adult insect deposits its eggs in the tip 
of the ear, among the silk. After hatching the 
larvae feed until about one-third grown, when 
they begin to tunnel through the kernels under 
the husks toward the butt of ear. In Tennessee 
the writer was unable to grow sweet corn suc- 
cessfully owing to the ravages of this pest. 
The grown Avorm is about one and one-fourth 
inch long, rather robust, tapering toward the 
head; In color the worms vary from pale 
green to dark brown. There are several black, 
shining, elevated tubercles on each segment, 
each bearing a short brown hair. 

The full-grown larvae make a round hole in 
the earth, the inside walls of which they 
cement over. At the bottom of these chambers 
these larvae change to pup^e, where they pass 
the winter. 

It is recommended to plow in the fall, thus 
throwing up these chambers and subjecting 
the pupse to winter exposure and destroying 



142 



INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 




INSECTS. 



143 



them. This is thought to be quite an effective 
remed}^ 

Angoumis grain moth {Sitotroga cerealella,0\iY.) 
The adult insect, a moth, is small and slender, 
having an expanse of wings a little over one- 
half inch. The body and fore wings are dull 
3^ellowish or buff color and satiny appearing. 




ViG.Ji.—AyGOUMisGUAiK UoT-a,Sitotrogacn'ealella,onv. a, full grown larva; 
6, pupa; c, female moth; e, egg; ^, corn cut open showing larva at worlt. 
(Alter Klley^ 

The front wings are comparatively long and 
narrow, freckled with black scales, which are 
thicker toward the tips and form a line along 
the plait of the wings. The fringe is paler in 
color. The hind wings are blackish, of a leaden 
lustre, narrow, very suddenly becoming con- 
tracted to a point near the tip. Under side of 
wings lead color. Front legs blackish; hind 
legs with two spurs and fringed with long 
hairs. 

The egg will hatch and the change from 
larva to adult occur in about a month's time 



144 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

under favorable conditions. A number of eggs 
are deposited on the side of the kernels. In 
four to seven daj-s they Avill hatch, and the 
larva will then burrow into the kernel and 
begin to feed on the inside of it. In about 
three weeks it is full grown, when it is about 
one-fifth of an inch long. Then it burrows 
towards the outer end of the kernel, leaving 
only a thin cap to cover the cavity. A small 
white cocoon is then made in the burrow, and 
the larva in this soon changes to pupa, and 
after a short time emerges in the moth form. 

This insect is especially injurious in the 
South, where stored corn is often seriously 
damaged. North of Kentucky little inj ury may 
be expected from it, as it is a warm climate 
insect. At the New York State 'experiment 
station the writer had considerable experience 
wdth it, as it occurred in a collection of corn in 
the museum. These, insects were brought to 
the museum in specimen ears shipped from the 
South and before their ravages could be stopped 
nearly the entire collection was ruined. 

In the field there is no known method of 
combatiiig it. To destroy the insect in the 
seed, place the grain in a comparatively tight 
room and pour a little bisulphide of carbon in 
among the corn. This soon changes into a 
deadly gas and will destroy all insects inhaling 
it. But to save the seed the operation should 



INSECTS. 



145 











be repeated as soon as new 
moths appear. Tbe bisul- 
phide of carbon is very in- 
flammable, as well as 
poisonous, so great care 
.should be taken not to ex- 
pose a fire to the fumes. 
Being heavier than air, the 
fumes will sink down 
through a pile of corn. 
The fumes of this gas would 
also destroy other insects 
injurious to stored grain, 
including the grain or barn 
weevil, and the grain Syl- 
van us, both of which are 
common in the South. Ac- 
cording to Webster the 
worms are destroyed at a 
temperature of 120 deg. 
F., for four hours, so if 
means can be obtained by 
Avhicli to heat the ears to 
this degree a very desir- 
alde thing will be accom- 
plished. 

Other Insects.— AV hi le 
there are. numerous other 
insects which injure corn, 
they do it to so small an 



146 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

extent that it is unnecessary to devote special 
attention to them. GrasshopjDers, blister beetles, 
leaf hoppers, rose bugs, flea beetles, army worms, 
etc., all at times do slight damage to growing 
corn. Usually those insects which feed on the 
growing plant may be destroyed by spraying 
the leaves with some form of arsenic poison, 
such as paris green, london purple, etc. 



DISEASES. 147 



CHAPTER XL 



DISEASES. 



The Indian corn plant is appreciably injured 
by but very few fungous or bacterial diseases — 
in fact less than is any other cereal. Of these 
smut is the only one commonly known all over 
the United States. 

The following diseases are the only ones of 
sufficient importance to especially merit atten- 
tion in these pages: 

Sm.ut.—(UsfiIa(jo maydis, Corda.). Smut as 
seen by the farmer is either a distorted, green- 
ish-white piece of vegetable tissue, or a mass 
of black, greasy powder, which generally ap- 
pears breaking out fi'om an ear of corn or from 
the leaf or stalk when green or succulent. 

The source of this disease is a simple, tubular, 
minute plant, too small to be seen by the naked 
eye, which grows in the tissues of the corn 
X)lant and feeds upon its juice. These little 
plants, of which there are vast numbers, branch 
out in tubular form when they find a spot in 



148 



INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



the corn plant that is especially nourishing. 
Then, inside of these tubes, minute bodies 
termed spores (seeds) develop, and finally the 
spot becomes a mass of these, an'd then all of 




WiiU/ 



Fig. 56.-CORN Smut breaking out on the ear. (After Tulasne.) 

the little plants excepting the spores wither 
away. The dark-colored, loose smut, is mostly 
the mass of spores, of which there are countless 
numbers. A single cubic inch of them would 
contain over fifteen billions. The top of a pin- 



DISEASES. 149 

head that has been moistened will bear from 
30,000 to 50,000.* 

These spores are reall}^ seeds, and if the right 
degree of moisture is supplied they germinate 
in a few hours and produce very minute, thread- 
like plants, from wdiich soon develop "sporids." 
The wind may blow these latter upon a young 
corn plant, in which case they may grow into 
its vegetable flesh and develop to a remarkable 
degree and eventually break out in the com- 
mon form of smut. 

This disease is distributed through the agency 
of the smut, and the more the spores are scat- 
tered about the more prevalent it may become. 
It is abundant all over the United States and 
in the corn-growing parts of Europe. AVhile 
considerable damage may occur from this fun- 
gus the extent of this is not generally appreci- 
ated by corn growers. Bessey states f that in 
Iowa he saw a piece of land the crop of which 
''fully 66 per cent had been destroyed." This, 
however, is an unusually severe case. Prof. W. 
H. Brewer says -.J "I have never seen a field 
which has been injured to the extent of one per 



* Bessey: Bulletin 11, Nebraska agricultural experiment 
station, Dec. 18, 1889, p. 29. 

t Bulletin 11, Nebraska agricultural experiment station. 

$ Tenth census of the United States, Vol. Ill, report on 
the cereal production of the United States, p. 107. 



150 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

cent, but I have heard of cases in the year 1879 
* * * where the damage amounted to one- 
sixth." 

Smut said to be injurious.— Smut is gener- 
ally thought by farmers to be injurious to live 
stock, yet but little satisfactory evidence is at 
hand to prove that such is the case, as it is com- 
monly eaten. But three experiments on this 
point have come to the writer's knowledge. Dr. 
Gamgee for three weeks fed two healthy cows 
on smut, wet and dry. The wet did no harm, 
but a loss in weight followed the eating of the 
dry. The. animals had voracious appetites, 
w^ere fed three times per day, and ate from 3 to 
12 oz. at a dose. In three weeks they ate 42 
lbs. of smut.* Prof. Henry of the Wisconsin 
experiment station performed a similar experi- 
ment on two cows.f One cow ate as much as 
32 oz. of smut in a day, and the other up to 64 
oz. The latter cow died suddenly the next day 
after eating a large amount of smut. Prof. 
Henry attributes her death to having eaten 
this, which is not strange. In making a post- 
mortem examination no serious derangement 
was found in the intestines, but Prof. Henry 
thinks the brain was affected. An associated 
press dispatch in the daily papers of Nov. 10, 

*Report Commissioner of Agriculture on Diseases of Cat- 
tle in the United States, Washington, 1871, pp. 73-76. 
t Breeder's Gazem, Oct. 10, 1894. 



DISEASES. 151 

1894, comments on the sudden death of cattle 
in Illinois and says that farmers attribute it to 
the stock eating smutted corn. Prof. Morrow, 
so the dispatch says, thinks not, as they had 
fed a steer two bushels of smut at the Univer- 
sity of Illinois and it had not injured him. 

It is very questionable if cattle are injured 
by smut in the fodder; yet it wdll be safer and 
better to keep it out of the rations. 

Preventing smut.— There is no absolutely 
sure method of preventing the appearance of 
smut. The spores on seed corn may be de- 
stroyed by the use of sulphate of copper (blue 
vitriol or bluestone). A strong solution in 
water should be made, using about half a 
pound of the sulphate to a gallon of water. 
The seed may be soaked about half au hour, 
after which it should be removed from the 
liquid and dried. The smut may also be killed 
by soaking the seed in water at 160 deg. F. for 
five minutes. 

It is also important to adopt preventive meas- 
ures. The spores wall pass through animals in 
the manure and germinate, so that is a reason 
why stock should not eat it. The smut in the 
field which can be secured should be burned. 
Rotation of crops will also reduce the degree 
of prevalence. 

Bacterial disease.— This is a disease catised 
by a very minute class of plants termed bac- 



152 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

teria, so small that they can he seen only 
under powerful microscopes. One of these 
plants consists of a single cell, with an outer 
coat, and inside contents. These plants in- 
crease by dividing in halves or sections and 
each developing into a perfect plant, or by 
spores w^hich they may produce. Bacteria can 
withstand great extremes of heat and cold. 
There are many different kinds, one of which 
causes injury to Indian corn by developing in 
its tissues and juices. 

Symptoms.— The disease is characterized by 
the plants turning yellow and sickly while 
young. The roots of the plants, especially the 
lowest ones, decay. While the whole plant 
will be affected, the injury is most apparent in 
the lower part of the stem, w^hich will be dis- 
colored and perhaps dying. Sometimes the 
stem appears corroded, and semi-transparent, 
firm, gelatinous material gathers upon these 
marred places. After midsummer the leaf 
sheaths become discolored and spotted, with 
an appearance of decay. If these sheaths are 
stripped oi^" the injury is made more conspicu- 
ous. These injured or spotted places appear 
watery and sometimes are smeared more or less 
wdth a thin coating of the gelatinous matter. 
Finally the ears are attacked, the husks wilt, 
turn brown and become packed close together, 
and gummy matter exudes from the tissues. 



DISEASES. 153 

Often a white fungus occurs and permeates the 
entire ear. 

This disease was first investigated in 1882, 
and most of the information known of its char- 
acter is derived from studies made of it by 
Prof. T. J. Burrill of the Illinois experiment 
station.* The malady is widely prevalent, with- 
out doubt, 3'et is mainly known in Illinois and 
Nebraska. It is thought that animals eating 
cornstalks affected by this bacteria will die of 
what is called "cornstalk disease." 

While this trouble is not confined to special 
kinds of soils and conditions it has been found 
most prevalent on rich land. 

Thus far the writer knows of no method 
proposed to prevent the occurrence of this 
disease. 

Rust occurs on Indian corn, but only to a 
slight extent and at uncertain periods. The 
loss from this disease is probably very imma- 
terial. 

"See Bulletin 6 of that station, August, 1889, pp. 165-J75. 



154 



INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



CHAPTER XII. 



CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND DIGESTI- 
BILITY. 

Several hundreds of analyses of Indian corn 
have been made at agricultural experiment 
stations, by the United States department of 
agriculture, in college laboratories and else- 
where. Most of these analyses are of the grain, 
although some are of various parts of the plant. 

Composition of grain. — All of the available 
analyses published in the United States.up to 

TABLE SHOWING AVERAGE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE 
SEEDS OF THE VARIOUS CLASSES OF CORN. 



Dent 

Flint 

Sweet 

Pop 

Soft 

All varieties and 
all analyses. . . 



.0 §. 


X 




jj 




1.1 


I1 


^ 

S 




1 


1 


r^ 


86 


10.6 


1.5 


10.3 


2.2 


70.4 


68 


11.3 


1.4 


10.5 


1.7 


70.1 


26 


8.8 


1.9 


•11.0 


2.8 


66.8 


4 


10.7 


1.5 


11.2 


].8 


69-. 6 


5 


9.3 


1.6 


11.4 


2.0 


70.2 


208 


10.9 


1.5 


10.5 


2.1 


69.6 



5.0 
5.0 
8.1 
5.2 
5.5 

5.4 



September, 1890, showing the food composition 
of corn, have been collated and published by 



COMPOSITION AND DIGESTIBILITY. 155 

Jenkins and Winton,* from which the figures 
in the foregoing table, representing averages, 
are given. These represent per cents in fresh 
or air-dry material. 

Mr. Clifford Richardson, as Assistant Chemist 
of the United States Department of Agricul- 
ture, made a special study of the chemical com- 
position of American cereals.f As based upon 
over 200 analyses of corn from different parts 
of America, he says: "Corn may be said, there- 
fore, without doubt, to be very constant in its 
composition within narrow limits." The fol- 
lowing figures are taken from Richardson's re- 
port, the average results of 202 analyses made 
in 1SS2 and 1883, showing per cent in the grain 
of the substances specified: 

Ash 1.55 per cent. 

Albuminoids 10.39 per cent. 

Nitrogen 1.66 percent. 

Composition of mill products.— The com- 
position of the mill pi-oducts of Indian corn is 
shown in the following figures, which are aver- 
ages taken from Jenkins' and Winton's tallies, 
previously referred to: 

* A Compilation of Analyses of American Feeding Stuffs, 
by E. H. Jenkins, Ph. D., and A. L. Win ton. Ph. B., United 
States Department of Agriculture, Office of ExiJeriment Sta- 
tions. Experiment Station Bulletin No. 11, 1892, p. 155. 

t An Investigation of the Composition of American Wheat 
and Corn, by Clifford Richardson, Department of Agricul- 
ture, Chemical Division. Bulletin No. 1, p. 69; Bulletin No. 
4, p. 98; Bulletin No. 9, p. 82. Washington, 1883, 1884, 1886. 



156 



INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



Corn-meal. Corn-and-cob meal. 

Number of analyses. . .77 7 

Water 15.0 per cent 15.1 per cent. 

Ash 1.4 per cent 1.5 per cent. 

Protein (N. X6.25) 9.2 per cent 8.5 per cent. 

Crude fibre 1.9 per cent 6.6 per cent. 

Nitrogen-free extract. .68.7 per cent 64.8 per cent. 

Fat 3.8 per cent 3.5 per cent. 

Composition of by-products. — Tn these same 
feeding tables are given analyses of the by- 
products and waste material of corn, including 
the cob and refuse of starch or hominy mills. 
The averages of these analyses are as follows, 
in per cents: 



Corncobs 

Hominy chops . 

Corn germ 

Gluten meal — 
Starch feed, wet 











?^ 


i^ - 


4M 

18 


•^ 
^ 
& 




f^ 


1 




10.7 


1.4 


2.4 


30.1 


54.9 


12 


11. 1 


2.5 


9.8 


3.8 


64.5 


3 


10.7 


4.0 


9.8 


4.1 


64.0 


32 


9.6 


0.7 


29.4 


1.6 


52.4 


12 


65.4 


0.3 


6.1 


3.1 


22.0 



0.5 
8.3 
7.4 
6.3 
3.1 



These figures show corncobs to contain some 
nutriment. Gluten meal has a very high feed- 
ing value, as based on a large per cent of pro- 
tein. 

Composition of green corn. — The composi- 
tion of the green corn plant, of silage, and of 
the dried fodder, and the several parts of the 
plant, is given in the following table Avhich 
is also arranged from Jenkins' and A¥iuton's 



COMPOSITION AND DIGESTIBILITY. 



157 



tables of American feeding-stuffs. The figures 
given are averages in per cents: 



GREEN. 


2 
-11 


1 


1 




1 


ll 


^ 
fi^ 


Corn-fodder— 
Flint varieties 


40 

10 

63 

7 

21 

126 

4 

4 

99 

35 
17 

16 
15 
60 


79.8 
77.1 
79.0 
7.^4 
79.1 
79.3 
66.2 
76.1 
79.1 

42.0 
30.0 
50.9 
68.4 
40.1 


1.1 
1.1 
1.2 
1.5 

1.3 
1.2 
2.9 
0.7 
1.4 

2.7 
5.5 
1.8 
1.2 
3.4 


2.0 
2.1 
1.7 
2.0 
1.9 
1.8 
2.1 
0.5 
1.7 

4.5 
6.0 
2.5 
1.9 

3.8 


4.312.1 
4.314.6 
5.612.0 
6.7 15.5 
4.412.8 
5.012.2 
8.719.0 
7.3 14.9 
6.011.1 

14.334.7 
21.435.7 


0.7 


Flint varieties* . ... 


O.S 


Dent varietic'* 


0..5 


Dent varieties* 


0.9 




0.5 


All vauietie"' 


5 


Leaves and husks cut green. 
Stripped staiks cut green . . . 


1.1 
0.5 
0.8 


Dry fodder- 
Fodder, field cured 


1.6 
1 4 




15.8 28.3 
11.017.0 
19.7 31.9 


7 


Stalks, field cured 


(1,5 




1 1 






1 





Digestibility.— The chief value of a food 
depends upon its palatability and digesti- 
bility. The digestibility of some of the parts 
of the corn phmt has been determined in 
feeding experiments, while that of other parts 
has been computed. The per cents of digesti- 
ble matter of some of these parts are given in 
the following table, which is arranged from 
figures given by Prof. W. A. Henry:}- 

*Cut after kernels had glazed. 

t Special Report on the Diseases of Cattle and Cattle- 
Fetding, United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau 
of Animal Industry, Washington, 1892, p. 496. 



158 



INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



CLASS OF CORN. 


Per cent digestible matter 
in corn of 


Crude 
protein. 


Carbo- 
hydrates. 


Fat. 


Green fodder- 
Flint varieties 


1.5 
] .2 
1.4 
1.2 

2.8 
2.0 

7.0 
7.1 

7.9 
7.1 

6.3 
6.5 
1.6 
9.3 
25.0 


12.0 
12.8 
12.0 
11.8 

29.5 
34.1 

63.4 
63.0 
61.4 
62.7 

61.8 
56.3 
43.9 
63.6 
49.4 


0.5 


Dent varieties 


4 




4 


Silage 


U 6 


Dry fodder - 
Fodder, field cured 


1.0 


Stover, field cured 

Grain — 
Dent 


0.6 
3 9 


Flint 


3 9 


Sweet 


6 3 


Average for all varieties 


4 2 


Mill products and refuse— 
Corn-meal, bolted 


3.0 




2.9 




0.3 


Corn germ 


4.1 


Gluten meal. 


5.6 







Digestible matter in different parts. — The 
accompanying table, the result of researches by 





Ears. 


Topped 
fodder. 


Blades. 


IJusTcs. 


Stubble. 


Total dry matter.. 

Ash : 


1,530 


450 

5 

10 

190 

232 
13 


197 

14 

6 

88 

105 
4 


426 
4 
6 

168 

246 
2 


569 
5 


Crude protein 

Crude fibre 

Nitrogen -free ex- 
tract 


157 
1,343 


6 

241 

304 


Fat 


30 


13 







Total digestible matter in ears of one acre 1,630 lbs. 

Total digestible matter in fodder of one acre 1,642 lbs. 



Total digestible matter in entire crop of one acre. ..3,172 lbs. 



COMPOSITION AND DIGESTIBILITY. 



159 



Mr. H. J. Patterson," Chemist at the Maryland 
experiment station, shows the yield in jDounds 
per acre of the digestible matter in the differ- 
ent parts of the corn plant. 

The fertilizing constituents to be found in 
the corn plant as a whole, or in its several parts 
or by-prodncts, are given in the following table. 
These figures are the averages of many pub- 
lished American analyses,! as prepared by Mr. 
W. H. Beal, of the Office of Experiment Sta- 
tions, Washington, D. C: 



MATERIAL. 


1 




1 


•^^ 

f 
g 






78.61 

77.95 

7.85 

9.12 

10.88 

12.95 

8.96 

12.09 

8.93 

8.59 

8.10 


4.84 

4!9i 
3.74 
1.53 
1.41 

6.82 
2.21 
0.73 


0.41 

0.28 
1.76 
1.04 
1.82 
1.58 
1.41 
0.50 
1.63 
5.03 
2.62 


0.15 
0.11 
0.54 
0.29 
0.70 
0.63 
0.57 
0.06 
0.98 
0.33 
0.29 


0.33 




0.37 


V^'nfiflpr with pars 


0.89 


Stover, without ears 

Kernels 


1.40 
0.40 


Pnrn-mfial 


0.40 


Com-and-cob ineal 


0.47 




0.60 


TTnminv fpfd 


0.49 


Gluten meal 


0.05 


Starch feed (glucose refuse). 


0.15 



These tables, bearing on the composition of 
Indian corn and its products, will give the 



* Bulletin No. 20, Maryland agricultural experiment sta- 
tion, March, 1893. 

tFrom table IT, Appendix, Handbook of Experiment Sta- 
tion Work, Washington, 1893, pp. 397-8. 



160 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

reader nearly all the information necessaiy to 
an intelligent knowledge of the subject. 

Value of the corn crop. — The great value of 
the corn crop to America is clearly brought out 
in these tables. No other plant we grow will 
produce 3,172 lbs. of digestible food on one acre 
of land at so little expense. No other cereal 
crop yields the farmer so large a return for his 
labor as the Indian corn. It is the king of the 
cereals. 



THE FEEDING OF LIVE STOCK. ICl 



CHAPTER XIII. 



THE FEEDING OF LIVE STOCK. 

No one kind of food, unless we except milk, 
meets all the requirements of the domesticated 
animal. The composition of all others is one- 
sided, and it is essential that two or more foods 
be fed so as to give a ration that will be fairly 
balanced, and not one-sided. Some foods are 
more nearly perfect for certain animals than 
others, but combinations usually bring about 
the best results in feeding. 

Constituents of foods.— The chemist who an- 
alyzes a food finds it composed of several groups 
of substances quite different in character. For 
the feeder's purpose three of these only need 
be considered. First is the p'otein, consisting 
of a class of bodies best represented in the com- 
position of the white of an egg or in perfectly 
lean meat. The muscles of the body consist 
mainly of protein. Another group is known as 
carbohydrates, or heat-formers. These consist 
mostly of starch, sugar, and woody fibre or cel- 
lulose. The third group is the fat of the plant, 
as for example the oil extracted from the cot- 
u 



162 



INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



ton seed. Those foods which contain a large 
per cent of carbohydrates and fat are usually 
termed carbonaceous. 

Nutritive ratio.— Foods contain these three 
groups in different proportions. AV hat we know 
as a rich feeding staff, as oil-meal^ for example, 
contains a much larger percentage of protein 
than is possessed by the avei'age food. An an- 
imal cannot eat so much of it as where it is 
specially abundant in carbohydrates, and not 
in protein. The relationship existing between 
the protein on one side and the carbohydrates 
and fat on the other, is termed the nutritive 
ratio, meaning one part protein to so many 
of the other two combined. Where the ratio 
of a food is 1 :2 it may be termed a narrow nu- 
tritive ratio, while if it is 1:12 it is a wide one. 
A food having a ratio of 1:6 would be well bal- 
anced^ perhaps, but if it was an extreme on 
either side of this it might be ill balanced. 

Feeding standards. — Many feeding experi- 
ments, made both in Europe and the United 
States, have shown that animals require prac- 
tically certain amounts of each one of these 
classes of foods to maintain the body or to pro- 
duce growth. Wolff, a German, after much 
experimentation, published a table of feeding 
standards. This table gives the number of 
pounds of dry matter (food without moisture), 
protein, carbohydrates, and fat required by the 



THE FEEDING OF LIVE STOCK. 



163 



animal per day, per head or per 1,000 lbs., ac- 
cording to circumstances. In connection with 
these tables Wolff published another table 
showing how much of the protein, carbohy- 
drates, and fat were digestible in the different 
foods available. A similar table has lieen pub- 
lished by Allen showing the digestibility of 
American feeding stuffs.* 

Wolff's feeding standards are given in the 
following tables: 

PER DAY AND PER 1,000 LBS. LIVE WEIGHT. 



Oxen at rest in stall 

Wool sheep, coarser breeds. 
Wool sheep, liner breeds. . . . 
Oxen moderately worked. . . . 

Oxen heavily worked 

Horses moderately worked. . 

Horses heavily worked 

Milch cows 

Fattening steers: 

First period 

Second period 

Third period 

Fattening sheep: 

First period 

Second period 

Fattening swine: 

First period 

Second period 

Third period 



Dry 
matter. 



Lbs. 
17.5 
2C.0 
22.5 
24.0 
26.0 
22.5 
25.5 
24.0 

27.0 
2(i.O 
25.0 

26.0 
25.0 

36.0 
31.0 
23.5 



Digestible food 
materials. 



Pro- 
tein. 



Lbs. 
0.7 



2.5 
3.0 

2.7 

3.0 
3.5 

5.0 
4.0 

2.7 



Carbo- 
hydrates 



Lbs. 
8.0 
10.3 
11.4 
11.3 
13.2 
11.2 
13.4 
12.5 

15.0 
14.8 
14.8 

15.2 
14.4 



Fat. 



Lbs. 
0.15 
0.20 
0.25 
0.30 
0.50 
0.60 
0.80 
0.40 

0.50 
0.70 
0.60 

0.50 
0.60 



27.5 
24.0 
17.5 



*The Feeding of Farm Animals, by E. W. Allen, Farm- 
ers' Bulletin No. 22, United States Department of Agricul- 
ture, p. 7, 1895. 



164 



INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



PER DAY AND PER HEAD. 



Growing- cattle — Age. 

2 to 3 months 

3 to 6 months 

6 to 12 months 

12 to 18 months 

18 to 24 months 

GrowiDg sheep— Age: 

6 to 6 monlhs 

6 to 8 monti.s 

8 to 11 months 

11 to 15 months 

15 to 20 monlhs 

Growing fat swine— Age: 

2 to 3 months 

3 to 5 months 

5 to G months 

6 to 8 months , 

8 to 12 months 



Av. 

live 
weight 

per 
head. 

Lbs. 
150 
300 
500 
700 
850 

56 

67 
75 

82 
85 

50 
100 
125 
170 

250 



Total 

dry 

matter 



Lbs. 
3.3 
7.0 

12.0 
16.8 
20.4 

1.6 
1.7 
1.7 

1.8 
1.9 

2.1 
3.4 
3.9 
4.6 
5.2 



Digestible food 
materials. 



Pro- 
tein. 



Lbs. 

0.6 

1.0 

1.3 

1.4 

1.4 

0.18 
0.17 
0.16 
0.14 
0.12 

0.38 
0.50 
0.54 
0.58 
0.62 



Carho- 
hydrates 



Lbs. 
2.1 
4.1 
6.8 
9.1 

10.3 

0.87 
0.85 
0.85 
0.89 
0.88 



Fat. 



Lbs. 
0.30 
0.30 
0.30 
0.28 
0.26 

0.045 
0.040 
0.037 
0.032 
0.025 



1.50 
2.50 
2.96 
3 47 

4.05 



Standard confirmed in practice.— It is not 
to be expected that an animal will receive the 
exact amount of digestible . material in the 
rations as specified in this table, but a reason- 
able approximation to it, it is believed, will 
give the best results in feeding. For example, 
Wolff gives for a milk cow weighing 1,000 lbs. 
a ration containing 24 lbs. dry matter, 2.5 lbs. 
protein, 12.5 lbs. car])ohydrates and 0.4 lbs. fat. 
After examining into numerous rations fed by 
prominent dairymen the Wisconsin, New York 
and Connecticut experiment stations have 
found the above amounts recommended by 



THE FEEDING OF LIVE STOCK. 



165 



Wolfi: to be substantially near tbose fed by 
these dairymen. The feeder, however, has to 
keep in mind that he is dealing with individual 
animals with different appetites and digestive 
capacities, so that rather than attempt to feed 
each by rule he should hardly expect the feed- 
ing tables to more than assist him in judiciously 
selecting and combining the foods and suggest- 
ing the extent to which they may be fed. 

Ration for dairy cow.--A complete calcu- 
lated ration for a dairy cow is shown in the 
following table given by Allen" The corn 
plant plays an important part in this ration: 



Material fed. 




1 


1 
It 
II 


1 


12 lbs. clover hay, 20 lbs. co 
lbs. corn-meal, and 4 lbs, w 

J. Utj o-liifpn fpfjfi . . 


■n silage, 4 
heat bran. 


Lbs. 

21.28 

8 G9 

24.97 


Lhs. 
1.66 

0.82 


Lhs. 

10.86 

1.75 


Lhs. 

0.57 
0..^4 








Total 


2.48 
2.50 


12.61 
12 50 


0.91 






24.00 


40 









This is a close comparison, excepting for fat, 
which is not so important as the other two in- 
gredients. 

Corn a carbonaceous food. — Indian corn is 
a carbonaceous (carbohydrate) food rather than 
protein, and in making feeding rations this 

* Farmers Bulletin No. 22, 1895. 



166 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

forms the most valuable source of an econom- 
ical carbonaceous food we have. 

It has long been known that the grain of 
Indian corn is a most valuable food for domes- 
tic animals. It is generally relished by farm 
animals and imparts a quality to meat, milk 
or butter which ranks it among the most, if 
not tlte most, important common feeding-stuffs 
at our command. During recent years it has 
been well established, also, that the mature 
plant, independent of the seed, has a high food 
value, either green or as dry fodder. 

Rations illustrated — AVithout attempting 
any elaborate discussion of the merits of Indian 
jorn as a food, and presenting a large number 
of feedi'jg rations, the balance of this chapter 
will be devoted to a few illustrations of rations 
and to demonstrating its importance when fed 
on the farm under certain conditions. Many 
different combinations of foods might be dis- 
cussed, with corn as a part of each ration, but 
the space to be occupied here will not admit of 
this. The iDurpose is rather to note the desir- 
able and undesirable use of corn as a food in 
common practice, so that a brief amount of 
space will be devoted to corn as a food for each 
class of farm animals. 

Horses. — In that part of the country where 
corn forms a prominent grain crop, as in the 
Central West, and in much of the Southern 



THE FEEDING OF LIVE STOCK. 167 

States, the principiU grain fed horses is corn on 
the ear. Each horse is given a numlier of ears 
at a feed, deiDendent upon the amount of labor 
he is performing and the size of ear and- char- 
acter of grain upon it. In addition to this, 
timothy hay, especially in the North, forms the 
balance of the ration. In many cases, how- 
ever, clover hay is fed. The writer has fed cut 
cornstalks instead of hay with much success. 
The horses eat the cut or shredded fodder with 
relish. 

It would not appear, however, the best prac- 
tice to feed horses corn alone for grain. This 
food is too heating in summer, as it is essen- 
tially a heat and fat-forming food. Some of the 
corn may be replaced to advantage with oats, 
which is more of a muscle former. Stewart 
says* the rations of thousands of horses on 
street railroads in this country have finally 
1)een fixed. The ration for summer is half oats 
and half corn, ground together, 16 lbs. to each 
horse, with 12 lbs. of cut hay. In winter 16 
lbs. of corn-meal, with the same amount of hay, 
forms the ration. This practice he specially 
refers to as occurring in New York city, but 
states that in many other cities the corn and 
oats are fed the year through. This ration, it 
is to be understood, was fed to a class of horses 
that worked hard seven days a week. 

* Feeding Animals, 1886, p. 378. 



168 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

Where corn is fed to horses the most econom- 
ical results may be attained Ly giving chopped 
rough fodder or ha}'', moistened, with the 
ground grain well mixed with it. Corn-meal 
ought never to be fed by itself, as it will tend 
to cause colic. The digestive fluids are not 
able to act freely on compact masses of the 
grain alone. Stewart notes that "probably 
more cases of horse colic arise from feeding 
corn-meal than from all other foods combined." 

A committee of the American Institute 
Farmers' Club in 1855 made an examination of 
the rations fed stage horses in New York city. 
Hundreds of animals received hay and corn- 
meal only for their feed. The .New York Con- 
solidated Stage Co. reported on 335 horses, 
w^eighing from 1,000 to 1,100 lbs. each, that 
traveled on an average 211 miles per day. They 
had for feed 8 lbs. of hay and 17 lbs. of corn- 
meal per day. This meal was used in cut feed. 

Stewart recommends the following ration as 
one more satisfactory Avith him than anything 
else:'" Grind together 950 lbs. oats, 950 lbs. 
corn and 100 lbs. flax-seed. The 20th part of 
flax-seed improves the ration in protein and 
very much in fat — 35 lbs. or 1| per cent to 2,000 
lbs. This is well balanced as a working ration, 
is just laxative enough for health, and keeps 
the coat fine and glossy. 

* Feeding Animals, 1886, p. 390. 



THE FEEDING OP LIVE STOCK. 169 

A writer in the Breeders' Gazette (Jan. 11, 
1893) feeds horses to be shipped to city markets 
with half oats and half shelled corn. To this 
grain he adds one pint of oil-cake meal per 
feed. He feeds all the grain they will eat up 
clean, and liberally of hay at night and only at 
night. While horses should never be fat, those 
poor in flesh must be fed up to a suitable con- 
dition for shipment. 

For the use of the by-products of corn for 
horses the reader is referred to the experience 
of Prof. Caldwell, given further on in this chap- 
ter under by-products. 

No one need hesitate at feeding horses with 
the dried corn plant in place of hay. At a lib- 
eral estimate three pounds of fodder may be 
considered equal to one pound of timothy hay. 
If the fodder was carefully harvested and well 
cured probably two pounds would be its equiv- 
alent. Silage does not seem so well suited for 
horses, although a small amoant of it may be 
fed with safety and with beneficial results. Ten 
or 15 lbs., in the writer's opinion, would be 
ample. See reference to silage for horses un- 
der chapter on silos and silage. 

Cattle.— 1^0 kind of grain is relished by cat- 
tle more than corn-meal, while well-preserved 
corn-fodder or silage is becoming more and 
more popular as rough feed for these animals. 
For dairy cattle this food is unexcelled for giv- 



170 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

ing good quality to milk or butter. For this 
reason corn-meal is extensively fed, although 
there are other grains, as bnin for example, 
that may increase the milk flow. Among the 
great cattle feeders of the West either the grain 
or the fodder of the corn plant forms the lead- 
ing food for beef production. It is not desir- 
able, however, as has already been explained, 
to feed corn entirely. Bran or shorts and a 
little oil-meal may be added to the grain rations 
where fed to milk or beef stock and better 
results secured. This question was asked Prof. 
Henry by a reader of the Breeder's Gazette: 
"With corn at 25 cents per bushel, oil-meal 
$22 per ton, bran and shorts $12 per ton, would 
you recommend feeding a so-called balanced 
ration, and what should the steers eat of the 
mixture?" This is the reply: "At the price 
named for corn some oil-meal or bran or l)oth 
can be fed to profit, I think, keeping the ration 
largely corn, however. Five or six pounds of 
bran or two or three of oil-meal per day will 
aid digestion and keep the steer in better con- 
dition and less liable to get off feed than if the 
ration is made up wholly of corn." This ration 
was for a 1,000-lb. steer. 

In making a study of 100 feeding rations used 
by owners of dairy cattle in the United States, 
Prof. AVoU of the Wisconsin station notes'*-' that 



*Farm and Dairyman, January, 1885, 



THE FEEDING OF LIVE STOCK. 171 

corn silage Avas fed 68 times, corn-fodder and 
stalks 35 times, corn-meal 42 times and corn- 
and-cob meal 14 times. Excepting iDran, no 
other grain food was used as much as corn- 
meal, and corn silage was fed much more than 
any other kind of coarse fodder. From these 
100 rations the writer selects the following as 
representing a notable use of the corn plant or 
its products. Where corn silage is fed it is 
assumed that it contains the grain that was on 
the plant: 

(1) 40 lbs. corn silage, 7 lbs. hay, 1 lb. straw, 2 lbs, oil- 
meal, 2 lbs. corn-and-cob meal, 2 lbs. wheat bran. 

(2) 30 lbs. corn silage, 8 lbs. hay, 5 lbs. corn-fodder, 4 lbs. 
oats, 2 lbs. pea meal. 

(.3) 40 lbs. corn silage, 15 lbs. hay, 5 lbs. bran, 2 lbs. cotton- 
seed meal, 3 lbs. corn-meal. 

(4) 50 lbs. corn silage, 9 lbs. clover hay, 

(5) 32i lbs. corn silage, 6 lbs. clover hay, 3 lbs, corn-1'odder, 

5 lbs. corn-meal, 4 lbs, shipstulT, 2 lbs. oil-meal, 

(6) 24 lbs, corn-fodder, 5 lbs, corn-meal, 3i lbs. bran, U 
lbs. oil-meal, i lb. cotton-seed meal. 

The above rations are not given as perfect 
ones, but as representing some of those fed by 
prominent dairymen of the country. 

The late Pmf. E. W. Stewart gave much 
attention to feeding problems. The five fol- 
lowing rations were recommended by him for 
the purposes specified:'- 

For fattening cattle, 1,000 Ihs. weight: 20 lbs. corn-fodder, 

6 lbs. corn-meal, 6 lbs. linseed cake. 

* Bulletin No. 38, Wisconsin agricultural experiment sta- 
tion, p. 44, 



172 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

For dairy cattle, 1,000 lbs. weight: (J) 10 lbs. corn-fodder, 10 
lbs. oat straw, 2 lbs. linseed-meal, 4 lbs. malt sprouts, 10 lbs. 
oat and corn-meal. 

(2) 60 lbs. corn silage, 5 lbs. hay, 2 lbs. linseed-meal, 4 lbs. 
bran. 

(3) 18 lbs. corn-fodder, 8 lbs. wheat bran, 4 lbs. cotton-seed 
meal, 4 lbs. corn-meal. 

(4) 17 lbs. clover haj'^, .3 lbs. wheat bran, 10 lbs. corn-meal. 

The Avriter has fed very young calves skim- 
milk in which was stirred 2 to 4 oz. of veiy fine 
corn-meal per feed, with satisfactory resultis. 
Numerous old feeders drop a handful of shelled 
corn in the milk bucket when feeding calves, 
a.nd they soon learn to clean up the gi-ain with 
avidity. 

Sheep.— In the AVest, shelled corn is more 
often fed to sheep than any other kind of grain, 
a pint a day in a general way being given ma- 
ture animals, although many feed much hea\^ier 
in finishing for the market. It is an interest- 
ing fact that while if mature cattle are fed 
shelled corn some of it will pass through them 
whole, sheep will digest the kernel entirel}^ 

Feeding experiments on sheep have been un- 
dertaken at the Michigan station by Smith and 
Mumford to an extensive degree.* Dui'ing the 
winter of 1893-94 125 lambs were divided in 
nine lots and fed different rations for fattening. 
In all of these rations but one corn was fed, as 



*Bulletin 113, Michigan agricultural experiment station, 
October, 1894. 



THE FEEDING OF LIVE STOCK. 



173 



is shown in the following table, which gives a 
summary of the results of the experiment. 
These figures refer to the average eif ects of the 
food per lamb per lot: 



1 


RATION. 


Weekly 
gain. 


Cost of 

1 lb. 
(/am— 
cents. 


Powids 

dry 
matter 
led to 1 
lb. gain 


Protein 
led per 
day per 
1000 lbs. 


Carbohy- 
drates fed 
per day 
per 1000 
lbs. 


Nutrl. 

live 
ratio. 


1 

3 




2.61 

r-s 

1.97 
1.94 
1.65 
1.58 


4.6 
4.6 
5.3 
5.1 
5.3 
5.4 
6.3 
6.7 
0.8 


7.02 
6.41 
6.72 
6.99 
9.13 
7.64 
8.01 
8.57 
10.03 


2 
2.1 
2.7 
2.8 
2.5 
2.1 
2.7 

2.6 


16.0 
16.7 
16.1 
15.7 
14.8 
15.5 
15.0 
15.7 
16.1 


1:8 




1:8 


Corn, oU-meal and roots.. 


1:6 
1:5.6 


>; 




1:6 


6 

7 
8 
9 


Dorn nnd wheat 

Wheat nnd oil-meal 

Corn fself feed) 

Corn and bran (self feed). 


1:7.5 
1:5.5 
1:7.9 
1:6.2 



It wall be noticed that the best results in cost 
of one pound of gain occurred where corn or 
corn and 'roots were fed. The other feeds were 
somewhat more expensive. 

At the Wisconsin station a ration of shelled 
corn, silage, and cut corn-fodder, fed fattening 
wethers, yielded the cheapest gain. One hun- 
dred pounds of gain cost $3.46 in 1890 at this 
station when fed this ration. In 1891 the same 
kind of ration made 100 lbs. of gain cost $3.70. 
This ration was 1.3 lbs. corn-fodder, 0.8 lb. corn 
silage, and 1.3 lbs. shelled corn per day and head. 
A ration of corn and oats, equal parts by weight, 
clover silage and clover hay, made the cost of 
100 lbs. of gain $4.01. A ration of oil-meal and 
oats, clover silage and clover hay, made 100 lbs. 
gain cost $6.09. The wethers receiviug the clover 
and oats and oil-meal produced more wool than 



174 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

the corn-fed ones, hut this increased weight 
was chiefly due to increase in yolk. 

Pregnant ewes should not be fed a fattening 
food like corn. In fact corn is essentially a 
fattening food for sheep. If this end is not de- 
sired, then oats, bran, and oil-meal may be fed 
to better advantage, along with roots or silage. 

Writing some years ago" Mr. F. D. Curtis, 
then a well known student of sheep husbandry, 
said: 

"No argument can now convince me that corn is a good 
kind of grain to give slieep to make them grow well or fit 
them for the lambing season. A very little corn will do 
mixed with other grain. * * * Corn makes the sheep 
fevery, and this dries the wool, makes it brittle and checks 
its growth. It inflames the udders of the ewes and makes a 
big show of milk, whei'cas it is actually mere fever, inflam- 
mation and swelling. It makes the lambs weak and tends to 
cause the ewes to forsake them, or not to own them." 

It is well to hear both sides of this question, 
but it is practically true that the grain of corn 
should not be fed pregnant animals of any 
class, sheep as w^ell as others, especially .to- 
ward parturition. Bran or oats are much bet- 
ter at this time. But for promoting the laying 
on of flesh corn is a superior feed. 

Corn-fodder and silage have not as a rule 
been largely fed sheep, but their use is becom- 
ing more and more common. Either one of 
these coarse foods may be fed sheep with sig- 

*Coimtry Gentleman, Jan. 29, 1885. 



THE FEEDING OF LIVE STOCK. 175 

nal success. Mr. A. 0. Fox, one of the most 
extensive owners of Shropshire sheep in Amer- 
ica, writing of feeding shredded fodder, says in 
a recent letter:* 

" When I first put the ewes into winter quarters upon the 
dry fodder I feared they would not relish it, but I soon found 
they took to it even more kindly than to good hay. They ate 
it ravenously and would fill themselves to perfect satisfaction 
and lie down in contentment to sleep. I am now thoroughly 
convinced that they have done better upon the corn-fodder 
ration than they would have done upon good, bright mixed 
clover and timothy hay. The corn-fodder did not have the 
slightest constipating effect. I have fed the lightest grain 
rations this winter that I ever gave my ewes and they are in 
fine bloom. Their fleeces are much cleaner than if they had 
been fed hay, and as for lambing, we are now well into the 
most successful lambing season we ever experienced; 98 ewes 
have to-day 153 lambs, which you will see is 160 per cent. 
Every lamb is sti'ong and hearty from birth. The ewes are 
experiencing no trouble with their udders, and in fact I do 
not see any objection to confining them exclusively to corn- 
fodder instead of hay." 

At the Wisconsin station corn silage has 
been fed wether lambs and suckling ewes with 
most satisfactory results. In the 1893 report 
of the station Prof. Craig says, where fed 
wethers, "the corn silage, considering its 
action as a food and the fact that it can be 
preserved cheaper and better than the clover 
silage, was the most satisfactory." Further, 
in referring to this food for breeding ewes, he 
says: "Of the succulent fodders, the best re- 



Breeders Gazelle, March 13, 1895. 



176 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

suits were secured from feeding corn silage. 
It 'is cheap, the ewes like it, and they can 
easily be kept in a healthy condition when it 
forms part of the ration. The only danger 
lies in the fact that it may contain too much 
corn for breeding ewes." At the Michigan and 
Cornell University stations silage has also been 
fed with success. There is plenty of good evi- 
dence in the agricultural press of the past ten 
years demonstrating that corn silage is a 
valuable succulent food for sheep. 

Swine.— Being the cheapest food available to 
the corn-grower in the West, most of the hogs 
shipped into the market have been raised and 
fattened on corn as the only grain food. In the 
past, however, pigs have been fed corn too ex- 
clusively. Numerous experiments have shown 
that better results are secured where some 
other grain is fed, using corn, however, as the 
principal food. Prof. Henry at the Wisconsin 
experiment station has probably conducted the 
most extensive feeding experiments on swine 
extant. His work emphasizes the importance 
of using other foods in connection Avith corn. 
Brood sows should be fed lightly of this and 
mainly with bran, shorts or some such food, be- 
fore and at farrowing time, to get the best 
results. Pigs fed corn exclusively lack the 
strength of bone and desirable meat quality 
that is i^ossessed by those that receive in con- 



THE FEEDING OF LIVE STOCK. 



177 



nection with the corn some food rich in pro- 
tein and ash. The following table, from the 
eleventh annual report of the Wisconsin sta- 
tion, contains in concise shape much valuable 
information bearing on the question of amount 
of food required to produce 100 lbs. of pork. Jt 
is to be noted here that corn is the important 
orrain factor in these rations: 



KIXD OF FOOD. 



Whole corn 

CorD-meal 

Corn-meal 

Barley mcnl 

Shorts 

Sweet sklm-mllk 

]4 corn-oaeal, }-i shorts (dry) 
J^ corn-rueal, hi 6hortB(wet) 
Corn-meal and sklm-mllk.. 
Corn-meal and skim-mllk. . 
Corn-meal and Bkim-mllk.. 



Time year. 


trials 


No. 
ani- 
mals. 


Average 

weight at 

beginning 

t?ial. 


Winter 

Summer 

Winter 

Winter 

Summer 

Summer 

Fall 

Full 


3 
5 

3 


8 
12 

8 
12 

4 

72 
12 


229 lbs. 

71 lbs. 
17T lbs. 
159 lbs. 

58 IbB. 

66 lbs. 
laT lbs. 
136 lbs. 


Summer 




10 


95 lbs. 


Summer 




10 


254 lbs. 


Summer 




10 


251 lbs. 



Food required 

Jor 100 lbs. 

gain. 

784 IbB, 

534 lbs. 

617 lbs. 

607 lbs. 

525 11.8. 
1,877 lbs. 

531 lbs. 

431 lbs. 
J 147 meal 
1 892 milk 
J 379 meal 
] 189 milk 
j 432 meal 
1216 milk 



By this table it will ]dg seen that far less corn 
and shorts were required to make 100 lbs. of 
gain than where corn was fed alone, and the 
showing is much better than that made by 
corn-meal alone. The first ration also has the 
advantage of being much the cheapest of the 
three. 

The practice obtains to a large extent of feed- 
ing steers corn on the ear and letting pigs fol- 
low after and feed on the grain which passes 
through the steers undigested. AVhere steers- 
are thus fed this is unquestionably the most 



178 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

economical practice. At the Wisconsin station 
a bushel of shelled corn made 11.4 lbs. of pork 
when fed alone to pigs, while a bushel fed to 
them when running with corn-fed steers made, 
with the help of the droppings of the steers, 
17.6 lbs., or over one-half more. 

Corn- and- cob meal vs. corn -meal. —The 
question is often asked as to which is the more 
valuable food, corn and cob ground together or 
corn-meal alone. Considerable experimental 
feeding has been conducted to throw light on 
this question, and very generally the informa- 
tion secured favors the grinding of the corn and 
cob together. It is assumed that the pure meal 
packs in the digestive organs and is not so 
readily permeated by the digestive fluids as is 
the corn-and-cob meal, the cob making the 
mass more porous. 

At the Maine experiment station Jordan fed 
two lots of pigs 81 da}^^^ one receiving corn- 
and-cob meal, the other pure meal. There was 
but little difference in the gain made by each 
lot. Shelton at the Kansas station found that 
it required 650 lbs. of corn-and-cob meal to 
make 100 lbs. of gain when fed to pigs, wdiile it 
required 670 lbs. of pure meal to make an equal 
gain. In a steer- feeding experiment Prof. Shel- 
ton also secured results favorable to the use of 
the cob with the corn. 

General testimony seems to show that a 



THE FEEDING OF LIVE STOCK. 179 

pound of corn-and-cob meal has the same feed- 
ing value as a pound of pure corn-meal. In 
this connection it is important to grind the 
cob finely. The writer has had difficulty in 
successfully feeding corn-and-cob meal to pigs 
when the cob was fiaky or coarse, as they re- 
fused to eat it unless well milled. 

The by-products of the corn plant embrace 
most important and valuable feeding-stuffs. 
The glucose and starch factories, distilleries 
and hominy mills produce by-products from 
the corn grain that are used for stock food on 
an extensive scale. They include gluten meal, 
gluten flour, gluten feed, glucose meal^ glucose 
feed, maize or starch feed, sugar feed or meal 
and grano-gluten. These are produced by dif- 
ferent methods of manufacture and so vary 
widely in composition. Quoting from Allen:* 
The corn is soaked until it is swollen and soft, 
and is passed through the mill while wet, the 
hulls and germs of the corn being rubbed off. 
In some cases the starch is separated froni this 
mass by means of running water and the wet 
residue is dried and sold as gluten feed. In 
other cases the mass after grinding is bolted, 
the starch and gluten passing through, while 
the husk and germ remain behind. In some 
factories the latter (husk and germ) are dried 
and sold as corn-germ feed, corn-germ meal, 

* Farmers' Bulletin No. 22, p. 16, The Feeding of Farm 
Animals. 



180 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

etc. In others the material is treated to ex- 
tract the oil from the germ and then sold 
under the name of maize feed. The material 
which passes the bolting cloth is treated to 
separate most of the starch, and the residue is 
sold as gluten meal, cream gluten, etc. The 
Chicago gluten meal, it is said, has had a part 
of the fat extracted from it. In some cases the 
gluten meal is mixed with the hulls and germs 
without the oil being extracted. This is said 
to be the case with Buffalo gluten feed. These 
materials should not be compared with grano- 
gluten, which is a dried distillery refuse. The 
residues from these factories are frequently 
sold in their wet condition, containing from 60 
to 70 per cent of water, under the names of wet 
starch feed, sugar feed, glucose feed, etc. These 
wet products must be used at once, as they 
ferment. The dried products from the same 
factory often vary considerably in composition. 
Owing to these variations, and to the fact that 
there is such a variety of names for these pro- 
ducts it is difficult to make any helpful class- 
ification; the farmer can only be certain of 
what he is buying when he buys on a guar- 
anty of composition or from lots that have been 
analyzed. 

Hominy chop, meal and feed are by-products 
from the manufacture of hominy and contain 
the germ and 'coarser portions of the corn. 



THE FEEDING OF LIVE STOCK. 181 

The composition of a nunilier of these feeds 
is given further on in this chapter. The wet 
foods are undesirable for summer use, unless 
fed when perfectly sweet, as they soon become 
badly fermented and offensive. If the dry pro- 
duct can be bought it is much preferable. The 
writer has fed wet starch feed, and when sweejt 
it is eaten with relish, but the same product 
freed of excess moisture he found to be more 
satisfactory. He has also used gluten and 
hominy feeds. The former is high in protein 
and serves as a valuable substance to balance 
up with carbonaceous material, such as corn- 
meal. Hominy feed contains much less pro- 
tein, but it is one of the most satisfactory corn 
by-products that the writer has ever used in 
feeding cattle. Gluten feed is not relished by 
cattle, in the author's experience, as generally 
as the hominy feed. 

Testimony from users of by-products.— 
Four well-known feeders of dairy cattle con- 
tribute articles on feeding by-products of corn 
to the Breeder's Gazette of Sept. 5, 1894. The 
following quotations from three of these arti- 
cles are of interest. 

Prof. W. H. Caldwell, who had charge of the 
Guernsey herd in the dairy cattle tests at the 
World's Columbian Exposition, says: I have 
used gluten meal, both the Chicago and Buffalo 
brands. To horses it has only been fed when I 



182 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

desired to winter cheaply and had no heavy 
work. The mixture used was two parts gluten, 
two parts bran and one part linseed meal, with 
plenty of good hay. Were I to do the same 
again I would add one part of what is called in 
the East provender, half corn and half oats, 
ground. I have never noticed any ill effect 
from the use of gluten with dairy cows. Some 
believe it to make butter soft, or with less body 
to it. The cream from i*iy own dairy herd has 
always gone to the creamery, but butter was 
made from that of the Pennsylvania experi- 
ment station herd, with which I have been 
associated, and there was never any difficulty 
in making a fine quality of butter that con- 
trolled a good market. * '• * During last 
winter's feeding, with the high price of bran, 
gluten was made the basis of the mixture, as 
three parts gluten to one part oil-meal and one 
part cotton seed. 

C. A. Sweet: Has fed considerable gluten 
meal of the Buffalo brand to his herd of Jer- 
seys. Feeds three quarts per day in two feeds, 
mixed with double the quantity of bran. Has 
only used it in cold weather and mixed it with 
water about twelve hours before feeding. He 
believes it a wholesome food for the cattle, and 
that it increases the milk flow„ 

H. H. Hinds, in charge of Short-horn cattle 
in dairy test at Columbian Exposition, says: 



THE FEEDING OF LIA^E STOCK. 183 

Owing to high price of corn-meal he fed to Ex- 
position cows considerable corn hearts from 
hominy mills and gluten feed. These were 
liberally used with other grains. The corn 
hearts, considering cost, gave satisfactory re- 
sults. 

Digestible constituents in by-products. — 
The following table is given by Prof. W. A. 
Henry, in answer to a correspondent,* showing 
the digestible constituents in 100 lbs. of each 
of the by-products of corn: 

Protein. Carbohydrates. Fat. 

Corn 7.1 lbs. 62.7 lbs. 4.2 lbs. 

Hominy chops 8.9 lbs. 61.9 lbs. 6.3 lbs. 

Corn germ 8.9 lbs. 61.4 lbs. 5.6 lbs. 

Germ meal 9.3 lbs. 63.6 lbs. 4.1 lbs. 

Gluten meal 25.0 lbs. 49.4 lbs. 5.6 lbs. 

Each one of these contains more protein than 
the corn, and the gluten meal more than three 
times as much. 

* Breeder's Gazette, Sept. 5, 1894. 



184 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



CHAPTER XIV. 



SOILING. 

In the dry summer season when pastures be- 
come scant it is important that green food be 
supplied farm live stock. The process of soil- 
ing commonly means the feeding of stock green 
food in the stable during the summer, rather 
than pasturing the animals. In some places, 
near cities, where land is expensive, soiling is 
resorted to exclusively in season. One cannot 
always afford to pasture land worth $100 per 
acre. ' In other places, where pasture grasses 
dry up and become short, the stock is fed some 
specifically grown green crop additional to the 
pasturage. Either method embraces the prin- 
ciples of soiling. 

Importance of green food.— The impor- 
tance of supplying plenty of green food to 
stock in summer, and especially to cattle, can- 
not be emphasized too much. Quincy says* 
there ai-e six advantages to be derived from 
this process: 

* Essays on the Soiling of Cattle. Boston, 1866, p. 56. 



SOILING. 



185 



1. From the saving of land. 

2. The saving of fencing. 

3. The economizing of food. 

4. The better condition and greater comfort 
of the cattle. 

5. The greater product of milk. 

6. The attainment of manure. 

To this it is fair to add that if cattle are 
soiled in darkened stables a seventh benefit 
comes from reduced attacks of flies. In the 
case of the hornfly this is an important consid- 
eration. 

Every farmer should provide a summer sup- 
ply of succulent food to his cattle, sheep and 
swine. If this is not done when hot, dry winds 
prevail the pastures will become short and the 
animals will fall off in weight or in milk yield. 
At this time the far-sighted feeder draws upon 
a provision of green food, which maintains the 
balance on the ledger account in his favor 
through the critical feeding season. 

Crops for soiling.— At the Indiana experi- 
ment station the writer has practiced soiling 
for several years, although the cattle have had 
the run of the pasture during the entire season. 
For two months each summer, however, the 
blue grass is dried off and eaten to the ground, 
so that extra green food has to be provided. 
To get the best results for a season of soiling 
the following crops planted in the order given 



186 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

maybe recommended: Rye sown in the fall 
gives the earliest green fodder in spring. Oats 
and peas planted just as early as the soil can 
be suitably worked give a good succession to 
the rye. If two sowings of oats and peas fol- 
low each other at intervals of ten days, or 
thereabouts, one will secure a most nutritious 
and palatable green fodder that will yield 
heavily. Common oats and Canada field peas 
in the North make a good combination. A 
very satisfactory w^ay will be to sow broadcast 
a bushel of peas to the acre and plow the seed 
under three to four inches; then harrow thor- 
oughly and drill in two bushels of oats per 
acre. Some persons drill in oats and peas at 
the same time, but the peas should be planted 
twice as deep as the oats. 

As soon as the seed can be safely put in the 
ground the corn crop for soiling should be 
planted. Three seedings may be made, so that 
a succession of green food will follow to frost. 
The rows may ordinarily be about three and 
one-half feet apart, and the seed six inches, or 
thereabouts, apart in the row. While the most 
nutriment is secured from the plant at ma- 
turity it will be desirable and profitable to be- 
gin feeding the green fodder just as soon as it 
assumes a size that will justify cutting, say at 
the time the blossom first appears. 

Red clover and sorghuui also make impor- 



SOILING. 



187 



tant soiling crops. The latter plant seems to 
do especially well in localities Avhere consider- 
able dryness often prevails in summer, and it 
furnishes a good succession of green food. 

Of all the soiling crops, however, that which 
may he depended on by the feeder over the 
longest period of time, that will give the great- 
est 'yield at the least expense, is Indian corn, 
Green rye may injure the flavor of milk given 
by cows fed this crop, but Indiaii corn assists 
in producing the finest quality of milk and 
butter. 

Soiling at Wisconsin station.— In an ex- 
periment at the Wisconsin station this amount 
of green food was supplied between June 15 
and Oct. 15, from an acre and a half of land, 
according to Prof. Henry:* 

Fodder corn 23,658 lbs. 

Green clover 19,762 lbs. 

Green oats 2,385 lbs. 

Early variety of corn desirable.— In plant- 
ing corn to secure the first crop it will be desir- 
able to get an early variety. The early vari- 
ties of sweet corn produce but small plants 
and comparatively little fodder, while the 
later sweet corn is no improvement over the 
field varieties, and as a rule does not yield so 
bountifully of forage. Of the sweet varieties 
Stowell's Evergreen is among the best for this 
purpose. 

breeder's Gazette, Nov. 21, 1894. 



.188 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

Results at the Iowa station. — At the Iowa 
experiment station,- according to Prof. James 
Wilson,* the following yields of soiling crops 
on an acre of land each were obtained: 

Total dry matter 
Total green food, in green food. 

Oats and peas 20,800 lbs, 6,656 lbs. 

Second-crop clover. . . 14,400 lbs. 2,880 lbs. 

Rape 54,400 lbs. 5,755 lbs. 

Sweet corn 36,800 lbs. 12,512 lbs. 

While the corn gave a smaller yield of the 
green food than the rape it prodnced more than 
twice as much dry matter. 

The milk made by cows fed different soiling 
crops was taken to the college creamery and 
the butter made from it was scored for flavor 
by experts, rating 45 points for perfection. 
Blue grass, oats and peas, and clover butters 
scored 42, rape butter 39 and sweet corn butter 
45, or perfection. Prof. Wilson says: "The 
sweet-corn butter had the very finest flavor 
and suggests the reason why Western corn-fed 
butters rank so high. Many Iowa farmers feed 
nothing but corn and its fodders," 

Experiments ,at Pennsylvania station.— At 
the Pennsylvania station experiments were con- 
ducted for three years to ascertain the food 
yield of forage corn.f Two kinds of corn were 
planted, some plats thick, others thin, on plats 

*Breeder''s Gazette, Marcb 7, 1894, p. 151. 
t Annual Report Pennsylvania agricultural experiment 
station,' 1892, p. 22. 



SOILING. 189 

one-twentieth of an acre each, and samples 
from each plat were taken at intervals and 
analj^zed. According to the results secured 
Breck's Boston Market, sown thick, yielded in 
the milk or just past this stage from 4,043 to 
6,494 lbs. of digestible food per acre. The di- 
gestible protein in this food ranged from 110 to 
314 lbs. per acre. These figures show that a 
large amount of food may be secured in the 
plant some time before full maturity, when the 
largest amount of nutriment is usually ob- 
tained. 

Beneficial effect of green food.— In soiling 
stock, however, it is to be noted that an un- 
known value may be attributed to these green 
foods, which is shown in their influence on the 
general health of the animals. There are some 
who disapprove the use of corn silage because 
a ton of it, water-free, contains no more digesti- 
ble food than a ton of dry fodder, but these men 
as a rule overlook the physiological effect of a 
green food on the system — an influence that 
cannot be measured by chemical standards. 

Stewart on corn for soiling.— In discussing 
the corn crop for soiling Stewart says:* 

"Corn is adapted to the soil of all the States, and pro- 
duces, under favorable circumstances, enormous yields of 
green fodder. The author has grown 28 tons to the acre; but 
M. Goffart, of France, grows from 30 to 50 tons, as he has 
stated in his work upon "Ensilage." * * * There is no 

* Feeding Animals, 1886, p. 194. 



190 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

doubt that it produces a larger weight of green food than any 
other crop raised in the United States except, perhaps, sor- 
ghum, and this renders its study as a soiling crop of the 
highest importance. * * * It is a most desirable crop, as 
it can be fed in combination with clover, oats and peas, and 
other more nitrogenous food. The largest crops may be 
grown with the large Western or Southern varieties of field 
corn; and next to these, Mammoth sweet corn and Stowell's 
Evergreen sweet corn. The quality of the sweet varieties is 
better than 'the field varieties. The greatest amount of de- 
sirable nutriment is obtained by planting in drills 32 inches 
apart, so that the coi'n can be thoroughly cultivated. The 
sweet corn will then grow ears upon a large proportion of the 
stalks, and these ears in the soft state greatly improve the 
quality of the food for both fattening and milk production. 
When thus grown cattle fatten rapidly upon it and cows 
yield milk abundantly. Corn is so easily grown and pro- 
duces so largely that dairymen make it the principal green 
food to sustain their herds upon short pasture. Judicious 
feeders, when they have no other green food but fodder corn, 
are in the habit of feeding wheat bran and middlings with 
the corn- fodder, so as to make it a well-balanced food." 

Early cutting objectionable.— If cut at a 

veiy early stage green corn is too watery, and 
unsatisfactory results may ensue unless grain 
or hay is fed in connection with it. Corn es- 
pecially lacks in protein, but this may be sup- 
plied in bran or other grain which contains a 
fairly large per cent of this substance. Says 
the late Prof. L. B. Arnold, than whom there 
was no better authority on dairying fifteen 
years ago:* 

"Those who have condemned it have fed it too young, or 
have sown it so thick that its aliment (nutriment) was not 

* American Dairying, 1879, p. 72. 



SOILING. 191 

developed. When too thickly planted its stems and leaves 
are soft and pale, its juices thin and poor, and the eflfect is a 
growth somewhat like a potato vine in a cellar. If sown 
thin, or in drills, so that the air and light and heat of the sun 
can reach it, and not fed till nearly its full size, it is a valu- 
able soiling plant and is fed with satisfactory results." 

Soiling on pasture. — It is a good thing, 
where entirely feasible, to have a corn field 
convenient to the pasture or stable. This may- 
be planted as though to be harvested with the 
ears as an important factor of the crop. When 
the plants begin to flower use from the field for 
soiling until the plants pass beyond their use- 
fulness for that purpose. When maturity ar- 
rives this field may also be drawn upon for fill- 
ing the silo. If the field is conveniently situ- 
ated plants may be cut from day to day and 
throwai into the pasture. This is a most satis- 
factory method. 



192 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



CHAPTER XV. 



SILOS AND SILAGE. 

At the x^resent clay a silo is generally repre- 
sented by a pit or room, in some cases with 
partitions, which is filled to the top with green 
fodder. The silo is built of stone, brick or 
wood, and is necessarily of strong construction 
in order to withstand the side pressure of the 
contents, which in deep silos is very great. 

The practical use of the silo in the United 
States really dates from 1876. Since then 
thousands of them have been built in this 
country and Canada. 

Constructing a silo.— In building a silo there 
are important points which it will be well to 
take into consideration. It should be made 
deep. The greater the pressure from above 
the more the air is expelled from among the 
silage and the better it will keep. A depth of 
24 feet is shallow enough, and if deeper it will 
be better still. 

The wall of the silo on the inside should be 
smooth. If of brick or stone it should be cov- 
ered with a coat of smooth cement. If wood 
is used the inside lining should have a smooth 



SILOS AND SILAGE. 193 

dressed face. The purpose of this is to enable 
the silage to settle evenly. No blocks or rods 
should interfere with the settling process. 

There should be as few corners as possible, 
for it is in corners, at the door casings and on 
the surface that the most silage spoils. Con- 
sequently a round silo offers advantages over a 
square or rectangular one. Corners may be 
boarded off and the angles reduced. Door 
boards should fit smooth and flush with the 
side of the silo. 

Gas tar may be profitably painted over all 
woodwork, for as a preservative it is of the 
highest character. No wet or green wood 
should be used, and only the dry timber be 
tarred. This material can be applied to best 
advantage when hot. 

Most desirable forms.— The two most de- 
sirable forms of silos are round and square. 
The round contains the least amount of waste 
space, and owing to its form of construction 
presents more strength to resist side pressure 
than any other shape, as it is equally distributed 
against the walls at every point. 

The square or rectangular silos may be often 
built to advantage in the barn, in a corner or 
in a bay. If to be built to stand by itself the 
square form is preferable to the rectangular. 
The walls are stronger. For equal capacity 
there is less waste wall space in the square. 

13 



194 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

Lining and floor, — The most satisfactory 
inside lining for the walls of wooden silos con- 
sists of two layers of boards with tarred paper 
laid between. The first layer would be placed 
horizontally against the studs, next would 
come the paper, and last the inner layer of 
boards nailed on vertically, smooth side out. 
With the round form the lining all goes on 
horizontally. Strips one-half inch thick and 
four to six inches wide are placed on each 
other tightly and so as to break joints. This 
construction strengthens the silo, as a, hoop 
does a pail. There can be no springing out at 
one place in the side and not at another. An 
equal pressure extends from the center to the 
circumference on all sides. 

It will be w^ell to have the floor of stiff clay 
or of cement. It is important to have it rat- 
proof, as these pests burrow up into the silage 
where the floor is soft and cause great damage 
by admitting air into it. 

Walls. — The walls of wooden silos remain 
sound longest when they are well ventilated. 
Where they are tightly boxed up moisture ac- 
cumulates within and decay occurs. Auger 
holes bored between studs at bottom give suffi- 
cient ventilation if there are openings at top of 
wall. All these holes or openings should be 
covered with wire netting to keep out rats and 
mice. The studs must be strong enough to 



SILOS AND SILAGE. 195 

guarantee against springing out under the 
greatest pressure they are likely to undergo. 

The feeding door should be tvv^o and one-half 
to three feet wide and extend in sections from 
sill to within three or four feet of the top, each 
part being about five feet long. A space two to 
three feet wide should be left or iron rods should 
be placed in between the doors at sufficient in- 
tervals to make the wall perfectly strong. One 
or two extra studs on each side of door casing 
secure the strength of wall here. Boards as 
long as the door is wide are placed horizontally 
in the frame, edge to edge and flush with the 
inside of silo, resting against cleats nailed on 
inside of casing or fitting into grooves. These 
boards may be put in place as the silo is filled. 

Weather boarding is not essential, though in 
the North it assists in reducing freezing. With- 
in the barn only the inside linings are at all 
necessary. 

Fasten cables or ties of timber across the tops 
of square or rectangular silos, attaching to op- 
posite studs, to prevent the walls from spread- 
ing. Ties every seven or eight feet will answer. 

Sills. — The sills, well tarred, should rest on a 
good foundation that extends below frost line 
and be bedded in cement or mortar. Have the 
sills placed freely above the outside soil. In 
square or rectangular forms the sills must be 
anchored to the wall to keep them absolutely 



196 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

in place. Usually bolts are set in the walL 
when it is built, and these project enough above 
this to just extend through the sills to permit 
capping with washers and nuts. 

Roof. — A roof is required only on silos out of 
doors. This may be built to suit, but it should 
at least protect the silage from rain and snow. 
It should, if of permanent character, contain a 
dormer window or door in roof through which 
the elevator may carry the cut fodder aud de- 
posit it within the silo. 

Capacity of silo. — The capacity of the silo 
depends on the needs of the farmer. A cubic 




foot of silage under average conditions will 
weigh 40 lbs. — perhaps a little less. A day's 
feed for one cow would not probably as a rule 
exceed this amount. If silage is fed one cow 
200 days she will consume, say 8,000 lbs., or 
four tons. On this basis 10 cows will require 
40 tons, though it w^ould be well to make the 
capacity 50 tons. 

Plans for round silo. — The accompanying 
illustrations, reproduced from Bulletin 28 of 



SILOS AND SILAGE. 



197 



the Wisconsin experiment station/by Prof. F. 
H. King, explain in a measure the process of 
constructing the round silo. Fig. 57 shows a 
method of laying and leveling the foundation.^ 
A is a center post with top level with top of 
proposed wall; B B are straight-edge boards 




Fig. 58. 

nailed to stakes driven in the ground; C is a 
straight-edge fixed to turn on a pin at A; B B 
are all nailed level with top of post A. 

Fig. 58 shows the construction. The sills are 
2x4s, cut in sections on a radius of the silo 
circle; these should be sawed out with much 
care. After being bedded in mortar they may 



198 



INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



be nailed together. The plates are the same 
spiked to top of studs, which are 2x4s, one foot 
apart. Short lengths of studs may be used, 
lapped to get the depth; IGs and 14s will give 
a silo 30 feet deep. Linings are made from 
fencing ripped in two to give one-half inch in 
thickness; outside sheeting the same. Use for 
silos under 28 feet, outside diameter, common 




siding, rabbeted; for diameter over 28 feet out- 
side, common drop siding or shiplap ma}^ be 
used. 

In Fig. 59 is seen a method of roofing a round 
silo and manner of connecting it with a barn. 
A shows where air is admitted between stud- 
ding to ventilate between the lining; B is the 
feeding chute; C is filling window, and the 
cui^ola serves as a ventilator. 



SILOS AND SILAGE. 199 

Square silo. — In building the square or rec- 
tangular silo the sills may be of 2x10 plank, in 
two layers, halved and spiked at the corners. 
The 2x10 studs are toe-nailed to the sills, 18 
inches apart, center to center. If the silo is to 
be more than 20 feet deep then 2x12 sills and 
studs would be better, on account of increased 
side pressure. The base of each stud may be 
cut on the outside to block against a 2x4 piece 
spiked along the outer line of sill to keep base 
of studs from being forced outward. The studs 
at the top are fastened with a strong plate, to 
wdiTch they are spiked. 

Cost of silo.— The cost of a silo depends upon 
manj^ conditions, and no estimates can be given 
that will apply to all localities, there being such 
a difference in cost of materials, labor, etc. A 
cheaply constructed silo, however, is an expen- 
sive one in the long run. It will pay much 
better to build carefully and well, having the 
construction strong, tight, and free of air-holes 
at sides and bottom. Most of the condemna- 
tion of the silo has resulted from trials where 
the construction has been poor and the con- 
tents badly preserved. Prof. King gives in Bul- 
letin 28 of the Wisconsin station estimates on 
the cost of a well-constructed round silo of ISO 
tons capacity as $344.44, or $1.91 per ton. Nu- 
merous estimates have been published by dif- 
ferent persons where the cost is much less than 



200 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

this, but King's figures represent first-class 
worlf and include all the details of construc- 
tion. 

Corn the best for silage.— Indian corn is rec- 
ognized as the plant superior to all others for 
silage when cost of production, jield of food 
material, etc, are taken into account. Other 
plants are used to an insignificant extent for 
silage as compared with this, and it is not the 
purpose of the writer to consider their merits. 

Indian corn is adapted to a wide geographical 
range and will x^roduce the largest amount of 
desirable silage per acre of an.y crop we can 
grow. Fifteen to 20 tons of green fodder can 
be produced on an acre without difficulty over 
a large part of the United States. 

Varieties best suited for silage. — All of the 
large varieties of corn are suitable for silage. 
It is important, however, that the variety ma- 
ture in the region grown in. Southern corns as 
a rule will not mature in the North sufficiently 
to justify planting them where the corn-grow- 
ing season is short. Perhaps the safest way is 
to plant the best known heavy yielding va- 
riety grown in the county or vicinity — one well 
adapted to the local conditions. If other varie- 
ties are to be grown they should possess early- 
maturing powers and also yield heavily of both 
forage and grain. A reference to the varieties 
in Chapter III will assist one in selecting what 



SILOS AND SILAGE. 201 

may be a satisfactory variety for a given local- 
ity aDcl conditions. In the South there are 
nume]-ous varieties which produce the best of 
material for silage that would not mature in 
New Eugland, Michigan or Wisconsin suffi- 
ciently to warrant their being planted there. 

Growing corn for silage.— The writer rec- 
ommends that silage corn be grown under 
ordinary field conditions, and that such of the 
crop be used for the silo as circumstances make 
necessary, using the remainder for the later 
harvest. This is a method which he has found 
in practice to be very satisfactory. Puof. 
Georgeson of Kansas^ however, recommends* 
planting thicker than ordinary when the dop 
is grown for silage. At the Kansas experiment 
station they always plant the silage corn in 
drills, and have found by experience that they 
get the heaviest yield when the stalks are four 
to eight inches apart in rows one and one-half 
feet apart. At this distance the ears are small 
and totally unfit for market, but the plants 
furnish a large amount of nutrition and make 
up in number what they lack in size. 

The same rules for caring for common field 
corn will apply to that intended for the silo. 
The cultivation should be frequent enough" to 
destroy all weeds and encourage a rapid growth 
of the plant. Unless a rotation of crops or 

* Prairie Farmer, June 8, 1895. 



202 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

other conditions prcA^ent, it will be well to have 
the cornfield as near to the silo as possible to 
save time and labor in hauling. For informa- 
tion on cultivating and field harvesting the 
reader is referred to the chapters on tillage and 
harvesting. In the latter chapter the harvest- 
ing of silage crops is given special attention. 

Filling the silo.— The fodder-cutter should 
be placed convenient to the silo, so that the 
carrier may be made as short as possible. The 
stalks are eaten up most completely wdien cut 
very short, and one-half an inch is a desirable 
length. 

After much experimental work it seems to be 
demonstrated that rapidity of filling is on the 
whole unimportant. Some fill as fast as they 
can haul and cut, while others allow an inter- 
val of two or three days to occur in course of 
harvesting when no material is placed in the 
silo. In each case the preservation may be 
eminently satisfactory. 

The cut fodder can be handled to best advan- 
tage if deposited in the center of the silo and 
distributed to the sides from there. Some rec- 
ommend a cloth chute to be fastened at one end 
of carrier, and the other end tied from time to 
time in different directions, so as to generally 
distribute over the entire surface. While the 
practice is not universally followed, the writer 
has had the best success in preserving when 



SILOS AND SILAGE. 203 

the corn was well trampled at the sides in fill- 
in^-. The more uniform the packing through- 
out the better will the silage be preserved. 

Covering the top.— When full the contents 
may he allowed to settle for a day or so, when 
more corn may be cut into the silo, or cut straw 
or chail may be filled on the silage to a foot or 
so of depth. A layer of tarred paper may first 
l)e laid on the silage and the straw placed on 
this. Some dispense with the paper, while 
others begin feeding the silage from the top as 
soon as filled, never covering at all. No pres- 
sure on top of the corn is necessary. 

Wetting the silage.— When the corn is cut 
in a very dry season, and is not as juicy as com- 
mon, the writer has found it advisable to pour 
water on it after the temperature reaches a 
high point. If one has a water pressure and 
can turn on through a hose, that will be a con- 
venience. Plenty of water may be used to 
advantage, but no fixed rate of application can 
be recommended. 

Cost per ton.— The cost of corn silage per 
ton varies, and the estimates made by those 
owning silos vary widely — from 25 cents to $4 
per ton. At Lafayette, Ind., the writer esti- 
mated the cost to be $1.50, and this included 
higher-priced labor than many pay for, and nu- 
merous other factors, such as taxes on land, etc., 
that are not taken into account by the farmer. 



204 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

Feeding it out. — The silage may be fed at 
any time. As already stated, some begin to 
feed as soon as the silo is filled. The feeding 
should be from the top if possible, so as to al- 
low no part an opportunity to decay. Where 
long, shallow silos, however, are used, the bet- 
ter way is to keep the top covered, excepting 
toward one end, and then to feed from the end, 
working off a vertical section to the floor from 
time to time. 

Corn silage has been found, as a result of 
large practice, to be a valuable food for cattle 
and sheep. Swine do not eat it to any appre- 
ciable extent, excepting for the grain it may 
contain. There is considerable diversity of 
opinion as to its value for horses. Mr. M. W. 
Dunham of Wayne, 111., one of the greatest 
breeders and importers of horses in the United 
States, if not in the world, writes the author 
that after carefully testing it on a large scale 
as a food for horses, during two years, he finally 
discarded it as unfit for them. Others, how- 
ever, feed horses silage Avith satisfactory re- 
sults. It is important to remember that horses 
have comparatively small stomachs and should 
be fed lightly of this food, otherwise colic or 
bowel trouble is liable to occur. For a further 
consideration of silage as a food the reader is 
referred to Chapters XII and XTII, 



STATISTICS. 



205 



CHAPTER XVI 



STATISTICS. 

Indian corn is the 'most important cereal 
crop grown in America, as based on crop pro- 
duction and values. The crop for 1893 had a 
much greater money value than the combined 
ones of wheat, oats, lye, barley, and buckwheat 
for the same year. The magnitude and com- 
mercial value of the corn crop of the United 
States can only be comprehended by a study of 
statistics bearing on this sul)ject. 

The corn crop of ISSS amounted to nearly 
2,000,000,000 bushels. Commenting on this 
fact, one of the agricultural journals=^ presented 
its readers with the following graphic state- 
ment. If the corn crop were put into 40-bushel 
wagon loads, and 3) feet be allowed for the 
wagon, team and bead way in the road, the 
string of teams would stretch 284,090 miles, or 
11 rows around the world, and 9,000 miles more 
of teams not in line. If in car-loads of 500 
bushels per car, allowing 40 feet for length and 

* Orange JucU Fanmr, Sept. 29, 1888 



206 



INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



couplings, the corn crop of 1S8S would require 
4,000,000 cars, and they would make up a con- 
tinuous freight train 30,303 miles long; or 10 
trains from the Atlantic to the Pacific; or one 
freight train of corn clear round the world 
with enough cars left over to form two con- 
tinuous trains from the Atlantic to the Pacific. 



STATES AND TERRITORIES. 



Maine 

New Hampshire. 

Vermont 

Massachusetts.. . 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey. . . 
Pennsylvania.. . 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Virginia 

North Carolina. . 
South Carolina.. 

Georgia 

Florida 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Tennessee 

West Virginia ... 

Kentucky 

Ohio 

Michitran 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

Kansas 

Nebraska 

South Dakota.... 
North Dakota.... 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico ... . 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washinuton 

Oregon 

California 



Total . 



Acres. 

1.3.553 

25,074 

44.094 

40,4G0 

8,949 

43,557 

517,135 

277,183 

1,273,418 

199,874 

623,667 

J.G52,595 

.435,310 

,623,511 

,034,079 

506,120 

,463,349 

,970,777 

,071,5ba 

,475,623 

,982.149 

,988,247 

649,265 

,893,960 

,709,549 

919,432 

,456.220 

,247,100 

971.686 

887,052 

,428,677 

,670,169 

,547,263 

,241,220 

865,472 

20.142 

1,102 

2,071 

123,107 

25.155 

4.604 

8,575 

8!405 
l.J.lo2 



Bushels. 

410,656 

794,846 

1,428,646 

1,355,410 

218,356 

1,228,307 

15,255,483 

7,179,010 

31,198,741 

4,916,900 

15.078,221 

31.234,046 

29,954,313 

12,501,035 

33,678,277 

4.909,.SG4 

23.328,514 

25.817,179 

15,216,266 

61.170,965 

32,110,814 

63,649,661 

14,089,051 

68.003,060 

64.487,265 

21,790.538 

85,368 782 

160,550,470 

28 956,243 

25,103,572 

251,832,150 

158,197.715 

139,456,702 

157,278,895 

20,511,680 

416,939 

30,305 

2,031 !266 
636,422 
81,951 
184,363 

""'si.uh 

179.027 

324,360 

2,275,268 



Value. 

$254,607 

453,062 

871,474 

840,354 

160,666 

786,116 

8,390,510 

3,733.101 

15,287,333 

1,966,760 

6,634,417 

14,.367,661 

14.977,1.')7 

7,500,021 

18,859,835 

3. .338 368 

16,713,623 

1-1. 1 99.448 

8,673,272 

33,032.321 

14,140.866 

24,823.3>i8 

7,748,978 

29,243.466 

25,794, 90f) 

9,805,742 

SO.732,762 

49,770,640 

10,134,685 

8.535,214 

67,994.681 

47,459,315 

43,231,578 

42,465,.302 

5,127,922 

158,437 

21,214 

24,138 

1,035,916 

451,860 

100i931 

"2V,5i6 

110.997 

152,449 

1.137.e34 



STATISTICS. 



207 



Area planted to corn.— The preceding table* 
gives the number of acres of corn planted in 
the United States in 1893, number of bushels 
of grain grown, and its value. The corn crop 
for 1894 was the smallest, with one exception, 
harvested in the past fifteen years, being almost 
390,000,000 bushels less than the average for 
1890-1894, and over 490,000,000 bushels less than 
the average crop of the ten j^ears 1880-1889. 
For this reason the 1893 yield of the several 
States is given, instead of the 1894: 

The average rate of yield, 22.5 bushels per 
acre, is the lowest for ten years, with the ex- 
ception of the years 1886, 1887 and 1890. It is 
only a little lower, however, than that of 1883, 
which was 22.7, or two-tenths of a bushel 
greater. The average value per bushel is 36.5 
cents, which is 2.9 cents, or about 7 per cent 
lower than the value of 1892. This value is 
6.1 cents less than the average of the ten years 
1870-1879, 2.8 cents less than that of the de- 
cade 1880-1889, and 6.6 cents below the average 
value of the three years 1890-1892. In the ten 
years preceding only four crops, viz., those of 
1884 (35.7), 1885 (32.8), 1888 (34.1), and 1889 
(28.3), have had a lower average value. 

Magnitude of corn crop.— The significance 
of the corn crop of the United States, as cover- 

*From December, 1893, report of of the Statistician of the 
United States Department of Agriculture. 



208 



INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



ing a term of 3^ears, can be best shown in the 
following table:"'' 





Total prodiic- 
tion, bushels. 


Total area, 

acres. 


Total value, 
dollars. 


Average tor lo years, isto-is79. . 
1880 .: . 


l,184,48C,<t!i4 
1.717,434.543 
1,194,910,000 
1.617,025,100 
1,651,066,895 
1,795,528.000 
1,936,170,000 
1,005.441,000 
1,4511,161.000 
1.987,790,000 
2,112,892.000 

1,703.443,054 

l,469,970,r0U 
2.000,154,000 
1,623.464,000 
1,019,496,1.31 
1,212,770.052 


43.741,331 
02,317,842 
64,262,025 
65,659,545 
68,301,889 
09,683,780 
73.130.150 
75,694,208 
72.392,720 
75,072.763 
78,319,651 
70 543,457 
71.970,763 
76.204,515 
70,626,658 
72,036,465 
62,532,269 


60t,o71.048 
679,714,499 
759 482,170 
783,867,175 
6r,S,0il,485 
640,735.560 
335,674.630 
610,311,000 
016,100,770 
677.561.580 
597,913,829 
668.942,370 
754,431,451 
836,439,228 
642,146,630 
691,625,627 
554.719,162 


1881 

1882 


1883 




1885 


1880 

1887 


ill::::.::::::-::::.::::::::::: 




1890..... 


i89i::::: :::::::::::::::: 

1892 

1893 




Total 

Averaf/e, 1S90-1S94 


8,010,851,183 
1,602,170,837 


353.420,070 
70.684,134 


3,379,364.098 
675,872,620 



Statistics of yield and price. — The table on 
next page, i^repared from the reports of the 
Statistician of the United States Department 
of Agriculture and the United States census, 
has a special interest as bearing on the two pre- 
ceding tables. 

The exports of Indian corn from the United 
States have been and are comparatively small. 
From 1870 to 1893 there has been exported each 
year 3.8 per cent of the entire crop grown, as an 
average for that period of years. The greatest 
percentage amount exported in one year — 6.5 
per cent — was in 1877, while the smallest 
amount, 1 per cent, w^as exported in 1870, al- 
though the amount was only 1.7 per cent in 

* Report of Statistician of the United States Deijartmeut 
of Agriculture, Report 3, December, 1894, p. 720. 



STATISTICS. 



1887. Notwithstanding tiie United States 
Department of Agriculture under Secretary 
Rusk's administration made an effort to dis- 
seminate information abroad concerning the 
value of Indian corn as a food, by sending a 
special agent, Mr. Charles J. Murphy, to Eu- 
rope, there has been no striking increase in the 



1870.. 
18T1.. 
JST2.. 



1884.. 
1885.. 
1836.. 
1887.. 





Corn crop. 


Sushels 
per head 


Average 




Musheis. 


popula- 
tion. 


bushtl. 




377.531,875 


22 






592,071,104 

838,792.742 








27 




37,750.000 


874,320,000 


23 


75,3 


38,558,:-i71 


1,094,255,000 


28 


64.9 


39,555.000 


991.898,000 


25 


48.2 


40,59«,0C0 


1,092,719.000 


27 


39 8 


41,677,000 


932,274,000 


22 


48 


42,796 000 


850,148,500 


20 


64 7 


43.951,000 


1,331,069,000 


30 


42.0 


45.137.000 


1,283,827,500 


28 


37.0 


46 353,000 


1,3^.558,000 
1,388,218,750 


29 


35.8 


47.59S,000 


29 


31.8 


48,806,000 


1,547.901,790 


32 


37.5 


50.155,783 


1,717,434,543 


34 


39.6 


51,310,000 


1,194,916,000 


23 


63.6 


52.495,000 


1,617,025,100 


31 


48.4 


53.0,?3,000 


1.551,006,895 


29 


42.4 


54 911,000 


1,795,528,000 


33 


35.7 


56,148,000 


1,930,170,(100 


34 


32.8 


57.404.000 


1,605,441,000 


29 


36.6 


58,080,000 


1,450,161,000 


25 


44.4 


59.974,000 


1,987,790,000 


33 


34.1 


61,289.000 


2,112,892,000 


34 


28.3 


62.622.250 


1.489.970,000 


24 


50.6 


64,002,000 


2,000,154.000 


32 


40.6 


. 65,403.000 


1,628,404.000 


25 , 


39.4 


66,820,000 


1,619,490,131 


24 * 


36.5 


68,275,000 


1,212,770,052 


18 


45.7 



Average 

yield 
per acre. 



23.5 
2911 



29.2 
27 6 
18.6 
24.6 
22.7 
25.8 
26.5 
22 
20.1 
26.3 
27.0 
20.7 
27.0 
23.1 
22.6 
19.4 



export trade. A verification of this statement 
may be found in the following table. In spite 
of this fact, it is confidently believed that the 
persistent and judicious work of Mr. Murphy 
will result eventually in a decided increase in 
our export trade. AVith a firm belief in the 
value of Indian corn as a food, he has sacrificed 
u 



210 



INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



much of personal fortune and time to properly 
present the merits of this grain to the several 
European governments. Mr. Murphy will never 
reap the rev^^arcl he deserves for the service he 
has bestowed upon American corn growers: 

TOTAL CROP AND EXPORT OF INDIAN CORN. 




These figures show that tlie largest ship- 
ments abroad were made in 1879 and 1889, and 
that after 1879, up to 1892, excepting 1889, the 
shipment fell below the average amount ex- 
ported yearly for 23 years. 

The average yield iu bushels per acre for 
the country, for the years 1890-94, has varied 
from 9.6 for Colorado in 1893 to 51.7 for Con- 
necticut the same year. New Hampshire shows 
the highest general average yield, being 44.6, 



STATISTICS. 



211 



45.7, 43.2 and 47.3 bushels respectively for the 
years 1890 to 1893. The averages of all the 
States for the same periods were 23.1, 28.7, 26.8 
and 25.9 bushels. The relatively high yield of 
the New England States is due to the intensive 
methods of farming practiced over a small area, 
in which either stable manure or artificial fer- 
tilizers are largely used. 

Corn crop of the world.— Before leaving this 
subject it will be well to note the extent of the In- 
dian corn crop of the world. Al)out 80 per cent 



COtTNTKY. 



United States 

Canada 

AuBirla-l lungary 

France 

Italy 

Portugal 

Roumanta 

Russia 

Japan 

Cochin China....;. .. 

Natal 

Argentine Republic. 
New South Wales... 

New Zealand 

Queensland 

Victoria 



1S91 
1891 
IS'JO 
1890 
1890 
1891 
1891 
ISPO 



1891 
1890 
1891 



Acres. 



7, ,204,516 
241,086 
5,B91,88G 
1,350,(;41 
4,724,110 
1,284,920 
4,184,372 

"'65,3(i5 
13,245 

206, BGS 



173,836 
5,(59 
99,400 
10,357 



2,060 

9 

109 

23 

74 



,154,000 
,432,559 
,126,632 
,815.177 
,901,075 
,225.700 
,977,319 
,233 177 
,245,016 
304,180 
,5«6,628 
,200,612* 
,523.611 
246,393 
,448,625 
592,178 



of that grown is produced in the United States, 
while the large share of the balance is grown in 
a few countries along the lower Danube river 
in Europe, in Spain, Argentine Republic and 
Mexico. An entirely satisfactory statement of 
tlie world's crop cannot be secured, owing to 
the fact that statistics are not available of the 
crop grown in Mexico and many other coun- 
tries. The above table is as recent a statement 



* Commercial estimates. 



212 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

as the writer could secure of the yields of corn 
of different countries, and is compiled from 
many government reports.* 

When the Indian corn harvest of the United 
States is better than an average one the total 
world's crop of this cereal exceeds in size that of 
the total yield of any other cereal. 

*Production and distribution of the yjrincipal agricultural 
products of the world. Compiled from official statistics. 
United States Department of Agriculture. Report No. 5, 
p. 15. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



213 



CHAPTER XVII. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

A immber of subjects of interest and impor- 
tance are placed in this chapter. They seemed 
inappropi-iate to the suljject matter of the pre- 
ceding chapters, yet of sufficient importance to 
be classed by themselves under this general 
heading. 

Detasseling.— Since 18S8 this subject has re- 
ceived considerable attention at some of the 
experiment stations. According to McLaren* 
in 1739 James Logan of Philadelphia published 
an account of some experiments made by him 
where he removed the tassels of the corn plant 
and transposed the pollen. In 1879 Beal called 
attention to the fact that a corn plant does not 
naturally fertilize itself, the pollen being dis- 
charged from the tassels before the appearance 
of the silk.f 

Among the early experiments made at the 
stations some evidence seemed to indicate that 



♦Agricultural Science, Vol. 7, p. 319. 

t Michigan Board of Agriculture Reports, 1879, p. 198; 
1880, p. 283. 



214 INDIAN CORN CTTLTURE. 

a larger crop was secured by detasseling. Later 
investigations, however, in most cases gave 
evidence of reduced crop jdeld due to this 
practice. In 1888 Shelton of Kansas found a 
loss of nearly 10 per cent due to detasseling.* 
Roberts in 1890, at Cornell University^ how- 
ever, secured a gain of 50 per cent due to de- 
tasseling, and this experiment attracted w^ide 
attention to the subject/}- Further work at 
Cornell seemed to corroborate this result in a 
measure. In 1892 there was a gain in weight 
of good ears amounting to 15 per cent, and of 
poor ears of 26 per cent on the detasseled rows, 
besides being a gain in number of ears.:}: 

At the Illinois station, however, several years 
of experimentation have shown no advantage 
to be derived from this process, but if anything 
a loss. At the Nebraska station, a decided loss 
is shown from detasseling.§ Ten detasseled 
rows 20 rods long each gave a yield of 528 lbs. 
of corn; 10 alternate rows, not detasseled, 1,220 
lbs., and 20 undisturbed rows elsewhere la the 
field, 2,369 lbs. The cost of detasseling was 
estimated at $1.25 per acre. At the Kansas 
station in 1891 the results were adverse to detas- 



* Kansas experiment station. Report of 1888, p. 27. 

t Cornell University experiment station. Bulletin 25, 
1890. 

Xlbid., Bulletin 49, December, 1892, p. 317. 

§ Nebraska exijeriment station. Bulletin No. 25, Dec. 1, 
1892, p. 4. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 215 

seliiig, while in 1892 they were favorable.* As 
based on this experience the Kansas investi- 
gators state that in seasons favora1:)le to the 
production of much pollen, when the pollena- 
tion can take place under normal conditions 
(as to rainfall and temperature) it is advanta- 
geous to remove a portion of the tassels, but 
* •» ^= where the contrary conditions prevail 
the practice results iu diminishing the crop." 

No doubt the practice will have but few fol- 
lowers. In numerous experiments the opera- 
tion has been thought to be a direct injury to 
the plant. Further, the operation of detassel- 
ing involves extra cost of crop, while the re- 
turns where an increase has occurred in most 
cases were not remarkable. 

In case the corn-grower wishes to experi- 
ment in this work the following suggestion by 
Watson of the Cornell University station may 
be of service :-}- " From these three experiments 
made at this station in detasseling corn it has 
been observed that it is of the utmost impor- 
tance to have the tassel removed at the earliest 
time possible, certainly before they have be- 
come expanded, and still better if enclosed 
within the folds of the leaf." The operation of 



* Kansas experiment station. Bulletin 45, December, 1893, 
pp. 132-138. 

t Cornell University agricultural experiment station, Bul- 
letin No. 49, December. 1892. 



216 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

removing the tassels was by giving them an 
upward pull by hand, which caused the stalk 
to break off above the upper joint without in- 
juring the leaves at all. 

Cost of growing a crop.— Much has been 
published in the agricultural press on the cost 
of growing a crop or acre of Indian corn. Of 
course, as might be expected, there is a great 
diversity of opinion on this subject. Many 
statemeiits have been printed and often these 
have been quite imperfect in detail. No inter- 
est may be allowed on money invested in land, 
tools, buildings; no account is taken of taxes 
and loss of soil fertility in many instances, yet 
all these facts bear on the cost of producing 
the crop. Says Sanborn:" 

"We wish to repeat again, Avhat we in effect have already 
said, that we Jiave not seen by any writer a fair stateiilffnt of 
the cost of a crop. Such cost must include sometliing of the 
manager's time, something for the use of machinei'y and its 
breakages, something of the time lost in purchase and sales, 
and loss of time in dull weather and winters. A ti-ue calcula- 
tion will add, probably, at least 25 per cent to the apparent 
cost," 

The following figures bearing on the cost 
question are from some of the most complete 
statements secured by the writer. These are 
given simply as evidence along a line in which 
the corn-grower takes much interest. None of 
the figures are really conclusive, but are more 
or less interesting and swggestive. 

*j!^rirror and Farmer, Dec. 6, 1894. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 217 

In 1886 the Secretary of State of Michigan 
published a crop report giving information on 
the cost of producing wheat, oats and corn 
crops in that State."' The estimates are based 
on 817 reports from correspondents represent- 
ing 650 townships. The cost of producing and 
marketing one acre of corn in the State was 
$19.14, or 21.4 cents per bushel of ears. This is 
based on the average price for corn on Jan. 1, 
1886, viz.: 24 cents per bushel of ears. The 
cost for the year 1885 was estimated at 20.9 
cents per bushel of ears. 

In 1889 the Secretary of tlie Kansas Board of 
Agriculture investigated this subject in that 
State and estimated from the returns that it 
cost the farmers of Kansas, wdiere an average 
yield o»f 30 bu. per acre was grown, 21 cents a 
bushel to produce and deliver. 

For a number of years the Farmers^ Beview 
published numerous articles from corn-growers 
on the cost of crop production. In the Beview 
of April 7, 1886, A. S. Morley, Arlington, Neb., 
gives the following figures from his ledger: 

TWENTY- FIVE ACRES CORN. 

Fall plowing, 9 acres at $L25 $11.25 

Interest and taxes, at $3 75.00 

Cutting nine acres stalks 2.25 

Plowing 16 acres, at $1.25 20.00 

Cultivating 9 acres — fall plowing 3.00 

Harrowing and marking .-. . . 4.00 

* Michigan Crop Report, Jan. 1, 1886. No. 51, page 8. 



218 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

Planting at 25c. per acre. $6.25 

Seed 1.50 

Double harrowing . 6.00 

Cultivating 12i days 37.00 

Total cost -$166.25 

Cost per acre 0.05 

Yield per acre, 50 bushels. Cost per bushel in field, 13.3 
cents. Adding 4 cents per bushel for husking and market- 
ing, the cost will be 17.3 cents. 

S. B. of Clinton Co., Incl., in the Indiana 
Farmer (March 19, 1892), gives the following 
figures, based on the cost of raising 12 acres of 
corn : 

Plowing 8 days at $2.50 $20.00 

Preparing ground 3 days 7.50 

Planting 4.00 

Seed 1.00 

Cultivating 10 days at $2.50 25.00 

Husking 600 bushels at 2^c 15.00 

Rent of land at $4 per acre 48.00 

Total cost unmai'keted $120.50 

Cost per acre 10.04 

At 50 bushels per acre, cost per bushel 20 cents. 

At a meeting of the Oxford (Ohio) Farmers' 
Clul) President L. N. Bonham gave the follow- 
ing itemized statement of the cost of growing 
a 24-acre field of corn 110 rods long.* 

Breaking stalks $l-'>0 

Raking and burning 1.50 

Plowing ten days 25.00 

Harrowing 2} days • • • 5-62 

* Farmers^ Review, June 24, 1885. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



219 



Planting 1 A days $3.75 

Seed (3 bushels) 2.00 

Replanting 3.25 

Rolling 2 days 5.00 

Cultivating 3 times, long way, 3 days 15.00 

Cultivating 2 times, short way, 4J days 22.50 

Thinning ' 3.50 

Total cost of cultivating $68,62 

Husking 8 days, 4 men, 2 teams 56.00 

Tax on land 24.25 

Interest on land or rent 120.00 

Total cost unmarketed $268.87 

Cost per acre in crib 11.87 

Cost to cultivate and gather per acre 5.20 

There were 60 bushels per acre, or a total of 1,440 

bushels, worth at husking time $360 00 

Worth per acre 15.00 

Cost per bushel, 18.6 cents. 

No allowance is here made for the fodder, 
which is worth as much as average hay if 
properly cured. 

The Practical Farmer a few years ago pub- 
lished a number of articles on the cost of grow- 
ing corn. Among the contributors to this sub- 
ject was Mr. T. B. Terry, who gave the figures 
of the cost of the crop of Mr. E. A. Peters of 
Central Ohio. They are as follows: 

Plowing 30 acres, 20 days at $3 $70.00 

Harrowing and working land 15 days 45.00 

Planting, 3 days at $4 12.00 

Seed, 5 bushels at 60c 3.00 

Cultivating, 20 days at $3 60.00 

Cutting 750 shocks at 7c. each 52.50 

Husking 2,400 bushels at 4c 96.00 



220 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

Hauling to cribs, 18 days at $i $54.00 

■Rent of land 200.00 

Total $592.50 

By 750 shocks at lOc. each 75.00 

$517.50 
Cost per bushel a trifle over 21.5 cents. 

In the Eastern States the cost of production 
is somewhat higher. It is interesting to note 
that in these figures the question of impover- 
ishment of soil is not considered, although it is 
far from an insignificant one. 

Large yields of Indian corn.— In 1SS9 the 
American Agriculturist offered a number of 
valuable prizes, which were supplemented b.y 
other parties, for the production of large yields 
per acre of farm crop's of certain kinds. In the 
corn class the first prize offered was $500 cash 
in gold. A number of other prizes were offered. 
The crop was in each instance grown on not 
less than one acre of land and a complete record 
kept of the woi'k of preparing land, fertilizing, 
labor, etc. The harvesting was done in the 
presence of three disinterested witnesses, who 
measured the product, and Avhose signatures 
attested the honesty and correctness of the con- 
testant's report, which was made out on a form 
properly prepared and sworn to. Forty-five 
people filed competitive imports, and the aver- 
age yield of crib-cured shelled corn for the 45 
was 89 bushels per acre. The largest yield was 



MISCELLANEOUS. 221 

secured 1)}^ Z. J. Drake of Marlboro Co., South 
Caroliua, who grew 239 bushels of crib-cured 
shelled corn on one acre of land, or 217 bushels, 
free of all water. This the writer believes to 
be the largest yield of corn from one acre of 
land on record. 

The land on which this crop was grown was 
sandy in character, the original growth on it 
being oak, hickory and long-leaf pine. It has 
a gentle slope, with northern exposure, and was 
well drained naturally. The soil "was a fair 
specimen of much of the poor land in the 
South." In 1885, planted to corn, almost no 
crop was secured, and in 1887 not over five 
bushels per acre was obtained. 

The following table gives some facts as to 
how this acre was fertilized for the crop of 
corn: 

1,000 bushels stable manure $50.00 

867 lbs. kainit 7.80 

867 lbs. cotton-seed meal 10.80 

200 lbs. acid phosphate 2.00 

1,066 lbs. manipulated guano : . 13.32 

200 lbs. animal bone ". 4.00 

400 lbs. nitrate of soda 12.00 

600 bushels cotton seed 120.00 

Cost of application 7.00 

Total cost .$226.92 

There w^ere other items of expense, such as 
labor, interest on land, etc., amounting to 
$37.50, bringing the total cost of crop to 
$264.42. 



222 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

Corn ab that time in vSouth Carolina was 
valued at 75 cents a bushel, which makes the 
grain worth $191.16, and adding the fodder 
value, $15, makes a total of $206.16 value in 
receipts. In February stable manure was 
hauled on the land, followed by applications of 
guano, cotton-seed meal and kainit. The land 
was then plowed, and following the plow 
cotton-seed meal was strew^n in the furrows. 
A subsoil plow came after, breaking the soil to 
a depth of 12 inches. A Thomas smoothing 
harrow followed after the plowing. One bushel 
of Southern white dent corn of the gourd-seed 
variety was planted on March 2. The rows 
were furrowed out, alternately three and six 
feet apart, and five or six kernels were dropped 
to each foot of the row. Betw^een the wide 
rows, later on in May, guano was applied, and 
then later, in June, a mixture of 500 lbs. of 
guano, cotton-seed meal and kainit w^as spread 
in the wdde spaces. Still later, in June, 100 
lbs. of nitrate of soda was scattered between 
the narrow rows and hoed in. Frequent culti- 
vation was employed, but the land was kept 
flat, not ridged. 

The plants grew so large it became necessary 
to erect posts and nail slats to them on both 
sides of each row to prevent the corn from 
falling. The harvesting was done in the pres- 
ence of a large number of spectators. J. C. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



223 



Campbell, representative of the Ameyican Agri- 
culturist, G. B. W. Dunn, J. W. Reynolds and 
John J. Tart were the witnesses to the harvest- 
ing. 

Besides winning the $500 in gold offered by 
the American Agriculturist Mr. Drake also won 
an additional prize of $500 offered by the Soutli 
Carolina Board of Agriculture to the person 
who would bring the first prize to that State. 

In competition for the same prize, Mr. Alfred 
Rose, of Penn Yan, N. Y., won the second 
prize, growing 191 bushels of shelled crib-cured 
corn on one acre of ground. The total cost of 
producing Mr. Rose's crop was $55. 

The third prize went to George Gartner of 
Pawnee Co., Neb., who grew 151 bushels of 
shelled crib-cured corn on one acre. The total 
cost of producing his crop was $49.70. 

Cross fertilization.— The subject of crossing 
varieties of Indian corn has been studied at a 
number of the experiment stations, especially 
Illinois, Kansas, Minnesota, New York and 
Ohio. Of these Illinois has published the larg- 
est amount of information concerning this 
work.'' 

It is commonly known that if two different 
varieties of corn are gi'own near each other 
they will " mix " or cross fertilize. In this way, 

* See bulletins Illinois experiment station, especially 21 
and 25. 



224 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

unintentionally, the purity of seed is injured 
and perhaps new varieties are accidentally 
begun. 

In crossing it is essential that the female 
parts of the plant be kept covered, so that the 
only pollen to come in contact with the pistil 
shall be of the variety it is desired to cross 
with. The following is given by McCliier as 
the method most satisfactory at the Illinois 
station :"■' 

"Wc have found the best method to be to cover up, before 
the silks arc out, botli the tassel and the coming ear, with a 
closely-woven cloth bag. Covering the tassel of the stalk 
desired for a male jiarent insures a full supply of pollen, 
which seems to I'etain its vitality for several days if kept 
^^.y * * * When the silks reach a length of three or 
four inches the ear is ready for fertilization. We then 
gather the pollen on a sheet of smooth paper and roll it up 
funnel-shaped. Next raise an umbrella and hold it in such 
a way as to keep all flying pollen from the ear, remove the 
bag, and apply the pollen until the silks are almost hidden. 
In favorable corn weather a single application of pollen is 
sufficient." 

The practical results of cross fertilization to 
produce new varieties are as yet slightly felt, 
so far as experimental data goes. The results 
now published are interesting, yet contain 
much of uncertainty. Morrow and Gardner 
think, however,! that increased yields can be 
obtained by crossing two varieties, and note 



* Illinois experiment station. Bulletin No. 21, p. 100. 
t Ibid., No. 25, April, 1893, p. 179, 



MISCELLANKOL'S. 



225 



fliiil, ;i IVw fiiniK.M-s arc cliaiigiu;^^ tlieif practice 
accoiiliiiyfly. This practical crossing is acconi- 
l)lislicd hy planting in one row one variety and 
in the next another, and removing the tassels 
of the one as so(jn as tliey appear. Of course 
the ears of the phmts lacking tassels will be 
fertilized by the other row where pollen exists, 
thus producing a cross from which seed may 
be selected. 

Not much effect may be seen as the result of 
planting crossed seed the first year, while the 
second it may be very marked. 

Interesting data concerning several crossing 
experiments is given by McCluer in the bulle- 
tins previously referred to from which the fol- 
lowing notes are gleaned. Figs. CO, Gl and G2, 
loaned by the Illinois station, show the effects 
of some cross fertilizing done there: 

'•Of 142 plats planted with sweet corn, popcoi-n, and these 
crosses, it is safe to say there was as much uniformity in any 
one of the crossed plats as in any, and very much more than 
was found in most of the plats planted with pure varieties. 

'•Corn grown from the crosses the second year has con- 
tinued to he comparatively uniform in type where the parent 
vai'ieties were similai", but where the parent varieties were 
widely dilTerent, as in the crosses between sweet and dent, 
the proye'ny has tended strongly to run back to the parent 
forms, while at the same time taking on other forms differ- 
ent from either. 

"From the work so far done there seems to be no way of 
telling befoi-ehand what varieties will, when ci-ossed, pro- 
duce corn of an increased sizi;, and what will not. 

'•In the production of new varieties by crossing it will 
15 



226 



INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 




MlSCELLANEOt'S. 



227 








22S 



INDIAN CORN CUJ/riRK. 







'^"W* 



O 3 




MISCELLANEOUS. 



229 



seldom be desirable to cross two varieties that are very 
widely diffei-ent from each other. It is probable that, on 
the whole, selection with occasional partial changes of seed 
will give more permanent as well as more satisfactory re- 
sults for the general farmer than would the continual cross- 
ing and breaking up of well-fixed types." 

Measuring corn in the crib— Multiply the 
length, breadth and height of the crib together 
in feet to obtain the cubic feet of space it con- 
tains. Multiply this product by four, strike off 
the right band figure and the result will be the 
number of shelled bushels. This measure is 
not absolutely correct, but nearly so. 

White vs. yellow corn.— The question of the 
relative merits of white and yellow corn has 
been discussed in the agricultural press and be- 
fore farmers' meetings at frequent intervals. 
From the chemical standpoint the color seems 
to have no special significance. Upon the ques- 
tion of relative productiveness opinions have 
been rather evenly divided. Tracy and Lloyd 
of the Mississippi station made a special inves- 
tigation of this subject, upon which they ren- 
dered an interesting report.* Of the tests made 
at seven agricultural experiment stations six 
report greater yields with white than yellow 
varieties. The following table by Tracy and 
Lloyd gives a summary of their investigations 
on this subject: 

* Bulletin 33, Mississippi agricultural experiment station, 
March, 1895. 



230 



INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 





Wliite. 


rellow. 


jExcess yield. 


STATION TEST- 
ING. 


varieties 
tested. 

H 
54 
16 
53 
30 
25 
25 

217 


Yield 
per 
acre 

3fi.7bu. 
63.1 bu. 
54 8 bu. 
54 2 bu. 
47.5 bu. 
43 bu. 
55.4 bu. 

56!7bu. 


mnnber 

varieties 

tested. 

14 
101 
28 

67 
9 
20 
34 


Yield 
per 
acre. 


While. 


Yellow. 


Arkansas 

Illinois 


36 bu. 

62.0 bu. 
56.3 bu. 

53.1 bu. 
39.7 bu. 
3S 7 bu. 
51.3 bu. 


0.1 bu. 
1.1 bu. 

i'.ibu. 
7.8 bu. 
4.3 bu. 
4.1 bu. 

2!5bu". 






1.5 bu. 


Kansas 

Louisiana 

lUlsBlsslppI 

Ohio 








Total 


273 


4s!2'bu'. 




Average 





It does not follow,, however, from this table 
that all white varieties yield more than all yel- 
low ones. Numerous yellow varieties are fully 
as productive as many white ones. It is worthy 
of note that this table shows a yield in favor of 
w4iite varieties, especially in the South, wdiere 
yellow corn is grown much less than in the 
North. If the best varieties of w^hite and 
yellow were compared the relative difference 
would .probably be slight. 

Corn palaces. — Much beautiful decorative 
work of a temporary character has been done 
with Indian corn. This work has been most 
extensively done in Sioux City, la., wdiere for 
several years so-called corn palaces have been 
erected. This was first attempted in 1887 at 
Sioux City^ where the idea originated. A corn 
palace, says the Pacific Rural Press, is covered 
and embellished, as "with tapestiy, outside and 
inside, with products of the field, corn predom- 
inating, ingeniously and fancifully arranged. 
In building the palace a large structure is first 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



231 



erected of lumber, of a shape that will carry 
and show to advantage the multiform decora- 
tions with which it is to be adorned. It is in 
form lofty, with broken lines, pinnacles, but- 
tresses, bridges, gables, ornamental windows, 
etc. Over every inch of this wooden surface 
are laid corn and kindred plants in architect- 
ural harmony, in a multiplicity of designs. 
The corn is used in the stalk, eai-, kernel, and 
even the husk has its decorative uses. The 
w^alls are covered on the outside with ears of 
corn, cut lengthwise or crosswise, and nailed 
on in geometrical figures or other designs. The 
various colors of the cereal permit of a wide 
range of shading and coloring. 

The Sioux City corn palace in 1887 was lOOx 
210 feet, wdth dome and spire over 100 feet 
high, and of Moorish style of architecture. The 
outside was a blending of corn of various colors 
arranged in many designs. It is said 25,000 
bushels of ears were used in decorating this 
palace and city. 

In 1889 the decorations were of great merit. 
From the kernel pictures illustrating farm 
scenes, legendary and nursery tales, etc., were 
made on the walls. Frescoes and flowers, 
figures of persons and animals, draperies, and 
numerous surprising and beautiful things were 
also worked out. 

In 1890 a building 264 feet square, with a 



232 



INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



central part and dome 172 feet high, was 
erected. The main building was in the form 
of an octagon l-JoG feet across. A central space 
78 feet in diameter was unobstructed by pillar 
or post. The decorations in this building were 





^^,-- 









M^ 




J24i) ^ -'.«■. 



OF 1889. 



■-:3»IM 



Fig. C3.— THE SioDX City Coun v 

very remarkable and included among other 
things a miniature Niagara Falls. 

At the World's Columbian Exposition the 
low^a building w^as very beautifully decorated 
all over the inside wdth Indian corn in many 
unique designs. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



233 



Number of days required to mature va- 
rieties-The following data is abstracted from 
an interesting article on the subject by Prof. 
W. C. Latta.* Excessive rain in late seasons 
often delays planting in spring. This was the 
case in Indiana and Illinois in 1892. The bulk 
of the crop was not planted before June 1.^ 

Can the varietiescommonly grown in Indiana 
be matured when planted as late as June 10? 
The following table is the result of experiments 
at Purdue University, and shows the number 
of days required for varieties to mature: 



Boone Co. White 

Munn'B Early 

Riley's Kuvorlte 

White Prolitic 

Yellow Nonesuch 

Hartmnn's White 

Early Yellow Dent .... 

Yellow Dent 

Yellow Speckled Dent. 
Purdue Yellow 



Number 


days to mature in. 


Average No. 

days Jor 
thiee yeajs. 


1889. 


1800. 


1891. 


139 


121 


124 


128 




105 


118 


111 


138 


116 


124 


126 


138 


121 


12U 






121 


)25 


123 




no 


122 


119 




in 


114 


112 




lie 


110 


116 




112 


114 


113 




102 


HI 


11* 



The cause of this wide range in time for 
maturing is dependent on season— whether 
warm or cold, wet or dry, or seasonable. 

With average weather conditions any of the 
above-named varieties would mature in Sep- 
tember as far north as Lafayette if planted by 
June 1. Late-planted corn will mature in five 
or ten less days, owing to higher temperature 
as the season advances. 



* Indiana Farmer, May 28, 1892. 



234 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 



LITERATURE ON INDIAN CORN. 

Thousands of articles on Indian corn and 
its culture have been printed in agricultural 
papers, and numerous addresses on this plant 
have been published in agricultural and other 
reports. The bulletins of most of the agri- 
cultural experiment stations have published 
experimental data the result of culture or feed- 
ing tests. The stations of Illinois, Indiana, 
Ohio, New York, Massachusetts, Missouri, Kan- 
sas, Wisconsin and Minnesota have given spe- 
cial attention to problems concerning the grow- 
ing or feeding of this plant. Special chapters 
on corn have also been published in books de- 
voted to the cereals in general and in cyclopae- 
dias and agricultural volumes. 

So far as the writer has been able to ascer- 
tain, but few books or pamphlets have been 
published on Indian corn or maize. The fol- 
lowing titles, given in sequence of issue, are of 
those publications in the author's possession. 
This list probably could be extended some, 
though not materially: 

Parmentier^ A. A. Le mais on h\h de Turquie, 



LITERATURE ON INDIAN CORN. 235 

apprecie sous tous ses rapports: Paris, 1812, pp. 
303; paper. 

Lespes, J. Max Louis. Essai siir le mais on 
ble cle Turquie, considere sous ses rapports by- 
gienique efc medical: Paris, 1825, pp. 44; paper. 

Cohhett, William. A. treatise on Col)bett's 
corn, containing instructions for propagating 
and cultivating tbe plant and for harvesting 
and preserving tbe crop; and also an account 
of tbe several uses to wbicb tbe produce is ap- 
plied, witb minute directions relative to each 
mode of application: London, 1828, pp. 290, pi. 
Ill; balf leatber, 7x4^ in. 

Bonafous, Mutthieu. Histoire naturelle, agri- 
cole et economique du mais. Extrait presente 
a la societe d'agriculture de I'Herault, par M. 
Raffenau-Delile. Abstract in Bulletin de la 
Societe de I'Herault, September, 1836, of con- 
tents of large illustrated volume published in 
1836 at Paris hj Bonafous. 

Salisbury, J. H. History and mythology of 
Indian corn. From Transactions New York 
State Agricultural Society, 1848, pp. 678-692. 

Flint, C. L. An essay on the history and im- 
portance of Indian corn as an agricultural prod- 
uct. From Transactions New York State Agri- 
cultural Society, 1849, pp. 281-293. 

Enjield, Edivard. Indian corn; its value, cul- 
ture and uses. New York: D. Appleton & Co., 
1866, pp. 308; cloth, 5x7J in. 



236 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

Kdrniche, Fr. Vorlaufige Mittheilungen aber 
den mais. (Abstracted from den Sitzungsber- 
ichten der Niederrheinischen Gessellschaft fur 
Natur-und Heilkunde.) Bonn, 1872, p. 16. 

Sturtevant, M. D., E. Lewis. Indian corn. 
Paper prCvSented by request at the annual meet- 
ing of the Massachusetts State board of agri- 
culture, Jan. 22, 1879, pp. 38. 

Godron, D. A. Note sur le mais geant Cara- 
gua (Zea Caragua Molin). (Extracted from la 
Revue des Sciences naturelles de Montpellier, 
June, 1880, pp. 3.) 

Stinievant, E. Leivis. Maize: An attempt at 
classification. Geneva, N. Y., December, 1883, 
pp. 9, fig. 21. Rochester, N. Y., Democrat and 
Chronicle Print, 1884. Printed for private dis- 
tribution only. 

Sturtevant y.E. Leivis. Indian corn and the 
Indian. From the American Naturalist, March, 
1885, pp. 226-234. 

Devol, W. S. A study of the germination of 
corn. Thesis presented at Ohio State Univer- 
sity for the degree of B. Ag., June 23, 1886, pp. 
12. 

Scott^ Mary S. Indian corn as human food. 
Nevada, la.: Payne & Son, 1889, pp. 122; boards, 
4-|x6 inches. 

Mnrphy, Charles J. American Indian corn 
(maize) as a cheap, wliolesome and nutritious 
food. Lecture delivered by Charles J. Murphy 



LITERATURE ON INDIAN CORN. 



237 



before tlie National Agricultural Society of 
France at the International Congress of Mill- 
ers, held at Paris in August, 1SS9. Edinburg, 
Scotland: R. Grant & Son, 1890, pp. 97; paper. 

Ladd, E. F. Investigation upon maize. Re- 
printed from the Journal of the American 
Chemical Society, Vol. XII, No. 8, pp. 24. 

Murphy, Wiley & Snow. Report on the use 
of maize (Indian corn) in Europe, and the pos- 
sibilities of its extension. United States De- 
partment of Agriculture, AVashington : Govern- 
ment Printing Office, 1891, pp. 36. 

Ilarshhergcr, John W. Maize: A Ijotanical 
and economic study. Contributions from the 
botanical laboratory of the University of Penn- 
sylvania, Vol. I, No. 2, 1893, pp. 75-202, pi. IV; 
paper. 

Sturtevant, E. E. Notes on maize. Reprinted 
from Bulletin Torrey Botanical Club, Vol. XXI, 
Aug. 20, 1894, pp. 319-343, and Dec. 24, 1894, 
pp. 503-523. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. 

A large number of the illustrations in this 
book were provided through the kindness of 
numerous friends of the author, agricultural 
experiment stations and manufacturers of ma- 
chinery making loans of electrotypes and en- 
gravings. The writer here wishes to express 
]iis hearty appreciation for favors of this char- 
acter to the following: 



238 INDIAN CORN CULTURE. 

S. L. Allen & Co., Philadelphia, Pa.; Gale Manufacturing 
Co., Albion, Mich.; Deere & Co., Moline, 111.; David Brad- 
ley Manufacturing Co., Chicago, 111.; Emerson, Talcott & 
Co., Rockford, 111.; Challenge Corn-Planter Co., Grand 
Rai^ids, Mich.; Stoddard Manufacturing Co., Dayton, O.; 
Richmond Safety Gate Co., Richmond, Ind.; J. D. Tower & 
Bro., Mendota, 111.; Rock Island Plow Co., Rock Island, 
111.; Foos Manufacturing Co., Springfield, O.; St. Albans 
Foundry Co., St. Albans, Vt.; Keystone Manufacturing Co., 
Sterling, 111.; Illinois Experiment Station, Champaign, 111.; 
Iowa Experiment Station^ Ames, la.; Indiana Experiment 
Station, Lafayette, Ind.; Nebraska Experiment Station, 
Lincoln, Neb., and Prof. F. M. Webster, Wooster, O. 



INDEX. 



Acknowledgemeiits, 237. 
Acres corn in Uuited State.s. 206, 207. 
Adaptability of varieties. 40. 
Alabama, varieties for. •!(). 
Angoumis grain moth, 143. 
Anthers, 16. 

Aphis maidis. Forbes, 12(. 
Arkansas, varieties for, 11. 
Artificial fertilizers, 61. 
Average yield iu bushels rer acre, 
210. 

Bacterial disease, 151. 

Bill bugs, corn, 138. 

Blissus leucoplerus, Say, 131. 

Borer, stalk, 134. 

Botanical characteristics, 12. 

Botanical races, 17. 

Buffalo gluten feed, 180. 

Bug, chinch, 134. 

Bugs, corn bill, 138. 

Butt, center and tip kernels, relative 

value of, 48, 52. 
By-products, composition of, lou. 

constituents in, 1S3. 

of the corn plant for feed. Id'. 

Caldwell on gluten meal, 181. 
Canada, varieties for, 46. 
Canning, variety for, 37. 
Capacity of silo, 196. 
Carbohydrates. 161. 
Carbonaceous food, corn a, Ito _ 
Center and tip kernels, relative 

value of butt, 48, 52. 
Characteristics, botanical, 12. 
Chemical composition and digesti- 

bUity,158. 
Chicago gluten meal, ISO. 
Chinch bug. 134. 
Chop, hominy, 180. 
Cob-and-coru meal vs. corn-meal, 

178. 
Colorado, varieties for, 41. 
Composition and digestibility,chem- 
ical, 154. 

of by-products, 156. 

of grain, 154. 

of green corn, 156. 

of mill products, 155. 
Constituents, fertilizing, 15'.i. 

in by-products, 183. 

of foods, 16L 



Corn-and-cob meal vs. corn-meal, 178. 
Corn bill bugs, 138. 

for silage, 200. 

hearts, 183. 

horse, 108. 

palaces, 230. 

worm, 140. 
Corneous matter, 18. 
Cost of growing a crop, 216. 
Cost of silage, 203. 
Cost of silo, 199. 
Cotton seed for manure, 67. 
Covering silage, 203. 
Cow, ration for dairy, 165. 
Cream gluten, 180. 
Crib, measuring corn in the, 229. 
Crop, cost of growing a, 216. 

of the world, 211. 

value of corn, 160. 
Crops for soiling. 185. 
1 rotation of, 121. 
Cross fertilization, 223. 
Culm, 14. 
Cultivation, depth of, 78. 

frequency of, 76. 
Cultivating, 73. 
Cutting for silage, 101. 
in soiling, early, 190. 
methods of, 102. 
time for, 99. 
Cut worms, 130. 

Dairy cow, ration for, 165. 

Days required.to mature varieties, 

number, 233. 
Dent corn, 18, 21. 
Depth of cultivation, 78. 

of planting, 92. 
Detasseling. 213. 
Diabrotica longicornis, Say, 128. 
Digestible constituents in by-prod- 
ucts, 183. 

matter in different parts, 158. 
Digestibility, 157. . . 

chemical composition and, 154. 
Disease, bacterial, 151. 
Diseases, 147. 
Distance apart of planting, rate or, 

86. 
Drills vs. bills, 89. 

Ear, insects affecting the, 140. 
type of. 48, 54. 



240 



INDEX. 



Early cutting in soiling, 190. 
Elateridcc, 127. 
Embryo ear, 16. 
Exports, 208, 210. 

Fat, 161. 

Feed, glucose, 179. 

gluten, 179. 

hominy, 180. 

maize, 180. 

starch, 179. 

sugar, 180. 
Feeding of live stock, 161. 

silage, 204. 

standards, 162. 

stuffs, manurial value of, 69. 
Female flower, lf>, 16. 
Fertility removed by corn crop, DS. 
Fertilization, cross, 223. 
Fertilizers, experiments with, 62. 

manures and, 58. 

necessary, 58. 
Fertilizing constituents, 159. 

flowers, 16. 
Filling silo, 202. 
Fish scrap for manure, 67. 
Flint corn, 18. 

varieties, 27. 
Floor for silo, lining and, 194. 
Flour, gluten, 179. 
Flower, 15. 

kinds of, 15. 
Flowers, fertilizing, 16. 
Fly, seed corn, 126. 
Fodder, pulled, 111. 

testimony concerning shredded, 
116. 
Food, corn a carbonaceous, 165. 
Foods, constituents of, 161. 
Form of silos, 193. 
Frequency of cultivation, 76. 

Georgia, varieties for, 41. 
Germination temperature, 48. 
Glucose, 18. 

feed, 179. 

meal, 179. 
Gluten, cream, ISO. 

feed, 179. 

feed, Buffalo, 180. 

flour, 179. 

grano, 179. 

meal, 179. 

meal, Chicago, 180. 
Gortyna mtela, Guen., 134. 
Grain, composition of, 154. 

moth, Angoumis, 143. 
Grano-gluten, 179. 
Green corn, composition of, 156. 

food, beneficial effects of, 189. 

food, importance of, 184. 

manure, 67. 
Growers, Indians as corn, 9. 
Growing for silage, method of, 201. 
Growth, rapidity of, 14. 



Grub, white, 130. 

Harrowing, 73. 
Harvesting, 99. 

machinery, 103. 
Hearts, corn, 183. 
Heliothis armiger, Hubn., 140. 
HiUs, drills vs., 89. 
Hinds on by-products, 182. 
Historical, 7. 
Home of maize, 8, 11. 
Hominy chop, 180. 

feed, 180. 

meal, 180. 
Horse, corn, 108. 
Horses, rations for, 166. 
Husking, 111. 

dispensing with, 112. 

machines, 114. 

Illinois, varieties for, 42. 
Importance of green food, 184. 

of rotation, 123. 
Indiana, varieties for, 41. 
Indians as corn-growers, 9. 
Injuring seed after planting, insects, 

126. 
Insects, 126. 

affecting the roots, 127. 

affecting the stalk, 1.30. 

injuring seed after planting, 126. 

other, 145. 
Iowa station, soiling at, 188. 

varieties for, 43. 
Judging corn ; a scale of points, 48, 
56. 

Kansas, varieties for, 43. 
Kentucky, varieties for, 43. 
Kernel, 17. 

Kernels, relative value of butt, cen 
ter and tip, 48, 52. 

Lachnosterna fusca, FrOhle, 13Q 
Leaves, 14. 

on stalk, number, 15. 
Lining and floor for silo, 194. 
Listing, 94. 

Literature on Indian corn, 234. 
Live stock, feeding of, 161. 
Louse, corn plant, 127. 
Louisiana, varieties for, 43. 

Machinery, harvesting, 103, 
Machines, husking, 114. 
Maize feed, 180. 
Male flower, 15, 16. 
Manure, effect of stable, 59. 
Manures and fertilizers, ,58. 
Manurial experiments, summary of, 
66. 

value of feeding stuffs, 69. 
Meal, corn-and-cob meal vs. corn, 
178. 

glucose, 179. 



INDEX. 



241 



Meal, gluten, 179. 

hominy, 180. 
Measuring corn in the crib, 229. 
Method of selecting s«ed, 48, 50. 

of preserving seed, 48, 50. 
Methods of cutting, 102. _ 
Mill products, compositiou of, 155. 
Mississippi, varieties for, 44. 
Missouri, varieties for, 44. 
Moth, Angoumis grain, 143. 

Nebraska, varieties for, 44. 
New York, varieties for, 44. 
Night soil for manure, 67. 
NoctuidcE, 130. 

Ohio, varieties for, 45. 
Oregon, varieties for, 45. 
Original home, 8, 11. 
Ovule, 17, 

Palaces, corn, 230. 

Panicle, 15. 

Pasture, soiling on, 191. 

Pennsylvania station, soiling at, Ihs 

varieties for, 45. 
Phorbia fusiceps, Zetty, 126. 
Pistillate flower, 16. 
Plant louse, corn, 127. 
Planting, 83. 

depth of, 92.. 

insects injuring seed after, 126. 

rate or distance apart of, 86. 

time of, 83. 
Plowing, 71. 

Pod corn, 19. , t ,^ ku 

Points, judging corn ; a scale ot,ib, ab. 
PoUou, 17. 
Pop corn, 18. 

varieties, 39. .-.o m 

Preserving seed, method of, 48, 50. 
Primary root, 12. 
Protein, IGl. 

Pruning of corn, root, 80. 
Pulled fodder, 111. 

Rate or distance apart of planting, 

86. 
Races, 17. 

Ratio, nutritive, 162. 
Ration for dairy cow, 165. 
Rations for horses, 166. 

for sheep, 172. 

for swine, 176. 

iUustrated, 166. 
Rhode Island, varieties for, 45. 
Roof of silo, 196. 
Root, 12. 

development, 12, 13. 

pruning of corn, 80. 

worm, corn, 128. 
Roots, insects affecting the, 127. 
Rotation, importance of, 123. 

of crops, 121. 

systems of, 124. 



Round silo, plans for, 196. 
Rust, 153. 

Scale of points ; judging corn, a, 48, 

56. 
Scrap for manure, fish, 67. 
Sea weeds for manure, 67. 
Secondary root, 12, 13. 
Seed, 17, 48. . .... 

after planting, insects injuring, 

126. 
porn fly, 126. 

method of preserving, 48, 50. 
method of selecting. 48, !)0. 
size of, 48, 53. 
Selecting a variety. 20. 

seed, method of, 48, 50. 
Sheep, rations for, 172. 
Sheath, 14. 
Shocking, 106. 
Shocks, tying, 109. 
Shredded fodder, testimony concern- 
ing, 116. 
Shredding, 115. 
Silage, corn for, 200. 
cost of, 203. 
covering, 203. 
cutting for, 101. 
feeding, 204. . 
method of growing for, 201. 
silos and, 192. 
varieties for, 200. 
wetting, 203. 
Silk, 16. 

Sills for sUo, 195. 
Silo, capacity, 196. 

constructing a, 192. 
cost of, 199. 
fiUing, 202. 
forms for, 193. 
lining and floor for, 194. 
plans for round, 196. 
roof. 196. 
sills, 195. 
square, 199. 
walls, 194. 
Silos and sUage, 192. 
SitotroOLi cerealeUa, Oliv., 143. 
Sizeof seod,4S, 53. 
Smut, 147. 

preventing, 151. _ 
said to bo injurious, 150. 
Soft corn, 19. 

Soil for manure, night, bv. 
Soiling, 184. 

at Iowa station, 188. _ 
at Pennsylvania station, 188. 
at Wisconsin station, 187. 
crops for, 185. 
early cutting in, 190. 
on pasture, 191. 
Stewart on corn for, 189. 
variety of corn for, 187. 
South Dakota, varieties for, 45. 
1 Sphenophorus, 138. 



242 



INDEX. 



Sphenophorus ochcreus, Lee, 138. 

Square silo, 199. 

Stable manure, 59. 

Stacking, 109. 

Stalk borer, 134. . 

Stalk, insects affecting tlio, 1.30. 

number leaves on, 15. 
Staminate flower, 16. 
Standard, feeding, 162. 
Starch feed, 179. 
Starchy matter, 18. 
Statistics, 205. 
Stem, 14. 

Stewart on corn for soiling, 189. 
S'-ock, feeding of live, 161. 
Succession, sweet corn for, 3S. 
Sugar feed, 180. 
Sweet corn, 18. 
Sweet on gluten meal, 182. 

corn for succession, 38. 

varieties, 33. 
Swine, rations for, 176. 
Symptoms of bacterial disease, 152. 
Systems of rotation, 124. 

Tassel, 15, 16. 

Temperature, germination, 48. 

Tennessee, varieties for, 46. ' 

Testimony concerning shredded fod- 
der, 116. 

Testimony from users of by-prod- 
ucts, 181. 

Threshing corn, 120. 

Tillage, 71. 

Time for cutting, 99. 
of planting, 83. 

Tip kernels, relative value of butt, 
center and, 48, 52. 

Tested varieties, 21, 

Tying shocks, 109. 

Typo of ear, 48, 54. 

United States, acres corn in, 206. 207. 

value corn in, 206, 207. 

yield of corn in, 206, 207, 208. 
Ustilago maydis, Corda., 147. 

Value corn crop, 160. 

corn in United States, 206, 207. 
Varieties- 
Adams' Early, 21. 

B. <k W., 22. 

Black Mexican, 33. 

Black Sugar, 33. 

Blount's Prolific, 22. 

Boone Co. White, 22. 

Burrill &, Whitman, 22. 

Canada, 27, 30. 

Canada Twelve-Rowed, 27. 

Chester Co. Mammoth, 23. 

Compton's Early, 28. 

Compton's Surprise, 28. 

Cory, 33, 38. 

Cory Early Sugar, 33. 

Crosby's Early. 34. 



Varieties — 

Crosby's Early Twelve-Rowed,.34. 

Dungan's White Prolific, 24. 

Duttou, 28. . 

Dwarf Golden, 39. 

Earliest Rockford Market, 33. 

Early Canada, 27, 30. 

Early Concord, 35. 

Early Cory, 33. 

Early Button, 28. 

Early Marblehead. 34. 

Early Minnesota, 34. 

Early Narragansott, 35. 

Egyptian, 34, 38, 39. 

Eight-Rowed Brown, 29. 

Eight-Rowed Copper-Colored,29. 

Eight-Rowed Yellow, 28, 29. 

Extra Early Cory. 33. 

Extra Early Crosby, 34. 

Farmer's Favorite, 24. 

Ford's Early, 34, 35. 

Golden Beauty, 24. 

Hickox, 34, 38. 

Hickox Improved, 34. 

Improved King Philip, 29. 

King Philip, 29. 
, La Crosse, 33. 

Landreth's Earliest Yellow, 27, 
28. 

Learning, 24. 

Longfellow, 30. 

Long Island White Flint, 31. 

Long Yellow, 28. 

Mammoth, 38. 

Marblehead, 34. 

Maryland White Gourd Seed, 25. 

Maule's XX Sugar, 36. 

Minnesota, 34. 

Moore's Concord, 35, 38. 

Moore's Early, 35. 

Moore's Early Concord, 35. 

Narragansett, 35. 

Ne Plus Ultra, 36. 

New England, 39. 

New England Eight-Rowed, 30, 

Nonpareil, 39. 

Northern Pedigree, 38. 

Pearl, 39. 

Pee and Kay, 36. 

Perry's Hybrid, 38. 

Pride of the North, 2,5. 

Queen of the Prairie, 26. 

Riley's Favorite, 26. 

Rural Thoroughbred Flint, 3L 

Shaker's Early, 38. 

.Slate Sweet, 33. 

SmetUey, 27. 

Squautum, 37. 

Stabler's Early, 38. 

Triumph, 38. 

Sto well's Evergreen, 36, 38. 

Washington Market, 34. 

Waushakum, 31. 

Western Queen, 36. 

White Flint. 32. 



INDEX. 



248 



Varieties — 

White Rice, 39. 

Wisconsin Yellow, 27. 
Varieties and their adaptation, 20, 
40. 

for silage, 200. 

number days required to mature, 
233. 
Variety for canning, 37. 

of corn for soiling, 187. 

selecting a. 20. 

Weeds for manure, sea, 67. 
White grub, 130. 

vs. yeUow, 229. 
Wild maizo, 8. 
Wire worms, 127. 



W'isconsin station, soiling at, 187. 

varieties for, 46. 
Wolff's tables, 163. 
World, corn crop of the, 211. 
Worm, corn. 140. 

corn root, 128. 
Worms, cut, 130. 

wire. 127. 
Wyoming, varieties for, 46. 

Yellow vs. white, 229. 

Yield in bushels per acre, average, 

210. 
Yield of corn in United States, 206, 

207,208. 
Yields of Indian corn, large, 220. 



<ULJIr> > /U 



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